Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

Promosi CD Dr Iwan :”Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Awal Abad Kedua Puluh”



harga satu CD lima ratus ribu rupiah


Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia

Awal Abad ke Dua Puluh

Bagian Ketiga



Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Edisi Terbatasaa Buku Elektronuik Dalam CDS-Rom

Khusus Untuk Kolektor Senior Indonesia

Hak Cipta @ Dr Iwan 2014




Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928



Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language. 1928

Sumber Wiki





The wayang Kulit paintings card in the book “INDIE” written by J.C.Lamster reproduced the wayang painting by the expatriat painters Hermanus Josephus Wolff . ( read and look ” The Wayang Kulit Painting card” will put later in this blog








With the Soempah Pemoeda (Youth Pledge) on 28 October 1928

the Indonesian youth followed suit. In the meantime the Indonesian nationalist movement was out to openly confront thecolonial government, which was demonstrated by the ill-fated communist uprisings of November 1926 in West Java and January 1927 in West Sumatra. Soekarno continued his anti-colonialist andpro-independence agitation in gatherings behind closed doors, but also in public meetings where hedemanded independence for the Indonesian people and ridiculed the colonial authorities.


The Fisrt Chinese Hopital in Jakarta

(now Husada Hospital Jakarta)


Vintage Yang seng Ie Hospital (now Husada Hospital Jakarta)

photo from one year commemoration Yang seng ie Hospital



Whenrumours of mutinous actions began to circulate at the end of 1929, Governor-General De Graeff


855 Niel, The Emergence of the Modern Indonesian Elite, 228–29, 236–37.

856 J. Pluvier, Indonesië: Kolonialisme, Onafhankelijkheid, Neo-Kolonialisme: Een Politieke Geschiedenis van 1940 tot

Heden (Nijmegen: Socialistiese Uitgeverij Nijmegen (SUN), 1978), 26.

took firm action. In a series of raids throughout Java Soekarno and other key PNI leaders wererounded up. Soekarno was convicted to four years of imprisonment.

Nevertheless, Soekarno remained very popular and after his release he became the politicalleader of Partindo (Partai Indonesia).







Oei Tiong Ham handsign on DEI veregening Oei Tiong Ham Semarang recieved document with revenue 1929 (Dr Iwan Collections)


Oei Tiong Ham

Historic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA


Official Photo



on DEI Senarang recieved document with revenue(Dr Iwan Collections)

Document history collections

Reicieved Of Oei Tiong Ham House rental with Revenue

During Indonesia independent revolution 1946

(Dr Iwan collections)






Oei Tiong Ham

Oei Tiong Ham
Born Oei Tiong Ham
Died 1924
Occupation Businessman
Spouse Goei Bing-nio
Relatives Father Oei Tjie Sien

Oei Tiong Ham (Chinese: 黄仲涵) (1866–1924) was a Chinese businessman. He was the son of Oei Tjie Sien (Chinese: 黄志信), the founder of the Kian Gwan Kong Si (Chinese: 建源公司), a multinational trading company. He was born in Semarang, Central Java, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He became one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in Semarang and, in his time period, in the region. Part of his wealth originates from his involvement in the sugar industry. In Singapore, a road was named after Oei Tiong Ham. There is also an Oei Tiong Ham Park, which is located near Holland Road.[1] His nickname, “Man of 200 Million”, originates from the passing of his 200 million guilder estate at the time of his death in 1924 in Singapore. [edit] Life

The significance of Oei Tiong Ham is related to his role with the Oei Tiong Ham Concern (OTHC), which was the largest conglomerate in the Dutch East Indies during the late colonial era and early Indonesian independence period.

The OTHC originally started with the trading firm of Kian Gwan, established in 1863 by Oei Tje Sein, Oei Tiong Ham’s father. In 1890, Oei Tiong Ham took over the firm Kian Gwan which diversified and grew into one of the largest firms in Southeast Asia. At the time Tiong Ham took over the firm, Kian Gwan’s main activity was trade, especially trade in rubber, kapok, gambir, tapioca and coffee.

 In addition, it was involved with pawnshops, postal services, logging and the highly lucrative opium trade. It has been estimated that between 1890 and 1904, Kian Gwan made a profit of some 18 million guilders in the opium trade alone, which provided the basis for his empire.

Unlike many of his Chinese contemporaries, Oei Tiong Ham relied heavily on written contracts in conducting his business. This did not make him popular in Chinese circles but it provided him with a legal basis to acquire the collateral for the loans he extended. Among his main debtors were often owners of sugar factories in East Java and when these factories were unable to repay the loans, due to the long-lasting effects of the sugar crisis of the 1880s he used his rights as a creditor. In this way he acquired five sugar factories. Sugar now became the backbone of the company and would remain so for the next several decades.

In the period between the 1890s and the 1920s, OHTC grew and diversified rapidly. It started branches in London and Singapore, created a bank, a steamship business and had a large wholesale business. Of all the ethnic Chinese business conglomerates in pre-war Asia, the Oei Tiong Ham concern was by far the largest. The company was even larger than the well-known “Big Five” Dutch trading companies that supposedly dominated the foreign trade of the Indies. The OTHC was strong in foreign trade, particularly in China. The basic strategy of the company was to take advantage of the opportunities on the world market for commodities produced in Indonesia. In 1912, Kian Gwan, the trading branch of the conglomerate was capitalized at fifteen million guilders, double the amount of the largest Dutch firm Internatio.

During the post-war boom of 1918-1920, the worldwide demand for Java sugar was high, creating many opportunities for sugar-mill owners and sugar brokers. But fortunes gained were easily lost in a couple of days. Oei Tiong Ham followed a cautious policy during these boom years. He did not speculate too heavily and took steps to improve its financial administration. Oei Tong Ham recruited talented accountants to set up a modern accounting system for the sugar factories. Due to the cautious and independent strategy, the company survived the subsequent sugar crisis while many other Chinese firms perished.

Besides making use of written agreements and a modern accounting system, Oei Tiong Ham also diverted from yet another Chinese business practice of the time. Instead of relying solely on family members in running his wide ranging business enterprises, he deliberately chose capable outsiders, such as Dutch directors, managers, and engineers to manage his companies. In 1920, Oei Tiong Ham left Semarang and settled in Singapore to escape Dutch colonial succession law and tax regime. Having eight wives and twenty-six official children, inheritance became important issues. He decided to hand his daughters and some of his sons cash, and make eight of his sons his rightful heirs, dividing among them an inheritance worth two hundred million guilders. Since only two of them, Oei Tjong Swan and Oei Tjong Hauw, had reached maturity, immediate succession did not seem to give too many problems.


According to Madame Wellington Koo’s (née Oei Hui-lan) autobiography, “No Feast Lasts Forever”, Goei Bing Nio (魏明娘) was selected by Oei Tiong Ham’s mother to be his wife and was married to him at age 15. She bore him 2 daughters, Tjong-lan and Hui-lan. He had 18 acknowledged concubines.

One of Goei Bing-nio’s sisters was unable to have children and hence adopted 2 girls from her husband’s brother. These 2 girls both became Oei Tiong Ham’s concubines. The younger of the 2 sisters, Lucy Ho (or Hoo Kiem Hoa), moved to Singapore with Oei and lived with him until his death. One of Oei Tiong Ham’s sons with Lucy Ho later married his own granddaughter – the daughter of his son, Oei Tjong-Swan.


Oei Tiong Ham died in Singapore. Madame Wellington Koo, his second daughter from his first wife, believed that he was poisoned to death by Lucy Ho, his mistress at the time of death. His body was shipped to Semarang for burial in his father’s tomb




Dwangarbeiders Kantor, Reban en Wongsosetiko als dragers voor het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger op de Gajoweg in Atjeh in 1924


Gezelschap aan boord de S.S. Orion, vermoedelijk in de buurt van Atjeh


House in Kota Radja aceh









In 1925


Colijn  that old comrade again met.
On one of his posts he spread among his men “the good news”. And then they were taking more times a piece of cheese from him. A sergeant, who also have a piece of cheese pleased, pretending …. and asked him seemingly heilbegeerig to “the good news”. Colijn had by him immediately and said: A “glad tidings” you can get, but you get no piece of cheese.



Detasmwnct KNIL at Meulaboh in 1925

Festival at Meulaboh Aceh in 1925

Takeungon Aceh Market in 1925



































The bali dancer in 1925(three pictures)



The Balinese women with offering”sajen” on their head in 1925


The Bali Doesoen village in 1925



The Bali temple complex in 1925(two pictures)

The Bali building and river in 1925


The sketch of Bali God feast in 1925


 Museum Bali  in 1925

 finished a length building of Karangasem model, represented the architecture of east Bali,and built up by I.Gst.Ketut Gede Kandel (from Abasan), and I.Gst.ketut Rai (from Belong).With total area of this Museum is: 2.600m2, and the architecture is a combination between Temple and Palace, that devided into 3 yards;



– Inner Yard, where the building is
– Middle Yard, there are resting area formerly used by the king to observe situation outside the palace.
– Outer Yard most access to the field currently serves as parking area.





The Dutch ship KPM promotion Poster go to Bali in 1926


The Balinese under The beringin tree  in 1926


Biography. Willem Gerard Hofker was born on 2nd May 1902 in The Hague,

Read more at next page

Name: Hofker, Willem Gerard

Born: 2 Mei 1902

Place of Birth:Den Haag

Died:30 April 1981

Place of Death:Amsterdam



Willem Gerard Hofker was born on 2nd May 1902 in The Hague, the Netherlands, as a son of Gerrit Jan Hofker, public servant with the Postal Services.

For a while his father was a co-worker of De Nieuwe Gids and befriended members of the Eighties movement. He named his son after the painter Willem Witsen.

Willem Hofker firstly attended the Haagse Academie and later, at age 14, attended the Rijksacademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. He was also educated by Willem Witsen and Isaac Israel who were friends of his father, an amateur artist and writer, member of the literary movement ‘de beweging van Tachtig’.





January,31th .1926

Sejarah Singkat Berdirinya NU (Nahdlatul Ulama)– Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) berdiri pada tanggal 31 Januari 1926 di Jawa Timur. Organisasi ini merupakan wadah para ulama di dalam tugas memimpin Islam menuju cita-cita Izzul Islam Muslimin (kejayaan Islam dan umatnya).



Susunan pengurus Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) pada waktu itu sebagai berikut:

  • Rois Akbar  :  K.H. Muhammad Hasyim Asy’ari
  • Wakil Rois Akbar  :  K.H. Dahlan
  • Khatib  :  K.H. Abdul Wahab Hasbulloh

Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) dapat berkembang dengan cepat sebagai organisasi Islam yang berskala nasional. Hal itu ditunjang oleh kenyataan bahwa NU lahir di Jawa Timur yang selama berabad-abad menjadi pusat perkembangan pesantren dan tarekat di Indonesia. Banyak para ulama besar dari berbagai daerah yang berasal dari pesantren di Jawa Timur. Mereka memiliki rasa persaudaraan seperguruan dengan pemimpin pesantren yang terdapat di Jawa Timur.


Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) mengorganisasi lembaga pesantren dan gerakan tarekat dalam dua wadah organisasi nasional. Organisasi tersebut adalah Jam’iyyah Rabbitah al-Ma’ahid (organisasi ikatan pondok pesantren) yang menghimpun pesantren dan Jam’iyyah Thariqah al-Mu’tabarah an-Nahdiyyah (organisasi tarekat sah) untuk organisasi tarekat. Dengan demikian organisasi tradisional yang berkembang di daerah-daerah pada umumnya dapat dihimpun dan menginduk ke Nahdlatul Ulama (NU).


Pada mulanya Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) merupakan organisasi keagamaan. Namun pada tahun 1945 Nahdlatul Ulama mulai bergerak dalam bidang politik dengan menggabungkan diri dalam partai Masyumi. Pada Muktamar ke-19 di Palembang tanggal 1 Mei 1952, Nahdlatul Ulama menyatakan keluar dari partai Masyumi dan menjadikan dirinya sebagai partai politik (Partai Nahdlatul Ulama). Kemudian pada tahun 1973, Partai NU dan partai-partai Islam lainnya, seperti PSII, Parmusi, dan Perti memfusikan kegiatan politiknya ke dalam Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP). Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya NU kembali menjadi Jam’iyyah atau organisasi keagamaan hingga sekarang



pada tahun 1926

PKI melakukan pemberontakan di wilayah Jawa Barat (sekitar daerah Banten)




 Pada th 1926 berdiri organisasi yg nantinya akan mjd cikal bakal partai beraliran marhaenis, PNI,  yg dibentuk oleh Alegemene Studi Club di Bandung, bekas anggota-2 Perhimpunan Indonesia di Belanda. Tujuan dari organisasi-2 tsb adalah utk mewarnai pergerakan perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia dari sisi penyadaran politik masy, agar masy sadar bhw kemerdekaan adalah hak segala bangsa. Namun hal tsb tdk tercantum scr terang-2 an akibat adanya pembatasan-2 yg sangat ketat dari pihak kolonial.


Lahirnya Organisasi Islam Terbesar Di Indonesia

Pada masa-2 sebelum kemerdekaan, paling tidak di Indonesia terdapat 3 kelompok muslim.

  1. Aliran agama/kelompok muslim yg bersifat reformis/modernis

Muncul akhir abad 19, Fokusnya pada pemurnian kehidupan yg Islami. Penggagasnya merasa praktik keislaman sudah terkontaminasi dengan kultur lokal yg tdk paralel dg nilai-2 Islam tsb, misal: TBC.

Pada 1912 berdiri Muhammadiyah, org. Islam modernis. Muhammadiyah berusaha terapkan nilai-2 modern dg terapkan pendidikan ala barat . Muhammadiyah banyak menguasai kawasan perkotaan & daerah-2 di luar Jawa.

  1. kelompok muslim yang menolak gagasan modernisme Islam.

Pada 1926, berdiri Nahdlatul Ulama, suatu reaksi penolakan atas ajakan modernisme Islam. Yg berusaha dipersatukan adalah kyai-2 pedesaan, terutama di bagian timur & pesisir utara Jawa. Kaum tradisionalis ini sejak awal memandang curiga kepada Muhammadiyah krn dianggap dekat dg kolonialisme.

  1. Kelompok muslim/masyarakat Islam sinkretis (Kejawen).

Selain masyarakat miskin pedesaan & warga kota pinggiran, yg termasuk  dlm kelompok muslim “nominal” ini adalah kaum ningrat. Kedatangan Islam & pemimpin-2 Islam dianggap sbg ancaman thd identitasnya.

Selama abad 20, mrk telah mjd tulang punggung politik kaum nasionalis & kelompok-2 kiri. Smtr kelompok-2 masy yg lebih miskin mjd basis dukungan bagi PKI. Janji-2 manis tentang masyarakat sama rata-sama rasa membuat kelompok masyarakat miskin ini menjadi tulang punggung gerakan komunis di Indonesia.


 Bridewomen in Lamno Aceh in 1926




KNIL at atjeh in 1926


Marsose at blangkajeren atjeh in 1926



Blangkajeren  Atjeh 1926

Blangkajeren Aceh 1926
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the present policemen watch. Ford has put together after he disassembled state by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi is charged. The man in the white left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar Music and beer will be the party complete. The newly captured elephant may on the photo.

Feestelijke inwijding van een T-Ford. De pastoor giet wijwater in de radiator van de auto terwijl de aanwezige marechaussees toekijken. De Ford is in elkaar gezet nadat hij in gedemonteerde staat door dragers over een voetpad door de bergen naar de tangsi is gebracht. De man in het wit links van de Ford is de monteur. Gitaarmuziek en bier zullen het feestje completeren. Ook het pas gevangen olifantje mag op de foto.




Sangihe island in 1926

‘Serdang’ in de haven van Ambon




The native ceram Tjakalele Dancer in 1927(two pictures)


The Ambonese traditional bride in 1927,and look the same type picture below










KNIL officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1927


Gekostumeerd bal te Lhokseumawe in 1927



pada tahun 1927 di Sumatera Barat. Dengan kegagalan pemberontakan PKI tersebut, maka pada tahun 1927 pemerintah kolonial Belanda menyatakan PKI sebagai partai terlarang berdiri di wilayah indonesia.


Setelah pemberontakan itu gagal, Musso, Alimin dan tokoh-tokoh PKI lainnya melarikan diri keluar negeri. Pemimpin PKI yang tidak setuju melakukan pemberontakan lari ke Thailand dan kemudian mendirikan partai      baru yang bernama Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI) yang berpusat di Bangkok (1927).



Kesadaran tentang bangsa yang pluralis

Pada awal abad 20, makin banyak penduduk Hindia Belanda yg mulai sadar ttg kedudukan & nasib mereka sbg bangsa terjajah. Mereka mulai melihat diri mereka sbg orang Indonesia, bukan lagi orang Ambon, Jawa, Sumatera, dan sebagainya. Pertemuan antar mahasiswa Hindia Belanda di Belanda makin mempertebal rasa senasib ini. Diucapkanlah Sumpah Pemuda pada 1928





Sultan Muhammad Daoed  spend his days under Dutch house-arrest in Koetaradja and died there in 1928.



Panglima  Polim  was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of Nassau-Oranje Orde

Old Panglima Polim, raja of Sigli, wearing medal of The House of Orange in 1938, one year before his death.



In 1927 Willem Hofker won the 2nd price at the Prix de Rome.





Dutch Queen birthday ceremony at saparua in 1928



Saparua Bay in 1928


Ambonese sergeant Manusama bride in 1928


The visit of the tax chief C,J.Boot to Toelahoe Ambo  in 1928(two Pictures)



The native landowner of  Laha at ambon in 1928 and with the tax inspectuer below




The Dutch  Tax Inspectuer at ambon in 1928(two pictures)



Who are your pela’s? Find them on Atlas Maluku!
Have you always wanted to know who your pela’s are or which family names belong to which villages? Atlas Maluku answers these questions. In collaboration with Hans van Hernen, Muma launches a prototype of this website.

29 Desember 1929

Belanda memasukkannya ke penjara Sukamiskin, Bandung pada 29 Desember 1929.






Den Haag – Buitenzorg 25.11.1929


Soeharto sekolah SD di Tiwir, Yogyakarta, Wuryantoro dan Solo (19291934)







Special meeting in 29 january 1929,resident o Batavia inaugurated six new members



The Fisrt Chinese Hopital in Jakarta (now Husada Hospital Jakarta)


Vintage Yang seng Ie Hospital (now Husada Hospital Jakarta)

photo from one year commemoration Yang seng ie Hospita




1 juni

Hari lahir Panca Sila

Majallah bahasa jawa 

Hari Lahir Pancasila


Komunitas buku kuno

Facebook account



Sutan Sjahrir sekolah ELS dan MULO di Medan , dan kemudian ke AMS-A di Bandung. Kemudian tahun 1929 ke Negeri Belanda belajar Hukum di Universitas Amsterdam.

(Rosihan Anwar,1966)



Mount papandayan




Lie Boen Sin,27 sept 1929(lieutenant)







29 Desember 1929

Tekad Sukarno semakin membara, semakin  membaja setelah beliau ditangkap oleh Alat Kekuasaan Kolonial Belanda pada tanggal 29 Desember 1929 dan dijebloskan ke dalam Penjara Banceuy Bandung.

(Sukarno,Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka,1933)


 Pameran Filateli Pertama dilakukan di Malang, Jawa Timur pada 18-19 Januari 1930. (85 tahun yang lalu). Dalam dua hari pameran, stan  pos Hindia Belanda menyediakan box surat dimana amplop atau kartupos yang dikirim,



akan diberi cap khusus pameran.


Diperkirakan sekitar 4000 surat yang memiliki cap pameran selama dua hari in

 Komentar doker Iwan

Info Stempel khusus yag sangat bersejarah bagi filateli Indoensia ini saya peroleh dari facebook Lukan Hakim, dan sampai saat ini saya belum pernah melihat koleksi asli denagn stempel khusus ini.

Sebenarnya sudah ada stempel khusu yang lebih langka dengan prangko khusus Bandung Jaarbeurs, yang saya sudah memilikinya dalam kondisi OF cover used, dulu ada yang mint sudah saya jual,stempel khusus dalam bentuk frganmen juga sudah saya temukan dan ajdi koleksi saya sampai saat ini.

Terima kasih Lukman Hamin atas izinnya untuk mengunakan info ini.


. Tjari Koetoe

The indigenous habit of cleaning hairs and skin of the head from louse. This activity was part of daily social activity in which boys and girls, old and young, gather together and form the formation of tjari koetoe (looking for head louse).

 MCK (Mandi Cuci di Kali)

In the colonial time, MCK stand for Mandi Cuci di Kali (river bathing and laundry) which was polluting the surface water. Interestingly, as a sign of modernity, urban colonial government built stairs at the riverside to accommodate this behavior.

Batavia, 1930









Painting old Batavia,tionghoa glodok area

 by Henry van Thuysen 1930

courtecies chriesties auction

Dr Iwan have the same type painting foron the same are by dutch painter


 Pasar Baru Record player shop Lie A Kon

Old his master voic ply record courtecy Dr Iwan






Tionghoa Tan palyed record shop Pasar Baru los  7 Batavia

Beka record player bough at Lie Akon Pasar sdnen

Courtecy DR Iwan










Rangda mask, before 1929.

Possibly by I Gusti Made Gde. Denpasar, Badung. Wood, pigments, parchment, rawhide, hair. Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 1116-14a


Young dancer from Bali, approx. 1900–1930. Unknown photographer. Photograph from glass negative. Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 10004871



Tiger barong (barong macan), approx. 1900–1930 (top). Mas, Gianyar. Wood, pigments. National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, the Netherlands, 2407-51

Lion barong (barong singa), approx. 1900–1925(page 310). Wood, pigments, rawhide, horsehair. Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 740-43

Bird mask, perhaps 1900–1940. Wood, leather, and pigments. Collection of W. E. Bouwman,


A stream of famous visitors, including Charlie Chaplin and the anthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, encouraged the talented locals to create highly original works.

During their stay in Bali in mid-1930s, Bateson and Mead collected over 2000 paintings, predominantly from the village of Batuan, but also from the coastal village of Sanur.[3]

Among western artists, Spies and Bonnet are often credited for the modernization of traditional Balinese paintings.


When The Painter Arie  Smit arrived in Jakarta the army put his knowledge to good use by assigning him to their Lithography & Drafts Department in the Topographical Service.

There he became a chromo lithographer and worked engraving relief maps of the Indonesian islands. “I used to etch Balinese mountains onto maps … and I always promised myself that one day I would go to Bali,” he says.

During this time he already dreamt of becoming a full-time artist and he’d spend all his free time searching for motives for his watercolours.

Literature Collection

Powell, H. 1930. The last paradise. New York



The King of south Ceram Family in 1930


Ambon landscape in 1930


The Handel  or trade street at Ambon in 1930


The Olijfan(Elephant) street Ambon in 1930

The Ambon Bay in 1930






Saat itu sekitar orang ini bahwa citra Bali menjadi mengkristal selama zaman keemasan pariwisata Bali, akhir 1920-an ke 1930-an.

Turis dari  Eropa dan Amerika, ulama dan bahkan penyair India Rabindranath Tagore di Galerinya, Spies disajikan versinya “nyata Bali” sebagai budaya yang kaya berdasarkan tradisi rakyat otentik.

Dalam hal persepsi dunia tentang Bali, pengaruh terbesar Spies ‘dapat dilihat melalui nya pengunjung Meksiko, penulis dan pelukis Miguel Covarrubias, yang bukunya Pulau Bali telah bertahan lebih lama daripada semua buku wisata lainnya untuk menjadi pekerjaan deskriptif tombol pada Bali.

Spies  juga meneliti seni secara mendalam. Dengan Beryl de Zoete Inggris ia ikut menulis  Tari dan Drama di Bali sementara ia berbagi minat musiknya dengan musisi dan komposer Kanada Colin McPhee, penulis Musik di Bali.

Saya baru saja diakuisisi dua foto menarik dari album foto Belanda dari awal abad ke-20, sebagian besar dari tahun 1920-an . Di atas adalah foto dari I Ketut Maria, biasanya dikenal sebagai Mario. Dia melakukan tarian yang awalnya koreografer, yang disebut Kebyar Duduk (Duduk berarti duduk).

Ada terpisah dari saya yang ingin berpikir , foto-foto ini dibuat oleh Walter Spies. Waktu yang tepat, dan mereka terlihat seperti foto-foto ia mungkin telah membuat buku penting co-ditulis oleh Beryl de Zoete, Tari dan Drama di Bali.



Setelah pernikahannya, Marie Thomas menempatkan dirinya sebagai dokter pemerintah di Padang, tapi setelah 1931 itu tidak disebutkan seperti itu.
Tampaknya tiga puluhan pasangan awal abad kedua puluh di Weltevreden hidup.



Pada tahun 1931 itu dinyatakan bangkrut karena yang Mohamad Yusuf, ia merupakan dokter pribadi di Weltevreden. Ini harus menjadi peristiwa dramatis bagi pasangan, Mohamad ditahan di penjara Struiswijk.   

Juli 1930

PNI Bung Karno dibuarkan



Agustus 1930

Delapan bulan setelah di masukkan dalam penjara sukamiskin,    Bung Karno baru disidangkan. Dalam pembelaannya berjudul Indonesia Menggugat, beliau menunjukkan kemurtadan Belanda, bangsa yang mengaku lebih maju itu.





14 November 1931


Di Desa Banaran dekat Tulung Agung kemarin  duluorang sudah jadi rebut , lantaran ada orang gantung diri. Duduknya perkara begini : Sudah lama ini snak bininya merasa sengsara sekali , malahan anaknya yang masih kecil seklai sering diemiskan nasi pada orang sedesa itu .

Saban hari ia cari kerja , berangkat pagi pulang soe , tapi sia-sia , tidak ada orang yang butuh kuli. Kemarin dulu , ia tidak bepergian , Cuma duduk termenung dirumah saja , rupa-rupanya sudah putus asa dan bingung mendengarkan anaknya menangis minta makan. Tahu-tahu dia sudah ketemu mati gantung diri

(cuplikan surat kabar, oleh sukarno,dalam risalah menuju Indoensia merdek,1933)




In 1930 he married Maria Rueter, also a painter, daughter of Georg Rueter, painter and lector at the Rijksacademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam.

In the twenties Hofker concluded a number of monumental-decorative assignments, amongst others for the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maatschappij (KNSM), for whom he made a few mural paintings on ships. Little is left of these assignments.



Netherlands Indies Paquebot Cancels – which it obviously is not.

The cancel is Makasser, which was in the Netherlands Indies, but I can’t find the stamp in the SG listings for Netherlands Indies … it does look like a Japanese Occupation stamp, but I can’t figure out for where.
It’s an ordinary Japanese stamp from 1932, Sakura #215.


The cancel looks typical Netherlands Indies for that period, but the year of 1936 is too early for Japanese Occupation?


Dr Iwan Note

This is the Paquebot cover fragment from Japan,because no CDS on Japan stamp (forgotten may be),the Mkasar postmaster get the chope CDS(I have found the same from this city,Surabaya,Batavia,padang,oleh-leh aceh)


Bali Temple dancer 1930









The Ubud painters, although a minority amongst the artists working in the 1930s, became the representatives of the new style thanks to the presence of

Title : The Dagger Attack On Rangda
Artist : I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
Media : Ink and tempera on papper
Size : 24 x 33 cm
Year : 1939s
Courtesy : Neka Art Museum

the great artist Gusti Nyoman Lempad in that village, and to the patronage of the traditional rulers of Ubud.



Read more info


I Gusti Nyoman Lempad might be the one of the most talented artists ever born in Bali.

He was a master craftsman, designing and building monumental gates, carving temples and palace decorations, making barong mask, cremation towers, nagabandas (papier-mache dragon for royal cremation) and above all painting. He was also well versed in old Balinese literature.

I Gusti Nyoman Lempad was born in Bedulu in 1862, he was multi-talented as is father who was also excellent craftsman, architect, and painter.

 In 1875, his talent offended his patron and fled to Peliatan then to the protection of the court in Ubud; Lempad was 13 at this time.

He left behind in Bedulu an important legacy as architect and sculptor. He was an excellent sculptor who reputed in particular to have introduced the unfinished style of in stone sculpture,

in this style the characters are roughly hewn and bereft of all iconographic traits.

Title : Protection Of The Barong
Artist : I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
Media : Ink and tempera on papper
Size : 24 x 33 cm
Year : 1939s
Courtesy : Neka Art Museum

It is for his drawing Lempad is best known. The use of paper and material given to him By Walter Spies, when Lempad was already in his sixties, enabled the artist to take the art of drawing to a level until then unknown in Bali. Originally painting in traditional wayang style, he soon evolved toward increased stylization in his drawing,

in his works, it is the “lines” rather than the narrative that really matters. Lempad’s drawing is sparse, its lines standing out of full lightness and movement. Although he mostly chose his subject from Balinese mythology and religious epic such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, Lempad also dealt with daily life and even sexuality.

Title : The Children Disturb Mother Brayut
Artist : I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
Media : Ink and tempera on papper
Size : 24 x 33 cm
Year : 1939s
Courtesy : Neka Art Museum


Not only his drawing are outstanding, but his skill in applied art was apparent, when he designed and constructed Nagabandas and cremation tower and cow sarcophagi for cremation.

 He also built monumental gates and temples, he directed the construction of Pura Saraswati and personally sculpted the statue of Jero Gede Mecaling, the demon lord of epidemics and pestilence which is 10 feet high.

Title : The Brayuts Feast Together
Artist : I Gusti Nyoman Lempad
Media : Ink and tempera on papper
Size : 24 x 33 cm
Year : 1939s
Courtesy : Neka Art Museum

Lempad was a generous man. He often easily gave away his paintings to those who he adored, such as Ir. Soekarno (the first President of Republic Indonesia) and the astronaut Ronald Evans.

 In 1930 he with Rudolf Bonnet, Walter Spies and other local artists established a non profit organization “Pitamaha“.

The goal was to promote the quality of their works and at the same time to have discussed exhibition in major cities such as Amsterdam, Tokyo and Paris.

But for Balinese the most remarkable feat of Lempad is the way he died. It is well authenticated that he waited for many months for the most appropriate day to die.

When it arrived, he called his numerous scattered descendants together and asked them to bathe him and dress him in white.

 He told them that their inheritance was to complete the tasks that he had left unfulfilled in his short life, bade them farewell and died.

 I Gusti Nyoman Lempad died in Ubud, in 1978, at the remarkable age of 116.


The key points of the Ubud Style included a concentration on the depiction of daily Bali life and drama; the change of the patron of these artists from the religious temples and royal houses to western tourists/collectors; shifting the picture composition from multiple to single focus.[5]

 Despite the adoption of modern western painting traditions by many Balinese and Indonesian painters, “modern traditional Balinese painting” is still thriving and continues by descendants/students of the artists of the pre-war modernist era (1928-1942).

Look Lempad other painting below








Dr Iwan have the near same design of lempad paninting or litho







The painting I have reproduced above is by I Gusti Nyoman Lempas who claimed to be 116 years old when he died. From the drawings and paintings shown here, I would guess he was inspired by the gods who may have rewarded him for his sense of scale and drama by letting him live on far beyond his allotted time. You may also enjoy I Dewa Kompian Pasek whose illustration of “Drinking Rice Wine” from 1958 has all the overtones of an orgy with a hint of the sly bureaucrat Henri Rousseau (he was a customs-house clerk, if I am not mistaken).


Rangda, 1929. By K. T. Satake.

Photograph from glass negative. Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 10004670

Balinese dancers

wearing elaborate headgear, photographed in 1929. Digitally restored.



Painter  In Pradise









Painter in Paradise

by Annemarie Hollitzer

As Tahiti tempted Gauguin, so the beauty of Bali beckoned Arie Smit. As a wide-eyed schoolboy, he was fascinated by the colourful tales he was told of the then Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia).

Fuelled by vivid imagination, his interest grew, and he remembers how he would dream of wild exotic animals hiding in dense tropical jungle.


In 1930 Hofker  married Maria Rueter, also a painter, daughter of Georg Rueter, painter and lector at the Rijksacademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam.

In the twenties Hofker concluded a number of monumental-decorative assignments, amongst others for the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Maatschappij (KNSM), for whom he made a few mural paintings on ships. Little is left of these assignments.



When Smit arrived in Jakarta the army put his knowledge to good use by assigning him to their Lithography & Drafts Department in the Topographical Service.


There he became a chromo lithographer and worked engraving relief maps of the Indonesian islands. “I used to etch Balinese mountains onto maps … and I always promised myself that one day I would go to Bali,” he says.

 During this time he already dreamt of becoming a full-time artist and he’d spend all his free time searching for motives for his watercolours.


Woodcarving of an elderly Balinese lady (art deco style), c. 1930s


On his first visit to Bali in 1930,

the Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias noted that local paintings served primarily religious or ceremonial functions.

They were used as decorative cloths to be hung in temples and important houses, or as calendars to determine children’s horoscopes. Yet within a few years, he found the art form had undergone a “liberating revolution.”

Where they had once been severely restricted by subject (mainly episodes from Hindu mythology) and style, Balinese artists began to produce scenes from rural life.

These painters had developed increasing individuality.[1]

This groundbreaking period of creativity reached a peak in the late 1930s.


Chinese islam in Aceh 1930






Detachement van de heer J.M.R. Sandberg (midden), vermoedelijk te Tapaktoean


In the 1930s,

anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, and artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee created a western image of Bali as “an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature”, and western tourism first developed on the island.[12].




y Miguel Covarrubias (Mexican, 1904–1957

Barong landung figures, approx. 1930–1937. By Miguel Covarrubias (Mexican, 1904–1957). Watercolor on paper. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 98509197. © Maria Elena Rico Covarrubias.


Burial bulls (patulangan lembu), approx. 1930–1937. By Miguel Covarrubias (Mexican, 1904–1957). Watercolor on paper. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 98509149. © Maria Elena Rico Covarrubias.








The Kecak, as a dance, developed in the 1930’s, in the village of Bona, where it is still performed regularly. The theme is taken the Ramayana and tells the story of Rama, who, with the help of the monkey army, tries to rescue his wife from the clutches of (the evil) King Rawana. This is a very exiting dance to watch, and is performed by a large group of chanting men sitting in a circle, chanting & waving their arms and swaying to and fro in unison.

Kecak Dancer in 1930













Bali Kecak Dancer







The princess Rangkesari, approx. 1900–1930 (spikes). Wood and pigments.

Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 809-11










Rice sheaf paddle (panaptapan). Kerambitan, Tabanan, South Bali. Wood. National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, the Netherlands, 4760-28


Slit drum, approx. 1950. Wood. National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, the Netherlands, 5480-13


Ear pendants (rumbing), approx. 1850–1900. Tabanan. Gold, precious stones. National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, the Netherlands, 1586-113

Bali bracelate earl 20th century





Cloth patterned with gold leaf (kain prada),

approx. 1875–1925. Silk, gold leaf. Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam, 2359-1


De heer G.L. Tichelman in Atjeh, geportreteerd voor het album van gouverneur A.H. Philips, gouvernement Atjeh en onderhoorigheden


KNIl officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1931

Het gezelschap met olifanten te Tangse in Atjeh

G.L. Tichelman (2e van rechts) op het dek van de Sibajak van de Rotterdamse Lloyd op weg naar Nederlands-Indië in 1931

Atjehse en Nederlandse hoogwaardigheidsbekleders met hun echtgenotes te Sigli


. Setelah bebas pada tahun 1931, Soekarno bergabung dengan Partindo dan sekaligus memimpinnya.





Dutch Indies NVPH Airmail 14-16 MNH

1931 – Allegorische voorstelling

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00

Top of Form

€ 98,00

Bottom of Form


VH B 59Batavia Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 1931

Prijs: €25,00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Magelang – Wassenaar 30.4.1931

VH B 62 Medan Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 1931

Prijs: €12,50

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Medan – Amsterdam 15.10.1931




Pada tahun 1932

bergabung dengan Marie bergabung dengan Dewan Persatoean-Minahasa [Amerika Minahasa]. Ini partai politik nasionalis moderat, didirikan pada tahun 1927, yang mengabulkan gugatan dari Indonesia federal untuk menjamin identitas dan otonomi Minahasa.


Meskipun Marie sekarang Sumatera yang menikah, hatinya masih tanah airnya. Presiden Persatoean Minahasa, Sam Ratu Langie kemudian di Dewan Rakyat (pseudo-parlemen di Hindia Belanda), jadi mungkin terjadi papan di Batavia. Ini mungkin tampak seperti Marie Belanda mitranya Aletta Jacobs samping dokter juga menjadi aktif secara politik.


Keanggotaan Dewan hanya berlangsung tiga tahun, saya menduga bahwa pasangan pergi ke Bukittinggi (sebelumnya Fort de Kock) pindah. Mungkin Marie sebagai sekolah bidan didirikan dan juga mengajar di sana.


31 Desember 1931

Tindak kekejaman dan kesewenang-wenangan yang dilakukan Imperialis Kolonialis Belanda tidak menyebabkan Bung Karno luntur , sperti yang ia ucapkan kepada Kepala Penjara Sukamiskin , tanggal 31 desember 1931 saat  hendak meninggalkan  Penjara, Katanya :” Seorang Pemimpin tidak bereubah krena hukuman , saya masuk penjara untuk memperjuangkan lemerdekaan dan saya meninggalkan penjara dengan pikiran yang sama”


Setelaj Bung Karno ditangkap di Jogjakarta , Sutan sjahrir menjadi Ketua Umum PNI-Baru ,

(Rosihan Anwar ,1966)


Hatta  back to Indonesia (1932)
In 1932 Hatta returned to Indonesia and joined the Indonesian National Education Club organization that aims to increase political awareness of the Indonesian people through the process of training.

Setelah Bubng Hatta kembali ke Indonesia tahun 1932 m Sutan Sjahrir memimpin Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia bersama-sama denagn Bung Hatta, yang merupakan suatu partai kader , berdasarkan self-help , supaya anggota-anggotanya  yang telah terlatih , dan mempunyaikesadaran politik tetap dapat melanjutkan perjuanagan  , juga apabila Pemimpin=Pemimpin Partai ditangkap Belanda.

(Rosihan Anwar,1966)



Pada tahun 1932 Dr Muwardi mempersunting gadis Suprapti asal Banyumas, lulusan Sekolah Guru Putri (Meisjes Kweekschool) Salatiga yang bekerja menjadi guru Arjuna School di Jakarta. Perkawinannya itu membuahkan 2 orang anak, ialah: 1. Sri Sejati, lahir dalam tahun 1933, kini nyonya Rudioro Rikhmad S.H.; dan 2. Adi Sudarsoyo Muwardi S.H. ,lahir dalam tahun 1935 yang menjadi pengacara di Jakarta.

Sumber pahlawancenter.

7 Mei 1932

Pertja Selatan

Pegadaian penuh , sebab tidak ada yang menebus , semua mengadai sekarang.ekarang gadaian kurang, Ini barang aneh ! Sebab mestinya naik ! Bagi saya tidak aneh. Ini tandanya barang-barang yang akan digadai sudah habis ! Tandanya miskin dan habis-habisan !

Di desa orang-oang 2 hari sekali makan nasi , selainnya makan ubi , tales , singkong , jantung pisang , sudah sebagai sapi !




Wangsa Widjaja pertama kali berjumpa engan Hatta  pada hari sabtu sore tanggal 11 september 1932 di Bandung.  Pejumpaan pertama ii brsamaan waktunya  dengan pertemuan yag iadakan oleh Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia  yang juga disebut PNI baruebuah gedung Pertemuan milik organisai pergerkan tersebut.

Gedung pertemuan itu terletakj di Regentweg nomor tujuh , yang sekarang telah diubah namanya menjadi Jalan Kabupaten. Gedung tersebut sebenarnya tidak hanya berfungsi sebagai tempat pertemuan saja , akan tetapi digunakan juga untuk gedung Sekolah Tjahaja yang didirkan oleh PNI-Baru guna menunjang kegiatan pergerakan .

Kecuali itu gedung tersebut  sekaligus digunakan sebagai kantor Pimpinan Umum PNI-Baru , dan untuk tempat tinggal beberapa orang Penguruas serta staf Pengajar di Sekolah Tjahaja.

Waktu itu , bung Hatta datang ketempat pertemuan beberapa saat menjelang aca5a dimulai. Saat itu saya menyalami Beliau ,  hangat sekali , seperti dua orang sahabat yang lama tak jumpa layaknya.

Saya masih dapat menginggat , bagaimana saya memperkenalkan diri kepada Beliau dengan menyebutkan nama saya. Kemudian saya katakana : Selamat datang Bung ! Kami gembira sekali atas kedatangan Bung Hatta untuk pertama kalinya.

Terima kasih jawab Beliau , pendek , diiringi dengan senyum kecil . Inilah senyum khas Bung Hatta yang tidak pernah hilang dari ingatan szaya.

Saudara=saudara kata Beliau selanjutnya kepada kami para  pengurus PNI-Baru yang hadir waktu itu , apa saja yang telah dilakukan selama ini , dan nagaimana seterusnya rencana yang akan kita jalankan.

Maka mulailah kami seorang demi seorang secra bergilir menyampaikan semacam laporan kepada Bung Hatta , Bung Hatta tampak mendengarkan uraian kami dengan sabar dan tenang sekali.

Selesai mendengarkan ikhtisar kegiatan dri masing-masing pengurus  inti PNI-Baru , selanjutnya Bung Hatta memberikan pengarahan kepada kami , terutama yang bersangkutan  dengan kelangsungan organisasi.

Dalam pengarahanya itu Bung Hatta menguraikan pokok-pokok pikirannya secara luas  da medalam. Saya perhatikan,  cara eliau menyampaikan pikiraannya pun begitu sistimatis  , padat , dengan logika yang tajam , serta dengan nada yang datar saja. Tidak terlihat sama sekali Beliau seperti seorang agitator dan tidak pula tampak adanya maksud mengadakan agitasi.

Orang-orang yang hadir pada pertemuan ini cukup banyak jumlahnya , semuanya kader  PNI-Baru. Dari sekian banyak  , orang yang saya dapat ingat hanya beberapa ama saja  , terutama mereka yang duduk dalam kepengurusan inti organisasi  tersebut.

Antara lain ialah Bung Sjahrir  yang mebnjabat Ketua Umum PNI-Baru , kemudian Hmadani  , Maskun Sumadiredja , Moerwoto , Soebagio , dan bUng Bondan.

Kami umumnya mendapat kesempatan berbincang-bincang dengan Bung Hatta setalah acara resmi . Antara lain saya katakana : Wah Bung , saya tidak mengira  sama sekali sebelumnya  , bahwa hari ini saya bisa berkenalan dengan Bung . Selama ini saya baru mengenal Bung lewat Madjallah  Daulat Rajat . Hebat Tulisan-Tulisan  Bung diMajallah itu !

terima Kasih kta Beliau menjawab . Selanjutnya obrolan kami berkisar di sekitar kegiatan Politik Bung Hatta  dimasa lalu. Tepatnya sejak pertama kali saya membaca  karangan beliau di Faulat Rakjat  , yaitu majallah resmi milik  PNI-baru yang penerbitannya  dilakukan atas anjuran  Bung Hatta dan Beliau juga menulis untuk majallah ini  selama beberapa tahun, baik ketika Beliau masih di Negeri Belanda dan maupun setelah kembali ketanah air tahun 1932. Karangan Beliau sangat menarik hati saya  , sehingga timbul niat saya untuk mencoba menjalin  hunungan erat dengan Bung Hatta . Ternyata niat saya terkabul lebih dari yang saya duga


WangsaWijaya,mengenang Bung Hatta, penefbit took Gunung Agung , Jakarta,2002

(  Wangsa,2002)

11 Juli 1932


Di kampong Pagelaran Sukabumi ada hidup satu suami isteri bernama Musa dan Unah , dengan ia punya anak lelaki  yang kesatu berumur 5 tahun  , yang kedua 3 tahun dan yang ketiga baru 1 tahun.

Itu keluarga ada sangat melarat , dan sudah beberapa bulan ia Cuma hidup saja dengan daun=daunan dalam hutan , yang ia makan buat gantinya nasi. Lama-kelamaan itu suami – isteri merasa yang ia tidak bisa hidup selama-lamanya dengan Cuma makan  makan itu macam makanan saja. Buat sambung ia punya jiwa srta anak-anaknya , itu suami isteri telah dapat satu pikiran yaitu jual saja anaknya pada siapa yang mau beli.

(cuplikan karangan Sukarno, Menusju Indonesia merdeka,1933)


Agustus 1932. Udara lembab dan panas begitu menyengat para penumpang kapal “ Rotterdamse Llyod “ yang baru saja bersandar di pelabuhan Batavia setelah menempuh perjalanan panjang dari Negeri Belanda.


Moh Hatta, Seorang pemuda berusia 30 tahun, merapal kerinduan tanah airnya. Hatta, apa yang kau lihat dari atas kapal ? Kemiskinan yang tergambar dalam hilir mudik koeli koeli telanjang dada mengangkut barang ? Aroma pemberontakan menyeruak ke dadamu yang selama 11 tahun merantau, menuntut ilmu di negeri sang penjajah. Studimu selesai dan gelar doktor telah ditangan, namun kau tak bisa menahan diri untuk melakukan sesuatu untuk bangsamu yang tertindas .

Teriakan teriakan inspektur Polisi bercampur hiruk pikuk pelabuhan, memanggil penumpang yang baru turun untuk melakukan pengecekan barang barang yang dibawa. Seorang intel Belanda membisiki sang inspektur polisi, sambil melihat ke Hatta yang berdiri mengantri bersama penumpang lainnya. Kau tahu bahwa hidupmu tak menjadi lebih mudah dengan kedatanganmu ke tanah air. Suasana kolonial memang berbeda dengan negeri dingin tersebut.

Bayang bayang masa lalunya berkecamuk tiba tiba. Kau yang ditinggal mati ayahmu sejak berusia delapan bulan, dan setiap pagi diantar naik bendi kakekmu – Ilyas Baginda Marah – bersekolah di sekolah dasar Belanda.
Kau juga teringat masa kecilmu saat berusia 10 tahun. Wajah wajah marsose dengan bayonet terhunus menggeledah orang orang yang lewat. Sekitar 10 kilometer dari kota kelahirannya. Di Kampung 
Kamang rakyat berontak karena menolak membayar pajak. Terjadi konflik berdarah. 12 orang marsose tewas dan ratusan penduduk ditembak mati. Banyak orang ditangkap, termasuk Rais, pamanmu.

Ia melambaikan tangannya dirantai dari jendela kereta api yang membawanya dari Payakumbuh ke Padang. Ini adalah dalih pemerintah kolonial memakai pemberontakan Kamang untuk menangkap Rais, karena ia pernah menulis kritik tentang kelakukan pejabat Belanda dalam surat kabar ‘ Utusan Malayu ‘ di Padang.

Hatta kecil melihat dengan jelas karena ia menunggu kereta api yang lewat di dekat rumah. Gelegar suara cap pemerikaan dokumen mengagetkan. Butuh 3 hari buat barang barang bawaanmu dari Belanda yang terdiri dari buku buku dan bacaan dalam 16 peti besi, masing masing berukuran setengah meter kubik.

Semua bisa lolos kecuali majalah ‘ Indonesia Merdeka ‘.
Namun kau sudah memikirkan sebelumnya. Beberapa eksemplar majalah ini sudah dititipkan kepada kawan kawanmu yang bekerja sebagai tukang mesin di kapal .

Saat itu kau mencari cari penjemputmu di pelabuhan. Pamanmu yang selama ini membiayai sekolah di Betawi dan Rotterdam. Dia adalah Mak Etek Ayub Rais. Seorang saudagar yang memimpin firma Malaya Import Maatschappij dan toko Djohan Djohor, pernah menjadi buah bibir di seantero kota, karena harga jualnya yang murah sehingga memaksa toko toko milik Cina di Pasar baru, Senen dan Kramat terpaksa menurunkan harganya.

Kau pasti teringat. Mak Etek Ayub yang pertama kali mengajakmu ke toko buku di Harmoni, saat kedatanganmu di Batavia, setamat sekolahmu di Padang. Ia membelikan 3 buah buku tentang sosial dan ekonomi. ‘ Staathuishoudkunde – karangan N G Pierson, ‘ De Socialisten – karya HP Quack ‘ dan ‘ Het Jaar 2000 – karya Belamy ‘.
“ Itulah buku buku yang bermula kumiliki yang menjadi dasar perpustakaanku kelak ‘tulismu kemudian hari.
Mak Etek Ayub bersama abang iparmu, Sutan Lembaq Tuah sama sekali tak tak takut dengan intaian mata mata intel Belanda karena berani menjemputmu di pelabuhan.

Pamanmu, ini menawarkan jabatan sekretaris direksi di perusahaannya. Ia juga menampung semua buku buku yang kau bawa dari Belanda, di kamar khusus yang otomatis menjadi kamar kerjamu juga.
Namun kau memilih berkutat di pergerakan nasional. Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Hal pertama yang dilakukan adalah menghubungi 
Sudjadi, seorang penghubung setiamu di tanah air sejak kau bersekolah di negeri Belanda. Sejak 1925 ia selalu berkorepondensi teratur denganmu. Memberikan berita berita dari tanah air. Sudjadi pegawai kantor keuangan pemerintah di Batavia yang kemudian konsekuen dengan politik non koperasi akhirnya berhenti menjadi pegawai negeri.

Namun Moh Htta  memilih berkutat di pergerakan nasional. Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Hal pertama yang dilakukan adalah menghubungi Sudjadi, seorang penghubung setiamu di tanah air sejak kau bersekolah di negeri Belanda.

Sejak 1925 ia selalu berkorepondensi teratur denganmu. Memberikan berita berita dari tanah air. Sudjadi pegawai kantor keuangan pemerintah di Batavia yang kemudian konsekuen dengan politik non koperasi akhirnya berhenti menjadi pegawai negeri.





 Cataractpatiënten uit kampong Loengpoetoet in Atjeh die door oogarts J. Tijssen zijn geopereerd in 1932

Atjehse hoogwaardigheidsbekleders en bestuurspersoneel voor het bestuurskantoor te Meureudoe in 1932


De heer H.J.Tichelmans (rechts) tijdens het bezoek aan de heer J.H. Beckmann te Pangkalanbrandan


Familie Jongejans en vrienden, vermoedelijk te Sigli






Oil on canvas, signed and dated W. G. Hofker 1932, 27 x 15 cm



Biography. Willem Gerard Hofker was born on 2nd May 1902 in The Hague,



Sejak pertama kali Wangsa Widjaja berjumpa dan bertatap muka dengan Hatta  pada hari sabtu sore tanggal 11 september 1932 di Bandung. Perjumpaan pertama ini bersamaan wakrunya dengan pertemuan yang diaakan oleh Pendidikan Nasional ndonesia yang juga disebut PNI – baru , di sebuah Gedung Pertemuan milik Organiasi Pergerakan tersebut Gedung petemiuanitu terletak di Regentweg nomor tujuh , yang sekarang telah diubah namanya mejadi jalan Kabupaten.


(wansa widjaja, Mengenang Bung Hatta, Gunung Agung ,Jakarta,2002)



Walter Spies

Finally on December 8th 1932,

 the Museum opened for public undername of Museum Bali, which at its inception there were about 3000 pieces of objects such as; Archeology, Historikal, Ethnografika, etc until now there are 13.008 pieces of objects.Later in the year 1969 – 1974 was held building expansion section towards to south area in the middle yard.The building architecture is a combination between Traditional and Modern with their main function as a place of exhibition and office.

TBali Museum located just in the heart of Denpasar City, opposite to the field of Puputan Badung (Badung Last Resistance) in 1906.Keris (Traditional weapons) everused in warfare also became one of the museum collection, untill now still being held of ritual ceremonies every Tumpek Landep(every 210 days) by the Goverment of Bali. And aside from the Museum existing a statue of Catur Muka (Four Faces) just next to Puputan Badung field.The statue become the City Mark of Denpasar

Pertemuan pertama  Hatta dengan Sukarno. Tanggal 25 September 1932. Ia tak pernah mengenal pemimpin pergerakan ini, kecuali membaca dari surat surat kabar dan korepondensi dengan teman temanmu.
Sukarno bersama Sartono dari Partindo, sementara kau seorang diri dari PNI baru, karena Syahrir menolak untuk ikut hadir.

 Pertemuan ini membuka kemungkinan Partindo dan PNI baru melebur jadi satu pergerakan.


Walau akhirnya gagal, karena Sukarno lebih suka memilih cara Partindo yang memilih mengembangkan sayapnya dengan rapat umum dimana mana.( imanbrotoseno)




Sutan Sjahrir selain memimpin Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia juga menjadi pemimpin Central Persatuan Buruh Indonesia , Dia menghendaki suatu Masyarakat Indonesia yang bebas  dari pengaruh kapitalisme dan imperialism , tetapi Pemeritah Hindia belanda menuduhnya sedang mempersiapkan Pemberontakan terhadap Pemeri ntah.

(Rosihan Anwar,1966)


 Bung Karno bergabung dengan Pertindo, akibatnya, beliau kembali ditangkap Belanda dan dibuang ke Ende, Flores, tahun 1933.





Dr Muwardi lulus dari STOVIA dan menjadi dokter pada tanggal 1 Desember 1933
Sewaktu belajar di STOVIA Muwardi menunjukan perhatiannya yang besar kepada pergerakan pemuda. la seorang Jong Java dan giat didalam kepanduanya. Peleburan Jong Java bersama dengan perkumpulan-perkumpulan pemuda kedaerah lainnya, Jong Sumatra, Jong Ambon, Jong Minahasa, Sekar Rukun (Sunda), Sangkoro Mudo (Jawa) dll. kedalam Indonesia muda yang berdasar kebangsaan Indonesia, berakibat kepanduan Jong Java menjelma menjadi Pandu Kebangsaan. Muwardi terpilih menjadi Ketua umumnya hingga Pandu Kebangsaan bertukar nama menjadi Pandu Kebangsaan Indonesia (KBI) Muwardi duduk didalam kwartir besarnya. Setelah menjadi Dokter iapun masih giat sebagai anggota Kwartir Besar hingga KBI dibubarkan oleh Jepang.
Disamping kegiatannya dibidang Kepanduan, Muwardi pun ikut aktif dibidang olah raga. Setelah menjadi dokter, ia masih aktif didalam pengurus ISI (Ikatan Sport Indonesia).

Kemudian ia terjun pula dibidang politik dengan masuk Parindra (Partai Indonesia Raya) dan membimbing bagian pemudanya, Surya Wirawan.
Kecerdasan Muwardi rupanya selalu diingat oleh gurunya pada STOVIA, terutama setelah STOVIA menjadi Perguruan Tinggi Kedoktera, GHS. Kepada Dr. Muwardi ditawarkan untuk menjadi asisten profesor pada sekolah tinggi kedokteran GHS. Tawaran itu diterima baik olehnya dengan syarat, bahwa ia memperoleh kesempatan belajar untuk menjadi spesialis THT (Telinga, Hidung dan Tenggorokan). Persyaratan itu disetujui dan keinginan Dr. Muwardi menjadi spesialis THT pun tercapai.

Perkawinan itu tampak bahagia sekali, sedang Muwardi telah menjadi dokter dan berpraktek di Jakarta, di samping bekerja sebagai spesialis THT (Telinga, Hidung, Tenggorokan) di rumah sakit CBZ yang sekarang bernama rumah sakit Dokter Cipto Mangunkusumo.

Kebahagiaan bersama istri asal Banyumas itu tidak berlangsung lama, karena setelah melahirkan anaknya yang ke dua, Adi Muwardi, sang ibu meninggal dunia karena gangguan kandungan.
Selama 4 tahun Muwardi hidup sebagai duda dengan 2 orang anaknya.


Pahlawan  center.


Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka

Hanya rakyat yang mau merdeka bisa merdeka

Tilak (Tilak Ben Galahar  1856-1920)

Selatan dari Bandung adalah satu tempat pegunungan yang bernama Pengalengan. Ditempat itu saya , sekembali saya dari turne tempo hari ke Jawa Tengah yang membangkitkan rakyat sejumlah 89.000 orang  , berlibur berberapa hari melepaskan kelelahan badan. Di dalam liburan ini saya menulis rislaah ini.

Isinya buat kaum ahli politik tidak baru , tapi uat orang yang baru menjejakkan kaki di gelanggang perjuangan ada faedahnya juga.

Untuk menjaga jangan sampai terlalu mahal harganya , maka hanya garis-garis besar saja yang bisa saya guratkan.

Misalnya pasal : “ Di seberang Jembatan Emas “ kurang jelas. Tetapi InsyahAllah akan saya bicarakan nanti special di dalam  rislah  lain yang juga akan bernama  “ Diseberang Jembatan Emas “.

Moga-moga risalah ini banyak dibaca oleh Marhaen.


Maret 1933

Sebab-Sebabnya Indonesia Tida Merdeka

Dari Imperialisme Tua ke  Imperialisme  Modern

Indonesia , Tanah Yang Mulya, Tanah Kita Yang Kya, Di Sanalah Kita berada, Untuk Selama-lamanya

(baca dalam Rislah Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka,sukarno,1933)

 Mengapa Indonesia Harus Merdeka

Kita melihat  bahwa lebarnya  milik tanah tiap-tiap orang Marhaen  rata-rata hanyalah  kurang lebih satu bahu ,  upahnya hanyalah f 0,45 sehrai  dan bahwa jikalau Mbok Marhaen  yang menjadi kuli , upah ini lantas rata-rata hanyalah  1.172.168 orang , belum 2 tiap tiap-tiap 100/

Kita me;ihat , bahwa tanahpertanian yang ditanami oleh kaum Marhaen  hanyalah rata-rata 0,29bahu , sehingga kaum Marhaen tani vurem.

Kita melihat  dan kini kita  mengambil permaklumannya Volsraad , bahwa dimana  dua puluh lima tahunyang lalu 71 %  dari Kaum Marhaen  masih bisa Tani  melulu , kini tinggal 52 % sajalah yang bisa bertani melulu. Kita melihat .. tetapi  ah , marilah  saya berhenti , marilah saya sudahi “ daftar “ ini samapi di sini saja – ia menjadi menjemukan !

Marilah kita lebih baik membuka suart-surat kabar  dan kita saban hari bisa mengumpulkan beberapa “ syair megatruh” yang “ memnarik hari “ , yang meragukan betapa hidupnya Kang Marhaen , yang di dalam zaman Malese sekarang in menjadi lebih-lebih  ngeri lagi , lebih-lebih  memutuskan nyawa lagi , lebih-lebih megap-megap ladi


Info surat kabar akan dicantumkan sesuai tanggal penerbitan berita.

(Dr Iwan)

Di Timur Matahari Mulai Bercahaya, Bangun dan berdiri ,kawan semua !

Gunanya ada partai

Indonesia Merdeka Suatu Jembatan




Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka adalah karangan Sukarno pada bulan  Maret  tahun 1933 yang belum diterbitkan  , yang kemudian dicuplik dalam Buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi yang diterbitkan oleh haji masagung tahun 1989, dan kemudian dicuplik  dalam buku Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka oleh Rachmawati Sukarno ,kerjasama  Yayasan Pendidikan  Sukardo dan Yayasan Idyu (took buku Gunung Agung).

Selanjutnya info dari buku ini dengan sumber





Salah satu uriaan Bung Hata pada Kursus para Kader PNI Baru di Bandung , ialah ulasan tentang perkembangan politik  dan ekonomi di Jepang , materi ini diberikan Bung Hatta setlah beberapa hari kembali dari perlawatannya ke negeri ini pad awl tahun 1933

Pada masa ini pimpinan pNI-Baru dipegang oleh Bung Sjahrir , akan tetapi karena Bung Sjahrir akan kembali ke Negeri Belanda untuk melanjutkan studinya, maka sebagai penganti Ketua Umum PNI-Baru terpilih Bung Hatta. Pemilihan ii  diadakan secara referendum , karena pada waktu itu  , tahun 1933 , Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  memberlakukan Vergarder Verbond ( larangan mengadakan Rapat Umum)  bi partai-partai  politik nonkooperasi.



 Sejak Beliau terpilih mebnjadi Ketua Umum , sekretaris Bung Hatta-lah yang bayak mengendalikan  kegiatan PNI-Baru ( menurut info puta ekkretris Hatta Herry, sekretaris Hatta saat ini Mr HUtabarat, dan nantinya bersama wangsa wijaya tetap jadi sekretaris setelah revolusi kemerdekaan, jadi tiga sahabat sejati sampai mereka meninggal dunia- Dr Iwan)

(  Wangsa,2002)


7 Desember 1933

Kliping Surat Kabar Pewarta Deli

Di kota sering ada orang yang menyamperi pintu bui , minta dirawat di bui saja , sebab merasa tidkkuat sengsara . Di bui masih kenyang makan , sedang diluar belum tentu sekali sehari.

(Risalah Mencapai Indonesia Merdeka,sukarno,1933)

Selama 3 bulan sejak kedatangan Hatta  di Batavia. Semua menyaksikan debat debatnya dengan Soekarno, mengisi halaman halaman koran Daulat Ra’jat, Menjala, Api Ra’jat dan Fikiran Rakjat.
Lihat tulisan Soekarno terhadapmu, dalam “ 
Jawab saja pada saudara Mohammad Hatta “ dalam harian Fikiran Ra’jat tahun 1933. Sebuah serangan keras yang mengatakan Hatta telah meninggalkan prinsip non kooperasi.


Barangkali juga Pemerintah Belanda mengganggap cara kau menyusun organisasi dengan mendidik kesadaran rakyat secara bertahap melalui kader, lebih berbahaya daripada cara Soekarno yang agitatif dan bombastis.

Sehingga ia dibuang ke tempat yang lebih menakutkan daripada Soekarno di Flores dan kemudian Bengkulu

Ketika dibuang ke tanah kematian Digoel yang dipenuhi nyamuk nyamuk pencabut nyawa. Di negeri yang Hatta bilang belum ada peradaban.


Hatta  tak bergeming dari ketakutan. “ Siapa yang takut dilamun ombak, jangan berumah di tepi air “ . Demikian Hatta mengingatkan resiko berpolitik.


Juga saat Hatta  dipindahkan lagi ke Pulau Banda. Satu satunya kecemasannya , adalah bagaimana membawa buku bukumu sebagai sumber oase ilmu pengetahuan yang tak habis habis. Pembuangan ini juga merupakan pengabdiannya memberikan pencerdasan masalah politik, ekonomi, sisologi bahkan filsafat kepada tahanan politik lainnya.


 Khusus filsafat. Ini membuat melepasakan para tahanan dari pengaruh tempat dan waktu. Siapa yang hidup dalam dunia pikiran dapat melepaskan diri daripada gangguan hidup seperti di Digoel.
Siapa sangka, kelak kumpulan pelajaran filsafat ini diterbitkan menjadi buku ‘
 Alam Pikiran Yunani ‘ yang menjadi mas kawin – yang tak terpikirkan oleh orang lain – Hatta  berikan kepada gadis Rahmi ?


Nasionalismemu adalah kebangsaan diatas segala galanya. Sehingga dengan cepat Hatta mengambil keputusan menghilangkan 7 kata kata – dengan kewajiban menjalankan syariat Islam bagi pemeluk pemeluknya – setelah berkonsultasi dengan pemuka Islam, Wahid Hasyim, Ki Bagus Hadikusumo, Kasman Singodimedjo dan Teuku Moh Hassan. Bagimu Indonesia yang utuh lebih penting daripada negeri yang tercerai berai. Memahami  Hatta, Bukanlah hal yang sulit, karena sikapnya yang konsisten dan disiplin. Saat di Digoel kau sudah mengatur kehidupan secara rutin dengan jadwal jam jam tetap.


Waktu shalat, makan, membaca/menulis, minum the sore, menerima tamu, berkebun, memasak dan sebagainya. Jadwal menerima tamu kau cantumkam di depan rumah, sehingga menimbulkan rasa tidak enak dari kawan kawanmu sendiri. Tapi kau konsisten. Demikian pula ketika di Banda. Jadwal ini membuat dirimu dianggap ‘ jam ‘ atau indicator waktu oleh penduduk sekitar.

Kau tak pernah mengeluh dengan kewajibanmu.



23 januari 1933,

Surat kabar Siang Po

Di dekat kota Krawang sudah kejadian barang yang sangat bikin ngener hati . Ada orang Janda namanya Upi , punya anak kecil. Dia punya laki barusan mati , sebab sakit keras yang Cuma satu minggu lamanya .

Yupi memang dar sedari hidupnya dia punya laki ada sangat melarat sekali , tapi sesudah ia jadi janda  , kemelaratan rupanya tidak ada batas lagi. Lma-lama Upi sudah jadi putus asa  dan anaknya yang ia cintai itu sudah ia tawarkan sama tuan L.K.B di Krawang.

Ditanya apa sebabnya ia mau jual anaknya  , ia tidak jawab apa-apa , Cuma menjatuhkan air mata bercucuran. Tuan L.K.B. sangat kasian sama dia , dan kasih uang sekedarnya pada itu janda yang malang.

(Cuplikan risalah Mencapakai Indonesia Merdeka, sukarno,1933)


Sampul penerbangan dari Soerabaja ke Amsterdam tahun 1933 dengan pesawat Pelikaan

27 Maret 1933

Kliping Surat Kabar Sin Po

Mencuri ayam karena lapar dihukum juga 9 bulan.

Malese hebat yang mengamuk di mana-mana telah bikin sensara dan kelaparan penduduk desa Trogong Kebayuran. Penduduk disitu rata-rata sudah tidak bisa dapatkan uang dan  banyak yang kelaparan karena tidak punya duit buat beli makanan.


Salah satu orang nama Pungut jugakan alami itu kesukaran yang hebat . Ia ada punya bini dan dua anak , sedang penghasilan sama sekali telah kepepet mberhubung dengan zaman susah . Sementara itu ia punya beras dan makan sudah habis.

Apa boleh uat , saking tidak bisa tahan sengsara karena sudah 2 hari tidk punya beras , pada satu malam ia bongkar kandang ayam dari tetangganya nama Jaya dan dari ia timpa 2 ekor ayam.

Itu binatang kemudian ia jual dipasar buat 3 picis dan dari uang ia beli beras 15 sen. Belakangan Pungut ditangkap dan di bui . Pada tanggal 23 Maret ia musti menghadap pengadilan di Mester Cornelis (Jatinegara) dan Pungut aku saja  betultelah colong 2 ekor ayam sebab sudah 2 hari tidak makan.

Pengadilan aggap ia terang bersalah ambil aamnya lain orang dan Pungut dihukum 9 bulan . Anak bininya menangis diluar ruangan pengadilan.

(cuplikan Rislah Mencpai Indonesia Sukarno,1933)

Aduhai dan didalam zaman air mata ini , dimana Marhaen terpaksa hidup dengan sebenggol seorang sehari , dimaa beban-beban yang harus dipikul Marhaen asemakin menjadi berat , dimana menurut laporan  Komisi kecil , penghasilan dari perushan-perusahan kecil di desa-desa dan di kampung-kampung sudah turun dengan   40 sampai 70 % , di mana kesengsaraan sering membikin Marhaen menjadi putus asa dan gelap mata sebagai ternyata dari kabar-abar diatas.

Didalam zaman air mata ini Marhaen di Tanah Jwa masih harus memelihara juga hidupnya ribuan orang kuli kuli kontrakan yang dipulangkan darei Deli  dan lain sebagainya tanpa tunjangan sepeser pun jua , Yang seoalah-olah  untuk membuktikan isi peribbahasa “ Habis manis sampah dibuang”

Dsb…  Dsb…..

O Marhaen hidupmu sehari-hari morat-marit dan kocar-kacir beban-bebanmu , semakin bverat , hak-hakmu boleh dikatakan tidak adasama seklai !

Bahwasanya Kamu bolh menyanyi

Indonesia tanah yang mulia

Tanah kita yang kaya

Di sanalah kita berada

Untuk selama-lamanya.

( Cuplikan Rislah Menuju Indonesia Merdeka,sukarno,1933)

Komentar Dr Iwan

Untuk mengetahui secara lengkap silahkan membaca Rislah Mencapai indonesia Merdeka tahun 1933 krangan Sukarno yang ada dalam buku dengan judul yang sama terbitan rachmawati atau dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi.

Ibu say bercerita pada saat malese ini, tak ada beras , daun-daun di pagar dibuat sayur dan banyak yang punya tanah membuat ladanag pribadi, tetapi bagi yang tak punya tanah pasti akan nyolong seperti info dari suarat kabar diatas.


AMVJ 2 t/m 15 cent met 1e-dagstempel Medan 1-12-1933 op aangetekende firma envelop lokaal te Medan, fraai ex. (tropisch en klein scheurtje), cat.w. 340

Price: € 60.00


Asisten residen  G. van der Waals beserta pegawainya di  Lhokseumawe

Komentar Dr Iwan

Saya pernah mengunjungi Lhokseumawe tahun 1984 , dan baru saja menemukan topi khas aceh seperti yang dipakai diatas.



The Dutch KPM steamship at ambon Harbor in 1933

The ambon military drum band and music corps in 1933(two pictures)




Pada Tahun 1934 dari flores   Bung Karno dipindahkan ke Bengkulu.

Setelah melalui perjuangan yang cukup panjang, Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta memproklamasikan kemerdekaan RI pada 17 Agustus 1945.


 Dalam sidang BPUPKI tanggal 1 Juni 1945, Ir.Soekarno mengemukakan gagasan tentang dasar negara yang disebutnya Pancasila. Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, Ir Soekarno dan Drs. Mohammad Hatta memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dalam sidang PPKI, 18 Agustus 1945Ir.Soekarno terpilih secara aklamasi sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia yang pertama.

Sebelumnya, beliau juga berhasil merumuskan Pancasila yang kemudian menjadi dasar (ideologi) Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Beliau berupaya mempersatukan nusantara. Bahkan Soekarno berusaha menghimpun bangsa-bangsa di Asia, Afrika, dan Amerika Latin dengan Konferensi Asia Afrika di Bandung pada 1955 yang kemudian berkembang menjadi Gerakan Non Blok.

Pemberontakan G-30-S/PKI melahirkan krisis politik hebat yang menyebabkan penolakan MPR atas pertanggungjawabannya. Sebaliknya MPR mengangkat Soeharto sebagai Pejabat Presiden. Kesehatannya terus memburuk, yang pada hari Minggu, 21 Juni 1970 ia meninggal dunia di RSPAD. Ia disemayamkan di Wisma Yaso, Jakarta dan dimakamkan di Blitar, Jatim di dekat makam ibundanya, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Pemerintah menganugerahkannya sebagai “Pahlawan Proklamasi”. (




Dutch Indies NVPH 186-04 MNH

1934 – Koningin Wilhemina zonder watermerk in klein formaat

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 145,00

Uit deze serie kunt u (mits voorradig) ook losse zegels bestellen (via contactformulier) tegen 65% van de cat. waarde postfris.


Dutch Indies NVPH 205-10 MNH

1934 – Koningin Wilhelmina zonder watermerk in groot formaat

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 370,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 211-15 MNH

1934 – Opruimingsuitgifte met opdruk in zwart

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 105,00



Dutch Indies NVPH Proof 196-00 MNH

Opdrukken 1934 op luchtpostzegels met dunnere lijnen (zie Proevencatalogus van Dieten)

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegels

Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 250,00 zeer schaars – very rare!!!!

Top of Form

€ 165,00Bottom of Form


16 November 1934

Dengan Gouverment Besluit tanggal 16 November 1934 , Sutan Sjahrir dan Bung Hatta ditangkap  dan di Internir ke Boven Didoel.

(Rosihan Anwar,1966)


24 Februari 1934

Kurang lebih setelah dua bulan memegang jabatan Ketus  Umum , Bung Hatta dan Bung Sjahrir  , yang belum sempat berangkat ke Negeri Belanda  dan bberapa pimpinan PNI-Baru  lainnya di tangkap  Belanda pada tanggal 24  Februari 1934, beliau dibawa dan ditahan dikantor Polisi .


(  Wangsa,2002)




1 Maret 1934

Hatta dipenjarakan oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Glodok tahun 1934

Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1934 Bung Hatta dipindahkan dari kantor Polisi ke Penjara Glodok .

Pada saat yang hampir bersamaan kawan-kawan Bung Hatta sesame kader PNI-Baru yang berada di Bandung pun ikut ditangkap , termasuk saya, kami di than di Kantor Polisi Bandung selama kurang lebih tiga Minggu.

(  Wangsa,2002)



Pada tahun 1934 seluruh pengurus PNI baru ditangkap dan pemimpin juga kadernya dibuang ke Boven digul.[10] 




Dutch return catch Hatta, together with Soetan Sjahrir,  chairman of the Indonesian National Education Club in February 1934. Hatta were relegated to Digul and then to Banda for 6 years.  Summary: 


Hatta as  the  Chairman of the Party of National Education of Indonesia (commonly known as the new PNI) and handle the magazine Daulat Rakyat (1934-1935)

Februari 1934

Media februari 1934 Pemerintah Belanda menangkap dan memenjarakan Sjahrir , Hatta dan beberapa Pemimpin PNI-Baru ke Boven Digul Papua selama setahun. Mereka lalu dipindah ke Banda Naira untuk menjalani masa pembuanagn selama enam tahun.

Pada bulan Maret ini , Bung Kecil sebutan bagi Sutan Sjahrir , walaupun memiliki postur tubuh relatif pendek , tetapi Bung Kecil telah melahirkan raksasa-raksasa intelektual . Sebut saja misalnya Prof Sarbini Soemawianta , Soebadio Sasstrosatomo , Prof Soemitro Djojohadikusumo

( Sumber :pidanasutansyahrir)




VH B 99 Batavia – Amsterdam 1934 – Uiver Prijs: €20,00

Bottom of Form

Batavia Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 14.11.1934


VH B 98 II – Douglas / Uiver 1934 Emma / TBC envelop

Prijs: €27,50

Bottom of Form

Amsterdam Batavia – Melbourne 15.10.1934 Aangetekend

VH B 104 Bandoeng Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 1934

Prijs: €25,00



Bottom of

Bandoeng – Den Haag 26.12.1934




Vintage Bal Painting circa 1934 ” The Dutchman joint Barong dancer”


The Bali Children artwork in 1934

Dr Iwan Collection




Tiger.I Kantin age 9 years (1934)


Soebali and Soegriwa figting- I.Loengsoer age 9 years(1934)


Padanda Go to the field with hsi Kris.I Kantis age 9 years(1934)



Mamah or wild cat by I Kantis age 9 years(19340. ll the illustrations of vintage native Balipaintings 1934 @Copuright dr iwan S.2010 forbidden to copy without writem permission, contact editor via comment.

Rahwana by I.Kantis age 9 years (1934)




“TJOEPAK” I.Gandiri,age 7 years, vintage children painting 1934.@Copyrigh Dr iwan S.2010



.(Vintage Book illustrations)

Balinese art has a style and a character of its own. The artists are numerous and profilic,distinguish by the aptience and efficiency of their craftmanship, and by their extremefaithfulness to an artistic tradition  unlike westren artist, they seem to try to produce works conforming as nearly as possible to the aptterns used by their fellow-artists.

Any individuality in the artist is bot stressed, as it is with Westrens , but rather contrary. If any works which show an unsual vision, a touch of originalilty, are produced , it would seem that they have come about through  the agency of an artist’s particular gifts, nor by intention, but as it were in spite of his effort to make them alive like everyone else’s.(Belo.J.,1937)

The vintage native  Balinese’s Children paintings age between 4 to 10 years old . They live in the undistinguished  village of Sajan(District Gianjar), Bandjar Koetoeh which possesses neither a dalang nor a profesional painter, they are all boys has a father or elder brother  whose bussiness it is to paint or to carve or to cut out in leather the Wayang puppet.  ,

All the boys  were the strict stylization of the forms, derivatrive form wayang tecchnique, the dramatic portrayal of demons, witches and mythological beasts , with gaping mouth aand glaring eye, the decisiveness of the line and the free and spontaneous recklesness of composition, combining uproatious action with a balanced , if rudimentery , sense of design.

During this time in Bali there is not “Mickey Mouse” but a score or more of figures familiar to the children- some brave, some fierce,some jolly, and some beautiful to behold. there are heroes and demos, horrifying enemies who burst out at one in dengereous situation. Thus the wyang provides the Balinese child with a whole gallery of puppets for the play of his own fantasy.

The Vintage  Native Balinese Children  paintings with divided to four groups :

Group 1.

 Wayang scene drawing .single or detailed with the names of wayangs.

Group 2.

A Rendering of Real life :  a mototr-car, the car is being ‘Stopeed’ by another wayang, a wayang pedanda (high priest0 is held by the beast, Batara di Loewoer (ancetor god) confronts Betara Soerja(the sun as a god)


Group 3.

Human Figures  and Scenes. Cheerfully draws “little brother’ with the crown of  a hero.,Raksasa.  The Battle motif, wheter of wayangs,beast,men,gods,or spirita, is the favorite  amongst all children.The battle scene in which brandish stylistically drawn weapons, the air is filled with flying arrows, enemies transform themselves into strange beasts and heroes serpents or fierce birds of prey.  Magic weapons with the Giant demon.

Group 4.

  Animals motif. Animals both domestic and imaginary ; the King fight of a Koeplak-Kaplik an evil spitit said to resemble a goat, but whose eare are so long that they make a sound ‘koeplak-kapli’ against the ground as he walks; a Battle between a mythological bird and a mythological lion,the bird,Garoeda(eagle),the Lion,Rahwana tarnsformed; a cow ridden by a man encountersa “Lejak” or a human being transformed into fiendish shape,with wild hair and long projecting teeth-in the center thechild of the cow,crying for its mother. A Tonja pops out of a tree while Ardjoena fight against Raksasa.

A Tonja appears in river, when an ordinary mas is taking hsi ducks to water; the Tonja steals a duck.

scene I: The monkey prince Hanman comes to tell Bima that his little brother is lost.Bima weeps.Hanoman very angry, he flew through the air, but he didnot find him.Scane two : a follower of Rangda,the witch, hurls herself into the picture from one side, offering in her outstrached hand the head of Bima’s little brother which Rangda is about to devour.  The stealing of a bride, Two men are lying dead, their weapons fallen beside them, one with his leg bitten off and above are the dogs showing their long-fanged jaws.

The Vintage Book Illustration @Copy right Dr Iwan S. 2010. please asked permission to copy with all kind repro technology and don’t mind to write my name as the founder . Please collectors choose the best collection to put in Driwanc ybermuseum with high photograpgy technology by our photographer Albert S

Litertur collection













Sarkar, H. B. 1934. Indian influences on the literature of Java and Bali. Calcutta

The Balinese women Pictures Collections in 1934









Source google exploration


vintage Batik and katoen textiles collections









PALEMBANG*10.12.34 (14.12.34) first flight cover to “ΑΘΗΝΑΙ*22.XII.34” by IA with air-label type 31c, commemorative canc. “ΕΝΑΡΞΙΣ ΑΕΡΟΠΟΡΙΚΗΣ ΣΥΓΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑΣ-ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ” in blue, air-cachet 22A in black, on special IA cover. (Hellas 350Nac).






Soeharto sekolah SMP dan Sekolah Agama, Wonogiri dan Yogyakarta (19351939)







Pada bulan Januari 1935 , Bung Hatta , Bung Sjahrir dan beberapa orang lain diberangkatkan ke tempat pengasingan di Boven Digul

(  Wangsa,2002)

Hatta Dibuang ke Boven Digul Papua

Boven Digoel adalah penjara alam di Pulau Papua yang buas dan terpencil.[1][2] Kondisi penjara ini sangat tidak bersahabat dan digunakan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda untuk mematahkan perlawanan kaum pergerakan.[1] Sumber lain menjelaskan bahwa Boven Digoel adalah tempat pembuangan/pengasingan/hukuman bagi orang-orang yang dianggap membahayakan pemerintahan kolonial Belanda.[3] 

Kamp Bouven Digul terletak di hilir tepi sungai Digul dan Kamp tersebut dipersiapkan dengan tergesa-gesa untuk mengatasi kebijakan akhir pemerintah kolonial terhadap orang-orang yang terlibat dalam  pemberontakan  komunis   1926.[4]  Luas wilayah kawasan itu hampir 10.000 hektar, dan terkenal sangat terasing dari dunia luar.[4]

 Sedangkan menurut buku Ensiklopedia Digul atau Digul Atas (Belanda: Boven Digoel) adalah sebuah daerah hutan lebat, sebelah timur sungai Digul Hilir, Irian jaya, tempat ini terkenal sebagai tempat pembuangan pejuang-pejuang kemerdekaan.[5] Tempat ini terasing dari peradaban masyarakat.[5]

Gubernur Jendral Hindia Belanda memiliki senjata andal dalam membatasi ruang gerak kaum pergerakan nasional.[1] 

Gubernur Jendral berhak membuang dan memenjarakan seseorang yang dinilai membahayakan keamanan dan ketertiban tanpa melalui pengadilan.[1] Selama pemerintah Gubernur Jenderal De Jogne, banyak tokoh nasionalis Indonesia dijerat hak ini.[1] 

Tidak ada tempat pengasingan yang lebih menghancurkan semangat selain Bouven Digul di Papua.[1]



 kemudian beberapa tokoh Indonesia yang fenomenal dibuang oleh pemerintahan kolonial Belanda pada tahun 1935, tokoh-tokoh tersebut adalah Mohammad Hatta (wakil Presiden 1945), Sutan Syahir, dan para tokoh perjuangan lainnya.[9] Sutan Syahrir merupakan pemimpin Partai Nasional Indonesia yang pemberontakan terhadap Hindia-Belanda.[10] 

Pergerakan yang dipimpin oleh Sutan syahrir ini selalu dikejar-kejar dengan bantuan semua undang-undang dan peraturan yang diperlukan untuk melindungi kekuasaan dan ketentraman Pemerintah Hindia Belanda, dengan persetujuan Pemerintah dan parlemen Belanda.[10] 



Selama Bung Hatta dan Bung Sjahrir berada di tempat pengasingan , hungan kami putus , tetapi saya sering berkirim surat . Tidak ada tatap muka dengan Bung Hatta  , tidak ada pula bahan kurusus  selama kurang lenih delapan tahun.

Kami berusaha mengadakan kegiatan yang bermanfaat  yang diselengarakan secara diam-diam . Juga rapat-rapat gelap sering kami adakan  , tentu saja tanpa sepengetahuan Penguasa  pada waktu ini.

Pada pemilihan Pngurus yang ketiga kali  dalam tahun 1935  , daya terpilih sebagai Komisaris Umum  PNI-Baru , sebagai ketua saudara Soebagjo , dan Sekretaris Umum saudara  Hamdani.

Sebenarnya disamping sebgai Komisaris umum , saya juga bekerja sebagai radaktur urat kabar Soeara Pasoendan  yaitu suatu  surat kabr berbahasa sunda  yang dipimpin saudara Ali Rahman ,  dan pemimpin redaksinya  saudara Imbi Djajakusumah . Kesulitan tahun 1940  , saya menjadi pemimpin redaksi  surat kabar Priangan  yang juga berbahas sunda.


(  Wangsa,2002)






Surat kabar lama


Jumaat 1 Pebruari 1935

Surat Kabar Surabaya


Komunitas buku kuno

Facebook account




Wasiat Dr Soetomo Pahlawan nasional Indonesia

Majalah peringatan Mweninggalnya Pahlawan Dr Soetomo dalam bahasa Jawa


Komunitas buku kuno

Facebook account



Dokter Johannsen opereert, vermoedelijk in het ziekenhuis van de Rheinische Missiongesellschaft te Pearadja bij Taroetoeng

Verloskamer, vermoedelijk in het ziekenhuis van de Rheinische Missiongesellschaft te Pearadja bij Taroetoeng







source Sibermedik

:::dr.Oen Boen Ing :::

Oen Boen Ing (lahir 3 Maret 1903, meninggal di Solo, 30 Oktober 1982) adalah seorang dokter terkenal yang sosiawan di kota Solo. Ia juga dikenal sebagai Kanjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo.

Latar belakang
Oen Boen Ing dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga pedagang tembakau yang kaya-raya, cucu seorang sinshe Tionghoa yang juga suka menolong banyak orang.

Karena pengaruh kakeknya itulah, ia kemudian dikenal sebagai dokter yang banyak membantu pasiennya, khususnya mereka yang tidak mampu membayar biaya dan ongkos membeli obat-obatan.

Karena itulah, sejak lulus sekolah menengah, Boen Ing sudah ingin mempelajari ilmu kedokteran Barat dan menjadi dokter. Namun keinginan ini ditentang keras oleh keluarganya, karena mereka tidak mau ia menjadi kaya dari penderitaan orang yang sakit.

Meskipun demikian, ia tetap bertekad mewujudkan cita-citanya untuk menjadi dokter.

Ia pun mendaftarkan diri di School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Arsten (STOVIA) di Batavia, dan lulus pada 1930

Mulai mengabdi

Nama Oen Boen Ing tidak bisa dipisahkan dari keberadaan Rumah Sakit Panti Kosala yang dimulai sebagai sebuah poliklinik kecil yang bernama Tsi Sheng Yuan atau Jisheng Yuan pada 29 Januari 1933, di sebuah paviliun sederhana di Jl. Mesen 106, Solo.

Nama poliklinik itu berarti Lembaga Penolong Kehidupan. Poliklinik ini didirikan oleh delapan orang pemuda Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam Hua Chiao Tsing Nien Hui (disingkat HCTNH), yang artinya Perhimpunan Pemuda Tionghoa. Mereka itu adalah Jap Kioe Ong, Tan Kiong Djien, The Tjhioe Tik, Sie Ngo Siang, Sie Boen Tik, Gan Kok Sien, Tan Tiauw An, dan Jap Tiang Liem.

Pada tahun 1935

Dr. Oen Boen Ing mulai terlibat dalam pelayanan klinik tersebut dan kemudian menjadi pemprakarsa berdirinya Yayasan Kesehatan Tsi Sheng Yuan, yang kemudian membentuk RS Panti Kosala. Hal ini terjadi sekitar tahun 1951, ketika Poliklinik Tsi Sheng Yuan dilepaskan dari HCTNH. Dr. Oen Boen Ing menganjurkan agar Tsi Sheng Yuan menjadi sebuah yayasan untuk menampung kegiatan poliklinik.

Rumah sakit yang didirikan oleh Yayasan Tsi Sheng Yuan ini biasa disebut sebagai Rumah Sakit Kandang Sapi, karena pada 1954 rumah sakit ini dipindahkan ke daerah Kandang Sapi/Mojosongo (sampai sekarang) dan menjadi rumah sakit lengkap. Pada masa Orde Baru, nama rumah sakit ini diubah menjadi RS Panti Kosala.

Indonesia Health Collection(intro)

January 16, 2010 by uniquecollection

Vintage profile photo of the famous Dutch Medical doctor at Tobacco deli Plantation medan who was the founder of Spleenomegaly’s Suffner sign, Profesor DR August Paul Suffner, if the collector want his autobigraphy please asked via comment. All Health Uniqie collection from IMUCS ,plaese choose the best one.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

DEI Miltary Hospital Padang postal card to inform the pasien to their Boss.(1937


Dutch Indies NVPH 217-20 MNH

1935 – Toeslagzegels

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 50,00








The Bali Priest’s daughter with an US camera in 1935look the traditional earing






Mask of a refined woman, approx. 1935. Wood. Asian Art Museum, Vicki Baum Bali Collection; Gift of Wolfgang Lert and Ruth Clark Lert, 1992.37

Arjuna and Supraba, approx. 1935. Mas, South Bali. Perhaps by Ida Bagus Putu. Wood. Asian Art Museum, Vicki Baum Bali Collection; Gift of Wolfgang Lert and Ruth Clark Lert, 1992.43



Abimanyu, approx. 1930–1938.

Hide, wood, pigment, plant fiber. American Museum of Natural History, 70.0/7954



Coin images of deities (Sri Sedana), approx. 1900–1930. Probably Sanur, South Bali. Copper alloy coins, cotton fabric, silk fabric, plant fiber, wood, skin, imitation gemstones, metallic thread, gold leaf, lacquer, paint. Fowler Museum at UCLA, The Katharane Mershon Collection of Indonesian Art, X61.77 and X61.78











The autobus terminal at ambon in 1935 and look the auto road of Ambon in the same year below

Look the same area in 1988 below

The sunset at ambon in 1935


The Air Blanda(Dutch water)  of Ambon in 1935 look more picture from this area below



The halong waterfall ambon in 1935



The batoe Gadjah-Elephant stone park ambon in 1935(two pictures)



The water fload at ambon in 1935(two pictures)


The Batoe Gadjah-Elephan stone road in 1935


The ambon harbor in 1935


The ambon Bay in 1935

The Christian school at ambon in 1935(two pictures)


Dutch Indies NVPH 246-65 MNH

1936 – 39    Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk (Kreisler)

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie met fotocertificaat C. Muis voor de 6 hoogste waarden – C. Muis aug 2005 -zeer schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH 1670,00+++



1936 (8-Agosto).

NETHERLANDS WEST INDIES. MEDAN a CANADA y devuelta a MEDAN. 30(2), 32 1/2 y 42 1/2 cts. Circulada para enlazar con el Graf Zeppelin en FRANKFURT. Marca del vuelo, tránsito y llegada (Sieger 431).









Dutch Indies 264 hinged

1938 – 39   Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk – groot formaat zegel

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 32,50


Leger des Heils 2 t/m 15 cent met 1e-dagstempel 1-12-1936 op envelop lokaal te Medan, pracht ex., cat.w. 100

Price: € 40.00






Dutch Indies NVPH 260-65 MNH

1936 – 39   Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk (Kreisler)

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie met fotocertificaat C. Muis

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 1500,00+++











The water fload at Batoe Gadjah-Elephant stone ambon in 1936 and the KNIL soldier help (four  pictures)


The Dutch Marine submarine  at Ambone Harbor in 1936





The Bali native building in 1936


The bali House in 1936



The euro man with native  bali children  at the font of Gajah Cave in 1936




























The Bali women dancer in 1936(nine  pictures)



The bali Mask dancer in 1936(barong dancer)





The bali dancer in 1936(two pictures)



Bali man  dancer in 1936




The Bali  statue in 1936



The Bali Batur mountain  in 1936 look the perkutu bird hanging high



The ductn man and women at terrace in Bali 1936


Dutch with their auto and driver in Bali 1936


The bali women drag rice numbuk padi dilesung in 1936



The Bali wajang dancer group in 1936




The bali Kecak dancer groep in 1936











Kleen, T. A. 1936. The temple dances in Bali. Stockholm



Hofkers reputation as a portrait painter was such, that he received the assignment in 1936 to paint a portrait of queen Wilhelmina for the head office of the Koninklijke Pakketvaart Maatschappij (KPM) in Batavia, the former Dutch colonies in East-Indies.




Diner, aangeboden aan de “rubberresidenten” door F.H. Visman, regeringscommissaris voor de bestuurshervorming te Batavia

V.l.n.r.: Mr A.W. van Zadelhoff, assistent-resident 1e klasse voor de bestuurshervorming; H. ter Laag, resident voor de bestuurshervorming; mevrouw Hoven; J. Jongejans, resident Atjeh en Onderhorigheden; J. Oberman, resident Westerafdeling Borneo; mevrouw Spits; F.H. Visman; mevrouw Van Brakel; J.C. Mann, resident Bangka en Onderhorigheden; B. Korn, assistent-resident Afd. Bestuurszaken der Buitengewesten; Willy ter Laag; P.J. Goedhart, resident Riouw en Onderhorigheden; R.W. van Diffelen, referendaris voor de bestuurshervorming; F. van Mourik, assistent-resident voor de bestuurshervorming; dr W. Hoven, assistent-resident Afd. Bestuurszaken der Buitengewesten; G. van Brakel, hoofd van het Kantoor voor de Bevolkingsrubberrestrictie; Paultje ter Laag; J. Bouwes Bavinck, resident Gouvernement Oostkust Sumatra; A.I.




 Hofkers reputation as a portrait painter was such, that he received the assignment in 1936 to paint a portrait of queen Wilhelmina for the head office of the Koninklijke Pakketvaart Maatschappij (KPM) in Batavia, the former Dutch colonies in East-Indies.




Pada  tahun 1936 Bung  Hatta dan Bung  Syahrir dipindahkan untuk waktu yang tidak ditentukan ke suatu tempat yang dianggap layak bagi seorang cendikiawan, yaitu pulau Bnada Neira di Maluku.[10]



Hatta was Discarded to Banda Naira (1935-1942)


The hospital of the camp  in Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel


Physical anthropological research in the hospital of the internment camp in Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel)

I.F.M. Salim, later to be interned in Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel) and his two sisters, probably on Sumatra.


Mas Marco Kartodikromo author and wife photographed on Java, who were later interned in Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel).

hatta at digoel

In January 1935, Hatta and his friends arrived in Tanah Merah, Digoel

In January 1935, Hatta and his friends arrived in Tanah Merah, Digoel (Papua). Head of government there, Captain van Langen, offers two options: work for the colonial government to pay 40 cents a day with the expectation will be sent home to their hometown, or be discarded by receiving food in kind, with no expectation would be sent to the area of origin . Hatta said, when he would work for the colonial government when he was still in Jakarta, would have become a great man with a big salary anyway. So it is not necessary to him to Tanah Merah to become coolies paying 40 cents a day


Dr Louis Johan Alexander Schoonheyt

Schoonheyt, as a medical Royal Netherlands East Indies Army officer, in The Hague shortly before his departure for the Netherlands East Indies.

Schoonheyt, center, with the staff of his anti-malaria campaign and of the hospital of Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel).

Dr Schoonheyt in his house and office  in the hospital of the internment camp in Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel).


John Louis Alexander Schoonheyt (above, far right) in front of a Papuan house near the internment camp Tanahmerah (Boven-Digoel).


Louis Johan Alexander Schoonheyt (right) as assistant to the dermatologist R.A. Houwen (left) in the Hospital De Volharding in The Hague.


Louis Johan Alexander Schoonheyt, twice a victim of his times.

“So Schoonheyt, colonial bandit, I read that book of yours and you are of course a victim of your times,” exclaimed the writer Eddy du Perron to Doctor Schoonheyt.

This remark referred to Louis Johan Alexander Schoonheyt (born 1903, Magetan, Netherlands East Indies) and his book Boven-Digoel, entitled after an internment camp set up by the Netherlands Indies government in a remote corner of New Guinea. Supporters of independent Indonesia and other political activists could be interned there indefinitely


Schoonheyts father, L.H.E. Schoonheyt, a colonial administrator, on an official trip across Java in 1910.

Harvest in Modjokerto on Java where Schoonheyt grew up.

First Lieutenant Schoonheyt (ticked), a medical Royal Netherlands East Indies Army officer, with three colleagues in Batavia.






Ziekenzaal in het ziekenpaviljoen van de Plantersschoolvereeniging Brastagi te Berastagi


Tahun 1936 Sutan Sjahrir dan Bung Hatta dipindahkan ineternir dari Boven Digoel ke

 Banda Naera, ternate,Maluku.

(Rosihan Anwar,1966)




EMPO.CO , Banda: Pernah jadi tempat pembuangan Muhammad Hatta dan Sutat Sjahrir, Banda-Neira masih menyimpan tempat-tempat bersejarah. Dua puluh lima meter dari pelabuhan terdapat Rumah Budaya Banda Neira. Di museum itu tersimpan berbagai jenis peninggalan jaman kolonial. Mulai dari meriam berbagai ukuran hingga tembikar. Tim Tempo (penulis Agung Sedayu dan fotografer Ayu Ambong) mengunjungi lokasi itu pertengahan Oktober lalu.

Di samping kanan bangunan itu terdapat rumah pengasingan Sjahrir. Rumah bergaya Indis yang memadukan arsitektur kolonial dan tropis ini memiliki langit-langit tinggi dengan enam tiang penyangga berbetuk bulat, bercendela besar, dan beratap agak curam. Ruang utamanya luas diapit kamar tidur dan ruang kerja. (baca:Cara Hatta-Sjahrir Tanamkan Patriotisme di Banda)

Di sana terdapat gramofon kuno lengkap dengan piringan hitam berlabel Daphnis dan Chloe Suite Symphonique produksi Columbia. Kamar Sjahrir menyimpan lemari kayu berisi sejumlah buku catatan, alat tulis, pakaian, hingga surat pengangkatan Sjahrir sebagai perdana menteri oleh Presiden Soekarno. Di ruang kerja, tersimpan mesin ketik antik Underwood. Di sekitar rumah Sjahrir berderet bangunan-bangunan berarsitektur serupa. Salah satunya adalah bagunan bekas rumah Gubernur Jenderal Belanda Jan Pieterszoon Coen.

Tidak jauh dari sana, dengan jalan kaki saya butuh sekitar 10 menit, terdapat rumah pengasingan Hatta. Rumahnya besar terdiri dari bangunan utama di depan dan bangunan tambahan di belakang. Hatta menyewa rumah itu dari Belanda pemilik perkebunan pala bernama de Vries senilai 10 gulden. De Vries bersedia menyewakan rumah itu dengan harga murah karena konon berhantu. “Tapi ternyata tidak ada,” kata Meutia Farida Hatta Swasono, anak Wakil Presiden Indonesia pertama itu, pada Tempo. Tempo bertemu Meutia secara tak sengaja saat berkunjung ke Banda-Neira.

Di ruang kerja Hatta terdapat meja tua lengkap dengan mesin ketik antik. Di ruangan itu dulu Hatta biasa membaca majalah atau mengetik artikel sambil menyeruput kopi tubruk. Ia mengirim tulisanya ke sejumlah media di Jawa atau Belanda. Majalah Sin Tit Po adalah salah satu media yang cukup sering memuat tulisan Hatta kala itu.


Hanya berselang 1 rumah dari rumah budaya banda
neira. selain terdapat kursi dan meja tamu lukisan wajah sutan sjahrir juga
dipenuhi foto-foto beliau didekat jendela diujung ruangan terdapat gramofon

di ruangan sebelah terdapat lukisan besar yang menggambarakan pertemuan
tokoh-tokoh nasional yang dipimpin sutan sjahrir disinilah runang kerja sutan
sjahrir dimana terdapat mesin tik tua

Rumah Pengasingan Dr.Tjipto Mangunkusumo

Rumah Pengasingan Bung Hatta

Rumah ini pernah ditempati Bung Hatta saat
beliau dibuang ke pulau banda pada tahun 1936-1942

(sumber : pecintawisata)











Pamflet undangn untuk melihat Perayaan Besar Optoch untuk anak-anak murid Madrasah Nadhatoeloellama (NU) Cabag gresik tanggal 3 juni 1936







Top of Form

Bottom of Form








Kartu pos NU Jombang

Karcis untuk acara chades Me-rajd dikantor N.W. yangdilaksanakan oleh NU cabang gresik





Pada tahun 1936


mengambil tempat pertemuan di rumah dr Marie Thomas  yang ditujukan untuk bab lokal dari Asosiasi Dokter Indonesia untuk membangun, yang pada waktu itu tidak bekerja.

(Dr Hasseldink)



 Setelah berhenti kuliah keguruan, pada 1936 jendral sudirman  mulai bekerja sebagai seorang guru, dan kemudian menjadi kepala sekolah, di sekolah dasar Muhammadiyah





Top of Form

Pada hari malam djemoe’ah 14/15 juli 1938 bertempat di masdjid djame Grissee
Salah satoe pembahasan tentang poetoesan conggres NO ke 13 dan toedjoean serta oesaha NO
Pembicara :
1. K.H. Ghoefron dari NO tjabang Soerabaia
2. K.H. Machfoedz Siddiq dari HBNO Soerabaia
3. K.H. Abdoellah Oebaijd
4. Sajjid M. Bin Oemar bin M. Al Haddad dari Malang
5. Dan benerapa kijai dari NO Grissee

Sumber komunitas buku kuno

Bottom of Form


In April 1937,

for example, she mediated on his behalf in the purchase of a Chrysler Imperial at the price of 1,400 guilders from th Firm Fuchs in Semarang. This car was owned by Mrs Liem Lian Koe. On other times she mediated in the purchase of expensive luxury goods from China and Japan.

Some concluding remarks


This preliminary essay is a first step to bring to the fore the intriguing and

underestimated importance of peranakan Chinese elite alliances with local native royalty in the Netherlands East Indies









Fatimah, prince of Kloengkoeng bali in 1937 look the morif of vintage Batik Kloengkoeng sarong



Bali Artworks Collections(Vintage Children Paintings-1937)



Vintage Bali painting circa 1937(anonim)” Sanghyang Boemboeng magic dancer”













The regent and njora van eti of west ceram in 1937


The Native Ceram jachers in 1937


The ambon by Bagoela bij Paso in 1937


The ambon beac(Pig Bay) teloek Babi in 1937, at this area the aatack of Indonesian army to RMS in 1950,Dr Iwan twoo times visit this area circa 1996 and look more picture from this area in same year below




The Fist compagny Ambon KNIL at Semarang in 1930




Serdang in The Ambon port(haven) in 1926








Keterangan Kiai Jusuf Taujiri Tentang Kartosuwirjo

Kiai Jusuf Taujiri , sorang yang pernah bergaul dengan Kartosuwirjo, tetapi Kiai tersebut berdiri dibelakang Republik Indonesia.Kiai tersbut mendirikan “Madrasah “Darusalam” dan  Wana..(Tjipari)

Kurang lebih 20 tahun saya bergaul dengan Kartosuwirja, jakni dalam pergerakan PSII (Partai Serikat Islam Indonesia).

Waktu itu H.O,S Tjokroaminoto  masih hidup, setelah beliau wafat naka PSII pecah menjadi tiga golongan  atau aliran, yaitu menjadi

 KPK ( Komite Pertahanan Kebenaran) dengan pimpinan Kartosuwirjo sendiri,

PENJADAR (Penyadar?) dengan pimpinan Haji Agus Salim

PSII-Hidjrah yang dipimpin oleh Abikusno

KPK kemudian berubah menjadi PSII-Supah(Teosofis) dimana salah satu ushanya mendirikan sekolah SUPAH.  Didalam gerakan baru ini  saya kira-kira dua tahun bersama Kartosuwirjo. Ini terjadi kira-kira tahun 1937.

Tindakan memisahkan diri yang saya lakukan kemudian adlah berdasarkan alasan bahwa Kartosuwirjo banyak menyalahi ajaran Agama Islam.Terutama didalam ia mengisi uang Kas Organisasi dengan jalan yang tidak sah, yakni mengorganisir orang-orang jahat, saya sama sekali tidak setuju sekalipun digunakan untuk tujuan yang baik.

Tentang pribadi Kartosuwirjo dapat saya ambil kesimpulan ia memiliki  dasar Jiwa Pemimpin  dan memiliki kemauan keras. Dan dalam segala hal ia selalu berusaha untuk meniadakan perpecahan dikalangan organisasi untuk mencapai maksudnya

(kempen 1955)




VH B 124 IV Batavia Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 1937

Prijs: €20,00

VH B 130 / B 131 Nijmegen – Batavia v.v. 1937

Bottom of Form

Batoe – Nijmegen 25.11.1937







 Jendral sudirman  juga aktif dalam kegiatan Muhammadiyah lainnya dan menjadi pemimpin Kelompok Pemuda Muhammadiyah pada tahun 1937.







Dutch Indies NVPH 260 hinged

1938 – 39 Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk – Kreisler

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel – schaars

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00


Dutch Indies NVPH 262 MNH

1938 – 39    Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk – groot formaat zegel

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 300,00


Dutch Indies NVPH 265 MNH

1938 – 39    Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk – groot formaat zegel

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00


In 1938 the couple Hofker  accompanied the painting to the Dutch East-Indies and concluded with a trip through the colonies. During this trip they made drawings and paintings of Indonesian subjects which could be reproduced and used by the KPM.

The Hofker couple settled in Bali where Willem made popular drawings of Balinese landscapes and dancers. The Hofkers socialized with many painters, amongst other Spies, Strasser, Meyer and their good friend Rudolf Bonnet.


Look the other artwork of him at next page














10 Mei 1938

Perajaan Mauloedan di madrasah NO Blandongan kota Grisee
10 mei 1938




A 1938 work by I Ketut Ngendon,

the painting crowds the wonder and whimsy, the sensuality, and sense of playfulness of Bali into a single frame.

As nearly nude villagers gather on the shore to bid farewell to the anthropologist couple in their outrigger canoe, a volcano puffs out the letters that read “Goodbye and Good Luck.”

The water ripples in quilted patterns. Trees thick with leaves rise above thatched huts.

 Enormous blossoms open in the foreground. Why, one can’t help thinking of Mead and Bateson, would anyone choose to leave all this behind?



The Bali women wooden statue in 1938



de ‘oude’ Panglima Polem met de afgeknot-kegelvormige koepiah en het Nederlandse ridderkruis (1938)

Top of Form

the ‘old’ Panglima Polem with the frusto-conical koepiah and Dutch Knight’s Cross (1938)

“Small in stature as he is, he makes no impression imposanten and the amiable old gentleman with his very weak eyes behind the thick glasses was little more about that battle ones, fiery leader of resistance fighters reminiscent ‘

The son of the ‘old’ Panglima Polem (see photo above), the ‘young’ Panglima Polem, in February 1942 gave the starting signal for a general uprising against the Dutch. In the night of 7 to 8 March 1942, all connections from Kota Radja destroyed. On March 11 began the flight of the Dutch from Aceh. In the following night the Japanese attacked inside.

After WWII, the Dutch have not been back in Aceh and the Acehnese ruled ‘self’. In this “social revolution” period was bloody dispel all oeleëbalangs in the eyes of many Acehnese too much on the basis of the Dutch had been. Entire families were massacred in these days. The power of the oeleëbalangs was a definite end.

Already in 1953 a revolt broke out again when the central government in Jakarta, Aceh added to the Land of North Sumatra, until 1959, the situation was back to normal: Aceh was a ‘separate’ autonomous area.

In 1976 proclaimed the grandson of Chik Di Tiro, Hasan di Tiro Teungku, the independence of the Islamic state of Aceh. The ASNLF ie the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front – ASNLF, protests still from time to time for the Dutch embassy. (see ASNLF link)





When, in 1938, he was called up by the Dutch Army to serve in Jakarta (then called Batavia), it seemed like a dream come true.

Born in Zaandam in The Netherlands on April 15, 1916, the third of eight children, he was christened Adrianus Wilhelmus Smit. Already as a young boy he showed signs of artistic talent so, after leaving school in his home town, he studied design at the Academy of Arts in Rotterdam. Whenever there was a major art exhibition at the museums in Rotterdam or Amsterdam, he would go there and carefully study the paintings.

Smit remembers being especially impressed by the watercolours of Signac, and the paintings by Gaugain and Cezanne. “I’ve looked really closely at the paintings of Cezanne, how every touch is pure. And that I have tried to sustain in my own paintings.” Then he laughs: “Cezanne was so intrigued by his own technique that sometimes his hand would quiver – ‘Shall I do this, shall I put this touch of blue there?’ Although I admire Cezanne very much, I’m not like that.”


In 1938 the couple accompanied the painting to the Dutch East-Indies and concluded with a trip through the colonies. During this trip they made drawings and paintings of Indonesian subjects which could be reproduced and used by the KPM.


The Hofker couple settled in Bali where Willem made popular drawings of Balinese landscapes and dancers. The Hofkers socialized with many painters, amongst other Spies, Strasser, Meyer and their good friend Rudolf Bonnet.






The Dutch night fiesta at New Victoria fort Ambon in 1938









Schoonheyt and his wife returned from a trip to Europe on a boat, but flew the very last part to Batavia.








Anti Malaria campaign in Jakarta 1939 by Schoonheyt


Area between the dike and Sungai Lagu Rawah Badak south of Tanjung Priok near Batavia during irrigation activities against malaria, led by Schoonheyt.











Morass south of Tanjung Priok intended for treatment in the anti-malaria campaign, led by Schoonheyt.

An almost completed wasteweir to the south of Tanjung Priok for use in the anti-malaria campaign, led by Schoonheyt

Newly constructed rice fields in the former swamp area Sungai Tiram south of Tanjung Priok at Batavia after the water regulation for the fight against malaria, led by Schoonheyt in august ,29th.1939



Yang seng Ie Hospital

(now Husada Hospital Jakarta)


Vintage Yang seng Ie Hospital (now Husada Hospital Jakarta)

photo from one year commemoration Yang seng ie Hospital – this picture for Ms.Siswati Mkes my wife best friend, I ever travel with her , my Wife and DR Gemala Hatta during International IFRO Meeting at co Ex Building Seoul 2007.This hospital now became one of the best Hospital at North Jakarta, in this collection put in IMUCS CYBERMUSEUM I hope Husada Hospitalwill became our sponsered,please contact hhtp://

Medical faculty University of Indonesia stmaped on Medicine Vintage Book.

(Geneeskunde means Medicine/kedokteran) This is the first report of Medical faculty Indonesia University.(alumni pertama Fakultas kedoteran UI tempo doeloe mempergunakan buku literatiur ini)


Postal history cover with Batavia School of medicine stamped in dutch “Geneeskunde hooghe school” 1930 (this name after STOVIA and before MEDICAL FACULTY)


Postal History cover Indonesian Biggest hospital “CBZ-centrale Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis -Batavia -C” stamped, now RSCM-Rumah sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo , the bigest Teaching Hospital in Indonesia, until now everybody in jakarta stilcalled CBZ hospital although they don’t understand the meaning of Hospital and indonesia still called Hospital as Sicken House (Rumah sakit) translate from Dutch Ziekenhuis.


Unique Vintage TB-control photo(1939) a TB control nurse gave standing postion injection outdoor for clear light becasue indoor no lamp and the vintage camera without flash. (in Indonesia suntik gaya nunging diluar rumah)



Rathkamp Aphotek(drug strore) machinal postal canceled on cover (Postal history)



Vintage photo Native indonesian physician during DEI School Health Care (Kesehatan sekolah)





Meskipun berada dalam tekanan politik pemerintah kolonial Hindia Belanda, Pakubuwana X memberikan kebebasan berorganisasi dan penerbitan media massa. Ia mendukung pendirian organisasi Sarekat Islam, salah satu organisasi pergerakan nasional pertama di Indonesia. Kongres Bahasa Indonesia I di Surakarta (1938) diadakan pada masa pemerintahannya.

Infrastruktur moderen kota Surakarta banyak dibangun pada masa pemerintahan Pakubuwana X, seperti bangunan Pasar Gede, Stasiun Solo Jebres, Stasiun Solo-Kota (Sangkrah), Stadion Sriwedari, kebun binatang (“Taman Satwataru”) Jurug, Jembatan Jurug yang melintasi Bengawan Solo di timur kota, Taman Balekambang, gapura-gapura di batas Kota Surakarta, rumah pemotongan hewan ternak di Jagalan, rumah singgah bagi tunawisma, dan rumah perabuan (pembakaran jenazah) bagi warga Tionghoa. Beliau meninggal dunia pada tanggal

1 Februari 1939.

Ia disebut sebagai Sunan Panutup atau raja besar Surakarta yang terakhir oleh rakyatnya. Pemerintahannya kemudian digantikan oleh putranya yang bergelar Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana XI.


(Java abad 20th,Dr Iwan)



 Kemudian pada tahun 1939 Dr  Muwardi  menikah untuk kedua kalinya dengan Susilowati lulusan Middelbare Vakschool, Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan di Jakarta. Muwardi berhasil membimbing istrinya untuk menganggap 2 orang anak peninggalan istrinya yang pertama sebagai anak-anaknya sendiri dan dididik bersama anak-anak yang dilahirkannya, sebanyak 6 orang yaitu : 1. Dra. Ataswarin  Kamariah (istri Bambang Sarah); 2. Kusumarita (istri Ir. Atyanto Mokhtar); 3. Dr. Cipto Yuwono Muwardi 4.  Ir. Banteng  Wicaksono Muwardi; 5. Dr. Happy Anandarin Wahyuningsih (istri Ir, Harjanto Sugiarto). Anak yang ke enam  meninggal dunia waktu berumur 3 bulan.
Dr. Muwardi lulus dari STOVIA dengan nilai memuaskan. Ia memang cerdas dan belajar selesai menurut jadwalnya. Setelah lulus, ia memilih bekerja sebagai dokter dan berpraktek.
Setelah KBI dibubarkan oleh Pemerintah Balatentara Jepang, tidak banyak terdengar gerak kegiatan Dr. Muwardi. Namanya baru muncul dalam pembentukan Barisan Pelopor yang nama Jepangnya Shusintai.
Pembentukan Barisan Pelopor oleh Bung Karno dipercayakan kepada Sudiro | pensiunan Walikota/Gubemur Jakarta Raya). Sebagai pemimpin Barisan Pelopor Kotapraja Jakarta diangkat sebagai Ketuanya dr. Muwardi dan Wilopo S.H. sebagai wakilnya. Di samping itu dibentuk Barisan Pelopor Istimewa (Tokubetau Skuisiantai) terdiri dari 100 orang yang di pilih sendiri oleh Bung Karno.
Dalam kedudukannya tersebut dr. Muwardi bekerja sama dengan Pak Diro dan dekat sckali dengan Bung Karno. Barisan istimewa ini selain latihan perang-perangan, digembleng langsung oleh Bung Kamo, Bung Hatta, Otto Iskandardinata dll.







The native Ceram Island man with the dutchmn  in 1939






The Bali Jewellary  golden earing and bracelet in 1939


The motif of Bali gold prada Batik in 1939


The Bali dance gordel stich embroidery  in 1939






Willem Gerard Hofker, The Farmer From Batoboelan, 1939




Walter Spiess in 1939

Spies’s stay in Bali ended in 1939 when he was taken to court and jailed for homosexuality during a morality-driven witch hunt by the Dutch government. While imprisoned in Surabaya he painted his best work hailed as magical realism depicting changes in feelings and subconscious attitudes: The Landscape and its Children.


The work shows the painter’s longing for Bali and the tricks the mind plays as a place once called home fades into distant memory. In 2002 this painting sold for over US$1 million through Christie’s Singapore.

His Scherzo for Brass Instruments, reputedly painted in a half-trance state contains many incarnations of the artist as he explores an inner landscape from various points of view. In a letter to Carl Gotsch, Spies describes the process of painting Scherzo as a spiritual and sacred purification of the soul akin to rebirth: “The funny thing is I really feel as if this is my very first painting. I really feel as if I am beginning a new life.”

Scherzo for Brass Instruments by Walter Spies, Oil on Board, 1939

Dedicated to Leopold Stokowski, then the conductor of Chicago’s Philharmonic Orchestra, Scherzo was shipped from Surabaya to America but never reached its destination. Today’s reproductions are from photographs taken by Spies in prison.

In his fatherland this German artist is probably better known as the art advisor to several movies such as Friedrich Murnau’s version of the Dracula story, Nosferatu. Yet despite living only a fraction of his life in Germany Spies’ citizenship twice caused him to be interned during war.


Born in Moscow and raised mostly in Russia he was interned in the Ural Mountains during the first World War. He was also interned by the Dutch in Ngawi, East Java and Kotatjane, Sumatra during the second World War.





Pada tahun 1940, Marie bendahara, setahun setelah suaminya memegang fungsi ini.


Marie meninggal pada tahun 1966. Suaminya sudah almarhum pada tahun 1958. Tidak diketahui apakah pasangan memiliki anak.



 In 1940 the couple moved to Ubud. In the period between 1938 to 1944 most of Hofker’s work in Indonesia was made. His art pieces were refined and flowing, as well as poetic. In Bali he mainly painted temples and religious life on the island and he concentrated on the people of Bali. Many of his paintings are exhibited in Ubud in ARMA and the Neka Museum.




The famous dancer I Mario, picture taken 1940.


Nusa Penida temple 1940

foto yang dibuat tahun 1940 yang dimiliki oleh Puri Kanginan Blahbatuh, maka rupa-rupanya Padmasana itu sudah ada sejak dulu



Oooom Piet- a charity or what?

Oooom Piet at this point only has limited sales activities. Its imports depend on how much a suitcase can hold rather than on the size and frequency of container shipments. The Jaffe-Klusman home in Leiden is still trying to reclaim space for family and friends after Oooom Piet, the most active branch of the “16 september stichting”, had grown so much that Lexa felt it had become too big for its and her own good.

End of 2009 the Leiden shop, Oooom Piet’s Tempat, closed. Spring 2010 Oooom Piet went all-out for a grand finale with multiple booths and a lot of kites hanging over them at the big Eurasian event in The Hague, the Tong Tong Fair.

1917, mother Toos James-Ament with oom Piet’s sister Tottie, in cool and informal sarung and



The annual get-together, kumpulan, of large numbers of people with roots in the colonial Dutch East Indies, as well as people who just happen to like Indonesian cooking and culture and the warm and friendly atmosphere.
Right now we are trying to get our house into the kind of shape that would make it possible to have home sales of our silver jewelry and our high-quality ikats and other special textiles.

We are still selling at a few special fairs and markets in or near Leiden not just to gain ground space, but also because we need the money for our children’s program on Nusa Penida, Pay4Play. There is enough stock left from when Oooom Piet imported two chock-full containers a year to last us a while.



the foundation behind Oooom Piet
and the family behind the foundation


December 1940, Mal


1937, Bandung- Jean Klusman as
Sinterklaas, the Dutch Santa Claus


filigree brooches made in Yogya


“Oom” is Dutch for uncle, and Lexa inherited the starting capital for the Oooom Piet import business from her real oom Piet James, her mother’s brother. It started in 1997 with a small stand at the Tong Tong Fair in The Hague, then still called the Pasar Malam Besar.

flood at the James home in Tegal, Java- with the gardener carrying one of the children

1942, wartime Bandung, on Java- Mieneke Klusman-James, oom Piet’s sister, with her children- the baby is now Lexa Jaffe-Klusman

1913, oom Piet’s relatives during a visit to Holland- Juf, employed by her former schoolmate Toos, in back, Mieneke on her Grandma’s lap

1912, oom Piet’s older brothers and a little friend- idyllic scene or painful differences?




Foto bali oleh Henri Cartier besson 1940








Suharto Masuk KNIL dan Mengikuti Pendidikan Dasar Militer di Gombong, Jateng (1 Juni 1940).

Sekolah Kader di Gombong (2 Desember 1940)








The new Protesttant church in Molucca in 1940




The 7th Protestan synode of Molucca  at Ambon in 1941




October 1941

October 1941

Bali girl October 1941


Rolf Blomberg Gallery

Rolf Blomberg was an ethnographic photographer whose priority was the pacific coexistence and mutual understanding with other human beings. Therefore, his photography lacks tension or aggression; instead, it shows ease and confidence

Bali in October 1941

3.Ardana I.Gusti G.:Pengertian Pura Di Bali9zum Verstandnis des templ system jn Bali(;Denpasar 1971





Mount AGUNG last erupted in 1963-64 and is still active,with a large and very deep crater which occasionally emit smoke and dust.Since distance, the mountain is visible cone,although in it there is a huge crater. From the top of the mountain.

it is possible to see the peak of Mount Rinjani in Lombok,although both mountains are frequently covered in clouds.On February 18, 1963,local residents heard loud explosions and saw clouds rising from the crater of Mount Agung.

On February 24,lava began flowing down the northern slope of the mountain,eventually traveling 7 km in 20 days.On March 17,the volcano erupted,sending debris 8-10 km into the air and produce large pyroclastic flows. This current is much destroying villages,killing about 1,500 people.

A second eruption on May 16 led to pyroclastic flows which killed another 200 people

Mount Agung,john van Stern



Dutch Indies NVPH 274-81 hinged

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – klein formaat

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00

Uit deze serie kunt u de niet aangeboden ongebruikte zegels ook los bestellen tegen 40% van de cat. waarde via contact.



Dutch Indies NVPH 282-89 hinged

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – groter formaat

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) complete serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 835,00

Uit deze ongebruikte serie zijn de niet aangeboden losse zegels ook te bestellen tegen 40% van de cat.waarde via contact.








Dutch Indies NVPH 282-89 MNH

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina met watermerk – groter formaat zegels

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie – (ook leverbaar + cert. Muis + € 35,00)

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 835,00++ – schaars!!

Uit deze postfrisse serie kunt u de niet aangeboden losse zegels ook bestellen tegen 65% van de cat. waarde via contact.

Top of Form

€ 595,00


Bottom of Form



Dutch Indies NVPH 278 hinged

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina 25ct – klein formaat

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 55,00


Dutch Indies NVPH 277 MNH

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina 29 cent- klein formaat

Prachtige postfris (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 45,00


Dutch Indies 280 MNH

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – 35 ct. paars

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – schaars

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 200,00++

Used extreme rare not yet found and seen.




Dutch Indies NVPH 288 MNH

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – 10 gld groen

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 53,00

Top of Form

€ 28,50











Dutch Indies NVPH 288 used

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – 10 gld groen

Prachtige gestempelde (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 30,00

Top of Form

€ 13,75


Dutch Indies NVPH 287 hinged

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – 5 gld geelbruin

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 400,00

Top of Form

€ 195,00

MNH 295

 Used extreme rae not yet found



Dutch Indies NVPH 289 hinged

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – groter formaat

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 325,00

Top of Form

€ 135,00

MNH E 215


Dutch Indies NVPH 289 used

1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – groter formaat

Prachtige gestempelde (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 200,00

Top of Form

€ 95,00

Bottom of Form










Netherlands NVPH 289 used

Bottom of Form


1941 – Koningin Wilhelmina – groter formaat

Prachtige gestempelde (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 200,00

Top of Form

€ 95,00

Bottom of Form



Dutch Indies NVPH 293-97 MNH


1941 – Moehammadijah

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) € 32,50

Top of Form

€ 19,50

Bottom of Form








Gouvernment Sumatra

Residentie Atjeh

Afdeelling Noordkust van Atjeh (Sigli)

Onderafdeelling Sigli

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjong Tjhi Tjhaij, 31 des. 1926

Onderafdeelling Lho’Seumawe

Luitenant der Chineezen Tan Joe Sin, 19 oct.1922

Onderafdeelling Tamiang(Koealasimpang)

Luitenant der Chineezen Moe Tin Siong


SetelahJepang menduduki Hindia Belanda pada 1942, Soedirman tetap mengajar. Pada tahun 1944, ia bergabung dengan tentara Pembela Tanah Air (PETA) yang disponsori Jepang, menjabat sebagai komandan batalion di Banyumas. Selama menjabat, Soedirman bersama rekannya sesama prajurit melakukan pemberontakan, namun kemudian diasingkan ke Bogor.

Setelah Indonesia memproklamirkan kemerdekaannya pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, Soedirman melarikan diri dari pusat penahanan, kemudian pergi ke Jakarta untuk bertemu dengan Presiden Soekarno. Ia ditugaskan untuk mengawasi proses penyerahan diri tentara Jepang di Banyumas, yang dilakukannya setelah mendirikan divisi lokal Badan Keamanan Rakyat.

Pasukannya lalu dijadikan bagian dari Divisi V pada 20 Oktober oleh panglima sementara Oerip Soemohardjo, dan Soedirman bertanggung jawab atas divisi tersebut. Pada tanggal 12 November 1945, dalam sebuah pemilihan untuk menentukan panglima besar TKR di Yogyakarta, Soedirman terpilih menjadi panglima besar, sedangkan Oerip, yang telah aktif di militer sebelum Soedirman lahir, menjadi kepala staff.

Sembari menunggu pengangkatan, Soedirman memerintahkan serangan terhadap pasukan Inggris dan Belanda di Ambarawa. Pertempuran ini dan penarikan diri tentara Inggris menyebabkan semakin kuatnya dukungan rakyat terhadap Soedirman, dan ia akhirnya diangkat sebagai panglima besar pada tanggal 18 Desember. Selama tiga tahun berikutnya, Soedirman menjadi saksi kegagalan negosiasi dengan tentara kolonial Belanda yang ingin kembali menjajah Indonesia, yang pertama adalah Perjanjian Linggarjati –yang turut disusun oleh Soedirman – dan kemudian Perjanjian Renville –yang menyebabkan Indonesia harus mengembalikan wilayah yang diambilnya dalam Agresi Militer I kepada Belanda dan penarikan 35.000 tentara Indonesia. Ia juga menghadapi pemberontakan dari dalam, termasuk upaya kudeta pada 1948. Ia kemudian menyalahkan peristiwa-peristiwa tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit tuberkulosis-nya; karena infeksi tersebut, paru-paru kanannya dikempeskan pada bulan November 1948.

Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1948, beberapa hari setelah Soedirman keluar dari rumah sakit, Belanda melancarkan Agresi Militer IIuntuk menduduki Yogyakarta. Di saat pemimpin-pemimpin politik berlindung di kraton sultan, Soedirman, beserta sekelompok kecil tentara dan dokter pribadinya, melakukan perjalanan ke arah selatan dan memulai perlawanan gerilya selama tujuh bulan. Awalnya mereka diikuti oleh pasukan Belanda, tetapi Soedirman dan pasukannya berhasil kabur dan mendirikan markas sementara di Sobo, di dekat Gunung Lawu. Dari tempat ini, ia mampu mengomandoi kegiatan militer di Pulau Jawa, termasuk Serangan Umum 1 Maret 1949 di Yogyakarta, yang dipimpin oleh Letnan Kolonel Soeharto. Ketika Belanda mulai menarik diri, Soedirman dipanggil kembali ke Yogyakarta pada bulan Juli 1949. Meskipun ingin terus melanjutkan perlawanan terhadap pasukan Belanda, ia dilarang oleh Presiden Soekarno. Penyakit TBC yang diidapnya kambuh; ia pensiun dan pindah ke Magelang. Soedirman wafat kurang lebih satu bulan setelah Belanda mengakui kemerdekaan Indonesia. Ia dimakamkan di Taman Makam Pahlawan Semaki, Yogyakarta.

Kematian Soedirman menjadi duka bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia. Bendera setengah tiang dikibarkan dan ribuan orang berkumpul untuk menyaksikan prosesi upacara pemakaman. Soedirman terus dihormati oleh rakyat Indonesia. Perlawanan gerilyanya ditetapkan sebagai sarana pengembangan esprit de corps bagi tentara Indonesia, dan rute gerilya sepanjang 100-kilometre (62 mi) yang ditempuhnya harus diikuti oleh taruna Indonesia sebelum lulus dari Akademi Militer. Soedirman ditampilkan dalam uang kertasrupiah keluaran 1968, dan namanya diabadikan menjadi nama sejumlah jalan, universitas, museum, dan monumen. Pada tanggal 10 Desember 1964, ia ditetapkan sebagai Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia.





Soeharto Masuk Kepolisian Jepang Keibuho (Mei 1943)





Hak Cipta Dr Iwan  @ 2014






The Rare Book Collections

Found In Indonesia


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors And Scholars

Copyright @ 2014



Dalam rangka memperingati ulang tahun saya yang ke tujuh puluh pada tanggal 9 Pebuari 2015 , dengan segalakerendahan hati saya menerbitkan buku panduan bagi para  kolektor Senior dan Mahasiswa yang saya beri judul alam bahasa Ingris

“The Rare Book Collections Found In Indonesia “

Mohon maaf apabila ada ejaan bahasa Ingris saya yang kurang tepat , karena sya belajar secara otodidak , dan terjemahan dengan bantuan Google Translate yang perlu mendapatkan koreksi , kandatipun demikian saya harap anda semua akan mengerti karena gaya bahsa Inggris saya adalah gaya Inggris Indonesia seperti yang anda sering dengar di Singapura  atau Malaysia.

Sudah banyak buku-buku langka koleksi saya yang saya upload di web blog saya baik Driwancybermuseum’Blog  atau Iwansuwandy’s blog , dari Buu-buku yang saya karang sendiri maupun karangan penulis terkenal yang banyak mendpatkan sorotan dari para pemirsa web blog saya anatara lain:

Motif Keramik Kerajaan  Tiongkok Yang Ditemukan di Indonesia dan

Koleksi Martavan Yang ditemukan di Indonesia sehingga telah banyak pemesannya ,tetapi hanya sebagian yang membeli mungkin dianggap mahal walaupun menurut ukuran saya masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah , dan bayak pedagang menginginkan buku ini tetapi saya tidak jual kepadanya sampai mereka marah dan memaki-maki saya sampai ada yang membuat email saya spam, saya tidak jual kepada pedagang saya takut nanti dikopi dan juga mereka akan jadi saingan saya sehingga harga dipasaran jadi naik dan saya jadi tidak sanggup membelinya , apalagi akhir-akhir ini banyak keramik antic asli maupun palsu banyak diperjual belikan di Jakarta.

Selain itu juga banyak komentar tentang buku saya lainnya seperti   ,

Buku  Koleksi Sejarah Minangkabau ,

buku Koleksi sejarah   Bali ,

buku Koleksi Sejarah Kerajaan kalimantan Barat

Buku Koleski sejarah wayang

Buku Koleksi  Sejarah Aceh ,

Buku sejarah Batak,Buku sejarah leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia Buku Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Permulaan Abad Kedua Puluh, Buku Koleksi Sejarah Keramik Dinasti Tang , dinasti Sung, dinasti Yuan , Diansti Ming dan dinasti Qing ,

begitu juga dengan buku koleksi sejarah Koin Gobok Tiongkok dari seluruh dinasti.

Buku sejarah Perang Vietnam 945-1975

Buku Koleksi

sejarah Pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia,



Koleksi Sejarah Perang dunia Kedua di Eropa, Buku Sejarah Revolusi dan perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950.

Koleksi Buku Langka yang  saya beri judul

The Rare Book Collections dan Bedah Buku Indonesia yang banyak juga mendapat sorotan dari pemirsa web blog saya.

Dalam CD-Rom ini anda aka dapat melihat cuplikan seluruh buku-buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom tulisan saya , harganya tetap masing-masih satu Cd lima ratus ribu rupiah ,

 kecuali bila nanti ada devaluasi rupiah yang tambah tinggi harganya akan disesuaikan, seperti saat ini sebenarnya sudah enam ratus ribu tetapi saya tetap tidak menaikan harga mengiggat situasi Indonesia saat ini masih aman dan cerah sejak pimp[iannya bapak Jokowi .

Edisi terbatas paling banyak antara sepuluh sampai 20 Cd  saja. Juga dalam Cd-Rom ini akan saya tampilkan  cuplikan buku langka yang sudah saya upload di Web Blog saya.

Saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang tak dapat saya sebutkan satu persatu namanya , mereka telah banyak membantu saya dan membeli CD-Rom saya sehingga membuat saya tambah semangat, buku elektronik ini saya buat untuk menambah pengetahuan anda tentang buku-buku langka dan berapa nilai jualnya.

Sebenarnya anda bisa mencari sendri harganya liwat eksplorasi google dengan mencantumkan nama buku,pengarang,dan tahun edisinya, tetapi untuk menghemat waktu anda biarlah saya dengan susah payah, siang-malam mengerjakan buku ini dan membuka rahasianya bagi anda yang seluruhnya saya anggap teman baik saya dimanapun anda berada.


Bagi yang yang ingin memperoleh bku elektronikyang langka ini dan harap anda segera memesannya  karena diterbitkan harnya sepuluh CD- saja, Pemesan yang pertama sampai sepuluh akan saya urut sesuai dengan komunikasi anda melalui email saya

Jangan lupa mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap rumah anda serta riwyata pekerjaan singkat, ini untuk mencegah penipuan yang banyyak terjadi aat ini yang dikenal dengan hijact internet atau spam.

Terima kasih atas kunjungan and adi web blog saya dan juga terimakasih atas pesanan anda,  Cd-Rom ini akan selesai pada bulan maret 2015.




Maklum saya sudah tua , dan banyak urusan, sudah satu juta pemirsa saya , shingga komunikasi mereka harus saya balas.

Jakarta Pebruari , 2015


Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA










Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 

The Author Profile

.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.

5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://


In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) The Indonesian History Collections  and many other collections


8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp:// 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta October 2013

Greatings from the  founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

















KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

promosi cd rom dr iwan:”the tang ceramic history collection”

ini contoh cd-rom dr iwan “the song ceramic history collections” harga ;lim ratus ribu rupiah, dapat dipesan liwat email


jangan lupa upload kopi KTP dan alamat rumahnya

ini untuk sekuriti terhadap penipuan hijact internet

terima kasih

The Tang Ceramic History Collections



Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For senior Collectors and Historian

Copyright @ 2014

*King Ganesha Teracota

found West Java( Collection Dr Iwan)




Pin it



from Etsy

Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue


tang horse sculptures | Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue by Hild4 on Etsy

Pinned from


tang horse sculptures | Tang sculpture of a horse with a painted saddle, 618-906 AD. The great ..





The Tang dynasty is considered by many people to be the golden age of Chinese civilization. Its emperors presided over one of the greatest periods of Chinese art, culture and diplomacy.

Under the Tangs, China dominated the Far East in a generally amicable and peaceful way; Silk Road trade flourished; Christianity was introduced to China; and Buddhism become so well entrenched that the reproduction of Buddhist texts led to the invention of block printing and calendars.

The Tang Dynasty was centered in Chang’an, a city established by the Han dynasty on the ruins of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s capital of Xian and developed by Sui emperor Wen Tu. Under the Tangs, Chang’an became a thriving metropolis and center of international trade filled with merchants, foreign traders, missionaries from numerous religions, acrobats, artists and entertainers.

It was the largest city in Asia, perhaps the world, with a population of around two million people at a time when no city in Europe had a population of more than a few hundred thousand.

 The city was linked to the rest of China through a network of canals and toll roads which brought more riches and taxes into Chang’an.

The Tang dynasty is often regarded as the classical period of Chinese civilization. It was a relatively peaceful phase in Chinese history.

 The other major power center during the Tang Dynasty was Baghdad, the home of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty.

 Robust trade between the two empires took place on the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road. Important ports included present-day Guangzhou in China and present-day Basra in Iraq. In the ninth century an estimated 10,000 foreign traders and merchants lived in Guangzhou, many of them Arabs and Persians.

There is some debate as to when the Tang dynasty began. Most historians argue that it was inaugurated by a Sui official named Li Yuan (later known as Gaozu) who took power after the last Sui emperor was assassinated in 618. The Tangs had Turkic influences and a little Turkish blood.

Websites and Resources

Good Websites and Sources: Wikipedia ; Google Book: China’s Golden Age: Everday Life in the Tang Dynasty by Charles ; Warring States Project Warring States Project Empress ;

Good Websites and Sources on Tang Culture: Metropolitan Museum of Art ; Tang Poems; Tang Horses China Vista : Links in this Website: CHINA ; CHINESE PAINTING


Good Websites and Sources on Early Chinese History: 1) Ancient China Life ; 2) Ancient China for School Kids ; 3) Oriental Style ; 4) Chinese Text ; 5) Minnesota State University site ; 6) ; 7) Early Medieval China Journal ; 8) History of China ; 9) U.S.C. Books: Cambridge History of Ancient China edited by Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy (1999, Cambridge University Press); The Culture and Civilization of China, a massive, multi-volume series, (Yale University Press);Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties by Jessica Rawson (British Museum, 1996)

Good Chinese History Websites: 1) Chaos Group of University of Maryland ; 2) Brooklyn College ; 3) Wikipedia article on the History of China Wikipedia 4) China Knowledge ; 5) China History Forum ; 6) e-book ; 7 ) WWW VL: History



Antique Chinese Ceramics

John Fairman


A tomb figure depicting a Turkic caravan woman rousing her camel while nursing. It is earthenware with unfired colouring and from the Tang dynasty.

Pinned from


Vase Meiping en porcelaine de type Jun Chine, fin de la dynastie Song-début de la dynastie Jin, XIII E siècle – Sotheby’s



Tang Dynasty Rule and Achievements

The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization– equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a flowering of creativity in many fields. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, flourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. [Source: The Library of Congress]

“Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art.

A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base.

 As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholarofficials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government. [Ibid]

“By the middle of the eighth century A.D., Tang power had ebbed. Domestic economic instability and military defeat in 751 by Arabs at Talas, in Central Asia, marked the beginning of five centuries of steady military decline for the Chinese empire. Misrule, court intrigues, economic exploitation, and popular rebellions weakened the empire, making it possible for northern invaders to terminate the dynasty in 907. The next half-century saw the fragmentation of China into five northern dynasties and ten southern kingdoms. [Ibid]





Tang Emperors

Tang Taizong, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, is one the most admired Chinese leaders and is known for his love of art. He so admired the calligrapher Wang His-chi he took his famous work Preface to the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion with him to his grave.

The most famous Tang ruler was Minghuang (685-761), who was also known as the “Radiant Emperor.” He developed Chang’an into a center of art and culture. His court drew scholars and artists from all over Asia

The Tang dynasty had its share of corrupt, incompetent and decadent leaders. One 8th century Tang emperor spent nearly all of his time hunting and kept 5,000 chows and a staff of 10,000 huntsmen. The ninth Tang emperor was so distracted by a concubine named Yang Guifei it led to the catastrophe of 755.








Empress Wu Zetian

Empress Wu Empress Wu Ze Tian, the first female ruler in Chinese history, usurped the throne in 690 and is credited by many historians with founding the Tang Dynasty.


The daughter of a Shanxi lumber dealer, she grew up in Shaanxi and was briefly a nun before she worked her way up to empress from a low-ranking concubine. Regarded as a tyrant, she reportedly killed many of her rivals and changed the name of the dynasty from Tang to Chou (or Zhou) although it was changed back after she died.

Empress Wu Zetian was the only female emperor in Chinese history. Her story has intrigued many in China, and has been the subject of a TV series.

 She expanded China, improved international relations and trade, raised the status of women and encouraged the arts. Under her rule great works of art such as Buddhist statuary, mounted dolls playing musical instruments, gold and silverworks, ceramics and glassware were produced. She reportedly had her own harem of men and is famous for being tactful with her husbands.. She was killed in a palace coup in A.D. 710 AD.

Wu Zetain had high-level female officials working under her. In September 2013, the BBC reported: “The ancient tomb of a female politician in China, described as the country’s “female prime minister”, has been discovered, Chinese media say. The tomb of Shangguan Wan’er, who lived from 664-710 AD, was recently found in Shaanxi province. Archaeologists confirmed the tomb was hers this week. She was a famous politician and poet and a trusted aide of Wu Zetian. The grave was discovered near an airport in Xianyang, Shaanxi province, reports said. A badly damaged epitaph on the tomb helped archaeologists confirm that the tomb was Shangguan Wan’er’s. Experts described the discovery as one of “major significance”, even though it had been subject to “large-scale damage”. “The roof had completely collapsed, the four walls were damaged, and all the tiles on the floor had been lifted up,”



Geng Qinggang, an archaeology research associate in Shaanxi, told Chinese media. “Hence, we think it must have been subject to large-scale, organised damage… quite possibly damage organised by officials,” he said. [Source: BBC News, September 12, 2013]

Tang Power and Leadership

The T’ang dynasty was the most militarily powerful of all the dynasties. It expanded the Chinese empire across the Great Wall of China and beyond the Himalayas. At its height, it administered much of present-day China and exerted control or received tributes from a dozen other kingdoms, including those in Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, Indonesia and most of Southeast Asia.

The Tang didn’t build walls. They were skilled at dealing with the Central Asian tribes that challenged them, knowing when to use diplomacy and when to go to war. The fact they were part Turkish, the ethnicity of many of the Central Asian tribes that threatened them, also helped

The Tangs ruled with a pyramidal administration system consisting of the Emperor, and three main ministries at the top. Underneath them were nine courts and six advisory boards. To discourage warlordism and establish regional power bases, China itself was broken down into 300 prefectures and 1,500 counties, a system which persists to this day.

Advances to the West by the Tang Dynasty were slowed by the Turks in the late 7th century. In 751, in the Battle of Talas, Tang Chinese forces attempting to extend the Chinese empire into Central Asia were annihilated by a Muslim army not far from Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. The defeat kept the Chinese out of Central Asia and opened up Central Asia and Western China to Islam.

Openness and Ideas in the Tang Dynasty

The Tang emperors were known for their openness to new ideas about art, religion, philosophy and music that were brought in by foreigners who flowed into China along the Silk Road trade routes.


 Unlike most Chinese dynasties which tried to cut off their empire from influences from the outside world, the Tang ruling families tolerated outsiders and members of variety of religious sects.

Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Changan, with its approximately one million inhabitants, was a well organised cosmopolitan city, where international embassies and traders had their own, designated quarters. The city bustled with Central Asian horsemen, international traders, many in their national costumes, as well as elegant beauties with tiny, painted lips, all of them immortalised in the Tang-period terracotta statuettes. The terracotta figurines also give enlightening information about the many forms of music, dance, mimes and other entertainment which were in vogue during that time.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Taoists, Confucian scholars, Nestorian Christian missionaries, Zoroastrian priests and Buddhist monks, among them ones who helped found Zen Buddhism in Japan, all felt comfortable in Tang era China and practiced and to certain degrees proselytized their religions.




New inventions from the T’ang dynasty included the magnetic compass, gunpowder, the abacus, printing, and cataract surgery. Silks, porcelain and art were traded for spices, ivory and other goods along the Silk Road caravan routes. Sea routes took Chinese goods as far away as Africa and the Middle East.

Cosmopolitan culture flourished. Tens of thousands of foreigners lived in major Chinese cities.

 Women held high government offices, played polo with men and wore men’s clothes. Chinese intermarried with nomadic peoples. Foreigners such as Turks rose to high positions in the civil service and the military.The economy changed a great deal in the Tang and Song dynasties, going from what was basically a subsistence economy to one in which peasantry was active in local and long-distance trade and non-food crops such as silk were produced on a large scale.




Religion and Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty

Tang Buddhist sculpture Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Buddhism, brought from India via Central Asia, became the dominant religion. Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism and later Islam were also practised. During liberal times they lived peacefully side by side with the traditional indigenous belief systems and ideologies, Taoism and Confucianism. In the visual arts the pan-Asian Buddhist style was combined with the refinement of Tang court elegance. Tang China was open to outside influences and the trade routes brought to Changan monks, scholars, artists, musicians and dancers from all over the then known world.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

During the 6th century Chinese Buddhism was consolidated and standardized. Great schools were founded that boasted thousands of disciples. Schools with royal patrons built huge monasteries. Between A.D. 476 and 540 the number temples rose from 6,500 to 30,900 and the number of monks and nuns grew from 80,000 to 200,000 (out of a population of 50 million).

Buddhism reached its height in the Tang Dynasty. Doctrines were refined. Schools expanded. The Pure Land School and the worship of Amitabha became widespread. Many Tang emperors were Buddhists, or at least nominally favorable to Buddhism. Some great Chinese poets from the period were monks.

In A.D. 629, the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang left the Tang dynasty capital and traveled west—on foot, on horseback and by camel and elephant—to India and returned in A.D. 645 with 700 Buddhist texts from which Chinese deepened their understanding of Buddhism. Hsuan Tsang is remembered as a great scholar for his translations from Sanskrit to Chinese but also for his descriptions of the places he visited—the great Silk Road cities of Kashgar and Samarkand and the great stone Buddhas in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. His trip was the inspiration of the for Journey to the West, widely regarded as one of the great novels of Chinese literature. [Book: “Ultimate Journey, Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment” by Richard Bernstein (Alfred A. Knopf)]

Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Chinese emperors began to favor Taoism over Buddhism;. monks and nuns were secularized; temples and libraries were destroyed. Buddhism remained overshadowed by Taoism and Confucianism until it experienced a revival in the 11th century

Battle of Talas

As China became strong during the Tang dynasty it began expanding westward, for the most part relying more on diplomatic skills than military might to achieve its goals. The strategy worked well until one Chinese viceroy went too far and ordered the murder of the khan of the Tashkent Turks.

In 751 an alliance of enraged Turks, opportunist Arabs and Tibetans maneuvered a Chinese force into the Talas Valley in present-day Kazakhstan and Kyrzgzstan. In the ensuing battle—the Battle of Talas—the Chinese were routed and forced back across the Tian Shan. Tibetans moving up from the south were driven out of the Tarim basin by Uighur Turks, allies of the Tang. The Uighars have been in the region ever since.

The Battle of Talas, ended Chinese ambitions in Central Asia. After the battle, the Turk, Arab and Tibetans splintered and instability was the rule in Central Asia until the 9th century when the Samanid dynasty rose up.




End of Tang Dynasty

The humiliations that resulted form the annihilation of the Tang forces at the Battle of Talas destabalized the Tang dynasty by showing its weaknesses and opening it up to rebellions from powerful generals.

During the Tang dynasty arts and ideas flourished when record rice harvest were being recorded, but the entire dynasty began to collapse when the rising population began to outstrip the food supply. An Arab traveler to China at end of the Tang dynasty wrote that “Chinese law permits the eating of human flesh, and this flesh is sold publically in markets” as a means of providing enough food

The Tang dynasty was greatly weakened when a powerful general named An Lushan drove the Tang emperor from the capital in 755. Even though An was killed in 757, the rebellion continues until 763 at a cost of perhaps a millions deaths. In much of the late 8th century the Tang Dynasty wa sin decline.

In the 9th century disputes within the court grew more acrimonious and the Tang dynasty weakened further. Invaders from the north destroyed the Tang dynasty in 907, and China once again was thrown into a period of anarchy and disunity that lasted this time for about a half a century.



Culture During the Tang Dynasty

Tang sleeve dancer The Tang Dynasty was a golden age for the Chinese arts. Landscape painting and bronze sculpture (Tang horses) were perfected and famous poets wrote verse.

Chinese acrobatics and dance also took off. Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Literature, the visual arts, and music flourished and the theatrical arts were evolving towards their present forms. The most influential capital of the dynasty was Changan (C’hang-an) (currently Xi’an, Hsi-an) in Central China. During the Tang dynasty it was the world’s biggest metropolis. A vast network of caravan routes, generally known as the Silk Road, connected Changan with Central Asia, India, Persia and finally with the Mediterranean world. The influence of Tang culture spread to Korea as well as to Japan, where two of its capitals, Nara and Kyoto, were built according to the city plan of Changan.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Chinese poetry reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. Poets often sat beneath the moon and drank wine from cups floated on rivers and composed poems like: “The sun beyond the mountain glows/ The Yellow River seaward flows/ But if you desire a grander sight/ The you must scale a greater height.” Poets sometimes played a game in which a cup was placed in a stream and a poet had to compose a poem before the cup floated by. If he failed he had to consume a glass of wine.

Famous Tang dynasty poets include Tu Fu (Du Fu, 712-70), Li Po (701-62,) Wang Wei (701-761), Li Bai, Bo Juyi, Li You and Huang Tingjian. Tu Fu poems inspired many Chinese painters. Xue Tao was a famous female poet. Wang Wei was a poet-painter who said “there are paintings in his poems and poems in his paintings.” See Literature

In the Tang Dynasty dances and music styles from outside of China were incorporated into Chinese dance and Chinese styles were passed onto other parts of the world, particularly Korea and Japan. Hundreds of young men and women were trained in dance and music at a school called the Academy of the Pear Garden. Tang poets wrote of “the dance of the rainbow skirt and feathered jacket” and described how dancers used their long silk sleeves to accentuate their hand movements. This kind of sleeve dancing was also depicted in sculptures and Buddhist cave art from teh Tang period.

Gambling was also popular. A crackdown on gambling included penalties of 100 lashes and death and forced tenure in the army.

Art During the Tang Dynasty

Ideas and art flowed into China on the Silk Road along with commercial goods during the Tang period. Art produced in China at this time reveals influences from Persia, India, Mongolia, Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. Tang sculptures combined the sensuality of Indian and Persian art and the strength of the Tang empire itself.


Art critic Julie Salamon wrote in the New York Times, that artists in the Tang dynasty “absorbed influences from all over the world, synthesized them and a created a new multiethnic Chinese culture.”

Tang funerary vessels often contained figures of merchants. warriors, grooms, musicians and dancers. There are some works that have Hellenistic influences that came via Bactria in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Some Buddhas of immense size were produced.

None of the tombs of the Tang emperors have been opened but some tombs of the royal family members have excavated, Most of them were thoroughly looted. The most important finds are murals and paintings in lacquer. They contain delightful images of court life.

Proto-porcelain evolved during the Tang dynasty. It was made by mixing clay with quartz and the mineral feldspar to make a hard, smooth-surfaced vessel. Feldspar was mixed with small amounts of iron to produce an olive-green glaze.







Tang Horses

Tang horses are among the most famous works of Chinese art. Made from ceramic, some are glazed in blue, green amber and have elaborate saddle blankets and tasseled bridles. Other are made of unglazed ceramic and thereby look more modern like a Rodin statute. The horses are often in frantic positions: with their heads raises and nostrils flared, or twisting around to get at something on their backs. Many had a grooved channel running the length of the arched neck, where a real horsehair mane was placed, and had a hole in their rear for a horsehair tail. Most are only around 15 inches tall.

Chinese art specialist J.J. Lally told the New York Times, “Tang horses are the most widely popular image of Chinese art because they are immediately accessible to everyone. You don’t have to read the Tang dynasty was a moment in Chinese art when there was a strong move toward realism and strong decorative impulse. Horses imported from the Near East were precious. In Tang China, the horse was the emblem of wealth and power. They are meant to embody rank and speed.”

The Chinese used horses as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600 to 1100 B.C.) but these were mainly strong, draft animals. Later they began importing horses from Central Asia and Middle East. By the Tang dynasty horses were favorite subjects of not only artists but also poets and composers. The inspiration for the many of Tang horses were Tall horses, the heavenly horses from Central Asia introduced to China in the first century B.C.







Varieties of Tang Horses

Some of the most treasured Tang horses were glazed in cobalt blue. Gallery owner Khalil Rizk told the New York Times, “Only 5 percent of Tang horses have blue glaze.

 Cobalt was put on during the last firing. Cobalt was a treasured commodity imported from the Middle East; it was more valuable than gold. Its use means the horse was for someone of the highest rank.”


Describing a relatively ordinary Tang horse that sold for $266,500 at a Christie’s auction, Wendy Moonan wrote in the New York Times, “Unglazed, it had its head lowered toward its left foreleg, which was slightly raised.”

One extraordinary glazed Tang pieces depicts a kneeling man with a horse’s head. The expression on the horse’s head is sensitive. Tang artist also made some extraordinarily beautiful ceramic animals, including a glazed earthenware camel carrying a troupe of musicians.

The highest price ever paid for ceramics and/or a Chinese work of art was $6.1 million for a Tang dynasty horse sold by the British Rail Pension Fund to a Japanese dealer at Sotheby’s in London in December 1989. Collectors like Tang horses because they can be dated with some certainty using thermoluminescnece testing.

Tang Buddhist Sculpture

The periods of Chinese Buddhist art closely parallel the phases the Buddhist religion went through in China Works that appeared in the 5th and 6th centuries were very free and individualistic. In the Tang period the art became more mature and robust, with Buddhist figures featuring graceful lines and curves. In the 10th to 13th century Buddist art became more refined. After that it was rooted in tradition and lacked innovation.

Wonderful 6th and 7th century Buddhist sculptures have been unearthed in northern China along the Silk Road in Gansu and Ningxia. This include a big-nosed clay representation of a Buddha disciple; a granite carving of Avalokitesvara, a popular Buddhist deity; and a bronze figure of a dancing Sogidian. Many of the work bears influences from Persia and Central Asia. The Sogdians were a Persian culture centered around Samarkand

A relief a Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and a life-size bodhisattva feature extraordinary detail and expression. Souren Melikian wrote in the International Herald Tribune, “A seated Buddha that was once enthroned represents a classical moment of its art. The perfect proportions project a sense of harmony and the expression of imperious illumination speaks of a powerful , self confident art. A figure in motion is unique in the art of China, with its knees very slightly flexed lifting the light drape adhering to the body.”

Tang dynasty figures are known for their provocative poses. Those that were painted are known for their soft colors and patterns.

Tang Dynasty Painting

During the Tang Dynasty ( both figure painting and landscape painting reached great heights of maturity and beauty. Forms were carefully drawn and rich colors applied in painting that were later called “gold and blue-green landscapes.” This style was supplanted by the technique of applying washes of monochrome ink that captured images in abbreviated, suggestive forms.

During the late Tang dynasty (907-960) bird, flower and animal painting were especially valued. There were two major schools of this style of painting: 1) rich and opulent and 2) “untrammeled mode of natural wilderness.” Unfortunately, few works from the Tang period remain.

Lovely murals were discovered in the tomb of Princess Yongtain, the granddaughter of Empress Wu Zetiab (624?-705) on the outskirts of Xian. One shows a lady-in-waiting holding a nyoi stick while another lady holds glassware. It is similar to tomb art found in Japan. A painting on silk cloth dated to the A.D. mid-8th century found in the tomb of a rich family in the Astana tombs near Urumqi in western China depicts a noblewoman with rouge cheeks deep in concentration as she plays go.

Famous Tang dynasty paintings include Zhou Fang’s Palace Ladies Wearing Flowered Headdresses, a study of several beautiful, plump women having their hair done; Wei Xian’s The Harmonious Family Life of an Eminent Recluse, a Five Dynasties portrait of a father teaching his son in a pavilion surrounded by jagged mountains; and Han Huang’s Five Oxen, an amusing depiction of a five fat oxen.

Wang Wei (701-761) is a legendary Tang dynasty painter and poet who said “there are paintings his poems and poems in his paintings.”

Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

In the 1998 sea cumcumber divers working in the Gelesa Straight found some coral-encrusted ceramics, and further scraping away revealed a 9th century Arab dhow laden with 60,000 handmade ceramics and some pieces of gold and silver. Much of the cargo was made of up cheap, mass-produced, Chinese-made bowls, known as Changsa bowls, placed n large storage jars. There was also ink pots, spices jars of various sizes and ewers. [Source: Simon Worrall, National Geographic, June 2009]

The destination of the ship appeared to be Middle East, meaning that ship was traveling the maritime Silk Road. Many of the bowls were decorated with geometric decorations and Koranic motifs that were clearly intended for Middle Eastern market. This implied she objects were made to order for Middle Eastern customers.

The dhow was almost 20 meters long. It resembled a kind of sailing dhow still used in Oman called a baitl qarib. Built of African and Indian wood, it had a raked prow and stern and was fitted with square sails and made of planks sewn together with coconut husks fiber.

Significance of the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, “For more than a decade, archaeologists and historians have been studying the contents of a ninth-century Arab dhow that was discovered in 1998 off Indonesia’s Belitung Island. The sea-cucumber divers who found the wreck had no idea it eventually would be considered one of the most important maritime discoveries of the late 20th century. The dhow was carrying a rich cargo “ 60,000 ceramic pieces and an array of gold and silver works “ and its discovery has confirmed how significant trade was along a maritime silk road between Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Iraq. It also has revealed how China was mass-producing trade goods even then and customizing them to suit the tastes of clients in West Asia. [Source: Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop, New York Times, March 7, 2011]

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds,” an exhibition that opened at the ArtScience Museum in Singapore in 2011 and was put together by the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Smithsonian Institution in Washington, featured amny artifacts from the belitung shipwreck. “This exhibition tells us a story about an extraordinary moment in globalization,” Julian Raby, director of the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, told the New York Times. “It brings to life the tale of Sinbad sailing to China to make his fortune. It shows us that the world in the ninth century was not as fragmented as we assumed. There were two great export powers: the Tang in the east and the Abbasid based in Baghdad.”

Until the Belitung find, historians had thought that Tang China traded primarily through the land routes of Central Asia, mainly on the Silk Road. Ancient records told of Persian fleets sailing the Southeast Asian seas but no wrecks had been found, until the Belitung dhow. Its cargo confirmed that a huge volume of trade was taking place along a maritime route, said Heidi Tan, a curator at the Asian Civilisations Museum and a co-curator of the exhibition.

Mr. Raby said: “The size of the find gives us a sense of two things: a sense of China as a country already producing things on an industrialized scale and also a China that is no longer producing ceramics to bury.” He was referring to the production of burial pottery like camels and horses, which was banned in the late eighth century. “Instead, kilns looked for other markets and they started producing tableware and they built an export market.”

Artifacts from the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds” featured only 450 of the 60,000 objects found in the shipwreck but the rows of similar bowls that were displayed underscored the importance and size of the find.



Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, ‘stacked in the dhow, hundreds of tall stoneware jars each held more than a hundred nested Changsha bowls “ named after the Changsha kilns in Hunan where they were produced. Of the thousands of hand-painted pieces, almost all carry one of a few set patterns, but these were copied by many hands, resulting in an impression of huge variety.

Not all of the ceramics were mass-produced. Among the most interesting pieces in the exhibition is an extremely rare dish, one of three found in the wreck, with floral lozenge motifs surrounded by sprigs of foliage. They are believed to be the earliest known complete Chinese blue-and-white ceramics.

Ms. Tan, the curator, said: “It demonstrates that the Chinese potters were already experimenting with imported cobalt blue from Iraq, which they applied as underglaze painted decoration, some 500 years earlier than the famous blue and white porcelain of the 14th century.” At the time of the dhow’s discovery, cobalt-blue pigments had been found only in the Middle East, not yet in China, said Alan Chong, director of the Asian Civilisations Museum.

Aside from the rare ceramics, the haul also contained gold and silver objects, some of which Mr. Raby of the Smithsonian described as “of the very best quality you can see, clearly of imperial quality,” adding, “so we believe these were possible diplomatic gifts.” The form and decorative motifs of an octagonal gold cup “ musicians and dancers with long hair and billowing robes “suggest Central Asian metal wares. Mr. Raby said it was believed to be the largest known such gold cup from Tang China, even upstaging, he added, one of the great treasures of Tang gold and silver work: the so-called Hejiacun Hoard, found in what had been one of the southern suburbs of the Tang capital of Xian.

Tang Image Sources: 1) Tang Camel. Ohio State University; 2) Empresss Wu, ; 3) Tang map, St. Marin edu ; 4) Tang Buddist sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art; 5) Sleeve dance, McClung Museum ; 6) Tang horses, Antiques and Art Online;

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated August 2013









US$ 3600



For more knowledge about Tang Dynasty and relation with Indonesian Ancestor read and look theinfo below

(Dr Iwan)

The Chinese  And Indonesian Ancestors

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C




Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA





The Map Of Indonesian Archiphelago

Swarnadwipa means the gold Land,also called Andalas Islandbecaue due to Tambo Minangkabau they came from Andalucia

 This island  with the famous port Lobu Tua (barus) exist since 3000 years BC with their Barus talc or camphor which used to mummification during pharaos

Also from the Yew record known Ophir mountain at Pasaman West sumatera where the gold mining from the Minangkabau Kingdom which export from the old port inderagiri, Barus and Pedir.Then in this island in Chinese record exist the bigger empire Srivijaya which called San Fo shi


Java Dwipa or The Rice Land which called Labadiu by Ptelomeus.

 At this island found Argyre City (the city of silver) may be this the old Sunda Kingdom or Salaknegara ,

 Chinese Wang Yuan record told that the java coin made from silver and Tin.

The Rome Monk Ordorico de Pordone told that the Java kingdom palace full with gold,silver and jewellary.

At This island very famous  many kingdom like  Tarumanegara,Old Mataram.Sunda,Singosari,Kediri,Majaphit,walisongo,Islamic mataram and Madura Kingdom.

The island of ocean goddest , from Chinese record Tai Png huan yu chi was called Chin Li Pi Si or  nusa kencana and also called pulo chung ( the island of ujung tanah)  in Malaya,In this island very famous Kutai and the Tanjungpura kingdom.


The small island called Lesser Sunda.Bali was the best landscape island and many traveler visit this island since  Rsi Markandiya in 8 th Century.In this lesser sunda island there were the famous Horse,and there the bali and Lombok kingdom there.



The Arabs called the Sulawesi with Sholibis name ..

Sulawesi name supposedly comes from the word ‘ Sula ‘ which means island and ‘ iron ‘ . Sulawesi Island is the largest since the first bessi ( iron ) , so it is not surprising Ussu and around the lake Matana containing iron and Nikkel .

The Dutch call this island by the name of Celebes .

 The island has been inhabited by humans since 30,000 years ago as evidenced by the presence of ancient relics on the island . For example, the location of prehistoric stone age Besoa Valley



Maluku has a real name ” Jazirah al – Mulk ” which means a collection / royal peninsula consisting of small kingdoms . Maluku is known as the Thousand Island region and socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural resources .

In 4000 years ago

 in the kingdom of Egypt , Pharaoh 12th dynasty , Sesoteris III . Through the data regarding the transaction Egyptian archaeologists in importing incense , ebony , incense , ivory , from the mysterious land where ” Punt ” is derived .

 Although archaeological support is lacking, the country ” baboons ” can be identified after Giorgio Buccellati find a container that contains objects such as clove in the middle Euphrates .

 In the period 1700 BC ,

 the cloves are just in the Maluku islands , Indonesia . In the Middle Ages ( around 1600 AD ) clove spice once one of the most popular and expensive in Europe , exceeding the price of gold .

In addition to cloves , spices from the Moluccas is the fruit of Nutmeg . Fruit Nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ) tree is a plant form that is derived from the Banda Islands , Maluku .


Papua is the second largest island in the world . At around the year 200 AD , Geography expert named Ptolamy LABADIOS call it by name .

At the end of the year 500 AD ,

 the Chinese author named Ghau Yu TUNGKI Kua gives the name ,

and by the end of the year 600 AD , the kingdom of Srivijaya Papua naming using JANGGI name . Tidore give a name to this island and its inhabitants as PAPA – UA that has changed the title into PAPUA .

In the 18th century BC , the rulers of Srivijaya empire , sending offerings to the Chinese empire . In the offering would be some birds of paradise , which is believed to be a bird of paradise garden that is native of Papua .

 With a strong fleet Sriwijaya visit Maluku and Papua to trade spices – spices , perfume – perfume , pearls and feathers of birds of Paradise .



In the early centuries AD

began the relationship between the Euro, Indian and Chinese empire with Indonesian, Malaysian and other Asian country

What .When,Where and How were  the relationship ?  

Who were the  Euro,Chinese and Indian eminent  People an Leaders that influenced the development of the kingdom in Indonesia and Malaysia at the beginning of the first century until the advent of the kingdom of Srivijaya?

Information relating to the above must be known by all generations now  especially the young  generations in order  to take a good examples  to be imitated and prevent recurrence of the things that are not good or bad in the present and future

Look carefully the informations below

Learn from the past

Alam Terkembang Menjadi Guru

Jakarta,February 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA




2 BC

The Godawaya shipwreck treasure at Sri lanka

Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings

 Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.



Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings.

 “I have over 30 years experience as a diver having dived in seas off Germany and England. I have more than 5000 hours of diving experience

and I run an international diving school





at the Coral Sands Hotel in Hikkaduwa.

Some shipwrecks in the Galle area are over 500 years old and full of archaeological value. Some organized groups use dynamite to get at treasures in ships sunk between Galle and Ambalangoda.”


Some steps have to be taken by marine archaeologists to save these treasures from vandals, he said.

An ancient clay pot retrieved from the seas off Godawaya in Ambalantota
Somadasa inspecting the remains an undersea wreck
A bell retrieved from the ocean floor

Ambalagoda srilanka art


The ambaguan south india srilanka art had many realted with Indonesian Hindu art at Bali



Diplomatic relations between Rome and South India are known by historian in 2 BC

.1st Century

2 AD


St Thomas ,

one of the disciples Of Jesus Christ came to India in 52 AD,


at Kodungallur (Mallyankara)

 in Kerala,





conveated thousand of Christian faith.

St.Thomas, referred to as Didymus, in the Gospel of St.John is one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. He is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus.


St Thomas  is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus

The Great Famine of 843 (90 AD)



The monsoons

are a series of winds that bring in moist clouds that drench the areas of India and SoutheastA picture of the onset dates of Monsoons in the Indian Subcontinent. These did not occur in the year 843 (90 AD).Asia in rain during the Summer.

These weather patterns are very sensitive and vulnerable to changes in the environment. In the summer of the year 843 (90 AD)

the monsoons did not arrive in Southeast Asia and the people of Nan as well as Srivijaya fell into famine.


At the same time the deserts of Northern Sinica began to send great sandstorms further outside the desert than they had ever reached before, which also chocked many of the river valleys of Sinica.

The death that ensued was massive and amplified even more so by the fact that it came at the end of a time of long and sustained peace between the powers of East Asia.

The only areas that were rather uneffected by these developments were the Indonesian islands of Srivijaya, which many of the wealthier members of their society fled to after leaving the continent, as well as the Easternmost areas of the Second Han Dynasty and the Japanese Colonies.

The Srivijaya were, for the most part, to far for people from Sinica to reach them.




The dying people of what was Song and Tang moved East.

The death that surrounded the people of Sinica was so great that it became the topic of the first novel story of a young boy losing his parents to a long move to the the city of Shanghai to find food and a future.

These new cities were started on routes moving to the East grew into trading centers once the rains returned and the Western areas were suitable for repopulation. .

The move to retake the Mongolian parts of North Asia by the Japanese was met without resistance by the leadership of Mongolia who would greet any occupier who could offer them food

The World around the Indian Ocean after the Great Famine of 843 (90 AD).

Red: Maurya Empire, Orange: Roman Empire, Green: Srivijaya Empire, Light Blue: Parthian Empire, Blue: Ethiopian Kingdom, Purple: Satavahana Kingdom most no defenses on their borders with the retreat of the soldiers back to the islands.

Srivijaya was however of a firm diplomatic ground with the other Empires.

The next movement in the Asian Continent in response to the monsoons was in the country that was most effected by monsoon cycle, India.

The Indians began a campaign of migration in search of food and money. What reserves the successful Maurya Empire had went to these ships that began to explore the Indian Ocean and to control it so that they can gain food from more fertile areas.

The first move was made by a wealthy family from around the Andhra Coast.

The second branch of the Indian exploration for food went to the islands of the Srivijaya Empire

The First King of Satavahana


The Kingdom of Satavahana 


was established in a rebellion to the Maurya rulers.

The earlier civil war which resulted in a major blow to some of the more independent minded clans solidified the Maurya Dynasty but came at the expense of other clans like the Satavahana.


Among these was the Sungas which later immigrated to the Srivijaya Empire, and in many ways aided them in exposing the weaknesses and possible routes of invasion of the Peninsula.

The desire to take the lands of any other Empire was a source of support for these radicals in some parts of India.

They would be even more angered at the developments in Srivijaya, an Empire which had been taunting the Indians with threats and embargoes on their trade and even going so far as to attack the Indian Coast directly




The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed.

Any money that could be extracted from the traveling people was, the inability of them to leave after they ran out of money led many to settle around the richest person who could orchestrate the movement of food.


During the Han dynasty,

 occupied Vietnam (Chaio Chih) received ships travelling to China from Java, Burma, Iran and the Roman empire. Khmers and Indians were living in major centres. Overseas trade was controlled by the Chinese.
Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p..24-25

A Han dynasty dragon bowl excavated in Indonesia is strikingly similar to one excavated in Guangzhou.
Maritime Silk Route 1996, p.69


Dr Iwan Notes

I seen at Jakarta Indonesia National Central Museum some Han dynasty Ceramic,  and in my collections I have found some artifact of Han dynasty plate from west java,  and artifact eathern jar fom west borneo, also

one Han dynasty cash coin found at Bali.






Menhir  Sang Hyang Heuleut

This site found near the Pulosari Mout at Padeglang area Bantam province West Java.

The people there said that this Menhir were they husband and wife  ancestor

Situs Sang Hyang Dengdek

Sanghyang Dengdek ”Sang Hyang Dengdek”  or other name “ Prabu Jayasati Wisesa” were the menhir of the man and  Sanghyang Heuleut or  “Mas Ratu Lenglang Jagad”  was the the women menhir

The people there belief this menhir will made the people  who visit the Menhir be success , the Menhir also named  “Arca Kisemar”  which made everybody who look this Menhir became the intersesting human  and  everybody will like them

Dr Iwan Visit Sang Hyang Dendek in 2005

From the toll road Jakarta-merak

 after toll cibitung

Then toll ciujung bridge

About 30 km

Turn left

Out of the toll road  Serang east gate


 we met the banten capital city serang




Serang tempo dulu



Serang city now


We met

 the Indonesian Police Banten Headqauter


 Banten Gouvenor Office  at Serang city








Out of Serang City about 3 km

we can visit Banten Girang location

Across the cibanten river with


 the bridge across cibanten river









at the front

Museum banten girang



Turn left met the old cibanten river site

At this site we can seen


 the old stone at the cibanten river


And turn right

 the Banten Girang location ex excavation


and I still found there

Artifact of

 the Yuan qingpai ewer 

and fish celadon bowl artifact








then went to Padeglang city about 30 km from serang




desa Sang Hyang Dengdek 31 km dari kota padeglang


 Dat  Cipurut village

Sang Hyang Dengdek village ,saketi about   61 km from Serang City




Situs Batu Goong – Citaman




 near ancient telaga


Kingdom of Salakapura

Start in 130 A.D



after that I visit banten lama

and found very rare dragon overglazed  red Bowl


Read the complete info at Banten Kingdom history Collections

at   a small village named Pandegelang

 from a guy named Aki Tirem,an Indian.

He was a village’s chief.




Then came Dewawarman, an Indian trader

 which marry  Aki Tirem daughter.

When Aki tirem died, Dewawarman hold the power and later built a Kingdom named Salakanagara(from old Sundannese Salaka means Silver and Nagara means country) or Rajaapura samoe says this

what Phtolomeus called Argyre.

 Dalanagar reign in Westren Java from 200-362

List of Salaka Nagara Kings:

King .Dewawarman I  until VIII


Salakanagara Kingdom was the Earliest First Kingdom In Indonesia  

The Early Ancestor was

 Aki Tirem

and the First King was


 the Indian envoy to Java and then He merried to


Larasati Pohaci (the daughter of Aki Tirem),


Then  Dewawarman as the King with named

 “Prabhu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Raksagapurasagara” .






2nd  Century

130-150 AD


Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.

He was the grandson of the celebrated Sah[1] 

king Chastana.


 Rudradaman I was instrumental in the decline of the Satavahana Empire.

after he became the king and then strengthened his kingdom. During his reign he married a Hindu woman and converted to




192 AD


Wang Yun (137–192),[1] 

courtesy name Zishi,

was a Minister over the Masses 







Emperor Xian 

in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.



During Wang Yun’s time,

 the emperors were mere puppets under the power of eunuchs and warlords.

In 192, Wang Yun plotted and successfully staged

Lü Bu‘s

 assassination of 


Dong Zhuo,

 the tyrannical warlord in power.



Dong Zhuo’s former subjects soon led a coup,


 in which


 Wang Yun along with most of his family were executed.

194 AD

Towards the end of the Han Dynasty,


 Sun Ce,

the eldest son of


the warlord Sun Jian,



 and his followers borrowed troops from


the warlord Yuan Shu

and embarked on a series of military conquests


 in the Jiangdong

and Wu regions between 194 and 199,






seizing several territories previously occupied by

warlords such as 


Liu Yao, 



Liu Yao was an official in the Jiangdong region during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. He ruled for a brief period of time before Sun Ce invaded and conquered his territory, and his Chinese style name was Zhengli .
Unfortunately, Liu Yao was not a good military commander despite being a good administrator.

When Sun Ce attacked him, many his advisors correctly suggested to him that he should name Taishi Ci as the commander-in-chief of his force to defend themselves against Sun Ce, but Liu Yao refused, fearing that Taishi Ci was a fugitive who had just joined him, and his reputation would be tarnished for favoritism, since he was very good friend with Taishi Ci.

The mistake proved to be fatal for Liu Yao and his defeat was generally the same as described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms, and Liu Yao soon died at the age of 42 after fled to Dantu .

After Taishi Ci surrendered to Sun Ce and sent to ask the surrender of Liu Yao’s remaining force, Liu Yao’s son agreed and more than ten thousand begun their service to Sun Ce, with Liu Yao’s son eventually rose in ranks in later eras under Sun Quan.


Yan Baihu 




Wang Lang


Wang Lang (onyomi: Ō Rō) is one of the rulers of the Wu Territory.

 He, along with Yan Baihu and Liu Yao, was defeated by Sun Ce and he fled to Wei where he served as a high-ranking official.


196 AD

Sun Ce broke off relations with

 Yuan Shu around 196-197

 after the latter declared himself emperor —

 an act deemed as treason against 

Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han Dynasty.

The warlord Cao Cao,  who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked  Emperor Xian

 to grant Sun Ce the title of

 “Marquis of Wu” (吳侯).


3rd Century

The Satavahanas In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states


According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD



Sun Ce was assassinated in the summer of 200 and was succeeded by his younger brother,

 Sun Quan.

 Sun Quan, like his elder brother, also paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories


208 AD

In 208, Sun Quan allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs.

218 AD

 Sun Quan and Liu Bei maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province



219 AD

In 219, Sun Quan severed ties with Liu Bei when he sent his general Lü Meng to invade Liu’s territories in Jing Province.

 Guan Yu, who was defending Liu Bei’s assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan’s forces.

After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan’s domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered roughly present-day Hunan and parts of Hubei.


220 AD

In 220, Cao Cao’s son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han Dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei.

Sun Quan agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king — “King of Wu” (吳王) — by Cao Pi.

221 AD

A year later, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han


222 AD

In 222, Liu Bei launched a military campaign against Sun Quan to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu,

 leading to the Battle of Xiaoting.

However, Liu Bei suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan’s general Lu Xun and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later.

Liu Bei’s successor,

 Liu Shan,

and his regent,

 Zhuge Liang,

 made peace with Sun Quan later and reaffirmed their previous alliance.







 Sun Quan

declared independence from Wei in 222,

but continued to rule as “King of Wu” until 229, when he declared himself “Emperor of Wu”. His legitimacy was recognised by Shu.






Old Malay Kingdom in Jambi

In Jambi area there are three old Malay kingdoms ,

namely , Koying , Tupo , and Kantoli .

Koying kingdom found in China notes made ​​by K’ang – and Wan – chen tai of


the Wu dynasty ( 222-208 )

about the country Koying .

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD


also in South Sumatra and Lampung Ranau area

 has found indications of trading activities undertaken by Tonkin or Tongkin and Vietnam or Fu – nan in the same century . Instead of tiles Han dynasty ( 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD ) found in a particular region of Sumatra .



The possibility of the spread of various countries in Central Sumatra to Palembang in South and north of the River Tungkal described by Obdeyn ( 1942 ) , but the picture was standing there Koying country .


 If true Koying located east Tupo or Thu – po , Tchu – po , Chu – po and his position at the mouth of the confluence of two rivers , then there are two places so the Muara Sabak Zabaq , Djaba , Java , Java and Muara Tembesi or Fo – ts’I , San – fo – tsi ‘ , Che – li -fo – che before seroang up in Jambi tchan – pie , Sanfin , Melayur , Moloyu , Malalyu .


Thus as if displacement Ancient Malay kingdom of Srivijaya pre – shift from west to east following the Gulf Wen silting caused by sediment carried by the river , especially the Batang Tembesi .

Direct trade relations occurred in trade with countries outside around the Gulf and the Strait of Malacca Wen will most likely be around the country Koying Alam Kerinci .


Dr Iwan Note

At Kerinci Sungai Penuh city in 1985, when visit with my whole family I found

the Ancient Chinese brass statue





222-223 AD

Sun Quan ruled for over 20 years and his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including

 the battles of Ruxu (222–223)

228 AD

The battle of Shiting (228)

234 AD

The Battle Of Hefei (234).

However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei also never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze.


 Sun Deng, died in 241

242 AD

A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan’s sons in the later part of his reign — Sun Quan instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242  after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba.


The conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan’s imperial court.


Sun Quan eventually deposed

 Sun He and forced

 Sun Ba to commit suicide,

while Lu Xun and many other ministers who took either Sun He’s or Sun Ba’s side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan appointed his youngest son, 

Sun Liang,

as the crown prince after the incident

252 AD

Sun Quan died in 252 and was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Jun serving as regents.

253 AD

In 253, Zhuge Ke was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, and the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun’s hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen,

255 AD


 after Sun Chen  death. During Sun Liang’s reign,

  rebellions broke out in the Wei commandery of Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) in 255


 257-258 AD

The Rebellion  257-258.

Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions respectively in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering much losses.


258 AD

Sun Liang was deposed in 258

by Sun Chen,


who installed 


Sun Xiu,

another son of Sun Quan, on the throne.


Sun Xiu

killed Sun Chen later in

 The Sun Xiu coup

with the help of 

Zhang Bu and Ding Feng


264 AD

Sun Xiu died of illness in 264

, a year after 

Shu was quenquer By Wei


At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi (交趾) in the south.

The ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu 

decided to install Sun He’s son,

 Sun Hao, on the throne.



In the beginning of Sun Hao’s reign,

the emperor reduced taxes, gave relief to the poor, and granted freedom to a large number of palace maids.

 However, Sun Hao gradually became more cruel and superstitious and started indulging in wine and women instead of finding ways to revive his declining state.

Sun Hao’s tyranny caused widespread anger and hatred towards him in Wu, but it was due to

the efforts of officials such as

 Lu Kai and Lu Kang 

that Wu was able to remain relatively stable and peaceful.



In 265, Sima Yan ended the state of Cao Wei by forcing its last ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate in his favour, and then established the Jin Dynasty.


In 275, Jin forces led by Du Yu, Wang Jun and others attacked Wu from six directions.

Sun Hao attempted to put up resistance by sending his armies to fight the Jin invaders, but the Wu forces suffered several consecutive defeats and even the Wu chancellor, Zhang Ti, was killed in action.


Seeing that Wu was doomed to fall, Sun Hao surrendered to the Jin Dynasty in 280, marking the end of Wu and the reunification of China at the end of the Three Kingdoms period.



Jin Dynasty



There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang










Western Jin

 (ch: 西晉, 265–316)

Sima Yan

Emperor Wu Di

Capital Luoyang





In 285,


 The emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305)


partitioned the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.[3] 

Mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire’s

 east and west 



290 AD

Emperor Sima zhong(Hui Di)




4th Century

301 AD

Sima  Lun


307 AD


Sima chi

(Emperor Huai)
















Emperor  of Jin: After the Fall of LuoyangIn

311 Luoyang fell to Han Zhao forces, and Emperor Huai was captured.




Sima Ye(Min Di)




Eastern Jin

 (ch: 東晉 317–420).


Sima rui


Capital Jiankang


In early 318,


Han Zhao’s emperor Liu Cong executed Emperor Min, and three months later, news arrived in Jiankang.



By 320,


Emperor Yuan’s relationship with Wang Dun was at a breaking point, as Wang Dun had grown more and more arrogant and controlling of the western provinces.

 Emperor Yuan feared him

Between 324 and 330

,Constantine I (r. 306–337)

transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople (“City of Constantine”) andNova Roma (“New Rome”).[n 1] 


375 AD

About  Koying (Old Malay Kingdom Jambi)

this country is also included in the T’ung – tien encyclopedia written by Tu – yu ( 375-812 ) and copied by Ma – tu – an- lin in the encyclopedia Wen- hsien – t’ung – k’ao .






Explained that in the kingdom there Koying volcano and its position

in the east 5000 li Chu – po ( Jambi )



For the First time

 in 1984

I visit jambi from Padang City


 by my Toyota landcruiser BJ 40 diesel

like this


and near muara bulian I met

the kubu people



 and with the hepng of my friend Drg Ali Hanfiah

 I with my wifw Lily,and two son albert and Anton

went to candi muara Jambi starting from

the river at jambi city at the back of Police sectors


by boat across the river from Jambi


The first time visit


at the candi still seen the durian and langsat tree on the candi






the second visit with my son Albert and Dr Sjafrizal by road


with Daihatsu Feroza new car I bring from Jakarta to Bajubang

where Albert starting work at Pertamina oil explorations there and met his friend Heru and senior Mr Bambang in 1999

From the back of jambi sultanate palace

We wen to

 the village rantau panjang


then across the bridge to

Candi muara Jambi



Museum candi muara jambi




Women statue





I have seen the dog statue at the museum candi muara jambi,and then in surabaya street antique market in Jakarta I f0und that statue artifact







Makara at  candi Kedaton



Many small candi there





Sima shao

Emperor Ming of Jin (晋明帝/晉明帝, pinyin Jìn Míngdì, Wade-Giles Chin Ming-ti) (299 – 18 October 325), personal name Sima Shao(司馬紹), courtesy name Daoji (道畿), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).


Empress Yu’s father Yu Chen (庾琛) was the governor of Kuaiji Commandery (會稽, roughmodern Shaoxing, Zhejiang),

 and later served on the staff of Sima Rui the Prince of Langye (laterEmperor Yuan) when Sima Rui was posted at Jianye.

 She was considered kind and beautiful, and Sima Rui took her to be his son Sima Shao’s wife empress Yu


Emperor Ming only ruled briefly and died in 326.

 Initially, he left a balance of power between high level officials that he entrusted the four-year-old Crown Prince Yan (who succeeded to the throne as Emperor Cheng) with,

 but after Empress Yu was honored as Empress Dowager Yu, she was encouraged by these officials to be regent, and soon Yu Liang became alone the most powerful official of the empire.


During sima shao  brief reign (323-325),


 he led the weakened Jin out of domination by the warlord Wang Dun, but at his early death,  the empire was left to his young son

 Emperor Cheng(sima Yan),


 and the fragile balance of power that he created was soon broken, leading to the Su Jun Disturbance and weakening the Jin state even further.

The imperial princes Sima Zong (司馬宗) the Prince of Nandun and Sima Yang (司馬) the Prince of Xiyang, all of whom were powerful during Emperor Ming’s reign but who had been removed from powerful positions under Empress Dowager Yu’s regency.





 In winter 326,

 he accused Sima Zong of treason and killed him, demoted Sima Yang, and exiled Yu Yin. This led to the people losing confidence in him



In 327, Yu Liang further resolved on separating Su, then the governor of Liyang Commandery (歷陽, roughly modern Chaohu, Anhui) from his troops, and he promoted Su to be the minister of agriculture—a post that did not involve commanding troops.


Su saw his intent and declared a rebellion, with Zu’s assistance.



Yu Liang initially thought that Su could be easily defeated, but instead Su quickly arrived at the capital early 328 and captured it.

Yu Liang was forced to flee. Meanwhile, Su pillaged the capital, and it was said that even Empress Dowager Yu’s servant girls became spoils for his troops.

Further, it was said that Su himself “humiliated” Empress Dowager Yu—although the method of humiliation was not specified in history. She died in distress and fear.

 Her son Emperor Cheng would become Su’s captive for months before other provincial generals would converge on Jiankang and defeat Su.

Mid-4th century –


 Wang Xizhi makes a portion of a letter from the Feng Ju album. Six Dynasties period.



 It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.







Salakanagara later replace by

 Tarumanegara dynasty


the founder of  

Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.




 was the capital of  salakanagara from

  363 AD

and  still as the center of government from  Dewawarman I – Dewawarman VIII.

 Jayasingawarman, the founder of  Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.




In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//



Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.


I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.


All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,


please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java


This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

  • The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan


2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact









(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact




(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding


Batujaya Museum




in small museums near candi Jiwa










379 AD





Theodosius I (r. 379–395),

 Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and others such asRoman polytheism were proscribed.

And finally,










 Southern and Northern Dynasties



Two wooden sculptures from China, created in about the 3rd of 4th centuries BC. are among the earliest known human figures in Chinese art. They represent attendants buried with the dead.
















Gujarat trader

The Chinese records

give a graphic picture of the long trade routes across their country,



around the south of the Gobi desert,

to the Oxus River,





and on to


An alternate route was by sea from



the Malay peninsula





, pass

 the southern tip of India

 and into

 the Persian Gulf.

Yule writes, “At this time, (early fifth century)

the Euphrates

was navigable

as high as Hira,

a city lying

southwest of ancient Babylon …


and the ships of India and China were constantly to be seen moored before the houses of the town.”38

The Chinese either turned their goods,


 chiefly silks,

 over to the Arabs here, or over to the Parthians at the Oxus River, the latter then bringing them to Hira.


There they were transshipped around

the Arabian peninsula,


the Red Sea



Solomon’s Ezion-geber


 the Aelana (modern Akabah) of the Romans;

from there

 caravans carried them



Petra, the great market city,


to sell them to

the western traders.

Ancient Chinese traders








the reign of


Justinian I (r. 527–565),

the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterraneancoast, including north Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries.


the reign of


 Maurice (r. 582–602),


the Empire’s eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised.


However, his assassination caused a two-decade-long war with 



Sassanid Persia

 which exhausted the Empire’s resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.


Dr Iwan Noteas

In 2011 I found


The Queen Sasanid silver coin

in Bukittinggi west Sumatra

The Iran  Sasanid kindom during


Empress Puran 7th Century,

bring by Gujarat Trader during Srivijaya empire in Indonesia and they had trading with the Minangkabau marchant at Mingkabau Kingdom (Pagaruyung),( The first report found in Indonesia-auth,anoher report from Rusia)




The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C



Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA






6th Century

Around the year 500,

Srivijayan roots began to develop around present day 



in modern Indonesia.

The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres.

The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[16] 

The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire’s relations with rival river systems such as Batang Hari, centred in Jambi






In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

7th Century



The country of Fu-lin, also called Ta-ts’in, lies above the western sea.

In the southeast it borders on Po-ssu (Persia)….

 The emperor Yang-ti of the Sui dynasty (A.D. 605-617) always wished to open intercourse with Fu-lin, but did not succeed.


The several accounts known in Chinese literature of

 the mysterious country in the west called


is declared to be identical with

 the country from ancient times known as


This is known from the texts of the T’ang dynasty, which use the two names are interchangeable terms.

It has been concluded by the Chinese that Ta-ts’in is Syria, and if that is the case,

then Fu-lin must be Syria.

The author is disinclined to be guided by this kind of logic. Friedrich Hirth believes that Ta-ts’in is the Roman empire.

However the detail placed on record in the contemporary Chinese texts is confined to its Asiatic provinces, for which reason Antioch is described as the capital city.

 Hirth considers Fu-lin to be Byzantium and Ta-ts’in to be certain Asiatic portions of the empire.

 After this analysis, there still remain quite a number of important points to be settled in connection with both Ta-ts’in and Fu-lin

5th Century

According to the Chinese annals, Funan and Pan-pan were known where Mahāyāna Buddhism flourished since the fifth century and contributed to China in the field of Buddhism

.So, when the Srivijaya, the Tang court gave them the name of ‘室利佛逝Shi-li-fo-shi).

This name includes the Buddha (佛).

This means special treatment for Srivijaya.



610 AD



the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641),

the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5]


 In summary,

 while it maintained Roman state traditions, Byzantium is distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by


 Orthodox Christianity 



rather than


 Roman polytheism.[6]

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery.


The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.


Its capital city was Constantinople



(modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context),  it survived the 5th century 




 and fall of the Western Roman Empire

and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

. Both “Byzantine Empire” and “Eastern Roman Empire” are historiographical terms applied in later centuries; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roma Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr.Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum),[1] and Romania (Ῥωμανία).[2]

c.616 CE:

The maternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad, Abu Waqqas, joined a trading voyage from Ethiopia to Guangzhou. He then returned to Arabia, and came back to Guangzhou 21 years later with a copy of the Koran.

He founded the Mosque of Remembrance,

near the Kwang Ta (Smooth Minaret) built by the Arabs as a lighthouse.

Abu Waqqas tomb is in the Muslim cemetery in Guangzhou.



Liu Chih,

The Life of the Prophet (12 vols), 1721, quoted by the Islamic Council of Victoria, Four missionaries were sent to China by the prophet Mohammad, and two died in Quanzhou.


 They were buried as honoured guests, and the tombs repeatedly repaired and embellished until the present.
Wang Lianmao (ed),
Return to the City of Light, p.99, and Quanzhou site captions, citing Ming Shu, ‘A history of Fujian province


Tang Dynasty

The death of

Emperor Yang Ti of Sui

resulted in a Sui Kingdom civil war from which

King Li Yuan (of Western Wei) later became

the first Tang Emperor Kao Tsu


his son Li Shih-min arose victorious,

establishing the T’ang dynasty and extending the unification of China for another 300 years. Li Yuan, adopting the title


T’ang Kao Tsu, ruled from AD 618-626



then abdicated in favor of his son Li Shih-min who adopted the title

T’ai Tsung and ruled from AD 627 to 649.

Both were able rules under whom T’ang began its rise to greatness. The next 300 years was a time of relative calm, prosperity and enlightenment with the cultural arts dominating over the military arts.







During the patriarchate of

Syrian missionaries

Mar Ishu Jahb II, 636,

 went to China, and for 150 years this mission was active…. 109 Syrian missionaries have worked in China during 150 years of the Chinese mission….

They went out from Beth Nahrin, the birthplace of Abraham, the father of all believers.

The Syrian missionaries traveled on foot;

 they had sandals on their feet, and a staff in their hands, and carried a basket on their backs, and in the basket was the Holy Write and the cross.

They took the road around the Persian Gulf; went over deep rivers and high mountains, thousands of miles. On their way they met many heathen nations and preached to them the gospel of Christ.20






During the early years of the Mohammedan regime,

 the Syrian Christian churches had more freedom and peace than under the Persian kings.

A concordat was signed with Mohammed whereby the Christians would pay tribute, in time of war shelter endangered Muslims and refrain from helping the enemy.

In exchange they were to be given religious toleration, though they were not to proselytize, and they would not be required to fight for Mohammed.21

He had reason to be friend the Christians for a “Nestorian” had been Mohammed’s teacher at one point and, in some early battles, certain Christian communities had actually fought on his side against pagan tribes.22

So much Christian influence, though highly distorted, is apparent in his teaching that Islam has been called a Christian heresy









It was not until the seventh century

 that two events brought about the demise of this great trading center.

The first was

the smuggling of silkmoth eggs

 into Syria, concealed in a bamboo cane,


the presumption being that it was done by “Nestorians,”40 with the result that “by the end of the sixth century (Syria) appears to have been meeting the west’s demand for the raw material.”41





Kao Tsu
also known as Li Yuan
AD 618 – 626
T’ai Tsung
also known as Li Shih-min
AD 627-649
Kao Tsung AD 649-683
Chung Tsung AD 684-690
Wu Tsu-t’ien
AD 690-705
Chung Tsung
2nd reign
AD 705-710
Juei Tsung AD 710-712
Li Lung-Chi
also known as Hsuan Tsung (Ming Hsuan)
AD 712-756
son of Li Lung-chi
AD 756
Su Tsung
(full control)   (nominal control)
AD 756-757
AD 758-761
Shih Su-ming
AD 757-761
Tai Tsung AD 762-779
Te Tsung AD 780-805
Hien Tsung AD 806-820
Mu Tsung AD 821-824
????? AD 824-827
Wen Tsung AD 827-841
Wu Tsung AD 841-846
Siuan Tsung AD 847-855
????? AD 856-859
Yi Tsung AD 860-873
Hi Tsung AD 874-888
Chao Tsung AD 889-904
Chou We
through puppet emperor Ngai Tsung
AD 905-907

Tang Dynasty

[] Emperor Taizong [Tai-tsung], Tang Dynasty (626-649)
The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.



Li Lihua as the Empress in a movie about Wu Zetian (c.1940)







In the year 635 A.D., a party of foreigners from the distant West, a vague area known to the Chinese for many centuries as Ta Chinn, reached the capital city of the Great Chinese Empire, Ch’ang-An, later called Hsian-fu. It was in the early years of the T’ang dynasty.












The Chronology Srivijaya History Collections

Distorted history of Southeast Asia in Śrīvijaya times

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, few people doubt that the location of the Śrīvijaya was Palembang in Sumatra, because, according to G. Coedès, Palembang was the center of the trade between the East and West in the Śrīvijaya times as well as that of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

However it is quite dubious if the hypotheses reflect historical facts or not. As the entrepôt between India and China, Jambi was located at more preferable location than Palembang.

As the center of Mahāyāna Buddhism, the states of Malay Peninsula, such as Chaiya had more advantage than Palembang.


AD 649-683

Kao Tsung, son of T’ai Tsung,






651 CE:

 First Arab embassy to China.




The Kingdom of Sunda and kingdom of Galuh

were twin kingdoms in West Java 

that emerged from the division of Tarumanagara kingdom in 670 C.E..


Information about the two kingdoms is taken mostly from stone inscriptions scattered around Bogor in Java, and from later historical annals and the records of traders and travelers.

The inscriptions mention the kingdom of Sunda as the successor of Tarumanagara, while the inscriptions in Sukabumi mention the existence of the Sunda kingdom until the era of Sri Jayabupati.

Wretikandayun,  (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate his small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance through dynastic marriage with the Kingdom of Kalingga, which supported their demands for independence.

Wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun’s demand. In 670 C.E



Hall notes that Taruma on the Sunda straits sent an embassy to China in 666-9, but the Chinese never heard from this Javanese port again.







680 AD


This possibly occurred in the 680s.

Malayu, also known as Jambi,

rich in gold and was held in high esteem.

Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu would increase its own prestige.[18]

682 CE:

Kedukan Bukit Inscription


The first known inscription of a king of Srivijaya was incised on a river boulder at Kedukan Bukit, Palembang in Sumatra.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, 1.6.




Alih Aksara


Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13] According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa). He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan. The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. Barring the potentially earlier (but undated) Dong Yen Chau inscription, it is the oldest surviving specimen of the Malay language, in a form known as Old Malay. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. This inscription is dated the year 605 Saka (683 AD) and contains numerous Sanskrit words

All these inscriptions were written in Pallava script, a form of ancient script used in Tamil kingdoms of ancient India.








Bagéa! Taun Śaka geus liwat 604, dina poé ka sabelas

  1. paro-terang bulan Waiśakha Dapunta Hiyang naék di
  2. parahu ngalapsiddhayātra. di poé ka tujuh paro-terang
  3. bulan Jyestha Dapunta Hiyang angkat ti Minanga
  4. tambahan mawa prajurit dua laksa kalawan bekel
  5. dua ratus cara (peti) di parahu kalawan leumpang sarewu
  6. tiga ratus dua welas lobana datang ti mata jap (Mukha Upang)
  7. di poé ka lima paro-terang bulan….(Asada)
  8. ngemplong gumbira datang nyieun wanua….
  9. Śrīwijaya jaya,siddhayātra 



Transliteration 1:

svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604?) ekādaśī śu-

klapakşa vulan vaiśākha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> nāyik di

sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa

vulan jyeşţha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> maŕlapas dari minānga

tāmvan mamāva yaṃ vala dualakşa dangan ko-

duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu

tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātaṃ di mata jap

sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n> <…>

laghu mudita dātaṃ marvuat vanua <…>

śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa <…>

  1. svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604 ?) ekādaśī śu
  2. klapakşa vulan vaiśākha dapunta hiya<(m> nāyik di
  3. sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa
  4. apunta hiya,vulan jyeşţha d<(m> maŕlapas dari minānga
  5. vala dualakşa dangan ko-(sa)(tāmvan mamāva yam
  6. duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu
  7. di mata jap(tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātam
  8. sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n>…
  9. marvuat vanua…(laghu mudita dātam
  10. śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa…




Transliteration 2:[1]

Swasti Shri Shakawarsatita 605 ekadashi

Shuklapaksa wulan Waishaka dapunta hiyang naik

Disambau mangalap siddhayatra di Saptami Shuklapaksa

Wulan Jyestha dapunta hiyang marlapas dari Minanga

Tamvan (Tamvar?) mamawa jang bala dua laksa dangan <…>

dua ratus tsyara disambau dangan jalan saribu

Tlu ratus sapuloh dua banyaknya. Datang di Matajap (Mataya?)

Sukhatshitta. Di pantshami shuklapaksa Wulan <…>

Laghu mudik datang marwuat manua <…>

Syriwijaya jayasiddhayatra subhiksa.


Ti prasasti Kedukan Bukit, kapanggih data-data saperti kieu[3]:

  1. Dapunta Hyang naék parahu tanggal 11 Waisaka 604 (23 April 682)
  2. Dapunta Hyang angkat ti Minanga tanggal 7 Jesta (19 Mei) kalawan mawa leuwih ti 20.000 prajurit. Rombongan nepi di Muka Upang.
  3. Dapunta Hyang nyieun ‘wanua’ tanggal 5 Asada (16 Juni)







English Translation

for Malay Language version of the Inscription


All hail and prosperity! In the year 605 of the Saka calendar, on the eleventh day on the full moon of Waisaka, His Majesty took

a boat to make a profit.

 On the seventh day on the full moon of Jyesta, His Majesty

brings 20000 troops and 312 people in boats from firth of Tamvan, With 1312 foot soldiers and came to Matajap happily. On the fifth day on the bright moon of …,

they docked and open a country …

Great, prosperous and peaceful Srivijaya!









English Translation

Om swasti astu! All hail and prosperity.

 In the year 605 of the [Indian] Saka calendar, on the eleventh day at half-moon of Waisaka, Sri Baginda took dugouts in order to obtain siddhayatra.[2]

 On Day 7, on the 15th day at half-moon of Jyestha, Sri Baginda extricated himself from minānga tāmvan.[3] He took 20,000 troops with him … as many as 200 in dugouts, with 1,312 foot soldiers.

They arrived at … Truly merry on the fifteenth day of the half-moon…, agile, happy, and they made a trip to the country … Great Sriwijaya! Prosperity and riches …”






683 AD

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13]

According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa).

 He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan.



The exact location of Minanga Tamwan

 is still a subject of discussion.

The Palembang theory as the place where Srivijaya was first established, was presented by Coedes and supported by Pierre-Yves Manguin. Soekmono on the other hand, argues that Palembang is not the capital of Srivijaya and suggests that the Kampar river system in Riau where theMuara Takus temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.[14] 

Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and suggests Chaiya as the center of Srivijaya.[15]


Talang Tuo inscription

is a Srivijaya inscription measured 50cm × 80 cm discovered in 17 November 1920 at the foot of Seguntang Hill, near Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.


The inscription is written in Pallava letter in Old Malay, dated 606 Saka (23 March 684 CE) mentioning about the establishment of Śrīksetra sacred park under the order of Śrī Jayanāśa. Today the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta

From Sanskrit inscriptions, it’s notable that the King Jayanasa launched a maritime conquest in 684 with 20,000 men to acquire wealth, power, and ‘magic power’.[17] 

Under the leadership of Jayanasa, the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire.



686 CE:

The Kota kapur inscription

found on Bangka island records preparation of a naval expedition by Srivijaya against rival ports in western Java.


Prasasti Kota Kapur:

Pallava inscribed column (dated 686 AD.), concerning Sriwijaya, found on the island Bangka, Indonesia (Stitch; photo’s made in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. Column property of Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, item-no.: MNI D90

NSCRIPTION Lake Stone found in 1935 in Stone Lake, around the cemetery of the kings of Palembang Sabokingking, 2 Ilir, Palembang, no dates to the year.



The inscriptions are decorated with the head of this seven-headed cobra consist of 28 lines.


FM Schnitger According to this inscription from the 9th century AD or AD-10, but according to JG de Casparis inscriptions are from the mid-7th century AD.
Form (rupa) is compared with inscription inscription others considered the most artistic and beautiful shaped feet, showing the statue of Srivijaya already have a capable artist.


In this site also found a stone that reads sidhayatra (victory or holy journey). It is estimated that this place is an important place of pilgrimage at the time.


Judging from perupaan Telaga Batu inscription, which appears is seven and a cobra’s head on the bottom rail or the inscription there is a symmetry between the left channel with right and meet in the middle like a water fountain.


From the shape and it illustrates two shower perupaan genitals once (hermaphrodite), which when linked with mystical cosmology is a symbol of fertility.


This inscription is the only inscription of Srivijaya which not only contains the writings, but also there is a shape or image.

The seventh head of a cobra that existed at the top of the stele can be interpreted as an attempt to keep the king of Srivijaya content or text engraved inscription was still obeyed.


Today, the Old Malay inscriptions and lettered this Pallawa, stored in the National Museum, Jakarta.



Telaga Batu inscription text

(1) om siddham titam hamwan wari AWAI kandra kayet nipaihumpa, amuha an ulu
(2) tandrum opponent’s nauseating nauseating makamatai tandrun hakairu muah kayet nihumpa Unai ume
(3) Ntem ni wll ulun Haraki Unai cash you wanak mamu rajaputra, prostara, bhupati, senapati, nayata, pratyaya, hajipratyaya, dandanayaka
(4) …. murddhaka tuha an watakwuruh, addhyaksi nijawarna, vasikarana, kumaramatya, cathabhata, adhikarana, karmma, kayastha, sthapaka, puhawan, waniyaga, pratisara da
(5) ye hajj Marsi, hulun Hajo, wanak uram niwunuh mamu ye oath of mammam kadaci you wll tida dyaku niwunuh you swear you drohaka tuwi mulam kadasi wanun Luwi marwuddhi yam.

Translation by G. Coedes:

Om! Good luck …. You all, no matter how many, the son of the king …, regents, senapati, Nayaka, pratiyaya, people trust the king, judges, leaders of … the head of the workers, supervisors low caste, vasikarana, kumaramatya, catabhata, adhikarana … … workers, sculptors, skipper, merchants, leaders, …, and you washerwoman rajadan slave king.


You will all die by this curse, if ye are not faithful to me, you will die by the curse. In addition, if you apply as a traitor, in league with the people …




Telaga Batu inscription text content is basically also a curse king of Srivijaya to its followers, its magnifying

The interpretation of the inscription

Writing engraved on the stele is quite long, but in outline the contents of a curse on anyone who commits a crime in kedatuan Sriwijaya and do not obey the command Datu.


Casparis argue that people who called in this inscription are the people who categorized and potentially dangerous to fight the sworn kedatuan Sriwijaya so need.

Mentioned these people from

the king’s  son  (rājaputra) , minister (kumārāmātya) , regent (bhūpati) , commander (Senapati), Council / prominent local figures (Nayaka)  , royalty  (pratyaya) , king of   subordinates  (Hajj pratyaya) ,  judge (dandanayaka) , chairman of the workers / laborers (Tuha an vatak = vuruh) , low labor supervisor (addhyāksi nījavarna) , weapons expert  (vāsīkarana)  ,  soldiers (cātabhata), officer manager (adhikarana) , store employees (kāyastha)  , craftsmen (sthāpaka ), captain of the ship (puhāvam) , peniaga (vaniyāga), the king’s servants (Marsi Hajj) , and the slave king (hulun Hajj).
This inscription is one of the most complete curse inscriptions contain the names of government officials.


Some historians consider the existence of this inscription, allegedly was the center of Srivijaya in Palembang and officials are sworn it certainly resided in the capital of the kingdom.


Soekmono argued on the basis of this inscription is not possible Sriwijaya in Palembang


because of the threat information to anyone who curses disobedience to kedatuan, and Minanga proposal as it is called in the inscription Kedukan Hill

assumed to be

around Temple Barelang as the capital of Srivijaya


images Temple Barelang or

Muara Takus temple

The site is supposedly the oldest in the world the rest of the triumph of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya was on Barelang Village, Kampar regency, Riau.
Center Barelang Buddhist temple complex located in District XIII Koto Kampar a distance of about 135 kilometers from the city of Pekanbaru, Riau

The distance to the center of the village temple complex itself Barelang about 2.5 km, not far from the edge of Kampar Kanan River. And from the cross road of West Sumatra, Riau, is within a distance of about 19 km.

temple complex which was first discovered Cornet D Groot in 1860 it was truly unique. Unlike the temples in Java such as Borobudur, Prambanan and others.

Temple complex is surrounded by a wall measuring 74 x 74 meters. ‘


Muara Takus Temple Riau, The temple is located in the village Barelang, Kampar district, Riau City.


 Barelang temple complex, the only relic of history that shaped


Outside their area of land there is also a wall measuring 1.5 x 1.5 km that surround this complex to the Kampar Kanan river.



Within this complex there are also old buildings of the temple, temples and Stupas Mahligai Youngest and Palangkaraya. Here we find the temple made of clay and sand soil.


Historically, the Village Barelang before becoming a central teaching of Buddhism, is an area that formerly had visit by sailors from the kingdom of Srivijaya with Right down the Kampar River.

According to experts, the material used in this temple is the older method than the existing temple in Java, using stone from the mountains.



If it continues to follow the history of the creation of the temple, known to manufacture the material was taken and the village temple Pongkai located approximately 6 km from the temple. Pongkai name comes from China “Pong” means a hole and “Kai” means land.

We also can find bone burning place which is situated inside the temple complex.

Pongkai village.


This village near

 air tiris village near the Kampar river   where Dr Iwan in 1995 found

Tang yueh Jar


Incised tang yueh jar with 12 ears

The oldest jar in Indonesia found at air tiris villages near muaratakus temple


Dr Iwan yueh dragon jar with six chillin dog ear  found at java



Compare with other yueh jar which many found in java

Six Dynasties Yue Ware Globular Jar with Short Spout.

The greenish glaze covers the whole globular undecorated body with some running down to the base.

The body has four ear lugs. The base is flat with exposed burnt red body material.


And  more oldest jar but never found in Indonesia

Western Han Dynasty Yue Ware Large Jar. Globulus with two incised ear lugs, a co-joined double S mould rest above the lugs. The rim is flat and three bands borders circle the upper body. On one of the border is incised with four stylised flying bird motif. The glaze run down up to the third band border and exposed the unglazed reddish brown body. Glaze loss and a long hairline crack across the body. Part of the lug is slightly broke



Six Six Dynasties Yue Ware Large Martavan Jar. The jar with six lugs covered with greenish glaze

Eastern Han Proto Yue Ware Large Vase ( 2nd-3rd AD). Heavy potted, spontaneous glaze brush wash on the red earth body material with abstract like drips running down to the base. It has a thick inverted mouthrim..



7th Century

.7th century
The Islamic King have fight each other in order to cupied the Middles East area have changed the social and political situation in Europe

  • 7th to 15th century:


 The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[9]

Some 200,000 Persians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, and other foreigners lived in Guangzhou as traders, artisans and metalworkers.
Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the seas, p.39.

 In fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

705 AD


Kao Tsung extended Chinese control over much of Korea and part of Manchuria.



He defeated the Japanese fleet, ending Japanese influence on the mainland for many years.

The later years of his reign saw

Kao Tsung  father’s concubine,

Wu Tsu-t’ien,

asserting power, probably ruling from behind the scenes.

She proved ruthless,

eventually seizing power in her own name

 (AD 705-710).









The two kingdoms sunda and Galuh were re-united under Tarumanagara’s successor, Sanjaya, who placed a vassal king on the throne of Galuh in 723.

the Sundan king

which became the Mataram and Majapahit King


( Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama,)

The second Sunda King

(723 – 732M),

Became the King of Mataram K8ingdom(732-860 AD(

 and he found the Ancient Mataram kingdom and also the  Sandjaja Reign

menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 – 760M).

 Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya





Kompleks Candi Dieng

Hindus  candi were built in 7th Century  Candi Gatotkaca, Candi Bima, Candi Arjuna, Candi Semar, Candi Sembadra, Candi Srikandi, Candi Setyaki, Gangsiran Aswatama, dan Candi Dwarawati.

a king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya. Balaputradewa ruled VIII-IX century AD. Balaputradewa is the most famous king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya as in the reign of the kingdom of Srivijaya was he reached the peak of its power as a Maritime Empire in power almost throughout the archipelago to reach Thailand, India, the Philippines and China



Look the Museum Balaputra  dewa

Top of Form

Balaputradewa Museum is located at Km 6.5 on Jl. No. I Srijaya State. 288, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.


Balaputradewa museum has about 3580 pieces of this collection of traditional items Palembang, preserved animals from various regions in South Sumatra, some miniature houses inland, replicas of statues of ancient inscriptions ever found in Siguntang Hill, giant carved stones of the Megalithic era , and many more.





Collections at the Museum Balaputradewa divided into 10 kinds of categories:
histografi or historika (stories),
the tools of modern technology,
art (in the form of engravings),
flora and fauna (Biologika) and geological
and contained limas house is also home Ulu Ali.
The collection at the Museum Balaputradewa placed on 3 pieces exhibit space to be grouped into
showrooms prehistoric times,


Putri cave






Pasemah fossil


Stone axe



Burial eathern martavan

Stone inscription












The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families.

 The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D.,

were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have come from the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years.

 During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.


Plaosan temple


The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple,

Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang
Candi (pronounced /
ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples
or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries




Arrival of Islam in the archipelago

 was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).

The  discovery of a tombstone inscription bertarikh 127 AH or 745 AD replied rather long debate among the historians regarding the arrival of Islam in Indonesia . Historical inscriptions found in the District ‘s Sandai high value to reveal that Islamic culture in Ketapang is the oldest Islamic culture in the archipelago that came in the 7th century , rather than in Aceh .
Previously , experts were mostly from the west and the Netherlands are still different opinions about the timing of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . There are some experts mention the 10th century , 12th century and 13th century as the most likely period from the beginning of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . Based on historical fact , according to the Foundation Coordinator Leaf Width , Ir Gusti Cambodia , said during the Islamisation of Ocean Pasai , Aceh , the first king of Malik Al – Salih , died 698 Hijri or 1297 AD , Gujarat is still a Hindu kingdom .

” So at that time Islam has not been established and developed in Gujarat , so may not be able to spread Islam to the archipelago , ” he said .


In addition , the results of the study concluded that the width Leaf Foundation Sandai inscription form is not the same as the shape of tombstones in Pasai and Gresik , East Java . The stone is a stone nor a native of Ketapang , but imported stone .

Although research conducted fully completed yet , the Foundation is actively also collect a lot of literature to strengthen the findings .

” Based on the shape of the tombstone , the experts also found the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago mention of Gujarat ( 12th century ) , Bengal , Coromandel and Malabar ( 13th century ) . According to their shape tombstones and Pasai found in East Java , the same shape with tombstones found in Cambay , Gujarat , “said Cambodia .

He added that this opinion is reinforced by the opinion of the Dutch scholar , JP Moquette that conclusion based on the findings of gravestones in Pasai , Aceh Dhul – Hijjah bertarikh 17 H 831 / 27 September 1428 M. Likewise SQ Fatimi based tombstone Siti Fatimah bertarikh 475 AH / 1082 AD found in Leran , East Java .

Cambodia concluded , based chronicle inscription proved to have occurred Sandai connection with the Arab – Persian archipelago in the early 7th century . At that time known in history as the heyday of the Islamic World . History of Muslims noted , that in the 7th century in Spain still controlled by the Muslim rulers . In this period , Umayyad Dynasty ( 132 AD – 749 AD ) and the Abbasid dynasty ( 750 AD – 798 AD ) has expanded into Persia and the Indian subcontinent to set sail to the Far East .

” This is the farthest humans have ever navigated before the rise of European shipping in the 16th century . Empire in history Tanjungpura sourced from the book History of the Sung Dynasty 489 , mentions that the royal Tanjungpura relations with Arab traders in the year 977 AD is growing ” , he continued . Where King Tanjungpura , Hiang – ta when it has sent a messenger to the palace of China , which is entrusted to the Arab traders called P’ulu – Hsieh ( Abu Abdallah ) to lead the royal delegation – West Borneo .


” Sandai tombstone is one of important evidence about the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago and strengthen the notion that Islam initially taken directly from Arabic instead of Samudera Pasai ” , he said .

If the majority of Muslims see the archipelago air- Shafi , said Cambodia , there are similarities kepemelukan Islam in Egypt and Hadhralmawt , which is thought to be part of a place in Arabic as the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago .

” Although there has been a connection in the 7th century , the spread of Islam in the archipelago newly gained momentum in the 11th century until the 18th . This momentum occurs after the penetration of Islam by the Sufis who appear through a network of scholars who maintain harmony between Shari’a and Sufism , “he described .

However, the role of the maritime Srivijaya empire that once ruled the West Boneo (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) in the 7th century in the spread of Islam in the archipelago says are just as important .

” Even at that time Srivijaya still are Hindus, but there are already Muslim community that settled in the kingdom of Srivijaya and follow this to the cruise around the archipelago , ” he said .

Although the 7th century residents in Ketapang (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) have met and interacted with Arab Muslim traders , there has been no evidence of the presence of the local Muslim population in large numbers or on the occurrence of substantial Islamization in Tanjungpura . Tanjungpura new rulers converted to Islam in the year 1590 by using titles Panembahan and Giri , namely Panembahan Giri Kusuma and change the name of the Hindu kingdom into an Islamic empire Tanjungpura Matan ( Arabic ; spot starters ) .




With the discovery of the tombstone inscriptions in this Sandai ( Inscription Sandai ) , said Cambodia can be presumed that the relationship between the people in Tanjungpura ( West Borneo ) and the Middle East has existed since the early days of Islam . Muslim traders from Arabia , Persia , and the Indian subcontinent who came to the islands of the archipelago and China not only trade , but to some extent also spread Islam to the people of your Site

However, around 745,

 Chen-la (Cambodia真臘) attacked the capital of Shih-li-fo-shi, and occupied Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

 At the same time the control of the Malacca Strait collapsed.

Nearly twenty years later, Śrīvijaya group counter attacked Chen-la and recovered Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

At this campaign the Śailendra navy from central Java (Shailendra) played the leading role and the king of Śailendra was given the title of the ‘Mahārāja’ of Śrīvijaya.

The memorial of this event was the ‘Ligor inscription’ dated 775.

 Śailendra became the champion state of Śrīvijaya group, but Śailendra sent envoys to the Tang court under the name of ‘Kha-ling’ same as Sañjaya.

Actual shipment of its tribute was dispatched from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, probably Sathing Phra, and sometimes from Jambi where international commodities were easily accumulated.

 a Chinese monk,


wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda)



name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia.



The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th century. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent.

The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism,

extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina

748 CE:

Chinese monk Jian Zhen (Jianzhou, of Daming monastery in Yangzhou), failed in his fifth attempt to sail to Japan, and drifted to Guangzhou where ‘many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun [Indonesia/Java]… with… spices, pearls and jade piled up mountain high’.



The largest ship looked like a mansion, with sails many zhangs high. [1 zhang = 3.11 metres.] Sri Lanka was by now the major shipping centre, with ships visiting from India, Persia and Ethiopia; Sri Lankan ships had gangways many zhangs high.
Tang Zhiba, ‘The influence of the sail on the development of the ancient navy’, p.61

752 to 1045:

 The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[12]


Emperor SU TSUNG
AD 756-762

Reign title: CH’IEN-YUAN, AD 758-762

While the rebel Shih Su-ming ruled much of China, the legitimate T’ang emperor Su Tsung worked to restore order. In 758 he cast high denomination fiduciary coins to finance the war, but they proved a financial disaster




760 to 830:


Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[13]


The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; Mandarin Pinyin: Táng Cháo; Jyutping: tong4 ciu4; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (618 – 907 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

 It was founded by the Li () family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.

The dynasty was interrupted briefly when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne proclaiming the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant.

The 7th century and first half of the 8th century is generally considered the zenith era of the Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age while the Silk Road thrived, with sway over Indochina in the south, and to the west Tang China was master of the Pamirs (modern-day Tajikistan) and protector of Kashmir bordering Persia.[48]



Some of the kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Nepal, Khotan, Kucha, Kashgar, Japan, Korea, Champa, and kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley.[49][50]

There was great contact and interest in India as a hub for Buddhist knowledge, with famous travelers such as Xuanzang (d. 664) visiting the South Asian subcontinent.

After a 17-year long trip,

Xuanzang managed to bring back valuable Sanskrit texts to be translated into Chinese.

 There was also a Turkic–Chinese dictionary available for serious scholars and students, while Turkic folksongs gave inspiration to some Chinese poetry.[103][104]

In the interior of China, trade was facilitated by the Grand Canal and the Tang government’s rationalization of the greater canal system that reduced costs of transporting grain and other commodities.[105] The state also managed roughly 32,100 km (19,900 mi) of postal service routes by horse or boat.[106]


During the Tang Dynasty, thousands of foreigners came and lived in numerous Chinese cities for trade and commercial ties with China, including Persians, Arabs, Hindu Indians, Malays, Sinhalese, Khmers, Chams, Jews and Nestorian Christians of the Near East, and many others.[115][116] In 748,

the Buddhist monk Jian Zhen described Guangzhou as a bustling mercantile center where many large and impressive foreign ships came to dock. He wrote that “many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun (Indonesia/Java)…with…spices, pearls, and jade piled up mountain high”,[117][118]


The Kwan Sing Bio Temple

is located in Tuban Regency, the city lying in the north coast of East Java.
It is also easy to reach by public transport such as bus or car since its strategic position close to the Surabaya and Jakarta main road, or take only a short walk about two hundred metres from the Tuban bus terminal.




The worship place of Kwan Sing Bio temple is predicted to have been built in the seventh century and it was also believed to have high supernatural quality, therefore lots of Hindu pilgrims visite there daily, especially on holidays of Chinese calendar Imlek and the birthday of Kwan Ping Thai Tjoe, Kwan Sing Tee Koen, and Tjoe pjong Tiang Koen. The temple faces northward to the seashore.




The Indonesian Chinese communities believe that God will easily grant every prayer spelt in this direction.

 One of its uniqueness is the giant crab standing on the gateway, and such a kind of this is away from the custom since most of the temples have symbol of dragon and peacock

1.The very rare and excellent Tang Dinasty ceramic s and other gold cup were found at the Belitung straits , but very pitty Indonesia fishermen only found the bad conditions collections, all the best collection were gone to Singapore Museum and trader.

2.Due to that condition I starting to seek the info about that collections via google explorations and show to all the Chinese Tang’s  Ceramic collector all over the world.

  1. I hope this info will help the Indonesia and all over the world marine archeologist will used this info fore their research







— Tang Dynasty China


Abbasid Persia —

the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably







Basra silver coin

 The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead.



6     Changsha Copper Reds

Copper oxide and iron oxide were applied in the glaze material for firing in oxidizing (oxygen rich) atmosphere to give off the green and brown colours.  However, copper oxide would turn red if put under high fire in a reducing (oxygen deficit) atmosphere.  In historical terms, China only started to produce the red color effect in Jun ware made in Henan during the Song dynasty.


The appearance of red patches on the bluish Jun wares was probably due to misfire, that is the dropping of copper impurities from the roof of the kiln chamber on the clay body burnt under simmering situation which enhanced the formation of reducing flame.  The occurrence was rather accidental.

Foliage design in copper red (An Islamic version)

From the discovery of Changsha wares, it seems the deliberate use of the copper red effect in Chinese ceramics first took place at the Changsha kilns in the Tang dynasty, which would bring forward the firing of copper red history to an earlier period


Spiral symbol motif in copper red (an Islamic version)

The evolution of copper reds from the copper bearing Changsha green and the blue green glazes is not really surprising.  Changsha wares were fired in wood burning dragon kilns built on hill slopes. 

The pulling effect of the wind due to the creation of a vacuum space in the firing process within the slanting structure could flare up the contents in the kiln chamber to an exceedingly high temperature in a very short while. 

This caused the kiln chamber to be suddenly filled with smoke, cutting down the oxygen supply and making occasional accidental reduction from the exceptionally high ash (soot) levels that would turn some of the copper oxide into cuprous oxide (red copper oxide) or colloidal copper ions, thus giving a red colour to a transparent glaze.

The Changsha copper reds were produced mainly by accident as the skill of controlling and manufacturing copper red glazes only reached their most successful expression in the early 15th century AD when Jingdezhen porcelains with copper red glazes were used in China in imperial rites.


 Even so, a piece of Ming copper red bowls can cost millions of dollars in the auction market. 


Changsha copper reds are therefore found in limited quantities and the shipwreck find will mark a new phase in ceramics history.


7     Religious Factors

The under glaze paintings of birds, animals, floral sprigs and trees executed by the Changsha potters during the Tang Dynasty exhibit a good mix of Buddhist and Islamic symbols and influence.  The paintings are exuberant, with attractive, eye-catching yet elegant images and produce an atmosphere of harmony of the two different religions.  The majority of the designs are composed and executed in a simple, uncluttered and spontaneous manner although they sometimes suffer from exaggeration and distortion.

Brief descriptions of some of the more popular painted subjects on Changsha wares are presented as follows:


  1. Buddhist symbols

Buddhism was introduced to China during the Western Han period and reached its peak in the Tang Dynasty.  We have found various forms of Buddhist symbols such as the swastika sign or other familiar motifs or molded design in relief as outlined below:

  • Lotus flowers:  painted in exquisite style or free flow of simplified line forms.  The lotus is treated as a sacred Buddhist representation.
Lotus motif in green and brown Lotus motif in Copper red


Tang Chines ecaligraphy


Salak  tree (cyathea spinulosa),



  • usually in the form of appliqué, is a living fossil of the prehistoric tree fern. The fronds are dark green and finely divided, held in a graceful arching habit, and the slender trunk is able to reach a height of about 20 feet.

It was said that


the Great Master Sekkiamani died between two Sala trees, and the Sala tree was regarded as a holy tree and is always shown protected in a cage-like fence.

Sala tree motif on Ewer Makara (fish) motif (A Buddhist Symbol)

Makara fish,

which is a legendary animal with a dragon-shaped head and curved nose, is a reincarnation of the Buddha, who always harbors the intention of tying people up for the preaching of the religion.


  • Lion motif or molded in relief is a symbol of Buddhism to express the loudness and clarity of the chanting of prayers by the Buddha.Lingzhi fungus is a sign of blessing for longevity.  This usually includes pictures of clouds.
Ewer with lion applique Lingzhi fungus with the potter’s mark zhou inscribed





  • Islamic symbols



In order to cater to the needs of the Muslims in the Middle East countries, the ingenious Changsha artisans cleverly painted motifs in line with Islamic teachings.  These consist of the following:




Abstract geographical pictures

are commonly found in Changsha bowls meant for the Arabic market.  First, small dots or beads are applied at random and the beads are arranged in circles, squares and lozenges which are typical design found in Persian embroideries or carpets.







Next comes the free flow lines and spiral symbols

which appear as flora sprigs, foliage or even ribbons.

The spiral is universally regarded as a symbol of movement.

We also see festive firework patterns that exude a sense of happiness.

  All these abstract designs suggest that the Muslims are not allowed to worship idols or anything in the form of living creatures.  Thus, the mosque is empty and only geographical patterns are drawn on the wall.

Arabic Koran scripts written in graphic forms are found on Changsha bowls, in praise of Allah as the only god.

Arabic Koran Inscription “I am the servant of Allah”


Arabic Koran Inscription “No other god but only Allah is the God”




Date palms

are a common appliqué design especially on ewers. 

Date palm

This is suitable for the Middle Eastern market as the date palm plantation was one of the important sources of wealth to the people then and sweet and juicy dates were a well-liked delicacy for the Arab people.


 The fruits of the date palm in the design have long been mistaken for that of grapes but the palm leaves are definitely different from grape vines.

8     Conclusion

The archaeological salvage of the Batu Hitam shipwreck has unlocked the secrets of the sunken ship and greatly expanded our knowledge of the Tang era.  It is the oldest ship ever found in Asia, in Indonesian waters, and provides the earliest evidence of the flourishing trade between China and Middle Eastern countries via a maritime silk route.

 The cargo is of historical importance and can be classed as a world heritage find.  The collection is a meaningful and important acquisition for Singapore as Singapore is currently an important commercial and maritime centre for the region

8th Cemtury

The Chinese merchants had crossed oceans to trade

 in Japan, Champa, and Java.


Jayavarman II is said to have reigned

since 802 until 850 (or 835?)


At the early stage of the ninth century

Samaratuńgga, the Mahārāja of Śailendra still dominated the central Java and Jayavarman II was perhaps under his control. Of course Chen-la could have traded with China, however the record of the tributary missions was not found in the Chinese chronicles after 814.


The Ten States Kingdom

Unlike the dynasties of northern China, which succeeded one other in rapid succession, the regimes of southern China were generally concurrent, each controlling a specific geographical area.

These were known as “The Ten Kingdoms”. [edit] Wu

The Kingdom of Wu (902–937)


 was established in modern-day Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces. It was founded by Yang Xingmi, who became a Tang Dynasty military governor in 892.

The capital was initially at Guangling (present-day Yangzhou) and later moved to Jinling (present-day Nanjing).







 The kingdom fell in 937 when it was taken from within by the founder of the Southern Tang.


  The Kingdom of Wuyue

 was the longest-lived (907–978)

 and among the most powerful of the southern states. Wuyue was known for its learning and culture.

 It was founded by Qian Liu, who set up his capital at Xifu (modern-day Hangzhou). It was based mostly in modern Zhejiang province but also held parts of southern Jiangsu.


Qian Liu was named the Prince of Yue by the Tang emperor in 902; the Prince of Wu was added in 904.


After the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907,

he declared himself king of Wuyue. Wuyue survived until the eighteenth year of the Song Dynasty, when Qian Shu surrendered to the expanding dynasty. [edit]


 The Kingdom of Min (909–945)

was founded by Wang Shenzhi, who named himself the Prince of Min with its capital at Changle (present-day Fuzhou).

One of Shenzhi’s sons proclaimed the independent state of Yin in the northeast of Min territory.




The Southern Han (917–971)

was founded in Guangzhou (also known as Canton) by Liu Yan. His brother, Liu Yin, was named regional governor by the Tang court. The kingdom included Guangdong and most of Guangxi.


[edit] Chu The Chu (927–951) was founded by Ma Yin with the capital at Changsha. The kingdom held Hunan and northeastern Guangxi. Ma was named regional military governor by the Tang court in 896, and named himself the Prince of Chu with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907.


Prasasti Sukabumi itu, tertera angka tahun 921 M.


Di situ diceritakan soal pembangunan bendungan dan sungai yang dimulai pertama kali pada 804 M.

Prasasti Sukabumi adalah sebuah prasasti pada batu

yang ditemukan di perkebunan Sukabumi, kecamatan Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur.


Prasasti ini menurut sebutan ahli epigrafi lebih dikenal dengan nama Prasasti Harinjing.


Tulisan yang terdapat pada kedua belah sisi prasasti ini ditulis dengan aksara dan bahasa Jawa Kuna.


Prasasti ini terdiri dari tiga buah piagam yang mengenai hal yang sama


Bagian depan disebut Prasasti Harinjing A.

Isinya menyebutkan pada 11 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 726 Saka atau 25 Maret 804 Masehi, para pendeta di daerah Culangi memperoleh hak sima (tanah yang dilindungi) atas daerah mereka karena telah berjasa membuat sebuah saluran sungai bernama Harinjing.

Bagian belakang, Prasasti Harinjing B,

baris 1-23 menyebutkan bahwa Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodhong pada 15 Suklapaksa bulan Asuji tahun 843 Saka atau 19 September 921 Masehi, mengakui hak-hak para pendeta di Culangi karena mereka masih tetap harus memelihara saluran Harinjing.

Mulai baris selanjutnya, disebut Prasasti Harinjing C,


 menyebutkan bahwa hak serupa diakui pula pada 1 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 849 Saka atau 7 Maret 927 Masehi.





Edward McKinnon (Nalanda Sriwijaya Center) pada Kunjungan ke Situs Kota Rentang Hamparan Perak. 18 Maret 2010

.DR Edward Mackinnon visit Nalanda Srivijaya center at situs Kota rentang Hamparan Perak




11th Century

The Indian Tamil King Chola Attacked Srivijaya

At the early eleventh century,

 San-fo-chi was occupied by Chola,

the south Indian, Tamil empire. San-fo-chi regained its helm at the end of the eleventh century.




Following a 1025

raid by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India it began to gradually decline in importance.

Srivijaya’s capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate


Prasasti Sanghyang Tapak (juga dikenal sebagai Prasasti Jayabupati atau Prasasti Cicatih )[1] 

adalah prasasti kuno perangka tahun 952 saka (1030 M), terdiri dari 40 baris yang memerlukan 4 buah batu untuk menulisnya. Keempat batu prasasti ini ditemukan \

di tepi Sungai Cicatih, Cibadak, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat.

Tiga diantaranya ditemukan di dekat Kampung Bantar Muncang, sementara sebuah lainnya ditemukan di Kampung Pangcalikan.

Prasasti ini ditulis dalam huruf Kawi Jawa. Kini keempat batu prasasti ini disimpan di Museum Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan kode D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97, dan D 98

Isi tiga prasasti pertama (menurut Pleyte):

D 73: //O// Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. ha. ka. ra. wara tambir. iri- ka diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana- hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-

D 96: gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tapak ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa ikan sesini lwah. Makahingan sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i hulu, i sor makahingan ia sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i wungkalagong kalih matangyan pinagawayaken pra-sasti pagepageh. mangmang sapatha.

D 97: sumpah denira prahajyan sunda. lwirnya nihan.



Selamat dan sejahtera. Pada tahun Saka 952, bulan Kartika pada hari ke-12th bagian terang, hari Hariang, Kaliwon, hari pertama, Wuku Tambir.


Hari ini adalah hari dimana raja kerajaan Sunda, Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa,

membuat tanda tapak di bagian timur Sanghiyang Tapak.

 Dibuat oleh Sri Jayabupati raja kerajaan Sunda. Tidak ada seorangpun yang boleh melanggar aturan ini.

Di bagian sungai ini tidak boleh menangkap ikan, di kawasan pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak dekat hulu sungai.

Jauh hingga ke batas Sanghyang Tapak yang ditandai dua pohon besar.

Demikanlah tulisan ini dibuat, ditegakkan dengan sumpah kerajaan Sunda.


Piagam persumpahan raja ditulis di atas prasasti keempat (D 98). Terdiri atas 20 baris, sumpah ini memanggil semua kekuatan gaib, dewata (hyang) dari langit dan bumi untuk membantu menjaga dan melindungi mandat sang raja.

Siapa saja yang melanggar aturan ini akan dihukum oleh segenap makhluk halus, mati dengan cara yang mengerikan seperti otaknya disedot, darahnya diminum, ususnya dihancurkan, dan dada dibelah dua.


 Prasasti ini ditutup dengan kalimat,

 “I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh

 (Oh ketahuilah kamu sekalian hyang



In 1068,

King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty conquered what is now modern day Kedah from Srivijaya

and began a series of raids in Sumatera and Malay Peninsula for the next 20 years.

 Though ultimately, Srivijaya prevailed over the Indian Kingdom, the invasion leave Srivijaya severely weakened.

With large number of soldiers died in the war and it’s coffer almost empty plus 20 years of disrupted trades, Srivijaya reach grow short. It’s territories began to freed themselves from Palembang ruled and establish many small kingdoms all over Srivijaya former empire.

There’s some evidence that Srivijaya capital moved from Palembang to Jambi, but this is widely disputed. [4]


After the collapse of Srivijaya,

no major power that controls the town.

At that time in Palembang and the surrounding emerging local forces such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Trembling Nature group in the hills, the Master and Master Bosai Strong River upstream Histories, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on. [citation needed] In addition, some merchants of China make this city as their trade base. Sea People also made their headquarters Palembang as a pirate.

In this phase,

 Prince emerged last Sriwijaya, Parameswara. Following the invasion of Majapahit to Palembang, Parameswara with Sang Nila Utama go Tumasik fled.

 There he killed the governor Tumasik Thai nationals. When the Thai army will attack Tumasik, Parameswara with his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the kingdom of Malacca.

Parameswara converted to Islam to marry the daughter of Ocean Pasai and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century so that Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.

The Indian Tamil King Chola Army Attacked Sumatra and the fall of Srivijaya

Kota Cina sites






the end

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2914


ini contoh cd-rom dr iwan “the song ceramic history collections” harga ;lim ratus ribu rupiah, dapat dipesan liwat email


jangan lupa upload kopi KTP dan alamat rumahnya

ini untuk sekuriti terhadap penipuan hijact internet

terima kasih

The Song Ceramic History Collections



Created By

Dr Iwan  Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E.Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special  for Senior Collectors And Historian

Copyright @ 2014

Sung Dragon Pklate found West Java

(Collection Dr Iwan)



Song Porcelain

The Song Dynasty saw the introduction of many new folk kilns ceramics form and Imperial Court’s involvement in the production of ceramics for the palace use.

Song porcelain ware is an epitome of aesthetic perfection.  Generations of potters have drawn and will continue to draw inspirations from Song ceramics creations.  The elegance of the shape of the vessels achieved was superb.  The aesthetic beauty of jade -like celadon glaze of ru/guan/longquan reached unsurpassed perfection and delicacy.  The icy bluish beauty Qingbai glaze has enchanted generations of porcelain collectors.  The curved/impressed decorations of Ding and Yaozhou wares reigned supreme.

The ingenuity and creativity of the Cizhou and Jizhou potters was also amazing.  They were able to overcome the limitations of poor quality raw material for porcelain making and came out with innovative and aesthetically wonderful products.  The use of white slip to whiten the body and further using it as a decorative element for sgraffiato design was brilliant.  Building on the foundation of the celadon underglaze iron-pigment brown/black decoration of the earlier era, the cizhou kilns fully developed the underglaze iron-pigment motif on white ground.  It became a main-stream product until it was overtaken by blue and white in the Ming dynasty and marginalised in the Qing Dynasty.   The jizhou potters were able to work on a dark and a lighter colour glaze to achieve great products such as the tortoise’s shell/tiger’s fur effect and paper cut motifs.

The potential of the copper oxide was finally realised in the dazzling beauty of rainbow-like purplish/red splashes on blue ground of Jun wares.  The ever inexhaustible potential of iron-pigment for amazing decorative effect was proudly displayed in the form of the temmoku hares’ fur and oil spots.

It was also a period of commercial liberalisation and huge growth in overseas trade which was encouraged by the imperial court as a source of substantial tax revenue.  An important development was the large number of kilns that were set up in the coastal region in Guangdong and Fujian to produce porcelains for the Southeast Asia market.  The coastal kilns made use of their proximity to the port, Guangdong Guangzhou during the Tan/Song period and Fujian Quanzhou during the Southern Song period to produce lower end copies of Yue, Longquan celadon, Jingdezhen Qingbai and Jian temmoku wares to meet overseas demand. For more on Guangdong and Fujian trade ceramics, please read below:

Tang/Song Guangdong trade ceramics

Song/Yuan Fujian trade ceramics

Song Jun, Ru and guan wares

In the area of ceramics production, an important development was the setting up of official kilns to produce ceramics for the Imperial palace.  During the Northern Song period, Jun and Ru wares , both a form of celadon, were produced.

The Jun kilns at Baguadong (°ËØÔ¶´£©and Juntai £¨¾ų̂£©were located in Yu county£¨ÓíÏØ£© in Henan.  The Jun kiln used iron and copper oxides to fire an opacified bluish glaze with red or purplish splashes.  Vessels included flower pots, washers, dishes, censor, bowls, zun and etc.  Some of the flower pots/stands  have number (1-10) carved on their base.  It has been established that the number is an indication of the size.  Some vessels also have inscription such as fenghua (·î»ª£©¡¡and sheng fu¡¡£¨Ê¡·û£©.  [Guan Jun is still a controversial subject with some experts questioning the Northern Song attribution.]

Folk kilns in Henan also produced Jun wares but the number of Song/Jin wares excavated were few.  The best Jun from the folk kiln were produced at Liu Jiamen (Áõ¼ÒÃÅÒ¤£©¡£

Ru wares were produced in Baofeng Qingliangsi £¨±¦·áÇåÁ¹Ë£©¡¡in Henan. They usually have a light sky-blue colour with tiny spur marks on the outer base. Vessel forms consisted of mainly dishes, washers, bowls and some archaic zun vase, lian-form censers and vases. Some vessels also have the inscription fenghua¡¡£¨·î»ª£©.

During the Southern Song Period, two officially operated kilns were built at Xiuneisi and Jiaotanxia with the former in operation first. They consisted of jade-like thick which powdered bluish or yellowish colour tone.  They have iron black body with majority having crackled glaze.  The best have very thick multi-layered glaze and biscuit think body.


For more on the guanwares, please read : Song Guan Wares .


Yue/Longquan greenware (celadon)

During the Northern Song period, Yue ware was still an important greenware. The products of this period is characterised by fine incised motifs covering floral, bird, phoenix, dragon and human motif. A form of more deeply curved combined with incised style of decoration was introduced during the Mid Northern Song Period and continued to be used during the rest of the Northern Song Period.  Yue greenwares essential ceased by early Southern Song period.

Longquan of the Northern Song essentially copied the Yue curved/combed motifs.  Longquan developed its famous powder¡¡green £Û·ÛÇà£Ýnd mei zi qing (plum green) [÷×ÓÇà£Ýglaze towards the end of Southern Song period.  The ware is characterised by multi-layered glaze application with jade like quality. It is arguably the greatest achievement of all green glaze wares.   Longquan potters also produced some guan-type black body wares during the late southern Song period.

The curved/combed motifs longquan motif was widely adopted by the Fujian kilns during the late Northern Song/early Southern Song period.  It was an important export item and was termed Tongan type greenware or Juko (shuko seiji) £ÛÖé¹âÇà´É£Ýgreenware in Japan. Shuko was a Japanese monk who was known for his preference for Tongan type greenware for tea ceremony.

For more on Longquan celadon, please read: Longquan Celadon

For more on Longquan influenced Fujian greenware, please read: Fujian Trade Ceramics

Yaozhou Greenware (Ò«ÖÞÒ¤£©

Yaozhou established itself as the greatest Northern Celadon (greenware) production centre during the Northern Song Period.  The most famous was the Huangbao £¨»Æ±¤£©site at Tongchuan Shanxi (Í­´¨¡¡ÉÂÎ÷£© . But the kiln sites included Chenluzhen¡¡³Â¯Õò£©, Lidipo £¨Á¢µØÆ£©and Shangdian¡¡£¨Éϵ꣩.  Yaozhou greenware was famous for the curved motif with strong 3 dimensional visual effect.  An interesting characteristic of Yaozhou wares is the ginger-yellow scotched marks on the base and at the footring. After Mid Northern Song, elaborate impressed motifs were introduced and gradually became the more dorminent products.  The impressed motifs were varied and consisted of flowers, dragon, phoenix, fish, makara, flying fairies, infants and etc.  Yaozhou greenware continued to be produced during the Jin period and gradually ceased during the Yuan period.  During the Jin period, an important Yue bai £ÛÔ°ףÝ(moon-white) glaze was introduced.

Yaozhou type greenwares were also produced in Henan kilns such as those in  Linru £¨ÁÙÈ꣩£¬Xinan Cheng Guan ((а²³Ç¹ØÒ¤£©¡¡and Baofeng¡¡£¨±¦·á£©.  They are very similar to the Yaozhou production but are generally of poorer quality.

For more on Yaozhou greenware, please read: Yaozhou Celadon


Ding ware (¶¨Ò¤£©

Ding kiln was located in Jiancicun (½§´Å´å£©¡¡in Quyang county¡¡£¨ÇúÑôÏØ£©.  The kiln started production during the Tang period and achieved great fame during the Northern Song and Jin period for its ivory white glaze and finely curved and later even more famous impressed motifs. It was at one point an important tribute ware to the Imperial court during the Northern Song period.

One of the most important contributions of the Ding potters was the invention of the inverted firing Method.  It was subsequently adopted by many kilns including Jingdezhen.¡¡This method enabled more pieces to be fired in the kiln.  It however required the removal of glaze at the rim.

Important Ding type white wares were made in Pingding (ƽ¶¨£©and Jiexiu£¨½éÐÝ£©in shanxi £¨É½Î÷£©¡¡province.

For more on Ding ware, please read: Ding ware


Qingbai (Yingqing) ware

Qingbai meaning bluish white ware, was invented in Jingdezhen during the Northern Song period.  The best Qingbai wares were produced in Hutian kilns (ºþÌïÒ¤£©¡¡near Jingdezhen. The curved motif on Northern Qingbai wares was excellent.  The pooling of the bluish glaze in curved area of the motif enhance and bring out the profile of the motif nicely.  Impressed motifs were popular during the Southern Song and Yuan Period.  The glaze became more whitish during Southern Song and gradually became more opaque¡¡especially in the Yuan Dynasty.

Qingbai wares in British Museum

Qingbai was an enormously popular product and were produced in numerous kilns in Jiangxi in areas around Jingdezhen, Nanfeng and Jizhou and also provinces such as Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong.

Qingbai wares were exported overseas in large volume during the Song/Yuan period.

For more on Qingbai ware, please read: Qingbai (Yingqing) wares


Cizhou ware

Cizhou kilns are located in Guantai £¨Ò‹Ì¨£©and Pengcheng £¨Åí³Ç£©area in Hebei.  Its main products consisted of whiteware, blackware and wares with underglaze iron black/brown decoration on white ground.  The iron pigment painted decoration first appeared in late 3 Kingdom period and some rare examples were made by the Yue kilns.   But it was only during the Song period that it was popularised by the cizhou and cizhou type kilns and was produced even to this day.  The white glaze was able to show off the iron brown decoration distinctively and attractively.

Other famous  decorative types included incised/curved and sgraffito motif.¡¡¡¡

There are numerous other kilns located in Hebei, Henan (some famous ones such as Dangyangyu kiln [ÐÞÎäµ±ÑôÓøÒ¤]£¬Hebiji kiln [ÌÀÒõº×±Ú¼¯Ò¤]£¬pa chu kiln [ÓíÏØ°Ç´åÒ¤]£¬Dengfeng kiln [µÇ·âÒ¤]£©, Shanxi yaozhou kiln¡¡(Ò«ÖÞÒ¤£©, Ningxia Lingwu kiln (ÁéÎäÒ¤£©,Inner Mongolia Chifeng kiln (³à·åÒ¤£©£¬ Shanxi Jie xiu and ping ding kiln (½éÐÝÒ¤£¬Æ½¶¨Ò¤£©, Shandong, Anhui, Jiangxi jizhou kiln£¨¼ªÖÞÒ¤£©and Guandong which produced similar wares.  There are definitely some local stylistic decorative differences and also in terms of shape/form and glaze and paste  appearance.  Yet one can still discern that they are unmistakably cizhou in character especially in terms of the decorative techniques.  Hence, they are widely termed as cizhou type wares.

Dangyangyu kiln (ÐÞÎäµ±ÑôÓøÒ¤)in Henan also produced a famous marbled ware. It is also termed wood grain pattern, pheasant’s wing pattern or feather pattern.  Other Henan kilns producing such product included Qingliangsi in Baofeng £¨±¦·áÇåÁ¹Ë£©and Chengguan in Xinan(а²³Ç¹Ø£©

For more on Cizhou ware, please read: Cizhou wares

Overglaze enamelled Wares

The overglaze enamelled red, green and yellow motif on white glaze ware was an important new decorative type introduced during the Song period.  Most extant pieces were from the Hebei cizhou, Henan pacun (°Ç´åÒ¤£© and Shanxi Changzhi kiln £¨³¤ÖÎÒ¤£©and shandong zibo (×Ͳ©Ò¤£©.  The decoration was drawn on the high fired white glaze vessel.  Upon completion, it went through a second low firing of about 800 degree centigrade to adhere the enamels to the white glaze surface.  The vessels consisted of mainly bowls, dishes and human figurines.  In fact, black enamel was used for the eye brow and eyes of figurines from pacun kiln.

There were further development of overglaze enamelled wares during the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty and subsequent became the widely known Ming/Qing wucai .


Black wares

Jian (temmoku/Tianmu) ware

Jian black wares were made in Jian kilns situated in shuiji Jianyang (Ë®¼ª½¨Ñô£©in Fujian province.  Its major products were black glazed tea bowls with purplish black paste.  The most famous type had hare’s furs effect on it.  The hare’s furs are streaks which are either brownish or silvery white in colour.   Some highly priced type have bluish irridescent oil-spots of different sizes and shapes in the glaze.¡¡Those made for the palace had the inscribed chinese characters gongyu (¹©Óù£©or jinzhan £¨½øÕµ£©¡¡mark.

Tea contest was popular during the Song Dynasty.  Jian tea bowls were considered most suitable for such contest as its glossy black surface contrasted well with the white  tea.

During the Song Dynasty, the monasteries in the Tianmu mountains were frequently visit by Japanese monks who took the black tea bowls used in the monasteries with them when they returned home.  Hence black tea bowls came to be known as Tianmu (temmoku) in Japan.

Jian tea bowls were in high demand during the Song Dynasty and numerous kilns in Fujian also produced them to meet the demand.  There were also other kilns in provinces such as Zhejiang, Jizhou and sichuan which produced them.

Such bowls continued to be produced for sometime into the Yuan period.

For more information on Fujian temmoku, please read: Lianjiang shipwreck Fujian temmoku bowls


Jizhou ware

Jizhou kiln is situated in Yonghe £¨ÓÀºÍ£©in Ji’an £¨¼ª°²£©in Jiangxi province.  During the Southern Song period, Jizhou kiln developed a distinctive decorative technique which involved sprinkling a lighter glaze over a darker base glaze to produce the so called the tortoise shell and tiger fur effects.  They may have a dry mouldy mottled quality or could be more transparent and glossy if fired at a higher temperature.  There were many other varieties of  mottled effect.

The Jizhou potters also used paper cuttings  for decorations. The openwork stencils of cut paper was positioned on the  dark glaze surface.  A lighter glaze is then sprinkled over the whole surface.  A black design on a lighter colour mottled background is produced when the paper cutting is removed.   Some more commonly found papercut designs include plum blossom, floral spray, dragon, and phoenix.  There are also those with rhomboid patterns and 4 Chinese characters such as fu shou kang ning “¸£ÊÙ¿µŒŽ” ie  fortune, longevity, health and peace  or chang ming fu gui “³¤Ãü¸£¹ó” ie long life and prosperity.

During the late Song period, Jizhou also produced the underglaze iron-brown cizhou type painted motifs vessels.

For more on Jizhou ware, please read: Jizhou wares


Northern China black/brown wares

Northern kilns such as those in Henan and Hebei also produced beautiful oil spots black glaze tea bowl.  The Yaozhou and Ding black and Zijing glaze wares were also high excellent.   Henan kilns also made black wares with iron rust effect design of floral/bird and splashed design.  The black glaze was first applied and then the  design  painted over the glazed surface using iron-rich pigment.  The ware was fired at about 1300 degree centigrade and the iron pigment transformed into haematite crystals which is rust red in colour.


Kudat Song Shipwreck

The wreck was said to be discovered by fisherman on 15 Apr 2003.  However, based on the condition of the wreck, it is obvious that looting of the cargo had already taken place before the official announcement.   Some quantity of the ceramics from this wreck made their way to antique shops in Kota Kinabalu. The Sabah Museum gave Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn Bhd, a salvage company,  a permit to excavate the site. More than 800 ceramic and non-ceramic items were salvaged  from a depth of 400 metres from the Tanjung Simpang Mengayau shore at the northern tip of Borneo, close to Kudat in Sabah.  Simpang Mengayau meaning  ‘lingering junction‘ is where the South China Sea lingers and meets the Sulu Seas.  The treacherous coastline was the cause of many past shipwrecks.



Kudat wreck,  dated to the Song period, is the oldest  shipwreck discovered in Malaysian waters.  Some of the salvaged items are now on display at the Sabah museum.

I visited Sabah Museum in Aug 2011,  According to the museum short introduction of the wreck, the wreck is a Chinese merchant ship which was probably on its way to Brunei which ancient Chinese text recorded that it had diplomatic and trading relationship with China since the Song Dynasty.  The following types of ceramics were found:

  1. a)  Celadon bowls and dishes with carved motif from Tongan (同安)kiln in Fujian Province
  2. b)  Qingbai ewers and cover boxes from Fujian province
  3. c)  Celadon dishes with carved floral motif from Longquan
  4. d)  Kendis and jars from Guangdong province

After examining the ceramics artifacts on display, I am of the view that they are dated to Early Southern Song period.  Some of the Qingbai ewers , cover boxes, Fujian celadon with carved motif and Fujian cizao brown glaze kendis  are similar to those found in the Jepara shipwreck.  The celadon bowls and dishes with carved motif are from Fujian kilns, some could be produced in Tongan (同安) but we cannot preclude the possibility of other coastal kilns.  Kiln sites excavation revealed that kilns in county such as Nanan (南安), Fuqing (福清), Putian (莆田), Anxi (安溪) and  Minhou (闽侯) also produced similar style celadon wares. The dark brown kendis and jars are most likely products of Quanzhou Cizao (泉州磁灶) kiln  .

Ceramics recovered form the Kudat wreck


The ‘mercury jars’, ewers and kendis are most likely products of Cizao kiln in Quanzhou.
Cizao kiln kendis in Jepara wreck

Fujian celadon bowls with carved motif in Kudat wreck

Celadon bowl and dishes with carved motif from Fujian kiln

Qingbai ewers.  Similar ewers were recovered from Jepara wreck

Qingbai ewer from Fujian kiln from Jepara wreck

The large number of Fujian ceramics found in the Jepara, Nanhai 1 and Kudat wreck is testament of the importance of Quanzhou as the main port where goods were assembled and exported through the maritime trade route.   Quanzhou replaced Guangzhou as the most important port during the Southern Song period.  It maintained its prominent role during the Yuan period.  Fujian coastal region just like Guangdong during the Tang/Northern Song period, capitalised on its strategic location and built kilns to produce ceramics which copied the famous kiln such as celadon from Longquan, Qingbai from Jingdezhen and temmoku bowls from Jian kiln.  Such products targeted mainly the consumers from Southeast Asia region. However, some quantity also made their way along the mairtime trade route to places as far as India, middle East and East Africa.


Mr Koh


Sung Ceramic From Auction

Driwan Comment

I found this type ceramic at Jambi,Palembang,west java ,tuban and west Boneo, and Makasar




Huai-jen ware Stoneware with dark-brown glaze. Song Dynasty

Pinned from


Pin it Send




A CIZHOU-TYPE RUSSET-SPLASHED BLACKISH-BROWN-GLAZED BOWL NORTHERN SONG/JIN DYNASTY, 12TH-13TH CENTURY The rounded, conical body is covered on the interior and upper exterior with a lustrous, variegated, blackish-brown glaze that is decorated on the interior with five russet splashes, and on the exterior falls in an irregular line atop a thin brown glaze that ends irregularly above the foot to expose the granular ware that has fired to a buff color. 7 1/8 in. (18.2 cm.) diam.

Pinned from


Pin it Send



A JIZHOU PARTIALLY-GLAZED ‘WILLOW BASKET’ STONEWARE JAR SOUTHERN SONG/YUAN DYNASTY, 13TH-14TH CENTURY The unglazed exterior is finely combed with parallel lines forming concentric semi-circles on two sides and, at their longest, continuing under and across the small flat base. There is a combed band encircling the neck above a row of pointed bosses of white glaze. The rolled rim and interior are covered with a russet-mottled black glaze. 3 5/16 in. (8.4 cm.) across mouth

Pinned from




Song Dynasty


Pin it Send




Vase with Waves China (Southern Song or Yuan Dynasty) The Cleveland Museum of Art

Pinned from




kara miller ceramics #plates









Pin it Send



Kendi decorated in underglaze copper red, Jingdezhen, Ming dynasty, Hongwu period (1368-1398). Height: 15.3 cm, Width: 16 cm. C.54-1937. Sir Percival David Gift. © V Images.

Pinned from




Porcelain flask decorated in underglaze blue with dragon design, China, Ming dynasty, ca. 1400-1430. Height: 13 in, Diameter: 8.5 in. 554-1878. © V Images.

Pinned from




Vase, porcelain decorated in underglaze blue, China, Qing dynasty, Yongzheng mark and period, 1723-1735. Height: 52 cm. C.286-1910. © V Images.


Pin it Send



Cizhou-Vase in Mei-ping-Form. | North China / Province Hebei, Jin-Era 12. century




Cizhou-Vase in Mei-ping-Form. | North China / Province Hebei, Jin-Era 12. century



A rare green ‘jun’ ‘lotus bud’ water pot. Song dynasty. photo Sotheby’s




Jizhou ware porcelain bowl with speckle pattern, Song Dynasty

Pinned from




Ewer, Northern Song dynasty 11th-12th century; Yaozhou ware. Image from The Metropolitan Museum of Art




Vase (meiping) with inscription ‘Fine wine with delicate aroma’. Yuan-Ming dynasty, 1350-1400. Longquan kilns, south China. Stoneware with olive green (celadon) glaze. Height: 47 cm. FE.34-1972. E. V. Lee Gift. © V Images.

 Jian Temmoku bowls (Jian Zhan)


Jian temmoku bowls were prized by tea connoisseurs during the Song Dynasty.  However, with changes to the tea drinking habits, it lost favour subsequently and awareness and knowledge of its eminent stature was erased from the Chinese memory with the passage of time. During the late Qing/Republican period, there was a revival of interest in these black glaze bowls as one category of antique Chinese ceramics for overseas collectors   Many of the antique ceramics, with some as early as the Neolithic period, were from ancient tombs/graves and kiln sites.  Many of the black glaze bowls that surfaced in the Shanghai and Beijing antique markets were defective bowls from kiln sites.  According to the Jianou chronicles (建欧县志) dated 18th year of Republican era  ie 1929 A.D,antique dealers  paid the villagers to illegally dig up Jian kiln black bowls and transport  them to Shanghai or Japan. 

James Marshall Plumer, an American who served as a custom officer in Fuzhou in Fujian, got wind that the bowls originated from Shuji (水吉) in Jianyang (建阳)in Minbei (Northern Fujian).  He made a trip there in 1935 and collected numerous sherds and kiln furnitures such as clay separator and saggars.  He became a Chinese ceramics scholar and was noted for his study on Jian temmoku bowls.  


Origin of the term Jian Zhan and Temmoku

The term Jian Zhan () first appeared in Japanese written sources during the early 14th century.   Zhan 盏)is a chinese word which means a small bowl during ancient time. Many writings related to Jian zhan mistook it to mean bowls from Jianyang as Shuiji where the kilns were located is now part of Jianyang county. But that only happened during the 20th century.  Prior to that, Shuiji came under the jurisdiction of Jianou (建欧) county.  In 207 A.D of the Eastern Han period, Jianou, known as Jianan (建安), was set up as a county.  It was elevated to prefecture status subsequently and renamed as Jianzhou (建州) in 621 A.D of the Tang era.  Cai Xiang (蔡襄) in his “Record of Tea”, Cha lu (), wrote : “.. The tea bowls made at Jianan have purplish black glaze with hare’s fur pattern. The body is slightly thicker and so retains the heat well.”  Hence, the term Jian Zhan is more likely refer to zhan from Jianan or Jianzhou.   However, in line with the Song convention of naming famous ceramics after the prefecture that they were made, such as Ding or Yue wares, it is most appropriate to understand it as meaning Jianzhou zhan.

Nowadays, it is common to refer to Jian Zhan as Temmoku (Tenmoku) bowls.  According to the Qing chronicle “Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi”  (大清一统志)”, Tianmu mountain (Tenmoku in Japanese), located in present day Zhejiang Linan city (临安市), had many zen sect temples during the Song/Yuan period.  Many Japanese monks went there to study and practice Zen Buddhism.  When returning to Japan, they brought back with them black glaze tea bowls which included those from Jianzhou and other kilns, which they termed Tenmoku bowls (天目碗)ie bowls from Tianmu mountian. Tea drinking is an effective means to stay awake during meditation. 

In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, there appeared to be distinction between various types of Jian zhan and other types of tea bowls such as  Fuzhou zhan  (福州) and tenmoku.  However, subsequently the term tenmoku was used loosely to refer to all types of black/brown tea bowls.  

Tianmu mountain in Linan city located west of  Hangzhou

Tea competition and Jian Zhan

Tea from Fujian Fuzhou and Jianzhou were mentioned in Tang Lu Yu’s treatise on tea (陆羽茶经).  By the Northern Song Dynasty, Jianzhou tea, ie Jian cha (建茶) achieved so much fame for its quality that in 977 A.D, Bei Yuan Yu Cha Yuan (北苑御茶园), an officially managed imperial  tea plantation was established in Jianzhou (present day Jianou city).  The tea leaves gone through the process of powdering, steaming and baking. After which, they were packed in cake form before sending to the palace.   

Cai Xiang (1012 – 1048 A.D) ), a native of Xianyou (仙游) in Fujian, was once  in charge and supervised the official Beiyuan tea plantation.  During the stint in Jianzhou, he gained deep knowledge of a leisure activity called tea competition enjoyed by the locals.  He became an ardent convert.  Using his influence as a high ranking court official, he introduced the art of Fujian tea competition to the imperial court.   In his  treatise “Record of Tea”, Cai Xiang ranked  a type of white Jiancha called Dragon Pheonix tea (Longfeng tea 龙凤茶) and Jian purplish black glaze bowl with hare’s fur pattern as the best for tea competition. Through his active promotion, tea competition became a popular and noble activity of the imperial court and the literati class.  This activity gained a further boost during the late Northern Song Emperor Huizong’s reign ( AD 1101-1125).  He was a great connoisseur of the tea culture and displayed his in-depth understanding in a twelve-chapter dissertation “Discussion of Tea in the Daguan period ” (Da Guan cha lun 观茶录 ).  He too advocated Jian hare’s fur tea bowls as the best for tea competition.  The competition was judged based on certain criteria, such as the taste, fragrance, colour of the tea (white superior to yellowish tone).  During the contest,  the tea was whisked to white froth  The tea should stay well-mix and the first to show traces of residue loss was declared the loser. 

Tea competitions became the favourite past time of the rich and poor in many areas in China. Due to popular demand, Jian kilns produced large quantity of tea bowls during the Song period.  For those common folks who could not afford Jian Zhan, they could avail themselves of cheaper version of tea bowls produced in other provinces and numerous other Fujian kilns.  


Origin, dating and characteristics of Jian Zhan

Shuiji, a market town in present day Jianyang,was the location where the ancient Jian kilns were found.  Since 1960, 4 official archaeological excavations, ie in 1960, 1977, 1990 and 1991,  were carried out in Shuiji.  Kilns were discovered in small villages in:

  • Luhuaping (芦花坪) – celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Niupilun (牛皮仑)–   celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Daluhoumen (大路后) –  black glaze, small quantity celadon and blue and white sherds
  • Yuangtoukeng(源头坑) – black glaze sherds 
  • Anweishan (庵尾山) –  celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Shuiweilan (水尾) – black glaze sherds
  • Yingzhanggan (营长乾– black glaze and qingbai sherds
  • Qililan (七里) .– black glaze sherds


Based on archaelogical evidence, small scale celadon wares were produced during late Tang/5 Dynasty period in kilns located at sites such as  Luhuaping (芦花坪), Niupilun (牛皮仑) and Anweishan (庵尾山).  The wares consisting of bowls, plates, jars, ewers, cover boxes and etc.  The vessels which are generally rough and stylistically similar to the celebrated yue wares. The glaze is generally uneven and the lower portion of the external wall of the vessel is unglaze. The vessels were fired with protection of saggars.

By late 5 Dynasty/Early Northern Song, the Jian potters started to produce two types of shallow bowls with slightly in-curving rim.   The lower external wall and foot is unglaze.  The glaze is thin and black/dark brown in colour. The bowl is quite thinly potted with a slight protrusion on the inner base.  Below the rim, the wall is of relatively even thickness.  The paste is greyish or greyish brown.  Such bowls were recovered from the kiln in Anweishan (庵尾山).  The bowl was fired upright in a saggar.

Precursor of the typical Jian wares

Tao Gu (陶穀) (903 – 970 A.D) in his work Qingyilu (清异) wrote that among the tea bowls made in Min (Fujian), there are those decorated with partridge-feather mottles.  His work has often been quoted to back the dating of Jian tea bowls to 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song period.   It gives the impression that by late 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song, Jian potters were already producing the celebrated Jian zhan.  However, based on archaeological evidence, the bowls of late 5 Dynasty/Early Song period are generally rough as compared with the mature products of mid Northern Song onward.  Extant tea bowls with partridge-feather mottles are found in bowls which were stylistically  produced at least from mid Northern Song period onward.  In fact, the authenticity of Qingyilu is now being questioned by some Chinese scholars.  Some suggested that it was a fictitious work of late Northern Song period.

Based on the archaeological findings, the typical Jian tea bowls were produced from the Mid Northern Song (perhaps from 2nd quarter of 11th century) to late Southern Song period. Jian kilns also produced small quantity of  black glaze cups, bowl-shaped lamps and bo-shaoed bowls. There are at least 8 different types of tea bowls in 3 sizes that were produced during the duration.  

From the bowls recovered from the kilns, it is clear that type 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 8 were found in large quantity.  Type 1 with a conical form and an indent near the rim is the most classical form which is usually associated with the celebrated Jian Zhan.  Based on Jian bowls recovered from graves, this form became the dominant form from the late Northern Song period onward.  In fact this served as a prototype which was widely copied by potters from other kilns. Compared with those from other kilns, the typical Jian bowl has a thicker and lustrous glaze.  The paste is usually purplish black and more dense.  (It should be noted some especially the small size bowls have greyish or redish brown paste.  This is because they were placed in locations  which received uneven or lower heat while firing in the kiln). The unglaze lower portion is carefully finished.  It appears smooth and usually do not show shaving marks when trimming the external wall.  The wall of the bowl thickens as it descends towards the foot. The base is thick and the square cut foot is neat and the outer base sits within a shallow inner footring.   

Some examples of Jian tea bowls

For tea  bowls sent as tribute to the palace, there are at least a portion which is marked with Gongyu (供御) ie tribute or Jinzhan (进盏) meaning to present bowl.  The characters are either incised or impressed.  They were found in the kilns dated mid Northern Song to Southern Song. 


Besides Gongyu and Jinzhan mark, there are also others incised with chinese characters of surname/name of the potter/or kiln owner or Chinese character/chinese numeral which could indicate location which item was to be place in the kiln.


Bowls with glaze decorated with hare’s fur marking or  partridge feather mottles were highly prized by the Song tea culture connoisseurs.  Many Song literati made reference to them in their poems and commentary. Hare’s fur markings are silvery or rustic streaks which are found on the interior and exterior wall of the lustrous black glaze bowl.  According to Nigel Wood in his book “Chinese Glazes”, once the glaze melted, a layer of thin iron-rich droplets coalesced to form a thin layer within the glaze.  Some of the iron-rich droplets were brought ot the surface by bubbles and run down the sides of the bowl under the influence of gravity.  The iron oxide in these streaks crystalised out into silvery tone if under reduction or rustic tone if under oxidisation atmosphere.  

Hare’s fur bowl with rustic streaks
Hare’s fur sherd  with silvery streaks 


As regard Partridge feather’ glaze,  in the past there were debate on whether the markings actually refers to fine markings on the back of the partridge or large light-coloured spots on its breast.  Most argued that it cannot be the fine markings on the back as some other types of bird  also have similar marking.  On the other hand, large light-coloured spots is unique to a type of partridge in Fujian.  This is now the more widely accepted meaning for partridge feather mottles.  In 1988 a  shard with 66 carefully placed white glaze spots was excavated from the Shuiweilan (水尾)  kiln.  The base has a incised gong yu mark  suggesting that it was originally intended for tribute.  This is now acknowledged as partridge feather glaze. It make sense of a Northern Song poet’s description of a Jian bowl having markings that appear ‘like melting snow on dark water.

A Fujian partridge with white spots on the breast Jian sherd with white spots and gongyu mark

In the Japanese collections, there are some Jian Zhan with silvery or rustic oil-spots (termed Yuteki in Japanese). In DaDe Temple, Kyoto in Japan there is a Jian Zhan with oil-spots.   The silvery oil-spots are large, the result of several oil-spots congealed into bigger spots during firing.  Indeed, they resemble the partridge spots.  Those with smaller oil-spots are also classified as partridge feather type although strictly speaking the similarity is less convincing.




Oil spots Tenmoku in Japanese collection. The spots are smaller as compared with that from Dade temple


Oil spots tenmoku bowls are scarce.  According to Nigel Wood : “It happened occasionally that kiln temperatures began to fall while the glazes were still boiling, thereby fixing the iron-rich spots before they could run down into streaks. … The effect was copied in north China during the the Song and Jin period,  using a more reliable technique that involved the application of an iron-rich (and perhaps magnetite-based) slip beneath an ordinary black temmoku glaze. The success of this approach has meant that northern oil spot temmokus are less uncommon than the jian originals.”    His comments is important and rectify the erroneous explanations in some past published text that Jian hare’s fur and oil spots glaze involves the application of an iron-rich slip.

There are 4 extremely rare tenmoku bowls with yohen glaze in the Japanese collections.   The term Yohen means dazzling and brilliant kiln transmutation.  The  clusters of brown-colored spots of various sizes are either surrounded by light blue or deep blue or golden iridescent film. 

In the past, no known example of Yohen was found outside Japan.  Few years ago, a broken piece was found in Hangzhou in a location near the imperial palace.


Yohen temmoku found in Hangzhou

By the late Southern Song period, Jian potters also manufactured qingbai wares with carved or impressed motif.  One of the kiln at Yingzhanggan (营长乾) has a layer of qingbai sherds above Jian zhan sherds layer.  This indicated that Jian kiln was facing stiff competition from Jingdezhen which produced Qingbai wares.  The decline popularity of Jian Zhan could also be linked to the decline in popularity of tea competition. To ensure their survival, some kilns were forced to branch out and  produce the increasingly more popular Qingbai wares.  Latest by early Yuan period, Jian kilns ceased production.


 Temmoku bowls from other Fujian kilns

To meet the hugh domestic and overseas demand for temmoku bowls, they were also produced in large quantity in other kilns in Fujian, mainly in Jianyan (建阳), Wuyishan (武夷山), Songxi (松溪), Guangze (), Jianou (建瓯), Pucheng (蒲城), Nanping (南平) , Changting (长汀), Fuqing (), Minhou (闽侯) and Ningde (宁德).  Most of the sites produced a mix of celadon, qingbai and black wares.  For temmoku bowls, the dominant form produced were similar or variants of the Jian conical bowl with the indent near the rim.  

Among the sites, those at Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭), Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋)  and Fuzhou Dongzhang (福州东张) were large in scale and were found in overseas  especially Japan.  

Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭) produced an interesting form with decoration in gold.  In most instances, the decorations have faded and only traces could be seen.  The motif includes dragon phoenix, crane, pine, bamboo, prunus, flowers and orchid.   There were also those with auspicious wordings or landscape.  In some past ceramics publications, such bowls have been erroneously attributed to Jian kiln. Bowls from this kiln have mainly  greyish to greyish white paste.

A bowl with traces of gold decoration of auspicious phrase “寿山福海” connoting longevity

The medium size temmoku bowls from Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋) is distinguishable by a thin horizontal ridge where the foot meet the wall.  This feature appears to be unique to this kiln. The shaving marks are usually clearly seen on the unglaze lower external wall.  

A medium size (12 cm dia. ) bowl from Nanping Chayang kiln

In the 1980s, local residents recovered a large number of small Temmoku tea bowls from a wreck at Bai Jiao (白礁) in Fujian Lianjiang Dinghai (连江定海).  The Fujian ceramic experts observed that many of the bowls were similar to those produced at Fuqing Dongzhang (请东张) and Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and dated them to Southern Song period. Dong Zhang kiln complex was large and comparable in size to that at the Jian complex.  They produced large quantities of temmoku and celadon bowls.  In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, a type of tea bowl  called Fuzhou zhan (福州) was mentioned.  During the Song/Yuan period, Fuqing and Minhou came under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou.  Hence, Fuzhou zhan most probably included tea bowls produced in those two counties.  In ancient sites in Japan Fukuoka and Kamakura, there were numerous similar type of tea bowls recovered and were dated to mid 12th to first half of 13th century.  Many Dongzhang bowls were also recovered from ancients sites in the coastal Fujian region.   

After studying the large number of small tea bowls from the Lianjiang wreck in my collection, it is hard to confirm with certainty the actual kiln of production. Those from Dongzhang, Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and Ningde Feiluan (宁德飞鸾) appear similar.  They share the characteristics of having a casual finishing with poorly formed foot and shaving marks.  The profile of the conical bowl with the indent at the rim could vary to a large degree.  The lower wall could descent more gradually or steeply to the foot.  The glaze is more thinly applied and large number show a thinner layer of glaze especially at the lower wall near the foot.  Some of the bowls also have bluish white or rustic hare’s fur markings but are not well-defined and clear compared to those from the Jian Kiln.  The colour of the glaze ranges from black, black with rustic patches, brown, tea-dust or rustic .

Examples from Lianjiang wreck showing the different profile of the conical bowls

Examples from Lianjiang wreck.  Below one shows traces of hare’s fur markings


Some examples of temmoku bowls from the  Min Hou, Fuqing and Ningfei kilns are shown below.



Written by : NK Koh 



Compare with yuan celadon at the next page

Dr Iwan Comment

I upload this CD-Rom after I found some Song ware from West Java.

To more now I upload the info from my other research

The Chinese ancestor Song

Read and Look at the next page

If the collectors want to get this CD-Rom

Please contact me via email

donnot forget to upload you ID copy and the home address

this important to protect from

internet hijact.

Emperor china during

. 960 AD to 1279 AD Song and Liao and Jin Dynasty Emperors

Emperor Song Taizu Emperor Song Taizong Emperor Song Huizong Emperor Song Gaozong



China was unified again by
the Song Dynasty

(960 – 1279).

The Song dynasty produced a complex series of coins. Song emperors used many reign titles and different calligraphy styles were used in the coins.

This is a guide to the coins of

the Northern Sung Dynasty

(AD 960 to 1126),

the coin uncommkon and rare.

Dr Iwan Notes

The Nothern Song found many than the Southern Song Coins


The Sung Dynasty, established in AD 960,

saw relative stability in China, although conflict with the Tartars and Mongols continued. In AD 1127 the northern provinces were lost to them


the capital had to be moved from

K’ai-feng Fu (Pien-liang) in the north


Lin-an Fu (Hangchou) in the south.

We now refer to the period before the move as the Northern Sung and after the move as Southern Sung.

This is a complex series, with nine Emperors using dozens of reign titles and many inscription and calligraphy variations which defined dates and mints. If the variations were catalogued, they would number in the thousands. Unfortunately the key to understanding them no longer exists..

Song Dynasty,

Is Many Armor Leaves (Iron Sheet) One Kind Of Iron Armor Which Connects With The Rawhide Or The Armor Nail Becomes. It Protects The Whole Body Nearly, For China Ancient Armor’s Apex.


Northern Song Dynasty



Emperor Taizu – Song Dynasty


[] Emperor Taizu [Tai-tsu] , the first emperor


[]Emperor Taizong



[]Emperor Zhengzong

[] Emperor Renzong







Due to many North and south Sung Coins found in Indonesia were the history fact that North Sung Empire had many trading to the Indonesian kingdom starting from the later srivijaya and the kingdom after that after the Sung empewor had helped srivijaya and another kingdom from the Tamil Indian chola king occupation Indonesia, and all the Indonesian Kingdom sent tribute to Sung empires that is why the north sung cash coin were upload completey for  better wto  learn  with more detailed information





At the standard in use since the T’ang, the Northern Sung monetary system was based on full weight bronze 1 cash averaging 3.5 grams, 2 cash averaging 7 grams cast sporadically after AD 1093, and on a few occasions, usually during times of war, bronze 3 and 10 cash fiduciary coins cast to the 2 and 3 cash standard. In addition to bronze coins, fiduciary iron coins were also cast through much of this period.

AD 960 to 1041.

The only bronze northern song coins were full-weight 1 cash.










The Sanghyang Tapak or also called Jayabhupati inscription, dated 952 saka (1030 CE). Displayed at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.


Discovered in Pancalikan, Bantar Muncang, Cibadak, Sukabumi, West Java.




The inscription was edicted by Jayabhupati, king of Sunda kingdom

that declared forbidden (conservation?) lands east of Sanghyang Tapak, that forbade people from catching fish in the river and wetlands in this area.






AD 1041.

Fiduciary 3 cash (S-505) of about 7 grams and 29 mm. This was the earliest North Sung issue higher than a 1 cash. As a fiduciary issue it proved unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and

 in AD 1059

was devalued to 2 cash, consistent with the weight.


Out of this defeat, however, emerged the reign of Airlangga, founder of Java’s first empire.

Reputedly the son of a Balinese king and a Javanese princess, he was able to bring east and central Java, as well as Bali, under a relatively united regime, though this probably meant that he was able to keep up a sustained intimidation of regional lords, rather than that he ruled closely.

 His capital was at Kahuripan in the lower reaches of the Brantas and his seaport, Hujung Galah, was probably close to the site of modern Surabaya.

On his deathbed in 1049,


between his two sons, one taking the lower reaches of the Brantas as ruler of a kingdom known as Janggala, the other establishing a new capital in Panjalu (later Kediri) and ruling a kingdom called Daha. Hardly any information on either kingdom has survived, but two hundred years later, when records are once more available, the division was still politically significant.

By the early 13th century, Kediri had conquered Janggala, but in 1222, Kediri itself was overthrown by a usurper, Ken Angrok, who established his capital at Singhasari. Singhasari’s greatest ruler was Kertanegara, who presided over a time of rapid development in Javanese culture


AD 1070.

Fiduciary bronze 10 cash (S-538) of 7.2 grams and 30 mm were issued to raise funds for the Western Wars. As with the earlier fiduciary issues, these were unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and were devalued to 2 cash at the war’s end. Iron 10 cash were also issued at this time.



AD 1093.

Full-weight 2 cash of about 7.0 grams and 29 mm. (S-575) were introduced as a regular part of the currency, but only issued sporadically.

AD 1102.

Fiduciary 10 cash (S-621) were cast in an attempt to introduce them as a regular part of the coinage. At about 11 grams and 31 mm these contained 3 cash worth of metal and were devalued to value 3 cash in AD 1111.

AD 1107.

A full weight 10 cash was issued (S-630) at about 27 grams and 50 mm, but was withdrawn within a year. These appear to have been hoarded, and used as a cheap source of metal for counterfeiting the fiduciary 10 cash issues still circulating from the issue of AD 1102.




The earliest northern Song iron coins

consisted of non-fiduciary 1/10 cash. Schjoth (page 28) records: “In the 2nd year of Ching-te (AD 1005) large iron coins were cast in the two localities of Chia-ting Fu and Chiung-chou in Szechuan, value one copper cash or ten small iron cash. These all circulated jointly and gave much satisfaction.”

The large iron coins, of bronze 1 cash value, seem to be S-472 (10.83 grams, 35 mm). We believe

the “small iron cash”

valued at 1/10th of a copper cash are the well known iron issues of bronze cash size and weight which start with the T’ai-p’ing (S-462) issues of AD 976-984. This would explain a passage where Schjoth records Mr. Hu, in AD 978, paid for copying some sacred classics with

120 strings of iron money. Recording payment specifically in iron money would not be necessary unless iron and copper cash were valued differently. This establishes iron at about 1/10th the value of copper, a figure very important to understanding other iron issues. The larger iron coin (S-472), at about 11 grams, was fiduciary with only about 0.3 cash worth of iron.

A careful analysis of the coins, as well as the literary evidence, suggests the following sequence:

AD 978. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins are first cast. It is possible that earlier specimens may one day come to light.

AD 990. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins cease to be cast, but continue to circulate until at least AD 1005.

AD 1004 (possibly a little earlier). Fiduciary iron 1 cash ware introduced (S-472) at 11 grams, 35 mm and issued sporadically throughout the Northern Sung period but at ever-reducing weights and sizes.

AD 1017. The standard for iron 1 cash is reduced to about 7 grams, 28 mm (S-483).

AD 1023. The size of iron 1 cash is reduced to about 25 mm, but the weight remains at about 7.0 grams (S-487).

AD 1070. Fiduciary iron 10 cash (S-542a) of 35 mm and variable weight between 7.5 and 11 grams are issued to finance the Western Wars. At the end of the war these are devalued to 2 cash.

AD 1093. Iron 2 cash (S-580) introduced at the same standard as the 10 cash of AD 1070, but prove an unsuccessful experiment and by the end of AD 1094 are trading at scrap iron prices (about 0.4 cash).

AD 1101. The weights of iron 1 cash become variable (S-615) averaging about 5.75 grams but specimens between 3.5 and 7 grams are encountered. The size remains consistent at about 25 mm.

AD 1111. Iron 2 cash (29 mm, 7-10 grams) (S-643) and 3 cash (32 mm, 9-11 grams) are cast but again faile to be accepted.




When we were first writing this site, the issuing and later devaluations of fiduciary coins appeared somewhat random, but it quickly became obvious this was not the case.

All of the iron coins, with the exception of the early 1/10 cash issues were fiduciary. Fiduciary 1 cash iron coins were accepted throughout this period, but all attempts at higher denominations were rejected.

It appears that almost all fiduciary bronze coins, and most fiduciary iron over 1 cash, were only cast during times of war or other emergencies and afterwards the bronze coins were devalued to denominations consistent with their size and weight, while iron coins were demonetized and withdrawn from circulation.

Fiduciary bronze was always cast to standards consistent with lower denominations, allowing them to be devalued later and still fit into the pre-existing coinage system. This shows planning, suggesting they were cast with the full intent of a future devaluation. (The same is not true of fiduciary iron coins).




Northern Sung coins present a complex series of inscription variations which, while easily catalogued, are poorly understood. Date and mint codes are probably hidden in these variations, but it is possible we will never understand them.



Schjoth’s introduction to Northern Sung coinage (page 27) says: “As regards the style of writing, the coins in the ‘seal’ writing come first, followed by those in the clerkly or orthodox writing, and ultimately finishing up with the ‘running’ hand, or ‘grass-character’ style of writing.”

By using “or” he is saying “clerkly” and “orthodox” are one script style, “running hand” and “grass-character” are a second. Seal script is the third style. A quick examination of the coins shows his statement of only three styles of calligraphy are correct.


  • “SEAL” –

Zhong he tong bao@

a very formal style of writing. Rounded characters with a fixed form and all details of each character included. The differences between coins are minor. There is no real Western equivalent, but type set block capital letters come closest.


  • “ORTHODOX” –

Chong he tong bao

Ta ting tung pao

also referred to as “clerkly”. Angular characters with a generally square or rectangular appearance in which most details are made up of distinct either straight or slightly curved stokes. The general layout of a character is fixed, but small details can be left out. From coin to coin there can be significant differences. The closest Western equivalent is handwritten small-case printing.


  • “GRASS” –

Chung hua yung bao@

Yuan feng tong bao@

Compare the same coin in seal script


Northern Song ZhiDao YuanBao Grass script US $6.00@





Compare with the very rare

Li script

Jing Kang Tong Bao



Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127,

Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, H16.518, S-669, Li script, aVF $180.00 sold 7/4/2011


also referred to as “running hand”. Flowing characters on which several details of a character can be represented by a single wavy or jagged line. A form of shorthand in which a character can show major differences from coin to coin. This is distinctly like Western handwriting (as opposed to hand printing).

Confusion throughout the general listings, such as for S-633-637 (page 33) where he states the type exists in both “clerkly” and “orthodox” script leads us to believe Schjoth did not write this part of the catalogue. It must have been written by someone working from his rough notes in which must the terms have been used interchangeably.

We relied on Schjoth’s drawings and descriptions to determine the calligraphy style of most issues, but the drawings are not always accurate. Some of the drawings show coins with a mix of orthodox and grass characters, in which cases we list the coin by the style of the 12 o’clock character. If actual specimens confirm this mixing of types, we will comment on them later.



In his introduction to the Northern Sung coinage, Schjoth (page 27) writes “It will be noted that the Yuan-paos, implying the ‘opening’ or ‘beginning’ currency are placed before the T’ung-paos, implying the principle of the ‘flowing’ currency.”

A simple examination of the coins shows no such relationship exists. There is also a third ending,”Chung-pao”, which Schjoth has ignored in this passage. We have noted the following pattern in the use of these endings:

AD 960 to 989 –

all coins use “T’UNG PAO”.

AD 990 to 1007 –

all coins use “YUAN-PAO”.

AD 1008-1016 –

both “T’UNG PAO” and “YUAN-PAO” during the same reign title.




AD 1041 –

Chung ning chung pao

a third ending of “CHUNG-PAO” was introduced.

AD 1017-1041 –

only one ending was used during any reign title, but it could be either “T’UNG PAO”, “YUAN-PAO” or (after AD 1041) “CHUNG-PAO.

AD 1053-1126 –

no evident pattern. Anywhere from one to three endings used in any reign title. In the cases where only one was used, it could be any of the three.

At this time we cannot comment of the significance of these endings, but there must be one. Coins of some reign titles are very rare and it is possible new types may turn up which will help establish a more significant pattern.




Northern Sung coins occur with inscriptions reading either



Tai ping tung bao




Grass script Northern Song Dynasty, Sheng Song Yuan Bao 1101-1106A.D.

1cash “Knotted Sheng” – Price 55 USD



Other example

Seal script Yua yao yuan bao@

Orthodox script Tong Seng Yuan bao

Both orientations occur throughout and some issues can be found either way. We have not yet been able to determine any significance of these two orientations.







over 35
968-975 KAI-PAO Sung yuan tong bao 3.2 grams
976-984 T’AI-P’ING@ 








3.1 grams@
990-994 SHUN-HUA@ 


3.2 grams
995-998 CHIH-TAO yuan pao@ 









3.5 grams
998-1004 HSIEN-P’ING Yuan Pao @ 3.6 grams
1004-1007 CHING-TE yuan pao@ 3.5 grams
1008-1016 HSIANG-FU  






3.7 grams
1017-1021 T’IEN-SHI @ 3.2 grams
1023-1031 T’IEN-SHENG@ 3.7 grams
1032-1033 MING-TAO@ 3.9 grams
1034-1037 CHING-YU@ 3.7 grams
1038-1039 PAO-YUANhuang yu tong pao @ 


3.6 grams
1040 K’ANG-TING 3.3 grams
1041-1048 CH’ING-LI 3.3 grams 7.2 grams
1049-1053 HUANG-YU 2.7 grams
1054-1055 CHIH-HO@ 3.7 grams
1056-1063 CHIA-YU yun pao 3.5 grams
1064-1067 CHIH-P’ING yuan pao@ 3.6 grams
1068-1077 HSI-NING@ 3.5 grams@ 7.2 grams@
1078-1085 YUAN-FENG@ 3.3 grams@ 7.0 grams
1086-1093 YUAN-YU@ 3.2 grams 7.8 grams
1094-1097 SHAO-SHENG@ 3.7 grams 7.0 grams
1098-1100 YUAN-FU@ 1.7 grams 3.2 grams 7.4 grams
1101 CHIEN-CHUNGShen shung yuan pau 2.0 grams 3.6 grams@ 6.5 grams
1102-1106 CH’UNG-NING@ 2.7 grams 10.3 grams
1107-1110 TA KUAN@ 3.85 grams ?? grams 23.5 grams
1111-1117 CHENG-HO@ 3.3 grams2 7.2 grams
1118 CHUNG-HO 4.9 grams
1119-1125 HSUAN-HO 3.4 grams 6.1 grams 6.7 grams@
1126 CHING-K’ANG 7.3 grams







The Yuan (元)government

 inherited the ‘maritime custom system’,

so the individual state could trade with the custom officers at the major ports of China.

At the beginning of the Ming(明) Dynasty,

 the first emperor Hongwudi (洪武帝) resumed the tributary system.

Then so-called ’San-fo-chi’ appeared to the Ming court.

This San-fo-chi came from Palembang.

At that time Palembang was a vassal state of Java (the Majapahit kingdom) and Java killed the envoy from the Ming court at Palembang.

Hongwudi realized that he was cheated by the rulers of Palembang and accepted the situation.This ‘faked San-fo-chi

The end

Copyright @ 2014




The Ming Ceramic History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy<MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 20`14





Pada tahun 2013 saya berkunjung ke Malaka,Negeri Sembilan dan Kualalumpur untuk bertemu dengan teman dari Penang untuk membuat kerjasama membangun museum Zheng He di Penang.sampai july tahun 2014 saya menunggu kedatangannya di Indonesia untuk menanda tangani Kerjasama ,untuk itu saya sudah mempersiapkan sebuah CD_rom berisi The Ming Zheng He Ceramic History Collections, karena teman dari Penang

Tak mau datang ke Indonesia,dan ia tidak mau menanggung biaya untuk membawa koleksi saya ke Penang,ia hanya meminta pecahan keramik ming yang tidak ada harganya dan kertika saya menayakan apa keuntungan yang akan saya peroleh ia menjawab Cultural Benefit no $$$$$$.

Saya menghentikan rencana tersebut dan kemudian berusahaka kerjasama dengan margo Wu untuk membangun museum yang sama dengan nama Museum Leluhur Margo Wu(the Hung Wu King our ancestors) dan ternyata ia melangar janji ,

waktu yang sudah dipersiapkan ternyata minta diundur dan saya taidak memiliki waktu lagi karena akan ke Taiwan Teipeh untuk melihat museum keramik Imperial Tiongkok disana.

Baru saja saya melihat dua artikel yang sangat bagus terkait dengan

 museum yang sudah saya bangun di Jakarta,yaitu ceramic ming by Mr Koh dan Ming Ceramic by Geogrey Wade


saya harap teman saya pemilik zheng he museum penang dan letua margo Wu Indonesia di Jakarta akan senang melihat perkembangan museum saya ini,

Bila anda ingin melihat museum sebaiknya membeli CD-Rom saya Ceramic Motif seharga lima ratus ribu rupiah dan membayar satu juta untuk melihat dan belajar di museum Saya di Jakarta,untuk itu silahkan menghubungi saya liwat email

iewansuwandy@gmail dengan mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap agar bila CD dikrim sampai dengan selamat di rumah anda.

Saya harap CD-Rom ini akan berguna bagi para kolektor di Indonesia untuk belajar motif dan tipe keramik ming yang asli dan langka sebagai pedoman dalam membangun koleksinya.

Jakarta Oktober 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Early Ming Folk kiln blue and white Revisit

Recently I have the opportunity to attend a series of lectures on Jingdezhen Qingbai and blue and white conducted by Professor Ouyang Shibin of the Jingdezhen Ceramics Institute.  The lectures are enlightening and some information he imparted regarding Yuan and Early Ming Blue and white required a re-examination of current dating of early Ming folk kiln Blue and white.

According to him, some recent tests revealed that Yuan blue and white, even those which appeared greyish and commonly found on the lower end pieces, used imported cobalt.   Another surprise is that tests on some Xuande imperial blue and white samples supplied by Prof Liu Xinyuan revealed that local cobalt was used.

Hongwu blue and white are now confirmed to have used imported cobalt despite the greyish appearance. If indeed all Yuan Blue and white were painted using imported cobalt, then cobalt supply during Ming Hongwu period would pose a problem as foreign contacts and trade were forbidden.   The remaining cobalt acquired during the Yuan period would be scarce and precious.  Hence, not surprisingly they were used only for the imperial wares.  The fact that no local cobalt was used as a substitute to produce blue and white might be an indication that they were indeed not available yet.  Instead, during the Hongwu period, copper red and iron red pieces were also produced in considerable quantity to meet the need of the palace.  The supply of imported cobalt would have resumed in Yongle period and possibly brought back by the fleets of Admiral Zhenghe whose maritime trips reached as far as East Africa.




During the  early Ming period, a relatively high degree of  control was imposed on  political and cultural development.   For eg. during the reign of Hongwu, a decree was issued in the year 1371 which forbid certain subjects such as previous emperors, queens, sages or saints, dragon, phoenix, lion and chilin on porcelains.  During the Hongwu period, there were many instances of capital punishment for infringement of the policies.  To quote an example, an artist named Sheng Zhu was executed because he painted the drawing of a celestial being riding a dragon.  That was deemed a grave crime as the dragon is associated with the emperor.

Hence,  Hongwu imperial blue and white have only motifs which are limited in scope.  They consisted meanly of various type of flowers essentially.  There were none with human subjects.  The composition and style of the decoration still show influence of Yuan blue and white.


If we examine motifs commonly attributed to Hongwu folk kiln blue and white, they  consisted of simplified cloud motif, scholar with background with cloud, floral scrolls, floral scrolls with sanskrit/tibetan character or buddhist precious objects, embroidered balls with ribbons. 


 All the motifs were new and stylistically clearly different and not found during the Yuan period.   It would seem inconceivable that the folk kilns created all those new motifs in an environment which stifled artistic expression.  Most  artists lived in constant fear and understandably would be reluctant to attempt new designs which may be deemed taboos and incurred severe punishments.

Most of the above motifs started to appear on imperial blue and white from Yongle/Xuande period onward.  In fact, mostly only gained popularity from Xuande period onward.  On imperial wares they are executed in more elaborate form.  It is most likely that the potters from folk kilns copied them but simplified them to facilitate quick execution and large scale production to meet the needs of common follks.



Hence, the possibility that  Ming Folk kiln blue and white may have appeared later than Hongwu or even Yongle period merits further study.  This seems incredulous but archeological evidence appears to support it.  If we take note of dated excavated Folk kiln Ming blue and white wares from graves, there were none earlier than Zhengtong Period.  According to Professor Ouyang, those excavated graves from Xuande and earlier consisted of white wares and other wares instead.

If indeed there is no local cobalt use on Hongwu blue and white, the answer to when local cobalt was first used is important.  From the series of tests done on Xuande pieces, it is now certain that at least some also used local cobalt.  But it does not give any clue on whether the local cobalt was first used by imperial kiln or folk kilns. 

But what is certain is that the availability of local cobalt at least by Xuande period would enable folk kilns to produce blue and white wares.  More studies on the cobalt used and more reliable dating of Yunnan blue and white might also throw light on when folk kiln blue and whites were first produced.

Personally, I think folk kiln blue and white were produced on larger scale only after Xuande period.  Historically, we know that Xuande period produced hugh amount of imperial blue and white.  But upon his death, his mother who disapproved of his extravagance life style ordered porcelain production to be sized down.  This would definitely force many imperial kiln workers to seek employment with the folk kilns instead.  It would have facilitated the transfer of technology and raised the quality of folk kiln porcelain production.

Two recorded events would substantiate  this development.  On the first year of Zhengtong (A.D 1436) , a civilian named Lu zhishun presented 50,000 pieces of porcelain as tribute to the court.  Another instance was the  decree  issued on 12th year of Zhengtong (A.D. 1447 ) which prohibited the production of color glaze such as yellow, purple, red or blue glazes including those with underglazed blue design.  The need to issue the decree showed that many folk kilns must have produced them despite the prohibition.

Ming Fujian Ceramics

Swatow (Zhangzhou) blue and white

Following a lull in Fujian ceramics production from late Yuan to Mid Ming, a distinctive group of Blue and whites and overglaze enamelled wares were produced in the Zhangzhou region.  They were characterised by grits adhesion on the outer base.  The main market was Southeast Asia but smaller quantity were also found in west asia and East coast of Africa.   For more details on the rise of Zhangzhou kilns and the products produced, please read : A General survey of Swatow (Zhangzhou) wares .

The early Zhangzhou wares were produced during the Jiajing period.  The motifs were executed using calligraphic strokes.  Such examples could be found in the Nan ao 1 shipwreck near Chaozhou in China and the San Isidro wreck near Philippines.

Ming Jiajing Zhangzhou wares from Nan ao wreck

Those from the Wanli period onwards have motif executed mainly using the outline and wash method and kraak style panelled composition.  Such examples were found in the 1600 A.D Ming Wanli San Diego wreck in Philippines and Binh Thuan wreck in Central  Vietnam.




Dehua Blanc de chine wares

During the late Ming period, Dehua exported many varieties of blanc de chine wares: cups, censers, gu-vases, ewers, bowls, large plates, lamp, seated lions, figurines. Blanc de chine wares have a silky ivory white tone and the porcelain is translucent.  In this aspect, they were different from the early Dehua wares with the white/bluish white/yellowish white glaze.  Dehua potters introduced the blanc de chine wares during the 16th century firstly mainly for the Southeast Asian market.  During the 17th/18th century, many Dehua blanc de chine were exported to Europe.  Dehua ivory colour tone blanc de chine attracted considerable favourable responses in Europe and were widely collected by royal families and nobles.

Those from the Early Qing period still retained the ivory tinge glaze but the later Qing pieces became a less attractive more grayish white tone.


Source :Mr Koh



Geofry wade

Early Ming Underglazed Red Ceramic


Porcelain of the Hongwu ReignDuring the Hongwu reign (1368-1398) of the Ming period Jingdezhen kilns produced under-glaze blue,

under-glaze red, over-glaze red, and monochrome wares glazed white, blue, and red.

Of these the under-glaze red is especially prized. Achieving a good colour was very difficult, particularly on large objects, as the copper oxide which produces the red colour is hard to control at high temperatures.

Under-glaze blue was rarer than under-glaze red in the Hongwu reign. The designs, made with domestic as opposed to imported cobalt, have a blackish-blue colour. Shapes are stout, with an easy naturalness.


Hongwu Reign (A.D. 1368—1398), Ming

Hongwu Reign (A.D. 1368—1398), Ming



Ming Dynasty Chinese Red Under Glaze Yuhuchuan Vase

Ming Dynasty Hong Wu Period Chinese Red Under Glaze Yuhuchuan Porcelain Vase, height: 32cm. We are just only Online auction, and have no buyer’s premium, you can bid this item directly.

Estimate $1,000 – $1,500
Starting Bid $600



Antique Ming Dynasty Style Underglazed Red Porcelain Vase With Fish Design For Collection

US $87.35

Dr Iwan have the same replica with phoenix design.

Ming dynasty Children playing Jade Pot Bottle chinese antiqueporcelain crafts vintage home decor

Material: Ceramic & Enamel ; is_customized: Yes ; Brand Name: jingdezhen ; Regional Feature: China ; Use: Art & CollectibleJingdezhen Antique porcelain Offline

US $118.00 / pieceFree Shipping

foto dapat dilihat dengan mengklik info yang bewara biru










This Special  Show dedicated to

My Loving GandGandpa



 Chua Chay Hiok



Bukittinggi west Sumatra atfort de Kock 1950

My  grandpa Gho Kim Thian and whole family ,myfather Djoaahan Gho,My mother Anna Chua Giok Lan, My brother Dr Edhie Djohan Gho, My sister Elina Widyono,Dr Erlita Gho

Padang citymhuse of Chua Giem Toen,1968

My Grandpa Chua Giem Toen and  Grandmother Tan KimSoan with  whole Chua family from my mother


Also Especially For

 My loving wife

 Lily Oei  ,

My Son  and wife

Albert –Alice,


 my Granddaughters 

cesa,celin and

My Grandson Antoni Gho






Special Show

The Chinese Wu Ancestor History Collections


Era emperor Hong Wu and Admiral Zheng he





Emperor Hong Wu Profile



, Wade-Giles romanization Hung-wu, posthumous name (shi) Gaodi, temple name (miaohao) Taizu,

 original personal name (xingming) Zhu Chongba, later Zhu Yuanzhang   (born Oct. 21, 1328, Haozhou [now Fengyang, Anhui province], China—died June 24, 1398Nanjing),

 reign name (nianhao) of the Chinese emperor (reigned 1368–98) who founded the Ming dynasty that ruled China for nearly 300 years. During his reign, the Hongwu emperor instituted military, administrative, and educational reforms that centred power in the emperor..


Emperor Hung Wu and Admiral Zheng He





Zheng He profile



Zheng He












Zheng He (1371-1433),







China is celebrating the 600th anniversary of its greatest adventurer, the “Three-Jewel Eunuch Admiral”, and hailing him as the inspiration for its current success.


Almost a century before Columbus, at a time when China was the richest and most advanced country in the world, Zheng He [also known as Cheng Ho] sailed further than anyone before him, at the head of an armada bigger than the combined fleets of all Europe.




His giant “treasure ships”,

packed with the finest goods and most sophisticated weaponry of the time, went to 37 countries over 28 years, exacting tribute for the Dragon Throne and extending China’s influence across much of the globe.

But around the time of his death, a new Chinese ruler, suspicious of the outside world, banned all further expeditions, ushering in 500 years of isolation and leaving the way open for countries such as Spain and Portugal, and later Britain and America, to rule the waves instead.

While he remains little-known to most people even in his own country, Zheng He is now being turned into a communist hero and held up as the pioneer of the open-door policies that have brought China once again to the brink of being a world power.



The eunuch admiral became known as “Three Jewels” – in Chinese, San Bao. Some say he is the original Sinbad the Sailor.


Such is his popularity among South East Asia’s Chinese communities that people still touch his statue for good luck at temples dedicated to his memory.


In Singapore, the Friends of Admiral Zheng He are building a replica of a treasure ship as part of national celebrations of this year’s anniversary.

“Asia’s role in maritime history has not been recognised,” according to the group’s leader, Chung Chee-kit.


Ever since China decided to call back its fleets, it has seen itself as a land rather than sea power and has looked on seafarers and merchants as little more than pirates, he said.

Hero once more

But today things are changing, and suddenly Zheng He is a hero in his own country.


China is building its own replica ship and hopes to use it to retrace the original journeys.


 The man in charge is another Admiral Zheng – a retired naval officer from the People’s Liberation Army.


Zheng Ming is working to raise awareness of the Ming Dynasty voyages, now seen as a model for China’s “peaceful rise”.

“China is calling on its people to blaze forth Zheng He spirit, accelerate the development of the oceanic economy and contribute to the country’s reunification, friendly relationships, and co-prosperity among good-neighbourly countries,” he said.



Zheng He’s tomb


is a humble affair hidden away in paddy fields outside Nanjing. Almost the only people to visit it until now have been his family – descendants of his adopted nephew.


As we watched a huge new cultural centre being erected next to the tomb, one of them told me how proud he was of his ancestor, who had done so much to “open China to the world”.

It had taken a long time, he said, to reassert his rightful place in history.

Swimming Dragons can be heard on BBC Radio 4 on Friday 3 June at 1000 GMT.

By Tim Luard


Zheng He Map

Cheng Ho Navigation Map in Wubeizi showing the location of Man-la-ka (Melaka) and Guan Chang



Map of the known world by Zheng He:India at the top, Ceylon at the upper right andEast Africa along the bottom.






Zheng he document





Zheng He  Relic


Among the collected items are 

Emperor Yongle  presented  a seal to Parameswara,

. It is said that Zheng He brought the seal to Malacca

 over 20 ancient relics, some ancient historical books, and more than 80 pictures of cultural relics.


According to the museum’s president, there are not many materials about Zhen He’s activities in the Southern Seas despite his close relationship with Malacca.

Therefore, those historical materials exhibited in the hall mostly record Zheng He’s activities in China and the places he went by during his seven voyages.


The exhibition hall also boasts a collection of ancient “Zheng He” coins, which are similar to the square-hole copper coins in external shape and which were donated by a collector of ancient coins.

However, there is no way of verifying the original source of these coins.


“The Monument to Zheng He”,

a precious relic displayed in the exhibition hall, was erected in 1431 before Zheng He made his seventh voyage to the western seas.

 The inscription on the stele, totaling 1,177 characters, recorded in detail the process of Zheng He’s sixth voyage to the western seas and the tasks to be achieved during the seventh one.

The inscription is an important historical material for research on the history of overseas communication history as well as the history of Sino-foreign exchanges during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).



Inside the spacious hall,

 Zheng He’s historical relics are exhibited in four parts –


“Historical Background of Zheng He’s Voyages to the Western Seas,”

“Zheng He’s Voyages, with Fujian as the Navigation Base,”

and “Great Achievements and Profound Impacts.”

Duplicates of  bronze bells, precious ships, navigation charts, and other relics as well as pictures are among the exhibited items.

There are also many books, including, “In Commemoration of Zheng He’s Voyages to the Western Seas,” written by Xiang Nan, and “Zheng He and Fujian,” which came out after the academic forum held during the 580th anniversary, and so on.

On the second floor,

 many calligraphic works by famous calligraphers are on exhibition.

In addition,

duplicates of the ships used by Zheng He have been made, and are displayed in the exhibition hall


Zheng he  Museum At  Santosa


Source :Sentosa Zheng He museum

Zheng he Mosque Purbalingga



Zheng He video












Ming Emperor   Relic

The Ming Dynasty Tombs (Chinese: 明十三陵; pinyin: Míng shísān líng; lit. Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty) are located some 51.35 kilometers due north of centralBeijing, within the suburban Changping District of Beijing municipality. The site, located on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain (originally Mount Huangtu), was chosen on the feng shui principles by the third Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle(1402–1424), who moved the capital of China from Nanjing to its the present location in Beijing. He is credited with envisioning the layout of the Ming-era Beijing as well as a number of landmarks and monuments located therein. After the construction of the Imperial Palace (the Forbidden City) in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum.



Chinese Xin Shape Jewelry from Ming Dynasty Tombs

From the Yongle Emperor onwards, 13 Ming Dynasty Emperors were buried in this area. The Xiaoling Tomb of the first Ming Emperor, Hongwu, is located near his capital Nanjing; the second emperor, Jianwen was overthrown by Yongle and disappeared, without a known tomb. The “temporary” Emperor Jingtai was also not buried here, as the Emperor Tianshun had denied him an imperial burial; instead, Jingtai was buried west of Beijing.The last Ming emperor Chongzhen, who was hanged in April 1644, named Si Ling by the Qing emperor, was the last to be buried here, but on a much smaller scale than his predecessors


Golden crown (replica) excavated from Dingling tomb

During the Ming dynasty the tombs were off limits to commoners, but in 1644 Li Zicheng‘s army ransacked and set many of the tombs on fire before advancing and capturing Beijing in April of that year.


The excavation of Dingling began in 1956, after a group of prominent scholars led by Guo Moruo and Wu Hanbegan advocating the excavation of Changling, the tomb of the Yongle Emperor, the largest and oldest of the Ming Dynasty Tombs. Despite winning approval from premier Zhou Enlai, this plan was vetoed by archaeologists because of the importance and public profile of Changling. Instead, Dingling, the third largest of the Ming Tombs was selected as a trial site in preparation for the excavation of Changling. Excavation completed in 1957, and a museum was established in 1959.


The excavation revealed an intact tomb, with thousands of items of silk, textiles, wood, and porcelain, and the skeletons of the Wanli Emperor and his two empresses. However, there was neither the technology nor the resources to adequately preserve the excavated artifacts

. After several disastrous experiments, the large amount of silk and other textiles were simply piled into a storage room that leaked water and wind.

As a result, most of the surviving artifacts today have severely deteriorated, and many replicas are instead displayed in the museum.

 Furthermore, the political impetus behind the excavation created pressure to quickly complete the excavation. The haste meant that documentation of the excavation was poor








Xuan De





 Cheng hua

Cheng te





Diplomacy and commerce

Porcelain wares, such as those similar to these Yongle-era porcelain flasks, were often presented as trade goods during the expeditions. (British Museum)


The treasure ships had an enormous cargo of various products.[211]

Admiral Zheng He returned to China with about 180 kinds of tribute goods, such as silver, spices, sandelwood, precious stones, ivory, ebony, camphor, tin, deer hides, coral, kingfisher feathers, tortoise sheels, gums and resin, rhinoceros horn, sapanwood and safflower (for dyes and drugs), Indian cotton cloth, and ambergris (for parfum).[211]


They even brought back exotic animals, such as ostriches, elephants, and girrafes.[211]

The fleet brought back so much cobalt oxide from Persia that Jingdezhen (the porcelain center in Jiangxi Province) had a plentiful supply even decades after the voyages had ended.[211]

The fleet also returned with such a large amount of black pepper that the once-costly luxury became a common commodity in Chinese society.[211]

It has even been said that there was sometimes so many Chinese goods unloaded into a single foreign port that it could take about three months to price everything.[9]

The treasure voyages resulted in a flourishing Ming economy.[212] It also boosted the lucrative maritime commerce to an all-time high.[213]

Imperial proclamations were issued to the foreign kings, which meant that they could either submit and be bestowed with rewards or refuse and be pacified under the threat of an overwhelming military force.[136][214]

They had to reaffirm their recognition of the superior status of the Chinese emperor by presenting tribute.[215]

Many countries were enrolled as tributaries.[145]



The treasure fleet conducted the transport of the many foreign envoys to China and back, but some envoys traveled independently.[216]

Those rulers who submitted received political protection and material rewards.[185]

Geography and society[edit]

During the onset of their voyages, the treasure fleet would embark from the Longjiang shipyard, north-west of Nanjing.[230] They would then sail down the Yangtze River to Liujiagang.[230] Once there, Admiral Zheng He would organize his fleet and make sacrifices to Tianfei.[230] Afterwards, over the course of four to eight weeks, the fleet would gradually proceed to Taiping anchorage in Changle, Fujian.[230] There, the fleet would wait for the favorable northeast monsoon of winter[p] before leaving the Fujian coast.[22][222][230] They would reach the sea through the Wuhumen.[22] For the voyages, the fleet always visited the port Qui Nhon (in Champa) first.[21]

During the first three voyages from 1405 to 1411, the fleet followed the same basic maritime route: from Fujian to the first call in Champa, across the South China Sea to Java and Sumatra, up the Strait of Malacca to northern Sumatra for assembly of the fleet, across the Indian Ocean to Ceylon, then along the Malabar Coast to Calicut.[231] It had not yet ventured further than Calicut on India’s southwestern coast during these voyages.[207] During the fourth voyage, the route was extended to Hormuz.[232] During the fifth voyage, the fleet proceeded further to other destinations at the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa.[232] During the sixth voyage, the treasure fleet sailed up to Calicut, where several detached squadrons proceeded to further destinations at the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa.[232] During the seventh voyage, the treasure fleet followed the route up to Hormuz, while detached squadrons traveled to the other far-lying destinations at the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa.[232]

The treasure fleet sailed the equatorial and subtropical waters of the South China Sea and Indian Ocean, where they were dependent on the circumstances of the annual cycle of monsoon winds.[217] During all the voyages, the fleet would sail westward across the Indian Ocean after departing from Sumatra.[233] Semudera and its neighbor (on Sumatra) were important for its location to the fleet rather than for its wealth or products.[121] Ma Huan stated that Semudera was the main route to the Western Ocean.[234] He characterized it as the most important port of assembly for the Western Ocean.[66] Northern Sumatra was an important region for the fleet’s anchorage and assembly before the long journey through the Indian Ocean to Ceylon and southern India.[66] The journey from northern Sumatra to Ceylon involved sailing for about two to four weeks without laying sight on land.[222]

The first part of Ceylon that would visible after departing from Sumatra was Namanakuli (or Parrot’s Beak Mountain), the eastern-most mountain (6680 ft in elevation and 45 miles away from the coast).[233] Two or three days after sighting this geographical feature, the treasure fleet would adjust their course to sail south of Dondra Head at Ceylon.[233] The fleet would have been at sea for a considerable long time by then since departing from Sumatra, thus they would make a call at a port in Ceylon, usually at Beruwala and sometimes at Galle.[235] Even though the fleet would make a port call at Galle at times, it was clear that the fleet’s preference laid at Beruwala as port-of-call.[47] Ma Huan characterized Beruwala as “the wharf of the country of Ceylon.”[47]

Ming China had cordial relations with Calicut, which was valuable as they tried to extend the tributary system to the states around the Indian Ocean.[161] Ma Huan described Calicut as the “great country of the Western Ocean”.[27][66] He was very positive about the Calicut authorities’ regulation of trade and attention to weights or measurements.[27] Fei Xin described Calicut as the “great harbor” of the Western Ocean countries.[123]

Fei Xin wrote that the people of Mogadishu were bigoted and insincere (wangyin, both words can also mean “stupid”).[236] This was the most-pejorative description of any foreign nation that they had visited during the ocean voyages.[236] It was further mentioned that they often drilled their soldiers and practiced archery.[236] However, Fei Xin characterized the people of Brava as pure and honest.[236]

The return journey was set during the late summer and early autumn, because favorable monsoon winds would be present during this period.[237]


Admiral Zheng He followed for the most parts established trade routes during his voyages rather than unknown territory.[149] During the treasure voyages, the crew acquired and collected a large amount of navigational data.[238] The astrological officer and his four astrologers specifically recorded the astronomical data.[239] The general mass of navigational data were processed into different kind of charts by a cartographic office.[238][239] The office included an astrological officer, four astrologers, and their clerks.[239] This provided the expeditionary commanders with the necessary navigational charts for their voyages.[238] Many copies of the expeditionary charts were housed in the Ministry of War.[238] Additional navigational data were probably also supplied by local maritime pilots, Arab records, Indian records, and earlier Chinese records.[239]

The Mao Kun map is associated with the route of the voyages.[240]

The Wubei Zhi includes four stellar diagrams after the Mao Kun map. These charts were derived from records of Zheng He’s navigators.

Faith and ceremony[edit]

The power of the goddess, having indeed been manifested in previous times, has been abundantly revealed in the present generation. In the midst of the rushing waters it happened that, when there was a hurricane, suddenly a divine lantern was seen shining at the masthead, and as soon as that miraculous light appeared the danger was appeased, so that even in the peril of capsizing one felt reassured and that there was no cause for fear.

Admiral Zheng He and his associates [124]

The true faith of the crew of the treasure fleet centered around Tianfei, the “Heavenly Princess”, who was the goddess of sailors and seafarers.[241] The Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions suggest that Zheng He’s life was mostly defined by the treasure voyages.[242] Consequently, they also suggest that his devotion to Tianfei was the dominant faith that he adhered to.[242] The two inscriptions honored and commemorated the Goddess Tianfei.[243] Admiral Zheng He and his associates had established these inscriptions at the temples of Tianfei at Liujiagang on 14 March 1431 and Changle between 5 December 1431 and 3 January 1432.[244] These inscriptions make reference to the crew witnessing St. Elmo’s fire during dangerous storms and interpreting it as a sign of divine protection by Tianfei.[245] The Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions are considered the epitaphs of the treasure voyages.[107]

In Galle at Ceylon, Admiral Zheng He set up a trilingual inscription dated 15 February 1409.[46] The Galle Trilingual Inscription is in three languages: Chinese, Tamil, and Persian.[47] For protecting the treasure fleet during the voyages, the Chinese section praised the Buddha, the Tamil section praised a local god who was an incarnation of Vishnu, and the Persian section praised Allah.[47] The three sections each contained the same lists of offerings: 1000 pieces of gold, 5000 pieces of silver, 100 rolls of silk, 2500 catties of perfumed oil, and a variety of bronze ornaments.[47] Thus, the inscription paid respect to the three religions that were dominant in Ceylon.[241] The noted date could refer to when it was erected in Galle, which would indicate that it was put up during the homeward journey of the second voyage.[46] The inscription could also have been prepared beforehand in China and erected at Galle between 1410 to 1411 during the third voyage.[246]

On 20 September 1414, Bengali envoys presented a tribute giraffe in the name of King Saif Al-Din Hamzah Shah of Bengal (r. 1410–1412) to the Yongle Emperor of Ming China.[247] The giraffe was presented as the qilin, but this association was met with a dismissive attitude from the Yongle Emperor who rejected the



laudatory memorials of his officials.[248]


See also: Ming Shilu, Mingshi, Ma Huan’s Yingya Shenglan, Fei Xin’s Xingcha Shenglan, and Gong Zhen’s Xiyang Fanguo Zhi

Pages from a copy of the Yingya Shenglan

There were several major contemporary records preserved into present times. These works include Ma Huan‘s Yingya Shenglan [瀛涯勝覽],[249][250] Fei Xin‘s Xingcha Shenglan [星槎勝覽],[249][250] and Gong Zhen‘s Xiyang Fanguo Zhi [西洋番國志].[249][250]

Ma Huan served as an interpreter on the fourth, sixth, and seventh voyage.[133][251]

Guo Chongli was Ma Huan collaborator on the Yingya Shenglan.[252]

He personally participated in three of the expeditions.[252]

These two gentlemen recorded their observations into notes, which were used to compose the Yingya Shenglan.[252] Fei Xin served as soldier on the third, fifth, and seventh expedition.[251][253] Gong Zhen served as Zheng He’s private secretary on the seventh voyage.[251][254]

The Ming Shilu, Ming veritable records containing sections about reigns of individual emperors, also provided much of the information relating to the treasure voyages.[255] Zheng He lived through the reigns of five Ming emperors,[255] but he directly served three emperors in his life.[148] He is mentioned in the Taizong Shilu of the Yongle reign, the Renzong Shilu of the Hongxi reign, and the Xuanzong Shilu of the Xuande reign.[255]

The Taizong Shilu had combined the second and third voyages into one expedition.[195][256] This was followed by the Mingshi.[256][257] It led to the confusion of Zheng He’s Palembang journey of 1424-25[q] as being wrongly construed as the sixth voyage to make up for the seven voyages.[99][195][256] However, the Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions made a clear distinction between the second and third voyage as they correctly date the second voyage from 1407 to 1409 and the third voyage from 1409 to 1411.[37][195][258]

A number of later works have also been preserved. The accounts in the Mingshi (1739) and Huang Xingzeng’s Xiyang Chaogong Dianlu [西洋朝貢典錄] (1520) rely on Ma Huan’s original Yingya Shenglan.[259] However, Zheng Xiao’s Wuxuebian [吾學編] (ca. 1522) relies on Zhang Sheng’s “rifacimento”.[259] Zhu Yunming’s Qianwen Ji [A Record of Things Once Heard] (ca. 1526) contains his Xia Xiyang [Down the Western Ocean].[242][260] This work provides a detailed itinerary of the seventh voyage.[242][260] There are also Lu Rong’s Shuyan Zaji [Bean Garden Miscellany] (1475),[261] Yan Gongjian‘s Shuyu Zhouzilu [Record of Despatches Concerning the Different Countries] (1520),[261] Gu Qiyuan‘s Kezuo Zhuiyu [Boring Talks for My Guests] (ca. 1628).[261] Mao Yuanyi‘s Wubei Zhi (1628) is a military encyclopedia that preserved the Mao Kun map, which is largely based on material from the treasure voyages.[261]

Luo Maodeng’s Sanbao Taijian Xia Xiyang Ji Tongsu Yanyi [三寶太監西洋記通俗演義] (1597) is a fiction novel about the exploits of Admiral Zheng He and his fleet.[251][262] In the preface, Luo states that Chinese maritime power was essential to maintaining the world order.[263] In Luo’s work, Admiral Zheng He sailed the oceans in search for a sacred imperial seal to restore harmony in the Middle Kingdom.[262] However, he never finds the seal in the story, suggesting that it showed that the world order cannot be restored by other means than military force according to Finlay (1992).[264] Luo Maodeng’s novel contains a description of different classes of ships with their sizes: the 36 nine-masted treasure ships (baochuan) were 44.4 by 18 zhang, the 700 eight-masted horse ships (machuan) were 37 by 15 zhang, the 240 seven-masted grain ships or supply ships (liangchuan) were 28 by 12 zhang, the 300 six-masted billet ships or troop transports (zuochuan) were 24 by 9.4 zhang, and the 180 five-masted combat ships or warships proper (zhanchuan) were 18 by 6.8 zhang.[265] Dreyer (2007) argues that this work holds little to none evidential value as a historical source.[266] However, Duyvendak thinks that there may be some truth to it.[266]

The Kezuo Zhuiyu and the Shuyu Zhouzilu describes the following circumstances of what happened to the official archives about the expeditions.[267] The Chenghua Emperor issued an order to retrieve the documents concerning expeditions to the Western Ocean from the Ministry of War archives.[268][269] However, the official Liu Daxia had hidden and burned them.[269][270] He had the opinion that they were “deceitful exaggerations of bizarre things far removed from the testimony of people’s ears and eyes.”[267][269]

The Shuyu Zhouzilu then adds the following to the story.[267] The Minister of War Xiang Zhong (in office 1474-1477) had sent a clerk to retrieve the documents, but could not find them after several days of searching.[268][269] Liu Daxia eventually confessed and justified his actions to Xiang Zhong by stating that “the expeditions of Sanbao to the Western Ocean wasted tens of myriads of money and grain, and moreover the people who met their deaths [on these expeditions] may be counted by the myriads. Although he returned with wonderful things, what benefit was it to the state? This was merely an action of bad government of which ministers should severely disapprove. Even if the old archives were still preserved they should be destroyed in order to supress [a repetition of these things] at the root.”[268][269] Minister Xiang Zhong was recorded to have been impressed by this explanation.[268][269]

The Mingshi, the Xianzong Shilu, and the Mingshi Jishi Benmo attributes the reason for the suppression and destruction of the archived records to preventing that the powerful eunuch Wang Zhi could consult it for his invasion of Vietnam.[271] Dreyer (2007, 173–175) notes that Liu Daxia couldn’t have had access to the records in his capacity at the time, thus raising doubt about his actual involvement.[269] Duyvendak (1938, 397–398) stated that the Ministry of War officials weren’t influential enough to stop the retrieval of the documents and therefore speculates that Liu Daxia may have destroyed them with the approval of the Minister of War.[272]


Admiral Zheng He‘s empty tomb at Nanjing

In September 1499, Vasco da Gama returned to Lisbon, Portugal, from his voyage to India.[273] Before da Gama’s return, Girolamo Sernigi wrote about Portuguese accounts that “certain vessels of white Christians” had made port at Calicut on the Malabar coast generations before their arrival.[274] The Portuguese speculated that these unknown mariners could have been the Germans or the Russians, but Sernigi concluded that “on the arrival of the captain [da Gama] we may learn who these people are.”[274] After his arrival at Calicut, Vasco da Gama began hearing tales of pale bearded men who sailed with their giant ships along the local coastal waters of Calicut generations before.[275] At the time, the Portuguese had not yet discovered that these stories were actually about Zheng He’s fleets.[275] Although, they would eventually discover that these unknown mariners were, in fact, the Chinese.[273] Da Gama’s men were apparently even mistaken for the Chinese at first on arrival at the East African coast, because the Chinese had been the last-seen pale-skinned strangers arriving with large wooden ships in the memories of the East African people.[273]

In Calicut, da Gama had received permission to build a factory at Chinacota, where a Chinese storehouse first stood eighty years before.[276] In the 16th century, Juan González de Mendoza wrote that “it is plainly seene, that [the Chinese] did come with shipping into the Indies, having conquered al that is from China, unto the farthest part thereof. . . . So that at this day there is great memory of them . . . in the kingdom of Calicut, where be so many trees and fruits . . . were brought thither by the Chinos when that they were lords and governours of that countrie.”[277]

In November 1997 during a Harvard University speech, President Jiang Zemin praised Admiral Zheng He for spreading Chinese culture abroad.[278] This may give an indication on how the present-day Chinese people perceive these historical events, namely that the voyages were conducted in accordance to Confucian ideals.[278] In 2005, China commemorated the 600th anniversary of Zheng He’s maiden voyage, characterizing it as the start of a series of peaceful seafaring explorations.[279]



Zheng He History collections


On 15 August, 1363

the two fleets engaged one another in Lake Poyang.

 The large Han tower ships, with their deeper draft, were constrained by declining water levels and numerous shoals, which evened the odds for the smaller Ming fleet with their shallow draft ships.

The battle raged for four days, the momentum switching between the two forces several times. Hundreds of ships were sunk on each side and thousands of casualties mounted. The huge, armored Han tower ships proved virtually unassailable on the first day of the battle, but a fire ship attack by the Ming on the second day decimated the Han fleet.[17]

As the two fleets engaged in the Lake the overland Ming relief army swept into Nanchang and routed the Han forces that had remained. The third day of the four-day engagement was used by the two fleets to regroup.

After another day of battle on the lake Zhu pulled back from the Han fleet and set sail for the Yangzi River. There he hoped to bottle up the Han and destroy them in one final battle.[18]

The Ming use of joint warfare left the Han in a difficult position. The overland relief army had retaken Nanchang and the now reinforced garrison there blocked any attempt to escape south via the Kan River.

The Ming fleet had disembarked ground forces earlier to close the straits that would allow the Han to escape north to the Yangzi. Any attempt to escape in the direction of Han territory required not only the defeat of these troops, but also another engagement with the Ming fleet. It took over a month, with supplies dwindling and the fleet on the verge of starvation, before Chen initiated his attempt to break out of the lake.

The Han fleet successfully fought its way clear of Lake Poyang, fighting pitched battles with and defeating the garrisons on the shores of the strait. The fleet finally broke out onto the Yangzi, their only possible escape route. It was there, as they attempted to turn upstream toward home, that the Ming fleet was waiting. With the advantage of the currents on their side the Ming descended on the Han and the two engaged in a fierce sea battle, ships locked together with crews grappling and the vessels being carried downstream by the current. A Ming reserve squadron from downstream joined the fight and as the Han ships struggled to break away Chen himself was killed by an arrow.[19]

Several Han ships managed to escape upstream but hundreds surrendered or were destroyed. The Ming took dozens of warships intact, including the weapons and horses aboard, thus strengthening both their sea and land forces.

The death of Chen provided Zhu with the decisive victory he needed. With his now reinforced fleet and victorious land forces he was on the path toward conquering the rest of the China.



They fought over Shanxi, and Bolod fled to the capital; but Ayushiridara took refuge with Koko in 1364. Bolod’s tyranny at court led the Yuan emperor to have him assassinated the next summer. Koko was named prince of Henan and commanded north China; but another civil war broke out when four Shaanxi warlords turned against him.

Zhang Shicheng returned to Yuan loyalty and promised to send grain to Daidu (Beijing). However, in 1363 he repudiated the Yuan government and called himself Prince of Wu, taking Hangzhou.



Zhang Shicheng attacked Zhu Yuanzhang, who was fighting the central Yangzi Red Turbans led by Chen Yuliang. Zhu defeated Chen and challenged Zhang but was not able to defeat him until 1367, when Zhang hanged himself.

 The old Red Turban capital of Anfeng had been captured the previous year. Prince Han Liner drowned crossing the Yangzi just as Zhu Yuanzhang declared a new calendar for the year 1367.

Civil service examinations and the Hanlin Academy were revived. Zhu sent his armies to invade northern China and conquer the south.



 By 1368 he had subjugated the Han and the Wu, continued to force the remnants of the Mongol Yuan back toward the steppes of Central Asia, and established the Ming Dynasty which would last almost three century





Celadon Ceramic during Early Ming

1367 AD twenty seventh year of the reign of Zhinzheng, last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty


 From the ceramics recovered from the wreck it must now be assumed that the Longquan kilns were still  full production at the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1368, This information helpful in determining


the end of the occupation of Kota Cina

(by Chola King from Tamil India-Dr Iwan),


the predominat green glazed ware related to souhter sung and yuan dynasty

(DR E>E>Mackinnon)


Dr Iwan Note

The result of DR Mackinnon studies above, will help us to know that the Admiral Zheng he also bring celadon ceramic but in later type almost in porcelain and high fire ware with small base with spur mark, different with the Kublaikan army bring the early yuan celadon with bigger base without spur mark and not porcelain only with added kaolin.


To understand the type of late celadon  during early Ming era which bring by Admiral Zheng Ho during expedition to Indonesia  , let we lok the information of the sina shipwrech treasure at next page and compare with celadon ware found by dr Iwan at Samudera Pasai,Riau,palelmband,Tuban and west Borneo.



A malignant inflation

resulted in which these notes also lost all value.

 When that happened, people wereforced to fall back and rely entirely upon their “square holes” (as copper coins were commonly called) and barter.


This condition prevailed until the end of the dynasty in 1368, hastening its demise. At the end, the enormous sums, which had been swindled from the Chinese by the Mongol emperors, helped to hasten their defeat at the hands of the Ming.




The next year Zhu Yuan Shang  named his new dynasty Ming, meaning “radiant.” As the Yuan emperor fled to Mongolia,

Daidu was taken by Zhu’s general Xu Da in September 1368 and renamed Beijing, meaning “the north is pacified.”

 Zhu ordered his Ming armies to deliberately secure the territories conquered in Shanxi and Shaanxi; but this enabled Koko to unite his army with the fleeing Yuan emperor in Mongolia.

The racial discrimination that the Mongols imposed on China is detailed by Tao Zongyi in his Interrupted Labors, which described the popular revolts in southeastern China in mid-century.


Yuan  dynasty continued until 1369




The recent production of a set of 600 Ming-style imperial cooking vessels,  ironically including a steamboat, to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the maiden voyage of the 15th century navigator Zheng He,  better known by the arresting honorary title of the Three Treasure Eunuch  (Sanbao taijian), is perhaps no more an ironic juxtaposition of the ancient  and the modern than the recent carving on Qin-style bamboo slips of China’s

Anti-Secession Law aimed against Taiwanese independence and approved by the National People’s Congress on 13 March 2005.

[1] The role of cooking in China’s “march on the world” and the evocation of Qin Shihuang’s legal codes in the interests of national unity reveal  the breadth of China’s contemporary appeal to history encompassing  the range of cultural production from gustatory delights and national  treasures all the way to kitchen kitsch.

Illustration of flat-bottomed caofang or coastal tributary grain vessel from woodblock edition of the technological and scientific treatiseTiangong kaiwu (Exploitation of the Works of Heaven), 1637 [as reproduced in Gujin tushu jicheng]


The ancient-style cooking vessels, each weighing approximately 30 kilograms, and emblazoned with appropriate relief-carved dragon motifs  and a schedule of Zheng He’s seven voyages spanning the 28-year period from 1405 to 1433, went on display in the Nanjing Museum on 19 May 2005.

The vessels took six months to produce, and absorbed the creative energies  of six local artists.

This tribute to Zheng He, master mariner of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644),  is merely one frisson in the flurry of activities organised for the sexcentenary. Stamped with patriotism, most events are designed to appeal to Chinese  who hail from the various hometowns and localities in China associated  with Zheng He, or who now live in the areas of Southeast and South Asia,   as well as the Middle East and even East Africa, once visited by Zheng He’s  fleets.

 Although Zheng He came to be deified and included in  local Chinese  pantheons in Tian Hou temples, he was in fact a Muslim,  a fact not overlooked in the present celebrations.[2]

Although the Ming had adopted Guo Shoujing‘s Shoushi calendar of 1281,  which was just as accurate as the Gregorian Calendar, the Ming Directorate of Astronomy failed to periodically readjust it; this was perhaps due to their lack of expertise since their offices had become hereditary in the Ming and the Statutes of the Ming prohibited private involvement in astronomy.[163]


Zheng He (1371-1433),

 commander-in-chief of the renowned Ming expeditionary fleets of

the early 15th century, was born into a Muslim family surnamed Ma

 in Kunyang, Yunnan province.


His grandfather and father both bore  the title Hajji, suggesting that they had made the pilgrimage to Mecca.



 in 1375 , Adityawarman sent envoys to China . Adityawarman died and was buried in the tomb of King , Five Tribe of West Sumatra .


But according to Uli , Adityawarman is Malay ( Sumatra ) were born and raised in Sumatra and no relationship with Raden Wijaya , the king of Majapahit .

Her mother was not Dara Orange as written in the national history during this , because according to him , when Dara Orange is the mother , then at least Adityawarman became king at the age of 45-50 years are especially impossibility to establish and lead a new kingdom established in Sumatra .

Similarly, the founder of the kingdom that Adityawarman not Malay but the kingdom was founded by Akarendrawarman whose name is often mentioned in the inscriptions in various inscriptions such as PGR 7 Minangkabau who called it maharajadhiraja ,

inscription PGR 8 issued in 1316 and the inscription airport where Adityawarman continue development Bapahat previous king namel Akarendrawarman .


So , before Adityawarman ,  existing and established the kingdom of Malayu in Sumatra founded by Akarendrawarman and Adityawarman aspires to continue his predecessor ‘s development .


Further argued that Uli Based on primary sources and critical analysis done to these sources , Uli asserted that Adityawarman is probably the nephew Akarendrawarman born between the years 1310 and 1320 in Sumatra and never sent to China as an ambassador of Majapahit .

Likewise that accompany Adityawarman never to invade Majapahit Bali or Sumatra Adityawarman assigned an expedition to conquer Pamalayu Singhasari era .


Adityawarman itself is not buried in the Tomb of Kubu Rajo , because not ditemukkanya Kubu Rajo as evidence that the tomb . Kubu Rajo himself is a stronghold or fortress defense . expedition Pamalayu
by Uli is a communion ( in the framework of cooperation between Java and Sumatra ) , and not in order to conquest , as it is called in the national history as long as this .


Uli further asserts that , Kertanegara ( king Singhasari ) threatened by Kublai Khan of the Mongol troops as a result of refusing to pay tribute to China .


As a result of the refusal ,  Singhasari position increasingly threatened and afraid when attacked by Mongol forces .


Similarly, the relationship between Java and Sumatra showed no subordinates and superiors in which the kings of Sumatra called the vassal of the king of Java making it possible to attack the kingdom of Java .


On that basis , Kertanegara realize that posisisnya increasingly threatened , he formed an alliance with the Malay kingdoms known as Pamalayu expedition .


Furthermore , Manjushri inscription which is now located in the temple complex Jago reported that Adityawarman set up statues in Bhumi Java which means that Adityawarman not someone who was born and raised in Majapahit ( Java ) . But he was born and raised in Sumatra and young when sent to Majapahit to friendship Java and Sumatra .


Further confirmed that the use of the term Maharaja an Maharajadiraja have confirmed that there is no relationship between Java and Sumatra conquered .


Maharaja is the name or title for the king was maharajadiraja is the title of king of kings ( king of the king ) . Adityawarman itself has been using the same maharajadiraja Akarendrawarman which means that the kingdom is a sovereign that has no relationship with Majapahit .



Sung celadon



Early Ming Celadon


1323 sinan shipwreck celadon


Paper money During Ming times


paper money became so depreciated and was so disliked by the peasants that local officials treated these criminals more leniently, often letting the miscreant off with only a fine.


One emission of notes stated a desire to single out only the true offenders, offering amnesty to accomplices who confessed their wrongdoing.


Several types of counterfeiting were prevalent. Of course, the most frequently encountered were notes printed from counterfeit blocks or plates.


Another form of counterfeiting, known as “pasting”, consisted of notes that were pasted together from bits of other notes so that one kwan became ten and so on. For this type of counterfeiting the punishment was less severe than for printing.


A most original solution to the counterfeiting problem occurred in Sung times

after a large shipment of counterfeit money had been seized.


During the discussion as to what should be done with the counterfeiters, one court official stated that the current policy of beheading the criminals and destroying their money was a mistake. He proposed instead the following:


“If you put the official imperial stamp on the counterfeited paper, it will be just as good as genuine paper.


If you punish these men only by tattooing them, and circulate these notes, it is exactly as if you saved each day 300,000 copper cash together with fifty lives.” It is said that the proposition was adopted.


Lastly I would like to call to the reader’s attention to an anomaly I noted some years ago when inspecting a specimen of the Ming 1 kwan note. It concerns the depiction of strings of cash shown on the face and reverse of the note. As early as Sung times representations of coins found their way onto their paper money counterparts.


In ancient times, when the majority of the population consisted of an illiterate peasantry, it was necessary to identify the value of the paper money note by placing ideograms or pictographs upon it which everyone could recognize. This practice was continued by succeeding dynasties, up to and including the Ming.


Individual coins were sometimes depicted but more often, because the intrinsic value of a single coin was so low, they were shown grouped together as strings, or groups of strings.


A standard string was theoretically composed of one thousand cash, which were strung together to facilitate handing. Each string of one thousand cash coins had the equivalent value of one ounce of pure silver.


When one examines the 1 kwan note of Hung-wu closely he finds a depiction of

what appears to be at first glance ten strings of ten coins each which must be considered to be of 10 cash denomination. Thus ten strings x ten coins per string x 10 cash per coin = 1,000 cash, or 1 kwan. In reality what is depicted are ten strings of 10 cash coins; however on close examination we will find that there are only nine coins to a string.


Aha! This is interesting. Could it be a mistake on the engravers part? This cannot be the answer as a check of other cash notes in this series reveals the same anomaly, i.e., only nine 10 cash coins per string, or 900 cash.


I have concluded, therefore, that the representation of only nine coins, or 90 cash per string was deliberate. But how can 900 cash be the same as 1000 cash?



The explanation, I believe, lies in the fact that during the Hung-wu reign 900 cash passed for 1000; just as 770 cash represented a string in Sung dynasty times and 800 during the Chin dynasty.


In other words the government’s financial arm, the Board of Revenue,

must have set the relation of cash coin to the value of a string by decree. Thus the official value of cash in the marketplace would vary from time to time.



As we have seen, the pictorial representations of cash seen on ancient Chinese banknotes are highly picturesque, tending more to reality than surrealism. One may therefore conclude that the imagery of the coins contained in each string actually



This blow-up of the strings of cash depicted on the Ming 200 cash note of Hung-wu reveals but nine 10 cash coins per string, not the ten one would expect. Ten strings of ten coins each representing 10 cash would equal 1000 cash, or one ounce of silver, otherwise known as 1 kwan. This was the official ratio of cash to an ounce of silver.


A depiction of nine 10 cash coins per string is found on all Ming dynasty notes of 100 cash and above. So why are there only nine coins per string? There is an explanation!


On lower Ming denominations face value was depicted, not to represent the “official” ratio, but rather what the note could be exchanged for in the marketplace.




depicted the real thing.


If this is so, one must ask: “What exact coin was being represented”? It would have to be a 10 cash piece, which circulated side-by-side with paper money.


Ming coinage production consisted overwhelmingly of one cash “square holes” augmented occasionally by value “two’s”, “three’s” and “fives”. But, what of the value “ten” cash pieces?


A close examination reveals that the Ming Board of Revenue minted ten cash pieces on only three occasions.


The first of these was during the Tachung era (1364-1367AD), and the second during the Hung-wu era (1368-1398AD).

The final Ming 10 cash coin issue appeared late in the dynasty (1621-1627AD) under the reign period of T’ien-ch’i.




Ming 10 cash coin of the Hung-wu reign (1368-1398 AD)



together with six reverses depicting the value as “ten cash of a tael” (upper left) and five other coins with mint marks representing Nanking, Honan, Peking, Chekiang and Fukien. This coin was most certainly the one represented on Ming dynasty notes.



Since the 1 kwan Ming note states that it was sanctioned by emperor T’ai Tsu for release under the Hung-wu reign title, the earliest date during which Hung-wu 1 kwan paper money circulated would have been the year 1368. From this extrapolation we can eliminate the 10 cash pieces of the T’ien-ch’i era, since they did not enter circulation until almost three hundred years later.


That leaves us with the ten cash pieces of the Tachung and Hung-wu eras, either of which could have been the coins represented by the pictograms.


More than likely the contemporary coins of Hung-wu were those shown in these illustrations, those whose legend reads “Hung-wu t’ung-pao” (current money of Hung-wu).


If this be so, we have narrowed our identification down to a series of six 10 cash pieces minted from 1368-1398AD. All bear the character “shih” (ten) on their reverse.


One specimen has in addition the characters “yi-liang” (one tael). When read together the inscription reads “10 cash of a teal”, much as we would say “10 cents of a dollar”.


The remaining five specimens vary only by the position of the “shih” and the location of the mint mark – “ching” for Nanking, “yu” for Honan, “Pei-ping” for the Peip’ing Fu mint in Chihli, “che” for Chekiang and “fu” for the Fukien mint. These coins are identified in Schjoth’s catalog The Currency of the Far East as

S1158-S1163. I believe these 10 cash pieces to be those appearing in the pictorial representations found on Ming dynasty paper money.



In the field of paper money research there is probably more yet to be discovered among ancient Chinese cash notes than in any other area. There is no doubt that additional discoveries will be forthcoming from yet to be exploited archaeological sites.







Pada 1377,

 beberapa tahun setelah kematian Gajah Mada’s, Majapahit mengirim menghukum serangan laut terhadap pemberontakan di Palembang, [4] memberikan kontribusi ke ujung kerajaan Srivijayan. umum lainnya yang terkenal adalah Gajah Mada Adityawarman [rujukan?], yang dikenal karena penaklukannya di Minangkabau.

Sifat dari kerajaan Majapahit dan luasnya adalah subjek untuk diperdebatkan. Ini mungkin memiliki pengaruh yang terbatas atau seluruhnya nosional atas beberapa negara jajahan di termasuk Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan dan Indonesia timur di mana wewenang diklaim dalam Nagarakertagama [19].

 Geografis dan kendala ekonomi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari biasa otoritas terpusat, negara-negara luar yang paling mungkin telah terhubung terutama oleh hubungan perdagangan, yang mungkin sebuah monopoli kerajaan. [4] Ia juga menyatakan hubungan dengan Champa, Kamboja, Siam, Birma bagian selatan, dan Vietnam, dan bahkan mengirim misi ke Cina. [4]

Walaupun penguasa Majapahit diperpanjang kekuasaan atas pulau-pulau lain dan menghancurkan kerajaan tetangga, fokus mereka tampaknya telah pengendalian dan mendapatkan bagian yang lebih besar dari perdagangan komersial yang melewati nusantara. Tentang waktu Majapahit didirikan, pedagang Muslim dan proselytizers mulai memasuki daerah tersebut.

Setelah kematian Hayam Wuruk’s AD 1389,

kekuasaan Majapahit memasuki masa penurunan dengan konflik atas suksesi. Hayam Wuruk digantikan oleh putri mahkota Kusumawardhani, yang menikah dengan seorang kerabat, Pangeran Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk juga memiliki putra dari pernikahan sebelumnya, putra mahkota Wirabhumi, yang juga mengklaim takhta. Perang sipil, yang disebut Paregreg, diperkirakan telah terjadi 1405-1406, [8] yang Wikramawardhana dan Wirabhumi menang tertangkap dan dipenggal. Perang saudara telah melemahkan pegangan pengikut Majapahit di luar dan koloni.

Selama masa pemerintahan Wikramawardhana, seri Ming armada ekspedisi angkatan laut yang dipimpin oleh Zheng He, seorang laksamana Muslim Cina, tiba di Jawa beberapa kali membentang periode 1405-1433. Dengan 1430 Zheng ekspedisi Dia telah membentuk komunitas Muslim Cina dan Arab di pelabuhan utara Jawa seperti di Semarang, Demak, Tuban, dan Ampel, sehingga Islam mulai mendapatkan pijakan di pantai utara Jawa.


Ming dynasty 1 kwan note of

the Hung-wu era (1368-1398).


 This large note, printed in gray mulberry bark paper, measures 8 x 11 . inches. The two vermilion seals shown in the next illustration do not appear on this prototype. This is the only ancient Chinese paper money likely to be found in private collections today.





 Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since 1368.[204] Fairbank estimates that the population was perhaps 160 million in the late Ming Dynasty,[205]while Brook estimates 175 million,[204] and Ebrey states perhaps as large as 200 million.[206] 



Zheng He was born in 1371 in the city now called Jinning, in Yunnan Province. His given name was “Ma He,” indicative of his family’s Hui Muslim origins, sinceMa is the Chinese version of “Mohammad.”



Zheng He’s great-great-great-grandfather,


Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, had been a Persian governor of the province under the Mongolian Emperor Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled China from 1279 to 1368.

Ma He’s father and grandfather were both known as “Hajji,” the honorific title bestowed upon Muslim men who make the hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. Ma He’s father remained loyal to the Yuan Dynasty even as the rebel forces of what would become the Ming Dynasty conquered larger and larger swathes of China.

Another version

Zheng He was born in the poor, mountainous Chinese province of Yunnan in 1372, just as Genghis Khan’s Mongols were being overthrown by a new, home-grown dynasty, the Ming.


His family were Muslims from Central Asia who had fought for the Mongols.


The dominant religious beliefs during the Ming dynasty

were the various forms of Chinese folk religion 


the Three Teachings

  Confucianism, Taoism, andBuddhism.

The Yuan-supported Tibetan lamas fell from favor and the early Ming emperors particularly favored Taoism granting its practitioners many positions in the state’s ritual offices.[135] 

The Hongwu Emperor curtailed the cosmopolitan culture of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, and the prolific ]

Prince of Ning Zhu Quan


even composed one encyclopedia attacking Buddhism as a foreign “mourning cult” deleterious to the state and another encyclopedia that subsequently joined the Taoist canon.[135]




was also well-established throughout China,

 with a history said to have begun with 

Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas 

during the Tang Dynasty 

Look click


and strong official support during the Yuan.


Although the Ming sharply curtailed this support,

there were still several prominent Muslim figures early on, including



the Hongwu Emperor’s generals Chang Yuqun, Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, and Mu Ying[136] 



and the Yongle Emperor’s powerful eunuch Zheng He.


The advent of the Ming was initially devastating to Christianity:



















The Huolongjing, compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Ji sometime before the latter’s death on May 16, 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412),[183] 

featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time.

This includes hollow, gunpowder-filledexploding cannonballs,[184] 

land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses,[185]naval mines,[186] fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control,[187] multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile (shaped like a dragon’s head),[188] and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels.[189]






The number of people counted in the census of 1381 was 59 873 305;

Even though underreporting figures was made a capital crime in 1381, the need for survival pushed many to abandon the tax registration and wander from their region, where Hongwu had attempted to impose rigid immobility on the populace.



In 1381, the Ming army killed Ma He’s father and captured the boy. Just 10 years old, he was made into a eunuch and sent to Beiping (now Beijing) to serve in the household of 21-year-old Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who later became the Yongle Emperor.

Ma He


rew to be 7 Chinese feet tall (probably around 6′ 6″), with “a voice as loud as a huge bell.”

 He excelled at fighting and military tactics, studied the works of Confucius and Mencius, and soon became one of the prince’s closest confidants.




When Ming armies came looking for rebels, they captured the 10-year-old boy and, as was the custom with young male prisoners, castrated him.


“He was ashamed of being a eunuch,” said Professor Liu Ying Sheng of Nanjing University, adding there was little information about this aspect of Zheng He’s life.


In 1390

Prince Zhu Zi committed suicide as the Hu Weiyong purge claimed more victims from trumped-up charges.

in his first year,

 the Hongwu Emperor declared the eighty-year-old Franciscan missions among the Yuan heterodox and illegal.[137] 



The Emperor’s heir Zhu Biao died of illness in 1392. Koreans let Emperor Hongwu choose the old Chinese name of Choson for its new state.

Hongwu merged the tributary gifts with the trading system and required government supervision of trade.

After Lan Yu’s victory over Orlug Temur, the Emperor assigned him, Feng Sheng, and Fu Yude to the staff of the young crown prince Zhu Jianwen, Zhu Biao’s son.

Hongwu had established the succession principle of primogeniture.



Hung Wu  would name ten more in 1391

In 1393

four more princes were given fiefs in the north. Lan Yu was tried for mutiny and publicly dismembered.

The Emperor granted an amnesty in September 1393 but acknowledged that 15,000 had been executed in this purge.

Ten princes were called to the capital for consultation, and the generals Fu Yude, Wang Bi, and Feng Sheng died in the next two years.

The Emperor tried to restrict the princes’ recruiting, but they gained control of their military forces.

Contrary to Confucian tradition, Hongwu began the custom of inflicting corporal punishment on government officials; some were beaten to death, though this did discourage bribery and corruption. Between 1378 and 1395 Hongwu sent seventeen of his sons to princely fiefs.


The Ming code of laws of Hongwu was developed over thirty years and was completed in 1397. The young scholar Xie Jin criticized the Emperor for changing the laws too often.

 He wrote that this causes doubt and cynicism, and he recommended ending extralegal punishments and collective responsibility for criminal acts.

 Punishment had five levels of severity-beating with a light stick (10 to 50 strokes), beating with a heavy stick (60-100 strokes), penal servitude (1-3 years with 60-100 blows), banishment (to varying distances with 100 blows), and death (by strangulation or decapitation).

The Ming code allowed for the paying of fines in place of any of these punishments, especially for nominal capital crimes. Women were remanded to the custody of their husbands, except in sexual and capital crimes, because of the danger of rape in prison. Killing for adultery was justified if done by the husband when the couple was caught in the act. If the wife survived, the husband could sell her as a concubine.

In the Ming code the man’s family was no longer exempt from punishment for breaking a marriage agreement.

Driving a person to commit suicide was punished by a hundred blows or by death if aggravated by other crimes.

Economic reconstruction of land, dikes, and canals revived the economy. A rational and comprehensive system of taxation and labor service was instituted. Paper money was issued; but after it was no longer convertible to metal currency, it had to be abandoned by the mid-15th century.


however, this number dropped significantly when the government found that some 3 million people were missing from the tax census of 1391.[200]




In 1392

families in Anhui were directed to plant 200 mulberry trees, 200 jujube trees, and 200 persimmon trees. Scholars estimate that in this decade about one billion trees were planted in China.


The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60 545 812 people in 1393.[199] 

In his Studies on the Population of China, Ho Ping-ti suggests revising the 1393 census to 65 million people, noting that large areas of North China and frontier areas were not counted in that census.[201]

Brook states that the population figures gathered in the official censuses after 1393 ranged between 51 and 62 million, while the population was in fact increasing.[199] 



In 1395

they repaired or built 40,987 reservoirs in China. That year Emperor Hongwu issued a list of regions not to be invaded by the Ming, and tributary relations were limited to Ryuku Island (Japan), Cambodia, and Siam.

Imperial commands posted in all villages urged the “six injunctions” which were to be filial to parents, respect elders and superiors, maintain harmonious relations with neighbors, teach and discipline their sons, peacefully pursue their livelihoods, and do not commit wrongful actions. Tax captains were responsible for registering property and collecting taxes and labor services.

 Crimes were prosecuted locally, but serious offenders were sent to the capital. In 1395 the Emperor decreed that all Buddhist and Daoist monks must go to the capital and pass an examination, and those failing were to return to a lay life. After learning that no one from the north had passed the examinations in 1397, Hongwu read the papers himself and awarded degrees to 61 northerners.



Although the Emperor hated Mongol customs that violated Chinese ethics, after his death on June 24, 1398 all but two of his forty concubines took their lives in the traditional Mongol way.


During the reign of the Hongwu Emperor,

the situation in the Malay-Indonesian world was viewed with a negative attitude.[217]

However, the treasure fleet came to dominate the Malay-Indonesian sphere via Java, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula.[217]

In Ceylon and southern India, the treasure fleet forced the political situation of the region into their favor, while making the maritime routes safe for commerce and diplomacy.[217]

The Ming court understood that Liang Daoming was the leader of the Chinese community at Palembang, but ranked Chen Zuyi above Liang as they saw Chen as the Chieftain (toumu) of Palembang, which was not an official Ming title.[220] It is possible that Chen Zuyi had hoped for official recognition by the Ming court, but it never came to be.[220]

Admiral Zheng He was informed by Shi Jinqing about Chen Zuyi’s piracy, causing Chen to be classified as a pirate in the eyes of the Chinese authorities.[221]

During the first voyage,

 Admiral Zheng He established order in Palembang under Chinese rule.[222]

The Ming court recognized Shi Jinqing as the Grand Chieftain (da toumu) of Palembang after Admiral Zheng He had captured Chen Zuyi.[33]

After Shi Jinqing’s death, his daughter Shi Erjie became king (wang)—a title normally not held by women—rather than his son succeeding him in his position in Palambang, a very uncommon situation for the patriarchal Chinese and Muslims.[33]


Ming Empire 1398-1464

The second Ming emperor Zhu Jianwen was twenty years old when he succeeded his grandfather Hongwu. He proclaimed a general amnesty, put three Confucian tutors in influential positions, and tried to make Ming government more benevolent. The six chief ministers were elevated in rank over the military commissioners. Hanlin scholars instructed the princes in Confucian policies, and the princes were also ordered not to interfere in civil and military matters. Jianwen canceled many of the harsh pronouncements and notices that had been made by Hongwu. Excessive land taxes in the Jiangnan region were reduced, and restrictions were put on the tax-exempt lands of the Buddhists and Daoists. Failing to control the princes, Jianwen decided to abolish their fiefdoms, and five of them were eliminated.

Zhu Di of Yan was Hongwu’s fourth son; his mother was probably a lesser consort, but he later claimed he was the son of Empress Ma. He was born on May 2, 1360 and married the daughter of General Xu Da in 1376. He did not take up his Yan fiefdom at Beijing until 1380. Zhu Di was ordered to patrol Daning in 1396 and captured Bolin Temur. By 1398 he had become the dominant power in the north. After the five strategic princedoms were abolished, Zhu Di feared he was the next target; but his three sons were hostages at the court in Nanjing until Jianwen consented to their return in June 1399. After two of his officials were executed for sedition the next month, Zhu Di attacked neighboring counties. The Prince of Yan claimed that he was upholding the laws of Hongwu and blamed the three Confucian advisors for persecuting the princes.

In the civil war Emperor Jianwen began with larger forces, but his army of 130,000 sent to attack Beijing was defeated. A siege of Beijing also failed. In May 1400 about 600,000 men fought near Baoding. The southern army used explosive weapons but suffered heavy losses and retreated. Prince Zhu Di was nearly captured but was relieved by reinforcements. He attacked again at Dezhou; but in 1401 after losing tens of thousands of troops, he decided to use guerrilla tactics in a war of attrition. By 1402 the Prince of Yan was able to attack the capital at Nanjing. He refused to negotiate, and Jianwen’s generals opened the city gates. The imperial palace was set on fire, and burned bodies were claimed to be those of Jianwen, Empress Ma, and Jianwen’s eldest son. On July 17, 1402 Zhu Di claimed that he was succeeding Hongwu and proclaimed himself Emperor Yongle. The three Confucian advisors refused to serve the new Emperor and were executed with many others. Eventually tens of thousands were executed, incarcerated, or banished. Military power of an autocratic prince had overcome the civil government of Confucian liberalism. Legends were passed on that Jianwen had escaped and continued to live as a monk, and this tragic hero became a popular literary motif.






15th Century

Kerajaan Minagkabau Pagaruyung mencapai puncak kejayaan sekitar abad ke-15 Masehi, semasa pemerintahan Adityawarman berkuasa (Amran, 1981 : 37 ; Kiram, dkk, 2003 : 11 dan Imran, 2002 : 20). Sebagai sebuah kerajaan besar dizamannya, Kerajaan Pagaruyung sendiri memiliki kerajaan kecil sebagai “wakil raja” untuk memerintah di daerah. Kerajaan-kerajaan ini merupakan bagian dari Kerajaan Pagaruyung dan langsung diberi otonomi khusus untuk mengurus kepentingan pemerintah dan ekonominya.

Raja-raja dibawah panji Kerajaan Pagaruyung tersebut telah menyebar ke berbagai daerah, bukan saja di Indonesia namun sampai ke mancanegara, yakni Malaysia

(kesulatanan Newgeri Sembilan dengan istana Sri menanti di Kuala Pilah,Dr Iwan visit nov 2013) dan Brunei Darussalam.

Kekuasaan Kerajaan Pagaruyung tersebut telah membentuk suatu hegemoni, dibawah Raja Alam berpusat di Pagaruyung.

 Khusus di alam Minangkabau, raja-raja kecil tersebut berjumlah 61 buah kerajaan, baik yang ada di daerah darek dan rantau Minangkabau.

Mereka biasanya dipangil dengan istilah Yang Dipertuan, Rajo, dan Sutan. Mereka ada yang berasal dari keturunan langsung raja Pagaruyung dan adapula yang ditunjuk oleh raja sebagai wakilnya untuk memerintah di daerah.

Dalam kondisi inilah muncul hubungan yang diistilahkan dengan sapiah balahan, kuduang karatan, kapak  radai, dan timbang pacahan Kerajaan Pagaruyung

The end @ copyright 2014



The Vintage Photos Collections Of

Indisch Bronbeek Exhibition At Bandung in 1924

Based On

Dr Iwan Vintage Photos Collections


Part One


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Copyright @ 2015






Saya baru saja  menemukan arsip foto -foto  asli lama Pameran Bronbeek di Bandung pada bulan Juni 1924 , jumlah foto yang disusun dalam 19 album dalam kondisi yang masih bagus.

Bronbeek adala=h sbuah museum di Negeri Belanda

Museum Bronbeek, Velperweg 147 Arnhem

Mungkin museum inilah sebagai pelaksana pamrena di bandung 1924, tetapi info lain sampai saat ini belum dapat ditemukan.




Koleksi museum Bronbeek  dari eksplorsi google  dapat dilihat dibwah ini

Komentar Dr Iwan

Mohon Penulis dan museum Bronbeek tak keberatan info ini dicupliki karena ada hubungan dengan buku ini

Het koloniale verleden van Nederland met name in Nederlands-Indië is het hoofdthema van Museum Bronbeek. Hierbij ligt de nadruk op het militaire aspect.

  1. Bronbeek: Koninklijk Tehuis voor Oud-Militairen en Museum Bronbeek

www.veteranennaardermeer.nl1060 × 768Search by image

Het landgoed Bronbeek werd rond 1820 als buitenplaats aangelegd voor Hermen Stijgerwald. Na diens dood, in 1830, verkocht zijn weduwe Magadalena Wilhelmina


  1. Bronbeek: Koninklijk Tehuis voor Oud-Militairen en Museum Bronbeek

www.veteranennaardermeer.nl1237 × 768Search by image

  1. T/m 15 januari 2015: Expositie ‘Met stille trom’ in Museum …

stichtingtongtong.nl804 × 240Search by image

Met stille Trom_Bronbeek_header

  1. Medicijnkist, gebruikt door luitenant Spier, commandant van de ‘Speciale Troepen Groep Spier’


  1. Museum Bronbeek te Arnhem: Anke en Gerda hebben wat met Indië en gaan naar Museum Bronbeek. Bronbeek is heden ten dage een verzorgingstehuis voor een aantal ..
  2. Beschrijving: Wajang Revolusi-poppen in de bekroonde film. foto: Museum Bronbeek


Kepeloporan Belanda di dunia pendidikan tak perlu diragukan lagi. Universitas-universitas di Belanda termasuk dalam peringkat 10 di antara 200 perguruan terbaik di dunia.

 Beberapa universitas yang layak dicatat di antaranya, Leiden University, Utrecht University, University of Amsterdam, University of Groningen (untuk universitas riset); Amsterdam School of the Arts, Business School of Amsterdam (untuk universitas terapan), dan sebagainya.

Bahkan, pada tahun 2011, sebanyak 12 universitas di Belanda masuk dalam peringkat 200 besar daftar perguruan tertinggi di dunia. Daya tarik dunia pendidikan di Belanda tak terlepas dari keberadaan beberapa museum. Nama-nama museum itu sangat harum ke seluruh dunia, seperti Museum Leiden , Bronbeek, Tropen dan lain-lain. Museum-museum di Belanda menjadi destinasi dan tempat para ilmuan menggali rujukan sejarah


Saya beruntung bisa melihat negeri Belanda dari dekat, terutama bisa mengunjungi Museum Bronbeek di Arhem, Belanda pada 27 Juli 2010 silam.

Selain menyimpan banyak benda-benda bersejarah, museum Bronbeek menjadi istimewa karena terdapat 43 veteran perang. Dari mereka pula kita bisa memperoleh cerita-cerita seputar perang di Nusantara.

 Mereka dengan senang hati mau berbagi kisah hidup serta pengalaman perang yang mereka alami sewaktu menjadi tentara kolonial dulunya.


Tak mengherankan jika negeri berpenduduk lebih kurang 8 juta orang itu mulai diperhitungkan sebagai kiblat kemajuan dan pusat pendidikan.

Hal itu pula yang menyebabkan museum-museum di Belanda ramai dikunjungi para peneliti, pelajar, mahasiswa dan professor dari seluruh dunia.


Awalnya saya membayangkan museum Bronbeek pastilah seperti kebanyakan museum lain di tempat kita: tak terurus, pengap, berantakan dan sangat tak nyaman dikunjungi.

Namun, begitu memasuki areal museum, kita pun terkagum-kagum. Kita dapat melihat bagaimana rapinya Belanda merawat ingatan bangsanya dengan nilai-nilai sejarah: melalui benda-benda perang (meriam) dan literatur.

 Meriam dari berbegai jenis itu dipajang mengelilingi dinding museum. Benda-benda perang ini dibawa dari sejumlah wilayah taklukan di Nusantara.


Museum Bronbeek ini termasuk salah satu museum tertua di Belanda. Pengelola atau conservator museum, Drs. Hans van den Akker menyebutkan, usia museum yang sering disebut Museum Perang ini sudah 150 tahun, sejak pertama kali dibangun oleh Raja Willem III tahun 1863.


Willem atau Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, lahir di Brussels, Belgia, 17 Februari 1817  merupakan Raja Belanda dan Grand-Ducal House of Luxembourg.

Pada 23 November 1890, dia meninggal (pada umur 73 tahun) dan mewariskan tahta kepada putrinya, Wilhelmina (ketika itu baru berumur 10 tahun).

Menurut Hans, Raja Willem III membangun museum ini untuk mengenang pasukan setianya, KNIL sebagai penghormatan atas jasa mereka. Nama Bronbeek diberikan karena “di lokasi dibangun museum ini dulunya terdapat sungai kecil asli (bukan sungai buatan),” kata Hans. Dalam bahasa Belanda, Bronbeek berarti aliran air/sungai kecil.


Meskipun Bronbeek sebagai destinasi wisata untuk umum, museum ini juga menjadi tempat untuk anak-anak sekolah di Belanda mengenal sejarah bangsanya. Ini tak terlepas dari terobosan sistem pembelajaran yang dianut Belanda, melatih siswa untuk menganalisis dan memecahkan masalah dengan praktis dan mandiri melalui penekanan pada cara belajar mandiri dan kedisiplinan.



Museum Bronbeek ini jadi pilihan para peneliti yang ingin mempelajari sejarah Belanda dan bangsa-bangsa taklukannya. Mereka dapat mengakses semua dokumen, benda atau prasasti yang ada di sini untuk keperluan akademiki/studi. []



—– > Tulisan ini merupakan edisi pendek (hasil revisi) untuk lomba Kompetiblog 2013 dari tulisan sebelumnya yang menurut admin kompetiblog terlalu panjang (syarat tulisan tak lebih dari 500 kata).



Melihat info diatas saya jadi berpirkir kapan saya bisa membuat museum mirip dengan museum diatas, saya harap setlah mebaca buku ini ada donator yang berkenan menyumbangkan rumah kunonya untuk diisikoleksi saya yang skarang sangat banyak sehingga untuk jalan saja sudah susa

Mungkin dapat juga ditampilkan di Televisi secara berkala sepert yang ditampilkan dalam statsiun TV Interational History HD yang merupakan favorit saya dan banyak memberikan pelajaran kepada saya bagaimana memilih dan menilai koleksi sejarah.


 Sebenarnya  sesuai dengan nomor urut dari Buku arsip tersebut album tersebut lebih dari seratus buah , saya harapkan mungkin dalam menyusun buu ini ada tambahan lagi.

 Ini adalah penemuan besar  yang perlu dilestarikan dalam sebuah buku yang dapat dijadikan kenang-kenangan bagi sleuruh kluarga dan masyarakat Indonesia yang terkait dengan foto-foto dalam arsip ini.

Buku ini  terdiri  dari  empat  bagian agar tidak terlalu tebal untuk dengan lebih mudah dan menyenangkan untuk dinikmati info dan ilustrasinya, yaitu Bagian  Pertama Introduction, Bagian Kedua Koleksi Pameran bronbeek Bandung 1 m Bagian Ketiga Koleksi Pmeran Bronbeek Bandung 2, dan Bagian Ketiga Koleksi Pameran Bronbeek 3


 Buku ini akan didahului oleh informasi yang saya kumpulkan yaitu koleksi sejarah Indonesia tahun 1924 bersumber dari beberapa buku elektronik yang saya sudah susun dalm bentuk CD-Rom dan sebagian dicuplik disini  dan juga akan dilampirkan koleksi informasi dan foto-foto dari eksplorasi google saat saya mencari info tentang pameran Bronbeek di Bandung tersebut diatas.

Menyusun buku ini sangat membutuhkan tenaga dan konsentrasi yang sangat besar4, apalagi saya sudah tua berumur 70 tahun dan mulai sakit-sakitan,tetapi demi untuk mengenang situasi dan jasa para pahlawan tempo dulu yang banyak tidak diketahui dan belum diberi gelar ,saya beruaha mati-matian menulis buku ini.

Saya bukan ahli sejarah, tetapi waktu sekolah sudah berminat dan senang dengan sejarah, begitu juga koleksi benda-benda bersejarah.

Saja harap semua orang yang nfonya tercantum dalam buku ini berkenan memberikan izin kepada saya untuk memanfaatkan infonya ,untuk itu aya ucapakan terima kasih. Mohon maaf juga karena saya tidak dapat menuliskan nama satu persatu dari oarng-orang yang telah berjasa dan telah membantu saya dalam menyususn buku serta menolong saya dalm menjalani hidup didunia ini, untuk itu saya ucapak ribuan terima kasih, serta saya panjatkan doa kepada Yang Mahakuasa agar merka memperoleh imbalan setimpal dengan  pahala yang telah mereka kepada kami sekeluarga dan kepada seluruh umat manusia khususnya masyarakat indoensia yang saya cintai sepenuh hati.

Buku ini saya tulis untuk keluarga saya,isteri Lily Widjaja,putra Albert dan Anton serta isteri dan anaknya,serta cucu saya tercinta Cessa,Celine dan Antoni .

Saya harap para pembaca berkenan menghormati hak cipta saya dengan tidak merepro buku ini dengan berbagai cara dan teknologi tanpa meminta izin dari saya sebagai pemengang hak cipta.

Jakarta , Pebuari  2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA


Acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa dagang tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924

Pengunjung pada acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber :

Para wanita yang berpose disalah satu stand (tenda) pada acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber :
Gubernur Jendral Hindia Belanda Dirk Fock, mengunjungi  acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924 (1)
(Sumber :
Gubernur Jendral Hindia Belanda Dirk Fock (tengah), mengunjungi  acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924 (2)
(Sumber :
Display “Pohon Teh”, pada stand milik salah satu perusahaan perkebunan teh di acara Jaarbeurs Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber :
Salah satu View di acara Jaarbeurs Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber :

Ini contoh buku Dr Iwan Yng segera akan diterbitka

Bagi yang berminat dapat memesanny liwat email

dengan syarat mengupload kopi KTP nya dan alamat lengkap, buku ini terdiri dari empat bagian buku yang penhuh dengan foto ilustrasi gambar lama, dan tiga buku dengan ilustrasi foto lama pameran bronbeek di Bandung tahun 1924 yang tiak pernah dipublikasikan ,jumlah foto lebih kurang 400 lembar psotcard ,dengan tema bermacam-macam mulai lukisan lama, foto raja-raja dan orang terkenal, pemandangan, foto etnik, foto upacara pembukaan pameran oleh gubernur Jenderal sbnya

Cepat dipesan untuk edisi pertama hanya sepuluh buah diterbitkam diprint dengan baik dengan kulit yang memadai.

Harga termasuk biaya kirim liwat titipan kilat dua juta rupiah.

Terima kasih atas perhatiannya

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA














Saya udah menulis sebuah buku elektronik berjudul Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Awal Abad kedua Puluh, informasi pendahuluan buku elektronik tersebut penting untuk mengantar buku ini agar lebih mendalami apa yang terjadi. Inilah info dari bku  elektronik tersebut

Dua puluh lima tahun pertama pada abad keduapuluh kita menyksikan suatu pertumbuhan  dan perkembangan di Indonesia, yang saat itu dinamakan Hindia Belanda, yang tidak dapat diduga sebelumnya.

Tidak seluruh segi pertumbuhan itu akan dibahas dalam buku ini.Yang menjadi tekanan disini adalah mengenai perubahan sosiakl dalam kurun waktu tersebut ditas, khususnya perubahan social yang terjadi dikalangan erlompok pemimpin dalam masyarakat Indobnesia.

Masyrakat Indonesia pada kurun waktu tersebut merupakan suatu bagian dari apa yang saya sebutkan masyarakat Hindia Timur, kedalam masyarakat ini termasuklah semua orang yang tinggal di Kepulauan Indonesia , disamping orang Indonesia yang jumlahnya terbanyak ,juga orang-orang Eropa (kebanyakan Belanda), cina dan Arab.

Oleh karena Indonesia telah memeperoleh Kemerdekaan Politik pada tahun 1949, dan mendirikan suatu Negara <erdeka, studi inipun akan dipusatkan pada perkembangan social dan politik mereka.

Selama tahun-tahun yang dicakup oleh studi ini, pemimpin-pemimpin Masyarakat Hindia Timur, sebab penduduk Indonesia merupakan orang bawahan dalam linkungan jajahan bangsa belanda.

Dengan demikian,perkembangan Masyarakat Indonesia terjadi didalam konteks dikuasai Kolonial, dan sangat dipengaruhi oleh Kebijakan Kolonial, tindak –tanduk dan sikap Belanda.

Buku ini merupakan suatu usaha untuk menganalisa dan menafsirkan Kebijakan politik,tidak-tanduk  dan sikap ini  dan juga untukmenunjukan akibat-akibatnya pada masyarakat Indonesia.,disamping sekaligus akan menganalisa dan member tafsiran tentang dinamika Masyarakat Indonesia dengan tekanan khusus pada golongan Elit masyarakat itu.

Bila kita adakan tinjauan melampaui batas jangkauan buku ini ke masa sekarang, bukanlah tidak patut untuk mengatakan, bahwa perubahan pola-pola Kepemimimpinan didalam msyarakat Indonesia pada perempat abad ini membentuk dasar social bagi Kemerdekaan Politik beberapa tahun kemudian.

Dalam batas-batas jangkauan studi inipula dapat dikatakan, bahwa garis besar perkembangan elit Indonesia adalah dari yang bersifat traditional yang berorientasi kosmologuis, dan berdasarkan keturunan  kepada elit modern yang berorientasi kepada Negara Kemakmuran, berdasarkan Pendidikan,

Elit modern ini jauh ,lenih beranekaragam dari elit traditional, tetapi disini sedikit saja usaha dilakukan untuk menguraikan elit modern ini secara structural.

Ada disebutkan tentantang administrator-administrator ,pegawai-pegawai pemerintah, tehnisi-tehnisi, orang-orang professional dan para intelektual ,tetapi pada akhirnya perbedaan utama yang dibuat di sini ialah antara elit fungsional dan elit politik.

Yang dimaksud dengan elit fungsional adalah pemimpin-pemimpin ,yang baik pada masa yang lalu maupun masa sekarang , mengabadikan diri untuk kelangsungan berfungsinya suatu Negara dan Masyarakat yang modern,sedangkan elit politik adalah orang-orang Indonesia yang tyerlibat di dalam aktivitas politik untuk berbagai tujuan tapi  yang biasanya bertalian dengan sekedar perubahan politik .

Didalam masa yang dicakup dalam buku ini , kelompok pertamaberlainan dengan yang biasa ditafsirkan, menjalankan fungsi sosialyang lebih besar dengan bertindak sebagai perubahan –perubahan, sedangkan golongan kedua lebih mempunyai arti simbolis daripada praktis. Mungkin saja ungkapan “Elit Indonesia” agak mengelirukan.

Berbicara secara teknis ada suatu kesatuan yang dikenal sebagai Indonesia, baik dalam pergerakan politis maupun pengertian social tahyn=tahun yang dibicarakan dalam studi ini.Tidak pula seluruh Hindia Timur atau Kepulauan Indonesia sama pentingnya di dalam pengembangan yang dijajaki oleh studi ini.

Menurut kenyataan, pulau Jawa, dengan tetangganya Madura ,yang selanjutnya setara bersama=sama disebut “Jawa”, tidak dapat disangkal lagi merupakan titik pusat kegiiatan Hindia Timur. Jawa bukan saja sebvagai pusat politik , administrasi dan  ekonomi untukHindia Belanda, tetapi untuk pulau-pulau Indonesia ini ia juga suatu pusat penduduk  dengan kurang lebih 70 % dari jumlah seluruhnya.

Bagian terbesar pendudk pulau Jawa adalah suku Jawa yang sebagian besar berdiam di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Pada tahun 1900Jawa berjumlah kurang lebih tujugbelas juta.Tetapi di pulau Jawa terdapat juga kelompok suku yang lain yang yang besar yaitu suku Sunda di Jawa Barat  yang berjumlah kira-kira tujuh juta pada permulaan abad  ini dan suku Madura di Madsura dan Jawa timur yang jumlahnya sekitar tiga juta.

Di samping itu dari kelompok-kelompok besar ini  , terdapat orang-orang Indonesia lainnya yang berasal dari kepulauan-kepulauan lain di Nusantara ini. Akibatnyaistilah “Elit Indoesia’ ini ditujukan pada kelompok Elit yang berpusat di Jawa yang terdiri dari berfbagai suku Indonesia tetapi yang unsure pokoknya adalah Jawa,

 studi ini tidaklah mencoba untuk membicarakan perkembangan Masyarakat di Bagian lain Kepulauan Indonesia dalam masa yang diperhatikan oleh tulian ini, baik dalam persaan maupun pertentangannya.

(Dr Iwan mencoba menambah beberapa info penting dari beberapa daerah di Indonesia seperti Aceh,sumatera Barat,Sumatera Selatan,Makasar,Bali dan Ambon serta Papua yang erat juga hubungannya dengan peristiwa-peristiwa yang bersejarah di Indonesia pada awal abad kedua puluh ini,mungkin penulis kurang memahami peranan mereka dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Indoneia)

Jawa, dengan perkembangan-perkembangan yang telah terjadi  dalam Masyarakatnya, amat penting dalam Kebangkitan Masyarakat Indonesia dan akan menjadi titik perhatian utama dalam studi ini

(Saat ini di Indonesia dinamakan Kebangkita Nasional, yang dirayakan sebagai Hsri Kebangkitan Nasional atau HARKITNAS 28 Oktober 1928 ,hari su,mpah Pemuda,Dr Iwan)

Studi ini pertama-tama diuraikan secara kronologis dan kedu menurut masalah. Bab Pertama, mengambarkan dasar-dasar kehidupan Hindia Timur di tahun 1900,. Dengan Bagian ini sebagai Batu Landasan. Tiga bab berikutnya menguraikan perkembangan sesuai dengan perjalanan waktu ke tahun 1914, ke tahun 1926 dan akhirnya sampai sekitar tahun 1927.

Penguraian dan  Penafsiran  pokok dilakukan dan dikembangkan dalam seluruh penelitian sedemikian rupa , sehingga kesimpulan seolah-olah tidak diperlukan lagi. Setiap nab dibagi-bagi dalam beberapa Sub-Judul , seperti akan segera jelas kelihatan, secara samar-samar  saja bersifat deskritif , serta  yang tidak pula  dimaksudkan untuk menjadi Judul yang menerangkan isinya.

Indeks pada Penutup buku dirasa perlu sebagai  panduan pasti dalam memperoleh butir-butir keterangan yang tersebar  dibuku ini

(dalam  Cd-rom ini indeks tidak dicantumkan karena banyak memakan tempat dan membosnkan untuk dibaca,bilamau tahu baca buku aslinya-Dr Iwan)

Wanita bali 1900

Dr Iwan membagi info ini atas empat bagian

Penari keraton jogyakarta 1900

Bagian pertama era sebelum sumpah pemuda 1900-1915,

Bagian Kedua Era Sebelum sumpah pemuda 1916-1927

Foto sumpah pemuda 1928


Bagian Ketiga  Era saat dan sesudah  Sumpah Pemuda d 1928-1939,

Poster film Tengkorak hidup karya Tan Tjeng Bok


serta terakhir  Bab Keempat  1939-1941. Ers menjelang Perang Dunia kedua Di Indonesia

Sayang buku ini tidak ada illustrasinya, sehingga bukti sejarah yang nyata tidak kelihatan, dan kurang disenangi oleh generasi masa kini,

Djoewariah aktris Indonesia tahun 1940



Dr Iwan berusha menampilkan ilustrasi yang menaraik terkait ,yang ia namakan “koleksi sejarah” atau dalam bahasa Inggris “History Collections” dari berbagai Aspek Kehidupan politik, dan Sosial.

Thamrin buyutnya Prabowo, RM Margono Djoohadikusumo tahun 1941



Agar tidak membosankan kata Pengantar,Indeks dan Referensi tidak dicantumkan,jika ingin membacanya silahkan membaca buku aslinya yang merupakan koleksi pribadi dr Iwan,memang kelihatannya kurang menghargai dan menghormati hak cipta dari informasi,tetapi untuk menghemat biaya terpaka tidak dilampirkan,mohon maaf kepada yang bersangkutan.Dr Iwan)

Kepada semua pihak yang telah memberikan bantuan dalam penyelesian studi ini penulis ingin menyampaikan rasa syukur dan terima kasih yang sedslam-dalamnya

Troy,New York


October 1958


Komentar dr Iwan,

Tidak terasa buku ini sudah hampir lima puluh enam tahun yang lalu, dan sudah hampir dua puluh empat tahun yang lalu saya jumpai di lapak samping percetakan Negara ,Jalan Salemba tengah ,Jakarta Pusat. Cukup lama buku ini saya simpan,karena sibuk menyiapkan buku Koleksi Sejarah Kemerdekaan 9indonesia dan pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia,serta Indonesia sejak sebelum Masehi sampai 1967.

Semoga Buku ini berguna bagi generasi penerus  pada umumnya dan koielktor informasi sejara serta para historian  Indonesia demi untuk memahami apa yang terjadi pada tahun 1924 umumnya dan khususnya pada pameran  Bronbeek di Bandung tanggal 21 juni 1924 yang dibuka oleh Gubernur jendral Hindia Belanda de fock dan didampingi olehResiden dan Regent daerah Periangan antara lain tuan Eijken sesuai dengan teks yang tertulis dibawah foto. Dalam album no A 111.

Saya tidak tahu apakah seluruh isi  album lain terkait  degan Pameran ini , tetapi kelihatannya hampir sama kondisinya.

Selain itu juga ada beberapa foto dan info yang saya peroleh saat melakukan eksplorasi google untuk mencari nfo Pameran Bronbeek tersbut diatas, dan ternyata foto-fot koleksi ini belum pernah dipublikasikan , mungkin antinya mungkin ada dietmukan akan saya tambahkan dalam lampiran informasi.

Saya mengucapkan terimakasih kepada pemilik album  buku asrip ini karena Ia telah menyelamatkan infromasi sejarah Indonesia, dan juga kepada temanp-teman saya yang telah menjual buku album arsip ini kepada saya.

Mohon maaf   apabila edjaannya  dan s alah ketik dalam buku oni ,   maklum saya sudah tua usia 70 tahun, mata sudah mulai kurang baik.

Terima kasih atas perhatiannya

Jakarta,Desember 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA






  • 861,898views

The Qing Dynasty

History Collections


Empress  Xiozhe, consort of Emperor Kangxi

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014



Setelah hampir dua puluh lima tahun saya mengumpul berbagai informasi  dari  buku, dan koleksi keramik,prangko dan lain-lain yang  terkait sejarah dynasty Qing, setelah dapat   disusun sebuah karya tulis dalam bentuk Buku Elektronik dalam CD-Rom.

Buku elektronik ini sangat penting bagi para kolektor dan ahli sejarah agar mereka mengetahui dengan jelas apa yang terjadi di negeri leluhurnya , dan akan menyenangi koleksinya serta mencegah membeli koleksi palsu yang banyak beredar saat ini.

Apalagi stelah saya menemukan beberapa buku referensi yang sangat bermutu dan telah memperoleh hadiah internasional, antara lain


Buku   karangan Soame Jennys;Later Chinese Porcelain;Faber and Faber ,London,1965






  buku karangan Paul Unschuld ; Medicine in China; Prestel,London.

Saya harap para pengarang buku tersebut berkenan membrikan izin kepada saya untuk mencuplik beberapa informasi yang berharga dari buku merek dalam rangka melestarikan puska nenek moyong etnis Tionghoa di dunia umumnya dan di   Indonesia  khususnya .

Saya mengucapkan terima kasih kpada teman-teman saya yang tidak dapat saya sebutkan satu per satu sehingga karya tulis ini dapat terwujud, begitu juga kepada isteri tercinta ,putra,mantu dan cucu-cucu berkat dorongan mereka buku ini dapat selesai sesuai dengan jadwal waktu yang saya rencanakan.

Saya sadar masih banyak kekurangan dan keslahan baik ketikan maupun ejaan serta infonya, malum saya sudah tua berumur tuju pluh tahun, dan saya mengerjakannya seorang diri, tapi syukur isteri dan putra saya mau membantu saya mengedit buku ini. Juga kalau bahaa Inggris yang saya gunakan tidak tepat karena umumnya sayza terjemahkan dengan google translate, dan untuk mengeditnya  memerlukan  waktu lebih lama sedangkan permintaan sudah sangat banyak, Juga terima aksih kpada kolektor keramik Indonesia yang telah bayak membantu saya dalam membeli buku elektronik saya berupa Cd-Rom Motif Keramnik kerajaan Tiongkok yang telah menambah semangat saya menyelesaikan buku ini.

Prose penulisan buku ini sudah dimulai beberapa tahun dan bersama-sama denganbuku elektronik lain yang sedang aya garap yag berjudul Koleksi Jejarah Indonesia wal Abad Kedua Puluh.

Buku elektronik ini aya buat dalam bahasa Inggris, agar seluruh kolektor didunia dapat membacanya, dan konsumen yang saya tuju adalah kolektor senior yang telah mmiliki ilmu pengetahuan cukup tinggi dibidang yang terkait dalam informasi buku ini.

Jakarta, 9  Februari  2015

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

English version

After nearly twenty-five years I collect a variety of information from books, and a collection of ceramics, stamps and other related history of the Qing dynasty, as can be prepared a paper in the form of Electronic Book on CD-Rom.


This electronic book is very important for collectors and historians so that they know exactly what is happening in the land of his ancestors, and will please the collection and prevent buying fake collections that are circulating today.


Moreover, the account after I discovered some very high quality reference books and has gained international prizes, among others
Books by Soame Jennys; Later Chinese Porcelain; Faber and Faber, London, 1965 and
book by Paul Unschuld; Medicine in China; Prestel, London.
I hope the author is pleased membrikan permission for me to be able to capture some valuable information from the book in order to preserve the brand Puska moyong grandmother ethnic Chinese in the world in general and in Indonesia in particular.


I thanked kpada my friends that I can not mention one by one so that this paper can be realized, as well as to his beloved wife, son, in-law and grandchildren thanks to their encouragement of this book can be completed according to schedule my time plan.

I am aware there are still many shortcomings and keslahan both typing and spelling as well as the info, I am old seventy  years old, and I do it by myself, but thank my wife and my sons wanted to help me edit this book.

 Also if I have used  English language  is not appropriate because generally  translated with google translate , and to edit it takes longer while demand has been very much, Also thanks to  Indonesian ceramic collectors who has stout help me in buying my electronic book in the form of CD- Rom Chinese empire Ceramic Motif Found In indonesia  had to pep me finish this book.


Prose writing this book has been started several years and together denganbuku other electronics are working on Yag entitled aya Jejarah Collection Indonesia wal Twentieth Century.

This electronic book aya made in English, so that the whole world can read collector, and consumers that I want to go is a senior collector who has mmiliki science related field is high enough in this book information.


Jakarta, February 9, 2015


Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA


Qing copy yuan ewer motif flower


After the Internet very fast growth sponsored by Google, we can found thpousand images of Qing Imperila ceramic, old and new reproduction like some  you can look below

Ming transitional vase with dragon motif

Value US $ 1599-2000


1: Chinese Blue White Porcelain Vase – Rooster Scene

floral and rooster scene, 19th cen, measures 19″h 8.25″w

Stallion Hill Gallery

07:00 AM PT

Sep 14

12 OCTOBRE 2011

Kangxi blue and white porcelain of the Inder Rieden Collection @ Bonhams


A fine blue and white cylindrical brush pot, bitong. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Brightly painted with a continuous scene of a gentleman and his attendant enjoying conversation with a lady and her maid in a garden and an elderly lady before a screen waited on by various attendants,

 the base with a countersunk seal mark Xi Chao Chuan Gu (antique passed down from our glorious dynasty). 18.6cm (7 3/8in) diam. Estimate: £30,000 – 50,000, CNY 300,000 – 490,000, HK$ 360,000 – 600,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 16 June 1999, lot 914
The Inder Rieden Collection

The mark of Xi Chao Chuan Gu also appeared on an underglaze blue and copper-red brushpot, Kangxi mark and of the period, sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 2 November 1999, lot 605, where the mark was translated as ‘The Court of Kangxi Transmitting Antiquity’.




A pair of blue and white slender baluster vases. Chenghua six-character marks, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Each with a spreading foot, brightly painted with similar scenes of a dignitary with attendants and ladies receiving a guest accompanied by servants bearing gifts, the waisted neck with decorative bands of leiwen and key-fret motifs divided by a moulded rib. Each approximately 44cm (17¼in) high (2). Estimate: £30,000 – 50,000, CNY 300,000 – 490,000, HK$ 360,000 – 600,000


Original qing kanghsi


Edhie chen


DR Iwan Found the same design and mark Vase

Provenance: according to the owner, purchased from Glerum Den Haag, Amsterdam, 11 November 1997, lot 225A
The Inder Rieden Collection

A very fine blue and white baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


Amusingly painted in contrasting deep and pale blue tones with an old man and a young boy playing with a lively baby dragon darting upwards through cloud scrolls accompanied by a servant and a crane amid rockwork and pine, the collar, waisted neck and rim with decorative bands. 45.8cm (18in) high – Estimate: £25,000 – 40,000, CNY 250,000 – 400,000, HK$ 300,000 – 480,000 

Provevance: Sotheby’s London, 17 December 1996, lot 86
The Inder Rieden Collection


A fine blue and white tall slender flaring yenyen vase. Chenghua six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Dramatically painted with six writhing dragons surrounding an empty carriage amid thickly swirling clouds above foaming waves, the flaring neck with a delicate crane flying above high tumultuous waves flooding around a mountain-top pagoda. 45.5cm (18in) high Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000 

Provenance: Christie’s London, 15 June 1998, lot 111
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine pair of blue and white slender flaring vases, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


Each spreading foot, central rounded body and flaring neck painted with lobed cartouches depicting scenes of small figures in watery landscapes on a wave-pattern ground and small flowers, the interior rim with a geometric-pattern band. 48cm (19in) high (2). Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000.


Provenance: Christie’s London, 15 May 1995, lot 5
The Inder Rieden Collection

For a pair of vases similarly decorated with cartouches against a whorl ground, forming part of a four-piece garniture, see R.Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, Vol.IV (II), London, Catalogue no.1844.



Two blue and white flaring vases, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


Each richly painted with continuous scenes of figures in landscapes, the tall spreading foot with fishermen and nets, the central section with fishing boats, and the long neck with groups of scholars in discussion and enjoying chess on a boat accompanied by servants, all divided by hatched-pattern borders. Each approximately 46cm (18 1/8in) high (2). Estimate: £20,000 – 30,000, CNY 200,000 – 300,000, HK$ 240,000 – 360,000


Provenance: Christie’s London, 16 December 1996, lot 1
The Inder Rieden Collection

Compare a related pair of vases, of similar shape but different decorative bands and scenes, which was sold at Christie’s London, 15 May 2007, lot 232.

A fine blue and white cylindrical vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

The sides boldly painted with three mythical beasts, one with dragon scales, one with tiger stripes and one with leopard spots and each breathing flames, all set in a dramatic landscape of steep rocks and high foaming waves, the neck with decorative bands of ruyi-head, circle and pendent motifs. 40cm (15¾in) high – Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s Amsterdam, 22 May 2001, lot 31
The Inder Rieden Collection

A related vase with a similar neck but slightly wider body and depicting a more typical river landscape scene was sold at Sotheby’s London, 10 November 2010, lot 85.

A blue and white ‘Buddhistic lions’ baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


Thickly potted and boldly painted around the exterior with three playful Buddhistic lions cavorting with ribboned balls, a ruyi-head band at the collar and a leiwen pattern at the rim.45cm (17¾in) high Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000


Provenance: Christie’s London, 9 May 1994, lot 62
The Inder Rieden Collection




A blue and white slender baluster vase. Jiajing six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


The tall slender body painted with a continuous scene of a seated official surrounded by various advisors receiving a visiting scholar and his attendants all within a mansion and garden, the waisted neck with two flower sprays. 43.3cm (17 1/8in) high – Estimate: £15,000 – 25,000, CNY 150,000 – 250,000, HK$ 180,000 – 300,000


Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 8 November 1994, lot 50
The Inder Rieden Collection

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 8 November 1994, lot 50
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine blue and white tall slender baluster vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Boldly potted with a flaring neck, the body and neck painted with rectangular panels of four different fierce mythical beasts surrounded by a dense circle and dot pattern, divided by bands of zigzag motif and above a row of pendent ruyi-heads around the foot. 44.8cm (17 5/8in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 17 November 1999, lot 916
The Inder Rieden Collection

A vase of similar form in the body and neck but with a shorter foot and depicting slightly different scenes was sold at Sotheby’s London, 10 November 2010, lot 86.

A blue and white yenyen vase. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Carefully painted on the lower part with a seated dignitary surrounded by attendants receiving a visiting scholar in a mansion opening onto a terrace, the sharply-flaring neck with a dignitary in the same setting watching a performing archer. 43cm (17in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: The Inder Rieden Collection

Compare a vase of similar form but depicting a different scene, sold at Sotheby’s New York, 14 September 2011, lot 122.

A blue and white flaring vase, gu. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Brightly painted with continuous scenes, the spreading foot with dignitaries and servants with ducks, the central section with boys at play, and the flaring neck with a dignitary receiving an official with attendants observed by ladies and soldiers. 44cm (17¼in) high – Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 12 November 1996, lot 31
The Inder Rieden Collection


A large blue and white baluster jar and cover. Kangxi. Photo Bonhams


The tall rounded body painted with eight upright lobed panels, each with a branch of varied blossoms including prunus, peony and chysanthemum issuing from rockwork with birds and butterflies in flight, separating the Eight Buddhist Emblems, bajixiang, at the shoulder, and above stiff lappet panels of floral scrolls at the foot, the cover similarly decorated with six panels of flowering branches separating Buddhist symbols. 59.5cm  (23 3/8in) high (2).Estimate: £10,000 – 15,000, CNY 99,000 – 150,000, HK$ 120,000 – 180,000


Provenance: Sotheby’s Amsterdam, 4 December 2002, lot 44
The Inder Rieden Collection

A fine blue and white baluster vase. Chenghua six-character mark, Kangxi. Photo Bonhams

Painted all around the slender body with three scholars practising calligraphy attended by servants all set in a dwelling within a garden with a plaintain tree and rocks. 26cm (10¼in) high – Estimate: £8,000 – 12,000, CNY 79,000 – 120,000, HK$ 97,000 – 140,000

Provenance: Christie’s London, 6 April 1998, lot 28
The Inder Rieden Collec

The illustration didn’t upload in the sample of Cd-Rom at my web blog, If the collectors want to find the complete info with illustration please contact me via my email , but you must upload your ID copy and the history of your work for protection against hijact internet



Let Look another sample below







In the north Russians

had begun moving east in 1581.

In 1543



source google

Portuguese traders were the first to land in Japan,





source google

Tageshima now




The Russian  entered Tobolsk in 1587,




The Russian  entered  Tomsk in 1604,

Since 1609

the Dutch had run a trading post on the island of Hirado. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area.


The Russian  occupied enisseisk in 1619,


Manchu Abandoned Transting ways set up a capital in Mukden



The First Qing Emperor Kangxi,

originalnamed  Shunshih was born in 16 March 1638 and died 5 February 1661

The Shunzhi Emperor[nb 1] (15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661), 

formerly romanized as the Shun-chih Emperor, was the thirdemperor of the Qing dynasty and the first Qing emperor to rule over China,


 A committee of Manchu princeschose Shunshi or Kangxi  to succeed his father,

 Hong Taiji (1592–1643),

 in September 1643, when he was five years old

From 1643 to 1650, political power lay mostly in the hands of Dorgon. Under his leadership, the Qing conquered most of the territory of the fallen Ming dynasty (1368–1644), chased Ming loyalist regimes deep into the southwestern provinces, and established the basis of Qing rule over China despite highly unpopular policies such as the “hair cutting command” of 1645, which forced Qing subjects to shave their forehead and braid their remaining hair into a queue resembling that of the Manchus


Emperor Kangxi

 from 1644 to 1661.


1644 AD to 1912 AD

Qing Dynasty Emperors

Emperor Kangxi Emperor Yongzheng Emperor Qianlong Emperor Puyi

Empress  Xiozhe, consort of Emperor Kangxi


The princes also appointed two co-regents: Dorgon (1612–1650), fourteenth son of Qing founder Nurhaci (1559–1626), and Jirgalang (1599–1655), one of Nurhaci’s nephews, both of whom were members of the Qing imperial clan.



Manchu In China



After Dorgon’s death on the last day of 1650, the young monarch started to rule personally. He tried, with mixed success, to fight corruption and to reduce the political influence of the Manchu nobility.

 In the 1650s he faced a resurgence of Ming loyalist resistance,


 By 1661 Dargon armies had defeated the Qing’s last enemies, seafarer Koxinga (1624–1662) and the Prince of Gui (1623–1662) of the Southern Ming, both of whom would succumb the following year.

 The Shunzhi emperor died at the age of 22 of smallpox, a highly contagious disease that was endemic in China, but against which the Manchus had no immunity.

 He was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, who had already survived smallpox, and who reigned for sixty years under the name of Kangxi. Because fewer documents have survived from the Shunzhi era than from later Qing reigns, the Shunzhi age is a relatively little-known period of Qing history.

“Shunzhi” was the name of this ruler’s reign period in Chinese. This title had equivalents in Manchu and Mongolian because the Qing imperial family was Manchu, and ruled over many Mongol tribes that helped the Qing to conquer China.

 The emperor’s personal name was Fulin, and the posthumous name by which he was worshipped at the Imperial Ancestral Temple was Shizu (Wade–Giles:Shih-tsu; Chinese: 世祖).


At the time of the Kangxi Emperor’s death, Yinti, as border-pacification general-in-chief (Chinese: 撫遠大將軍), was at war in the northwest in what is present-day Xinjiang. Some historians believe that this implied Kangxi’s favouring Yinti for succession, and was training the next emperor in military affairs; others maintain that Kangxi intended to keep Yinti a large distance away from the capital to ensure a peaceful succession for Yinzhen. It was Yinzhen who nominated Yinti for the post — not Yinsi, with whom Yinti was closely affiliated.




Koxinga (a westernization of simplified Chinese: 国姓; traditional Chinese: 國姓爺; pinyin: Guóxìngye; literally “Lord of the Imperial Surname”; August 1624 – 23 June 1662) or Zheng Chenggong was a Chinese military leader who was born in Hirado, Japan to the Chinese merchant/pirate


Zheng Zhilong and his Japanese wife, and died on Taiwan.


Upon defeating

VOC fort zeelande Formosa island(taiwan) lithography

the forces of

the Dutch East India Company (VOC) on Taiwan

in his last campaign in 1661–1662,

Koxinga took over the island in order to support his grand campaign against the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty.


After Koxinga’s death,

his son and successor, Zheng Jing,

gradually became the ruler of an independent Kingdom of Tungning, the first Chinese state to rule the island



rebellion known at the three Feudtories



In 1680 emperor Kangxi ordered a commission to look into the state of Porcelain

Very Rare Emperor Kangxi

Bigger  Blue and  white  with

the imperial five clown  dragon motif Vase




Qing Took over Taiwan,placing it under juristictum of Fujien Province



Yinzhen was the fourth son of Kangxi to survive into adulthood and the eldest son from Empress Xiaogongren, a lady of the Manchu Uya clan who was then known as De-fei.

 Kangxi knew it would be a mistake to raise his children inside the palace alone; therefore, he exposed his sons (including Yinzhen) to the outside world and gave them a rigorous education.

Yongzheng went with Kangxi on several inspection trips around the Beijing area, as well as one trip further south. He was honorary leader of the Plain Red Bannerduring Kangxi’s second battle against the Mongol khan Gordhun. Yinzhen was made a beile (Chinese: 貝勒, “lord”)



Degoo soldier the responbility to rule over Tibet in 1694


Yongzheng rose to the position of second-class prince in 1698.

In 1704,

the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers saw unprecedented flooding. The economy and livelihood of people around these areas were severely damaged. Yongzheng was sent out as an envoy of the emperor with the 13th Imperial Prince Yinxiang to deal with relief efforts in southern China.


 The imperial treasury, which had been drained due to unpaid loans by many officials and nobles, did not have sufficient funds to deal with the flooding; Yongzheng had the added responsibility of securing relief funds from the wealthy southern tycoons. These efforts ensured that funds were distributed properly and people would not starve. He was given the title of first-class prince, Prince Yong (Chinese: 雍親王), in 1709.


The Chinese

History Collections



source google


Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui,concubine Of The Qianlong Emperor

The Imperial Noble Conun Hui (1713 – 1760) came from

Dr iwan Collections related to Kang Hsi ceramic Imperila

not upload

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014



China Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799)

His temple name was Gaozong

The Qianlong Emperor (Chinese pinyin: Qianlong Di; Wade–Giles: Chien-lung Ti) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper.

 The fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1736 to 7 February 1795.

On 8 February (the first day of that lunar year), he abdicated in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor – a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor.

Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw the continuity of an era of prosperity in China, he held an unrelentingly conservative attitude. As a result, the Qing Dynasty’s comparative decline began later in his reign


 Dr Iwan Collection Yuncheng imperial vase red in glazed with flower motif and dear ear  with mark at lips mouth of vase not upload





. In 1712, the Kangxi Emperor removed his second son, Yinreng, as successor to the throne and did not designate an heir in his place.

This led to a competition amongst sons of the Emperor for the position of crown prince. The most promising candidates wereYinzhi, Yinzhen, Yinsi, and Yinti (the third, fourth, eighth and fourteenth Imperial Princes respectively).

 Of the princes, Yinsi had the most support from the mandarins, but was disfavoured by Kangxi himself. Yinzhen had supported Yinreng prior to the latter’s demise, and did not build a large political base until the final years of Kangxi’s reign.

When the Emperor died in December 1722, the field of contenders was reduced to three princes after Yinsi pledged his support to the 14th prince, Yinti.[2]


The official record states that on 20 December 1722 the ailing Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons and the general commandant of the Peking gendarmerie, Longkodo, to his bedside; Longkodo read the will, and declared that Yinzhen succeed the emperor on the throne.

Some evidence has suggested that Yinzhen contacted Longkodo months before the will was read in preparation for his succession by military means, although in their official capacities frequent encounters were expected. Legend has it that  Yongzheng changed Kangxi’s will by adding strokes and modifying characters.

The best-known rumor says that Yongzheng changed “fourteen” (Chinese: 十四  shísì) to “four” (Chinese: 于四  yúsì); others say it was “fourteen” to “fourth” (Chinese: 第四  dìsì).

 While widely accepted, there is little supporting evidence—especially considering that the character was not widely used during the Qing Dynasty; on official documents,  () is used.

 Secondly, Qing tradition insists that the will was done in both Manchu and Chinese; Manchu writing, however, is more intricate and (in this case) impossible to modify.

Furthermore, princes in the Qing Dynasty are referred to as “the Emperor’s son”, in the order which they were born

(for example, “the emperor’s fourth son”: Chinese: 皇四子).

But it has been long refuted by scholars:the will was written in three languages:Chinese,Mongolian and Manchurian,not just in Chinese.Also in traditional Chinese,the character should be written into ,not .[3] 

Therefore, Yinzhen couldn’t have changed the will to ascend to the throne.Also some occurings showed Kangxi had chosen Yongzheng as heir,for example,in the first month of 1721Kangxi’s 60th anniversary of his throne,he sent Yongzheng and his 12th prince and grandson born by third prince to hold the veneration ritual at royal tombs.None of the princes who supported 14th prince(namely,third,eighth,ninth and tenth prince)was sent.[4


After ascending to the throne in December 1722,

 Yinzhen took the era name “Harmonious Justice” (Chinese: 雍正  yōngzhèng)

Nian Gengyao was a supporter of Yongzheng long before he succeeded to the throne. In 1722, when he was recalling his brother Yinti from the northwest, Yongzheng appointed Nian general. The situation in Xinjiang at the time was still precarious, and a strong general was needed in the area.


in 1723 from his peerage title “harmonious” (Chinese:   yōng) and “just, correct, upright” (Chinese:   zhèng). It has been suggested that the second character of his era name was an attempt to cover up his illegal claim to the throne by calling himself “justified”. Immediately after succeeding to the throne,

 Yongzheng chose his new governing council. It consisted of the eighth prince Yinsi, the 13th prince Yinxiang, Zhang Tingyu, Ma Qi, and Longkodo.

Yinsi was given the title of Prince Lian, and Yinxiang was given the title ofPrince Yi; both held the highest positions in the land

Yinzhen chose an era name similar in sound to his given name; 1723 was to be the first year of the Yongzheng era.

 For his first official act as emperor Yongzheng released his long-time ally—the 13th prince Yinxiang, who had been imprisoned by the Kangxi Emperor at the same time as the crown prince.

Some sources indicate that Yinxiang, the most militant of the princes, then assembled a group of special Peking soldiers from the Fengtai command to seize immediate control of the Forbidden City and surrounding areas to prevent usurpation by Yinsi’s cronies.


Yongzheng’s personal account stated that he was emotionally unstable and deeply saddened over his father’s death, and knew it would be a burden “much too heavy” for himself if he were to succeed the throne.

In addition, after the will was read Yinzhen wrote that the officials (premier Zhang Tingyu, Longkedo and Yinzhi) and Prince Cheng led the other princes in the ceremonial Three-Kneels and Nine-Salutes to the emperor.

The following day Yongzheng issued an edict summoning Yinti back from Qinghai, bestowing on their mother the title “Holy Mother Empress Dowager” the day Yinti arrived at the funeral.

In the first major comprehensive biography of the Yongzheng Emperor by Feng Erkang, the author puts the Yongzheng succession in perspective. Feng writes that there were some suspicious signs from the lost wills and the dates released, but the majority of evidence points to Yinzhen succeeding the throne legitimately (although with political and military maneuvering deemed necessary by the situation).[2] 


The eighth prince (Yinsi) had been bribing officials for support throughout his life, and his influence penetrated the Fengtai command. Furthermore, Feng suggests that “although we are not yet altogether certain on what happened with the succession, and which side is correct, it is reasonable to think that Yongzheng’s political enemies manipulated all suspicion behind the will in an attempt to put a dark image on Yongzheng; Imperial Chinese tradition had led certain schools of thought in believing that Yongzheng’s whole reign can be discredited simply because his succession of the throne did not come as a will of his father, the emperor and ultimate decision maker in China.”

He further suggests that Kangxi made a grave mistake by allowing his sons to become major political players (especially since the position of crown prince was empty) and a bloody battle of succession (including a possible usurpation) was the inevitable result of imperial Chinese institutions.

 Therefore, it would be an even-bigger mistake to judge a ruler solely on the way he came to power. Certainly, the Yongzheng Emperor ensured his successor would have a smooth transition when his turn came


The nature of his succession is deeply disputed, and Yongzheng saw challenges in all his surviving brothers. 

Yinzhi, the eldest, continued to live under house arrest; Yinreng, the former crown prince, died two years into his brother’s reign (although they were both imprisoned not by Yongzheng, but by Kangxi).

The biggest challenge was to separate Yinsi’s party (consisting of Yinsi, the ninth and tenth princes and their minions), and isolate Yinti to reduce their power.

Yinsi (who had nominally held the position of President of the Feudatory Affairs Office, the title “Prince Lian” and later the office of Prime Minister) was held under close watch by Yongzheng.

 Yintang was sent to Qinghai under the pretext of military service, but in reality fell within Yongzheng’s trusted protégé Nian Gengyao‘s territory.

Yin’e, the tenth prince, was stripped of all his titles in May 1724 and sent north to the Shunyi area. The 14th Prince Yinti (Yongzheng’s full-brother) was placed under house arrest at the Imperial Tombs under the pretext of guarding their parents’ tombs.



Emperor Qianlong’s hidden Palace

November 18, 2011

The restoration  of a lavish suite in the Forbidden City.

Beijing’s sprawling Forbidden City—the size of 135 football fields—is a dizzying array of magnificent receiving halls and intimate quarters surrounded by 28-foot-thick walls. Yet in the northeast tip of the compound lies a unique two-acre retreat, known simply as the “Qianlong Garden”

For decades stories circulated among art historians of a mothballed Qing Dynasty retreat within the Forbidden City,( the Imperial behemoth with 8,700 rooms that anchors the Chinese capital}). Word eventually reached the World Monuments Fund, a nonprofit organization dedicated to saving imperiled historic sites. Six years and $3 million later the first building of the Palace of  Tranquillity and Longevity ( Juanqinzhai ) had been meticulously restored ( see above )  and will open to the public in the coming months.

When restorers opened the door on the Qianlong Emperor’s favourite studio in the Forbidden City, dust three inches thick on the exquisitely carved surfaces bore testament to decades of abandonment. “It felt like the last emperor had just turned the key in the door and left,” was the verdict of one expert. The studio was built in the late 18th century as part of a bigger retirement retreat by the Qianlong Emperor.

 He died in 1795 before the building was completed but Juanqinzhai was finished exactly as he wanted – a mini-palace within a palace.

Originally built in 1776, during the 41st year of Qianlong’s 60-year reign, Juanqinzhai was part of a two-acre complex of ornate gardens and pavilions designed by the emperor for his own pleasure and to use as a retreat for meditation and writing poetry. The rooms of Juanqinzhai, which included a theatre, were built from the finest materials, including bamboo-threaded flooring, white jade tablets and intricately painted silk wall panels. Only a few embroidery workers from Suzhou province still know the traditional techniques of the exquisite double-sided embroidery used in this project. In the Juanqinzhai’s studio, the emperor would display his favourite gemstones, ceramics, porcelain and artwork.

 The Qianlong Emperor spared no expense on construction materials for this palatial gem, whose 27 rooms were crafted of fine hardwoods lavishly inlaid with jade and porcelain. Inside, they brimmed with fantastic murals, priceless furnishings, and exotic decorative arts

When the Qianlong emperor ascended to the Chinese throne in 1736, the 25-year-old monarch was one of the richest men in the world. He could afford to indulge his appetite for the finer things in life during his more than 60 years on the throne. His reign is considered one of the greatest periods in the history of Chinese art.

The Qianlong emperor was one of the longest-reigning and most enlightened rulers of the Chinese Qing dynasty (1644-1911). The Qing were Manchurian horsemen who, like other foreign rulers, absorbed the culture and administrative system of China.

The Qianlong Emperor was a major patron of the arts, seeing himself as an important “preserver and restorer” of Chinese culture. He had an insatiable appetite for collecting, and acquired much of China’s “great private collections” by any means necessary, and reintegrated their treasures into the imperial collection.

 Qianlong, more than any other Manchu emperor, lavished the imperial collection with his attention and effort. The Emperor was also particularly interested in collecting ancient bronzes, bronze mirrors and seals, in addition to pottery, ceramics and applied arts such as enameling, metal work and lacquer work, which flourished during his reign.

The emperor frequently invited foreign artists to Beijing to pass on their skills to his artisans. Europeans shared their knowledge of Western painting techniques, glassware, painted enamels and cloisonne. Mughal craftsmen from northern India were summoned to the palace workshops for their expertise in carving jade and glass.

The extravagance of the Qianlong Emperor was so great that he ultimately bankrupted the country. As the Taoists like to claim : “Like the yin and yang cycle of life; when one attains the maximum yang, there is only one direction to go.”


Qianlong began his reign with about 33,950,000 taels of silver in Treasury surplus. At the peak of Qianlong’s reign, around 1775, even with further tax cuts, the treasury surplus still reached 73,900,000 taels, a record unmatched by his predecessors, Kangxi or Yongzheng both of whom had implemented remarkable tax cut policies

However, due to numerous factors such as long term embezzlement and corruption by officials, frequent expeditions South, huge palace constructions, many war and rebellion campaigns as well as his own extravagant lifestyle, all of these cost the treasury a total of 150,200,000 silver taels.

This, coupled with his senior age and the lack of political reforms, ushered the beginning of the gradual decline and eventual demise of the Qing dynasty and empire, casting a shadow over his glorious and brilliant political life.

All the designs from the palace workshops in Beijing, which produced wares for the imperial family, were required to pass official muster. Therefore, most of the works produced during his reign were a fair representation of the emperor’s taste, which some claim reflects a near pinnacle of Chinese art.

Ceramic art from  the Qianlong era :

Vases with tubular ears are replicas of the touhu of the Han era: a type of pot used in a drinking game. These vases were current under the Song and also reproduced in the kilns at Jingdezhen under the Qing.



A fine porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799 CE) of the Qing dynasty. (Courtesy of the National Palace Museum)

Emperor  QianLong  liked drinking tea his whole life, this is one oh his favoured purple teapots.

A vase with eight  auspicious Buddhist emblems in fencai on turquoise. This model is called a bumba vase after a type of ritual metal ewer used in monasteries and temples in the Tibetan region. They were used in the designation and succession of ‘living Buddhas and prodigies’: Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas. They stand witness to the intimate ties between the Qing court and  Tibetan Buddhism as well as  their mutual historical influences: a sort of cultural osmosis between the Chinese and the Tibetan world.                  

This brush stand in underglaze blue is a hollow parallelepiped with five round openings and one rectangular opening on top. The spaces between the openings are decorated with auspicious clouds in the shape of the classical Chinese character . The four sides have been painted with the ‘Eight Immortals’.

A famille-rose vase, with the seal mark of the Qianlong Emperor (1736-1795). The vase sold at a Hong Kong auction for HK$252.7 million ($32.6 million) and was bought by collector Alice Cheng.



Fencai (literally: ‘pastel colours’) is a type of overglaze decoration fired at low temperature. It has been produced from the times of the Qing emperor Kangxi. Firstly, the white clay is covered with a layer of glaze and fired at high temperature. Next, a polychromatic painting is applied and fired at less than 700oC.

Melon-shaped vase with imitation celadon glaze (fangru) with 8 sets of vertical bow strings.

Ritual Water Vessels. Photo by Mharrsch( Flickr)

Qing Dynaasty Yellow Porcelain Enameled Vase, Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art. Photo by Mharrsch

Carved Dragon Purple Amethyst Glass cup

Pilgrim flask decorated with peaches and pomegrenates; Ming Dynasty, 1st half of 17th century

Museum Rietberg, Zurich

An Exceptionally Rare Blue-Glazed Flask-Form Vase.

Christie’s Images

A ”clair de lune” porcelain vase .

Translucent, sky blue glaze of great quality. ( Photo Czerny’s )

Photo Czerny





Yongzheng wrote  in an edict in 1725,

“When the flesh and blood of the common people is used to rectify the deficits of the officials, how can there not be hardship in the countryside?”

He approved a fixed meltage fee and increased salaries from 45 taels a year to at least 600 so that officials could be honest.

The meltage fees also enabled provincial officials to redistribute taxes from the wealthy regions to the needs of the poor

At the end of Yongzheng’s twelve-year reign he left the treasury with sixty million taels of silver.

Flambé glazed compressed bottle vase wihYongzheng mark

Compare with Dr Iwan Collection



Imperial Yongzheng mark

doucai dragon and phoenix Bowl




source google 

The Cau Mau Cargo

In 1998  fishermen uncovered the wreck of a Chinese junk near Ca Mau in southern Vietnam. The ship probably sank around 1725 en route from Canton (Guangzhou) to the Dutch trading port of Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia.

About 130,000 ceramics from this wreck were salvaged from the seabed. The bulk of the cargo, mostly tea bowls and saucers, was destined for Europe, but some was intended for Asian markets.

Brush rest, China, about 1725. Museum no. FE.10-2007



Under the title ‘Made in Imperial China’ a vast cargo of 18th century Chinese porcelain recovered from a shipwreck in Vietnam’s southernmost Cau Mau province was put up for auction in the Netherlands’ capital of Amsterdam. The three-day sale, organised by Sotheby’s, began on January 29, 2007 with some 76,000 porcelain pieces ranging from fine blue and white tea sets to porcelain boxes and mugs to polychrome figures.

They were among the nearly 100,000 artefacts found on the Cau Mau wreck which was salvaged betweeen 1998 and 1999 by Cau Mau provice in collaberation with the Vietnam History Museum. ‘On its way from Canton to Batavia the ship probably had a fierce fire and sank off the coast of Vietnam,’ Nguyen Dinh Chien, head of the salvage committee, said ‘China was then closed to foreign trade.’

The cargo was an accidental find by Vietnamese fishermen. ‘They pulled up their nets and there was porcelain in them. They quickly discovered that the porcelain was valuable, and they went out day after daytrawling for porcelain. In fact they brought up 35,000 pieces,’ said Marcus Linnell, Sotheby’s Export-porcelain expert in London.

While much of the porcelain was produced in the Imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, a number of pieces from the Dehua kiln complex were also found in the cargo. Some bear the mark of Emperor Yongzheng (who reigned for just 14 years); the date at which the ship, a Chinese junk, sank can therefore be put somewhere between 1723 and 1736.

The wealth of Jingdezhen was derived solely from the manufacture of porcelain, and work was always comparitevely easy to find there; even the blind, crippled and children could be employed in grinding the cobalt that was used for decoration.



Père d’Enterecolles, who lived there at the beginning of the 18th century, wrote that the total population was one million and that there were 18,000 families of potters living in the city. ‘Everyday’, he goes on to say, ‘ten thousand loads of rice and a thousand pigs are eaten, not to mention quantities of horse and dog meat.’ He also states that 3,000 kilns were kept burning throughout the year, and that at night the red glow above the city gave the impression that it was on fire.

From the shapes and patterns of the pieces found on board, it is clear that the porcelain was destined for Europe and illustrated the scale of the China trade. The junks brought valuable shiploads of saltpetre, raw silk, porcelain and tea to Batavia, while the European traders offered silver, tin, pepper, sandalwood, birdsnets and other tropical import products as barter to purchase tea and porcelain.

At the outset, Europeans drank tea mainly for medicinal reasons: ‘It purifies the blood, dispels heavy dreams, chases away stupidity, and strengthens Venus.’ When they started to drink it for social reasons as well during the first half of the eighteenth century, China’s ports began to attract an ever-greater number of western merchants. With much of Europe hooked on the drink, the Dutch East India Company and other European companies lined up in Canton to get a piece of the action.



Aside from the porcelain, other artefacts on the ship also survived, among them bronze dishes, lamps and chinese coins, all of which would most probably have played a vital part in the lives of those who manned the ship. Perhaps the most intriguing and revelatory of all the other artefacts found were two carved seals one of which was personal seal of its owner Pan Tingcai, a prominent hing merchant.



Fused spittoon, tea bowls and vase neck, Jingdezhen, China, about 1725. Museum no. FE. 7-2007

The Chinese had much disdain for the European traders; they called them Fan Kwae, or foreign devils. They restricted the traders to a quarter-mile strip of land along the waterfront of Canton, where the factories, or hongs, were located. The hong buildings, rented for the two-to three-month trading season, each flying the flag of a different European nation were an exotic site for a first-time visitor. In his memoirs, the English diarist William Hickey wrote of Canton in 1769, ‘The magnitude and novelty of the architecture must always surprise strangers … the scene upon the water is as busy as the Thames below London Bridge.’



baby doll from cau mau cargo, Dr Iwan found the same doll in Pontianak West borneo in 1994.


Catherine hunt

 thanks cataharine for your information, please give me permission to upload this info thanks


Dr Iwan

A pottery kettle from the Ca Mau shipreck is seen at a press conference held by famous Hungarian collector Istvan Zelnik in Budapest, Hungary, on March 26, 2012.

 In mid-April, Zelnik will bring a 450-piece collection of the Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain on tour beginning with various locations in Hungary.

He intends to take the exhibition around Europe and the Middle East.

The Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain sank some time between 1725 A.D. and 1732 A.D. in the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam close to Ca Mau, dating to the Yongzheng Period of the Qing Dynasty. (Xinhua/Attila Volgyi)

BUDAPEST, March 26 (Xinhua) — A remarkable collection of 17th and 18th century Chinese porcelain recovered from a shipwreck will soon set off from Budapest, Hungary, on a European tour.

“The exhibition will showcase the unparalleled production expertise of the Chinese porcelain manufacturers at the end of the 17th century, and beginning of the 18th century,” Istvan Zelnik, the collection owner said on Monday at a press conference in Budapest.


Famous Hungarian collector Istvan Zelnik is seen with a Chinese Ca Mau shipwreck plate during a press conference in Budapest, Hungary, on March 26, 2012. In mid-April, Zelnik will bring a 450-piece collection of the Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain on tour beginning with various locations in Hungary. He intends to take the exhibition around Europe and the Middle East. The Ca Mau shipwreck porcelain sank some time between 1725 A.D. and 1732 A.D. in the South China Sea off the coast of Vietnam close to Ca Mau, dating to the Yongzheng Period of the Qing Dynasty. (Xinhua/Attila Volgyi


Yongzheng put Sichuan’s governor-general,

Nian Gengyao,

in command of the army


the Koshotes led by

Lobjang Danjin.

After being transferred to Hangzhou, Nian was accused of 92 crimes.

Instead of being beheaded, Yongzheng allowed him to commit suicide in 1726.


Yongzheng suspected Catholic missionaries of using the Roman alphabet as a code, and he criticized the factional influence of the church.

However, he tolerated them, stating in 1726, “The distant barbarians come here attracted by our culture. We must show them generosity and virtue.”4

Emperor Yongzheng ordered a documentary account of the Zeng conspiracy published, and he argued against Lu Liuliang’s racist theory that the Manchus should not rule China. The Emperor noted how the Qing regime had rescued the Ming dynasty from rebels and fostered peace and prosperity by controlling crime while expanding territory, population, and cultivated land.

Yongzheng was strongly influenced by Confucian philosophy and was interested in Chan Buddhism. In 1724 he wrote an essay amplifying the instructions in the Sacred Edict of Kangxi. On strengthening clans he suggested that clan members are like parts of one body. If one part hurts, the whole body hurts, making necessary filial piety, brotherly love, harmony, willingness to endure for others, and charity.


He observed that the orthodoxy of Buddhism is being concerned with the heart, not the talk about fasts, processions, temples, and idles that lazy monks and priests use to swindle people. Individuals should control themselves so as not to break the law and also to admonish others. Yongzheng prepared lectures that were given by local scholars twice a month.

The Emperor wrote another essay on the dangers of factions, which he warned lead to corruption and bad judgment by erecting a barrier between ruler and minister


After the battle for Dingguang in 1726, Oertai offered amnesty and free land to encourage people to return to the land. Others lost their farms to Qing soldiers, and native chiefs were replaced by Qing administrators.

Mining was encouraged in Yunnan, and the state ended its monopoly.

Within a few years copper production more than quadrupled.




 After several military conquests, however, Nian Gengyao’s lust for power grew; he reportedly wanted to be equal to Yongzheng. Seeing the situation unfold, Yongzheng issued an imperial edict demoting Nian to general of the Hangzhou Command. Continuing to be unrepentant, Nian was given an ultimatum and committed suicide by poison in 1726.




A supplementary treaty with Russia made at Kyakhta in 1727 established a longer boundary between Mongolia and Siberia, and trade was allowed at Kyakhta as well as at Nerchinsk.

A Russian caravan was allowed to trade with Beijing every third year, and a Russian Orthodox church was also maintained in the Qing capital



The first few years of Yongzheng’s reign saw an increase in partisan politics. Yinsi wanted to use his position to manipulate Yongzheng into errors, while appearing supportive. Yinsiand Yintang (both supporters of Yinti for the throne) were stripped of their titles, languished in prison and died in 1727.

Like his father, Yongzheng used military force in order to preserve the dynasty’s position in Outer Mongolia.[1] When Tibet was torn by civil war in 1727–1728, he intervened militarily. After withdrawing, he left a Qing citizen (the amban) backed up with a military garrison to safeguard the dynasty’s interests.[1] 

For the Tibetan campaign Yongzheng sent an army of 230,000 (led by Nian Gengyao) against theDzungars, who had an army of 80,000. Due to geography, the Qing army (although superior in numbers) was unable to engage the more-mobile enemy at first. Eventually, however, they engaged the Dzungars and defeated them. This campaign cost the treasury at least 8,000,000 taels of silver. Later in Yongzheng’s reign, he would send a small army of 10,000 to fight the Dzungars. However, that army was annihilated and the Qing had faced the danger of losing control of Mongolia. Fortunately, a Khalkha ally of the Qing Dynasty would later defeat the Dzungars





 Longkodo was commander of Peking’s armies at the time of Yongzheng’s succession. He fell in disgrace in 1728, and died under house arrest.


Following the reforms of 1729, the treasury increased from the 1721 total of 32,622,421 taels to about 60,000,000 taels in 1730, surpassing the record set during Yongzheng’s father’s (the Kangxi Emperor’s) regime; however, the pacification of the Qinghai area and the defense on the border areas were heavy burdens. For safeguarding the borders alone, 100,000 taels were needed each year. The total military budget was up to 10,000,000 taels a year. By the end of 1735 military spending depleted half the treasury, which totaled 33,950,000 taels. It was because of this burden that the Yongzheng Emperor considered making peace with the Dzungars



After becoming emperor, Yongzheng suppressed writings he deemed unfavorable to his regime, particularly those with an anti-Manchu bias.[1] Foremost among these were those of Zeng Jing, an unsuccessful degree candidate heavily influenced by 17th-century scholar Lü Liuliang. Zeng had been so affected by what he read that he attempted to incite the governor-general of Shaanxi-Sichuan, Yue Zhongqi, to rebellion. The general promptly turned him in, and in 1730 the case reached Yongzheng Emperor. Highly concerned with the implications of the case, Yongzheng had Zeng Jing brought to Beijing for trial. The emperor’s verdict seemed to demonstrate a Confucian sovereign’s benevolence: He ascribed Zeng’s actions to the gullibility and naïveté of a youth taken in by Lü’s abusive and overdrawn rhetoric. In addition to this the emperor suggested that Lü’s original attack on the Manchus was misplaced, since they had been transformed by their long-term exposure to the civilizing force of Confucianism


Yongzheng is also known for establishing a strict autocracy rule during his reign. He detested corruption, and punished officials severely when they were found guilty of an offense.

In 1729 he issued an edict prohibiting the smoking of madak,[citation needed] a blend of tobacco and opium.

 During Yongzheng’s reign the Qing Dynasty became a great power in Asia as well as a peaceful land, and he enhanced the Kangqian Period of Harmony (Chinese: 康乾盛世). In response to his father’s tragedy, Yongzheng created a sophisticated procedure for choosing a successor.

 He was known for his trust in Mandarin officials. Li Wei and Tian Wenjing governed China’s southern areas, with the assistance of Ortai.

“The Yongzheng Emperor Offering Sacrifice at the Xiannong Altar” in Beijing, Qing Dynasty painting




The Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui (1713 – 1760) came from the Manchu Sugiya clan. She was the daughter of Sujinam and was born in the fifty-second year of the Kangxi Emperor’s reign. Lady Sugiya entered the imperial court during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor and became a concubine of the then Prince Hong Li (later the Qianlong Emperor). When in 1735 Prince Hong Li ascended the throne Sugiya was given the title of Concubine Chun. Later Lady Sugiya gave birth to two sons and a daughter. In 1760 Lady Sugiya was given the title of Imperial Noble Consort Chun (meaning purity). However, Lady Sugiya died half a year later in the twenty-fifth year of Qianlong Emperor’s reign. She was given the posthumous title of Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui and was later interred in the Yuling Mausoleum for consorts


Qing dynasty in 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange.

The Yongzheng Emperor ruled the Qing Empire for thirteen years before dying suddenly in 1735 at age 56.

 Legend holds that he was assassinated by Lü Siniang, daughter or granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, whose family was executed for literary crimes against the Manchu Regime.

Another version was that he had been a lover of Lü Siniang; Siniang was the real mother of Qianlong, but Yongzheng refused to allow Siniang to be the queen. It is generally accepted that he died while reading files. It is likely that his death was the result of an overdose of the medication he was consuming which he believed would prolong his life.

Yongzheng Emperor’s family life seems to have tragic undertones. Of the 14 children born to him and his Empress and consorts, only five are known to have survived into adulthood. To prevent the succession tragedy which he had faced, he ordered his third son (Hongshi, an ally of Yinsi) to commit suicide.

He also put in place a system to choose his successor in secret. Yongzheng wrote his chosen successor’s name on two pieces of paper, placed one piece of paper in a sealed box and had the box stored behind the stele in the Qianqing Palace.


He then kept the other copy with him or hid it. With his passing, the ministers would compare the paper in the box and with the copy Yongzheng had. If they were deemed identical, the person whose name was on the paper would be the new emperor.[7]

His son Hongli, Prince Bao, then became the sixth emperor of the Qing dynasty under the era name of Qianlong. The Yongzheng Emperor was interred in the Western Qing Tombs (Chinese: 清西陵), 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Tailing (Chinese: 泰陵) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Elhe Munggan)


Construction of Summer Palace



Qing Took Turkestan in 1759


The White Lotus rebellion from 1796 until 1805

Jiaqing 1796-1820



Yellow River flooded over 17 towns between 1796-1820



Hong Xiuquan (1814-64),

 a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate. Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs.

He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.

Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies

The Chinese

History Collections


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014




The Self-Strengthening Movement

The rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid-century mass uprisings caused Qing courtiers and officials to recognize the need to strengthen China. Chinese scholars and officials had been examining and translating “Western learning” since the 1840s. Under the direction of modern-thinking Han officials, Western science and languages were studied, special schools were opened in the larger cities, and arsenals, factories, and shipyards were established according to Western models. Western diplomatic practices were adopted by the Qing, and students were sent abroad by the government and on individual or community initiative in the hope that national regeneration could be achieved through the application of Western practical methods.

Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908)

Amid these activities came an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline by restoring the traditional order. The effort was known as the Tongzhi Restoration, named for the Tongzhi Emperor (1862-74), and was engineered by the young emperor’s mother, the Empress Dowager Cixi








The effort to graft Western technology onto Chinese institutions became known as the Self-Strengthening Movement.


 The movement was championed by scholar-generals like Li Hongzhang (1823-1901) and Zuo Zongtang (1812-85), who had fought with the government forces in the Taiping Rebellion.


 The restoration, however, which applied “practical knowledge” while reaffirming the old mentality, was not a genuine program of modernization


Daoguang 1821-50



Cixi was born in the winter of 1835. According to the information listed on a red sheet (File No. 1247) within “Miscellaneous Pieces of the Palace” (a Qing dynasty documentation package retrieved from the First Historical Archives of China), Cixi was the daughter of Huizheng, an ordinary official from the Manchu Yehenara clan. Palace archives also show that Huizheng was a member of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Eight Banners, and was working in Beijing during the year of Cixi’s birth, indicating that Cixi was born in Beijing. Also, the file recorded the location of Cixi’s childhood home, which was Firewood Alley of West Sipailou, Beijing (Chinese: 西四牌楼劈柴胡同).


Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000



The Opium War, 1839-42

During the eighteenth century, the market in Europe and America for tea, a new drink in the West, expanded greatly. Additionally, there was a continuing demand for Chinese silk and porcelain. But China, still in its preindustrial stage, wanted little that the West had to offer, causing the Westerners, mostly British, to incur an unfavorable balance of trade. To remedy the situation, the foreigners developed a third-party trade, exchanging their merchandise in India and Southeast Asia for raw materials and semiprocessed goods, which found a ready market in Guangzhou. By the early nineteenth century, raw cotton and opium from India had become the staple British imports into China, in spite of the fact that opium was prohibited entry by imperial decree. The opium traffic was made possible through the connivance of profit-seeking merchants and a corrupt bureaucracy.

In 1839 the Qing government, after a decade of unsuccessful anti-opium campaigns, adopted drastic prohibitory laws against the opium trade. The emperor dispatched a commissioner, Lin Zexu (1785-1850), to Guangzhou to suppress illicit opium traffic. Lin seized illegal stocks of opium owned by Chinese dealers and then detained the entire foreign community and confiscated and destroyed some 20,000 chests of illicit British opium. The British retaliated with a punitive expedition, thus initiating the first Anglo-Chinese war, better known as the Opium War (1839-42). Unprepared for war and grossly underestimating the capabilities of the enemy, the Chinese were disastrously defeated, and their image of their own imperial power was tarnished beyond repair. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), signed on board a British warship by two Manchu imperial commissioners and the British plenipotentiary, was the first of a series of agreements with the Western trading nations later called by the Chinese the “unequal treaties.”

Under the Treaty of Nanjing, China ceded the island of Hong Kong (Xianggang in pinyin) to the British; abolished the licensed monopoly system of trade; opened 5 ports to British residence and foreign trade; limited the tariff on trade to 5 percent ad valorem; granted British nationals extraterritoriality (exemption from Chinese laws); and paid a large indemnity. In addition, Britain was to have most-favored-nation treatment, that is, it would receive whatever trading concessions the Chinese granted other powers then or later. The Treaty of Nanjing set the scope and character of an unequal relationship for the ensuing century of what the Chinese would call “national humiliations.” The treaty was followed by other incursions, wars, and treaties that granted new concessions and added new privileges for the foreigners.



The first step in the foreign powers’ effort to carve up the empire was taken by Russia, which had been expanding into Central Asia. By the 1850s, tsarist troops also had invaded the Heilong Jiang watershed of Manchuria, from which their countrymen had been ejected under the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The Russians used the superior knowledge of China they had acquired through their century-long residence in Beijing to further their aggrandizement.



The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-64

During the mid-nineteenth century, China’s problems were compounded by natural calamities of unprecedented proportions, including droughts, famines, and floods. Government neglect of public works was in part responsible for this and other disasters, and the Qing administration did little to relieve the widespread misery caused by them. Economic tensions, military defeats at Western hands, and anti-Manchu sentiments all combined to produce widespread unrest, especially in the south. South China had been the last area to yield to the Qing conquerors and the first to be exposed to Western influence. It provided a likely setting for the largest uprising in modern Chinese history – the Taiping Rebellion.





The Taiping rebels

 were led by

Hong Xiuquan (1814-64), a village teacher and unsuccessful imperial examination candidate. Hong formulated an eclectic ideology combining the ideals of pre-Confucian utopianism with Protestant beliefs. He soon had a following in the thousands who were heavily anti-Manchu and anti-establishment.

Hong’s followers formed a military organization to protect against bandits and recruited troops not only among believers but also from among other armed peasant groups and secret societies.

 In 1851 Hong Xiuquan and others launched an uprising in Guizhou Province. Hong proclaimed the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping Tianguo, or Taiping for short) with himself as king. The new order was to reconstitute a legendary ancient state in which the peasantry owned and tilled the land in common; slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium smoking, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols were all to be eliminated.

The Taiping tolerance of the esoteric rituals and quasi-religious societies of south China – themselves a threat to Qing stability – and their relentless attacks on Confucianism – still widely accepted as the moral foundation of Chinese behavior – contributed to the ultimate defeat of the rebellion. Its advocacy of radical social reforms alienated the Han Chinese scholar-gentry class. The Taiping army, although it had captured Nanjing and driven as far north as Tianjin, failed to establish stable base areas. The movement’s leaders found themselves in a net of internal feuds, defections, and corruption. Additionally, British and French forces, being more willing to deal with the weak Qing administration than contend with the uncertainties of a Taiping regime, came to the assistance of the imperial army. Before the Chinese army succeeded in crushing the revolt, however, 14 years had passed, and well over 30 million people were reported killed.

To defeat the rebellion, the Qing court needed, besides Western help, an army stronger and more popular than the demoralized imperial forces. In 1860, scholar-official Zeng Guofan (1811-72), from Hunan Province, was appointed imperial commissioner and governor-general of the Taiping-controlled territories and placed in command of the war against the rebels. Zeng’s Hunan army, created and paid for by local taxes, became a powerful new fighting force under the command of eminent scholar-generals. Zeng’s success gave new power to an emerging Han Chinese elite and eroded Qing authority. Simultaneous uprisings in north China (the Nian Rebellion) and southwest China (the Muslim Rebellion) further demonstrated Qing weakness



In 1851, Cixi participated in the selection for consorts to the new Xianfeng Emperor alongside sixty other candidates. Cixi was one of the few candidates chosen to stay. She was placed in the 6th rank of consorts, and styled “Noble Lady Lan” (Chinese: 贵人). Among the other chosen candidates were Noble Lady Li of Tatala clan (later Consort Li), Concubine Yun of Wugiya clan, and Concubine Zhen of Niuhuru clan (later Xianfeng’s empress consort).



In 1854, Cixi was elevated to the 5th rank of consorts and given a title, styled “Imperial Concubine Yi” (Chinese: ). In 1855, Cixi became pregnant.

Xianfeng 1851-61



On 27 April 1856, she gave birth to Zaichun, the Xianfeng Emperor’s only surviving son. Soon afterward, she was elevated to the 4th rank of consorts, styled “Consort Yi” (Chinese: 懿妃).[2] In 1857, when her son reached his first birthday, Cixi was elevated to the 3rd rank consorts, and styled “Noble Consort Yi” (Chinese: 贵妃). This rank placed her second only to the Empresswithin Xianfeng’s harem.

Unlike many other women in the imperial harem, Cixi was known for her ability to read and write Chinese. This granted her ample opportunities to help the ailing emperor in daily state governing. On various occasions, the Xianfeng Emperor had Cixi read palace memorials for him, and leave instructions on the memorials according to his will. As a result, Cixi became well-informed about state affairs, and learned the art of state governing from the ailing emperor.[3]


(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for

the Xianfeng Emperor

 in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.



In 1860

 Russian diplomats secured the secession of all of Manchuria north of the Heilong Jiang and east of the Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River). Foreign encroachments increased after 1860 by means of a series of treaties imposed on China on one pretext or another. The foreign stranglehold on the vital sectors of the Chinese economy was reinforced through a lengthening list of concessions. Foreign settlements in the treaty ports became extraterritorial – sovereign pockets of territories over which China had no jurisdiction. The safety of these foreign settlements was ensured by the menacing presence of warships and gunboats.





In September 1860, British and French troops attacked Peking (Beijing) during the closing stages of the Second Opium War,


Second Opium War 1856-1880



and by the following month had burned the Emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace to the ground. The attack, under the command of Lord Elgin, was mounted in retaliation for the arrest on 18 September of British diplomatic envoy Harry Parkes and the torture and execution of a number of western hostages. The Xianfeng Emperor and his entourage, including Cixi, fled Beijing for the safety of Rehe in Manchuria.[4] On hearing the news of the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, the Xianfeng Emperor (who was already showing signs of dementia) fell into a depression, turned heavily to alcohol and drugs, and became seriously ill.[5]








 From 1861 to 1894, leaders such as these, now turned scholar-administrators, were responsible for establishing modern institutions, developing basic industries, communications, and transportation, and modernizing the military. But despite its leaders’ accomplishments, the Self-Strengthening Movement did not recognize the significance of the political institutions and social theories that had fostered Western advances and innovations. This weakness led to the movement’s failure. Modernization during this period would have been difficult under the best of circumstances. The bureaucracy was still deeply influenced by Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. Chinese society was still reeling from the ravages of the Taiping and other rebellions, and foreign encroachments continued to threaten the integrity of China. Also natural disasters worked against the reforms.






On 22 August 1861 the Xianfeng Emperor died at Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei). Before his death, he summoned eight of his most prestigious ministers, headed by Sushun, Zaiyuan, and Duanhua, and named them the “Eight Regent Ministers” to direct and support the future Emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future Empress Dowager Cixi), was only five years old. It is commonly assumed that on his deathbed, the Xianfeng Emperor summoned his Empress and Noble Consort Yi, and gave each of them a stamp. He hoped that when his son ascended the throne, his Empress and Noble Consort Yi would cooperate in harmony and, together, help the young emperor to grow and mature also meant as a check on the power of the eight regents however there is no evidence for this and it is unlikely he would ever have intended for the women to have any political power. It is possible that the seal allegedly given as a symbol for the child was really a present for noble consort yi (Cixi ) herself as informal seals numbered in the thousands and weren’t political items but objects of art commissioned for pleasure by emperors to stamp on things like paintings or given as presents to the concubines.[6] Upon the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, his Empress Consort, aged 25, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Ci’an(popularly known as the East Empress Dowager because she lived in the Eastern Zhong-Cui Palace), and Noble Consort Yi, aged 27, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Cixi (popularly known as the West Empress Dowager because she lived inside the Western Chuxiu Palace).

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor’s death,

Empress Dowager Cixi had become a shrewd strategist. In Jehol, while waiting for an astrologically favorable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, Cixi conspired with powerful court officials and imperial relatives to seize power.

 Cixi’s position as the lower-ranked Empress Dowager had no political power attached. In addition, her son the young emperor was not a political force himself.

As a result, it became necessary for her to ally herself with other powerful figures. the late emperor’s principal wife, the Empress Dowager Ci’an, Cixi suggested that they become co-reigning Empress Dowagers, with powers exceeding the Eight Regent Ministers, the two had long been close friends since Cixi first came to the harem .[7]

Tensions grew among the Eight Regent Ministers, headed by Sushun, and the two Empresses Dowager.

The ministers did not appreciate Cixi’s interference in political affairs, and the frequent confrontations left the Empress Dowager Ci’an frustrated.

 Ci’an often refused to come to court audiences, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi to deal with the ministers alone.

Secretly, Empress Dowager Cixi began gathering the support of talented ministers, soldiers, and others who were ostracized by the Eight Regent Ministers for personal or political reasons.

Among them was Prince Gong, who had great ambitions and was at that time excluded from the power circle, and the Prince Chun, the sixth and seventh sons of the Daoguang Emperor, respectively. While she aligned herself with these Princes, a memorial came fromShandong asking for Cixi to “listen to politics behind the curtains”, i.e., asking Cixi to become the ruler. The same petition also asked Prince Gong to enter the political arena as a principal “aide to the Emperor.”

When the Emperor’s funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her alliances with Princes Gong and Chun.

She and the boy Emperor returned to the capital before the rest of the party, along with Zaiyuan and Duanhua, two of the principal regents, while Sushun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession. Cixi’s early return to Beijing meant that she had more time to plan with Prince Gong, and ensure that the power base of the Eight Regent Ministers was divided between Sushun and his allies, Zaiyuan and Duanhua.

History was re-written and the Regents were dismissed for having carried out incompetent negotiations with the “barbarians” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Jehol “greatly against his will,” among other charges.[7]

To display her high moral standards, Cixi executed only three of the eight regent ministers.

Prince Gong had suggested that Sushun and others be executed by the most painful method, known as slow slicing, but Dowager Cixi declined the suggestion and ordered that Sushun be beheaded, while the other two also marked for execution, Zaiyuan and Duanhua, were given white silks to allow them to commit suicide.

 In addition, Cixi refused outright the idea of executing the family members of the ministers, as would be done in accordance with Imperial tradition of an alleged usurper. Ironically, Qing Imperial tradition also dictated that women and princes were never to engage in politics. In breaking with tradition, Cixi became the only Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from “behind the curtains” (垂簾聽政).

This palace coup is known as the “Xinyou Palace Coup” (Chinese: 辛酉政變) in China after the name of the year 1861 in the Sexagenary cycle.


The Empress  Dowager Cixi


Cette peinture a été peinte par Hubert Vos, le peintre hollandais américain, dont la peinture a été présentée à l’Impératrice Cixi au ses soixante et unième anniversaire.Il est maintenant au Palais d’été (Yiheyuan) à Beijing à la Salle des Nuages ​​Dissiper, (PaiyunDian).

La dame représenté ici est connu sous plusieurs noms, parmi lesquels les trois noms les plus connus sont les suivants:

Elle est plus communément connu par son titre, la
«Impératrice douairière.” Ceci est un titre anglais donné à elle par la presse européenne et américaine il ya 100 ans.

Son nom chinois peut être rendu, ou traduit de deux manières différentes.La nouvelle façon de rendre son nom (par pinyin) est “Cixi”.

.” Le logo en haut de la page contient quatre mots chinois, qui signifie littéralement «Ci Xi impératrice douairière.”

Empress Dowager Sheshe1 


(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.


With Xianfeng’s death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci’an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days’ Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest for supporting reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion and the invasion of Allied armies, external and internal pressures led Cixi to effect institutional changes of just the sort she had resisted and to appoint reform-minded officials. The dynasty collapsed in late 1911, three years after her death, and the Republican Era was inaugurated 1 January 1912.

Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.[1]

In November 1861,

 a few days following the coup, Cixi was quick to reward Yixin,

the Prince Gong, for his help.

 He was made head of the General Affairs Office and the Internal Affairs Office, and his daughter was made a Gurun Princess, a title usually bestowed only on the Empress’s first-born daughter.

Yixin’s allowance also increased twofold. However, Cixi avoided giving Yixin the absolute political power that princes such as Dorgon exercised during the Shunzhi Emperor‘s reign. As one of the first acts from behind the curtains, Cixi (nominally along with Ci’an) issued two important Imperial Edicts on behalf of the Emperor.

The first stated that the two Empresses Dowager were to be the sole decision makers “without interference,” and the second changed the boy Emperor’s era name from Qixiang (祺祥; “Auspicious”) to Tongzhi (同治; “collective stable”).

However, despite being the sole decision makers, both Ci’an and Cixi were forced to rely on the Grand Council and a complex series of procedures in order to deal with affairs of state. When state documents came in, they were to be first forwarded to the dowager empresses, and then referred back to the prince adviser and the Grand Council. Having discussed the matters, the prince and his colleagues would seek the instruction of the dowager empresses at audiences and imperial orders would be drawn up accordingly, with drafts having to be approved by the dowagers before edicts were issued.[8]

It also seems that their most important role during the regency was merely to apply their seals to edicts, a merely mechanical role in a complex bureaucracy.[9]





Cixi’s entrance as the absolute power figure in China came at a time of internal chaos and foreign challenges. The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, as the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through China’s south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit. Internally, both the national bureaucracy and regional authorities were infested with corruption. 1861 happened to be the year of official examinations, whereby officials of all levels presented their political reports from the previous three years. Cixi decided that the time was ripe for a bureaucratic overhaul, where she personally sought audience with all officials above the level of provincial governor, who had to report to her personally. Cixi took on part of the role usually given to the Bureaucratic Affairs Department (吏部). Cixi also executed two prominent officials to serve as examples as a more immediate solution: Qingying, a militaryshilang who had tried to bribe his way out of demotion, and He Guiqing, then Viceroy of Liangjiang, who fled Changzhou in the wake of an incoming Taiping army as opposed to trying to defend the city.

Another significant challenge Cixi faced was the increasingly decrepit state of the country’s Manchu elite. Since the beginning of the dynasty most major positions at court had been held by Manchus, and Emperors had generally shown contempt for powerful Han Chinese. Cixi, again in a reversal of Imperial tradition, entrusted the country’s most powerful military unit against the Taiping army into the hands of a Han Chinese, Zeng Guofan. Additionally, in the next three years, Cixi appointed Han Chinese officials to become governors of all southern Chinese provinces, raising alarm bells in an administration traditionally fond of Manchu dominance


Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.