THE QING DYNASTY HISTORY COLLECTIONS (SAMPLE)

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The Qing Dynasty

History Collections

1581-1910

Empress  Xiozhe, consort of Emperor Kangxi

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014

 

PREFACE

Setelah hampir dua puluh lima tahun saya mengumpul berbagai informasi  dari  buku, dan koleksi keramik,prangko dan lain-lain yang  terkait sejarah dynasty Qing, setelah dapat   disusun sebuah karya tulis dalam bentuk Buku Elektronik dalam CD-Rom.

Buku elektronik ini sangat penting bagi para kolektor dan ahli sejarah agar mereka mengetahui dengan jelas apa yang terjadi di negeri leluhurnya , dan akan menyenangi koleksinya serta mencegah membeli koleksi palsu yang banyak beredar saat ini.

Apalagi stelah saya menemukan beberapa buku referensi yang sangat bermutu dan telah memperoleh hadiah internasional, antara lain

 

Buku   karangan Soame Jennys;Later Chinese Porcelain;Faber and Faber ,London,1965

 

 

 

 

dan

  buku karangan Paul Unschuld ; Medicine in China; Prestel,London.

Saya harap para pengarang buku tersebut berkenan membrikan izin kepada saya untuk mencuplik beberapa informasi yang berharga dari buku merek dalam rangka melestarikan puska nenek moyong etnis Tionghoa di dunia umumnya dan di   Indonesia  khususnya .

Saya mengucapkan terima kasih kpada teman-teman saya yang tidak dapat saya sebutkan satu per satu sehingga karya tulis ini dapat terwujud, begitu juga kepada isteri tercinta ,putra,mantu dan cucu-cucu berkat dorongan mereka buku ini dapat selesai sesuai dengan jadwal waktu yang saya rencanakan.

Saya sadar masih banyak kekurangan dan keslahan baik ketikan maupun ejaan serta infonya, malum saya sudah tua berumur tuju pluh tahun, dan saya mengerjakannya seorang diri, tapi syukur isteri dan putra saya mau membantu saya mengedit buku ini. Juga kalau bahaa Inggris yang saya gunakan tidak tepat karena umumnya sayza terjemahkan dengan google translate, dan untuk mengeditnya  memerlukan  waktu lebih lama sedangkan permintaan sudah sangat banyak, Juga terima aksih kpada kolektor keramik Indonesia yang telah bayak membantu saya dalam membeli buku elektronik saya berupa Cd-Rom Motif Keramnik kerajaan Tiongkok yang telah menambah semangat saya menyelesaikan buku ini.

Prose penulisan buku ini sudah dimulai beberapa tahun dan bersama-sama denganbuku elektronik lain yang sedang aya garap yag berjudul Koleksi Jejarah Indonesia wal Abad Kedua Puluh.

Buku elektronik ini aya buat dalam bahasa Inggris, agar seluruh kolektor didunia dapat membacanya, dan konsumen yang saya tuju adalah kolektor senior yang telah mmiliki ilmu pengetahuan cukup tinggi dibidang yang terkait dalam informasi buku ini.

Jakarta, 9  Februari  2015

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

English version

After nearly twenty-five years I collect a variety of information from books, and a collection of ceramics, stamps and other related history of the Qing dynasty, as can be prepared a paper in the form of Electronic Book on CD-Rom.

 

This electronic book is very important for collectors and historians so that they know exactly what is happening in the land of his ancestors, and will please the collection and prevent buying fake collections that are circulating today.

 

Moreover, the account after I discovered some very high quality reference books and has gained international prizes, among others
Books by Soame Jennys; Later Chinese Porcelain; Faber and Faber, London, 1965 and
book by Paul Unschuld; Medicine in China; Prestel, London.
I hope the author is pleased membrikan permission for me to be able to capture some valuable information from the book in order to preserve the brand Puska moyong grandmother ethnic Chinese in the world in general and in Indonesia in particular.

 

I thanked kpada my friends that I can not mention one by one so that this paper can be realized, as well as to his beloved wife, son, in-law and grandchildren thanks to their encouragement of this book can be completed according to schedule my time plan.

I am aware there are still many shortcomings and keslahan both typing and spelling as well as the info, I am old seventy  years old, and I do it by myself, but thank my wife and my sons wanted to help me edit this book.

 Also if I have used  English language  is not appropriate because generally  translated with google translate , and to edit it takes longer while demand has been very much, Also thanks to  Indonesian ceramic collectors who has stout help me in buying my electronic book in the form of CD- Rom Chinese empire Ceramic Motif Found In indonesia  had to pep me finish this book.

 

Prose writing this book has been started several years and together denganbuku other electronics are working on Yag entitled aya Jejarah Collection Indonesia wal Twentieth Century.

This electronic book aya made in English, so that the whole world can read collector, and consumers that I want to go is a senior collector who has mmiliki science related field is high enough in this book information.

 

Jakarta, February 9, 2015

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

 

Qing copy yuan ewer motif flower

INTRODUCTION

After the Internet very fast growth sponsored by Google, we can found thpousand images of Qing Imperila ceramic, old and new reproduction like some  you can look below

Ming transitional vase with dragon motif

Value US $ 1599-2000

 

1: Chinese Blue White Porcelain Vase – Rooster Scene

floral and rooster scene, 19th cen, measures 19″h 8.25″w

Stallion Hill Gallery

07:00 AM PT

Sep 14

12 OCTOBRE 2011

Kangxi blue and white porcelain of the Inder Rieden Collection @ Bonhams

 

A fine blue and white cylindrical brush pot, bitong. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Brightly painted with a continuous scene of a gentleman and his attendant enjoying conversation with a lady and her maid in a garden and an elderly lady before a screen waited on by various attendants,

 the base with a countersunk seal mark Xi Chao Chuan Gu (antique passed down from our glorious dynasty). 18.6cm (7 3/8in) diam. Estimate: £30,000 – 50,000, CNY 300,000 – 490,000, HK$ 360,000 – 600,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 16 June 1999, lot 914
The Inder Rieden Collection

The mark of Xi Chao Chuan Gu also appeared on an underglaze blue and copper-red brushpot, Kangxi mark and of the period, sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 2 November 1999, lot 605, where the mark was translated as ‘The Court of Kangxi Transmitting Antiquity’.

 

 

 

A pair of blue and white slender baluster vases. Chenghua six-character marks, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Each with a spreading foot, brightly painted with similar scenes of a dignitary with attendants and ladies receiving a guest accompanied by servants bearing gifts, the waisted neck with decorative bands of leiwen and key-fret motifs divided by a moulded rib. Each approximately 44cm (17¼in) high (2). Estimate: £30,000 – 50,000, CNY 300,000 – 490,000, HK$ 360,000 – 600,000

Compare

Original qing kanghsi

Sumber

Edhie chen

 

DR Iwan Found the same design and mark Vase

Provenance: according to the owner, purchased from Glerum Den Haag, Amsterdam, 11 November 1997, lot 225A
The Inder Rieden Collection

A very fine blue and white baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

Amusingly painted in contrasting deep and pale blue tones with an old man and a young boy playing with a lively baby dragon darting upwards through cloud scrolls accompanied by a servant and a crane amid rockwork and pine, the collar, waisted neck and rim with decorative bands. 45.8cm (18in) high – Estimate: £25,000 – 40,000, CNY 250,000 – 400,000, HK$ 300,000 – 480,000 

Provevance: Sotheby’s London, 17 December 1996, lot 86
The Inder Rieden Collection

 

A fine blue and white tall slender flaring yenyen vase. Chenghua six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Dramatically painted with six writhing dragons surrounding an empty carriage amid thickly swirling clouds above foaming waves, the flaring neck with a delicate crane flying above high tumultuous waves flooding around a mountain-top pagoda. 45.5cm (18in) high Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000 

Provenance: Christie’s London, 15 June 1998, lot 111
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine pair of blue and white slender flaring vases, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

Each spreading foot, central rounded body and flaring neck painted with lobed cartouches depicting scenes of small figures in watery landscapes on a wave-pattern ground and small flowers, the interior rim with a geometric-pattern band. 48cm (19in) high (2). Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000.

 

Provenance: Christie’s London, 15 May 1995, lot 5
The Inder Rieden Collection

For a pair of vases similarly decorated with cartouches against a whorl ground, forming part of a four-piece garniture, see R.Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, Vol.IV (II), London, Catalogue no.1844.

 

 

Two blue and white flaring vases, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

Each richly painted with continuous scenes of figures in landscapes, the tall spreading foot with fishermen and nets, the central section with fishing boats, and the long neck with groups of scholars in discussion and enjoying chess on a boat accompanied by servants, all divided by hatched-pattern borders. Each approximately 46cm (18 1/8in) high (2). Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000

 

Provenance: Christie’s London, 16 December 1996, lot 1
The Inder Rieden Collection

Compare a related pair of vases, of similar shape but different decorative bands and scenes, which was sold at Christie’s London, 15 May 2007, lot 232.

A fine blue and white cylindrical vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

The sides boldly painted with three mythical beasts, one with dragon scales, one with tiger stripes and one with leopard spots and each breathing flames, all set in a dramatic landscape of steep rocks and high foaming waves, the neck with decorative bands of ruyi-head, circle and pendent motifs. 40cm (15¾in) high – Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s Amsterdam, 22 May 2001, lot 31
The Inder Rieden Collection

A related vase with a similar neck but slightly wider body and depicting a more typical river landscape scene was sold at Sotheby’s London, 10 November 2010, lot 85.

A blue and white ‘Buddhistic lions’ baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

Thickly potted and boldly painted around the exterior with three playful Buddhistic lions cavorting with ribboned balls, a ruyi-head band at the collar and a leiwen pattern at the rim.45cm (17¾in) high Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000

 

Provenance: Christie’s London, 9 May 1994, lot 62
The Inder Rieden Collection

 

 

 

A blue and white slender baluster vase. Jiajing six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

The tall slender body painted with a continuous scene of a seated official surrounded by various advisors receiving a visiting scholar and his attendants all within a mansion and garden, the waisted neck with two flower sprays. 43.3cm (17 1/8in) high – Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000

 

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 8 November 1994, lot 50
The Inder Rieden Collection

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 8 November 1994, lot 50
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine blue and white tall slender baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Boldly potted with a flaring neck, the body and neck painted with rectangular panels of four different fierce mythical beasts surrounded by a dense circle and dot pattern, divided by bands of zigzag motif and above a row of pendent ruyi-heads around the foot. 44.8cm (17 5/8in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 17 November 1999, lot 916
The Inder Rieden Collection

A vase of similar form in the body and neck but with a shorter foot and depicting slightly different scenes was sold at Sotheby’s London, 10 November 2010, lot 86.

A blue and white yenyen vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Carefully painted on the lower part with a seated dignitary surrounded by attendants receiving a visiting scholar in a mansion opening onto a terrace, the sharply-flaring neck with a dignitary in the same setting watching a performing archer. 43cm (17in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: The Inder Rieden Collection

Compare a vase of similar form but depicting a different scene, sold at Sotheby’s New York, 14 September 2011, lot 122.

A blue and white flaring vase, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Brightly painted with continuous scenes, the spreading foot with dignitaries and servants with ducks, the central section with boys at play, and the flaring neck with a dignitary receiving an official with attendants observed by ladies and soldiers. 44cm (17¼in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 12 November 1996, lot 31
The Inder Rieden Collection

 

A large blue and white baluster jar and cover. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

 

The tall rounded body painted with eight upright lobed panels, each with a branch of varied blossoms including prunus, peony and chysanthemum issuing from rockwork with birds and butterflies in flight, separating the Eight Buddhist Emblems, bajixiang, at the shoulder, and above stiff lappet panels of floral scrolls at the foot, the cover similarly decorated with six panels of flowering branches separating Buddhist symbols. 59.5cm  (23 3/8in) high (2).Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

 

Provenance: Sotheby’s Amsterdam, 4 December 2002, lot 44
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine blue and white baluster vase. Chenghua six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Painted all around the slender body with three scholars practising calligraphy attended by servants all set in a dwelling within a garden with a plaintain tree and rocks. 26cm (10¼in) high – Estimate: £8,000 – 12,000, CNY 79,000 – 120,000, HK$ 97,000 – 140,000

Provenance: Christie’s London, 6 April 1998, lot 28
The Inder Rieden Collec

The illustration didn’t upload in the sample of Cd-Rom at my web blog, If the collectors want to find the complete info with illustration please contact me via my email iwansuwandy@gmail.com , but you must upload your ID copy and the history of your work for protection against hijact internet

 

 

Let Look another sample below

 

THE CHRONOLOGY OF

 QING DYNASTY

 HISTORY COLLECTIONS

 

1581

In the north Russians

had begun moving east in 1581.

In 1543

 

 

source google

Portuguese traders were the first to land in Japan,

 on

 

Tanegashima

 

source google

Tageshima now

 

 

1587

The Russian  entered Tobolsk in 1587,

1600

 

1604

The Russian  entered  Tomsk in 1604,

Since 1609

the Dutch had run a trading post on the island of Hirado. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area.

1619

The Russian  occupied enisseisk in 1619,

1625

Manchu Abandoned Transting ways set up a capital in Mukden

 

1638

The First Qing Emperor Kangxi,

originalnamed  Shunshih was born in 16 March 1638 and died 5 February 1661

The Shunzhi Emperor[nb 1] (15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661), 

formerly romanized as the Shun-chih Emperor, was the thirdemperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China,

1643

 A committee of Manchu princeschose Shunshi or Kangxi  to succeed his father,

 Hong Taiji (1592–1643),

 in September 1643, when he was five years old

From 1643 to 1650, political power lay mostly in the hands of Dorgon. Under his leadership, the Qing conquered most of the territory of the fallen Ming dynasty (1368–1644), chased Ming loyalist regimes deep into the southwestern provinces, and established the basis of Qing rule over China despite highly unpopular policies such as the “hair cutting command” of 1645, which forced Qing subjects to shave their forehead and braid their remaining hair into a queue resembling that of the Manchus

1644

Emperor Kangxi

 from 1644 to 1661.

 

1644 AD to 1912 AD

Qing Dynasty Emperors

       
Emperor Kangxi Emperor Yongzheng Emperor Qianlong Emperor Puyi

Empress  Xiozhe, consort of Emperor Kangxi

 

The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon (1612–1650), fourteenth son of Qing founder Nurhaci (1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci’s nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan.

 

1649

Manchu In China

 

1650

After Dorgon’s death on the last day of 1650, the young monarch started to rule personally. He tried, with mixed success, to fight corruption and to reduce the political influence of the Manchu nobility.

 In the 1650s he faced a resurgence of Ming loyalist resistance,

1661

 By 1661 Dargon armies had defeated the Qing’s last enemies, seafarer Koxinga (1624–1662) and the Prince of Gui (1623–1662) of the Southern Ming, both of whom would succumb the following year.

 The Shunzhi emperor died at the age of 22 of smallpox, a highly contagious disease that was endemic in China, but against which the Manchus had no immunity.

 He was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, who had already survived smallpox, and who reigned for sixty years under the name of Kangxi. Because fewer documents have survived from the Shunzhi era than from later Qing reigns, the Shunzhi age is a relatively little-known period of Qing history.

“Shunzhi” was the name of this ruler’s reign period in Chinese. This title had equivalents in Manchu and Mongolian because the Qing imperial family was Manchu, and ruled over many Mongol tribes that helped the Qing to conquer China.

 The emperor’s personal name was Fulin, and the posthumous name by which he was worshipped at the Imperial Ancestral Temple was Shizu (Wade–Giles:Shih-tsu; Chinese: 世祖).

1661

At the time of the Kangxi Emperor’s death, Yinti, as border-pacification general-in-chief (Chinese: 撫遠大將軍), was at war in the northwest in what is present-day Xinjiang. Some historians believe that this implied Kangxi’s favouring Yinti for succession, and was training the next emperor in military affairs; others maintain that Kangxi intended to keep Yinti a large distance away from the capital to ensure a peaceful succession for Yinzhen. It was Yinzhen who nominated Yinti for the post — not Yinsi, with whom Yinti was closely affiliated.

 

1661-1662

 

Koxinga (a westernization of simplified Chinese: 国姓; traditional Chinese: 國姓爺; pinyin: Guóxìngye; literally “Lord of the Imperial Surname”; August 1624 – 23 June 1662) or Zheng Chenggong was a Chinese military leader who was born in Hirado, Japan to the Chinese merchant/pirate

 

Zheng Zhilong and his Japanese wife, and died on Taiwan.

 

Upon defeating

VOC fort zeelande Formosa island(taiwan) lithography

the forces of

the Dutch East India Company (VOC) on Taiwan

in his last campaign in 1661–1662,

Koxinga took over the island in order to support his grand campaign against the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty.

1662

After Koxinga’s death,

his son and successor, Zheng Jing,

gradually became the ruler of an independent Kingdom of Tungning, the first Chinese state to rule the island

 

1675 

rebellion known at the three Feudtories

 

1680

In 1680 emperor Kangxi ordered a commission to look into the state of Porcelain

Very Rare Emperor Kangxi

Bigger  Blue and  white  with

the imperial five clown  dragon motif Vase

 

 

1685

Qing Took over Taiwan,placing it under juristictum of Fujien Province

 

1689

Yinzhen was the fourth son of Kangxi to survive into adulthood and the eldest son from Empress Xiaogongren, a lady of the Manchu Uya clan who was then known as De-fei.

 Kangxi knew it would be a mistake to raise his children inside the palace alone; therefore, he exposed his sons (including Yinzhen) to the outside world and gave them a rigorous education.

Yongzheng went with Kangxi on several inspection trips around the Beijing area, as well as one trip further south. He was honorary leader of the Plain Red Bannerduring Kangxi’s second battle against the Mongol khan Gordhun. Yinzhen was made a beile (Chinese: 貝勒, “lord”)

 

1694

Degoo soldier the responbility to rule over Tibet in 1694

1698

Yongzheng rose to the position of second-class prince in 1698.

In 1704,

the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers saw unprecedented flooding. The economy and livelihood of people around these areas were severely damaged. Yongzheng was sent out as an envoy of the emperor with the 13th Imperial Prince Yinxiang to deal with relief efforts in southern China.

1709

 The imperial treasury, which had been drained due to unpaid loans by many officials and nobles, did not have sufficient funds to deal with the flooding; Yongzheng had the added responsibility of securing relief funds from the wealthy southern tycoons. These efforts ensured that funds were distributed properly and people would not starve. He was given the title of first-class prince, Prince Yong (Chinese: 雍親王), in 1709.

 

The Chinese

History Collections

1711-1834

 

source google

 

Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui,concubine Of The Qianlong Emperor

The Imperial Noble Conun Hui (1713 – 1760) came from

Dr iwan Collections related to Kang Hsi ceramic Imperila

not upload

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014

 

1711

China Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799)

His temple name was Gaozong

The Qianlong Emperor (Chinese pinyin: Qianlong Di; Wade–Giles: Chien-lung Ti) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

 The fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1736 to 7 February 1795.

On 8 February (the first day of that lunar year), he abdicated in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor – a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor.

Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw the continuity of an era of prosperity in China, he held an unrelentingly conservative attitude. As a result, the Qing Dynasty’s comparative decline began later in his reign

 

 Dr Iwan Collection Yuncheng imperial vase red in glazed with flower motif and dear ear  with mark at lips mouth of vase not upload

 

Source

http://www.picturesfromhistory.com/index.gallery.php?gid=18&img=312

 

1712

. In 1712, the Kangxi Emperor removed his second son, Yinreng, as successor to the throne and did not designate an heir in his place.

This led to a competition amongst sons of the Emperor for the position of crown prince. The most promising candidates wereYinzhi, Yinzhen, Yinsi, and Yinti (the third, fourth, eighth and fourteenth Imperial Princes respectively).

 Of the princes, Yinsi had the most support from the mandarins, but was disfavoured by Kangxi himself. Yinzhen had supported Yinreng prior to the latter’s demise, and did not build a large political base until the final years of Kangxi’s reign.

When the Emperor died in December 1722, the field of contenders was reduced to three princes after Yinsi pledged his support to the 14th prince, Yinti.[2]

1722

The official record states that on 20 December 1722 the ailing Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons and the general commandant of the Peking gendarmerie, Longkodo, to his bedside; Longkodo read the will, and declared that Yinzhen succeed the emperor on the throne.

Some evidence has suggested that Yinzhen contacted Longkodo months before the will was read in preparation for his succession by military means, although in their official capacities frequent encounters were expected. Legend has it that  Yongzheng changed Kangxi’s will by adding strokes and modifying characters.

The best-known rumor says that Yongzheng changed “fourteen” (Chinese: 十四  shísì) to “four” (Chinese: 于四  yúsì); others say it was “fourteen” to “fourth” (Chinese: 第四  dìsì).

 While widely accepted, there is little supporting evidence—especially considering that the character was not widely used during the Qing Dynasty; on official documents,  () is used.

 Secondly, Qing tradition insists that the will was done in both Manchu and Chinese; Manchu writing, however, is more intricate and (in this case) impossible to modify.

Furthermore, princes in the Qing Dynasty are referred to as “the Emperor’s son”, in the order which they were born

(for example, “the emperor’s fourth son”: Chinese: 皇四子).

But it has been long refuted by scholars:the will was written in three languages:Chinese,Mongolian and Manchurian,not just in Chinese.Also in traditional Chinese,the character should be written into ,not .[3] 

Therefore, Yinzhen couldn’t have changed the will to ascend to the throne.Also some occurings showed Kangxi had chosen Yongzheng as heir,for example,in the first month of 1721Kangxi’s 60th anniversary of his throne,he sent Yongzheng and his 12th prince and grandson born by third prince to hold the veneration ritual at royal tombs.None of the princes who supported 14th prince(namely,third,eighth,ninth and tenth prince)was sent.[4

 

After ascending to the throne in December 1722,

 Yinzhen took the era name “Harmonious Justice” (Chinese: 雍正  yōngzhèng)

Nian Gengyao was a supporter of Yongzheng long before he succeeded to the throne. In 1722, when he was recalling his brother Yinti from the northwest, Yongzheng appointed Nian general. The situation in Xinjiang at the time was still precarious, and a strong general was needed in the area.

1723

in 1723 from his peerage title “harmonious” (Chinese:   yōng) and “just, correct, upright” (Chinese:   zhèng). It has been suggested that the second character of his era name was an attempt to cover up his illegal claim to the throne by calling himself “justified”. Immediately after succeeding to the throne,

 Yongzheng chose his new governing council. It consisted of the eighth prince Yinsi, the 13th prince Yinxiang, Zhang Tingyu, Ma Qi, and Longkodo.

Yinsi was given the title of Prince Lian, and Yinxiang was given the title ofPrince Yi; both held the highest positions in the land

Yinzhen chose an era name similar in sound to his given name; 1723 was to be the first year of the Yongzheng era.

 For his first official act as emperor Yongzheng released his long-time ally—the 13th prince Yinxiang, who had been imprisoned by the Kangxi Emperor at the same time as the crown prince.

Some sources indicate that Yinxiang, the most militant of the princes, then assembled a group of special Peking soldiers from the Fengtai command to seize immediate control of the Forbidden City and surrounding areas to prevent usurpation by Yinsi’s cronies.

 

Yongzheng’s personal account stated that he was emotionally unstable and deeply saddened over his father’s death, and knew it would be a burden “much too heavy” for himself if he were to succeed the throne.

In addition, after the will was read Yinzhen wrote that the officials (premier Zhang Tingyu, Longkedo and Yinzhi) and Prince Cheng led the other princes in the ceremonial Three-Kneels and Nine-Salutes to the emperor.

The following day Yongzheng issued an edict summoning Yinti back from Qinghai, bestowing on their mother the title “Holy Mother Empress Dowager” the day Yinti arrived at the funeral.

In the first major comprehensive biography of the Yongzheng Emperor by Feng Erkang, the author puts the Yongzheng succession in perspective. Feng writes that there were some suspicious signs from the lost wills and the dates released, but the majority of evidence points to Yinzhen succeeding the throne legitimately (although with political and military maneuvering deemed necessary by the situation).[2] 

 

The eighth prince (Yinsi) had been bribing officials for support throughout his life, and his influence penetrated the Fengtai command. Furthermore, Feng suggests that “although we are not yet altogether certain on what happened with the succession, and which side is correct, it is reasonable to think that Yongzheng’s political enemies manipulated all suspicion behind the will in an attempt to put a dark image on Yongzheng; Imperial Chinese tradition had led certain schools of thought in believing that Yongzheng’s whole reign can be discredited simply because his succession of the throne did not come as a will of his father, the emperor and ultimate decision maker in China.”

He further suggests that Kangxi made a grave mistake by allowing his sons to become major political players (especially since the position of crown prince was empty) and a bloody battle of succession (including a possible usurpation) was the inevitable result of imperial Chinese institutions.

 Therefore, it would be an even-bigger mistake to judge a ruler solely on the way he came to power. Certainly, the Yongzheng Emperor ensured his successor would have a smooth transition when his turn came

1724

The nature of his succession is deeply disputed, and Yongzheng saw challenges in all his surviving brothers. 

Yinzhi, the eldest, continued to live under house arrest; Yinreng, the former crown prince, died two years into his brother’s reign (although they were both imprisoned not by Yongzheng, but by Kangxi).

The biggest challenge was to separate Yinsi’s party (consisting of Yinsi, the ninth and tenth princes and their minions), and isolate Yinti to reduce their power.

Yinsi (who had nominally held the position of President of the Feudatory Affairs Office, the title “Prince Lian” and later the office of Prime Minister) was held under close watch by Yongzheng.

 Yintang was sent to Qinghai under the pretext of military service, but in reality fell within Yongzheng’s trusted protégé Nian Gengyao‘s territory.

Yin’e, the tenth prince, was stripped of all his titles in May 1724 and sent north to the Shunyi area. The 14th Prince Yinti (Yongzheng’s full-brother) was placed under house arrest at the Imperial Tombs under the pretext of guarding their parents’ tombs.

 

 

Emperor Qianlong’s hidden Palace

November 18, 2011

The restoration  of a lavish suite in the Forbidden City.

Beijing’s sprawling Forbidden City—the size of 135 football fields—is a dizzying array of magnificent receiving halls and intimate quarters surrounded by 28-foot-thick walls. Yet in the northeast tip of the compound lies a unique two-acre retreat, known simply as the “Qianlong Garden”

For decades stories circulated among art historians of a mothballed Qing Dynasty retreat within the Forbidden City,( the Imperial behemoth with 8,700 rooms that anchors the Chinese capital}). Word eventually reached the World Monuments Fund, a nonprofit organization dedicated to saving imperiled historic sites. Six years and $3 million later the first building of the Palace of  Tranquillity and Longevity ( Juanqinzhai ) had been meticulously restored ( see above )  and will open to the public in the coming months.

When restorers opened the door on the Qianlong Emperor’s favourite studio in the Forbidden City, dust three inches thick on the exquisitely carved surfaces bore testament to decades of abandonment. “It felt like the last emperor had just turned the key in the door and left,” was the verdict of one expert. The studio was built in the late 18th century as part of a bigger retirement retreat by the Qianlong Emperor.

 He died in 1795 before the building was completed but Juanqinzhai was finished exactly as he wanted – a mini-palace within a palace.

Originally built in 1776, during the 41st year of Qianlong’s 60-year reign, Juanqinzhai was part of a two-acre complex of ornate gardens and pavilions designed by the emperor for his own pleasure and to use as a retreat for meditation and writing poetry. The rooms of Juanqinzhai, which included a theatre, were built from the finest materials, including bamboo-threaded flooring, white jade tablets and intricately painted silk wall panels. Only a few embroidery workers from Suzhou province still know the traditional techniques of the exquisite double-sided embroidery used in this project. In the Juanqinzhai’s studio, the emperor would display his favourite gemstones, ceramics, porcelain and artwork.

 The Qianlong Emperor spared no expense on construction materials for this palatial gem, whose 27 rooms were crafted of fine hardwoods lavishly inlaid with jade and porcelain. Inside, they brimmed with fantastic murals, priceless furnishings, and exotic decorative arts

When the Qianlong emperor ascended to the Chinese throne in 1736, the 25-year-old monarch was one of the richest men in the world. He could afford to indulge his appetite for the finer things in life during his more than 60 years on the throne. His reign is considered one of the greatest periods in the history of Chinese art.

The Qianlong emperor was one of the longest-reigning and most enlightened rulers of the Chinese Qing dynasty (1644-1911). The Qing were Manchurian horsemen who, like other foreign rulers, absorbed the culture and administrative system of China.

The Qianlong Emperor was a major patron of the arts, seeing himself as an important “preserver and restorer” of Chinese culture. He had an insatiable appetite for collecting, and acquired much of China’s “great private collections” by any means necessary, and reintegrated their treasures into the imperial collection.

 Qianlong, more than any other Manchu emperor, lavished the imperial collection with his attention and effort. The Emperor was also particularly interested in collecting ancient bronzes, bronze mirrors and seals, in addition to pottery, ceramics and applied arts such as enameling, metal work and lacquer work, which flourished during his reign.

The emperor frequently invited foreign artists to Beijing to pass on their skills to his artisans. Europeans shared their knowledge of Western painting techniques, glassware, painted enamels and cloisonne. Mughal craftsmen from northern India were summoned to the palace workshops for their expertise in carving jade and glass.

The extravagance of the Qianlong Emperor was so great that he ultimately bankrupted the country. As the Taoists like to claim : “Like the yin and yang cycle of life; when one attains the maximum yang, there is only one direction to go.”

 

Qianlong began his reign with about 33,950,000 taels of silver in Treasury surplus. At the peak of Qianlong’s reign, around 1775, even with further tax cuts, the treasury surplus still reached 73,900,000 taels, a record unmatched by his predecessors, Kangxi or Yongzheng both of whom had implemented remarkable tax cut policies

However, due to numerous factors such as long term embezzlement and corruption by officials, frequent expeditions South, huge palace constructions, many war and rebellion campaigns as well as his own extravagant lifestyle, all of these cost the treasury a total of 150,200,000 silver taels.

This, coupled with his senior age and the lack of political reforms, ushered the beginning of the gradual decline and eventual demise of the Qing dynasty and empire, casting a shadow over his glorious and brilliant political life.

All the designs from the palace workshops in Beijing, which produced wares for the imperial family, were required to pass official muster. Therefore, most of the works produced during his reign were a fair representation of the emperor’s taste, which some claim reflects a near pinnacle of Chinese art.

Ceramic art from  the Qianlong era :

Vases with tubular ears are replicas of the touhu of the Han era: a type of pot used in a drinking game. These vases were current under the Song and also reproduced in the kilns at Jingdezhen under the Qing.

 

 

A fine porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799 CE) of the Qing dynasty. (Courtesy of the National Palace Museum)

Emperor  QianLong  liked drinking tea his whole life, this is one oh his favoured purple teapots.

A vase with eight  auspicious Buddhist emblems in fencai on turquoise. This model is called a bumba vase after a type of ritual metal ewer used in monasteries and temples in the Tibetan region. They were used in the designation and succession of ‘living Buddhas and prodigies’: Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas. They stand witness to the intimate ties between the Qing court and  Tibetan Buddhism as well as  their mutual historical influences: a sort of cultural osmosis between the Chinese and the Tibetan world.                  
 

This brush stand in underglaze blue is a hollow parallelepiped with five round openings and one rectangular opening on top. The spaces between the openings are decorated with auspicious clouds in the shape of the classical Chinese character . The four sides have been painted with the ‘Eight Immortals’.

A famille-rose vase, with the seal mark of the Qianlong Emperor (1736-1795). The vase sold at a Hong Kong auction for HK$252.7 million ($32.6 million) and was bought by collector Alice Cheng.

 

 

Fencai (literally: ‘pastel colours’) is a type of overglaze decoration fired at low temperature. It has been produced from the times of the Qing emperor Kangxi. Firstly, the white clay is covered with a layer of glaze and fired at high temperature. Next, a polychromatic painting is applied and fired at less than 700oC.

Melon-shaped vase with imitation celadon glaze (fangru) with 8 sets of vertical bow strings.

Ritual Water Vessels. Photo by Mharrsch( Flickr)

Qing Dynaasty Yellow Porcelain Enameled Vase, Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art. Photo by Mharrsch

Carved Dragon Purple Amethyst Glass cup

Pilgrim flask decorated with peaches and pomegrenates; Ming Dynasty, 1st half of 17th century

Museum Rietberg, Zurich

An Exceptionally Rare Blue-Glazed Flask-Form Vase.

Christie’s Images

A ”clair de lune” porcelain vase .

Translucent, sky blue glaze of great quality. ( Photo Czerny’s )

Photo Czerny

 

 

 

1725

Yongzheng wrote  in an edict in 1725,

“When the flesh and blood of the common people is used to rectify the deficits of the officials, how can there not be hardship in the countryside?”

He approved a fixed meltage fee and increased salaries from 45 taels a year to at least 600 so that officials could be honest.

The meltage fees also enabled provincial officials to redistribute taxes from the wealthy regions to the needs of the poor

At the end of Yongzheng’s twelve-year reign he left the treasury with sixty million taels of silver.

Flambé glazed compressed bottle vase wihYongzheng mark

Compare with Dr Iwan Collection

 

 

Imperial Yongzheng mark

doucai dragon and phoenix Bowl

 

 

 

source google 

The Cau Mau Cargo

In 1998  fishermen uncovered the wreck of a Chinese junk near Ca Mau in southern Vietnam. The ship probably sank around 1725 en route from Canton (Guangzhou) to the Dutch trading port of Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia.

About 130,000 ceramics from this wreck were salvaged from the seabed. The bulk of the cargo, mostly tea bowls and saucers, was destined for Europe, but some was intended for Asian markets.

Brush rest, China, about 1725. Museum no. FE.10-2007

 

 

Under the title ‘Made in Imperial China’ a vast cargo of 18th century Chinese porcelain recovered from a shipwreck in Vietnam’s southernmost Cau Mau province was put up for auction in the Netherlands’ capital of Amsterdam. The three-day sale, organised by Sotheby’s, began on January 29, 2007 with some 76,000 porcelain pieces ranging from fine blue and white tea sets to porcelain boxes and mugs to polychrome figures.

They were among the nearly 100,000 artefacts found on the Cau Mau wreck which was salvaged betweeen 1998 and 1999 by Cau Mau provice in collaberation with the Vietnam History Museum. ‘On its way from Canton to Batavia the ship probably had a fierce fire and sank off the coast of Vietnam,’ Nguyen Dinh Chien, head of the salvage committee, said ‘China was then closed to foreign trade.’

The cargo was an accidental find by Vietnamese fishermen. ‘They pulled up their nets and there was porcelain in them. They quickly discovered that the porcelain was valuable, and they went out day after daytrawling for porcelain. In fact they brought up 35,000 pieces,’ said Marcus Linnell, Sotheby’s Export-porcelain expert in London.

While much of the porcelain was produced in the Imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, a number of pieces from the Dehua kiln complex were also found in the cargo. Some bear the mark of Emperor Yongzheng (who reigned for just 14 years); the date at which the ship, a Chinese junk, sank can therefore be put somewhere between 1723 and 1736.

The wealth of Jingdezhen was derived solely from the manufacture of porcelain, and work was always comparitevely easy to find there; even the blind, crippled and children could be employed in grinding the cobalt that was used for decoration.

 

.

Père d’Enterecolles, who lived there at the beginning of the 18th century, wrote that the total population was one million and that there were 18,000 families of potters living in the city. ‘Everyday’, he goes on to say, ‘ten thousand loads of rice and a thousand pigs are eaten, not to mention quantities of horse and dog meat.’ He also states that 3,000 kilns were kept burning throughout the year, and that at night the red glow above the city gave the impression that it was on fire.

From the shapes and patterns of the pieces found on board, it is clear that the porcelain was destined for Europe and illustrated the scale of the China trade. The junks brought valuable shiploads of saltpetre, raw silk, porcelain and tea to Batavia, while the European traders offered silver, tin, pepper, sandalwood, birdsnets and other tropical import products as barter to purchase tea and porcelain.

At the outset, Europeans drank tea mainly for medicinal reasons: ‘It purifies the blood, dispels heavy dreams, chases away stupidity, and strengthens Venus.’ When they started to drink it for social reasons as well during the first half of the eighteenth century, China’s ports began to attract an ever-greater number of western merchants. With much of Europe hooked on the drink, the Dutch East India Company and other European companies lined up in Canton to get a piece of the action.

 

 

Aside from the porcelain, other artefacts on the ship also survived, among them bronze dishes, lamps and chinese coins, all of which would most probably have played a vital part in the lives of those who manned the ship. Perhaps the most intriguing and revelatory of all the other artefacts found were two carved seals one of which was personal seal of its owner Pan Tingcai, a prominent hing merchant.

 

 

Fused spittoon, tea bowls and vase neck, Jingdezhen, China, about 1725. Museum no. FE. 7-2007

The Chinese had much disdain for the European traders; they called them Fan Kwae, or foreign devils. They restricted the traders to a quarter-mile strip of land along the waterfront of Canton, where the factories, or hongs, were located. The hong buildings, rented for the two-to three-month trading season, each flying the flag of a different European nation were an exotic site for a first-time visitor. In his memoirs, the English diarist William Hickey wrote of Canton in 1769, ‘The magnitude and novelty of the architecture must always surprise strangers … the scene upon the water is as busy as the Thames below London Bridge.’

 

 

baby doll from cau mau cargo, Dr Iwan found the same doll in Pontianak West borneo in 1994.

Source

Catherine hunt

 thanks cataharine for your information, please give me permission to upload this info thanks

from

Dr Iwan

A pottery kettle from the Ca Mau shipreck is seen at a press conference held by famous Hungarian collector Istvan Zelnik in Budapest, Hungary, on March 26, 2012.

 In mid-April, Zelnik will bring a 450-piece collection of the Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain on tour beginning with various locations in Hungary.

He intends to take the exhibition around Europe and the Middle East.

The Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain sank some time between 1725 A.D. and 1732 A.D. in the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam close to Ca Mau, dating to the Yongzheng Period of the Qing Dynasty. (Xinhua/Attila Volgyi)

BUDAPEST, March 26 (Xinhua) — A remarkable collection of 17th and 18th century Chinese porcelain recovered from a shipwreck will soon set off from Budapest, Hungary, on a European tour.

“The exhibition will showcase the unparalleled production expertise of the Chinese porcelain manufacturers at the end of the 17th century, and beginning of the 18th century,” Istvan Zelnik, the collection owner said on Monday at a press conference in Budapest.

 

Famous Hungarian collector Istvan Zelnik is seen with a Chinese Ca Mau shipwreck plate during a press conference in Budapest, Hungary, on March 26, 2012. In mid-April, Zelnik will bring a 450-piece collection of the Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain on tour beginning with various locations in Hungary. He intends to take the exhibition around Europe and the Middle East. The Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain sank some time between 1725 A.D. and 1732 A.D. in the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam close to Ca Mau, dating to the Yongzheng Period of the Qing Dynasty. (Xinhua/Attila Volgyi

1726

Yongzheng put Sichuan’s governor-general,

Nian Gengyao,

in command of the army

fighting

the Koshotes led by

Lobjang Danjin.

After being transferred to Hangzhou, Nian was accused of 92 crimes.

Instead of being beheaded, Yongzheng allowed him to commit suicide in 1726.

1726

Yongzheng suspected Catholic missionaries of using the Roman alphabet as a code, and he criticized the factional influence of the church.

However, he tolerated them, stating in 1726, “The distant barbarians come here attracted by our culture. We must show them generosity and virtue.”4

Emperor Yongzheng ordered a documentary account of the Zeng conspiracy published, and he argued against Lu Liuliang’s racist theory that the Manchus should not rule China. The Emperor noted how the Qing regime had rescued the Ming dynasty from rebels and fostered peace and prosperity by controlling crime while expanding territory, population, and cultivated land.

Yongzheng was strongly influenced by Confucian philosophy and was interested in Chan Buddhism. In 1724 he wrote an essay amplifying the instructions in the Sacred Edict of Kangxi. On strengthening clans he suggested that clan members are like parts of one body. If one part hurts, the whole body hurts, making necessary filial piety, brotherly love, harmony, willingness to endure for others, and charity.

 

He observed that the orthodoxy of Buddhism is being concerned with the heart, not the talk about fasts, processions, temples, and idles that lazy monks and priests use to swindle people. Individuals should control themselves so as not to break the law and also to admonish others. Yongzheng prepared lectures that were given by local scholars twice a month.

The Emperor wrote another essay on the dangers of factions, which he warned lead to corruption and bad judgment by erecting a barrier between ruler and minister

1726

After the battle for Dingguang in 1726, Oertai offered amnesty and free land to encourage people to return to the land. Others lost their farms to Qing soldiers, and native chiefs were replaced by Qing administrators.

Mining was encouraged in Yunnan, and the state ended its monopoly.

Within a few years copper production more than quadrupled.

 

 

1726

 After several military conquests, however, Nian Gengyao’s lust for power grew; he reportedly wanted to be equal to Yongzheng. Seeing the situation unfold, Yongzheng issued an imperial edict demoting Nian to general of the Hangzhou Command. Continuing to be unrepentant, Nian was given an ultimatum and committed suicide by poison in 1726.

 

1727

 

A supplementary treaty with Russia made at Kyakhta in 1727 established a longer boundary between Mongolia and Siberia, and trade was allowed at Kyakhta as well as at Nerchinsk.

A Russian caravan was allowed to trade with Beijing every third year, and a Russian Orthodox church was also maintained in the Qing capital

 

 

The first few years of Yongzheng’s reign saw an increase in partisan politics. Yinsi wanted to use his position to manipulate Yongzheng into errors, while appearing supportive. Yinsiand Yintang (both supporters of Yinti for the throne) were stripped of their titles, languished in prison and died in 1727.

Like his father, Yongzheng used military force in order to preserve the dynasty’s position in Outer Mongolia.[1] When Tibet was torn by civil war in 1727–1728, he intervened militarily. After withdrawing, he left a Qing citizen (the amban) backed up with a military garrison to safeguard the dynasty’s interests.[1] 

For the Tibetan campaign Yongzheng sent an army of 230,000 (led by Nian Gengyao) against theDzungars, who had an army of 80,000. Due to geography, the Qing army (although superior in numbers) was unable to engage the more-mobile enemy at first. Eventually, however, they engaged the Dzungars and defeated them. This campaign cost the treasury at least 8,000,000 taels of silver. Later in Yongzheng’s reign, he would send a small army of 10,000 to fight the Dzungars. However, that army was annihilated and the Qing had faced the danger of losing control of Mongolia. Fortunately, a Khalkha ally of the Qing Dynasty would later defeat the Dzungars

 

 

 

1728

 Longkodo was commander of Peking’s armies at the time of Yongzheng’s succession. He fell in disgrace in 1728, and died under house arrest.

1729

Following the reforms of 1729, the treasury increased from the 1721 total of 32,622,421 taels to about 60,000,000 taels in 1730, surpassing the record set during Yongzheng’s father’s (the Kangxi Emperor’s) regime; however, the pacification of the Qinghai area and the defense on the border areas were heavy burdens. For safeguarding the borders alone, 100,000 taels were needed each year. The total military budget was up to 10,000,000 taels a year. By the end of 1735 military spending depleted half the treasury, which totaled 33,950,000 taels. It was because of this burden that the Yongzheng Emperor considered making peace with the Dzungars

 

1730

After becoming emperor, Yongzheng suppressed writings he deemed unfavorable to his regime, particularly those with an anti-Manchu bias.[1] Foremost among these were those of Zeng Jing, an unsuccessful degree candidate heavily influenced by 17th-century scholar Lü Liuliang. Zeng had been so affected by what he read that he attempted to incite the governor-general of Shaanxi-Sichuan, Yue Zhongqi, to rebellion. The general promptly turned him in, and in 1730 the case reached Yongzheng Emperor. Highly concerned with the implications of the case, Yongzheng had Zeng Jing brought to Beijing for trial. The emperor’s verdict seemed to demonstrate a Confucian sovereign’s benevolence: He ascribed Zeng’s actions to the gullibility and naïveté of a youth taken in by Lü’s abusive and overdrawn rhetoric. In addition to this the emperor suggested that Lü’s original attack on the Manchus was misplaced, since they had been transformed by their long-term exposure to the civilizing force of Confucianism

1729

Yongzheng is also known for establishing a strict autocracy rule during his reign. He detested corruption, and punished officials severely when they were found guilty of an offense.

In 1729 he issued an edict prohibiting the smoking of madak,[citation needed] a blend of tobacco and opium.

 During Yongzheng’s reign the Qing Dynasty became a great power in Asia as well as a peaceful land, and he enhanced the Kangqian Period of Harmony (Chinese: 康乾盛世). In response to his father’s tragedy, Yongzheng created a sophisticated procedure for choosing a successor.

 He was known for his trust in Mandarin officials. Li Wei and Tian Wenjing governed China’s southern areas, with the assistance of Ortai.

“The Yongzheng Emperor Offering Sacrifice at the Xiannong Altar” in Beijing, Qing Dynasty painting

 

 

1735

The Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui (1713 – 1760) came from the Manchu Sugiya clan. She was the daughter of Sujinam and was born in the fifty-second year of the Kangxi Emperor’s reign. Lady Sugiya entered the imperial court during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor and became a concubine of the then Prince Hong Li (later the Qianlong Emperor). When in 1735 Prince Hong Li ascended the throne Sugiya was given the title of Concubine Chun. Later Lady Sugiya gave birth to two sons and a daughter. In 1760 Lady Sugiya was given the title of Imperial Noble Consort Chun (meaning purity). However, Lady Sugiya died half a year later in the twenty-fifth year of Qianlong Emperor’s reign. She was given the posthumous title of Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui and was later interred in the Yuling Mausoleum for consorts

 

Qing dynasty in 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange.

The Yongzheng Emperor ruled the Qing Empire for thirteen years before dying suddenly in 1735 at age 56.

 Legend holds that he was assassinated by Lü Siniang, daughter or granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, whose family was executed for literary crimes against the Manchu Regime.

Another version was that he had been a lover of Lü Siniang; Siniang was the real mother of Qianlong, but Yongzheng refused to allow Siniang to be the queen. It is generally accepted that he died while reading files. It is likely that his death was the result of an overdose of the medication he was consuming which he believed would prolong his life.

Yongzheng Emperor’s family life seems to have tragic undertones. Of the 14 children born to him and his Empress and consorts, only five are known to have survived into adulthood. To prevent the succession tragedy which he had faced, he ordered his third son (Hongshi, an ally of Yinsi) to commit suicide.

He also put in place a system to choose his successor in secret. Yongzheng wrote his chosen successor’s name on two pieces of paper, placed one piece of paper in a sealed box and had the box stored behind the stele in the Qianqing Palace.

 

He then kept the other copy with him or hid it. With his passing, the ministers would compare the paper in the box and with the copy Yongzheng had. If they were deemed identical, the person whose name was on the paper would be the new emperor.[7]

His son Hongli, Prince Bao, then became the sixth emperor of the Qing dynasty under the era name of Qianlong. The Yongzheng Emperor was interred in the Western Qing Tombs (Chinese: 清西陵), 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Tailing (Chinese: 泰陵) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Elhe Munggan)

1750

Construction of Summer Palace

 

1759

Qing Took Turkestan in 1759

1796-1805

The White Lotus rebellion from 1796 until 1805

Jiaqing 1796-1820

 

1796

Yellow River flooded over 17 towns between 1796-1820

1814

 

Hong Xiuquan (1814-64),

 a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate. Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs.

He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.

Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies

The Chinese

History Collections

1835-1914

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014

 

 

 

The Self-Strengthening Movement

The rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid-century mass uprisings caused Qing courtiers and officials to recognize the need to strengthen China. Chinese scholars and officials had been examining and translating “Western learning” since the 1840s. Under the direction of modern-thinking Han officials, Western science and languages were studied, special schools were opened in the larger cities, and arsenals, factories, and shipyards were established according to Western models. Western diplomatic practices were adopted by the Qing, and students were sent abroad by the government and on individual or community initiative in the hope that national regeneration could be achieved through the application of Western practical methods.

 
Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908)

Amid these activities came an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline by restoring the traditional order. The effort was known as the Tongzhi Restoration, named for the Tongzhi Emperor (1862-74), and was engineered by the young emperor’s mother, the Empress Dowager Cixi

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

The effort to graft Western technology onto Chinese institutions became known as the Self-Strengthening Movement.

1823

 The movement was championed by scholar-generals like Li Hongzhang (1823-1901) and Zuo Zongtang (1812-85), who had fought with the government forces in the Taiping Rebellion.

 (1835-1908).

 The restoration, however, which applied “practical knowledge” while reaffirming the old mentality, was not a genuine program of modernization

 

Daoguang 1821-50

 

1835

Cixi was born in the winter of 1835. According to the information listed on a red sheet (File No. 1247) within “Miscellaneous Pieces of the Palace” (a Qing dynasty documentation package retrieved from the First Historical Archives of China), Cixi was the daughter of Huizheng, an ordinary official from the Manchu Yehenara clan. Palace archives also show that Huizheng was a member of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Eight Banners, and was working in Beijing during the year of Cixi’s birth, indicating that Cixi was born in Beijing. Also, the file recorded the location of Cixi’s childhood home, which was Firewood Alley of West Sipailou, Beijing (Chinese: 西四牌楼劈柴胡同).

1836

Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000

 

1839

The Opium War, 1839-42

During the eighteenth century, the market in Europe and America for tea, a new drink in the West, expanded greatly. Additionally, there was a continuing demand for Chinese silk and porcelain. But China, still in its preindustrial stage, wanted little that the West had to offer, causing the Westerners, mostly British, to incur an unfavorable balance of trade. To remedy the situation, the foreigners developed a third-party trade, exchanging their merchandise in India and Southeast Asia for raw materials and semiprocessed goods, which found a ready market in Guangzhou. By the early nineteenth century, raw cotton and opium from India had become the staple British imports into China, in spite of the fact that opium was prohibited entry by imperial decree. The opium traffic was made possible through the connivance of profit-seeking merchants and a corrupt bureaucracy.

In 1839 the Qing government, after a decade of unsuccessful anti-opium campaigns, adopted drastic prohibitory laws against the opium trade. The emperor dispatched a commissioner, Lin Zexu (1785-1850), to Guangzhou to suppress illicit opium traffic. Lin seized illegal stocks of opium owned by Chinese dealers and then detained the entire foreign community and confiscated and destroyed some 20,000 chests of illicit British opium. The British retaliated with a punitive expedition, thus initiating the first Anglo-Chinese war, better known as the Opium War (1839-42). Unprepared for war and grossly underestimating the capabilities of the enemy, the Chinese were disastrously defeated, and their image of their own imperial power was tarnished beyond repair. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), signed on board a British warship by two Manchu imperial commissioners and the British plenipotentiary, was the first of a series of agreements with the Western trading nations later called by the Chinese the “unequal treaties.”

Under the Treaty of Nanjing, China ceded the island of Hong Kong (Xianggang in pinyin) to the British; abolished the licensed monopoly system of trade; opened 5 ports to British residence and foreign trade; limited the tariff on trade to 5 percent ad valorem; granted British nationals extraterritoriality (exemption from Chinese laws); and paid a large indemnity. In addition, Britain was to have most-favored-nation treatment, that is, it would receive whatever trading concessions the Chinese granted other powers then or later. The Treaty of Nanjing set the scope and character of an unequal relationship for the ensuing century of what the Chinese would call “national humiliations.” The treaty was followed by other incursions, wars, and treaties that granted new concessions and added new privileges for the foreigners.

 

1850

The first step in the foreign powers’ effort to carve up the empire was taken by Russia, which had been expanding into Central Asia. By the 1850s, tsarist troops also had invaded the Heilong Jiang watershed of Manchuria, from which their countrymen had been ejected under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The Russians used the superior knowledge of China they had acquired through their century-long residence in Beijing to further their aggrandizement.

 

 

The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64

During the mid-nineteenth century, China’s problems were compounded by natural calamities of unprecedented proportions, including droughts, famines, and floods. Government neglect of public works was in part responsible for this and other disasters, and the Qing administration did little to relieve the widespread misery caused by them. Economic tensions, military defeats at Western hands, and anti-Manchu sentiments all combined to produce widespread unrest, especially in the south. South China had been the last area to yield to the Qing conquerors and the first to be exposed to Western influence. It provided a likely setting for the largest uprising in modern Chinese history – the Taiping Rebellion.

 

 

 

 

The Taiping rebels

 were led by

Hong Xiuquan (1814-64), a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate. Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs. He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.

Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies.

 In 1851 Hong Xiuquan and others launched an uprising in Guizhou Province. Hong proclaimed the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping Tianguo, or Taiping for short) with himself as king. The new order was to reconstitute a legendary ancient state in which the peasantry owned and tilled the land in common; slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium smoking, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols were all to be eliminated.

The Taiping tolerance of the esoteric rituals and quasi-religious societies of south China – themselves a threat to Qing stability – and their relentless attacks on Confucianism – still widely accepted as the moral foundation of Chinese behavior – contributed to the ultimate defeat of the rebellion. Its advocacy of radical social reforms alienated the Han Chinese scholar-gentry class. The Taiping army, although it had captured Nanjing and driven as far north as Tianjin, failed to establish stable base areas. The movement’s leaders found themselves in a net of internal feuds, defections, and corruption. Additionally, British and French forces, being more willing to deal with the weak Qing administration than contend with the uncertainties of a Taiping regime, came to the assistance of the imperial army. Before the Chinese army succeeded in crushing the revolt, however, 14 years had passed, and well over 30 million people were reported killed.

To defeat the rebellion, the Qing court needed, besides Western help, an army stronger and more popular than the demoralized imperial forces. In 1860, scholar-official Zeng Guofan (1811-72), from Hunan Province, was appointed imperial commissioner and governor-general of the Taiping-controlled territories and placed in command of the war against the rebels. Zeng’s Hunan army, created and paid for by local taxes, became a powerful new fighting force under the command of eminent scholar-generals. Zeng’s success gave new power to an emerging Han Chinese elite and eroded Qing authority. Simultaneous uprisings in north China (the Nian Rebellion) and southwest China (the Muslim Rebellion) further demonstrated Qing weakness

 

1851

In 1851, Cixi participated in the selection for consorts to the new Xianfeng Emperor alongside sixty other candidates. Cixi was one of the few candidates chosen to stay. She was placed in the 6th rank of consorts, and styled “Noble Lady Lan” (Chinese: 贵人). Among the other chosen candidates were Noble Lady Li of Tatala clan (later Consort Li), Concubine Yun of Wugiya clan, and Concubine Zhen of Niuhuru clan (later Xianfeng’s empress consort).

 

1854

In 1854, Cixi was elevated to the 5th rank of consorts and given a title, styled “Imperial Concubine Yi” (Chinese: ). In 1855, Cixi became pregnant.

Xianfeng 1851-61

 

1856

On 27 April 1856, she gave birth to Zaichun, the Xianfeng Emperor’s only surviving son. Soon afterward, she was elevated to the 4th rank of consorts, styled “Consort Yi” (Chinese: 懿妃).[2] In 1857, when her son reached his first birthday, Cixi was elevated to the 3rd rank consorts, and styled “Noble Consort Yi” (Chinese: 贵妃). This rank placed her second only to the Empresswithin Xianfeng’s harem.

Unlike many other women in the imperial harem, Cixi was known for her ability to read and write Chinese. This granted her ample opportunities to help the ailing emperor in daily state governing. On various occasions, the Xianfeng Emperor had Cixi read palace memorials for him, and leave instructions on the memorials according to his will. As a result, Cixi became well-informed about state affairs, and learned the art of state governing from the ailing emperor.[3]

 

(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for

the Xianfeng Emperor

 in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.

 

 

In 1860

 Russian diplomats secured the secession of all of Manchuria north of the Heilong Jiang and east of the Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River). Foreign encroachments increased after 1860 by means of a series of treaties imposed on China on one pretext or another. The foreign stranglehold on the vital sectors of the Chinese economy was reinforced through a lengthening list of concessions. Foreign settlements in the treaty ports became extraterritorial – sovereign pockets of territories over which China had no jurisdiction. The safety of these foreign settlements was ensured by the menacing presence of warships and gunboats.

 

 

 

1860

In September 1860, British and French troops attacked Peking (Beijing) during the closing stages of the Second Opium War,

1856

Second Opium War 1856-1880

 

 

and by the following month had burned the Emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace to the ground. The attack, under the command of Lord Elgin, was mounted in retaliation for the arrest on 18 September of British diplomatic envoy Harry Parkes and the torture and execution of a number of western hostages. The Xianfeng Emperor and his entourage, including Cixi, fled Beijing for the safety of Rehe in Manchuria.[4] On hearing the news of the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, the Xianfeng Emperor (who was already showing signs of dementia) fell into a depression, turned heavily to alcohol and drugs, and became seriously ill.[5]

 

 

 

 

 

 

1861

 From 1861 to 1894, leaders such as these, now turned scholar-administrators, were responsible for establishing modern institutions, developing basic industries, communications, and transportation, and modernizing the military. But despite its leaders’ accomplishments, the Self-Strengthening Movement did not recognize the significance of the political institutions and social theories that had fostered Western advances and innovations. This weakness led to the movement’s failure. Modernization during this period would have been difficult under the best of circumstances. The bureaucracy was still deeply influenced by Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. Chinese society was still reeling from the ravages of the Taiping and other rebellions, and foreign encroachments continued to threaten the integrity of China. Also natural disasters worked against the reforms.

 

 

 

 

1861

On 22 August 1861 the Xianfeng Emperor died at Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei). Before his death, he summoned eight of his most prestigious ministers, headed by Sushun, Zaiyuan, and Duanhua, and named them the “Eight Regent Ministers” to direct and support the future Emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future Empress Dowager Cixi), was only five years old. It is commonly assumed that on his deathbed, the Xianfeng Emperor summoned his Empress and Noble Consort Yi, and gave each of them a stamp. He hoped that when his son ascended the throne, his Empress and Noble Consort Yi would cooperate in harmony and, together, help the young emperor to grow and mature also meant as a check on the power of the eight regents however there is no evidence for this and it is unlikely he would ever have intended for the women to have any political power. It is possible that the seal allegedly given as a symbol for the child was really a present for noble consort yi (Cixi ) herself as informal seals numbered in the thousands and weren’t political items but objects of art commissioned for pleasure by emperors to stamp on things like paintings or given as presents to the concubines.[6] Upon the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, his Empress Consort, aged 25, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Ci’an(popularly known as the East Empress Dowager because she lived in the Eastern Zhong-Cui Palace), and Noble Consort Yi, aged 27, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Cixi (popularly known as the West Empress Dowager because she lived inside the Western Chuxiu Palace).

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor’s death,

Empress Dowager Cixi had become a shrewd strategist. In Jehol, while waiting for an astrologically favorable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, Cixi conspired with powerful court officials and imperial relatives to seize power.

 Cixi’s position as the lower-ranked Empress Dowager had no political power attached. In addition, her son the young emperor was not a political force himself.

As a result, it became necessary for her to ally herself with other powerful figures. the late emperor’s principal wife, the Empress Dowager Ci’an, Cixi suggested that they become co-reigning Empress Dowagers, with powers exceeding the Eight Regent Ministers, the two had long been close friends since Cixi first came to the harem .[7]

Tensions grew among the Eight Regent Ministers, headed by Sushun, and the two Empresses Dowager.

The ministers did not appreciate Cixi’s interference in political affairs, and the frequent confrontations left the Empress Dowager Ci’an frustrated.

 Ci’an often refused to come to court audiences, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi to deal with the ministers alone.

Secretly, Empress Dowager Cixi began gathering the support of talented ministers, soldiers, and others who were ostracized by the Eight Regent Ministers for personal or political reasons.

Among them was Prince Gong, who had great ambitions and was at that time excluded from the power circle, and the Prince Chun, the sixth and seventh sons of the Daoguang Emperor, respectively. While she aligned herself with these Princes, a memorial came fromShandong asking for Cixi to “listen to politics behind the curtains”, i.e., asking Cixi to become the ruler. The same petition also asked Prince Gong to enter the political arena as a principal “aide to the Emperor.”

When the Emperor’s funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her alliances with Princes Gong and Chun.

She and the boy Emperor returned to the capital before the rest of the party, along with Zaiyuan and Duanhua, two of the principal regents, while Sushun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession. Cixi’s early return to Beijing meant that she had more time to plan with Prince Gong, and ensure that the power base of the Eight Regent Ministers was divided between Sushun and his allies, Zaiyuan and Duanhua.

History was re-written and the Regents were dismissed for having carried out incompetent negotiations with the “barbarians” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Jehol “greatly against his will,” among other charges.[7]

To display her high moral standards, Cixi executed only three of the eight regent ministers.

Prince Gong had suggested that Sushun and others be executed by the most painful method, known as slow slicing, but Dowager Cixi declined the suggestion and ordered that Sushun be beheaded, while the other two also marked for execution, Zaiyuan and Duanhua, were given white silks to allow them to commit suicide.

 In addition, Cixi refused outright the idea of executing the family members of the ministers, as would be done in accordance with Imperial tradition of an alleged usurper. Ironically, Qing Imperial tradition also dictated that women and princes were never to engage in politics. In breaking with tradition, Cixi became the only Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from “behind the curtains” (垂簾聽政).

This palace coup is known as the “Xinyou Palace Coup” (Chinese: 辛酉政變) in China after the name of the year 1861 in the Sexagenary cycle.

 

The Empress  Dowager Cixi

 

Cette peinture a été peinte par Hubert Vos, le peintre hollandais américain, dont la peinture a été présentée à l’Impératrice Cixi au ses soixante et unième anniversaire.Il est maintenant au Palais d’été (Yiheyuan) à Beijing à la Salle des Nuages ​​Dissiper, (PaiyunDian).

La dame représenté ici est connu sous plusieurs noms, parmi lesquels les trois noms les plus connus sont les suivants:

Elle est plus communément connu par son titre, la
«Impératrice douairière.” Ceci est un titre anglais donné à elle par la presse européenne et américaine il ya 100 ans.

Son nom chinois peut être rendu, ou traduit de deux manières différentes.La nouvelle façon de rendre son nom (par pinyin) est “Cixi”.

.” Le logo en haut de la page contient quatre mots chinois, qui signifie littéralement «Ci Xi impératrice douairière.”

Empress Dowager Sheshe1 

 

(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.

 

With Xianfeng’s death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci’an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days’ Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest for supporting reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion and the invasion of Allied armies, external and internal pressures led Cixi to effect institutional changes of just the sort she had resisted and to appoint reform-minded officials. The dynasty collapsed in late 1911, three years after her death, and the Republican Era was inaugurated 1 January 1912.

Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.[1]

In November 1861,

 a few days following the coup, Cixi was quick to reward Yixin,

the Prince Gong, for his help.

 He was made head of the General Affairs Office and the Internal Affairs Office, and his daughter was made a Gurun Princess, a title usually bestowed only on the Empress’s first-born daughter.

Yixin’s allowance also increased twofold. However, Cixi avoided giving Yixin the absolute political power that princes such as Dorgon exercised during the Shunzhi Emperor‘s reign. As one of the first acts from behind the curtains, Cixi (nominally along with Ci’an) issued two important Imperial Edicts on behalf of the Emperor.

The first stated that the two Empresses Dowager were to be the sole decision makers “without interference,” and the second changed the boy Emperor’s era name from Qixiang (祺祥; “Auspicious”) to Tongzhi (同治; “collective stable”).

However, despite being the sole decision makers, both Ci’an and Cixi were forced to rely on the Grand Council and a complex series of procedures in order to deal with affairs of state. When state documents came in, they were to be first forwarded to the dowager empresses, and then referred back to the prince adviser and the Grand Council. Having discussed the matters, the prince and his colleagues would seek the instruction of the dowager empresses at audiences and imperial orders would be drawn up accordingly, with drafts having to be approved by the dowagers before edicts were issued.[8]

It also seems that their most important role during the regency was merely to apply their seals to edicts, a merely mechanical role in a complex bureaucracy.[9]

 

 

 

 

Cixi’s entrance as the absolute power figure in China came at a time of internal chaos and foreign challenges. The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, as the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through China’s south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit. Internally, both the national bureaucracy and regional authorities were infested with corruption. 1861 happened to be the year of official examinations, whereby officials of all levels presented their political reports from the previous three years. Cixi decided that the time was ripe for a bureaucratic overhaul, where she personally sought audience with all officials above the level of provincial governor, who had to report to her personally. Cixi took on part of the role usually given to the Bureaucratic Affairs Department (吏部). Cixi also executed two prominent officials to serve as examples as a more immediate solution: Qingying, a militaryshilang who had tried to bribe his way out of demotion, and He Guiqing, then Viceroy of Liangjiang, who fled Changzhou in the wake of an incoming Taiping army as opposed to trying to defend the city.

Another significant challenge Cixi faced was the increasingly decrepit state of the country’s Manchu elite. Since the beginning of the dynasty most major positions at court had been held by Manchus, and Emperors had generally shown contempt for powerful Han Chinese. Cixi, again in a reversal of Imperial tradition, entrusted the country’s most powerful military unit against the Taiping army into the hands of a Han Chinese, Zeng Guofan. Additionally, in the next three years, Cixi appointed Han Chinese officials to become governors of all southern Chinese provinces, raising alarm bells in an administration traditionally fond of Manchu dominance

 

Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.

 

 

 

(1800-1915)

 

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