KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOKYANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA(BAGIAN KE 6)

INI CONTOH INFO YANG ANDA DAPAT LIHAT DI MUSEUM LELUHUR INDONEIA WANLI SECARA LANGSUNG, CUPLIAKN INI TANPA ILUSTRASI.

MUSUEUM HANYA UNTUK KOLEKTOR BNAFIDE BUKAN UNTUK PEDAGANG

JIK ANDA INGIN MELIHATNYA

 

HARAP HUBUNGGI

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

The Yuan Ceramic History Cololection

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2014

 

 

 

Introduction

I have just read a best info related with the Yuan Ceramic written By Mr Koh,Seaceramic and before I have written about the Yuan Ceramic History Collections.

Beside the best info above I just found the yuan ceramic collection from Alain web blog.

I hope after read this twoo best articles and added the value of yuan ceramic from auction the collectors will understand about the yuan ceramic,the best ceramic in the world.

Jakarta,October 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

THE STUDY OF YUAN CERAMIC HAPE

 

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

 

Source

Yuan Period

During the Yuan period, cizhou, Jun and Longquan wares continued to supply traditional products to large  part of the domestic market.

The most important development was the increasing importance of Jingdezhen as a center for porcelain production. 

An indication of its importance was the setting up of  the official Fuliang porcelain bureau (浮梁瓷局) in A.D 1278 whose functions included supervision and management of  porcelain production in Jingdezhen for official use.

Building on the foundation of Qingbai, Jingdezhen also developed the shufu wares.  But the most important event was the creation of Yuan blue and white wares and underglaze copper red decoration.  The blue and white displaced cizhou iron brown decoration as the main stream underglaze decoration in Ming and Qing Dynasty.  This is such a popular product that many people actually equate Chinese ceramics with blue and white.

Yuan court continued the Song policy to encourage overseas ceramics trade.  Longquan celadon was enormously popular as can be seen by the large quantity found overseas and in the number of Yuan longquan kilns sites.   Jingdezhen Qingbai/shufu and blue and whites were also important export items.

 

 

 

 

Extreme rare Yuan stemcup red in glazed with phoenix ddesign

Source Erwanto Aceh

Ini stem cup dinasti yuan merah dalam glasir dengan desain dua burung phoenix, ini sangat langka saya belum pernah melihat yamg seperti ini, yang saya miliki vase dan botol yuhunchupping baik rusak maupun mulus. Ini boleh di jual liwat lelangan Christies Hongkong, harganya bisa diatas seratus juta rupiah bila asli, kelihatannya asli tetapi lebih mantap jika ada sertifikat chriestie, nanti bila ada pameran keramik internasional di Singapura bisa diminta grading priginal dan estimate price, Ini mungkin hadiah dari kaisar dinasti Yuan mongol Kublai Khan kepada ratu aceh (phoenix lambang ratu ), mungkin dibawa bersama loceng besar yang sekarang ada di Bandar aceh.

(Dr. Iwan Suwandy)

 

 

Base of red in glazed like the repro yuhunchuping .

Erwanto Aceh

Ini vase yuhunchuping era diansti Yuan, seperti stem cup sebelum ini yang sudah diupload, melihat dasarnya kemungkinan besar ini repro karena dibandingkan milik saya , dasarnya tanpa glasir dan pingirannya merah pembakaran tinggi dan sangat halus lukisannya , jarang ada yang mulus sekali kebanyakan retak aatau putus kepalanya, makanya anada harus sabar untuk nanti bila ada pameran di singapura bisa minta sertifikat, saya sarankan sebaiknya bila beli dengan harga mahal sebaiknya minta sertifikat, jika harga murah sampai dua juta rupiah boleh beli kaerna barang merahdalam glasir baru saat ini disebut replica banyak juga peminantnya,harganya sampai dua juta juga.

Sebaiknya anda pergi ke museum mungkin disana aada contoh yang asli.lihta di CD-Rom saya ada contohnya.

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 

 

 

Sumber ERwanto Aceh

Ini vase untuk bungga yang ditaruh diatas meja sembahyang, dari desain dan tehnik lukisan dari diansti Yuan mongol mungkin dibawa sebagai hadiah oleh para jendral kaisar Mongol Kublaikan sbelum menyerang kerajaan singosari,sama dengan koleksi keramik yuan lainnya, dari dasarnya kelihat asli,tetapi warnanya terlau putih,yang saya punya dengan bentyuk vaze warnanya abu0abu atau putih kebiruan, lukisannya sangat halus, jika alsi harhanya bisa sampai satu juta US Dollars, tetapi saya tidak dpat memberikan jaminan keaslian selain tidak lihat langsung dan adanya perbedaan warna,dan saya belum pernah lihat dan menemukan vase seperti ini, dari lelangan internasional saya ada lihat tetapi warnanya abu-abu seperti tahu, mungkin saja ini dari anamese Vietnam yang bayak dieksport ke Turki dan orang turki membawanya ke Aceh, jadi terpaksa harus sabar lagi,cari kesempatan ke Singapura, bawa foto ini di IPod,lihatkan disna,dan mninta sertifikat,karena barang diatas dua ratus dollars ,umumnya orang asing minta sertifikat, koleksi ini harus disimpan sebagai pembanding bila ditemukan seperti ini lagi, tehnik lukisan dan warnanya mirip piring jadi piring itu juga mungkin asli dari Vietnam kerajaan anamese.

(DR Iwan Suwandy)

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

Ini mangkuk juga sama dengan vase yang diupload sebelum ini, melihat dasarnya kelihatan asli dari era dinasti Yuan, dan mangkok kerajaan hadiah untuk ratu dilihat dari desain burung phoenix, dan saya tetap berangapan ini mangkuk anamese Vietnam era diansti mongol yuan,yang dihadiahkan ke Turki dank e aceh. Tetap harus diminta sertifikat karena saya belum dapat memastikan keasliannya tanpa melihat langsung koleksi ini, jangan dijual simpan, harga yang asli 30 juta rupiah.

(Dr Iwan suwandy)

 

 

 

 

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

Ini mangkok gambar bebek sari dinasti yuan,tetapi desain ,tehnik dan wanrna tidak sama dengan dinasti Yuan, seperti mangkuk phoniex yang diupload d sebleum ini, kemungkinan ini dari Anenamese Vietnam era yuan yang diahdiahkan ke Raja Turki dan kemudian dihadiahkan lagi ke sultan Aceh, saya sarankan tetap harus diinta sertifikat, karena perbedaan warna dan saya punya yang palsu sekitar tahun 1985,dengan desain sama tetapi berbentuk piring besar.

Jadi memang harus hati-hati beli koleksi keramik era dinasti yuan yang sangat langka, jika asli harganya 30 juta rupiah.

(Dr Iwan Suwandy)

 

 

 

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

Setelah melihat dan memeriksa lagi sleuruh koleksi keramik era dinasti Yuan Mongol yang telah anda upload sebelum ini, yang ceret ini jelas sekali ini barang baru,terlihat sekali daar,tehnik dan bentuknya yang sangat kaku, saya juga punya mirip ini yang palsu dulu saya beli di Padang tahun 1984, saya punya yang asli, memang anda sebaiknya luangkan waktu datang ke Jakarta atau saya diundang ke Aceh, agar anda tidak terbeli lagi barang baru, keramik koleksi yuan anda umumnya baru harganya sekitar dua sampai tiga juta rupiah.

(Dr Iwan suwandy)

Very pity to much repro circulated at Aceh since many tourist vist sabang after tsunami, many fake ceramic there, all my friend very carefully buy keramik ata Bandar aceh and sabang, If you want to find the original beramic visit Lhoseumawe or meulaboh,and other small city and did not buy at shop,buy from the village’s people only

(DR Iwan Comment)

Jun Wares

During the Yuan period, Jun ware grew in popularity in Northern China. The number of kilns making Jun wares was enormous covering Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia .  The vessels consisted of mainly bowl, plates and with small number of jars, censers and vases.  Interestingly, no Jun wares was excavated in region south of the Yangzi river.

They were essentially made for use domestically in Northern China. Yuan Jun vessels are typically heavily potted and have unglazed footring and base.

One rare exception of Southern China Jun produced during the period was  in Zhejiang Jinhua region.  In the Sinan shipwreck, there were some Jun wares which were from Jinhua Tiedian kiln (华铁店窑).

 

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen this type in Indonesia

 

Cizhou wares

Cizhou wares continued to enjoy popularity in Northern China and mainly produced for domestic use.  However, some were also exported overseas and were excavated in Southeast Asia countries.

The main decorative style was underglaze iron-painted black/brown motif.

Dr Iwan Comment

I have found this type at west borneo Tanjungpura site Ketapang near Pawan River.

 

Longquan Wares

Longquan celadon reached the peak of its production during the Yuan dynasty.  It is characterised by the production of large vessels such as large plates, guan jars and vases.  This is a great achievement as large vessels are not easy to produced successfully.

Besides the continued use of curved/impressed motif, molded motif in relief also gained popularity during this period.   Some decorative elements such as iron-brown rust colour splashes/spots and biscuit form motif were also popular.

 

For more on longquan celadon, please read : Longquan wares

Compare with collections

Share by my friend Edhie Chen at facebook

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type from west borneo tanjungpura sites,and from sea shipwreck treasure jepara dan Malacca straits

Qingbai and Shufu wares

Qingbai wares continued to be popular during the Yuan dynasty.  During this period, some of the Qingbai products were decorated with iron-brown rust splashes/spots.

   

Yuan Qingbai horse on rider with brown spots

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type at west borneo but brpken head and leg.

Yuan Qingbai with molded bird motif

Subsequently another form known as Shufu glaze was created.  It is thick, opaque and resemble the colour of goose egg.  The good ones however could have a sugary white tone.   The rough ones usually have a grayish tinge to the glaze. 

The shufu vessels, consisting of mainly bowls and dishes,  were made in Hutian kilns which were located outside Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province. Some of the bowls and dishes have moulded relief motif and the chinese two chinese characters shu fu  [枢府] meaning “Privy council”.   

Hence, such glaze type wares were also termed shufu wares.   Besides shufu, other characters included “tai xi” [太禧]meaning great happiness and “fu lu” [福禄meaning good fortune and emolument could be found.  However, majority have just either plain or  molded relief motif of flowers, dragon or phoenix. 

Such vessels are typically more thickly potted and for the bowls/dishes, there is pooling of glaze at the inner and outer mouth rim.

DR Iwan Comment

I found the same type,broken mouth without spout at Aceh near lhoksemawe,dan rhe spout from west borneo near Ketapang tanjung pura sites

 

The starting date for production of shufu is still uncertain.  In the the Sinan wreck of about A.D 1325, there were some shufu wares. Some excavated examples in China with the word “tai xi” were probably made for the the official institution, Taixi Zongyin Yuan  [太禧宗禋院which dealt with religious rites of the imperial court.  It was set up in A.D. 1328.  

Hence, they should be made at least after A.D. 1328.  A small number of shufu wares continued to be made in the Hongwu period.  

The glaze was subsequently further improved and a pleasing sugary white glaze known as Tianbai [甜白] was produced during the Yongle period.

Some shufu wares were decorated with overglaze red/green motif.  A very rare type was the embossed effect motif created by trailing the outline of motif with coloured-slip and completed with in-laid gold.  Most the the examples in existent are in Shanghai museum.  The enamels consisted of red, green, yellow, white, blue and torquose blue colour.  Vessels with such unique decorative techniques consisted of bowls, saucers, stem cups/bowls and, yuhuchun vases and censers.

 

   

Yuan overglaze red and green enameled stem cup

 

For more on Shufu ware, please read: Shufu (luan bai) wares

Dr Iwan comment

I have neverseen this type in Indonesia

Types of  Jingdezhen Yuan Underglaze Decorations

In the Sinan cargo, there were a few pieces of qingbai glaze bowl with underglaze iron-brown decoration. 

 The production of this category of decoration was apparently small and did not win many admirers. 

Cobalt oxide and to a much lesser extent copper oxide were found to be more suitable as medium for underglaze decoration on porcelain wares.

 

 

 

 

Underglaze blue and white wares

Yuan blue and whites were produced from about A.D 1330.   It was earlier thought to be around A.D 1319 (6th year of yuanyou (元祐))based on a pair of vases excavated in Hubei.  However, scientific test has confirmed that the colorant used is iron oxide and not cobalt

.

There are two types of Yuan blue and whites ie the high end type with vibrant blue and those small vessels with greyish tone blue.  Those which are found in the Middle East are generally the high-end type.  They consisted of large plates, guan jars, rectangular flat vases, meiping/ yuhuchun/ gourd-shape vases and big bowls.  The best collections are now in Topkapu Saray in Istanbul Turkey and Ardebil in Iran Bustan in Tehran.

The motif and composition on the pieces was similar to that of the David Vase.   It is termed Zhizheng type. 

The quality is consistently very high and typically with different motifs organised within separate band.   For example, the David vase has 8 bands of motifs. 

The glaze on the vessel is also more transparent with a tinge of blue.  It is very different from the Qingbai or shufu glaze found on those small blue and white vessels for the Southeast Asia market.

The varieties of motif are numerous ranging from many different type of flowers and floral scrolls, dragon, phoenix, crane, heron, mandarin duck, fish, mystical animals, Buddhist precious objects, clouds, waves, human and landscape depicting scene from ancient episode  from the 3 kingdom and Han Dynasty. 

Visually the composition looks crowded as if the designer is adverse to leaving empty spaces.  But they do not look dis-organised or messy.  Another interesting approach is having some of the motifs reserved in a blue background.

 

 

Most of the lower quality blue and whites, such as small ewers, small jarlets, cups and bowls with a Qingbai or shufu glaze were exported  to Southeast Asia countries such as Philippines and Indonesia.  The design is generally simple, consisting of floral motif decorated with grayish local cobalt blue.  But there were small quantity of high quality guans, plates and vases with motifs arranged in separate bands as typified by the David vase.

Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen this type in Indonesia

Sumber Erwanto Aceh

Ini piring dinasti Yuan yang sangat langka, desainnya dua burung phoenix, mungkin dikirim oleh kaisar yuan mongol Kublaikhan sebagai hadiah untuk Ratu Aceh, hanya sayang saya tidak dapat menjamin keasliannya seperti juga dengan vase merah dalam glasir yang sudah diupload, kelihatan dasarnya yang asli tidak seperti itu, kelihatan dasarnya dibuat jadi lama, aslinya lebih halus dan merah pembakaran tinggi bagian pinggirnya, kembali harus sabar menungu kesempatan saat pameran keramik internasional di Singapura untuk memperoleh sertifikat keaslian, pernah ada lelangan international saya lihat ini tidak sama, bila asli hargany sampai satu juta US dollars ,sekitar 10 trilun rupiah, jika blinya haya dua atau tiga juta tak jadi soal, karena yang baru saat ini harganya sudah sepuluh juta rupiah.

(Dr Iwan Suwandy)

This new repro Yuan plate, the base were given brown to made oldr apearnace, compare with Mr Koh original Collection

(Dr Iwan )

It is generally believed that those high end type of blue and white with vibrant blue used imported cobalt. 

Those with greyish tone are decorated with local cobalt.  However, recent scientific tests have shown that all the Yuan blue and white used imported cobalt.

The imported cobalt is called sumali [苏麻离青] or suboni [苏渤泥青] blue.  Some suggested sources of the imported cobalt are Kashan in Iran or Samarra in Iraq.

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I have found this type at tanjungpura stie West Borneo , West Java and Tuban

Look my collections


 

Yuan chrysanthemum and dragon   motif ink box

 

Yuan Chrysanthenum motif jarlet

 

 

 

 

 

Yuan Chrysanthenum motif Cup

 

Yuan Chrysanthenum  Motif Vase from tuban

Chrysanthemum vase from Makassar

 

 

«

 

Please compare flower decoration left Anamese vs right Yuan -style

 

Best perfect decoration

 

Bold dark blue bead jarlet

 

Best style flower decoration

The earliest known example of Yuan underglaze copper red is probably the dish found in the Sinan shipwreck (A.D. 1325).

It has two leaf incised, washed with a lighter copper red and calligraphy written in a thicker copper red pigment.  The dish was then covered with a Qingbai glaze and fired. Most of the known examples of the copper red were decorated with motif executed in pencilled style.  Majority has the Qingbai type glaze. The red is usually light and grayish to tone, indicating that control over the material is still not perfected.

Copper red is volatile and unstable during firing.  If too thinly applied, it may volatilise and lose its red colour.  If too thickly applied , it becomes unsightly darkish in tone. 

  There are a number of extant copper red vessels with impressed or incised motif.  The copper red was either washed over the motif or the motif reserved with red background.  They may be examples of early experimentation with copper red.

 

Yuan copper red ewer with floral motif recovered from the sea in Indonesia

 

   

Yuan copper red ewer with fish recovered from Indonesia Trowulan

There were also some vessels decorated with underglaze blue and copper red. A good example is the below guan in the David Percival Foundaton.  It has added decorative elements of trailed slip beaded lines and moulded decorative element luted and looks like open work in relief. This style of decoration was popular during the Yuan period and found on many Qingbai guan jar and yu hu chun vases.  The Qingbai glaze on such vessels appear more opaque and could sometime be confused with shufu glaze.

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type in broken and not complete part and the vase in Adam Malik collections in his bedroom but now have sold

Look my collections atnex page

The beast and the beauty,s red flower body decorations

Best dark red body decoration

Dark brown red bold body decoration (anamese?)

Darkred splash body decoration

Simple perfect red decoration

simple decoration with bright red colour

Underglaze Copper Red ware

 

 

 

Monochrome Blue wares

Monochrome blue glaze was successfully produced during the Yuan period.  There a a beautiful sapphire colour tone. There were some examples of wine cup, saucer and vessel yi found in Hebei baoding.  There were traces of gold decoration on the vessels.

 

Updated by Mr Koh  (14 Dec 2009)

Dr Iwan Comment

I have never seen this type in indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yuan Blue and white

On 12 Jul 2005, a Yuan blue and white jar depicting scene from an episode during the Warring states was sold by Christies for a record sum of US$27.7 million for Chinese work of art.

Yuan jar sold by Christies for record sum of US$27.7 million

This is indeed a dramatic change of fortune for Yuan Blue and white wares considering that little was known about them prior to A.D 1950.  Before A.D 1950  RL Hobson had in A.D 1929 highlighted a pair of Yuan vases in the Percival David Foundation in his writings. But it did not raise much interest.  The pioneering work in the identification of Yuan blue and white was done in A.D 1952 by Dr John Pope. 

He identified a group of Yuan blue and white in the Istanbul Topkapi Museum and the Iran Ardebil Shrine which possesses motifs which are stylistically similar to those on the pair of David Vases. 

The pair of vases was a donation to the temple by a devotee named Zhang Wenjin 张文进)seeking blessings for his family. 

This is mentioned in the inscription on the neck of the vases. It also has a date Zhi Zheng (至正)11th year, ie A.D 1351.  Blue and white wares which are stylistically similar to the David vases are termed Zhi Zheng type.

The pair of vases was last placed in the Bejing Zhihua (智化)Temple but smuggled out of China in 1929 to Europe by a overseas chinese.  It subsequently ended up in the possession of Sir Percival David.

Subsequently, a pair of qingbai glaze pagoda-shaped vases with simple floral scrolls dated to Yuanyou (元祐) 6th year (A.D. 1319) was excavated in Hubei.  It was initially thought to be decorated with a grayish cobalt blue. 

As the execution of the motif looks experimental and lacks the sophistication and maturity of the Zhi Zheng type blue and white, the Chinese experts viewed them as early Yuan Blue and white and termed them Yuanyou type. 

 However,  scientific test in Mar 2009 by the Shanghai Museum on one of the vases confirmed that the colorant used is iron oxide and not cobalt.

 

The Yuan You vase datd 1319 A.D in Hubei Museum.  Initially thought to be decorated with cobalt. Decorated with iron oxide pigment. 

 

   

David vase dated 1359 A.D 

Kiln and Production Commencement Date

Although the colorant of the pagoda shaped vase dated A.D 1310 is not cobalt, the motifs (such as the peony, the plantain leaves  and collar-shaped cloud on the shoulder of the vase) and multi-layered composition showed stylistic similarity with the subsequent blue and white. So, when did the Jingdezhen potters started using cobalt for decoration?

Some of the early Chinese writings related to ceramics may shed some lights.  In Jiangqi’s (蒋祈)writings Taoji (记) widely regarded as written between A.D 1322 – 1325, there was no mention of blue and white. HoweverWang Da Yuan (汪大渊), in his work Dao Yi Zhi lue (岛夷志略)which recorded his observations during his trips to Southeast Asia between A.D 1330 to 1339, he mentioned a group of exported porcelain termed Qingbai hua ci (青白花瓷). This could be literally interpreted as motif in blue and white.  It is more likely a reference to Blue and white and not qingbai wares.

So far, no Yuan blue and white from shipwreck or excavation has a dating earlier than A.D 1330. 

In the Sinan shipwreck dated about A.D 1325, there were some shufu, iron-oxide decorated wares and a plate decorated with copper red calligraphy from Jingdezhen.  But no blue and white was found.

Kiln sites producing Yuan blue and white have been found in several sites in Jingdezhen and Hutian. 

In Hutian, kiln sites located south of the river Nan were found to specialise in the production of large vessels, such as large plates, jars and vases, with mulit-layered motifs which were mainly found in Middle East collections. 

Kiln sites located north of the river were found to produce those small vessels such as jarlet, bowls and dishes with simple motif,  which were commonly found in Philippines and Indonesia.

The stratification of the kiln site, located South of the river Nan, showed the blue and white layer above the layer of shufu glaze vessels. 

Although the actual date of production of the blue and white could not be ascertained,  they definitely made their appearance later than the shufu glaze vessels.

In Jingdezhen, the site at Luoma Qiao (马桥) were found to produce a large variety of vessels form such as including plates, cups, vases, jars and figurines. 

There were also vessels such as jar, Yuhuchun vase decorated with underglaze copper red motifs.

A fragment of small bowl with overglaze red/green motif was also recovered.

Fragments recovered from Jingdezhen Luoma Qiao

 

The site at Longzhu Ge (龙珠阁) specialised in producing vessels for the palace.  Dragons decorated on the jars were found to have 5 claws which was only permitted for imperial use.  Some of the vessels were glazed in blue or turquoise and decorated with gold motif.  In Yuan Dianzhang (元典章), it was decreed that the use of gold gild was prohibited by common folks.

 

Jar with 5 claws dragon from Longzhu Ge kiln site

From published sources, so far the earliest blue and white was a sherd with cobalt blue inscription and a date yuantong (统)3rd year (A.D 1335) mentioned. It was excavated in Jingdezhen Daijia nong (景德镇戴家弄).   There were quite a number of sherds with inscription indicating cyclical or Zhizheng date excavated in Jingdezhen.  All are dated to the A.D 1340s.

The Xuzhan Tang Museum (徐展堂艺术馆)has a big Yuan blue and white zhizheng type charger with vegetal and floral motif organised around several circular bands.  There is a faint ink inscription which when under ultra-violet light, the characters zhizheng 4th year (至正四年)ie A.D 1343 could be seen.

Hence, so far far evidence indicates that production of Yuan blue and white most probably started around A.D 1330.

Types of blue and white

The typical high quality Yuan blue and whites are in the form of large plates, guan jars, Rectangular flat vases, meiping/yuhuchun/gourd-shape vases and big bowls.  The best collections are now in Topkapu Saray in Istanbul Turkey and Ardebil in Iran Bustan in Tehran.  The motif and composition on the pieces was similar to that of the David Vase.   It is termed Zhizheng type.  The quality is consistently very high and typically with different motifs organised within separate band.   For example, the David vase has 8 bands of motifs.  The glaze on the vessel is also more transparent with a tinge of blue.  It is very different from the Qingbai or shufu glaze found on those small blue and white vessels for the Southeast Asia market.

The varieties of motif are numerous ranging from many different type of flowers and floral scrolls, dragon, phoenix, crane, heron, mandarin duck, fish, mystical animals, Buddhist precious objects, clouds, waves, human and landscape depicting scene from ancient episode  from the 3 kingdom and Han Dynasty.  The use of bands to organise motifs is not new and can been seen in earlier period such as those on Song Cizhou wares.  What is interesting and striking is the way the potter squeezed so many varied motifs into one composition on the vessel.  Visually it looks crowded as if the designer is adverse to leaving empty spaces.  However, they are well-organised and do not appear messy.  Another interesting approach is having some of the motifs reserved in a blue background.  One distinctive and refreshing element also worth noting is having motifs within cloud collars.   The early Yuan You 6th year vase mentioned earlier also has cloud collars on the shoulder.  But no motif was drawn within and it is obvious that despite the use of band to separate different motif, the whole composition is sparse and not crowded as in the Zhizheng type.

Big Plates in Beijing palace Museum

Ewer in Beijing palace Museum

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type in Indonesia, but still donnot exact original, but the trader said from the shipwreck near West Java, I think one original because the glazed was rough dur to the water sea abbration and one may be replica

Big Jar in Beijing palace Museum

   

Human motif vase in the Hubei Museum

Fragment of big bowl from Trowulan in Indonesia

 

 

Besides the above high quality types, many small ewers, small jarlets, cups and bowls with a Qingbai or shufu glaze were excavated in Southeast Asia countries such as Philippines and Indonesia  .  The design was generally simple, consisting of floral /cloud motif decorated with greyish cobalt blue executed in calligraphic style.

Such items were produced in Hutian kiln located South of River Nan

In Jingdezhen, a number of stem cups with simple human figures/floral motif were excavated.

   
   
 

Yuan blue and white stem cups

Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen this type in Indonesia

 

The blue and white exported to Middle East were generally of high quality.  However, it is a mis-conception that those exported to Southeast Asian countries are low quality blue and whites.  Excavations in Trowulan (in Java), the former capital of the Majapahit empire in Indonesia showed that quite a number (including vases and big jars) were of high quality.

Compare with

Yuan Vase found In Aceh

at next page

 

 

 

 

Yuan Yuhuchuphing (kendi Bawang) Blue and white vase

Source

Erwanto Aceh

Ini vase yang sangat langka terkenal di Indonesia dengan istilah Kendi Bwang, melihat dari warna dan tehnik lukisannya serta dasarnya terlihat asli, harganya pada lelangan terakhir di Jakarta oleh Borobudur auction yang saat ini sudah tidak ada lagi, seratus juta rupiah.

Saya sarankan agar kendi yuan ini jangan dijual dan untuk lebih memastikannya saya sarankan diminta sertifikat ke Chriesties .com.

Saya memiliki kendi bawang yuan baik yangpecah maupun yang asli serta yang replica, dan dalam lelangan internatuional ada yang persis seperti milik anda.

 

Saya sarankan anda buat museum kecil dirumah dan mulai membuat pertahanan dengan memasang teralis besi dan lemari dikunci , saya belum berani memastikan keaslian karena belum melihatnya secara langsung.

Jika anda membuat museum kecil mungkin saya akan datang untukmembantu anda dalam mengidentifikasi secara langsung dengan syarat biaya akomodasi dan transportasi tanggungan anda, jangan diperlihatkan kepada umum secara bebas nati dicuri dan nanti anda akan dikejar pajak, contoh saja saya yang secara diam-diam membuat museum tak diumumkan ke khalayak ramai, dan diperlihatkan kepada keluarga dank wan dekat sja.

(Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA)

Yuhuchun vases found in Trowulan

Dr Iwan Commewnt

I found this type at the Tanjungpura site west borneo but in broken ,only the top and based were found.

 

Type of Cobalt Used

Visually, it appears that two types of cobalt are used for Yuan blue and white.  The typical high quality type has a strong and vibrant shade of blue.  The blue on the small pieces appears greyish in tone.  Generally, it is believed that the former was decorated with imported cobalt and the latter local cobalt.  The below photos gives an idea of how local and imported cobalt is thought to appear visually.

 

 

Scientific analysis shows that the local cobalt is high on magnesium and low of iron oxide.  The imported cobalt is the reverse, ie. high on iron oxide and low on magnesium.  The high magnesium is believed to render the grayish tone to motif drawn using local cobalt.

However, recent scientific tests have consistently revealed that the cobalt used on those Yuan blue and white which appear greyish in colour tone is also imported cobalt.  It seems that other factors such as the firing temperature, the atmosphere and quality of the cobalt may have contributed to the greyish tone.

The chinese called the imported cobalt sumali [苏麻离青] or suboni [苏渤泥青] blue.  Some suggested sources of the imported cobalt are Kashan in Iran or Samarra in Iraq.

 

Underglaze blue and copper red

There were also some vessels decorated with underglaze blue and copper red. A good example is the below guan in the David Percival Foundaton.  It has added decorative elements of trailed slip beaded lines and moulded decorative element luted and looks like open work in relief. This style of decoration was popular during the Yuan period and found on many Qingbai guan jar and yu hu chun vases.

Written by : Mr Koh (15 Dec 2009), updated 18 Feb 2012

Source

Mr Koh

Lecture: Opening the Microscopic World of Porcelain: Trace Model Research and Authentication of Yuan Underglaze Blue

Based upon the first two books in the Ceramics Trace Model Study Series, Survey of Ceramics Trace Model Study and Trace Model Research and Authentication: Yuan Dynasty Underglaze Blue Porcelain, this lecture looks into the application of microscopic research within Chinese Ceramics.

Using 500x digital magnification, the research team at Guangzhou Oriental Museum has put forth a new scientific field of research that focuses on the quantitative change and passage of time principles that govern the weathering of ancient ceramics. With sample selection extending from Jingdezhen to Inner Mongolia within China, and from Iran to the U.S. internationally, they have pulled together a sizeable database of ceramic trace samples that are used as the comparative DNA in scientific research and authentication of Chinese Porcelain.

The speaker, Matthew Bunney, Deputy Director of the Guangzhou Oriental Museum, has led a four year focus on the discovery and analyses of Yuan Dynasty Underglaze Blue Porcelain traces. He also pioneered a new technique of three-dimensional micro-imaging which opened a new world of ceramic observation and understanding, and is working to improve the field of ceramic authentication.

Come and enjoy an evening of discovery and education on this interesting new field of scientific research, and be part of the first public audience in Asia to see the Microscopic World of Chinese Ceramics opened for all to enjoy.

Source

seaceramic.

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type at west borneo,tuban,and shi[wreck Malacca straight

;ook my collections

The Rare Yuan Snake Ceramic”

 

Very rare Yuan Snake

Rare Yuan Snake

emblem of medicine

Supranatural Power

Emblem of Evil

Yuan Snake ceramic

”The Rare Yuan Cock Ceramic”

Yuan Cock Mhammedan blue

Rare Yuan cock cup

Rare Yuan Cock ceramic

Hallo collectors,thankyou for click UCN today
RCD and UCN special show this day.

RARE YUAN QING PAI CERAMIC

 

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type from shipwreck Malacca straights

A selection of twenty-two blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Including eight miniature jars painted with leafy sprays below a petal neck band; eight similar small jarlets decorated with bands of song birds amid foliate sprays; four ovoid jars girded by blossoming leafy sprays; and two squared jars with shaped floral reserves below a neck cloud-collar band. 1 1/2 and 2 7/8in (3.1 and 7.3cm) average heights – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of eighteen blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of four ovoid jars, each with a central band of blossoming leafy sprays below a ring of stylized petals at the neck, and twelve similar jarlets decorated with bands of song birds alternating with foliate sprays. 2 and 3in (5 and 7.6cm) average heights – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of thirty-four blue and white jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of fourteen miniature and twenty small ovoid jarlets, each painted with a wide band of birds amid leafy foliage, most framed by narrow blue rings, the short neck with a collar of stylized petals. 1 3/8-2 1/4in (3.5-5.6cm) high – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of six blue and white jars. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of globular shape with a wide mouth, one decorated with birds amid leafy bamboo framed by scrolling foliate and lappet bands, the remainder with a central band of stylized blossoms amid leafy tendrils below a diaper-patterned band, one with a lid decorated en suite. [7] 3 ½ (9cm) average diameter – Estimate: $400 – 500

A selection of eleven jars. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of two small white vasiform jarlets with three lug handles encircling a flared rim; two jarlets, one with a wide mouth, decorated in cobalt blue with a central foliate band between lappet bands; and seven blue-and-white covered jars, most decorated with a floral band bracketed by petal and lappet bands, one featuring birds in a landscape, the lids with a central knob and painted en suite2 1/8-3 3/8in (5.3-8.3cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of nine enamel decorated jars and bowls. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The first of seven globular jars with a short cylindrical neck and retaining traces of the original enameled foliate patterns; the second a pair of bowls with the interior well painted in green and red enamel with a floral medallion, the exterior with a band of stylized flowers above jeweled lappets, the bases with chocolate brown wash. 2 7/8in (6.8cm) average height; 5 3/8in (13.7cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of twenty-five blue and white jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of fourteen miniature and twenty small ovoid jarlets, each painted with a wide band of birds amid leafy foliage, most framed by narrow blue rings, the short neck encircled by petals or a jeweled band. 1 7/8-2 1/4in (4.5-5.4cm) high. Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of thirty-two blue and white jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of miniature and small ovoid jarlets, each painted with a band of birds amid leafy foliage, most framed by narrow blue rings, the short neck with a collar of stylized petals. 1 1/2-2 1/8in (3.5-5.4cm) high – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of twenty-five blue and white jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of fourteen miniature and twenty small ovoid jarlets, each painted with a wide band of birds amid leafy foliage, most framed by narrow blue rings, the short neck encircled by petals or a jeweled band. 1 7/8-2 1/4in (4.5-5.4cm) high – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of thirty-two blue and white jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of miniature and small ovoid jarlets, each painted with a band of birds amid leafy foliage, most framed by narrow blue rings, the short neck with a collar of stylized petals. 1 1/2-2 1/8in (3.5-5.4cm) high – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of twenty-four blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of six ovoid jars, each with a central band of flowering orchid tendrils below a collar of overlapping petals at the neck; fourteen miniature and four small jarlets, each decorated with birds in a landscape or leafy foliage, all set within blue rings below a neck ring of stylized petals. 1 ¾-3 1/4in (3.6-8.1cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twelve blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Including six ovoid jarlets painted with birds flying in a landscape, set within blue rings below a neck collar of petals; four larger jars of similar shape, the exterior decorated with leafy orchid tendrils within narrow rings below a ring of petals at the neck; and two jars applied with lug handles and with similar decoration accompanied by a row of lappets at the base. 2 ¼, 3 and 4in (5.8, 7.8 and 10cm) average heights – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of twenty-two blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The first of twelve hexagonal jars with rounded edges, each decorated with alternating floral and geometric reserves repeated in the petals encircling the neck; the second of eight small jarlets painted with bands of birds amid foliate sprays below a collar of petals at the neck. 2 3/8 and 1 3/4in (6 and 4.4cm) average heights – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twenty-two blue and white jars and jarlets. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The first of twelve hexagonal jars with rounded edges, each decorated with alternating floral and geometric reserves repeated in the petals encircling the neck; the second of eight small jarlets painted with bands of birds amid foliate sprays below a collar of petals at the neck. 2 3/8 and 1 3/4in (6 and 4.4cm) average heights – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of four molded parrot bowls with enamel decoration. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each molded as a shallow peach-form bowl with its leafy branch held in the beak of a parrot with its body curling around the right side, the foliate design with traces of the original green and red enamels. 3 1/2in (9cm) average length – Estimate: $500 – 700

A group of six blue and white bowls and ten small cups. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The bowls of inverted bell form, each interior with a stylized character below a rim band, the exterior with leafy orchid or four-petal flowers above jeweled lappets, the bases with a chocolate brown wash; the cups of similar shape with petal-shaped ribs to the exterior, each decorated with a ruyi-head or jeweled rim band above stiff leaves repeated on the interior centered by a character or blossom. 5 ½ and 2 1/2in (14 and 6.3cm) average diameters -Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection thirteen bowls and cups. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of the blue-and-white bowls decorated with a character or floral spray on the interior, the exterior with leafy orchids or stylized flowers above jeweled lappets; one pair of small molded cups with underglaze blue foliate decoration; one pair of bell-form cups with cobalt floral reserves above lappets; one pair of cream-colored cups of similar shape; and one undecorated small white bowl. 5 ½in (14cm) average diameter of bowls – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of six blue and white bowls and ten small cups. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The bowls of inverted bell form, each interior with a stylized characters and rim band of scrolling tendrils, the exterior with leafy orchid or four-petal flowers above jeweled lappets, the bases with a chocolate brown wash; the cups of similar shape with petal-shaped ribs on the exterior, each decorated with a ruyi-head or jeweled rim band above stiff leaves repeated on the interior centered by a character or blossom. 5 ½ and 2 1/2in (14 and 6.3cm) average diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of six blue and white bowls and twelve small cups. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of the bowls of inverted bell form with a stylized character or floral spray in the interior well, the exterior with leafy orchid or four-petal flowers above jeweled lappets, the bases with a chocolate brown wash; each of the cups molded with petal-shaped exterior, the interior with a character encircled by stiff leaves repeated on the exterior below a ruyi-head or jeweled rim band. 5 1/4 and 2 1/2in (13.4 and 6.3cm) average diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection thirteen bowls and cups. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of the blue-and-white bowls decorated with a character or floral spray on the interior, the exterior with leafy orchids or stylized flowers above jeweled lappets; one pair of small molded cups with underglaze blue foliate decoration; one pair of bell-form cups with cobalt floral reserves above lappets; one large and three small inverted bell-form cream-colored cups. 5 1/4in (13.4cm) average diameter of bowls – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of nine blue and white vessels. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of two compressed ovoid pouring vessels decorated with a central band of flowering orchid tendrils below a collar of overlapping petals; three jars of similar shape and decoration; three vasiform jars with lug handles, each painted in a similar manner with petals or lappets encircling the base; and one small jar with shaped floral reserves. 1 5/8-4 1/8in (4.2-10.4cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twelve blue and white small items. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Consisting of one compressed ovoid jar with lug handles and two small vases with floriform rims, each painted with flowering orchid tendrils bracketed by a neck collar of overlapping petals and lappets; and nine circular boxes, each with a flat lid centered by a stylized floral medallion with geometric accents and framed by a jeweled band or narrow rings, some with overlapping lappets at the base, one with traces of enamel accents. 2 3/4in (7.3cm) height vases; 2 1/8-2 3/8in (5.3-6cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twenty-three blue and white bottles and jars. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Including ten miniature pear-shaped bottles decorated with conjoined petals; nine lobed jarlets painted with bands of stylized jewels, some with lappets at the base; and four ovoid jars with a central foliate band and stylized petals encircling the cylindrical neck. 3 1/2in (8.8cm) height of largest – Estimate: $400 – 600

Three decorated yuhuchun bottles. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of pear shape, the first decorated in colored enamels with a central register of small reserves set between lappet bands; the second two painted in cobalt blue with central band of blossoms or birds in a landscape bracketed by jeweled lappet and lotus petal bands; each with a chocolate brown wash to the base. 9 1/8, 11 ¾ and 12in 12in (23.3, 29.7 and 30cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

Three decorated yuhuchun bottles. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of pear shape, the first with lobed sides and decorated in underglaze blue and enamels with shaped floral reserves below a cloud collar and stiff leaf bands; the second painted in cobalt blue with birds in a landscape framed by jeweled lappet and conjoined lotus petal bands; the third with two registers of floral reserves above conjoined lotus petals in underglaze blue, each with a chocolate brown wash to the base. 9, 12 1/8 and 11 7/8in (22.8, 30.8 and 30.2cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

Three decorated yuhuchun bottles. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of pear shape, the first decorated in underglaze blue and enamels with a central band of geometric and cloud-form reserves set between patterned lappets; the second two painted in cobalt blue with birds alternating with bamboo and bracketed by jeweled lappet and conjoined lotus petal bands, a chocolate brown wash to the base. 9 1/8, 11 ¾ and 12in 12in (23.3, 29.7 and 30cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

Two blue and white bottles. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of pear form, decorated with a band of bird amid stalks of leafy bamboo, framed by jeweled lappet and overlapping lotus petal bands, a stiff leaf band below the flaring rim, the base with a chocolate brown wash. 11 ½ and 11 3/4in (29.2 and 29.7cm) high – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twenty blue glazed bottles and boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each covered in a muted cobalt blue glaze, including eight pear-shaped bottles, each surmounted by a flared rim and with vertical ribs, with chocolate brown painted bases; six circular boxes with a flat lid applied with a small flower-head; and six molded boxes with lobed sides issuing from a central roundel. 4in (10.2cm) average height; 2-2 3/8in (5-6cm) diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection fourteen blue and white small bottles. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of pear shape, the first eight of miniature size and painted with vertical petal-like bands bordered by foliate or key fret collars; the remaining four with flaring rim and decorated en suite, the bases with chocolate brown wash. 2 ¾ and 4in (7 and 10.2cm) average height -Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of sixteen blue and white landscape boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each circular box with a flat cover painted with a stylized landscape, some including small pavilions or rocky cliffs, all framed by thin blue bands. 2 1/2in (6.6cm) average diameter -Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of sixteen blue and white landscape boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each circular box with a flat cover painted with a stylized landscape, some including small pavilions or river scenes, all framed by thin blue bands. 2 3/8-2 1/2in (6-6.5cm) diameters -Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of sixteen blue and white landscape boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each flat cover of the circular box painted with a stylized landscape, most with four clusters of foliage and framed by thin blue bands. 2 5/8 (6.6cm) average diameter. Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of sixteen blue and white landscape boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape and with a flat cover painted with a stylized landscape framed by thin blue bands. 2 5/8 (6.6cm) average diameter – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with a flat cover centered by a peony blossom framed by scrolling leaves and jeweled bands, some with lappets encircling the base. 2 1/4in (5.8cm) average diameter – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of twenty-five blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Including six miniature boxes of octagonal contour and decorated with stylized peony roundels above foliate reserves; six miniature cylindrical works with covers centered by stylized flowers; and thirteen larger boxes of similar design, nine with an additional central knob on the flat lid, all embellished with jeweled bands or foliate scrolls on the sides. 1 3/8- 2in (3.5-5cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twelve blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of cylindrical shape with mixed decoration, six covers with floral roundels above panels of birds on the sides; five with landscape medallions on the cover and side panels of birds in flight (4); one with a fu-lion medallion within jeweled bands on the cover. 2 ¼-2 1/2in (5.8-6.2cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of twelve blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The first six with additional enamel and occasional gilt accents, each with a molded cover centered by a dragon or foliate medallion, the surrounding band with cobalt blue floral scrolls or reserves above jeweled lappets; the second six each with a flat cover painted with a peony medallion within a jeweled band, one with enamel accents to the side. 3 and 2 5/8 (7.6 and 6.8cm) average diameters – Estimate: $500 – 700

A group of twenty-two small blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of cylindrical shape, including four miniature boxes with the flat covers decorated as a stylized blossom; the remaining eighteen with covers centered by various types of blossoms encircled by jeweled bands. 1 3/8- 2in (3.6-5cm) diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of eighteen small blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of cylindrical form, the slightly convex cover centered by a cash emblem encircled by chrysanthemum or peony petals bordered by a jeweled band repeated on the sides. 1 ¾- 2in (4.5-5cm) diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of twenty blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape and most with a slightly lobed contour, each cover centered by a multi-petal blossom encircled by stylized leaves or patterned lappets, the sides with further lappets of foliate or geometric pattern. 2 3/8in (6cm) average diameter – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

The first eight of creamy white hue, each molded with a central floret and lobed circular body; the second eight each with a flat cover decorated with a stylized blossom encircled by petals or geometric and foliate-patterned lappets repeated on the rounded sides. 2 1/2in (6.3cm) average diameter – Estimate: $300 – 500

A group of twelve blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape, the flat cover centered by a stylized blossom or leafy floral spray encircled by bands with floral reserves on a diaper patterned ground repeated on the sides. 2 ½-3 1/4in (6.4-8.2cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with a flat cover, eight painted with a stylized landscape framed by a jeweled border, a band of small birds amid leafy plants on the sides; eight centered by a stylized blossom encircled by geometric and foliate-patterned lappets repeated on the sides.2 3/8-2 3/4in (6-7cm) diameters – Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with a flat cover, eight centered by a peony or chrysanthemum blossom framed by scrolling leaves and a patterned border; eight painted with a stylized landscape framed by a jeweled border, the sides with small birds amid leafy plants. 2 1/2in (6.4cm) average diameter – Estimate: $400 – 600

A group of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape and some with a slightly lobed contour, each with the rounded cover centered by a multi-petal blossom encircled by stylized leaves or patterned lappets, the sides with further lappets of foliate or geometric pattern. 1 5/8-2 1/8in (4-5.5cm) diameters -Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of ten blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with a flat cover, four centered by a peony blossom framed by scrolling leaves and a cloud-collar border; six with a spray of begonia encircled by jeweled bands, the sides painted with birds in a landscape. 2 1/2in (6.4cm) average diameter -Estimate: $400 – 600

A selection of twenty three blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with lobed sides, the first eight with a solitary floral spray centering the flattened lid; the remainder with the molded top centered by a stylized blossom encircled by jeweled leaves or patterned lappets repeated on the sides. 1 7/8-2 3/8in (4.5-6cm) diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of sixteen blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape with lobed sides, the first eight of creamy white hue and molded with a central floret; the second eight with the molded top centered by a stylized blossom encircled by jeweled leaves, the sides with lappet reserves of foliate or geometric pattern. 2 ½ and 2 3/8in (6.3 and 6cm) average diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

A selection of twenty-five blue and white boxes. Late 15th/Early 16th Century

Each of circular shape, the first eight with a solitary floral spray centering the flattened lid; nine molded with lobed sides with the top centered by a stylized blossom encircled by jeweled leaves above floral and geometric reserves on the sides; and eight centered by a peony or chrysanthemum blossom framed by scrolling leaves within a jeweled border, some with lappets at the base. 1 3/4-2 1/2in (4.2-6.2cm) diameters – Estimate: $300 – 500

Bonhams. Asian Decorative Arts, 28 Jul 2009. 220 San Bruno Avenue, San Francisco www.bonhams.com

Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen the biggest collections like ubove

 

REPRO

 

Without even bothering with whether the rpice is fair or too good to be true or the qualities of glaze and footring, the design of this is incorrect of rthe period.

 

The central flower is lost in the roundel and the edge with the two peach (?) forms at 12 and 6 o’clock on the circle are not cohesive with each other or the rather spotty design of incised markings which look more like and attempt to populate with Ming clouds than the aesthetic of longquan celadon.

 

THe barb of the foliate edging is flat and flabby. Here is a fragmentary example of what this aspires to. 
Anthony M. Lee 
Asian Art Research

It has all the features of a late Yuan celadon small dish. The ring of oxidized (Burnt Red) iron, from impurities within the paste,the effect caused through a reduction atmosphere, is a known mark of authentication, as well as the overall shape and design. I would declare it a genuine example, and a good one. 
Thanks for sharing Frank. 
Regards, Lloyd

 

A Longquan celadon censer, any opinion regarding the date would be highly appreciated. 
Kindly regards 
Soehandi

The foot of the censer should be completely covered with glaze as the censer is suspended from the base. Otherwise the foot should be burnt orange as well, unless there is alot of wear and the glaze flaked off the foot.Take a close up photo of the foot.

This is a modern repro. 
– general shape is wrong (it doesn’t correspond to any period) 
– color W 
– Bottom W 
– Surface aspect pb (acid treated) 
Regards, 
Pipane, 
Pipane Asian Art Gallery 

 

Dear Larry, pipane and all 
The foot is glazed but there is something like glaze flaked. Look this feature also appear on song/yuan longquan as seen in the picture attached below. 
The color not true in pictures. Its real color is olive green. 
Dear pipine : What do you mean with bottow is wrong ? I see many yuan-early ming celadon censer have similar base. Why did you say the glaze artificially treated by acid ? 
Again thank you very much for your kindly opinions. 
Regards 
Soehandi

Celadon? bowl

by Andy 
(London)

     

Hi this is my last item from Aunties boxes for now. Will give you some respite!

Hopefully I am correct this time in referring to this bowl as Celadon?

Of all the items so far I have unboxed this is the one I am most dubious about. Its condition is just so perfect compared to the rest. Could this be a repro? These Celadon type bowls with all the variations in colour, form & porcelain type is such a mine field and I am comletely out of my depth. Its about the same size as the other bowls, 5 1/2 in x 2 in deep and has a crackle glaze. Again, anything you can give me good or bad would be much appreciated. Kind regards Andy

How complex… 
by: Andy 
Wow, ok, this is mind boggling to me the diversity of Chinese ceramics.

As I said before it sounds like a minefield to identify items. Personally I would not have rated this bowl one bit.

The thing that makes me second guess is that it belonged to Aunt Joan and she knew a thing or two about Asian items. These bits were just a few i found left behind in boxes and I effectively saved them from being thrown out.

The good stuff had already been sold by the daughters and I understand caused quite a stir at the auction house. I never got to see any of it which is a shame. Saying that I am quite happy with these few cast offs and so glad I saved them. Its opened up a new interest for me. You have been great Peter and I will continue to follow all the postings until I post some more again. Take care, Andy

bowl 
by: peter 
I have been considering this too. Cannot be sure, though. First of all, this isn’t celadon either, it is white porcelain. Celadon usually needs at least a tinge of green to be that.
As far as I can see, Yuan isn’t quite possible, judging from the bottom. The outer shape is that of Longquan bowls, but the foot rim/foot aren’t quite right for the Song wares I know. That doesn’t mean much, though. There are simply much to many types.

The Song wares I am more comfortable with mostly have a wide rim with a relative loose clay. The ring of the bowl, etc. might also give some hints. I would wait until you either see a similar bowl somewhere, or until you have an opportunity to show it to someone with more experience in the more ancient wares.
Just if you should be thinking of Ge wares, I don’t think so… Ge wares have a clay with high iron content and the foot rim should be looking gray/blackish, as far as I understand

bowl 
by: peter 
With monochrome items it is difficult to tell as there are less points of reference.
Perhaps it is Qing dynasty, but not sure about this. The consistency of the clay and glaze are too important in this case. I would need to do a hands-on inspection with this

Is my Plate a 18 Century Chinese Celadon?

by João Silva 
(Portugal)

   

This plate is carved with elevations, it has an mark on the middle of the back. It feels smooth on bottom, it has louds of age marks, the rim is really thin on the bottom.
Can someone help me about his authenticity?

Read more: http://www.chinese-antique-porcelain.com/is-my-plate-a-18-century-chinese-celadon.html#ixzz3JKIqHMW3

 

 

celadon 
by: peter 

Hello João,
The item at the link and yours are completely different. The celadon glaze and everything looks old.
With yours the style of the fish, the glaze and foot rim do not show any traditional styles.
And, the mark alone… May be you can enlarge it so that it is readable?
Anyway, the character “zhong”, which is the only one I can see clearly, appears in almost no marks ever used before the mid-20th century. How could it be older? Maybe, what was in your family is something different.
Read more: 
http://www.chinese-antique-porcelain.com/is-my-plate-a-18-century-chinese-celadon.html#ixzz3JKJ6rrtf

Strange comments. 
by: João Silva 
Strange thought, that you say is young, when its has loads of aging marks, and is so consistent with one of yonghzjemg period. kinuta Glaze. Its on my family for 150+ years (how can you say its few decades old?). I just dont have enough camera for taking close up photos.
Read more: 
http://www.chinese-antique-porcelain.com/is-my-plate-a-18-century-chinese-celadon.html#ixzz3JKJCbt9P

celadon 
by: peter 
Hello,
The pictures are a bit too small to see minute details or the mark clearly. But from these pictures it seems they are at the most a few decades old.
The glaze, fish decoration, etc. is modern, not antiqu
Read more: 
http://www.chinese-antique-porcelain.com/is-my-plate-a-18-century-chinese-celadon.html#ixzz3JKJKodJv

Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen ceramics classical antique collectibles antique porcelain vase hexagonal celestial ornaments

Gender: Women ; Special Use: Exotic Apparel ; Lingerie Type: Set ; Material: Cotton ; Brand: Jingde porcelain XuanYanqin LiuOffline

US $146.55 / bagFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 bag

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red pot handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramic collection rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $100.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

 

 

Dr Iwan Comment

I found thi type at Jakarta

 

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red plum bamboo Okho spring vase handmade hand-painted rare vintage ceramic

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Theme: TreeAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red jar high imitation traditional hand-painted collection old goods classical ceramic

Regional Feature: China ; Type: Porcelain ; Occasion: Father’s Day ; Product Type: Vase ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red peacock hat bowl hand-painted old goods home decor vintage ceramic art collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red hat bowl hand-painted old goods home decor vintage ceramic art collection rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red bamboo inkpad box handmade hand-painted old goods vintage ceramic collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Product Type: Box & CaseAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $40.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red peacock plate hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramic collection rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $70.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bulb of garlic vase traditional ceramic collection hotel office home decor crafts

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: Jingdezhen ; Occasion: Father’s DayAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $150.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red dragon plate hand-painted old goods home decor vintage ceramic art collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red phoenix flower inkpad box hand-painted old goods vintage ceramic collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Product Type: Box & CaseAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $40.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red dragon vase handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red dragon Okho spring hand-painted old goods decor vintage ceramic collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $75.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red dragon Okho spring vase home decor old goods classical vintage ceramic collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $75.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red vase traditional hand-painted collection old goods classical vintage ceramic

Material: Ceramic & Enamel ; Regional Feature: China ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Type: Porcelain ; Occasion: Father’s DayAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $100.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red bamboo vase handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Product Type: Box & CaseAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red mandarin duck plate hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramic collection

Rated5.0/5 based on1customer reviewsFeedback (1)|Order (1)

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $65.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red box handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramic collection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red beast inkpad box hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramic collection rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Product Type: Box & CaseAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $40.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Rare Yuan Dynasty Pastel colors porcelain pot /jar,with mark,best collection&adornment ,Free shipping

You are bidding on the old Chinese Beautiful porcelain jar , It is very rare, and the porcelain is unique.catherine wr’s store  Offline

US $57.33 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red lotus candle handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Theme: TreeAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $130.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red peacock dish handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red phoenix dish handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain underglaze red dragon pot handmade hand-painted old goods classical vintage ceramiccollection

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Style: Traditional Chinese ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: ChinaAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $45.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Antique Yuan Reproduction Chinese Underglazed Blue and Red Porcelain Figure Warrior Vases

is_customized: Yes ; Style: Classic ; Color: Blue ; Brand Name: youngs ; Material: Ceramic & Porcelain ; Size: LJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $97.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Old Chinese Yuan Dynasty Hand Painted Blue White Vase

Old Chinese Yuan Dynasty Hand Painted Blue White Vase -Antique imitation -As collection -Yuan dynasty ageJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $140.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

the yuan Dynasty blue glaze flat pot old chinese porcelain crafts home decoration drinkware

Material: Ceramic & Enamel ; is_customized: Yes ; Brand Name: jingdezhen ; Regional Feature: China ; Use: Art & CollectibleJingdezhen Antique porcelain  Chat now!

US $108.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Antique Guan kiln ceramic chinese dragon plum vase

Antique Guan kiln ceramic chinese dragon plum vase -Hand made,Hand paint -From Jingdezhen -Antique craftJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $157.89 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

ANTIQUE STYLE CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY BLUE AND WHITE VASES POT URN WITH GUI GUZI DESIGN

Rated4.0/5 based on1customer reviewsFeedback (1)|Order (1)

ANTIQUE STYLE CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY BLUE AND WHITE VASES POT URN WITH GUI GUZI DESIGN -HANDICRAFT ANTIQUE -As collectionJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $119.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Antique blue and white Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen porcelain Zhaohong old goods boutique antique porcelain vase ornaments Home Furni

Gender: Women ; Special Use: Exotic Apparel ; Lingerie Type: Set ; Material: Cotton ; Color: Blue ; Color: White ; Brand: ZhaohongZhihong shopsOffline

US $680.20 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Antique Yuan Dynasty Ceramic Porcelain Crane Vase For Collection

is_customized: Yes ; Style: Classic ; Color: Red ; Brand Name: youngs ; Material: Ceramic & Porcelain ; Size: MJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $50.75 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white dragon painting jar old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $80.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white peacock painting jar old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $80.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with design of peacock old ceramic collection home decor crafts art rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $55.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white animal and flowers painting jar old ceramic collection home decor crafts art rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $80.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white fish & lotus painting jar old vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: Jingdezhen ; Material: Colored GlazeAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $100.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with carved design of peacock old ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white arhat bowl with carved design of beast old ceramic collection home decor crafts

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white dragon painting plate old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $70.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white carved phoenix through flowers bowl ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white handle pot painting old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white jar design of lotus pond old ceramic collection home decor crafts art ornament

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with carved design of dragon old ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: Jingdezhen ; Material: Colored GlazeAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white animal painting carved big bowl old vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $80.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white animal painting jar father’s gift vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $70.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Chinese Yuan Dynasty blue white dragon plum ceramic vase

Chinese Yuan Dynasty blue white dragon plum ceramic vase -Material: porcelain -From Jingdezhen -Hand made,paintedJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $157.89 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white beast painting gourd vase old vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $100.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white beast painting narcissus basin vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

ANTIQUE CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY BLUE AND WHITE CERAMIC VASE WITH HOUSE AND CHARACTER PATTERN

ANTIQUE CHINESE YUAN DYNASTY CERAMIC VASE WITH HOUSE AND CHARACTER PATTERN -Age:yuan dynstay -As collectionJingdezhen Youngs Ceramic Co., Ltd Chat now!

US $119.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with design of phoenix through flowers ceramic collection home decor

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $55.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white animal painting jar old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $70.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white inkpad box painting old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: Jingdezhen ; Material: Colored GlazeAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $40.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white mandarin duck jar painting vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $80.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white animal painting jar old goods vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with carved design of kylin old ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white prunus vase ceramiccollection home decor crafts art second-hand ornaments

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $150.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white mandarin duck painting big jar vintage ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $70.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with design of kylin old ceramic collection home decor crafts ornaments

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $55.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with carved design of lotus pond old ceramic collection home decor crafts art

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $60.00 / pieceFree Shipping

Min. Order: 1 piece

Yuan dynasty antique porcelain blue and white bowl with design of caragana ceramic collection home decor crafts art rare

Type: Porcelain ; Gender: Men ; Technique: Painted ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Regional Feature: China ; Brand Name: JingdezhenAntique Porcelain  Chat now!

US $55.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

Chinese handcrafted ceramic vase, China’s yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain, ancient collect ,old pots

Material: Ceramic & Enamel ; Regional Feature: China ; Use: Art & Collectible ; Technique: Glazed ; Style: Traditional Chineselinguo wang’s store  Offline

US $20.00 / piece

Min. Order: 1 piece

 

 

 

 

HISTORY

1271

  1. 1271 AD to 1644 AD Yuan and Ming Dynasty Emperors
       

Genghis khan

Kublai Khan

Emperor Ming Taizu

Emperor Ming Chengzu

 

Trade and Exchange–Porcelains with Persian Shapes and Designs

 

During the Yüan dynasty (1271-1368), as part of the Mongol empire, the Ching-te-chen kilns in China produced a large quantity of underglaze blue porcelains, fusing imperial styles with a Near Eastern flair in response to the needs of Muslims. At the beginning of the Ming dynasty, the Yung-lo Emperor ordered Cheng Ho to explore the western seas in order to expand ties with other lands, reaching the Islamic world among others. Porcelain thus became an important item of exchange and trade.

The shapes and decorative designs on porcelains during the Yung-lo and Hsüan-te reigns often exhibit a Near Eastern style. In the collection of the National Palace Museum , many of the underglaze blue ceramics from this period feature shapes and designs influenced by Islamic metalwork, reflecting the customs of that time

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE RARE RED INGLAZE YUAN CERAMIC

*ill the Ming red in glazed yuhunchuping vase ,com[are with the Yuan imperial below

and compare with the anamese during Mongol occupied yuhunchuping red in glazed below :

 

in 1289

due to chopping (tattoos) Mengki face (Men-chi), in accordance international law , proklamation  it is around declaration stating reasons why the weapons removed from the sovereignty violated and declared war.Raden Wijaya run tactics by sending a first ministers (prime minister) of the Majapahit kingdom as his envoy to the Headquarters of the Chinese troops who landed, so Majapajit became companion in arms with the army to overthrow the kingdom of Kublai Kan Jayakatong in Kediri

Tartar army gives recognition to the minister who was sent Wijaya.

After the confession were traveling siasast armed conflicts to destroy the power of mid Brantas river flow with the help of foreign armed forces (tartar), and this pekrjaan successful, so after that stay clean majapahit area of ​​influence of Tartars who many times deceived anymore, .

 

In the second month in 1292 ,


emperor issued an order to the governor Fu – Kien , directing him to send Shi – pi , Ike Mase and Hsing You command armies to conquer in Java , to collect troops from Fukien , Kiangsi and Hukuang the number 20000 , to appoint the right Wing Commander and one time , as well as Commander of Ten thousand four , to send a thousand ships and equip them with provisions for a year and with forty thousand rods Silver .


Further Emperor gave tiger ten badges , badge gold and silver badges hundred forty together with a hundred silk , embroidered with gold , for purposes beneficial merit .


When Ike Mese and his associetes their last audience ,

the emperor said to them :

” When you arrive at your Java should clearly state to the army and people of the land , that the Imperial Government had previously had a relationship with Java by delegates from both sides and have aligned well with it , but that they have lately memnyayat ( scarred ) face the Imperial envoy Me’ng Chi and that you have come to punish them for it “

 

source

(2)China Source(Dokumen Tiongkok)(a) History of the Yuan Dynasty 1280-1367 book 210

The Landing troops Kublai Khan at Java

The KublaiKhan General Shi-pi write:

“The armynmight be in a very difficult position and we do not know what might happen”.Shi-pi therefore divided his army into three parts, himsels,Kau Hsing and Ike  Mese  each landing a division and marched to attack Kalang. When they arrived at the fortified town Daha, more than a hundred thousand soldier of Kalang came foward to withstand them. “

Tuan Pijaya(raden wijaya) asked permission to return to his country in order to prepare a new letter of submission  to the chinese Emperor and to take the precious articles in his possession for sending them to court.

Shi-pi and Ike Mese consented to this and sent two officers with 200 men to go with him.Tuan Pijaya killed the two officers on the way and revolted again, after which he availed himself of the circumstance that yhe army wasreturming, to attack it from both sides.

Shi-pi was behind and was cut off from the rest of the army, he was obliged to fight his way for 300 li(km)  before he arrived at the ship, at last he embarked again and reached Chuan-chou after a voyage of 68 days. 

Of his soldiers more than 3000 men has died. The emperor’s officers made a list of the valuable, incenses,perfumeries,textureds,etc which he brought and found them worth more than 500.000 taels of silver. He also brought to the letter in golden cgaracters from the country Muli(or Buli) with golden and silver articles,rhinoceros -horns , ivory,and other thing. For more particular see the articles on Kau Hsing and on Java.

The Kublai khan Genreal Kau Hsing write that

When he returned of the fortified town Daha(Taha) , Shi-pi and Ike Mese had already allowed tuhan pijaya(raden Wijaya to go back to his country, but Kau Hsing had taken no part  in this decision, after killef Haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jaya Katwang)  and his son , he return to China.

The Kublaikan General Ike mese write

Ike Messe and Shih-pi had allowed Tuan Pijaya(Raden Wijaya) to go back to his country after returned at the fortified towb Taha(Daha), the wrong decision which made many Kublaikan Soldier died, the empror of china punished him

This Info found from

Account of Shi-pi, Kau Hsing and Ike Masse

of Yuan Dynasty book 162

 

 

 

 

 

1293

Raden wijaya founded Majaphit Kingdom

Majapahit wayang motif coin

, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana

During Majapahit era not Chinese empeor envoy sent to Indonesia anymore, because the majapahit empeor still used the green celadon ceramic as the prevented against poison, the Sukothai kingdom from Siam ,send a tribute to majaphit King the imperial given from the kiln sincanalai through Ayuthada port to Majapahit but the shipwreck

 

 

 

A seafarers tale –

an archaeological elucidation of aThuriang shipwreck

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Dreary weather and intermittent rain has led to a dramatic drop in temperature over the last few days and then, just as the rain finally stopped, a cold wind began to blow from the north.

It whipped up high waves and enormous swells that broke repeatedly against the side of the ship giving the deck, and everyone on it, a good showering.  It was unbearably cold, wet and miserable.

Kapitan Heng Tai dexterously managed to avoid getting any salt water in his face as he crouched and turned with every hit.

He was an experienced captain who had sailed this route many times before, but never so late in the season. 

The best time for the voyage was December when the northeast monsoon winds guaranteed a fair and safe passage all the way down

the South China Sea.

  But now, late in February, the winds were forceful, occasionally violent and sometimes frightening. 

The swell generated by these waves was higher than any Heng Tai could remember.

As well as being cold and wet, Heng Tai was now starting to get a very uncomfortable feeling in the pit of his stomach.

The junk he commanded was old and hadn’t been reinforced against the hungry attacks of the Teredo woodworms, which feasted on vessels like this.

The owner had recently lost a ship

near the Malaysian islands and didn’t have sufficient reserves to pay for the sacrificial planks that would protect the hull from the woodworms’ greedy onslaught. 

It was this cost-cutting that now worried Heng Tai and he bitterly regretted the time he’d had to spend waiting to load the cargo

in Ayutthaya. 

Without that delay he would have been at sea much earlier and none of this would be happening.

 

 

This sawankhalok found in Palembang by Husni Chandra

Compare with other sawankhalok ware below

 

 

 

 

Ever since the ‘‘Ming ban’’

when emperor Hongwu

imposed restrictions on private overseas trade, potters at

the Thai kiln sites

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanalai ,Sukothai .

http://www.encyclopediathai.org/sunthai/north/sukothai/sth_si10.htm

 

 

 

Pada abad ketujuh,

hubungan Tiongkok dengan Kalimantan Barat sudah sering terjadi, tetapi belum menetap. Imigran dari China kemudian masuk ke Kerajaan Sambas dan Mempawah dan terorganisir dalam kongsi sosial politik yang berpusat di Monterado dan Bodok dalam Kerajaan Sambas dan Mandor dalam Kerajaan Mempawah.

Pasukan Khubilai Khan di bawah pimpinan Ike Meso,

Shih Pi dan Khau Sing dalam perjalanannya untuk menghukum Kertanegara, singgah di kepulauan Karimata yang terletak berhadapan dengan Kerajaan Tanjungpura.

Karena kekalahan pasukan ini dari angkatan perang Jawa dan takut mendapat hukuman dari Khubilai Khan, kemungkinan besar beberapa dari mereka melarikan diri dan menetap di Kalimantan Barat.

11th Century

1018

Sunda relationship with Majapahit

In Pustaka Nusantara II explained that the empress was the daughter Darmasiksa Sanggramawijayottunggawarman descent, ruler of Srivijaya who reigned

since 1018 up to 1027 AD

From the their marriage born two sons, namely Rakeyan Jayagiri or Rakeyan Jayadarma and the Ragasuci or Rakeyan Saunggalah, also known as the Lumahing Park.

Rakeyan Jayadarma married to the daughter Mahisa Tumapel Campaka from East Java, named Dyah Ox-Tal, whereas the second son, namely Ragasuci paired with Dara Puspa, daughter-madewa Trailpkyaraja Maulibusanawar, from Malay.

Dara Golden*jingga), sister of Dara Puspita(dara petak) merried by Kertanegara, king Singosari. From the position of mixed marriage at that time sunda can position itself as the arbitrator in any dispute between Sumatra and East Java.

Sunda kingship with Majapahir also contained in another manuscript. According to the Rajya Rajya Reader parwa i Bhumi Nusantara II sarga 3: Rakeyan Jayadarma, son of King Dharmasiksa King of Sunda, is the daughter Mahisa Campaka from East Java. Rakeyan Jayadarma Mahisa Campaka be paired with a daughter named Dyah Singamurti Dyah aka Ox-Tal. Mahisa Campaka Mahisa Wong is the son of the pupil, who is the son of Ken Angrok, king Singosari of Ken Dedes.

From wedding Rakeyan Jayadarma premises in Pakuan Dyah Ox-Tal, has a son named Sang Nararya Sanggramawijaya or better known as Raden Wijaya. Thus Raden Wijaya was derived to 4 of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes.

Due Jayadarma died young, Ox-Tal was not willing to stay longer in Pakuan. Wijaya and his mother eventually delivered to East Java. Raden Wijaya after the adult becomes Senapati Singasari, at that time ruled by Kertanegara, until at one point he was able to establish the state of Majapahit. Raden Wijaya in the Babad Tanah Jawi, also known as Jake Susuruh of Pajajaran, because he was born in Pakuan.

Later Western Xia Dynasty

(1038 – 1227 AD),

 

was formed when Tangut chieftain Li Yuanhao named himself

emperor of Da Xia.

Prior to becoming an empire, the Tanguts had been subjects of China since the Tang Dynasty.

This era coin never found in Indonesia.the kingdom to far and no communication exist(Dr Iwan Note)

the Jin Dynasty

(1115 – 1234 AD)

was founded by Wanyan Aguda in Northern Manchuria. The Jin conquered Northern China by conquering the Liao and defeating the Song Dynasty.

Liao and Song coins were used early on the Jin rule.

In 1158,

the Jin Dynasty made their own coins and later used coins, notes and silver.
Coins cast during this period were of superb quality and excellent calligraphy.

The Fu Chang Yuan Bao,

Fu Chang Tong Bao and Fu Chang Zhong Bao

were three of the finest Jin coins.

 

They were minted during the puppet regime of Emperor Liu Yu who used

“Fu Chang” as his period title.  
Casting coins became unprofitable when inflation starts to hit the Jin Dynasty economy.

Jin Dynasty Silver Coin”Fu Chang Yuan Bao” $34.00

 

Mints were closed down and coin production ceased for 30 years prior to the defeat of the Jin by the Mongols.

This coin still never found in Indonesia(Dr Iwan Notes)

Read more about Jin Dynasty

.

 

 

THE JIN DYNASTY

The Jīn Dynasty (1115–1234),

also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet. (Photo: Jade Ornament)

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda (完顏阿骨打) in 1115.

The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty, which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries.

In 1121,

the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia.

In 1125,

after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China. (Photo: A wooden Bodhisattva)

On January 9, 1127,

Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace. (Photo: The Chengling Pagoda, Hebei, built 1161 – 1189AD Wikipedia)

 

11th Century

6.11th century
Wayang Wong(Human) developed when the center of javanese kingdom move frm Prambanan (central java) to east java.
Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally human) is a type of theterical performance with themes from the kingdom of jenggala in which the player wera mask and known as Wayang Topeng 9literally mask

1018

Sunda relationship with Majapahit

In Pustaka Nusantara II explained that the empress was the daughter Darmasiksa Sanggramawijayottunggawarman descent, ruler of Srivijaya who reigned

since 1018 up to 1027 AD

From perkimpoiannya born two sons, namely Rakeyan Jayagiri or Rakeyan Jayadarma and the Ragasuci or Rakeyan Saunggalah, also known as the Lumahing Park.

1042

Uang Krishnala, Kerajaan Jenggala (1042-1130 M)

 

Pada zaman Kerajaan Jenggala (1042-1130-an) dan Kerajaan Daha (1478-1526) uang-uang emas dan perak tetap dicetak dengan berat standar, walaupun mengalami proses perubahan bentuk dan desainnya.

Koin emas yang semula berbentuk kotak berubah desain menjadi bundar, sedangkan koin peraknya mempunyai desain berbentuk cembung dengan diameter antara 13-14 mm.

Pada waktu itu, uang kepeng Cina yang didatangkan oleh para pedagang Cina sebagai alat tukar dan barter begitu banyak, sehingga saking banyak jumlahnya yang beredar maka akhirnya dipakai juga secara “resmi” sebagai alat pembayaran, menggantikan secara total fungsi dari mata uang lokal emas dan perak.

1042

Kerajaan Janggala, adalah salah satu dari dua pecahan kerajaan yang dipimpin oleh Airlangga dari Wangsa Isyana.

Kerajaan ini berdiri tahun 1042, dan berakhir sekitar tahun 1130-an. Lokasi pusat kerajaan ini sekarang diperkirakan berada di wilayah Kabupaten Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur.

Sedangkan Kerajaan Negara Daha, adalah sebuah kerajaan Hindu (Syiwa-Buddha) yang pernah berdiri di Kalimantan Selatan satu zaman dengan kerajaan Islam Giri Kedaton.

Kerajaan Negara Daha merupakan pendahulu Kesultanan Banjar. Pusat pemerintahan/ibukotanya ada di Muhara Hulak atau Negara (di tepi sungai Negara dan berjarak 165 km di sebelah utara Kota Banjarmasin, sekarang kecamatan Daha Selatan, Hulu Sungai Selatan).

Sedangkan bandar perdagangan dipindahkan dari pelabuhan lama Muara Rampiau (sekarang desa Marampiau) ke pelabuhan baru di Bandar Muara Bahan (sekarang kota Marabahan, Barito Kuala). Kerajaan Negara Daha merupakan kelanjutan dari Kerajaan Negara Dipa yang saat itu berkedudukan di Kuripan/Candi Agung, (sekarang kota Amuntai).

 

Like the Khitans,

the Tanguts have their own written language which they used, with the Chinese script, as inscriptions in the coins that they produced. Their language is considered extinct and some of the inscriptions have not been deciphered.
Also known as

the Jurchen Empire,

in parts of Northern China, Manchuria and Mongolia.

The Liao cast coin

a limited number of crude coins with calligraphies in both Khitan and Chinese languages.

This coin still not found in Indonesia(Dr Iwan Notes)
Also known as

the Tangut Empire,

the Later Western Xia Dynasty

(1038 – 1227 AD),

 

was formed when Tangut chieftain Li Yuanhao named himself

emperor of Da Xia.

Prior to becoming an empire, the Tanguts had been subjects of China since the Tang Dynasty.

This era coin never found in Indonesia.the kingdom to far and no communication exist(Dr Iwan Note)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1080

1080-1350

CHINESE CITY

(KOTA CINA MEDAN)

 

501

 

 

 

 

 

502

 

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B6VMb51VVWTVRjNzZlhDdEpoeU0/edit?usp=sharing&pli=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

503

 

 

 

504

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

505

 

506

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

507

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

508

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

Peta Segitiga Arkeologi Di Sumatra Utara (Barus-Kota Cina-Portibi)

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan .

 

 

 

 

Struktur Batubata Bangunan Suci di Kota Cina. Sektor Keramat Pahlawan

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fondasi Bangunan Suci di Situs Kota Cina Temuan Tahun 1977

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

Temuan Batu Bata Berstruktur Bangunan Suci Di Situs Kota Cina

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

509

 

510

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

511

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

512

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

 

3 dari 4 archa temuan di situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan (Foto adalah replika archa)

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

 

 

 

515

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compare with

A Shiva lingam worshipped at Jambukesvara temple in Thiruvanaikaval

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

516

Compare with tuye’re

A tuyere, also can be spelled as tuyère, is a tube, nozzle or pipe through which air is blown into a furnace or hearth.[1]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

509

 

510

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

511

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

512

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

514

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

 

3 dari 4 archa temuan di situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan (Foto adalah replika archa)

Juni 9, 2010
Kategori:
Situs Kota Cina Medan Marelan . . Penulis: pussisunimed . Komentar: Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar

 

 

522

Compare

Bronze buddha

 

 

523

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

524

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

525

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compare with

A Shiva lingam worshipped at Jambukesvara temple in Thiruvanaikaval

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

517

Compare with Balwin Auction

Results 551-575 of 724  

 

Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd, Hong Kong Coin Auction 43, 769
Coins of INDIA – Ancient, Primitive Gold Money: Ancient Jewellery, small finger rings (2), total weight 2.4g, one with a moon-stone attached,

used for barter c.300-600 BC in the Ujjain area.

Fine to very fine and rare. (3pcs) Estimate: US$250-300

Price: n/a

 

 

Compare with

Viking pendant

Compare

24 K Gold foil

 

 

518

 

519

 

 

 

 

86

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compared with

 

Ancient Indian gold tali

Lot Of Mix India Coins Ancient & Islamic & Other Old Coins & Unknown Coins X 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

531

Compare with

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

 

 

 

 

Compare with

 

Dr Iwan Collections

Nephrite die jade(Dr Iwan Collections)

 

 

Stone pendant(collections Dr Iwan)

Chinese Stone with char ping seals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tang cash coin

Five dynasty cash coin

Northen song cash coin

 

 

 

 

DATE

TITLE

under
23
mm

23-26
mm

27-30
mm

31-35
mm

over 35
mm

968-975

KAI-PAO

 

Sung yuan tong bao

3.2 grams

976-984

T’AI-P’ING

@

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 grams@

990-994

SHUN-HUA

@

 

@

3.2 grams

995-998

CHIH-TAO yuan pao

@

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5 grams

998-1004

HSIEN-P’ING Yuan Pao

 

@

 

3.6 grams

1004-1007

CHING-TE yuan pao

@

3.5 grams

1008-1016

HSIANG-FU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.7 grams

1017-1021

T’IEN-SHI

 

@

3.2 grams

1023-1031

T’IEN-SHENG

@

3.7 grams

1032-1033

MING-TAO@

3.9 grams

1034-1037

CHING-YU@

3.7 grams

1038-1039

PAO-YUAN

huang yu tong pao @

 

 

3.6 grams

1040

K’ANG-TING

3.3 grams

1041-1048

CH’ING-LI

3.3 grams

7.2 grams

1049-1053

HUANG-YU

2.7 grams

1054-1055

CHIH-HO

@

3.7 grams

1056-1063

CHIA-YU yun pao

3.5 grams

1064-1067

CHIH-P’ING yuan pao@

3.6 grams

1068-1077

HSI-NING@

3.5 grams@

7.2 grams@

1078-1085

YUAN-FENG@

3.3 grams@

7.0 grams

1086-1093

YUAN-YU@

3.2 grams

7.8 grams

1094-1097

SHAO-SHENG@

3.7 grams

7.0 grams
@

1098-1100

YUAN-FU@

1.7 grams

3.2 grams

7.4 grams

1101

CHIEN-CHUNG

Shen shung yuan pau

2.0 grams

3.6 grams@

6.5 grams

1102-1106

CH’UNG-NING@

2.7 grams

10.3 grams

1107-1110

TA KUAN@

3.85 grams

?? grams

23.5 grams

1111-1117

CHENG-HO@

3.3 grams2

7.2 grams

1118

CHUNG-HO

4.9 grams

1119-1125

HSUAN-HO

3.4 grams

6.1 grams

6.7 grams@

1126

CHING-K’ANG

7.3 grams

 

Zhensong

 

 

 

 

Emperor CHAO K’UANG YIN
AD 960-976

Chao K’uang Yin, chief General of the Posterior Zhou Dynasty disposed of Emperor Shih Tsung in AD 959, declaring himself Emperor and casting

Posterior Zhou coins with the “ZHOU-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” inscription. Within one year he established the Northern Sung Dynasty, adopting

the T’ai Tsu reign title.

Emperor CHAO K’UANG YIN
AD 960-976

Chao K’uang Yin, chief General of the Posterior Zhou Dynasty disposed of Emperor Shih Tsung in AD 959, declaring himself Emperor and casting Posterior Zhou coins with the “ZHOU-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” inscription. Within one year he established the Northern Sung Dynasty, adopting the T’ai Tsu reign title.

 

Reign title: T’AI TSU, AD 960-968

Schjoth (page 27) lists “T’ai Tsu” as the Emperor’s name and not a reign title. We cannot identify any coins of this period, but the

“SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” @

issues attributed to the following reign title may have first been cast at this time, as one would expect these to have been Chao K’uang Yin’s first issue.

 

 

Reign title: KAI-PAO, AD 968-975

 

S-451
Orthodox Script@

 

Kai-pao is Chao K’uang Yin’s second reign title, but does not appear on his coins as it was considered incorrect for the character for “Pao” to occur twice on the same coin. Rather, “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” (referring to the coinage of Sung) was used.

 

S-451. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 25.2 mm, 3.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00@

 

We recently notice some specimens of this type that were only about 23.0 mm and around 2.40 grams (not included in the average above) while this type is nearly always over 25 mm and greater than 3 grams (we have seen one that was 25.7 mm, 4.20 grams). At this point we are not certain what the status of these smaller coins is, but suspect they are either contemporary counterfeits, or possibly Japanese or Annamese imitative coins.

 

S-452-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: any of various nail marks, dots and vertical strokes, but there are more types than Schjoth lists. Average (4 specimens) 25.0 mm. Average 4.71 grams.

VG   $5.00     F   $7.50     VF   $11.50@

 

We have noted the following variations:

 

TOP

 

crescent

 

UPPER RIGHT

crescent

   

RIGHT

vertical stroke

   

LOWER RIGHT

     

BOTTOM

crescent

   

LEFT

 

crescent

vertical stroke

UPPER LEFT

crescent

   

 

S-459. Iron 1/10 cash (see above). Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.09 grams. We have not seen one of these and cannot assign a value at this time.

 

These are reported to have been cast in Szechuan, Shansi or Fukien. Ding Fubao (Fisher’ s Ding) suggest these might be mother cash (models used to cast the seed cash), but average rim width makes that impossible.

 

 

Reign title: T’AI TSU, AD 960-968

Schjoth (page 27) lists “T’ai Tsu” as the Emperor’s name and not a reign title. We cannot identify any coins of this period, but the “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” issues attributed to the following reign title may have first been cast at this time, as one would expect these to have been Chao K’uang Yin’s first issue.

Emperor T’AI TSUNG
AD 976-997

Reign title: T’AI-P’ING, AD 976-984

 

S-460
Orthodox Script@

 

S-460. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (meaning “Money of the Heavenly Kingdom”). Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimens) 24.8 mm, 3.21 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-461. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at top. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.1 grams We have not had one, and cannot provide a value at this time (this does not necessarily mean it is rare).

 

S-462. Iron 1/10 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.16 grams. These are rare and we have no record of a value for the issue.

 

(The 1/10 cash denomination is based on information discussed above.)

It is recorded that a proposal was put forward to cast larger iron coins for this reign title. We assume the larger 1 cash similar to those of the “CHING-TE” reign title were intended, but we find no evidence they were cast.

 

Reign title: ??, AD 985-989

Schjoth, Fisher’s Ding and Mitchiner record no information about this period, but clearly show a gap between the preceding and following reign title. We will have to look further into this in the future.

 

Reign title: SHUN-HUA, AD 990-994

   

S-463
Orthodox Script@

S-464
Running hand Script@

 

S-463-464. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse:

“SHUN-HUA YUAN-PAO” in orthodox

and

 

running hand script.@

Schjoth says there is a grass script type by we have not seen one, and neither Schjoth nor Hartill lists one. Reverse: blank. We have noted specimens with star holes. Average (4 specimens) 24.4 mm, 3.3 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title : CHIH-TAO, AD 995-998

     

S-465
Orthodox Script@

S-467
Mixed Scripts

S-468
Grass Script@

 

S-465-468. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-TAO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox, grass script and one type of

mixed scrip (top and bottom in grass script, left and right in orthodox script). Reverse: blank. 24.6 mm. Average (12 specimens) 3.58 grams (excluding a 2.2 gram specimen must have been a contemporary counterfeit).

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

Reign title: KAI-PAO, AD 968-975

 

S-451SUN YUAN TUNG PAO
Orthodox Script

 

Kai-pao is Chao K’uang Yin’s second reign title, but does not appear on his coins as it was considered incorrect for the character for “Pao” to occur twice on the same coin. Rather, “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” (referring to the coinage of Sung) was used.

 

S-451. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 25.2 mm, 3.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00

 

We recently notice some specimens of this type that were only about 23.0 mm and around 2.40 grams (not included in the average above) while this type is nearly always over 25 mm and greater than 3 grams (we have seen one that was 25.7 mm, 4.20 grams). At this point we are not certain what the status of these smaller coins is, but suspect they are either contemporary counterfeits, or possibly Japanese or Annamese imitative coins.

 

S-452-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: any of various nail marks, dots and vertical strokes, but there are more types than Schjoth lists. Average (4 specimens) 25.0 mm. Average 4.71 grams.

VG   $5.00     F   $7.50     VF   $11.50

 

We have noted the following variations:

 

TOP

 

crescent

 

UPPER RIGHT

crescent

   

RIGHT

vertical stroke

   

LOWER RIGHT

     

BOTTOM

crescent

   

LEFT

 

crescent

vertical stroke

UPPER LEFT

crescent

   

 

S-459. Iron 1/10 cash (see above). Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.09 grams. We have not seen one of these and cannot assign a value at this time.

 

These are reported to have been cast in Szechuan, Shansi or Fukien. Ding Fubao (Fisher’ s Ding) suggest these might be mother cash (models used to cast the seed cash), but average rim width makes that impossible.

 

 

 

Emperor T’AI TSUNG
AD 976-997

Reign title: T’AI-P’ING, AD 976-984

 

S-460
Orthodox Script@

 

S-460. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (meaning “Money of the Heavenly Kingdom”). Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimens) 24.8 mm, 3.21 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-461. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at top. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.1 grams We have not had one, and cannot provide a value at this time (this does not necessarily mean it is rare).

 

S-462. Iron 1/10 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.16 grams. These are rare and we have no record of a value for the issue.

 

(The 1/10 cash denomination is based on information discussed above.)

It is recorded that a proposal was put forward to cast larger iron coins for this reign title. We assume the larger 1 cash similar to those of the “CHING-TE” reign title were intended, but we find no evidence they were cast.

 

Reign title: ??, AD 985-989

Schjoth, Fisher’s Ding and Mitchiner record no information about this period, but clearly show a gap between the preceding and following reign title. We will have to look further into this in the future.

 

Reign title: SHUN-HUA, AD 990-994

   

S-463
Orthodox Script@

S-464
Running hand Script

 

S-463-464. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHUN-HUA YUAN-PAO” in orthodox and running hand script. Schjoth says there is a grass script type by we have not seen one, and neither Schjoth nor Hartill lists one. Reverse: blank. We have noted specimens with star holes. Average (4 specimens) 24.4 mm, 3.3 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

 

 

 

Reign title : CHIH-TAO, AD 995-998

     

S-465
Orthodox Script@

S-467
Mixed Scripts

S-468
Grass Script@

 

S-465-468. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-TAO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox, grass script and one type of mixed scrip (top and bottom in grass script, left and right in orthodox script). Reverse: blank. 24.6 mm. Average (12 specimens) 3.58 grams (excluding a 2.2 gram specimen must have been a contemporary counterfeit).

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

Emperor CHEN TSUNG
AD 998-1022

Reign title : HSIEN-P’ING, AD 998-1004

 

S-470
Orthodox Script@
Broad rims

 

S-469-470. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIEN-P’ING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. There is only one caligraphy style for this issue, but it comes with both narrow (S-469) and wide (s-470) rims. Average (6 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.54 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

Reign title: CHING-TE, AD 1004-1007


@

S-471. Bronze cash. Obverse: “CHING-TE YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (9 specimens) 24.6 mm. 3.78 grams

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

Schjoth (page 28) records 1,830,000 strings of this issue were cast in each of the four years of this reign title. Each string was 100 coins, indicating about 732 million coins cast.

 

S-472. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-TE YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 35 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.83 grams. Rare, no value can yet be assigned.

 

In spite of the weight, it is fairly certain these were issued as 1 cash (see our discussion of iron coins). He records (page 28) these were cast in the second year of Ching-te (AD 1005) at Chia-ting Fu and Chiung-chou in Szechuan.

 

 

 

Reign title: HSIANG-FU, AD 1008-1016

   

S-474
Orthodox script
Yuan-Pao ending

S-477
Orthodox script
T’ung Pao ending@

 

With “T’UNG PAO” and “YUAN-PAO”, this is the first occurrence of multiple inscription endings during a reign title (See our discussion of inscription varieties).

 

S-473-474. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script (large and small calligraphy). Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 24.9 mm. 3.94 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-475. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’s specimen was 26.0 mm. 5.58 grams. This coin has very wide rims, is 1.2 mm larger than usual, and is considerably above the 1 cash standard weight range. It has all the characteristics one would expect from a SEED CASH and as such should be considered a very rare specimen, however the size is in line with 2 examples of S-477 we describe below, and in fact this may turn out to be fairly common. More research needs to be done on this issue, and we cannot currently assign a value to it.

 

S-478. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 34 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.82 grams (about the same as S-472). This is a rare coin and we cannot provide a valuation.

 

S-476-477. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (large and small calligraphy) Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 25.7 mm, 4.55 grams (Schjoth shows his specimens as about 24 mm. Average 3.8 grams, however the 2 specimens we recently examined averaged 25.7 mm, 4.55 grams, suggesting Schjoth’s listing may have been in error).

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

Reign title: T’IEN-HSI, AD 1017-1021

   

S-479
Four different scripts.

S-480
Orthodox Script@

 

Schjoth (page 29) records that during the last year (AD 1021) at least four mints were casting copper coins (Yung-ping at Jao-chou in Kiangsi, Yung-feng at Ch’ih-chou in Anhui, Kuang-ning in Fookien, and Feng-huo at Chien-chou in Shansi) and a few other mints may have operated briefly at Pien-liang (the capital) and Hangchow. Three mints cast iron coins (Chiung-chou, Chia-ting-fu and Hsing-chou, all in Szechuan) and in one year 1.5 million strings were cast, but it is not clear if this includes the iron issues.

He also records a formula for the bronze alloy: in 5 cattie of coins was 3 cattie 10 ounces of copper, 1 cattie 8 ounces of lead and 8 ounces of tin.

 

S-479. Not in Hartill or FD, so a scarce type.

Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in rare four different scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 23.8 mm, 2.79 grams.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00.

BECAREFUL different WITH common Tien sheng seal script

 

 

Schjoth states that this type has a different calligraphy styles on each of the four characters: “T’IEN” – seal script, “HSI” – orthodox script, “T’UNG” – grass script, “PAO” in li (official) script, and while this is not clear from his drawings, the specimens we have now seen bare this out. This is the earliest occurrence of seal script on a Northern Sung coin, possibly an experimental coin to see how it would look. However, this is controversy over this type, as while Schjoth believed it to be a Chinese issue (hence we include it here) there are others that think it is an Annamese issue, but there appears to be no clear consensus on this.

S-480,482. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 24.5 mm, Schjoth had two specimens, one of 24 mm. 4.16 grams. Schjoth has a specimen that was only 21 mm, 2.48 grams, which is likely a counterfeit of the period and which has be left out of our average size and weight figure.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-481. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at top left. 24 mm. 3.15 grams. We have not had this type and cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

S-483. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.52 grams. This is a very rare coin and we cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

This is smaller and lighter than the iron coins cast during the previous two reign titles, but slightly heavier than those of the next. Please see our general discussion of the iron coins for why we believe they are 1 cash and not 2 cash as Schjoth suggests.

 

Reign title: CH’IEN-HSING, AD 1022

No coins seem to have been cast for this reign title.

 

 

Emperor JEN TSUNG
AD 1023-1063

Jen Tsung used nine reign titles,

casting coins for all of them. He used as many as ten denominations of mixed iron and bronze, with numerous variations in script style and orientation, providing dozens of major and hundreds of minor varieties.

 

Reign title: T’IEN-SHENG, AD 1023-1031

   

S-484
Seal Script@

S-486@
Orthodox

 

S-484-486. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (12 specimens) 24.8 mm 4.11 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-487-488. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens of 25 mm and averaging 6.6 grams, smaller and lighter than those cast in the previous reign title. This type is rare and we have not been able to establish a value for it.

 

 

Reign title: MING-TAO, AD 1032-1032

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

 

S-489
Seal Script@

S-490
Orthodox Script@

 

S-489-490. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “MING-TAO YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Schjoth had two specimens averaging 4.0 grams. The orthodox script variety is common but we are not certain about the rarity of the seal script type.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-491. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “MING-TAO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 25 mm. Reverse: nail mark in top left corner. Schjoth had one specimen of 3.55 grams. We have not yet determined a value for this variety.

 

Schjoth does not record any iron coins for this reign title.

 

Reign title: CHING-YU, AD 1034-1037

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-492
Seal Script@

S-494
Orthodox Script@

 

S-492-494. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-YU YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Average 3.73 grams.

   

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $5.00@

 

S-495. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-YU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script.@ Reverse: blank. 25 mm. 6.8 grams. We have not handled one of these and cannot provide a valuation for it.

 

Schjoth records: “Hsu Chia’s proposal to cast coins by a chemical process, of fusing copper and iron, was adopted.”. We assume this refers to a copper-iron alloy but have not been able to determine which coins these were. As copper was worth more than iron, it makes little sense to issue iron coins with a copper content, but a considerable saving could be had by adding some iron to mostly copper issues. Some years ago we had a few North Sung cash that looked like rusty iron, but were non-magnetic, which we assumed just had a peculiar patination. However, they were issued under the reign title HSUAN-HO around AD 1119-1125 which is 100 years after this (An image of one is available via this link).

 

Reign title: PAO-YUAN, huang Sung Yuan Po AD 1038-1039

   

S-498
Seal Script@

S-500
Orthodox Script

 

“Huang-Sung” @was used instead of “Pao-Yuan” on these coins. To do otherwise would have repeated the character “Pao”, a practice considered to be incorrect.

 

S-496-500. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-SUNG T’UNG-PAO” (Imperial currency of Sung) in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank but one example with a star shaped hole. Average (2 specimens) 24.5 mm. 3.35 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-501-502. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-SUNG T’UNG-PAO” (Imperial currency of Sung) in seal and orthodox script. Schjoth had two specimens, one of 24 mm, 7.53 grams and the other of 25 mm, 7.07 grams. These are rare and we cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

Reign title: K’ANG-TING, AD 1040

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-503
Orthodox Script

 

Jen Tsung only used this reign title for less than a year and very few coins were issued. We have never seen one.

 

S-503. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “K’ANG-TING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 18 mm. 3.35 grams. This specimen is far too small for an official casting, but the weight is too high to suggest a contemporary counterfeit. As this is very rare and does not fit with then normal structure of the coinage, it may be a modern forgery. We note Fisher’s Ding (Ding Fubao) lists two Iron 1 cash for this reign title, but no bronze coins.

 

Schjoth (page 29) records: “In the K’ang-ting year, the official, Pi Chung-yuan, drawing attention to the bad state of the finances and the requirements for frontier expenditure, proposed the issue of a large currency, ‘value ten’ of copper and iron.” We have found no evidence that value ten cash were cast during this or either of the next two reign titles, but this passage is important as it shows that iron and copper coins could be cast and be circulating at identical denominations.

 

 

Reign title: CH’ING-LI, AD 1041-1048

   

S-504
read from top, then
around to the right

S-505
read top-bottom-right-left

 

S-506. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’ING-LI CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script reading top-bottom right left. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. 3.35 grams. We have not recorded a value for this type.

 

S-504 and 505. Bronze, 3 cash. Obverse: “CH’ING-LI CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script with orientations reading top-bottom right-left (504) and top around to the right (505). Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 7.4 grams with a range from 6.2 to 8.6 grams, 30-31 mm (the 8.6 gram specimen was 32 mm).

F   $15.00     VF   $25.00

Rare coin

These weights are correct for value 2 cash, but Schjoth (page 30) records: “In the 4th year of Chia-yu (AD 1059), owing to the increased casting by the people of illicit coins, the ‘value three’ coins of the heavy issue of Ching-li chung-paos were reduced to the value of two cash”.. This clearly suggests the heavier “Ch’ing-li” coins were issued as a fiduciary three cash, making them subject to counterfeiting.

 

 

 

Reign title: HUANG-YU, AD 1049-1053

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-507
Orthodox Script

 

S-507-508. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-YU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 23 mm. Schjoth had two specimens weighing 2.15 and 3.2 grams. This issue is rare and we have no record of a price for it.

 

It appears from Schjoth (page 30) that during this reign title an order was given to cast value 10 large copper and iron coins, but there is no evidence that these coins were actually cast.

 

 

 

Reign title: CHIH-HO, AD 1054-1055

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

 

S-509
Seal Script
with YUAN-PAO@

S-511
Orthodox Script
with YUAN-PAO

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-512
Seal Script
with T’UNG-PAO

S-513
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG-PAO

 

S-509-511. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-HO YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.72 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-512-513. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse:

“CHIH-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script.@ Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.62 grams. We have no valuation records for this type.

 

Reign title: CHIA-YU, AD 1056-1063

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

 

S-514
Seal Script

S-515
Orthodox Script

 

S-514-515. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIA-YU YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. We have noted an orthodox script example with a star shaped hole. 24 mm. Average 3.87 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-516-518. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIA-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth notes an orthodox script example with a star shaped hole. 24 mm. Average 3.32 grams.

VG   1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

 

Emperor YING TSUNG
AD 1064-1067

Reign title: CHIH-P’ING, AD 1064-1067

   

S-519
Seal Script@

S-522
Orthodox Script

S-519-523. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-P’ING YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.34 grams.

VG   1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

This type often exists with an unusual style of “CHIH”. Munro believes these were cast in Japan, which is possible. We will elaborate on this at some future date.

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-524
Seal Script

S-526
Orthodox Script

S-524-526. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.97 grams. Our records do not include a price for this type, but it is probably the same as those above.

 

Schjoth (page 30) records that during this reign title, 1,700,000 strings of cash (100 coins per string) were cast annually from six minting departments.

 

 

Emperor SHEN TSUNG
AD 1068-1085

Emperor Shen Zong

Schjoth (page 31) records that as many as twenty-six mints operated during this period, with a combined annual mintage as high as five-and a half million strings.

 

Reign title: HSI-NING, AD 1068-1077

Seal Script version 1
with Yuan-pao

 

@

Seal Script version 2
with Yuan-pao

@

xi ning tong bao (熙宁元宝) inscription.

This inscription, however, is written in seal script.
Coins with this style of calligraphy were cast during the years 1068-1077 of the reign of Emperor Shen Zong.

 

 

@

 

 

Orthodox Script (one of several styles)
with Yuan-pao

     

S-527
Seal Script version 1
with Yuan-pao

S-529
Seal Script version 2
with Yuan-pao

S-535
Orthodox Script (one of several styles)
with Yuan-pao

 

     

S-538
Seal Script
with Chung-pao

S-537
Orthodox Script style 1
with Chung-pao @

S-542
Orthodox Script style 2
with Chung-pao

 

All coins of this reign title read from the top around to the right. Early in the reign only 1 cash coins were cast, and those with orthodox script tend to be style 1. Later in the reign the large denominations were cast, on which those with orthodox script tend to be style 2. It is not yet clear to me is the 1 cash denomination continued to be made after the larger denominations were introduced.

 

EARLY ISSUES

S-527-530 and 532-535. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” in seal (two different versions) and orthodox scripts (3 different versions). Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 23.8 mm. Average 3.12 grams. One with a star-shaped hole has been noted.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

One of Schjoth’s specimens weighed only 1.63 grams. It is probably a contemporary counterfeit and in not included is the average weight calculation.

 

S-531. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at bottom. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.7 grams. We have not recorded a value for this type.

 

S-544. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” (or “T’UNG-PAO”) in orthodox script. Schjoth’s specimen must have been in poor condition as the exact reading was uncertain). Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.53 grams. We cannot provide a valuation for this type at this time.

 

At 7.53 grams and 25 mm, this appears to be a 1 cash and must have been part of this early series.

 

S-536-537. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING CHUNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Average 3.57 grams. Our records do not currently include a value for this type.

Schjoth describes these as larger than usual, but 25 mm is not enough larger to be significant.

 

LATER ISSUES

Schjoth (page 31) records the following passage: “During the years the armies moved westward, coins value ten were cast. When the war was ended and the armies withdrawn, the illicit casting of coins set in, and the value of the large coinage had to be reduced to ‘three’ and eventually to ‘two’. On the recommendation of some high officials, henceforward, of the larger issues of coins only value two were cast and these circulated throughout the empire.”

 

S-538-42a. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING CHUNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. The size of these varies between 30 and 32 mm, with significant weight variations between about 6.5 and 8.5 grams. Based on 43 specimens we found an average weight of about 7.8 grams. These fit a 2 cash standard but appear to have been issued at 10 cash, later devalued to 2 cash. We have noted one example with a star-shaped hole.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00     VF   $7.50, gVF   $9.00

 

From a recent hoard we noticed that the type S-538 seems to come in both the 30 to 32 mm size (later re-valued to 3 cash) and in the 28 to 29 mm size (later re-valued to 2 cash). It is possible that the 28-29 mm specimens were a distinctly different issued from the 30-32 mm specimens.

 

S-543. Iron 10 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. 35 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.54 grams. These are rare and we have not seen one, and cannot provide a valuation for it.

 

The passage about war-issue 10 cash coins (see above) does not mention iron coins, but at 35 mm these are large coins and are likely of this series as they do not fit anywhere else.

 

Reign title: YUAN-FENG, AD 1078-1085

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

   

S-546
Orthodox Script

S-545
Seal Script

S-556
Grass Script@

 

 

1 CASH ISSUES

S-545-550. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal, orthodox and grass scripts. Reverse: blank or with crescent. We have also seen one example with a star hole (add about 60% to the price for a crescent or star hole). Average (36 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.90 grams. We have noted that there is a range of sizes with specimens noted from 23.5 to 25.1 mm.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.75     VF   $5.00@

 

S-551-552. Bronze larger 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 25.6 mm, 3.56 grams (range 2.87 to 4.15 grams). These are interesting coins, and the consistently large size suggest they are a separate issue from those above, but the weights are well within the 1 cash weight range. At this point, we do not know why the two issues exist, but we do not that coins of this size were cast during earlier reign titles (see S-477 above).

VG   $7.50     F   $9.75     VF   $12.50@

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, AE 2 Cash
Price US$ 35.00

S-563-564. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens of 25 and 24 mm. Average 7.05 grams. The same weight and size as the iron 1 cash cast prior to the war and appear to be a re-introduction of that denomination at the end of the war. We have not seen an example of these and cannot provide any valuation for them at this time.

 

LARGE ISSUES

S-553, 556. Bronze 10 (2) cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: blank. These vary between about 28 and 31 mm (average is 30 mm), and based on 31 specimens we found an average weight of 7.44 grams. We have also seen some examples with a star hole which should be worth a small premium).
   

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00     VF   $6.00

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3
Price US$ 75.00

China, 1078-1085 AD., Northern Sung dynasty, emperor Shen Tsung, 2 Cash, Schjoth 556.

China, Northern Sung dynasty (906-1127 AD.), emperor Shen Tsung (1068-1085 AD.), reign title: Yuan Feng (1078-1085 AD.), 1078-1085 AD.,
Æ 2 Cash (29-30 mm / 5,68 g),
Obv.: Yuan / Feng / T’ung / Pao , in Chinese grass script, clockwise top-right-beneath-left of central hole.
Rev.: (plain) .
Fredrik Schjoth. Chinese currency. Oslo, 1929, no. 556 .

 

S-554, 555, 557-559. Bronze 10 (2) cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: several varieties with an assortment of dots and crescents. 28 mm. Schjoth had 5 specimens averaging 6.45 grams. We do not have any records of valuations for these variations, but they should be worth some premium over the plain-reverse examples above.

 

S-560-562. Iron 10 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse blank or with a nail mark. 30 mm. Averaging 11.88 grams, these are of the same standard as the fiduciary 10 cash issues cast during the previous reign title. We have not handled any of these and cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

The Western Wars were ongoing during the early years of this reign title, so these heavy coins were probably a continuation of the fiduciary 10 cash of the previous reign title which were devalued at first to 3 and then to 2 cash.

Schjoth records (page 31): “In the 8th year of Yuan-yu ‘(AD 1086)’, when Che Tsung ascended the throne, fourteen of the old mints were closed. During the eight years that followed Shansi had orders to re-issue its small currency.”

It appears Shansi issued larger coins until AD 1086. We have not found the year in which the Western War ended, but it appears to have been before AD 1086 indicating some of these heavy coins were cast at a 2 cash denomination (we believe this probably only applies to the bronze issues). As the bronze 10 cash were cast to the two cash standard, it is probably not possible to differentiate early 10 cash from later 2 cash.

 

 

 

Emperor CHE TSUNG
AD 1086-1100

Reign title: YUAN-YU, AD 1086-1093

   

S-565
Seal Script

S-567
Grass Script@

 

S-565-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 24.5 mm. Average about 3.85 grams (17 specimens).

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-569-572. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. There are unusual North Sung issues with the following reverses: S-569 – numeral 1, S-570 – numeral 2, S-571 – “Ch’uan” (a stream) and- S-572 – characters meaning “ten months”. 24 mm. Average 2.96 grams. These are rare. We have never seen one and cannot provide a valuation for them.

 

These coins do not fit with the rest of the North Sung series. Schjoth’s suggestion that these may have been cast is Japan could be correct. There is no indigenous coinage from Japan during the Northern Sung period and it appears Japan used Chinese coins during this period, so it is likely some North Sung types were cast in Japan.

 

S-573-574. Metal ?? value ??. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth lists these as bronze 1 cash, but the weights of 6.06 and 5.52 grams fit into the weight/size standard for iron 1 cash. Until we are able to confirm the alloy and weights of these two coins, we do not wish to classify them. We would appreciate hearing from anyone with access to the Schjoth collection (we think it is in Oslo, Norway) who can check them for us.

 

S-577-578. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. 24 mm. Averaging about 7.12 grams.

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Che Tsung,

uan yu tong paoAD1086-1100, Iron Cash, Value 3
Price US$ 85.00

The weight and size are at the iron 1 cash standard suggesting these are early issues of this reign title. Schjoth does not mention orthodox script for this type, but his illustration of S-578 shows “YUAN” in orthodox script. We have not handled any of these and cannot currently provide a valuation for them.

 

ISSUES OF AD 1093

Schjoth (page 31) records value two cash were re-introduced in AD 1093, but discontinued in favor of 1 cash after two years. This title ends in the first year, so some must have been cast under the following reign title. Schjoth indicates all two cash were discontinued, but numismatic evidence indicates only iron 2 cash were discontinued while bronze two cash continued to be cast.

 

S-575-576. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 29 mm. Average 7.85 grams (the weight standard previously established for bronze 2 cash). We note these usually show up in gF or better.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

S-580-581. rare Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. 34 mm. Average 11.03 grams (the standard used during the previous two reign titles for 10 cash later reduced to 2 cash).

F   $25.00     VF   $37.50

 

These are the earliest Northern Sung iron coins we have seen available in recent years. It is very possible they came from a single hoard and may turn out to be scarcer than the values we have seen would indicate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: SHAO-SHENG, AD 1094-1097

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-582
Seal Script
with YUAN PAO

S-586
Grass Script
with YUAN-PAO

S-592
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG-PAO

 

ISSUES OF AD 1094

S-597-598. Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 34 mm. Average 11.0 grams (the size and weight standard of the iron 2 cash issued in AD 1093).. These must be part of the series discontinued after AD 1094.

F   $25.00     VF   $42.50@

Rare coin

 

Schjoth records that the “Book of Economical Economy of Sung” (v. Hui-k’ao, vol iv p. 24a) states: “During the first years of the Shao-sheng style, the copper coins were daily becoming more scarce, while the iron ones were increasing numerous, a thousand copper-cash were received in exchange of two thousand five hundred of iron.”

This is an interesting passage. It appears bronze coins were being issued at their metal value of about 3.5 grams per cash (see below), but the 11-12 gram iron 2 cash had been demonetized (or people refused to accept them) and were trading at their scrap iron value. Two and a half iron 2 cash, between 27.5 and 30 grams of iron, were exchangeable for a 3.5 gram copper 1 cash (an 8 or 9 to 1 ratio). This supports our earlier belief that iron was worth about 10% of copper and that this had changed little by the late Northern Sung period.

The government’s response was to withdraw the iron 2 cash coins, although it appears that iron 1 cash were still cast and accepted. We find no evidence of iron 2 cash being cast again during the balance of the Northern Sung period, but some brief but unsuccessful attempts at other denominations did occur.

 

OTHER ISSUES OF AD 1094 AND LATER

S-582, 585, 586, 591. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse blank. Average (4 specimens) 24.5 mm, average 3.90 grams (excluding S-585 which at only 21 mm and 1.82 grams is probably a contemporary counterfeit).

F   $2.50     VF   $4.50@

 

583-584, 587-590. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: a variety of crescents and dots. Average (6 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.87 grams. We have no records of values for these, but they should be worth some premium over the blank-reverse type.

 

S-596. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in grass script. 24 mm. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.02 grams. We have no records of value for this type at this time.

 

S-593-595. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 29.3 mm, 6.85 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

S-592. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 2.94 grams. We have no

 

 

 

 

Reign title: YUAN-FU, AD 1098-1100

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-606 vareity
Seal Script
with T’UNG-PAO@

S-602
Grass Script
with T’UNG-PAO

 

S-599, 602. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 23 mm. Average about 3.21 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.50@

 

S-600-601. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU YUAN-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: crescents in various positions. 23 mm. Average about 3.41 grams. We have no record of handling these.

 

S-603. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in grass script. Reverse: blank. At 21 mm and 1.66 grams this is probably a counterfeit.

 

S-606. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. 29 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 5.86 grams. We do not have a valuation for this type.

 

S-604-605. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Average 7.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $3.50     VF   $6.50

 

H-16.336 (Schjoth does not list this denomination). Iron 3 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 34.2 mm, 13.23 grams.

F   $30.00     VF   $45.00

 

 

Emperor HUI TSUNG
AD 1101-1125

Hui Tsung’s coinage is very complex with several attempted reforms, including the introduction of some new fiduciary issues. We have done our best to sort these out, but in some cases only speculations can be offered.

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHIEN-CHUNG CHING-KUO, AD 1101

sheng –sung yuan pao

   

S-607
Seal Script

S-609
Grass Script

 

An unusual reign title, composed of four rather than two characters, which does not fit the normal coin layout. “SHENG-SUNG” was used instead.

 

S-607, 609. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 24 mm. Average 3.65 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-608, 610. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. S-608 at 19 mm, 1.92 grams and S-610 at 21 mm, 2.16 grams. The size and weights suggest Schjoth’s specimens were contemporary counterfeits, but the types do exist at regular size and weight.

 

S-611. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in grass script. Reverse: crescent. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.28 grams. We have not handled one of these and cannot currently suggest a value.

 

S-612-614. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Average 6.53 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

The iron coins of this reign title are a little perplexing. This is one of the areas where we can only offer speculations, and more study is needed.

 

S-615-617. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank.

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3
Price US$ 75.00

The sizes and weights of Schjoth’s specimens are very inconsistent. One of 23 mm, 3.91 grams, one of 25 mm, 5.67 grams and one of 21 mm, 2.72 grams.

VG   $55.00     F   $70.00     VF   $100.00

 

During the balance of the Northern Sung, 23 to 24 mm iron coins were sporadically cast at both a 5 to 6 and 3 to 4 gram standard. It is important to remember iron coins are fiduciary, even at the heavier standard containing about 0.2 cash worth of metal. It has been our observation that size is more significant than weight in determining denomination, and that both of these standards are intended to be value 1 cash. We believe the 21 mm specimen above may have been a counterfeit of the period.

 

S-618. Iron coin of uncertain denomination. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. At 33 mm and 12.59 grams this coin is larger and heavier than the iron 2 cash issued earlier, but the same as the earlier iron 10 cash that were later demonetized. This appears to be an attempt to introduce a large fiduciary iron coinage, but we have found no evidence to suggest the intended denomination, although the size is the same as the bronze 10 cash of the next reign title. Rare, we have no valuation currently available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CH’UNG-NING, AD 1102-1106

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-620
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO
read top-bottom-right-left

S-621
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO
read top-right-bottom-left

S-626
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING YUAN-PAO
read top-right-bottom-left

 

While the coins with the Chung-Pao ending, and those with the T’ung-Pao ending, appear to have very different caligraphy styles, they are both variations of Othodox Script.

Schjoth lists value 1, 5 and 10 cash for this series, but his literary reference mentions only 10 cash. We have so far found no convincing evidence of any coins cast with the intent of a 5 cash denomination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REGULAR SERIES

S-626. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 25 mm. 6.04 grams. We have not seen an example of these and cannot provide a valuation at this time.

LOOK IN AUCTIONS

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125,

IRON Value 1, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO
Price US$ 185.00

 

Schjoth does not list any bronze coins with the “YUAN-PAO” inscription, but the existence of this iron coin proves the inscription was used. It is likely that bronze issues exist but are very rare.

S-619, Rare bronze 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 25 mm. 3.27 grams. This is consistent with a 1 cash denomination. The 1 cash is rare with this inscription.

VF   $90.00

 

S-625, iron 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 24 mm. At 3.46 grams, this is consistent with the iron 1 cash denomination (S-615) issued under the previous reign title. We have not seen one of these and cannot provide a value.

 

S-620, bronze 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 25 mm. At 2.12 grams it is unlikely that this is an official issue, but it may be a contemporary counterfeit of a value 1 cash coin of this type. We cannot provide a value for this type at this time.

 

FIDUCIARY 10 CASH SERIES

 

Schjoth records (page 32): “In the 1st year of Ch’ung-ning (AD 1102) the Board of Revenue directed that the four minting departments of Chiang, Yao, Shih and Chien should hand in samples of the new currency …… Each string of a thousand of the value-ten coins weighed 14 catties 7 liang, 9 catties 7 liang 2 mace being copper, 4 catties 12 liang 6 mace being lead, 1 catty 9 liang 2 mace being tin, the waste by melting being 1 catty 5 liang. Each coin weighed 3 mace.”

As far as we have been able to determine 3 mace is about 11 grams, so this passage must be referring to an issue of larger bronze coins. We also note that the two halves may not belong together. The first is about testing 1000 coins that already exist. In the second part “waste by melting” suggests the formula is the amount of metal needed to cast 1000 coins, including the casting sprew that is left after the coins are removed from the trees. This is still open to interpretation.

Schjoth (page 33) also records: “In the 1st year of Cheng-ho (AD 1111), orders were issued that ‘value ten’ coins, which grasping officials for momentary gain some years before had issued to the harm of the government and the people, should be reduced to ‘value three’. The Minister Chang Shang-ying (died 1121) obtained leave to demonetize all the spurious ‘value 10’ coins met with and cast them into light weight Hsiao-p’ing cash”.

Bronze 3 cash should weigh about 10.5 grams, but this passage also makes it clear that 10 cash coins were being cast to a 3 cash standard. It is also clear that counterfeits were abundant. We believe the large coins of this period are the coins referred to, and that any under 8 grams are probably examples of the counterfeits.

 

S-621. Bronze 10 cash (Schjoth calls it a 5 cash). Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (8 specimens) 34.1 mm, 11.47 grams (at the 3 cash standard). These are generally well cast coins with bold characters and fairly high rims.

F   $8.00     VF   $15.00     XF $22.50

 

S-624 is a double-obverse example of the S-621 issue (31 mm, 12.38 grams). Double-obverse coins were never a tradition in China and it is unlikely to be an authentic issue. There are other double-sided fantasy coins that are believed to have been cast during the 19th century for the collector’s market.

 

S-622, 623. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (7 specimens) 9.65 grams, with the range between 7.6 and 13.3 grams. The range from 34 to 36 mm. Two of the specimens were under 8 grams were poorly cast and probably old counterfeits, leaving an average of 10.5 grams for the remaining specimens. These are generally bold, well cast coins.

F   $10.00     VF   $15.00

 

Schjoth (page 32) records a story of the enemy melting iron coins to manufacture iron weapons, so tin and lead were added to the alloy to make the metal soft and brittle, not suitable for weapons. The iron coins of this series may be those referred to. “Enemies making weapons” shows these fiduciary coins were cast in a time of war, just as similar coins were cast during the Western Wars 35 years earlier.

 

S-627. Iron 10 (?) cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 32 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.07 grams. This is in the same weight and size standard as the bronze 10 cash issue, suggesting this was intended to circulate at that denomination. Rare.

 

Reign title : TA KUAN, AD 1107-1110

 

 

S-630
Orthodox Script@

“TA-KUAN YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script, with very fine calligraphy said to be in the Emperor’s own hand, which Hartill refers to as “slender gold” script. They come in a number of different denominations, in both bronze and iron, all with blank reverses. In later times this was a popular model for amulets with a wide variety of reverse types, which are are not coins.

 

Bronze 1 cash, 23 to 24 mm, average 3.85 grams. S-628-629.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

 

 

Rare Bronze 2 cash, 29 mm. FD-1059, Hartill 16.421.

F   $60.00     VF   $85.00

 

Rare Bronze 10 cash, average (5 specimens) 41.0 mm, 17.5 grams. S-630.

VF   $25.00     XF   $45.00

This is a large and impressive type first cast in AD 1107, which is reported to have been withdrawn in AD 1109 due to excessive counterfeiting, although we expect that report is a little muddled. When these were issued at about 17 grams, the 11 to 12 gram value 10 coins of the previous reign title were still circulating and counterfeiters could make a significant profit melting these and using the bronze to cast the earlier type. The recall was probably to stop this counterfeiting of that earlier type. These are far too common for a coin officially withdrawn after only two years, suggesting they were hoarded in large numbers at the time.

Schjoth’s specimen weighs 23.52 grams and 40 mm, equivalent to value 8 cash, but it was double-sided and probably an amulet made much later (probably Ming or even Ching period).

 

 

S-632 – iron
Orthodox Script

 

Rare Iron 1 cash. Schjoth’s specimen was about 23 mm, 3.42 grams. S-631.

F   $40.00     VF   $75.00

 

Rare Iron 10 cash (what Hartill calls a 2 cash). Average (2 specimens) 30.5 mm. 7.35 grams. S-632. The size and weight are within the standard for fiduciary 10 cash of the previous reign and since those 10 cash were not devalued to 3 cash until after these coins were issued, we believe these were also issued as feduciary 10 cash.

F   $30.00     VF   $55.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHENG-HO, AD 1111-1117

   

S-645
Seal Script@

S-646
Orthodox Script@

 

S-633-636. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.37 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00     XF   $7.00

 

S-637. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox scripts. Reverse: crescent. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.11 grams. We currently have no record of a value for this type.

 

S-638-640. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. Average (4 specimens) 29 mm, 6.89 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

S-641-642. rare Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank.

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO
Price US$ 75.00

Schjoth has two specimens, one of 25 mm, 6.51 grams and another of 21 mm, 5.56 grams (possibly a counterfeit).

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

No bronze 3 cash were cast during this reign title, but Schjoth (page 33) records information suggesting many bronze value 3 cash must have been in circulation: “In the 1st year of Cheng-ho (AD 1111), orders were issued that ‘value ten’ coins, which grasping officials for momentary gain some years before had issued to the harm of the government and the people, should be reduced to ‘value three’. The Minister Chang Shang-ying (died 1121) obtained leave to demonetize all the spurious ‘value 10’ coins met with and cast them into light weight Hsiao-p’ing cash”.

This passage cannot be referring to the type S-630 as these contained at least 8 cash worth of copper and had been recalled in AD 1109. The 10 cash of the western wars had been devalued long before, so the reference must be to the value 10 coins of the Ch’ung-ning reign title which contain about 3 cash worth of metal.

“Hsiao-p’ing cash” is a term that can describe any lightweight cash. In some other references it appears to refer to value 1 cash of either bronze or iron, but in a few references seems to specifically mean fiduciary iron coins where “lightweight” means coins which weigh far less than the value at which they circulated, in which case they may be the following two coins:

 

S-643-644. Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. 29 mm. Schjoth had two specimens, 6.82 and 9.66 grams. The size and weight of these suggests a value 2 denomination was intended.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

S-645-646. Iron 3 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. Average (2 specimens) 31.8 mm, 32 mm. Average 9.10 grams. The size and weight of these suggests a value 3 denomination was intended.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

Reign title: CHUNG-HO, AD 1118

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-647
Orthodox Script

 

S-647. Bronze 1 (?) cash. Obverse: “CHUNG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 26 mm. 4.97 grams. This coin is peculiar in not fitting into any of the regular size and weight standards. If truly a medieval coin, it would probably be a counterfeit value 2 cash, and being a rare type, we would prefer to examine it for authenticity before committing to a classification for it.

 

Reign title: HSUAN-HO, AD 1119-1125

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-656
Seal Script
with T’UNG PAO@

S-660
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG PAO@

S-652
Orthodox Script
with YUAN PAO

 

S-648-650 & 653-655. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.51 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $6.00

 

S-651. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: crescent at the top and star (more like a donut) at the bottom. 24 mm. 3.05 grams. We have not had this type, and cannot suggest a value at this time.

 

S-662. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox (?) script. Reverse: “SHEN”. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.0 grams. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

We assume “SHEN” is a mint mark (very unusual on a Northern Sung coin). Schjoth lists this as a bronze pattern for the iron coin of the same type (see below), but at this time we have no reason to believe this to be true.

 

S-666. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox (?) script. Reverse: “SHEN” (see above). 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.58 grams. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

S-663-665. Iron 1 cash.

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Iron Value 1 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25)
Price US$ 45.00

Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’ had two of 23 mm averaging 5.85 grams, and one of 21 mm, 4.16 grams. These appear to be of and iron 1 cash but the 21 mm specimen may be a counterfeit. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

S-656-657. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimens) 28.1 mm. Average 6.28 grams. These are common, and must have been a huge issue as these are very common.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50@

 

S-658-661. Bronze 2 or 3 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank or with a crescent. Average (five specimens) 30 mm, 6.6.84 grams. The crescent reverse should be worth a premium. These are common, and must have been a huge mintage.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50@

 

These larger “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” coins are a bit of a mystery. The two distinct sizes of 28 and 30 mm suggests two denominations, but both specimens weigh in the 2 cash standard. We need to examine more specimens, and study the coins that follow in the Southern Sung, before commenting further on this series.

 

S-652. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.24 grams, which he notes had an alloyed appearance, but we are not certain what he meant by that. We have no record of a value for this type.

 

 

Emperor CH’IN TSUNG, AD 1126

Reign title: CHING-K’ANG, AD 1126

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-667
Seal Script

S-670
Orthodox Script@

 

Coins of this reign title are all rare although we have had a few over the years. Unfortunately we do not have a record of the prices. We are attempting to track down the purchasers in order to retrieve this information and image the coins.

 

S-669-670. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-K’ANG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens, one of 21 mm, 5.7 grams and the other of 24 mm, 7.13 grams. These fall into the weight standard for late North Sung iron 1 cash, but the 21 mm specimen is too small and may be a counterfeit. Rare, no valuation available.

 

S-667-668. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHING-K’ANG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 30 mm. Average 7.25 grams. Rare, no valuation available.

 

Schjoth mentions the existence of varieties not represented in his collections, including some with the “CHING-K’ANG YUAN-PAO” inscription, as well as specimens with orthodox script.

 

The dynasty name was changed to Southern Sung after the northern provinces were lost to the Mongol invaders in AD 1127

During the Yuan dynasty

 

China became part of the Mongol empire. In the year

1202 Temujin, after unifying the Mongolian tribesmen, was elected Genghis Khan

(Universal Ruler). Genghis Khan was a military genius. He organized the Mongols into

a military force, which consisted of the best-trained horsemen the world had yet to see.

These men fought on horseback with such precision they could hit targets while

cantering at a full gallop. These armies marched south into China and west across Asia

and into Europe sweeping everyone in their path. When Genghis Khan died, his armies

were poised to conquer Hungary after having invaded present day Poland and Lithuania.

Extending west to Poland and Moscow, south to the Arabian Peninsula and east to

Siberia and China, the Mongol Empire was the largest in history in terms of

geographical expanse. Genghis Khan was principally interested in acquiring China

because of its great wealth. Thirty-three years after his death his grandson, Kublai

Khan, became the Great Khan.

 

 

In the year 1271

the Mongols founded the Yuan dynasty (1271-1367AD)

thereby

making themselves the masters of China. Kublai Khan, having moved his capital from

Mongolia to Peking, adopted the Chinese dynastic name of Yuan. As a foreign ruler

over China, he built a strong central government in order to cement his authority. In

Peking he built the magnificent palace compound known as the Forbidden City. The

Chinese nobility having been barred from the every day running of government turned

their attention to the arts and literature. Because of this the arts and culture flourished

under the Yuan. The Mongols and Chinese spoke different languages and had different

customs. This cultural gap resulted in a more tolerant government than in previous

dynasties. Foreign religions were condoned and trade encouraged. Foreign merchants

became a privileged class. They were exempt from taxation and could travel freely

 

 

Western Liao 10 kwan note of the emperor Hsien Ch’ing (1136-1141 AD) entitled “Great Liao

Treasure Note”. The note depicts five silver sycee ingots of the “saddle” variety in the pictorial

rectangle. The text states: The counterfeiter shall summarily be decapitated and the captor of the said

counterfeiter be rewarded with 800 taels of silver.”

 

 

Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty, became Great Khan in 1260. His reign lasted until

1294, when he was succeeded by a number of less able emperors.

 

throughout China. It was into this climate that Europe was formally introduced to China with the arrival of Marco Polo, the Venetian adventurer.

 

The Great Khan was so

impressed with the Italian that he made him an official in his court in 1275. During his

seventeen year stay in the court of Kublai Khan, Polo wrote his famous book The Book

of Marco Polo, Citizen of Venice, Wherein is Recounted the Wonders of the World,

which when published upon his return from Europe in the year 1296, gave incredulous

Europeans the first glimpse of the mysterious land known as Cathay.

 

Marco Polo set out to explore Central Asia and China in 1271, at the age of

seventeen, accompanied by his father and uncle, successful Venetian merchants. Their

travels took them first by sea to Asia Minor, then overland by camel caravan through

Persia, Afghanistan and on to the ancient Silk Road, which would lead them to the

Mongol capital. After crossing the Gobi desert, they entered China after a journey of

three years. There the Venetians presented themselves to the Great Khan at his summer

palace at Shang-fu, where they delivered letters of introduction from Pope Gregory X.

Marco immediately became a favorite of the Great Khan, who upon seeing

 

Marco Polo as he may have appeared during his seventeen year service in the Mongol court of Kublai

Khan. Polo was a great favorite with the exalted Khan who liked him and found him to be extremely

useful. Despite this, he was willing to let him go. Sensing difficult times ahead after the aging Khan’s

death, as these was no dynastic continuity under Mongol law, Polo seized upon a chance to return in

1292, proposing to escort the bride-to-be of a Persian prince as far as Tabriz. To this plan Kublai Khan

consented, using the opportunity to send friendly messages to the Pope and potentates of Europe.

Since the overland route Marco had used when traveling to China was menaced by war, the Venetians

chose to return to Italy by sea in a Chinese junk.

his mastery of the Mongol language entrusted him with various missions to the far

corners of his realm. Marco took careful notes of his travels noting down the geography

and customs of the Chinese people in detail. These facts became the basis of his

remarkable book which, when published, stunned a skeptical Europe. Most of the facts

contained in his narrative have been confirmed in the light of modern research. The

Polos returned to Venice by sea arriving there in 1295 after an absence of twenty-four

years.

 

Marco Polo was so impressed with the novelty of paper money that he devoted an

entire chapter to the subject in his book. He described in great detail the manner in

which it was made, authenticated and used in everyday commerce. It is worth our while

to quote several applicable paragraphs here:

 

Map of the Mongol Empire showing Marco Polo’s journeys throughout China.

 

“In this city of Kanbaluc (the Mongol capital, now Beijing) is the mint of the

Grand Khan. He may truly be said to possess the secret of the alchemists, as he

has the art of producing money by the following process. He causes the bark to

be stripped from mulberry trees, the leaves of which are used for feeding

silkworms, and takes from it that thin inner rind which lies between the coarser

bark and the wood of the tree. This being steeped, and afterwards being pounded

into a mortar, until reduced to a pulp, is made into paper . . . When ready for use,

he has it cut into pieces of money of different sizes, nearly square, but somewhat

longer than they are wide . . . . The coinage of this paper money is authenticated

with as much form and ceremony as if it were actually pure gold or silver. To

each note a number of officers, specially appointed, not only subscribe their

names, but affix their seals also. When all is duly prepared the chief official

smears the seal entrusted to him with vermilion, and impresses it upon the paper .

. . . When thus coined in large quantities, this paper currency is circulated in every

part of the Great Khan’s dominions; no person, at peril of his life, dares to refuse

to accept it in payment. All his subjects receive it without hesitation, because,

wherever their business may call them, they can dispose of it again in the

purchase of merchandise such as pearls, jewels, gold or silver. With it, in short,

every article may be procured.”

 

The Yuan was the shortest lived of all ancient Chinese dynasties. Despite this, it

was the one which relied most heavily upon paper money to sustain commerce. When

control over the government once again fell into Chinese hands in 1368, a mere one

hundred years had past.

 

Due to better record keeping and more surviving specimens, we know much more

about Yuan paper money than that of all preceding dynasties. Upon establishing their

dynasty, the Yuan followed the example of the Sung, Chin and others when issuing their

own paper money.

 

Frontispiece of the 1503 edition of Marco Polo’s book describing his travels throughout Asia (1275-

1292 AD).

 

Early references state that the first known Mongol paper money was issued by

Ghenghis Khan in 1227, prior to the establishment of the Yuan dynasty. These were

military notes referred to as “silk money”. The notes were of paper but the backing used

for them, instead of the traditional silver, consisted of bales of silk yarn, a commodity,

which served as a convenient reserve. By the later eleventh century silk notes had

spread as far as Persia where two surviving specimens were found by archaeologists in

1965.

 

Another early Mongol note was found in 1909 in a cave in the Tu-lu- pan

mountains in Sinkiang province. It is in the amount of 200 cash. The first line reads

“Great Yuan Circulating Treasure Note”. The note is dated in the T’sung-t’ung period,

which lasted but five years from 1260 to 1264. The original note was extensively

damaged when found, especially its margins, which were incomplete. This note was

first published by Wang Shunan in a book entitled Catalog of Antiquities of Sinkiang.

The author reproduced the note by his own hand as best he could. He noted that the note

measured 1 chi, 4 cun 5 fen long by 1 chi 1 fen wide, a very large size making it

comparable to other Yuan and Ming dynasty paper money. The pictorial presentation is

of two crossed strings of 100 cash. The note’s text states that it is to circulate

throughout the kingdom without time limitation. The counterfeiting warning is different

in that this note, instead of levying capital punishment upon the criminal, states that the

falsifier will be fined and forced to pay five ding. Wang Shunan’s line drawing is also

illustrated in A Compilation of Pictures of Chinese Ancient Paper Money together with

what appears to be the brass plate from which the original note was printed.

 

The first true Yuan notes appeared in 1287, the twenty-fourth year of the Chihyuan

era. Known as “Chih-yuan t’ung-hsing pao-ch’ao”, or Great Yuan General

Circulation Treasure Notes, they eventually became the universal currency for the entire

empire, circulating not only throughout China but also in Burma, Siam and Annam. The

1 kwan note of this series was considered to be the equivalent of 5 kwan in old notes

then in circulation. These notes came in two sizes – the lesser and the greater. Lesser

notes included denominations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 copper cash; the greater 100, 200,

300,400, 500 cash, 1 and 2 kwan. These were almost certainly the paper money referred

to by Marco Polo in his writings. The March 1988 issue of the Bank Note Reporter

announced the discovery of a 2 kwan note of this series in the Hermitage Museum in

Leningrad, at that time still part of the old Soviet Union.

 

Brass plates used in the printing of Yuan dynasty Chih-yuan notes have also

surfaced. It is known that eight such plates, including ones for 200 cash and 2000 cash

(2 kwan), were discovered at an old mint site in north China during the Japanese

occupation of 1937-1945.

 

The 2 kwan printing block measures 11 inches high by 8

inches wide and is 3/8th inch thick.

 

 

A description of the 2 kwan note follows: On the top line, “Great Yuan General

Circulation Treasure Note”. Below this is found the denomination “two kwan” together

with an illustration of two strings of 1000 cash. To the left of the illustration, in seal

writing, are found the words “to circulate under the heavens” (the known world).

(Remember, the Chinese considered themselves to be at the center of the universe!).

The lower panel is translated as follows: “The Board of Revenue and Rites, having

petitioned and received the imperial sanction, print for the convenient use of the people

the Great Yuan Treasure Note, to be current and used for copper cash. The counterfeiter

shall be summarily decapitated and the informer will receive 200 taels of silver. If

district officials conceal such guilt, their punishment shall be the same”. The

appropriate governmental seals were then applied to the face of the note. The notes

were gray in color with red seals affixed.

 

Another form of currency circulated side by side with Chih-yuan ch’ao notes.

These were military notes known as “Great Yuan Military Supplies Notes”. They were

used when purchasing supplies for the various banner divisions of the army.

 

Paper money comprised the major form of currency under the Yuan. Relatively

few coins were cast during this dynasty due to trading restrictions imposed upon copper

and precious metals. In 1350 Emperor Shun Ti’s finance minister tried to correct the

situation, however the coins produced were insufficient to satisfy demand. People

reverted to barter throughout China leaving the notes, which had accumulated in private

and government coffers, to become worthless.

 

Rebellions soon spread over the entire empire. To meet increasing military

expenditures, new notes were issued without reserves of any sort. A malignant inflation

resulted in which these notes also lost all value. When that happened, people were

forced to fall back and rely entirely upon their “square holes” (as copper coins were

commonly called) and barter. This condition prevailed until the end of the dynasty in

1368, hastening its demise. At the end, the enormous sums, which had been swindled

from the Chinese by the Mongol emperors, helped to hasten their defeat at the hands of

the Ming.

 

In Part II we shall conclude by discussing the ancient Chinese paper money of the

Ming dynasty.

 

 

Bronze plate recently discovered in Shansi province. This block was used in making “Chên-yu paoch’üan”

(Chen-yu treasure notes). These were the product of emperor Chang Tsung (1190- 1208 AD)

of the Chin dynasty. The Chin were Nuchen Tartars who preceded the Yuan dynasty.

 

Facsimile of a 200 cash note of the Yuan dynasty, and the brass plate from which it was made. One of

these notes was found in a cave in Sinkiang province in 1909. The note is over seven hundred years

old.

Yuan dynasty Chih-yuan ch’ao 2 kwan note. Notes of this series became the universal currency for all

of China, circulating throughout Burma, Siam and Annam as well. A 2 kwan note identical to this was

found in the vaults of the Hermitage Museum in Leningrad in 1987. This is almost certainly the type

of currency Marco Polo reported extensively on in his book of travels. The facsimile of this note is

lacking the two government seals used to authenticate it

 

ANCIENT CHINESE CASH NOTES – THE WORLD’S

FIRST PAPER MONEY

PART II

John E. Sandrock

Ming Dynasty Paper Money

In contrast to Yuan heavy reliance upon paper notes, the follow-on Ming and

Ch’ing dynasty economies were based principally upon copper cash coins and silver.

Paper money was occasionally issued by the Ming government; however little effort was

made to control and maintain its value. The first Ming paper money appeared in 1374,

the product of the Precious Note Control Bureau (the name was later changed to the

Board of Revenue) specifically set up for this purpose. The notes themselves were

called “Ta Ming T’ung Hsing Pao Ch’ao”, Great Ming Precious Notes. Emperor T’aitsu’s

reign title was Hung-wu. This nien-hao appeared on these notes and on successive

Ming issues, regardless of the fact that all Ming emperors had their own reign titles.

This was an honor given to the founder of the dynasty. Ch’uan Pu T’ung Chih refers to

sixty different notes issued between 1368-1426. In all probability there were many

more.

 

From the beginning these notes were inconvertible and could not be exchanged

for coin. Notes of the Hung-wu reign (1368-1398AD) were issued in denominations of

100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 cash. One string of paper (1000 cash) was the

equivalent of 1000 copper coins or one ounce of pure silver. In 1389 smaller value

notes of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cash were printed to facilitate trade. It is

reported that the mulberry bark paper used to make the T’ai-tsu notes was recycled from

the waste of government ministries and Civil Service examination papers. There were

three distinct issues of Ming notes as follows: all bearing the reign title “Hung-wu”.

 

These notes circulated throughout the entire kingdom.

1. Those of the emperor T’ai-tsu, issued in 1375AD

2. Those of emperor Ch’eng-tsu (1403-1424AD)

3. Those of emperor Jen-tsung, son of Ch’eng-tsu, issued in 1425AD

 

Reflecting the inflation then being experienced, Ch’eng-tsu paper money consisted of

notes denominated 1 through 20 kwan, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kwan all bearing

pictorial presentations of the equivalent amount of cash coins, each coin representing

five cash. Various cloud and dragon designs adorned their borders. Their color was

gray.

 

Ming dynasty 200 cash note of the emperor T’ai Tsu, who took the reign title Hung Wu in 1368. The

pictorial presentation is of two strings consisting of ten 10 cash coins which were in circulation at that

time.

 

Ming dynasty 50 kwan note of Ch’eng Tsu (1403-1424 AD). The pictograph in the top rectangle

depicts ten five cash coins, representing currently circulating coins of the preceding Hung-wu era.

(Schjőth catalog numbers S-1156 and S-1157.)

 

The unfortunate Jen-tsung died shortly after ascending the throne. In the short

eight months of his reign, twenty denominations were emitted. Beginning with 10 cash,

they proceeded by tens to 100 cash and then by hundreds to 1000 cash. They were

known as Great Ming Military Administration Treasury Notes. Pictorial presentations

on this series consisted of the equivalent in strings of cash.

 

The value of all these notes rapidly declined, eventually to the point where the

people would not accept them. By the end of the century it took 35 strings to buy an

ounce of silver. Twenty years later it took 80 strings to buy an ounce. Erosion in the

value of paper escalated until by the mid 1400s an ounce of silver commanded 1000

strings in paper! Silver was rapidly supplanting paper as a medium of exchange. The

Great Ming Precious Notes gradually disappeared from commerce. After 1455 works

on Chinese history make no mention of them. In the last year of the Ming dynasty

(1643AD) a memorial was sent to the emperor proposing the revival of a paper

currency. Set forth in the memorial, were a list of ten arguments for a new paper

currency.

 

These advantages were cited as:

1. Paper money can be manufactured at a low cost

2. It can circulate widely

3. Being lightweight, it can be carried with ease

4. It can be readily concealed

5. Paper money is not divisible, like silver, into various grades

6. Paper money did not have to be weighed when used, as did silver

7. Dishonest money changers could not “clip” if for their own profit

8. It would not be exposed to the preying eyes of thieves

9. Should paper replace copper coins, the copper saved could be used for making

armaments

10.Should paper replace silver, the silver saved could be stored up by the

government

 

The proposal, however, was not adopted, as by that late date the government was too

weak to benefit from such a scheme. Chinese commerce was to exist without paper

money for the next four hundred years.

 

Without question, the Ming note most widely known, and perhaps the only

specimen available to collectors today, is the 1 kwan of emperor T’ai-tsu. Enough of

these notes have survived to be found in many museums and private collections. The

story of how they came to be preserved is an interesting one. As far as I can ascertain

most Ming 1 kwan notes available today came from two sources. The first of these

stemmed from an incident, which occurred during the Boxer Rebellion. In 1908 H. B.

Yuan dynasty 90 cash note of emperor Shun Ti (1333-1367 AD) at left, together with a Ming dynasty

1000 cash note of emperor Jen Tsung (1425 AD), right. Jen Tsung’s reign lasted but one year. Both

notes measure approximately 3 . by 8 . inches and depict strings of copper cash. Note the increase in

inflation during the 100 year interval between the release of these two specimens. From the Chinese

work entitled Ch’uan Pu T’ung Chih.

 

Morse published a book entitled Trade and Administration of the Chinese Empire

containing a lithographic facsimile of the Ming 1 kwan note. In the book he gives a

complete description of the note together with translations of the Chinese characters

found on it. Morse also tells of the manner in which the note was acquired, which goes

as follows:

 

“This five hundred year old instrument of credit has a curious history furnishing

an absolute guarantee of its authenticity. During the foreign occupation of Peking

in 1900, some European soldiers had overthrown a sacred image of Buddha, in the

grounds of the Summer Palace. Deposited in the pedestal (as in the corner-stones

of our public buildings) were found gems and jewelry and ingots of gold and

silver and a bundle of these notes. Contented with the loot’s intrinsic value, the

soldiers readily surrendered the bundle of notes to a bystander, U.S. Army

Surgeon Major Lewis Seaman, who was unofficially present. He gave to the

Museum of St. John’s College in Shanghai the specimen which is here

reproduced”.

 

The second report concerning the discovery of Ming 1 kwan notes concerns the

Reverend Mr. Ballou, a long time missionary, who was born in China and resided there

until after World War II. Reverend Ballou states that he received his Ming note from his

friend L. Carrington Goodrich who had been associated with Yenching University in

Peking during the 1930s. Mr. Goodrich related that he acquired the note under the

following circumstances:

 

“Sometime in 1936 one of the walls surrounding Peking was torn down. When

the laborers got to the huge gate in the wall, they found to their surprise, a large

bale of 1 kwan Ming dynasty banknotes buried in the wall itself. After removing

the soiled and damaged notes, the workers sold the notes to those persons

standing around. Mr. Goodrich came upon his note at that time. He told

Reverend Ballou that he purchased two of them for a few coppers, which

amounted to just a few pennies.”

 

Inasmuch as the 1 kwan note is the only one likely to be found in collections

today and without a doubt the oldest piece of world paper money one can aspire to own,

it is perhaps worthy of detailed discussion. Translation of the principal inscriptions

found on the note are as shown in the accompanying panel diagram:

1. “Great Ming General Circulation Treasure Note”

2. “One kwan”

3. A pictorial presentation of ten strings of 100 cash (= 1000 cash =

1 kwan)

4. “Great Ming Treasure Note” in seal style characters

5. “To circulate for ever and ever under the heavens” in seal script

6. The lower panel text reads: “The Board of Revenue, having

petitioned and received the imperial sanction, prints the Great Ming Precious

Note, to be current and to be used as standard copper cash. The counterfeiter

shall be decapitated. The informant shall be rewarded with 250 taels of

silver, and in addition shall be given the entire property of the criminal.”

 

The last column of characters at the left of the bottom panel, show the date as: “Hungwu

era, …year, …month, …day”. The note was manufactured from recycled gray

mulberry bark paper. Two vermilion seals were impressed into the note by government

officials to authenticate it. The upper of these seals reads: “Seal of the Treasure Note of

the Great Ming Dynasty”; the lower of the two bears the inscription: “Seal of the Office

of the Superintendent of the Treasury”.

Ming dynasty 1 kwan note of the Hung-wu era (1368-1398). This large note, printed in gray mulberry

bark paper, measures 8 x 11 . inches. The two vermilion seals shown in the next illustration do not

appear on this prototype. This is the only ancient Chinese paper money likely to be found in private

collections today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two official government seals appear on the face of the Ming 1 kwan note. They were pressed into the

finished note with wooden blocks using vermilion ink, thereby authenticating it. These seals can still

be plainly seen on most 1 kwan specimens in collections today. The seal at upper left reads: “Seal of

the Great Ming Treasure Note”; the seal at right “Seal of the Office of the Superintendent of Treasure”.

At the bottom is a black seal which was placed on the reverse of the note to indicate its value. The ten

strings represent 1000 copper cash, which equaled 1 kwan.

 

Some Numismatic Observations

 

The first observation I would like to make concerns the definition of the term

“ancient Chinese paper money”. What exactly, is meant by “ancient”? For me the term,

when applied to our subject, encompasses those notes which relate to the earliest and

remotest periods in Chinese history. Since the ancient style notes continued to be

printed into the nineteenth century, this causes a problem. Paper money ceased to exist

in China after being repudiated by the masses during Ming dynasty times and was not to

be seen again for four hundred years. During the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1865),

emperor Hsien-feng again resorted to financing his wars with paper money resembling

its forbearers. Are these notes to be included? I think not, as the period encompassing

the nineteenth century can hardly be considered “ancient”. I bring this up as most

authors lump the Hsien-feng notes into the overall category of ancient notes. I have not.

The notes of the T’ai-ping Rebellion deserve discussion in their own right. Therefore, I

have chosen not to include them here.

 

My next observation concerns the failure on the part of modern day catalogers to

include these anciient notes in their works. The Standard Catalog of World Paper

Money makes reference to only two Ming notes. Why is this, when so much

information regarding their authenticity is available? Today we know that notes of the

Sung, Chin, Liao, Yuan and Ming dynasties have survived. Of the Tang dynasty flying

money or Posterior Chou and Western Hsia dynasty paper money I have no information

as to surviving specimens. Many un-cataloged notes may be found in museums and

private collections. Of those that no longer exist a great deal is known thanks to

surviving Chinese numismatic works and to archeological discoveries. Why then are

they not included? Is it because notes that are unique or no longer exist cannot be

collected and therefore do not deserve a place in our numismatic catalogs? Since

numismatists generally have a profound curiosity about the material they collect and a

deep appreciation for the history which these items represent, the hobby would greatly

benefit from their inclusion.

 

Some may be curious as to the value of these ancient notes. The answer is

simplicity itself – they are, with the sole exception of T’ai-tsu’s one kwan Ming note,

priceless. Many specimens known today are unique, others known to exist in only two

or three collections or museums. The only ancient note one could reasonably hope to

obtain today is the Ming 1 kwan note, due to the fortunate discoveries in 1900 and 1936

mentioned above. The price of a reasonable example, intact, completely legible and

with seals affixed that are still clearly discernable would command between $ 1,000 and

$1,500 on today’s market.

 

A discussion of ancient paper money would not be complete were one to ignore

the extensive counterfeiting of these notes, which was at all times an immense problem

for administrative officials. From the earliest known issues cash notes always carried a

clause in the text, which called for capital punishment – usually decapitation. Those who

covered up or condoned such crimes were to suffer the same fate. It was also stated in

the text that a reward would be paid to the informer of such acts. These rewards were to

be paid in silver taels, of varying amounts, depending upon the denomination of the note

counterfeited. It also appears that such rewards fluctuated with the severity of the

problem at any one point in time. In reality, punishment meted out to those who ran the

risk of falsifying banknotes varied widely during different periods.

 

 

Southern Song Cash Coin

When emperor Shin Tsung of the Posterior Chou ascended the throne in 915AD,

he was in great need of funds. He seized over 3350 monasteries and then gave orders to

melt all Buddhist bronze images found there so that they could be turned into cash. The

emperor declared that Buddha himself would raise no objection, having in his lifetime

given up so much for mankind. The shortage of money also caused the emperor to send

a fleet of junks to Korea to trade silk for copper with which to mint cash coins. Given

these drastic measures, it is not surprising that the Chou also resorted to paper. The

Chou counterfeiting clause reflected the mood of the times when it stated: “The

counterfeiter of this denomination – principal or conspirator irrespectively – shall be

immediately executed by the authorities of the district concerned and be exposed to

public view”.

 

During the Sung dynasty the punishment seems to have been limited to

banishment, although a case is on record reporting the public decapitation of one greedy

fellow who was caught with 250 counterfeit notes in his possession! During the

`

1112 M

Naskah Hikayat Aceh mengungkapkan bahwa penyebaran Islam di bagian utara Sumatera dilakukan oleh seorang ulama Arab yang bernama Syaikh Abdullah Arif pada tahun 506 H atau 1130 M.

Fujian Trade Ceramics in Jepara Shipwreck

From the early A.D 2000s, many celadon and white wares started to surface in the Jakarta antique market.

The sellers said they were shipwreck items from a wreck located about 34 km offshore from Jepara.

There is no systematic and scientific salvage operation to survey the site and recover the artifacts.

According to the article “The Jepara Wreck” written by Mr Atma Djuana and Edmund Edwards Mckinnon, some available reports indicated that the wreck was either broken in two or there was a smaller but contemporary wreck in the same area.  The area was strangely strewn with large boulders. 

 

  Among the artifacts surfaced in the Jakarta antique market, there was a stone anchor about 2.5 m in length.

  According to the authors, a similar anchor was displayed at the Maritime Museum in Quanzhou.  Hence, suggesting that the ship may be  a Chinese Junk. 

It is also suggested that the Junk sank as early as  A.D 1130. The latest copper coins recovered from the wreck that the authors had seen was from Zhonghe (重和), the last year of this reign mark being A.D 1118. 

However, I have seen some later coins of Jian Yian (建炎)purportedly from this wreck.  The last year of Jian Yian reign is A.D 1130.  Personally, I believe the wreck could be later than A.D 1130, probably around A.D 1150 to 1200.  The reason for my dating will be discussed below.

1160

During the invasion launched by the Jin in the 1160s

the lack of naval power by the invasion force played a key role. Lorge wrote that “the most important contest was taking place on the water.

There the contest was decidedly one-sided, with the Song Navy winning every battle, usually decisively.”[9]

 

The Jin did not completely neglect naval forces, however their attempts were little and late.

As the river fleets of the Song were defeating the northern invasion force, the Song’s coastal fleet under Admiral Li Bao attacked the fledgling yet numerically superior Jin fleet in its home port. “

The Song navy’s fire arrows made short work of the Jin fleet, annihilating the entire Jin force in a single engagement.”[10] As a result of the Song’s continued naval strength the Jin Dynasty was never able to conquer the south and take control of all of China

 

   

 

Rise of Quanzhou(Tjiang Tjioe) port and Fujian Trade Ceramics

Quanzhou in Fujian Province was a cosmopolitan port known to Marco Polo as Zayton.  It was the largest seaport in Asia during the Song/Yuan period.  Many regions especially those located in the coastal areas in Fujian Province capitalised on their proximity to the Quanzhou port to produce export porcelains.   The bulk of the trade ceramics consisted of green wares (celadon), white/qingbai  and black/brown wares.

According to Song period Zhao Rugua’s work “zhufanzhi” (A.D 1225) (赵汝适《诸番志),  46 countries (including Annam, Cambodia, Srivijaya, Malay peninsula, Borneo, Java, Eastern Indies, the Philippines and even Zanzibar) were listed as  China’s trading partners and the Yuan period “Daoyi zhilue” by Wang Dayan ( 汪大淵 岛夷志略》 listed at least 58 countries.

The map in the Quanzhou museum showing the maritime trade routes originating from Quanzhou is shown below.  Jepara is along the trade route but whether it was the destination of the ship which sank near there, it is unable to ascertain.

 

 

During the early Ming period,  ceramics production dropped drastically due to the imperial ban on export of ceramics. However when the ban was lifted in 1567 A.D,  it heralded another peak in Fujian ceramics production.  Yuegang was designated as an international trading port.   Zhangzhou capitalised on its proximity to Yuegang and produced blue and white/overglaze enamelled wares, commonly termed Swatow wares.  This was a special category of Ming blue and white which attracted strong demand from Southeast Asia consumers.

In Dehua, the potters continued to improve on its white glaze wares and finally introduced the ivory white glaze wares, termed blanc de chine wares in the West.  They were much treasured by the European consumers, with the best produced during the late Ming to Early Qing period (17th to early 18th century).

The chaotic transition from Ming to Qing period resulted in the decline and finally demise of Zhangzhou wares.  However, kilns in Dehua and neighbouring Yongchun/Anxi expanded further.  Besides blanc de chine wares, Dehua potters also started to produce blue and white wares. 

The early Dehua blue and white wares essentially imitated their Jingdezhen counterpart. 

However, by Qing Qianlong period the Dehua blue and white developed its unique decorative features. 

Besides Jingdezhen, Dehua became another major supplier of blue and white wares.  The rise of Dehua kilns is still not well understood as it is located inland and the transportation route involved a stretch which the cargo would need to be carried over the mountain before it reached the river system linked to Xiamen, which has emerged as an international port. The abundance of high quality porcelainous material for production of blue and white and blanc de chine wares may have been a major reason for its success.  A parallel example would be Jingdezhen.

 

Song/Yuan Fujian Ceramics

Two Southern Song wrecks, Nanhai 1 wreck near Haining Island in Guangdong and Jepara wreck near Java in Indonesia, provides useful information on the Southern Song export ceramics cargo mix.  Typical Southern Song Fujian ceramics constituted an important part of the cargo.

Greenware (celadon)

During the late Northern Song/Southern Song period,  Fujian produced a typical type of green glazed bowls with carved and combed/dotted decorations. The outer wall is decorated with carved vertical striations.  The colour tone ranges from olive green, grayish green to different degree of yellow. It is commonly termed as Tongan type or Juko (shuko seiji) greenware, name after a Japanese monk tea ceremony master Juko [shuko].

  In fact, this type of ware  was a continuation of the Longquan tradition.   Longquan kilns started producing such wares around late Northern Song period.  In comparison, the quality of the Fujian version is more rough with more crudely formed foot and the outer lower portion of the bowls  left unglazed.  The Longquan version is more finely potted and has better quality smooth glaze.  The outer wall and outer foot wall of the bowl is fully glazed. 

 

The Northern Fujian kilns, which were located near Longquan, probably also produced such type by late Northern Song.  By early Southern Song, many kilns in Fujian were producing them.

Most produced in Minbei (Northern Fujian) were probably intended for domestic consumption.  However those produced in kilns near Quanzhou were targeted at overseas market. The centre of production was Nan an (南安) which boasted more than 47 kilns. Together with nearby kilns such as Tong an (同安), Anxi (安溪), Xiamen (厦门)and further away such Minhou 闽侯), Fuqing (福清), Putian (莆田) and Lianjiang 连江), this group of kilns produced similar  green products for overseas market.

Example with carved and combed motif from the sea around Xisha Islands  

Example of carved/combed motif from Jepara wreck

Another common type of bowls has carved floral/cloud or abstract motif on the interior.  Again, Longquan potters were the first to introduce them.  This type was first introduced earliest by late Northern Song and gained immense popularity by the early Southern Song period.  The earlier ones have carved vertical striations on external wall.  Those which were produced during the Southern Song period have plain external wall. 

 Jepara wreck celadon, top 3 from Fujian kiln and bottom left from Longquan

Green glaze wares continued to be produced during the Yuan period.  But there is a noticeable drop in the quality and export volume.  Longquan and Jingdezhen became formidable competitors and dominated the overseas market with better quality celadon and white/qingbai/shufu/blue and white wares respectively.

In Fujian, Putian kilns emerged as an important exporter of celadon wares during the Yuan period.  The bowls and plates usually have an unglaze ring on the inner base and decorated with impressed floral motif.   

White/qingbai wares

Dehua was the main production center for Qingbai/white wares.  Other important production kiln sites which catered to overseas market included Nan an, Tong an and Quanzhou.

The oldest Dehua kiln at Wanpinglun (盖德碗坪崙)possibly dated to the late Northern Song period.  Those kilns at Qudougong  (屈斗宫)started production during the late Southern Song period  The most common export Dehua products were dishes ,boxues, vases and kendis.   The early Southern Song Nanhai 1 shipwreck carried a substantial quantity of Qingbai/white wares from Dehua.

Dehua Qingbai/white wares from Nanhai 1 shipwreck

Jepara wreck Qingbai ewer from Minnan kiln

The colour tone of some of the Fujian wares is rather hard to classify.  Strictly speaking they should still be classified as white ware despite showing varying degree of yellow or gray tinge. There are some which may even be confused as light yellowish greenwares.  The varying colour was the result of the unstable firing atmosphere in the dragon kilns rather than difference in glaze formula.  .  

 

Within the usual classification of Fujian Qingbai, there is an interesting group of thinly potted bowls with more elaborate carved/combed floral or waves motif. They usually have a straw colour or grayish white glaze and characterised by pooling of glaze near the inner and outer rim and sometime even the inner and outer wall.  I believe their classification as qingbai is mainly based on the reason that similar motifs were found in Jingdezhen Qingbai bowls.  But it is puzzling why the glaze is different from the more even pale greenish colour found on other types of Fujian Qingbai wares.  Personally, I think the glaze is intended to imitate the ivory Ding glaze with the typical pooling of teardrop-like glaze effect.  It is more like a hybrid of Qingbai and Ding ware.  Minqing Yi kiln (闽清义窑) has been identified as one of the major kiln that produced such bowls. 

A  Mingqing Yi kiln greyish straw colour bowl with carved motif from the Nanhai 1 wreck

 

 

Black (Temmoku) wares

Archaeological evidence clearly showed that Fujian black glazed temmoku wares were introduced later than the green glazed wares.   

The most famous black temmoku wares were produced in the Jianyang kiln.  Jian temmoku were highly praised and treasured by the tea connoisseurs from both China and overseas, especially Japan.  Due to the strong overseas demand,  coastal kilns especially those in Fuqing and Minhou emerged as major exporters.  Visually they are different from Jian temmoku bowls.  Majority have a light grayish paste and the glaze is not as thick/glossy and the hares’ fur effects are not as distinct and attractive.   For more on Jian and Jian type temmoku wares, please read this

Black/Brown and Lead-glaze wares

Cizao kilns in Jinjiang was a major producer of black/brown glaze wares.  The kilns also produced low fired lead green/yellow glazes which were applied onto kendi, censers, basins, plates, jars, ewers.  The kendis were specifically made for the Southeast Asian markets.   Another unique Cizao product is black glaze wares with deeply carved motif left unglazed.

Most lead glaze wares were monochrome, but there were also examples with multi-colour glazes, similar to those sancai of the Tang period. I came across an interesting and beautiful piece which the Indonesian collector said was excavated from Trowulan.  

Late Song/Yuan Cizao sancai 

 

 

Ceramics in Jepara wreck

Greenware (celadon)

In the wreck, there are large and smaller bowls with carved and combed/dotted decorations on the interior and vertical combed lines on the external wall.  This was commonly termed as Tongan type or Juko (shuko seiji) greenware (name after Juko (shuko) a Japanese monk tea ceremony master).  In fact, this was a continuation of the Longquan tradition. 

Longquan kilns started producing such type around Mid/late Northern Song period.  Kamei Meitoku in his article “Chronology of Longquan wares of the Song and Yuan periods” classified them into 1st half of 12th century.  In fact, besides the Minan coastal region, Northern Fujian kilns also produced similar wares.  The colour tone of such wares varies from olive green, grayish green to different degree of yellow. 

In comparison with the Longquan version, the quality was less refined and for most pieces the outer lower portion of the bowls were left unglazed.  For the Longquan version, only the outer base was left unglazed.

Although stylistically this category commenced during the Northern Song period, it continued to be produced by the Fujian kilns during the Southern Song period.

 

An overview of Fujian trade Ceramics  

Fujian was a major ancient trade ceramics production centre in China.   During the pre Song period, it produced mainly green glaze (celadon) wares of the famous Zhejiang Yue celadon tradition.  Most of the kiln sites were located in Northern Fujian (Minbei [闽北]) and a scattering few in Southern Fujian (Minnan [闽南]).    

During the Southern Song period, Minnan emerged as a major exporter of trade ceramics.  This development was the result of the Southern Song court’s strategy to promote Fujian Quanzhou (泉州) as the main gateway for foreign trade with South East and West Asia.  Quanzhou retained its prominent status of international port till Yuan period.  During this period, the bulk of the trade ceramics consisted of green wares (celadon), white/qingbai  and black wares.  Besides the famous Longquan celadon and Jingdezhen Qingbai, many were products of coastal kilns in Fujian.  It owed it’s good fortune to the abundance of local raw material required for ceramics production and it’s proximity to Quanzhou.  As a result of the competitive advantage,  Fujian emerged as a major producer of Chinese ceramics.  In reality, they were poorer quality copies of Longquan celadon and Jingdezhen qingbai wares.  However they were able to compete successfully with its cheap price strategy and dominated the lower end overseas consumer market. 

According to Song period Zhao Rugua’s work “zhufanzhi” (赵汝适《诸番志》)(1225),  46 countries (including Annam, Cambodia, Srivijaya, malay peninsula, borneo, java, eastern Indies, the Philippines and even Zanzibar) were listed as  China’s trading partners and the Yuan period “Daoyi zhilue” by Wang Dayan ( 汪大淵 《岛夷志略》) listed at least 58 countries.   

 

During the early Ming period,  ceramics production dropped drastically due to the imperial ban on export of ceramics. However when the ban was lifted in 1567 A.D,  it heralded another peak in Fujian ceramics production.  Yuegang was designated as an international trading port.   Zhangzhou capitalised on its proximity to Yuegang and produced blue and white/overglaze enamelled wares, commonly termed Swatow wares.  This was a special category of Ming blue and white which attracted strong demand from Southeast Asia consumers.

In Dehua, the potters continued to improve on its white glaze wares and finally introduced the ivory white glaze wares, termed blanc de chine wares in the West.  They were much treasured by the European consumers, with the best produced during the late Ming to Early Qing period (17th to early 18th century).

The chaotic transition from Ming to Qing period resulted in the decline and finally demise of Zhangzhou wares.  However, kilns in Dehua and neighbouring Yongchun/Anxi expanded further.  Besides blanc de chine wares, Dehua potters also started to produce blue and white wares.  The early Dehua blue and white wares essentially imitated their Jingdezhen counterpart.  However, by Qing Qianlong period the Dehua blue and white developed its unique decorative features.  Besides Jingdezhen, Dehua became another major supplier of blue and white wares.  The rise of Dehua kilns is still not well understood as it is located inland and the transportation route involved a stretch which the cargo would need to be carried over the mountain before it reached the river system linked to Xiamen, which has emerged as an international port. The abundance of high quality porcelainous material for production of blue and white and blanc de chine wares may have been a major reason for its success.  A parallel example would be Jingdezhen.

 

Song/Yuan Fujian Ceramics

Two Southern Song wrecks, Nanhai 1 wreck near Haining Island in Guangdong and Jepara wreck near Java in Indonesia, provides useful information on the Southern Song export ceramics cargo mix.  Typical Southern Song Fujian ceramics constituted an important part of the cargo.

Greenware (celadon)

During the late Northern Song/Southern Song period,  Fujian produced a typical type of green glazed bowls with carved and combed/dotted decorations. The outer wall is decorated with carved vertical striations.  The colour tone ranges from olive green, grayish green to different degree of yellow. It is commonly termed as Tongan type or Juko (shuko seiji) greenware, name after a Japanese monk tea ceremony master Juko [shuko].  In fact, this type of ware  was a continuation of the Longquan tradition.   Longquan kilns started producing such wares around late Northern Song period.  In comparison, the quality of the Fujian version is more rough with more crudely formed foot and the outer lower portion of the bowls  left unglazed.  The Longquan version is more finely potted and has better quality smooth glaze.  The outer wall and outer foot wall of the bowl is fully glazed.  The Northern Fujian kilns, which were located near Longquan, probably also produced such type by late Northern Song.  By early Southern Song, many kilns in Fujian were producing them.  

Most produced in Minbei (Northern Fujian) were probably intended for domestic consumption.  However those produced in kilns near Quanzhou were targeted at overseas market. The centre of production was Nan an (南安) which boasted more than 47 kilns. Together with nearby kilns such as Tong an (同安), Anxi (安溪), Xiamen (厦门)and further away such Minhou (闽侯), Fuqing (福清), Putian (莆田) and Lianjiang (连江), this group of kilns produced similar  green products for overseas market. 

Example with carved and combed motif from the sea around Xisha Islands  

Example of carved/combed motif from Jepara wreck

Another common type of bowls has carved floral/cloud or abstract motif on the interior.  Again, Longquan potters were the first to introduce them.  This type was first introduced earliest by late Northern Song and gained immense popularity by the early Southern Song period.  The earlier ones have carved vertical striations on external wall.  Those which were produced during the Southern Song period have plain external wall. 

 Jepara wreck celadon, top 3 from Fujian kiln and bottom left from Longquan

Green glaze wares continued to be produced during the Yuan period.  But there is a noticeable drop in the quality and export volume.  Longquan and Jingdezhen became formidable competitors and dominated the overseas market with better quality celadon and white/qingbai/shufu/blue and white wares respectively.

In Fujian, Putian kilns emerged as an important exporter of celadon wares during the Yuan period.  The bowls and plates usually have an unglaze ring on the inner base and decorated with impressed floral motif.   

White/qingbai wares

Dehua was the main production center for Qingbai/white wares.  Other important production kiln sites which catered to overseas market included Nan an, Tong an and Quanzhou.   

The oldest Dehua kiln at Wanpinglun (盖德碗坪崙)possibly dated to the late Northern Song period.  Those kilns at Qudougong  (屈斗宫)started production during the late Southern Song period  The most common export Dehua products were dishes ,boxues, vases and kendis.   The early Southern Song Nanhai 1 shipwreck carried a substantial quantity of Qingbai/white wares from Dehua.

Dehua Qingbai/white wares from Nanhai 1 shipwreck

Jepara wreck Qingbai ewer from Minnan kiln

The colour tone of some of the Fujian wares is rather hard to classify.  Strictly speaking they should still be classified as white ware despite showing varying degree of yellow or gray tinge. There are some which may even be confused as light yellowish greenwares.  The varying colour was the result of the unstable firing atmosphere in the dragon kilns rather than difference in glaze formula.  .  

 

Within the usual classification of Fujian Qingbai, there is an interesting group of thinly potted bowls with more elaborate carved/combed floral or waves motif. They usually have a straw colour or grayish white glaze and characterised by pooling of glaze near the inner and outer rim and sometime even the inner and outer wall.  I believe their classification as qingbai is mainly based on the reason that similar motifs were found in Jingdezhen Qingbai bowls.  But it is puzzling why the glaze is different from the more even pale greenish colour found on other types of Fujian Qingbai wares.  Personally, I think the glaze is intended to imitate the ivory Ding glaze with the typical pooling of teardrop-like glaze effect.  It is more like a hybrid of Qingbai and Ding ware.  Minqing Yi kiln (闽清义窑) has been identified as one of the major kiln that produced such bowls. 

A  Mingqing Yi kiln greyish straw colour bowl with carved motif from the Nanhai 1 wreck

 

 

Black (Temmoku) wares

Archaeological evidence clearly showed that Fujian black glazed temmoku wares were introduced later than the green glazed wares.   

The most famous black temmoku wares were produced in the Jianyang kiln.  Jian temmoku were highly praised and treasured by the tea connoisseurs from both China and overseas, especially Japan.  Due to the strong overseas demand,  coastal kilns especially those in Fuqing and Minhou emerged as major exporters.  Visually they are different from Jian temmoku bowls.  Majority have a light grayish paste and the glaze is not as thick/glossy and the hares’ fur effects are not as distinct and attractive.   For more on Jian and Jian type temmoku wares, please read this

Black/Brown and Lead-glaze wares

Cizao kilns in Jinjiang was a major producer of black/brown glaze wares.  The kilns also produced low fired lead green/yellow glazes which were applied onto kendi, censers, basins, plates, jars, ewers.  The kendis were specifically made for the Southeast Asian markets.   Another unique Cizao product is black glaze wares with deeply carved motif left unglazed.

Most lead glaze wares were monochrome, but there were also examples with multi-colour glazes, similar to those sancai of the Tang period. I came across an interesting and beautiful piece which the Indonesian collector said was excavated from Trowulan.  

Late Song/Yuan Cizao sancai 

 

Ming Fujian Ceramics

Swatow (Zhangzhou) blue and white

Following a lull in Fujian ceramics production from late Yuan to Mid Ming, a distinctive group of Blue and whites and overglaze enamelled wares were produced in the Zhangzhou region.  They were characterised by grits adhesion on the outer base.  The main market was Southeast Asia but smaller quantity were also found in west asia and East coast of Africa.   For more details on the rise of Zhangzhou kilns and the products produced, please read : A General survey of Swatow (Zhangzhou) wares .

The early Zhangzhou wares were produced during the Jiajing period.  The motifs were executed using calligraphic strokes.  Such examples could be found in the Nan ao 1 shipwreck near Chaozhou in China and the San Isidro wreck near Philippines. 

Ming Jiajing Zhangzhou wares from Nan ao wreck

Those from the Wanli period onwards have motif executed mainly using the outline and wash method and kraak style panelled composition.  Such examples were found in the 1600 A.D Ming Wanli San Diego wreck in Philippines and Binh Thuan wreck in Central  Vietnam.

 

 

 

 

 

Dehua Blanc de chine wares

During the late Ming period, Dehua exported many varieties of blanc de chine wares: cups, censers, gu-vases, ewers, bowls, large plates, lamp, seated lions, figurines. Blanc de chine wares have a silky ivory white tone and the porcelain is translucent.  In this aspect, they were different from the early Dehua wares with the white/bluish white/yellowish white glaze.  Dehua potters introduced the blanc de chine wares during the 16th century firstly mainly for the Southeast Asian market.  During the 17th/18th century, many Dehua blanc de chine were exported to Europe.  Dehua ivory colour tone blanc de chine attracted considerable favourable responses in Europe and were widely collected by royal families and nobles.  

Those from the Early Qing period still retained the ivory tinge glaze but the later Qing pieces became a less attractive more grayish white tone.

 

Qing Fujian Ceramics

Dehua blue and white

According to archeological findings, Dehua started  production of blue and white since late Ming  Period.  However, blue and white ceramics produced were probably very small compared with the blanc de chine wares. But from Qing Kangxi the production of blue and white increased.  During the 18th/19th century, Dehua blue and white became major export items.  In fact, so far, more than 200 kilnsites producing blue and white have been discovered.  The neighouring kilns in Yongchung and Anxi also produced similar types.  Generally, those from the Dehua kilns are of better quality. For more, please read : Dehua blue and white.

In 1999, Tek Sing cargo which consisted of more than 350,000 mainly Qing Daoguang Dehua/Yongchung/Anxi blue and whites were recovered.  The size of the blue and white is an indication of the popularity of the wares.  For more on Tek Sing cargo and information on Dehua blue and white, please read:  Tek Sing shipwreck (Dehua) blue and white.

 

Written by NK Koh (22 Jun 2008), updated 5 Nov 2013

 

References:

1. The Jepara Wreck by Atma Djuana and Edmund Edwards Mckinnon

2. Chronology of Longquan Wares of the Song and Yuan Period by Kamei Meitoku.  Article published in the book “New Light on Chinese Yue and Longquan wares” edited by Chumei Ho.

3. 福建陶瓷考古概论 (曾凡著

4. 德化窑 published by Dehua Museum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are also  large number of celadon bowls with carved lotus motif.  They do not have any vertical combed lines on the external wall.   Such type was also copied from the Longquan kiln.  Kamei Meitoku dates them to A.D 1150 – 1200 and hence later than the type mentioned earlier.  Both the Longquan and Fujian version were present in the wreck. Another type of celadon found in large number is those carved with abstract cloud motif.  Kiln sherds from Lianjiang Pukou kiln showed similar type being produced.

For export Fujian celadon, the centre of production was Nan an (南安) which boasted more than 47 kilns. Together with nearby kilns such as Tong an (同安), Anxi (安溪), Xiamen (厦门)and further away such Minhou (闽侯), Fuqing (福清), Putian (莆田) and Lianjiang (连江), this group of kilns produced similar  green products for overseas market. 

Another interesting type is big bowls decorated with wild goose and floral scrolls motif.  Such bowls were attributed to Anfu kiln in Longquan and example could be found in the book on “Ceramics from the Tioman Island”.  The author in the book gave the Anfu attribution based on archaeological report from China.  

Another type of Longquan celadon bowls with paneled stylised motif (see below photo) were also found. According to Kamei, they made their appearance after A.D 1150.

 

White/Qingbai wares

The Jepara wreck also carried a substantial quantity of white/qingbai wares.   Large quantity of different sizes cover boxes with impressed floral/abstract motif or plain without motif were also recovered from the wreck.  Similar cover boxes were excavated from the late Northern Song Level of the oldest dehua kiln at Wanpinglun (盖德碗坪崙) and continued to be produced even into the Yuan period.  There are kendis and vases (some with floral-shaped mouth) and small quantity of vases with iron black floral motif.  There are also big shallow big bowls with flat horizontal rim.  They resemble those form Wanpinglun dated to the Late Southern Song period by Chinese ceramics experts. 

 

Qingbai ewers  with curved waves/floral/abstract motif were also found in the wreck.  They are most likely products from other Fujian kilns.  As compared with ewers from Jingdezhen, they are more thickly and heavily potted.

 

Brown wares

In this category, there are dark brown glaze kendis and celadon glaze kendis with brown abstract motif.  The kendis are most likely product from the Cizao kiln in Quanzhou.  

 

Dating of the Ceramics wares

The presence of greenwares and Dehua white wares which based on archaeological evidence are dated to Southern Song indicates that the Jepara wreck is of that period.   The presence of the Jianyan copper coins means that the wreck is dated later than A.D 1130.  During the late Northern Song phase, the Longquan celadon bowls have vertical combed lines on the outer wall and more dense combed/curved motif on the interior.  The presence of small quantity of similar Fujian type suggested that they may continue to be produced  during the mid/late southern Song period while new products were introduced. Such new products are characterised by bowls with plain outer wall and more sparse inner decoration, the main decorative motif are lotus or partitioned stylised floral motif.  This is in line with A.D 1150 – 1200 dating in Kamei Meitoku chronology of the Longquan/Longquan-type greenwares.  This dating is also consistent with Fujian experts’ dating of Dehua wares found in the Wanpinglun (盖德碗坪崙) kiln.   

 

Wiitten by: NK Koh (20 Mar 2010) updated: 20 Mar 2013

 

References:

1. The Jepara Wreck by Atma Djuana and Edmund Edwards Mckinnon

2. Chronology of Longquan Wares of the Song and Yuan Period by Kamei Meitoku.  Article published in the book “New Light on Chinese Yue and Longquan wares” edited by Chumei Ho.

3. 福建陶瓷考古概论 (曾凡著

4. 德化窑 published by Dehua Museum

 

 

1161 M

Lalu berdirilah kesultanan Peureulak dengan sultannya yang pertama Alauddin Syah yang memerintah tahun 520–544 H atau 1161–1186 M. Sultan yang telah ditemukan makamnya adalah Sulaiman bin Abdullah yang wafat tahun 608 H atau 1211 M.[1]

1178 M

Chu-fan-chi, yang ditulis Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225, mengutip catatan seorang ahli geografi, Chou Ku-fei, tahun 1178 bahwa ada negeri orang Islam yang jaraknya hanya lima hari pelayaran dari Jawa.[2]

Mungkin negeri yang dimaksudkan adalah Peureulak, sebab Chu-fan-chi menyatakan pelayaran dari Jawa ke Brunai memakan waktu 15 hari.

Eksistensi negeri Peureulak ini diperkuat oleh musafir Venesia yang termasyhur, Marco Polo, satu abad kemudian.

Kublai Khan (Emperor Shi Zu), the grandson of Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan, conquered the whole Chinese Empire and established

1205

 

Gampong Pande menurut catatan sejarah merupakan pusat kerajaan Islam dan pusat perdagangan sejak tahun 1205 sampai dengan 1218.
“Lokasi itu memang pusat kerajaan, besar kemungkinan berada pada abad ke-13 dan 16,” kata Husaini yang juga menyelesaikan disertasi tentang sejarah di Gampong Pande.
“Jadi ini tanda tanya, kenapa waktu tsunami tidak muncul,” imbuhnya.
Oleh karena itu, penting pemerintah untuk segera mengambil langkah kongkrit untuk menyelamatkan cagar budaya tersebut. Katanya, ini indentitas Aceh yang mesti harus dijaga dengan baik.

 

 

1225

After 568, Langkasuka stopped sending envoy to China. The reason is not clear, but I suppose that Langkasuka was merged with Kan-tuo-li at the end of the sixth century and they formed ‘Chi-tu’.

However as above mentioned its name reappeared in the Sui Shu (隋書). According to Chang-jun, he saw the mountains of Langkasuka at the east coast of Malay Peninsula. The name of Langkasuka existed in the Sui times and Tang times.

The reason why Chao Ju-kua(趙汝适)

put Langkasuka at Pattani in 1225

is not known. Nowadays most historians believe the location of Langkasuka is Pattani. But in the Pattani district, there is no mountain at all. On the east coast of the middle of Malay Peninsula, high mountains visible from the sea are only Khao Luang1,825mand Khao Wang Hip (1,235mwhich located behind Nakhon Si Thammarat.
There are a short description on Langkasuka in the
Jiu and Xin Tang Shu that Langkasuka is the neighbor country of Pan-pan, Chaiya. The neighbor of Chaiya means ‘Nakhon Si Thammarat’ and Pattani is too far away as ‘neighbor’. If Langkasuka disappeared since the sixth century, nobody would doubt it located at the old Nakhon Si Thammarat. But, nearly 600 years later, Langkasuka reappeared all of a sudden in the Zhu-fan-zhi (諸蕃志).
Chao Ju-kua wrote that Langkasuka

was located six days journey from Tambralinga (Nakhon Si Thammarat) by sea, so we must suppose the location was near Pattani.
“One can sail from Tan-ma-ring (
単馬令Nakhon Si Thammarat) to the kingdom of Langkasuka in six days. The land road is available, too.” Chao Ju-kua did not elaborate on the other geographical matter, so it was not sure if Langkasuka was the neighbor of Songkhla or not. In this case Chao Ju-kua used different Chinese scripts as the name of Langkasuka (凌牙斯加), which was completely different from the previous name of Lang-ya-su (狼牙須). Chao Ju-kua might have collected information about Langkasuka from Arab merchants. Chao Ju-kua added that Langkasuka was a vassal state of San-fo-chi.
「凌牙斯加国、自単馬令風帆六昼夜可到、亦有陸程。」
However Mao Yuan-I(
茅元儀) put Langkasuka at the neighboring state of Songkhla in the “Wu-pei-chih(武備志)” published in 1621. As I mentioned above that Chao Ju-kua wrote the order of the vassal states from the south of the Malay Peninsula. In this context, Langkasuka is located between Terengganu and Kelantan. This means that Langkasuka is not necessarily ‘Pattani’.
Chao Ju-kua was a ‘ Superintendent of Maritime Trade (
市舶司)‘in Fu-chien (福建). There he had collected various informations from traders especially from Arab merchants. The knowledge of Arab merchants was sometimes not so accurate and not correspondded with the expression of the Chinese chronicles. They had plenty of knowledge about San-fo-chi, so the description on San-fo-chi was comparatively accurate. However, their information about other ports, where they seldom stopped over was vague in nature.
As above mentioned, Wang Ta-yuan
(汪大淵)gave us the completely different picture of Langkasuka. In “Dao-Yi Zhi-Lue (島夷誌略,1349)”, Wang Ta-yuan wrote on ‘Langkasuka’ as ‘Long-Ya-Xi-Jao’ (龍牙犀角). The scenery of Wang’s Langkasuka is quite different from that of modern Pattani. Even Dr. Toyohati Fujita could not understand the implication of Wang’s explanation, so he gave up the identification.
Wang Ta-yuan says “It is a hill plain surrounded by high mountains. The people are living in a round village like ants. The climate is not too hot. The people are soft-hearted and friendly. Men and women braid their hair into chignons. The teeth are white. They wrap around them a length of Ma-I
linencloth……….The native products are an agar-wood superior to that of any other country, together with hornbill casques, laka-wood, honey and garu-wood. The goods used in trading are native prints cloth, blue-and-white porcelain bowls and suchlike.” *
「峰嶺内平面外聳民環居之如蟻附坡厥田下等気候半熱俗厚男女椎髺歯白繋麻逸布俗以結・・・・・・地産沈香冠干諸番次鶴頂降真蜜糖黄執香頭貿易之貨用土印八都布青白花碗之属。」
Apparently Pattani is not ‘ a hill plain surrounded by high mountains’. Above ‘blue-and-white porcelain bowls’ are without doubt, imports from China, so Langkasuka was an active trader of such kind of products. Also, the observation of Wang Ta-yuan was realistic. The
Dao-yi-zhi-lue was written more than 120 years later than the Zhu-fan-zhi. Wang Ta-yuan said he wrote the Dao-yi-zhi-lue according to his own travel experience. So, we must pay more attention to the Dao-yi-zhi-lue which might be more accurate than the Zhu-fan-zhi. Apparently, Wang’s Langkasuka is quite different from Chao Ju-kua’s one. Chao Ju-kua’s Langkasuka is supposed to locate at Pattani. As I mentioned above, there are neither hills nor mountains around Pattani. So, Langkasuka should be in the different place on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula.


I suppose the most proper place is ‘Lan-saka’, just behind and is connected with Tha-Rua area of Nakhon Si Thammarat.
 The meaning of ‘lan’ is ‘valley’ and the ancient expression of ‘lan’ was ‘langka.’ If so, in the ancient times, ‘Lan Saka’ might have been called ‘Langka Saka’. However, until now little archaeological evidence has been found in Lan Saka area.
According to the recent excavation, considerable remains of ancient trade and temples were discovered in Tha-Rua. Its history might have started from the Neolithic era.

Lan-Saka is located 20 kilometers behind Tha-Rua to the mountain side and connected with the Tha-Rua River. Lan-Saka is a ‘pass’ to connect between the west coast and the east coast. Krabi, Khlong-Thom and Trang were typical ports of the west coast, above mentioned ‘route-C’ and goods from India could have been brought to the east coast through the Lan-Saka pass. On the top of the Lan-Saka pass, there is considerable rice field, where is held between Khao Luang (1,825mand Khao Wang Hip (1,235mfrom both sides. Furthermore ‘Tha Sala’, north of Nakhon Si Thammarat, is now under excavation and probably considerable remains will be uncovered. If so, the dimension of Langkasuka will be expanded from Tha Rua to Tha Sala.
At this moment, many historians and archeologists have been convinced that Langkasuka was located at Pattani, where produced not so meaningful remains. In 1989, a team of archaeologists excavated the Yarang district some 20 kilometers inside of Pattani. But the results were not so remarkable. *

At Yarang foreign ceramic sherds are rare and comparatively new, belonging to the Song and Ming periods.
Pattani had been probably used as the port of the ‘Kan-tou-li’ and ‘new Kha-ling’ dominated by Śailendra and San-fo-chi. However Pattani had nothing to do with ancient Langkasuka. As Chang-Chun recorded in the Sui times,

Langkasuka was located near Nakhon Si Thammarat. Yarang might have been the capital of the ancient Pattani Kingdom, and surely there are some remains, but it is a wrong place. The large excavations were carried out around Yarang, and they found a lot of shards ceramics and porcelains from the Song, the Ming and Thailand, but most of them are comparatively new, from eleventh or twelfth centuries.


However, there is a ‘fatal evidence’ in a Chinese document, named the
Wu-pei-chih(武備志)1621, compiled by Mao Yuan-I(茅元儀). This book contains many pieces of map. One of them is the route map of Cheng-Ho (鄭和), who was the great leader of the Chinese fleet in the early Ming times.
The
Wu-pei-chi map regarding the east coast the Malay Peninsula clearly indicates the location of Langkasuka (狼西加) as the neighbor of Songkhla. Mao Yuan-I might have drawn this map referring the Zhu-fan-zhi. I wonder that the name of Songkhla remains nowadays, but the name of Langkasuka cannot be found on any other modern map of the Malay Peninsula. The name of Langkasuka seemed to have suddenly changed to ‘Pattani’.


However the name of Pattani was well known at least since the Ming times. A high government official, Huang Zhong(
黄衷) compiled an encyclopedia the Hai Wu (Sea Words=海語) in which he says that the quality of camphor oil (片脳) “Fo-ta-ni (Pattani=佛打尼) produces the best quality among Ayutaya Empire.
In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Japanese official trade ship left record that they visited ‘Tani’(
太泥) in the early the seventeenth century. ‘Tani’ means Pattani. Even in the Zhu-fan-zhi, there is a list of vassal states of San-fo-chi, in which the name of Pa-ta(抜沓) is seen. Many historians assume Pa-ta(抜沓) means the ‘Batak’, a native tribe of the Sumatra island. However, San-fo-chi might have nothing to do with the ‘Batak’. Pa-ta(抜沓) seems likely Pattani.
The misplacement of Langkasuka affects the location Chi-tu, and distorts the history
Perhaps Chao Ju-kua
(趙汝适)misplaced the location of Langkasuka, or at least I can say that the location of Langkasuka in the Sui times was different from that of Chao Ju-kua’s Langkasuka, ‘Pattani’. As I mentioned above, Chao Ju-kua might have got the information from Arab merchants, but the knowledge of them was not always correct.

 

Apparently, Wang Ta-yuan’s Langkasuka was believed to be identified by his own travelling experience and newer than Chao Ju-kua’s more than one hundred years. But no historians acknowledged the location of his Langkasuka. But at least, I can say Wang Ta-yuan’s Langkasuka is not Pattani. Pattani probably had its own name as ‘Pattani’ from the beginning of its history.

 

 

 

Chi-tu (赤土) a stray state
If Langkasuka has been placed at Pattani, the location of ‘Chi-tu’ had to be Kelantan or more southern part of the Malay Peninsula. A Japanese historian, Dr. Kuwata placed the location of ‘Chi-tu at Palembang.

He thought the predecessor of

Shih-li-fo-shi (Śrīvijaya)

was Chi-tu

and its location was Palembang.

Dr. Tatsuro Yamamoto had a different opinion that the location of Chi-tu was at Singapore. Unfortunately both of them are mistaken, because the Sui Shu says that on their return journey, the mission of the Sui arrived at the Southeast of Lin-yi in a little more than ten days. This suggests us the location of Chi-tu was not so far from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula.
The history of Chi-tu is not clear which abruptly appeared in the
Sui Shu as the biggest tributary state to the Sui Dynasty. Yang-ti (煬帝), emperor of the Sui, sent his mission to Chi-tu. The ambassador, Chang-jun (常駿) presented his report to Yang-ti, which is quoted in the Sui Shu as follows.
“The kingdom of Chi-tu, another kind of Funan, is situated in the South seas. By sea one reaches it more than a hundred days. The color of the soil of the capital is mostly red, whence is derived the name of the state. Eastwards is the kingdom Po-lo-la (
波羅剌), to the west that of Po-lo-suo(婆羅娑), and to the south that of Kha-la-tan (Ho-lo-tan 訶羅旦). The country is several thousand li in extent. The king’s family name is Qu-tan (瞿曇 Gautama), his personal name is Li-fu-duo-sai (利冨多塞).”
The territory of Chi-tu is supposed to cover from both coast of the Malay Peninsula. Because after landing it took thirty days for Chang-jun to arrive at the king’s palace. Po-lo-la (
波羅剌) is presumably Borneo, Po-lo-suo(婆羅娑) sounds like Barus, one of the Nicobar Islands and Ho-lo-tan (訶羅旦) might be Kelantan. The exact location of Chi-tu is not identified yet among historians and geologists. However, I suppose that the west coast was Kedah and the east coast was Songkhla which was the main port to China. From Songkhla to Kedah, by on land journey it took about thirty days. But if one went by sea route from Canton to Kedah via Malayu it took more than one hundred days.

 

The predecessor of Chi-tu might be Kan-tuo-li (干陀利). According to the Liang-shu, the king’s family name of Kan-tuo-li is Qu-tan (瞿曇), same as of Chi-tu’s king.

The name of ‘Kan-tuo-li’ is originally comes from ‘Kalinga’ the east coast of India. Kalinga was pronounced as ‘Kadaram’ by Tamil and ‘Kalah’ or ‘Kala’ by the Sanskrit language. ‘Kadaram’ became ‘Kadara’ and ‘Kandari’ and later Chinese pronounced as ‘Kan-tuo-li’. G. Coedès insists that ‘Kan-tuo-li’ located in the Sumatra Island and he has many followers, but they can not exactly identify the real location. Kan-tuo-li should be old Kedah, from where the above mentioned ‘Route-B’ started.
As above mentioned, G. Coedès admitted the close relation between Chi-tu and old Kedah, where was called ‘Red Earth’ by Indian merchants.
Historically, Kha-la-tan (
訶羅旦) might have been taken over by Kan-tuo-li (干陀利) around the middle of the fifth century, but one hundred years later Tan-tan (丹丹) emerged as a successor to Ho-lo-tan (Kelan-tan). And then Chi-tu appeared as the champion of ‘B-route’ to send the envoy to the Sui Dynasty.

Even thought Tan-tan remained as an independent state, Tan-tan had disadvantage to procure the western goods, because access to Kedah from Kelantan was geologically inconvenient compared with Pattani and Songkhla.

 

More importantly, Lang-ya-su (狼牙須=Langkasuka) ,which sent its embassies during 515568 disappeared. Presumably Langkasuka, the former champion of ‘C-route’ was taken over by the ‘Kedah clan’, namely Kan-tuo-li, and on their behalf Chi-tu emerged.
Conclusion
The reason why Kan-tuo-li was taken over by Chi-tu is not clear but perhaps Kan-tuo-li took over Langkasuka and change its name to Chi-tu. Kan-tuo-li was a big country dominating ‘B-route’, from Kedah to the east coast of the Peninsula, so it could not be cherished easily.
The exact location of Chi-tu is not identified yet. Most historians identify the location of Langkasuka as Pattani, so the location of Chi-tu cannot be found forever. But the location of Langkasuka is identified at Nakhon Si Thammarat or its vicinity that of Chi-tu should be Songkhla or Pattani on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula and on the west coast, Kedah might be the real capital.

 


According to the
Xin Tang Shu (新唐書) the location of Chi-tu is apparently at the north of Tan-tan and Tan-tan was without doubt former Kelantan. Chi-tu was finally merged with Śrīvijaya in the middle of the seventh century. Śrīvijaya (Shih-li-fo-shi) became the only one tributary country to the Tang from the Malay Peninsula.

Source

http://www7.plala.or.jp/seareview/newpage6Sri2011Chaiya.html

 

the Yuan Dynasty

(1271 – 1368 AD)

with its capital in Beijing. Casting of coins during the Yuan reign was limited due to the predominant used of paper money made of cotton and mulberry bark paper.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s