KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA(BAGIAN KE 4)

INI CUPLIKAN INFO YANG LENGKAP DAPAT DILIHAT DI MUSEUM LELUHUR INDONESIA WANLI. CUPLIKAN INI TANPA ILUSTRASI.

The Tang Ceramic History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For senior Collectors and Historian

Copyright @ 2014

*Tang Horse (coll Dr Iwan)

 

*King Ganesha Teracota

( Collection Dr Iwan)

 

INTRODUCTIONS

The Map Of Indonesian Archiphelago

Swarnadwipa means the gold Land,also called Andalas Islandbecaue due to Tambo Minangkabau they came from Andalucia

This island with the famous port Lobu Tua (barus) exist since 3000 years BC with their Barus talc or camphor which used to mummification during pharaos

Also from the Yew record known Ophir mountain at Pasaman West sumatera where the gold mining from the Minangkabau Kingdom which export from the old port inderagiri, Barus and Pedir.Then in this island in Chinese record exist the bigger empire Srivijaya which called San Fo shi

 

Java Dwipa or The Rice Land which called Labadiu by Ptelomeus.

At this island found Argyre City (the city of silver) may be this the old Sunda Kingdom or Salaknegara ,

Chinese Wang Yuan record told that the java coin made from silver and Tin.

The Rome Monk Ordorico de Pordone told that the Java kingdom palace full with gold,silver and jewellary.

At This island very famous many kingdom like Tarumanegara,Old Mataram.Sunda,Singosari,Kediri,Majaphit,walisongo,Islamic mataram and Madura Kingdom.

The island of ocean goddest , from Chinese record Tai Ping huan yu chi was called Chin Li Pi Si or nusa kencana and also called pulo chung ( the island of ujung tanah) in Malaya,In this island very famous Kutai and the Tanjungpura kingdom.

.

The small island called Lesser Sunda.Bali was the best landscape island and many traveler visit this island since Rsi Markandiya in 8 th Century.In this lesser sunda island there were the famous Horse,and there the bali and Lombok kingdom there.

 

 

The Arabs called the Sulawesi with Sholibis name ..
Sulawesi name supposedly comes from the word ‘ Sula ‘ which means island and ‘ iron ‘ . Sulawesi Island is the largest since the first bessi ( iron ) , so it is not surprising Ussu and around the lake Matana containing iron and Nikkel .

The Dutch call this island by the name of Celebes .

The island has been inhabited by humans since 30,000 years ago as evidenced by the presence of ancient relics on the island . For example, the location of prehistoric stone age Besoa Valley

 

.

Maluku has a real name ” Jazirah al – Mulk ” which means a collection / royal peninsula consisting of small kingdoms . Maluku is known as the Thousand Island region and socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural resources .


In 4000 years ago

in the kingdom of Egypt , Pharaoh 12th dynasty , Sesoteris III . Through the data regarding the transaction Egyptian archaeologists in importing incense , ebony , incense , ivory , from the mysterious land where ” Punt ” is derived .

Although archaeological support is lacking, the country ” baboons ” can be identified after Giorgio Buccellati find a container that contains objects such as clove in the middle Euphrates .

In the period 1700 BC ,

the cloves are just in the Maluku islands , Indonesia . In the Middle Ages ( around 1600 AD ) clove spice once one of the most popular and expensive in Europe , exceeding the price of gold .
In addition to cloves , spices from the Moluccas is the fruit of Nutmeg . Fruit Nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ) tree is a plant form that is derived from the Banda Islands , Maluku .

 

Papua is the second largest island in the world . At around the year 200 AD , Geography expert named Ptolamy LABADIOS call it by name .

At the end of the year 500 AD ,

the Chinese author named Ghau Yu TUNGKI Kua gives the name ,

and by the end of the year 600 AD , the kingdom of Srivijaya Papua naming using JANGGI name . Tidore give a name to this island and its inhabitants as PAPA – UA that has changed the title into PAPUA .

In the 18th century BC , the rulers of Srivijaya empire , sending offerings to the Chinese empire . In the offering would be some birds of paradise , which is believed to be a bird of paradise garden that is native of Papua .

With a strong fleet Sriwijaya visit Maluku and Papua to trade spices – spices , perfume – perfume , pearls and feathers of birds of Paradise .

 

 

In the early centuries AD

began the relationship between the Euro, Indian and Chinese empire with Indonesian, Malaysian and other Asian country

What .When,Where and How were the relationship ?

Who were the Euro,Chinese and Indian eminent People an Leaders that influenced the development of the kingdom in Indonesia and Malaysia at the beginning of the first century until the advent of the kingdom of Srivijaya?
Information relating to the above must be known by all generations now especially the young generations in order to take a good examples to be imitated and prevent recurrence of the things that are not good or bad in the present and future

Look carefully the informations below

Learn from the past

Alam Terkembang Menjadi Guru

Jakarta,February 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

PROLOGUE

 

 

ORIGINAL Tang Horse

TANG DYNASTY

The Tang dynasty is considered by many people to be the golden age of Chinese civilization. Its emperors presided over one of the greatest periods of Chinese art, culture and diplomacy.

Under the Tangs, China dominated the Far East in a generally amicable and peaceful way; Silk Road trade flourished; Christianity was introduced to China; and Buddhism become so well entrenched that the reproduction of Buddhist texts led to the invention of block printing and calendars.

The Tang Dynasty was centered in Chang’an, a city established by the Han dynasty on the ruins of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s capital of Xian and developed by Sui emperor Wen Tu. Under the Tangs, Chang’an became a thriving metropolis and center of international trade filled with merchants, foreign traders, missionaries from numerous religions, acrobats, artists and entertainers.

It was the largest city in Asia, perhaps the world, with a population of around two million people at a time when no city in Europe had a population of more than a few hundred thousand.

The city was linked to the rest of China through a network of canals and toll roads which brought more riches and taxes into Chang’an.

The Tang dynasty is often regarded as the classical period of Chinese civilization. It was a relatively peaceful phase in Chinese history.

The other major power center during the Tang Dynasty was Baghdad, the home of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty.

Robust trade between the two empires took place on the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road. Important ports included present-day Guangzhou in China and present-day Basra in Iraq. In the ninth century an estimated 10,000 foreign traders and merchants lived in Guangzhou, many of them Arabs and Persians.

There is some debate as to when the Tang dynasty began. Most historians argue that it was inaugurated by a Sui official named Li Yuan (later known as Gaozu) who took power after the last Sui emperor was assassinated in 618. The Tangs had Turkic influences and a little Turkish blood.

Websites and Resources

Good Websites and Sources: Wikipedia ; Google Book: China’s Golden Age: Everday Life in the Tang Dynasty by Charles Bennbooks.google.com/books ; Warring States Project Warring States Project Empress Wuwomeninworldhistory.com ;

Good Websites and Sources on Tang Culture: Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org ; Tang Poems etext.lib.virginia.edu; Tang Horses persiancarpetguide.com China Vista chinavista.com : Links in this Website: CHINA CERAMICSfactsanddetails.com/china ; CHINESE PAINTING factsanddetails.com/china

Links in this Website: IMPERIAL CHINA factsanddetails.com ; CHINESE ART FROM THE GREAT DYNASTIESfactsanddetails.com/china ; CHINESE DYNASTIES Factsanddetails.com/China ; COURT LIFE AND EMPERORSFactsanddetails.com/China ; MANDARINS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; EUNUCHS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; SHANG DYNASTY (2200-1700 B.C.) AND XIA DYNASTY Factsanddetails.com/China ; ZHOU (CHOU) DYNASTY (1100-221 B.C.)Factsanddetails.com/China ; EMPEROR QIN AND THE QIN DYNASTY (221-206 B.C.) Factsanddetails.com/China ; HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) Factsanddetails.com/China ; TANG DYNASTY (A.D. 690-907) Factsanddetails.com/China ; SONG DYNASTY (960-1279) Factsanddetails.com/China ; YUAN (MONGOL) DYNASTY (1215-1368) ; MING DYNASTY (1368-1644)Factsanddetails.com/China ; QING (MANCHU) DYNASTY (1644-1911) Factsanddetails.com/China ; THEMES IN CHINESE HISTORYFactsanddetails.com/China ; CHINESE FIRSTS–GUNPOWDER, MACHINES, FOODS AND CHAIRS Factsanddetails.com/China ; CHINESE FIRSTS–PAPER, MONEY, ASTRONOMY, CLOCKS Factsanddetails.com/China ; GREAT WALL OF CHINAFactsanddetails.com/China ; SILK ROAD factsanddetails.com ; MARITIME SILK ROAD factsanddetails.com ; SILK ROAD HISTORY AND EXPLORERS factsanddetails.com ;

Good Websites and Sources on Early Chinese History: 1) Ancient China Life ancientchinalife.com ; 2) Ancient China for School Kids elibrary.sd71.bc.ca/subject_resources ; 3) Oriental Style ourorient.com ; 4) Chinese Text Projectchinese.dsturgeon.net ; 5) Minnesota State University site mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory ; 6) ChinaVoc.com ChinaVoc.com ; 7) Early Medieval China Journal languages.ufl.edu/EMC ; 8) History of China history-of-china.com ; 9) U.S.C. Educationusc.edu/libraries/archives Books: Cambridge History of Ancient China edited by Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy (1999, Cambridge University Press); The Culture and Civilization of China, a massive, multi-volume series, (Yale University Press);Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties by Jessica Rawson (British Museum, 1996)

Good Chinese History Websites: 1) Chaos Group of University of Maryland chaos.umd.edu/history/toc ; 2) Brooklyn College siteacademic.brooklyn.cuny.edu ; 3) Wikipedia article on the History of China Wikipedia 4) China Knowledge chinaknowledge.de ; 5) China History Forum chinahistoryforum.com ; 6) Gutenberg.org e-book gutenberg.org/files ; 7 ) WWW VL: History Chinavlib.iue.it/history/asia

Look carefully the original Tang Horse and compare with the repro at the next page

 

 

 

 

TANG CERAMIC REPRO

 

 


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from Etsy

Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue

 

tang horse sculptures | Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue by Hild4 on Etsy

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tang horse sculptures | Tang Dynasty Horse, (8th century) Quality Lost Wax Bronze Statue …

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tang horse sculptures | Mid-Century Italian Majolica Tang-Style Horse Sculpture at 1stdibs

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tang horse sculptures | Noble Chinese Tang Bronze Horse Statue 9 ” W

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tang horse sculptures | 126: Tang Dynasty Replica Alabaster Horse Sculpture: : Lot 126

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tang horse sculptures | LARGE WHITE TANG HORSE STATUE

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tang horse sculptures | Tico Decorations,kitchenware,home decor & Gifts Tang Horse Statue

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tang horse sculptures | Sculptures,China Wholesale Sculptures-(Page 46)

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Huge bronze tang horse, antique sculpture, han chinese

 

tang horse sculptures | … 詳細資料: HUGE BRONZE TANG HORSE, ANTIQUE

 

 

 

ORIGINAL TANG CERAMIC

Antique Chinese Ceramics

John Fairman

 

A tomb figure depicting a Turkic caravan woman rousing her camel while nursing. It is earthenware with unfired colouring and from the Tang dynasty.

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Vase Meiping en porcelaine de type Jun Chine, fin de la dynastie Song-début de la dynastie Jin, XIII E siècle – Sotheby’s

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Tang Dynasty

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Tang Dynasty Pottery Horse 618-906 A.D.

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Song Dynasty Amphora (960 to 1279 AD)

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11th century stonewar body of incense burner, missing rim and foot, Cizhou ware. Song dynasty China.

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A black earthenware stem cup Neolithic Period, Longshan Culture Estimate:

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Jar with Dragons, Chinese, Shang Dynasty

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Vase with Waves China (Southern Song or Yuan Dynasty) The Cleveland Museum of Art

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Ovoid Bottle DATE: late 12th century MEDIUM: Huai-jen ware Stoneware with dark-brown glaze and “cut-glaze” decoration

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Han Dynasrty

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Central watchtower [China] (1984.397) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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HISTORY

Tang Dynasty Rule and Achievements

The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization– equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a flowering of creativity in many fields. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, flourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. [Source: The Library of Congress]

“Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art.

A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base.

As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholarofficials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government. [Ibid]

“By the middle of the eighth century A.D., Tang power had ebbed. Domestic economic instability and military defeat in 751 by Arabs at Talas, in Central Asia, marked the beginning of five centuries of steady military decline for the Chinese empire. Misrule, court intrigues, economic exploitation, and popular rebellions weakened the empire, making it possible for northern invaders to terminate the dynasty in 907. The next half-century saw the fragmentation of China into five northern dynasties and ten southern kingdoms. [Ibid]

 

 

 

 

Tang Emperors

Tang Taizong, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, is one the most admired Chinese leaders and is known for his love of art. He so admired the calligrapher Wang His-chi he took his famous work Preface to the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion with him to his grave.

The most famous Tang ruler was Minghuang (685-761), who was also known as the “Radiant Emperor.” He developed Chang’an into a center of art and culture. His court drew scholars and artists from all over Asia

The Tang dynasty had its share of corrupt, incompetent and decadent leaders. One 8th century Tang emperor spent nearly all of his time hunting and kept 5,000 chows and a staff of 10,000 huntsmen. The ninth Tang emperor was so distracted by a concubine named Yang Guifei it led to the catastrophe of 755.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Wu Zetian


Empress Wu Empress Wu Ze Tian, the first female ruler in Chinese history, usurped the throne in 690 and is credited by many historians with founding the Tang Dynasty.

 

The daughter of a Shanxi lumber dealer, she grew up in Shaanxi and was briefly a nun before she worked her way up to empress from a low-ranking concubine. Regarded as a tyrant, she reportedly killed many of her rivals and changed the name of the dynasty from Tang to Chou (or Zhou) although it was changed back after she died.

Empress Wu Zetian was the only female emperor in Chinese history. Her story has intrigued many in China, and has been the subject of a TV series.

She expanded China, improved international relations and trade, raised the status of women and encouraged the arts. Under her rule great works of art such as Buddhist statuary, mounted dolls playing musical instruments, gold and silverworks, ceramics and glassware were produced. She reportedly had her own harem of men and is famous for being tactful with her husbands.. She was killed in a palace coup in A.D. 710 AD.

Wu Zetain had high-level female officials working under her. In September 2013, the BBC reported: “The ancient tomb of a female politician in China, described as the country’s “female prime minister”, has been discovered, Chinese media say. The tomb of Shangguan Wan’er, who lived from 664-710 AD, was recently found in Shaanxi province. Archaeologists confirmed the tomb was hers this week. She was a famous politician and poet and a trusted aide of Wu Zetian. The grave was discovered near an airport in Xianyang, Shaanxi province, reports said. A badly damaged epitaph on the tomb helped archaeologists confirm that the tomb was Shangguan Wan’er’s. Experts described the discovery as one of “major significance”, even though it had been subject to “large-scale damage”. “The roof had completely collapsed, the four walls were damaged, and all the tiles on the floor had been lifted up,”

 

 

Geng Qinggang, an archaeology research associate in Shaanxi, told Chinese media. “Hence, we think it must have been subject to large-scale, organised damage… quite possibly damage organised by officials,” he said. [Source: BBC News, September 12, 2013]

Tang Power and Leadership

The T’ang dynasty was the most militarily powerful of all the dynasties. It expanded the Chinese empire across the Great Wall of China and beyond the Himalayas. At its height, it administered much of present-day China and exerted control or received tributes from a dozen other kingdoms, including those in Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, Indonesia and most of Southeast Asia.

The Tang didn’t build walls. They were skilled at dealing with the Central Asian tribes that challenged them, knowing when to use diplomacy and when to go to war. The fact they were part Turkish, the ethnicity of many of the Central Asian tribes that threatened them, also helped

The Tangs ruled with a pyramidal administration system consisting of the Emperor, and three main ministries at the top. Underneath them were nine courts and six advisory boards. To discourage warlordism and establish regional power bases, China itself was broken down into 300 prefectures and 1,500 counties, a system which persists to this day.

Advances to the West by the Tang Dynasty were slowed by the Turks in the late 7th century. In 751, in the Battle of Talas, Tang Chinese forces attempting to extend the Chinese empire into Central Asia were annihilated by a Muslim army not far from Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. The defeat kept the Chinese out of Central Asia and opened up Central Asia and Western China to Islam.

Openness and Ideas in the Tang Dynasty

The Tang emperors were known for their openness to new ideas about art, religion, philosophy and music that were brought in by foreigners who flowed into China along the Silk Road trade routes.

 

Unlike most Chinese dynasties which tried to cut off their empire from influences from the outside world, the Tang ruling families tolerated outsiders and members of variety of religious sects.

Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Changan, with its approximately one million inhabitants, was a well organised cosmopolitan city, where international embassies and traders had their own, designated quarters. The city bustled with Central Asian horsemen, international traders, many in their national costumes, as well as elegant beauties with tiny, painted lips, all of them immortalised in the Tang-period terracotta statuettes. The terracotta figurines also give enlightening information about the many forms of music, dance, mimes and other entertainment which were in vogue during that time.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Taoists, Confucian scholars, Nestorian Christian missionaries, Zoroastrian priests and Buddhist monks, among them ones who helped found Zen Buddhism in Japan, all felt comfortable in Tang era China and practiced and to certain degrees proselytized their religions.

 

 

 

New inventions from the T’ang dynasty included the magnetic compass, gunpowder, the abacus, printing, and cataract surgery. Silks, porcelain and art were traded for spices, ivory and other goods along the Silk Road caravan routes. Sea routes took Chinese goods as far away as Africa and the Middle East.

Cosmopolitan culture flourished. Tens of thousands of foreigners lived in major Chinese cities.

Women held high government offices, played polo with men and wore men’s clothes. Chinese intermarried with nomadic peoples. Foreigners such as Turks rose to high positions in the civil service and the military.The economy changed a great deal in the Tang and Song dynasties, going from what was basically a subsistence economy to one in which peasantry was active in local and long-distance trade and non-food crops such as silk were produced on a large scale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religion and Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty


Tang Buddhist sculpture Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Buddhism, brought from India via Central Asia, became the dominant religion. Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism and later Islam were also practised. During liberal times they lived peacefully side by side with the traditional indigenous belief systems and ideologies, Taoism and Confucianism. In the visual arts the pan-Asian Buddhist style was combined with the refinement of Tang court elegance. Tang China was open to outside influences and the trade routes brought to Changan monks, scholars, artists, musicians and dancers from all over the then known world.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

During the 6th century Chinese Buddhism was consolidated and standardized. Great schools were founded that boasted thousands of disciples. Schools with royal patrons built huge monasteries. Between A.D. 476 and 540 the number temples rose from 6,500 to 30,900 and the number of monks and nuns grew from 80,000 to 200,000 (out of a population of 50 million).

Buddhism reached its height in the Tang Dynasty. Doctrines were refined. Schools expanded. The Pure Land School and the worship of Amitabha became widespread. Many Tang emperors were Buddhists, or at least nominally favorable to Buddhism. Some great Chinese poets from the period were monks.

In A.D. 629, the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang left the Tang dynasty capital and traveled west—on foot, on horseback and by camel and elephant—to India and returned in A.D. 645 with 700 Buddhist texts from which Chinese deepened their understanding of Buddhism. Hsuan Tsang is remembered as a great scholar for his translations from Sanskrit to Chinese but also for his descriptions of the places he visited—the great Silk Road cities of Kashgar and Samarkand and the great stone Buddhas in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. His trip was the inspiration of the for Journey to the West, widely regarded as one of the great novels of Chinese literature. [Book: “Ultimate Journey, Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment” by Richard Bernstein (Alfred A. Knopf)]

Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Chinese emperors began to favor Taoism over Buddhism;. monks and nuns were secularized; temples and libraries were destroyed. Buddhism remained overshadowed by Taoism and Confucianism until it experienced a revival in the 11th century.

Battle of Talas

As China became strong during the Tang dynasty it began expanding westward, for the most part relying more on diplomatic skills than military might to achieve its goals. The strategy worked well until one Chinese viceroy went too far and ordered the murder of the khan of the Tashkent Turks.

In 751 an alliance of enraged Turks, opportunist Arabs and Tibetans maneuvered a Chinese force into the Talas Valley in present-day Kazakhstan and Kyrzgzstan. In the ensuing battle—the Battle of Talas—the Chinese were routed and forced back across the Tian Shan. Tibetans moving up from the south were driven out of the Tarim basin by Uighur Turks, allies of the Tang. The Uighars have been in the region ever since.

The Battle of Talas, ended Chinese ambitions in Central Asia. After the battle, the Turk, Arab and Tibetans splintered and instability was the rule in Central Asia until the 9th century when the Samanid dynasty rose up.

 

 

 

End of Tang Dynasty

The humiliations that resulted form the annihilation of the Tang forces at the Battle of Talas destabalized the Tang dynasty by showing its weaknesses and opening it up to rebellions from powerful generals.

During the Tang dynasty arts and ideas flourished when record rice harvest were being recorded, but the entire dynasty began to collapse when the rising population began to outstrip the food supply. An Arab traveler to China at end of the Tang dynasty wrote that “Chinese law permits the eating of human flesh, and this flesh is sold publically in markets” as a means of providing enough food

The Tang dynasty was greatly weakened when a powerful general named An Lushan drove the Tang emperor from the capital in 755. Even though An was killed in 757, the rebellion continues until 763 at a cost of perhaps a millions deaths. In much of the late 8th century the Tang Dynasty wa sin decline.

In the 9th century disputes within the court grew more acrimonious and the Tang dynasty weakened further. Invaders from the north destroyed the Tang dynasty in 907, and China once again was thrown into a period of anarchy and disunity that lasted this time for about a half a century.

 

 

Culture During the Tang Dynasty


Tang sleeve dancer The Tang Dynasty was a golden age for the Chinese arts. Landscape painting and bronze sculpture (Tang horses) were perfected and famous poets wrote verse.

Chinese acrobatics and dance also took off. Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Literature, the visual arts, and music flourished and the theatrical arts were evolving towards their present forms. The most influential capital of the dynasty was Changan (C’hang-an) (currently Xi’an, Hsi-an) in Central China. During the Tang dynasty it was the world’s biggest metropolis. A vast network of caravan routes, generally known as the Silk Road, connected Changan with Central Asia, India, Persia and finally with the Mediterranean world. The influence of Tang culture spread to Korea as well as to Japan, where two of its capitals, Nara and Kyoto, were built according to the city plan of Changan.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Chinese poetry reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. Poets often sat beneath the moon and drank wine from cups floated on rivers and composed poems like: “The sun beyond the mountain glows/ The Yellow River seaward flows/ But if you desire a grander sight/ The you must scale a greater height.” Poets sometimes played a game in which a cup was placed in a stream and a poet had to compose a poem before the cup floated by. If he failed he had to consume a glass of wine.

Famous Tang dynasty poets include Tu Fu (Du Fu, 712-70), Li Po (701-62,) Wang Wei (701-761), Li Bai, Bo Juyi, Li You and Huang Tingjian. Tu Fu poems inspired many Chinese painters. Xue Tao was a famous female poet. Wang Wei was a poet-painter who said “there are paintings in his poems and poems in his paintings.” See Literature

In the Tang Dynasty dances and music styles from outside of China were incorporated into Chinese dance and Chinese styles were passed onto other parts of the world, particularly Korea and Japan. Hundreds of young men and women were trained in dance and music at a school called the Academy of the Pear Garden. Tang poets wrote of “the dance of the rainbow skirt and feathered jacket” and described how dancers used their long silk sleeves to accentuate their hand movements. This kind of sleeve dancing was also depicted in sculptures and Buddhist cave art from teh Tang period.

Gambling was also popular. A crackdown on gambling included penalties of 100 lashes and death and forced tenure in the army.

Art During the Tang Dynasty

Ideas and art flowed into China on the Silk Road along with commercial goods during the Tang period. Art produced in China at this time reveals influences from Persia, India, Mongolia, Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. Tang sculptures combined the sensuality of Indian and Persian art and the strength of the Tang empire itself.

 

Art critic Julie Salamon wrote in the New York Times, that artists in the Tang dynasty “absorbed influences from all over the world, synthesized them and a created a new multiethnic Chinese culture.”

Tang funerary vessels often contained figures of merchants. warriors, grooms, musicians and dancers. There are some works that have Hellenistic influences that came via Bactria in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Some Buddhas of immense size were produced.

None of the tombs of the Tang emperors have been opened but some tombs of the royal family members have excavated, Most of them were thoroughly looted. The most important finds are murals and paintings in lacquer. They contain delightful images of court life.

Proto-porcelain evolved during the Tang dynasty. It was made by mixing clay with quartz and the mineral feldspar to make a hard, smooth-surfaced vessel. Feldspar was mixed with small amounts of iron to produce an olive-green glaze.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tang Horses

Tang horses are among the most famous works of Chinese art. Made from ceramic, some are glazed in blue, green amber and have elaborate saddle blankets and tasseled bridles. Other are made of unglazed ceramic and thereby look more modern like a Rodin statute. The horses are often in frantic positions: with their heads raises and nostrils flared, or twisting around to get at something on their backs. Many had a grooved channel running the length of the arched neck, where a real horsehair mane was placed, and had a hole in their rear for a horsehair tail. Most are only around 15 inches tall.

Chinese art specialist J.J. Lally told the New York Times, “Tang horses are the most widely popular image of Chinese art because they are immediately accessible to everyone. You don’t have to read the Tang dynasty was a moment in Chinese art when there was a strong move toward realism and strong decorative impulse. Horses imported from the Near East were precious. In Tang China, the horse was the emblem of wealth and power. They are meant to embody rank and speed.”

The Chinese used horses as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600 to 1100 B.C.) but these were mainly strong, draft animals. Later they began importing horses from Central Asia and Middle East. By the Tang dynasty horses were favorite subjects of not only artists but also poets and composers. The inspiration for the many of Tang horses were Tall horses, the heavenly horses from Central Asia introduced to China in the first century B.C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Varieties of Tang Horses

Some of the most treasured Tang horses were glazed in cobalt blue. Gallery owner Khalil Rizk told the New York Times, “Only 5 percent of Tang horses have blue glaze.

Cobalt was put on during the last firing. Cobalt was a treasured commodity imported from the Middle East; it was more valuable than gold. Its use means the horse was for someone of the highest rank.”

 

Describing a relatively ordinary Tang horse that sold for $266,500 at a Christie’s auction, Wendy Moonan wrote in the New York Times, “Unglazed, it had its head lowered toward its left foreleg, which was slightly raised.”

One extraordinary glazed Tang pieces depicts a kneeling man with a horse’s head. The expression on the horse’s head is sensitive. Tang artist also made some extraordinarily beautiful ceramic animals, including a glazed earthenware camel carrying a troupe of musicians.

The highest price ever paid for ceramics and/or a Chinese work of art was $6.1 million for a Tang dynasty horse sold by the British Rail Pension Fund to a Japanese dealer at Sotheby’s in London in December 1989. Collectors like Tang horses because they can be dated with some certainty using thermoluminescnece testing.

Tang Buddhist Sculpture

The periods of Chinese Buddhist art closely parallel the phases the Buddhist religion went through in China Works that appeared in the 5th and 6th centuries were very free and individualistic. In the Tang period the art became more mature and robust, with Buddhist figures featuring graceful lines and curves. In the 10th to 13th century Buddist art became more refined. After that it was rooted in tradition and lacked innovation.

Wonderful 6th and 7th century Buddhist sculptures have been unearthed in northern China along the Silk Road in Gansu and Ningxia. This include a big-nosed clay representation of a Buddha disciple; a granite carving of Avalokitesvara, a popular Buddhist deity; and a bronze figure of a dancing Sogidian. Many of the work bears influences from Persia and Central Asia. The Sogdians were a Persian culture centered around Samarkand

A relief a Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and a life-size bodhisattva feature extraordinary detail and expression. Souren Melikian wrote in the International Herald Tribune, “A seated Buddha that was once enthroned represents a classical moment of its art. The perfect proportions project a sense of harmony and the expression of imperious illumination speaks of a powerful , self confident art. A figure in motion is unique in the art of China, with its knees very slightly flexed lifting the light drape adhering to the body.”

Tang dynasty figures are known for their provocative poses. Those that were painted are known for their soft colors and patterns.

Tang Dynasty Painting

During the Tang Dynasty ( both figure painting and landscape painting reached great heights of maturity and beauty. Forms were carefully drawn and rich colors applied in painting that were later called “gold and blue-green landscapes.” This style was supplanted by the technique of applying washes of monochrome ink that captured images in abbreviated, suggestive forms.

During the late Tang dynasty (907-960) bird, flower and animal painting were especially valued. There were two major schools of this style of painting: 1) rich and opulent and 2) “untrammeled mode of natural wilderness.” Unfortunately, few works from the Tang period remain.

Lovely murals were discovered in the tomb of Princess Yongtain, the granddaughter of Empress Wu Zetiab (624?-705) on the outskirts of Xian. One shows a lady-in-waiting holding a nyoi stick while another lady holds glassware. It is similar to tomb art found in Japan. A painting on silk cloth dated to the A.D. mid-8th century found in the tomb of a rich family in the Astana tombs near Urumqi in western China depicts a noblewoman with rouge cheeks deep in concentration as she plays go.

Famous Tang dynasty paintings include Zhou Fang’s Palace Ladies Wearing Flowered Headdresses, a study of several beautiful, plump women having their hair done; Wei Xian’s The Harmonious Family Life of an Eminent Recluse, a Five Dynasties portrait of a father teaching his son in a pavilion surrounded by jagged mountains; and Han Huang’s Five Oxen, an amusing depiction of a five fat oxen.

Wang Wei (701-761) is a legendary Tang dynasty painter and poet who said “there are paintings his poems and poems in his paintings.”

Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

In the 1998 sea cumcumber divers working in the Gelesa Straight found some coral-encrusted ceramics, and further scraping away revealed a 9th century Arab dhow laden with 60,000 handmade ceramics and some pieces of gold and silver. Much of the cargo was made of up cheap, mass-produced, Chinese-made bowls, known as Changsa bowls, placed n large storage jars. There was also ink pots, spices jars of various sizes and ewers. [Source: Simon Worrall, National Geographic, June 2009]

The destination of the ship appeared to be Middle East, meaning that ship was traveling the maritime Silk Road. Many of the bowls were decorated with geometric decorations and Koranic motifs that were clearly intended for Middle Eastern market. This implied she objects were made to order for Middle Eastern customers.

The dhow was almost 20 meters long. It resembled a kind of sailing dhow still used in Oman called a baitl qarib. Built of African and Indian wood, it had a raked prow and stern and was fitted with square sails and made of planks sewn together with coconut husks fiber.

Significance of the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, “For more than a decade, archaeologists and historians have been studying the contents of a ninth-century Arab dhow that was discovered in 1998 off Indonesia’s Belitung Island. The sea-cucumber divers who found the wreck had no idea it eventually would be considered one of the most important maritime discoveries of the late 20th century. The dhow was carrying a rich cargo “ 60,000 ceramic pieces and an array of gold and silver works “ and its discovery has confirmed how significant trade was along a maritime silk road between Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Iraq. It also has revealed how China was mass-producing trade goods even then and customizing them to suit the tastes of clients in West Asia. [Source: Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop, New York Times, March 7, 2011]

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds,” an exhibition that opened at the ArtScience Museum in Singapore in 2011 and was put together by the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Smithsonian Institution in Washington, featured amny artifacts from the belitung shipwreck. “This exhibition tells us a story about an extraordinary moment in globalization,” Julian Raby, director of the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, told the New York Times. “It brings to life the tale of Sinbad sailing to China to make his fortune. It shows us that the world in the ninth century was not as fragmented as we assumed. There were two great export powers: the Tang in the east and the Abbasid based in Baghdad.”

Until the Belitung find, historians had thought that Tang China traded primarily through the land routes of Central Asia, mainly on the Silk Road. Ancient records told of Persian fleets sailing the Southeast Asian seas but no wrecks had been found, until the Belitung dhow. Its cargo confirmed that a huge volume of trade was taking place along a maritime route, said Heidi Tan, a curator at the Asian Civilisations Museum and a co-curator of the exhibition.

Mr. Raby said: “The size of the find gives us a sense of two things: a sense of China as a country already producing things on an industrialized scale and also a China that is no longer producing ceramics to bury.” He was referring to the production of burial pottery like camels and horses, which was banned in the late eighth century. “Instead, kilns looked for other markets and they started producing tableware and they built an export market.”

Artifacts from the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds” featured only 450 of the 60,000 objects found in the shipwreck but the rows of similar bowls that were displayed underscored the importance and size of the find.

 

 

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, ‘stacked in the dhow, hundreds of tall stoneware jars each held more than a hundred nested Changsha bowls “ named after the Changsha kilns in Hunan where they were produced. Of the thousands of hand-painted pieces, almost all carry one of a few set patterns, but these were copied by many hands, resulting in an impression of huge variety.

Not all of the ceramics were mass-produced. Among the most interesting pieces in the exhibition is an extremely rare dish, one of three found in the wreck, with floral lozenge motifs surrounded by sprigs of foliage. They are believed to be the earliest known complete Chinese blue-and-white ceramics.

Ms. Tan, the curator, said: “It demonstrates that the Chinese potters were already experimenting with imported cobalt blue from Iraq, which they applied as underglaze painted decoration, some 500 years earlier than the famous blue and white porcelain of the 14th century.” At the time of the dhow’s discovery, cobalt-blue pigments had been found only in the Middle East, not yet in China, said Alan Chong, director of the Asian Civilisations Museum.

Aside from the rare ceramics, the haul also contained gold and silver objects, some of which Mr. Raby of the Smithsonian described as “of the very best quality you can see, clearly of imperial quality,” adding, “so we believe these were possible diplomatic gifts.” The form and decorative motifs of an octagonal gold cup “ musicians and dancers with long hair and billowing robes “suggest Central Asian metal wares. Mr. Raby said it was believed to be the largest known such gold cup from Tang China, even upstaging, he added, one of the great treasures of Tang gold and silver work: the so-called Hejiacun Hoard, found in what had been one of the southern suburbs of the Tang capital of Xian.

Tang Image Sources: 1) Tang Camel. Ohio State University; 2) Empresss Wu, AllPosters.com ; 3) Tang map, St. Marin edu ; 4) Tang Buddist sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art; 5) Sleeve dance, McClung Museum ; 6) Tang horses, Antiques and Art Online;

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated August 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US$ 3600

 

 

For more knowledge about Tang Dynasty and relation with Indonesian Ancestor read and look theinfo below

(Dr Iwan)

The Chinese And Indonesian Ancestors

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C

EARLY PRE COLONIAL ERA

THE INDONESIAN EMMITEN ANCESTORS RELIC

DURING ERA BEFORE SRIVIJAYA

Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA

COPYRIGHT @ 2014

 

 

INTRODUCTIONS

The Map Of Indonesian Archiphelago

Swarnadwipa means the gold Land,also called Andalas Islandbecaue due to Tambo Minangkabau they came from Andalucia

This island with the famous port Lobu Tua (barus) exist since 3000 years BC with their Barus talc or camphor which used to mummification during pharaos

Also from the Yew record known Ophir mountain at Pasaman West sumatera where the gold mining from the Minangkabau Kingdom which export from the old port inderagiri, Barus and Pedir.Then in this island in Chinese record exist the bigger empire Srivijaya which called San Fo shi

 

Java Dwipa or The Rice Land which called Labadiu by Ptelomeus.

At this island found Argyre City (the city of silver) may be this the old Sunda Kingdom or Salaknegara ,

Chinese Wang Yuan record told that the java coin made from silver and Tin.

The Rome Monk Ordorico de Pordone told that the Java kingdom palace full with gold,silver and jewellary.

At This island very famous many kingdom like Tarumanegara,Old Mataram.Sunda,Singosari,Kediri,Majaphit,walisongo,Islamic mataram and Madura Kingdom.

The island of ocean goddest , from Chinese record Tai Png huan yu chi was called Chin Li Pi Si or nusa kencana and also called pulo chung ( the island of ujung tanah) in Malaya,In this island very famous Kutai and the Tanjungpura kingdom.

.

The small island called Lesser Sunda.Bali was the best landscape island and many traveler visit this island since Rsi Markandiya in 8 th Century.In this lesser sunda island there were the famous Horse,and there the bali and Lombok kingdom there.

 

 

The Arabs called the Sulawesi with Sholibis name ..
Sulawesi name supposedly comes from the word ‘ Sula ‘ which means island and ‘ iron ‘ . Sulawesi Island is the largest since the first bessi ( iron ) , so it is not surprising Ussu and around the lake Matana containing iron and Nikkel .

The Dutch call this island by the name of Celebes .

The island has been inhabited by humans since 30,000 years ago as evidenced by the presence of ancient relics on the island . For example, the location of prehistoric stone age Besoa Valley

 

.

Maluku has a real name ” Jazirah al – Mulk ” which means a collection / royal peninsula consisting of small kingdoms . Maluku is known as the Thousand Island region and socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural resources .


In 4000 years ago

in the kingdom of Egypt , Pharaoh 12th dynasty , Sesoteris III . Through the data regarding the transaction Egyptian archaeologists in importing incense , ebony , incense , ivory , from the mysterious land where ” Punt ” is derived .

Although archaeological support is lacking, the country ” baboons ” can be identified after Giorgio Buccellati find a container that contains objects such as clove in the middle Euphrates .

In the period 1700 BC ,

the cloves are just in the Maluku islands , Indonesia . In the Middle Ages ( around 1600 AD ) clove spice once one of the most popular and expensive in Europe , exceeding the price of gold .
In addition to cloves , spices from the Moluccas is the fruit of Nutmeg . Fruit Nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ) tree is a plant form that is derived from the Banda Islands , Maluku .

 

Papua is the second largest island in the world . At around the year 200 AD , Geography expert named Ptolamy LABADIOS call it by name .

At the end of the year 500 AD ,

the Chinese author named Ghau Yu TUNGKI Kua gives the name ,

and by the end of the year 600 AD , the kingdom of Srivijaya Papua naming using JANGGI name . Tidore give a name to this island and its inhabitants as PAPA – UA that has changed the title into PAPUA .

In the 18th century BC , the rulers of Srivijaya empire , sending offerings to the Chinese empire . In the offering would be some birds of paradise , which is believed to be a bird of paradise garden that is native of Papua .

With a strong fleet Sriwijaya visit Maluku and Papua to trade spices – spices , perfume – perfume , pearls and feathers of birds of Paradise .

 

 

 

In the early centuries AD

began the relationship between the Euro, Indian and Chinese empire with Indonesian, Malaysian and other Asian country

What .When,Where and How were the relationship ?

Who were the Euro,Chinese and Indian eminent People an Leaders that influenced the development of the kingdom in Indonesia and Malaysia at the beginning of the first century until the advent of the kingdom of Srivijaya?
Information relating to the above must be known by all generations now especially the young generations in order to take a good examples to be imitated and prevent recurrence of the things that are not good or bad in the present and future

Look carefully the informations below

Learn from the past

Alam Terkembang Menjadi Guru

Jakarta,February 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

2 BC

The Godawaya shipwreck treasure at Sri lanka

Galle port Srilanka

with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings

 

Galle port Srilanka

with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

 

 

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings.

“I have over 30 years experience as a diver having dived in seas off Germany and England. I have more than 5000 hours of diving experience

and I run an international diving school

 

 

 

 

at the Coral Sands Hotel in Hikkaduwa.

Some shipwrecks in the Galle area are over 500 years old and full of archaeological value. Some organized groups use dynamite to get at treasures in ships sunk between Galle and Ambalangoda.”

 

Some steps have to be taken by marine archaeologists to save these treasures from vandals, he said.

 

An ancient clay pot retrieved from the seas off Godawaya in Ambalantota

 

Somadasa inspecting the remains an undersea wreck

 

A bell retrieved from the ocean floor

Ambalagoda srilanka art

 

The ambaguan south india srilanka art had many realted with Indonesian Hindu art at Bali

 

 

Diplomatic relations between Rome and South India are known by historian in 2 BC

.1st Century

2 AD

St Thomas ,

one of the disciples Of Jesus Christ came to India in 52 AD,

landed

at Kodungallur (Mallyankara)

in Kerala,

 

preached

Gospel

and

conveated thousand of Christian faith.

St.Thomas, referred to as Didymus, in the Gospel of St.John is one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. He is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus.

St Thomas is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus

The Great Famine of 843 (90 AD)

 

 

The monsoons

are a series of winds that bring in moist clouds that drench the areas of India and SoutheastA picture of the onset dates of Monsoons in the Indian Subcontinent. These did not occur in the year 843 (90 AD).Asia in rain during the Summer.

These weather patterns are very sensitive and vulnerable to changes in the environment. In the summer of the year 843 (90 AD)

the monsoons did not arrive in Southeast Asia and the people of Nan as well as Srivijaya fell into famine.

 

At the same time the deserts of Northern Sinica began to send great sandstorms further outside the desert than they had ever reached before, which also chocked many of the river valleys of Sinica.

The death that ensued was massive and amplified even more so by the fact that it came at the end of a time of long and sustained peace between the powers of East Asia.

The only areas that were rather uneffected by these developments were the Indonesian islands of Srivijaya, which many of the wealthier members of their society fled to after leaving the continent, as well as the Easternmost areas of the Second Han Dynasty and the Japanese Colonies.

The Srivijaya were, for the most part, to far for people from Sinica to reach them.

 

 

 

The dying people of what was Song and Tang moved East.

The death that surrounded the people of Sinica was so great that it became the topic of the first novel story of a young boy losing his parents to a long move to the the city of Shanghai to find food and a future.

These new cities were started on routes moving to the East grew into trading centers once the rains returned and the Western areas were suitable for repopulation. .

The move to retake the Mongolian parts of North Asia by the Japanese was met without resistance by the leadership of Mongolia who would greet any occupier who could offer them food

The World around the Indian Ocean after the Great Famine of 843 (90 AD).

Red: Maurya Empire, Orange: Roman Empire, Green: Srivijaya Empire, Light Blue: Parthian Empire, Blue: Ethiopian Kingdom, Purple: Satavahana Kingdom most no defenses on their borders with the retreat of the soldiers back to the islands.

Srivijaya was however of a firm diplomatic ground with the other Empires.

The next movement in the Asian Continent in response to the monsoons was in the country that was most effected by monsoon cycle, India.

The Indians began a campaign of migration in search of food and money. What reserves the successful Maurya Empire had went to these ships that began to explore the Indian Ocean and to control it so that they can gain food from more fertile areas.

The first move was made by a wealthy family from around the Andhra Coast.

The second branch of the Indian exploration for food went to the islands of the Srivijaya Empire

The First King of Satavahana

 

The Kingdom of Satavahana 

 

was established in a rebellion to the Maurya rulers.

The earlier civil war which resulted in a major blow to some of the more independent minded clans solidified the Maurya Dynasty but came at the expense of other clans like the Satavahana.

 

Among these was the Sungas which later immigrated to the Srivijaya Empire, and in many ways aided them in exposing the weaknesses and possible routes of invasion of the Peninsula.

The desire to take the lands of any other Empire was a source of support for these radicals in some parts of India.

They would be even more angered at the developments in Srivijaya, an Empire which had been taunting the Indians with threats and embargoes on their trade and even going so far as to attack the Indian Coast directly

 

 

 

The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed.

Any money that could be extracted from the traveling people was, the inability of them to leave after they ran out of money led many to settle around the richest person who could orchestrate the movement of food.

 

During the Han dynasty,

occupied Vietnam (Chaio Chih) received ships travelling to China from Java, Burma, Iran and the Roman empire. Khmers and Indians were living in major centres. Overseas trade was controlled by the Chinese.
Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p..24-25

A Han dynasty dragon bowl excavated in Indonesia is strikingly similar to one excavated in Guangzhou.
Maritime Silk Route 1996, p.69

 

Dr Iwan Notes

I seen at Jakarta Indonesia National Central Museum some Han dynasty Ceramic, and in my collections I have found some artifact of Han dynasty plate from west java, and artifact eathern jar fom west borneo, also

one Han dynasty cash coin found at Bali.

 

 

 

 

 

Menhir Sang Hyang Heuleut

This site found near the Pulosari Mout at Padeglang area Bantam province West Java.

The people there said that this Menhir were they husband and wife ancestor

Situs Sang Hyang Dengdek

Sanghyang Dengdek ”Sang Hyang Dengdek” or other name “ Prabu Jayasati Wisesa” were the menhir of the man and Sanghyang Heuleut or “Mas Ratu Lenglang Jagad” was the the women menhir

The people there belief this menhir will made the people who visit the Menhir be success , the Menhir also named “Arca Kisemar” which made everybody who look this Menhir became the intersesting human and everybody will like them

Dr Iwan Visit Sang Hyang Dendek in 2005

From the toll road Jakarta-merak

after toll cibitung

Then toll ciujung bridge

About 30 km

Turn left

Out of the toll road Serang east gate

And

we met the banten capital city serang

 

 

 

Serang tempo dulu

 

 

Serang city now

 

We met

the Indonesian Police Banten Headqauter

Then

Banten Gouvenor Office at Serang city

 

 

 

 

 

 

Out of Serang City about 3 km

we can visit Banten Girang location

Across the cibanten river with

 

the bridge across cibanten river

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

at the front

Museum banten girang

 

 

Turn left met the old cibanten river site

At this site we can seen

 

the old stone at the cibanten river

 

And turn right

the Banten Girang location ex excavation

and I still found there

Artifact of

the Yuan qingpai ewer

and fish celadon bowl artifact

 

 

 

 

 

and

 

then went to Padeglang city about 30 km from serang

.

 

 

desa Sang Hyang Dengdek 31 km dari kota padeglang

.

Dat Cipurut village

Sang Hyang Dengdek village ,saketi about   61 km from Serang City

 

 

 

Situs Batu Goong – Citaman

 

 

 

near ancient telaga

 

 

 

Kingdom of Salakapura

Start in 130 A.D

 

 

after that I visit banten lama

and found very rare dragon overglazed red Bowl

 

Read the complete info at Banten Kingdom history Collections

at a small village named Pandegelang

from a guy named Aki Tirem,an Indian.

He was a village’s chief.

 

 

 

Then came Dewawarman, an Indian trader

which marry Aki Tirem daughter.

When Aki tirem died, Dewawarman hold the power and later built a Kingdom named Salakanagara(from old Sundannese Salaka means Silver and Nagara means country) or Rajaapura samoe says this

what Phtolomeus called Argyre.

Dalanagar reign in Westren Java from 200-362

List of Salaka Nagara Kings:

King .Dewawarman I until VIII

Salakanagara Kingdom was the Earliest First Kingdom In Indonesia

The Early Ancestor was

Aki Tirem

and the First King was

Dewawarman

the Indian envoy to Java and then He merried to

Larasati Pohaci (the daughter of Aki Tirem),

Then Dewawarman as the King with named

“Prabhu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Raksagapurasagara” .

 

 

 

 

 

2nd Century

130-150 AD

.

Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.

He was the grandson of the celebrated Sah[1] 

king Chastana.

 

Rudradaman I was instrumental in the decline of the Satavahana Empire.

after he became the king and then strengthened his kingdom. During his reign he married a Hindu woman and converted to

Hinduism[2] 

 

 

192 AD

 

Wang Yun (137–192),[1] 

courtesy name Zishi,

was a Minister over the Masses 

 

 

 

under 

 

 

Emperor Xian 

in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.

 

 

During Wang Yun’s time,

the emperors were mere puppets under the power of eunuchs and warlords.

In 192, Wang Yun plotted and successfully staged

Lü Bu‘s

assassination of 

 

Dong Zhuo,

the tyrannical warlord in power.

 

However,

Dong Zhuo’s former subjects soon led a coup,

 

in which

 

Wang Yun along with most of his family were executed.

194 AD

Towards the end of the Han Dynasty,

 

 Sun Ce,

the eldest son of

 

the warlord Sun Jian,

 

 

and his followers borrowed troops from

 

the warlord Yuan Shu

and embarked on a series of military conquests

 

 in the Jiangdong

and Wu regions between 194 and 199,

 

 

 

 

 

seizing several territories previously occupied by

warlords such as 

 

Liu Yao, 

 

 

Liu Yao was an official in the Jiangdong region during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. He ruled for a brief period of time before Sun Ce invaded and conquered his territory, and his Chinese style name was Zhengli .

Unfortunately, Liu Yao was not a good military commander despite being a good administrator.

When Sun Ce attacked him, many his advisors correctly suggested to him that he should name Taishi Ci as the commander-in-chief of his force to defend themselves against Sun Ce, but Liu Yao refused, fearing that Taishi Ci was a fugitive who had just joined him, and his reputation would be tarnished for favoritism, since he was very good friend with Taishi Ci.

The mistake proved to be fatal for Liu Yao and his defeat was generally the same as described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms, and Liu Yao soon died at the age of 42 after fled to Dantu .

After Taishi Ci surrendered to Sun Ce and sent to ask the surrender of Liu Yao’s remaining force, Liu Yao’s son agreed and more than ten thousand begun their service to Sun Ce, with Liu Yao’s son eventually rose in ranks in later eras under Sun Quan.

 

Yan Baihu 

 

and 

 

Wang Lang

 

Wang Lang (onyomi: Ō Rō) is one of the rulers of the Wu Territory.

He, along with Yan Baihu and Liu Yao, was defeated by Sun Ce and he fled to Wei where he served as a high-ranking official.

 

196 AD

Sun Ce broke off relations with

Yuan Shu around 196-197

after the latter declared himself emperor —

an act deemed as treason against 

Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han Dynasty.

The warlord Cao Cao, who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked Emperor Xian

to grant Sun Ce the title of

“Marquis of Wu” (吳侯).

Page 1 of 2, showing 50 records out of 79 total, starting on record 1, ending on 50

Lot 206 – China. Zhou dynasty. 1122-255 BC AE Cicada money. 3.7 gr. – 39x 20 mm. EF

Starting price: € 80 
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Dr Iwan never seen this coin

 

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Lot 207 – China Zhou Dynasty. 1122-255 BC. AE primitive money. A decorated ring in the centre, 3 concave discs. 9,4 gr. – 58×35 mm. EF. R

Starting price: € 130 
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Realized price: € 155

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Lot 208 – China Zhou Dynasty. 1122-255 BC. AE primitive “Fish shape money”. 7.1 gr. – 82×16 mm. EF

Starting price: € 90 
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Realized price: € 90

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Lot 209 – China Zhou Dynasty. 1122-255 BC. AE “Bridge money”. Primitive V shape money. 10.7 gr. – 126 x 48 mm. EF

Starting price: € 100 
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Realized price: € 100

DR Iwan never seen this coin

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Lot 210 – China. Warring states period. State of Yan. 400-200 BC. Ming Knife money. O:\ Ming. R.\ Zuo Cun (var.). AE 12.9 gr. 133 x 24.4…

Starting price: € 150 
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Dr Iwan ever seen this coin in Indonesia

 

 

Lot 211 – China. Warring states period. State of Yan. 400-200 BC. Ming Knife money. O:\ Ming. R:\ Yi. AE 14.7 gr. 138 x 16 mm. Hartill…

Starting price: € 90 
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Lot 212 – China. Warring states period. State of Yan. 400-200 BC. Ming Knife money. O:\ Ming. AE 10.9 gr. 137 x 17 mm. Hartill 4,41 var. EF

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Lot 213 – China. Warring states period. State of Chu. 400-220 BC.Ant Nose money. O:\ Ghost face. AE 0,51 gr. – 13mm.

Starting price: € 40 

Dr Iwan never seen this cllection

Lot 214 – China. Warring states period. State of Zhao. 350-250 BC. AE Spade money. O:\ Ping Yin. 3,4 gr. – 41×25 mm. Hartill 3.366. EF

Starting price: € 75 
Number of bids: 1

Realized price: € 75

Lot 215 – China. Warring states period. State of Zhao. 350-250 BC. AE Spade money. O:\ Ping Yin. 5,6 gr. – 43×26 mm. Hartill 3.366. EF

Starting price: € 75 
Number of bids: –

DR Iwan never seen this coin in Indonesia

Lot 216 – China. Western Han Dynasty. 206 BC-25 AD. AE Ban Liang. O:\ Lian Ban. Reverse var. 2.6 gr.-24 mm. EF. R

Starting price: € 50 
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DR Iwan never seen this coin

Lot 217 – China. Eastern Han Dynasty. 25-226 AD. AE 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu zhu. Half moon mark below hole in obverse. 3.1 gr. – 26 mm. Hartill…

Starting price: € 40 
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DR Iwan never seen this coin

 

Lot 218 – China. Western Han Dynasty. 206 BC-25 AD. AE 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu zhu (var.). 2 dots and 2 lines in obverse. 1.6 gr. 19,9 mm. aEF

Starting price: € 45 
Number of bids: –

DR Iwan never seen this coin

Lot 219 – China. Western Han Dynasty. 206 BC-25 AD. AE 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu zhu (var.). 2 lines in obverse. 1.7 gr. 22.82 mm. VF

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Lot 220 – China. Western Han Dynasty. 206 BC-25 AD. AE 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu zhu (var.). 2 lines incusedin in obverse. 2.7 gr. 25.72 mm. EF

Starting price: € 55 
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Lot 221 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 50 (12 Zhu). O:\ Da Quan Wu Shi. R:\ Lines (var.). 5.8 gr. – 27,5 mm. Hartill 9.1 var….

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Lot 222 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 50 (12 Zhu). O:\ Da Quan Wu Shi. R:\ Lines (var.). 6.0 gr. – 25,7 mm. Hartill 9.1. VF

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Lot 223 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 50 (12 Zhu). O:\ Da Quan Wu Shi. R:\ Lines radiating from corners of hole. 3.2 gr. -…

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Lot 224 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 1 (1 Zhu). O:\ Xiao Quan Zhi Yi. 15,07 mm – 0,5 gr. Hartill 9.14. EF

Starting price: € 37 
Number of bids: –

 

 

 

 

Lot 225 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 10 (3 Zhu). O:\ Yao Quan Yi Shi. 16.65 mm – 2.2 gr. Hartill 9.15. RR. F/VF

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Lot 226 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 1 (1 Zhu). O:\ Xiao Quan Zhi Yi. 15,30 mm – 2,1 gr. Hartill 9.14. VF

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Lot 227 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 40 (9 Zhu). O:\ Zhuang Quan Si Shi 4,20 gr. – 23,32 mm Hartill 9.18. RRR. VF

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Lot 228 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Huo Quan (5 Zhu). O:\ Huo Quan. 22.4 mm – 1.4 gr. Hartill 9.32. VF+

Starting price: € 50 
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Lot 229 – China. Wei Dynasty. Emperor Wen. 535-556 AD. 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu Zhu. Stout outer rim, inner rim only by the “wu”. 1.7 gr. – 23.20…

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Lot 230 – China. Wei Dynasty. Emperor Wen. 535-556 AD. 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu Zhu. Stout outer rim, inner rim only by the “wu”. 2.5 gr. – 24.5…

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Lot 231 – China. Wei Dynasty. Emperor Wen. 535-556 AD. 5 Zhu. O:\ Wu Zhu. Stout outer rim, inner rim only by the “wu”. 2.4 gr. – 23.6…

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Lot 232 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 50 (12 Zhu). O:\ Da Quan Wu Shi. 4.9 gr. – 25.1 mm. Hartill 9.1. VF+

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Lot 233 – China. Wang Mang- 7-23 AD. AE Value of 20 (5 Zhu). O:\ You Quan Er Shi. 18.25 mm – 2.9 gr. Hartill 9.16. RR F/VF

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Lot 234 – China. Three kingdoms. Kingdom of Wu. 222-280 AD. AE Value of 1000. O:\ Da Quan Dang Qian. 26,14 mm – 3.4 gr. Hartill 11.33….

Starting price: € 160 
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Lot 235 – China. Three kingdoms. Kingdom of Shu. 221-265 AD. AE 100 Wu Zhu. O:\ Zhi Bai Zu Zhu. R:\ Er. 25,77 mm – 3.5 gr. Hartill 11.1…

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Lot 236 – China. Wei Dynasty. Emperor Xiao Zhuang. 528-534 AD. AE 5 Zhu. 529 AD. O:\ Yong An Wu Zhu. Rosette hole. 2.1 gr.-23.11 mm….

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Lot 237 – China. The 10 kingdoms period. Shu Kingdom. 907-925 AD. Emperor Wang Yan. AE Cash. 919-925 AD. O:\ Xian Kang yuan bao. R:\…

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Lot 238 – China. The 10 kingdoms period. Kingdom of Min. 909-945 AD. Emperor Wang Shenzhi. Lead Cash. Fujian area. From 922 AD. O:\ Kai…

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Lot 239 – China. Southern Han/Chu Area. 900-971 AD. Lead Cash. O:\ Kai Yuan tong bao R:\ Bao si. 2.5 gr.-22.10 mm. Hartill 15.148 var….

Starting price: € 150 
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Lot 240 – China. Tang Dynasty. 618-907 AD. Kai Yuan. Late Type. 732-907 AD. O:\ Kai Yuan tong bao. 3.6 gr.-24 mm. Hartill 14.8. EF

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Lot 241 – China. Tang Dynasty. HUICHANG. 845-846 AD. Kai Yuan. Xingyuan, Shaanxi. O:\ AEKai Yuan tong bao. R:\ Xing. 3.9 gr.-23.86 mm….

Starting price: € 30 
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Lot 242 – China. The 10 kingdoms period. Southern Tang Kingdom. 937-975 AD. Emperor Li Yu. AE Kai Yuan. 961-978 AD. O:\ Kai yuan tong…

Starting price: € 65 
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Source

deamoneta

 

 

3rd Century

The Satavahanas In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states

 

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD

 

200

Sun Ce was assassinated in the summer of 200 and was succeeded by his younger brother,

 Sun Quan.

Sun Quan, like his elder brother, also paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories

 

208 AD

In 208, Sun Quan allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs.

218 AD

Sun Quan and Liu Bei maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province

 

 

219 AD

In 219, Sun Quan severed ties with Liu Bei when he sent his general Lü Meng to invade Liu’s territories in Jing Province.

 Guan Yu, who was defending Liu Bei’s assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan’s forces.

After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan’s domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered roughly present-day Hunan and parts of Hubei.

 

220 AD

In 220, Cao Cao’s son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han Dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei.

Sun Quan agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king — “King of Wu” (吳王) — by Cao Pi.

221 AD

A year later, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han

 

222 AD

In 222, Liu Bei launched a military campaign against Sun Quan to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu,

leading to the Battle of Xiaoting.

However, Liu Bei suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan’s general Lu Xun and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later.

Liu Bei’s successor,

 Liu Shan,

and his regent,

 Zhuge Liang,

made peace with Sun Quan later and reaffirmed their previous alliance.

 

 

Sun Quan

declared independence from Wei in 222,

but continued to rule as “King of Wu” until 229, when he declared himself “Emperor of Wu”. His legitimacy was recognised by Shu.

 

Old Malay Kingdom in Jambi


In Jambi area there are three old Malay kingdoms ,

namely , Koying , Tupo , and Kantoli .

Koying kingdom found in China notes made ​​by K’ang – and Wan – chen tai of

 

the Wu dynasty ( 222-208 )

about the country Koying .

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD

Pasemah

also in South Sumatra and Lampung Ranau area

has found indications of trading activities undertaken by Tonkin or Tongkin and Vietnam or Fu – nan in the same century . Instead of tiles Han dynasty ( 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD ) found in a particular region of Sumatra .

 

 

The possibility of the spread of various countries in Central Sumatra to Palembang in South and north of the River Tungkal described by Obdeyn ( 1942 ) , but the picture was standing there Koying country .

 

If true Koying located east Tupo or Thu – po , Tchu – po , Chu – po and his position at the mouth of the confluence of two rivers , then there are two places so the Muara Sabak Zabaq , Djaba , Java , Java and Muara Tembesi or Fo – ts’I , San – fo – tsi ‘ , Che – li -fo – che before seroang up in Jambi tchan – pie , Sanfin , Melayur , Moloyu , Malalyu .

 

Thus as if displacement Ancient Malay kingdom of Srivijaya pre – shift from west to east following the Gulf Wen silting caused by sediment carried by the river , especially the Batang Tembesi .

Direct trade relations occurred in trade with countries outside around the Gulf and the Strait of Malacca Wen will most likely be around the country Koying Alam Kerinci .

 

Dr Iwan Note

At Kerinci Sungai Penuh city in 1985, when visit with my whole family I found

the Ancient Chinese brass statue

 

 

 

 

222-223 AD

Sun Quan ruled for over 20 years and his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including

the battles of Ruxu (222–223)

228 AD

The battle of Shiting (228)

234 AD

The Battle Of Hefei (234).

However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei also never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze.

241

 Sun Deng, died in 241

242 AD

A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan’s sons in the later part of his reign — Sun Quan instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242 after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba.

 

The conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan’s imperial court.

 

Sun Quan eventually deposed

Sun He and forced

Sun Ba to commit suicide,

while Lu Xun and many other ministers who took either Sun He’s or Sun Ba’s side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan appointed his youngest son, 

Sun Liang,

as the crown prince after the incident

252 AD

Sun Quan died in 252 and was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Jun serving as regents.

253 AD

In 253, Zhuge Ke was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, and the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun’s hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen,

255 AD

 

after Sun Chen death. During Sun Liang’s reign,

  rebellions broke out in the Wei commandery of Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) in 255

 

257-258 AD

The Rebellion 257-258.

Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions respectively in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering much losses.

 

258 AD

Sun Liang was deposed in 258

by Sun Chen,

 

who installed 

 

Sun Xiu,

another son of Sun Quan, on the throne.

 

Sun Xiu

killed Sun Chen later in

The Sun Xiu coup

with the help of 

Zhang Bu and Ding Feng

 

264 AD

Sun Xiu died of illness in 264

, a year after 

Shu was quenquer By Wei

 

At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi (交趾) in the south.

The ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu 

decided to install Sun He’s son,

 Sun Hao, on the throne.

 

 

In the beginning of Sun Hao’s reign,

the emperor reduced taxes, gave relief to the poor, and granted freedom to a large number of palace maids.

However, Sun Hao gradually became more cruel and superstitious and started indulging in wine and women instead of finding ways to revive his declining state.

Sun Hao’s tyranny caused widespread anger and hatred towards him in Wu, but it was due to

the efforts of officials such as

 Lu Kai and Lu Kang 

that Wu was able to remain relatively stable and peaceful.

265

 

In 265, Sima Yan ended the state of Cao Wei by forcing its last ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate in his favour, and then established the Jin Dynasty.

275

In 275, Jin forces led by Du Yu, Wang Jun and others attacked Wu from six directions.

Sun Hao attempted to put up resistance by sending his armies to fight the Jin invaders, but the Wu forces suffered several consecutive defeats and even the Wu chancellor, Zhang Ti, was killed in action.

280

Seeing that Wu was doomed to fall, Sun Hao surrendered to the Jin Dynasty in 280, marking the end of Wu and the reunification of China at the end of the Three Kingdoms period.

 

 

Jin Dynasty

(265–420),

 

There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Jin

 (ch: 西晉, 265–316)

Sima Yan

Emperor Wu Di

Capital Luoyang

 

 

 

.

In 285,

 

The emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305)

 

partitioned the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.[3] 

Mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire’s

 east and west 

divided

 

290 AD

Emperor Sima zhong(Hui Di)

 

 

 

4th Century

301 AD

Sima Lun

307 AD

 

Sima chi

(Emperor Huai)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor of Jin: After the Fall of LuoyangIn

311 Luoyang fell to Han Zhao forces, and Emperor Huai was captured.

 

313

 

Sima Ye(Min Di)

 

 

 

Eastern Jin

 (ch: 東晉 317–420).

 

Sima rui

 

Capital Jiankang

 

In early 318,

 

Han Zhao’s emperor Liu Cong executed Emperor Min, and three months later, news arrived in Jiankang.

 

 

By 320,

 

Emperor Yuan’s relationship with Wang Dun was at a breaking point, as Wang Dun had grown more and more arrogant and controlling of the western provinces.

Emperor Yuan feared him

Between 324 and 330

,Constantine I (r. 306–337)

transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople (“City of Constantine”) andNova Roma (“New Rome”).[n 1] 

 

375 AD

About Koying (Old Malay Kingdom Jambi)

this country is also included in the T’ung – tien encyclopedia written by Tu – yu ( 375-812 ) and copied by Ma – tu – an- lin in the encyclopedia Wen- hsien – t’ung – k’ao .

 

 

 

 

 

Explained that in the kingdom there Koying volcano and its position

in the east 5000 li Chu – po ( Jambi )

 

 

For the First time

in 1984

I visit jambi from Padang City

 

by my Toyota landcruiser BJ 40 diesel

like this

 

and near muara bulian I met

the kubu people

 

 

and with the hepng of my friend Drg Ali Hanfiah

I with my wifw Lily,and two son albert and Anton

went to candi muara Jambi starting from

the river at jambi city at the back of Police sectors

by boat across the river from Jambi

 

The first time visit

 

at the candi still seen the durian and langsat tree on the candi

 

 

 

 

And

the second visit with my son Albert and Dr Sjafrizal by road

 

with Daihatsu Feroza new car I bring from Jakarta to Bajubang

where Albert starting work at Pertamina oil explorations there and met his friend Heru and senior Mr Bambang in 1999

From the back of jambi sultanate palace

We wen to

the village rantau panjang

 

then across the bridge to

Candi muara Jambi

 

 

Museum candi muara jambi

 

 

Women statue

 

 

 

I have seen the dog statue at the museum candi muara jambi,and then in surabaya street antique market in Jakarta I f0und that statue artifact

 

 

Makara at candi Kedaton

 

 

Many small candi there

 

 

 

265

Sima shao

Emperor Ming of Jin (晋明帝/晉明帝, pinyin Jìn Míngdì, Wade-Giles Chin Ming-ti) (299 – 18 October 325), personal name Sima Shao(司馬紹), courtesy name Daoji (道畿), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).

 

Empress Yu’s father Yu Chen (庾琛) was the governor of Kuaiji Commandery (會稽, roughmodern Shaoxing, Zhejiang),

and later served on the staff of Sima Rui the Prince of Langye (laterEmperor Yuan) when Sima Rui was posted at Jianye.

She was considered kind and beautiful, and Sima Rui took her to be his son Sima Shao’s wife empress Yu

 

Emperor Ming only ruled briefly and died in 326.

Initially, he left a balance of power between high level officials that he entrusted the four-year-old Crown Prince Yan (who succeeded to the throne as Emperor Cheng) with,

but after Empress Yu was honored as Empress Dowager Yu, she was encouraged by these officials to be regent, and soon Yu Liang became alone the most powerful official of the empire.

 

During sima shao brief reign (323-325),

 

he led the weakened Jin out of domination by the warlord Wang Dun, but at his early death, the empire was left to his young son

 Emperor Cheng(sima Yan),

 

and the fragile balance of power that he created was soon broken, leading to the Su Jun Disturbance and weakening the Jin state even further.

The imperial princes Sima Zong (司馬宗) the Prince of Nandun and Sima Yang (司馬) the Prince of Xiyang, all of whom were powerful during Emperor Ming’s reign but who had been removed from powerful positions under Empress Dowager Yu’s regency.

 

 

 

 

In winter 326,

he accused Sima Zong of treason and killed him, demoted Sima Yang, and exiled Yu Yin. This led to the people losing confidence in him

 

327

In 327, Yu Liang further resolved on separating Su, then the governor of Liyang Commandery (歷陽, roughly modern Chaohu, Anhui) from his troops, and he promoted Su to be the minister of agriculture—a post that did not involve commanding troops.

 

Su saw his intent and declared a rebellion, with Zu’s assistance.

 

328

Yu Liang initially thought that Su could be easily defeated, but instead Su quickly arrived at the capital early 328 and captured it.

Yu Liang was forced to flee. Meanwhile, Su pillaged the capital, and it was said that even Empress Dowager Yu’s servant girls became spoils for his troops.

Further, it was said that Su himself “humiliated” Empress Dowager Yu—although the method of humiliation was not specified in history. She died in distress and fear.

Her son Emperor Cheng would become Su’s captive for months before other provincial generals would converge on Jiankang and defeat Su.

Mid-4th century –

 

 Wang Xizhi makes a portion of a letter from the Feng Ju album. Six Dynasties period.

 

 

It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

 

 

 

 

 

358

Salakanagara later replace by

Tarumanegara dynasty

Jayasingawarman,

the founder of

Tarumanegara was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.

 

 

Rajatapura

was the capital of salakanagara from

363 AD

and still as the center of government from Dewawarman I – Dewawarman VIII.

Jayasingawarman, the founder of Tarumanegara was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.

 

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

 

 

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

 

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

  • The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

 

 

 

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

379 AD

 

 

Under 

 

Theodosius I (r. 379–395),

 Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and others such asRoman polytheism were proscribed.

And finally,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5th CENTURY

 

 Southern and Northern Dynasties

(420–589).

 

Two wooden sculptures from China, created in about the 3rd of 4th centuries BC. are among the earliest known human figures in Chinese art. They represent attendants buried with the dead.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6th CENTURY

 

Gujarat trader

The Chinese records

give a graphic picture of the long trade routes across their country,

 

 

around the south of the Gobi desert,

to the Oxus River,

 

 

into

Parthia

and on to

Mesopotamia.

An alternate route was by sea from

Canton,

around

the Malay peninsula

 

 

 

 

, pass

the southern tip of India

and into

the Persian Gulf.

Yule writes, “At this time, (early fifth century)

the Euphrates

was navigable

as high as Hira,

a city lying

southwest of ancient Babylon …

 

and the ships of India and China were constantly to be seen moored before the houses of the town.”38

The Chinese either turned their goods,

 

chiefly silks,

over to the Arabs here, or over to the Parthians at the Oxus River, the latter then bringing them to Hira.

 

There they were transshipped around

the Arabian peninsula,

up

the Red Sea

to

 

Solomon’s Ezion-geber

Or

the Aelana (modern Akabah) of the Romans;

from there

caravans carried them

 

to

Petra, the great market city,

 

to sell them to

the western traders.

Ancient Chinese traders

 

 

 

 

502 AD

The Nothern Wei lost power to the Southern Liang dynasty with capital Nanking (502-557AD) and Buddh’sm came strongly there by sea through the straight of Malacca.

The art which reprented this religion was the much affected by the Maruya dynasty of the 3rd century B.C.With it came the great winged Lions and also the fluted columns.

(Warren E.Cox , 1970)

 

During

 

the reign of

 

Justinian I (r. 527–565),

the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterraneancoast, including north Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries.

During

the reign of

 

 Maurice (r. 582–602),

 

the Empire’s eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised.

 

However, his assassination caused a two-decade-long war with 

 

 

Sassanid Persia

 which exhausted the Empire’s resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

 

Dr Iwan Noteas

In 2011 I found

The Queen Sasanid silver coin

in Bukittinggi west Sumatra

The Iran  Sasanid kindom during

Empress Puran 7th Century,

bring by Gujarat Trader during Srivijaya empire in Indonesia and they had trading with the Minangkabau marchant at Mingkabau Kingdom (Pagaruyung),( The first report found in Indonesia-auth,anoher report from Rusia)

 

 

 

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C

EARLY PRE COLONIAL ERA

THE CHINESE EMPEROR AND KING CHOLA DURING THE RISE AND FALL OF SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE

Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA

COPYRIGHT @ 2014

 

 

 

 

6th Century

Around the year 500,

Srivijayan roots began to develop around present day

 Palembang, 

Sumatra,

in modern Indonesia.

The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres.

The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[16] 

The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire’s relations with rival river systems such as Batang Hari, centred in Jambi

 

6th Century

Around the year 500,

Srivijayan roots began to develop around present day

 Palembang, 

Sumatra,

in modern Indonesia.

The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres.

The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[16] 

The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire’s relations with rival river systems such as Batang Hari, centred in Jambi

5th Century

According to the Chinese annals, Funan and Pan-pan were known where Mahāyāna Buddhism flourished since the fifth century and contributed to China in the field of Buddhism

.So, when the Srivijaya, the Tang court gave them the name of ‘室利佛逝Shi-li-fo-shi).

This name includes the Buddha (佛).

This means special treatment for Srivijaya.

 

545 AD

Abdullah ayah Nabi Muhammad lahir tahun 545 AD

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

570 AD

Penyerangan tentara bergajah (Abrahab)

17 Agustus 570 AD

Nabi Besar Muhammad S.A.W lahir , subuh senin, 12 Rabi’ul awal

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

  1. Muhammad SAW lahir di Mekah Al-Mukarammah pada hari Senin 12 Rabi’ul Awal, bertepatan dengan 20 April 571 M pada tahun Gajah

(sumber :sanggapramana.)

575-576 AD

Ibu Nabi Muhammad S.A.W , Siti Aminah meninggal

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

578 AD

Nenek Nabi Muhammad S.A.W , Abdul Muthalib wafat.

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

580 – 590 AD

Harb-ul-Fijar ( Perang Pelanggaran Kesucian)

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

 

581 AD

Lahir Ibnu Chattab

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

595 AD

Perjalan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W yang kedua kalinya ke Syria mengikuti pamannya Abu Thalib, bertemu dengan rahib Nasrani Gregius.

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

Nabi Muhammad bin Abdullah ketika berusia 12 tahun, untuk pertama kalinya melakukan perjalanan niaga (dagang) ke Syiria bersama pamannya, Abu Thalib

Sumber

madawis

600 AD

Lahir Abi bin Abi Thalib

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

 

 

 

 

 

605 AD

Orang Quraisji memperbaiki Ka’abah , Nabi Muhammad S.A.W diangkat jadi Hakim

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

 

610 AD

Permulaan turun Wahyu(kepada nabi Muhammad S.A.W)

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

Sumber

google ekplorasi

 

In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

589 -618 AD

In 589 AD China was again united for a short period until 618 AD. This loosely known as the Sui Period (581- 617 AD) and may be thought of so far   as we we are not concerned as a continuation of the Six dynasty.

The Territory of te first Great Tang emperor s after they conquest extended into Tibet and Turkestan and intercourse with the West was extensive. It waduring this time that Wu Tao-Tzu , the greates of Chinese painters lived.

 

Woodblock printing was extensivelydeveloped , Much of the classic literature and poetery was written , and the famous Li Tai Po lived who , like our Poe , drank heavely and wrote well.

Ever since the conquest of Alexander the great intoIndia   and the formation of Greco-Bactrian states North West of India , communications between China and Westren Asia had been continius.

The drapery of     all uddhistic figures is really Greek as are also the feautures of many aand the poses. In examination of Many Tang pattern will disclose Greek origins or at least Wsetren Asian ones.

Portraiture in the figures is not the first frequent just as it was not in Greece but during the Tang period a revolt against the principle occurred just in Rome, although the portraits were pretty much confined to pottery rather than wood , stone , or bronze.

Most early Tang paintings were not of areligipous nature and symmetrical in design as well as conventional in treatment. Only during early Tang part of the masterful landscape and animal painting commence.

The Chinese were close observers of distance and could render aerial perspective better than may western artist but they were more interested   in design , in catching the struggle of tree brach against the privailing wind . In the movement of the wind at the treatment of painting ., that the water be flowing or rippling or full or water life and spirit ,.

In other words the transition from the static qualities of Buddhistic art were cast aside during this time and an interest in movement and life was assumed which has not been lonce since.

The technique of painting had been improved and we find Tang ware usually whiter light gray , and reddish. Thus the mere color of the body is no final criterion of period. It ws generally thinner , in the samller pieces specially .

The old lightly fired pigment , red , black , white and rarely blue and green were continued , though sparingly. The most usual glaze is transparent vecause it was not well assoviated with the biscuit.

The Chinese didot larn how to govern crackle until the end of the Sung period and some Tang glazed not crackled at all though this is rare and was only luck.

This glaze is simply a refined type of th old alkaline lead glazed of an times and the same greens , browns, amber tones, etc. were used a little more purified and brighter. Quite rarely cobalt was added to make a blue but no manganese was ever consciously employed and it occurs only by accident insome of the brown , some of which have a purple cast.

This is arrange for the blue was undoubtedly learned from the Bear East where the purple also hads been used for thousamds of years. Many splased , dripped and running effects were employed perhaps because the glaze tended to act that way and the Chinese mde use if its characteristics rather than tried to curb them.

However.that the glazes could be comtrolled by the used incised outlines may be seen by the beautifull pillow ware. It is interesting to note that glazed had first been employed in the Nrat Rast because the wares were porous and were thus aided   in being liquid-light here it because the ware were let the glaze just splash over the edge and come part way brown on the body.

In China the Han ware were denser and did not need glaze inside but the bottom carefully so as yo initate Metal. We see the first near Eastren Shipping of the glaze short of the foot-rim in the Six dynasty times and now it becomes problem prevelent

(Warren E.Cox , 1970)

 

Wu Tao-Tzu , the greates of Chinese painters lived.

a Tang dynasty painter famous for his murals: Wu Tao-tzu. Having just finished a wall-painting, he suddenly clapped his hands and a gate in the painting opened.

Wu Tao-tzu entered into his art, the gate closing behind him, and he was never seen again. The Myth of Wu Tao-tzu (1967), is the story of what happened to him in there

Source

svenlindqvist.

Li Tai Po Poem

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I think the collector wil tired to read oll Warren E. Cox info because very detailed but you must kow to became expert, we will seen some collections found by Mr Koh and compare with Dr Iwan Collection found in west Java and Banten area.

Chinese export ceramics with islamic koran inscription first appeared on Tang Changsha wares.

 

The Persian and Arab traders played a key role in the shipment of Chinese products along the ancient overland and maritime trade routes.

There were large community of Persian and Arabs in cities such as Guangzhou and Quanzhou during Tang Dynasty.  Ancient ceramics such as Yue, Xing and Changsha wares had been excavated in ancient sites such Fustat in Eygpt,  Basra and Siraf in the Middle East.   Many of the shapes and motifs found on those export wares drew their inspiration from Middle Eastern wares.

 

The Tang cargo from the Belitugn shipwreck was purchased by the Singapore Government and some of the fineness pieces are now on display at the Singapore Marina Sands ArtScience Museum.   The wrecked ship called a dhow  is of Middle Eastern design, and is quoted as the first physical proof of Persian/Arab direct involvement in shipment of Chinese goods along the maritime trade route.   After the the Tang period,  Chinese ceramics with Islamic inscriptions were apparently not produced.  It resurfaced again during the Zhengde period (early 16th century)  and formed part of the decoration for blue and white wares.  Many of such items were ordered by Eunuchs who embraced Islam.  Islamic inscription constituting part or whole of the design, in underglaze blue or overglaze enameled form, was particularly popular during the 17th/18th century and could be found in collections in the  Islamic world such as Indonesia, India and Turkey.

Changsha jar with Islamic koran inscription “there is no god but God” .  Translated in Chinese as “万物无主,唯有真主

The symbolic significance of the motif on the bowl  intrigues me.  The shape and fine paste pointed to a 18th century dating for the bowl and is a product of Jingdezhen kiln. 

 

 

I was very happy when I finally found an article entitled “Some Chinese Islamic “Magic Square” Porcelain” in the book “Studies in Chinese Ceramics” by Prof. Cheng Te-kun. 

 

He learnt from a Singapore collector Mr Tan Yeok Seong that a group of Chinese export wares decorated with Islamic inscriptions and magic square surfaced in the Singapore antique market in 1969 and were eagerly snapped up by local collectors.  Such items appeared to be rather rare and we could hardly  find one in the antique market nowadays.

 

In his article, Prof. Cheng discussed the significance and the origin of the magic square and also the meaning of the inscriptions.   He did research on a porcelain plate with the magic square encircled by bands on of inscriptions, similar to my bowl  in terms of design layout, which was presented to Queen Mary of UK when she visited Hyderabad of India in 1906 A.D. 

 

It was a treasure of Golconda Fort. The plate was subsequently housed in the Victoria and Albert Museum.   The plate was a product of Jingdezhen kiln and dated to the 18th century.  The verses found in the bands on the inner wall of the plate were verses from the Koran and some Islamic prayer books. 

 

He enlisted the help of Dr. Hassan Javadi from the University of Teheran to decipher the inscriptions.  There were mistakes in the  writing as can expected.  The Chinese potter who wrote the inscriptions did not know the Arabic language and simply copied the text from some samples. 

 

In the case of the plate, Dr. Hassan was still able to decipher  majority of the inscriptions.  For eg. the first band near the rim was from verses 256 and 275(2) from the Koran.  It reads :”(In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate God,) there is no god but He, the Living, the Everlasting.  Slumber seizes Him not, neither sleep: to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth.  Who is there that shall intercede with Him save by His leave? He knows what lies before them and what is after them, and they comprehend not anything of His knowledge save such as He wills.  His throne comprises the heavens and earth; the preserving of them oppresses Him not: He is the All-high and the All-glorious”.

Surrounding the square, there are inscriptions which is translated as follows: “There is no man like Ali (Cousin of Mohamed).  There is no sword like Zulfakar (his sword)”.

The square is sub-divided into 16 small squares.   Each has 2 digit number in black.  The magic square in the plate is of the order 4.  There are 4 squares either vertically, horizontally or diagonally.  The sum of the number in any of the direction added up to the same amount.  In the case of that on the plate, it added up to 194.

The magic square originated from China. 

 

According the the ancient Chinese literature dating to about 650BC,  During the time of  the mythical  king Yu (), there was a great flood.  He  tried to channel the water out to sea where then emerged a turtle from the river Luo.  It’s shell has a 3 by 3 grid pattern with  circular dots of numbers.    The sum of the numbers in each row, column and diagonal added up to 15.  It is  the number of days in each of the 24 cycles of theChinese solar year.  

 

The square was called the Lo Shu or “scroll of the river”.   The magic square  pattern is said to be used by the ancient  people in controlling the river.

During the ancient time, magic squares were believed to possess astrological and divinatory qualities, their usage ensuring longevity and prevention of diseases. Magic squares were known to Islamic mathematicians, possibly as early as the 7th century, when the Arabs came in contact with Indian culture, and learned Indian mathematics and astronomy. It has also been suggested that the idea came via China.

For more on the Magic square, please read this.

According to Prof. Schuyler Cammann of the University of Philadephia,  the magic square was used to express symbolically the essence of Islamic thinking in cosmology.  The magic square is considered to be a model of the universe and is said to be a graphic illustrations of the Islamic concept that Allah is both the Source and the Destination of all things.

Those plates and bowls with the magic square were used as medicine bowls in the Islamic world.   The koran inscriptions and the magic square is believed to impart magical power to ward off evil.  Such bowls and plates were previously treasured heirloom.  After passing down for generations, the significance were forgotten by most of their descendants and many were sold as antiques to eager collectors.

Most of the inscriptions contained many mistakes and even in highly corrupted form beyond recognition.  For my bowl, I would appreciate if any reader would let me know if they could decipher any of the texts.

Eastern Han to Sui Period

Mature greenware was finally produced near the end of Eastern Han Dynasty.  The main decorative techniques used were incising, luting of molded motif.  It was also popular to shape the vessels in animal forms.  Another distinctive vessel is jar with multiple smaller jars on top of the big jar.

Major milestones in the history of porcelain production during the Eastern Han to Sui period included:

  • An experimental form of under-glaze iron-pigment decoration was introduced during the late 3 kingdom period.  It was more widely use on Eastern Jin vessels but mainly painted in splashes/dots/lines to beautify the vessels.
  • Black glaze ware was introduced  in the Eastern Han but production was small even during the Jin period.
  • Use of kiln furniture such as props, disc setter and 3-prongs spurs introduced during the Han Dynasty
  • Improvement made to the dragon kiln at least by the 3 kingdom period. 

Excavations showed that vessels placed at the further end of the firing chamber were generally under-fired prior during Han and earlier.  This was because lesser head could reach the area.  To improve on the situation, during the 3 kingdom period, stoking holes were provided along the upper wall of the firing chamber.  If more heat was required, woods were thrown in through those holes to provide more heat.  Such improvement had also enabled longer dragon kilns to be built and as a result more vessels fired in one session.

  • Use of saggars to protect the vessels during firing.  During the excavation of the kiln in Luohu (罗湖) in Jiangxi (江西), cylindrical saggars were found to be in use at least since the Eastern Jin period.  Some bowls and plates with lotus carvings on the external wall were found sticking to the saggars. For vessels such as bowls and plates, usually 3 to 6 were stacked in placed in the saggars.  For bigger vessel, each occupied one saggar.  Sometimes, to maximise on usage of space in the firing chamber, smaller vessels were placed in vessel such as jar.
  • application of slip to improve the surface of the vessels was introduced in Wuzhou (婺洲) kiln at least by the Western Jin period
  • The earliest white wares was found in the tomb of  Fan Cui (范粹) dated A.D 575 ie during the Bei Qi () (Northern Dynasties period).  By Sui dynasty,more mature white wares were produced.

Greenware Production

Mature porcelain was finally produced in the Zhejiang province near the end of Eastern Han Dynasty after about 2000 years from the appearance of proto-porcelain in Shang Dynasty.  Xiangying (湘阴) in Hunan (湖南), Fengcheng (丰城) in Jiangxi (江西)and Yixing ()in Jiangsu () were areas which had porcelain production during the Han Dynasty.

The potters were able to achieve a good grayish green and smooth glaze.  It showed good control of kiln firing.  The porcelains were fired in dragon kilns (also sometime called serpentine or scorpion kiln).  Kiln furniture such as trumpet, cylindrical shaped props, 3-prongs spurs and disc shaped setters were found in the firing chamber of the ancient Han kilns.  The use of props was a technological improvement. 

In the past, many of the vessels such as jars showed sign of under-firing on lower portion of vessels.  This was because the vessels were placed directly on the floor of the firing chamber.  As heat travel upward, the lower portion of the vessels received less heat and could not be fired to the required temperature.  By placing the vessels on a disc setter which rested on top of the props, the vessels were raised higher.  The disc setter was to ensure that any running of the glaze would not resulted in the vessels adhering to the prop.  The 3 prongs spur were used as separator for stacking of bowls/plates.

The production continued to flourish during the 3 Kingdoms to the 6 dynasties period.  The centre of production was Shangyu in Zhejiang.  The utilitarian vessels most frequently associated with this period are in animal-form: such as sheep and lion shape candle stands, lamps which looked like bears,  frog-shaped water-droppers and bird shape cups,.  They are  both artistic and functional.  There were also  large number of funerary wares such as model granaries , stoves, wells, mills were produced.

The Eastern Jin and north/south dynasties was a period of upheavals and the economy suffered.  The ceramic industry was adversely affected.  Shangyu was reduced from a booming production centre to an area with few scattered small kilns.  The kilns produced mainly bowls, dishes, cups with ears, cup stands, alms bowls, jars, ewers, inkstones, chicken head ewers and other wares for daily use.

The decorative motifs include circular bands and iron brown painted spots.  Those impressed diamond bands were hardly used by Eastern Jin.

The term “old yue ware” was used to refer zhejiang greenware of Eastern Han to 6 dynasties. This is  to distinguished them from the Yue wares of Tang/ Song.

For more on old Yue wares, please read this article: Pre Tang Yue wares

Two other important Zhejiang greenware  production sites were Ou kiln (瓯窑) in Wenzhou (温州) and Wuzhou (婺洲) in Jinhua (). The distinctive feature of wuzhou greenware is its more light whitish green glaze.  For greenware from Wuzhou, a lay of slip is usually detectable below the green glaze.

Another notable site is Nan Shan (南山) kiln in Yixing () in Southern Jiangsu province. It was an extension of the Zhejiang greenware as Jiangsu is just next to Zhejiang. The glaze from Nanshan kiln generally have crackles and tends to flake easily.

Greenwares from 3 Kingdom/Jin period were also excavated in tombs in Jiangxi.  They possessed some distinctive local characteristics such as a pea-green thin glaze or runny dark brown glaze.  However,  no kilns sites of the period have yet to be located.  However, Southern Dynasties Luo Hu kiln (罗湖) in Feng Cheng(丰城) in Jiangxi was discovered in 1977.  Most have a rice yellowish colour   There were small quantity with some with greenish or greenish yellow colour glaze.  Glaze flakings and crackled glaze is a common feature.  Fengcheng is located in ancient Tang Dynasty Hongzhou (洪洲) and is believed to be the location of the Hongzhou kiln mentioned in Lu Yu’s (陆羽) treatise on tea ().

Six dynasties greenware sites were also discovered in Huai an kiln (怀安) in Fuzhou and cizao (磁灶) kiln in Jinjiang (晋江) county.  Both are located in Fujian province.  The paste is grayish white and the glaze is usually yellowish green in colour.  The glaze tends to develop crackles and flakes easily. Another important site was Xiang yin (湘阴) in Hunan province which served as the foundation for subsequent production of Changsha wares.

In Northern China, Northern Dynasty era kiln sites producing greenware have been discovered in Shandong (), Shanxi (山西) , Hebei (河北) and Henan (河南). Two examples from Henan Anyang Xiangzhou(安阳相州) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河) kiln are shown below.

 

Henan Gongyi Bai He kiln (Northern Wei Period)

 
 

A distinctive feature of vessels from the North/South Dynasties was the strong influence of Buddhism as reflected in the vessels with lotus motif and a form of buddhist stylised flower called bao xiang hua (宝相花) and Ren Dong(忍冬), ie honeysuckle motif. The most prominent vessel of the North Dynasties was the magnificent jar with body in lotus form.  It is heavily potted with light grayish or greyish brown paste.  The glaze is transparent and glassy.  One kiln producing such wares was discovered at Zhai li kiln (寨里窑) in zi bo (淄博) in Shandong province.

 

Greenware (Celadon) with iron-brown painted motif

In 1983,at Nanjing (南京) Yuhuatai (雨花台), a celadon Jar with cover was recovered from a tomb.  The tomb dated between the Three Kingdom to early Jin Period   The body of the jar was applied with a slip before application of  the glaze.  The glaze is  brownish in color.  From the various characteristics, it is widely believed to be a product of Wuzhou (婺洲) kiln in Central Zhejiang.  It was decorated with luted animal-face mask and buddha figure.   The iron-brown motif included drawing some celestial beings.  It is the earliest record of underglaze iron-brown decoration.

Black Glaze wares

Black glaze wares were discovered in East Han tombs in Anhui, Hubei and  Zhejiang Shangyu (上虞) Zhang zi shan kiln (帐子山窑), Deqing (德清二都乡黄角山窑).  The kilns in Deqing produced mainly coarser bigger size black glaze jars and urns.  The glaze is thick with crazing and tends to flake.  Zhang zi shan kiln in Shangyu produced both greenwares and black glaze wares.  There were more variety of black glaze wares including bowls, washers, jars and hu vases.  Generally, the paste of the black glaze wares is more coarse.   Black glaze also used iron oxide as colorant for the glaze.  However, the content is higher than that for greenware and ranges from 4 to 9%.  Both the greenwares and black glaze wares were fired simultaneously in the same kiln.

During the Six Dynasties, Deqing became the main centre for the production of black glaze wares. It also produced greenwares.   The most striking examples were those Deqing chicken-head black glaze wares of the Jin period.  Black glaze wares produced before Tang were comparatively low in volume.  The mainstream production was greenwares.

Northern Dynasty/Sui White Glaze wares

The earliest documented white wares were found  in the tomb of Fan cui (范粹) dated 575 A.D (North Dynasty Bei Qi () and located in Anyang, Henan.  There are those with fine or coarse body.  They have a layer of white slip to whiten the body.  The glaze  is transparent and finely crackled with tinge of yellow or green.

Recent archaeological findings in Henan ancient Northern Wei Loyang city site indicated that the earliest white ware may be produced as early as early part of 6th century.  Some of the white wares were probably produced in Henan kilns such as Anyang Xiangzhou(安阳相州) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河).  In Baihe kiln, the stacking method was used for firing wares. Kiln wastage shows that white cup was placed on the top of green wares.  Hence, the spur marks are seen on green wares and not the white ones.  The white wares are more thinnly potted and the paste more whitish in colour.

 

The early white wares still show clear greenish tone in the area where glaze pooled

 

Spur marks are found on the interior of green wares

 

By Sui Dynasty, the quality of white wares have improved and quite a number were discovered in Sui tombs.  The degree of whiteness has further improved. For example those from the Tomb of Li Jingxun (李静训) dated A.D 608 were fine and they have glaze white with hardly any trace of green/yellow.

Sui vessels were varied consisting of bowls, cups, vases , guan, candle stand, tripod censer, ewers and etc.  Some striking examples of  ewers have head head spout/dragon head handle and elephant head spout/dragon head handle.

In 1982 in the region between Hebei Lin cheng (临城) and Ne qiu (内丘), a Sui period kiln site that produced white wares was discovered at Jia cun (贾村).  The shards included those with light grayish paste covered with white slip and others with white paste without the need for white slip.  These were the early Xing wares.  The quality of white wares from the Xing kilns were the best and it reached its greatest fame during the the Tang dynasty.

 
 
 

 

Henan Ceramics wares (河南陶瓷)

 

Tang/5 Dynasty Period

During the Tang Dynasty, kilns in Northern China produced both Celadon and White wares.  In the area of lead glazed wares, there were tremendous progress made, the greatest achievement being the magnificent Tang Sancai wares. In Henan region, the number of kilns producing ceramics also increased.   Some of those kilns had long production history and continued to produce ceramics till the Yuan/Ming period.

 

 

Yellow Glazed wares

A type of yellow glaze celadon wares was especially popular during this period.  Some of the more notable kilns producing such wares are Jiaxian Huangdao (郏县黄道窑), Gongyi Huangye (义黄冶窑), Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑), Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑), Yuzhou Changzhuang (禹州苌庄窑) and etc.

   

Two examples from Dengfeng kiln.  The ewer on the left has impressed straw-mat motif.  This was a popular treatment on Tang ewers with yellow or yellowish green glaze

Black/brown Glazed wares

Many kilns of the period also produced black, brownish black and teadust wares.  An interesting variation was the addition of  splashes of a whitish or whitish blue glaze over the ground glaze.  The Chinese called it hua you (花釉)Many of the Chinese experts believe such wares were the precursor of Song Jun wares.  Typical shapes with such glazes included drum, jar and plates.   The most famous kilns producing such wares were Lushan Dudian (鲁山段店窑) and Jiaxian Huangdao (郏县黄道窑) 

 Other kilns which also produced them were Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑) and Yuzhou Changzhuang (禹州苌庄窑) and etc.

   

The splashes could be an opaque powdery white colour.  If fired at a higher temperature, it intermingled well with the ground glaze.  Some has a shiny , more transparent bluish white as can been seen in above.

Lushan Huayou ci (鲁山花釉瓷) drum and Beijing Palace Museum

White wares

Besides the typical white glaze wares, some kilns also produced white wares which used various decorative techniques.  A notable type was high fired white glaze with splashes of copper green.  They were especially popular during the Tang/5 Dynasty period. During the 5 Dynasty/Song period, instead of green splashes, green stylised floral motif were drawn on the vessel.  Some of the notable kilns producing such wares were Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑), Dengfeng Quyang (登封曲阳窑), Lushan Dudian (鲁山段店窑) and Anyang Beiqi (安阳北齐窑).

   

Anyang Beiqi kiln 5 Dynasty white glaze gourd-shaped vase and jar with handle decorated with green splashes

Dengfeng Zhudong kiln dish decorated with floral-like motif.  Most probably dated to 5 Dynasty/Northern Song

 

 

Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑) also introduced a form of white ware with stamped pearl-like ground and incised motif during the late Tang period.  Such wares gained much popularity during the Northern Song period and were produced in a number of kilns, the most famous being Dengfeng Quhe kiln (登封曲阳窑).

Another interesting type which was first noted in Yaozhou kilns were unglazed plates with the area around the rim coated with star-shaped black glaze and inner base with abstract floral like motif.  This particular type could still be found during the Song period in Some Henan kilns. There were also some censer like or probably oil lamp vessels decorated with black/brown motif.  They were found in kiln in Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑).

   
   

Tang Sancai wares

Great development were made in the area of lead glazed wares.  Besides version of lead glaze white wares with splashes of green, the kilns in Gongyi (previously called Gongxian)  Huang Ye (义黄冶) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河) further developed the decorative techniques with multi-coloured glazes called Tang Sancai or Tang Tri-colour. 

The term is rather misleading as the number of colours can vary from 1 to more than 3.  The colours included white, green, blue, black, brown, amber and dark brown. 

The vessel which is coated with a white slip was first fired to around 1000 degree centigrade.  It is then glazed and fired at a lower temperature of about 800 degree centigrade. 

Vessels included daily utensils such as plates, bowls, jars, censer and figurines of court official, servants, ladies, camels, horses and models of building.  The figurines and models of building were essentially made for elaborate burial purposes. 

So far, very few kiln wastage of large figurines have been excavated.   It is generally believed that there could be other kilns that produced such items. The daily utensils may be of practical usage and were exported overseas in limited quantity and had been found in countries in Middle East, Japan and Indonesia.

Duck shaped pot in the Henan Museum

Tang Sancai Court servants in Loyang Museum

 

Gongyi kilns also made an interesting type of marbled wares.  It involved a process of inter-mixing two types of clay which is grayish white and brownish in colour respectively.  The end result is an interesting tree-like grain or cloud like design.

Tang Marbled vessel in Shanghai Museum

 

Another variation employed the application of thin layers of such marbled clay on different part of the vessel.  There is also another type of marbled glazed ware called Jiaoyu (绞釉) by the Chinese (lower fragment of below picture).  The term is used as it has the appearance of intermingling of two coloured glaze.

 

Tang Marbled  pillow vessel in Shanghai Museum.

 

Tang Blue and white wares

Another technical breakthrough was the production of high fired underglaze cobalt blue and white.  Some blue and white sherds have been discovered in Gongyi Baihe kiln (义白河窑). They consisted of simple geometric and floral design.  The composition of the blue and white wares showed clear Persian influence as can been seen on the 3 dishes found in the Belitung shipwreck.

Dish from the Belitung Tang Shipwreck

The Gongyi kilns also produced some vessels such as the below bowls with blue or blue and yellow motifs.  There were previously some confusions over the classification of such wares.  Some thought they were also a form of blue and white.  It has now been confirmed that those were low fired lead-glazed wares.

   

Examples of lead glaze with blue motif

 

Kilns from other Provinces producing similar wares

In identifying ceramics in Henan, it is necessary to know that there are much similarity between them and products from neighbouring kilns in Hebei (such as Xinyao (邢窑) and Dingyao (定窑)) and even Shanxi (such as Jincheng Zezhou (晋城泽洲窑) and Hunyuan (浑源) and Pingding (平定) which is located near Hebei).  For example, some Tang Sancai and white lead glaze with green splashes fragment were found in kiln in Zezhou.  Unfortunately, the kiln had been destroyed but the existence of the kiln is evident from the existence of some kiln furniture and ceramics fragments found.

 

Source

Mr Koh

 

 

In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

 

 

 

7th Century

 

605

The country of Fu-lin, also called Ta-ts’in, lies above the western sea.

In the southeast it borders on Po-ssu (Persia)….

The emperor Yang-ti of the Sui dynasty (A.D. 605-617) always wished to open intercourse with Fu-lin, but did not succeed.

 

The several accounts known in Chinese literature of

the mysterious country in the west called

Fu-lin

is declared to be identical with

the country from ancient times known as

Ta-ts’in.

This is known from the texts of the T’ang dynasty, which use the two names are interchangeable terms.

It has been concluded by the Chinese that Ta-ts’in is Syria, and if that is the case,

then Fu-lin must be Syria.

The author is disinclined to be guided by this kind of logic. Friedrich Hirth believes that Ta-ts’in is the Roman empire.

However the detail placed on record in the contemporary Chinese texts is confined to its Asiatic provinces, for which reason Antioch is described as the capital city.

Hirth considers Fu-lin to be Byzantium and Ta-ts’in to be certain Asiatic portions of the empire.

After this analysis, there still remain quite a number of important points to be settled in connection with both Ta-ts’in and Fu-lin

5th Century

According to the Chinese annals, Funan and Pan-pan were known where Mahāyāna Buddhism flourished since the fifth century and contributed to China in the field of Buddhism

.So, when the Srivijaya, the Tang court gave them the name of ‘室利佛逝Shi-li-fo-shi).

This name includes the Buddha (佛).

This means special treatment for Srivijaya.

 

 

610 AD

 

Under

the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641),

the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5]

 

 In summary,

while it maintained Roman state traditions, Byzantium is distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by

 

 Orthodox Christianity 

 

 

rather than

 

 Roman polytheism.[6]

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery.

 

The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

 

Its capital city was Constantinople

 

 

(modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context), it survived the 5th century 

 

fragmentation  

and fall of the Western Roman Empire

and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

. Both “Byzantine Empire” and “Eastern Roman Empire” are historiographical terms applied in later centuries; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roma Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr.Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum),[1] and Romania (Ῥωμανία).[2]

613 AD

Lahir Siti Aminah binti Abu Bakar

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

615 AD

Hijrah Siti Aminah binti Abu Bakar yang pertama ke Abessinia , rajab tahun 5 daripada Kenabian Muhammad S.A.W

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

Sumber Google

616 AD

Hijrah kedua Nabi Muhammad S.A.W ke Habsjah.

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

sumber

Google

 

c.616 CE:

The maternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad, Abu Waqqas, joined a trading voyage from Ethiopia to Guangzhou. He then returned to Arabia, and came back to Guangzhou 21 years later with a copy of the Koran.

He founded the Mosque of Remembrance,

near the Kwang Ta (Smooth Minaret) built by the Arabs as a lighthouse.

Abu Waqqas tomb is in the Muslim cemetery in Guangzhou.

 

 


Liu Chih,

The Life of the Prophet (12 vols), 1721, quoted by the Islamic Council of Victoria, Four missionaries were sent to China by the prophet Mohammad, and two died in Quanzhou.

 

They were buried as honoured guests, and the tombs repeatedly repaired and embellished until the present.
Wang Lianmao (ed),
Return to the City of Light, p.99, and Quanzhou site captions, citing Ming Shu, ‘A history of Fujian province

617 AD

Orang Quraisji memutuskan perhubungan dengan sekalian kaum Banu Hasjim dan Banu Abdul Muthalib (Nabi) zaman be’kot.

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

Dari wilayah ini telah muncul nabi palsu bernama Musailamah al Kadzdzab (si pendusta) beserta orang-orang Arab Badui

Sumber

Syiahali

 

618

Tang Dynasty

The death of

Emperor Yang Ti of Sui

resulted in a Sui Kingdom civil war from which

King Li Yuan (of Western Wei) later became

the first Tang Emperor Kao Tsu

and

his son Li Shih-min arose victorious,

establishing the T’ang dynasty and extending the unification of China for another 300 years. Li Yuan, adopting the title

 

T’ang Kao Tsu, ruled from AD 618-626

 

 

then abdicated in favor of his son Li Shih-min who adopted the title

T’ai Tsung and ruled from AD 627 to 649.

Both were able rules under whom T’ang began its rise to greatness. The next 300 years was a time of relative calm, prosperity and enlightenment with the cultural arts dominating over the military arts.

 

 

 

 

621 AD

Terjadinya Isra’ dan Miradj setahun sebelum hijrah ke Mdinah , malam senin 27 Rajab . Wajib sembayang lima waktu Bai’tul Aqabah yang pertama = tahun ke 12 kenabian.

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

622 AD

Di sanalah terletak Masjid Nabawi yang didirikan tahun 622 M atau tahun pertama hijriah, setelah Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wassallam hijrah

Sumber

rofiudin23.

 

623 AD

Mengirim Hamzah = Ramadan, 7 nulan sesudah Hidjrah Ekspedisi ‘Ubaidah bin Harist = Sjawal 8 bulan esudah Hijrah.

 

 

Juni

Perang Abwa’ = Safar 12 bulan sesudah Hijrah

Perang Badar

Sayyidina Hamzah, Pahlawan perang Badar dan Uhud

Di antara sahabat Nabi saw yang terkenal paling pemberani adalah paman beliau sendiri, Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib.

 

Beliau seorang lelaki Arab yang paling berani, pejuang yang pantang mundur, dan komandan perang Islam yang cerdas dalam beberapa peperangan yang sangat menentukan masa depan Islam, seperti perang Badar dan Uhud. Dengan keahlian perangnya yang mumpuni, dia menjadi salah seorang penentu kemenangan perang Badar dengan beberapa sahabat Nabi lainnya yang gagah berani, meskipun saat itu jumlah pasukan kaum Muslimin sedikit.

Hamzah senantiasa berada di sisi kemenakannya sendiri, Nabi Muhammad saw dan di saat tersulit pun ia selalu setia membela risalah yang dibawa oleh Rasulullah saw. Pemimpin dan pembesar Quraisy takut dan khawatir akan keberanian beliau. Dan ketakutan itu membuat mereka tidak punya nyali untuk mencegah laju dakwah Rasulullah saw. Sehingga bisa dikatakan, Hamzah memainkan peran penting dalam mempertahankan dan menjaga Islam serta membela Nabi demi keberlangsungan dan keabadian ajaran suci Islam.

Selama di Mekkah, Hamzah membantu Rasulullah saw di saat-saat genting dengan sepenuh jiwa. Beliau rela berkorban dan tak segan-segan menjadikan dirinya sebagai tumbal saat berhadapan langsung dengan kaum musyrikin.

Beliau adalah putra Abdul Muthalib dan paman Rasulullah saw. Beliau lahir pada tahun keempat sebelum peristiwa pasukan gajah (Tahun Gajah) di kota Mekkah. Di tengah masa Jahilah dan tersebarnya akidah syirik pada penduduk Hijaz, beliau tetap berpegang pada ajaran lurus Nabi Ibrahim dan dikenal sebagai pemuda yang senantiasa memberikan perlindungan kepada orang-orang lemah.

Ayahnya adalah Abdul Muthalib dan ibunya anak perempuan dari Amru bin Zaid bin Lubaid yang bernama Salmi.

Saudara Sepersusuan Rasulullah saw

Hamzah sangat dekat dengan Nabi saw. Kedekatan ini tidak hanya dari sisi spiritual namun juga dari sisi material. Tsubah, budak Abu Lahab pernah menyusui Hamzah dan sewaktu menyusui anaknya yang bernama Masruh, ia juga menyusui Nabi saw selama beberapa hari. (1) Sehingga dengan demikian, bisa dikatakan bahwa Hamzah dan Nabi adalah saudara sepersusuan.

Sewaktu Nabi saw memulai menyebarkan ajaran sucinya dan masyarakat secara bertahap menerima ajaran tauhid dan pesan-pesan Al-Qur’an, Hamzah pun sebenarnya telah mengetahui dan tertarik dengan kebenaran ajaran Ilahi dan dakwah kemenakannya, Muhammad saw. Namun demi kemaslahatan saat itu ia belum menampakkan keimanan dan keyakinannya.

Ia seolah menunggu moment yang tepat untuk menunjukkan ketertarikan dan kecintaannya terhadap Islam dan Nabi Muhammad saw serta mendukung risalah Ilahi secara terang-terangan.

Karena Hamzah hidup bersama kaum musyrikin maka ia mengetahui pelbagai konspirasi mereka terhadap Nabi saw. Hal itulah yang membuatnya semakin tergugah dan tegar untuk membela Rasul saw. Setiap dakwah Islam semakin bertumbuh dan jumlah kaum Muslimin semakin bertambah maka perlawanan kaum musyrikin pun semakin hebat. Keteguhan dan ketegaran Nabi saw di jalan kebenaran dan syariat Ilahi begitu menggugah perasaan Hamzah.

Beberapa tahun setelah masa pengangkatan Nabi berlalu, terbuka kesempatan bagi Hamzah untuk menunjukkan keimanan dan akidahnya. Sebagian mengatakan bahwa Hamzah masuk Islam pada tahun kedua pasca bi’tsah (masa pengangkatan Nabi), sebagiannya lagi menyakini pada tahun keenam pasca bi’tsah. Kisah mengenai masuk Islamnya beliau sangat menarik:

Setelah pengangkatan Muhammad saw menjadi Nabi, Hamzah juga mengucapkan syahadat dengan menyakini keesaan Allah Swt dan kebenaran agama yang dibawah oleh putra saudaranya. Setelah Hamzah masuk Islam, kaum Quraisy mengajukan beberapa permintaan/usulan kepada Rasulullah saw. Sebab mereka sadar bahwa laki-laki yang paling berani kini telah menyatakan keimanannya di hadapan Nabi saw, sehingga karena itu mereka tak lagi dapat mengharapkan dukungannya.

 

Namun Nabi saw tak memenuhi satupun dari permintaan mereka.

Usai Abu Jahal menyampaikan pidatonya di tengah-tengah Kabilah Quraisy, mereka memutuskan untuk membunuh Nabi Muhammad.

Suatu hari Abu Jahal melihat Nabi di bukit Safa, lalu ia memaki Rasul.

 

Nabi tetap saja berjalan menuju ke rumah beliau tanpa memperdulikan makian Abu Jahal. Budak Abdullah bin Jad’an yang menjadi saksi mata atas peristiwa tersebut melaporkannya kepada Hamzah.

 

Tanpa berpikir panjang dan memikirkan akibatnya, Hamzah memutuskan untuk membalas perlakukan buruk yang didapat oleh kemenakannya. Di tengah perjalanan ia menemui Abu Jahal yang berada di tengah kerumunan orang-orang Quraisy.

 

Tanpa memberikan kesempatan kepada yang lain untuk berbicara, ia mendekati Abu Jahal dan langsung menghantam kepalanya dengan cambuk, sehingga kepala Abu Jahal bersimbah darah. Hamzah pun berkata, “Berani kau menghina Rasulullah? Saya beriman dengan apa yang dikatakannya dan akan mengikuti jalan kemanapun dia pergi. Jika kau berani, silakan berhadapan denganku!” Dengan menghadap kepada orang-orang Quraisy, Abu Jahal berkata, “Saya telah berbuat buruk pada Muhammad, dan wajar Hamzah marah.” (2)

Ketika penyiksaan kaum Musyrikin kepada pengikut Nabi Muhammad saw semakin menjadi-jadi, beberapa sahabat beliau berhijrah ke Habasyah. Tidak berapa lama kemudian Nabi saw pun akhirnya memutuskan untuk berhijrah ke Madinah.

 

Beberapa kelompok kaum Muslimin Yatsrib bertemu dengan Nabi saw di Mina saat mereka melaksanakan ibadah haji. Mereka berjanji bahwa jika sekiranya Rasulullah saw dan kaum Muslimin lainnya berhijrah ke Madinah maka mereka akan memberikan perlindungan terhadap umat Islam yang teraniaya tersebut.

Demi kelancaran pertemuan dan keberlangsungan perjanjian tersebut, Hamzah melindungi dan menyembunyikan pertemuan tersebut dari kaum Musyrikin. Akhirnya, setelah satu dua tahun kemudian kaum Muslimin mendapat kesempatan dan peluang untuk berhijrah. Sebelum Rasulullah saw berhijrah, beberapa kelompok terlebih dahulu berhijrah ke Yatsrib dan Hamzah ikut di antara mereka. Setibanya di Madinah, mereka menunggu detik-detik kedatangan Nabi saw.

Akhirnya Nabi saw hijrah ke Madinah. Hijrah Nabi saw ini membuat kekuatan umat Islam semakin bertambah, sekaligus membuat permusuhan kaum Musyrikin melemah. Sampai akhirnya umat Islam dan kaum musyrikin saling berhadap-hadapan pada perang Badar. Pada perang yang pertama kali ini Sayyidina Hamzah mendapat gelar asadullah wa asadurrasul (singa Allah dan Rasul-Nya). Saat itu beliau diserahi amanah oleh Rasulullah untuk menjadi komandan perang dimana bendera perang ada di tangannya. Hamzah memimpin pasukan Islam yang hanya berjumlah 30 orang untuk berhadapan dengan 300 orang dari laskar Quraisy. Peristiwa ini terjadi pada bulan Ramadhan, tahun pertama hijriyah. Meskipun tidak terjadi kontak fisik antara kedua kubu namun Hamzah merasa terhormat dan bangga ketika ditunjuk oleh Nabi sebagai pimpinan pasukan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epik kepahlawanan dalam Peperangan

Perkembangan dakwah Islam yang pesat membuat kaum Quraisy semakin murka dan semakin meningkatkan penyiksaan dan permusuhan mereka terhadap umat Islam. Bahkan Abu Lahab, paman Nabi saw dan istrinya berkali-kali bersikap buruk terhadap Rasulullah saw, utamanya ketika mereka bertetangga dengan beliau. Nabi saw tidak mampu berbuat apa-apa ketika kepala dan wajah beliau dilempari berbagai kotoran dan sampah serta kotoran kambing. Hamzah pun membalas tindakan setimpal yang dilakukan oleh Abu Lahab.

 

Sariyah (perang yang tidak diikuti Nabi saw) pertama: Rasulullah saw berhijrah dari Mekah ke Madinah pada hari Senin 12 Rabiul Awal dan bendera pertama Rasulullah saw yang berwarna putih, pada bulan Ramadhan, awal bulan ketujuh tahun pertama Hijriyah, diserahkannya kepada Hamzah, pamannya.

 

Abu Marshad Kannas bin Hushain Ganawi, termasuk orang pertama yang masuk Islam dan sekaligus teman sebaya Hamzah, mengikatkan bendera itu di pundaknya. Rasulullah saw mengutus Hamzah dengan 30 sahabat Muhajirin menuju ke medan perang untuk menghadapi 300 orang pasukan Quraisy. Pasukan Quraisy ini dipimpin oleh Abu Jahal.

 

Saat itu pasukan musuh telah melakukan perjalanan dari Syam dan ingin kembali ke Mekah. Di salah satu desa di tepi laut merah dua pasukan ini bertemu. Mujaddi bin Amru Jahni yang memiliki hubungan baik dengan kedua belah pihak menjadi mediator dan berusaha keras agar kedua kelompok berunding dan mencegah terjadinya peperangan.

 

Pada bulan Safar tahun awal Hijriyah, Rasulullah saw ikut serta dalam Ghazwah Abwa (perang yang diikuti Nabi saw) Abwa untuk pertama kalinya. Abwa adalah tempat yang berjarak 37 km di antara Mekah dan Madinah (3). Saat itu beliau memberikan bendera putih kepada Hamzah.

 

 

 

Dalam Ghazwah ini, Rasulullah saw bertekad untuk menghadapi kafilah Quraisy, namun beliau tidak bertemu langsung dengan pasukan musuh.

Pada bulan Jumadil Akhir tahun kedua Hijriyah, Rasulullah saw berangkat menuju Gazhwa Dzul’asyirah dan lagi-lagi beliau memberikan bendera putih kepada Hamzah.

 

Beliau bergerak bersama 150 pasukan sukarelawan Muhajirin. Kelompok pasukan ini memiliki 30 ekor unta dan mereka saling bergantian mengendarainya. Ketika Rasulullah saw dan sahabat-sahabatnya tiba di Dzul’asyirah, pasukan kaum kafir Quraisy telah melewatinya sejak beberapa hari sebelumnya. Ketika kembali pun, pasukan musuh melewati tepian pantai sehingga tidak bertemu dengan Rasulullah saw dan para sahabatnya. (4)

Pada 17 Ramadhan tahun kedua Hijriyah terjadi perang antara kaum Muslimin dengan kaum kuffar Quraisy yang dikenal dengan nama perang Badar. Sewaktu Rasulullah saw merapikan barisan kaum Muslimin, tiba-tiba angin berhembus dengan sangat kencang yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya.

 

Dan angin kencang ini bertiup berulang sampai beberapa kali. Angin kencang ini sebagai pertanda kedatangan para malaikat. Yang pertama, Malaikat Jibril dengan seribu malaikat lainnya datang menghadap Rasulullah saw, yang kedua Malaikat Mikail dengan seribu malaikat di sebelah kanan Rasulullah saw dan yang ketiga Malaikat Israfil dengan seribu malaikat disisi kiri Rasulullah saw.

 

Kesemua malaikat ini mengenakan sorban (ikat kepala) yang terbuat dari cahaya yang berwarna hijau, kuning dan merah yang menggelantung sampai di pundak mereka, dan mereka menggantungkan bulu dan rambut di dahi unta-unta mereka. Rasulullah saw bersabda kepada sahabat-sahabatnya, bahwa mereka adalah malaikat-malaikat yang akan memberikan bantuan dan dukungan kepada kaum Muslimin. Para malaikat telah menandai diri mereka, maka kalian pun hendaklah melakukan hal yang sama. Lalu para sahabat mendandai topi besi yang dikenakan di kepala mereka dengan bulu onta(5)

Orang yang pertama kali tiba di medan pertempuran dari kaum Muslimin adalah Muhajja` (budak yang dimerdekakan oleh Umar bin Khattab). Kaum musyrikin berteriak dengan keras, “Hai Muhammad, siapa saja yang punya hubungan dengan kami, kirimlah dia untuk berperang dengan kami.” Nabi Muhammad saw berkata kepada Bani Hasyim, “Bangkitlah! Berperanglah demi kebenaran yang dengannya Nabi kalian diutus dan mereka datang untuk memadamkan cahaya kebenaran itu.!!!”

 

Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib, Ali bin Abi Thalib dn Ubaidah bin Harits bin Muthalib keluar dari barisan dan menuju mereka. Karena ketiga orang tersebut mengenakan penutup kepala sehingga sulit untuk dikenali. Utbah berkata, “Berbicaralah sehingga kami dapat mengenali suara kalian!” Hamzah berkata, “Sayalah Hamzah, putra Abdul Muthalib, singa Allah dan singa Rasul-Nya.” Utbah berkata, “Ya, kamu adalah pembesar, lantas siapa dua orang bersamamu ini?” Hamzah menjawab, “Ali bin Abi Thalib dan Ubaidah bin Harits”. Utbah berkata, “Dua orang bersamamu juga adalah juga orang-orang besar”.

Waktu itu Ali bin Abi Thalib berhadapan dengan Walid bin Utbah dan berhasil membunuhnya. Sementara Hamzah berduel dengan Utbah dan juga berhasil membunuhnya dengan hanya dua pukulan. Dan Ubaidah bin Harits sahabat Nabi yang paling muda saat itu berdiri menghadapi Syaibah. Syaibah memukulkan pedangnya pada kaki Ubaidah dan membuat pergelangan kaki Ubaidah terpotong. Melihat itu Hamzah, singa Allah dan Rasul-Nya bersama Ali segera menyerang Syaibah dan mereka berhasil membunuhnya.(6)

 

Dalam perang ini, Abdurrahman bin Auf dan Bilal Habasyi berhasil menawan Umayyah bin Khalf dan anaknya. Bilal berkata, ”Waktu itu saya berada diantara Umayyah dan anaknya, kemudian saya menangkap mereka. Umayyah bertanya kepada saya, “Siapa diantara kalian yang menandai dadanya dengan bulu onta?”. Saya menjawab, “Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib.” Ia berkata, “Hamzah membawa malapetaka atas diri kami.”

 

 

Pertengahan Syawal tahun kedua Hijriyah. Kabilah Bani Qainuqa’, kelompok yang paling berani diantara kelompok kaum Yahudi yang berprofesi sebagai pandai besi memiliki ikatan perjanjian dengan Abdullah bin Ubay dan juga Rasulullah saw.

 

Ketika terjadi perang Badar, kebencian dan rasa dengki membuat mereka memutuskan untuk membatalkan perjanjian. Allah Swt menurunkan surah Al-Anfal ayat 58 kepada Rasulullah saw, “Dan jika engkau (Muhammad) khawatir akan (terjadinya) pengkhianatan dari suatu golongan, maka kembalikanlah perjanjian itu kepada mereka dengan cara yang jujur. Sungguh, Allah tidak menyukai orang yang berkhianat.” (7)

 

Dengan turunnnya ayat ini, Rasulullah menjadi waspada terhadap Bani Qainuqa’. Beliau menyerahkan bendera ke tangan Hamzah dan memerintahkannya dengan beberapa pasukan untuk menghadapi mereka. Bani Qainuqa’ adalah kelompok Yahudi yang pertama kali melakukan pengkhianatan kepada Islam. Ketika Rasulullah saw baru melakukan pengepungan, kontan saja mereka merasa ketakutan, sehingga mereka pun menyerah kepada kaum Muslimin dan menyerahkan harta-harta mereka. Rasulullah saw bersabda, “Bebaskan mereka, Allah Swt telah melaknat mereka dan Abdullah bin Ubay”.(8)

 

Perang Uhud: Akhir Syawal tahun kedua Hijriyah menjelang terjadinya perang Uhud. Hamzah, sebagai panglima perang—sebelum memulai perang— berkata, “Demi Allah Swt yang telah menurunkan Al-Qur’an, hari ini saya tidak akan menyentuh sedikit pun makanan sampai saya menghadapi lawan dalam peperangan.”(9)

Hamzah bersama Kaum Muslimin

Di malam hari perang Uhud, Rasulullah saw tahu bahwa tidak lama lagi pamannya akan gugur sebagai syahid. Beliau pun berbincang dengan Hamzah dan menanyakan kembali keyakinannya mengenai ketauhidan dan kenabian serta risalah yang dibawanya. Hamzah kemudian menjawab dengan tegas dan kembali mengucapkan syahadat dengan lidahnya. Akhirnya Rasulullah saw bersabda kepadanya

 

, “Hamzah adalah pemimpin para syuhada, singa Allah dan singa Rasul-Nya dan paman Nabi.” Sabda Nabi ini menebar aroma kesyahidan dan membuat dada Hamzah bergemuruh. Hamzah pun meneteskan air mata kebahagiaan.

 

Rasulullah saw berdoa agar pamannya tetap tegar berdiri di jalan tauhid dan segala keraguan di dalam hatinya segera sirna.

Menjelang Perang Uhud, Hamzah berkata kepada Nabi saw, “Saya bersumpah atas nama Allah, tidak akan sedikitpun menyentuh makanan sebelum mengeluarkan semua musuh dari kota Madinah.”

 

Perang Uhud terjadi pada bulan Ramadhan, kaum Muslimin berbaris dengan rapi di kaki gunung Uhud di bagian utara Madinah. Setelah perang satu lawan satu, maka dimulailah perang secara terbuka. Hamzah bertempur dengan gagah berani dan penuh dengan keimanan yang meluap-luap. Dengan dua pedang di tangannya, ia menyerang dengan penuh keberanian sambil berteriak, “Saya adalah singanya Allah.”

Thalhah bin Abi Thalhah pembawa bendera kaum Musyrikin berteriak sambil menantang, “Siapakah yang berani berhadapan denganku?” Ali bin Abi Thalib bergegas mendekatinya dan menebaskan pedang ke arah kepalanya. Tebasan itu membuatnya keningnya terbelah dan mengucurkan darah sehingga akhirnya ia pun terjatuh dan terkulai ke tanah.

 

Melihat itu, Rasulullah saw tersenyum seraya mengumandangkan takbir. Kaum Muslimin pun serentak mengumandangkan takbir yang sama. Bendera kaum musyrikin tersebut kemudian beralih ke tangan Utsman bin Abi Thalhah. Hamzah segera berlari ke arahnya, dan mengayungkan pedang ke bahunya. Tebasan pedang Hamzah mematahkan tangan dan bahunya, pedangnya terlepas dan paru-parunya terburai keluar. Hamzah kemudian kembali sembari mengumandangkan syair, “Saya putra pemberi minum jamaah haji.” (10)

Banyak kaum musyrikin yang terbunuh di perang tersebut di tangan Hamzah. Diantaranya adalah pemegang bendera laskar Bani Abduddar, Atha’ bin Abdu dan Utsman bin Abi Thalhah dan juga Saba’ bin Abdul `Uzzah dan Amru bin Fadlah.

Wahsyi Habasyi

Jabir bin Mut’im mempunyai budak yang bernama Wahsyi yang sebagaimana orang-orang Habasyah lainnya terkenal pandai menombak dan jarang gagal mengenai sasaran ketika melemparkan tombaknya.

 

Pada perang Uhud Jabir berkata kepada budaknya, “Pergilah bersama pasukan ini, dan jika kamu melihat pamannya Muhammad maka bunuhlah dia. Aku ingin membalas dendamku atas kematian pamanku Ta’imah bin Addi di perang Badar. Jika kamu berhasil membunuhnya maka kamu kubebaskan.” Hindun, anak Utbah juga meminta Wahsyi untuk membunuh salah satu dari Muhammad, Ali atau Hamzah untuk membayar kematian bapaknya. Wahsyi pun menjawab, “Saya sama sekali tidak bisa menemukan cara untuk membunuh Muhammad ataupun Ali pun. Mereka begitu lincah dan tangkas di medan perang. Namun Hamzah mudah terjebak dalam kemarahan dan emosional saat terjadi peperangan sehingga ia tidak memperhatikan lagi kondisi sekitarnya. Mungkin aku bisa membunuhnya dengan cara licik.”

Wahsyi bercerita, “Saya pada perang Uhud selalu mengikuti Hamzah dari belakang. Dia berperang bagaikan singa liar yang menerkam jantung musuh-musuhnya. Saya bersembunyi di balik bebatuan dan pepohonan sehingga dia tidak bisa melihatku. Ketika dalam keadaan sibuk menghadapi musuh-musuhnya, saya pun semakin mendekat ke arah Hamzah. Dengan jarak yang menyakinkan sayapun melemparkan tombakku ke arahnya. Tombak itupun tertancap di tubuhnya. Ia hendak menyerang ke arahku, namun karena rasa sakit yang sangat ia pun berteriak tak berdaya hingga ruhnya terpisah dari badannya. Dengan penuh kehati-hatian saya pun mendekat ke arahnya. Setelah mengambil senjatanya, sayapun bergegas kembali ke pusat pasukan kaum Quraisy sembari menunggu saya dibebaskan.” (11)

Setibanya kembali di Mekkah, Wahsyi pun mendapat imbalan kebebasan setelah ia menjalankan tugasnya dengan baik. Pada hari Fathul Mekkah (penaklukan kota Mekkah) dia melarikan diri ke Thaif. Pada tahun ke Sembilan Hijriyah penduduk Thaif datang berbondong-bondong ke Madinah untuk menyatakan keislamannya. Wahsyi pun berencana kembali melarikan diri ke Syam atau Yaman. Namun ia mendapat kabar, siapapun yang bersyahadat benar dengan lidahnya dan menyatakan keislaman maka Nabi Muhammad saw tidak akan membunuhnya. Ia pun bergegas menghadap kepada Nabi Muhammad saw dan kemudian mengucapkan syahadat sebagai pernyataan keislamannya. Rasulullah saw memintanya untuk menceritakan bagaimana ia bisa membunuh Hamzah. Setelah diceritakan Rasulullah saw pun bersedih dan berkata kepada Wahsyi, “Mulai sekarang jangan perlihatkan lagi wajahmu di hadapanku.” Atas permintaan Rasulullah saw, Wahsyi pun menjauh dan tidak menampakkan diri di hadapan Rasulullah saw sampai kemudian beliau saw wafat. Sepeninggal Rasulullah saw, Wahsyi pun berkesempatan mengikuti perang melawan Musailamah. Dengan dibantu seorang sahabat dari kaum Anshar, Wahsyi berhasil membunuh Musailamah. Dengan penuh haru ia berkata, ”Saya telah membunuh manusia terbaik setelah Rasulullah saw, dan juga telah membunuh manusia paling buruk di dunia.”(12)

Akibat dari masa lalu yang gelap, Wahsyi sampai akhir hayatnya enggan untuk berhubungan dengan kaum Muslimin. Namanya dihapus dari deretan laskar kaum Muslimin karena sikapnya yang tidak baik dan karena banyak meminum minuman keras ia pun sering dijatuhi hukuman cambukan. Umar bin Khattab berkata, “Pembunuh Hamzah tidak akan lagi mendapat pembebasan dan tidak layak masuk dalam daftar orang-orang baik.” (13)

Istri Abu Sufyan dan Kebenciannya terhadap Hamzah

Hindun, anak perempuan Utbah memerintahkan kepada Wahsyi untuk membunuh Hamzah sebagai penebus darah ayahnya. Dan Wahsyi pun menyanggupinya. Hindun banyak membuat gelang kaki dan kalung leher dari telinga dan hidung para syuhada Islam yang gugur pada perang sebelum perang Uhud. Ia memberikan dan mengenakan semuanya itu pada Wahsyi dan meminta agar hati Hamzah diserahkan kepadanya. Mengenai perbuatan yang sangat tidak pantas dan menjijikkan ini, Abu Sufyan berkata, “Saya tidak pernah menyetujui perbuatan ini dan juga tidak pernah memerintahkannya.” Karena perbuatan buruk Hindun ini, ia mendapat julukan “pemakan hati”. Anak-anaknya pun dikenal dengan julukan anak dari si pemakan hati.

Nama Hindun semakin menjijikkan ketika ia yang notebene masih saudara sepupu Hamzah dan putri dari Utbah bin Abdul Muthalib berdiri di atas batu dan dengan penuh rasa dendam ia menguyah-nguyah hati Hamzah dan menelannya. Abu Sufyan pun ikut mendekati jasad Hamzah dan bertindak tidak senonoh tehadap mulut Hamzah. Pada saat itu Hulais bin Zabban yang kebetulan lewat di tempat itu melihat perbuatan yang tidak senonoh Abu Sufyan lalu ia berteriak, “Wahai orang-orang, lihatlah tokoh besar kabilah Quraisy ini dengan tanpa hati ia memperlakukan tidak senonoh kepada anak pamannya sendiri.” Abu Sufyan merasa malu dengan perbuatannya sendiri dan berkata, “Apa yang saya lakukan ini tidak pantas kau lihat, dan ini juga bukan sebuah kesalahan besar.”

Kesedihan Rasulullah atas Syahidnya Hamzah

Rasulullah saw pada perang Uhud berkali-kali menanyakan tentang keadaan pamannya. Salah seorang sahabat Rasulullah bernama Harits bin Shamah bermaksud untuk memberikan kabar kepada Rasulullah saw. Namun mengingat kondisi jenazah Hamzah yang begitu memprihatinkan, ia tidak sampai hati menyampaikannya kepada Rasulullah saw. Karena belum juga ada kabar, Rasulullah saw memerintahkan Sayidina Ali untuk mencarinya. Namun sewaktu Ali juga melihat jenazah Hamzah dalam kondisi tidak utuh lagi, ia pun terduduk disamping jenazah tersebut dengan penuh kesedihan. Beliau pun berat menyampaikan berita duka tersebut kepada Rasulullah saw.

Rasulullah akhirnya mencari sendiri jasad Hamzah. Beliaupun menemukan jasad Hamzah penghulu para syuhada yang begitu mengenaskan. Beliau saw bersabda, “Tidak ada musibah yang lebih besar dari kematianmu dan tidak ada kesedihanku yang lebih sulit dari ini.” (14) Setelah itu, beliau berkata, “Jika sekiranya Allah memberiku kekuatan, aku akan membalas kematian Hamzah dan akan kubunuh 70 orang Quraisy dan akan kupong tubuh mereka.” Pada saat itu malaikat Jibril datang dan membacakan sebuah surah yang berbunyi, “Dan jika kamu membalas, maka balaslah dengan (balasan) yang sama dengan siksaan yang ditimpakan kepadamu. Tetapi jika kamu bersabar, sesungguhnya itulah yang lebih baik bagi orang yang sabar.” (15)

Rasulullah saw setelah mendengar ayat tersebut bersabda, “Saya akan bersabar dan tidak akan membalas dendam.” Rasulullah saw pun mengambil jubahnya dan menutupi wajah Hamzah. Namun jubah itu terlalu pendek bagi Hamzah. Jika jubah itu menutupi kepala maka kaki Hamzah terlihat jelas, namun jika ditarik untuk menutupi kakinya, kepalanya akan terlihat. Karenanya Rasulullah menarik jubah tersebut menutupi kepala Hamzah dan menutupi kaki Hamzah dengan rerumputan dan ilalang. Rasulullah saw bersabda, “Sekiranya perempuan-perempuan Abdul Muthalib tidak bersedih, saya akan meninggalkan dia dalam keadaan seperti ini dan membiarkan binatang-binatang padang pasir memangsa dagingnya hingga sampai hari kiamat ia akan tetap berada dalam perut mereka. Semakin besar musibah yang dihadapinya, maka akan semakin besar pula pahala yang akan didapatnya.”(16)

Rasulullah saw berdiri beberapa saat di sisi jenazah Hamzah dan berkata, “Jibril datang di sisiku dan memberikan kabar bahwa diantara penghuni tujuh lapisan langit tertulis, Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib asadullah wa asadur rasuluhu (17) (Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib, singa Allah dan singa Rasul-Nya).

Diriwayatkan dari Rasulullah saw, “Barang siapa yang berziarah kepadaku namun tidak berziarah kepada pamanku Hamzah, sama halnya menyatakan permusuhan kepadaku.” (18)

Rasulullah saw memberikan gelar kepada Hamzah, Sayyidul Syuhada (penghulu para syuhada). Rasulullah saw begitu memuliakan kesyahidan Hamzah. Sewaktu meninggalkan bukit Uhud ingin kembali ke kota Madinah, Rasulullah saw menangis dan juga memerintahkan kepada keluarga kaum Anshar untuk pergi ke rumah Hamzah guna menangis dan meratap di sana. Kepada kaum Muslimin Rasulullah saw bersabda, “Pergilah kalian berziarah ke makam Hamzah”. Rasulullah saw pun selalu berkunjung dan menziarahi para syuhada Uhud, khususnya di makam Hamzah dan beliau selalu menyampaikan salam kepadanya.

Sewaktu kaum musyrikin meninggalkan gunung Uhud, Rasulullah saw mendekati para syuhada. Beliau tidak memandikan jenazah Hamzah dan juga para syuhada lainnya. Beliau saw bersabda, “Kuburkanlah mereka bersama dengan darah-darah mereka tanpa harus dimandikan. Saya yang akan menjadi saksi mereka.” Jenazah Hamzah adalah jenazah yang pertama kali Rasulullah saw mengumandangkan takbir empat kali atasnya. Setelah itu, beliau memerintahkan sahabat-sahabatnya untuk meletakkan jenazah para syuhada lainnya di sebelah Hamzah. Rasulullah saw melakukan sholat untuk setiap syuhada. Dan khusus untuk Hamzah, Rasulullah melakukan shalat sampai tujuh puluh kali. (19)

Atas perintah Rasulullah saw, Hamzah bersama Abdullah bin Jahasy, syuhada Uhud yang juga dimutilasi dimana telinga dan hidungnya terpotong dikuburkan dalam satu makam. (20)

Setelah itu Rasulullah saw bersama sahabat-sahabatnya kembali ke Madinah. Haminah, putri Jahasy dan saudara perempuan Abdullah menemui Rasulullah saw. Ketika Rasulullah menyampaikan kabar mengenai kesyahidan Abdullah, Haminah berkata, “Inna lillahi wa inna ilahi raji’un, saya memohonkan ampun kepada Allah atas kesalahan-kesalahannya.” Setelah itu ia bertanya mengenai kabar Hamzah. Ketika mendengar kabar kesyahidan Hamzah, ia kembali mengucapkan hal yang sama dan memohon kepada Allah agar dosa-dosa keduanya diampuni-Nya.

Perempuan-perempuan Anshar dan Hamzah

Ketika kembali dari Uhud ke Madinah, Rasulullah saw melihat perempuan-perempuan kaum Anshar menangis dan mengucurkan air mata atas kesyahidan keluarga mereka sendiri di tempat yang bernama “Bani Abdul Syahl” dan “Bani Dzapar”. Rasulullah saw pun turut bersedih melihat itu dan bertanya, “Tetapi mengapa perempuan-perempuan itu tidak menangis untuk Hamzah?” (21) Sa’ad bin Ma’adz dan Usaid bin Hadhir mendengar perkataan Rasulullah saw ini lalu kemudian mendekati perempuan-perempuan itu dan berkata, “Pergilah kalian ke masjid dan turutlah berduka atas kesyahidan Hamzah, paman Rasulullah.” Mereka pun pergi melakukan apa yang dianjurkan. Rasulullah saw bersabda, “Semoga Allah merahmati mereka, kembalilah dan janganlah kamu enggan merasakan penderitaan orang lain.”(22) Rasulullah saw juga bersabda, “Semoga Allah merahmati kaum Anshar, sekarang saya mengetahui, betapa mereka memiliki kepedulian dan perasaan sepenanggungan, persilakan mereka kembali.” (23)

Perempuan kaum Anshar sampai sekarang (kurun ketiga Hijriyah) jika ada diantara keluarga mereka yang meninggal dunia, mereka lebih dulu bersedih dan menangis atas meninggalnya Hamzah baru kemudian menangisi keluarganya sendiri. (24)

Salam atasmu wahai paman Rasulullah dan salam Allah pula atasmu. Salam atasmu wahai yang telah gugur di jalan Allah!. Salam atasmu wahai Singa Allah dan singa Rasul-Nya! Kami bersaksi bahwa engkau telah berjihad di atas agama Allah dan telah mempersembahkan jiwa ragamu dalam membantu perjuangan Rasulullah. Semoga engkau mendapat kemuliaan di sisi Allah Swt.

Ayat 19 surah Al-Hajj turun di saat perang Uhud tengah berkecamuk, sewaktu Imam Ali dan Hamzah berhasil membunuh Syaibah, Allah Swt berfirman, “Inilah dua golongan (golongan mukmin dan kafir) yang bertengkar, mereka bertengkar mengenai Tuhan mereka.” Sebagaimana halnya surah Ad-Dukhan ayat 16, Surah Al-Qamar ayat 45, Surah Al-Hajj ayat 55 dan Az-Zariyat ayat 45 turun berkenaan dengan perang Badar.(25)

Hamzah, penghulu para syuhada adalah teladan dalam hal keimanan, pengorbanan dan keberanian. Kecintaannya kepada Rasulullah dan jasanya yang besar terhadap Islam membuat namanya abadi dan akan terus hidup sepanjang sejarah.

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Komentar Dr Iwan

Nabi Muhammad hidupnya penuh engan perang, kren keterbatas tempat, bila and aingin tahu saya dapat memberikan info yang lengkap tenatng Perang era nabi Muhammad S.A.W

Contoh yang bagus telah and abaca diatas.

Oktober

Perang Bawath = Rabi ul-awal , 13 bulan sesudah hijrah

Nopember

Ekspedisi Abdullah bin Djahsj = Rajab , 17 bulan sesudah Hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

624 AD

Januari

Perang Badar Kubra = Ramadhan , 19 bulan sesudah Hijrah

Pebruari

Perang Bani Qainuga = Sjawal tahun 2 Hijrah

April

Perang Sawiq = Zu’lhidjjah tahun 2 hijrah

Juli

Terbunuh Ka’ab bin Asjraf = Rabi-al-achir , tahun 3hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

625 AD

Januari

Perang Uhud = Sjawal tahun 3 hijrah

Pada perang Uhud Jabir berkata kepada budaknya, “Pergilah bersama pasukan ini, dan jika kamu melihat pamannya Muhammad maka bunuhlah dia. Aku ingin membalas dendamku atas kematian pamanku Ta’imah bin Addi di perang Badar. Jika kamu berhasil membunuhnya maka kamu kubebaskan.” Hindun, anak Utbah juga meminta Wahsyi untuk membunuh salah satu dari Muhammad, Ali atau Hamzah untuk membayar kematian bapaknya. Wahsyi pun menjawab, “Saya sama sekali tidak bisa menemukan cara untuk membunuh Muhammad ataupun Ali pun. Mereka begitu lincah dan tangkas di medan perang. Namun Hamzah mudah terjebak dalam kemarahan dan emosional saat terjadi peperangan sehingga ia tidak memperhatikan lagi kondisi sekitarnya. Mungkin aku bisa membunuhnya dengan cara licik.”

Wahsyi bercerita, “Saya pada perang Uhud selalu mengikuti Hamzah dari belakang. Dia berperang bagaikan singa liar yang menerkam jantung musuh-musuhnya. Saya bersembunyi di balik bebatuan dan pepohonan sehingga dia tidak bisa melihatku. Ketika dalam keadaan sibuk menghadapi musuh-musuhnya, saya pun semakin mendekat ke arah Hamzah. Dengan jarak yang menyakinkan sayapun melemparkan tombakku ke arahnya. Tombak itupun tertancap di tubuhnya. Ia hendak menyerang ke arahku, namun karena rasa sakit yang sangat ia pun berteriak tak berdaya hingga ruhnya terpisah dari badannya. Dengan penuh kehati-hatian saya pun mendekat ke arahnya. Setelah mengambil senjatanya, sayapun bergegas kembali ke pusat pasukan kaum Quraisy sembari menunggu saya dibebaskan.” (11)

Setibanya kembali di Mekkah, Wahsyi pun mendapat imbalan kebebasan setelah ia menjalankan tugasnya dengan baik. Pada hari Fathul Mekkah (penaklukan kota Mekkah) dia melarikan diri ke Thaif. Pada tahun ke Sembilan Hijriyah penduduk Thaif datang berbondong-bondong ke Madinah untuk menyatakan keislamannya. Wahsyi pun berencana kembali melarikan diri ke Syam atau Yaman. Namun ia mendapat kabar, siapapun yang bersyahadat benar dengan lidahnya dan menyatakan keislaman maka Nabi Muhammad saw tidak akan membunuhnya. Ia pun bergegas menghadap kepada Nabi Muhammad saw dan kemudian mengucapkan syahadat sebagai pernyataan keislamannya. Rasulullah saw memintanya untuk menceritakan bagaimana ia bisa membunuh Hamzah. Setelah diceritakan Rasulullah saw pun bersedih dan berkata kepada Wahsyi, “Mulai sekarang jangan perlihatkan lagi wajahmu di hadapanku.” Atas permintaan Rasulullah saw, Wahsyi pun menjauh dan tidak menampakkan diri di hadapan Rasulullah saw sampai kemudian beliau saw wafat. Sepeninggal Rasulullah saw, Wahsyi pun berkesempatan mengikuti perang melawan Musailamah. Dengan dibantu seorang sahabat dari kaum Anshar, Wahsyi berhasil membunuh Musailamah. Dengan penuh haru ia berkata, ”Saya telah membunuh manusia terbaik setelah Rasulullah saw, dan juga telah membunuh manusia paling buruk di dunia.”(12)

Akibat dari masa lalu yang gelap, Wahsyi sampai akhir hayatnya enggan untuk berhubungan dengan kaum Muslimin. Namanya dihapus dari deretan laskar kaum Muslimin karena sikapnya yang tidak baik dan karena banyak meminum minuman keras ia pun sering dijatuhi hukuman cambukan. Umar bin Khattab berkata, “Pembunuh Hamzah tidak akan lagi mendapat pembebasan dan tidak layak masuk dalam daftar orang-orang baik.” (13)

Sumber

forumkomunikasiremajamasjid.

 

 

Juni

Perang Banu Nadhir = Rabi’ul awal tahun 4 hijrah haram tuak (chamar)

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

626 AD

Juli

Perang Daumat –jandal = Rabi’ul awal tahun 5 hijrah

Desember

Perang Banu Musthaliq = Sja’ban tahun 5 hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

627 AD

Pebruari

Perang Chandak ( parit) = Sja’ban tahun 5 Hijrah

April

Perang Banu Quraizah = Zu’lkaedah tahun 5 Hijrah

 

Juni-juli

Perang Banu Lihjan = Rabi’ul-awal tahun 6 Hijrah

Juli

Perang Dzi Qard = Rabi’ul-awal tahun 6 Hijrah

September

Ekspedisi Zaid bin Hamzah ke Ish = Jumadi’l-awal tahun 6 Hijrah

Oktober

Ekspedisi Zain bin Hamtsah yang lain ke Husma = Jumadi’l-achir tahun 6 Hijrah

Desember

Ekspedisi Abdullah bin ‘Atik = Ramadhan tahun 6 Hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

628 AD

Januari

Ekspedisi Abdullah bin Rawahah = Sjawal tahun 6 Hijrah

Pebruari

Perdamaian Hudaibijah = Zul’kaedah tahun 6 Hijrah

Mei

Pengiriman utusan ke Rum dan Persia = Tahun 7 Hijrah

 

Agustus

Perkawinan Nabi Muhammad dengan Ummu binti Abi Sofjan = Jum’di’l-awal tahun 7 Hijrah. (Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

Sekilas riwayat para istri Nabi muhammad SAW – Saya sungguh sangat terkejut mengetahui bahwa banyak dari kaum kita yang tidak mengenal dengan baik latar belakang Rasullullah. Mengapa banyak dari kita yang sepertinya tidak perduli dengan sejarah Rasul.Salah satu yang sering sekali kita lupakan adalah juga termasuk tentang istri-istri beliau.

 

Untuk sekedar menambah pengetahuan dan kecintaan kita kepada Rasullullah, berikut ini saya berikan nama-nama istri Nabi yang tercatat dan sejarah singkat pernikahannya.

  • Khadijah Khadijah yang menikahi Nabi (25 tahun) saat dia sudah berusia 40 tahun. Khadijah binti Khuwailid adalah seorang wanita pedagang yang mulia dan kaya raya.

 

Nabi adalah seorang pemuda miskin yang hanya sekedar penggembala.Selama hidup dengan Khadijah, Nabi hanya memiliki seorang istri saja sampai akhirnya Khadijah wafat.Pernikahan Nabi dan Khadijah berlangsung 2 bulan setelah kepulangan beliau dari Syam.

 

  1. Aisha Aisha RA adalah anak perempuan Abu Bakar yang dinikahi oleh Nabi saat berusia sekitar 6 atau 7 tahun. Tetapi karena usia yang masih terlalu muda, Nabi hanya mulai tidur dengan Aisha saat berusia 9 tahun. Sewaktu menikahi Aisha, usia Nabi saat itu sekitar 50 tahun.Pernikahan ini diperkitakan terjadi pada tahun 620 M, beberapa bulan setelah kematian Khadijah, istri pertama Nabi.Ia hidup sampai akhir hayat Nabi. Ketika Nabi wafat, dia berumur 18 tahun, ia meninggal diumur 57 tahun.

 

  • Hafsah Hafsah adalah putri dari Umar. Sebelum menikah dengan Nabi, Hafsah sebelumnya telah menikah dengan Khunais yang gugur saat perang Uhud. Pernikahan dengan Nabi dilakukan sekitar 7 bulan setelah Hafsah menjanda.Khunais gugur sebagai pahlawan syuhada dalam perang Uhud, maka tinggallah Hafsah sebagai janda mujahidin dalam usia 18 tahun.

 

Hafsa dinikahi Nabi di tahun 625, 3 bulan setelah migrasi ke Medinah. Dia berumur 19 tahun dan Nabi berumur 55 tahun ketika menikah. Dia hidup bersama Nabi selama 8 tahun sampai akhirnya Nabi meninggal ditahun 669 pada umur 63.

 

  1. Zainab bint Jash Sebelum menikah dengan Nabi, Zainab adalah bekas menantu Nabi dari anak angkat, Zaid bin Haritha. Zaid adalah satu-satunya istri Nabi yang langsung dijodohkan oleh Allah SWT kepada Nabi serta membukukannya dalam Al-Qur’an.Nabi saat menikah dengan Zainab berusia 58 tahun, Zainab berusia sekitar 35 tahun. Zainab meninggal tahun 641 setelah wafatnya Nabi.

 

  1. Safiah Dalam peperangan di Khaibar, pasukan Rasullullah menaklukkan kaum Yahudi Khaibar. Akibat peperangan tersebut Safiah yang baru berusia 17 tahun kehilangan suaminya yang bernama Kinanah yang baru menikahinya 1 bulan. Safiah yang cantik jelita kemudian diambil sebagai istri oleh Nabi. Safiah sebelumnya hendak diambil oleh Dihyah, namun setelah Rasul mengetahui betapa Safiyah hanya layak bagi Rasul, maka Rasul memutuskan untuk menikahi Safiyah. Sebagai gantinya, Rasul memerintahkan Dihyah untuk menikahi tawanan wanita yang lainnya. Safiyah dinikahi oleh Rasul ketika di a berumur 17 tahun dan Nabi waktu itu berusia 58 tahun. Pernikahan dilangsungkan pada hari yang sama setelah ayah dan suaminya wafat dalam pertempuran. Dia hidup bersama Nabi selama 4 tahun, dan berumur 21 ketika Nabi wafat. Safiyah wafat ditahun 673 pada umur 60.

 

  1. Juwariya Dalam salah satu peperangannya, pasukan Rasul berhasil mengalahkan suku Mustaliq yang dipimpin oleh Harits, anaknya yang bernama Juwariya menjadi tawanan. Dalam salah satu kesempatan Juwariya ingin menemui Nabi untuk membicarakan pembebasannya. Saat itu Nabi sedang berada di rumah Aisah dan solusi yang diajukan Nabi untuk melindunginya adalah dengan menikahinya. Nabi menikahinya ditahun 628, ketika Nabi berusia 58 tahun dan Juwairiah 20 tahun. Juwariya menikah dengan Nabi selama 4 tahun sampai Nabi wafat.

 

  1. Maria Qibtidaiya Maria adalah seorang budak wanita yang diberi sebagai hadiah untuk mengikat tali shilaturahmi dari seorang gubernur Mesir kepada Nabi. Maria Qibtidaiya adalah seorang wanita yang cantik. Tidak ada catatan resmi tentang status pernikahan ini tentang berapa usianya saat dinikahi, namun ada yang menyebutkan bahwa usia Maria waktu dinikahi Rasul adalah sekitar 20 tahun.Maria meninggal lima tahun setelah meninggalnya Nabi SAW. Diperkirakan pernikahan Maria dan Nabi terjadi pada sekitar tahun 7 / 8 H.

Maria melahirkan seorang anak lelaki yang diberi nama Ibrahim tetapi anak lelaki satu-satunya ini meninggal ditahun 10 H. 8. Hindun binti Abu Umaiyah / Ummu Salamah Hindun adalah janda dari Abu Salmah yang memiliki 4 oang anak. Abu Salmah sendiri meninggal di tahun 4 H.

 

Setelah menjanda banyak pria yang ingin meminang Hindun diantaranya adalah Abu Bakar dan Umar. Namun pinangan kedua pria ini ditolak oleh Hindun. Kemudian barulah Nabi mengajukan pinangan yang diterima oleh Hindun. Pernikahan dilaksan akan tahun 4 H bulan Syawal. Hindun meninggal sekitar tahun 59 H dalam usia 84 tahun.Hindun dinikahi Nabi ditahun 4 H, ketika Hindun berusia sekitar 30 tahun, dan Nabi 56 tahun.

 

  1. Raihana Dalam perang melawan kaum Yahudi bani Quraiza, pasukan Rasul berhasil mengalahkan pasukan musuh. Akibat dari perang ini, maka banyaklah janda-janda yang butuh perlindungan. Satu dari wanita yang menjadi janda adalah Raihana yang sangat cantik. Tidak jelas berapa usia Raihana saat menikahi dengan Nabi.

 

  1. Saudah Tidak ada data yang akurat tentang usia Saudah saat menikah dengan Nabi. Saudah meninggal tahun 54 H dalam usia sangat lanjut yang berarti 44 tahun sudah nabi wafat. Saudah sendiri diceritakan sebagai wanita yang tidak menarik dan digambarkan sebagai wanita yang amat besar, lebih tinggi diantara wanita, dan dia tidak dapat menyembunyikan dirinya dari siapapun yang telah mengenalnya. Diriwayatkan oleh Aisha: Manakala Rasulullah ingin berpergian, dia akan mengundi siapa isterinya yang akan menemani dia. Dia akan membawa isteri yang namanya terundi. Dia biasanya menetapkan kepada setiap dari mereka satu hari dan satu malam. Tetapi Sauda bint Zam’a melepaskan (gilirannya) siang dan malam dia kepada Aisha, isteri Nabi, demi untuk mencari kesenangan Rasulullah (dengan perbuatan demikian)

 

  1. Zainab binti Khuzaimah Zainab binti Khuzaimah (bukan binti Jash) adalah janda dari Ubaid bin Haris yang meninggal saat perang Uhud. Pergaulan rumah tangga Rasulullah dengan Zainab tidaklah berlansung lama. Setengah riwayat mengatakan hanya selama 8 bulan, ada pula yang menyampaikan sekitar 4 bulan saja. Para sejarawan mengatakan bahwa Zainab meninggal dalam usia 30 tahun pada tahun ke 4 hijrah. Tidak ada catatan resmi tentang mengapa Zainab meninggal di usia yang begitu muda.

 

 

 

  1. Ramlah binti Abu Sufyan / Ummu Habibah Ramlah adalah anak Abu Sufyan yang dinikahkan dengan Abdullah bin Jahasy yang dikaruniai seorang anak perempuan. Mereka termasuk golongan yang ikut hijrah ke Habasyah (Ethopia). Namun di Habasyah Abdullah bin Jahasy pindah agama menjadi Nasrani dan jadilah Ramlah hidup sendiri. Oleh karenanya Rasul menolong Ramlah dengan cara menikahinya ditahun 7 H, saat itu Ramlah telah berusia 40 tahun.

 

  1. Maimunah Maimunah adalah istri terakhir Nabi SAW. Berasal dari keluarga bangsawan Quraish. Saat Nabi SAW melakukan ibadah haji ditahun 7 H, maka oleh pamannya yang bernama Abbas bin Abdul Muthalib diusulkan agar Nabi menikahi Maimunah yang akan menguatkan ikatan per saudaraan. Nabi setuju dan pernikahan dilakukan di Saraf sektiar 10 km dari Mekah. Usia Maimunah saat itu sekitar 30 tahun. Maimunah adalah janda dari Aba Rahim bin Abdi I’zzi. Sekedar untuk berbagi pengetahuan, semoga bermanfaat.Ibrahim Syihab

 

Sumber

omrendy

629 AD

Pebruari

Umr-ul-Qudha = Zu’lkaedah tahun 7 Hijrah

September

Ekspedisi ke Mu’tah = Jumadi’l-achir tahun 8 Hijrah.

Oktober

Ekspeisi Za’ti Sala’sil = Jumadi’l-achir tahun 8 Hijrah

Desember

Ekspedisi Abu Qatadah ke Nejed = Sja’ban tahun 8 Hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

 

630 AD

Januari

Futuh (ta’luk) Mekkah = Ramadhan , tahun 8 Hijrah

Pebruari

Perang Humain = 10 Sjawal tahun 8 Hijrah

April

Lahir Ibrahim putra Nabi Muhammad = Zu’lhihidjjah tahun 8 Hijrah

Juli

Ekspedisi Alkamah ke Abessinia = Rabi’ul-achir tahun 9 Hijrah

Oktober

Perang Tabuk = Rajab , tahun 9 Hijrah. (Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

631 AD

Maret

Haji Abu Bakar Siddik bersama kaum Muslimin = Zu’lhidjjah , tahun 9 Hijrah

Mei

Menyiapkan balatentara Usamah bin Zaid ke Syria = Sjafar , tahun 11 Hijrah

 

 

 

 

Juni

Ekspedisi Jenderal Chalid bin Walid ke banu Harist bin Ka’ab di Nadjan (Yaman) = Rabi’ul-awal tahun 10 Hijrah.

Wat Ibrahim putera nbi Muhammad S.A.W = Rabi’ul-awal tahun 10 Hijrah.

Desember

Mengirim Ali bin Abi Thalib ke Yaman = Ramadhan tahun 10 Hijrah

(Almanak Muhammadiyah 1959)

9 Juni

Wafat Nabi Muhammad S.A.W , Senin, 12 Rabi’ul-awal tahun 11 Hijrah .

Jaadi hari lahir dan hari wafat Junjungan kita itu adalah pada tanggal yang sama, yaitu 17 Agustus Rabi’ul-awal

 

636

During the patriarchate of

Syrian missionaries

Mar Ishu Jahb II, 636,

went to China, and for 150 years this mission was active…. 109 Syrian missionaries have worked in China during 150 years of the Chinese mission….

They went out from Beth Nahrin, the birthplace of Abraham, the father of all believers.

The Syrian missionaries traveled on foot;

they had sandals on their feet, and a staff in their hands, and carried a basket on their backs, and in the basket was the Holy Write and the cross.

They took the road around the Persian Gulf; went over deep rivers and high mountains, thousands of miles. On their way they met many heathen nations and preached to them the gospel of Christ.20

LOOK COMPLETE INFORMATION AT

THE BOOK

BYFOOT TO CHINA

 

 

During the early years of the Mohammedan regime,

the Syrian Christian churches had more freedom and peace than under the Persian kings.

A concordat was signed with Mohammed whereby the Christians would pay tribute, in time of war shelter endangered Muslims and refrain from helping the enemy.

In exchange they were to be given religious toleration, though they were not to proselytize, and they would not be required to fight for Mohammed.21

He had reason to be friend the Christians for a “Nestorian” had been Mohammed’s teacher at one point and, in some early battles, certain Christian communities had actually fought on his side against pagan tribes.22

So much Christian influence, though highly distorted, is apparent in his teaching that Islam has been called a Christian heresy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It was not until the seventh century

that two events brought about the demise of this great trading center.

The first was

the smuggling of silkmoth eggs

into Syria, concealed in a bamboo cane,

the presumption being that it was done by “Nestorians,”40 with the result that “by the end of the sixth century (Syria) appears to have been meeting the west’s demand for the raw material.”41

 

 

 

EMPERORS OF T’ANG

RULER

DATES

Kao Tsu
also known as Li Yuan

AD 618 – 626

T’ai Tsung
also known as Li Shih-min

AD 627-649

Kao Tsung

AD 649-683

Chung Tsung

AD 684-690

Wu Tsu-t’ien
Empress

AD 690-705

Chung Tsung
2nd reign

AD 705-710

Juei Tsung

AD 710-712

Li Lung-Chi
also known as Hsuan Tsung (Ming Hsuan)

AD 712-756

?????
son of Li Lung-chi

AD 756

Su Tsung
(full control)   (nominal control)

AD 756-757
AD 758-761

Shih Su-ming
rebel

AD 757-761

Tai Tsung

AD 762-779

Te Tsung

AD 780-805

Hien Tsung

AD 806-820

Mu Tsung

AD 821-824

?????

AD 824-827

Wen Tsung

AD 827-841

Wu Tsung

AD 841-846

Siuan Tsung

AD 847-855

?????

AD 856-859

Yi Tsung

AD 860-873

Hi Tsung

AD 874-888

Chao Tsung

AD 889-904

Chou We
through puppet emperor Ngai Tsung

AD 905-907

   

Tang Dynasty

[ ]GaoZu

[ ] Emperor Taizong [Tai-tsung], Tang Dynasty (626-649)
The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.

[ ]

 

Li Lihua as the Empress in a movie about Wu Zetian (c.1940)

 

 

 

 

 

635

In the year 635 A.D., a party of foreigners from the distant West, a vague area known to the Chinese for many centuries as Ta Chinn, reached the capital city of the Great Chinese Empire, Ch’ang-An, later called Hsian-fu. It was in the early years of the T’ang dynasty.

 

XuanZong

[ ]

DeZong

[ ]

XianZong

[ ]

WuZong

[ ]

XuanZong

 

The Chronology Srivijaya History Collections

Distorted history of Southeast Asia in Śrīvijaya times
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, few people doubt that the location of the Śrīvijaya was Palembang in Sumatra, because, according to G. Coedès, Palembang was the center of the trade between the East and West in the Śrīvijaya times as well as that of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

However it is quite dubious if the hypotheses reflect historical facts or not. As the entrepôt between India and China, Jambi was located at more preferable location than Palembang.
As the center of Mahāyāna Buddhism, the states of Malay Peninsula, such as Chaiya had more advantage than Palembang.

 

Emperor KAO TSUNG
AD 649-683

Kao Tsung, son of T’ai Tsung,

 

 

 

 

 

651 CE:

First Arab embassy to China.

 

 

670

The Kingdom of Sunda and kingdom of Galuh

were twin kingdoms in West Java 

that emerged from the division of Tarumanagara kingdom in 670 C.E..

 

Information about the two kingdoms is taken mostly from stone inscriptions scattered around Bogor in Java, and from later historical annals and the records of traders and travelers.

The inscriptions mention the kingdom of Sunda as the successor of Tarumanagara, while the inscriptions in Sukabumi mention the existence of the Sunda kingdom until the era of Sri Jayabupati.

Wretikandayun, (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate his small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance through dynastic marriage with the Kingdom of Kalingga, which supported their demands for independence.

Wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun’s demand. In 670 C.E

 

666-669

Hall notes that Taruma on the Sunda straits sent an embassy to China in 666-9, but the Chinese never heard from this Javanese port again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

680 AD

 

This possibly occurred in the 680s.

Malayu, also known as Jambi,

rich in gold and was held in high esteem.

Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu would increase its own prestige.[18]

682 CE:

Kedukan Bukit Inscription

 

The first known inscription of a king of Srivijaya was incised on a river boulder at Kedukan Bukit, Palembang in Sumatra.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, 1.6.

 

 

 

Alih Aksara

 

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13] According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa). He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan. The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. Barring the potentially earlier (but undated) Dong Yen Chau inscription, it is the oldest surviving specimen of the Malay language, in a form known as Old Malay. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. This inscription is dated the year 605 Saka (683 AD) and contains numerous Sanskrit words

All these inscriptions were written in Pallava script, a form of ancient script used in Tamil kingdoms of ancient India.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bagéa! Taun Śaka geus liwat 604, dina poé ka sabelas

  1. paro-terang bulan Waiśakha Dapunta Hiyang naék di
  2. parahu ngalapsiddhayātra. di poé ka tujuh paro-terang
  3. bulan Jyestha Dapunta Hiyang angkat ti Minanga
  4. tambahan mawa prajurit dua laksa kalawan bekel
  5. dua ratus cara (peti) di parahu kalawan leumpang sarewu
  6. tiga ratus dua welas lobana datang ti mata jap (Mukha Upang)
  7. di poé ka lima paro-terang bulan….(Asada)
  8. ngemplong gumbira datang nyieun wanua….
  9. Śrīwijaya jaya,siddhayātra 

 

 

Transliteration 1:

svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604?) ekādaśī śu-

klapakşa vulan vaiśākha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> nāyik di

sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa

vulan jyeşţha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> maŕlapas dari minānga

tāmvan mamāva yaṃ vala dualakşa dangan ko-

duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu

tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātaṃ di mata jap

sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n> <…>

laghu mudita dātaṃ marvuat vanua <…>

śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa <…>

  1. svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604 ?) ekādaśī śu
  2. klapakşa vulan vaiśākha dapunta hiya<(m> nāyik di
  3. sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa
  4. apunta hiya,vulan jyeşţha d<(m> maŕlapas dari minānga
  5. vala dualakşa dangan ko-(sa)(tāmvan mamāva yam
  6. duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu
  7. di mata jap(tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātam
  8. sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n>…
  9. marvuat vanua…(laghu mudita dātam
  10. śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa…

 

 

 

Transliteration 2:[1]

Swasti Shri Shakawarsatita 605 ekadashi

Shuklapaksa wulan Waishaka dapunta hiyang naik

Disambau mangalap siddhayatra di Saptami Shuklapaksa

Wulan Jyestha dapunta hiyang marlapas dari Minanga

Tamvan (Tamvar?) mamawa jang bala dua laksa dangan <…>

dua ratus tsyara disambau dangan jalan saribu

Tlu ratus sapuloh dua banyaknya. Datang di Matajap (Mataya?)

Sukhatshitta. Di pantshami shuklapaksa Wulan <…>

Laghu mudik datang marwuat manua <…>

Syriwijaya jayasiddhayatra subhiksa.

 

Ti prasasti Kedukan Bukit, kapanggih data-data saperti kieu[3]:

  1. Dapunta Hyang naék parahu tanggal 11 Waisaka 604 (23 April 682)
  2. Dapunta Hyang angkat ti Minanga tanggal 7 Jesta (19 Mei) kalawan mawa leuwih ti 20.000 prajurit. Rombongan nepi di Muka Upang.
  3. Dapunta Hyang nyieun ‘wanua’ tanggal 5 Asada (16 Juni)

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Translation

for Malay Language version of the Inscription

 

All hail and prosperity! In the year 605 of the Saka calendar, on the eleventh day on the full moon of Waisaka, His Majesty took

a boat to make a profit.

On the seventh day on the full moon of Jyesta, His Majesty

brings 20000 troops and 312 people in boats from firth of Tamvan, With 1312 foot soldiers and came to Matajap happily. On the fifth day on the bright moon of …,

they docked and open a country …

Great, prosperous and peaceful Srivijaya!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Translation

Om swasti astu! All hail and prosperity.

In the year 605 of the [Indian] Saka calendar, on the eleventh day at half-moon of Waisaka, Sri Baginda took dugouts in order to obtain siddhayatra.[2]

On Day 7, on the 15th day at half-moon of Jyestha, Sri Baginda extricated himself from minānga tāmvan.[3] He took 20,000 troops with him … as many as 200 in dugouts, with 1,312 foot soldiers.

They arrived at … Truly merry on the fifteenth day of the half-moon…, agile, happy, and they made a trip to the country … Great Sriwijaya! Prosperity and riches …”

 

 

 

 

 

683 AD

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13]

According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa).

He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan.

 

 

The exact location of Minanga Tamwan

is still a subject of discussion.

The Palembang theory as the place where Srivijaya was first established, was presented by Coedes and supported by Pierre-Yves Manguin. Soekmono on the other hand, argues that Palembang is not the capital of Srivijaya and suggests that the Kampar river system in Riau where theMuara Takus temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.[14] 

Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and suggests Chaiya as the center of Srivijaya.[15]

684

Talang Tuo inscription

is a Srivijaya inscription measured 50cm × 80 cm discovered in 17 November 1920 at the foot of Seguntang Hill, near Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.

The inscription is written in Pallava letter in Old Malay, dated 606 Saka (23 March 684 CE) mentioning about the establishment of Śrīksetra sacred park under the order of Śrī Jayanāśa. Today the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta

From Sanskrit inscriptions, it’s notable that the King Jayanasa launched a maritime conquest in 684 with 20,000 men to acquire wealth, power, and ‘magic power’.[17] 

Under the leadership of Jayanasa, the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire.

 

 

686 CE:

The Kota kapur inscription

found on Bangka island records preparation of a naval expedition by Srivijaya against rival ports in western Java.

 

Prasasti Kota Kapur:

Pallava inscribed column (dated 686 AD.), concerning Sriwijaya, found on the island Bangka, Indonesia (Stitch; photo’s made in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. Column property of Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, item-no.: MNI D90

NSCRIPTION Lake Stone found in 1935 in Stone Lake, around the cemetery of the kings of Palembang Sabokingking, 2 Ilir, Palembang, no dates to the year.

 

 

The inscriptions are decorated with the head of this seven-headed cobra consist of 28 lines.

 

FM Schnitger According to this inscription from the 9th century AD or AD-10, but according to JG de Casparis inscriptions are from the mid-7th century AD.

Form (rupa) is compared with inscription inscription others considered the most artistic and beautiful shaped feet, showing the statue of Srivijaya already have a capable artist.

 

In this site also found a stone that reads sidhayatra (victory or holy journey). It is estimated that this place is an important place of pilgrimage at the time.

 

Judging from perupaan Telaga Batu inscription, which appears is seven and a cobra’s head on the bottom rail or the inscription there is a symmetry between the left channel with right and meet in the middle like a water fountain.

 

From the shape and it illustrates two shower perupaan genitals once (hermaphrodite), which when linked with mystical cosmology is a symbol of fertility.

 

This inscription is the only inscription of Srivijaya which not only contains the writings, but also there is a shape or image.

The seventh head of a cobra that existed at the top of the stele can be interpreted as an attempt to keep the king of Srivijaya content or text engraved inscription was still obeyed.

 

Today, the Old Malay inscriptions and lettered this Pallawa, stored in the National Museum, Jakarta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Telaga Batu inscription text
(1) om siddham titam hamwan wari AWAI kandra kayet nipaihumpa, amuha an ulu 
(2) tandrum opponent’s nauseating nauseating makamatai tandrun hakairu muah kayet nihumpa Unai ume
(3) Ntem ni wll ulun Haraki Unai cash you wanak mamu rajaputra, prostara, bhupati, senapati, nayata, pratyaya, hajipratyaya, dandanayaka
(4) …. murddhaka tuha an watakwuruh, addhyaksi nijawarna, vasikarana, kumaramatya, cathabhata, adhikarana, karmma, kayastha, sthapaka, puhawan, waniyaga, pratisara da
(5) ye hajj Marsi, hulun Hajo, wanak uram niwunuh mamu ye oath of mammam kadaci you wll tida dyaku niwunuh you swear you drohaka tuwi mulam kadasi wanun Luwi marwuddhi yam.

 

Translation by G. Coedes:
Om! Good luck …. You all, no matter how many, the son of the king …, regents, senapati, Nayaka, pratiyaya, people trust the king, judges, leaders of … the head of the workers, supervisors low caste, vasikarana, kumaramatya, catabhata, adhikarana … … workers, sculptors, skipper, merchants, leaders, …, and you washerwoman rajadan slave king.

 

You will all die by this curse, if ye are not faithful to me, you will die by the curse. In addition, if you apply as a traitor, in league with the people …

 

 

 

 

 

Telaga Batu inscription text content is basically also a curse king of Srivijaya to its followers, its magnifying

 

The interpretation of the inscription
Writing engraved on the stele is quite long, but in outline the contents of a curse on anyone who commits a crime in kedatuan Sriwijaya and do not obey the command Datu.

 

Casparis argue that people who called in this inscription are the people who categorized and potentially dangerous to fight the sworn kedatuan Sriwijaya so need.

Mentioned these people from

the king’s son (rājaputra) , minister (kumārāmātya) , regent (bhūpati) , commander (Senapati), Council / prominent local figures (Nayaka) , royalty (pratyaya) , king of   subordinates (Hajj pratyaya) , judge (dandanayaka) , chairman of the workers / laborers (Tuha an vatak = vuruh) , low labor supervisor (addhyāksi nījavarna) , weapons expert (vāsīkarana) , soldiers (cātabhata), officer manager (adhikarana) , store employees (kāyastha) , craftsmen (sthāpaka ), captain of the ship (puhāvam) , peniaga (vaniyāga), the king’s servants (Marsi Hajj) , and the slave king (hulun Hajj).

 

This inscription is one of the most complete curse inscriptions contain the names of government officials.

 

Some historians consider the existence of this inscription, allegedly was the center of Srivijaya in Palembang and officials are sworn it certainly resided in the capital of the kingdom.

 

Soekmono argued on the basis of this inscription is not possible Sriwijaya in Palembang

 

because of the threat information to anyone who curses disobedience to kedatuan, and Minanga proposal as it is called in the inscription Kedukan Hill

assumed to be

around Temple Barelang as the capital of Srivijaya

 

images Temple Barelang or

Muara Takus temple
The site is supposedly the oldest in the world the rest of the triumph of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya was on Barelang Village, Kampar regency, Riau. 

Center Barelang Buddhist temple complex located in District XIII Koto Kampar a distance of about 135 kilometers from the city of Pekanbaru, Riau 
The distance to the center of the village temple complex itself Barelang about 2.5 km, not far from the edge of Kampar Kanan River. And from the cross road of West Sumatra, Riau, is within a distance of about 19 km. 

temple complex which was first discovered Cornet D Groot in 1860 it was truly unique. Unlike the temples in Java such as Borobudur, Prambanan and others. 
Temple complex is surrounded by a wall measuring 74 x 74 meters. ‘

 

Muara Takus Temple Riau, The temple is located in the village Barelang, Kampar district, Riau City.

 

 Barelang temple complex, the only relic of history that shaped

 

Outside their area of land there is also a wall measuring 1.5 x 1.5 km that surround this complex to the Kampar Kanan river.

 

 

Within this complex there are also old buildings of the temple, temples and Stupas Mahligai Youngest and Palangkaraya. Here we find the temple made of clay and sand soil. 

 

Historically, the Village Barelang before becoming a central teaching of Buddhism, is an area that formerly had visit by sailors from the kingdom of Srivijaya with Right down the Kampar River. 

According to experts, the material used in this temple is the older method than the existing temple in Java, using stone from the mountains.

 

 

If it continues to follow the history of the creation of the temple, known to manufacture the material was taken and the village temple Pongkai located approximately 6 km from the temple. Pongkai name comes from China “Pong” means a hole and “Kai” means land.

We also can find bone burning place which is situated inside the temple complex.

Pongkai village.

 

This village near

air tiris village near the Kampar river   where Dr Iwan in 1995 found

Tang yueh Jar

 

Incised tang yueh jar with 12 ears

The oldest jar in Indonesia found at air tiris villages near muaratakus temple

 

Dr Iwan yueh dragon jar with six chillin dog ear found at java

 

 

Compare with other yueh jar which many found in java

Six Dynasties Yue Ware Globular Jar with Short Spout.

The greenish glaze covers the whole globular undecorated body with some running down to the base.

The body has four ear lugs. The base is flat with exposed burnt red body material.

 

And more oldest jar but never found in Indonesia

Western Han Dynasty Yue Ware Large Jar. Globulus with two incised ear lugs, a co-joined double S mould rest above the lugs. The rim is flat and three bands borders circle the upper body. On one of the border is incised with four stylised flying bird motif. The glaze run down up to the third band border and exposed the unglazed reddish brown body. Glaze loss and a long hairline crack across the body. Part of the lug is slightly broke

 

Six Six Dynasties Yue Ware Large Martavan Jar. The jar with six lugs covered with greenish glaze

Eastern Han Proto Yue Ware Large Vase ( 2nd-3rd AD). Heavy potted, spontaneous glaze brush wash on the red earth body material with abstract like drips running down to the base. It has a thick inverted mouthrim..

 

 

In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

589 -618 AD

In 589 AD China was again united for a short period until 618 AD. This loosely known as the Sui Period (581- 617 AD) and may be thought of so far   as we we are not concerned as a continuation of the Six dynasty.

The Territory of te first Great Tang emperor s after they conquest extended into Tibet and Turkestan and intercourse with the West was extensive. It waduring this time that Wu Tao-Tzu , the greates of Chinese painters lived.

 

Woodblock printing was extensivelydeveloped , Much of the classic literature and poetery was written , and the famous Li Tai Po lived who , like our Poe , drank heavely and wrote well.

Ever since the conquest of Alexander the great intoIndia   and the formation of Greco-Bactrian states North West of India , communications between China and Westren Asia had been continius.

The drapery of     all uddhistic figures is really Greek as are also the feautures of many aand the poses. In examination of Many Tang pattern will disclose Greek origins or at least Wsetren Asian ones.

Portraiture in the figures is not the first frequent just as it was not in Greece but during the Tang period a revolt against the principle occurred just in Rome, although the portraits were pretty much confined to pottery rather than wood , stone , or bronze.

Most early Tang paintings were not of areligipous nature and symmetrical in design as well as conventional in treatment. Only during early Tang part of the masterful landscape and animal painting commence.

The Chinese were close observers of distance and could render aerial perspective better than may western artist but they were more interested   in design , in catching the struggle of tree brach against the privailing wind . In the movement of the wind at the treatment of painting ., that the water be flowing or rippling or full or water life and spirit ,.

In other words the transition from the static qualities of Buddhistic art were cast aside during this time and an interest in movement and life was assumed which has not been lonce since.

The technique of painting had been improved and we find Tang ware usually whiter light gray , and reddish. Thus the mere color of the body is no final criterion of period. It ws generally thinner , in the samller pieces specially .

The old lightly fired pigment , red , black , white and rarely blue and green were continued , though sparingly. The most usual glaze is transparent vecause it was not well assoviated with the biscuit.

The Chinese didot larn how to govern crackle until the end of the Sung period and some Tang glazed not crackled at all though this is rare and was only luck.

This glaze is simply a refined type of th old alkaline lead glazed of an times and the same greens , browns, amber tones, etc. were used a little more purified and brighter. Quite rarely cobalt was added to make a blue but no manganese was ever consciously employed and it occurs only by accident insome of the brown , some of which have a purple cast.

This is arrange for the blue was undoubtedly learned from the Bear East where the purple also hads been used for thousamds of years. Many splased , dripped and running effects were employed perhaps because the glaze tended to act that way and the Chinese mde use if its characteristics rather than tried to curb them.

However.that the glazes could be comtrolled by the used incised outlines may be seen by the beautifull pillow ware. It is interesting to note that glazed had first been employed in the Nrat Rast because the wares were porous and were thus aided   in being liquid-light here it because the ware were let the glaze just splash over the edge and come part way brown on the body.

In China the Han ware were denser and did not need glaze inside but the bottom carefully so as yo initate Metal. We see the first near Eastren Shipping of the glaze short of the foot-rim in the Six dynasty times and now it becomes problem prevelent

(Warren E.Cox , 1970)

 

Wu Tao-Tzu , the greates of Chinese painters lived.

a Tang dynasty painter famous for his murals: Wu Tao-tzu. Having just finished a wall-painting, he suddenly clapped his hands and a gate in the painting opened.

Wu Tao-tzu entered into his art, the gate closing behind him, and he was never seen again. The Myth of Wu Tao-tzu (1967), is the story of what happened to him in there

Source

svenlindqvist.

Li Tai Po Poem

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I think the collector wil tired to read oll Warren E. Cox info because very detailed but you must kow to became expert, we will seen some collections found by Mr Koh and compare with Dr Iwan Collection found in west Java and Banten area.

Chinese export ceramics with islamic koran inscription first appeared on Tang Changsha wares.

 

The Persian and Arab traders played a key role in the shipment of Chinese products along the ancient overland and maritime trade routes.

There were large community of Persian and Arabs in cities such as Guangzhou and Quanzhou during Tang Dynasty.  Ancient ceramics such as Yue, Xing and Changsha wares had been excavated in ancient sites such Fustat in Eygpt,  Basra and Siraf in the Middle East.   Many of the shapes and motifs found on those export wares drew their inspiration from Middle Eastern wares.

 

The Tang cargo from the Belitugn shipwreck was purchased by the Singapore Government and some of the fineness pieces are now on display at the Singapore Marina Sands ArtScience Museum.   The wrecked ship called a dhow  is of Middle Eastern design, and is quoted as the first physical proof of Persian/Arab direct involvement in shipment of Chinese goods along the maritime trade route.   After the the Tang period,  Chinese ceramics with Islamic inscriptions were apparently not produced.  It resurfaced again during the Zhengde period (early 16th century)  and formed part of the decoration for blue and white wares.  Many of such items were ordered by Eunuchs who embraced Islam.  Islamic inscription constituting part or whole of the design, in underglaze blue or overglaze enameled form, was particularly popular during the 17th/18th century and could be found in collections in the  Islamic world such as Indonesia, India and Turkey.

Changsha jar with Islamic koran inscription “there is no god but God” .  Translated in Chinese as “万物无主,唯有真主

The symbolic significance of the motif on the bowl  intrigues me.  The shape and fine paste pointed to a 18th century dating for the bowl and is a product of Jingdezhen kiln. 

 

 

I was very happy when I finally found an article entitled “Some Chinese Islamic “Magic Square” Porcelain” in the book “Studies in Chinese Ceramics” by Prof. Cheng Te-kun. 

 

He learnt from a Singapore collector Mr Tan Yeok Seong that a group of Chinese export wares decorated with Islamic inscriptions and magic square surfaced in the Singapore antique market in 1969 and were eagerly snapped up by local collectors.  Such items appeared to be rather rare and we could hardly  find one in the antique market nowadays.

 

In his article, Prof. Cheng discussed the significance and the origin of the magic square and also the meaning of the inscriptions.   He did research on a porcelain plate with the magic square encircled by bands on of inscriptions, similar to my bowl  in terms of design layout, which was presented to Queen Mary of UK when she visited Hyderabad of India in 1906 A.D. 

 

It was a treasure of Golconda Fort. The plate was subsequently housed in the Victoria and Albert Museum.   The plate was a product of Jingdezhen kiln and dated to the 18th century.  The verses found in the bands on the inner wall of the plate were verses from the Koran and some Islamic prayer books. 

 

He enlisted the help of Dr. Hassan Javadi from the University of Teheran to decipher the inscriptions.  There were mistakes in the  writing as can expected.  The Chinese potter who wrote the inscriptions did not know the Arabic language and simply copied the text from some samples. 

 

In the case of the plate, Dr. Hassan was still able to decipher  majority of the inscriptions.  For eg. the first band near the rim was from verses 256 and 275(2) from the Koran.  It reads :”(In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate God,) there is no god but He, the Living, the Everlasting.  Slumber seizes Him not, neither sleep: to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth.  Who is there that shall intercede with Him save by His leave? He knows what lies before them and what is after them, and they comprehend not anything of His knowledge save such as He wills.  His throne comprises the heavens and earth; the preserving of them oppresses Him not: He is the All-high and the All-glorious”.

Surrounding the square, there are inscriptions which is translated as follows: “There is no man like Ali (Cousin of Mohamed).  There is no sword like Zulfakar (his sword)”.

The square is sub-divided into 16 small squares.   Each has 2 digit number in black.  The magic square in the plate is of the order 4.  There are 4 squares either vertically, horizontally or diagonally.  The sum of the number in any of the direction added up to the same amount.  In the case of that on the plate, it added up to 194.

The magic square originated from China. 

 

According the the ancient Chinese literature dating to about 650BC,  During the time of  the mythical  king Yu (), there was a great flood.  He  tried to channel the water out to sea where then emerged a turtle from the river Luo.  It’s shell has a 3 by 3 grid pattern with  circular dots of numbers.    The sum of the numbers in each row, column and diagonal added up to 15.  It is  the number of days in each of the 24 cycles of theChinese solar year.  

 

The square was called the Lo Shu or “scroll of the river”.   The magic square  pattern is said to be used by the ancient  people in controlling the river.

During the ancient time, magic squares were believed to possess astrological and divinatory qualities, their usage ensuring longevity and prevention of diseases. Magic squares were known to Islamic mathematicians, possibly as early as the 7th century, when the Arabs came in contact with Indian culture, and learned Indian mathematics and astronomy. It has also been suggested that the idea came via China.

For more on the Magic square, please read this.

According to Prof. Schuyler Cammann of the University of Philadephia,  the magic square was used to express symbolically the essence of Islamic thinking in cosmology.  The magic square is considered to be a model of the universe and is said to be a graphic illustrations of the Islamic concept that Allah is both the Source and the Destination of all things.

Those plates and bowls with the magic square were used as medicine bowls in the Islamic world.   The koran inscriptions and the magic square is believed to impart magical power to ward off evil.  Such bowls and plates were previously treasured heirloom.  After passing down for generations, the significance were forgotten by most of their descendants and many were sold as antiques to eager collectors.

Most of the inscriptions contained many mistakes and even in highly corrupted form beyond recognition.  For my bowl, I would appreciate if any reader would let me know if they could decipher any of the texts.

Eastern Han to Sui Period

Mature greenware was finally produced near the end of Eastern Han Dynasty.  The main decorative techniques used were incising, luting of molded motif.  It was also popular to shape the vessels in animal forms.  Another distinctive vessel is jar with multiple smaller jars on top of the big jar.

Major milestones in the history of porcelain production during the Eastern Han to Sui period included:

  • An experimental form of under-glaze iron-pigment decoration was introduced during the late 3 kingdom period.  It was more widely use on Eastern Jin vessels but mainly painted in splashes/dots/lines to beautify the vessels.
  • Black glaze ware was introduced  in the Eastern Han but production was small even during the Jin period.
  • Use of kiln furniture such as props, disc setter and 3-prongs spurs introduced during the Han Dynasty
  • Improvement made to the dragon kiln at least by the 3 kingdom period. 

Excavations showed that vessels placed at the further end of the firing chamber were generally under-fired prior during Han and earlier.  This was because lesser head could reach the area.  To improve on the situation, during the 3 kingdom period, stoking holes were provided along the upper wall of the firing chamber.  If more heat was required, woods were thrown in through those holes to provide more heat.  Such improvement had also enabled longer dragon kilns to be built and as a result more vessels fired in one session.

  • Use of saggars to protect the vessels during firing.  During the excavation of the kiln in Luohu (罗湖) in Jiangxi (江西), cylindrical saggars were found to be in use at least since the Eastern Jin period.  Some bowls and plates with lotus carvings on the external wall were found sticking to the saggars. For vessels such as bowls and plates, usually 3 to 6 were stacked in placed in the saggars.  For bigger vessel, each occupied one saggar.  Sometimes, to maximise on usage of space in the firing chamber, smaller vessels were placed in vessel such as jar.
  • application of slip to improve the surface of the vessels was introduced in Wuzhou (婺洲) kiln at least by the Western Jin period
  • The earliest white wares was found in the tomb of  Fan Cui (范粹) dated A.D 575 ie during the Bei Qi () (Northern Dynasties period).  By Sui dynasty,more mature white wares were produced.

Greenware Production

Mature porcelain was finally produced in the Zhejiang province near the end of Eastern Han Dynasty after about 2000 years from the appearance of proto-porcelain in Shang Dynasty.  Xiangying (湘阴) in Hunan (湖南), Fengcheng (丰城) in Jiangxi (江西)and Yixing ()in Jiangsu () were areas which had porcelain production during the Han Dynasty.

The potters were able to achieve a good grayish green and smooth glaze.  It showed good control of kiln firing.  The porcelains were fired in dragon kilns (also sometime called serpentine or scorpion kiln).  Kiln furniture such as trumpet, cylindrical shaped props, 3-prongs spurs and disc shaped setters were found in the firing chamber of the ancient Han kilns.  The use of props was a technological improvement. 

In the past, many of the vessels such as jars showed sign of under-firing on lower portion of vessels.  This was because the vessels were placed directly on the floor of the firing chamber.  As heat travel upward, the lower portion of the vessels received less heat and could not be fired to the required temperature.  By placing the vessels on a disc setter which rested on top of the props, the vessels were raised higher.  The disc setter was to ensure that any running of the glaze would not resulted in the vessels adhering to the prop.  The 3 prongs spur were used as separator for stacking of bowls/plates.

The production continued to flourish during the 3 Kingdoms to the 6 dynasties period.  The centre of production was Shangyu in Zhejiang.  The utilitarian vessels most frequently associated with this period are in animal-form: such as sheep and lion shape candle stands, lamps which looked like bears,  frog-shaped water-droppers and bird shape cups,.  They are  both artistic and functional.  There were also  large number of funerary wares such as model granaries , stoves, wells, mills were produced.

The Eastern Jin and north/south dynasties was a period of upheavals and the economy suffered.  The ceramic industry was adversely affected.  Shangyu was reduced from a booming production centre to an area with few scattered small kilns.  The kilns produced mainly bowls, dishes, cups with ears, cup stands, alms bowls, jars, ewers, inkstones, chicken head ewers and other wares for daily use.

The decorative motifs include circular bands and iron brown painted spots.  Those impressed diamond bands were hardly used by Eastern Jin.

The term “old yue ware” was used to refer zhejiang greenware of Eastern Han to 6 dynasties. This is  to distinguished them from the Yue wares of Tang/ Song.

For more on old Yue wares, please read this article: Pre Tang Yue wares

Two other important Zhejiang greenware  production sites were Ou kiln (瓯窑) in Wenzhou (温州) and Wuzhou (婺洲) in Jinhua (). The distinctive feature of wuzhou greenware is its more light whitish green glaze.  For greenware from Wuzhou, a lay of slip is usually detectable below the green glaze.

Another notable site is Nan Shan (南山) kiln in Yixing () in Southern Jiangsu province. It was an extension of the Zhejiang greenware as Jiangsu is just next to Zhejiang. The glaze from Nanshan kiln generally have crackles and tends to flake easily.

Greenwares from 3 Kingdom/Jin period were also excavated in tombs in Jiangxi.  They possessed some distinctive local characteristics such as a pea-green thin glaze or runny dark brown glaze.  However,  no kilns sites of the period have yet to be located.  However, Southern Dynasties Luo Hu kiln (罗湖) in Feng Cheng(丰城) in Jiangxi was discovered in 1977.  Most have a rice yellowish colour   There were small quantity with some with greenish or greenish yellow colour glaze.  Glaze flakings and crackled glaze is a common feature.  Fengcheng is located in ancient Tang Dynasty Hongzhou (洪洲) and is believed to be the location of the Hongzhou kiln mentioned in Lu Yu’s (陆羽) treatise on tea ().

Six dynasties greenware sites were also discovered in Huai an kiln (怀安) in Fuzhou and cizao (磁灶) kiln in Jinjiang (晋江) county.  Both are located in Fujian province.  The paste is grayish white and the glaze is usually yellowish green in colour.  The glaze tends to develop crackles and flakes easily. Another important site was Xiang yin (湘阴) in Hunan province which served as the foundation for subsequent production of Changsha wares.

In Northern China, Northern Dynasty era kiln sites producing greenware have been discovered in Shandong (), Shanxi (山西) , Hebei (河北) and Henan (河南). Two examples from Henan Anyang Xiangzhou(安阳相州) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河) kiln are shown below.

 

Henan Gongyi Bai He kiln (Northern Wei Period)

 
 

A distinctive feature of vessels from the North/South Dynasties was the strong influence of Buddhism as reflected in the vessels with lotus motif and a form of buddhist stylised flower called bao xiang hua (宝相花) and Ren Dong(忍冬), ie honeysuckle motif. The most prominent vessel of the North Dynasties was the magnificent jar with body in lotus form.  It is heavily potted with light grayish or greyish brown paste.  The glaze is transparent and glassy.  One kiln producing such wares was discovered at Zhai li kiln (寨里窑) in zi bo (淄博) in Shandong province.

 

Greenware (Celadon) with iron-brown painted motif

In 1983,at Nanjing (南京) Yuhuatai (雨花台), a celadon Jar with cover was recovered from a tomb.  The tomb dated between the Three Kingdom to early Jin Period   The body of the jar was applied with a slip before application of  the glaze.  The glaze is  brownish in color.  From the various characteristics, it is widely believed to be a product of Wuzhou (婺洲) kiln in Central Zhejiang.  It was decorated with luted animal-face mask and buddha figure.   The iron-brown motif included drawing some celestial beings.  It is the earliest record of underglaze iron-brown decoration.

Black Glaze wares

Black glaze wares were discovered in East Han tombs in Anhui, Hubei and  Zhejiang Shangyu (上虞) Zhang zi shan kiln (帐子山窑), Deqing (德清二都乡黄角山窑).  The kilns in Deqing produced mainly coarser bigger size black glaze jars and urns.  The glaze is thick with crazing and tends to flake.  Zhang zi shan kiln in Shangyu produced both greenwares and black glaze wares.  There were more variety of black glaze wares including bowls, washers, jars and hu vases.  Generally, the paste of the black glaze wares is more coarse.   Black glaze also used iron oxide as colorant for the glaze.  However, the content is higher than that for greenware and ranges from 4 to 9%.  Both the greenwares and black glaze wares were fired simultaneously in the same kiln.

During the Six Dynasties, Deqing became the main centre for the production of black glaze wares. It also produced greenwares.   The most striking examples were those Deqing chicken-head black glaze wares of the Jin period.  Black glaze wares produced before Tang were comparatively low in volume.  The mainstream production was greenwares.

Northern Dynasty/Sui White Glaze wares

The earliest documented white wares were found  in the tomb of Fan cui (范粹) dated 575 A.D (North Dynasty Bei Qi () and located in Anyang, Henan.  There are those with fine or coarse body.  They have a layer of white slip to whiten the body.  The glaze  is transparent and finely crackled with tinge of yellow or green.

Recent archaeological findings in Henan ancient Northern Wei Loyang city site indicated that the earliest white ware may be produced as early as early part of 6th century.  Some of the white wares were probably produced in Henan kilns such as Anyang Xiangzhou(安阳相州) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河).  In Baihe kiln, the stacking method was used for firing wares. Kiln wastage shows that white cup was placed on the top of green wares.  Hence, the spur marks are seen on green wares and not the white ones.  The white wares are more thinnly potted and the paste more whitish in colour.

 

The early white wares still show clear greenish tone in the area where glaze pooled

 

Spur marks are found on the interior of green wares

 

By Sui Dynasty, the quality of white wares have improved and quite a number were discovered in Sui tombs.  The degree of whiteness has further improved. For example those from the Tomb of Li Jingxun (李静训) dated A.D 608 were fine and they have glaze white with hardly any trace of green/yellow.

Sui vessels were varied consisting of bowls, cups, vases , guan, candle stand, tripod censer, ewers and etc.  Some striking examples of  ewers have head head spout/dragon head handle and elephant head spout/dragon head handle.

In 1982 in the region between Hebei Lin cheng (临城) and Ne qiu (内丘), a Sui period kiln site that produced white wares was discovered at Jia cun (贾村).  The shards included those with light grayish paste covered with white slip and others with white paste without the need for white slip.  These were the early Xing wares.  The quality of white wares from the Xing kilns were the best and it reached its greatest fame during the the Tang dynasty.

 
 
 

 

Henan Ceramics wares (河南陶瓷)

 

Tang/5 Dynasty Period

During the Tang Dynasty, kilns in Northern China produced both Celadon and White wares.  In the area of lead glazed wares, there were tremendous progress made, the greatest achievement being the magnificent Tang Sancai wares. In Henan region, the number of kilns producing ceramics also increased.   Some of those kilns had long production history and continued to produce ceramics till the Yuan/Ming period.

 

 

Yellow Glazed wares

A type of yellow glaze celadon wares was especially popular during this period.  Some of the more notable kilns producing such wares are Jiaxian Huangdao (郏县黄道窑), Gongyi Huangye (义黄冶窑), Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑), Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑), Yuzhou Changzhuang (禹州苌庄窑) and etc.

   

Two examples from Dengfeng kiln.  The ewer on the left has impressed straw-mat motif.  This was a popular treatment on Tang ewers with yellow or yellowish green glaze

Black/brown Glazed wares

Many kilns of the period also produced black, brownish black and teadust wares.  An interesting variation was the addition of  splashes of a whitish or whitish blue glaze over the ground glaze.  The Chinese called it hua you (花釉)Many of the Chinese experts believe such wares were the precursor of Song Jun wares.  Typical shapes with such glazes included drum, jar and plates.   The most famous kilns producing such wares were Lushan Dudian (鲁山段店窑) and Jiaxian Huangdao (郏县黄道窑) 

 Other kilns which also produced them were Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑) and Yuzhou Changzhuang (禹州苌庄窑) and etc.

   

The splashes could be an opaque powdery white colour.  If fired at a higher temperature, it intermingled well with the ground glaze.  Some has a shiny , more transparent bluish white as can been seen in above.

Lushan Huayou ci (鲁山花釉瓷) drum and Beijing Palace Museum

White wares

Besides the typical white glaze wares, some kilns also produced white wares which used various decorative techniques.  A notable type was high fired white glaze with splashes of copper green.  They were especially popular during the Tang/5 Dynasty period. During the 5 Dynasty/Song period, instead of green splashes, green stylised floral motif were drawn on the vessel.  Some of the notable kilns producing such wares were Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑), Dengfeng Quyang (登封曲阳窑), Lushan Dudian (鲁山段店窑) and Anyang Beiqi (安阳北齐窑).

   

Anyang Beiqi kiln 5 Dynasty white glaze gourd-shaped vase and jar with handle decorated with green splashes

Dengfeng Zhudong kiln dish decorated with floral-like motif.  Most probably dated to 5 Dynasty/Northern Song

 

 

Xinmi Xiguan (新密西关窑) also introduced a form of white ware with stamped pearl-like ground and incised motif during the late Tang period.  Such wares gained much popularity during the Northern Song period and were produced in a number of kilns, the most famous being Dengfeng Quhe kiln (登封曲阳窑).

Another interesting type which was first noted in Yaozhou kilns were unglazed plates with the area around the rim coated with star-shaped black glaze and inner base with abstract floral like motif.  This particular type could still be found during the Song period in Some Henan kilns. There were also some censer like or probably oil lamp vessels decorated with black/brown motif.  They were found in kiln in Dengfeng Zhudong (登封朱洞窑).

   
   

Tang Sancai wares

Great development were made in the area of lead glazed wares.  Besides version of lead glaze white wares with splashes of green, the kilns in Gongyi (previously called Gongxian)  Huang Ye (义黄冶) and Gongyi Baihe (义白河) further developed the decorative techniques with multi-coloured glazes called Tang Sancai or Tang Tri-colour. 

The term is rather misleading as the number of colours can vary from 1 to more than 3.  The colours included white, green, blue, black, brown, amber and dark brown. 

The vessel which is coated with a white slip was first fired to around 1000 degree centigrade.  It is then glazed and fired at a lower temperature of about 800 degree centigrade. 

Vessels included daily utensils such as plates, bowls, jars, censer and figurines of court official, servants, ladies, camels, horses and models of building.  The figurines and models of building were essentially made for elaborate burial purposes. 

So far, very few kiln wastage of large figurines have been excavated.   It is generally believed that there could be other kilns that produced such items. The daily utensils may be of practical usage and were exported overseas in limited quantity and had been found in countries in Middle East, Japan and Indonesia.

Duck shaped pot in the Henan Museum

Tang Sancai Court servants in Loyang Museum

 

Gongyi kilns also made an interesting type of marbled wares.  It involved a process of inter-mixing two types of clay which is grayish white and brownish in colour respectively.  The end result is an interesting tree-like grain or cloud like design.

Tang Marbled vessel in Shanghai Museum

 

Another variation employed the application of thin layers of such marbled clay on different part of the vessel.  There is also another type of marbled glazed ware called Jiaoyu (绞釉) by the Chinese (lower fragment of below picture).  The term is used as it has the appearance of intermingling of two coloured glaze.

 

Tang Marbled  pillow vessel in Shanghai Museum.

 

Tang Blue and white wares

Another technical breakthrough was the production of high fired underglaze cobalt blue and white.  Some blue and white sherds have been discovered in Gongyi Baihe kiln (义白河窑). They consisted of simple geometric and floral design.  The composition of the blue and white wares showed clear Persian influence as can been seen on the 3 dishes found in the Belitung shipwreck.

Dish from the Belitung Tang Shipwreck

The Gongyi kilns also produced some vessels such as the below bowls with blue or blue and yellow motifs.  There were previously some confusions over the classification of such wares.  Some thought they were also a form of blue and white.  It has now been confirmed that those were low fired lead-glazed wares.

   

Examples of lead glaze with blue motif

 

Kilns from other Provinces producing similar wares

In identifying ceramics in Henan, it is necessary to know that there are much similarity between them and products from neighbouring kilns in Hebei (such as Xinyao (邢窑) and Dingyao (定窑)) and even Shanxi (such as Jincheng Zezhou (晋城泽洲窑) and Hunyuan (浑源) and Pingding (平定) which is located near Hebei).  For example, some Tang Sancai and white lead glaze with green splashes fragment were found in kiln in Zezhou.  Unfortunately, the kiln had been destroyed but the existence of the kiln is evident from the existence of some kiln furniture and ceramics fragments found.

 

Source

Mr Koh

 

 

7th Century

.7th century
The Islamic King have fight each other in order to cupied the Middles East area have changed the social and political situation in Europe

  • 7th to 15th century:

 

The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[9]

Some 200,000 Persians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, and other foreigners lived in Guangzhou as traders, artisans and metalworkers.
Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the seas, p.39.

In fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

705 AD

.

Kao Tsung extended Chinese control over much of Korea and part of Manchuria.

 

 

He defeated the Japanese fleet, ending Japanese influence on the mainland for many years.

The later years of his reign saw

Kao Tsung father’s concubine,

Wu Tsu-t’ien,

asserting power, probably ruling from behind the scenes.

She proved ruthless,

eventually seizing power in her own name

(AD 705-710).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

723

The two kingdoms sunda and Galuh were re-united under Tarumanagara’s successor, Sanjaya, who placed a vassal king on the throne of Galuh in 723.

the Sundan king

which became the Mataram and Majapahit King

Sanjaya

( Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama,)

The second Sunda King

(723 – 732M),

Became the King of Mataram K8ingdom(732-860 AD(

and he found the Ancient Mataram kingdom and also the Sandjaja Reign

menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 – 760M).

Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya

 

 

 

 

Kompleks Candi Dieng

Hindus candi were built in 7th Century Candi Gatotkaca, Candi Bima, Candi Arjuna, Candi Semar, Candi Sembadra, Candi Srikandi, Candi Setyaki, Gangsiran Aswatama, dan Candi Dwarawati.
Balaputradewa
a king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya. Balaputradewa ruled VIII-IX century AD. Balaputradewa is the most famous king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya as in the reign of the kingdom of Srivijaya was he reached the peak of its power as a Maritime Empire in power almost throughout the archipelago to reach Thailand, India, the Philippines and China

.

 

Look the Museum Balaputra dewa

Top of Form

Balaputradewa Museum is located at Km 6.5 on Jl. No. I Srijaya State. 288, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.

 

Balaputradewa museum has about 3580 pieces of this collection of traditional items Palembang, preserved animals from various regions in South Sumatra, some miniature houses inland, replicas of statues of ancient inscriptions ever found in Siguntang Hill, giant carved stones of the Megalithic era , and many more.

 

 

 

 

Collections at the Museum Balaputradewa divided into 10 kinds of categories:
  histografi or historika (stories),
  ethnography,
feologi,
ceramics,
the tools of modern technology,
art (in the form of engravings),
  flora and fauna (Biologika) and geological
and contained limas house is also home Ulu Ali.
The collection at the Museum Balaputradewa placed on 3 pieces exhibit space to be grouped into
showrooms prehistoric times,

,

Putri cave

 

 

 

 

 

Pasemah fossil

Stone axe

 

 

Burial eathern martavan

Stone inscription

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

732

The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families.

The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D.,

were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have come from the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years.

During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.

 

Plaosan temple

 


The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple,

Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang
Candi (pronounced /
ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples
or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries

 

 

745:

Arrival of Islam in the archipelago

was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).

The discovery of a tombstone inscription bertarikh 127 AH or 745 AD replied rather long debate among the historians regarding the arrival of Islam in Indonesia . Historical inscriptions found in the District ‘s Sandai high value to reveal that Islamic culture in Ketapang is the oldest Islamic culture in the archipelago that came in the 7th century , rather than in Aceh .
Previously , experts were mostly from the west and the Netherlands are still different opinions about the timing of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . There are some experts mention the 10th century , 12th century and 13th century as the most likely period from the beginning of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . Based on historical fact , according to the Foundation Coordinator Leaf Width , Ir Gusti Cambodia , said during the Islamisation of Ocean Pasai , Aceh , the first king of Malik Al – Salih , died 698 Hijri or 1297 AD , Gujarat is still a Hindu kingdom .
” So at that time Islam has not been established and developed in Gujarat , so may not be able to spread Islam to the archipelago , ” he said .

 

In addition , the results of the study concluded that the width Leaf Foundation Sandai inscription form is not the same as the shape of tombstones in Pasai and Gresik , East Java . The stone is a stone nor a native of Ketapang , but imported stone .
Although research conducted fully completed yet , the Foundation is actively also collect a lot of literature to strengthen the findings .
” Based on the shape of the tombstone , the experts also found the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago mention of Gujarat ( 12th century ) , Bengal , Coromandel and Malabar ( 13th century ) . According to their shape tombstones and Pasai found in East Java , the same shape with tombstones found in Cambay , Gujarat , “said Cambodia .
He added that this opinion is reinforced by the opinion of the Dutch scholar , JP Moquette that conclusion based on the findings of gravestones in Pasai , Aceh Dhul – Hijjah bertarikh 17 H 831 / 27 September 1428 M. Likewise SQ Fatimi based tombstone Siti Fatimah bertarikh 475 AH / 1082 AD found in Leran , East Java .
Cambodia concluded , based chronicle inscription proved to have occurred Sandai connection with the Arab – Persian archipelago in the early 7th century . At that time known in history as the heyday of the Islamic World . History of Muslims noted , that in the 7th century in Spain still controlled by the Muslim rulers . In this period , Umayyad Dynasty ( 132 AD – 749 AD ) and the Abbasid dynasty ( 750 AD – 798 AD ) has expanded into Persia and the Indian subcontinent to set sail to the Far East .
” This is the farthest humans have ever navigated before the rise of European shipping in the 16th century . Empire in history Tanjungpura sourced from the book History of the Sung Dynasty 489 , mentions that the royal Tanjungpura relations with Arab traders in the year 977 AD is growing ” , he continued . Where King Tanjungpura , Hiang – ta when it has sent a messenger to the palace of China , which is entrusted to the Arab traders called P’ulu – Hsieh ( Abu Abdallah ) to lead the royal delegation – West Borneo .


” Sandai tombstone is one of important evidence about the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago and strengthen the notion that Islam initially taken directly from Arabic instead of Samudera Pasai ” , he said .
If the majority of Muslims see the archipelago air- Shafi , said Cambodia , there are similarities kepemelukan Islam in Egypt and Hadhralmawt , which is thought to be part of a place in Arabic as the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago .
” Although there has been a connection in the 7th century , the spread of Islam in the archipelago newly gained momentum in the 11th century until the 18th . This momentum occurs after the penetration of Islam by the Sufis who appear through a network of scholars who maintain harmony between Shari’a and Sufism , “he described .
However, the role of the maritime Srivijaya empire that once ruled the West Boneo (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) in the 7th century in the spread of Islam in the archipelago says are just as important .
” Even at that time Srivijaya still are Hindus, but there are already Muslim community that settled in the kingdom of Srivijaya and follow this to the cruise around the archipelago , ” he said .
Although the 7th century residents in Ketapang (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) have met and interacted with Arab Muslim traders , there has been no evidence of the presence of the local Muslim population in large numbers or on the occurrence of substantial Islamization in Tanjungpura . Tanjungpura new rulers converted to Islam in the year 1590 by using titles Panembahan and Giri , namely Panembahan Giri Kusuma and change the name of the Hindu kingdom into an Islamic empire Tanjungpura Matan ( Arabic ; spot starters ) .

 

 

 


With the discovery of the tombstone inscriptions in this Sandai ( Inscription Sandai ) , said Cambodia can be presumed that the relationship between the people in Tanjungpura ( West Borneo ) and the Middle East has existed since the early days of Islam . Muslim traders from Arabia , Persia , and the Indian subcontinent who came to the islands of the archipelago and China not only trade , but to some extent also spread Islam to the people of your Site

However, around 745,

Chen-la (Cambodia真臘) attacked the capital of Shih-li-fo-shi, and occupied Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

At the same time the control of the Malacca Strait collapsed.

Nearly twenty years later, Śrīvijaya group counter attacked Chen-la and recovered Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

At this campaign the Śailendra navy from central Java (Shailendra) played the leading role and the king of Śailendra was given the title of the ‘Mahārāja’ of Śrīvijaya.

The memorial of this event was the ‘Ligor inscription’ dated 775.

Śailendra became the champion state of Śrīvijaya group, but Śailendra sent envoys to the Tang court under the name of ‘Kha-ling’ same as Sañjaya.

Actual shipment of its tribute was dispatched from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, probably Sathing Phra, and sometimes from Jambi where international commodities were easily accumulated.

a Chinese monk,

I-Tsing,

wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda)

sīlĕnˈdrä,

sīlĕnˈdrä,

name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia.

 

 

The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th century. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent.

The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism,

extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina

748 CE:

Chinese monk Jian Zhen (Jianzhou, of Daming monastery in Yangzhou), failed in his fifth attempt to sail to Japan, and drifted to Guangzhou where ‘many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun [Indonesia/Java]… with… spices, pearls and jade piled up mountain high’.

 

 

The largest ship looked like a mansion, with sails many zhangs high. [1 zhang = 3.11 metres.] Sri Lanka was by now the major shipping centre, with ships visiting from India, Persia and Ethiopia; Sri Lankan ships had gangways many zhangs high.
Tang Zhiba, ‘The influence of the sail on the development of the ancient navy’, p.61

752 to 1045:

The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[12]

 

Emperor SU TSUNG
AD 756-762

Reign title: CH’IEN-YUAN, AD 758-762

While the rebel Shih Su-ming ruled much of China, the legitimate T’ang emperor Su Tsung worked to restore order. In 758 he cast high denomination fiduciary coins to finance the war, but they proved a financial disaster

 

 

 

760 to 830:

 

Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[13]

 

The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; Mandarin Pinyin: Táng Cháo; Jyutping: tong4 ciu4; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (618 – 907 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

It was founded by the Li () family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.

The dynasty was interrupted briefly when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne proclaiming the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant.

The 7th century and first half of the 8th century is generally considered the zenith era of the Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age while the Silk Road thrived, with sway over Indochina in the south, and to the west Tang China was master of the Pamirs (modern-day Tajikistan) and protector of Kashmir bordering Persia.[48]

 

 

Some of the kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Nepal, Khotan, Kucha, Kashgar, Japan, Korea, Champa, and kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley.[49][50]

There was great contact and interest in India as a hub for Buddhist knowledge, with famous travelers such as Xuanzang (d. 664) visiting the South Asian subcontinent.

After a 17-year long trip,

Xuanzang managed to bring back valuable Sanskrit texts to be translated into Chinese.

There was also a Turkic–Chinese dictionary available for serious scholars and students, while Turkic folksongs gave inspiration to some Chinese poetry.[103][104]

In the interior of China, trade was facilitated by the Grand Canal and the Tang government’s rationalization of the greater canal system that reduced costs of transporting grain and other commodities.[105] The state also managed roughly 32,100 km (19,900 mi) of postal service routes by horse or boat.[106]

 

During the Tang Dynasty, thousands of foreigners came and lived in numerous Chinese cities for trade and commercial ties with China, including Persians, Arabs, Hindu Indians, Malays, Sinhalese, Khmers, Chams, Jews and Nestorian Christians of the Near East, and many others.[115][116] In 748,

the Buddhist monk Jian Zhen described Guangzhou as a bustling mercantile center where many large and impressive foreign ships came to dock. He wrote that “many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun (Indonesia/Java)…with…spices, pearls, and jade piled up mountain high”,[117][118]

 

The Kwan Sing Bio Temple

is located in Tuban Regency, the city lying in the north coast of East Java.
It is also easy to reach by public transport such as bus or car since its strategic position close to the Surabaya and Jakarta main road, or take only a short walk about two hundred metres from the Tuban bus terminal.

 

 

 

The worship place of Kwan Sing Bio temple is predicted to have been built in the seventh century and it was also believed to have high supernatural quality, therefore lots of Hindu pilgrims visite there daily, especially on holidays of Chinese calendar Imlek and the birthday of Kwan Ping Thai Tjoe, Kwan Sing Tee Koen, and Tjoe pjong Tiang Koen. The temple faces northward to the seashore.

 

 

 

The Indonesian Chinese communities believe that God will easily grant every prayer spelt in this direction.

One of its uniqueness is the giant crab standing on the gateway, and such a kind of this is away from the custom since most of the temples have symbol of dragon and peacock

1.The very rare and excellent Tang Dinasty ceramic s and other gold cup were found at the Belitung straits , but very pitty Indonesia fishermen only found the bad conditions collections, all the best collection were gone to Singapore Museum and trader.

2.Due to that condition I starting to seek the info about that collections via google explorations and show to all the Chinese Tang’s Ceramic collector all over the world.

  1. I hope this info will help the Indonesia and all over the world marine archeologist will used this info fore their research

 

 

 

 

 

 

— Tang Dynasty China

and

Abbasid Persia —

the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably

 

from

Guangzhou

To

Basra.

 

Basra silver coin

The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead.

 

 

6       Changsha Copper Reds

Copper oxide and iron oxide were applied in the glaze material for firing in oxidizing (oxygen rich) atmosphere to give off the green and brown colours. However, copper oxide would turn red if put under high fire in a reducing (oxygen deficit) atmosphere. In historical terms, China only started to produce the red color effect in Jun ware made in Henan during the Song dynasty.

 

The appearance of red patches on the bluish Jun wares was probably due to misfire, that is the dropping of copper impurities from the roof of the kiln chamber on the clay body burnt under simmering situation which enhanced the formation of reducing flame. The occurrence was rather accidental.

Foliage design in copper red (An Islamic version)

From the discovery of Changsha wares, it seems the deliberate use of the copper red effect in Chinese ceramics first took place at the Changsha kilns in the Tang dynasty, which would bring forward the firing of copper red history to an earlier period

.

Spiral symbol motif in copper red (an Islamic version)

The evolution of copper reds from the copper bearing Changsha green and the blue green glazes is not really surprising. Changsha wares were fired in wood burning dragon kilns built on hill slopes.

The pulling effect of the wind due to the creation of a vacuum space in the firing process within the slanting structure could flare up the contents in the kiln chamber to an exceedingly high temperature in a very short while.

This caused the kiln chamber to be suddenly filled with smoke, cutting down the oxygen supply and making occasional accidental reduction from the exceptionally high ash (soot) levels that would turn some of the copper oxide into cuprous oxide (red copper oxide) or colloidal copper ions, thus giving a red colour to a transparent glaze.

The Changsha copper reds were produced mainly by accident as the skill of controlling and manufacturing copper red glazes only reached their most successful expression in the early 15th century AD when Jingdezhen porcelains with copper red glazes were used in China in imperial rites.

 

Even so, a piece of Ming copper red bowls can cost millions of dollars in the auction market.

 

Changsha copper reds are therefore found in limited quantities and the shipwreck find will mark a new phase in ceramics history.

 

7       Religious Factors

The under glaze paintings of birds, animals, floral sprigs and trees executed by the Changsha potters during the Tang Dynasty exhibit a good mix of Buddhist and Islamic symbols and influence. The paintings are exuberant, with attractive, eye-catching yet elegant images and produce an atmosphere of harmony of the two different religions. The majority of the designs are composed and executed in a simple, uncluttered and spontaneous manner although they sometimes suffer from exaggeration and distortion.

Brief descriptions of some of the more popular painted subjects on Changsha wares are presented as follows:

 

  1. Buddhist symbols

Buddhism was introduced to China during the Western Han period and reached its peak in the Tang Dynasty. We have found various forms of Buddhist symbols such as the swastika sign or other familiar motifs or molded design in relief as outlined below:

  • Lotus flowers: painted in exquisite style or free flow of simplified line forms. The lotus is treated as a sacred Buddhist representation.
   

Lotus motif in green and brown

Lotus motif in Copper red

 

Tang Chines ecaligraphy

 

Salak tree (cyathea spinulosa),

 

 

  • usually in the form of appliqué, is a living fossil of the prehistoric tree fern. The fronds are dark green and finely divided, held in a graceful arching habit, and the slender trunk is able to reach a height of about 20 feet.

It was said that

 

the Great Master Sekkiamani died between two Sala trees, and the Sala tree was regarded as a holy tree and is always shown protected in a cage-like fence.

   

Sala tree motif on Ewer

Makara (fish) motif (A Buddhist Symbol)

Makara fish,

which is a legendary animal with a dragon-shaped head and curved nose, is a reincarnation of the Buddha, who always harbors the intention of tying people up for the preaching of the religion.

 

  • Lion motif or molded in relief is a symbol of Buddhism to express the loudness and clarity of the chanting of prayers by the Buddha.Lingzhi fungus is a sign of blessing for longevity. This usually includes pictures of clouds.
   

Ewer with lion applique

Lingzhi fungus with the potter’s mark zhou inscribed

 

 

 

 

  • Islamic symbols

 

 

In order to cater to the needs of the Muslims in the Middle East countries, the ingenious Changsha artisans cleverly painted motifs in line with Islamic teachings. These consist of the following:

]

 

 

Abstract geographical pictures

are commonly found in Changsha bowls meant for the Arabic market. First, small dots or beads are applied at random and the beads are arranged in circles, squares and lozenges which are typical design found in Persian embroideries or carpets.

 

]

 

 

 

 

Next comes the free flow lines and spiral symbols

which appear as flora sprigs, foliage or even ribbons.

The spiral is universally regarded as a symbol of movement.

We also see festive firework patterns that exude a sense of happiness.

All these abstract designs suggest that the Muslims are not allowed to worship idols or anything in the form of living creatures. Thus, the mosque is empty and only geographical patterns are drawn on the wall.

Arabic Koran scripts written in graphic forms are found on Changsha bowls, in praise of Allah as the only god.

Arabic Koran Inscription “I am the servant of Allah”

 

Arabic Koran Inscription “No other god but only Allah is the God”

 

 

 

Date palms

are a common appliqué design especially on ewers.

Date palm

This is suitable for the Middle Eastern market as the date palm plantation was one of the important sources of wealth to the people then and sweet and juicy dates were a well-liked delicacy for the Arab people.

 

The fruits of the date palm in the design have long been mistaken for that of grapes but the palm leaves are definitely different from grape vines.

8       Conclusion

The archaeological salvage of the Batu Hitam shipwreck has unlocked the secrets of the sunken ship and greatly expanded our knowledge of the Tang era. It is the oldest ship ever found in Asia, in Indonesian waters, and provides the earliest evidence of the flourishing trade between China and Middle Eastern countries via a maritime silk route.

The cargo is of historical importance and can be classed as a world heritage find. The collection is a meaningful and important acquisition for Singapore as Singapore is currently an important commercial and maritime centre for the region

8th Cemtury

The Chinese merchants had crossed oceans to trade

in Japan, Champa, and Java.

 

Jayavarman II is said to have reigned

since 802 until 850 (or 835?)

 

At the early stage of the ninth century

Samaratuńgga, the Mahārāja of Śailendra still dominated the central Java and Jayavarman II was perhaps under his control. Of course Chen-la could have traded with China, however the record of the tributary missions was not found in the Chinese chronicles after 814.
9th Century

Warren E.Cox Info

At Samarra ,

half way between

Baghdad

and

 

 

azhuron

Tigris

Were found sherds of stone ware and true porcelains with feldspatic glaze of high fire , and corresponding with Chinese ceramic. This site is definitely dated as of 9th century

The glazes were yellowish white, closely crackled and a green mottled transparent ype . Others were green (or Celadon) , pure white , Ivory , chocolate brown verging on black and of mat texture , watery green , gray and finally a group of transmutation glazes of brown splazhed with frothy gray with bluish and whithish tinged.

Islamic pottery with turquoise glaze and fish motif, in imitation of Chinese celadon ware, probably Iran, 14th century.

Source

wpedia.goo

 

Of the Latter it is not ieasy to distinguish between the Tang and Sung wares and reliance must be placed mostly on style of the foot. It is typical Tang foot that it was flat bottomed and beveled before firing , but disadvantages of such a bottom were discovered and some Tang wares have simple foot-rims . Thus we cannot depend too much on this characteristic

(Warren E.Cox, 1970)

Tang vase

 

Tang Statue

source google

 

 

 

Changsha (kilns)

An important kiln area situated in South China during Tang Dynasty. Also called Tongguan Kiln due to its discovery in today’s Wazhaping, Tongguan Town, Changsha City in Hunan Province.

Changsha was active by the end of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), peaked from late Tang to Five Dynasties, and declined after Five Dynasties. Its main product were wares with a grayish-green glaze, but all iron based earth colors occurs.

All kinds of ceramic products were made, including molded figures, as well as thrown utilarian pots, jars and dishes of all shapes and decorations. A well known typical shape is a short-spouted ewer with a globular body and a straight neck.

The kilns is noted for its rich and varied decoration of all kinds, especially its early painted decoration of figures, natural ornaments and calligraphy, as well as applied ornaments or dipped, painted and splashed glazes.

Potters working near Changsha in southern China seem to have been the first to experiment with and perfect underglaze decor which was one of the most influential Tang ceramic achievements, which was also to have a long lasting importance.

By painting their designs directly onto the clay body or slip coat and then covering them with a clear glaze before firing, potters could protect their designs in a way not previously possible. The colors used in the underglaze designs varied from brown and green hues and sometimes but rarely a blue underglaze color seems to have been used.

In the 9th century, when these techniques began to be used with blue underglaze, the practice spread worldwide. The types and decorations seems to have been developed in contact with the world markets, and in particular through a large community of over 100,000 Arabs who are known to have been living and working in Canton, Guangzhou province during the Tang Dynasty, engaged in sea trade with Arabia.

In 1997 fishermen just north of the port of Tanjung Pandan on the Indonesian island of Belitung, (between Sumatra and Borneo) discovered a ship wreck of a Ninth Century Dhow. From their fishing nets they recovered a number of distinctly colored bowls and ewers which could be easily identified as originating from the Changsha kilns of Hunan province in China. Changsha pottery was only produced during the later years of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-906). This allowed archeologists to get a close fix on the date that the ship might have sailed. The ship contained many other goods, including star anise (Illicium anisatum), a distinctly Chinese export.

Tang ceramics have been found in south-east Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, the Indus Valley, the Persian Gulf, around the Red Sea, and as far inland as Samarra, the Abbasid capital, and as far west as old Cairo in Egypt, and Antioch on the Syrian coast, and as far south as the Comoros Island and Zanzibar. The quantities of Tang ceramics found in India are very small. It also seems like the earliest Chinese ceramics to be found in southern India dates to the eleventh century AD why the archaeological evidence then points to the Belitung ship as traveling to Arabia. (Flecker:2001:348).

 

Illustration: Mid 9th century Changsha Ewer with underglaze decoration in green and brown on a white slip covering a dark melon shaped body, under a clear fine-meshed crackled glaze. Height 18,5 cm / 9.75 inches. J-E Nilsson Collection, 2003.

Source Gotheberg


902

The Ten States Kingdom

Unlike the dynasties of northern China, which succeeded one other in rapid succession, the regimes of southern China were generally concurrent, each controlling a specific geographical area.

These were known as “The Ten Kingdoms”. [edit] Wu

The Kingdom of Wu (902–937)

 

was established in modern-day Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces. It was founded by Yang Xingmi, who became a Tang Dynasty military governor in 892.

The capital was initially at Guangling (present-day Yangzhou) and later moved to Jinling (present-day Nanjing).

 

 

 

 

 

937

The kingdom fell in 937 when it was taken from within by the founder of the Southern Tang.

 

The Kingdom of Wuyue

was the longest-lived (907–978)

and among the most powerful of the southern states. Wuyue was known for its learning and culture.

It was founded by Qian Liu, who set up his capital at Xifu (modern-day Hangzhou). It was based mostly in modern Zhejiang province but also held parts of southern Jiangsu.

 

Qian Liu was named the Prince of Yue by the Tang emperor in 902; the Prince of Wu was added in 904.

 

After the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907,

he declared himself king of Wuyue. Wuyue survived until the eighteenth year of the Song Dynasty, when Qian Shu surrendered to the expanding dynasty. [edit]

 

The Kingdom of Min (909–945)

was founded by Wang Shenzhi, who named himself the Prince of Min with its capital at Changle (present-day Fuzhou).

One of Shenzhi’s sons proclaimed the independent state of Yin in the northeast of Min territory.

 

 

The Southern Han (917–971)

was founded in Guangzhou (also known as Canton) by Liu Yan. His brother, Liu Yin, was named regional governor by the Tang court. The kingdom included Guangdong and most of Guangxi.

 

[edit] Chu The Chu (927–951) was founded by Ma Yin with the capital at Changsha. The kingdom held Hunan and northeastern Guangxi. Ma was named regional military governor by the Tang court in 896, and named himself the Prince of Chu with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907.

921

Prasasti Sukabumi itu, tertera angka tahun 921 M.

 

Di situ diceritakan soal pembangunan bendungan dan sungai yang dimulai pertama kali pada 804 M.

Prasasti Sukabumi adalah sebuah prasasti pada batu
yang ditemukan di perkebunan Sukabumi, kecamatan Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur.

 

Prasasti ini menurut sebutan ahli epigrafi lebih dikenal dengan nama Prasasti Harinjing.

 

Tulisan yang terdapat pada kedua belah sisi prasasti ini ditulis dengan aksara dan bahasa Jawa Kuna.

 

Prasasti ini terdiri dari tiga buah piagam yang mengenai hal yang sama

 

Bagian depan disebut Prasasti Harinjing A.

Isinya menyebutkan pada 11 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 726 Saka atau 25 Maret 804 Masehi, para pendeta di daerah Culangi memperoleh hak sima (tanah yang dilindungi) atas daerah mereka karena telah berjasa membuat sebuah saluran sungai bernama Harinjing.
Bagian belakang, Prasasti Harinjing B,

baris 1-23 menyebutkan bahwa Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodhong pada 15 Suklapaksa bulan Asuji tahun 843 Saka atau 19 September 921 Masehi, mengakui hak-hak para pendeta di Culangi karena mereka masih tetap harus memelihara saluran Harinjing.
Mulai baris selanjutnya, disebut Prasasti Harinjing C,

 

menyebutkan bahwa hak serupa diakui pula pada 1 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 849 Saka atau 7 Maret 927 Masehi.

 

.

khuluk_BABAT_JAWA.

 

Edward McKinnon (Nalanda Sriwijaya Center) pada Kunjungan ke Situs Kota Rentang Hamparan Perak. 18 Maret 2010

.DR Edward Mackinnon visit Nalanda Srivijaya center at situs Kota rentang Hamparan Perak

 

 

 

11th Century

The Indian Tamil King Chola Attacked Srivijaya


At the early eleventh century,

San-fo-chi was occupied by Chola,

the south Indian, Tamil empire. San-fo-chi regained its helm at the end of the eleventh century.

 

 

 

Following a 1025

raid by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India it began to gradually decline in importance.

Srivijaya’s capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate

1030

Prasasti Sanghyang Tapak (juga dikenal sebagai Prasasti Jayabupati atau Prasasti Cicatih )[1] 

adalah prasasti kuno perangka tahun 952 saka (1030 M), terdiri dari 40 baris yang memerlukan 4 buah batu untuk menulisnya. Keempat batu prasasti ini ditemukan \

di tepi Sungai Cicatih, Cibadak, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat.

Tiga diantaranya ditemukan di dekat Kampung Bantar Muncang, sementara sebuah lainnya ditemukan di Kampung Pangcalikan.

Prasasti ini ditulis dalam huruf Kawi Jawa. Kini keempat batu prasasti ini disimpan di Museum Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan kode D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97, dan D 98

Isi tiga prasasti pertama (menurut Pleyte):

D 73: //O// Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. ha. ka. ra. wara tambir. iri- ka diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana- hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-

D 96: gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tapak ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa ikan sesini lwah. Makahingan sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i hulu, i sor makahingan ia sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i wungkalagong kalih matangyan pinagawayaken pra-sasti pagepageh. mangmang sapatha.

D 97: sumpah denira prahajyan sunda. lwirnya nihan.

Translate]

 

Selamat dan sejahtera. Pada tahun Saka 952, bulan Kartika pada hari ke-12th bagian terang, hari Hariang, Kaliwon, hari pertama, Wuku Tambir.

 

Hari ini adalah hari dimana raja kerajaan Sunda, Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa,

membuat tanda tapak di bagian timur Sanghiyang Tapak.

Dibuat oleh Sri Jayabupati raja kerajaan Sunda. Tidak ada seorangpun yang boleh melanggar aturan ini.

Di bagian sungai ini tidak boleh menangkap ikan, di kawasan pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak dekat hulu sungai.

Jauh hingga ke batas Sanghyang Tapak yang ditandai dua pohon besar.

Demikanlah tulisan ini dibuat, ditegakkan dengan sumpah kerajaan Sunda.

 

Piagam persumpahan raja ditulis di atas prasasti keempat (D 98). Terdiri atas 20 baris, sumpah ini memanggil semua kekuatan gaib, dewata (hyang) dari langit dan bumi untuk membantu menjaga dan melindungi mandat sang raja.

Siapa saja yang melanggar aturan ini akan dihukum oleh segenap makhluk halus, mati dengan cara yang mengerikan seperti otaknya disedot, darahnya diminum, ususnya dihancurkan, dan dada dibelah dua.

 

Prasasti ini ditutup dengan kalimat,

“I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh

(Oh ketahuilah kamu sekalian hyang

 

 

In 1068,

King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty conquered what is now modern day Kedah from Srivijaya

and began a series of raids in Sumatera and Malay Peninsula for the next 20 years.

Though ultimately, Srivijaya prevailed over the Indian Kingdom, the invasion leave Srivijaya severely weakened.

With large number of soldiers died in the war and it’s coffer almost empty plus 20 years of disrupted trades, Srivijaya reach grow short. It’s territories began to freed themselves from Palembang ruled and establish many small kingdoms all over Srivijaya former empire.

There’s some evidence that Srivijaya capital moved from Palembang to Jambi, but this is widely disputed. [4]

 

After the collapse of Srivijaya,

no major power that controls the town.

At that time in Palembang and the surrounding emerging local forces such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Trembling Nature group in the hills, the Master and Master Bosai Strong River upstream Histories, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on. [citation needed] In addition, some merchants of China make this city as their trade base. Sea People also made their headquarters Palembang as a pirate.

In this phase,

Prince emerged last Sriwijaya, Parameswara. Following the invasion of Majapahit to Palembang, Parameswara with Sang Nila Utama go Tumasik fled.

There he killed the governor Tumasik Thai nationals. When the Thai army will attack Tumasik, Parameswara with his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the kingdom of Malacca.

Parameswara converted to Islam to marry the daughter of Ocean Pasai and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century so that Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.

The Indian Tamil King Chola Army Attacked Sumatra and the fall of Srivijaya

Kota Cina sites

1080

1080-1350

CHINESE CITY

(KOTA CINA MEDAN)

 

 

501

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

502

 

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B6VMb51VVWTVRjNzZlhDdEpoeU0/edit?usp=sharing&pli=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

503

 

 

 

504

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

505

 

506

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

507

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

508

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

Peta Segitiga Arkeologi Di Sumatra Utara (Barus-Kota Cina-Portibi)

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan .

 

 

 

 

Struktur Batubata Bangunan Suci di Kota Cina. Sektor Keramat Pahlawan

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fondasi Bangunan Suci di Situs Kota Cina Temuan Tahun 1977

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
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Temuan Batu Bata Berstruktur Bangunan Suci Di Situs Kota Cina

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

509

 

510

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

511

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

512

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

 

3 dari 4 archa temuan di situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan (Foto adalah replika archa)

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

 

 

 

515

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compare with

A Shiva lingam worshipped at Jambukesvara temple in Thiruvanaikaval

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

516

Compare with tuye’re

A tuyere, also can be spelled as tuyère, is a tube, nozzle or pipe through which air is blown into a furnace or hearth.[1]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Srivijaya ‘s Candi Bahal

were not famous in the world, becaause ver hard to visit this interseting and historic area, i hope UNESCO will register this monument as The Human Heritage Ancient Building of Ancient Indonesia heritage and give the fund to restored and clean tha area because my friend Kali siregar have report the situation of that candi not so well , please look at the illustration and information of Candi Bahal.

  1. The Candi Bahal Plaque in the front of monument
  2. The Candi bahal Area not clean, dirty, oh my god please UNESCO dan Indonesia Govermenmert and menistry of Tourism and native Art save this human heritage.
  3. Information Of Bahal candi

1)Candi Bahal were built during Srivijaya Kingdom and Raja Chola Of Tamil Empire attack Srivijaya ,stiil confueced stiil in studies.the smae with candi  Muara Takus near Kampar river Riaouw. name  Candi bahal , may be from Berhala , native indonesia languange means Goddest not therreal GOD, more famous with name candi portibi because  located at kecamatan portibi di sibuhuan kabupaten padang lawas, where many tapanuli etnis lived there, like  suku batak mandailing. Siregar, hasibuan, harahap, nasution, lubis, dst Battak Mandailing Ethnis.

Candi bahal consist three monument , yaitu candi bahal I, II, dan III  which different locations Bahal II 300 m from  bahal I dan bahal III  100 meter from the road ,pass the villagers house and Sawah rice field.

Now  candi bahal didnot used for pyaring, the location situatio not so well and dirty. please look the front Candi Bahal ‘s Wooden Name Plaque

Very intersting, during afternone during the sunside .all the”Bata “became red, how beautiful that candi.

.2) Location

The  Candi Bahal before someone have toll me near Gunung Tua city, but during my adventure in that area noone now, this day my friend  Klai Siregar have write about the location, at  Padang Lawas ,the road  Padang sidempuan dan Padangbolak.After past  sibuhuan, if from Pekanbaru through small road  , candi bahal at the right about 0,8 km from the road enter inside. The roiad condition waving because too muck Sait Truck running on this road. The private car from zmedean to candi Bahal  will took time  13-15 hours, better toking the general Bus from  medan-padang sidempuan , after that taking new bus from padang sidempuan-padang bolak and at least padang bolak- bahal village..3) More illustration of Candi Bahal

a) Candi Bahal I

b) Candi Bahal II

c) Candi Bahal III

d) candi bahal relief

e)Candi Bahal artifact.

The complete informations and illustrations only for premium members

the end @ copyright DR Iwan S  2010.,

 

 

 

 

770

Sailendra King Vishnu begins building Borobudur.

Beginning of building activity on the plain of Prambanan

Buddhism, one of Indonesia’s five religions

778 AD

 The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which the dynastic name Sailendra appears is

the Kalasan inscription of central Java, dated 778 AD,

the Kalasan inscription dated 778 AD, written in Sanskrit using Pranagari script, the temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka (the Jewel of Sailendra family) who succeeded to persuade

 Maharaja Tejapurnapana Panangkaran (in other part of the inscription also called as Kariyana Panangkaran) to construct Tarabhavanam, a holy building for the goddess (boddhisattvadevi) Tara.

Also to build a vihara (monastery) for buddhist monks from Sailendra family’s realm. Panangkaran awarded the Kalaça village to sangha (buddhist monastic community).[1] According to the date of this inscription, Kalasan temple is the oldest among temples built in the Prambanan Plain.

Despite being renovated and partially rebuilt during the Dutch colonial era, the temple currently is in poor condition. Compared to other temples nearby such as Prambanan,

 

 Sewu,

 

and Sambisari the temple is not well maintained.

which commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine for

the Buddhist goddess Tara.[2]

.

Candi Kalasan built by  Maharaja Tejapurnapana Panangkaran (Rakai Panangkaran) the king under Syailendra. protection

Eastern of Candi Kalasan there were Candi sari with the same type with candi but On the top of this candi there were 9 buah stupa same with Borobudur

.

, Candi Boko situs Ratu Boko , Kraton Boko from word Kraton and Ratu Boko. Kraton means   Ka-da-tu-an the plac where Ratu Boko homeland ,   Ratu means King not queen and Boko the name of bird.Raja .

 

Candi Boko

The pictures of Borobudur temple did not upload because very popular and everybody ever seen this famous candi.

 

782 AD

The name also appears in several other inscriptions like

the Kelurak inscription (782)

and the Karangtengah (824).

Outside Indonesia, the name Sailendra is to be found in

the Ligor inscription (775)

on the Malay peninsula and the mid-9th century Nalanda inscription.[2]

The Srivijaya attacked Chenia(now Cambodia)

About 790

Sailendra kingdom attacks and defeats Chenla (today Cambodia); rules over Chenla for about 12 years because The Sailendra kings remembered that their ancestors came from what is now Thailand or Cambodia

 

 

Read more about

Ancient Java Mataram Kingdom related with Rakai Panangkaran who built candi klasan ,prambanan and Bororbudur

 

971

The Celadon Green Colour Ceramic   Protectioins symbol

From Tang until Ming Esra in Indonesia the Indonesian kingdom empeor belief that the Jade green colour on ceramic will protect against poisoning

Tang green Martvan many found at Central and east Java

 

 

 

Occer Green yueh

 

To understand about Chinese martavan look Driwan CD-ROM

The Martavan History Collections

This best collections was found by the javaneseman sukoco belling , he send to me read his letter to me

Since the 9th century the Chinese also contributed to the growth of sea trade through the export of ceramics.

 

Tang/Song Guangdong Trade Ceramics

 

Tang Guangdong Ceramics

During the Han/Tang period, the overland silk route served as the main conduit for the exchange of goods and culture with the West.  By the Tang period, an alternative maritime trade route was firmly established. 

Guangzhou became the main gateway for the maritime trade with Nanhai (ie Southeast Asia region) and the west.  It constituted the first peak of maritime trade in export Chinese ceramics. 

 

The Arabic style Guangzhou Huaishen mosque (广州怀聖清真寺) lighthouse used to guide ships entering Guangzhou port during the Tang Dynasty.  It is located near Guangta (光塔路) road which used to be the location where foreign traders stayed. Many of the street names in the area were related to the type of business/trade transacted there.

 

During late Tang Period, besides Yue, Changsha, Xing/Ding wares, Guangdong celadon wares also formed part of the ceramic mix in the cargo.  Guangdong various sizes large celadon jars were used to contain various smaller ceramics vessels during transportation.  The main production sites of such large jars were kilns located in the vicinity of tributaries of the Pearls river delta.  One important kiln site excavated was the Guanchong kiln (关冲) in Xinhui (新会). The glaze has a characteristically  snake skin-like uneven and runny appearance .

Guangdong Tang celadon jars from Belitung wreck

Guangdong Tang celadon jars exhibited in the Guangdong Nanyue Palace Museum

Compare with the same collections found at Java at next page

 

This best collections was found by the javaneseman sukoco belling , he send to me read his letter to me

halo pak, saya sukoco,

kebetulan saya pecinta sejarah khususnya sejarah jawa, terkadang saya juga ragu atas penulisan2 orang2 dulu tentang sejarah, karena dari zaman dulu sampai sekarang hampir sama yaitu

“SEJARAH TERTULIS TERGANTUNG SIAPA YANG BERKUASA SAAT ITU”

contoh kecil sejarah tentang zaman HINDHU dan BUDHA di jawa, seolah-olah sudah tersingkir dan dikucilkan padahal itu sungguh SANGAT LUAR BIASA DAN BERPENGARUH TERHADAP KEHIDUPAN SEKARANG (untuk kita renungkan),

SEKEDAR INFO BARANGKALI BAPAK BERKENAN, SAYA PRIBADI PUNYA GUCI ZAMAN MATARAM HINDHU, DITEMUKAN KAKEK BUYUT SAYA PADA TAHUN 50 PADA KEDALAMAN 8 METER SAAT MENGGALI SUMUR DI LADANG (KLATEN-JAWA TENGAH ) ALAS GUCI SUDAH MEMBATU,

 

 

To understand about thid collections look Driwan CD-ROM

The Art Motif Of China Imperial ceramic Found In Indonesia

 

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

STUDIES RESULTS ONE

History Background

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

 

The typical uneven and runny glaze on Guangdong celadon jar

Archaeological excavations revealed that the kilns in Chaozhou Beijiao (潮州北郊) , Chaozhou Beiguan (潮州北关) and Meixian shuiche (县水车) produced good quality celadon vessels. 

Some Chaozhou vessels were found in the Tang Belitung wreck.

The glaze of Chaozhou celadon is thicker and glassier than those found on Yue celadon and usually have fine crackles.  Ceramic products from Meixian and Chaozhou kilns, which were located near the Hanjiang river (韩江), were transported down the river to the Chaozhou port.

 

During the Chinese economic boom of the last few decades, Hanjiang river was dredged for sands required by the Chaozhou building industry.   Together with the sands sizeable quantity of Meixian and Chaozhou celadon wares were recovered.  Most of them were intended to be transported to the Chaozhou port but were discarded most likely because of damages or ended up in the river because of sunken vessels.

Chaozhou celadon wares from the Belitung wreck. The typical Chaozhou bowl has 3 unglaze patches on the foot 

 

Chaozhou celadon wares in the Chaozhou shi museum 

 

Typical glassy, thick and crackled glaze on vessels such as bowls and ewers  Product of Chaozhou Beiguan kiln

 

 

Chinese Shipwreck Treasures Revealed

 

comments, called-out

A fabulous hoard of Chinese antiquities salvaged from shipwrecks in the South China Sea is causing a terrific stir among collecting and museum circles. Until now, almost no one has been allowed to view material or pictures from the finds; certainly no one in the general public.

Though this doesn’t include every item, the treasures shown here, mark the first time they’ve been on such general display. There are estimated hundreds of objects, most nearly 1,000 years old. According to experts, the number and rarity of the pieces found will significantly affect both the commercial market and scholarly research in top-flight East Asian antiques for years to come.

The shipwrecks were discovered six years ago in international waters between Malaysia and Borneo. Tilman Walterfang Tilman Walterfang , the German mechanical engineer and director of a large concrete-supply company who discovered the wrecks, created a new company to pursue a salvage project, dubbed Seabed Explorations. Despite mounting costs and regular visits from pirates, Seabed Explorations , based in New Zealand, completed on-site raising operations in three years.

But the company decided to keep quiet about its findings until recently, because the company had been running the treasures through the painstaking desalination and immersion processes necessary for proper preservation. Costs to date have exceeded $7.5 million, according to Rolf Marie and Nikolai von Uexküll, marketing directors at Seabed.

So far the company has unveiled the details of two separate shipwrecks named after small landmarks near their sites of discovery. One is an 11th century wreck called Intan, which was filled with Song dynasty artifacts; the other is the 14th century Maranei, replete with Ming artifacts.

Between them, the ships held export cargoes of ceramic, stoneware and earthenware bowls and plates, bronze mirrors and containers, gold and silver jewelry, ingots and coins, and other things. Nobody knows just how much the hoard is worth, but according to Seabed officials, “The investors are thoroughly satisfied by the importance and value of the finds.”

The ships also offer revelations of hitherto unseen artifacts. For example, the Maranei wreck features a small hand cannon the size of firearms that was not thought to exist until three centuries later. The Intan wreck is notable for the cultural diversity of its contents, wrought in Chinese, Javanese, Buddhist and Persian styles, denoting Chinese-made objects for foreign markets.

Such early examples of Chinese exports had not been seen before, according to experts consulted by Rolf Marie in the U.S. and Europe. It appears that Tilman uncovered a pivotal spot on the trade route from China out to the West. “It’s a kind of seaborne silk route,” Marie says, “so the finds are important and educational on many levels.”

The company emphasizes that, unlike standard treasure hunters, Seabed paid meticulous attention to historical, archeological and conservation procedures throughout its operations. Indeed Seabed seems to have received top marks from experts who were invited to supervise, such as Lothar Ledderose, Heidelberg University East Asian art history professor, who is now at the Getty Museum. He wrote the preliminary introduction to the Intan find. Says Marie: “Not a single object was ruined or a site irresponsibly excavated.”

Marie and colleague von Uexküll have been in the U.S. for a few weeks on a show-and-tell mission, assessing the market and talking to professionals.

 

They were in New York recently to take advantage of Asia Week’s concentration of the world’s top curators, collectors, dealers and experts. Marie met with dealer Khalil Rizk of the Chinese Porcelain Co. in Manhattan; Rizk is a well-known world authority on Asian antiques. In remarks made after their meeting, Rizk was clearly impressed by what he saw, though he wondered about the effect of so many artifacts descending on the market in one fell swoop.

According to Marie, Seabed has considered this issue. “We are in no hurry to unload or let go of anything. We will take our time and do it right, over several years if necessary–that includes consideration for the market as well as for the cultural and historical value of our finds. So we’re certainly talking museums too, who might be interested.”

It appears that Seabed may have more to reveal and other projects simmering, so a strategy over time would not be surprising.

According to Tilman, the whole thing began when he was chatting with Asian in-laws who told him of rumored treasures in the general area of the finds. Complete with scuba gear, he traveled to the area and went on his own underwater expedition. Between then and now, Tilman’s perseverance and diplomacy in getting backers, creating a salvage company, mustering the technology and dealing with locals before raising the wreckage, then preserving it all patiently, seems nothing short of phenomenal. Under the circumstances, no doubt he feels he can wait a little longer.

White porcelain bowl with yingqinq glaze, Song dynasty or earlier, from the Intan shipwreck.

Green glaze ceramic box with rough incised petal design, Song dynasty or earlier, Intan

Ceramic flask with circular body and tall neck, Song dynasty, Intan

Porcelain headrest or pillow with flower design, Song dynasty, Intan

Glass bottle with strong early Islamic or mid-eastern design influence, Intan

Gold handle, possibly part of ladel or other ritual implement, Intan

Ingot with Chinese inscription showing weight and warning against forgery, Intan

Religious bronze icon with Buddhist styling, possibly Javanese, Intan

Gold stud earring with seven precious stones, Intan

Bronze mirror frames both Javanese and Chinese Song dynasty styles, Intan

 

 

 

 

OLD SHIP IN INDONESIA FREOM 7TH CENTURY DURING HINDU MATARAM ERA FOUND AT punjulharjo rembang central java

 

)

Thip more older than Borobuur

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Lokasi situs Perahu Kuno Punjulharjo.(sources: arkeologijawa)

.

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

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Peneliti dari Perancis, Prof. Pierre Y. Manguin (courtesy: situskapaltua.blogspot)

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carbon dating the ship from 7th century

.

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

Relief kapal laut di candi Borobudur

PATUNG ETNIS CINA DAN TONGKAT KOMANDO
Penemuan kapal di Punjulharjo memiliki nilai lebih setelah ditemukannya benda-benda lain yang ada di dalam kapal kuno tersebut.

Benda-benda itu adalah sebuah tongkat yang masih baik, kepala patung batu bercorak perempuan, berbagai macam pecahan keramik dan tulang pinggul, serta tulang-tulang lain yang sudah hancur dan dikuburkan kembali di lokasi.

Artifak-Artifak dari kapal di Punjulharjo

.

SITUS KAPAL PUNJULHARJO, SATU-SATUNYA BUKTI INDONESIA NEGARA MARITIM
Penemuan kapal yang diperkirakan peninggalan abad 7-8 masehi menurut Prof. PY Manguin seorang ahli kapal dunia dari Perancis merupakan satu-satunya bukti sejarah yang ada bahwa Indonesia adalah Negara Maritim.

Menurut Siswanto salah seorang peneliti, penelitian hingga tanggal 25 Juni 2009, diharapkan bisa merekonstruksi ulang teknik pembuatan perahu Situs Kapal Punjulharjo yang sambungan antar kayunya hanya direkatkan dengan tali ijuk.

Bisa dikatakan bahwa komponen dan konstruksi pada bagian dalam kapal berteknologi rumit. Dan teknologinya berciri khas Asia Tenggara namun tampak nyaris sempurna di situs ini.

Kapal Borobudur, Samudera Raksa sedang berlayar di Tanjung Priok, Jakarta (2003). dalam Ekspedisi Cinnamon. Dari Jawa hingga ke Accra, Ghana di pantai barat benua Afrika, membuktikan bahwa hal tersebut memang terjadi bagi kapal tradisional dengan cadik ganda persis seperti awal abad 8 Masehi yang tergambar pada relief di Candi Borobudur. Namun sebelumya terlebih dahulu akan berlayar ke Tanjung Harapan (Cape of Good Hope) di Afrika Selatan kemudian barulah ke Accra di Afrika Barat. Beberapa saintis percaya kapal ini dibuat oleh orang Indo-Melayu kuno.

Perahu ini adalah perahu berciri-khas Nusantara dan dari besarnya, perahu ini berbobot sekitar 60 ton serta dapat diawaki oleh 12-24 orang awak kapal.

Perahu ini terdiri dari beberapa komponen kayu yang terdiri dari kayu papan untuk dinding dan lunas perahu, pasak, lalu lengkung kapal menggunakan gading gajah, tambuku, tali ijuk dan stringer.

Uji laboratorium menunjukkan sample jenis kayu yang digunakan untuk membuat perahu kuno ini juga ada beberapa macam, diantaranya kayu Nyatok berupa papan untuk lambung perahu, kayu Putih untuk pasak, dan kayu Kuling untuk stringer.

Kayu-kayu tersebut banyak berada di wilayah Asia Tenggara khususnya di pulau Sumatera dan di pulau Kalimantan.

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

.

Salah satu artefak: Fragmen Arca / Kepala Patung Batu, yang ditemukan di peranu kuno Punjulharjo.

Picture courtesy: arkeologijawa

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient vessel punjulharjo

 

Punjulharjo ship treasures

840

Sultan pertama Perlak adalah Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, yang beraliran Syiah dan merupakan keturunan Arab dengan perempuan setempat, yang mendirikan Kesultanan Perlak pada 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M).

Ia mengubah nama ibukota kerajaan dari Bandar Perlak menjadi Bandar Khalifah. Sultan ini bersama istrinya, Putri Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, kemudian dimakamkan di Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, Aceh Timur

 

In 858,

enormous floods along the Grand Canal inundated vast tracts of land and terrain of the North China Plain, which drowned tens of thousands of people in the process.[158] The Chinese belief in the Mandate of Heaven granted to the ailing Tang was also challenged when natural calamities occurred, forcing many to believe the Heavens were displeased and that the Tang had lost their right to rule.

860

Pada prasasti-prasasti dari Jawa

orang Cina disebut-sebut sebagai warga asing yang menetap di samping nama-nama sukubangsa dari Nusantara, daratan Asia Tenggara dan anakbenua India.

Dalam suatu prasasti perunggu bertahun 860 dari Jawa Timur

disebut suatu istilah, Juru Cina, yang berkait dengan jabatan pengurus orang-orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sana.

Beberapa motif relief di Candi Sewu

diduga juga mendapat pengaruh dari motif-motif kain sutera Tiongkok.[9]

source wiki

 

 

Candi Sewu atau Candi Manyjusrighra

Candi Sewu atau Candi Manyjusrighra

 

adalah candi Buddha yang dibangun pada abad ke-8 yang berjarak hanya delapan ratus meter di sebelah utara Candi Prambanan.

Candi Sewu merupakan kompleks candi Buddha terbesar kedua setelah Candi Borobudur di Jawa Tengah.

Candi Sewu berusia lebih tua daripada Candi Prambanan.

Meskipun aslinya memiliki 249 candi, oleh masyarakat setempat candi ini dinamakan “Sewu” yang berarti seribu dalam bahasa Jawa. Penamaan ini berdasarkan

kisah legenda Loro Jonggrang.

Secara administratif, kompleks Candi Sewu terletak di Dukuh Bener, Desa Bugisan, Kecamatan Prambanan, Kabupaten Klaten, Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Berdasarkan prasasti yang berangka tahun 792 dan ditemukan pada tahun 1960, nama asli bangunan ini adalah “Manjus’ri grha” (Rumah Manjusri). Manjusri adalah salah satu Boddhisatwa dalam ajaran buddha.

Candi Sewu diperkirakan dibangun pada abad ke-8 masehi pada akhir masa pemerintahan Rakai Panangkaran.

Rakai Panangkaran (746 – 784)

adalah raja yang termahsyur dari kerajaan Mataram Kuno.

Kompleks candi ini mungkin dipugar, diperluas, dan rampung pada masa pemerintahan Rakai Pikatan, seorang pangeran dari dinasti Sanjaya yang menikahi Pramodhawardhani dari dinasti Sailendra.

Setelah dinasti Sanjaya berkuasa rakyatnya

tetap menganut agama sebelumnya.

Adanya candi Sewu yang bercorak buddha berdampingan dengan candi Prambanan yang bercorak hindu menunjukkan bahwa sejak zaman dahulu di Jawa umat Hindu dan Buddha hidup secara harmonis dan adanya toleransi beragama.

Karena keagungan dan luasnya kompleks candi ini, candi Sewu diduga merupakan Candi Buddha Kerajaan, sekaligus pusat kegiatan agama buddha yang penting di masa lalu.

Candi ini terletak di lembah Prambanan yang membentang dari lereng selatan gunung Merapi di utara hingga pegunungan Sewu di selatan, di sekitar perbatasan Yogyakarta dengan Kabupaten Klaten, Jawa Tengah. Di lembah ini tersebar candi-candi dan situs purbakala yang berjarak hanya beberapa ratus meter satu sama lain. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kawasan ini merupakan kawasan penting artinya dalam sektor keagamaan, politik, dan kehidupan urban masyarakat Jawa kuna.

Candi ini rusak parah akibat gempa pada bulan Mei 2006 di Yogyakarta dan Jawa Tengah bagian selatan. Kerusakan struktur bangunan sangat nyata dan candi utama menderita kerusakan paling parah. Pecahan bebatuan berserakan di atas tanah, retakan dan rekahan antar sambungan batu terlihat. Untuk mencegah keruntuhan bangunan, kerangka besi dipasang di keempat sudut bangunan untuk menunjang dan menahan tubuh candi utama. Meskipun situs dibuka kembali untuk pengunjung beberapa pekan kemudian setelah gempa pada tahun 2006, seluruh bagian candi utama tetap ditutup dan tidak boleh dimasuki demi alasan keamanan.

Kompleks candi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kompleks Candi Sewu dilihat dari udara membentuk pola Mandala

Kompleks candi Sewu adalah kumpulan candi Buddha terbesar di kawasan sekitar Prambanan, dengan bentang ukuran lahan 185 meter utara-selatan dan 165 meter timur-barat. Pintu masuk kompleks dapat ditemukan di keempat penjuru mata angin, tetapi mencermati susunan bangunannya, diketahui pintu utama terletak di sisi timur. Tiap pintu masuk dikawal oleh sepasang arca Dwarapala. Arca raksasa penjaga berukuran tinggi sekitar 2 meter ini dalam kondisi yang cukup baik, dan replikanya dapat ditemukan di Keraton Yogyakarta.

Aslinya terdapat 249 bangunan candi di kompleks ini yang disusun membentuk mandala, perwujudan alam semesta dalam kosmologi Buddha Mahayana. Selain satu candi utama yang terbesar, pada bentangan poros tengah, utara-selatan dan timur-barat, pada jarak 200 meter satu sama lain, antara baris ke-2 dan ke-3 candi Perwara (pengawal) kecil terdapat 8 Candi Penjuru atau disebut juga Candi Perwara Utama, candi-candi ini ukurannya kedua terbesar setelah candi utama. Aslinya di setiap penjuru mata angin terdapat masing-masing sepasang candi penjuru yang saling berhadapan, tetapi kini hanya candi penjuru kembar timur dan satu candi penjuru utara yang masih utuh.

Candi perwara (pengawal) yang berukuran lebih kecil aslinya terdiri atas 240 buah dengan disain yang hampir serupa dan tersusun atas empat barisan yang konsentris. Dilihat dari bagian terdalam (tengah), baris pertama terdiri atas 28 candi, dan baris kedua terdiri atas 44 candi yang tersusun dengan interval jarak tertentu. Dua barisan terluar, baris ketiga terdiri dari 80 candi, sedangkan baris keempat yang terluar terdiri atas 88 candi-candi kecil yang disusun berdekatan. Beberapa candi perwara ini telah dipugar dan berdiri, sedangkan sebagian besar lainnya masih berupa batu-batu berserakan.

Dari keempat baris candi perwara ini, baris keempat (terluar) memiliki rancang bentuk yang serupa dengan baris pertama (terdalam), yaitu pada bagian penampang gawang pintunya, sedangkan baris kedua dan ketiga memiliki rancang bentuk yang lebih tinggi dengan gawang pintu yang berbeda. Banyak patung dan ornamen yang telah hilang dan susunannya telah berubah. Arca-arca buddha yang dulu mengisi candi-candi ini mengkin serupa dengan arca buddha di Borobudur.[1].

Candi-candi yang lebih kecil ini mengelilingi candi utama yang paling besar tapi beberapa bagiannya sudah tidak utuh lagi. Di balik barisan ke-4 candi kecil terdapat pelataran beralas batu dan ditengahnya berdiri candi utama.

Candi utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Candi utama memiliki denah poligon bersudut 20 yang menyerupai salib atau silang yang berdiameter 29 meter dan tinggi bangunan mencapai 30 meter. Pada tiap penjuru mata angin terdapat struktur bangunan yang menjorok ke luar, masing-masing dengan tangga dan ruangan tersendiri dan dimahkotai susunan stupa. Seluruh bangunan terbuat dari batu andesit. Ruangan di empat penjuru mata angin ini saling terhubungkan oleh galeri sudut berpagar langkan. Berdasarkan temuan pada saat pemugaran, diperkirakan rancangan awal bangunan hanya berupa candi utama berkamar tunggal. Candi ini kemudian diperluas dengan menambahkan struktur tambahan di sekelilingnya. Pintu dibuat untuk menghubungkan bangunan tambahan dengan candi utama dan menciptakan bangunan candi utama dengan lima ruang. Ruangan utama di tengah lebih besar dengan atap yang lebih tinggi, dan dapat dimasuki melalui ruang timur. Kini tidak terdapat patung di kelima ruangan ini.[2]. Akan tetapi berdasarkan adanya landasan atau singgasana batu berukir teratai di ruangan utama, diduga dahulu dalam ruangan ini terdapat arca buddha dari bahan perunggu yang tingginya mencapai 4 meter. Akan tetapi kini arca itu telah hilang, mungkin telah dijarah untuk mengambil logamnya sejak berabad-abad lalu.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Dumarçay, Jacques (1978). edited and translated by Michael Smithies, “Borobudur”, pp. 46-47. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-580379-2.
  2. ^ Soetarno, Drs. R. second edition (2002). “Aneka Candi Kuno di Indonesia” (Ancient Temples in Indonesia), pp. 53-54. Dahara Prize. Semarang. ISBN 979-501-098-0.

 

kisah legenda Loro Jonggrang.

Once, long ago there was a great kingdom named Prambanan . Tenteran and its people live peacefully

. But , what happens then ?

Prambanan kingdom was attacked and occupied by foreign Pengging . Prambanan kingdom tranquility be disturbed . The soldiers are not able to deal with attacks Pengging troops . Finally , Prambanan kingdom ruled by Pengging , and led by Bondowoso .


Bondowoso a bossy cruelly . ” Anyone who does not do what I say , will be severely punished ” , said Bondowoso on people. Bondowoso is a powerful force and have the genie .

 

Not long in power , Bondowoso love watching the movements of Loro Jonggrang , daughter of the King of his beautiful Prambanan . ” So Beautiful daughter . I want her to be my Queen , ” thought Bondowoso .


The next day , close to Loro Jonggrang Bondowoso . “You’re so beautiful , will you be my Queen ? ” , Tanya Bondowoso to Loro Jonggrang . Loro Jonggrang flinched , hearing Bondowoso question . ” This man once presumptuous , not to know me immediately wanted me to be his queen ,” said Loro Jongrang in the liver . ” What should I do ? ” . Loro Jonggrang into confusion . Her mind was spinning .

 

If he refuses , then it will Bondowoso furious and endanger his family and the people of Prambanan . To say yes would be impossible , because the Loro Jonggrang did not like Bondowoso .


” How , Loro Jonggrang ? ” Bondowoso insisted . Loro Jonggrang finally get the idea . ” I’m willing to be your wife , but there are conditions , ” he said . ” What are the conditions ? Want treasures galore ? Or a magnificent palace ? ” . ” No, my lord , said Loro Jonggrang .

 

 

“I asked for the temple , the amount should be a thousand pieces . ” Thousand pieces ? “Cried Bondowoso . ” Yes , and the temple was to be completed in a single night . ” Loro Jonggrang

 

Bondowoso stare , his lips trembled hold anger . Bondowoso Since that time thinking about how to make 1000 temples .

 

Finally he asked his advisors . ” I believe my master bias makes the temple with the help of Jin ! ” , said counsel . “Yes , that’s right you suggest , prepare the equipment I needed ! “Once the equipment at the ready .

 

Bondowoso standing in front of the altar stone . Stretched his arms out wide . ” Troops jin , Please help me ! ” he shouted in a booming voice . Shortly thereafter , the sky became dark .

 

The wind howled . A moment later , the troops had gathered Bondowoso jin . ” What should we do sir ? ” , Said the leader of the jinn . ” Help me build a thousand temples , ” pleaded Bondowoso . The genie immediately move to and fro , carrying out their respective duties .

 

In a short time the temple was composed almost reached a thousand pieces .


Meanwhile , Loro Jonggrang quietly observe from a distance . He was anxious , knowing Bondowoso genie aided by troops . ” Well , what about this ? ” Said Loro Jonggrang in her heart .

 

He was looking for a reason . The royal ladies got together and sent them assigned to collect straw . ” Quickly burn all the hay ! ” Loro Jonggrang command . Most other ladies sent them to pound the mortar . Dung … dung … dung ! Radiating red tinge to the sky with the sound of the hustle and bustle , so much like the breaking dawn .

 


Jin forces thought dawn was breaking. ” Well , the sun will rise ! ” exclaimed the genie . ” We should get going before the sun burned our bodies , ” said another genie . The genie is scattered left the place . Bondowoso was surprised to see the panic jin forces .


The next , Loro Jonggrang Bondowoso invite to the temple . ” The temple which you requested has been standing ! ” .

Loro Jonggrang immediately calculate the number of the temple . It turned out there were only 999 pieces ! .

” The amount is less than one ! ” Loro Jonggrang exciting . “That host has failed to meet the requirements that I asked ” .

Bondowoso surprised to learn that deficiency . He became very angry . ” No way … ” , said Bondowoso glowering at Loro Jonggrang . “Then you are complete ! ” he said while pointing his finger at Loro Jonggrang .

Magic ! Loro Jonggrang instantly turned into a stone statue . Until now these temples are still there , and is located in Prambanan area , Central Java and called Loro Jonggrang

 

source http://cerita-rakyat-terlengkap.blogspot.com/2013/09/cerita-rakyat-bahasa-inggris-legenda_15.html

 

The oldest keris is made in Java,

about 6 or 7 century A.D. This is known as keris Buda. At the keris making culture infancy, the shape of the first keris is modest or straight keris. But the iron material in its time is considered the best, and the way it is made is not far different from the way it is made now. Keris Buda has no pamor. If there is a pamor in the keris, it is pamor tiban, or pamor which is not planned by the Empu. 
As the society develops, the shape of the blade also progress. The shape of the blade which at first is rather fat, short and thick; morphs into thinner, leaner, and longer, so it is considered more beautiful. 

 

Ricikan or keris component which at first only consist of gandik, pejetan, and sogokan, in time added by a whole variety. For example, kembang kacang, lambe gajah, jalen, jalu memet, lis-lisan, ada-ada, janur, greneng, tingil, pundak sategal, etc.
Although from the shape and election of the material always progressed, the basic form of making the keris stays the same. The basic form of making the keris are: cleaning the iron metal which will be made into the blade, joining the iron and the pamor, dan shaping it into a keris. 

 

Nowadays keris is still made traditionally in the area Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Madura, Luwu (Southeastern Sulawesi), Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Jakarta), Kelantan (Malaysia), and Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunai Darussalam). Keris making still use the old practices. Some of the empu and pandai keris even still chant the mantra and prayers, and practise fasting during the making of the keris. 
Since the keris culture is spread over the South East Asian, the keris has many aliases. In Bali it is called kedutan, in Sulawesi selle or tappi, in the Phillipines sundang. In some region in Indonesia it is called as kerih, karieh or kres. The parts of keris also has many aliases. Still, the keris made from various region has similiar shape, and the parts are not that much different. 

read the complete info at

Dr Iwan CD Rom

The Indonesian keris History Collections

 

Then in 873

a disastrous harvest shook the foundations of the empire; in some areas only half of all agricultural produce was gathered, and tens of thousands faced famine and starvation.[158] In the earlier period of the Tang, the central government was able to meet crises in the harvest, as it was recorded from 714–719 that the Tang government responded effectively to natural disasters by extending the price-regulation granary system throughout the country.[158]

The central government was able then to build a large surplus stock of foods to ward off the rising danger of famine and increased agricultural productivity through land reclamation.[105][158] In the 9th century, however, the Tang government was nearly helpless in dealing with any calamity.

 

 

Reign title: T’IEN-HAN, AD 912-913

Kao Tsu adopted the reign title T’ien-han in AD 912 and at the same time temporarily changed the name of the Dynasty to Han. The name was changed back within a year.

S-430. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HAN YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: crescent at top. Average (4 specimens) 23 mm (range 22.5 to 24.0), 2.65 grams (range 2.0 to 3.1 grams). These tend to be somewhat crudely cast with a fairly broad range in size and weight.

F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

932

Banten Girang Kingdom

Banten Girang adalah suatu tempat di desa Sempu, kota Serang. Letaknya sekitar 10 km di sebelah selatan pelabuhan Banten sekarang, di pinggiran kota Serang. Di tempat tersebut terdapat suatu situs purbakala, peninggalan kerajaan Sunda yang pernah ada antara tahun 932 dan 1030 Masehi.

Di Museum Nasional Indonesia di Jakarta terdapat sejumlah arca yang disebut “arca Caringin” karena pernah menjadi hiasan kebun asisten-resisten Belanda di tempat tersebut.

Arca tersebut dilaporkan ditemukan di Cipanas, dekat kawah Gunung Pulosari, dan terdiri dari satu dasar patung dan 5 arca berupa Shiwa Mahadewa, Durga, Batara Guru, Ganesha dan Brahma.

Coraknya mirip corak patung Jawa Tengah dari awal abad ke-10. Oleh karena itu, Gunung Pulosari dikaitkan dengan Banten Girang dan diperkirakan merupakan tempat kramat kerajaan Sunda.

Menurut Ten Dam di daerah sekitar ibukota kerajaan Sunda yakni Pajajaran, yang lokasinya sekitar Bogor sekarang, sudah ada dua jalur jalan darat penting yang menghubungkan daerah pantai utara dengan ibukota.

Sungai-sungai yang mengalir dari pedalaman ke Utara Jawa juga telah dimanfaatkan sebagai jalur hubungan daerah pedalaman dan daerah pantai.  Salah satu di antara dua jalur darat itu alah, jalan dari ibukota Pajajaran menuju Jasingga kemudian membelok ke Utara Rangkasbitung dan berakhirnya di Banten Girang.

Banten Girang terletak kira-kira 3 km di sebelah Utara kota Serang sekarang atau sekitar 13 km dari Banten Lama

 

Sungai Cibanten yang bersumber dari Gunung Karang, keberadaannya tak hanya sekadar sumber kehidupan bagi masyarakat yang berada di sepanjang aliran sungainya. Sungai Cibanten juga ternyata telah menorehkan jejak peradaban masa lalu yang hingga saat ini masih bisa dinikmati.
Di sepanjang Sungai Cibanten, terdapat situs-situs yang berkaitan dengan berbagai babak perkembangan daerah Banten, yaitu, Kasunyatan, Odel, Kelapadua, Serang dan kota lama Banten Girang.

Seluruh informasi yang disajikan dalam pembahasan mengenai Banten Girang bersumber dari buku “Banten Sebelum Zaman Islam. Kajian Arkeologi di Banten Girang 932? – 1526” yang ditulis Claude Guillot, Lukman Nurhakim, dan Sonny Wibisono.
Banten Girang terletak di pinggiran Kota Serang, kira-kira tiga kilometer di selatan Kaujon, pusat kota lama Serang. Kota ini berkembang mulai paro pertama abad ke-19, setelah orang Belanda menjadikannya pusat pemerintahan daerah itu, dengan maksud melenyapkan arti politik Banten.

 

Saat ini, untuk mencapai Banten Girang dari Serang, kita dapat berangkat dari Kaujon mengikuti jalan kecil yang menuju ke selatan sampai di Desa Sebulu (atau Sayabulu), kemudian melintasi ladang ke arah timur dan melintasi jurang serta menaiki tanjakan-tanjakan terjal.
Bagi Anda yang menginginkan jalan yang lebih mudah, dari Ciceri Anda mengikuti jalan menuju ke Pandeglang sampai di Desa Sempu, kemudian melewati jalan sejauh kurang lebih seratus meter sampai di Cibanten. Di seberang terletaklah Banten Girang.
Dilihat dari Sempu, situs itu tampak terlihat seperti dataran tinggi tersendiri yang menjulang dari sebuah jurang sedalam lima belas meter akibat tufa vulkanis terkikis sungai. Dataran itu dikelilingi jurang berupa kelokan sungai sepanjang lebih dari separo garis kelilingnya, yaitu di sebelah utara, timur, dan sebagian sebelah selatan.
Depresi yang membatasinya di sebelah barat sekarang ditumbuhi pohon nipah dan di musim hujan menjadi palung sungai sementara, memberi kesan Banten Girang sebagai “benteng” alami.
Sementara di Sempu rumah-rumah berdesakan di tepi sungai, maka dataran tinggi Banten Girang tampak hampir kosong, hanya di sana-sini muncul atap dari tengah-tengah kehijauan. Jembatan gantung kecil dari besi yang dibangun tahun 1950-an untuk menyeberangi sungai, tidak dibuat untuk beberapa yang tinggal di situ–lagi pula saat itu belum ada–melainkan untuk orang luar yang ramai datang menziarahi makam suci yang terletak di seberang sungai.
Setelah kita menyeberangi sungai itu, sampailah kita di semacam bukit kecil dan sempit yang terisolir oleh kelokan sungai. Di sini terdapat makam suci yang berdiri sendiri dan menjadi bertambah gaib lantaran suara risik yang terdengar tak henti-hentinya dari air yang mengalir tak kelihatan di bawahnya. Sesungguhnya, hanya ujung tanah ini bersama keramatnyalah yang oleh penduduk sekitar dimaksudkan dengan nama Banten Girang.
Tempat ini bersejarah dan suci karena berbagai alasan. Di balik makam diduga terdapat watu gilang (batu yang bersinar), tahta Pucuk Umun, ratu-pandita “Hindu” yang terakhir di Banten Girang. Cungkup bangunan yang sudah sering diperbaiki di tempat itu, adalah sebuah bangunan dari bata berisi dua makam yang dianggap sebagai kakak beradik yakni, Ki Jong dan Agus Jo. Keduanya penduduk Banten Girang yang pertama masuk Islam dan menjadi pengikut paling setia dari raja Islam yang pertama, Hasanudin.

Kemungkinan seorang tokoh dijadikan dua, yaitu Ki Jongjo yang cukup baik dikenal dari babad setempat (Sajarah Banten).

 

Read the complete info

At dr Iwan CD-ROM

The Banten Kingdom history Collections

 

4.9th-10th century
Wayang developed from 9th-10th centuries as a media for communication.

5.During Majapahit Kingdom, the Wayang karucil with the story of Damar wulan still exist in Indonesia until early 20th century ( look at Wayang Karucil story collection 1900.)
Wayang Karucil also called Wayang Kletik, because the sound tik tak from two wooden wayang puppet impact each other during playing.
Wayang Karucil puppet figures accupy a middle group between the figures of Wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similary to wayang kulit figures but from thisn pieces of wooden instead leather and like wayang kulit figures are used at shadow puppet.
A further similary was that they are the same smaller size like wayang kulit figures, however wood is more subject to brakage than leather during the Battle scenes , wayang karucil figures obtain sutain considarable damage.
The Wayang karucil figures came orriganlly from eastern Java and the origin of the stories involved in this puppet plays came from the Kingdoms of eastren Java : Janggala,Kediri and Mojopahit.
From Jengala and kediri Kingdom came the story of Raden Pandji which told the adventures a pair of young villagers with their fighting cock. (readl The story of Wayang Karucil collections-1900 will put later in this blog)
Wayang karucil can be used to performed puppet plays either during the day or at night, this type of wayang is relatively rare.
If the story from Javanese jistory and romance , the wayang playing called Ketoprak, it is differs from Wayang orang, which shares with Wayang kulit a repetoire drawn from the hindu epics mahabrata and Ramayana.

 

 

 

 

 

10th Century

913 M

Pada masa pemerintahan sultan ketiga, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah, aliran Sunni mulai masuk ke Perlak. Setelah wafatnya sultan pada tahun 363 H (913 M), terjadi perang saudara antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni sehingga selama dua tahun berikutnya tak ada sultan.

 

Kesultanan Peureulak adalah kerajaan Islam di Indonesia yang berkuasa di sekitar wilayah Peureulak, Aceh Timur, Aceh sekarang antara tahun 840 sampai dengan tahun 1292.[rujukan?] Perlak atau Peureulak terkenal sebagai suatu daerah penghasil kayu perlak, jenis kayu yang sangat bagus untuk pembuatan kapal, dan karenanya daerah ini dikenal dengan nama Negeri Perlak. Hasil alam dan posisinya yang strategis membuat Perlak berkembang sebagai pelabuhan niaga yang maju pada abad ke-8, disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal yang antara lain berasal dari Arab dan Persia. Hal ini membuat berkembangnya masyarakat Islam di daerah ini, terutama sebagai akibat perkawinan campur antara saudagar muslim dengan perempuan setempat.

Reign title: KUANG-T’IEN, AD 913-915

S-431-2. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “KUANG-T’IEN YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.49 grams. From specimens of this type that we have recently handled, it appears that they type was fairly crudely and somewhat weakly cast.

F   $45.00     VF   $65.00

 

915 M

 

Kaum Syiah memenangkan perang dan pada tahun 302 H (915 M), Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah dari aliran Syiah naik tahta. Pada akhir pemerintahannya terjadi lagi pergolakan antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni yang kali ini dimenangkan oleh kaum Sunni sehingga sultan-sultan berikutnya diambil dari golongan Sunni.

 

 

 

 

Emperor WANG YEN
AD 918-925

Reign title: CH’IEN-TE, AD 918-924

S-433. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’IEN-TE YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.04 grams.

VG   $12.50     F   $22.50

 

S-not listed. Hartill-not listed. FD-not listed by mention in his comments about #775). Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’IEN-TE YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 24.2 mm, 3.77 grams (the specimen illustrated above is of this iron coin.

F   $75.00 (estimated only)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOUTHERN HAN DYNASTY

Emperor: LIU YEN
AD 917-942

Reign title: CH’EIN-HENG, AD 917-942

Most coins of this reign title are of lead, with a fabric that suggests they are die struck, possibly with wooden dies, as they do not look at all like cast coins, with characters that are both very angular and shallow. There are two major variations on these coins that one occassionally see’s :

 

BLANK REVERSE

S-436 to 438, 1 cash made of Lead, “CH’IEN-HENG CHUNG-PAO”, reverse: blank. Average 25.9 mm, 3.90 grams (These vary a little as Schjoth had three specimens ranging from 23 to 28 mm, averaging 3.7 grams).

F   $19.50    VF   $30.00     XF   $40.00

 

FD-828, Lead 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’IEN-HENG CHUNG-PAO”. Reverse: “YONG” probably a mint mark. 25 mm, average (7 specimens) 4.2 grams.

F   $22.50     VF   $32.50

 

Although we have never seen one, Fisher’s Ding lists three examples of the “Ch’ien-heng” coins in bronze, as FD 829 to 831, where they are listed as being rare. The lead issues are normally seen grading VF or better, but are sometimes weakly cast (or struck). This suggests they saw little circulation, as any amount of circulation would quickly wear out a lead coin. It is doubtful people would have wanted to accept such an unusual issue that was obviously fiduciary.

 

921 AD

921

Prasasti Sukabumi itu, tertera angka tahun 921 M.

Sukabumi inscription , the listed number of 921 M.

 

 

 

There is told about the construction of dams and rivers that began the first time in 804 AD

Sukabumi inscription is an inscription on a stone plantation found in Sukabumi , sub- Pare , Kediri , East Java .

This inscription according to epigraphy expert designation known as Inscription Harinjing . Posts that are on both sides of the inscription is written in script and Old Javanese .

The inscription consists of three pieces of the charter regarding the same .

The front called Inscription Harinjing A.

It mentions the 11 months Caitra Suklapaksa year 726 Saka or 804 AD March 25 , the Pendeta in the area Culangi permission sima ( protected land ) over their area because it has been credited with making a river channel called Harinjing .

The back , Inscription Harinjing B ,

lines 1-23 states that Sri Maharaja Rake Kite Dyah Suklapaksa Tulodhong at 15 months Asuji year 843 Saka or 19 September 921 AD , recognizes the rights of pastors in Culangi because they still have to maintain Harinjing channels .

 

Starting next line , called Inscription Harinjing C ,

 mention that a similar right recognized also in 1 month Suklapaksa Caitra in 849 Saka or 927 AD March 7

Original info

Di situ diceritakan soal pembangunan bendungan dan sungai yang dimulai pertama kali pada 804 M.

Prasasti Sukabumi adalah sebuah prasasti pada batu
yang ditemukan di perkebunan Sukabumi, kecamatan Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur.

 

Prasasti ini menurut sebutan ahli epigrafi lebih dikenal dengan nama Prasasti Harinjing.

 

Tulisan yang terdapat pada kedua belah sisi prasasti ini ditulis dengan aksara dan bahasa Jawa Kuna.

 

Prasasti ini terdiri dari tiga buah piagam yang mengenai hal yang sama.

 

 

Bagian depan disebut Prasasti Harinjing A.

Isinya menyebutkan pada 11 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 726 Saka atau 25 Maret 804 Masehi, para pendeta di daerah Culangi memperoleh hak sima (tanah yang dilindungi) atas daerah mereka karena telah berjasa membuat sebuah saluran sungai bernama Harinjing.
Bagian belakang, Prasasti Harinjing B,

baris 1-23 menyebutkan bahwa Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodhong pada 15 Suklapaksa bulan Asuji tahun 843 Saka atau 19 September 921 Masehi, mengakui hak-hak para pendeta di Culangi karena mereka masih tetap harus memelihara saluran Harinjing.
Mulai baris selanjutnya, disebut Prasasti Harinjing C,

 

menyebutkan bahwa hak serupa diakui pula pada 1 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 849 Saka atau 7 Maret 927 Masehi.

 

khuluk_BABAT_JAWA.

 

Reign title: HSIEN-K’ANG, AD 924-925

S-434, Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIEN-K’ANG YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 24 mm, 3.07 grams. Schjoth (page 26) reports that these tend to be very poorly cast and quite ugly coins. We have never seen a really nice one.

VG   $60.00     F   $75.00     gF   $100.00

 

 

SOUTHERN T’ANG DYNASTY
AD 937-978

The Southern T’ang Dynasty was one of the “Five Kingdoms” established during the turmoil following the fall of T’ang Dynasty. Controlling a large portion of China from their capital in Nanking, the dynasty was fairly successful, lasting until AD 978 when it was finally over run by T’ai Tsu who had established the Northern Sung Dynasty some 18 years earlier. Southern T’ang coins do not have reign titles on them, but we have listed the titles under which each type was cast. No coins were issued by the first Southern T’ang Emperor Lieh Tsu (AD 937 to 943) or under Yuan Tsung (AD 943 to 961) until about AD 955, so it is likely T’ang Dynasty Kai Yuan coins were still in use.

 

 

Emperor Yuan Tsung
AD 943-961

Reign title: Li Kung, AD 955 to 961

S-439. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “YUNG-T’UNG CH’UAN-HUO” (meaning Eternal Circulation Coin). Reverse: blank. This is a large coin at about 33 mm with Schjoth’s specimen weighing 14.48 grams. This is a rare type and we have never actually seen, and cannot currently provide a value for it. Variations on it exist in orthodox and seal scripts, and they are known in both bronze and lead. all variations are rare.

 

Li Kuang was fighting wars of expansion in Southern China, which caused a strain on the treasury. At the suggestion of minister Chung Mo, these fiduciary 10 cash coins were cast using 40% of official weight a full value 10 cash. As very few fiduciary coins had been issued in the previous 300 years, people were not used to the concept and would have refused to accept them, resulting in even further financial trouble for the treasury. Schjoth (page 26) quotes an old record of them having been quickly withdrawn, with the minister who suggesting issuing them (Chung Mo) incurring the displeasure of the Emperor, which probably means he was executed. They were replaced with the full value bronze 1 cash coins below.

S-440. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-T’ANG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (meaning Great T’ang currency). Reverse: blank. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 2.16 grams and was about 21 mm, however a recent specimen we handled (illustrated above) was 4.45 grams and 23.7 mm. We are not yet sure if these are two different issues or (and more likely) Schjoth’s specimen may have been an light weight counterfeit of that time.

F   $55.00     VF   $85.00

 

The “Ta-T’ang” inscription would be expected on the earliest issues of the dynasty, usually the first or second year following it’s establishment, but in this case it is the second issue following the unsuccessful fiduciary 10 cash coins. Most major references indicate these were issued about AD 960 which is the year the Northern Sung dynasty was established and these may be a propaganda statement announcing the Southern T’ang was still strong in spite of the rise of the Sung.

S-441-442. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’ANG-KUO T’UNG-PAO” in seal script (meaning T’ang Kingdom Currency). Reverse: blank. Average 24-25 mm, average about 3.34 grams (based on 23 examples). This is a consistently well cast issue with clear characters.

VG   $3.00     F   $5.50     VF   $9.50

S-445. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’ANG-KUO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (meaning T’ang Kingdom Currency). Reverse: blank. 23-24 mm. Average (2 specimens) 3.77 grams, 25 mm. This type is normally fairly well cast.

VF   $42.50

 

Schjoth had two specimens, one of 2.2 grams and the other of 3.34 grams (our last specimens was 4.2 grams). It is highly likely the smaller specimen was a contemporary counterfeit and we have not included it in the average weight calculations.

FD-816, S-not listed. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’ANG-KUO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: large dot. The specimen we recently handled as 23 mm and 3.15 grams.

VF   $135.00

 

The T’ang Kuo coins would probably be issued immediately after the Ta-T’ang coins, placing their first appearance in AD 961. On page 26, Schjoth records that that due to a money shortage these T’ang-kuo were valued at 1/2 Kai-yuan, which makes no sense as they are the same size and weight as a Kai-yuan. In a time time of shortage it would make much more sense if they were issued at a value of two Kai-yuan. Schjoth had an example with “WU” on the reverse (#443) which if genuine would suggest the intended denomination was 5 shu, which is a Kai-yuan, however there is reason to doubt the authenticity of that example and we have decided to leave it out of our listing.

 

 

 

 

956 M

Pada tahun 362 H (956 M), setelah meninggalnya sultan ketujuh, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat, terjadi lagi pergolakan selama kurang lebih empat tahun antara Syiah dan Sunni yang diakhiri dengan perdamaian dan pembagian kerajaan menjadi dua bagian:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

960

A junk is an ancient Chinese sailing vessel/ship design still in use today. Junks were developed during the Song Dynasty (960-1129)[1] and were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century CE. They evolved in the later dynasties, and were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, and in lesser numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India, but primarily in China, perhaps most famously in Hong Kong. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats.

 

The term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards. They vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails.[2]

 

Emperor LI YU
AD 961-978

The T’ang Kuo coins in seal script are far too common to be only a one year issue in AD 961, and it is likely were continued during the first year to two of Li Yu, until he replaced them with his Kai yuan coinage.

S-446, “KAI-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in seal script (meaning “The Inaugural coinage”). This is a clear reference to the Kai-Yuan coins of the T’ang Dynasty, and shows they were issued at the Kai-Yuan denomination (5 shu). Reverse: blank. 25 mm, average (17 examples) 3.3 grams

F   $5.00     VF   $8.50     XF   $12.00

 

The old records indicate that 40% of Li’s issues were of iron, but these are seldom seen today

986 M

Perlak Pesisir (Syiah) dipimpin oleh Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986988)

Perlak Pedalaman (Sunni) dipimpin oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat (986 – 1023)

987

Foster gives the report of an Arabic record, written in Baghdad about 987, which tells of the writer meeting with a Christian monk who had seven years earlier been sent to China by the patriarch, with five others, “to bring the affairs of Christianity in that country to order.” This young man told the Arab writing the account, “that Christianity had become quite extinct in China.

The Christians had perished in various ways. Their Church had been destroyed.”75 The Christian monk had then returned to Baghdad

10th Century

Indonesian Ocean Shipwreck Traesures

 

OLEH YURNALDI

http://hurahura.wordpress.com/2010/05/20/mengidentifikasi-umur-keramik/

 

KOMPAS/LASTI KURNIA
Sebanyak 12.415 benda muatan kapal tenggelam (BMKT) telah diangkat dari bangkai kapal di perairan Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, Jawa Barat, Rabu (5/5). Setidaknya ada 10 ciri untuk menentukan usia dan asal keramik.

Berbagai laporan dan dokumentasi kuno menyebutkan, di perairan Indonesia terdapat puluhan ribu kapal tenggelam. Kapal-kapal karam beserta muatan berharganya, dari abad ke-4 sampai dengan Perang Dunia II, tentu menjadi peninggalan budaya bawah air yang menarik dikaji..

Sebelum ada pengangkatan yang telah memperoleh izin dari pemerintah itu, pengangkatan ilegal dari dulu sampai sekarang masih terus berlangsung. ”Kini, pihak kepolisian tengah melakukan penyelidikan terhadap pengangkatan benda cagar budaya (BCB) di daerah Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, yang diduga (kembali) melibatkan seorang arkeolog maritim Berger Michael Hatcher,” kata Direktur Peninggalan Bawar Air, Direktorat Jenderal Sejarah dan Purbakala Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Surya Helmi

Selain menarik dikaji, kapal tenggelam beserta muatannya telah menjadi komoditas ekonomis dengan nilai jual tinggi. Buktinya, hasil pengangkatan kapal tenggelam di Laut Jawa, sekitar 12 mil perairan utara Cirebon, Jawa Barat, nilai jualnya ditaksir minimal Rp 720 miliar

Kasus-kasus sebelumnya, Berger Michael Hatcher berhasil melelang tinggalan arkeologi dasar laut Indonesia secara ilegal. Warga negara Australia kelahiran Inggris tahun 1940 itu menjadi miliarder setelah menemukan 225 batang emas dan 160.000 buah keramik di perairan Riau. Hasil jarahannya itu dilelang di Balai Lelang Christie, Amsterdam, tahun 1986 senilai 16 juta dollar AS.

Kasus-kasus pencurian BCB dasar laut ini tidak saja menyebabkan rusaknya situs karena tak mengindahkan nilai kultural, tetapi Indonesia juga akan kehilangan informasi yang penting bagi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan karakter bangsa dan sejarah perjuangan bangsa.

 

 

 

Muatan keramik

Muatan Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar. Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon

mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca.

Pihak perusahaan pengangkat artefak dasar laut di laut Jawa utara Cirebon melaporkan, benda yang diangkat berjumlah 541.341 buah, terdiri dari 519.942 buah benda keramik dan 21.399 buah benda-benda dari berbagai bahan, seperti kayu, kaca, logam, dan lain-lain.

Dari 256.943 buah keramik yang bernilai ekonomis, sebanyak 221.124 buah adalah porselin dan bahan batuan, sementara sebanyak 35.819 buah adalah terbikar. Dari jumlah ratusan ribu buah keramik itu, setidaknya terdapat sembilan bentuk wadah, yaitu mangkuk, piring, cepuk, pasu, teko, guci, buli-buli, pedupaan, dan tempat tinta.


Identifikasi keramik

Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal. Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).

Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2–20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13–18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8–18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17–20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17–20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7–14 M).

Bagaimana mengidentifikasi keramik sehingga diketahui masa pembuatan keramik itu?

Menurut Widiati, dalam mengidentifikasi temuan keramik, pihaknya lebih dulu mencermati unsur bentuk utuh dari keramik tersebut.

”Setelah itu dicermati unsur ruang, yaitu tempat di mana benda itu ditemukan (situs), dan atau tempat asal benda itu dibuat (negara, provinsi, distrik, dan tungku). Setelah itu juga dicermati unsur waktu, pertarikhan, yaitu pertanggalan relatif dari masa pembuatan keramik porselin atau bahan-bahan tersebut. Biasanya berdasarkan masa pemerintahan di China yang sudah diketahui,” ujarnya.


Warna glasir

Widiati, yang kini Kepala Subdit Pengendalian Pemanfaatan pada Direktorat Bawah Air Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, berpendapat, untuk menentukan kapan keramik itu dibuat, antara lain dapat diketahui berdasarkan warna glasir atau pola hias. Misalnya, keramik-keramik Vietnam yang berglasir warna tunggal, seperti putih, hijau, atau hitam, diketahui berasal dari sekitar abad ke-13 hingga ke-14. Atau keramik Thailand yang mempunyai hiasan berupa ikan yang diletakkan pada bagian permukaan dalam dari dasar wadah diketahui berasal dari abad ke-14.

Setidaknya ada 10 ciri yang dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis keramik. Tujuannya untuk mengetahui asal daerah pembuatan, bentuk asal dan pertanggalan. Kesepuluh ciri itu adalah bentuk pecahan, besaran, orientasi pecahan, jenis bahan dasar, warna bahan dasar, pola hias, teknis hias, warna glasir, teknik glasir, dan sisa pengerjaan.

Untuk menentukan asal daerah pembuatan, digunakan ciri yang meliputi bentuk pecahan, besaran pecahan, ketebalan, orientasi, jenis bahan dasar, pola hias, warna glasir, dan teknik glasir. ”Adapun untuk penentuan masa pembuatan keramik diperlukan pengamatan terhadap bentuk, jenis bahan dasar, warna bahan dasar, pola hias, teknik hias, dan warna glasir,” ujar Widiati.

Jejak pembuatan, kalau kita jeli bisa ditemukan suatu tanda —yang sengaja atau tidak sengaja—tampak pada permukaan porselin atau bahan batuan setelah terjadi proses pembakaran.

Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.

Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.

(Kompas, Kamis, 20 Mei 2010)

Ming Duck Ewer ,chrysanthemum motif Bowl and Jarlet

Mengidentifikasi Umur Keramik

  • Kamis, 20 Mei 2010 | 08:53 WIB

Ratusan Benda Muatan Kapal Tenggelam (BMKT) jenis keramik yang berhasil diangkat dari Perairan Belanakan, Subang, Jawa Barat, Rabu (5/5/2010). Diperkirakan masih ada ratusan ribu keramik maupun benda berharga lainnya dari kapal dagang Cina yang diduga berasal dari Dinasti Ming. | KOMPAS IMAGES/DHONI SETIAWAN

 

OLEH YURNALDI

KOMPAS.com — Berbagai laporan dan dokumentasi kuno menyebutkan, di perairan Indonesia terdapat puluhan ribu kapal tenggelam. Kapal-kapal karam beserta muatan berharganya, dari abad ke-4 sampai dengan Perang Dunia II, tentu menjadi peninggalan budaya bawah air yang menarik dikaji.

Selain menarik dikaji, kapal tenggelam beserta muatannya telah menjadi komoditas ekonomis dengan nilai jual tinggi. Buktinya, hasil pengangkatan kapal tenggelam di Laut Jawa, sekitar 12 mil perairan utara Cirebon, Jawa Barat, nilai jualnya ditaksir minimal Rp 720 miliar.

Sebelum ada pengangkatan yang telah memperoleh izin dari pemerintah itu, pengangkatan ilegal dari dulu sampai sekarang masih terus berlangsung. “Kini, pihak kepolisian tengah melakukan penyelidikan terhadap pengangkatan benda cagar budaya (BCB) di daerah Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, yang diduga (kembali) melibatkan seorang arkeolog maritim Berger Michael Hatcher,” kata Direktur Peninggalan Bawar Air, Direktorat Jenderal Sejarah dan Purbakala Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Surya Helmi.

Kasus-kasus sebelumnya, Berger Michael Hatcher berhasil melelang tinggalan arkeologi dasar laut Indonesia secara ilegal. Warga negara Australia kelahiran Inggris tahun 1940 itu menjadi miliarder setelah menemukan 225 batang emas dan 160.000 buah keramik di perairan Riau. Hasil jarahannya itu dilelang di Balai Lelang Christie, Amsterdam, tahun 1986 senilai 16 juta dollar AS.

Kasus-kasus pencurian BCB dasar laut ini tidak saja menyebabkan rusaknya situs karena tak mengindahkan nilai kultural, tetapi Indonesia juga akan kehilangan informasi yang penting bagi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan karakter bangsa dan sejarah perjuangan bangsa.

Muatan keramik

Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar. Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca.

Pihak perusahaan pengangkat artefak dasar laut di laut Jawa utara Cirebon melaporkan, benda yang diangkat berjumlah 541.341 buah, terdiri dari 519.942 buah benda keramik dan 21.399 buah benda-benda dari berbagai bahan, seperti kayu, kaca, logam, dan lain-lain.

Dari 256.943 buah keramik yang bernilai ekonomis, sebanyak 221.124 buah adalah porselin dan bahan batuan, sementara sebanyak 35.819 buah adalah terbikar. Dari jumlah ratusan ribu buah keramik itu, setidaknya terdapat sembilan bentuk wadah, yaitu mangkuk, piring, cepuk, pasu, teko, guci, buli-buli, pedupaan, dan tempat tinta.

Identifikasi keramik

Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal. Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).

Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2-20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13-18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8-18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17-20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17-20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7-14 M).

Bagaimana mengidentifikasi keramik sehingga diketahui masa pembuatan keramik itu?

Menurut Widiati, dalam mengidentifikasi temuan keramik, pihaknya lebih dulu mencermati unsur bentuk utuh dari keramik tersebut.

“Setelah itu dicermati unsur ruang, yaitu tempat di mana benda itu ditemukan (situs), dan atau tempat asal benda itu dibuat (negara, provinsi, distrik, dan tungku). Setelah itu juga dicermati unsur waktu, pertarikhan, yaitu pertanggalan relatif dari masa pembuatan keramik porselin atau bahan-bahan tersebut. Biasanya berdasarkan masa pemerintahan di China yang sudah diketahui,” ujarnya.

Warna glasir

Widiati, yang kini Kepala Subdit Pengendalian Pemanfaatan pada Direktorat Bawah Air Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, berpendapat, untuk menentukan kapan keramik itu dibuat, antara lain dapat diketahui berdasarkan warna glasir atau pola hias. Misalnya, keramik-keramik Vietnam yang berglasir warna tunggal, seperti putih, hijau, atau hitam, diketahui berasal dari sekitar abad ke-13 hingga ke-14. Atau keramik Thailand yang mempunyai hiasan berupa ikan yang diletakkan pada bagian permukaan dalam dari dasar wadah diketahui berasal dari abad ke-14.

Setidaknya ada 10 ciri yang dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis keramik. Tujuannya untuk mengetahui asal daerah pembuatan, bentuk asal dan pertanggalan. Kesepuluh ciri itu adalah bentuk pecahan, besaran, orientasi pecahan, jenis bahan dasar, warna bahan dasar, pola hias, teknis hias, warna glasir, teknik glasir, dan sisa pengerjaan.

Untuk menentukan asal daerah pembuatan, digunakan ciri yang meliputi bentuk pecahan, besaran pecahan, ketebalan, orientasi, jenis bahan dasar, pola hias, warna glasir, dan teknik glasir. “Adapun untuk penentuan masa pembuatan keramik diperlukan pengamatan terhadap bentuk, jenis bahan dasar, warna bahan dasar, pola hias, teknik hias, dan warna glasir,” ujar Widiati.

Jejak pembuatan, kalau kita jeli bisa ditemukan suatu tanda —yang sengaja atau tidak sengaja—tampak pada permukaan porselin atau bahan batuan setelah terjadi proses pembakaran.

Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.

Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.

Sumber : Kompas Cetak

Editor : wsn

http://sains.kompas.com/read/2010/05/20/08530298/twitter.com

 

1006

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah meninggal sewaktu Kerajaan Sriwijaya menyerang Perlak dan seluruh Perlak kembali bersatu di bawah pimpinan Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat yang melanjutkan perjuangan melawan Sriwijaya hingga tahun 1006.

10–13th century junks (Song Dynasty)[edit]

The great trading dynasty of the Song employed junks extensively. The naval strength of the Song, both mercantile and military, became the backbone of the naval power of the following Yuan dynasty

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://lunaticg.blogspot.com/2010/05/indonesia-auction-shipwreck-treasure.html

ceribon shipwreck Liao moulded Lotus flower motif bowl

Indonesia fails to sell shipwreck treasure at auction

Yue ware type kendi, 10th century, diameter 21 cm, height 19 cm.

JAKARTA .- Indonesia failed on Wednesday to auction a 10th century treasure trove which was salvaged from a Chinese shipwreck off Java island about five years ago because there were no bidders.

Organisers had hoped to raise USD 80 million from the 271,000 items that were supposed to go under the hammer at a government auction house in Jakarta

But officials said bidders were probably deterred by government rules that require bidders to deposit 20% of the total estimated value to join the auction.

The shipwreck was found 90 miles (145 km) off Cirebon, in West Java, following a tip-off from local fishermen in 2004 and it took 30 divers and some 22,000 dives to recover the treasure.

But the auctioneer was forced to close the auction because there was no response.

An Indonesian fisheries ministry official, Sudirman Saad, said before the auction about 20 companies and individuals had shown interest in the treasure, which includes Chinese porcelain and gold jewellery studded with rubies and sapphires.

“If you want to sell something like that there are certain ways to do it, and you need to have big marketing, big promotion. You have to go where the buyers are,” said the owner of the salvage company, Luc Heymans.

“The buyers, they’re in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, so you go there.”

Fisheries minister Fadel Muhammad said the government will see whether the bidding rules need to be changed.

He said there may be another auction. The rules allow two more auctions a week after the first one before the collection can be offered to auction houses or museums.

Museums in Taiwan, Singapore and China have informally expressed interest in the treasure, he said.

The Indonesian government has agreed to split the money with the private salvage company which helped recover the treasure. (from  daymix.com)

Yue ware bowl with carved lotus petal motif, 10th century; Diameter 16 cm, base 8.5 cm, height 8 cm

Gold plated Arabic-style dagger, 10th century; Diameter 4 cm, length 16 cm

I found the same with complete with handle and knive.

(Dr Iwan)

Emerald green glass vessel, 10th century, rim diameter 4 cm, base 8 cm, height 10

http://elogedelart.canalblog.com/archives/2010/05/06/17803736.html

Based on archaeological findings,

Jingdezhen started porcelain production during the 5 Dynasties period.

The kiln sites were located in the Suburbs of the city of Jingdezhen (important sites include Hutian (湖田), Yangmeiting (杨梅亭) and Huangnitou (黄泥)) and in the South River area  Xianghu (湘湖) and  Baihuwan (白虎湾). 

During this period, the kilns produced mainly Yue type celadon and white wares.   Products consisted of mainly bowls and dishes and ewers. During firing, the bowls and dishes were stacked using clay spurs as separators

 

 

971 CE

Song Guangdong Ceramics

The Northern Song regime was relatively weak and the North/Northwest region was frequently troubled and raided by nomadic tribes. 

The constant unrest disrupted and ultimately cut off the overland silk route.  Foreign trade was an important source of revenue for the court.  Hence, special attention was paid to implement policies and measures to stimulate and promote the maritime trade.   Mingzhou was established as the gateway for trade with Korea and Japan and Guangzhou for Southeast Asia and the western region such as India and the Middle East. 

In 971 A.D,

the Song government established an Office of Maritime Trading in Guangzhou.  It main roles were to collect tax and regulate the flow of import and export of goods.  Guangzhou maintained it’s dominant position until the Southern Song period after which it was displaced by Fujian Quanzhou.  It is interesting to note that the fortune of the ceramics production industry of the two provinces rose and waned with the change in the role it assumed in the foreign trade.  During the Northern Song period,  many kilns sprouted along the  Guangdong coastal region. producing ceramics to meet the demand of overseas market.  When Quanzhou became the main gateway, the coastal region in Fujian also leveraged on its proximity to Quanzhou to produce ceramics to meet foreign demand. (For more on Fujian trade ceramics, please read this.). Guangdong kilns lost its competitive advantage and many ceased operation by the early Southern Song period. Judging from the ceramics finds from habitation and burial sites in Southeast Asia and the shipwrecks in the region, the quantity of ceramics exported during the Song/Yuan period was much larger than that from Tang, reflecting the increasing importance and popularity of Chinese ceramics in overseas market.

Two of the Song Guangdong kilns which have been surveyed and information more widely available are Xicun (西村) near the west of  Guangzhou and Chaozhou Bijiashan (笔架山). Xicun produced mainly celadon wares and small quantity of Qingbai, brown and low-fired green lead glaze vessels.  Based on the survey of the shards at the kilns, Chaozhou Bijiashan produced over 40% Qingbai wares and the rest mainly celadon and brown glaze wares.  In general, many products showed the influence of Yue and Yaozhou celadon and Jingdezhen Qingbai.

The Nanhai Qishi (南海奇石) is notable for the production of dark brown glaze big storage jars.  Among them, they produced literally all the types of Guangdong export wares found overseas.  Other coastal kilns produced wares which were similar to those from Xicun and Bijiashan.  Based on current level of knowledge it is difficult to distinguish them from the products of the two kilns.

When discussing Guangdong ceramics, we need to take note that sometime it is difficult to classify them neatly into either Qingbai or celadon in the conventional sense.    The problem arises because many Guangdong celadon has  a lower iron oxide in the glaze and hence does not fire to a stronger green/bluish green or yellowish brown tone.  Hence, it is not surprising that some of them have been arbitrarily labeled as qingbai by some authors in the Guangdong ceramics publications . 

For wares with more whitish paste, we are on firmer ground in identifying the Qingbai glaze.  Majority of Qingbai with whitish paste have a clear light bluish/yellowish tone and they were products of Chaozhou kilns.

Song Guangdong Xicun/Chaozhou Wares

Xicun is located about 5 km Northwest of Guangzhou.  The kiln was located in the area called Huangdi Gang (皇帝), ie emperor’s hill. A report was published in the 1950s and listed 15 types of vessels including dishes, bowls, cups, ewers, jars, lamps, boxes, pillows, bird whistles and other miniature figurines. The Guangzhou shi Museum has a permanent display of a group of Xicun shards excavated from Huangdi Gang.

Examples of excavated Xicun wares from Philippines Butuan and Malaysia Tioman Islands were published in the 1980s. In 1989 a wreck discovered near Pulau Buaya of the Lingga archipelago (about 90 km south of Batam) carried a substantial quantity of Guangdong ceramics and small quantity of Jingdezhen and possibly Fujian ceramics.

 However,  none of the three typical types of Xicun bowls, ie those with painted or carved floral motif or iron-brown spotted vessels were among the ceramics finds.  But in 2012, quite a few large Xicun bowls with iron-brown painted or carved floral motif surfaced in the Singapore antique market.  They were salvaged from 2 shipwrecks, one in the Riau archipelago and the other near the Belitung Island.  Unfortunately information so far has been rather sketchy but it appeared the wrecks carried at least mainly Guangdong wares.

The ‘Riau” wreck carried iron brown floral painted celadon big bowls, qingbai/white bowls and brown glaze basin with impressed floral motif.  The other ‘Belitung’ wreck carried celadon bowls/jars with carved motif and qingbai/white bowls and white/qingbai glaze ewers. The two shipwrecks are rather important wrecks and they are the only known wrecks of the Northern Song period that carried typical products of Xicun kiln.

The big celadon (grayish green) bowls (dia. 33 and 23 cm respectively) have boldly painted iron-brown floral motif.  The bigger version has well formed and fine paste foot.  In the past, many ceramics experts suggested that they are Cizhou inspired type.  However, the Xicun version is stylistically very different from those from Cizhou.  Furthermore, they have celadon glaze whereas Cizhou wares has white transparent glaze. One possible source of inspiration of the painted style is possibly from a geographically closer region, ie  Song Hunan Henghshan (湖南衡山) kilns. The Song Hengshan kilns in turn inherited and further developed the Tang Changsha painted motif tradition. Similar to Tang Changsha wares, Hengshan wares are also celadon wares decorated using both copper and iron oxide.  The Guangdong potters however did not adopt the technique of copper green motif.

Song Hengshan kiln copper/iron-painted floral motif

Some  celadon bowls with iron brown painted floral motif from the Riau wreck

 

   

The 23 cm bowls have more crudely formed foot

 

 

   

The bigger 33 cm bowl has well form and finer paste foot

 

   

Examples of iron-brown painted motif on pillow and fragment of a bowl exhibited in Guangdong shi museum

Not found in either wreck but there are known excavated examples of iron painted bowls which has carved floral motif on the inner wall.  The below example was excavated in Sarawak.

 

An iron painted floral bowl with carved floral motif on inner wall from the Sarawak museum

On the subject of iron-brown painted vessels, the Guangdong archaeologist Zheng Guangyi in the book “Ceramics Finds from the Tang and Song kilns in Guangdong”, mentioned that two sites in Nanhai , ie Qishi (奇石) and Jiaotou Ling (头岭) produced iron painted vessels decorated with a variety of motif such as orchid, floral scrolls, reeds, bamboo leaves, human motif and etc.  Indeed, some of the variety of the fragments could be seen in the Nanyue Palace Museum.  A possible Nanhai kiln huge jar is also illustrated below.

Iron painted fragments in the Nanyue Palace Museum

Big Jar with iron-painted floral scrolls from an Indonesian Collector

This is the rare imperial ceramic

The Guangdong pottersalso copied a repertoire of motifs  from Northern Song Yue wares. The motif is executed by using one or combination of carving, incising or combing techniques.

   

Two examples of Yue style carved/combed motif from Xicun kiln in Guangdong shi museum

From the other wreck, there are many examples of celadon bowls with carved floral motif on the inner wall.  The outline of the flower is formed by punched like arcs. This is a distinctive feature which is so far only found on wares from Xicun.  It showed that the potters did not just copied but also introduced distinctive elements in the carving technique.  The bowls have light grayish green glaze and grayish paste. On some examples where the glaze pool, the green colour is more distinct.

 

 

 

 

The flower has the outline formed by punched-like arcs.  Example came from the “Belitung” wreck

 

 

 

Example from Xicun Huangdi Gang exhibited in Guangdong shi Museum

 

 

I have also came across an excavated big bowl (33 cm) with the floral petals further decorated with cluster of 6 iron brown spots.

   
   

Bowl found in Indonesia and belonged to an Indonesian collector

 

 

The kilns in Xicun, Yangjiang (阳江) and Huizhou (惠州) also produced a form of Yaozhou style impressed floral motif bowls.  As compared to the Yaozhou counterpart, the impressed motif from the three Guangdong kilns are not as sharp and quality of the motif more crude.

   

Examples of Yaozhou style impressed floral bowls from the Xicun kiln exhibited in Guangdong shi museum

 

   

A Xicun/huizhou celadon dish from a wreck from Indonesia

 

   

Example of Xicun kiln Yaozhou style shallow bowl,this rare imperial ceramic

One popular decorative element is elongated ‘s’ lines that are carved on the outer wall of vessels.  In the rougher version, the ‘s’ lines became carved slanting vertical lines.  Those from Xicun has a light grayish green glaze and Chaozhou more varied consisting of grayish green if the paste is grayish and more clear whitish/light whitish blue/yellow if the paste is white.

   

Example of carved ‘s’ shape lines found on a bowl from xicun and exhibited in the Guangdong shi museum

 

 

 

   
   

Example of shallow bowl with light grayish green glaze from Xicun kiln.  On the inner wall, there is carved/combed floral motif.  Noted the similarity of the carved floral motif with that from the Sabah museum discussed earlier

 

 

   

A more thinly potted and more refined version with greenish glaze from the “Belitung” wreck. This example is more likely from Chaozhou kiln

 

 

   

Example with more simplified carved lines.  Excavated in Indonesia.

There are also wares decorated with carved lotus petals, either in high relief  giving the embossed effect or just using carved lines.  This is a popular motif of the Northern Song period and well represented in many Northern and Southern kilns in China.  Both celadon and white/qingbai types are available from Guangdong kilns.

   

 A celadon glaze jar with carved lotus petals, most likely from the Xicun kiln

   

 A white glaze bowl with carved lotus petal.  Mostly likely from a Chaozhou kiln.

 

   

Qingbai jar with carved lotus petals from Chaozhou kiln

 

   
   

Two other examples executed using carved lines from the Xicun kiln. The style is similar to that on the lower body of the Xicun phoenix head ewer.  They came from the “Belitung” wreck.

Dr Iwan have this jar with lotus petal incised carved lines

Chaozhou Bijiashan kiln produced a form of Qingbai bowls/plates with abstract floral which is executed in a distinctive fast and fluent incised lines.  Most of such products are more likely from the Chaozhou region although small quantity was known to be produced in Xicun kiln.

   

An example with light grayish green glaze from the “Belitung” wreck.  A similar example was found the Chaozhou Bijiashan excavation.

 

   

Two incised floral motif from the Chaozhou Bijiashan kiln exhibited in an exhibition on Chaozhou wares

 

   

 

The 3 shards came from the 1955 excavation of the Xicun Huangdi Gang kiln.  The one on the left and bottom are similar stylistically to those from Chaozhou Bijia shan kiln. However, such Qingbai examples are few among the shards collected.

 

There is also a distinctive group of Xicun celadon wares decorated with iron brown spots/splashes. The glaze is usually grayish green or grayish yellow in colour tone. One distinctive form is bottle with ribbed neck. There are versions with the lobed globular body.   Besides celadon glaze, there are also those with dark brownish glaze.   Besides bottles, jarlets with iron-brown spots/splashes were also produced in large number.  Chaozhou kilns also produced similar vessels but could be distinguished by the finer paste/potting, well-formed foot and clearer white/qingbai glaze. Some were found in the Pulau Buaya wreck.

   
   

Two xicun ribbed neck bottles with iron spots decoration

 

   

Some other Xicun vessels with iron-brown spots or splashes

 

   

Examples excavated from Xicun kiln shown in Guangdong shi museum

 

   

Xicun Dark brown vase found in Indonesia

 

   
   
   

Three Chaozhou kiln Qingbai examples which has whiter paste and clear Qingbai glaze.  The potting and the foot is usually more refined.

 

 

   

Qingbai jarlet with iron-brown splashes.  Most likely a product from Chaozhou region.

Another well-known Xicun vessel is phoenix head ewer. The more common form has a light grayish green celadon glaze which is usually decorated with carved floral motif.  I came across one example which was found in Central Vietnam.  Another with a light grayish blue Qingbai glaze was found from the same site.

   

Phoenix head celadon glaze ewer.  It also has the typical Xicun floral decoration with punched arcs.  Artefact was excavated in Central Vietnam Dr iwan have this phoenic head two type found at Makassar in 1996, this is the rare imperial ceramic

 

 

   

Qingbai glaze phoenix head ewer from Xicun is more rare.  Also excavated from Central Vietnam

Phoenix head ewers were also made in Chaozhou kilns.  They have qingbai glaze which is light bluish in colour tone and has whitish paste.  The features of the phoenix head are also different.

Dr Iwan found the same qingbau glaxze phoenix ewer at Makassar Celebes in 1996

   

A qingbai phoenix head from Chaozhou kiln

A qingbai phoenix head vase in Hainan Museum

Chaozhou Beijiashan also produced of distinctive white glaze fish-shaped ewer.

 

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

 

Chaozhou Bijiashan also produced several other forms of Qingbai and brown glaze ewers.  Some are illustrated below.

This trade common people ceramic

 
   

Some variety of ewers from Chaozhou Bijiashan kiln this is the imperial ceramic

 

Another interesting product from the Bijiashan kilns is Qingbai/white female figurines.

   

In the Riau and Belitung wrecks, there are bowls with a thickened lip.  The bowls varied in colour tone from grayish green to light bluish tone.  They are generic product and not easy to attribute such bowls to a particular kiln as they were produced in many kilns in China.  Many examples could also be found in Xicun and Chaozhou kilns. The Pulau Buaya wreck also carried large quantity of such bowls.

 

A thickened lip bowl from Xicun Huangdi Gang

 

   
   

Two examples of thickened lip bowl, top from the “Riau” and the bottom from the “Belitung” wreck

Another common form is bowl with rim that curves outward and relatively tall foot.  They are usually decorated with whitish/Qingbai or grayish green colour glaze.  The interior is either plain or decorated with carved motif.

   
   

Left is a white glazebowl with a tinge of blue and came from the Riau wreck.  On the right is a bowl with light yellowish qingbai glaze. It has combed motif on the interior.  Similar type were found in the Pulau Buaya wreck.

 

 

Two other products from the Xicun kiln are flower-mouth bowls and dark brown glaze bowls with white glaze rim. Such bowls were also produced in Fujian and other kilns in other provinces.

   

Flower mouth shallow bowl and dark brown glaze bowl with white rim from Xicun Huangdi Gang

The Chaozhou Bijiashan kiln also produced a form of Qingbai tall cover boxes.  Similar types were also produced in the Fujian Nanan (南安) kiln.

   

 

Dr Iwan found the same collections at West Borneo

 
 

Various forms of Qingbai tall cover boxes

Dr Iwan found the same collection at west Borneo

In the Riau wreck, there are many brown glaze basin-shape vessels with impressed flower.  Such items are products of the Xicun kiln.  The Pulau Buaya wreck also carried some quantity of such vessel.

   
 

A brown glaze basin-shaped vessel with impressed flower from the Riau wreck

In one of the wreck, there is also a form of bulbous jar with brown glaze.  Similar jars were found in the Pulau Buaya wreck.  They should be products from a Guangdong kiln but could not be positively link to any of the known kilns.

 

Bulbous jar with the brown glaze missing from the Riau wreck

 

   

Bulbous jar with Yellowish brown glaze. Similar type were salvaged from the Pulau Buaya wreck. Most probably from unknown Guangdong kiln

Dr Iwan found thes same collections from Tuban at Jakarta

The kilns in Xicun and Bijiashan also produced Qingbai and brown glaze miniature figurines of western breed dogs and bird whistles for export.  Some example of such dog figurines were excavated in Philippines.

   

Brown and qingbai glaze miniature dog figurine from Xicun Huangdi Gang

 

 

 

Brown glaze miniature dogs figurine from Bijia Shan kiln

 

Song Guangdong Nanhai Qishi (南海奇石) Kiln Brown Jars

In the Pulau Buaya wreck, there were some quantity of big storage jars with dark brown glaze.  The shoulder has impressed floral motif. Such jars could be found in many of the Southeast Asian ceramics collections.  They are products from the Nanhai Qishi kiln.  There are also those with impressed Chinese characters such as that indicating the year of production,  Zhenghe sixth year (政和六年) ie 1116 A.D , identifying ownership Pan Residence (潘宅) and etc.

 

Fragment of Big Jar from Nanhai Qishi kiln and with Zhenghe 6th year mark

 

 

     
 

Dark brown glaze big jar with impressed floral motif from the Nanhai Qishi kiln and recovered from the Pulau Buaya wreck

 

 

 

 

Another example with similar form from the Cirebon wreck

 

 

   
   

Rubbings of the impressed markings and drawing of the storage jar based on the finds in the Nanhai Qishi kiln

 

Certainly there are other Guangdong kilns that produced large jars but generally they have similar glaze characteristics.  Based on current level of information, it is difficult to give a specific kiln attribution. Some examples are illustrated below.

   

Two examples of othe shape of brown glaze jars from the Cirebon wreck dated to beginning of Northern Song period

Dr Iwan found the same jar at Jogya

 

Example with incised dragon motif from the Northern Song Intan wreck

Dr Iwan found the same yueh dragon Jar at Jakarta but with chillin dragon ear

Yueh dragon  martavan with dragon dog ear

 

 

And Dr Iwan found more older yueh tweleve ear Jar

And Ming Jar

1.Ming Wanli dragon

 

 

2Anamis telingga tali(string ear)

3.Ming dragon small jar martavan

 

4.Ming swatow dot string small jar

5.Myanmar medallion string Martavan

6Ming Tiga Warna (sanstai)

7.Myanmar medallion string small jar

8a. Qing green dragon (sri rejeki hijau)

9,Qing dragon ear

10.Qing phoenix martavan

11.Qing Water martavan(guci Penampung air)1)Guci Segi delapan

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)Guci Delapan Gambar

 

 

 

3)Guci Bak Mandi

 

Some comments on the Pulau Buaya wreck

In the Pulau Buaya wreck, there were some celadon bowls with carved and combed swirling abstract motif with slashed lines on the outer wall.  The author of the book on the Pulau Buaya wreck has attributed them to Fujian Tongan or Nanan kilns.  Such celadon bowls were inspired by the Longquan celadon of the late Northern Song period and much copied by the Fujian kilns.  In actual fact, similar types of bowls were also produced in Guangdong, some examples were excavated in Chaozhou Bijiashan kiln.   Some examples of such Longquan inspired motif bowls from Chaozhou kilns are illustrated below.

   
   
   

Celadon bowls from the Chaozhou Bijiasha kiln

 
   

Examples form the Longquan kilns

 

The above was a case in point on the dynamics of export trade in Ceramics.   By the Late Northern Song period, Yue kilns were already in decline and Longquan kilns emerging as the new star in the production of Southern Celadon wares.  The Longquan celadon wares were thus copied by the Guangdong and Fujian kilns.  

Besides the typical late Northern Song Jingdezhen Qingbai wares, there were a number of Qingbai wares from some provincial kilns.   There are some Qingbai bowls with carved deer motif enclosed with a lozenge on the inner base and floral like carved/combed motif on the inner wall.  Such bowls were produced in Southern Fujian Zhangping (漳平) and quite a few examples from the kilns have been published in a book on Zhangping kiln. 

   

Similar Late Northern Song Jiangxi Hutian qingbai wares were recovered from the Pulau Buaya wreck

 

 

   

Pulau Buaya wreck Qingbai bowl with deer motif

 
   

Qingbai bowl with deer motif from the Zhang Ping kiln

 

As the above celadon and Qingbai wares made their appearance during the late Northern Song period,  the Pulau Buaya wreck is most probably from the late 11th to early 12th Century.

 

Conclusion

To conclude, Guangdong as  the main gateway for export is essentially an emporium for all types of export ceramics.

During the Northern Song phase, the most high quality ceramics came from Yue, Jiangxi Hutian and Yaozhou kilns. 

It is not surprising that the Guangdong potters copied such successful products.  In comparison, the Guangdong products are of poorer quality but they could compete successfully because of the lower cost due to the kilns proximity to Guangzhou.

The Guangdong ceramics were able to meet the needs of one segment of the overseas market which price may have been the main consideration.  Guangdong lost this competitive advantage once Fujian Quangzhou became the dominant port during the Southern Song period. 

In particular, historical records showed that Chaozhou was ravaged by pirates during the early Southern Song period.  

The difficult situation inevitably disrupted production and  obstructed port operation.  It must have accelerated the demise of the Chaozhou coastal kilns.  The archaeological findings showed that most of the Guangdong coastal kilns which catered to overseas markets ceased production during the Southern Song period.

Written by: NK Koh (16 Nov 2012) updated: 30 Jun 2013

References:

  1. Ceramic Finds from Tang and Song Kilns in Guangdong
  2. Guangdong Ceramics from Butuan and other Philippine sites
  3. A Ceramic Legacy of Asia’s Maritime Trade – Song Dynasty Guangdong Wares and other 11th- -19th Trade Ceramics found on Tioman Island, Malaysia
  4. The Pulau Buaya Wreck

 

1093

The Christian monk had then returned to Baghdad. Whether this delegation had really made an adequate tour is problematical. Saeki has given evidence to show that the monasteries and churches in Chouchin and Hsi-an continued in existence long after this time. Also in 1093 the patriarch Sabrisha III appointed a bishop George to Cathy.76 Nevertheless the evidence is that the progress of the Christian churches in China went through a noticeable decline during the eleventh and twelfth centuries

the Later Han Dynasty

 

 

Fall of the Northern Han Emboldened by his success to the south, Emperor Taizong decided to embark on a campaign to finally destroy the Northern Han. Leading the army himself, he brought his forces to the Northern Han capital of Taiyuan, which was laid under siege in June.

The Northern Han had placed itself under the protection of the Liao.

An initial relief force sent by the Liao was easily defeated by Song.

After a two-month siege of the capital, the leader of the Northern Han surrendered, the kingdom was incorporated into the Song Dynasty.

the Jin Dynasty

(1115 – 1234 AD)

was founded by Wanyan Aguda in Northern Manchuria. The Jin conquered Northern China by conquering the Liao and defeating the Song Dynasty.

Liao and Song coins were used early on the Jin rule.

In 1158,

the Jin Dynasty made their own coins and later used coins, notes and silver.
Coins cast during this period were of superb quality and excellent calligraphy.

The Fu Chang Yuan Bao,

Fu Chang Tong Bao

and Fu Chang Zhong Bao

were three of the finest Jin coins. They were minted during the puppet regime of Emperor Liu Yu who used

“Fu Chang” as his period title.  
Casting coins became unprofitable when inflation starts to hit the Jin Dynasty economy.

Jin Dynasty Silver Coin”Fu Chang Yuan Bao” $34.00

 

Mints were closed down and coin production ceased for 30 years prior to the defeat of the Jin by the Mongols.

This coin still never found in Indonesia(Dr Iwan Notes)

Read more about Jin Dynasty

.

 

 

THE JIN DYNASTY

The Jīn Dynasty (1115–1234),

also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet. (Photo: Jade Ornament)

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda (完顏阿骨打) in 1115.

The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty, which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries.

In 1121,

the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao.

While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia.

In 1125,

after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China.

(Photo: A wooden Bodhisattva)

On January 9, 1127,

Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father,

Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces.

Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces,

1141

Eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace.

(Photo: The Chengling Pagoda, Hebei, built 1161 – 1189AD Wikipedia)

The Fenyang Cemetery of Jin Dynasty

 

ceribon shipwreck Liao Dynasti plate moulded Chrysanthenum motif

 

.

 

‘The Cheribon Shipwreck’.

Memuat…

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceribon shipwreck Liao Fish moulded cup

The pieces also include the largest known vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and famous Yue Mise wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960), with the green colouring exclusive to the emperor. Around 11,000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires and more than 2,200 garnets were also pulled from the depths by Heymans and his team of international divers.

 

Photo by AFP: Asia largest shipwreck treasure so far

Photo by AFP: Belgian treasure hunter Luc Heymans

 

Ceribon shipwreck Liao dynasti unmotif cup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


.

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the end of the twelfth century

the South Song

abolished the tributary system due to the financial difficulty, and integrated all of the foreign trade into the ‘maritime custom system (市舶司制度)’. Under the new maritime custom system, the role of San-fo-chi was diminished as the leading tributary country.

 

 

After 1178,

the name of San-fo-chi disappeared from the chronicle of the South Song.
All of the city-states of Śrīvijaya group were thrown away amid the ocean of ‘free market system’.

Among them Tambralinga (Nakhon Si Thammarat) emerged in the thirteenth century under the reign of king Candrabhānu. Tambralinga integrated important part of the Malay Peninsula and had twelve vassal states.

However after Candrabhānu failed in the campaign against Ceylon around 1260, the power of Tambralinga declined and at the end of the thirteenth century Tambralinga was invaded and absorbed by king Rama Khamheng of the Sukodaya kingdom.

 

 

Under the Song Dynasty

 

In the 10th century,

 

the confrontation between the Song and Liao regimes worsened in China. Both had communications with Tajik mainly through land transportation and sea transportation, respectively.

 

924

 

According to Chinese historical records, in 924 A.D.,

Tajik once sent envoys to the Liao Dynasty

 

1021

 

. In 1021 A.D., the Liao Dynasty even consented to the request of the king of the Tajik, and

married a princess to a royal prince of Tajik, son of the king of a Central Asian country who converted to Islam.

 

 

In 966 A.D.,

 

a monk traveled to the West Regions with an official letter to the Tajik from the Song Empire.

 

958 AD

 

From the first year of the Kai Bao (968 A.D.), Tajik had continued to send envoys to the Song. According to the existing historical statistics, in the 284 years from 924 A.D to 1207 A.D., there

were roughly 43 batches of recorded envoys between the two countries, that is, one batch in every six years.

 

In the latter half of this period, the entire Islamic world faced the threat of the Crusades, and the Abbasids had been replaced by the Seljuk Turks to dominate Mesopotamia, and Anatolia was in a long period of war, so the envoys from these areas to China were from the Arabian world, such as Jeddah, Maghera, Sohar, and even East Africa, Kenya and other countries, while the envoys from Tajik were mostly sent by the caliph.

 

It was in this period that China’s porcelain technology was spread to the Arab world and then to Europe. Chinese porcelain (as well as silk, medicine, etc.) was sailed oversea in large quantities.

 

In recent decades, from the Gulf of Basra and other places, to the Gulf of Aden, East African coast, a lot of the Song Dynasty coins and porcelain fragments are found. This gives proof to the fact that Chinese vessels

were numerous in this route then.

 

Under the Song Dynasty,

 

China’s ocean-going merchant ships also opened up a new ’’Spice Road’’, which was from Guangzhou (or

Quanzhou), proceeding across the Indian Ocean, without passing through India, straight from the Sumatra to Dhofar regions. By taking this route, not only the distance was shortened, but the monsoons on the Indian Ocean could be taken full advantage of. In winter, when the northeast monsoon prevailed, they sailed straight to Dhofar regions by the west route.

 

In the summer of the next year,

when the southwest monsoon prevailed, they returned to Quanzhou or Guangzhou. In this

way, the time could be shortened by more than one third. The opening of new routes further strengthened the trade and friendly exchanges with Oman.

 

While returning, Chinese junks carried ivories, rhino horn, glass and pearls, agate and other exotic and goods from Maghera, Oman, but Arab spices were always in bulks. Perfume was prevalent among the upper classes of China, and the consumption of spices was indeed in a great number.

 

Therefore, the Song government made spices a government monopoly. According to the foreign trade statistics, in the

 

10th year of Song Shenzong Xinin years (1077 A.D.),

 

the frankincense collected in one place in Guangzhou was up to 174,336 Kg. Therefore,

this ‘’Spice Road’’, from Arabia to China could be as essential as the ‘’Silk Road’’ during the Han Dynasty.

 

The sea routes at that time, no matter the traditional one to the Gulf (passing by Sohar) or the new

route across the Indian Ocean (to Dhofar), passed through Oman. In medieval times Oman’s Dhofar regions were rich of and famous for frankincense.

 

A record of Song, said: ’’Frankincense, or land incense, is from the mountains and the valleys of the Dhofar regions in the Arabian world.’’ Therefore, this ‘’Spice Road’’ is closely linked to Oman, and until now we can still see the fragments of porcelain, and complete porcelains of the Ming and Qing era in the museum of

Muscat.

 

1225

 

The friendly relations between Oman and China can also be found some available evidence from some of our literature works. Zhao Rushi, the officer of Quanzhou Maritime Affairs, edited a book in 1225 titled The Records Of Various Countries, which documented the Weng Man Guo (瓮蛮国, that is, Oman).

 

The records in this book about Oman’s geographic location, customs, specialty, trade and monetary situation basically correspond with that in the Arabian historical books.

 

The mentioned Wu Ba Guo (勿拔国) in Zhao Rushi’s book might be Marbat in today’s Dhofar. The book also referred to the Nu Fa Guo (奴发国), which many Chinese and foreign scholars consider being Dhofar.

 

Under the Song Dynasty, China’s navigation and shipbuilding industries became more advanced, and maritime traffic abroad was extremely popular. At that time, Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Mingzhou (Ningbo), Wenzhou, Xiuzhou (Jiaxing), Jiangyin, Mizhou (Zhucheng) and other places set up Maritime Affairs, to continually encourage foreigners to do business in China.

 

The maritime trade and closer friendly exchanges between Oman and China increased exponentially. Oman merchants gave Chinese ivories, rhinoceros horn, pearls, precious stones and various spices, herbs they shipped from overseas, and got Chinese silk, porcelain, tea, gold, silver and coins in return.

 

On the ‘’Spice Road’’, there was a prosperous picture of clusters of sailing vessels, flocks of merchants, piles of goods.

 

Under the Song Dynasty, the number of merchants from Oman and other places of the Arab world who settled in Guangzhou, Quanzhou and other places in China increased. At the same time, merchants from Sohar, Oman, were also very powerful in Guangzhou.

 

Under the Song Dynasty, most of the foreign businessmen lived in Guangzhou and Quanzhou, and a large percentage of them were among the richest Arab businessmen.

 

After the Southern Song Dynasty,

 

due to the social and economic destruction in Anatolia caused by the wars, many of the Arabs moved eastward, and even settled in China permanently. At that time in Guangzhou and Quanzhou, there were areas for foreign businessmen to live in, known as Fanfang (蕃坊), with a leader in each of them who managed their own affairs and attracted foreign businessmen to trade in China.

 

The leader was chosen by the Song government from these foreigners only if he was highly respected.

There was a noteworthy Arab businessman from Sohar in Guangzhou whose name was Xinya Tuoluo. He was once the leader of the Fanfang in Guangzhou, and the Song government specially gave him the honor ‘’The Gui De General’’.

 

 

 

 

 

1037

 

Interestingly, the King’s decree, drafted by the famous writer and statesman of the Song Dynasty, Su

Shi (1037-1101 A.D.), mentioned that the reasons why Xinya Tuoluo was given the honor was that Xinya Tuoluo had personally seen the emperor with some presents in Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern

Song Dynasty, and had contributed to attracting Arab traders, so he was called ‘’Gui De General’’, in hope that he would make more efforts. Now the original words of the decree can still be found in Su Shi’s collected works.

 

According to History of the Song,

 

Xinya Tuoluohad told the Song government that he was willing to donate money to help repair the city wall of Guangzhou. Although his proposal was not accepted, this shows how rich he was.

 

1072

 

In the fifth year of Xining (1072 A.D.), he was prepared to return home from Guangzhou, Song Shenzong, the

emperor, gave him ‘’a white horse with a set of saddle and bun’’ in honor of general, and was given presents by the emperor when he returned home, this indeed a privilege.

 

This also provides evidences to the fact that the Omani people made outstanding contributions to the

friendly exchanges between Oman and China.

 

In his book Golden Grasslands and Gem Mining,

 

Masudi (who traveled to Guangzhou), an Arab historian and geographer, also recorded that in the sixth century, Chinese merchant ships regularly visited the Gulf, and could directly reach Oman, Bahrain, Basra and

other places and vice versa. Sohar was also one of the major freight stations on the sea route from the countries on the East coast of Africa to China.

 

According to Biography of Ceng Shan Guo (层檀国,

 

Now Zanzibar) in the History of the Song, with the tailwind on the sea, it would take 160 days from Ceng Shan Guo to Guangzhou, China,

The History of Song Dynasty, written by Tuo Tuo (Yuan Dynasty)etc., was

carved by Ming Nanjing and revised by Ming Qingdi.

Xinya Tuoluo is a merchant of Sohar, Oman. The land of Muskat, according to

academic appraisal, is Maskat or Mezoen on the east Coast of Oman.

passing by Sohar. In the third chapter of his work, Masudi also kept

some records: “in order to get ivories, Zanzibar killed plenty of

elephants. The ivories are transported to Oman, then to China and

India.”

 

Source

The Origins of Omani-China Friendship: A Historical Review

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor china during

. 960 AD to 1279 AD Song and Liao and Jin Dynasty Emperors

       

Emperor Song Taizu

Emperor Song Taizong

Emperor Song Huizong

Emperor Song Gaozong


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