KISI INFO STUDI PERBANDINGAN BABAD TANAH JAWA

INI CUPILKAN BUKU Dr IWAN SEBAGAI CONTOH,BUKU YANG LENGKAP AKAN DIPUBLIKAIKAN  9 PEBUARI TAHUN 2015

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Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

PENEMU DAN PRESIDEN PERTAMA

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TAHUN 2013-2020

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The Java History Collections

Part

The Java Babad Legend Story

 

Created  By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Special For KISI member

Copyright @ 2013

 

Setalah dengan susah payah, Dr Iwan Ketua KISI seoarng putra sumatera barat tak pernah belajar bahasa Jawa, dan bukan seorang historian,hanya ohi sejaraha dan belajar sendiri alias otodikak mencoba menterjemahkan Babad Tanah Jawa yang beraksara Jaw, oleh karena tas permintaan banyak anggota KISI hasil terjemahan yang telah dilaksanakan itu di tampilkan dalam artikel info kisi hari ini, harap koreksi dari para pakar dan ahli bahasa jawa serta para ahli sejarah Indonesia Selanjutnya KISI INFO akan membandingkan tulisan info Babad Tanah Jawa ini dengan situasi yang sberfnarnya terjadi berdasarkan fakta sejarah dan bukti-bukti sejarah yang asli SILAHKAN BERGABUNG DENGAN KISI AGAR INFORMASI YANG ANDA INGINKAN DAPAT DIPEROLEH SECARA LENGKAP DAN DAPAT DIMANFAATKAN SEBAGAI PELAJARAN AGAR HAL YANG JELEK TIDAK DIULANGI DAN HAL YANG BAIK DIJADIKAN PEDOMAN DALAM MENYUSUN STRATEGI DAN TAKTIK MENGHADPAI MASA MENDATANG SELAMAT MEMBACA BABAD TANH JAWA YANG BENAR DAN BAIK

Babad Tanah Jawa

 The  Legend Of Java Island

Comperative Studies

Part II

 

Created  By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Special For KISI member

Copyright @ 2013

BABAD TANAH JAWA INFO

Pertama 03 segmen sekitar 3 Dalam kerajaan di Jawa Timur ( 10 abad pertama – tahun 1220 )

Di atas kasebutake di Jawa Timur , kabawah kerajaan Indhu kerajaan Mataram , tapi Indhu Tanah di Jawa Timur Tidak banyak kematian , dibandingkan dengan Tanah di Tengah ( Kedhu ) . Karena kebutuhan Indhu berkumpul dengan bumi , prasasat sebuah sabangsa tunggal. Pada abad pertama adalah 10 pepatihing kerajaan Land CENTRAL merasa Oleh karena Sindhok lolos barat . Mari Oleh karena itu , beberapa tahun Sindhok raja (mpu Sendok)  berdiri di Timur , di kerajaan Hidup ( Paresidhenan Surabaya ke selatan ) .Ambawahake (membawahi) : Surabaya , Pasuruwan , Kediri , Bali bok bahwa ia kabawah .

 

(944 masehi)

 

(Penguasa)Enggone raja berdiri 944 tahun , dan ia jejuluk raja kerajaan Mataram . Raja kerajaan Mataram yang sangat (menghormati) pangedêpe Buddhisme . Oleh karena itu , Sindhok (Mpe sendok) terkenal pintar enggone ngereh Praja(Penguasa Pemerintah Negara ) . Ada rekaman suaramengatakan :

 

” Untuk raja terakhir berdiri enggone , marcapada muncul damai; bulu Lucu bagaimana bumi sampai residu residu tidak kehe karuhan ” .

 

(1010 masehi )

 

Pada tahun 1010 Erlangga berdiri masih raja , dan melanjutkan Militer enggone mangun (membangung kekuasaan) dan sakit (menentang)  kepala jajahan .

 

(1037 masehi)

 

Pada tahun 1037 yang  penguasaan (enggone) Militer dilakukan , Reja negara , saya memiliki kedamaian . Istana di Kehidupan -Life. Dia tidak Erlangga lupa kebenciannya ( kabecikaning )dari Pemerintah dan asketisme , membantu ketika dia kasrakat .

 

Seperti  Menghilangkan rasa benci terhafap (pamalesing kabecikane) Pemerintah , raja membuat Taman (pasraman) indah, terletak di bukit  dibawah-underwriting kaki . Taman (pasraman) yang kinubeng di patamanan oleh lebih garing (matang) , dan saya rerenggane Peni (menghilangkan pening) dan eksotis .

Dari Edin , asing Praja terkenal , setiap hari aselur yang sujarah sama .

 

 

Pengadilan raja tegak lurus . Desa nrajang peraturan hukum tanah Mereka  mnghukum atau didenda (penalti kapatrapan atau didhendha) . Perampok , pencuri , dll kematian hukum kapatrapan . Dia  melaksanakan pemerintahan (enggone paprentahan) Dibantu di  Pria agung (priyagung) 4 , hasil tanah pametuning kursi . Dari  Pemerintahan beralih ke (enggone manggalih) pertanian , yang pegawainya (pagaweyaning) saya banyak , raja membuat bendungan besar di sungai Brantas . Raja juga memikirkan panggaotan dan dedagangan .

 

Tuban ketika tempat  samono pedagang , dapatkan upaya terlalu banyak raja yang memajukan  perdagangan dan pelayaran (majuning dedagangan dan lelayaran ).

 

Raja duduk sinewaka tahta ( palenggahan titik Pesagi ) Aku mengenakan gaun gaun sutra , dan dr daftar diukel dengan cênela . Jika wahana lahir dwipangga atau permukaan , 700 tentara berparade . Gambar dan saya Memenuhi pergi ke raja dan jatuh di tanah ( Ndhodhok ngapurancang ) .

 

Mereka memiliki Ngor rambut yang sama , pemerintahan  memiliki (enggone bebedan )batas pada  air susu  .  Perumahan -House, termasuk renyah , dengan atap payon kuning atau merah .

 

Orang sakit tidak hanya minta  pertolongan Dewa  (tetamba pitulunganing diva ) , atau Buddha . Orang-orang yang bahagia praon dan pegunungan dilacak perjalanan , banyak dari kuda atau Jolie . Dhek samono orang tidak memiliki tarian , seruling ensemble , kendhang dan dengan .

 

Ia menolak Besuki di sapengkere raja berdiri Gumanti dua anak ,                                                  juga, jadi kerajaan dan diparo :

 

Jenggala ( sabageyaning : Surabaya dan Pasuruwan ) dan Kediri . Ini adalah keterbatasan : kandang dinding sinebut ” merkuri ” , karena gunung tinggi Kawi , mangisor , oleh Leksa sungai dan ketertiban di branglore Brantas dari mangulon timur di desa , yang kini bernama ” Juga , ” kata selatan , adalah tentang kesiapan sampai waterside .

 

Gugur kejatuhan dinding jalan masih ada , seperti di sekitar Leksa , sakulon dan sakiduling Sungai Brantas , dalam jumlah afd . Lansekap dan Blitar.Mungguhing Chronicles of Erlangga ia kaanggep sebuah cahaya kegelapan , untuk sedikit lebih kasumurupan cerita.

 

Pengetahuan sastra yang tinggi . Sebuah surat dalam surat yang berasal dari sekarang adalah kisah wayang yang paling dikenal dan cerita  (penuturan rakyat alias legenda folklore-)teturutaning . Surat bahasa disebut : Kuno , seperti:

1 . Mahabharata 2 . Ramayana dan Arjuna Wiwaha .

 

 

 

 

Kerajaan Jenggala Berkelanjutan tidak besar , karena hancur kerajaan hancur kecil  untuk anak-anak raja diwaris , Praja Jenggala ( Jenggala baru) ; Tumapel atau Singhasari dan Urawan .

 

 

(Abad ke 13)

 

Kerajaan kasus dekat batas Kediri atau waktu yang terlibat dalam pengumpulan dan Kediri , yang lain adalah Didirikan memiliki abad 13 . Pemerintah , Kediri ( Daha , Panjalu) berdasarkan arus (membawahi Keresidenan) mbawahake paresidhenan Kediri , beberapa Pasuruwan(pasuruan) dan Madiyun (Maduiun). Kota mereka di kota Kediri sekarang .

 

Kerajaan pekerjaan untuk menjadi terkenal . dalam sastra dan terlalu tinggi , hari Jayabaya ( abad12 ) , yang sudah lebih dari yang sudah dan sampai sekarang sinebut besar , Apakah ada madhani

 

(1104 masehi)

 

a. Pada tahun 1104 istana bernama masyarakat : Triguna atau Managocna . Masyarakat adalah bahwa dengan surat dan Sumanasantakam Kresnayana . Raden Panji putra atau dilaporkan dalam kisah itu , malak menawan (bokmenawa) raja Daha , yang memiliki jejuluk Kamesywara I. Dia Minggu pertama abad 12 .

 

Teman istri Raja Ray ( Chandra Ray ) , putra raja Jenggala . Musim bernama Oleh karena itu , masyarakat Dharmaja dengan surat Smaradhana . Raden Panji sampai sekarang selalu melaporkan pada  teater Perwayangaan (Dailymotion bioskop ) dan  Teater Pewayangan (bioskop ) topeng gedhog . masyarakat Jayabaya

 

(1070 masehi)

 

Oleh karena itu , hati-hati dan merasa Oleh karena Panuluh . Oleh karena itu hati-hati dalam 1079 ( =1157 ) methik saperanganing Mahabharata , dianggit dan bagaimana didhapur (didapur)Jawa , yang disebut Bharata Yudha . Dan pada waktu itu telah cerdas , Hindu  (The Indhu) kesilep , Indhu kerajaan telah menjadi kerajaan .

 

Pertama 04 segmen sekitar 4

(1220 masehi)

Ken Angrok  menaklukan (Nelukake ) Kerajaan Kerajaan Kecil (1220 – 1247) Tahun 1222 adalah raja Tumapel atau Singhasari bernama Ken Angrok .

 

Cerita ken Arok dari kitab Pararaton . Surat  Diketmukan (Ketemune)  berada di Kembali dhek tahun 1891. Ken Angrok lahir di sekitar Tumapel ( Singhasari ) asal pertanian standar I.

 

 

 

Ken Angrok melaporkan perubahan Herry dan nenarik mencintai mereka , tapi sangat pangaji sangat menyukai Bapa dan wanimarang penggawa kesalahan . Pada hari-hari dari para Brahmana ditemukan dirinya (dhewekne) ,  Dia mengatakan bahwa  dirinya tetesan Wisnu( dhewekne) .

 

Tapi, karena mereka tahu bahwa Brahmana Ken Angrok adalah hebat ingin dan ketat Budin . Brahmana dan menemukan jalan agar dapatnya ( bisane)  Ken Angrok   Terhambat Pangeran di- (kacedhak Duke) sana, Tunggul Ametung .

 

Tidak ada lagi waktu antara Ken Angrok  kaabdekake terjadi. Ketika begitu , Ken Angrok dan selalu menemukan cara bagaimana Pemerintah ( enggone ) dapat mengantikan Pangeran ( ngendhih Duke ),    nggenteni berdiri . Ketemuning pengembangan dan  oleh karena itu Ken Angrok  Mendandani atau menciptakan  (ndandakake) Keris baik Oleh ,Gandring (mpu Gandring) tersebut .

 

Setelah Keris , terlihat baik jelas, teman bernama Ken Angrok Keboijo kepencut ingin menggunakan , dan nembung peminjam : Tidak ada . Dari itu , Keris digunakan setiap hari dan ditampilkan  dipamerkan (pamerake) ,  dikehndakan (dikandhakake) mereka .

 

Ketika beberapa hari Ken Angrok  melihat (keris tersebut) dan mencuri Keris sendiri adalah teman dari disilih digunakan  menyandera pangeran  (nyidra Duke) . Kematian terjadi , Keris kiri samping layon . Urusaning materi : Ken Angrok teman Anda bertanggung jawab , diputus hukum sampai mati . Ken Angrok dan bisa mendapatkan putri randaning Tunggul Ametung dan Didirikan Gumanti Duke : Nama Ken Dhedhes .

 

Diadakan untuk Ken Angrok prosedur negara , Reja , sangat kecil Adore . Setelah membangun (mbedhah_  kerajaan kecil  di Jenggala , Ken Angrok dan emoh Kediri ,

 

(1222 masehi )

 

Bahkan pada tahun 1222 melahirkan  Pemerintahan Negara ( mbedhah Praja) Kediri terjadi , menang , Raja Kediri Kertajaya telah meninggal Sabal nggantung arah yang sama .

 

Kediri dan  Melahirkan Pangeran (pabrik Duke ) kabawah Singhasari . ketika Oleh karena itu , raja Sindhok Darah telah kehilangan semua Arok Ken , Ken Angrok Raja dan berdiri besar , jejuluk memiliki Rejasa , yang merupakan  menurunkan (nurunake) yang raja Majapahit .

 

 

 

Ken Dedes  ( Retna Dhedhes )                                                                                                 melaporkan kematian  Raja Pangeran Duke Tunggul Ametung ambobot .

 

Ketika musim dingin , anak Retna terbuka , Raden memberi peparab Anusapati . Dari Timur ke dewasa Aku tidak tahu apakah itu benar bukanlah putra Raja Rejasa , tapi Merasa bukan raja berkenan di , dengan Rayi sangat berbeda adiknya . dalam Lahir hari Anusapati ibu berkata ,

” Ibu, apakah  Kangjeng Sang ayahanda  tidak  bahagia untuk datang kepada saya ? “

 

The Retna (Ken Dedes) sangat bermasalah Galih mendengar mengatur sasambate anaknya , dan menempatkan keprojol mengatakan , putranya diceritakan kisahnya (dicritani lelakone ) sampai akhir.

 

Anusapati sangat pangungune , segera setelah hukum bermaksud jawaban , tapi masih sinamun sama sekali. Jasanya Keris ( yasane)  Oleh karena Gandring diminta , pawatane hanya menginginkan yang anganggo . Ibu Lamba di Galih , Keris diberikan . Anusapati memanggil pelayan-pelayannya dan teman-teman , dan mereka memberi Keris diweruhake di wewadine . Bengine ia meninggal pada kaprajaya duratmaka . Layone Dia  di candi (Kagenengan dekat  Malang dicandhi di Kagenengan )  . Anusapatinggenteni masih raja . Anusapati tidak lagi berdiri , karena Raden Tohjaya

 

Anusapati tahu apakah Raman dibunuh , sehingga  untuk (sumedya) balasan dan hukum juga terjadi . Tohjaya masih raja , tapi dia tidak lagi . Tohjaya utusan  menterinya (mantrine ) bernama Lembar Ampal ,  didakwa (didhawuhi) menghancurkan kalilipe dua adalah : Ranggawuni , anak Anusapati , dan  yang dulunya (nakdulure )bernama Narasingamurti , ketika tidak dapat terjadi , Lembar Ampal sendiri akan tunduk pada kematian hukum .

 

Tiba-tiba seorang Brahmana yang penuh belas kasihan kepada dua Raden , dan wewarah diperlukan . Knight dan menyembunyikannya di Panji terletak Pati-Pati .

 

Sapi Ampal untuk dua Raden tidak ditemukan , dan tidak bisa pulang ke rumah , mengungsi yang Panji Pati-Pati . Bila ada cadangan ngiloni Raden dua bahkan membahas petugas tidak sesuai dengan pembicaraan Tohjaya untuk merumuskan ,

 

Akhirnya terjadi, menemukan sampai mati. Ranggawuni Raja Suriah ( yang dijuluki ) ajejuluk berdiri Wisynuwardhana nakdhereke Narasinga .

 

Kematian priyagung keduanya sangat damai , sampai dibasakake “Seperti Wisynu dan diri Endra Allah” . Istana naik  PULIH besar seperti dhek hari Erlangga , bahkan  Jajahanya ikut serta ( jajahane wuwuh) Madura .

 

1268 masehi

 

Raja meninggal pada tahun 1268, sebagai  (Layonya  atau petinya )layone membakar kustom-pakaian  , awune Setengah di candi Weleri , membawa patung Syiwah , setengah dipethak ada pemimpin Borobudur ( Put hal pada orang lain ) dengan patung Buddha . Mince di agama Budha bercampur dengan Syiwah

FAKTUAL HISTORY INFO

 

Dieng Plateau, is a marshy plateau that forms the floor of a caldera complex on the Dieng active volcano complex, and is located at Banjarnegara, Central Java, Indonesia.

 

there are Hindu temples from the 7th and 8th centuries, the oldest Hindu temples in Central Java, and the first known standing stone structures in Java.

 

They are originally thought to have numbered 400 but only 8 remain.

 

The Dieng structures were small and relatively plain, but stone architecture developed substantially in only a matter of decades resulting in masterpieces such as the Prambanan complex and Borobudur.

 

 

 The earliest architectural usage of the Javanese demonic masks and marine monsters are exhibited along the niches and doorways of the remaining structures.

 

 The name “Dieng” comes from Di Hyang which means “Abode of the Gods”.

 

Its misty location almost 2000 m above sea level, and its mists, poisonous effusions and sulphur-coloured lakes make it a particularly auspicious place for religious tribute.

 

The temples are small shrines built as monuments to the god-ancestors and dedicated to Shiva, rather than acting as a convenience to man.

 

Sanjaya

( Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama,)

The second Sunda King

 raja ke 2 Kerajaan Sunda

(723 – 732M),

Became the King of Mataram K8ingdom(732-860 AD(

 and he found the Ancient Mataram kingdom and also the  Sandjaja Reign

menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 – 760M).

 Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya.

7th Century

 In fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

732:

Sanjaya dynasty founded around this time according to Canggal inscription.[11]

8th century to 832: The agriculturally-based Buddhist Sailendra kingdom flourishes and declines.[11]

 

752 to 1045:

 The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[12]

 

760 to 830:

Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[13]

 

774 CE: Javanese attacked Champa, destroying the Po Nagar temple at Nha Trang. Emmanuel Guillon, Cham Art, p.195

787 CE: Javanese attacked Champa for the second time, destroying a temple near the imperial capital at what is now Phan Rang. Tran Ky Phuong, Unique Vestiges of Cham Civilization, p.9, Emmanuel Guillon, Cham Art, p.195

c.790 CE: the kingdom of Sailendra (builders of Borobodur, in Java), defeated Chenla (in Cambodia), and ruled it for twelve years. http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/Indonesia/100.htm

C8th: Chinese merchants had crossed oceans to trade in Japan, Champa, and Java. Thuan Luc, http://www.charm.ru/coins/vn/nagasaki.shtml Quanzhou by this time played an important part in the maritime trade of South China. Wang Lianmao (ed), Return to the City of Light, p.14

732

The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families.

 The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D.,

were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have comefrom the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years.

 During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.

 

 

Plaosan temple

 

The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple,

Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang Candi (pronounced /ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries.

 

 However, ancient non-religious structures such as gates, habitation remnants, or pool and bathplaces are often also called as “candi”…The term “candi” itself derived from Candika one of the manifestation of the goddess Durga as the goddess of death.[Soekmono, Dr R. (1973). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Penerbit Kanisius. pp. 81.] This suggested in ancient Indonesia the “candi” has mortuary function as well as attributed with the afterlife. The association of the name “candi”, candika or durga with Hindu-Buddhist temples is unknown in India and other Indonesia’s Southeast Asian neighbours such as Cambodia, Thailand, or Burma.

 

 The historians suggested that temples of ancient Java also used to store the ashes of cremated deceased kings or royalties.

 

This is also in-line with buddhist concept of stupa as the structure to store buddhist relicts including the ashes and remnants of holy buddhist priest or the buddhist king, the patron of buddhism. The statue of god stored inside the garbhagriha (main chamber) of the temple often modelled after the deceased king and considered as deified self of the king portrayed as Vishnu or Shiva.

 

The Prambanan compound also known as Loro Jonggrang complex,

 

 named after the popular legend of Loro Jonggrang. There are 237 temples in this Shivaite temple complex, either big or small…The middle zone consists of four rows of 224 individual small shrines.

 

There are great numbers of these temples, but most of them are still in ruins and only some have been reconstructed. These concentric rows of temples were made in identical design. Each row towards the center is slightly elevated.

 

 These shrines are called “Candi Perwara” guardian or complementary temples,

 

the additional buildings of the main temple. Some believed it was offered to the king as a sign of submission. The Perwara are arranged in four rows around the central temples, some believed it has something to do with four castes, made according to the rank of the people allowed to enter them; the row nearest to the central compound was accessible to the priests only, the other three were reserved for the nobles, the knights, and the simple people respectively.

 While another believed that the four rows of Perwara has nothing to do with four castes, it just simply made as meditation place for priests and as worship place for devotees.

.

 

 745:

Arrival of Islam in the archipelago

 was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).

 

 

 

 

Srivijaya

Srivijaya, also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya,

 was a powerful ancient Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century;

 a Chinese monk,

 I-Tsing,

wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda)

 

 

 

sīlĕnˈdrä,

 

 

sīlĕnˈdrä,

name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia. The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent.

The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism,

extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina

.

 

 

about 770

 
Sailendra King Vishnu begins building Borobudur. Beginning of building activity on the plain of Prambanan.   Buddhism, one of Indonesia’s five religions

 

 

778 AD

 The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which the dynastic name Sailendra appears is

the Kalasan inscription of central Java, dated 778 AD,

which commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine for

the Buddhist goddess Tara.[2]

782 AD

The name also appears in several other inscriptions like

the Kelurak inscription (782)

and the Karangtengah (824).

Outside Indonesia, the name Sailendra is to be found in

the Ligor inscription (775)

on the Malay peninsula and the mid-9th century Nalanda inscription.[2]

about 790

 
Sailendra kingdom attacks and defeats Chenla (today Cambodia); rules over Chenla for about 12 years. The Sailendra kings remembered that their ancestors came from what is now Thailand or Cambodia

 

 

 

beberapa kerajaan seperti Kerajaan Kediri, Acehdan Sulawesi telah mempunyai uang logam dari emas; kerajaan di Bangka, Cirebon,

Pontianak, Maluku dan Banten telah mempunyai uang logam dari timah, perak dantembaga. Emas pada masa itu menjadi alat ukur nilai, selain itu berfungsi jugasebagai sarana untuk menabung dan tanda status bagi seorang Raja.

 

Namundemikian jauh sebelum masa itu, masyarakat telah mengenal mata uang dalambentuk sederhana sebagai alat pembayaran, seperti manik-manik di Bengkulu danPekalongan, gelang di Majalengka dan Sulawesi Selatan, belincung di Bekasi, Moko di Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan kerang di Papua.

9th century

Tinggalkan Sebuah Komentar

 

Jenis : Arca Batu Nama : MAHA RESI AGASTYA Era : Abad Ke-9 Asal : Dataran Tinggi Kedu, Jawa Tengah Material : Batu Andesite

Koleksi : Rijksmuseum, The Masterpieces and Infocentre (The New Rijksmuseum) Jan Luijkenstraat 1, 1071 CJ Amsterdam

 

Data Museum :

The teacher Agastya AK-MAK-238

Type: Sculpture Materials: andesite Measurements: 36 cm, 100 cm, 50 cm Creator name: anonymous Where it was made: Indonesia; Central Java; the Kedu Plain Time period: 09th Century Function: worship

Acquisition: Long-term loan from the Association of Friends of Asian Art (VVAK), purchased from J.G. Huyser, a collector from The Hague, in 1936

Copyright Acknowledgements: Owner Vereniging van Vrienden der Aziatische Kunst Museum Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Credit line

Why this is a masterpiece: Assuming an upright pose and exuding calm and authority, this statue of Agastya is not daunting, as befits a teacher. Agastya is an old man, as can be seen by his beard and his thickset figure.

Details of this kind ensure that this delicately worked statue clearly conveys the hallmarks of the deity it represents to the worshipper. It is a convincing example of 9th-century Central Javanese sculpture.

History of the Object: Statues of Agastya, the divine teacher, always stood in the southern alcove of temples dedicated to Shiva, who was the most important god during Indonesia’s Hindu-Buddhist period (8th-16th century). Temples to Shiva, and statues of Agasya, were found in abundance at the time.

 

804

Kerajaan Kediri

 

kediri: Sejarah dan Asal Mula Hari Jadi Kediri 25 MARET 804 M

 

824

 

the Karangtengah inscription (824).

Srivijaya During the 8th century,

an important distinction began to develop between two geo-political zones in the western archipelago. On the one hand, the Strait of Melaka (Malacca) began to develop as

a key control point on the India–China trade route and a state called Srivijaya, based on the southern Sumatra city of Palembang,

emerged as the first great power in the region. On the other hand, the island of Java, with its fertile soils and growing population, became a key centre of military power and cultural influence in the region.

Srivijaya’s location, well south of the mouth of the Melaka Strait, does not appear to be the most suitable site for controlling trade, but

this disadvantage was offset by the kingdom’s access via the Musi River to a large hinterland in southern Sumatra,

 which supplied food, forest products and gold. Because of the rhythm of the monsoons in maritime Southeast Asia, traders moving between India and China generally needed to spend a season in port somewhere near the strait to wait for winds favourable for the onward journey.

 Uang era Dinasti Syailendra (850 M)

 

Mata uang Indonesia dicetak pertama kali sekitar tahun 850/860 Masehi, yaitu pada masa kerajaan Mataram Syailendra yang berpusat di Jawa Tengah. Inilah bukti terawal sistem mata uang yang ada di pulau Jawa dan di Nusantara.

Terbuat dari emas atau disebut pula sebagai keping tahil Jawa, sekitar abad ke-9. Koin-koin tersebut dicetak dalam dua jenis bahan emas dan perak, mempunyai berat yang sama dan mempunyai beberapa nominal satuan:

  • Masa (Ma), berat 2.40 gram – sama dengan 2 Atak atau 4 Kupang
  • Atak, berat 1.20 gram – sama dengan ½ Masa, atau 2 Kupang
  • Kupang (Ku), berat 0.60 gram – sama dengan ¼ Masa atau ½ Atak

Sebenarnya masih ada satuan yang lebih kecil lagi, yaitu ½ Kupang (0.30 gram) dan 1 Saga (0,119 gram).

Koin emas zaman Syailendra berbentuk kecil seperti kotak, dimana koin dengan satuan terbesar (Masa) berukuran 6 x 6/7 mm saja. Pada bagian depannya terdapat huruf DevanagariTa”.

Di belakangnya terdapat incuse (lekukan ke dalam) yang dibagi dalam dua bagian, masing-masing terdapat semacam bulatan. Dalam bahasa numismatic, pola ini dinamakan “Sesame Seed”.

Sedangkan koin perak Masa mempunyai diameter antara 9-10 mm. Pada bagian muka dicetak huruf DevanagariMa” (singkatan dari Masa) dan di bagian belakangnya terdapat incuse dengan pola “Bunga Cendana”.

Likely extent of Srivijaya’s maritime empire

The power of the ruler of Srivijaya rested on three distinct bases:

 the courtiers of the capital,

who managed the port facilities which made Srivijaya an attractive destination,

the chiefs of the interior communities,

who supplied produce, trade goods and probably labour to the city, and

 the orang laut, or people of the sea,

semi-piratical people whose homes were aboard small, fast vessels which sheltered amongst the numerous islands and inlets of the Sumatra coast. These seafarers played a crucial role in forcing ships to call at Srivijaya whether they wished to or not, and they were also the means by which the ruler of Srivijaya kept at least a broad suzerainty over potential rivals along the coast.

Successive rulers of Srivijaya also appear to have cultivated

a relationship with China by sending regular tribute missions and making other gestures of respect for Chinese emperors.

This relationship may have assisted the activities of Srivijaya traders in the ports of China. Wealth from trade was used to support a sophisticated civilization, one in which Chinese monks came to study Buddhism and whose scholars were known for their mathematical expertise.

9th century

 

Berkas Qur’an abad ke 9

839

Islam continues to mengokoh become a political institution who carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called the Sultanate of Peureulak established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam arrived in this kingdom in the Maluku islands in 1440. Its king, a Muslim named Bayanullah.

Islamic Sultanate then semikin spread his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replaced Hinduism as the main trust at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Only Bali that still retain the majority Hindus.

 

 

856

: Prambanan Hindu temple thought to have been completed.[11]

 

 

9th century Ijo temple near Jogya

 

 

9th century Ijo temple near Jogya

 

 

 

Prambanan,

 

9th century hindu-buddhist prambanan temple

 

Ganesha sculpture in the prambana temple

 

Ganesha (IAST: Gaṇeśa;  listen (help·info)),

also spelled Ganesa, also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka is a widely worshipped deity in the Hindu pantheon.[2] His image is found throughout India and Nepal.[3] Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations.[4] Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India.[5]

 

Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha’s elephant head makes him easy to identify.[6] Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles,[7] the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom.[8] As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.[9][10] Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors.[11] He was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity.[12] The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa

Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Sanskrit: श्री; IAST: śrī; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a Ganesha Sahasranama, a litany of “a thousand names of Ganesha”. Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the Ganesha Purana, a Hindu scripture venerating Ganesha.[14]

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Sanskrit: गण; IAST: gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Sanskrit: ईश; IAST: īśa), meaning lord or master.[15] The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Śiva).[16] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.[17] Some commentators interpret the name “Lord of the Gaņas” to mean “Lord of Hosts” or “Lord of created categories”, such as the elements.[18] Ganapati (Sanskrit: गणपति; IAST: gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning “group”, and pati, meaning “ruler” or “lord”.[17] The Amarakosha,[19] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vighnesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers),[20] Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST: gajānana); having the face of an elephant).[21]

Vinayaka (Sanskrit: विनायक; IAST: vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.[22] This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (aṣṭavināyaka).[23] The names Vighnesha (Sanskrit: विघ्नेश; IAST: vighneśa) and Vighneshvara (विघ्नेश्वर; vighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles)[24] refers to his primary function in Hindu theology as the master and remover of obstacles (vighna).[25]

A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pille (Tamil: பிள்ளை) or Pillaiyar (பிள்ளையார்) (Little Child).[26] A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pille means a “child” while pillaiyar means a “noble child”. He adds that the words pallu, pella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify “tooth or tusk”, also “elephant tooth or tusk”.[27] Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant “the young of the elephant”, because the Pali word pillaka means “a young elephant”.[28]

In the Burmese language, Ganesha is known as Maha Peinne (မဟာပိန္နဲ, pronounced: [məhà pèiɴné]), derived from Pali Mahā Wināyaka(မဟာဝိနာယက).[29] The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand is Phra Phikhanet or Phra Phikhanesuan, both of which are derived from Vara Vighnesha and Vara Vighneshvara respectively, whereas the name Khanet (from Ganesha) is rather rare.

In Sri Lanka in the North-Central and North Western areas with pre dominantly Buddhist population, Ganesha is known as Aiyanayaka Deviyo while in other Singhala buddhist areas he is known as Gana deviyo.

Iconography[edit]

 

 

A 13th-century statue of Ganesha, Mysore District, Karnataka

Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art.[30] Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time.[31] He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, sitting down or on an elevated seat, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.

Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century.[32] The 13th century statue pictured is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900–1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example features some of Ganesha’s common iconographic elements. A virtually identical statue has been dated between 973–1200 by Paul Martin-Dubost,[33] and another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal.[34] Ganesha has the head of an elephant and a big belly. This statue has four arms, which is common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand. The motif of Ganesha turning his trunk sharply to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a particularly archaic feature.[35] A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century.[36] Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standard configuration, Ganesha typically holds an axe or a goad in one upper arm and a noose in the other upper arm.

The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but is turned towards the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (abhaya mudra).[37] The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.[38]

Common attributes[edit]

For thirty-two popular iconographic forms of Ganesha, see Sritattvanidhi

 

 

A typical four-armed form. Miniature of Nurpur school (circa 1810).[39]

Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art.[40] Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head.[41] One of his popular forms, Heramba-Ganapati, has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known.[42] While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, he acquires the head later in most stories .[43] The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was created by Parvati using clay to protect her and Shiva beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati. Shiva then replaced Ganesha’s original head with that of an elephant.[44] Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary from source to source.[45][46] Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva’s laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.[47]

Ganesha’s earliest name was Ekadanta (One Tusked), referring to his single whole tusk, the other being broken.[48] Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk.[49] The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the Mudgala Purana, which states that the name of Ganesha’s second incarnation is Ekadanta.[50] Ganesha’s protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries).[51] This feature is so important that, according to the Mudgala Purana, two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: Lambodara (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and Mahodara (Great Belly).[52] Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (IAST: udara).[53] The Brahmanda Purana says that Ganesha has the name Lambodara because all the universes (i.e., cosmic eggs; IAST: brahmāṇḍas) of the past, present, and future are present in him.[54] The number of Ganesha’s arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms.[55] Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts.[56] His earliest images had two arms.[57] Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in Central India during the 9th and the 10th centuries.[58] The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms.[59] According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki around his neck.[60] Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: yajñyopavīta)[61] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha’s forehead may be a third eye or the Shaivite sectarian mark (IAST: tilaka), which consists of three horizontal lines.[62] The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead.[63] A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra (IAST: bhālacandra; “Moon on the Forehead”) includes that iconographic element.[64] Ganesha is often described as red in color.[65] Specific colors are associated with certain forms.[66] Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography. For example, white is associated with his representations as Heramba-Ganapati and Rina-Mochana-Ganapati (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage).[67] Ekadanta-Ganapati is visualized as blue during meditation in that form.[68]

Vahanas[edit]

 

 

Ganesha’s dancing and love of sweets are represented. The mouse is depicted at the base.[69] The Walters Art Museum.

The earliest Ganesha images are without a vahana (mount/vehicle).[70] Of the eight incarnations of Ganesha described in the Mudgala Purana, Ganesha uses a mouse (shrew) in five of them, a lion in his incarnation as Vakratunda, a peacock in his incarnation as Vikata, and Shesha, the divine serpent, in his incarnation as Vighnaraja.[71] Mohotkata uses a lion, Mayūreśvara uses a peacock, Dhumraketu uses a horse, and Gajanana uses a mouse, in the four incarnations of Ganesha listed in the Ganesha Purana. Jain depictions of Ganesha show his vahana variously as a mouse, elephant, tortoise, ram, or peacock.[72]

Ganesha is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse, shrew or rat.[73] Martin-Dubost says that the rat began to appear as the principal vehicle in sculptures of Ganesha in central and western India during the 7th century; the rat was always placed close to his feet.[74] The mouse as a mount first appears in written sources in the Matsya Purana and later in the Brahmananda Purana and Ganesha Purana, where Ganesha uses it as his vehicle in his last incarnation.[75] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa includes a meditation verse on Ganesha that describes the mouse appearing on his flag.[76] The names Mūṣakavāhana (mouse-mount) and Ākhuketana (rat-banner) appear in the Ganesha Sahasranama.[77]

The mouse is interpreted in several ways. According to Grimes, “Many, if not most of those who interpret Gaṇapati’s mouse, do so negatively; it symbolizes tamoguṇa as well as desire”.[78] Along these lines, Michael Wilcockson says it symbolizes those who wish to overcome desires and be less selfish.[79] Krishan notes that the rat is destructive and a menace to crops. The Sanskrit word mūṣaka (mouse) is derived from the root mūṣ (stealing, robbing). It was essential to subdue the rat as a destructive pest, a type of vighna (impediment) that needed to be overcome. According to this theory, showing Ganesha as master of the rat demonstrates his function as Vigneshvara (Lord of Obstacles) and gives evidence of his possible role as a folk grāma-devatā (village deity) who later rose to greater prominence.[80] Martin-Dubost notes a view that the rat is a symbol suggesting that Ganesha, like the rat, penetrates even the most secret places.[81]

Associations[edit]

Obstacles[edit]

Ganesha is Vighneshvara or Vighnaraja or “Vighnaharta”(marathi), the Lord of Obstacles, both of a material and spiritual order.[82] He is popularly worshipped as a remover of obstacles, though traditionally he also places obstacles in the path of those who need to be checked. Paul Courtright says that “his task in the divine scheme of things, his dharma, is to place and remove obstacles. It is his particular territory, the reason for his creation.”[83]

Krishan notes that some of Ganesha’s names reflect shadings of multiple roles that have evolved over time.[25] Dhavalikar ascribes the quick ascension of Ganesha in the Hindu pantheon, and the emergence of the Ganapatyas, to this shift in emphasis from vighnakartā (obstacle-creator) to vighnahartā (obstacle-averter).[84] However, both functions continue to be vital to his character.[85]

Buddhi (Knowledge)[edit]

Ganesha is considered to be the Lord of letters and learning.[86] In Sanskrit, the word buddhi is a feminine noun that is variously translated as intelligence, wisdom, or intellect.[87] The concept of buddhi is closely associated with the personality of Ganesha, especially in the Puranic period, when many stories stress his cleverness and love of intelligence. One of Ganesha’s names in the Ganesha Purana and the Ganesha Sahasranama is Buddhipriya.[88] This name also appears in a list of 21 names at the end of the Ganesha Sahasranama that Ganesha says are especially important.[89] The word priya can mean “fond of”, and in a marital context it can mean “lover” or “husband”,[90] so the name may mean either “Fond of Intelligence” or “Buddhi’s Husband”.[91]

Aum[edit]

Ganesha is identified with the Hindu mantra Aum (Telugu:ఓం, Tamil:ஓம், Sanskrit:) also spelled Om). The term oṃkārasvarūpa (Aum is his form), when identified with Ganesha, refers to the notion that he personifies the primal sound.[92] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa attests to this association. Chinmayananda translates the relevant passage as follows:[93]

(O Lord Ganapati!) You are (the Trinity) Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa. You are Indra. You are fire [Agni] and air [Vāyu]. You are the sun [Sūrya] and the moon [Chandrama]. You are Brahman. You are (the three worlds) Bhuloka [earth], Antariksha-loka [space], and Swargaloka [heaven]. You are Om. (That is to say, You are all this).

 

 

Ganesha (Devanagari) Aum jewel

Some devotees see similarities between the shape of Ganesha’s body in iconography and the shape of Aum in the Devanāgarī and Tamil scripts.[94]

First chakra[edit]

According to Kundalini yoga, Ganesha resides in the first chakra, called Muladhara (mūlādhāra). Mula means “original, main”; adhara means “base, foundation”. The muladhara chakra is the principle on which the manifestation or outward expansion of primordial Divine Force rests.[95] This association is also attested to in the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Courtright translates this passage as follows: “[O Ganesha,] You continually dwell in the sacral plexus at the base of the spine [mūlādhāra cakra].”[96] Thus, Ganesha has a permanent abode in every being at the Muladhara.[97] Ganesha holds, supports and guides all other chakras, thereby “governing the forces that propel the wheel of life“.[95]

Family and consorts[edit]

See also: Mythological anecdotes of Ganesha and Consorts of Ganesha

 

 

Shiva and Parvati giving a bath to Ganesha. Kangra miniature, 18th century. Allahbad Museum, New Delhi.[98]

Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva and Parvati, the Puranic myths give different versions about his birth.[99] He may have been created by Parvati,[100] or by Shiva and Parvati,[101] or may have appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati.[102]

The family includes his brother the war god Kartikeya, who is also called Subramanya, Skanda, Murugan and other names.[103] Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the first born.[104] In northern India, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, when worship of him declined significantly in northern India. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers[105] and may reflect sectarian tensions.[106]

Ganesha’s marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.[107] One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmacari.[108] This view is common in southern India and parts of northern India.[109] Another pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi (intellect), Siddhi (spiritual power), and Riddhi (prosperity); these qualities are sometimes personified as goddesses, said to be Ganesha’s wives.[110] He also may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant (Sanskrit: daşi).[111] Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati or Śarda (particularly in Maharashtra).[112] He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi.[113] Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo.[114]

The Shiva Purana says that Ganesha had begotten two sons: Kşema (prosperity) and Lābha (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be Śubha (auspiciouness) and Lābha.[115] The 1975 Hindi film Jai Santoshi Maa shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen cite Santoshi Ma’s cult as evidence of Ganesha’s continuing evolution as a popular deity.[116]

Worship and festivals[edit]

 

 

Celebrations of Ganesh by the Tamil community in Paris, France

Ganesha is worshipped on many religious and secular occasions; especially at the beginning of ventures such as buying a vehicle or starting a business.[117] K.N. Somayaji says, “there can hardly be a [Hindu] home [in India] which does not house an idol of Ganapati. [..] Ganapati, being the most popular deity in India, is worshipped by almost all castes and in all parts of the country”.[118] Devotees believe that if Ganesha is propitiated, he grants success, prosperity and protection against adversity.[119]

Ganesha is a non-sectarian deity, and Hindus of all denominations invoke him at the beginning of prayers, important undertakings, and religious ceremonies.[120] Dancers and musicians, particularly in southern India, begin performances of arts such as the Bharatnatyam dance with a prayer to Ganesha.[65] Mantras such as Om Shri Gaṇeshāya Namah (Om, salutation to the Illustrious Ganesha) are often used. One of the most famous mantras associated with Ganesha is Om Gaṃ Ganapataye Namah (Om, Gaṃ, Salutation to the Lord of Hosts).[121]

Devotees offer Ganesha sweets such as modaka and small sweet balls (laddus).[122] He is often shown carrying a bowl of sweets, called a modakapātra.[123] Because of his identification with the color red, he is often worshipped with red sandalwood paste (raktacandana)[124] or red flowers. Dūrvā grass (Cynodon dactylon) and other materials are also used in his worship.[125]

Festivals associated with Ganesh are Ganesh Chaturthi or Vināyaka chaturthī in the śuklapakṣa (the fourth day of the waxing moon) in the month of bhādrapada (August/September) and the Gaṇeśa jayanti (Gaṇeśa’s birthday) celebrated on the cathurthī of the śuklapakṣa (fourth day of the waxing moon) in the month of māgha (January/February).”[126]

Ganesh Chaturthi[edit]

Main article: Ganesh Chaturthi

 

 

Street festivities in Hyderabad, India during the festival of Ganesha Chaturthi

An annual festival honours Ganesha for ten days, starting on Ganesha Chaturthi, which typically falls in late August or early September.[127] The festival begins with people bringing in clay idols of Ganesha, symbolising Ganesha’s visit. The festival culminates on the day of Ananta Chaturdashi, when idols (murtis) of Ganesha are immersed in the most convenient body of water.[128] Some families have a tradition of immersion on the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, or 7th day. In 1893, Lokmanya Tilak transformed this annual Ganesha festival from private family celebrations into a grand public event.[129] He did so “to bridge the gap between the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins and find an appropriate context in which to build a new grassroots unity between them” in his nationalistic strivings against the British in Maharashtra.[130] Because of Ganesha’s wide appeal as “the god for Everyman”, Tilak chose him as a rallying point for Indian protest against British rule.[131] Tilak was the first to install large public images of Ganesha in pavilions, and he established the practice of submerging all the public images on the tenth day.[132] Today, Hindus across India celebrate the Ganapati festival with great fervour, though it is most popular in the state of Maharashtra.[133][134] The festival also assumes huge proportions in Mumbai, Pune, and in the surrounding belt of Ashtavinayaka temples.

Temples[edit]

Further information: List of Ganapati temples and Ashtavinayak

 

 

Ashtavinayak and an Om in between

In Hindu temples, Ganesha is depicted in various ways: as an acolyte or subordinate deity (pãrśva-devatã); as a deity related to the principal deity (parivāra-devatã); or as the principal deity of the temple (pradhāna), treated similarly as the highest gods of the Hindu pantheon.[135] As the god of transitions, he is placed at the doorway of many Hindu temples to keep out the unworthy, which is analogous to his role as Parvati’s doorkeeper.[136] In addition, several shrines are dedicated to Ganesha himself, of which the Ashtavinayak (Sanskrit: अष्टविनायक; aṣṭavināyaka; lit. “eight Ganesha (shrines)”) in Maharashtra are particularly well known. Located within a 100-kilometer radius of the city of Pune, each of these eight shrines celebrates a particular form of Ganapati, complete with its own lore and legend.[137] The eight shrines are: Morgaon, Siddhatek, Pali, Mahad, Theur, Lenyadri, Ozar and Ranjangaon.

There are many other important Ganesha temples at the following locations: Wai in Maharashtra; Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh; Jodhpur, Nagaur and Raipur (Pali) in Rajasthan; Baidyanath in Bihar; Baroda, Dholaka, and Valsad in Gujarat and Dhundiraj Temple in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Prominent Ganesha temples in southern India include the following: Kanipakam in Chittoor; the Jambukeśvara Temple at Tiruchirapalli; at Rameshvaram and Suchindram in Tamil Nadu; at Malliyur, Kottarakara, Pazhavangadi, Kasargod in Kerala, Hampi, and Idagunji in Karnataka; and Bhadrachalam in Andhra Pradesh.[138]

T. A. Gopinatha notes, “Every village however small has its own image of Vighneśvara (Vigneshvara) with or without a temple to house it in. At entrances of villages and forts, below pīpaḹa (Sacred fig) trees […], in a niche […] in temples of Viṣṇu (Vishnu) as well as Śiva (Shiva) and also in separate shrines specially constructed in Śiva temples […]; the figure of Vighneśvara is invariably seen.”[139] Ganesha temples have also been built outside of India, including southeast Asia, Nepal (including the four Vinayaka shrines in the Kathmandu valley),[140] and in several western countries.[141]

Rise to prominence[edit]

First appearance[edit]

Ganesha appeared in his classic form as a clearly recognizable deity with well-defined iconographic attributes in the early 4th to 5th centuries.[142] Shanti Lal Nagar says that the earliest known iconic image of Ganesha is in the niche of the Shiva temple at Bhumra, which has been dated to the Gupta period.[143] His independent cult appeared by about the 10th century.[142] Narain summarizes the controversy between devotees and academics regarding the development of Ganesha as follows:[144]

[W]hat is inscrutable is the somewhat dramatic appearance of Gaņeśa on the historical scene. His antecedents are not clear. His wide acceptance and popularity, which transcend sectarian and territorial limits, are indeed amazing. On the one hand there is the pious belief of the orthodox devotees in Gaņeśa’s Vedic origins and in the Purāṇic explanations contained in the confusing, but nonetheless interesting, mythology. On the other hand there are doubts about the existence of the idea and the icon of this deity” before the fourth to fifth century A.D. … [I]n my opinion, indeed there is no convincing evidence of the existence of this divinity prior to the fifth century.

Possible influences[edit]

Courtright reviews various speculative theories about the early history of Ganesha, including supposed tribal traditions and animal cults, and dismisses all of them in this way:[145]

In this search for a historical origin for Gaņeśa, some have suggested precise locations outside the Brāhmaṇic tradition…. These historical locations are intriguing to be sure, but the fact remains that they are all speculations, variations on the Dravidian hypothesis, which argues that anything not attested to in the Vedic and Indo-European sources must have come into Brāhmaṇic religion from the Dravidian or aboriginal populations of India as part of the process that produced Hinduism out of the interactions of the Aryan and non-Aryan populations. There is no independent evidence for an elephant cult or a totem; nor is there any archaeological data pointing to a tradition prior to what we can already see in place in the Purāṇic literature and the iconography of Gaņeśa.

Thapan’s book on the development of Ganesha devotes a chapter to speculations about the role elephants had in early India but concludes that, “although by the second century CE the elephant-headed yakṣa form exists it cannot be presumed to represent Gaṇapati-Vināyaka. There is no evidence of a deity by this name having an elephant or elephant-headed form at this early stage. Gaṇapati-Vināyaka had yet to make his debut.”[146]

One theory of the origin of Ganesha is that he gradually came to prominence in connection with the four Vinayakas (Vināyakas).[147] In Hindu mythology, the Vināyakas were a group of four troublesome demons who created obstacles and difficulties[148] but who were easily propitiated.[149] The name Vināyaka is a common name for Ganesha both in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.[22] Krishan is one of the academics who accepts this view, stating flatly of Ganesha, “He is a non-vedic god. His origin is to be traced to the four Vināyakas, evil spirits, of the Mānavagŗhyasūtra (7th–4th century BCE) who cause various types of evil and suffering”.[150] Depictions of elephant-headed human figures, which some identify with Ganesha, appear in Indian art and coinage as early as the 2nd century.[151] According to Ellawala, the elephant-headed Ganesha as lord of the Ganas was known to the people of Sri Lanka in the early pre-Christian era.[152]

Vedic and epic literature[edit]

 

 

Vyasa narrating the Mahabharata to Ganesha, his scribe, Angkor Wat

The title “Leader of the group” (Sanskrit: gaṇapati) occurs twice in the Rig Veda, but in neither case does it refer to the modern Ganesha. The term appears in RV 2.23.1 as a title for Brahmanaspati, according to commentators.[153] While this verse doubtless refers to Brahmanaspati, it was later adopted for worship of Ganesha and is still used today.[154] In rejecting any claim that this passage is evidence of Ganesha in the Rig Veda, Ludo Rocher says that it “clearly refers to Bṛhaspati—who is the deity of the hymn—and Bṛhaspati only”.[155] Equally clearly, the second passage (RV 10.112.9) refers to Indra,[156] who is given the epithet ‘gaṇapati’, translated “Lord of the companies (of the Maruts).”[157] However, Rocher notes that the more recent Ganapatya literature often quotes the Rigvedic verses to give Vedic respectability to Ganesha .[158]

Two verses in texts belonging to Black Yajurveda, Maitrāyaṇīya Saṃhitā (2.9.1)[159] and Taittirīya Āraṇyaka (10.1),[160] appeal to a deity as “the tusked one” (Dantiḥ), “elephant-faced” (Hastimukha), and “with a curved trunk” (Vakratuņḍa). These names are suggestive of Ganesha, and the 14th century commentator Sayana explicitly establishes this identification.[161] The description of Dantin, possessing a twisted trunk (vakratuṇḍa) and holding a corn-sheaf, a sugar cane, and a club,[162] is so characteristic of the Puranic Ganapati that Heras says “we cannot resist to accept his full identification with this Vedic Dantin”.[163] However, Krishan considers these hymns to be post-Vedic additions.[164] Thapan reports that these passages are “generally considered to have been interpolated”. Dhavalikar says, “the references to the elephant-headed deity in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā have been proven to be very late interpolations, and thus are not very helpful for determining the early formation of the deity”.[165]

Ganesha does not appear in Indian epic literature that is dated to the Vedic period. A late interpolation to the epic poem Mahabharata says that the sage Vyasa (Vyāsa) asked Ganesha to serve as his scribe to transcribe the poem as he dictated it to him. Ganesha agreed but only on condition that Vyasa recite the poem uninterrupted, that is, without pausing. The sage agreed, but found that to get any rest he needed to recite very complex passages so Ganesha would have to ask for clarifications. The story is not accepted as part of the original text by the editors of the critical edition of the Mahabharata,[166] in which the twenty-line story is relegated to a footnote in an appendix.[167] The story of Ganesha acting as the scribe occurs in 37 of the 59 manuscripts consulted during preparation of the critical edition.[168] Ganesha’s association with mental agility and learning is one reason he is shown as scribe for Vyāsa’s dictation of the Mahabharata in this interpolation.[169] Richard L. Brown dates the story to the 8th century, and Moriz Winternitz concludes that it was known as early as c. 900, but it was not added to the Mahabharata some 150 years later. Winternitz also notes that a distinctive feature in South Indian manuscripts of the Mahabharata is their omission of this Ganesha legend.[170] The term vināyaka is found in some recensions of the Śāntiparva and Anuśāsanaparva that are regarded as interpolations.[171] A reference to Vighnakartṛīṇām (“Creator of Obstacles”) in Vanaparva is also believed to be an interpolation and does not appear in the critical edition.[172]

Puranic period[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Mythological anecdotes of Ganesha.

 

 

Tanjore-style painting of Ganesha

Stories about Ganesha often occur in the Puranic corpus. Brown notes while the Puranas “defy precise chronological ordering”, the more detailed narratives of Ganesha’s life are in the late texts, c. 600–1300.[173] Yuvraj Krishan says that the Puranic myths about the birth of Ganesha and how he acquired an elephant’s head are in the later Puranas, which were composed from c. 600 onwards. He elaborates on the matter to say that references to Ganesha in the earlier Puranas, such as the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, are later interpolations made during the 7th to 10th centuries.[174]

In his survey of Ganesha’s rise to prominence in Sanskrit literature, Ludo Rocher notes that:[175]

Above all, one cannot help being struck by the fact that the numerous stories surrounding Gaṇeśa concentrate on an unexpectedly limited number of incidents. These incidents are mainly three: his birth and parenthood, his elephant head, and his single tusk. Other incidents are touched on in the texts, but to a far lesser extent.

Ganesha’s rise to prominence was codified in the 9th century, when he was formally included as one of the five primary deities of Smartism. The 9th-century philosopher Śaṅkarācārya popularized the “worship of the five forms” (pañcāyatana pūjā) system among orthodox Brahmins of the Smarta tradition.[176] This worship practice invokes the five deities Ganesha, Vishnu, Shiva, Devī, and Sūrya.[177] Śaṅkarācārya instituted the tradition primarily to unite the principal deities of these five major sects on an equal status. This formalized the role of Ganesha as a complementary deity.

Scriptures[edit]

Further information: Ganesha Purana, Mudgala Purana and Ganapati Atharvashirsa

 

 

Ganesha statue in 9th century Prambanan temple, Java, Indonesia

Once Ganesha was accepted as one of the five principal deities of Brahmanism, some Brahmins (brāhmaṇas) chose to worship Ganesha as their principal deity. They developed the Ganapatya tradition, as seen in the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana.[178]

The date of composition for the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana—and their dating relative to one another—has sparked academic debate. Both works were developed over time and contain age-layered strata. Anita Thapan reviews comments about dating and provides her own judgement. “It seems likely that the core of the Ganesha Purana appeared around the twelfth and thirteenth centuries”, she says, “but was later interpolated.”[179] Lawrence W. Preston considers the most reasonable date for the Ganesha Purana to be between 1100 and 1400, which coincides with the apparent age of the sacred sites mentioned by the text.[180]

R.C. Hazra suggests that the Mudgala Purana is older than the Ganesha Purana, which he dates between 1100 and 1400.[181] However, Phyllis Granoff finds problems with this relative dating and concludes that the Mudgala Purana was the last of the philosophical texts concerned with Ganesha. She bases her reasoning on the fact that, among other internal evidence, the Mudgala Purana specifically mentions the Ganesha Purana as one of the four Puranas (the Brahma, the Brahmanda, the Ganesha, and the Mudgala Puranas) which deal at length with Ganesha.[182] While the kernel of the text must be old, it was interpolated until the 17th and 18th centuries as the worship of Ganapati became more important in certain regions.[183] Another highly regarded scripture, the Ganapati Atharvashirsa, was probably composed during the 16th or 17th centuries.[184]

Beyond India and Hinduism[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Ganesha in world religions.

 

 

“Dancing Ganesh. Central Tibet. Early fifteenth century. Colours on cotton. Height: 68 centimetres”.[185] This form is also known as Maharakta (“The Great Red One”).[186]

Commercial and cultural contacts extended India’s influence in western and southeast Asia. Ganesha is one of a number of Hindu deities who reached foreign lands as a result.[187]

Ganesha was particularly worshipped by traders and merchants, who went out of India for commercial ventures.[188] From approximately the 10th century onwards, new networks of exchange developed including the formation of trade guilds and a resurgence of money circulation. During this time, Ganesha became the principal deity associated with traders.[189] The earliest inscription invoking Ganesha before any other deity is associated with the merchant community.[190]

 

 

5th century “image of Ganesha, consecrated by the Shahi King Khingala.” found at Gardez, Afghanistan.

Hindus migrated to Maritime Southeast Asia and took their culture, including Ganesha, with them.[191] Statues of Ganesha are found throughout the region, often beside Shiva sanctuaries. The forms of Ganesha found in Hindu art of Java, Bali, and Borneo show specific regional influences.[192] The spread of Hindu culture to southeast Asia established Ganesha in modified forms in Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. In Indochina, Hinduism and Buddhism were practiced side by side, and mutual influences can be seen in the iconography of Ganesha in the region.[193] In Thailand, Cambodia, and among the Hindu classes of the Chams in Vietnam, Ganesha was mainly thought of as a remover of obstacles.[194] Today in Buddhist Thailand, Ganesha is regarded as a remover of obstacles, the god of success.[194]

Before the arrival of Islam, Afghanistan had close cultural ties with India, and the adoration of both Hindu and Buddhist deities was practiced. Examples of sculptures from the 5th to the 7th centuries have survived, suggesting that the worship of Ganesha was then in vogue in the region.[195]

Ganesha appears in Mahayana Buddhism, not only in the form of the Buddhist god Vināyaka, but also as a Hindu demon form with the same name.[196] His image appears in Buddhist sculptures during the late Gupta period.[197] As the Buddhist god Vināyaka, he is often shown dancing. This form, called Nṛtta Ganapati, was popular in northern India, later adopted in Nepal, and then in Tibet.[198] In Nepal, the Hindu form of Ganesha, known as Heramba, is popular; he has five heads and rides a lion.[199] Tibetan representations of Ganesha show ambivalent views of him.[200] A Tibetan rendering of Ganapati is tshogs bdag.[201] In one Tibetan form, he is shown being trodden under foot by Mahākāla,(Shiva) a popular Tibetan deity.[202] Other depictions show him as the Destroyer of Obstacles, and sometimes dancing.[203] Ganesha appears in China and Japan in forms that show distinct regional character. In northern China, the earliest known stone statue of Ganesha carries an inscription dated to 531.[204] In Japan, where Ganesha is known as Kangiten, the Ganesha cult was first mentioned in 806.[205]

The canonical literature of Jainism does not mention the worship of Ganesha.[206] However, Ganesha is worshipped by most Jains, for whom he appears to have taken over certain functions of Kubera.[207] Jain connections with the trading community support the idea that Jainism took up Ganesha worship as a result of commercial connections.[208] The earliest known Jain Ganesha statue dates to about the 9th century.[209] A 15th-century Jain text lists procedures for the installation of Ganapati images.[206] Images of Ganesha appear in the Jain temples of Rajasthan and Gujarat.[210

References[edit]

 

 

God Shiva’s Mount Nandi Indonesia Central Java 9th …

 

 

 

 

824

Sailendras in Java

 

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world.

The Sailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra. For instance,

Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan maharaja Dharmasetu.

The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Sailendra had access to the international market.

 

 

Borobudur temple stupa

 

 

Detail of Borobudur temple

 

 

 

9th  century Buddhism sculptured  relief at  Borobudur temple

 

 

 

Indonesian ship relief of borobudur temple

Karangtengah inscription dated 824

 mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[9] Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means ‘the place of origin’, a sacred building to honor the ancestors.

 This findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Sailendras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Sailendra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit means “The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood“, was the original name of Borobudur.[10]

about 825

 
Sailendra King Samaratunga, grandson of Vishnu, finishes Borobudur.   Borobudur Borobudur is a huge Buddhist monument covering a volcanic hill a few miles between present-day Magelang and Yogyakarta. It is in levels representing the stages to enlightenment. The large central stupa is empty. The many beautiful relief sculptures may have been used to educate young monks.

 

825

The received version holds that the Sailendra dynasty existed next to

the Sanjaya dynasty in Java.

Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated.

830

The decline of the Sailendras began around 830 A.D.

culminating with their ouster,

835

about 835

 
Patapan of Sanjaya takes Sailendra throne, replaces Buddhism on Java with Hinduism. King Balitung rules in central Java. By this time, Buddhist culture had spread as far east as Lombok.

 

Around 850 A.D.,

a prince of Sanjaya dynasty,

 Rakai Pikatan

 married a Sailendran princess and seized control of central Java.

about 850

 
Balaputra, claimant to Sailendra throne, takes power in Srivijaya. New Sanjaya king Daksa in central Java begins building Hindu temples at Prambanan. King Warmadewa rules on Bali. From about this time we have a version of the Ramayana epic in the Old Javanese language. The work is sophisticated, and there were probably many earlier such works in Old Javanese that have not survived.

 

 

in 856 A.D.,

 by a descendant of Sanjaya.

 Apparently the Sanjayan line of kings ruled continuously over outlying areas of the realm as vassals of the Sailendras, and during this time they built many

 Hindus temples in remote areas of Java such as the Dieng Plateau and Mt. Ungaran (south of Semarang).

 

The Sailendras fled to Sriwijaya,

 where they prospered and successfully blocked all Javanese shipping in the South China Sea for more than a century.

Sailendras in Sumatra

After 824,

 there are no more references to the Sailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record.

By 850,

the Medang kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire

Around 852

the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra,

 the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara.

 

This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[11]

 Around 860

the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India.

According to the text, the local king had granted

 ‘Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa’ (Sumatra)

the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Sailendra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java.[14]

From Sumatra, the Sailendras also maintained overseas relations with

the Chola kingdom in India,

as shown by several south Indian inscriptions.  

 

 

860:

 

Balaputra the Maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of Srivijaya, construct the buddhist temple and

 

Abad ke-10

 

Nusantara Sesudah Kedatangan Bangsa Barat

Hingga abad ke-10 pelayaran niaga masih menempuh satu jalur yang tidak terputusputusdari timur ke barat atau sebaliknya. Sampai dengan abad itu belum adapelabuhan-pelabuhan yang memiliki cukup banyak fasilitas untuk dijadikan tempatsinggah dalam jalur niaga yang panjang. Sejak abad ke-10

 

Abad 9-10

Para geografer muslim abad ke-9 dan 10, seperti Ibnu Khurdadzbih dan Al Biruni, menuliskan bahwa Sumatera (yang mereka sebut Zabaj) adalah bagian rute perdagangan mereka menuju Cina.[5]

 

907

Asal Uasul Kota Malang

Kota malang , Terletak pada ketinggian antara 429 – 667 meter diatas permukaan air laut. 112,06° – 112,07° Bujur Timur dan 7,06° – 8,02° Lintang Selatan, dengan dikelilingi gunung-gunung : *Gunung Arjuno di sebelah Utara *Gunung Semeru di sebelah Timur *Gunung Kawi dan Panderman di sebelah Barat *Gunung Kelud di sebelah Selatan

Wilayah cekungan Malang telah ada sejak masa purbakala menjadi kawasan pemukiman. Banyaknya sungai yang mengalir di sekitar tempat ini membuatnya cocok sebagai kawasan pemukiman.

 Wilayah Dinoyo dan Tlogomas diketahui merupakan kawasan pemukiman prasejarah. Selanjutnya, berbagai prasasti (misalnya Prasasti Dinoyo), bangunan percandian dan arca-arca, bekas-bekas pondasi batu bata, bekas saluran drainase, serta berbagai gerabah ditemukan dari periode akhir Kerajaan Kanjuruhan (abad ke-8 dan ke-9) juga ditemukan di tempat yang saling berdekatan. Nama “Malang” sampai saat ini masih diteliti asal-usulnya oleh para ahli sejarah. Para ahli sejarah masih terus menggali sumber-sumber untuk memperoleh jawaban yang tepat atas asal-usul nama “Malang”. Sampai saat ini telah diperoleh beberapa hipotesa mengenai asal-usul nama Malang tersebut.

  Malangkucecwara yang tertulis di dalam lambang kota Malang, menurut salah satu hipotesa merupakan nama sebuah bangunan suci. Nama bangunan suci itu sendiri diketemukan dalam dua prasasti Raja Balitung dari Jawa Tengah yakni

 Prasasti Mantyasih tahun 907,

dan Prasasti 908 yang diketemukan di satu tempat antara kota Surabaya-Malang.

  Namun demikian dimana letak sesungguhnya bangunan suci Malangkucecwara itu, para ahli sejarah masih belum memperoleh kesepakatan. Satu pihak menduga letak bangunan suci itu adalah di daerah Gunung Buring, satu pegunungan yang membujur di sebelah timur Kota Malang dimana terdapat salah satu puncak gunung yang bernama Malang.

  Pembuktian atas kebenaran dugaan ini masih terus dilakukan karena ternyata, disebelah barat Kota Malang juga terdapat sebuah gunung yang bernama Malang. Pihak yang lain menduga bahwa letak sesungguhnya dari bangunan suci itu terdapat di daerah Tumpang, satu tempat di sebelah utara Kota Malang.

 

 Sampai saat ini di daerah tersebut masih terdapat sebuah desa yang bernama Malangsuka, yang oleh sebagian ahli sejarah, diduga berasal dari kata Malankuca yang diucapkan terbalik.

Pendapat di atas juga dikuatkan oleh banyaknya bangunan-bangunan purbakala yang berserakan di daerah tersebut, seperti Candi Jago dan Candi Kidal, yang keduanya merupakan peninggalan zaman Kerajaan Singasari. Dari kedua hipotesa tersebut di atas masih juga belum dapat dipastikan manakah kiranya yang terdahulu dikenal dengan nama Malang,

 

 

 

 

Jenis : Karya Seni Fungsional & Hiasan Nama : LAMPU GANTUNG BERMOTIF KINARI Era : Abad Ke 9 – 10 Asal : Jawa Tengah Material : Perunggu

Hanging Lamp in the Form of a Kinnari Period: Central Javanese period Date: ca. second half of the 9th–early 10th century Culture: Indonesia (Java) Medium: Bronze Dimensions: H. 6 in. (15.2 cm) Classification: Sculpture

 

Jenis : Alat Ritual Keagamaan Nama : VAJRA Era : Abad Ke- 9 – 10 Material : Perunggu Asal : —

A Bronze Vajra INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY

A Bronze Vajra Indonesia, 9th/10th Century The bulbous-central section flanked by flared lotus petal friezes issuing the claw-shaped prongs lined with tooth-like fringes, 10¾ in. (27.3 cm.) long

 

Although the rise of the Sailendra’s occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion.[3] Apart from Java itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested.

India

According to Majumdar; an Indian scholar, Sailendra dynasty that established themself in Indonesian archipleago, either the one that ruled Srivijaya or the ruler of Medang (Java) was originated from Kalinga (Southern India) [4].

This opinion also shared by Nilakanta Sastri and Moens. Moens further describes;

Sailendra was originated in India and established themself in Palembang before the arrival of Dapunta Hiyang. In 683, Sailendra family moved to Java because being pushed by Dapunta Hiyang and his troops.[5]

Cambodia

In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar sounding ‘mountainlord’ titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.[6]

 

Sumatra

Other scholars hold that the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[7] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Sailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections.

Java

Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as Sanjaya dynasty since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially the Shivaist ruler of Mataram Kingdom.[8] The association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory based on Carita Parahyangan that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

 

Sailendras in Bali

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13]

In 914,

he left a record of his endeavour in the Belanjong pillar in Sanur in Bali.

. 914 AD

 The name Bali dwipa (“Bali island”) has been discovered from various inscriptions, including

 

 the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD

read more info from wiki

The Belanjong pillar, also Blanjong pillar (Indonesian: Prasasti Blanjong), is a pillar established in 914 CE in the harbour of Belangong, in the southern area of Sanur in Bali.

 

 

The alley leading to the Belanjong pillar in Belanjong temple.

 

 

Protective enclosure for the Belanjong pillar, in Belanjong temple.

The pillar was established by king Sri Kesari Warmadewa, the first king of the Balinese Warmadewa dynasty and bears a long inscription where the king describes his military campaign in the island. It is located in the Belanjong (Blanjong) Temple, where it is housed under a protective enclosure, and is often decorated and partially covered with devotional cloth.

The inscription is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two scripts, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit).[1] The Old Balinese in pre-Nagari script in on one side of the pillar, while the Sanskrit inscription in Pallava-derived old Javanese script (also called Kawi script)[2] is on the other side.[3] The mix of language and script suggest that the objective of the inscription was not to communicate locally to the Balinese people, but rather to be established as a symbol of power and authority.[2]

The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java.[4] According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition,[5] to establish a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[6] The inscription also tells about the success of military expeditions of offshore islands, either Nusa Penida or faraway Maluku.[2] This is the first known inscription in which a Balinese king recorded his name.[3]

Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island.[2]

The pillar is dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in the year 836 saka.[7]

According to French historian George Coedès:

“These inscriptions reveal a Hindu-Balinese society, independent of Java, making use of a dialect particular to the island, and practicing Hinduism and Buddhism at the same time.”

—George Coedès.[2]

929

 
Sanjaya King Mpu Sindok moves court from Mataram to East Java (near Jombang). A major eruption of Mount Merapi in 928 or 929 may have been the reason that the king of Mataram and many of his subjects moved east

 

The pillar was only discovered in 1932,[8]

and has remained where it was initially found

 

 and mentioning “Walidwipa”. It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice

After their eclipse in Java (late 9th cent.),

Srivijaya  retained control of Sri Vijaya, with important centers at Palembang (their capital) and in Kedah and Patani on the Malayan Peninsula. The Sailendra power was badly shaken by the Chola war of the 11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

 suddenly the capital was transferred to east java

 around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash

about 947

 
Sri Isana Tunggawijaya, daughter of Mpu Sindok, succeeds Mpu Sindok as ruler in East Java  
about 975  
King Udayana of Bali, father of Airlangga, is born  
985  
Dharmavamsa becomes king of Mataram. He conquers Bali and founds a settlement in western Kalimantan. Dharmavamsa is also remembered for ordering the translation of the Mahabharata into Javanese

 

990

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa

 

990

 
Dharmavamsa and Mataram send an army overseas to attack Srivijaya and take Palembang, but fail  

 

992

destructive raids  srivijaya from Java in 992.

 

Jenis : Mahkota Keagamaan Nama : PENUTUP ATAS USNISHA Era : Abad Ke 8 – 10 Asal Perolehan : Jawa Tengah Material : Emas

Koleksi : THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 1000 5th Avenue, New York, NY – USA

Data Museum :

Ushnisha Cover

Period: Central Javanese period Date: 8th–early 10th century Culture: Indonesia (Java) Medium: Gold Dimensions: H. 2 5/8 in. (6.8cm) Classification: Metalwork

Credit Line: The Samuel Eilenberg-Jonathan P. Rosen Collection of Indonesian Gold, Bequest of Samuel Eilenberg and Gift of Jonathan P. Rosen, 1998 Accession Number: 1998.544.9 This artwork is currently on display in Gallery 247

 

10th century

The Medang or Mataram Kingdom

was a HinduBuddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries CE.

 It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra and Sanjaya families.

By 850,

the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire.

Origin and formation

 

 

Canggal inscription dated 732 CE, edicted by King Sanjaya.

The earliest account of the Medang Kingdom is in the Canggal inscription, dated 732, discovered in Canggal village, southwest of the town of Magelang. This inscription, written in Sanskrit using the Pallava script, tells of the erection of a lingga (a symbol of Shiva) on the hill in the Kunjarakunja area, located on a noble island called Yawadwipa (Java) which was blessed with abundance of rice and gold. This inscription tells that Yawadwipa was ruled by King Sanna, whose long reign was marked by wisdom and virtue. After Sanna died, the kingdom fell into disunity. Sanjaya, the son of Sannaha (Sanna’s sister) ascended to the throne. He conquered the areas around his kingdom, and his wise reign blessed his land with peace and prosperity for all of his subjects.[1]

Sanna and Sanjaya are also described in the Carita Parahyangan, a book from a later period which mainly describes the history of Pasundan (the Sunda Kingdom). This book mentions that Sanna was defeated by Purbasora, King of Galuh, and retreated to Mount Merapi. Later, Sanjaya reclaimed Sanna’s kingdom and ruled West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Bali. He also battled the Malayu and Keling (against their king, Sang Srivijaya).

The dual dynasties theory

Main article: Sanjaya Dynasty

Bosch in his book “Srivijaya, de Sailendravamsa en de Sanjayavamsa” (1952) suggested that king Sanjaya was the progenitor of the Sanjaya Dynasty, and there was two dynasties that ruled Central Java; the Buddhist Sailendra and the Shivaist Sanjaya dynasty.[2] The inscription also states that Sanjaya was an ardent follower of Shaivism. From its founding in the early 8th century until 928, the kingdom was ruled by the Sanjaya dynasty. The first king was Sanjaya, who ruled in the Mataram region in the vicinity of modern Yogyakarta and Prambanan, and left the written records on the Canggal inscription. However, around the mid 8th century, the Sailendra dynasty emerged in Central Java and challenged Sanjaya domination in the region.

According to the Kalasan inscription, dated 778 CE and written in the Pranagari script in Sanskrit, the Kalasan temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka (the Jewel of the Sailendra family), who persuaded Panangkaran (Sanjaya’s successor) to construct a holy building for the goddess (boddhisattvadevi) Tara and build a vihara (monastery) for Buddhist monks from the Sailendra realm. Panangkaran also awarded Kalaça village to a sangha (Buddhist monastic community).[3]

The prevailing historical interpretation holds that the Sailendra dynasty co-existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Central Java, and much of the period was characterized by peaceful cooperation. The Sailendra, with their strong connections to Srivijaya, managed to gain control of Central Java and become overlords of the Rakai (local Javanese lords), including the Sanjayas, thus making the Sanjaya kings of Mataram their vassals. Little is known about the kingdom due to the dominance of the Sailendra, who during this period constructed Borobudur, a Buddhist monument. Samaratungga, the monarch of the Sailendra, tried to secure the Sailendra position in Java, cementing an alliance with the Sanjayas by arranging the marriage of his daughter Pramodhawardhani with Pikatan.

Around the middle of the 9th century, relations between the Sanjaya and the Sailendra deteriorated. In 852, the Sanjaya ruler, Pikatan, defeated Balaputra, the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and the princess Tara. This ended the Sailendra presence in Java; Balaputra retreated to the Srivijayan capital in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[4] The Balaputra defeat and the victory of Pikatan was recorded in Shivagrha inscription dated 856, edicted by Rakai Kayuwangi, Pikatan’s successor.

[edit] The single dynasty theory

Main article: Sailendra Dynasty

However, this dual Sailendra—Sanjaya dynasties theory proposed by Bosch and De Casparis was opposed by some Indonesian historians in later period. An alternate theory, proposed by Poerbatjaraka, suggests there was only one kingdom and one dynasty, the kingdom called Medang, with the capital in the Mataram area (thus the name of the kingdom: “Medang i Bhumi Mataram”), and the ruling dynasty being the Sailendra.

This theory is supported with Boechari interpretation on Sojomerto inscription and Poerbatjaraka study on Carita Parahyangan manuscript, Poerbatjaraka holds that Sanjaya and all of his offspring belongs to the Sailendra family, which initially was Shivaist Hindu. However, according to Raja Sankhara inscription (now missing); Sanjaya’s son, Panangkaran, converted to Mahāyāna Buddhism. And because of that conversion, the later series of Sailendra kings who ruled Medang become Mahāyāna Buddhists also and gave Buddhism royal patronage in Java until the end of Samaratungga’s reign.[5] The Shivaist Hindus regained royal patronage with the reign of Pikatan, which lasted until the end of the Medang Kingdom. During the reign of Kings Pikatan and Balitung, the royal Hindu Trimurti temple of Prambanan was built and expanded in the vicinity of Yogyakarta.

[edit] The capital

Most of the time, the court of the Medang Kingdom was located in Mataram, somewhere on the Prambanan Plain near modern Yogyakarta and Prambanan. However, during the reign of Rakai Pikatan, the court was moved to Mamrati. Later, in the reign of Balitung, the court moved again, this time to Poh Pitu. Unlike Mataram, historians have been unable to pinpoint the exact locations of Mamrati and Poh Pitu, although most historians agree that both were located in the Kedu Plain, somewhere around the modern Magelang or Temanggung regencies. Later, during the reign of Wawa, the court was moved back to the Mataram area.

[edit] Government and economy

The complex stratified ancient Javan society, with its refined aesthetic taste in art and culture, is evidenced through the various scenes in narrative bas-reliefs carved on various temples dated from the Medang era.

[edit] Economy

 

 

The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java

 

 

Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java. Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century.

The common people of Medang mostly made a living in agriculture, especially as rice farmers, however, some may have pursued other careers, such as hunter, trader, artisan, weaponsmith, sailor, soldier, dancer, musician, food or drink vendor, etc. Rich portrayals of daily life in 9th century Java can be seen in many temple bas-reliefs. Rice cultivation had become the base for the kingdom’s economy where the villages throughout the realm relied on their annual rice yield to pay taxes to the court. Exploiting the fertile volcanic soil of Central Java and the intensive wet rice cultivation (sawah) enabled the population to grow significantly, which contributed to the availability of labor and workforce for the state’s public projects. Certain villages and lands were given the status as sima (tax free) lands awarded through royal edict written in inscriptions. The rice yields from sima lands usually were allocated for the maintenance of certain religious buildings.

The bas-reliefs from temples of this period, especially from Borobudur and Prambanan describe occupations and careers other than agricultural pursuit; such as soldiers, government officials, court servants, massage therapists, travelling musicians and dancing troupe, food and drink sellers, logistics courier, sailors, merchants, even thugs and robbers are depicted in everyday life of 9th century Java. These occupations requires economy system that employs currency. The Wonoboyo hoard, golden artifacts discovered in 1990, revealed gold coins in shape similar to corn seeds, which suggests that 9th century Javan economy is partly monetized. On the surface of the gold coins engraved with a script “ta”, a short form of “tail” or “tahil” a unit of currency in ancient Java.

[edit] Administration

 

 

The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depict the scene in royal court.

The King was regarded as the paramount ruler or chakravartin, where the highest power and authority lies. The king, the royal family and the kingdom’s officials had the authority to launch public projects, such as irrigation works or temple construction. The kingdom left behind several temples and monuments. The most notable ones are Prambanan, Sewu, and the Plaosan temple compound. The palace where the King resided was mentioned as kadatwan or keraton, the court was the center of kingdom’s administration. Throughout its history, the center of Medang kingdom was mostly situated in and around Prambanan Plain, named as Mataram, however during the reign of other kings, the capital may shifted to other places. Several other courts and capital cities were mentioned, such as Mamrati (Amrati) and Poh Pitu, location unknown but probably somewhere in Kedu Plain. In later Eastern Java period, other centers were mentioned; such as Tamwlang and Watugaluh (near Jombang), also Wwatan (near Madiun).

[edit] Culture

 

 

The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Medang kingdom.

The Wonoboyo hoard golden artifacts also attest to the wealth, art, and culture as well as the aesthetic achievement of the Medang Kingdom. The artifacts show the intricate artwork and technical mastery of the ancient Javanese goldsmith. The hoard was estimated to date from the reign of King Balitung.[6] The treasure has been identified as belonging to a noble or a member of the royal family.[7]

[edit] Religion

Since the beginning of its formation, the Medang Mataram kings seemed to favour Shivaist Hinduism, such as the construction of Gunung Wukir Hindu temple as mentioned in Canggal inscription by king Sanjaya. However during the reign of Panangkaran and the rise of Sailendras influence, Mahayana Buddhism began to blossomed and gain court favour. The Kalasan, Sari, Mendut, Pawon and the magnificent Borobudur and Sewu temples testify the Buddhist renaissance in Central Java. The court patronage on Buddhism spanned from the reign of Panangkaran to Samaratungga. During the reign of Pikatan, Shivaist Hinduism began to regain court’s favour, signified by the construction of grand Shivagrha (Prambanan).

[edit] Art and Architecture

 

 

The magnificent 9th century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Medang.

The monumental Hindu temple of Prambanan in the vicinity of Yogyakarta — initially built during the reign of King Pikatan (838—850), and expanded continuously through the reign of Lokapala (850—890) to Balitung (899–911) — is a fine example of ancient Medang Mataram art and architecture. The description of a grand temple compound dedicated for lord Shiva, and the public project to shift the course of the river near the temple (Opak river) to run straight along western wall of temple compound was also mentioned in Shivagrha inscription. The grand temple complex was dedicated to the Trimurti, the three highest gods in the Hindu pantheon (Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu). It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, evidence of the immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

Other Hindu temples dated from Medang Mataram Kingdom era are: Sambisari, Gebang, Barong, Ijo, and Morangan. Although the Shivaist regain the favour, buddhist remain under royal patronage. The Sewu temple dedicated for Manjusri according to Kelurak inscription was probably initially built by Panangkaran, but later expanded and completed during Rakai Pikatan’s rule, whom married to a Buddhist princess Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. Most of their subjects retained their old religion; Shivaist and Buddhist seems to co-exist in harmony. The buddhist temple of Plaosan, Banyunibo and Sajiwan were built during the reign of King Pikatan and Queen Pramodhawardhani, probably in the spirit of religious reconciliation after the battle of succession between Pikatan-Pramodhawardhani against Balaputra.

[edit] Literature

From the 9th to mid 10th centuries, the Medang Kingdom witnessed the blossoming of art, culture and literature, mainly through the translation of Hindu-Buddhist sacred texts and the transmission and adaptation of Hindu-Buddhist ideas. The bas-relief narration of the Hindu epic Ramayana was carved on the wall of Prambanan Temple. During this period, the Kakawin Ramayana, an old Javanese rendering was written. This Kakawin Ramayana, also called the Yogesvara Ramayana, is attributed to the scribe Yogesvara circa the 9th century CE, who was employed in the court of the Medang in Central Java. It has 2774 stanzas in the manipravala style, a mixture of Sanskrit and archaic Javanese prose. The most influential version of the Ramayana is the Ravanavadham of Bhatti, popularly known as Bhattikavya. The Javanese Ramayana differs markedly from the original Hindu.

The name of the Medang Kingdom was written in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, dated 822 saka (900 CE), discovered in Manila, Philippines. The discovery of the inscriptions, written in the Kawi script in a variety of Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog, suggests that the people or officials of the Medang Kingdom had embarked on inter-insular[clarification needed] trade and foreign relations in regions as far away as the Philippines, and that connections between ancient kingdoms in Indonesia and the Philippines existed.

[edit] Moving eastward

 

 

Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.

Around the year 929, the centre of the kingdom was shifted from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption of Mount Merapi volcano or a power struggle probably caused the move. Historians suggest that, some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924—929), Merapi volcano erupted and devastated the kingdom’s capital in Mataram. The historic massive volcano eruption is popularly known as Pralaya Mataram (the death of Mataram). The evidence for this eruption can be seen in several temples that were virtually buried under Merapi’s lahar and volcanic debris, such as the Sambisari, Morangan, Kedulan, and Pustakasala temples.

Another theory suggests that the shift of capital city eastward was to avoid a Srivijaya invasion, or was motivated by economic reasons. The Brantas river valley was considered to be a strategic location for the control of maritime trade routes to the eastern parts of archipelago, being especially vital for control of the Maluku spice trade.

Sindok moved the capital to Tamwlang and later moved it again to Watugaluh. Historian identify those names with the Tambelang and Megaluh area near modern Jombang, East Java. A later king, Dharmawangsa, moved the capital again to Wwatan, identified as the Wotan area near modern Madiun. Dharmawangsa also ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in 996.

[edit] Collapse

In the late 10th century, the rivalry between the Sumatran Srivijaya and Javanese Medang became more hostile. The animosity was probably caused by the Srivijayan effort to reclaim Sailendra lands in Java, as Balaputra and his offspring — a new dynasty of Srivijaya maharajas — belonged to the Sailendra dynasty, or by Medang aspirations to challenge Srivijaya dominance as the regional power.

In 990, Dharmawangsa launched a naval invasion of Srivijaya and unsuccessfully attempted to capture Palembang. Dharmawangsa’s invasion caused the Maharaja of Srivijaya, Chulamaniwarmadewa to request protection from China. In 1006, Srivijaya managed to repelled the Medang invaders. In retaliation, Srivijaya forces assisted Haji (king) Wurawari of Lwaram to revolt, and attacked and destroyed the Medang Palace, killing Dharmawangsa and most of the royal family. With the death of Dharmawangsa and the fall of the capital, under military pressure from Srivijaya, the kingdom finally collapsed. There was further unrest and violence several years after the kingdom’s demise.

Airlangga, a son of Udayana of Bali, also a nephew of Dharmawangsa, managed to escape capture and went into exile. He later reunited the remnants of the Medang Kingdom and re-established the kingdom (including Bali) under the name of Kingdom of Kahuripan. In 1045, Airlangga abdicated his throne to resume the life of an ascetic. He divided the kingdom between his two sons, Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) and from this point on, the kingdom was known as Kediri.

[edit] List of rulers

The ruler of Medang Kingdom[8] [9]

[edit] Central Java period

Period of reign

Personal name

Rakai (Javanese title)

Abhiseka (stylized) name

Mentioned in inscription

Year

732—760 Sanjaya Mataram Canggal 732
760—780 Pancapana Panangkaran Dharmatungga? Kalasan 778
780—800 Dharanindra Panunggalan Sanggramadhananjaya Kelurak Ligor B 782 c 787
800—819 Samaragrawira Warak Nalanda c 860
819—838 Samaratungga Garung Pengging Karangtengah 819 824
838—850 Jatiningrat Pikatan Shivagrha Tulang air Argapura 856 850 863
850—890 Lokapala Kayuwangi Gurun Wangi Sajanotsawatungga Shivagrha Wuatan Tija Wanua Tengah Munggu Antan 856 880 863 887
890—898 Dewendra Limus Watuhumalang Poh Dulur Kewikuan Panunggalan 890 896
898—910 Balitung Watukura Sri Iswarakesawotawatungga Mantyasih 907
910—919 Daksa Hino Sri Maharaja Daksottama Bahubajra Pratipaksaksaya Uttunggawijaya Taji Gunung 910
919—924 Tulodong Layang Sajanasanata Nuragatunggadewa Lintakan 919
924—929 Wawa Sumba Pangkaja Sri Wijayalokanamottungga Sanggurah 982

[edit] East Java period

Period of reign

Personal name

Rakai (Javanese title)

Abhiseka (stylized) name

Mentioned in inscription

Year

929—947 Sindok Hino Sri Maharaja Isyana Wikramadharmottunggadewa Turyan Anjukladang 929 937
947—985 Sri Isyana Tunggawijaya (queen regnant) Gedangan Pucangan 950 1041
985—990 Sri Makutawangsawarddhana Pucangan 1041
990—1006 Wijayamreta Wardhana Sri Maharaja Isyana Dharmawangsa Teguh Anantawikramottunggadewa Pucangan 1041

[edit] See also

  Indonesia portal

[edit] References

[edit] General

  • Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988

[edit] Notes

  1. 1.       ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 40.
  2. 2.       ^ Dr. Bosch, “Srivijaya, de Sailendravamsa en de Sanjayavamsa”, 1952.
  3. 3.       ^ Soetarno, Drs. R. second edition (2002). “Aneka Candi Kuno di Indonesia” (Ancient Temples in Indonesia), pp. 41. Dahara Prize. Semarang. ISBN 979-501-098-0.
  4. 4.       ^ cf. De Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111
  5. 5.       ^ Poerbatjaraka, 1958: 254–264
  6. 6.       ^ “Warisan Saragi Diah Bunga”. Majalah Tempo. 3 November 1990. http://majalah.tempointeraktif.com/id/arsip/1990/11/03/ILT/mbm.19901103.ILT19845.id.html. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
  7. 7.       ^ “Indonesian Gold” Treasures from the National Museum Jakarta, grafico-qld.com, accessed July 2010
  8. 8.       ^ Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0368-X, 9780824803681. http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iDyJBFTdiwoC.

^ Muljana, Slamet (2006). Sriwijaya. Yogyakarta: LKiS. ISBN 979-8451-62-7.

 

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu Nama : KUBERA Era : Abad Ke-9/10, Kerajaan Singhasari Material : Perunggu Asal : Jawa Timur

An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY

Lot Description: An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera Indonesia, 9th/10th Century Seated on a circular pillow over a stepped plinth supported by two lions, with his right hand in varada mudra and holding the mongoose in his left, wearing long flowing robes richly adorned with jeweled armlets and necklaces, his face with a serene expression with wide open eyes surmounted by a conical headdress, the throneback modeled as a gateway flanked by leogryphs mounted on elephants in openwork, all supporting a flaming nimbus, the pinth centered by a cluster of jewels, with a deep brown patina overall 13¾ in. (34.8 cm.) high

This bronze figure of Kubera is among the very few comparatively large Indonesian bronze figures recorded in public and private collections; another figure of Kubera is in the collection of the Musée Guimet, see A. Le Bonheur, La sculpture indonesienne au Musee Guimet, 1971, cat. no. 3 814, p. 182f. In its general concept, it follows contemporary Indian prototypes created in Nalanda, Bihar; Compare a related example in Inde, Cinq Mille Ans d’Art, Paris, Musee du Petit Palais, 1978/79, cat. no. 97, from the National Museum, New Delhi. The proximity in style is indicative of the direct exchange of Indian bronzes to the South-East Asian region at that time, likely by sea, disseminating Pala style and fueling further regional stylistic evolution.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu Nama : GANESHA Era : Abad Ke-10 Material : Perunggu Asal : —

Dilelang terbuka oleh :

CHRISTIE’S New York Saleroom 20 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10020

Dengan Data :

A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description: A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha Indonesia, circa 10th Century Seated in svastikasana on a round cushion over a rectangular plinth, with four arms, holding a mala, a sweet, and his broken tusk, wearing a serpent brahmanical thread, ornate jatamukuta, and arm ornaments, his elephant trunk unfurling into his right hand 3¾ in. (9.6 cm.) high

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu Nama : VAJRASATTVA Era : Abad Ke-10 Material : Perunggu Asal : —

A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description: A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva Indonesia, circa 10th Century Finely cast seated in ‘Royal Ease’ on a round lotus base, a lotus stem rising up to his left shoulder supporting a vajra, with a flaming arched mandorla surmounted by a parasol, with an attractive silvery green patina overall 5¾ in. (14.6 cm.) high

 

10th century

 

They Mysterious Move to East Java

 

Rakai Pikatan commemorated his victory

by erecting the splendid temple complex at Prambanan,

 

 which can be considered a Hindu counterpart of Buddhist Borobudur. Both are terraced an ancestor sanctuaries, highly elaborate versions of those constructed by Indonesian rulers in prehistoric times.

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

 then suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash.

 A partially completed temple has been unearthed at Sambisar, near Prambanan, from under five metres of volcanic debris. Then, too there is the possibility of epidemics and of mass migrations to the more fertile lands of East Java.

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 

 Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa,

 

and splintered the realm into numerous petty fiefdoms.

It took nearly 20 years for the next great king, Airlangga, to fully restore the empire.

Airlangga was King Dharmawangsa’s nephew

and he succeded to the throne in 1019

after the Sriwijayan forces had departed. With the help of loyal followers and advisors he reconquered the realm and restored its prosperity. He is best known, though, as a patron of the arts and as an ascete. Under his rule the Indian classics were translated from Sanskrit into Javanese, thus marking the flowering of indigenous Javanese arts..

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