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The Tang Ceramic History Collections



Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For senior Collectors and Historian

Copyright @ 2014

*King Ganesha Teracota

found West Java( Collection Dr Iwan)




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Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue


tang horse sculptures | Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue by Hild4 on Etsy

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tang horse sculptures | Tang sculpture of a horse with a painted saddle, 618-906 AD. The great ..





The Tang dynasty is considered by many people to be the golden age of Chinese civilization. Its emperors presided over one of the greatest periods of Chinese art, culture and diplomacy.

Under the Tangs, China dominated the Far East in a generally amicable and peaceful way; Silk Road trade flourished; Christianity was introduced to China; and Buddhism become so well entrenched that the reproduction of Buddhist texts led to the invention of block printing and calendars.

The Tang Dynasty was centered in Chang’an, a city established by the Han dynasty on the ruins of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s capital of Xian and developed by Sui emperor Wen Tu. Under the Tangs, Chang’an became a thriving metropolis and center of international trade filled with merchants, foreign traders, missionaries from numerous religions, acrobats, artists and entertainers.

It was the largest city in Asia, perhaps the world, with a population of around two million people at a time when no city in Europe had a population of more than a few hundred thousand.

 The city was linked to the rest of China through a network of canals and toll roads which brought more riches and taxes into Chang’an.

The Tang dynasty is often regarded as the classical period of Chinese civilization. It was a relatively peaceful phase in Chinese history.

 The other major power center during the Tang Dynasty was Baghdad, the home of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty.

 Robust trade between the two empires took place on the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road. Important ports included present-day Guangzhou in China and present-day Basra in Iraq. In the ninth century an estimated 10,000 foreign traders and merchants lived in Guangzhou, many of them Arabs and Persians.

There is some debate as to when the Tang dynasty began. Most historians argue that it was inaugurated by a Sui official named Li Yuan (later known as Gaozu) who took power after the last Sui emperor was assassinated in 618. The Tangs had Turkic influences and a little Turkish blood.

Websites and Resources

Good Websites and Sources: Wikipedia ; Google Book: China’s Golden Age: Everday Life in the Tang Dynasty by Charles ; Warring States Project Warring States Project Empress ;

Good Websites and Sources on Tang Culture: Metropolitan Museum of Art ; Tang Poems; Tang Horses China Vista : Links in this Website: CHINA ; CHINESE PAINTING


Good Websites and Sources on Early Chinese History: 1) Ancient China Life ; 2) Ancient China for School Kids ; 3) Oriental Style ; 4) Chinese Text ; 5) Minnesota State University site ; 6) ; 7) Early Medieval China Journal ; 8) History of China ; 9) U.S.C. Books: Cambridge History of Ancient China edited by Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy (1999, Cambridge University Press); The Culture and Civilization of China, a massive, multi-volume series, (Yale University Press);Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties by Jessica Rawson (British Museum, 1996)

Good Chinese History Websites: 1) Chaos Group of University of Maryland ; 2) Brooklyn College ; 3) Wikipedia article on the History of China Wikipedia 4) China Knowledge ; 5) China History Forum ; 6) e-book ; 7 ) WWW VL: History



Antique Chinese Ceramics

John Fairman


A tomb figure depicting a Turkic caravan woman rousing her camel while nursing. It is earthenware with unfired colouring and from the Tang dynasty.

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Vase Meiping en porcelaine de type Jun Chine, fin de la dynastie Song-début de la dynastie Jin, XIII E siècle – Sotheby’s



Tang Dynasty Rule and Achievements

The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization– equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a flowering of creativity in many fields. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, flourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. [Source: The Library of Congress]

“Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art.

A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base.

 As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholarofficials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government. [Ibid]

“By the middle of the eighth century A.D., Tang power had ebbed. Domestic economic instability and military defeat in 751 by Arabs at Talas, in Central Asia, marked the beginning of five centuries of steady military decline for the Chinese empire. Misrule, court intrigues, economic exploitation, and popular rebellions weakened the empire, making it possible for northern invaders to terminate the dynasty in 907. The next half-century saw the fragmentation of China into five northern dynasties and ten southern kingdoms. [Ibid]





Tang Emperors

Tang Taizong, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, is one the most admired Chinese leaders and is known for his love of art. He so admired the calligrapher Wang His-chi he took his famous work Preface to the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion with him to his grave.

The most famous Tang ruler was Minghuang (685-761), who was also known as the “Radiant Emperor.” He developed Chang’an into a center of art and culture. His court drew scholars and artists from all over Asia

The Tang dynasty had its share of corrupt, incompetent and decadent leaders. One 8th century Tang emperor spent nearly all of his time hunting and kept 5,000 chows and a staff of 10,000 huntsmen. The ninth Tang emperor was so distracted by a concubine named Yang Guifei it led to the catastrophe of 755.








Empress Wu Zetian

Empress Wu Empress Wu Ze Tian, the first female ruler in Chinese history, usurped the throne in 690 and is credited by many historians with founding the Tang Dynasty.


The daughter of a Shanxi lumber dealer, she grew up in Shaanxi and was briefly a nun before she worked her way up to empress from a low-ranking concubine. Regarded as a tyrant, she reportedly killed many of her rivals and changed the name of the dynasty from Tang to Chou (or Zhou) although it was changed back after she died.

Empress Wu Zetian was the only female emperor in Chinese history. Her story has intrigued many in China, and has been the subject of a TV series.

 She expanded China, improved international relations and trade, raised the status of women and encouraged the arts. Under her rule great works of art such as Buddhist statuary, mounted dolls playing musical instruments, gold and silverworks, ceramics and glassware were produced. She reportedly had her own harem of men and is famous for being tactful with her husbands.. She was killed in a palace coup in A.D. 710 AD.

Wu Zetain had high-level female officials working under her. In September 2013, the BBC reported: “The ancient tomb of a female politician in China, described as the country’s “female prime minister”, has been discovered, Chinese media say. The tomb of Shangguan Wan’er, who lived from 664-710 AD, was recently found in Shaanxi province. Archaeologists confirmed the tomb was hers this week. She was a famous politician and poet and a trusted aide of Wu Zetian. The grave was discovered near an airport in Xianyang, Shaanxi province, reports said. A badly damaged epitaph on the tomb helped archaeologists confirm that the tomb was Shangguan Wan’er’s. Experts described the discovery as one of “major significance”, even though it had been subject to “large-scale damage”. “The roof had completely collapsed, the four walls were damaged, and all the tiles on the floor had been lifted up,”



Geng Qinggang, an archaeology research associate in Shaanxi, told Chinese media. “Hence, we think it must have been subject to large-scale, organised damage… quite possibly damage organised by officials,” he said. [Source: BBC News, September 12, 2013]

Tang Power and Leadership

The T’ang dynasty was the most militarily powerful of all the dynasties. It expanded the Chinese empire across the Great Wall of China and beyond the Himalayas. At its height, it administered much of present-day China and exerted control or received tributes from a dozen other kingdoms, including those in Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, Indonesia and most of Southeast Asia.

The Tang didn’t build walls. They were skilled at dealing with the Central Asian tribes that challenged them, knowing when to use diplomacy and when to go to war. The fact they were part Turkish, the ethnicity of many of the Central Asian tribes that threatened them, also helped

The Tangs ruled with a pyramidal administration system consisting of the Emperor, and three main ministries at the top. Underneath them were nine courts and six advisory boards. To discourage warlordism and establish regional power bases, China itself was broken down into 300 prefectures and 1,500 counties, a system which persists to this day.

Advances to the West by the Tang Dynasty were slowed by the Turks in the late 7th century. In 751, in the Battle of Talas, Tang Chinese forces attempting to extend the Chinese empire into Central Asia were annihilated by a Muslim army not far from Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. The defeat kept the Chinese out of Central Asia and opened up Central Asia and Western China to Islam.

Openness and Ideas in the Tang Dynasty

The Tang emperors were known for their openness to new ideas about art, religion, philosophy and music that were brought in by foreigners who flowed into China along the Silk Road trade routes.


 Unlike most Chinese dynasties which tried to cut off their empire from influences from the outside world, the Tang ruling families tolerated outsiders and members of variety of religious sects.

Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Changan, with its approximately one million inhabitants, was a well organised cosmopolitan city, where international embassies and traders had their own, designated quarters. The city bustled with Central Asian horsemen, international traders, many in their national costumes, as well as elegant beauties with tiny, painted lips, all of them immortalised in the Tang-period terracotta statuettes. The terracotta figurines also give enlightening information about the many forms of music, dance, mimes and other entertainment which were in vogue during that time.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Taoists, Confucian scholars, Nestorian Christian missionaries, Zoroastrian priests and Buddhist monks, among them ones who helped found Zen Buddhism in Japan, all felt comfortable in Tang era China and practiced and to certain degrees proselytized their religions.




New inventions from the T’ang dynasty included the magnetic compass, gunpowder, the abacus, printing, and cataract surgery. Silks, porcelain and art were traded for spices, ivory and other goods along the Silk Road caravan routes. Sea routes took Chinese goods as far away as Africa and the Middle East.

Cosmopolitan culture flourished. Tens of thousands of foreigners lived in major Chinese cities.

 Women held high government offices, played polo with men and wore men’s clothes. Chinese intermarried with nomadic peoples. Foreigners such as Turks rose to high positions in the civil service and the military.The economy changed a great deal in the Tang and Song dynasties, going from what was basically a subsistence economy to one in which peasantry was active in local and long-distance trade and non-food crops such as silk were produced on a large scale.




Religion and Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty

Tang Buddhist sculpture Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Buddhism, brought from India via Central Asia, became the dominant religion. Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism and later Islam were also practised. During liberal times they lived peacefully side by side with the traditional indigenous belief systems and ideologies, Taoism and Confucianism. In the visual arts the pan-Asian Buddhist style was combined with the refinement of Tang court elegance. Tang China was open to outside influences and the trade routes brought to Changan monks, scholars, artists, musicians and dancers from all over the then known world.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

During the 6th century Chinese Buddhism was consolidated and standardized. Great schools were founded that boasted thousands of disciples. Schools with royal patrons built huge monasteries. Between A.D. 476 and 540 the number temples rose from 6,500 to 30,900 and the number of monks and nuns grew from 80,000 to 200,000 (out of a population of 50 million).

Buddhism reached its height in the Tang Dynasty. Doctrines were refined. Schools expanded. The Pure Land School and the worship of Amitabha became widespread. Many Tang emperors were Buddhists, or at least nominally favorable to Buddhism. Some great Chinese poets from the period were monks.

In A.D. 629, the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang left the Tang dynasty capital and traveled west—on foot, on horseback and by camel and elephant—to India and returned in A.D. 645 with 700 Buddhist texts from which Chinese deepened their understanding of Buddhism. Hsuan Tsang is remembered as a great scholar for his translations from Sanskrit to Chinese but also for his descriptions of the places he visited—the great Silk Road cities of Kashgar and Samarkand and the great stone Buddhas in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. His trip was the inspiration of the for Journey to the West, widely regarded as one of the great novels of Chinese literature. [Book: “Ultimate Journey, Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment” by Richard Bernstein (Alfred A. Knopf)]

Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Chinese emperors began to favor Taoism over Buddhism;. monks and nuns were secularized; temples and libraries were destroyed. Buddhism remained overshadowed by Taoism and Confucianism until it experienced a revival in the 11th century

Battle of Talas

As China became strong during the Tang dynasty it began expanding westward, for the most part relying more on diplomatic skills than military might to achieve its goals. The strategy worked well until one Chinese viceroy went too far and ordered the murder of the khan of the Tashkent Turks.

In 751 an alliance of enraged Turks, opportunist Arabs and Tibetans maneuvered a Chinese force into the Talas Valley in present-day Kazakhstan and Kyrzgzstan. In the ensuing battle—the Battle of Talas—the Chinese were routed and forced back across the Tian Shan. Tibetans moving up from the south were driven out of the Tarim basin by Uighur Turks, allies of the Tang. The Uighars have been in the region ever since.

The Battle of Talas, ended Chinese ambitions in Central Asia. After the battle, the Turk, Arab and Tibetans splintered and instability was the rule in Central Asia until the 9th century when the Samanid dynasty rose up.




End of Tang Dynasty

The humiliations that resulted form the annihilation of the Tang forces at the Battle of Talas destabalized the Tang dynasty by showing its weaknesses and opening it up to rebellions from powerful generals.

During the Tang dynasty arts and ideas flourished when record rice harvest were being recorded, but the entire dynasty began to collapse when the rising population began to outstrip the food supply. An Arab traveler to China at end of the Tang dynasty wrote that “Chinese law permits the eating of human flesh, and this flesh is sold publically in markets” as a means of providing enough food

The Tang dynasty was greatly weakened when a powerful general named An Lushan drove the Tang emperor from the capital in 755. Even though An was killed in 757, the rebellion continues until 763 at a cost of perhaps a millions deaths. In much of the late 8th century the Tang Dynasty wa sin decline.

In the 9th century disputes within the court grew more acrimonious and the Tang dynasty weakened further. Invaders from the north destroyed the Tang dynasty in 907, and China once again was thrown into a period of anarchy and disunity that lasted this time for about a half a century.



Culture During the Tang Dynasty

Tang sleeve dancer The Tang Dynasty was a golden age for the Chinese arts. Landscape painting and bronze sculpture (Tang horses) were perfected and famous poets wrote verse.

Chinese acrobatics and dance also took off. Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Literature, the visual arts, and music flourished and the theatrical arts were evolving towards their present forms. The most influential capital of the dynasty was Changan (C’hang-an) (currently Xi’an, Hsi-an) in Central China. During the Tang dynasty it was the world’s biggest metropolis. A vast network of caravan routes, generally known as the Silk Road, connected Changan with Central Asia, India, Persia and finally with the Mediterranean world. The influence of Tang culture spread to Korea as well as to Japan, where two of its capitals, Nara and Kyoto, were built according to the city plan of Changan.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Chinese poetry reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. Poets often sat beneath the moon and drank wine from cups floated on rivers and composed poems like: “The sun beyond the mountain glows/ The Yellow River seaward flows/ But if you desire a grander sight/ The you must scale a greater height.” Poets sometimes played a game in which a cup was placed in a stream and a poet had to compose a poem before the cup floated by. If he failed he had to consume a glass of wine.

Famous Tang dynasty poets include Tu Fu (Du Fu, 712-70), Li Po (701-62,) Wang Wei (701-761), Li Bai, Bo Juyi, Li You and Huang Tingjian. Tu Fu poems inspired many Chinese painters. Xue Tao was a famous female poet. Wang Wei was a poet-painter who said “there are paintings in his poems and poems in his paintings.” See Literature

In the Tang Dynasty dances and music styles from outside of China were incorporated into Chinese dance and Chinese styles were passed onto other parts of the world, particularly Korea and Japan. Hundreds of young men and women were trained in dance and music at a school called the Academy of the Pear Garden. Tang poets wrote of “the dance of the rainbow skirt and feathered jacket” and described how dancers used their long silk sleeves to accentuate their hand movements. This kind of sleeve dancing was also depicted in sculptures and Buddhist cave art from teh Tang period.

Gambling was also popular. A crackdown on gambling included penalties of 100 lashes and death and forced tenure in the army.

Art During the Tang Dynasty

Ideas and art flowed into China on the Silk Road along with commercial goods during the Tang period. Art produced in China at this time reveals influences from Persia, India, Mongolia, Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. Tang sculptures combined the sensuality of Indian and Persian art and the strength of the Tang empire itself.


Art critic Julie Salamon wrote in the New York Times, that artists in the Tang dynasty “absorbed influences from all over the world, synthesized them and a created a new multiethnic Chinese culture.”

Tang funerary vessels often contained figures of merchants. warriors, grooms, musicians and dancers. There are some works that have Hellenistic influences that came via Bactria in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Some Buddhas of immense size were produced.

None of the tombs of the Tang emperors have been opened but some tombs of the royal family members have excavated, Most of them were thoroughly looted. The most important finds are murals and paintings in lacquer. They contain delightful images of court life.

Proto-porcelain evolved during the Tang dynasty. It was made by mixing clay with quartz and the mineral feldspar to make a hard, smooth-surfaced vessel. Feldspar was mixed with small amounts of iron to produce an olive-green glaze.







Tang Horses

Tang horses are among the most famous works of Chinese art. Made from ceramic, some are glazed in blue, green amber and have elaborate saddle blankets and tasseled bridles. Other are made of unglazed ceramic and thereby look more modern like a Rodin statute. The horses are often in frantic positions: with their heads raises and nostrils flared, or twisting around to get at something on their backs. Many had a grooved channel running the length of the arched neck, where a real horsehair mane was placed, and had a hole in their rear for a horsehair tail. Most are only around 15 inches tall.

Chinese art specialist J.J. Lally told the New York Times, “Tang horses are the most widely popular image of Chinese art because they are immediately accessible to everyone. You don’t have to read the Tang dynasty was a moment in Chinese art when there was a strong move toward realism and strong decorative impulse. Horses imported from the Near East were precious. In Tang China, the horse was the emblem of wealth and power. They are meant to embody rank and speed.”

The Chinese used horses as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600 to 1100 B.C.) but these were mainly strong, draft animals. Later they began importing horses from Central Asia and Middle East. By the Tang dynasty horses were favorite subjects of not only artists but also poets and composers. The inspiration for the many of Tang horses were Tall horses, the heavenly horses from Central Asia introduced to China in the first century B.C.







Varieties of Tang Horses

Some of the most treasured Tang horses were glazed in cobalt blue. Gallery owner Khalil Rizk told the New York Times, “Only 5 percent of Tang horses have blue glaze.

 Cobalt was put on during the last firing. Cobalt was a treasured commodity imported from the Middle East; it was more valuable than gold. Its use means the horse was for someone of the highest rank.”


Describing a relatively ordinary Tang horse that sold for $266,500 at a Christie’s auction, Wendy Moonan wrote in the New York Times, “Unglazed, it had its head lowered toward its left foreleg, which was slightly raised.”

One extraordinary glazed Tang pieces depicts a kneeling man with a horse’s head. The expression on the horse’s head is sensitive. Tang artist also made some extraordinarily beautiful ceramic animals, including a glazed earthenware camel carrying a troupe of musicians.

The highest price ever paid for ceramics and/or a Chinese work of art was $6.1 million for a Tang dynasty horse sold by the British Rail Pension Fund to a Japanese dealer at Sotheby’s in London in December 1989. Collectors like Tang horses because they can be dated with some certainty using thermoluminescnece testing.

Tang Buddhist Sculpture

The periods of Chinese Buddhist art closely parallel the phases the Buddhist religion went through in China Works that appeared in the 5th and 6th centuries were very free and individualistic. In the Tang period the art became more mature and robust, with Buddhist figures featuring graceful lines and curves. In the 10th to 13th century Buddist art became more refined. After that it was rooted in tradition and lacked innovation.

Wonderful 6th and 7th century Buddhist sculptures have been unearthed in northern China along the Silk Road in Gansu and Ningxia. This include a big-nosed clay representation of a Buddha disciple; a granite carving of Avalokitesvara, a popular Buddhist deity; and a bronze figure of a dancing Sogidian. Many of the work bears influences from Persia and Central Asia. The Sogdians were a Persian culture centered around Samarkand

A relief a Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and a life-size bodhisattva feature extraordinary detail and expression. Souren Melikian wrote in the International Herald Tribune, “A seated Buddha that was once enthroned represents a classical moment of its art. The perfect proportions project a sense of harmony and the expression of imperious illumination speaks of a powerful , self confident art. A figure in motion is unique in the art of China, with its knees very slightly flexed lifting the light drape adhering to the body.”

Tang dynasty figures are known for their provocative poses. Those that were painted are known for their soft colors and patterns.

Tang Dynasty Painting

During the Tang Dynasty ( both figure painting and landscape painting reached great heights of maturity and beauty. Forms were carefully drawn and rich colors applied in painting that were later called “gold and blue-green landscapes.” This style was supplanted by the technique of applying washes of monochrome ink that captured images in abbreviated, suggestive forms.

During the late Tang dynasty (907-960) bird, flower and animal painting were especially valued. There were two major schools of this style of painting: 1) rich and opulent and 2) “untrammeled mode of natural wilderness.” Unfortunately, few works from the Tang period remain.

Lovely murals were discovered in the tomb of Princess Yongtain, the granddaughter of Empress Wu Zetiab (624?-705) on the outskirts of Xian. One shows a lady-in-waiting holding a nyoi stick while another lady holds glassware. It is similar to tomb art found in Japan. A painting on silk cloth dated to the A.D. mid-8th century found in the tomb of a rich family in the Astana tombs near Urumqi in western China depicts a noblewoman with rouge cheeks deep in concentration as she plays go.

Famous Tang dynasty paintings include Zhou Fang’s Palace Ladies Wearing Flowered Headdresses, a study of several beautiful, plump women having their hair done; Wei Xian’s The Harmonious Family Life of an Eminent Recluse, a Five Dynasties portrait of a father teaching his son in a pavilion surrounded by jagged mountains; and Han Huang’s Five Oxen, an amusing depiction of a five fat oxen.

Wang Wei (701-761) is a legendary Tang dynasty painter and poet who said “there are paintings his poems and poems in his paintings.”

Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

In the 1998 sea cumcumber divers working in the Gelesa Straight found some coral-encrusted ceramics, and further scraping away revealed a 9th century Arab dhow laden with 60,000 handmade ceramics and some pieces of gold and silver. Much of the cargo was made of up cheap, mass-produced, Chinese-made bowls, known as Changsa bowls, placed n large storage jars. There was also ink pots, spices jars of various sizes and ewers. [Source: Simon Worrall, National Geographic, June 2009]

The destination of the ship appeared to be Middle East, meaning that ship was traveling the maritime Silk Road. Many of the bowls were decorated with geometric decorations and Koranic motifs that were clearly intended for Middle Eastern market. This implied she objects were made to order for Middle Eastern customers.

The dhow was almost 20 meters long. It resembled a kind of sailing dhow still used in Oman called a baitl qarib. Built of African and Indian wood, it had a raked prow and stern and was fitted with square sails and made of planks sewn together with coconut husks fiber.

Significance of the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, “For more than a decade, archaeologists and historians have been studying the contents of a ninth-century Arab dhow that was discovered in 1998 off Indonesia’s Belitung Island. The sea-cucumber divers who found the wreck had no idea it eventually would be considered one of the most important maritime discoveries of the late 20th century. The dhow was carrying a rich cargo “ 60,000 ceramic pieces and an array of gold and silver works “ and its discovery has confirmed how significant trade was along a maritime silk road between Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Iraq. It also has revealed how China was mass-producing trade goods even then and customizing them to suit the tastes of clients in West Asia. [Source: Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop, New York Times, March 7, 2011]

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds,” an exhibition that opened at the ArtScience Museum in Singapore in 2011 and was put together by the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Smithsonian Institution in Washington, featured amny artifacts from the belitung shipwreck. “This exhibition tells us a story about an extraordinary moment in globalization,” Julian Raby, director of the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, told the New York Times. “It brings to life the tale of Sinbad sailing to China to make his fortune. It shows us that the world in the ninth century was not as fragmented as we assumed. There were two great export powers: the Tang in the east and the Abbasid based in Baghdad.”

Until the Belitung find, historians had thought that Tang China traded primarily through the land routes of Central Asia, mainly on the Silk Road. Ancient records told of Persian fleets sailing the Southeast Asian seas but no wrecks had been found, until the Belitung dhow. Its cargo confirmed that a huge volume of trade was taking place along a maritime route, said Heidi Tan, a curator at the Asian Civilisations Museum and a co-curator of the exhibition.

Mr. Raby said: “The size of the find gives us a sense of two things: a sense of China as a country already producing things on an industrialized scale and also a China that is no longer producing ceramics to bury.” He was referring to the production of burial pottery like camels and horses, which was banned in the late eighth century. “Instead, kilns looked for other markets and they started producing tableware and they built an export market.”

Artifacts from the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds” featured only 450 of the 60,000 objects found in the shipwreck but the rows of similar bowls that were displayed underscored the importance and size of the find.



Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, ‘stacked in the dhow, hundreds of tall stoneware jars each held more than a hundred nested Changsha bowls “ named after the Changsha kilns in Hunan where they were produced. Of the thousands of hand-painted pieces, almost all carry one of a few set patterns, but these were copied by many hands, resulting in an impression of huge variety.

Not all of the ceramics were mass-produced. Among the most interesting pieces in the exhibition is an extremely rare dish, one of three found in the wreck, with floral lozenge motifs surrounded by sprigs of foliage. They are believed to be the earliest known complete Chinese blue-and-white ceramics.

Ms. Tan, the curator, said: “It demonstrates that the Chinese potters were already experimenting with imported cobalt blue from Iraq, which they applied as underglaze painted decoration, some 500 years earlier than the famous blue and white porcelain of the 14th century.” At the time of the dhow’s discovery, cobalt-blue pigments had been found only in the Middle East, not yet in China, said Alan Chong, director of the Asian Civilisations Museum.

Aside from the rare ceramics, the haul also contained gold and silver objects, some of which Mr. Raby of the Smithsonian described as “of the very best quality you can see, clearly of imperial quality,” adding, “so we believe these were possible diplomatic gifts.” The form and decorative motifs of an octagonal gold cup “ musicians and dancers with long hair and billowing robes “suggest Central Asian metal wares. Mr. Raby said it was believed to be the largest known such gold cup from Tang China, even upstaging, he added, one of the great treasures of Tang gold and silver work: the so-called Hejiacun Hoard, found in what had been one of the southern suburbs of the Tang capital of Xian.

Tang Image Sources: 1) Tang Camel. Ohio State University; 2) Empresss Wu, ; 3) Tang map, St. Marin edu ; 4) Tang Buddist sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art; 5) Sleeve dance, McClung Museum ; 6) Tang horses, Antiques and Art Online;

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated August 2013









US$ 3600



For more knowledge about Tang Dynasty and relation with Indonesian Ancestor read and look theinfo below

(Dr Iwan)

The Chinese  And Indonesian Ancestors

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C




Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA





The Map Of Indonesian Archiphelago

Swarnadwipa means the gold Land,also called Andalas Islandbecaue due to Tambo Minangkabau they came from Andalucia

 This island  with the famous port Lobu Tua (barus) exist since 3000 years BC with their Barus talc or camphor which used to mummification during pharaos

Also from the Yew record known Ophir mountain at Pasaman West sumatera where the gold mining from the Minangkabau Kingdom which export from the old port inderagiri, Barus and Pedir.Then in this island in Chinese record exist the bigger empire Srivijaya which called San Fo shi


Java Dwipa or The Rice Land which called Labadiu by Ptelomeus.

 At this island found Argyre City (the city of silver) may be this the old Sunda Kingdom or Salaknegara ,

 Chinese Wang Yuan record told that the java coin made from silver and Tin.

The Rome Monk Ordorico de Pordone told that the Java kingdom palace full with gold,silver and jewellary.

At This island very famous  many kingdom like  Tarumanegara,Old Mataram.Sunda,Singosari,Kediri,Majaphit,walisongo,Islamic mataram and Madura Kingdom.

The island of ocean goddest , from Chinese record Tai Png huan yu chi was called Chin Li Pi Si or  nusa kencana and also called pulo chung ( the island of ujung tanah)  in Malaya,In this island very famous Kutai and the Tanjungpura kingdom.


The small island called Lesser Sunda.Bali was the best landscape island and many traveler visit this island since  Rsi Markandiya in 8 th Century.In this lesser sunda island there were the famous Horse,and there the bali and Lombok kingdom there.



The Arabs called the Sulawesi with Sholibis name ..

Sulawesi name supposedly comes from the word ‘ Sula ‘ which means island and ‘ iron ‘ . Sulawesi Island is the largest since the first bessi ( iron ) , so it is not surprising Ussu and around the lake Matana containing iron and Nikkel .

The Dutch call this island by the name of Celebes .

 The island has been inhabited by humans since 30,000 years ago as evidenced by the presence of ancient relics on the island . For example, the location of prehistoric stone age Besoa Valley



Maluku has a real name ” Jazirah al – Mulk ” which means a collection / royal peninsula consisting of small kingdoms . Maluku is known as the Thousand Island region and socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural resources .

In 4000 years ago

 in the kingdom of Egypt , Pharaoh 12th dynasty , Sesoteris III . Through the data regarding the transaction Egyptian archaeologists in importing incense , ebony , incense , ivory , from the mysterious land where ” Punt ” is derived .

 Although archaeological support is lacking, the country ” baboons ” can be identified after Giorgio Buccellati find a container that contains objects such as clove in the middle Euphrates .

 In the period 1700 BC ,

 the cloves are just in the Maluku islands , Indonesia . In the Middle Ages ( around 1600 AD ) clove spice once one of the most popular and expensive in Europe , exceeding the price of gold .

In addition to cloves , spices from the Moluccas is the fruit of Nutmeg . Fruit Nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ) tree is a plant form that is derived from the Banda Islands , Maluku .


Papua is the second largest island in the world . At around the year 200 AD , Geography expert named Ptolamy LABADIOS call it by name .

At the end of the year 500 AD ,

 the Chinese author named Ghau Yu TUNGKI Kua gives the name ,

and by the end of the year 600 AD , the kingdom of Srivijaya Papua naming using JANGGI name . Tidore give a name to this island and its inhabitants as PAPA – UA that has changed the title into PAPUA .

In the 18th century BC , the rulers of Srivijaya empire , sending offerings to the Chinese empire . In the offering would be some birds of paradise , which is believed to be a bird of paradise garden that is native of Papua .

 With a strong fleet Sriwijaya visit Maluku and Papua to trade spices – spices , perfume – perfume , pearls and feathers of birds of Paradise .



In the early centuries AD

began the relationship between the Euro, Indian and Chinese empire with Indonesian, Malaysian and other Asian country

What .When,Where and How were  the relationship ?  

Who were the  Euro,Chinese and Indian eminent  People an Leaders that influenced the development of the kingdom in Indonesia and Malaysia at the beginning of the first century until the advent of the kingdom of Srivijaya?

Information relating to the above must be known by all generations now  especially the young  generations in order  to take a good examples  to be imitated and prevent recurrence of the things that are not good or bad in the present and future

Look carefully the informations below

Learn from the past

Alam Terkembang Menjadi Guru

Jakarta,February 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA




2 BC

The Godawaya shipwreck treasure at Sri lanka

Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings

 Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.



Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings.

 “I have over 30 years experience as a diver having dived in seas off Germany and England. I have more than 5000 hours of diving experience

and I run an international diving school





at the Coral Sands Hotel in Hikkaduwa.

Some shipwrecks in the Galle area are over 500 years old and full of archaeological value. Some organized groups use dynamite to get at treasures in ships sunk between Galle and Ambalangoda.”


Some steps have to be taken by marine archaeologists to save these treasures from vandals, he said.

An ancient clay pot retrieved from the seas off Godawaya in Ambalantota
Somadasa inspecting the remains an undersea wreck
A bell retrieved from the ocean floor

Ambalagoda srilanka art


The ambaguan south india srilanka art had many realted with Indonesian Hindu art at Bali



Diplomatic relations between Rome and South India are known by historian in 2 BC

.1st Century

2 AD


St Thomas ,

one of the disciples Of Jesus Christ came to India in 52 AD,


at Kodungallur (Mallyankara)

 in Kerala,





conveated thousand of Christian faith.

St.Thomas, referred to as Didymus, in the Gospel of St.John is one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. He is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus.


St Thomas  is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus

The Great Famine of 843 (90 AD)



The monsoons

are a series of winds that bring in moist clouds that drench the areas of India and SoutheastA picture of the onset dates of Monsoons in the Indian Subcontinent. These did not occur in the year 843 (90 AD).Asia in rain during the Summer.

These weather patterns are very sensitive and vulnerable to changes in the environment. In the summer of the year 843 (90 AD)

the monsoons did not arrive in Southeast Asia and the people of Nan as well as Srivijaya fell into famine.


At the same time the deserts of Northern Sinica began to send great sandstorms further outside the desert than they had ever reached before, which also chocked many of the river valleys of Sinica.

The death that ensued was massive and amplified even more so by the fact that it came at the end of a time of long and sustained peace between the powers of East Asia.

The only areas that were rather uneffected by these developments were the Indonesian islands of Srivijaya, which many of the wealthier members of their society fled to after leaving the continent, as well as the Easternmost areas of the Second Han Dynasty and the Japanese Colonies.

The Srivijaya were, for the most part, to far for people from Sinica to reach them.




The dying people of what was Song and Tang moved East.

The death that surrounded the people of Sinica was so great that it became the topic of the first novel story of a young boy losing his parents to a long move to the the city of Shanghai to find food and a future.

These new cities were started on routes moving to the East grew into trading centers once the rains returned and the Western areas were suitable for repopulation. .

The move to retake the Mongolian parts of North Asia by the Japanese was met without resistance by the leadership of Mongolia who would greet any occupier who could offer them food

The World around the Indian Ocean after the Great Famine of 843 (90 AD).

Red: Maurya Empire, Orange: Roman Empire, Green: Srivijaya Empire, Light Blue: Parthian Empire, Blue: Ethiopian Kingdom, Purple: Satavahana Kingdom most no defenses on their borders with the retreat of the soldiers back to the islands.

Srivijaya was however of a firm diplomatic ground with the other Empires.

The next movement in the Asian Continent in response to the monsoons was in the country that was most effected by monsoon cycle, India.

The Indians began a campaign of migration in search of food and money. What reserves the successful Maurya Empire had went to these ships that began to explore the Indian Ocean and to control it so that they can gain food from more fertile areas.

The first move was made by a wealthy family from around the Andhra Coast.

The second branch of the Indian exploration for food went to the islands of the Srivijaya Empire

The First King of Satavahana


The Kingdom of Satavahana 


was established in a rebellion to the Maurya rulers.

The earlier civil war which resulted in a major blow to some of the more independent minded clans solidified the Maurya Dynasty but came at the expense of other clans like the Satavahana.


Among these was the Sungas which later immigrated to the Srivijaya Empire, and in many ways aided them in exposing the weaknesses and possible routes of invasion of the Peninsula.

The desire to take the lands of any other Empire was a source of support for these radicals in some parts of India.

They would be even more angered at the developments in Srivijaya, an Empire which had been taunting the Indians with threats and embargoes on their trade and even going so far as to attack the Indian Coast directly




The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed.

Any money that could be extracted from the traveling people was, the inability of them to leave after they ran out of money led many to settle around the richest person who could orchestrate the movement of food.


During the Han dynasty,

 occupied Vietnam (Chaio Chih) received ships travelling to China from Java, Burma, Iran and the Roman empire. Khmers and Indians were living in major centres. Overseas trade was controlled by the Chinese.
Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p..24-25

A Han dynasty dragon bowl excavated in Indonesia is strikingly similar to one excavated in Guangzhou.
Maritime Silk Route 1996, p.69


Dr Iwan Notes

I seen at Jakarta Indonesia National Central Museum some Han dynasty Ceramic,  and in my collections I have found some artifact of Han dynasty plate from west java,  and artifact eathern jar fom west borneo, also

one Han dynasty cash coin found at Bali.






Menhir  Sang Hyang Heuleut

This site found near the Pulosari Mout at Padeglang area Bantam province West Java.

The people there said that this Menhir were they husband and wife  ancestor

Situs Sang Hyang Dengdek

Sanghyang Dengdek ”Sang Hyang Dengdek”  or other name “ Prabu Jayasati Wisesa” were the menhir of the man and  Sanghyang Heuleut or  “Mas Ratu Lenglang Jagad”  was the the women menhir

The people there belief this menhir will made the people  who visit the Menhir be success , the Menhir also named  “Arca Kisemar”  which made everybody who look this Menhir became the intersesting human  and  everybody will like them

Dr Iwan Visit Sang Hyang Dendek in 2005

From the toll road Jakarta-merak

 after toll cibitung

Then toll ciujung bridge

About 30 km

Turn left

Out of the toll road  Serang east gate


 we met the banten capital city serang




Serang tempo dulu



Serang city now


We met

 the Indonesian Police Banten Headqauter


 Banten Gouvenor Office  at Serang city








Out of Serang City about 3 km

we can visit Banten Girang location

Across the cibanten river with


 the bridge across cibanten river









at the front

Museum banten girang



Turn left met the old cibanten river site

At this site we can seen


 the old stone at the cibanten river


And turn right

 the Banten Girang location ex excavation


and I still found there

Artifact of

 the Yuan qingpai ewer 

and fish celadon bowl artifact








then went to Padeglang city about 30 km from serang




desa Sang Hyang Dengdek 31 km dari kota padeglang


 Dat  Cipurut village

Sang Hyang Dengdek village ,saketi about   61 km from Serang City




Situs Batu Goong – Citaman




 near ancient telaga


Kingdom of Salakapura

Start in 130 A.D



after that I visit banten lama

and found very rare dragon overglazed  red Bowl


Read the complete info at Banten Kingdom history Collections

at   a small village named Pandegelang

 from a guy named Aki Tirem,an Indian.

He was a village’s chief.




Then came Dewawarman, an Indian trader

 which marry  Aki Tirem daughter.

When Aki tirem died, Dewawarman hold the power and later built a Kingdom named Salakanagara(from old Sundannese Salaka means Silver and Nagara means country) or Rajaapura samoe says this

what Phtolomeus called Argyre.

 Dalanagar reign in Westren Java from 200-362

List of Salaka Nagara Kings:

King .Dewawarman I  until VIII


Salakanagara Kingdom was the Earliest First Kingdom In Indonesia  

The Early Ancestor was

 Aki Tirem

and the First King was


 the Indian envoy to Java and then He merried to


Larasati Pohaci (the daughter of Aki Tirem),


Then  Dewawarman as the King with named

 “Prabhu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Raksagapurasagara” .






2nd  Century

130-150 AD


Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.

He was the grandson of the celebrated Sah[1] 

king Chastana.


 Rudradaman I was instrumental in the decline of the Satavahana Empire.

after he became the king and then strengthened his kingdom. During his reign he married a Hindu woman and converted to




192 AD


Wang Yun (137–192),[1] 

courtesy name Zishi,

was a Minister over the Masses 







Emperor Xian 

in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.



During Wang Yun’s time,

 the emperors were mere puppets under the power of eunuchs and warlords.

In 192, Wang Yun plotted and successfully staged

Lü Bu‘s

 assassination of 


Dong Zhuo,

 the tyrannical warlord in power.



Dong Zhuo’s former subjects soon led a coup,


 in which


 Wang Yun along with most of his family were executed.

194 AD

Towards the end of the Han Dynasty,


 Sun Ce,

the eldest son of


the warlord Sun Jian,



 and his followers borrowed troops from


the warlord Yuan Shu

and embarked on a series of military conquests


 in the Jiangdong

and Wu regions between 194 and 199,






seizing several territories previously occupied by

warlords such as 


Liu Yao, 



Liu Yao was an official in the Jiangdong region during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. He ruled for a brief period of time before Sun Ce invaded and conquered his territory, and his Chinese style name was Zhengli .
Unfortunately, Liu Yao was not a good military commander despite being a good administrator.

When Sun Ce attacked him, many his advisors correctly suggested to him that he should name Taishi Ci as the commander-in-chief of his force to defend themselves against Sun Ce, but Liu Yao refused, fearing that Taishi Ci was a fugitive who had just joined him, and his reputation would be tarnished for favoritism, since he was very good friend with Taishi Ci.

The mistake proved to be fatal for Liu Yao and his defeat was generally the same as described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms, and Liu Yao soon died at the age of 42 after fled to Dantu .

After Taishi Ci surrendered to Sun Ce and sent to ask the surrender of Liu Yao’s remaining force, Liu Yao’s son agreed and more than ten thousand begun their service to Sun Ce, with Liu Yao’s son eventually rose in ranks in later eras under Sun Quan.


Yan Baihu 




Wang Lang


Wang Lang (onyomi: Ō Rō) is one of the rulers of the Wu Territory.

 He, along with Yan Baihu and Liu Yao, was defeated by Sun Ce and he fled to Wei where he served as a high-ranking official.


196 AD

Sun Ce broke off relations with

 Yuan Shu around 196-197

 after the latter declared himself emperor —

 an act deemed as treason against 

Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han Dynasty.

The warlord Cao Cao,  who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked  Emperor Xian

 to grant Sun Ce the title of

 “Marquis of Wu” (吳侯).


3rd Century

The Satavahanas In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states


According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD



Sun Ce was assassinated in the summer of 200 and was succeeded by his younger brother,

 Sun Quan.

 Sun Quan, like his elder brother, also paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories


208 AD

In 208, Sun Quan allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs.

218 AD

 Sun Quan and Liu Bei maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province



219 AD

In 219, Sun Quan severed ties with Liu Bei when he sent his general Lü Meng to invade Liu’s territories in Jing Province.

 Guan Yu, who was defending Liu Bei’s assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan’s forces.

After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan’s domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered roughly present-day Hunan and parts of Hubei.


220 AD

In 220, Cao Cao’s son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han Dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei.

Sun Quan agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king — “King of Wu” (吳王) — by Cao Pi.

221 AD

A year later, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han


222 AD

In 222, Liu Bei launched a military campaign against Sun Quan to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu,

 leading to the Battle of Xiaoting.

However, Liu Bei suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan’s general Lu Xun and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later.

Liu Bei’s successor,

 Liu Shan,

and his regent,

 Zhuge Liang,

 made peace with Sun Quan later and reaffirmed their previous alliance.







 Sun Quan

declared independence from Wei in 222,

but continued to rule as “King of Wu” until 229, when he declared himself “Emperor of Wu”. His legitimacy was recognised by Shu.






Old Malay Kingdom in Jambi

In Jambi area there are three old Malay kingdoms ,

namely , Koying , Tupo , and Kantoli .

Koying kingdom found in China notes made ​​by K’ang – and Wan – chen tai of


the Wu dynasty ( 222-208 )

about the country Koying .

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD


also in South Sumatra and Lampung Ranau area

 has found indications of trading activities undertaken by Tonkin or Tongkin and Vietnam or Fu – nan in the same century . Instead of tiles Han dynasty ( 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD ) found in a particular region of Sumatra .



The possibility of the spread of various countries in Central Sumatra to Palembang in South and north of the River Tungkal described by Obdeyn ( 1942 ) , but the picture was standing there Koying country .


 If true Koying located east Tupo or Thu – po , Tchu – po , Chu – po and his position at the mouth of the confluence of two rivers , then there are two places so the Muara Sabak Zabaq , Djaba , Java , Java and Muara Tembesi or Fo – ts’I , San – fo – tsi ‘ , Che – li -fo – che before seroang up in Jambi tchan – pie , Sanfin , Melayur , Moloyu , Malalyu .


Thus as if displacement Ancient Malay kingdom of Srivijaya pre – shift from west to east following the Gulf Wen silting caused by sediment carried by the river , especially the Batang Tembesi .

Direct trade relations occurred in trade with countries outside around the Gulf and the Strait of Malacca Wen will most likely be around the country Koying Alam Kerinci .


Dr Iwan Note

At Kerinci Sungai Penuh city in 1985, when visit with my whole family I found

the Ancient Chinese brass statue





222-223 AD

Sun Quan ruled for over 20 years and his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including

 the battles of Ruxu (222–223)

228 AD

The battle of Shiting (228)

234 AD

The Battle Of Hefei (234).

However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei also never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze.


 Sun Deng, died in 241

242 AD

A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan’s sons in the later part of his reign — Sun Quan instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242  after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba.


The conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan’s imperial court.


Sun Quan eventually deposed

 Sun He and forced

 Sun Ba to commit suicide,

while Lu Xun and many other ministers who took either Sun He’s or Sun Ba’s side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan appointed his youngest son, 

Sun Liang,

as the crown prince after the incident

252 AD

Sun Quan died in 252 and was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Jun serving as regents.

253 AD

In 253, Zhuge Ke was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, and the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun’s hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen,

255 AD


 after Sun Chen  death. During Sun Liang’s reign,

  rebellions broke out in the Wei commandery of Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) in 255


 257-258 AD

The Rebellion  257-258.

Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions respectively in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering much losses.


258 AD

Sun Liang was deposed in 258

by Sun Chen,


who installed 


Sun Xiu,

another son of Sun Quan, on the throne.


Sun Xiu

killed Sun Chen later in

 The Sun Xiu coup

with the help of 

Zhang Bu and Ding Feng


264 AD

Sun Xiu died of illness in 264

, a year after 

Shu was quenquer By Wei


At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi (交趾) in the south.

The ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu 

decided to install Sun He’s son,

 Sun Hao, on the throne.



In the beginning of Sun Hao’s reign,

the emperor reduced taxes, gave relief to the poor, and granted freedom to a large number of palace maids.

 However, Sun Hao gradually became more cruel and superstitious and started indulging in wine and women instead of finding ways to revive his declining state.

Sun Hao’s tyranny caused widespread anger and hatred towards him in Wu, but it was due to

the efforts of officials such as

 Lu Kai and Lu Kang 

that Wu was able to remain relatively stable and peaceful.



In 265, Sima Yan ended the state of Cao Wei by forcing its last ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate in his favour, and then established the Jin Dynasty.


In 275, Jin forces led by Du Yu, Wang Jun and others attacked Wu from six directions.

Sun Hao attempted to put up resistance by sending his armies to fight the Jin invaders, but the Wu forces suffered several consecutive defeats and even the Wu chancellor, Zhang Ti, was killed in action.


Seeing that Wu was doomed to fall, Sun Hao surrendered to the Jin Dynasty in 280, marking the end of Wu and the reunification of China at the end of the Three Kingdoms period.



Jin Dynasty



There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang










Western Jin

 (ch: 西晉, 265–316)

Sima Yan

Emperor Wu Di

Capital Luoyang





In 285,


 The emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305)


partitioned the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.[3] 

Mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire’s

 east and west 



290 AD

Emperor Sima zhong(Hui Di)




4th Century

301 AD

Sima  Lun


307 AD


Sima chi

(Emperor Huai)
















Emperor  of Jin: After the Fall of LuoyangIn

311 Luoyang fell to Han Zhao forces, and Emperor Huai was captured.




Sima Ye(Min Di)




Eastern Jin

 (ch: 東晉 317–420).


Sima rui


Capital Jiankang


In early 318,


Han Zhao’s emperor Liu Cong executed Emperor Min, and three months later, news arrived in Jiankang.



By 320,


Emperor Yuan’s relationship with Wang Dun was at a breaking point, as Wang Dun had grown more and more arrogant and controlling of the western provinces.

 Emperor Yuan feared him

Between 324 and 330

,Constantine I (r. 306–337)

transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople (“City of Constantine”) andNova Roma (“New Rome”).[n 1] 


375 AD

About  Koying (Old Malay Kingdom Jambi)

this country is also included in the T’ung – tien encyclopedia written by Tu – yu ( 375-812 ) and copied by Ma – tu – an- lin in the encyclopedia Wen- hsien – t’ung – k’ao .






Explained that in the kingdom there Koying volcano and its position

in the east 5000 li Chu – po ( Jambi )



For the First time

 in 1984

I visit jambi from Padang City


 by my Toyota landcruiser BJ 40 diesel

like this


and near muara bulian I met

the kubu people



 and with the hepng of my friend Drg Ali Hanfiah

 I with my wifw Lily,and two son albert and Anton

went to candi muara Jambi starting from

the river at jambi city at the back of Police sectors


by boat across the river from Jambi


The first time visit


at the candi still seen the durian and langsat tree on the candi






the second visit with my son Albert and Dr Sjafrizal by road


with Daihatsu Feroza new car I bring from Jakarta to Bajubang

where Albert starting work at Pertamina oil explorations there and met his friend Heru and senior Mr Bambang in 1999

From the back of jambi sultanate palace

We wen to

 the village rantau panjang


then across the bridge to

Candi muara Jambi



Museum candi muara jambi




Women statue





I have seen the dog statue at the museum candi muara jambi,and then in surabaya street antique market in Jakarta I f0und that statue artifact







Makara at  candi Kedaton



Many small candi there





Sima shao

Emperor Ming of Jin (晋明帝/晉明帝, pinyin Jìn Míngdì, Wade-Giles Chin Ming-ti) (299 – 18 October 325), personal name Sima Shao(司馬紹), courtesy name Daoji (道畿), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).


Empress Yu’s father Yu Chen (庾琛) was the governor of Kuaiji Commandery (會稽, roughmodern Shaoxing, Zhejiang),

 and later served on the staff of Sima Rui the Prince of Langye (laterEmperor Yuan) when Sima Rui was posted at Jianye.

 She was considered kind and beautiful, and Sima Rui took her to be his son Sima Shao’s wife empress Yu


Emperor Ming only ruled briefly and died in 326.

 Initially, he left a balance of power between high level officials that he entrusted the four-year-old Crown Prince Yan (who succeeded to the throne as Emperor Cheng) with,

 but after Empress Yu was honored as Empress Dowager Yu, she was encouraged by these officials to be regent, and soon Yu Liang became alone the most powerful official of the empire.


During sima shao  brief reign (323-325),


 he led the weakened Jin out of domination by the warlord Wang Dun, but at his early death,  the empire was left to his young son

 Emperor Cheng(sima Yan),


 and the fragile balance of power that he created was soon broken, leading to the Su Jun Disturbance and weakening the Jin state even further.

The imperial princes Sima Zong (司馬宗) the Prince of Nandun and Sima Yang (司馬) the Prince of Xiyang, all of whom were powerful during Emperor Ming’s reign but who had been removed from powerful positions under Empress Dowager Yu’s regency.





 In winter 326,

 he accused Sima Zong of treason and killed him, demoted Sima Yang, and exiled Yu Yin. This led to the people losing confidence in him



In 327, Yu Liang further resolved on separating Su, then the governor of Liyang Commandery (歷陽, roughly modern Chaohu, Anhui) from his troops, and he promoted Su to be the minister of agriculture—a post that did not involve commanding troops.


Su saw his intent and declared a rebellion, with Zu’s assistance.



Yu Liang initially thought that Su could be easily defeated, but instead Su quickly arrived at the capital early 328 and captured it.

Yu Liang was forced to flee. Meanwhile, Su pillaged the capital, and it was said that even Empress Dowager Yu’s servant girls became spoils for his troops.

Further, it was said that Su himself “humiliated” Empress Dowager Yu—although the method of humiliation was not specified in history. She died in distress and fear.

 Her son Emperor Cheng would become Su’s captive for months before other provincial generals would converge on Jiankang and defeat Su.

Mid-4th century –


 Wang Xizhi makes a portion of a letter from the Feng Ju album. Six Dynasties period.



 It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.







Salakanagara later replace by

 Tarumanegara dynasty


the founder of  

Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.




 was the capital of  salakanagara from

  363 AD

and  still as the center of government from  Dewawarman I – Dewawarman VIII.

 Jayasingawarman, the founder of  Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.




In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//



Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.


I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.


All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,


please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java


This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

  • The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan


2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact









(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact




(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding


Batujaya Museum




in small museums near candi Jiwa










379 AD





Theodosius I (r. 379–395),

 Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and others such asRoman polytheism were proscribed.

And finally,










 Southern and Northern Dynasties



Two wooden sculptures from China, created in about the 3rd of 4th centuries BC. are among the earliest known human figures in Chinese art. They represent attendants buried with the dead.
















Gujarat trader

The Chinese records

give a graphic picture of the long trade routes across their country,



around the south of the Gobi desert,

to the Oxus River,





and on to


An alternate route was by sea from



the Malay peninsula





, pass

 the southern tip of India

 and into

 the Persian Gulf.

Yule writes, “At this time, (early fifth century)

the Euphrates

was navigable

as high as Hira,

a city lying

southwest of ancient Babylon …


and the ships of India and China were constantly to be seen moored before the houses of the town.”38

The Chinese either turned their goods,


 chiefly silks,

 over to the Arabs here, or over to the Parthians at the Oxus River, the latter then bringing them to Hira.


There they were transshipped around

the Arabian peninsula,


the Red Sea



Solomon’s Ezion-geber


 the Aelana (modern Akabah) of the Romans;

from there

 caravans carried them



Petra, the great market city,


to sell them to

the western traders.

Ancient Chinese traders








the reign of


Justinian I (r. 527–565),

the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterraneancoast, including north Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries.


the reign of


 Maurice (r. 582–602),


the Empire’s eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised.


However, his assassination caused a two-decade-long war with 



Sassanid Persia

 which exhausted the Empire’s resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.


Dr Iwan Noteas

In 2011 I found


The Queen Sasanid silver coin

in Bukittinggi west Sumatra

The Iran  Sasanid kindom during


Empress Puran 7th Century,

bring by Gujarat Trader during Srivijaya empire in Indonesia and they had trading with the Minangkabau marchant at Mingkabau Kingdom (Pagaruyung),( The first report found in Indonesia-auth,anoher report from Rusia)




The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C



Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA






6th Century

Around the year 500,

Srivijayan roots began to develop around present day 



in modern Indonesia.

The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres.

The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[16] 

The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire’s relations with rival river systems such as Batang Hari, centred in Jambi






In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

7th Century



The country of Fu-lin, also called Ta-ts’in, lies above the western sea.

In the southeast it borders on Po-ssu (Persia)….

 The emperor Yang-ti of the Sui dynasty (A.D. 605-617) always wished to open intercourse with Fu-lin, but did not succeed.


The several accounts known in Chinese literature of

 the mysterious country in the west called


is declared to be identical with

 the country from ancient times known as


This is known from the texts of the T’ang dynasty, which use the two names are interchangeable terms.

It has been concluded by the Chinese that Ta-ts’in is Syria, and if that is the case,

then Fu-lin must be Syria.

The author is disinclined to be guided by this kind of logic. Friedrich Hirth believes that Ta-ts’in is the Roman empire.

However the detail placed on record in the contemporary Chinese texts is confined to its Asiatic provinces, for which reason Antioch is described as the capital city.

 Hirth considers Fu-lin to be Byzantium and Ta-ts’in to be certain Asiatic portions of the empire.

 After this analysis, there still remain quite a number of important points to be settled in connection with both Ta-ts’in and Fu-lin

5th Century

According to the Chinese annals, Funan and Pan-pan were known where Mahāyāna Buddhism flourished since the fifth century and contributed to China in the field of Buddhism

.So, when the Srivijaya, the Tang court gave them the name of ‘室利佛逝Shi-li-fo-shi).

This name includes the Buddha (佛).

This means special treatment for Srivijaya.



610 AD



the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641),

the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5]


 In summary,

 while it maintained Roman state traditions, Byzantium is distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by


 Orthodox Christianity 



rather than


 Roman polytheism.[6]

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery.


The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.


Its capital city was Constantinople



(modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context),  it survived the 5th century 




 and fall of the Western Roman Empire

and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

. Both “Byzantine Empire” and “Eastern Roman Empire” are historiographical terms applied in later centuries; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roma Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr.Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum),[1] and Romania (Ῥωμανία).[2]

c.616 CE:

The maternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad, Abu Waqqas, joined a trading voyage from Ethiopia to Guangzhou. He then returned to Arabia, and came back to Guangzhou 21 years later with a copy of the Koran.

He founded the Mosque of Remembrance,

near the Kwang Ta (Smooth Minaret) built by the Arabs as a lighthouse.

Abu Waqqas tomb is in the Muslim cemetery in Guangzhou.



Liu Chih,

The Life of the Prophet (12 vols), 1721, quoted by the Islamic Council of Victoria, Four missionaries were sent to China by the prophet Mohammad, and two died in Quanzhou.


 They were buried as honoured guests, and the tombs repeatedly repaired and embellished until the present.
Wang Lianmao (ed),
Return to the City of Light, p.99, and Quanzhou site captions, citing Ming Shu, ‘A history of Fujian province


Tang Dynasty

The death of

Emperor Yang Ti of Sui

resulted in a Sui Kingdom civil war from which

King Li Yuan (of Western Wei) later became

the first Tang Emperor Kao Tsu


his son Li Shih-min arose victorious,

establishing the T’ang dynasty and extending the unification of China for another 300 years. Li Yuan, adopting the title


T’ang Kao Tsu, ruled from AD 618-626



then abdicated in favor of his son Li Shih-min who adopted the title

T’ai Tsung and ruled from AD 627 to 649.

Both were able rules under whom T’ang began its rise to greatness. The next 300 years was a time of relative calm, prosperity and enlightenment with the cultural arts dominating over the military arts.







During the patriarchate of

Syrian missionaries

Mar Ishu Jahb II, 636,

 went to China, and for 150 years this mission was active…. 109 Syrian missionaries have worked in China during 150 years of the Chinese mission….

They went out from Beth Nahrin, the birthplace of Abraham, the father of all believers.

The Syrian missionaries traveled on foot;

 they had sandals on their feet, and a staff in their hands, and carried a basket on their backs, and in the basket was the Holy Write and the cross.

They took the road around the Persian Gulf; went over deep rivers and high mountains, thousands of miles. On their way they met many heathen nations and preached to them the gospel of Christ.20






During the early years of the Mohammedan regime,

 the Syrian Christian churches had more freedom and peace than under the Persian kings.

A concordat was signed with Mohammed whereby the Christians would pay tribute, in time of war shelter endangered Muslims and refrain from helping the enemy.

In exchange they were to be given religious toleration, though they were not to proselytize, and they would not be required to fight for Mohammed.21

He had reason to be friend the Christians for a “Nestorian” had been Mohammed’s teacher at one point and, in some early battles, certain Christian communities had actually fought on his side against pagan tribes.22

So much Christian influence, though highly distorted, is apparent in his teaching that Islam has been called a Christian heresy









It was not until the seventh century

 that two events brought about the demise of this great trading center.

The first was

the smuggling of silkmoth eggs

 into Syria, concealed in a bamboo cane,


the presumption being that it was done by “Nestorians,”40 with the result that “by the end of the sixth century (Syria) appears to have been meeting the west’s demand for the raw material.”41





Kao Tsu
also known as Li Yuan
AD 618 – 626
T’ai Tsung
also known as Li Shih-min
AD 627-649
Kao Tsung AD 649-683
Chung Tsung AD 684-690
Wu Tsu-t’ien
AD 690-705
Chung Tsung
2nd reign
AD 705-710
Juei Tsung AD 710-712
Li Lung-Chi
also known as Hsuan Tsung (Ming Hsuan)
AD 712-756
son of Li Lung-chi
AD 756
Su Tsung
(full control)   (nominal control)
AD 756-757
AD 758-761
Shih Su-ming
AD 757-761
Tai Tsung AD 762-779
Te Tsung AD 780-805
Hien Tsung AD 806-820
Mu Tsung AD 821-824
????? AD 824-827
Wen Tsung AD 827-841
Wu Tsung AD 841-846
Siuan Tsung AD 847-855
????? AD 856-859
Yi Tsung AD 860-873
Hi Tsung AD 874-888
Chao Tsung AD 889-904
Chou We
through puppet emperor Ngai Tsung
AD 905-907

Tang Dynasty

[] Emperor Taizong [Tai-tsung], Tang Dynasty (626-649)
The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.



Li Lihua as the Empress in a movie about Wu Zetian (c.1940)







In the year 635 A.D., a party of foreigners from the distant West, a vague area known to the Chinese for many centuries as Ta Chinn, reached the capital city of the Great Chinese Empire, Ch’ang-An, later called Hsian-fu. It was in the early years of the T’ang dynasty.












The Chronology Srivijaya History Collections

Distorted history of Southeast Asia in Śrīvijaya times

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, few people doubt that the location of the Śrīvijaya was Palembang in Sumatra, because, according to G. Coedès, Palembang was the center of the trade between the East and West in the Śrīvijaya times as well as that of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

However it is quite dubious if the hypotheses reflect historical facts or not. As the entrepôt between India and China, Jambi was located at more preferable location than Palembang.

As the center of Mahāyāna Buddhism, the states of Malay Peninsula, such as Chaiya had more advantage than Palembang.


AD 649-683

Kao Tsung, son of T’ai Tsung,






651 CE:

 First Arab embassy to China.




The Kingdom of Sunda and kingdom of Galuh

were twin kingdoms in West Java 

that emerged from the division of Tarumanagara kingdom in 670 C.E..


Information about the two kingdoms is taken mostly from stone inscriptions scattered around Bogor in Java, and from later historical annals and the records of traders and travelers.

The inscriptions mention the kingdom of Sunda as the successor of Tarumanagara, while the inscriptions in Sukabumi mention the existence of the Sunda kingdom until the era of Sri Jayabupati.

Wretikandayun,  (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate his small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance through dynastic marriage with the Kingdom of Kalingga, which supported their demands for independence.

Wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun’s demand. In 670 C.E



Hall notes that Taruma on the Sunda straits sent an embassy to China in 666-9, but the Chinese never heard from this Javanese port again.







680 AD


This possibly occurred in the 680s.

Malayu, also known as Jambi,

rich in gold and was held in high esteem.

Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu would increase its own prestige.[18]

682 CE:

Kedukan Bukit Inscription


The first known inscription of a king of Srivijaya was incised on a river boulder at Kedukan Bukit, Palembang in Sumatra.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, 1.6.




Alih Aksara


Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13] According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa). He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan. The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. Barring the potentially earlier (but undated) Dong Yen Chau inscription, it is the oldest surviving specimen of the Malay language, in a form known as Old Malay. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. This inscription is dated the year 605 Saka (683 AD) and contains numerous Sanskrit words

All these inscriptions were written in Pallava script, a form of ancient script used in Tamil kingdoms of ancient India.








Bagéa! Taun Śaka geus liwat 604, dina poé ka sabelas

  1. paro-terang bulan Waiśakha Dapunta Hiyang naék di
  2. parahu ngalapsiddhayātra. di poé ka tujuh paro-terang
  3. bulan Jyestha Dapunta Hiyang angkat ti Minanga
  4. tambahan mawa prajurit dua laksa kalawan bekel
  5. dua ratus cara (peti) di parahu kalawan leumpang sarewu
  6. tiga ratus dua welas lobana datang ti mata jap (Mukha Upang)
  7. di poé ka lima paro-terang bulan….(Asada)
  8. ngemplong gumbira datang nyieun wanua….
  9. Śrīwijaya jaya,siddhayātra 



Transliteration 1:

svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604?) ekādaśī śu-

klapakşa vulan vaiśākha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> nāyik di

sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa

vulan jyeşţha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> maŕlapas dari minānga

tāmvan mamāva yaṃ vala dualakşa dangan ko-

duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu

tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātaṃ di mata jap

sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n> <…>

laghu mudita dātaṃ marvuat vanua <…>

śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa <…>

  1. svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604 ?) ekādaśī śu
  2. klapakşa vulan vaiśākha dapunta hiya<(m> nāyik di
  3. sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa
  4. apunta hiya,vulan jyeşţha d<(m> maŕlapas dari minānga
  5. vala dualakşa dangan ko-(sa)(tāmvan mamāva yam
  6. duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu
  7. di mata jap(tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātam
  8. sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n>…
  9. marvuat vanua…(laghu mudita dātam
  10. śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa…




Transliteration 2:[1]

Swasti Shri Shakawarsatita 605 ekadashi

Shuklapaksa wulan Waishaka dapunta hiyang naik

Disambau mangalap siddhayatra di Saptami Shuklapaksa

Wulan Jyestha dapunta hiyang marlapas dari Minanga

Tamvan (Tamvar?) mamawa jang bala dua laksa dangan <…>

dua ratus tsyara disambau dangan jalan saribu

Tlu ratus sapuloh dua banyaknya. Datang di Matajap (Mataya?)

Sukhatshitta. Di pantshami shuklapaksa Wulan <…>

Laghu mudik datang marwuat manua <…>

Syriwijaya jayasiddhayatra subhiksa.


Ti prasasti Kedukan Bukit, kapanggih data-data saperti kieu[3]:

  1. Dapunta Hyang naék parahu tanggal 11 Waisaka 604 (23 April 682)
  2. Dapunta Hyang angkat ti Minanga tanggal 7 Jesta (19 Mei) kalawan mawa leuwih ti 20.000 prajurit. Rombongan nepi di Muka Upang.
  3. Dapunta Hyang nyieun ‘wanua’ tanggal 5 Asada (16 Juni)







English Translation

for Malay Language version of the Inscription


All hail and prosperity! In the year 605 of the Saka calendar, on the eleventh day on the full moon of Waisaka, His Majesty took

a boat to make a profit.

 On the seventh day on the full moon of Jyesta, His Majesty

brings 20000 troops and 312 people in boats from firth of Tamvan, With 1312 foot soldiers and came to Matajap happily. On the fifth day on the bright moon of …,

they docked and open a country …

Great, prosperous and peaceful Srivijaya!









English Translation

Om swasti astu! All hail and prosperity.

 In the year 605 of the [Indian] Saka calendar, on the eleventh day at half-moon of Waisaka, Sri Baginda took dugouts in order to obtain siddhayatra.[2]

 On Day 7, on the 15th day at half-moon of Jyestha, Sri Baginda extricated himself from minānga tāmvan.[3] He took 20,000 troops with him … as many as 200 in dugouts, with 1,312 foot soldiers.

They arrived at … Truly merry on the fifteenth day of the half-moon…, agile, happy, and they made a trip to the country … Great Sriwijaya! Prosperity and riches …”






683 AD

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13]

According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa).

 He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan.



The exact location of Minanga Tamwan

 is still a subject of discussion.

The Palembang theory as the place where Srivijaya was first established, was presented by Coedes and supported by Pierre-Yves Manguin. Soekmono on the other hand, argues that Palembang is not the capital of Srivijaya and suggests that the Kampar river system in Riau where theMuara Takus temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.[14] 

Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and suggests Chaiya as the center of Srivijaya.[15]


Talang Tuo inscription

is a Srivijaya inscription measured 50cm × 80 cm discovered in 17 November 1920 at the foot of Seguntang Hill, near Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.


The inscription is written in Pallava letter in Old Malay, dated 606 Saka (23 March 684 CE) mentioning about the establishment of Śrīksetra sacred park under the order of Śrī Jayanāśa. Today the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta

From Sanskrit inscriptions, it’s notable that the King Jayanasa launched a maritime conquest in 684 with 20,000 men to acquire wealth, power, and ‘magic power’.[17] 

Under the leadership of Jayanasa, the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire.



686 CE:

The Kota kapur inscription

found on Bangka island records preparation of a naval expedition by Srivijaya against rival ports in western Java.


Prasasti Kota Kapur:

Pallava inscribed column (dated 686 AD.), concerning Sriwijaya, found on the island Bangka, Indonesia (Stitch; photo’s made in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. Column property of Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, item-no.: MNI D90

NSCRIPTION Lake Stone found in 1935 in Stone Lake, around the cemetery of the kings of Palembang Sabokingking, 2 Ilir, Palembang, no dates to the year.



The inscriptions are decorated with the head of this seven-headed cobra consist of 28 lines.


FM Schnitger According to this inscription from the 9th century AD or AD-10, but according to JG de Casparis inscriptions are from the mid-7th century AD.
Form (rupa) is compared with inscription inscription others considered the most artistic and beautiful shaped feet, showing the statue of Srivijaya already have a capable artist.


In this site also found a stone that reads sidhayatra (victory or holy journey). It is estimated that this place is an important place of pilgrimage at the time.


Judging from perupaan Telaga Batu inscription, which appears is seven and a cobra’s head on the bottom rail or the inscription there is a symmetry between the left channel with right and meet in the middle like a water fountain.


From the shape and it illustrates two shower perupaan genitals once (hermaphrodite), which when linked with mystical cosmology is a symbol of fertility.


This inscription is the only inscription of Srivijaya which not only contains the writings, but also there is a shape or image.

The seventh head of a cobra that existed at the top of the stele can be interpreted as an attempt to keep the king of Srivijaya content or text engraved inscription was still obeyed.


Today, the Old Malay inscriptions and lettered this Pallawa, stored in the National Museum, Jakarta.



Telaga Batu inscription text

(1) om siddham titam hamwan wari AWAI kandra kayet nipaihumpa, amuha an ulu
(2) tandrum opponent’s nauseating nauseating makamatai tandrun hakairu muah kayet nihumpa Unai ume
(3) Ntem ni wll ulun Haraki Unai cash you wanak mamu rajaputra, prostara, bhupati, senapati, nayata, pratyaya, hajipratyaya, dandanayaka
(4) …. murddhaka tuha an watakwuruh, addhyaksi nijawarna, vasikarana, kumaramatya, cathabhata, adhikarana, karmma, kayastha, sthapaka, puhawan, waniyaga, pratisara da
(5) ye hajj Marsi, hulun Hajo, wanak uram niwunuh mamu ye oath of mammam kadaci you wll tida dyaku niwunuh you swear you drohaka tuwi mulam kadasi wanun Luwi marwuddhi yam.

Translation by G. Coedes:

Om! Good luck …. You all, no matter how many, the son of the king …, regents, senapati, Nayaka, pratiyaya, people trust the king, judges, leaders of … the head of the workers, supervisors low caste, vasikarana, kumaramatya, catabhata, adhikarana … … workers, sculptors, skipper, merchants, leaders, …, and you washerwoman rajadan slave king.


You will all die by this curse, if ye are not faithful to me, you will die by the curse. In addition, if you apply as a traitor, in league with the people …




Telaga Batu inscription text content is basically also a curse king of Srivijaya to its followers, its magnifying

The interpretation of the inscription

Writing engraved on the stele is quite long, but in outline the contents of a curse on anyone who commits a crime in kedatuan Sriwijaya and do not obey the command Datu.


Casparis argue that people who called in this inscription are the people who categorized and potentially dangerous to fight the sworn kedatuan Sriwijaya so need.

Mentioned these people from

the king’s  son  (rājaputra) , minister (kumārāmātya) , regent (bhūpati) , commander (Senapati), Council / prominent local figures (Nayaka)  , royalty  (pratyaya) , king of   subordinates  (Hajj pratyaya) ,  judge (dandanayaka) , chairman of the workers / laborers (Tuha an vatak = vuruh) , low labor supervisor (addhyāksi nījavarna) , weapons expert  (vāsīkarana)  ,  soldiers (cātabhata), officer manager (adhikarana) , store employees (kāyastha)  , craftsmen (sthāpaka ), captain of the ship (puhāvam) , peniaga (vaniyāga), the king’s servants (Marsi Hajj) , and the slave king (hulun Hajj).
This inscription is one of the most complete curse inscriptions contain the names of government officials.


Some historians consider the existence of this inscription, allegedly was the center of Srivijaya in Palembang and officials are sworn it certainly resided in the capital of the kingdom.


Soekmono argued on the basis of this inscription is not possible Sriwijaya in Palembang


because of the threat information to anyone who curses disobedience to kedatuan, and Minanga proposal as it is called in the inscription Kedukan Hill

assumed to be

around Temple Barelang as the capital of Srivijaya


images Temple Barelang or

Muara Takus temple

The site is supposedly the oldest in the world the rest of the triumph of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya was on Barelang Village, Kampar regency, Riau.
Center Barelang Buddhist temple complex located in District XIII Koto Kampar a distance of about 135 kilometers from the city of Pekanbaru, Riau

The distance to the center of the village temple complex itself Barelang about 2.5 km, not far from the edge of Kampar Kanan River. And from the cross road of West Sumatra, Riau, is within a distance of about 19 km.

temple complex which was first discovered Cornet D Groot in 1860 it was truly unique. Unlike the temples in Java such as Borobudur, Prambanan and others.

Temple complex is surrounded by a wall measuring 74 x 74 meters. ‘


Muara Takus Temple Riau, The temple is located in the village Barelang, Kampar district, Riau City.


 Barelang temple complex, the only relic of history that shaped


Outside their area of land there is also a wall measuring 1.5 x 1.5 km that surround this complex to the Kampar Kanan river.



Within this complex there are also old buildings of the temple, temples and Stupas Mahligai Youngest and Palangkaraya. Here we find the temple made of clay and sand soil.


Historically, the Village Barelang before becoming a central teaching of Buddhism, is an area that formerly had visit by sailors from the kingdom of Srivijaya with Right down the Kampar River.

According to experts, the material used in this temple is the older method than the existing temple in Java, using stone from the mountains.



If it continues to follow the history of the creation of the temple, known to manufacture the material was taken and the village temple Pongkai located approximately 6 km from the temple. Pongkai name comes from China “Pong” means a hole and “Kai” means land.

We also can find bone burning place which is situated inside the temple complex.

Pongkai village.


This village near

 air tiris village near the Kampar river   where Dr Iwan in 1995 found

Tang yueh Jar


Incised tang yueh jar with 12 ears

The oldest jar in Indonesia found at air tiris villages near muaratakus temple


Dr Iwan yueh dragon jar with six chillin dog ear  found at java



Compare with other yueh jar which many found in java

Six Dynasties Yue Ware Globular Jar with Short Spout.

The greenish glaze covers the whole globular undecorated body with some running down to the base.

The body has four ear lugs. The base is flat with exposed burnt red body material.


And  more oldest jar but never found in Indonesia

Western Han Dynasty Yue Ware Large Jar. Globulus with two incised ear lugs, a co-joined double S mould rest above the lugs. The rim is flat and three bands borders circle the upper body. On one of the border is incised with four stylised flying bird motif. The glaze run down up to the third band border and exposed the unglazed reddish brown body. Glaze loss and a long hairline crack across the body. Part of the lug is slightly broke



Six Six Dynasties Yue Ware Large Martavan Jar. The jar with six lugs covered with greenish glaze

Eastern Han Proto Yue Ware Large Vase ( 2nd-3rd AD). Heavy potted, spontaneous glaze brush wash on the red earth body material with abstract like drips running down to the base. It has a thick inverted mouthrim..



7th Century

.7th century
The Islamic King have fight each other in order to cupied the Middles East area have changed the social and political situation in Europe

  • 7th to 15th century:


 The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[9]

Some 200,000 Persians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, and other foreigners lived in Guangzhou as traders, artisans and metalworkers.
Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the seas, p.39.

 In fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

705 AD


Kao Tsung extended Chinese control over much of Korea and part of Manchuria.



He defeated the Japanese fleet, ending Japanese influence on the mainland for many years.

The later years of his reign saw

Kao Tsung  father’s concubine,

Wu Tsu-t’ien,

asserting power, probably ruling from behind the scenes.

She proved ruthless,

eventually seizing power in her own name

 (AD 705-710).









The two kingdoms sunda and Galuh were re-united under Tarumanagara’s successor, Sanjaya, who placed a vassal king on the throne of Galuh in 723.

the Sundan king

which became the Mataram and Majapahit King


( Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama,)

The second Sunda King

(723 – 732M),

Became the King of Mataram K8ingdom(732-860 AD(

 and he found the Ancient Mataram kingdom and also the  Sandjaja Reign

menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 – 760M).

 Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya





Kompleks Candi Dieng

Hindus  candi were built in 7th Century  Candi Gatotkaca, Candi Bima, Candi Arjuna, Candi Semar, Candi Sembadra, Candi Srikandi, Candi Setyaki, Gangsiran Aswatama, dan Candi Dwarawati.

a king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya. Balaputradewa ruled VIII-IX century AD. Balaputradewa is the most famous king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya as in the reign of the kingdom of Srivijaya was he reached the peak of its power as a Maritime Empire in power almost throughout the archipelago to reach Thailand, India, the Philippines and China



Look the Museum Balaputra  dewa

Top of Form

Balaputradewa Museum is located at Km 6.5 on Jl. No. I Srijaya State. 288, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.


Balaputradewa museum has about 3580 pieces of this collection of traditional items Palembang, preserved animals from various regions in South Sumatra, some miniature houses inland, replicas of statues of ancient inscriptions ever found in Siguntang Hill, giant carved stones of the Megalithic era , and many more.





Collections at the Museum Balaputradewa divided into 10 kinds of categories:
histografi or historika (stories),
the tools of modern technology,
art (in the form of engravings),
flora and fauna (Biologika) and geological
and contained limas house is also home Ulu Ali.
The collection at the Museum Balaputradewa placed on 3 pieces exhibit space to be grouped into
showrooms prehistoric times,


Putri cave






Pasemah fossil


Stone axe



Burial eathern martavan

Stone inscription












The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families.

 The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D.,

were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have come from the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years.

 During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.


Plaosan temple


The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple,

Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang
Candi (pronounced /
ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples
or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries




Arrival of Islam in the archipelago

 was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).

The  discovery of a tombstone inscription bertarikh 127 AH or 745 AD replied rather long debate among the historians regarding the arrival of Islam in Indonesia . Historical inscriptions found in the District ‘s Sandai high value to reveal that Islamic culture in Ketapang is the oldest Islamic culture in the archipelago that came in the 7th century , rather than in Aceh .
Previously , experts were mostly from the west and the Netherlands are still different opinions about the timing of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . There are some experts mention the 10th century , 12th century and 13th century as the most likely period from the beginning of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . Based on historical fact , according to the Foundation Coordinator Leaf Width , Ir Gusti Cambodia , said during the Islamisation of Ocean Pasai , Aceh , the first king of Malik Al – Salih , died 698 Hijri or 1297 AD , Gujarat is still a Hindu kingdom .

” So at that time Islam has not been established and developed in Gujarat , so may not be able to spread Islam to the archipelago , ” he said .


In addition , the results of the study concluded that the width Leaf Foundation Sandai inscription form is not the same as the shape of tombstones in Pasai and Gresik , East Java . The stone is a stone nor a native of Ketapang , but imported stone .

Although research conducted fully completed yet , the Foundation is actively also collect a lot of literature to strengthen the findings .

” Based on the shape of the tombstone , the experts also found the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago mention of Gujarat ( 12th century ) , Bengal , Coromandel and Malabar ( 13th century ) . According to their shape tombstones and Pasai found in East Java , the same shape with tombstones found in Cambay , Gujarat , “said Cambodia .

He added that this opinion is reinforced by the opinion of the Dutch scholar , JP Moquette that conclusion based on the findings of gravestones in Pasai , Aceh Dhul – Hijjah bertarikh 17 H 831 / 27 September 1428 M. Likewise SQ Fatimi based tombstone Siti Fatimah bertarikh 475 AH / 1082 AD found in Leran , East Java .

Cambodia concluded , based chronicle inscription proved to have occurred Sandai connection with the Arab – Persian archipelago in the early 7th century . At that time known in history as the heyday of the Islamic World . History of Muslims noted , that in the 7th century in Spain still controlled by the Muslim rulers . In this period , Umayyad Dynasty ( 132 AD – 749 AD ) and the Abbasid dynasty ( 750 AD – 798 AD ) has expanded into Persia and the Indian subcontinent to set sail to the Far East .

” This is the farthest humans have ever navigated before the rise of European shipping in the 16th century . Empire in history Tanjungpura sourced from the book History of the Sung Dynasty 489 , mentions that the royal Tanjungpura relations with Arab traders in the year 977 AD is growing ” , he continued . Where King Tanjungpura , Hiang – ta when it has sent a messenger to the palace of China , which is entrusted to the Arab traders called P’ulu – Hsieh ( Abu Abdallah ) to lead the royal delegation – West Borneo .


” Sandai tombstone is one of important evidence about the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago and strengthen the notion that Islam initially taken directly from Arabic instead of Samudera Pasai ” , he said .

If the majority of Muslims see the archipelago air- Shafi , said Cambodia , there are similarities kepemelukan Islam in Egypt and Hadhralmawt , which is thought to be part of a place in Arabic as the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago .

” Although there has been a connection in the 7th century , the spread of Islam in the archipelago newly gained momentum in the 11th century until the 18th . This momentum occurs after the penetration of Islam by the Sufis who appear through a network of scholars who maintain harmony between Shari’a and Sufism , “he described .

However, the role of the maritime Srivijaya empire that once ruled the West Boneo (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) in the 7th century in the spread of Islam in the archipelago says are just as important .

” Even at that time Srivijaya still are Hindus, but there are already Muslim community that settled in the kingdom of Srivijaya and follow this to the cruise around the archipelago , ” he said .

Although the 7th century residents in Ketapang (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) have met and interacted with Arab Muslim traders , there has been no evidence of the presence of the local Muslim population in large numbers or on the occurrence of substantial Islamization in Tanjungpura . Tanjungpura new rulers converted to Islam in the year 1590 by using titles Panembahan and Giri , namely Panembahan Giri Kusuma and change the name of the Hindu kingdom into an Islamic empire Tanjungpura Matan ( Arabic ; spot starters ) .




With the discovery of the tombstone inscriptions in this Sandai ( Inscription Sandai ) , said Cambodia can be presumed that the relationship between the people in Tanjungpura ( West Borneo ) and the Middle East has existed since the early days of Islam . Muslim traders from Arabia , Persia , and the Indian subcontinent who came to the islands of the archipelago and China not only trade , but to some extent also spread Islam to the people of your Site

However, around 745,

 Chen-la (Cambodia真臘) attacked the capital of Shih-li-fo-shi, and occupied Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

 At the same time the control of the Malacca Strait collapsed.

Nearly twenty years later, Śrīvijaya group counter attacked Chen-la and recovered Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

At this campaign the Śailendra navy from central Java (Shailendra) played the leading role and the king of Śailendra was given the title of the ‘Mahārāja’ of Śrīvijaya.

The memorial of this event was the ‘Ligor inscription’ dated 775.

 Śailendra became the champion state of Śrīvijaya group, but Śailendra sent envoys to the Tang court under the name of ‘Kha-ling’ same as Sañjaya.

Actual shipment of its tribute was dispatched from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, probably Sathing Phra, and sometimes from Jambi where international commodities were easily accumulated.

 a Chinese monk,


wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda)



name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia.



The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th century. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent.

The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism,

extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina

748 CE:

Chinese monk Jian Zhen (Jianzhou, of Daming monastery in Yangzhou), failed in his fifth attempt to sail to Japan, and drifted to Guangzhou where ‘many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun [Indonesia/Java]… with… spices, pearls and jade piled up mountain high’.



The largest ship looked like a mansion, with sails many zhangs high. [1 zhang = 3.11 metres.] Sri Lanka was by now the major shipping centre, with ships visiting from India, Persia and Ethiopia; Sri Lankan ships had gangways many zhangs high.
Tang Zhiba, ‘The influence of the sail on the development of the ancient navy’, p.61

752 to 1045:

 The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[12]


Emperor SU TSUNG
AD 756-762

Reign title: CH’IEN-YUAN, AD 758-762

While the rebel Shih Su-ming ruled much of China, the legitimate T’ang emperor Su Tsung worked to restore order. In 758 he cast high denomination fiduciary coins to finance the war, but they proved a financial disaster




760 to 830:


Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[13]


The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; Mandarin Pinyin: Táng Cháo; Jyutping: tong4 ciu4; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (618 – 907 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

 It was founded by the Li () family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.

The dynasty was interrupted briefly when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne proclaiming the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant.

The 7th century and first half of the 8th century is generally considered the zenith era of the Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age while the Silk Road thrived, with sway over Indochina in the south, and to the west Tang China was master of the Pamirs (modern-day Tajikistan) and protector of Kashmir bordering Persia.[48]



Some of the kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Nepal, Khotan, Kucha, Kashgar, Japan, Korea, Champa, and kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley.[49][50]

There was great contact and interest in India as a hub for Buddhist knowledge, with famous travelers such as Xuanzang (d. 664) visiting the South Asian subcontinent.

After a 17-year long trip,

Xuanzang managed to bring back valuable Sanskrit texts to be translated into Chinese.

 There was also a Turkic–Chinese dictionary available for serious scholars and students, while Turkic folksongs gave inspiration to some Chinese poetry.[103][104]

In the interior of China, trade was facilitated by the Grand Canal and the Tang government’s rationalization of the greater canal system that reduced costs of transporting grain and other commodities.[105] The state also managed roughly 32,100 km (19,900 mi) of postal service routes by horse or boat.[106]


During the Tang Dynasty, thousands of foreigners came and lived in numerous Chinese cities for trade and commercial ties with China, including Persians, Arabs, Hindu Indians, Malays, Sinhalese, Khmers, Chams, Jews and Nestorian Christians of the Near East, and many others.[115][116] In 748,

the Buddhist monk Jian Zhen described Guangzhou as a bustling mercantile center where many large and impressive foreign ships came to dock. He wrote that “many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun (Indonesia/Java)…with…spices, pearls, and jade piled up mountain high”,[117][118]


The Kwan Sing Bio Temple

is located in Tuban Regency, the city lying in the north coast of East Java.
It is also easy to reach by public transport such as bus or car since its strategic position close to the Surabaya and Jakarta main road, or take only a short walk about two hundred metres from the Tuban bus terminal.




The worship place of Kwan Sing Bio temple is predicted to have been built in the seventh century and it was also believed to have high supernatural quality, therefore lots of Hindu pilgrims visite there daily, especially on holidays of Chinese calendar Imlek and the birthday of Kwan Ping Thai Tjoe, Kwan Sing Tee Koen, and Tjoe pjong Tiang Koen. The temple faces northward to the seashore.




The Indonesian Chinese communities believe that God will easily grant every prayer spelt in this direction.

 One of its uniqueness is the giant crab standing on the gateway, and such a kind of this is away from the custom since most of the temples have symbol of dragon and peacock

1.The very rare and excellent Tang Dinasty ceramic s and other gold cup were found at the Belitung straits , but very pitty Indonesia fishermen only found the bad conditions collections, all the best collection were gone to Singapore Museum and trader.

2.Due to that condition I starting to seek the info about that collections via google explorations and show to all the Chinese Tang’s  Ceramic collector all over the world.

  1. I hope this info will help the Indonesia and all over the world marine archeologist will used this info fore their research







— Tang Dynasty China


Abbasid Persia —

the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably







Basra silver coin

 The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead.



6     Changsha Copper Reds

Copper oxide and iron oxide were applied in the glaze material for firing in oxidizing (oxygen rich) atmosphere to give off the green and brown colours.  However, copper oxide would turn red if put under high fire in a reducing (oxygen deficit) atmosphere.  In historical terms, China only started to produce the red color effect in Jun ware made in Henan during the Song dynasty.


The appearance of red patches on the bluish Jun wares was probably due to misfire, that is the dropping of copper impurities from the roof of the kiln chamber on the clay body burnt under simmering situation which enhanced the formation of reducing flame.  The occurrence was rather accidental.

Foliage design in copper red (An Islamic version)

From the discovery of Changsha wares, it seems the deliberate use of the copper red effect in Chinese ceramics first took place at the Changsha kilns in the Tang dynasty, which would bring forward the firing of copper red history to an earlier period


Spiral symbol motif in copper red (an Islamic version)

The evolution of copper reds from the copper bearing Changsha green and the blue green glazes is not really surprising.  Changsha wares were fired in wood burning dragon kilns built on hill slopes. 

The pulling effect of the wind due to the creation of a vacuum space in the firing process within the slanting structure could flare up the contents in the kiln chamber to an exceedingly high temperature in a very short while. 

This caused the kiln chamber to be suddenly filled with smoke, cutting down the oxygen supply and making occasional accidental reduction from the exceptionally high ash (soot) levels that would turn some of the copper oxide into cuprous oxide (red copper oxide) or colloidal copper ions, thus giving a red colour to a transparent glaze.

The Changsha copper reds were produced mainly by accident as the skill of controlling and manufacturing copper red glazes only reached their most successful expression in the early 15th century AD when Jingdezhen porcelains with copper red glazes were used in China in imperial rites.


 Even so, a piece of Ming copper red bowls can cost millions of dollars in the auction market. 


Changsha copper reds are therefore found in limited quantities and the shipwreck find will mark a new phase in ceramics history.


7     Religious Factors

The under glaze paintings of birds, animals, floral sprigs and trees executed by the Changsha potters during the Tang Dynasty exhibit a good mix of Buddhist and Islamic symbols and influence.  The paintings are exuberant, with attractive, eye-catching yet elegant images and produce an atmosphere of harmony of the two different religions.  The majority of the designs are composed and executed in a simple, uncluttered and spontaneous manner although they sometimes suffer from exaggeration and distortion.

Brief descriptions of some of the more popular painted subjects on Changsha wares are presented as follows:


  1. Buddhist symbols

Buddhism was introduced to China during the Western Han period and reached its peak in the Tang Dynasty.  We have found various forms of Buddhist symbols such as the swastika sign or other familiar motifs or molded design in relief as outlined below:

  • Lotus flowers:  painted in exquisite style or free flow of simplified line forms.  The lotus is treated as a sacred Buddhist representation.
Lotus motif in green and brown Lotus motif in Copper red


Tang Chines ecaligraphy


Salak  tree (cyathea spinulosa),



  • usually in the form of appliqué, is a living fossil of the prehistoric tree fern. The fronds are dark green and finely divided, held in a graceful arching habit, and the slender trunk is able to reach a height of about 20 feet.

It was said that


the Great Master Sekkiamani died between two Sala trees, and the Sala tree was regarded as a holy tree and is always shown protected in a cage-like fence.

Sala tree motif on Ewer Makara (fish) motif (A Buddhist Symbol)

Makara fish,

which is a legendary animal with a dragon-shaped head and curved nose, is a reincarnation of the Buddha, who always harbors the intention of tying people up for the preaching of the religion.


  • Lion motif or molded in relief is a symbol of Buddhism to express the loudness and clarity of the chanting of prayers by the Buddha.Lingzhi fungus is a sign of blessing for longevity.  This usually includes pictures of clouds.
Ewer with lion applique Lingzhi fungus with the potter’s mark zhou inscribed





  • Islamic symbols



In order to cater to the needs of the Muslims in the Middle East countries, the ingenious Changsha artisans cleverly painted motifs in line with Islamic teachings.  These consist of the following:




Abstract geographical pictures

are commonly found in Changsha bowls meant for the Arabic market.  First, small dots or beads are applied at random and the beads are arranged in circles, squares and lozenges which are typical design found in Persian embroideries or carpets.







Next comes the free flow lines and spiral symbols

which appear as flora sprigs, foliage or even ribbons.

The spiral is universally regarded as a symbol of movement.

We also see festive firework patterns that exude a sense of happiness.

  All these abstract designs suggest that the Muslims are not allowed to worship idols or anything in the form of living creatures.  Thus, the mosque is empty and only geographical patterns are drawn on the wall.

Arabic Koran scripts written in graphic forms are found on Changsha bowls, in praise of Allah as the only god.

Arabic Koran Inscription “I am the servant of Allah”


Arabic Koran Inscription “No other god but only Allah is the God”




Date palms

are a common appliqué design especially on ewers. 

Date palm

This is suitable for the Middle Eastern market as the date palm plantation was one of the important sources of wealth to the people then and sweet and juicy dates were a well-liked delicacy for the Arab people.


 The fruits of the date palm in the design have long been mistaken for that of grapes but the palm leaves are definitely different from grape vines.

8     Conclusion

The archaeological salvage of the Batu Hitam shipwreck has unlocked the secrets of the sunken ship and greatly expanded our knowledge of the Tang era.  It is the oldest ship ever found in Asia, in Indonesian waters, and provides the earliest evidence of the flourishing trade between China and Middle Eastern countries via a maritime silk route.

 The cargo is of historical importance and can be classed as a world heritage find.  The collection is a meaningful and important acquisition for Singapore as Singapore is currently an important commercial and maritime centre for the region

8th Cemtury

The Chinese merchants had crossed oceans to trade

 in Japan, Champa, and Java.


Jayavarman II is said to have reigned

since 802 until 850 (or 835?)


At the early stage of the ninth century

Samaratuńgga, the Mahārāja of Śailendra still dominated the central Java and Jayavarman II was perhaps under his control. Of course Chen-la could have traded with China, however the record of the tributary missions was not found in the Chinese chronicles after 814.


The Ten States Kingdom

Unlike the dynasties of northern China, which succeeded one other in rapid succession, the regimes of southern China were generally concurrent, each controlling a specific geographical area.

These were known as “The Ten Kingdoms”. [edit] Wu

The Kingdom of Wu (902–937)


 was established in modern-day Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces. It was founded by Yang Xingmi, who became a Tang Dynasty military governor in 892.

The capital was initially at Guangling (present-day Yangzhou) and later moved to Jinling (present-day Nanjing).







 The kingdom fell in 937 when it was taken from within by the founder of the Southern Tang.


  The Kingdom of Wuyue

 was the longest-lived (907–978)

 and among the most powerful of the southern states. Wuyue was known for its learning and culture.

 It was founded by Qian Liu, who set up his capital at Xifu (modern-day Hangzhou). It was based mostly in modern Zhejiang province but also held parts of southern Jiangsu.


Qian Liu was named the Prince of Yue by the Tang emperor in 902; the Prince of Wu was added in 904.


After the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907,

he declared himself king of Wuyue. Wuyue survived until the eighteenth year of the Song Dynasty, when Qian Shu surrendered to the expanding dynasty. [edit]


 The Kingdom of Min (909–945)

was founded by Wang Shenzhi, who named himself the Prince of Min with its capital at Changle (present-day Fuzhou).

One of Shenzhi’s sons proclaimed the independent state of Yin in the northeast of Min territory.




The Southern Han (917–971)

was founded in Guangzhou (also known as Canton) by Liu Yan. His brother, Liu Yin, was named regional governor by the Tang court. The kingdom included Guangdong and most of Guangxi.


[edit] Chu The Chu (927–951) was founded by Ma Yin with the capital at Changsha. The kingdom held Hunan and northeastern Guangxi. Ma was named regional military governor by the Tang court in 896, and named himself the Prince of Chu with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907.


Prasasti Sukabumi itu, tertera angka tahun 921 M.


Di situ diceritakan soal pembangunan bendungan dan sungai yang dimulai pertama kali pada 804 M.

Prasasti Sukabumi adalah sebuah prasasti pada batu

yang ditemukan di perkebunan Sukabumi, kecamatan Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur.


Prasasti ini menurut sebutan ahli epigrafi lebih dikenal dengan nama Prasasti Harinjing.


Tulisan yang terdapat pada kedua belah sisi prasasti ini ditulis dengan aksara dan bahasa Jawa Kuna.


Prasasti ini terdiri dari tiga buah piagam yang mengenai hal yang sama


Bagian depan disebut Prasasti Harinjing A.

Isinya menyebutkan pada 11 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 726 Saka atau 25 Maret 804 Masehi, para pendeta di daerah Culangi memperoleh hak sima (tanah yang dilindungi) atas daerah mereka karena telah berjasa membuat sebuah saluran sungai bernama Harinjing.

Bagian belakang, Prasasti Harinjing B,

baris 1-23 menyebutkan bahwa Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodhong pada 15 Suklapaksa bulan Asuji tahun 843 Saka atau 19 September 921 Masehi, mengakui hak-hak para pendeta di Culangi karena mereka masih tetap harus memelihara saluran Harinjing.

Mulai baris selanjutnya, disebut Prasasti Harinjing C,


 menyebutkan bahwa hak serupa diakui pula pada 1 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 849 Saka atau 7 Maret 927 Masehi.





Edward McKinnon (Nalanda Sriwijaya Center) pada Kunjungan ke Situs Kota Rentang Hamparan Perak. 18 Maret 2010

.DR Edward Mackinnon visit Nalanda Srivijaya center at situs Kota rentang Hamparan Perak




11th Century

The Indian Tamil King Chola Attacked Srivijaya

At the early eleventh century,

 San-fo-chi was occupied by Chola,

the south Indian, Tamil empire. San-fo-chi regained its helm at the end of the eleventh century.




Following a 1025

raid by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India it began to gradually decline in importance.

Srivijaya’s capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate


Prasasti Sanghyang Tapak (juga dikenal sebagai Prasasti Jayabupati atau Prasasti Cicatih )[1] 

adalah prasasti kuno perangka tahun 952 saka (1030 M), terdiri dari 40 baris yang memerlukan 4 buah batu untuk menulisnya. Keempat batu prasasti ini ditemukan \

di tepi Sungai Cicatih, Cibadak, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat.

Tiga diantaranya ditemukan di dekat Kampung Bantar Muncang, sementara sebuah lainnya ditemukan di Kampung Pangcalikan.

Prasasti ini ditulis dalam huruf Kawi Jawa. Kini keempat batu prasasti ini disimpan di Museum Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan kode D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97, dan D 98

Isi tiga prasasti pertama (menurut Pleyte):

D 73: //O// Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. ha. ka. ra. wara tambir. iri- ka diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana- hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-

D 96: gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tapak ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa ikan sesini lwah. Makahingan sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i hulu, i sor makahingan ia sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i wungkalagong kalih matangyan pinagawayaken pra-sasti pagepageh. mangmang sapatha.

D 97: sumpah denira prahajyan sunda. lwirnya nihan.



Selamat dan sejahtera. Pada tahun Saka 952, bulan Kartika pada hari ke-12th bagian terang, hari Hariang, Kaliwon, hari pertama, Wuku Tambir.


Hari ini adalah hari dimana raja kerajaan Sunda, Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa,

membuat tanda tapak di bagian timur Sanghiyang Tapak.

 Dibuat oleh Sri Jayabupati raja kerajaan Sunda. Tidak ada seorangpun yang boleh melanggar aturan ini.

Di bagian sungai ini tidak boleh menangkap ikan, di kawasan pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak dekat hulu sungai.

Jauh hingga ke batas Sanghyang Tapak yang ditandai dua pohon besar.

Demikanlah tulisan ini dibuat, ditegakkan dengan sumpah kerajaan Sunda.


Piagam persumpahan raja ditulis di atas prasasti keempat (D 98). Terdiri atas 20 baris, sumpah ini memanggil semua kekuatan gaib, dewata (hyang) dari langit dan bumi untuk membantu menjaga dan melindungi mandat sang raja.

Siapa saja yang melanggar aturan ini akan dihukum oleh segenap makhluk halus, mati dengan cara yang mengerikan seperti otaknya disedot, darahnya diminum, ususnya dihancurkan, dan dada dibelah dua.


 Prasasti ini ditutup dengan kalimat,

 “I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh

 (Oh ketahuilah kamu sekalian hyang



In 1068,

King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty conquered what is now modern day Kedah from Srivijaya

and began a series of raids in Sumatera and Malay Peninsula for the next 20 years.

 Though ultimately, Srivijaya prevailed over the Indian Kingdom, the invasion leave Srivijaya severely weakened.

With large number of soldiers died in the war and it’s coffer almost empty plus 20 years of disrupted trades, Srivijaya reach grow short. It’s territories began to freed themselves from Palembang ruled and establish many small kingdoms all over Srivijaya former empire.

There’s some evidence that Srivijaya capital moved from Palembang to Jambi, but this is widely disputed. [4]


After the collapse of Srivijaya,

no major power that controls the town.

At that time in Palembang and the surrounding emerging local forces such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Trembling Nature group in the hills, the Master and Master Bosai Strong River upstream Histories, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on. [citation needed] In addition, some merchants of China make this city as their trade base. Sea People also made their headquarters Palembang as a pirate.

In this phase,

 Prince emerged last Sriwijaya, Parameswara. Following the invasion of Majapahit to Palembang, Parameswara with Sang Nila Utama go Tumasik fled.

 There he killed the governor Tumasik Thai nationals. When the Thai army will attack Tumasik, Parameswara with his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the kingdom of Malacca.

Parameswara converted to Islam to marry the daughter of Ocean Pasai and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century so that Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.

The Indian Tamil King Chola Army Attacked Sumatra and the fall of Srivijaya

Kota Cina sites






the end

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2914


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