PIRAMID CINA, KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK YANG DITEMUKAN DIINDOENSIA(BAB PENGANTAR4)

INI CONTOH INFO DARI MUSEUM LELUHUR INDONESIA WANLI

Dr Iwan Collection put in Indonesian Ancestor Museum “Wan Li “Jakarta Indonesia. Cover Jar with red Dragon five clown from Qing Kanghsi dynasty.

 

If the senior collectors want to look this rare and amizing collection please contact me via my email below

BAGI YANG INGIN MELIHAT MUSEUM

HUBUNGGI

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

JANGAN LUPA UPLOAK KPI KTP,ALAMT DAN RIWAYAT SINGKAT PEKERJAAN

TANPA INFO INI ANDA TIDAK AKAN DIIZINKA MELIHAT MUSEUM ,MUSUEM HANYA UNTUK KOLEKTOR BONFIDE ,BUKA UNTUK PEDAGANG

DILARANG MENREPRO ATAU TAG INFO DIBAWAH INI

 PIRAMID CINA

KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKPOK YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA

BAB PENGANTAR TERAKHIR

JENIS DAN TYPE ARTIFAK DI MUSEUM TIONGKOK

Coll Dr Iwan in Indonesian Ancestor Museum “Wan Li “” Jakarta Indonesia, Ming Cheng Hua imparial Marked producuce during Qing Dynasty emperor KangHsi.

DISUNTING OLEH

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Berdasarkan Eksplorasi Google

Khusus untuk Kolektor dan Peneliti Senior

 

 

KATA PENGANTAR

Ini adalah kata pengatar BAGIAN TERAKHIR Buku Elektronik dalam CD Rom KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA .

Semula sudah saya tulis kata pengantar bagian keempat tetapi segera saya ganti dengan bagian terakhir, mengapa ? bila anda orang Tionghoa pasti tahu, bagi yang belum tahu baca jawabannya di kata penutup.

Seluruh info ini aya peroleh dari eksplorasi Google saat saya melakukan persiapan untuk berkunjung ke Taiwan tahun 2014 yang lalu, memang haris sangat cepat dan saya sangat beruntung begitu juga dengan anda karena tayangan sperti ini sudah tak ada lagi dan sudah sulit untuk ditag,tapi berkat bantuan Bunda Maria dan yang Mahakuasa saya telah berhasil mempersembahkan slah satu karya Orang Tionghoa,karya nenek moyang saya dan juga Kita Manusia ,kaya manusia tentunya juga karya penciptanya Tumahn Yang Mahakuasa.

 

Saya memilik sebuah guci biru putih yang diluis secara sablon tetapi karena gambarnya sangat bagus dan mulutnya juga ada cacat tetapi sudah di reparasi, taka pa maih layak dikoleksi apa sebabnya ? mari saya Tanya kepada anda , jika anda bisa jawab akan saya beri hadiah.

Foto Koleksi museum Leluhur Wanli karya ASDO

 

Foto lama diatas guci saat ini ada tambahan topi merah.

Apayang ada diatas Guci ? Tentu anda akan menjawab Topi atau mungkin anda kurang mengerti, jawabnya yang benar adalah Topi .

Selanjutnya Topi apa ?

Jawaban yang benar Topi Aceh dan Minangkabau?

OH???? Topi Minang dari kayu yang dikenal dengan Saluik yang berpilin,sayang emas pada ujungnya belum ketemu dan foto lama belum ada topi aceh,

ini contoh topi Aceh

 

Mengapa dirangkai jadi satu ?

Jwaban yang benar , Ini topi Orang Minang yang bersahabat dengan orang Aceh ?

Siapa nama Raja Minangkabau Terakhir ?

Jawaban Yang Benar ,Sultan Bagargasah

 

 

 

Pernah Lihat Lambang Raja Minangkabau ?

Siapa Nama Raja Minangkabau Terakhir ?

Sultan Bagagarsyah

Raja-raja Pagaruyung, berdasarkan cerita adat Minangkabau dan beberapa prasasti yang ditemukan, adalah keturunan dariSrimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmadewa, raja Kerajaan Dharmasraya. Di antara keturunan Tribhuwanaraja adalah Adityawarman, sang pendiri kerajaan Pagaruyung dan senapati Majapahit, dan ibunya Dara Jingga. Kerajaan Pagaruyung pernah diperintah oleh beberapa dinasti, namun mengenai nama-nama rajanya banyak yang kebenarannya tidak dapat dibuktikan karena hanya berdasarkan legenda (bahasa Minangtambo) adat Minangkabau.[1][2] Kekuasaan raja-raja ini dimulai dengan berdirinya kerajaan ini pada tahun 1347,[3] namun dari Prasasti Suruaso diketahui ada nama lain yang menjadi raja sebelumnya, dan kemudian dalam selang 300 tahun berikutnya, siapa yang menjadi raja di Pagaruyung seperti hilang ditelan angin, dan baru muncul kembali pada awal abad ke-17, dan kemudian berakhir dimasa Perang Padri.

 

Dimana Sulatan Tersebut dimakamkan?

Di Taman Pahlawan Kalibata, Dr Iwan sudah pernah lihat saat mengikuti upacara pemakaman disana,waktu itu seorang jendral meinggal,saya memegang bendera yang diselimutkan diats peti kemudia diserahkan kepad akeluareganya, putra saya ASDO juga pernah ikut.

Ok jika ANDA MASIH PENASARAN MARI KITA LANJUTKAN.

Pertama beri sumbangan kepada Museum Leluhur Indpnesia WANLI terserah erapa saja, masukkan kedlam Guci.

Mengapa ditaruh diatas Guci ini Topi Tersebut?

Jawaban Yng Benar, Ini symbol guci ini hadiah dari Kaisar Tiongko dnasti Qing KangHsi kepada Sultan Miangkabau.

Apakah Guci Ini Asli atau Palsu?

Jawaban yang benar  PALAS artinya  Palsu tetapi Asli, mengapa dibalik? Bukan ASPAL seperti iasa

Jawab yang benar , Ini Palsu bukan buatan era Kaisar Qing Kanghsi tetapi Asli dari Republik Tiongkok atau Chung Hua Ming Kuo

Orang bilang ini dulu barang apa ?

Barang Gangtorong,Gang Torong dulu tempat barang lama dijual sebelum perang dunia era Republic Demokrasi Tiongkok era Dr un Yat Send an Chia Kai Shek.(maaf jika ejaannya salah,maluk saya sudah jadi orang Indonesia Asli)

Sekarang dinamakan barang apa?

Jawaban yang benar, Barang Mingkuok atau barang republik.

Apa arti Chung Hua Ming Kuo ?

Art yang banr, Tiongkok(Chung Hua), Pusat(Centar) atau Terang(Pelita) dari Dunia (Ming Kuo), sombong ne yee mentang-mentang leluhurnya, buka saya orang Indonesia Asli, kakek saya yang berasal dari sana, jadi ikut bangga lho !!!!????

Apabila anda masih benar,saya beri anda tepuk tangan.

Pertanyaan selanjutnya, Mengapa ada terompet dan gendrang disamping guci (? fotonya tidak diupload,nanti lihat sendiri waktu ke museum WNLI)

Jawaban yang benar, terompet dan gendrang ini digunakan saat upacara pemakaman Raja Minag karena kedua benda tersebut ada merek Boulton England , berasal dari Ingrris , sebelum dijajah Belanda, Minangkabau sebagian dijajah  Aceh dan sebagian lagi Ingris dibawah Benkulu bernaung dibawah kompeni Ingris British East India Company ,bukan VOC ,VOC belanda artinya cari sendiri, info baca dalam Cd Minangbau History Collection.

Jika anda masih Benar saya beri tepuk tangan dan Hadiah boleh pakai Topi dengan gelar Raja Keramik dan boleh berfoto didepan guci selama ni memang boleh foto hanya satu kali saja dimuseum WANLI khususnya bagi yang memberikan sumbangan 12 juta ketas saja.

Bagaimana menarik ?????

Mari kita teruskan, seandainya anda bermimpi ketemu Bunda Maria Atau Tuhan Yesus ?

Bunda maria atau Putranya Yesus bertanya sebutkan permintaan saya , hanya boleh satu kata saja!!!!!???

TENTU ANDA AKAN BINGUNG KARENA PASTI ANDA KAN MENGINGINKAN sesuatu yang LEBIH DARI SATU KATA SAJA!!!!

Jawaban Yang Benar

SHOU

Artinya dari Aksara Tiongkok ,  Sehat Panjang Umur dan Kaya atau Banyak Rezeki.

MEMANG AKSARA TIONGKOK SANGAT SINGKAT DAN IRIT, SESUAI ORANG IRIT ,KATA ORANG MEREKA PELIT?

JAWABAN Yang benar,

SALAH, MEREKA PELIT BILA MEMBERIKAN SUMBANGAN UNTUK HAL YANG TAK ADA MANFAATNYA, TETAPI UNTUK AGAMA BISA SAMPAI MILYARA SUMBANGANNYA, JUGA BILA UNTUK LIM M ORANG TIONGHOA PALING BOROS.

SAYA JADI INGAT TEMN DAN KEMUDIAN JADI FAMILI SAYA, IA DIPANGGILPOLISIS UNTUK SOAL HOTEL KELUARGANYA, IA KESAL KARENA DISURUH TUNGGU DARI PAGI SAMPAI SORE, PADAHAL BIASANYA TIAP PAGI KAPOLRES BILA DATANG SELALU TANYA AJUDAN ADA ORANG TIONGHOA? JIKA ADA SURUH MASUK DULUAN, TETAPI MENGAPA YANG INI TIDAK,SAAT SAYA TANYA IA KATAKAN INI TIONGHOA PELIT. MAKANYA JANGAN PELIT LAGI BILA ADA URUSAN BERI SUMBANGAN TETAPI SEKARANG TIDAK BOLEH LAGI KARENA AKAN DITANGKAP KPK.INI KEJADIAN SUDAH LAMA SEKALI HAMPIR TIGA PULUH TAHUN YANG LALU.ERA DIMA KORUPSI 30 % MASIH DIANGGAP WAJAR,MAKLUM SAAT INI GAJI MEREKA HANYA TUJUHBELAS RIBU RUPIAH SAAT ITU (SAAT INI SEKITAR TIGA JUTA SETENGAH SEBAGAI BANDINGANNYA,TETAPI KURS SAAT ITU SATU DOLLAR HANYA EMPAT RATUS RIBU RUPIAH,KALI SENDIRI KALAU BISA?SILAKAN SAYA BERI WAKTU SATUMENIT,TENTU BISAKAN PAPAKI KAKULATOR SJA)

Saya jadi ingat waktu test IQ diberi hitugan yang ditulis satuannya saja, bayak orang hanya siap satu lebar kertas dan banyak slahnya, saya siap tiga lembar dalam waktu yang sama dengan salah sangat minimal,rahasianya aya sudah biki curva grapfiknya lebih dulu mulai dari rendah naik dan mendatar ,ini kurava paling baik, dnri diisi hanya satuanya saja, memang kalau berhitu ,atau metametik keluarga saya lumayanlah kata orang, ayah saya berhitung pakai simpoa, di Medan saya lihat pedagang kertas disana hitung pakai simpua tetapi dengan jari kaki, saya tahu itu pura-pura saja sebenarnya ia sudah hafal.

Saya punya juga koleksi simpoa ,salah satunya milik ayah saya almarmu ,orang yang paling saya cintai didunia ini, jikabeliau masih hidup pasti saya akan berunding dan bwa ia ke jkarta dan menginap dirumah saya, tetapi almarhum pati tidak mau, ia selalu semangant kerja , sangat jujur sehingga waktu meninggal tak ada uang di brankasnya,hanya ada sedikit sekali di bank, rupanya beliau sudah menginvestasi seluruh kekayannya untuk Rumah da, perusahaan yang dimilikinya kongsi tiga dengan saudaranya, almarhum tak mau punya usaha lain,sama dengan saya selama masih Dinas tak mau ambil kerja lain,yang Nasib Orang Jurjur,pensiun selalu hidup sederhana,hanya punya rumah saja,tetapi anak-anak jadi orang semua,begitulah kira-kira sifat sebagian Orang tionghoa ,tetapi sebagian lagi malah sebaliknya ,pasti anda sudah tahu dan bnayak kita baca di surat kabar aat ini juga rasnya masih ada yang terlibat narkotik, yang miskin masih ada di Kalimantan Barat.

APA ITU LIMA “M “ATAO MO LIMO?

Cari sndiri kata anak saya awas ada anak kecil ????!!!

Hha//hhee…???!!!

Ah Sudah cape ,mau Tidur Lagi

siap ini ? kato urang awan sia urang cinoko?

jika tidk tahu nanti lihat sendiri !!!!! di museum Wan Li

Suilahkan lihat tayangan ini dengan saksama.

Jakarta Juni 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

Museumhistorytop5

In China

China’s Top Five Museums

By Ruona Feng

Print

“Give me a museum and I’ll fill it”, said Spanish Artist and Painter Pablo Picasso. Museums are three-dimensional encyclopedia. Visiting China museums is a great way to learn about China’s history and culture. Here CITS handpicked China’s top 5 museums for your reference.
Top 1: The Forbidden City

(Beijing Palace Museum)

 


The Forbidden City (UNESCO), situated north of the Tian’anmen Square, is historically and artistically one of the most comprehensive museum in China, and is world’s largest imperial palace complex. The yellow-glazed tiles and ancient relics in the Forbidden City make it easy to feel like you’re being transported back in time, when the city existed in all its imperial glory.
The Palace Museum in the Forbidden City has the country’s largest collection of ancient art works, some of which are invaluable national treasures. Art works in the museum’s collection total 1,052,653, including paintings, pottery, bronze wares, inscribed wares, toys, clocks and court documents.

 

 

 

 

The art collections of the Palace Museum (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyinGùgōng Bówùyùan), a national museum housed in the Forbidden City inBeijingChina, are built upon the imperial collection of the Ming and Qing dynasties. This collection was expanded in the 20th century with new acquisitions, transfers from other museums, and new archaeological discoveries.

 

The Palace Museum is housed in the Forbidden City, the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of BeijingChina. For almost five centuries, it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, and the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government.

Built from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms[1] and covers 720,000 square metres. The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture,[2] and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987,[2] and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world

 

The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection.

According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1.17 million pieces of art were stored in the Forbidden City.[6] In addition, the imperial libraries housed countless rare books and historical documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties.[7]

From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum’s collection.[8] After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing.[9] However, with the Communists‘ victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government underChiang Kai-shek ordered the evacuation of the pick of this collection to Taiwan. Of the 13,491 boxes of evacuated artefacts, 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. This relatively small but high quality collection today form the core of that museum.[10] More than 8,000 boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum.[10]

Under the government of the People’s Republic of China, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum’s collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public.[11]

In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial.[12] A Starbucks store,[13] which opened in 2000,[14] sparked objections [15] and eventually closed on July 13, 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.[16]

 

Collections[edit]

 

 

Interior of one of the many palace halls in the Palace Museum

Today, there are over a million rare and valuable works of art in the permanent collection of the Palace Museum,[17] 

including paintings, ceramics, seals, steles, sculptures, inscribed wares, bronze wares, enamel objects, etc.

According to an inventory of the Museum’s collection conducted between 2004 and 2010,

 

the Palace Museum holds a total of 1,807,558 artifacts and includes 1,684,490 items designated as

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Nationally Protected “Valuable Cultural Relics.”[18]

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

Ceramic collections

 

 

 

 

 

Yue sancai Tang

Ming

Replica ming

Compare with

 

the original Ming

(private collection)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

Painting collections

 

 

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

Bronze   collections

 

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

Timepieces collections

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

jade collections

 

 

 

The Foridden City Palace Museum

Palace artifact collections

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About 130 artifacts from the Forbidden City, China’s ancient imperial palace museum, started to greet the French public in the Louvre Museum on Monday in an exhibition that will run until Jan. 9, 2012.

 

 

 

 

 SORRY ILLUSTRATION NOT UPLOAD!

 

Show in teipeh

 

Ontario museum show

Toronto, Ontario – February 14, 2014­) As it launches its year-long Centennial celebrations, the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) unveils The Forbidden City: Inside the Court of China’s Emperors, presented by the Robert H.N. Ho Family Foundation with Manulife as Lead Sponsor. 

 

The exhibition is on display in the Garfield Weston Exhibition Hall fromSaturday, March 8 until Monday, September 1, 2014. Presented in collaboration with Beijing’s Palace Museum, the show brings to Canada for the first time approximately 250 treasures that were part of Chinese imperial life for five centuries in a city strictly off-limits to all but the emperor, his family, and his personal servants.

 

These objects are the relics of a momentous chapter in China’s long and fascinating history.

 

More than 80 of the exhibition’s objects, including textiles, calligraphy, paintings, and armour, have never before travelled outside the Forbidden City.

 

Complemented by stunning artifacts from the ROM’s own internationally celebrated Chinese collections, these objects tell captivating stories and reveal the fascinating characters that made the Forbidden City the centre of an immense empire for more than 500 years.

Due to the significant number of light-sensitive textiles and paintings, there will be an extensive rotation of objects half way through the exhibition’s engagement, presenting a new opportunity to experience the stories and exquisite objects of the Forbidden City.

“The ROM’s exhibition takes visitors on a remarkable journey to the heart of the Forbidden City — once off   limits to all but a privileged few,” said Janet Carding, ROM Director and CEO.  “Carefully selected by our

curatorial team, these extraordinary artifacts from Beijing’s Palace Museum will give visitors an inside view of life within the Forbidden City and immerse them in China’s rich history.  The exhibition is the centerpiece of the Museum’s Centennial, bringing to life our promise to connect our visitors with their communities, world, and with each other.”

The ROM has partnered with Beijing’s Palace Museum to create an exhibition that uncovers untold stories about life in the courts of the Chinese emperors.

Dr Chen Shen is the exhibition’s lead curator and the ROM’s Vice President, World Cultures and Senior Curator, Bishop White Chair of East Asian Archaeology.

He said, “This exhibition allows Canadians to see, for the first time, the finest objects hidden from view in the Forbidden City.  We have worked with our Palace Museum colleagues to develop untold stories about life in the courts of the Chinese emperors; ensuring ROM visitors will enjoy many of China’s national treasures, many of which have never left the palace. These objects — both luxurious and everyday — provide the unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the people who lived within the walls of the Forbidden City.”

In December 2012, Dr. Shen travelled to China with co-curator Dr Wen-chien Cheng, the ROM’s Louise Hawley Stone Chair of Far Eastern Art, and curatorial advisor Dr. Sarah Fee, the Museum’s Curator, Eastern Hemisphere Textiles and Fashion to spend time in the vaults of the Palace Museum and select the most compelling objects in the vast and storied collection.

Robert H. N. Ho, Founder of The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation, said

 

“The Foundation is pleased to presentThe Forbidden City: Inside the Court of China’s Emperors in Canada. Advancing the understanding and appreciation of Chinese culture is a key mission of our foundation.  Robust educational programming in support of the exhibition should encourage wider exploration by the public, especially teachers and students.  The Foundation is also proud to once again be working with the ROM, an outstanding institution which together with Beijing’s Palace Museum, has developed this wonderful exhibition, bringing to life the 600-year-old imperial palace and revealing for the first time many of its treasures and secrets. ”

 

The Forbidden City is a true celebration of Chinese culture and history,” said Nicole Boivin, Chief Branding and Communications Officer for the exhibition’s Lead Sponsor Manulife, “As a global company, Manulife is committed to engaging the international communities in which we live and work, including China where we’ve been operating since 1897. Partnering with the ROM to support this exclusive exhibit is an excellent way to honour the China-Canada Cultural Exchange and the ROM’s 100th anniversary.”

 

 

 

THE EXHIBITION

The ROM’s exhibition uncovers the stories of the Forbidden City and China’s last emperors who led their lives deep within the palace’s opulent interior. Through intimate encounters with everyday objects, visitors meet a cast of real characters, including emperors, court officials, concubines, and eunuchs — castrated men who served the imperial families. The ROM’s exploration of life inside the mysterious Forbidden City transports visitors through increasingly restricted areas — the palace’s great halls, grand courtyards, and intricate terraces and roofs, until visitors ultimately gain access to the most private space of all: the emperor’s personal study.

Upon arrival, before reaching the admissions desk, visitors are introduced to the Forbidden City in the exhibition’sPrologue.

 

An intricate model including many of the complex’s significant features is displayed in the Thorsell Spirit House, complemented by the one of the ROM’s most recent acquisitions — a yellow-glazed bowl, commissioned by Ming Emperor Wanli.

 

 

 

 

 

The colour yellow was strictly reserved for royal families and could not be used in any way outside the Forbidden City unless explicitly permitted by the emperor himself.

 

 

 

Cheng hua emperor plate

 

 

Hongzi emperor Bowl

I

 

Qing emperor bowl

 

 

Qing emperor plate

Chenglong emperor yellow dragon cup

Yongzheng emperor bowl

 

 

n the exhibition’s entrance, visitors gain information about the fascinating locale before progressing into The Outer Court, the official space where the emperor displayed his power only to those invited inside. In this, the exhibition’s largest area, ceremonial bells, suits of armour, weapons and large-scale paintings tell the story of the emperors’ governing and military battles. An exhibition highlight dates to the reign of Emperor Qianlong — a throne, symbolizing his authoritative power. This area also introduces visitors to the first of several characters, including Emperors Yongzheng and Qianlong, two of the most accomplished emperors of the Qing dynasty.

Visitors next enter The Inner Court, the residential space where only the imperial family and their eunuchs lived. Empress Dowager Cixi, a towering presence over the Chinese empire for almost half a century, is profiled in this section. Stunning gilt silver nail guards represent her. Up to six inches long, they protected the extremely long nails of imperial women — signifying their leisure status. Also on display are the opulent objects of the emperor’s everyday life including silk dog coats, gold eating utensils, and the last emperor’s gilt bath tub.

The exhibition’s climatic section takes visitors inside the Emperor’s personal spaces that were once forbidden to all but the emperor. As rulers, emperors were bound to strict institutionalized governance. However, their choices were their own in collecting and personal cultivation. This area showcases some of the most exquisite objects in the imperial collection including jades, calligraphies, and ceramics and an exceedingly rare porcelain “chicken” cup, commissioned by Emperor Chenghua for his mother; only two such cups exist today in the Palace Museum. In this section, a British-made musical clock and the character of a Western missionary represent the foreign dignitaries who gained access to the Forbidden City with gifts from their homelands  —  pieces much admired by Qing dynasty emperors.

Finally, Twilight of the Last Dynasty portrays the Forbidden City’s last chapter as it began its transformation to the Palace Museum. Here, visitors learn of the fall of the empire during the last dynasty and the imperial collection’s fate. The magnificence of imperial life is countered by the poignancy of the last emperor’s departure. As visitors are brought back to their own world, they gain an appreciation for the Forbidden City then and now.

THE FORBIDDEN CITY

China’s imperial palace, known to the world as the Forbidden City, was built from 1406 – 1420.  It was the center of government and home to China’s last 24 emperors of the Ming (1368 – 1644) and Qing (1644 – 1911) dynasties. Made up of about 980 buildings and 8700 rooms in over 90 architectural complexes, the Forbidden City remains to this day the largest palace complex in history. Once strictly forbidden to all but the emperors, their families, servants, invited guests, and most trusted officials, the palace gates are now open to all. 

THE PALACE MUSEUM

The Forbidden City became the Palace Museum in 1925, one year after the last emperor was forced into exile. Located in the heart of Beijing, the magnificent site spans over 720,000 square metres and houses the largest collection of China’s imperial treasures. Designated by China’s State Council as one of that country’s most important protected cultural heritage sites in 1961, it became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987. Today, it is considered one of the world’s most important museums. Popularly called The Forbidden City, it houses over 1.8 million art treasures spanning 5,000 years of Chinese history with many from the Qing imperial court.  It is one of the world’s most visited museums, welcoming a record 182,000 visitors on October 2, 2012.

THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM

The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) is Canada’s largest museum of natural history and world cultures. Opened to the public on March 19, 1914, the ROM is internationally renowned as a distinguished research institution. Today, in its Centennial year, the Museum houses collections of approximately six million artifacts and specimens. Through its eight Centres of Discovery, the ROM invites its audience to access the ROM’s encyclopaedic collections and curatorial expertise while enjoying engaging exhibitions, programming, lectures, school visits, and digital engagement. 

THE FORBIDDEN CITY PROJECT ADVISORY COMMITTEE

The Forbidden City Project Advisory Committee has assembled a diverse group of influential community leaders to advise the ROM on the exhibition and programming, while creating partnerships in many communities.  It is co-chaired by Dr. Ming Tat Cheung, President and Chair of the Chinese Cultural Centre and Dan Rahimi, ROM Vice President, Program.

 

 

  • The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1.17 million items were stored in the Forbidden City. However, some of these items were shipped to Taiwan when the Japanese invaded in 1933.
    The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. These include imperial collections from the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 items of paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). This is the largest such collection in China. The Palace Museum’s bronze collection dates from the early Shang Dynasty (founded c. 1766 BC). Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1,600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). The Palace Museum also has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1,000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace’s own workshops, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. You’ll have to pay extra to see some of the palace museum collections such as the clocks which are well worth visiting.

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The Palace Museum

by Anjin-san Written Sep 12, 2008

4 more images

The Palace Museum, historically and artistically one of the most comprehensive Chinese museums, was established on the foundation of the palace that was the ritual center of two dynasties, the Ming and the Qing, and their collections of treasures. Designated by the State Council as one of China’s foremost protected monuments in 1961, the Palace Museum was also made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987. 


Situated at the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum is approached through Tiananmen Gate. Immediately to the north of the Palace Museum is Prospect Hill (also called Coal Hill), while on the east and west are Wangfujing and Zhongnanhai neighborhoods. It is a location endowed with cosmic significance by ancient China’s astronomers. Correlating the emperor’s abode, which they considered the pivot of the terrestrial world, with the Pole Star (Ziweiyuan), which they believed to be at the center of the heavens, they called the palace The Purple Forbidden City. The Forbidden City was built from 1406 to 1420 by the third Ming emperor Yongle who, upon usurping the throne, determined to move his capital north from Nanjing to Beijing. In 1911 the Qing dynasty fell to the republican revolutionaries. The last emperor, Puyi, continued to live in the palace after his abdication until he was expelled in 1924. Twenty-four emperors lived and ruled from this palace during this 500-year span.

 

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The Palace Museum

by y_lyn Updated Jun 18, 2007

This magnificient palace was once the home to a long line of emperors. It was located right at the core of Beijing which is believed to have the best fengshui in Beijing City. Now, the Purple Forbidden City (Now no longer “forbidden” to commoners like us) is known as the Palace Museum. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.

Now Called the Palace Museum

by bsfreeloader Written May 23, 2007

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Hoping to leave China on a positive note, I intentionally saved my visit to the Palace Museum (formerly known as the Forbidden City) until the very end. Unfortunately, like China in general, the Forbidden City was rather disappointing. The architecture was so similar to that of similar buildings of the time to be unremarkable, two of the main buildings were undergoing major restoration work (the Gate of Supreme Harmony and the Hall of Supreme Harmony), the place was heaving with pushy and inconsiderate tourists, and the touristy nature of the entire thing made it all seem a bit tacky. Since most of the tourists were traveling with guides, it was possible to escape the masses. And some of the permanent exhibits are definitely worth seeing. But I’d hardly rank a visit to the Forbidden City as a lifetime “must-do.” If you decide to visit, be prepared to shell out Y60 for an entrance ticket and another Y40 if you want the automatic audio-tour (the tour provides perhaps 15 to 20 percent more information than what can be found on the signs).

Palace Museum

by limledi Updated Jan 4, 2007

The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing Dynasties. The Forbidden City is located in the middle of Beijing, China. It is now known as the Palace Museum.
The Forbidden City is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 as the “Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.”

Forbidden City@Palace Museum

by savitha Updated Jul 9, 2005

The Forbidden City, called Gu Gong, in chinese was the imperial palace furing the Ming and Qing dynasties. 
It is now known as the Palace Museum and is on the North of Tianenmen Square.
This is the world’s largest palace and covers an area of 74 heactares.

 

Forbidden City

by xiquinho Updated Sep 11, 2004

The Palace Museum, historically and artistically one of the most comprehensive Chinese museums, was established on the foundation of the palace that was the ritual center of two dynasties, the Ming and the Qing, and their collections of treasures. Designated by the State Council as one of China’s foremost protected monuments in 1961, the Palace Museum was also made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987. 
Situated at the heart of Beijing, the Palace Museum is approached through Tiananmen Gate. Immediately to the north of the Palace Museum is Prospect Hill (also called Coal Hill), while on the east and west are Wangfujing and Zhongnanhai neighborhoods. It is a location endowed with cosmic significance by ancient China’s astronomers. Correlating the emperor’s abode, which they considered the pivot of the terrestrial world, with the Pole Star (Ziweiyuan), which they believed to be at the center of the heavens, they called the palace The Purple Forbidden City. The Forbidden City was built from 1406 to 1420 by the third Ming emperor Yongle who, upon usurping the throne, determined to move his capital north from Nanjing to Beijing. In 1911 the Qing dynasty fell to the republican revolutionaries. The last emperor, Puyi, continued to live in the palace after his abdication until he was expelled in 1924. Twenty-four emperors lived and ruled from this palace during this 500-year span.

Palace Museum – Forbidden City

by magor65 Written Jul 21, 2004

While walking around Forbidden City I tried to imagine the life of an emperor, surrounded by his eunuchs. The names of palaces and other buildings suggest contemplation and peacefulness. Palace of Highest Harmony, Gate of Heavenly Purity, Palace of Peaceful Longevity are just a few examples. But in fact the court life was full of intrigues, fear and even murders. The emperor had jade seals with names of his concubines. If he displayed one of the seals the eunuch on duty had to bring the concubine immediately. She was brought naked ( to prove that she had no weapons) in a rolled carpet.

The Palace Museum Complex

by kdoc13 Written May 12, 2004

The Forbidden City is everything you imagine it to be. It is a palace the likes of which you have never dreamed of, a garden which is so different from anything you could imagine, and a story tragic enough to be legend. 
The forbidden city was the traditional hoe of the emperors of China. You can visit the web page for all of the information. Just know it was built in 1420 and was extravagant still, when I saw it in 2001. City is a correct term for it, because there are so many buildings, it could take you weeks to go through each one.
 
The best way to get there is to sign up for a tour through your hotel.

The Palace Museum

by antoine2000 Written Sep 23, 2003

This is a vast space of temples, buildings and marble. An awesom place to visit.
Take the ‘audio’ tour which is provided by Roger Moore – we couldn’t giggling at first when we heard his voice, but it’s cool!

Forbidden City/Palace Museum

by Scottyj36 Written Feb 13, 2003

This is a large place with over 800 rooms. Not all rooms are open to the public. This is where most of China’s treasures were kept , and where the emporer lived. There is a guided tour by “James Bond” Rodger Moore narrates with a little set you can rent when you enter the Forbidden city. There are several palace rooms with throns that the emporer sat in. Lots of gold. 
Admission is 60RMB and the hours are 8:30am-5:00pm summer and 8:30am-4:30pm winter.

Palace museum

by tuff Written Jan 24, 2008

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It’s not forbidden anymore. This is the former palace turned into museum, it’s a huge complex with incredible architecture and landscape. Just look at the details in the buildings.

PRICELESS SONG PORCELAIN BROKEN AT CHINA’S PALACE MUSEUM

 
The Palace Museum in Beijing has confirmed a claim made by a netizen that a priceless porcelain. dating from the Song Dynasty (960-1279) has been broken.

 

Long Can disclosed on Sina Weibo, China’s equivalent of Twitter that an item of Ge porcelain ware, one of 1,106 pieces of first-grade porcelain in the Palace Museum, was broken into six pieces by a staff worker, according to Jinghua Times in Beijing. [Source: J. L. Young, Want China Times, July 31, 2011, Leo Lewis, Times of London, August 2011]

 

 After the message was posted on Weibo, it was reposted by tens of thousands of netizens over the course of a few hours. Following this, the museum made an announcement that the porcelain ware was broken into six pieces by a staff worker who was doing non-destructive analysis and testing. The plate was in the jaws of precision testing which the worker accidently programmed to squeeze too hard. The announcement also said that right after the incident happened, all the testing works were stopped and the incident was reported to the authority. Many netizens suspected that the museum intended to conceal the fact, not wishing for a repeat of the embarassment when a thief made off with a number of watches from a visiting exhibition.

 The broken work was a celadon-glazed masterpiece from the Fe Kiln. The worker who broke its is said to have a Mster’s degree and seven years experience in the labratory.

Experts in Chinese antiques have estimated that the price of a well-preserved porcelain ware from Ge kiln is worth over 100 million yuan (US$15,530,000). In a 2008 auction at Sotheby’s in Hong Kong, a Ge porcelain counterfeited during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) was sold for 3.28 million yuan (US$509,710).

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Finding Art in China

 The large numbers of construction projects in recent years have helped archeologist unearth all kinds of things. An art historian told the New York Times, “It is almost impossible to dig anywhere in China without finding something: even if you have a little plot of land behind your house you ca’t do gardening without this stuff spilling out.” There are laws in place in many places that require developers to have archeologist check for ancient remains before a factory or building can be built.

 So many great treasures are being unearthed in China that the China Daily News yawned “Just Another Wonder” when some excellent Tang dynasty bronzes were unearthed near Xian and perfectly preserved string and percussion instruments from a nearly whole 5th century B.C. orchestra were discovered.

 Many priceless items have also been lost by negligence and ignorance. Farmers destroyed priceless 2,000-year-old Han lyres and flutes because they had “inauspicious” tiger motifs on them and pig keepers in Hengyang County destroyed sixty ancient tombs when they used the bricks from mausoleums to make pig sties.

Looting of Chinese Art

   
auction selling Summer Palace headsLooting is a serious problem in China. Looters have ravaged ancient tombs and archeological sites, taking priceless relics, armor, weapons, porcelain, bronzes, silk and ornaments. In many cases the looting is done by farmers, construction workers and criminal gangs. Many farmers have turned to looting because they make so little money from farming, their living expenses are high and looting presents an opportunity to make a lot of money quick that is hard to resist. According to one peasant saying: “To be rich dig up an ancient tomb; to make a fortune open a coffin.” Evidence of looting is founded in the flashy clothes and nice homes owned by former peasant farmers.

 Auctions, antique fairs and art galleries of filled with looted works. It is estimated that 80 percent to 90 percent of the Chinese art sold on the international market was somehow illegally obtained. Beginning around 1980, a stream of bronzes, ceramics and jades from Neolithic times to the 14th century began pouring into Western markets via Hong Kong. The objects originated on the mainland and most likely were looted from tombs. Over the years the amount of this kind of art available on the market has increased dramatically.

 The looted articles are usually taken to Hong Kong, where they are given fake histories and documentation. Much of the valuable stuff ends up at antique shops and galleries in Hong Kong or auction houses and top galleries in the United States, Europe and Japan. In Hong Kong it is possible to buy Tang celedons, Ming bowls, even 2000-year-old terra-cotta and neolithic figures. It is widely believed that items are smuggled out the country with the help of bribed local- and high-level government officials.

 By some estimates 300,000 to 400,000 ancient Chinese tombs have been raided in China in the past 25 years and 220,000 tombs were broken into between 1998 and 2003. Looting is particularly big problem around Xian, the home of the terra-cotta army and other archeological sites, and the city of Luoyang, the capital of at least nine dynasties. These areas are littered with imperial tombs that are mostly unguarded and easy pickings for looters.

 Sometimes the art is stolen outright from museums, temples, archeological sites or government warehouses that store art and artifacts. A stone-carving of Buddha purchased for $2 million and displayed at the Miho Museum, near Kyoto, Japan, was stolen from an office in Boxing County in Shandong province in 1994. In 1997, a gang of thieves used a diamond saw and sledgehammer to knock off the head of a 7th century Akshobhya Buddha, one of four large statues of Buddha at the Four Gate Pagoda in Shandong Province. The thieves were caught soon afterwards but the head disappeared. In February 2002, it turned up as a gift from loyal disciples to a 73-year-old Buddhist master and founder of a meditation center. The Buddhist master alerted authorities. In December 2002 the head was placed back on the torso it was knocked off of.

Looting Operations in China

 The looters usually work at night. It is not unusual for them to be half drunk. New recruits are often spooked about the idea of raiding tomb after a lifetime of listening to ghost stories. The work often involves tunneling. For those who go down the tunnels the work is very dangerous. It is not uncommon for the tunnels to collapse or the looters to be overcome by toxic fumes in the tomb. The looters who do the work are paid about $60 a night by middle men and dealers who make thousands of dollars off their work and have much fewer risks.

 Some of the looting operations can be quite sophisticated. In Xian a team of looters broke into the 2000-year-old tomb of the Empress Dou, a powerful Han dynasty dowager who died in 135 B.C., and made off with a huge cache of treasures. The tomb was located 131 feet below the surface inside a burial mound. With a tangon–a special shovel with a curved blade and steel screw-on handle extensions that can be used to extract sol samples from over 100 feet below the surface–the looters probed beneath the surface looking for things like charcoal–which ancient gravedigger placed around tombs for protection against moisture–to locate the best place to excavate. [Source: Time magazine]

 To reach the tomb the gang dug a 115-foot-deep tunnel. To help them get started they used dynamite to blast a small crater at the surface to speed up the digging process. They were careful not use explosives powerful enough to cause the roof of the tunnel to collapse. Members of the gangs and their gear were lowered into the tunnel with a rope. An air blower powered by a portable generator pumped in fresh air from the surface. To reach the tomb roof a breach tunnel was built off the main tunnel. Saws were used to cut through the wooden-plank roof of the tomb.

 Once inside the tomb the looters donned gas mask to filter out the stale air and toxic gases that have accumulated in the tomb as a result of decay. Without gas masks looters often pass out from the fumes. Police were alerting that looting was going on by villagers who smelled fumes from the explosives blown towards their a village. Three looters were arrested. Two got away. After the police left another gang penetrate into the tomb and made off with at least 2000 object, mostly ceramic statues (gold and valuable art is believed to be have carted away centuries earlier).

 Some of the pieces were found by customs during a routine check of new ceramics. Others made their way to New York and were pulled from a Sotheby’s auction just 20 minutes before bidding on them was to began. They were eventually returned. Other pieces undoubtably did find buyers.

Scale and Sophistication of Looting in China Increases

 The Guardian reported in January 2012, “ China’s extraordinary historical treasures are under threat from increasingly aggressive and sophisticated tomb raiders, who destroy precious archaeological evidence as they swipe irreplaceable relics. The thieves use dynamite and even bulldozers to break into the deepest chambers — and night vision goggles and oxygen canisters to search them. The artefacts they take are often sold on within days to international dealers. [Source: Tania Branigan, Guardian, January 1, 2012]

 Tomb theft is a global problem that has gone on for centuries. But the sheer scope of China’s heritage — with thousands of sites, many of them in remote locations — poses a particular challenge. “Before, China had a large number of valuable ancient tombs and although it was really depressing to see a tomb raided, it was still possible to run into a similar one in the future,” said Professor Wei Zheng, an archaeologist at Peking University. “Nowadays too many have been destroyed. Once one is raided, it is really difficult to find a similar one.”

 His colleague, Professor Lei Xingshan, said: “We used to say nine out of 10 tombs were empty because of tomb-raiding, but now it has become 9.5 out of 10.” Their team found more than 900 tombs in one part of Shanxi they researched and almost every one had been raided. Wei said precious evidence such as how and when the tomb was built was often destroyed in raids, even if relics could be recovered. “Quite apart from the valuable objects lost, the site is also damaged and its academic value is diminished,” he said.

 Wei and Lei spent two years excavating two high grade tombs from the Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou periods (jointly spanning 1100BC to 221BC) and found both had been completely emptied by thieves. “It really is devastating to see it happening,” Zheng said. “Archaeologists are now simply chasing after tomb raiders.”

 Experts say the problem became worse as China’s economy opened up, with domestic and international collectors creating a huge market for thieves. Zheng said a phrase emerged in the 1980s: “If you want to be rich, dig up old tombs and become a millionaire overnight.”

 According to AFP: “The demand for Chinese antiquities has exploded, helping propel Hong Kong to third spot in the global auction market behind London and New York as collectors slap down eye-popping sums for a piece of the country’s history. Helping drive the boom is a growing class of super-rich Chinese looking for opportunities to exploit their net worth while also “reclaiming” parts of Chinese history from Western collectors.Auction houses Sotheby’s and Christie’s together raised over $460 million from sales of Chinese antiquities and art works in 2011. [Source: AFP, February 2012]

Professional Looters in China

 Officials say tomb thefts have become increasingly professionalised. Gangs from the provinces worst hit — Shanxi, Shaanxi and Henan, which all have a particularly rich archaeological heritage — have begun exporting their expertise to other regions. One researcher estimated that 100,000 people were involved in the trade nationally.

 Wei Yongshun, a senior investigator, told China Daily in 2011 that crime bosses often hired experienced teams of tomb thieves and sold the plunder on to middlemen as quickly as they could. Other officers told how thieves paid farmers to show them the tombs and help them hide from police.

 Raiders return to a site repeatedly over months. In some cases, thieves have reportedly built small “factories” next to tombs — allowing them to break in without being noticed.

 Wei said: “Stolen cultural artefacts are usually first smuggled out through Hong Kong and Macao and then taken to Taiwan, Canada, America or European countries to be traded.”

Audacity and Destructiveness of Looters

 The sheer size as well as value of the relics demonstrates the audacity of the raiders — last year, the Chinese authorities recovered a 27-tonne sarcophagus that had been stolen from Xi’an and shipped to the US. It took four years of searching before China identified the collector who had bought the piece — from the tomb of Tang dynasty concubine Wu Huifei — for an estimated $1m (£650,000), and secured its return. [Source: Tania Branigan, Guardian, January 1, 2012]

 In a particularly alarming case last year, raiders simply bulldozed their way through 10 newly discovered tombs in eastern Jiangxi province. The Global Times newspaper reported that pieces of coffins and pottery and iron items were scattered across the ravaged site, which was thought to date back 2,000 years. Archaeologists said further excavation was impossible because the destruction was so bad.

Underwater Looting in China and Combating It

Lauren Hilgers wrote in Archaeology magazine: The biggest threat to underwater archaeology, Cui says, is the popularity of the artifacts such sites carry. Unblemished, authentic Ming Dynasty porcelain can command high prices from collectors, and thieves have learned to target sunken ships to find it. According to the archaeologists at Nan’ao, keeping the wreck well protected has been the key to their success. However, they are on-site only a few months a year. The rest of the time, Nan’ao Number One is under the watch of one determined local law enforcement officer. “If we had no Zhu Zhixiong, we would have no Nan’ao,” Cui says. [Source: Lauren Hilgers, Archaeology, September/October 2011]

Zhu, or Chief Zhu, as everyone on the boat calls him, is the head of Nan’ao Island’s maritime border control. He is perpetually in uniform and has a tendency to stare, earnest and unblinking, when speaking about the Nan’ao. “When the fishermen uncovered the porcelain they wanted to keep it,” he says. They discovered the Nan’ao’s treasures while diving off the coast of the island in 2007 and set about building their collection in secret, hoping to attract the attention of a buyer. Instead, tales of the stash reached Zhu. “We run a program where we reach out to the local people and they feel comfortable talking to us,” Zhu explains. “Somebody came to us and told us about the artifacts.” The border patrol confiscated the porcelain and Zhu did his best to explain to other fishermen that retrieving and selling the artifacts is against the law.

“We did’t do this for glory,” Zhu says. “We did’t know what was down there at that point. We do’t dive, we ca’t see under the water, but we know it is important to protect our national heritage.” Zhu dedicated himself to guarding a wreck he could’t see. “This is’t just a Chinese problem,” Zhu says carefully. “But thieves and treasure hunters are tireless.” At the Nan’ao wreck, Zhu set up 24-hour surveillance. “They will come at night or in bad weather, thinking you wo’t chase them. Some of them are very professional.” Some haul in diving gear and lights. Others are fishermen and experienced enough in the water to free dive 90 feet to the bottom. “One boat must have studied our habits and came in through an area we were’t patrolling. When we came with our boats they fled, but we saw, with complete clarity, where they were headed.” Zhu’s team called ahead to another guard base and caught the thieves.

Over the years, Zhu’s reputation has spread. Patrol officers say they are seeing fewer attempts every year. Still, says Zhu, you have to be vigilant. “You ca’t sleep if you want to protect our heritage,” he says. When Cui sees him on the deck of the Nan Tianshun, he gives him an affectionate pat on the shoulder and says, “Every wreck needs its own Chief Zhu.”

Combating Looting in China

 
looted Summer Palace headTo combat looting 1) auction houses and antiques dealers are required to reapply every year for their licenses; 2) motion sensors and satellite devises have been installed at archeological sites and places with a lot tombs; and 3) volunteers have been marshaled to guard the best-known sites. Chinese law forbids the export of art more than 200 years old. The looting problem is still serious but many believed its is not as bad as it once was. Smuggling and looting was at its peak in the late 198’s and early 1990s.

 Tania Branigan wrote in the Guardian, “Police have already stepped up their campaign against the criminals and the government is devoting extra resources to protecting sites and tracing offenders. This year it set up a national information centre to tackle such crimes. Spending on protecting cultural relics as a whole soared from 765m yuan in 2006 to 9.7bn in 2011. [Source: Tania Branigan, Guardian, January 1, 2012]

 The crackdown by authorities was helping to contain the problem to an extent. According to the ministry of public security, police investigated 451 tomb-raiding cases in 2010 and another 387 involving the theft of relics. In the first six months of that year, they smashed 71 gangs, detained 787 suspects and recovered 2,366 artefacts. Those caught face fines and jail terms of three to 10 years, or life in the most serious cases.

 Luo Xizhe of the Shaanxi provincial cultural relics bureau told China Daily: “If we do’t take immediate and effective steps to protect these artefacts, there will be none of these things left to protect in 10 years.” He said provincial and national authorities planned to spend more than 100m yuan (£10m) on surveillance equipment for tombs in Shaanxi over the next five years. But video surveillance and infrared imaging devices for night-time monitoring cost 5m yuan for even a small grave, he added.

 Local officials have insufficient resources to prevent the crimes and often do not see the thefts as a priority. Others turn a blind eye after being bribed by gangs. But international collectors bear as much responsibility for the crimes as the actual thieves: the high prices they offer create the incentive for criminals.

 Several looters who have been caught have received the death penalty. In 1987, some looters received the death penalty after they were caught trying to sell the head of one Xian’s famous terra-cotta soldiers to a foreign dealer for $81,000. In May 2003, three men were executed for plundering tombs dating back to 2,000 years.

 Many feel that most effective measure would be import ban on antiques in Europe, Japan and the United States. Many looted items are believed to end up on the United States. Beijing has repeatedly urged Washington to adopt a ban on imports of any art or artifacts predating 1911. Thus far Washington has not responded in part because of fierce objection by art dealers and collectors. Some would like to see tough measures taken in Hong Kong as well. Demonstrations have been held there calling for an end to auctions where looted mainland art is sold

Hunt in Foreign Museums for Art Treasures Taken From China

   
looted Summer Palace headIn late 2009, a delegation of Chinese cultural experts swept through American institutions, seeking to reclaim items once ensconced at the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, which was one of the world’s most richly appointed imperial residences until British and French troops plundered it in 1860. The delegation visited the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York with a crew from China’s national broadcaster filming the visit and fired off questions about the provenance of objects on display and requested documentation on a collection of jade pieces to show that the pieces had been acquired legally…But when nothing out-of-order was discovered the Chinese posed for a group photo and left.[Source: Andrew Jacobs, New York Times, December 12, 2009]

 Andrew Jacobs wrote in the New York Times, “ Emboldened by newfound wealth, China has been on a noisy campaign to reclaim relics that disappeared during its so-called century of humiliation, the period between 1842 and 1945 when foreign powers subjugated China through military incursions and onerous treaties. But the quest, fueled by national pride, has been quixotic, provoking fear at institutions overseas but in the end amounting to little more than a public relations show aimed at audiences back home.”

 “Stoked by populist sentiment but carefully managed by the Communist Party, the drive to reclaim lost cultural property has so far been halting. While officials privately acknowledge there is scant legal basis for repatriation, their public statements suggest that they would use lawsuits, diplomatic pressure and shame to bring home looted objects — not unlike Italy, Greece and Egypt, which have sought, with some success, to recover antiquities in European and American museums.”

 “The United States scouting tour — visits to England, France and Japan will come early next year — quickly turned into a spectacle sponsored by a Chinese liquor company. As for the eight-member delegation, a closer look revealed that most either were employed by the Chinese media or were from the palace museum’s propaganda department.

 But the 20-day spin through a dozen institutions has not been especially fruitful. Wu Jiabi, an archaeologist and the leader of the delegation, said that meaningful contacts were made but acknowledged that the group had not discovered illicit relics. The visit has had its share of mishaps. Not all the museums on the itinerary were prepared for the delegation. One stop, the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Mo., was scrapped after the group realized the museum was in the Midwest, not in the Northeast.

 The art experts whom the group met along the way offered consistent advice: the lion’s share of palace relics are in private hands, including those of collectors in Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China. The best thing would be to look through the catalogs of Sotheby’s and Christie’s, said a curator at the Metropolitan Museum.

 Although the Chinese public broadly supports recovering such items, a few critics have suggested that the campaign merely distracts from the continued destruction of historic buildings and archaeological sites across the country.A government survey released this month found that 23,600 registered relics had disappeared in recent years because of theft or illicit sales, while tens of thousands of culturally significant sites had been plowed under for development.

 What’s more, said Wu Zuolai, a professor at the China Academy of Art, the obsession with Yuanmingyuan ignores the plunder of older sites that are more artistically significant. Chinese history did not start with the Qing Dynasty, he said. This treasure hunting trip is just a political show. The media portray it as patriotic, but it’s just spreading hate.

 A researcher who was part of the delegation, seemed to admit as much, complaining that politics had upstaged scholarship. Even if he stumbled upon a palace relic, he said, he would be reluctant to take it back to an institution whose unheated exhibition space resembled little more than a military barracks. To be honest, if you leave a thermos in our office, it gets broken, he said.

Chinese Treasures Pose Ethics Issues for Smithsonian

 Kate Taylor wrote in the New York Times: “Amid mounting calls by scientists for the Smithsonian Institution to cancel a planned exhibition of Chinese artifacts salvaged from a shipwreck. The contents of the exhibition, “Shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds,” were mined by a commercial treasure hunter and not according to academic methods, a practice that many archaeologists deplore, equating it with modern-day piracy.” [Source: Kate Taylor, New York Times, April 24, 2011]

 “In an April 5 letter to the top official at the Smithsonian, G. Wayne Clough, a group of archaeologists and anthropologists from the National Academy of Sciences — including Robert McCormick Adams, a former leader of the Smithsonian — wrote that proceeding with the exhibition would ‘severely damage the stature and reputation’ of the institution. The members of the National Academy of Sciences are not alone. In recent weeks organizations including the Society for American Archaeology, the Council of American Maritime Museums and the International Committee for Underwater Cultural Heritage, as well as groups within the Smithsonian, including the members of the anthropology department and the Senate of Scientists at its National Museum of Natural History, have urged Mr. Clough to reconsider.” [Ibid]

 “The exhibition was conceived by the government of Singapore, which owns the artifacts, and Julian Raby, the director of the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the Smithsonian’s two Asian art museums. It is on display in Singapore through July and will then travel internationally. Although the Smithsonian says it has not made a final decision, the exhibition — which includes glazed pottery, rare pieces of early blue-and-white porcelain and the largest gold cup ever found from the Tang Dynasty (618-907) — is tentatively set to arrive at the Sackler in the spring of 2012. [Ibid]

 “The probable historical importance of the shipwreck, which was discovered by fishermen off Belitung Island in Indonesia in 1998, has only inflamed the debate. The ship, which is believed to be Arab, was filled with a cargo of ninth-century Chinese ceramics and gold and silver vessels. Its discovery suggests that Tang China had substantial sea trade with the Middle East; scholars had previously thought that the trade routes were primarily over land, along the Silk Road. [Ibid]

 “Archaeologists, however, say that because the shipwreck was commercially mined within a period of months, rather than the many years that a more structured archaeological excavation would have taken, much of the information it might have provided about the ship’s crew and cargo was lost. [Ibid]

 “Commercial treasure hunting is a high-stakes world. Companies sometimes spend millions of dollars searching for and mining a shipwreck and then cleaning up the finds in the hope of selling the artifacts for a huge profit at the end. The company that salvaged the Belitung wreck, Seabed Explorations, is run by a German engineer, Tilman Walterfang. In the early 199’s Mr. Walterfang was a director at a concrete company in Germany when his Indonesian employees’ stories about the rumors of shipwrecks lying on the bottom of the ocean in Indonesia prompted him to move across the world. [Ibid]

 “Although a 2001 UNESCO convention outlawed the commercial trade in underwater heritage, Indonesia has not ratified it. (Neither has the United States.) Indonesia allows commercial mining of shipwrecks as long as a company is licensed and splits its finds with the government. In an e-mail Mr. Walterfang said that when fisherman first discovered the shipwreck in early August 1998, the Indonesian government, fearful of looting, ordered Seabed Explorations to begin an immediate round-the-clock recovery operation. It started within days. Although Mr. Walterfang eventually brought in a pair of archaeologists, including one, Michael Flecker, who wrote two journal articles about the ship, Mr. Walterfang conceded that, from an academic standpoint, “the overall situation would without doubt be described as ‘less than ideal.’ “

 After fielding interest from China, Seabed Explorations sold the majority of the 63,000 artifacts recovered to a company owned by the Singapore government, for $32 million. The Indonesian government kept slightly more than 8,000 objects from this ship, along with $2.5 million and finds from another ship excavated by Mr. Walterfang. Some artifacts have ended up on eBay and other online sites; Mr. Walterfang said that these were probably looted by fishermen while the recovery process was halted for the monsoon season, between December 1998 and March 1999. [Ibid]

Shipwreck, See China

 Mr. Flecker, the archaeologist who studied the ship, argued in a 2002 article in The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology that the purist approach of many archaeologists was not practical in developing countries like Indonesia, where governments are poor and the risk of looting is high. In those circumstances, he wrote, archaeologists and commercial salvagers should cooperate “to document those sites and the artifacts recovered from them before too much information is lost.” [Ibid]

 “But in the eyes of archaeologists like James P. Delgado, the director of maritime heritage at the United States Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, allowing any of the finds from an excavation to be sold betrays the most basic aspects of research, in which “sometimes it’s the smallest things that we come back to that make the great leaps forward.” [Ibid]

 “Mr. Delgado said he wished the Belitung shipwreck had been academically excavated. But unlike some of his colleagues, he said that instead of canceling the exhibition, the Smithsonian could use it to educate the public about the consequences of the commercialization of underwater heritage. If, however, the exhibition merely celebrates the discovery without addressing the problematic context, Mr. Delgado added, “there will be a clear message to Indonesia” that these practices “are fine,” and to other countries with rich maritime heritage to “engage in these things and sell it off.” [Ibid]

Failed Sale of Bronze Heads from the Summer Palace

 
looted Summer Palace headIn March 2008, a big deal was made about the offering of a bronze rabbit’s head and a companion piece depicting a rat that were put up for sale at a Christies auction. The pieces had been stolen from the Summer Palace in Beijing, razed by French and British troops in 1860, and are regarded as stolen antiquities by the Chinese. They were owned by the late fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent.

A Chinese bidder, art dealer Cai Mingchao, claimed the bronzes with a $40 million bid and then said he no intention of paying. Acting on behalf of a nongovernmental group whose aim is to repatriate looted art, Ming said he bid on the bronzes as a patriotic act. Christie’s had put the the objects up for auction even though Beijing called the auction “illegal” and warned Christies not to proceed with it.

 The two bronze heads, which date to 1750, were part of a 12-animal water-clock fountain configured around the Chinese zodiac. It was located in the imperial gardens of the Summer Palace outside Beijing. Seven of the 12 fountain pieces have been found; the whereabouts of the other five bronze heads are unknown. “I think any Chinese person would have stood up at that moment,” Cai said of his bid, made by telephone through Christie’s. “It was just that the opportunity came to me. I was merely fulfilling my responsibilities…On moral grounds, and as a way to protest the auction…I want to emphasize that the money wo’t be paid.” [Source: Mark Mcdonald, New York Times, March 2, 2009]

 “ Cai said he did not have the money to pay for the two heads he bought. And it was unclear how he had been able to register as a qualified bidder. Kate Malin, a spokesperson for Christie’s in Hong Kong, said all potential bidders at major auctions are required to submit bank and credit information as part of a registration process. You ca’t just call up and say, ‘I want to buy a $20 million Picasso.’ she said. You have to provide satisfactory credit and bank information. Even established clients of an auction house have to provide further financial data if they want to participate in auctions of items that are likely to be substantially more expensive than their previous purchases.” The general manager of Xiamen Harmony Art International Auction Company in Fujian Province, in southeastern China, Cai paid a record $15 million in 2006 for a Ming Dynasty bronze Buddha statue.” [Ibid]

 “In the event of a winning bidder being unable or unwilling to pay, Malin said, the item in question does not automatically pass to the second-highest bidder. She said the auction house usually tries to reach a compromise solution between bidder and seller. She declined to say what might happen to the bronzes if Cai refused to pay.” [Ibid]

 “In the days leading up to the Christie’s sale, the Foreign Ministry in Beijing said the bronzes were part of China’s cultural patrimony and demanded their return. A group of Chinese lawyers tried to block the auction but a French court allowed the sale to proceed. The Western powers have plundered a great number of Chinese cultural relics, said Ma Zhaoxu, a ministry spokesman, quoted in the state-run newspaper China Daily. He said many relics had been looted from the Summer Palace in particular. Pierre Bergé, the French owner, of the statues defiantly told the government it could have the heads if it would observe human rights and give liberty to the Tibetan people and welcome the Dalai Lama.” [Ibid]

Earlier Sales of Bronze Heads from the Summer Palace

 In April 2000, two of the 12 zodiac bronze animal heads – the ox and monkey – were put on sale in Hong Kong. They were both successfully bought by the Poly Group, a People’s Liberation Army affiliated corporation and arms dealer based in Beijing, for HK$7 million (then $900,000) and HK$7.4 million respectively. At the time, critics questioned whether the bronze heads were worth such high prices and said Poly’s bids might raise the price for other heads from the same collection. But a representative of Poly Group said the bronze heads were invaluable ‘national treasures’ and that they hoped their move could cause the rest of the animal heads to surface for public sale. . More of them did soon appear at public auctions, and just a month after buying the the ox and monkey heads, Poly bought the tiger head at a public auction in Hong Kong, this time for HK$14 million. [Source: Wu Zhong, Asia Times, March 11, 2009]

 “In 2003, the National Treasures Fund of China, a quasi-governmental group, brokered a deal that brought one of the bronze fountain pieces — a pig’s head — back to China. With about $1 million donated by Stanley Ho, the real estate and casino billionaire from Macao, the head was purchased from an American collector, according to an account by Xinhua, the official Chinese news agency. Ho bought another — a horse’s head — for $8.84 million at an auction run by Sotheby’s in 2007. He subsequently gave the piece to China Poly, which owns a museum where it displays the Qing Dynasty bronzes.” [McDonald, Op. Cit]

 Niu Xianfeng, deputy director of the Lost Cultural Relics Recovery Program, said his group had tried to buy the rat and rabbit heads in 2003 but dropped the effort when the sellers, apparently representatives of Saint Laurent, who died in June 2009 , and Bergé, asked for $10 million for each head. [McDonald, Op. Cit]

Chinese Government Involved in the Sabotaged Sale of the Looted Bronzes?

 There was speculation that the sabotage of the auction had the backing of the Chinese government. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said Cai had acted without government approval, though he reiterated Beijing’s position that the bronze heads should be returned to China. Chinese officials attending the NPC and CPPCC annual sessions were grilled by the media on the scandal. [Source: Wu Zhong, Asia Times, March 11, 2009]

 Neither the Chinese government nor the general public made a fuss over Summer Place bronze head in Hong Kong auctions in 2000, 2003 and 2007. But Beijing and the Chinese public were indignant over the Paris sale. For one thing, the auction was like a slap in the face for China as the looting of Yuanming Yuan was carried out by French and British forces during the second Opium War in 1860. The Chinese people’s anger at the sale was heightened by the poor state of Sino-French relations. Beijing was angry over a recent meeting between French President Nicolas Sarkozy and the Dalai Lama last December. [Ibid]

 “For Chinese people, the looting and burning of Summer Palace is a shameful chapter of Chinese history, and the 12 bronze animal heads would be better classed as symbols of Chinese shame rather than ‘national treasures’. For, as many critics have pointed out, they are not so ancient when compared with other Chinese bronze relicts; nor are they really fine pieces of Chinese art, as they were in fact designed by Jesuit missionaries.” [Ibid]

 Many Chinese were taken aback aback what Cai had done. On the Internet, criticism of Cai is more harsh. “You said you did this on behalf of the whole Chinese people? How could you ever say this? We did not authorize you to act on our behalf,” said one blogger. “You seem to want to become a national hero. But what you have done shames our nation,” said another. [Ibid]

Fake Chinese Antiquities

 The market for Chinese antiquities has also generated a slew of fakes from con-men hoping to make big bucks. “There are many fakes on the market, and there are probably more now because the price of these antiquities have increased dramatically,” Tang Hoi-chiu, chief curator of Hong Kong’s Museum of Art, told AFP. “There are some very good copies out there.” [Source: AFP, February 2012]

 AFP reported: “The problem was highlighted again last month when questions arose about the authenticity of a jade dressing table and stool from the Han dynasty, which had fetched about $35 million at a mainland Chinese auction. Experts are now publicly questioning the piece since Chinese were believed to have sat on the floor, not stools or chairs, during the ancient period which ran from about 206 BC to 220 AD, the South China Morning Post reported.

 Facts and figures about the black market in antiquities are difficult to come by, although many fakes are produced in mainland China, said Rosemary Scott, international academic director to Christie’s Asian art departments. Scott has seen fakes many times larger than they should be and other amateur mistakes that can make determining authenticity a 30-second operation. “Some are absolutely dreadful and some are very good,” she said. “In one case, a person presented me with (a piece) that was taller than me when it’s only supposed to be a foot tall.” But other items can take weeks or longer to determine if they’re genuine, demanding a rigorous checklist, she said. Auction houses have even pulled items displayed in pre-sale catalogues when doubts about their authenticity lingered. “Our reputation is paramount – it’s what we stand by,” Scott said.

Auction Houses Outfox Chinese Antiquity Fakers

 Nicolas Chow places a magnifying glass against a Ming Dynasty vase to inspect the potter’s 600-year old workmanship. Chow, the international head of Chinese ceramics and works of art at auction giant Sotheby’s, points out layers of uneven bubbles invisible to the naked eye along the early 15th Century blue and white porcelain. The distinctive markings are just one tell-tale sign that experts rely on to determine if a piece is a multi-million dollar original or worthless fake. [Source: AFP, February 2012]

 “That happens in the firing process – they did not have an even temperature in (kilns) during the 15th century,” Chow said of the piece, which fetched nearly US$22 million at an auction in Hong Kong late last year, setting a world record price for Ming Dynasty porcelain. “The feel of the glaze is also incredibly important. Just running your hands over it will give you the answer. “Potters in the old days would do lots and lots of these, one after the other. They breathed it, they lived it. It’s very difficult for fakers to recreate… But there is still a degree of fear in the market.”

 Auction houses use various means including carbon dating to pinpoint a piece’s age, but that requires taking a value-denting sample and threatens to make an item less appealing to keen-eyed collectors. “You have to decide if it’s worth it because (carbon dating) could make the piece less aesthetically pleasing or just plain disfiguring,” Scott said. The art expert said she runs pieces through a slew of criteria before making a determination and often brings in colleagues to gauge their opinion. “Does it have the right shape?” she said. “Is it the right texture, the right colour, was it painted with the right kind of brush?”

 And when a piece fetches a giant price tag, auction houses are sure to be flooded with offers of similar antiquities, though most do’t pass muster. “Within a few weeks, we are being offered copies of that piece,” said Pola Antebi, head of Chinese ceramics and works of art at Christie’s Hong Kong. “The turnaround is pretty scary.” Complicating matters, some Chinese emperors ordered underlings to recreate works from earlier periods, which do not count as fakes, while there are also genuine pieces that have been retouched over the centuries.”That is a restoration issue, it is not an authenticity issue. But collectors prefer untouched, so something has not been altered in any way,” Antebi said, adding that retouching can slash a piece’s value by half or more.

 Most genuine works come from established collectors, but ordinary people also tap auction houses to authenticate pieces that may have been in their families for years, or ones they bought without first confirming their credentials. “People’s expectations of the value are quite high. So when you tell them (the piece) is not going to pay for school fees or their retirement, it’s terribly difficult,” Antebi said, adding that she delivers the news “as politely as possible.” Auction houses are also on the look out for phony collectors who “just ask too many questions” when they are told a piece is not genuine, suggesting they are trying to learn how to make a more convincing fake that will evade detection, Scott said.

 For Chow at Sotheby’s, spotting fakes means taking stock of every minute detail, although experts are not keen to reveal all their secrets for fear they could fall into the wrong hands. “But after some time you just get a feel,” Chow said. “If you lift 50 similar Ming vases and know this one is not the right weight, then you know something is wrong – it’s like your bag with and without a laptop,” he added. “I’m not saying fakers ca’t get one thing right, but to get it all right is really difficult.”

Copying Art in China


Copy artist Chinese artists working in factory-like conditions produce much of the world’s supply of copied Western art. They create reproductions of paintings by Van Gogh, Turner, Da Vinci, Klimt and others at a rate of several a day. China now dominates the under $500 art market the same way it dominates the toys, plastic goods and textiles industries. Works by Chinese artists have found their way into homes and markets around the globe, so much so that artists who sell their works at the Spanish Steps in Rome and along the beaches in Santa Monica feel threatened.

 China’s art schools churn out tens of thousands of skilled painters every year. Copying Western art is the only way many of them can earn a living from their art. Zhang Lining, an artist in Shenzhen, estimates he painted 2,000 Van Gogh before he reached age of 25. That is more than Van Gogh himself painted in his lifetime. Other artists produce landscapes and copies of famous paintings by other Western artists. They often work from post cards or art books. One told National Geographic, “I’d love to give up replication and follow my artistic dreams.

 Some 8,000 painters work in the Dafen Oil Painting Village in Shenzhen. Some are trained artists. Others paint by numbers and churn out 20 Van Gogh Sunflowers a day. These works are hung outside like laundry to dry and are sold for $3.50 a piece. Typically the artists are paid around $200 a month and given room and board. The cost of paints, canvas and other materials is minimal. The company that employs them sells the paintings for around $25, including the frames. Shipping charges are $1 per painting. In the United States they are sold to furniture stores or traveling commercial art sales for $35 to $40, with customers paying between $100 and $125 for them.

A copyist can earn $1,500 to $4,500 a year. Some artists specialize in painting their customers face’s with a Mona Lisa body.

 
Copy artist in Imperial timesIn 1989 Hong Kong art dealer Huang Jiang came to Dafen because the rent and labor were cheap. One of the largest painting operations in Dafen employs 300 people to copy paintings—100 “designers” who do the original work and 200 workers that mostly do the framing. There are even some assembly line operation with one artist specializing in trees, another flowers, and another skies. On copyright issues, one dealer told Reuters, “When leaders or cultural officials come, they say: “These items are copyrighted, so just do’t put them on top.”

 These days works by modern Chinese artists have become so popular and fetch such jaw-dropping prices at auction house that copy artists have become increasingly busy copying these works. An artist in Dafen that churns out works by Yue Minjun at a rate of about one every day or two told Reuters, “I have done hundreds of his paintings. Copies like this are’t really hard at all. It just takes time.” Art dealers in Dafen say that contemporary Chinese works now make up 10 percent to 20 percent of their sales.

 Describing a copy artists who worked out of a government-supported artist colony near Lishui in Zhejiang Province Peter Hessler wrote in The New Yorker, “She did’t have a favorite painter; there was’t any particular artist period that influenced her…The government had commissioned some European-style paintings of local scenery but Chen had no use for any of it. Like many young Chinese from the countryside she had already had her full of bucolic surroundings. She stayed in the Ancient Weir Village strictly because of the free rent, and she missed the busy city of Guangzhou where had previously lived.”

Image Sources: Palace Museum in Taipei ; Want China Times, Shanghaiist, Xinhua, Christie’s

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

 

Top 2: Taipei Palace Museum

Removal of the Imperial Chinese Art Collection to Taiwan

 
Shang ritual bronze from 
Taipei’s Palace MuseumThe collection at the Palace Museum in Taipei—regarded as the best collection fo Chinese art in the world—came from the Imperial collection of the last Qing emperors who resided in the Forbidden City in Beijing.

 

The collection was built up over a thousand years by the Song (A.D. 960-1279), Yuan (1279-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) emperors.

 

 Hundreds of thousands of rare and valuable pieces originally housed in the Forbidden City were secreted away to Taipei’s Palace Museum when Taiwan split from the mainland during a civil war 62 years ago.

The story o how that happened

 

begins in 1925,

one year after the Last Emperor Pu Yi was forced to move out of the Forbidden City, when the collection became a possession of the Chinese people.

 

Sun Yat-sen then ordered that the works from the Forbidden Palace be placed in China’s first public museum. The museum was only open for three years before the Japanese invasion of China in 1931.

 War and upheaval in China in the first half of the 20th century forced the entire collection to be moved several times.

First it was taken from Beijing to Nanking, then it was taken to Sichuan, where most of the collection was hidden in caves during the Japanese occupation.

 China still claims Taiwan as part of its own territory and insists the art at Taipei’s Palace Museum rightfully belongs on the mainland.

The mainland Chinese complain the objects in the Palace Museum in Taipei were looted by Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists and should be returned. However their presence in Taiwan during the Cultural Revolution no doubt saved many item from possible destruction by the Red Guards.

 Beijing’s Palace Museum lent dozens of items to Taiwan for an exhibition in 2009, but Taiwan is still hesitant to lend China artefacts out of fear that they will not be returned.

An official with Taiwan’s Palace Museum said the ownership concerns meant there were no immediate plans for an exhibition in China

 

Moving the Imperial Chinese Art Collection Around

 

The Imperial collection in the Forbidden City was placed in 19,557 filled boxes first taken from Beijing to Nanking via Chengchou, Hsuchou and P’uk’ou.

 

1933

The transfer of the art-filled boxes took from February to June 1933 and required five trains, each with 39 sealed cars. Because there was no place to adequately store the art in Nanking, the collection was moved to Shanghai, where it stayed until 1936 when it was taken back Nanking.

1937

 After the battle for Shanghai in August, 1937, which involved the Japanese, the collection was divided into three shipments that were taken by train, truck, steamboat and hand-towed barges to various points around China at different times, keeping one step a head of the wartime hostilities.

1938-1945

 

One shipment followed the Yangtze river inland, a second went south to Guilin and a third went north to Hsuchou, Xian, before all three were united again in Leshan in Sichuan province.

 China’s most valuable collection of art was hauled across rivers threatened with flooding and roads vulnerable to mudslides and landslides. Works were carried on the back of coolies and hidden in caves, temples and warehouses.

1945

When World War II was over the works of art were moved back Nanking. When the Communists threatened Nanking in early 1949, during their takeover of China, the collection was loaded onto three leaky freighters in Shanghai that sailed to Taiwan.

 The team that catalogued the works of art were under surveillance all the time. They were not permitted to be alone with the works of art and their uniforms did’t contain pockets.

 

The fact that nothing was lost or damaged during the collection’s odyssey is an achievement unequalled by any other museum in the world


The Taipei Palace Museum and the famous Forbidden City in Beijing are derived from the same institution. The splendid architecture of the structure is modeled on the Forbidden City in Beijing and incorporates elements of traditional Chinese royal design in feudal society.

 

Qiing red in glaze cover box

 

 

Qianlog jade carving

Qing bottle

 

 

 

Qianlog bowl

 

Qing dynasty

 

 



The Taipei Palace Museum houses large collection of priceless Chinese artifacts and artwork, including ancient bronze castings, calligraphy, scroll paintings, porcelain, jade, and rare books, many of which were possessions of the former imperial family.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The full collection, which consists of some 650,000 pieces, spans many dynasties. Each exhibit, however, puts on display only about 1,700 pieces at a time. At this rate, assuming a duration of three months for each exhibit, it will take 100 years to cycle through the entire collection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gold and glory of Khitan fill National Palace Museum The gold masks of the Liao Princess of Chen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zhouwejiu with cat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Song kuan ware

 

Southern Sung Kuan Ware

 

 

 

 

Ting ware

 

Song dynasty

 

 

Shang dynasty

 

 

Cheng hua bowl

 

 

Nothrn song

 

 

Qing imperial vase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tibet culture

 

 

 

 

 

ianlog vase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ivory balls

 

 

 

 

Top 3: The National Museum of China

 


The National Museum of China, a four-storeyed main building with two symmetrical wings, runs more than 300 meters north and south along the eastern side of Tian’anmen Square. The predecessors of the National Museum are two museums: the Museum of Chinese History and the Museum of Chinese Revolution, which shared the same building complex. The building was one of ten famous architectures built in 1959 to mark the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic. The Museum of Chinese History was in the South Wing while the North Wing housed the Museum of the Chinese Revolution. They were both opened to the public in 1961.

 

 

 

 

Many of the items on display are national treasures and precious rarities.

 


Top 4: Shaanxi History Museum

 

 


Built in traditional Tang architectural style, Shaanxi History Museum is a much modernized national history museum in China.
The museum treasures more than 370,000 cultural relics, all of which are unearthed in Shaanxi province, including relics made of stone, bone, bronze, terra-cotta, china, jade, gold, silver and also murals, seals, calligraphy and paintings, etc. These relics can be traced back from over 1 million years ago to the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and they reflect the history and people life in many aspects from culture, art to science etc. Most of the relics are rare old treasures in the world.
Top 5: Shandong Provincial Museum

 


At the foot of the Thousand Buddha Hill (Qian Fo Shan), Shandong Provincial Museum covers the nature and history of the ancient Qi and Lu States.

 


From intricate bronze wares, tourists can learn the customs of various dynasties, such as the worship of Shang Dynasty gods, ancestor worship in the Zhou Dynasty, and Han Dynasty human relationships. In the natural collections, specimens cover 200 species. Among them, fossils of trilobite, the Taishan swallow, the dinosaur, and so on, influence knowledge in ancient biologic and geographic fields.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

handong Museum, founded in 1954, is the first large-scale, provincial, integrated topographic museum in the People’s Republic of China.

It was established in two parts, the eastern part by the British Baptist missionary J. S. Whitewright in 1904 located in Guangzhi Temple in Guangzhi Temple Street, which used to be one of the earliest museums within the boundaries of China;

the western part in 1942 located in the World Red Swastika Society in Shangxin Street, which used to be the seat of a religious society which combines Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. The former site of the eastern part was turned to the natural specimen showroom, and the western part the historical relics showroom, when Shandong Provincial Museum was founded.

 

 

 

 

 

The Shandong Provincial Museum in the 1950s

The collections of Shandong Provincial Museum at its early establishment were mainly from the following sources. First, it took over the collections of bronze vessels, paintings and calligraphic works, and rare books from the former Gold Stone Collection Institute of Shandong Provincial Library; second, it took over the collections of animal and plant specimens, ancient fossils from the former Jinan Guangzhi Temple; third, it took over the collections of culture relics from the former Culture Relics Management Committee of the people’s government of Shandong liberated area during the period of anti-Japanese War and War of Liberation; what’s more, it took over some passed-on cultural relics donated by the civilians in 1950s and 1960s.

 

 

 

Shandong Museum, which was the only provincial-level museum agency in Shandong from the year 1954 to 1980, assumed the protection work of the cultural relics both on earth and underground in the area of Shandong, initiated many field survey, carried out a series of archaeological excavations, and collected a lot of precious unearthed cultural relics, enhancing the quality and quantity levels of the collections in Shandong Museum.

In August, 1991, the new museum at the north foot of Qianfo Mountain started building and completed in October, 1992. So far, it has developed to be a new type of provincial museum with rich local characteristics, becoming the center of collection and exhibition for the cultural relics. Its highlights include ceramics, bronzes, oracles, bamboo slips, inscriptions on pottery, clay seal, bulla, Han pictorial stones, works of paintings and calligraphy, and rare books

 

 

 

 

The Shandong Provincial Museum in the 1990s

In 2006, Shandong provincial Party committee and government put forward the strategic objectives to construct the culture-strong Shandong province, the construction of a new Shandong Museum was brought on the agenda again, which was a major decision of the Shandong provincial Party committee and government to implement the Scientific Outlook on Development, prosper the cause of culture in Shandong, step over from a province of rich culture sources to a culture-strong province. The foundation of the new site of the museum on the Jingshi Road was laid in December, 2007, which opened to the public since Nov. 16th, 2010. Three years later, a modern museum of clear local characteristics was standing in the center of Jinan, with the main building area being of 82,900 square meters in size, and 74 meters in height. The completion of the new Shandong Museum signals a new era for the development of museums.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The new Shandong Museum not only bears the 100-year history of the museum itself, but also the confidence to flourish the course of museum by the constructors of the new museum and museum colleagues. Under the correct leadership of the Shandong Provincial Party committee and government, and the support of all social circles, Shandong Museum will carry out all the duties regarding collection of cultural relics, study and research, and exhibition, etc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Shandong museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gaotang collection

 

 

Han dynasty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient coin

 

Shanghai national museum

Chinese export ceramic

In british museum

 

Chinese ceramic in new York museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top 10 private museums in China

by LEIGH LI on Aug 14, 2013 • 13:29No Comments

Visiting museums is a good way to know the culture of that place. China’s long history has resulted in numerous cultural relics which are held in both public and private museums throughout the country.

You can find the public museums in the city guide, but you may miss the private museums which have their own unique characteristics. In this article, we will recommend you the top 10 private museums in China.

  1. Sihai Teapot Museum (Shanghai)

The museum was founded in 1987 in Shanghai by Xu Sihai, a famous teapot collector and purple clay artist. It was the China’s first private museum and was established with the aim of promoting Chinese tea culture. The museum holds more than 300 teapot relics which range from the Neolithic Period to modern times, showcasing China’s long and illustrious history of teapot making.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Huayun Museum (Tianjin)

Huayun Museum, Tianjin’s first private museum, was dubbed “the edible museum” by the celebrated writer Feng Jicai, appropriate as it is located inside a Cantonese-style restaurant. Zhang Lianzhi, the restaurant’s boss established three museums in which he put 3,000 of his privately-owned pieces. The museums are Huayuan Museum which features bronze ware, stone tablets and stone carvings; Juanzhen Museum, which focuses on the furniture of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and Guya Museum, which focuses on modern firearms.

  1. Bao Wanrong’s Museum of Peking Opera Costumes (Shanghai)

 

Bao Wanrong (包畹蓉) is a famous Peking Opera artist and collector. He studied opera with many well known artists, including Xun Huisheng, one of the four great 20th century performers of the Dan (female characters) in Beijing Opera. He has collected, designed and made more than 2,000 Peking Opera costumes, including robes, skirts, garments, trousers and amices, including the costumes of Mei Lanfang and Xun Huisheng, which promote the glorious traditional culture of Peking Opera.

  1. Shilong Museum (Dongguan)

 

Located in Shilong Town of Dongguan City in Guangdong Province,

 

Shilong Museum is a non-profit cultural organization which focuses the development history of Shilong Town and furniture of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Covering an area of 800 square meters, the museum boasts 500 collections including fossils, stamps, jade articles, porcelain and pottery, as well as a variety of precious furniture from the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  1. Xi Bao Lou Celadon Museum (Shenzhen)

 

 

 

Located in Luohu District of Shenzhen, the museum is the biggest celadon museum in China, holding the largest and widest collection of celadon objects. Covering more than 2,000 square meters, the museum boasts more than 1,000 objects and more than 2,000 ceramic chips from famous kilns. The objects are displayed according to four different stages: Initial stage, development stage, prosperous stage and decline stage. The collection spans more than 3,500 years and 20 dynasties. It is perhaps the Mecca for the study of celadon in China.

  1. Jianchuan Museum Cluster (Chengdu)

Located in Dayi County of Chengdu City,

The entrance to the Jianchuan Museum Cluster shows off the museum’s revolutionary China theme. A 1955 J-5 Chinese fighter plan built by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation greets the visitors who are given an option between a three-day pass or a single museum pass.

 

 

it is the largest museum cluster in China. Its 25 museums and two theme squares were designed by famous domestic and international architects.

Featuring more than 10 million cultural relics, the cluster boasts 121 class-one national treasures — China’s highest ranking in terms of rarity and importance, making it one of China’s foremost private museums.

It features the precious Anti-Japanese War relics, a Wenchuan Earthquake exhibition and various cultural relics such as brush pot hall, three-inch “golden lotuses” (women’s bound feet in the feudal age) hall and a 100 year-old photo hall.

  1. Museum of Ancient Pottery Civilization (Beijing)

The museum is located near the Beijing Da-Guan Garden, lending it an air or originality and tranquility to go with its decidedly antique flavor. The Museum of Ancient Pottery Civilization specializes, unsurprisingly, in pottery culture. The culture relics it preserves include more than 100 ancient painted pottery relics from the Neolithic Age and potter from the Zhou, Qin and Han Dynasties. It also holds more than 300 circular façade tiles from the Warring States period and Qin and Han Dynasties, as well as more than 1,000 lutes from the Qin and Han Dynasties. The museum also features a further 2,000 pieces of ancient pottery.

  1. Guanfu Museum (Beijing)

Guanfu Museum is an art museum founded in 1996 in Beijing by Ma Weidu. The museums main attractions are its ceramics hall, furniture hall, oil painting hall and doors and window frames.

 

 

The museum focuses on cultural relics from the Ming and Qing dynasties.

It also has a number of striking excellent theme exhibitions, including blue and white porcelain from the late Ming and early Qing dynasties,

 

writing materials from ancient China,

 

metalwork from ancient China and doors and windows from ancient China.

  1. Jinquan Coin Museum (Xi’an)

Jianquan Coin Museum is the first private museum in China to focus on coins. It is also the first private museum in China to gain membership of the International Council of Museums. The first branch of the museum was established in 2002 in Xi’an, and there are now three additional branches in Beijing, Shanghai and Xiamen. Each museum has its own characteristics. For example, the Beijing branch features more than 6,000 types of coins, ranging from money cowry (shell money) from the Neolithic Age to paper money from the Republic of China era. The Xiamen branch focuses on currency which features the characteristics of southern Fujian.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. China Rosewood Museum (Beijing)

Chen Lihua, founder of the Fu Wah Group invested 200 million RMB in the establishment of the China Rosewood Museum, which opened in 1999.

 

 

It is the largest museum in China focusing on red sandalwood artworks. The museum has nearly 1,000 precious pieces, including furniture from the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, it has on display a gorgeous replica of the Palace Museum, as well as the traditional quadrangle dwellings of Beijing and memorial archway of Longquan Temple. All of the exhibits are made of high quality imported rosewood. Visitors can also take the opportunity to watch the production process of traditional Chinese furniture and marvel at the exquisite skills on display.

 

 

KATA PENUTUP

 

Bagaimana sudah tahu mengapa ini bagian terakhir ? jawaban sebenarnya ada dua, satu empat dalam bahasa tionghoa si artinya mati jadi bawa sial, dan keduan agar saya tidak menambah lagi bab pengantar agar anda tidak bosan.

Ha..hha..hee…!!!????

BAGAIMANA DENGAN MUSEUM WANLI

SILAHKAN LIHAT SBAGIAN KOLEKSINYA DALAM BAB SELANJUTNYA

Selamat membaca semoga pusas….puas… seperti sesudah ?????? jawab sendiri !!!!!!!!

Salam dari Penulis

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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