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ABAD KE 15

 

Indonesia Black Smith scene on carving stone 15th Century

JAVA  15th CENTURY MAP

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

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Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

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PERHIMPUNAN

KISI

(KOLEKSTOR INFORMASI SEJARAH INDONESIA)

TAHUN 2013-2020

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Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

1400:

Baddit Dipattung, King Berau I

with the central government in Lati River, Powder Mountain, Berau

1400

However, once you know that

 

Parameswara, a Hindu prince  fled to Temasek (Singapore’s)

 

Parameswara killed by the Temasik King, Tamagi,

then, it is highly unlikely that the Malaccan Javanese and Bugis migrants would carry

 the body of Parameswara all the way back to Singapore for burial.

 The ruling Siam’s would have never allowed this to happen.

Some land were acquired by marriage and some kingdom begged to be vassal state protection against bigger enemies.Some were prized rom successful war with the two existing power Siam and Majapahit .

About 1400 ,the Hindu ruler Parameswara of the then magnifisant island Singapore knon in history as Tamasek ran away with handful followers after constant attact on Singapore by raiders from Majapahit From Seletar Ruver Parameswara run to Muar and later futher north and founded the Kingdom of Malacca about 1402 AD.He became a Muslim when merried a Princess  Of Pasai kingdom and Took  the Persian title “Shah” ,calling himself Uskandar Shah.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Tembikar
Nama : CELENGAN BABI MAJAPAHIT
Era : Abad Ke-15, Kerajaan Majapahit
Material : Tembikar
Asal : Jawa Timur

A Terracotta Piggy Bank
JAVA, CIRCA 15TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Terracotta Piggy Bank
Java, circa 15th Century
Solidly standing on his four legs, with a rounded body and full belly, with long protruding snout, bulging eyes, bushy eyebrows, decorative patterns on his forehead and cheeks, a thick cord encircling his neck
13¾ in. (34.9 cm.) high

 

1405

Dalam babd ming diceritakan bahwa  Raja Manajakana mulai engadakan hubungan dengan tiongkok pada tahun ketiga Kaisar ming Yung Lo  (1405 masehi) . Waktu itu beliau baru berusia 25 tahun . Pada tgl 14 Bulan sbelas tahun itu,Menteri Sanalyapocen dan rombongan nya yang dikirim oleh Raja Manajakana telah tiba di Tiongkok.

(SK Warga bandung 1958)

1408

Kemudian tgl 20 bulan delapan  tahun ke enam Yung Lo , Raja Manajakana  beserta ratu dengan satu rombongan yang terdiri dari 150 orang lebih diantaranya termasuk putera Raj,adik laki-laki,adik perempuan ,family beserta menteri-menterinya telah tiba di nanking yaitu ibukota Kerajaan Tiongkok.Kedatangan Raja Manajakana dan rombongan disambut yang sangat meriah  dari Kaisar  Ming Ceng cu . Rombongan ini sebelumnya mendarat di Pelabuhan FuChow(Cu-Cao),propinsi fukian ,disambut dengan segala kebesaran atas perintah Kaisar Ming oleh utusan kaisar sendiri.

Setiba di nanking mereka ditempatkan dib alai tamu “ Iui Tung” dengan diadakan pesta dan saling member tanda mata. Oleh Kaisar Ming diberikan berbagai macam tanda mata, termasuk jubah bersulam naga,Tali pinggang Mas dengan bertatahkan Jade,pakaian kerajaan dll

Setelah berada satu bulan di nanking ,yaitu bulan sepuluh.Raja Manajakana jatuh gering.kaisar Ming bersusah hati,tabib-tabib yang cakap dikerahkan untuk merawat siang dan malam disamping raja.

Pada suatu hari kelihatan penyakit Raja Manajakana agak sembuh sedikit,beliau berpesan kepada ratunya :”Apabila aku meninggal ,jenazahku makamkanlah di tiongkok”

Setelah Raja Manajakana mangkat,jenazah dimakamkan dengan upacara kebesaran dan kaisar Ming berkabung dengan tdak bekerja selama tiga hari dan diperintahkannya setiap tahun diadakan sembahyang dua kali. Makam Raja Manajakana pun dirawat sepanjang tahun oleh tiga keluarga yang khusus ditunnjuk oleh kaisar.

Makam Raja Indonesia itu ditemukan dipinggir kota nanking Barat, sebelah barat daya di bukit Batu kleikir(Se Tje Kang) kira-kira 5 km dari pintu gerbang Tjung hon dekat jalan kereta api dari nanking menuju wuhu.Lebar makam 100 meter lebih,menuju kemakam ada sebuah jalan dan didekat pemakaman didapat patung disebelah menyebelah jalan,5 buah bnayaknya patung perwira,patung harimau,patung kambing,patung pegawai sipil dan patung kuda.

Dimuka makam Raja Manajakana didapat batu perinagtan yang berisi pahatan tulisan aksara kandil,kira-kira 100 banyaknya. Sebagian tanda kandil itu telah kabur karena terlalu lama.

Raja manakjakana menurut pelaporan dari Beijing pastilah sama dengan nama Maraja Kala menurut catatan Groenvelt  Kandil  na acapkali  dibunyikan  dengan bunyi ra atau da  dalam bahasa asing.

Menurut pendapat professor  Yamin maka  Manajakana menurut pelaporan Beijing  ialah sama dengan Maraja kala  meurut bacaan Groenvelt didugannya namanya yang lengkap berbunyi Maharaja Kala.

Nama-nama keluarga raja  belumlah didpat bunyinya dalam bahasa Indonesia sebagai slinan dari aksara Kanji yang telah diketahui.

Penting sekali tetang nama tanah yang dkuasai Maharaja Kala,tanah itu berbunyi Beni tau Pu ni,kata itu berasla dari kata Wuni(jawa) muni atau buni atau bonai (minangkabau) yaitu nama smacam pohon ,kata Berunai berasal dari B9er)unai yaitu sama dengan Pu-ni .Yang dimaksud dengan Pu-ni ialah Kalimantan Barat jadi benarlah raja Indonesia dari Kalimantan yang dikuburkan di nanking.

(SK Warga bandung 1958)

 

1409

Record’s Admiral Cheng ho visit Malacca in 1409, indicate that Parameswara was then still ruler of Malacca and there are references that the ruler and the people of Malacca as being already Muslim.

Also having said that, just like the grave of Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kesturi, Hang Lekir, and Hang Lekiu, there was never any names written on their grave (unlike the Acehnese Gravestones).

All that was there, was a large stone. So, perhaps it was “Officially designated” as a tourist site, and a subtle claim of “Validation”, which turned these unknown graves into the graves of warriors.

 

 

Just as the Tourism Malaysia Signage states (at the grave of Hang Tuah) “… This was a large stone, marking a grave, and hence, it must have been an important person. As such, it could have been no other than that of Hang Tuah”.

You see, this is open admission that no one really even knows whose grave this is.

 Also, by admission, “All we found was a large stone”.

Yet, today, this Alleged Hang Tuah Grave is styled like the Touristy “Hang Graves” found in town near Jonker Street. I also find it extremely ironic that Hang Tuah’s grave is situated in Kampong Keling.

 It is only dutiful of me to note now, that it becomes even more ironic that one can find alleged Soldier and Warrior Graves, but not one single Sultan. Yes. Not one single Sultan’s Grave has ever been found

 

During the 14th Century,

at the height of the Majapahit Empire,

 

they controlled the sea lanes throughout the Indonesian archipelago as well as to faraway India and China.

Despite this, our knowledge of the two great empires of the 13th and 14th centuries, Singasari and Majapahit, would be very sparse were it not for two Old Javanese texts dating from the 14th Century.

The Alienation (1501 – 1600)

Timeline (of Mayhem)

(1501 – 1600)

1509 –

Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

1511 –

April:

Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka. August: Albuquerque’s forces take Melaka. Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau. Portuguese in Melaka destroy a “Javanese” fleet. Portuguese ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa. December: Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.

1512 –

Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka. Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore – his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.

 

1513 –

A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka,

but is repulsed. March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta). Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

1513

The first Europe

 

Europe is, by convention, one of the world’s seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally ‘divided’ from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting…

an fleet, four Portuguese

Portugal

 

Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic , is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east…

ships from Malacca

 

Malacca

Malacca is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south…

, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper

 

Black pepper

 

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed…

. The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement

 

1515 –

First Portuguese visit Timor.

1520 –

Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

1521

Kingdom Pajajaran

Surawisesa (1521 – 1535)

Ratu Dewata (1535 – 1543)

Ratu Sakti (1543 – 1551)

Raga Mulya (1567 – 1579)


Berakhirnya jaman Pajajaran (1482 – 1579), ditandai dengan diboyongnya PALANGKA SRIMAN SRIWACANA (Tempat duduk tempat penobatan tahta) dari Pakuan ke Surasowan di Banten oleh pasukan Maulana Yusuf. Batu berukuran 200 x 160 x 20 cm itu terpaksa di boyong ke Banten karena tradisi politik waktu itu “mengharuskan” demikian.

Pertama, dengan dirampasnya Palangka tersebut, di Pakuan tidak mungkin lagi dinobatkan raja baru.

Kedua, dengan memiliki Palangka itu, Maulana Yusuf merupakan penerus kekuasaan Pajajaran yang “sah” karena buyut perempuannya adalah puteri Sri Baduga Maharaja.

Palangka Sriman Sriwacana sendiri saat ini bisa ditemukan di depan bekas Keraton Surasowan di Banten. Karena mengkilap, orang Banten menyebutnya WATU GIGILANG. Kata Gigilang berarti mengkilap atau berseri, sama artinya dengan kata Sriman.

Woww…this is really astounding, Majapahitans!But of course, it would really help if there was a candi or prasasti that could verify this chronice, rather than mere story:(

I feel bad that the sundanesse could’t feel the same way the javanesse feel when they see borobudur or prmbanan or ratu boko

Well, I guess I was trying to say that in ancient wars, there is always a story about a princess or queen who refused to succumb to the seduction of rival king and kills herself in order to keep the lineage of her family or people pure… Its like a very important thing to the men that the noble woman is not defiled, better dead than breeding a new line of offsprings for the rival kingdom. Also, kingdom alliances were always sealed with a royal marriage whereby the princess begats offsprings that share the blood of the rival rulers. Women, however beautiful and noble, were commodities in the times of peace building and war. Nowadays, such a role for women is no longer significant. The international entities have replaced the structure for negotiating peace agreements. Where are we gonna make our beautiful myths for future generations?

Anyways, your history thread has caused me to re-read VS Naipaul’s books on his travels thru Indonesia in 1979. He mentioned that Islam when it first arrived through India to Indonesia was indeed Sufist philosophy as it adapted very well to the mysterious Hindu-Buddhist animist traditions found in the lands. I quote a few passages from his book ‘Among the Believers’ Indonesia, chapter 3. It may come as a stinging read to some, but I would like to hear from someone like you who although is a Muslim, is yet far removed from the new Islamicization purification drive, and instead is possessed of your Javanese civilization completely…

“In Java, in the Hindu-Buddhist days, a pesantren was a monastery, supported by the community in return for theh spiritual guuidance and the spiritual protection it provided. It was easy for the Sufi Muslims, when the philosophical systems of the old civilization cracked, to take over such places; and it was easy for such places to continue to be counselling centers for village people. It was open to a man to go at any time to the leader or kiyai of a pesantren and ask for persona ladvice or religious instruction. It was not necessary to be enrolled in any formal course; in this way pesantren instruction could be said to be ‘unstructured’.

In the Dutch time, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the villages began to chane. Some people became rich, and they wanted to educate their children. It was these people, the newly well-to-do of the villages, who began to turn the pesantren from sufi centers into schools for children. And Islam itself was changing in Java. The sufi side, the mystical side that was closer to the older religions, was becoming less important. The opening of the Suez Canal and the coming of the steamship made Java – until then at the eastern limit of Islam – less remote. In the days of sail it took months to get to Mecca; now the journey could be done in three to four weeks. More people went to Mecca. More people became acquainted with the purer faith: the Prophet, the messener of God, and his strict injunctions.

In the last decade of the nineteeth century the pesantrens began to be turned into schools. The Jombang pesantren school which we had visited, had been established in 1896. But they remained religious places. They remained places where the villagers supported and to which they could go for advice. Every thirty-five days the leaders of the pesantrens in an area met to discuss whatever issues had arisen….. [cut]. Why did the leaders meet every thirty five days? That was a relic of Hindu-Buddhist times. The week then had five days, and the leaders of the monasteries met every seven weeks.

[cut]

Here and there in the yard, in the very dim light, boys were pretending to study. It was pretense because the light was so dim. The boys were looking : a book on islamic law, an Arabic Grammar, the Story of Islam, How to Pray. The last book had eight stage-by-stage drawings of the postures of Islamic prayer; and it perhaps wasn’t really necessary. since the boys prayed five times a day. It was late in the evening; and the pesantren day began early.

The sufi center turned school: the discipline of the monks and dervishes applied to the young: it wasn’t traditional, and it wasn’t education. It was a breaking away from the Indonesian past; it was Islamization; it was stupefaction, greater than any that could have come with a western style curriculum. And yet it was attractive to the people concerned because, twisted up with it, was the old monkish celebration of the idea of poverty: an idea which, applied to a schhool in Java in 1979, came out as little more than the poor teaching the poor to be poor.”

 

 

1522 –

February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda. May De Brito expedition arrive at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort. Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak. Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

In 1522,

the Portuguese signed with Pajajaran a treaty.

The relationship between the Kingdom

Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which the head of state reigns by some kind of perceived divine sanction. It is usually hereditary and there is usually only one monarch, though there are significant exceptions to these. The monarch often bears the title king or queen…

of Sunda and Portugal intensified when another Portuguese named Enrique Leme visited Sunda in 1522 with the intention of giving a present. He was well-received and as a result, the Portuguese gained rights to build a warehouse and expand their fort in Sunda Kelapa (the name of the location at the time). The Sundanese regarded this as a consolidation of their position against the raging Muslim

 

 

1520:

Magalhaens visiting Borneo. [10] Prince of Indian descent founded the Empire State Daha Sultanate Banjarmasin Banjar and became the first king who holds the Sultan. [11]

 

1522

1522

Relationship Sunda Kingdom with the European

Sunda kingdom had long established trade relations with European nations such as British, French and Portuguese.

Kingdom of Sunda even had a political relationship with the Portuguese.

In the year 1522,

the Kingdom of Sunda sign Sunda-Portuguese Treaty

that allowed the Portuguese built forts and warehouses in the port of Sunda Kelapa. In return, the Portuguese are required to give military aid to the Kingdom of Sunda in the face of attacks from Demak and Cirebon (which broke away from the Kingdom of Sunda).

 

 

Luso Sundanese padrão

The Luso Sundanese padrão is a stone pillar commemorating the Sunda–Portuguese treaty, better known as the Luso-Sundanese Treaty of Sunda Kalapa.-History:…

with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak

Sultanate of Demak

 

The Sultanate of Demak was Javanese Muslim state located on Java’s north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak.

A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Arab and…

1526

The Portuguese, however, pursued him, destroying his new capital in 1526 and driving him to seek refuge in Kampar in Sumatra.

 

1524:

Abdul Kahar VI became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1530.

 

 

1526:

On September 24 Suriansyah,

I embraced Islam Sultan Banjar is celebrated as the Day Banjarmasin City. The newly established Kingdom of escape from the Empire State for the support of the Sultanate of Demak Daha. [11]

 

1526 –

Portuguese build first fort on Timor.

 

1527 – Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.

1529 – The Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

1527

According Jiyu and Petak inscription,

Ranawijaya

claimed that he already defeat Kertabhumi [21] and move capital to Daha.

This event lead the war between

Sultanate of Demak and Daha,

since Demak ruler was the descendants of Kertabhumi.

The battle was won by Demak in 1527.[22]

A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali.

The refugees probably flee to avoid Demak retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi.

With the fall of Daha crushed by Demak in 1527,

1530 –

Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

1530:

The relationship of friendship and Brunei Portuguese [12]

1530

Sultan Melaka’s  son eventually re-established

a kingdom in Johor

in about 1530.


 1533:

Saiful Rizal

became the Sultan of Brunei VII until the year 1581.
 1535

QueNe  Dewata Of Pajajaran kingdom

(1535 – 1543)

1536 –

Major Portuguese attack on Johore. Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon. Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.

1537 –

Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.

1538:

Kingdom of Tanjungpura led by Panembahan Kelang (1538-1550)

 

1540

– Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

1543

Queen  Sakti  Of Pajajaran(1543 – 1551)

 

1546 –

St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

1545:

Aji King of Crown Majesty Nature Kukar VI

became King until the year 1610, the first ruler who embraced Islam Kutai.

 

1546:

King Demak III Sultan Trenggana (Ka Tung lo)

attacked the eastern island of Java. [13]

Effect of dominion to Borneo. He received tributes from Sutan Banjarmasin.

 

 

 

1547 –

Aceh attacks Melaka.

1550 –

Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.

1550:

Sultan Rahmatullah

became Banjar II until the year 1570.

After the collapse of Demak, New York no longer send a tribute to the government in Java

1551 –

Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara. Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.

1552 –

Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.

1557:

Degree Rasyd Amiril Datoe Radja Laoet Tidung

ruled the kingdom until the year 1571 located in the Tarakan Pamusian East region.

 

1558 –

Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu. Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

1559 –

Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

1560 –

Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java. Spanish establish a presence at Manado.

1561 –

Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.

1564 –

Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.

1566 –

Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.

1567

Aji Mas Indra

became the ruler Paser regent until 1607.

 

King Raga Mulya Of Pajajaran

(1567 – 1579)

1568 –

Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.

1569 –

Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.

1570 –

Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails.

Sultan Khairun of Ternate

signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese,

but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. They had thrown Sultan Khairun in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress. Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.

1570:

Sultan Banjar Hidayatullah I to III to the year 1595.

In his administration, Mataram attack Banjarmasin and charming Crown Prince Ratu Bagus in Tuban.

1570

The Great  Mataram Kingdom

The realm had been founded sometime in the 1570s by a young Javanese noble called

 

Senopati,

 

Great King: Sultan Agung

but it was his grandson, Sultan Agung, who raised it to glory.

In the first half of the 17th century Agung pushed the boundaries of the state to the very fringes of the Javanese universe, coming up short only against Banten, Dutch Batavia and Hindu Blambangan.

He built his capital at Karta on the power-charged axis between Merapi and the sea, and formalised the Javanese-Muslim duality that is the watchword of the island’s courts even today.

 

1571:

Amiril Pengiran Tidung Dipati I

served the King until the year 1613.
 1581:

Shah became Sultan of Brunei Brunei VIII until the year 1582.

 

1574 –

Jepara led another unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

1575 –

Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate.

The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

1576 –

Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.

1579 –

November:

Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.

1579

BANDUNG

 

This article is actually from “A Sobana Hardjasaputra”, but bludgeons his fault that the share again, good for improving the earth we love this parahyangan. most young people today have forgotten the history of Bandung that used in the proud. so I share again here. cekidot …

 

Regarding the origin of the name “Bandung”, put forward various opinions. Some say that the word “Bandung” in Sundanese, synonymous with the word “appeal” in Indonesian, means side by side.

Ngabanding (Sunda) means contiguous or adjacent.

This is among others expressed in Indonesian dictionary published by Balai Besar Reader (1994) and Sundanese-Indonesian dictionary published by Pustaka Setia (1996), that word means in pairs and mean bandung also side by side.

 

Bandung Lake in old map

Another opinion says that the word

“bandung” means big or large.

The word comes from the word milk. In Sundanese,

ngabandeng means vast pool of water

and looked Timbanganten with Tegalluar capital. The kingdom is under the domination of the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran.

 

Since the mid-15th century,

the Kingdom Timbanganten hereditarily ruled by

King Pandaan Measure,

Dipati the Great, and Dipati Ukur.

In the reign of Dipati Ukur, Tatar Ukur is an area which is quite extensive, covering most areas of West Java, consists of nine regional called “Measure Sasanga”.

After the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran collapse (1579/1580)

due to Forces movement of offerings in an effort to spread Islam in West Java,

 

Tatar Ukur become the Kingdom’s territory Sumedanglarang,

successors Pajajaran Kingdom. Sumedanglarang Kingdom was founded and ruled

 

the first time by King Geusan Ulun on

(1580-1608)

, with its capital in Kutamaya, a place which is located west of Sumedang now. The kingdom’s territory covers an area then called Priangan, except Galuh area (now called Ciamis).

1580 –

Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten.

Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded. Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England. Ternate takes control of Butung.

1582:

Muhammad Hasan

became the Sultan of Brunei IX until year 1598

1584

MUSLIM DI CELEBES

Muslim di Celebes paranh terhapus di masa Pemerintahan Laicai’ matinroE Ri Adddenenna, Arung Mankau’ Bone/Benua Atlantis tahun1584-1595.

SOURCE

Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi

 

 

1585 –

Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England. Portuguese ship sent to build a fort and mission on Bali is wrecked just offshore.

1587 –

Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore. Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh. Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.

 

1591 –

Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure. Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.

1593 –

Ternate lays siege on the Portuguese in Ambon again.

1512

In 1512,

at the arrival of the Portuguese  two main kingdoms controlled  the Moluccas: they were

the sultanat of Ternate and the reign of Tidore,

the first one controlled beyond the island of Ternate also half of the island of Moti, the northern side of the island of Halmahera called by the Portuguese Moro, the island of Ambon, the east part of Ceram and the northeast area of Sulawesi.

The reign of Tidore,

controlled beyond the island of Tidore the other half of the island of Moti, the island of Makian, the great part of the island of Halmahera and the western side of New Guinea. The control on these islands was exercised directly or through vassallage.

Two others smaller reigns also existed: that of

Bacan and that of Jailolo.

The reign of Bacan,

whose main village was on the island of Kasiruta, extended its infuence on the archipelago of Bacan and on the northern side of Ceram; the reign of Bacan was a great producer of sago, basic food of the populations of the islands, but  it was scarcely populated;

 

 

the reign of Jailolo

instead had been in the past the more important of the region but in 1500s. it was in decline and it controlled only the  north-western side of Halmahera, this reign will be practically

annexed by Ternate and the Portuguese in 1551.

The sultan of Ternate succeeded to make alliance with the Portuguese and in 1522 asked and obtained the construction of a Portuguese fortress in its island. The first stone of the fortress was placed for the festivity of Saint John he Baptiste, on 24 June 1522, and for this the fort was called “Săo Joăo Baptista de Ternate”. The alliance with the Portuguese put out of balance more in favor of Ternate the power relationships with Tidore, on the contrary the king of Tidore at the arrival of the ships of the Magellan expedition ready demanded the help of the Spaniards.

 

 

 

, between these two expedition the Spaniards sent other fleets, those of Loaisa (1527)

and Saavedra (1528)

beyond to the unlucky expedition of Grijalva (1538).

 

As  is well known,  starting from the Magellan expedition,

the Spaniards tried more and more times to get the controll of the spice islands to the prejudice of the Portuguese, with which they often had severe divergences.

The Spaniards, established alliances with the sultans of Tidore and Jailolo and Spanish troops were present in the islands during the years 1527-1534 and 1544-1545.

 

The lack of discover of the return route through the Pacific prevented they of being able to compete with the Portuguese naval power.

In 1529,

in order to define the contentious, an agreement between Spain and Portugal, the treaty of Saragozza, was reached, with this treaty the king of Spain at least nominally abandoned every pretension on the islands in exchange for a sum of money. The first  period of interest of the Spaniards in the Moluccas, was characterized by the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with

 

 

the arrival of the Magellan expedition in 1521 and ended in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of the army of Villalobos

, between these two expedition the Spaniards sent other fleets, those of Loaisa (1527) and Saavedra (1528) beyond to the unlucky expedition of Grijalva (1538).

The expedition of Villalobos was prepared after the treaty of Saragozza and for this reason it was direct to not better specified islands of the spices not still occupied by  Portugal. The center of all this activity of the Spaniards remained for the whole period the island of Tidore.

This first period of interest for the Spaniards in the Moluccas, that regards the years 1521-1606,

can be subdivided in two distinct parts:

the first part

was that one, to which we have already pointed out, of the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with

the arrival of the shipment of Magellano in 1521 and finished in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of Villalobos.

1595

– April 2: Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies. Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

1596 – June 5: De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra. June 23: De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some bad behaviour by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships. The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behaviour leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura. A prince of Madura is killed, several Dutch sailors are arrested and taken prisoner, De Houtman has to ransom them for release. Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

1597 – Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave. A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat. Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

1598 – 22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman’s second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

1599 – Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate. June: De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh. Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.

1600 – Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam. Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara. September: Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon. December 31: Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.

 

The scents of Eden had caught the attention of the colonialists, which also attracted them to the Ternate and Tidore and three smaller islands adjacent to the sprawling island of Halmahera in the Northern Moluccas.

 

Maluku – Leaders of Banda met with Dutch traders in 1599

Spices were prized for their flavour and some were also believed to cure everything from the plague to venereal disease, which made spices literally worth their weight in gold.

The second part

of this first period, was instead that of the union between the crowns of Spain and Portugal, during this time

the Spanish expeditions departed from Manila in the Philippines and were organized with the aim to help the Portuguese troops against the Ternateans enemies,

that were rebelled to the Portuguese and that  had expelled them from the island of Ternate. The main objective of these expeditions was the “reconquista” of the Portuguese fortress of Ternate. None of the six successive Spanish attempt  reached the prefixed objective.

These attempts began in 1582 with the expedition of Francisco Dueńas,

this first expedition had  merely informative character to know more on the military situation of the islands, Francisco Dueńas remained in the Moluccas for approximately two months between March and April 1582. The successive expedition was that   commanded by D. Juan Ronquillo it was done between 1582 and 1583, the Spaniards collaborated with the Portuguese helping them in some punitive expeditions.

In 1584

it was the time of Pedro Sarmiento and then in 1585 of Juan de Morón also these two expeditions did not have the hoped result, this time the fortress of Ternate was attacked, but without result. A larger and better assembled army left Manila direct to the Moluccas in 1593 under the command of the governor of the Philippines Gómez Pérez Dasmarińas, but a rebellion and the murder of the same governor before reaching the Moluccas carried to the cancellation of all the operation.

 

The last Spanish expedition

of this period was that sent from Manila in aid of the fleet of Portuguese admiral André Furtado de Mendonça, the Spanish succour was commanded by Juan Juárez Gallinato, and

left  Manila to the end of 1602,

a combined Spanish-Portuguese attack against the fortress of Ternate was with no success. Was successful instead the attack that the Dutch did to the fortress of Tidore in 1605.

Tidore was conquered on 19  May 1605,

but not having a sufficient number of men in order to garrison the conquered fort, the Dutch commander the vice-admiral Cornelis Bastiaensz was limited to leave some men in a small trading farm.

The Spanish answer, this time, was not late to arrive, and the expedition of 1606

lead by the governor of the Philippines Pedro de Acuńa reestablished the Iberian control on the Moluccas. After his fast Victoria, Acuńa decided,  to deport to Manila the sultan of Ternate, Said Barakat, with the Prince, its son, and all his dignitaries, in total about thirty persons.

It was therefore from the year 1606 for 57 years, until the 1663 (with one small appendix in the island of Siau where a very small Spanish garrison remained from 1671 to 1677),

the Spanish occupied some spice islands. The period was characterized by a continuous and often hard fights against the Dutch that were nearly always masters of the seas and in condition of superiority for armament, number of soldiers and ships. For most part of the period the Spaniards had a faithful allied in the sultan of Tidore, while the Dutch had the same in that of Ternate.

1522

In 1522,

less than half a century after Islam arrived at Ternate, the Portuguese set up a fort on the island.

 

 

Thus, for the time they became allies of Ternate (a Muslim). In subsequent years several magnifying Ternate successfully baptized, but the royal dynasty and the mass of the people stick to the religion of Islam, which they profess since 1473. Christian community in Ternate remains “fortress church”. But in some other area Christian congregations born natives. Let us realize that these churches is the result of the Moluccan own initiative. In Halmahera, population of the village on the east coast of the island requested that the Portuguese in Ternate protect them from enemies and accept the religion of their protectors (1534). They were given rudimentary religious instruction, was baptized and given a new name, the name of the Portuguese. Thus, the pattern of conversion to Christianity-like conversion to Islam.

 

In the long term, Christian congregations in Halmahera can not stand, because it began in 1570 a war raged between Ternate and the Portuguese, who had killed the Sultan of Ternate, Hairun. The killing led to a long partnership turned into enmity, and political reasons described above is no longer valid. Church of the fort of Ternate were wiped out with fort, and in Halmahera was the Christian religion can not survive. However, while it successfully planted the seeds of Christians in Ambon. Around the year 1510 brought Islam to Hitu of Java. In 1538, the Sultan of Ternate (Islam) with the help of allies of the Portuguese (Christian), attacking people Hitu (a Muslim), who is assisted by a fleet of Java. People Hitu defeated. Then a number of villages around the Bay of Ambon, which has not converted to Islam, calling for the Portuguese. They also would receive their religious friends. In later Christianity spread to other villages in Ambon and Lease. Just as Christians in Halmahera, Ambon who can not live peacefully. They must constantly resist the attacks of Ternate and Hitu, and they should help in his battle against Ternate Tidore. However, in contrast to Halmahera, Ambon and Christianity can survive in the future is also widespread.

 

Christianity also spread to North Sulawesi and Sangihe. In 1563 the King of Manado and the number of people baptized. Siau king happened to be visiting there and participate baptized; population Siau island itself followed some years later. But since the Portuguese increasingly pressured by the Ternate, this seed can not be maintained. New in the 17th century, when the Spaniards from the Philippines to expand their influence into the region, successfully established congregations rather steady.

 

Christianity also spread over a region that lies outside the influence of the Sultan of Ternate, which is in East Nusa Tenggara. This area is important for Portuguese traders, since they produce sandalwood, which is sold in India and China.

Muslim

 

A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

troops from the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak in Central Java.

Islamic Kingdom
 History of Nusantara in the era of the Islamic empire

Islam as a government presence in Indonesia around the 12th century, but in fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

According to Chinese sources by the end of the third quarter of 7th century, became the leader of an Arab merchant Muslim Arab settlements on the coast of Sumatra. Islam also gives effect to the existing political institutions. This is apparent in the year 100 H (718 AD) King of Srivijaya Jambi named Srindravarman send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate request sent preachers who could explain Islam to him. The letter reads: “From the King in the King who is the descendant of a thousand kings, whose wife was also grandson of a thousand kings, who in the animal cages are a thousand elephants, whose territory there are two rivers that irrigate the tree aloes, spices fragrance, nutmeg and lime lines that fragrant smell to reach out to a distance of 12 miles, to the Arab King who does not associate other gods with Allah. I have sent you a gift, which is actually a gift that is not so much, but just a sign of friendship. I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me and explain to me about its laws. “Two years later, the year 720 AD, King Srindravarman, which was originally Hindu, converted to Islam. Sriwijaya Jambi also known as the ‘Sribuza Islam’. Unfortunately, in 730 AD captured by Jambi Sriwijaya Sriwijaya Palembang who still adhered to Buddhism. [5]

Islam continues to mengokoh become a political institution who carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called the Sultanate of Peureulak established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam arrived in this kingdom in the Maluku islands in 1440. Its king, a Muslim named Bayanullah.

Islamic Sultanate then semikin spread his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replaced Hinduism as the main trust at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Only Bali that still retain the majority Hindus. On the islands in the east, Churchman-known Christian and Muslim clergy has been active in the 16th century and 17, and currently there are a large majority of both religions on these islands.

The spread of Islam through trade relations outside the archipelago; this case, because the spreading propaganda or mubaligh an emissary of the Islamic government that came from outside Indonesia, then to feed themselves and their families, the mubaligh this work through how to trade, the spread even this mubaligh Islam to the traders from the natives, until the merchants are embracing Islam and also transmit to other people, because most traders and experts was the first kingdom to adopt the new religion. Important Islamic Kingdom including: Royal Ocean Pasai, Sultanate of Banten, which establish diplomatic relations with European countries, the Kingdom of Mataram, and the Sultanate of Ternate in the Moluccas and the Sultanate Tidore

 

In 1527,

Muslim

 

A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

troops coming from Cirebon

Cirebon

 

Cirebon is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is located in the province of West Java near the provincial border with Central Java, approximately 297 km east of Jakarta, at .The seat of a former Sultanate, the city’s West and Central Java border location have…

and Demak

Demak

Demak is on the north coast of Central Java province, on the island of Java, Indonesia.* Demak, Indonesia – the modern-day large town.* Demak Sultanate – the sixteenth century sultanate.* Demak Regency – the modern-day regency around the town….

attacked the Kingdom of Sunda under the leadership of Fatahillah. The king was expecting the Portuguese to come and help them hold Fatahillah’s army because of an agreement that had been in place between Sunda and the Portuguese. However, Fatahillah’s army succeeded in conquering the city on June 22, 1557, and Fatahillah changed the name of “Sunda Kelapa” to “Jayakarta” (जयकर्; “Great Deed” or “Complete Victory” in Sanskrit

Sanskrit

 

Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism….

 

 

Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Minor states of northern Sulawesi, 16th century

From about 1530,

the formerly small south Sulawesi state of Gowa began to grow in power, and its port, Makasar, became increasingly important as a centre of trade in the western archipelago. Gowa used military force to bring much of South Sulawesi under its domination, though the more distant and powerful states such as Wajo’ had the standing of slightly subordinate allies, rather than true vassals; only the Bugis state of Bone on the east coast successfully resisted Gowa’s campaigns. The port of Makasar became still more important in the early 17th century. Its ruler converted to Islam in 1605, making the port more attractive to Muslim traders, and it also became a centre for traders, both European and indigenous, excluded from Maluku by the monopoly practices of the VOC. Conversion to Islam led Gowa into a new bout of conquests in the region, including Wajo’ in 1610 and finally Bone in 1611. Further campaigns in the following decades took Gowa’s influence to Sumbawa, the east coast of Borneo and even the Kai and Aru Islands, though – except in Sumbawa and Butung – Makasar never exercised significant authority and in many areas, such as the northern parts of Sulawesi, the Makasar claim was a fiction supported only by the absence of significant local powers to question it.

 

 

 

Triumph of the Archipelago Portuguese Period
Period 1511-1526,

for 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and Maluku.

In 1511

The Portuguese defeated the kingdom of Malacca.

In the Portuguese

1511

Popular Resistance  Moluccas against Portuguese
The Portuguese first landed in Maluku in 1511.

The next Portuguese arrival in 1513. However, Tertnate feel aggrieved by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.

 

in 1512

to establish communication with the [[Kingdom of Sunda]] to sign a trade agreement,

In the year 1512

also Afonso de Albuquerque send Albreu Antonio and Francisco Serrão to lead the fleet to find a way to place of origin of spices in the Moluccas. Along the way, they stopped at Madura, Bali and Lombok. By using the skipper-skipper of Java, the fleet arrived in the Banda Islands, continue heading North until arriving at Ternate.

Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that has left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, particularly Flores, Solor and Maluku, Jakarta Kampong monument located in the eastern part of Jakarta, between Kali Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

Europeans first discovered the Moluccas is Portuguese, in the year 1512. At that time, two Portuguese fleet, each under the leadership of Anthony d’Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Island. Once they make friends with residents and local kings – such as with Kingdom of Ternate on the island of Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a stronghold in Pikaoli, nor may the State Hitu old, and Mamala Ambon.Namun Island spice trade relations did not last long , because the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly and also to spread Christianity.
One of his famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arriving in Ambon 14 February 1546, then traveled to Ternate, arrived in 1547, and tirelessly visiting the islands in the Maluku Islands to make the spread of religion.
Portuguese Friendship and Ternate ended in 1570. Warfare with the Sultan Babullah for 5 years (1570-1575), allowed the Portuguese had to leave from and expelled into Tidore Ternate and Ambon.

 

1522

especially pepper. Trade agreement is then manifested on August 21, 1522

in the form of contract documents created duplicate, one copy to the king of Sunda and one for the king of Portugal. On the same day built a monument called the [[Inscription Sunda-Portuguese Treaty]] in a place that is now the corner of Clove Road and East First Street Kali Besar, West Jakarta. With this agreement, the Portuguese allowed to build a warehouse or a fortress in the [[Sunda Kelapa]].

Popular Resistance against Portuguese
The arrival of the Portuguese to the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands is an order from his country to trade.

Popular Resistance Malacca to the Portuguese
In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque to attack the kingdom of Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons.

In 1527,

the fleet Demak under the leadership of Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Kelapa, and Cirebon.

Portuguese fleet to be destroyed by Falatehan and he later renamed Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

 

In 1527,

the fleet Demak under the leadership of Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Kelapa, and Cirebon.

Portuguese fleet to be destroyed by Falatehan and he later renamed Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

. 1553

 

Naer dat wij bij d’Ed=e. Hr. gouverneur en d’E. H=ren raden van India naer Taijoan waren gedestineert, soo sijn op den 18en Junij 1553 met bovengenoemde Iacht vande rheede van Batavia ‘tzeijl gegaen, op hebbende d’E. Hr. Cornelis Caesar om’t gouvernement van Taijoan, Formosa , met den aencleven van dien te becleden, tot vervangh van d’E

 

 

 

1554

Resistance Acehnese against the Portuguese
Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555,

the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese received stiff resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh was attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1629.

In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate appeal to all the people of Maluku to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas.

1556

In 1556

five thousand people are baptized on the island of Timor.

 

Thus was born the Christian congregations in Flores and on several other islands. Dominicans here are active. They established a kind of religious state, with the center on the island of Solor.

 

Fort in Solor 1556

was they who built it. In this area also Christian groups involved in wars and are often attacked by outside forces. But they survived and grew into a kind of enclave of Portuguese in Southeast Asia.

 

Thus, the spread of Christianity in the 16th century was the beginning of the history of religion in Indonesia. We mention a few characteristics

. (1) Christianity is not imposed on people of Indonesia, but accepted by them based on political considerations, economic, ethnological, military.

(2) The spread of Christianity is not a purely religious phenomenon, but intertwined with other factors.

(3) The emphasis of the Christian congregation located in Eastern Indonesia.

(4) For adherents, Christianity is not a foreign element, but one’s own. Indigenous religion and culture as well as a new religion that blends into a new identity.

(5) Christians are willing to treat * hold * it, and defend their new identities against all enemies. Age was also the * right * to witness the faith who are willing to die for his faith

 

 

1570

Discounting francis drake’s brief passage through the sunda strait in the late 1570s,

 

 

In 1570,

the people of Ternate, which was led by Sultan Hairun to re-take the fight against the Portuguese, but can be tricked by the Portuguese and eventually murdered in the Fort Duurstede. Furthermore, led by Sultan Baabullah in the year 1574. Portuguese expelled who then lived on the island of Timor.

Spanish Colonization === ===
{{Main | History of Nusantara Zaman_Spanyol}}

[[Fernando Magelhans]] (sometimes also written Ferdinand) Magelan. Because of this character, who led the first fleet to circumnavigate the world and prove that the earth is round, when it was known by the [[Europe]] flat earth. Commencement [[Colonization]] for centuries by the [[Spain]] along with other European nations, especially the [[Portuguese ]],[[ England]] and [[Netherlands]].

From [[Spain]] to [[Pacific Ocean]] that the Portuguese fleet sailed the Pacific Ocean, past the [[Cape of Good Hope Africa]], to [[Strait of Malacca]]. From here proceed to the Moluccas exploration to find spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

“In the 16th century

when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and the king before sailing through the ocean.

On September 20, 1519,

San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago, the biggest to the smallest-follow the mother ship Magellan, Trinidad, the second largest ship, as they set sail for South America. On 13 December, they reached Brazil, and Pao de Açúcar staring, or Sugarloaf Mountain, which is impressive, they entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro is wonderful for repairs and provisions.

Then they went south into what is now Argentina, always searching for el paso, the elusive path to the other oceans. Meanwhile, the days get colder and icebergs appear.

 

 

Finally, on March 31, 1520,

Magellan decided to spend the winter in a cold harbor of San Julián.

Sailing has now take six times longer than Columbus’ voyage across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time, and have not seen any of the strait! Their morale began as cold weather in San Julián, and the men, including several captains and officers, get frustrated and want to go home. It’s no surprise when mutiny erupts. However, thanks to a quick and decisive action on the part of Magellan, it was foiled and the two leaders are killed.

The presence of foreign vessels in the harbor must have attracted a strong local-and large-bodied. Feeling like a dwarf compared to these giants, the visitors Patagonia call that land from a Spanish word meaning “big feet”-to this day. They also observe ‘sea wolves of the calf, as well as black and white geese that swim underwater, eat fish, and has a beak like a crow’. Of course, none other than not it seals and penguins!

Polar latitudes are prone to violent storms suddenly, and before winter is over, the fleet was experiencing his first victim of small-Santiago.

However, fortunately the crew can be rescued from the sinking ship that. After that, the four surviving ship, like a little winged moths that hit in the middle of the frozen ocean currents and never let up, fight tooth and nail head south to colder waters, until October 21.

Sailing under the pouring rain that freezes, all eyes glued to a crack in the west. El paso? Yes! Finally, they turned and entered the strait later known as the Strait of Magellan! However, even this moment of triumph is tarnished. San Antonio deliberately disappear in the maze of straits and return to Spain.

The three ships which still survive, diimpit by a narrow gulf between snow-covered cliffs, with persistent sailed through the winding strait that. Brand watched so many fires in the south, possibly from Indian camps, so they call that land Tierra del Fuego, “Land of Fire.”

Magellan arrived in the Philippines

many local people and their rulers to Catholicism. But the spirit also become corrupted. He became involved in tribal disputes and, with only 60 men, attacked about 1,500 indigenous people, with the belief that guns bows, old-fashioned guns, and God will ensure his victory. Instead, he and a number of his subordinates were killed. Magellan was about 41 years. Pigafetta loyal wailing, ‘They killed reflection, lights, entertainers, and our true guide. ” A few days later, about 27 officers who only watch from their ship, was killed by tribal leaders who previously friendly.

Because now the number of crew of the cruise is low, it is impossible to sail with three ships, so they drown the Concepción and sail with

two ships are still living to their final destination, the Spice Islands.

Then, after filling the charge with the spices, the two ships separated. However, the crew of the ship Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and imprisoned.

However, Victoria, under the command of former rebel Juan Sebastián de Elcano, miss. While avoiding all the ports except one, they take the risk of the Portuguese route around the Cape of Good Hope.

However, without stopping to fill the supply is an expensive strategy.

When they finally reached Spain on 6 September 1522-three years since their departure, only 18 men who are sick and helpless who survive.

Even so, can not be denied that they were the first person to sail around the earth.

Juan Sebastián de Elcano was a hero.

What an amazing thing, the charge spice Victoria weighing 26 tons defray the costs of the entire expedition!

When a ship that survived, Victoria,

returned to port after completing the journey around the world for the first time, only 18 men of 237 men who were on the ship in the early departure.

Among survivors, there are two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) adalan people of Genoa [1] which acts as the Head Waiter.

It works by Ferdinand Magellan on its historic journey to find a western route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.

[2] The history of his trip immortalized in the registration of nominative in Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain.

The family name is called with the proper Latin patronimik, namely: “de Judicibus”. At first he was assigned to the Caravel Concepción, one of five Spanish fleet owned by Magellan. Martino de Judicibus start this expedition with the title of captain. (Read more in the book “History of Colonial Spanish in Indonesia” by David DS Lumoindong.

Before mastering the Philippine islands in 1543, Spain made the island of Manado Tua

as a stopover to obtain fresh water. Of the island’s Spanish ships entered the mainland
North Sulawesi through the river-Tondano.

Spanish traveler relationship with rural residents is established through a barter economy began in Uwuran (now city Amurang) alongside the river Rano I Apo. Barter trade of rice, resin, honey and other forest products with fish and salt.

Warehouse Coffee


Manado and Minahasa be important for Spain,

because of soil fertility and use Spanish for the planting Kofi originating from South-America to be marketed to mainland China. For that in-
wake Manado as a trade center for Chinese traders who market Kofi kedaratan China. Manado name included in the map of the world by experts the world map, Nicolas_Desliens, in 1541.

Manado also
the main attraction of Chinese society by Kofi

as an export commodity inland communities of Manado and Minahasa. Pioneered the development of Chinese traders Kofi warehouse (now around the Market 45) which later became Chinatown and the settlement. The arrivals from mainland China mingle and assimilate with inland communities and to form a pluralistic society in Manado and Minahasa
with derivatives Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.

The appearance of the name of Manado in North Sulawesi with a variety of commercial activities carried Spain into Portugal since the appeal to establish its position in Ternate.

 

For that approach send the Portuguese Catholic mission on the ground Manado and Minahasa in 1563 and developed a religious and Catholic education. Effect of race in the Celebes Sea Adu

Between Minahasa with Ternate, there are two small islands called Mayu and Tafure. Then the two islands were used as transit port by sailors Minahasa. At that time there is competition Portuguese and Spanish in which Spain won the two islands.

Pandey Tombulu origin who became king

on the island run by a fleet of boats back to the Minahasa, but because of the summer monsoon and then stranded in Gorontalo.

Pandey boy named Potangka

continue the journey and arrived at Ratahan. In Ratahan, he was appointed commander of the war because he was an expert shot guns and rifles to fight the Portuguese attacker from Mongondouw in the region.

In 1563

the territory known Ratahan Ternate people with the name “Watasina”

because when attacked by a fleet of Kora-kora menhalau Ternate to Spain from the region (the book “De Katholieken en hares Missie” written by AJ Van Aernsbergen).

In 1570

Portuguese and Spanish conspired to kill the king of Ternate,

so make a big fuss in Ternate. When that many Islamic traders fled to Ternate and Tidore Ratahan. Pirate attacks increased in Ratahan through Bentenan, plows the sea using the slaves as rowers.

The captive slaves fled to the Ratahan pirates when night pirate boat fleet was damaged soldiers Ratahan – barely.

Tentative conclusions can we draw from this story collection

is the original inhabitants of this region is Touwuntu in lowland areas to the beach Toulumawak in the mountains, they are descendants Opok Soputan seventh century.

.

 

In 1595,

Amsterdam

 

Amsterdam is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, with a population of 780,152 within city limits, an urban population of 1,209,419 and a metropolitan population of 2,158,592. The city is in the province of North Holland in the west of the country

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511,

then in 1512 built the Citadel in Amurang North Sulawesi. Portuguese lost the war with Spain, the north Sulawesi area submitted in the Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th-century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch), who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, which then backwards and mastering Portuguese East Timor (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism began spreading in Indonesia around the 15th century, which begins with the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Dutch-led Cornelis de Houtmen in 1596

, to seek the source of spices and trade.

Popular Resistance against Portuguese
The arrival of the Portuguese to the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands is an order from his country to trade.

Popular Resistance Malacca to the Portuguese
In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque to attack the kingdom of Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons

 

16th century

Name OPO ‘Soputan

appears again as the head of the 16th century walak region with head walak Raliu brothers and Potangkuman. Residents of this region comes from the 16th century natives and newcomers from Tombulu, Tompakewa (Tontemboan), Tonsea, Ternate and pirates prisoner may from Sangihe

Starting  from the year 1607,

the Dutch extended their control

on the more profitableand better part and of the Moluccas: they,

 

1478

Majapahit is traditionally said to have fallen in 1478

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 14th century

The port city of Melaka,

founded by Parameswara

or his descendants, quickly rose to be the most powerful state in the region. Abundant fresh water, a deep harbour and control of the narrowest part of the strait gave it an immediate advantage in attracting traders.

So too did its ruler’s careful strategy of providing excellent facilities for merchants. Specially appointed shahbandar, or harbour-lords, maintained the warehouses, policed transactions and settled disputes between the dozens of trading communities in the city. Melaka’s main trading rival, the northern Sumatra state of Samudra-Pasai, was never able to match these advantages. Melaka’s ruler also inherited from his Palembang forebears a close relationship with the orang laut, the semi-piratical sea people who had been the basis of Srivijaya’s navy.

 

Melaka also benefited from the decline of Majapahit,

from a lull in the southward expansion of the Thai, and from a close relationship with the Chinese empire.

Under the Yung-lo emperor, China briefly abandoned its hostility to trade and sought out reliable allies as trading partners in South and Southeast Asia. Melaka was the most favoured of these allies.

1407:

Settlement Hanafi Muslim Hui Chinese

first established in Sambas. [7]
 1408:

Pateh Berbai II

became the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1425.


 1420:

Aji King Mandarsyah Kukar IV

became King until the year 1475. Islam arrived in the Kutai during his reign was brought by Mr. parangan riding.

1425:

Sharif Ali,

a son of Sultan of Brunei

who came from Mecca III was crowned as the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1432.

 

 

1429:

Bhre Tanjungpura

held by Manggalawardhani Dyah Suragharini

[= hold dear Princess Bubble?] Daughter of Bhre Tumapel II (= brother Suhita) power until the year 1464.

1430

 

The Moluccas, from the “Livro das Plantas das Fortalezas, Cidades e Povoaçoes do Estado da India Oriental 1600s.

Because of the continuous trade contacts between the Moluccas and the coming merchants of Muslim faith from Arabia and other Asia zones, starting from the 1430-1460 years Maomettan faith   made its entry in the islands, in those years various kings were converted to Islam and at the arrival of the Portuguese, Islam represented an important and elitarian element, although  the majority of the population still remained BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663/1671-1677” unpublished research.

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish forts in Tidore, a preliminar survey” unpublished article

 

1431:

The city became the center of the Kingdom Tanjungpura Sukadana until the year 1724 since the government Tunjung Coral Prince (1431-1450).
 1432:

Duke Agong IV

becomes Sultan of Brunei until the year 1485.
 1441:

A Muslim’s death with tombstones of andesitic rocks found in the Sacred Seven, District Ketapang Arab writing bertarikh year 1363 Saka or 1441 AD Tombstone shapes derived from the last century Majapahit.

1472:

title of Prince Raden Ismahayana Dipati Old Cape Coral

became King of Hedgehogs until 1542.

1475:

The establishment of the Sultanate of Borneo Demaksphere of influence reaches as Tanjungpura, Lawai and Banjarmasin.Aji Tumenggung Bayabaya Prince was crowned King of Paser Kukar V until the year 1545.

 

 

The Majapahit History Collections

Part V

The Setting Of Madjapahit War

(Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )

1478-1525

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2912

 

 

1478:

Maharaja titled Raden Breech Sekar Sari Kaburungan

became King of Daha State based on the Nagara. Islam came during his reign, because his son married a daughter of Sunan Giri.


 Majapahit is traditionally said to have fallen in 1478, but the state seems to have survived in attenuated form until about the 1530s

 

 

 

1482

Kingdom Of Pajajaran

Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482 – 1521)

1482

Ada tafsiran yang dimaksud Prabu Wangi mungkin Prabu Lingga Buana (yang wafat di Bubat, Majapahit), termahsyur karena keberaniannya membela harga diri Kerajaan Sunda meskipun harus tewas di Majapahit.

Atau Prabu Wangi mungkin adalah Prabu Niskalawastu Kancana, termahsyur karena masa pemerintahannya yang panjang dan damai serta makmur (ibukota saat itu di Galuh).

Kedua raja itu adalah leluhur Jayadewata. Prabu Lingga Buana adalah Buyut Jayadewata, sedangkan Niskalawastu Kancana adalah kakek Jayadewata. “Silih” tidak berarti menggantikan langsung dalam urutan suksesi kekuasaan, tetapi berarti keharuman dan kemahsyuran namanya menyamai Prabu “Wangi”.

Siliwangi tidak lain adalah Prabu Jayadewata yang bergelar Sri Baduga Maharaja yang memerintah selama 39 tahun (1482 – 1521).

Pada masa inilah Pakuan mencapai puncak kejayaannya. Ia memindahkan ibukota dari Galuh ke Pakuan Pajajaran (sekarang Bogor).



^Bhre Kahuripan




^That supposed to be Bhre Kahuripan?

I wonder how they came up with that image. His costume is weird, I think his crown resembles Malay crown more than a Javanese one. I think Museum of Indonesia has a Malay crown that looks just like that. BTW, I’m always fascinated by the wayang figures on the imported copper coin. The wayang form is a distorted figure of human just like the one we know nowadays, but I thought before Islam wayang had a rather natural look?

 

 

1485:

Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei becomes V

until the year 1524.

Until the end of the 15th century,

Hinduism was the predominant religion in the islands of Java and Sumatra. Hinduism is said to have spread to these islands as early as the first century AD.

. Hinduism flourished in these Indonesian islands until the arrival of Islam in the 14th century. Indonesia is today the most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% Muslims (2000 census) and 3% Hindus. However, there is a self-conscious Hindu revival movement emerging from the Javanese society with constant reference to the famous Javanese prophecies of Sabdapalon and Jayabhaya.

It is interesting to note that the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic, Ramayana, makes a mention of these islands. After the abduction of Sita from the Panchavati forest, Rama and Lakshmana go in search of her. They meet

 

 

The fight between Vali and Sugreeva

Hanuman and Sugreeva near the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha. Rama helps Sugreeva by killing his elder brother Vali and making him the king of Kishkinda. In return of Rama’s help, Sugreeva and the Vanaras agree to find Sita. Sugreeva orders Niila, his commander to assemble the troops. He orders Vinata, a mighty vanara warrior to search the Eastern side for Sita. While doing so he describes the islands of South East Asia.

In Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, chapter 40 verses 30, 31 and 32, the islands of Java and Sumatra are said to have been described by Sugreeva:

yatnavanto yava dviipam sapta raajya upashobhitam |
suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam suvarNa aakara maNDitam || 4-40-30
yava dviipam atikramya shishiro naama parvataH |
divam spR^ishati shR^ingeNa deva daanava sevitaH || 4-40-31
eteSaam giri durgeSu prapaateSu vaneSu ca |
maargadhvam sahitaaH sarve raama patniim yashasviniim || 4-40-32

“You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama.”

The islands of Yava mentioned in the above verses are said to be the modern day Java islands. The Golden and Silver islands refer to Sumatra which was earlier known as Swarnadwīpa (Island of Gold). The seven kingdoms may refer to the Indonesian archipelago. This clearly indicates the knowledge of geography of regions beyond the Bharata khand by the ancient Hindus. This also suggests that people of ancient Bharat have travelled to these lands and back.

  15th century

1405:

King of Puni

from western Borneo arrived in China

 and requested that the area to send tribute to China is no longer to Java. This king died in China. Until the year 1425 Puni relationship with China began to rare. [6]

 

The Indonesian archipelago

Before the arrival of Hinduism in the early first century AD, the native people of Indonesian Archipelago are said to have been practicing an indigenous belief system common to Austronesian people. The indigenous spiritual concepts were fused with Hinduism which evolved into Javanese Hinduism. Many of the ancient Indonesian kingdoms followed Hinduism. The most famous are the Mataram, Kediri and Singhasari kingdoms. The archipelagic empire of Majapahit which ruled between 1293 and 1500 was the most powerful last major empire in Indonesian history.


PANDAN ARANG II LEGEND

BEBERAPA PENDAPAT TENTANG ASAL USUL KI PANDAN ARANG

1.SERAT KANDHA BERDASARKAN TERJEMAHAN BUKU
BERBAHASA BELANDA (KBG. 540)
Seorang pemuda dari tanah Arab bernama Abdulah disuruh Sunan Ampel pergi ke Pulau Tirang (sekarang : Semarang), Maulana Ibnu Abdulah yang selanjutnya dikenal sebagai Kyai Pandan Arang.

2.SOEWIGNYO DALAM BUKUNYA KYAI AGENG PANDAN ARANG
BATAVIA 1938
Brawijaya raja Majapahit meninggallcan istana karena diserbu orang-orang yang masuk Islam. Di desa Sawer bertemu dengan Sunan Kalijaga.
Dalam pembicaraan panjang akhirnya Brawijaya menyerah kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Brawijaya diangkat menjadi Bupati Semarang bergelar Kyai Pandan Arang.

3.SILSILAH MUSEUM SUMENEP
Sultan Trenggana mempunyai dua orang putra :
Pangeran Mas Pandan Arang dan Ratu Ayu.
Pangeran Pandan Arang berputra Pangeran Kanoman.

4.RW DWIDJOSEOWIGNJO – 1941
Raden Patah berputra 9 orang, yang sulung bernama Raden Surya
(Pangeran Adipati Sepuh) bertempat tinggal di Sabrang Lor.
Setelah naik tahta Pangeran Sabrang Lor bergelar Sultan Syeh Slam Akbar II (1440 C = Sirno Papat Catur Aji) Sultan Akbat II berputra 4 orang :

a. Raden Emas Pembayun
b. Raden Emas Panenggak
c. Adipati Panaraga
d. Pangeran Anom Made Pandan Ngabdulsalam
Pangeran Made Pandan menurunkan Pandan Arang.

5. AN NOERTJAHJO -1953 SEJARAH WALI
Raden Patah menurunkan Pangeran Sabrang Lor (Adipati Sepuh)
atau Sultan Demak II.
Setelah mangkat putranya bernama Made Pandan tidak mati menggantikan menjadi raja.
Kerajaan diserahkan kepada Pangeran Trenggana adik Sultan Demak II.
Made Pandan meninggalkan istana pergi ke Pulau Tirang.
Made Pandan menurunkan Pandan Arang.


CERITA RAKYAT SUNAN PANDAN ARANG
Ki Pandan Arang I yang dalam pemerintahannya cukup berhasil merasa kecewa karma putrinya yang cantik jelita menderita sakit lumpuh.

Segala macam obat tela& diberikan dan orangorang pandai telah didatangkan, tetapi tidak ada kemajuan. Putrinya tetap lumpuh. Sampai-sampai mempunyai nadzar, barang siapa dapat menyembuhkan putrinya akan diambil sebagai menantu.

Pads suatu hari Sunan Kalijaga memberitahu bahwa di Gunung Gede ada orang yang pandai bernama Ranawijaya berasal dari Majapahit.
Atas permintaan Ki Pandan Arang I, Ranawijaya datang ke Kadipaten. Dengan kesaktiannya dan per-Tuhan dengan mudah sang putri dapat disembuhkan. Akhirnya Ranawijaya diambil sebagai menantu.

Pada saat Ki Pandan Arang I meninggal dunia, Ranawijaya menggantikan dengan gelar Ki Pandan Arang II. Daerahnya maju pesat, rakyatnya makmur termasuk perkembangan agama Islam cukup memuaskan. Namun kemakmuran dan keberhasilan dalam pemerintahannya membuat Ki Pandan Arang II lupa diri, ia jadi congkak, sombong dan kikir. Ia selalu mengejar harta walaupun sudah melimpah ruah.
Mengetahui keadaan semacam itu Sunan Kalijaga datang menyamar sebagai penjual rumput. Dalam kesempatan tawar menawar disisipkan peringatan terhadap perilaku Ki Pandan Arang II yang telah menyimpang dari ajaran agama Islam. Berulang Sunan Kalijaga datang memperingatkan namun tak dihiraukan.
Akhirnya Sunan Kalijaga menunjukkan kesaktiannya, setiap tanah yang dicangkulnya berubah menjadi sebongkah emas dan diberikan kepada Pandan Arang. Pandan Arang sangat heran terhadap kesaktian penjual rumput. Setelah diketahui bahwa penjual rumput itu Sunan Kalijaga maka bersujud dan bertaubat.
Pandan Arang melepaskan kedudukannya sebagai Adipati ingin berguru kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Sunan Kalijaga menyanggupi mengajarkan ilmu di Gunung Jabalkat dan tidak boleh membawa harta benda.

Setelah bulat tekadnya Pandan Arang bersama istrinya meninggalkan Semarang menuju Gunung Jabalkat, Dasar naluri seorang wanita, Nyi Pandan Arang memasukkan seluruh perhiasannya dan sementara uang dinar ke dalam tongkat yang akan dibawanya. Dalam perjalanan Nyi Pandan Arang tertinggal jauh dari suaminya. Dia dihadang tiga orang penyamun. Direbutnya tongkat tongkatnya dan seluruh bawaannya. ” Kangmas, tolong! Ada tiga orang penyamun! (Jawa: Kangmas, tulung! Wonten Tyang, salah, tiga) “.

Menurut yang punya cerita tempat itu sekarang diberi nama Salatiga (salah-tiga). Pada saat Ni Pandan Arang kembali menolong istrinya, tiga orang penyamun itu marsh merebut perhiasan yang dipakai Nyi Pandan Arang. Melihat sikap kasar para penyamun Ki Pandan Arang menjadi marah. ” Hei! Manusia mengapa nekad seperti kambing domba (Jawa : E, wong kok drufhus kaya wedhus).”
Seketika wajah Sambangdalan pemimpin penyamun itu berubah menjadl domba. Para penyamun takut mefihat kesaktian Ki Pandan Arang. Sambangdalan bertaubat dan minta supaya wajahnya dikembalikan seperti semula. Pandan Arang memaafkan kesalahannya tetapi wajahnya tetap seperti domba. Sambangdalan akhirnya menjadi pengikut Pandan Arang dan lebih dikenal dengan nama Syeh Domba.

Dalam berjalan Nyi Pandan Arang sering sekali ditinggal suaminya. Sampai di suatu tempat suaminya tak kelihatan karena sangat jauh di denan. Nyi Pandan Arang kepayahan dan beristirahat di bawah pohon. ” Kangmas, apakah sudah Napa, engkau terhadap says? Keluh Nyi Pandan Arang (Jawa Kangmas, boys lali panjenengan kayo aku).”
Menurut yang punya cerita tempat beristirahat Nyi Pandan Arang itu sekarang disebut Boyolali.

Setelah beberapa hari berjalan sampailah Ki Pandan Arang bersama istrinya di bukit Jabalkat Dia berguru kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Atas kecerdasan fan kerajinannya, Si Pandan Arang ditugasi sebagai penyiar agama Islam di daerah selatan. Ki Pandan Arang mendirikan perguruan di bukit Jabalkat. Pengikutnya makin lama makin banyak.
Selain pengetahuan agama, diajarkan pals oleh Ki Pandan Arang tentang bercocok tanam, jugs cara bergaul yang baik. Islam berkembang dengan pesatnya. Banyak orang datang masuk Islam dengan mengucapkan Sahadat Tembayat. Ajaran yang paling menonjol dari Ki Pandan Arang adalah “Patembayatan” (Kerukunan dan Kegotongroyongan).

Diceritakan bahwa pads saat mencari pengikut, Pandan Arang pernah menjadi pembantu rumah tangga Ki Tasik, seorang tokoh masyarakat terkenal di sebelah barat Jabalkat. Tugas pokoknya mencari ft bakar dan membeli bergs ke pasar, karena Nyi Tasik pekerjaannya sebagai penjual kue srabi.

Pada suatu hari Pandan Arang dimarahi karena kayu bakar yang dicarinya hanya sedikit. Kue srabi tidak dapat dimasak semuanya. Karena kemarahan Nyi Tasik, Pandan Arang memasukkan tangannya ke dalam tungku. Dari jarinya keluar api sehingga kue srabi dapat dimasak seluruhnya.
Ki Tasik dan Nyi Tasik mengakui kesaktian Pandan Arang dan masuk Islam bersama penduduk di Sekltarnya. Akhirnya Pandan Arang kembali ke Gunung Jabalkat. Berkat ajaran “Patembayatan” Ki Pandan Arang dapat mendirikan masjid di bukit Gala.
Sampai akhir hayatnya Pandan Arang menetap di Jabalkat dan jenazahnya dimakamkan di bukit Cakrakembang. Daerah Jabalkat dan sekitarnya sekarang dikenal dengan nama Tembayat atau Bayat

Kesultanan Malaka (14021511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.

Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.

Sejarah

Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. [1]

Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. [2]. Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.[1][2]

Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.

Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.

Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.

Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. [3]

Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.

[sunting] Daftar raja-raja Malaka

  1. Parameswara (1402-1414)
  2. Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
  3. Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
  4. Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
  5. Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
  6. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
  7. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (14961903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.[1]

Sejarah

Awal mula

Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.

Masa kejayaan

Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (16071636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.

Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.

Kemunduran

Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.

Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.

Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].

 

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Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Minor states of northern Sulawesi, 16th century

From about 1530, the formerly small south Sulawesi state of Gowa began to grow in power, and its port, Makasar, became increasingly important as a centre of trade in the western archipelago. Gowa used military force to bring much of South Sulawesi under its domination, though the more distant and powerful states such as Wajo’ had the standing of slightly subordinate allies, rather than true vassals; only the Bugis state of Bone on the east coast successfully resisted Gowa’s campaigns. The port of Makasar became still more important in the early 17th century. Its ruler converted to Islam in 1605, making the port more attractive to Muslim traders, and it also became a centre for traders, both European and indigenous, excluded from Maluku by the monopoly practices of the VOC. Conversion to Islam led Gowa into a new bout of conquests in the region, including Wajo’ in 1610 and finally Bone in 1611. Further campaigns in the following decades took Gowa’s influence to Sumbawa, the east coast of Borneo and even the Kai and Aru Islands, though – except in Sumbawa and Butung – Makasar never exercised significant authority and in many areas, such as the northern parts of Sulawesi, the Makasar claim was a fiction supported only by the absence of significant local powers to question it.

1500

Kedatangan Portugis dan perang saudara

Di masa pemerintahan Sultan Bayanullah (1500-1521), Ternate semakin berkembang, rakyatnya diwajibkan berpakaian secara islami, teknik pembuatan perahu dan senjata yang diperoleh dari orang Arab dan Turki digunakan untuk memperkuat pasukan Ternate. Di masa ini pula datang orang Eropa pertama di Maluku, Loedwijk de Bartomo (Ludovico Varthema) tahun 1506. Tahun 1512 Portugis untuk pertama kalinya menginjakkan kaki di Ternate dibawah pimpinan Fransisco Serrao, atas persetujuan Sultan, Portugis diizinkan mendirikan pos dagang di Ternate. Portugis datang bukan semata – mata untuk berdagang melainkan untuk menguasai perdagangan rempah – rempah Pala dan Cengkih di Maluku. Untuk itu terlebih dulu mereka harus menaklukkan Ternate. Sultan Bayanullah wafat meninggalkan pewaris – pewaris yang masih sangat belia. Janda sultan, permaisuri Nukila dan Pangeran Taruwese, adik almarhum sultan bertindak sebagai wali. Permaisuri Nukila yang asal Tidore bermaksud menyatukan Ternate dan Tidore dibawah satu mahkota yakni salah satu dari kedua puteranya, pangeran Hidayat (kelak Sultan Dayalu) dan pangeran Abu Hayat (kelak Sultan Abu Hayat II). Sementara pangeran Tarruwese menginginkan tahta bagi dirinya sendiri. Portugis memanfaatkan kesempatan ini dan mengadu domba keduanya hingga pecah perang saudara. Kubu permaisuri Nukila didukung Tidore sedangkan pangeran Taruwese didukung Portugis. Setelah meraih kemenangan pangeran Taruwese justru dikhianati dan dibunuh Portugis. Gubernur Portugis bertindak sebagai penasihat kerajaan dan dengan pengaruh yang dimiliki berhasil membujuk dewan kerajaan untuk mengangkat pangeran Tabariji sebagai sultan. Tetapi ketika Sultan Tabariji mulai menunjukkan sikap bermusuhan, ia difitnah dan dibuang ke Goa – India.

Disana ia dipaksa Portugis untuk menandatangani perjanjian menjadikan Ternate sebagai kerajaan Kristen dan vasal kerajaan Portugis, namun perjanjian itu ditolak mentah-mentah Sultan Khairun (1534-1570).

 

 

Kesultanan Bacan

1521

Kesultanan Bacan adalah suatu kerajaan yang berpusat di Pulau Bacan, Kepulauan Maluku. Raja Bacan pertama yang memeluk Islam adalah Raja Zainulabidin yang bersyahadat pada tahun 1521. Meski berada di Maluku, wilayahnya cukup luas hingga ke wilayah Papua. Banyak kepala suku di wilayah Waigeo, Misool dan beberapa daerah lain yang berada di bawah administrasi pemerintahan kerajaan Bacan

Makasar and the subordinate states of south Sulawesi, ca 1600

As the centre for trade which the Dutch regarded as smuggling, Makasar soon became the target for intermittent Dutch hostility, and Makasar responded by assisting the Company’s enemies in Maluku. In 1666, the Dutch decided to make an end once and for all to Makasar’s resistance. They made an alliance with Arung Palakka, a Bugis prince from Bone, who had been exiled by Makasar to Butung in 1660 after an abortive uprising. The combined force defeated Makasar in 1667, and forced the sultan to sign the Treaty of Bungaya in which Makasar relinquished all its vassals, both in south Sulawesi and abroad, and allowed the Dutch to build a fort in the heart of its main port. The treaty was decisive in ending Makasar’s power, but it took a further round of fighting until 1669 before Makasar was fully defeated. Arung Palakka became ruler of Bone and the dominant political force in the region, but his authoritarian rule and destructive military campaigns against rebellious vassals led to a massive exodus of Buginese and Makasar warriors seeking safer homes elsewhere in the archipelago. The northern arm of Sulawesi had come under Spanish influence from the nearby Philippines in the 16th century, but was incorporated in the Dutch sphere of influence after the Treaty of Bungaya.

Indonesia

During Dutch Colonial

 

Introductions

HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF ACHIN, FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS BEING VISITED BY EUROPEANS.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE PORTUGUESE.

The Portuguese, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497, and arrived on the coast of Malabar in the following year. These people, whom the spirit of glory, commerce, and plunder led to the most magnanimous undertakings, were not so entirely engaged by their conquests on the continent of India as to prevent them from extending their views to the discovery of regions yet more distant. They learned from the merchants of Guzerat some account of the riches and importance of Malacca, a great trading city in the farther peninsula of India, supposed by them the Golden Chersonnese of Ptolemy. Intelligence of this was transmitted to their enterprising sovereign Emanuel, who became impressed with a strong desire to avail himself of the flattering advantages which this celebrated country held out to his ambition.

1508.

He equipped a fleet of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopez de Sequeira, which sailed from Lisbon on the eighth day of April 1508 with orders to explore and establish connexions in those eastern parts of Asia.

 

1509.

After touching at Madagascar Sequeira proceeded to Cochin, where a ship was added to his fleet, and, departing from thence on the eighth of September 1509, he made sail towards Malacca; but having doubled the extreme promontory of Sumatra (then supposed to be the Taprobane of the ancients) he anchored at Pidir, a principal port of that island, in which he found vessels from Pegu, Bengal, and other countries. The king of the place, who, like other Mahometan princes, was styled sultan, sent off a deputation to him, accompanied with refreshments, excusing himself, on account of illness, from paying his compliments in person, but assuring him at the same time that he should derive much pleasure from the friendship and alliance of the Portuguese, whose fame had reached his ears. Sequeira answered this message in such terms that, by consent of the sultan, a monument of their amity was erected on the shore; or, more properly, as the token of discovery and possession usually employed by the European nations. He was received in the same manner at a place called Pase, lying about twenty leagues farther to the eastward on the same coast, and there also erected a monument or cross. Having procured at each of these ports as much pepper as could be collected in a short time he hastened to Malacca, where the news of his appearance in these seas had anticipated his arrival. Here he was near falling a sacrifice to the insidious policy of Mahmud, the reigning king, to whom the Portuguese had been represented by the Arabian and Persian merchants (and not very unjustly) as lawless pirates, who, under the pretext of establishing commercial treaties, had, at first by encroachments, and afterwards with insolent rapacity, ruined and enslaved the princes who were weak enough to put a confidence in them, or to allow them a footing in their dominions. He escaped the snares that were laid for him but lost many of his people, and, leaving others in captivity, he returned to Europe, and gave an account of his proceedings to the king.

1510

Before the building of the Suez Canal and the invention of steam it could take three years to get a message to Southeast Asia and to receive its reply.

The Seventeen Gentlemen, all frock coats, upright furniture and chilly winters, were well aware of this, and so, in 1510, they created the post of Governor-General for their head man in Indonesia.

The Governor-General was not supposed to be a colonial viceroy; he was supposed to be an area manager with executive powers, and for the first decade, from the VOC headquarters in Ambon in Maluku, that’s exactly what he was.

 

1510.

A fleet was sent out in the year 1510 under Diogo Mendez to establish the Portuguese interests at Malacca; but Affonso d’Alboquerque, the governor of their affairs in India, thought proper to detain this squadron on the coast of Malabar until he could proceed thither himself with a greater force.

 

1511.

And accordingly on the second of May 1511 he set sail from Cochin with nineteen ships and fourteen hundred men. He touched at Pidir, where he found some of his countrymen who had made their escape from Malacca in a boat and sought protection on the Sumatran shore. They represented that, arriving off Pase, they had been ill-treated by the natives, who killed one of their party and obliged them to fly to Pidir, where they met with hospitality and kindness from the prince, who seemed desirous to conciliate the regard of their nation. Alboquerque expressed himself sensible of this instance of friendship, and renewed with the sultan the alliance that had been formed by Sequeira. He then proceeded to Pase, whose monarch endeavoured to exculpate himself from the outrage committed against the Portuguese fugitives, and as he could not tarry to take redress he concealed his resentment. In crossing over to Malacca he fell in with a large junk, or country vessel, which he engaged and attempted to board, but the enemy, setting fire to a quantity of inflammable oleaginous matter, he was deterred from his design, with a narrow escape of the destruction of his own ship. The junk was then battered from a distance until forty of her men were killed, when Alboquerque, admiring the bravery of the crew, proposed to them that, if they would strike and acknowledge themselves vassals of Portugal, he would treat them as friends and take them under his protection. This offer was accepted, and the valiant defender of the vessel informed the governor that his name was Jeinal, the lawful heir of the kingdom of Pase; he by whom it was then ruled being a usurper, who, taking advantage of his minority and his own situation as regent, had seized the crown: that he had made attempts to assert his rights, but had been defeated in two battles, and was now proceeding with his adherents to Java, some of the princes of which were his relations, and would, he hoped, enable him to obtain possession of his throne.

1511.

Alboquerque promised to effect it for him, and desired the prince to accompany him to Malacca, where they arrived the first of July 1511. In order to save the lives of the Portuguese prisoners, and if possible to effect their recovery, he negotiated with the king of Malacca before he proceeded to an attack on the place; which conduct of his Jeinal construed into fear, and, forsaking his new friend, passed over in the night to the Malayan monarch, whose protection he thought of more consequence to him. When Alboquerque had subdued the place, which made a vigorous resistance, the prince of Pase, seeing the error of his policy, returned, and threw himself at the governor’s feet, acknowledged his injurious mistrust, and implored his pardon, which was not denied him. He doubted however it seems of a sincere reconciliation and forgiveness, and, perceiving that no measures were taking for restoring him to his kingdom, but on the contrary that Alboquerque was preparing to leave Malacca with a small force, and talked of performing his promise when he should return from Goa, he took the resolution of again attaching himself to the fortunes of the conquered monarch, and secretly collecting his dependants fled once more from the protection of the Portuguese. He probably was not insensible that the reigning king of Pase, his adversary, had for some time taken abundant pains to procure the favour of Alboquerque, and found an occasion of demonstrating his zeal. The governor, on his return from Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast of Sumatra near the point of Timiang, where his ship was wrecked. Part of the crew making a raft were driven to Pase, where the king treated them with kindness and sent them to the coast of Coromandel by a merchant ship. Some years after these events Jeinal was enabled by his friends to carry a force to Pase, and obtained the ascendency there, but did not long enjoy his power.

Upon the reduction of Malacca the governor received messages from several of the Sumatran princes, and amongst the rest from the king of a place called Kampar, on the eastern coast, who had married a daughter of the king of Malacca, but was on ill terms with his father-in-law. He desired to become a vassal of the Portuguese crown, and to have leave to reside under their jurisdiction. His view was to obtain the important office of bandhara, or chief magistrate of the Malays, lately vacant by the execution of him who possessed it. He sent before him a present of lignum-aloes and gum-lac, the produce of his country, but Alboquerque, suspecting the honesty of his intentions, and fearing that he either aspired to the crown of Malacca or designed to entice the merchants to resort to his own kingdom, refused to permit his coming, and gave the superintendence of the natives to a person named Nina Chetuan.

1514.

After some years had elapsed, at the time when Jorge Alboquerque was governor of Malacca, this king (Abdallah by name) persisting in his views, paid him a visit, and was honourably received. At his departure he had assurances given him of liberty to establish himself at Malacca, if he should think proper, and Nina Chetuan was shortly afterwards removed from his office, though no fault was alleged against him. He took the disgrace so much to heart that, causing a pile to be erected before his door, and setting fire to it, he threw himself into the flames.*

(*Footnote. This man was not a Mahometan but one of the unconverted natives of the peninsula who are always distinguished from the Moors by the Portuguese writers.)

The intention of appointing Abdallah to the office of bandhara was quickly rumoured abroad, and, coming to the knowledge of the king of Bintang, who was driven from Malacca and now carried on a vigorous war against the Portuguese, under the command of the famous Laksamana, he resolved to prevent his arrival there. For this purpose he leagued himself with the king of Lingga, a neighbouring island, and sent out a fleet of seventy armed boats to block up the port of Kampar. By the valour of a small Portuguese armament this force was overcome in the river of that name, and the king conducted in triumph to Malacca, where he was invested in form with the important post he aspired to. But this sacrifice of his independence proved an unfortunate measure to him; for although he conducted himself in such a manner as should have given the amplest satisfaction, and appears to have been irreproachable in the execution of his trust, yet in the following year the king of Bintang found means to inspire the governor with diffidence of his fidelity, and jealousy of his power.

1515.

He was cruelly sentenced to death without the simplest forms of justice and perished in the presence of an indignant multitude, whilst he called heaven to witness his innocence and direct its vengeance against his interested accusers. This iniquitous and impolitic proceeding had such an effect upon the minds of the people that all of any property or repute forsook the place, execrating the government of the Portuguese. The consequences of this general odium reduced them to extreme difficulties for provisions, which the neighbouring countries refused to supply them with, and but for some grain at length procured from Siak with much trouble the event had proved fatal to the garrison.

1516.

Fernando Perez d’Andrade, in his way to China, touched at Pase in order to take in pepper. He found the people of the place, as well as the merchants from Bengal, Cambay, and other parts of India, much discontented with the measures then pursuing by the government of Malacca, which had stationed an armed force to oblige all vessels to resort thither with their merchandise and take in at that place, as an emporium, the cargoes they were used to collect in the straits. The king notwithstanding received Andrade well, and consented that the Portuguese should have liberty to erect a fortress in his kingdom.

1520.

Extraordinary accounts having been related of certain islands abounding in gold, which were reported by the general fame of India to lie off the southern coast of Sumatra, a ship and small brigantine, under the command of Diogo Pacheco, an experienced seaman, were sent in order to make the discovery of them. Having proceeded as far as Daya the brigantine was lost in a gale of wind. Pacheco stood on to Barus, a place renowned for its gold trade, and for gum benzoin of a peculiar scent, which the country produced. It was much frequented by vessels, both from the neighbouring ports in the island, and from those in the West of India, whence it was supplied with cotton cloths. The merchants, terrified at the approach of the Portuguese, forsook their ships and fled precipitately to the shore. The chiefs of the country sent to inquire the motives of his visit, which he informed them were to establish friendly connexions and to give them assurances of unmolested freedom of trade at the city of Malacca. Refreshments were then ordered for his fleet, and upon landing he was treated with respect by the inhabitants, who brought the articles of their country to exchange with him for merchandise. His chief view was to obtain information respecting the situation and other circumstances of the ilhas d’Ouro, but they seemed jealous of imparting any. At length, after giving him a laboured detail of the dangers attending the navigation of the seas where they were said to lie, they represented their situation to be distant a hundred leagues to the south-east of Barus, amidst labyrinths of shoals and reefs through which it was impossible to steer with any but the smallest boats. If these islands, so celebrated about this time, existed anywhere but in the regions of fancy,* they were probably those of Tiku, to which it is possible that much gold might be brought from the neighbouring country of Menangkabau. Pacheco, leaving Barus, proceeded to the southward, but did not make the wished-for discovery. He reached the channel that divides Sumatra from Java, which he called the strait of Polimban, from a city he erroneously supposed to lie on the Javan shore, and passing through this returned to Malacca by the east; being the first European who sailed round the island of Sumatra. In the following year he sailed once more in search of these islands, which were afterwards the object of many fruitless voyages; but touching again at Barus he met with resistance there and perished with all his companions.

(*Footnote. Linschoten makes particular mention of having seen them, and gives practical directions for the navigation, but the golden dreams of the Portuguese were never realized in them.)

A little before this time a ship under the command of Gaspar d’Acosta was lost on the island of Gamispola (Pulo Gomez) near Achin Head, when the people from Achin attacked and plundered the crew, killing many and taking the rest prisoners. A ship also which belonged to Joano de Lima was plundered in the road, and the Portuguese which belonged to her put to death. These insults and others committed at Pase induced the governor of Malacca, Garcia de Sa, to dispatch a vessel under Manuel Pacheco to take satisfaction; which he endeavoured to effect by blocking up the ports, and depriving the towns of all sources of provision, particularly their fisheries. As he cruised between Achin and Pase a boat with five men, going to take in fresh water at a river nigh to the latter, would have been cut off had not the people, by wonderful efforts of valour, overcome the numerous party which attacked them. The sultan, alarmed for the consequences of this affray, sent immediately to sue for reconciliation, offering to make atonement for the loss of property the merchants had sustained by the licentiousness of his people, from a participation in whose crimes he sought to vindicate himself. The advantage derived from the connexion with this place induced the government of Malacca to be satisfied with his apology, and cargoes of pepper and raw silk were shortly after procured there; the former being much wanted for the ships bound to China.

Jeinal, who had fled to the king of Malacca, as before mentioned, followed that monarch to the island of Bintang, and received one of his daughters in marriage. Six or seven years elapsed before the situation of affairs enabled the king to lend him any effectual assistance, but at length some advantages gained over the Portuguese afforded a proper opportunity, and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, with which Jeinal sailed for Pase. In order to form a judgment of the transactions of this kingdom it must be understood that the people, having an idea of predestination, always conceived present possession to constitute right, however that possession might have been acquired; but yet they made no scruple of deposing and murdering their sovereigns, and justified their acts by this argument; that the fate of concerns so important as the lives of kings was in the hands of God, whose vicegerents they were, and that if it was not agreeable to him and the consequence of his will that they should perish by the daggers of their subjects it could not so happen. Thus it appears that their religious ideas were just strong enough to banish from their minds every moral sentiment. The natural consequence of these maxims was that their kings were merely the tyrants of the day; and it is said that whilst a certain ship remained in the port no less than two were murdered, and a third set up: but allowance should perhaps be made for the medium through which these accounts have been transmitted to us.

The maternal uncle of Jeinal, who, on account of his father’s infirmities, had been some time regent, and had deprived him of the succession to the throne, was also king of Aru or Rou, a country not far distant, and thus became monarch of both places. The caprices of the Pase people, who submitted quietly to his usurpation, rendered them ere long discontented with his government, and being a stranger they had the less compunction in putting him to death. Another king was set up in his room, who soon fell by the hands of some natives of Aru who resided at Pase, in revenge for the assassination of their countryman.

1519.

A fresh monarch was elected by the people, and in his reign it was that Jeinal appeared with a force from Bintang, who, carrying everything before him, put his rival to death, and took possession of the throne. The son of the deceased, a youth of about twelve years of age, made his escape, accompanied by the Mulana or chief priest of the city, and procured a conveyance to the west of India. There they threw themselves at the feet of the Portuguese governor, Lopez Sequeira, then engaged in an expedition to the Red Sea, imploring his aid to drive the invader from their country, and to establish the young prince in his rights, who would thenceforth consider himself as a vassal of the crown of Portugal. It was urged that Jeinal, as being nearly allied to the king of Bintang, was an avowed enemy to that nation, which he had manifested in some recent outrages committed against the merchants from Malacca who traded at Pase. Sequeira, partly from compassion, and partly from political motives, resolved to succour this prince, and by placing him on the throne establish a firm interest in the affairs of his kingdom. He accordingly gave orders to Jorge Alboquerque, who was then proceeding with a strong fleet towards Malacca, to take the youth with him, whose name was Orfacam,* and after having expelled Jeinal to put him in possession of the sovereignty.

(*Footnote. Evidently corrupted, as are most of the country names and titles, which shows that the Portuguese were not at this period much conversant in the Malayan language.)

When Jeinal entered upon the administration of the political concerns of the kingdom, although he had promised his father-in-law to carry on the war in concert with him, yet, being apprehensive of the effects of the Portuguese power, he judged it more for his interest to seek a reconciliation with them than to provoke their resentment, and in pursuance of that system had so far recommended himself to Garcia de Sa, the governor of Malacca, that he formed a treaty of alliance with him. This was however soon interrupted, and chiefly by the imprudence of a man named Diogo Vaz, who made use of such insulting language to the king, because he delayed payment of a sum of money he owed him, that the courtiers, seized with indignation, immediately stabbed him with their krises, and, the alarm running through the city, others of the Portuguese were likewise murdered. The news of this affair, reaching Goa, was an additional motive for the resolution taken of dethroning him.

1521.

Jorge d’Alboquerque arrived at Pase in 1521 with Prince Orfacam, and the inhabitants came off in great numbers to welcome his return. The king of Aru had brought thither a considerable force the preceding day, designing to take satisfaction for the murder of his relation, the uncle of Jeinal, and now proposed to Alboquerque that they should make the attack in conjunction, who thought proper to decline it. Jeinal, although he well knew the intention of the enemy, yet sent a friendly message to Alboquerque, who in answer required him to relinquish his crown in favour of him whom he styled the lawful prince. He then represented to him the injustice of attempting to force him from the possession of what was his, not only by right of conquest but of hereditary descent, as was well known to the governor himself; that he was willing to consider himself as the vassal of the king of Portugal, and to grant every advantage in point of trade that they could expect from the administration of his rival; and that since his obtaining the crown he had manifested the utmost friendship to the Portuguese, for which he appealed to the treaty formed with him by the government of Malacca, which was not disturbed by any fault that could in justice be imputed to himself. These arguments, like all others that pass between states which harbour inimical designs, had no effect upon Alboquerque, who, after reconnoitring the ground, gave orders for the attack. The king was now sensible that there was nothing left for him but to conquer or die, and resolved to defend himself to extremity in an entrenchment he had formed at some distance from the town of Pase, where he had never yet ventured to reside as the people were in general incensed against him on account of the destruction of the late king of their choice; for though they were ever ready to demolish those whom they disliked, yet were they equally zealous to sacrifice their own lives in the cause of those to whom they were attached. The Portuguese force consisted but of three hundred men, yet such was the superiority they possessed in war over the inhabitants of these countries that they entirely routed Jeinal’s army, which amounted to three thousand, with many elephants, although they fought bravely. When he fell they became dispirited, and, the people of Aru joining in the pursuit, a dreadful slaughter succeeded, and upwards of two thousand Sumatrans lay dead, with the loss of only five or six Europeans; but several were wounded, among whom was Alboquerque himself.

The next measure was to place the young prince upon the throne, which was performed with much ceremony. The mulana was appointed his governor, and Nina Cunapan, who in several instances had shown a friendship for the Portuguese, was continued in the office of Shabandar. It was stipulated that the prince should do homage to the crown of Portugal, give a grant of the whole produce of pepper of his country at a certain price, and defray the charges of a fortress which they then prepared to erect in his kingdom, and of which Miranda d’Azeuedo was appointed captain, with a garrison of a hundred soldiers. The materials were mostly timber, with which the ruins of Jeinal’s entrenchment supplied them. After Alboquerque’s departure the works had nearly fallen into the hands of an enemy, named Melek-el-adil, who called himself sultan of Pase and made several desultory attacks upon them; but he was at length totally routed, and the fortifications were completed without further molestation.

1521.

A fleet which sailed from the west of India a short time after that of Alboquerque, under the command of Jorge de Brito, anchored in the road of Achin, in their way to the Molucca Islands. There was at this time at that place a man of the name of Joano Borba, who spoke the language of the country, having formerly fled thither from Pase when Diogo Vaz was assassinated. Being afterwards intrusted with the command of a trading vessel from Goa, which foundered at sea, he again reached Achin, with nine men in a small boat, and was hospitably received by the king, when he learned that the ship had been destined to his port. Borba came off to the fleet along with a messenger sent by the king to welcome the commander and offer him refreshments for his fleet, and, being a man of extraordinary loquacity, he gave a pompous description to Brito of a temple in the country in which was deposited a large quantity of gold: he mentioned likewise that the king was in possession of the artillery and merchandise of Gaspar d’Acosta’s vessel, some time since wrecked there; and also of the goods saved from a brigantine driven on shore at Daya, in Pacheco’s expedition; as well as of Joano de Lima’s ship, which he had caused to be cut off. Brito, being tempted by the golden prize, which he conceived already in his power, and inflamed by Borba’s representation of the king’s iniquities, sent a message in return to demand the restitution of the artillery, ship, and goods, which had been unlawfully seized. The king replied that, if he wanted those articles to be refunded, he must make his demand to the sea which had swallowed them up. Brito and his captains now resolved to proceed to an attack upon the place, and so secure did they make themselves of their prey that they refused permission to a ship lately arrived, and which did not belong to their squadron, to join them or participate in the profits of their adventure. They prepared to land two hundred men in small boats; a larger, with a more considerable detachment and their artillery, being ordered to follow. About daybreak they had proceeded halfway up the river, and came near to a little fort designed to defend the passage, where Brito thought it advisable to stop till the remainder of their force should join them; but, being importuned by his people, he advanced to make himself master of the fort, which was readily effected. Here he again resolved to make his stand, but by the imprudence of his ensign, who had drawn some of the party into a skirmish with the Achinese, he was forced to quit that post in order to save his colours, which were in danger. At this juncture the king appeared at the head of eight hundred or a thousand men, and six elephants. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Portuguese received considerable injury. Brito sent orders for the party he had left to come up, and endeavoured to retreat to the fort, but he found himself so situated that it could not be executed without much loss, and presently after he received a wound from an arrow through the cheeks. No assistance arriving, it was proposed that they should retire in the best manner they could to their boats; but this Brito would not consent to, preferring death to flight, and immediately a lance pierced his thighs, and he fell to the ground. The Portuguese, rendered desperate, renewed the combat with redoubled vigour, all crowding to the spot where their commander lay, but their exertions availed them nothing against such unequal force, and they only rushed on to sacrifice. Almost every man was killed, and among these were near fifty persons of family who had embarked as volunteers. Those who escaped belonged chiefly to the corps-de-reserve, who did not, or could not, come up in time to succour their unfortunate companions. Upon this merited defeat the squadron immediately weighed anchor, and, after falling in with two vessels bound on the discovery of the Ilhas d’Ouro, arrived at Pase, where they found Alboquerque employed in the construction of his fortress, and went with him to make an attack on Bintang.

STATE OF ACHIN IN 1511.

At the period when Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese Achin and Daya are said by the historians of that nation to have been provinces subject to Pidir, and governed by two slaves belonging to the sultan of that place, to each of whom he had given a niece in marriage. Slaves, it must be understood, are in that country on a different footing from those in most other parts of the world, and usually treated as children of the family. Some of them are natives of the continent of India, whom their masters employ to trade for them; allowing them a certain proportion of the profits and permission to reside in a separate quarter of the city. It frequently happened also that men of good birth, finding it necessary to obtain the protection of some person in power, became voluntary slaves for this purpose, and the nobles, being proud of such dependants, encouraged the practice by treating them with a degree of respect, and in many instances they made them their heirs. The slave of this description who held the government of Achin had two sons, the elder of whom was named Raja Ibrahim, and the younger Raja Lella, and were brought up in the house of their master. The father being old was recalled from his post; but on account of his faithful services the sultan gave the succession to his eldest son, who appears to have been a youth of an ambitious and very sanguinary temper. A jealousy had taken place between him and the chief of Daya whilst they were together at Pidir, and as soon as he came into power he resolved to seek revenge, and with that view entered in a hostile manner the district of his rival. When the sultan interposed it not only added fuel to his resentment but inspired him with hatred towards his master, and he showed his disrespect by refusing to deliver up, on the requisition of the sultan, certain Portuguese prisoners taken from a vessel lost at Pulo Gomez, and which he afterwards complied with at the intercession of the Shabandar of Pase. This conduct manifesting an intention of entirely throwing off his allegiance, his father endeavoured to recall him to a sense of his duty by representing the obligations in which the family were indebted to the sultan, and the relationship which so nearly connected them. But so far was this admonition from producing any good effect that he took offence at his father’s presumption, and ordered him to be confined in a cage, where he died.

1521.

Irritated by these acts, the sultan resolved to proceed to extremities against him; but by means of the plunder of some Portuguese vessels, as before related, and the recent defeat of Brito’s party, he became so strong in artillery and ammunition, and so much elated with success, that he set his master at defiance and prepared to defend himself. His force proved superior to that of Pidir, and in the end he obliged the sultan to fly for refuge and assistance to the European fortress at Pase, accompanied by his nephew, the chief of Daya, who was also forced from his possessions.

1522.

Ibrahim had for some time infested the Portuguese by sending out parties against them, both by sea and land; but these being always baffled in their attempts with much loss, he began to conceive a violent antipathy against that nation, which he ever after indulged to excess. He got possession of the city of Pidir by bribing the principal officers, a mode of warfare that he often found successful and seldom neglected to attempt. These he prevailed upon to write a letter to their master, couched in artful terms, in which they besought him to come to their assistance with a body of Portuguese, as the only chance of repelling the enemy by whom they pretended to be invested. The sultan showed this letter to Andre Henriquez, then governor of the fort, who, thinking it a good opportunity to chastise the Achinese, sent by sea a detachment of eighty Europeans and two hundred Malays under the command of his brother Manuel, whilst the sultan marched overland with a thousand men and fifteen elephants to the relief of the place. They arrived at Pidir in the night, but, being secretly informed that the king of Achin was master of the city, and that the demand for succour was a stratagem, they endeavoured to make their retreat; which the land troops effected, but before the tide could enable the Portuguese to get their boats afloat they were attacked by the Achinese, who killed Manuel and thirty-five of his men.

Henriquez, perceiving his situation at Pase was becoming critical, not only from the force of the enemy but the sickly state of his garrison, and the want of provisions, which the country people now withheld from him, discontinuing the fairs that they were used to keep three times in the week, dispatched advices to the governor of India, demanding immediate succours, and also sent to request assistance of the king of Aru, who had always proved the steadfast friend of Malacca, and who, though not wealthy, because his country was not a place of trade, was yet one of the most powerful princes in those parts. The king expressed his joy in having an opportunity of serving his allies, and promised his utmost aid; not only from friendship to them, but indignation against Ibrahim, whom he regarded as a rebellious slave.

1523.

A supply of stores at length arrived from India under the charge of Lopo d’Azuedo, who had orders to relieve Henriquez in the command; but, disputes having arisen between them, and chiefly on the subject of certain works which the shabandar of Pase had been permitted to erect adjoining to the fortress, d’Azuedo, to avoid coming to an open rupture, departed for Malacca. Ibrahim, having found means to corrupt the honesty of this shabandar, who had received his office from Alboquerque, gained intelligence through him of all that passed. This treason, it is supposed, he would not have yielded to but for the desperate situation of affairs. The country of Pase was now entirely in subjection to the Achinese, and nothing remained unconquered but the capital, whilst the garrison was distracted with internal divisions.

After the acquisition of Pidir the king thought it necessary to remain there some time in order to confirm his authority, and sent his brother Raja Lella with a large army to reduce the territories of Pase, which he effected in the course of three months, and with the more facility because all the principal nobility had fallen in the action with Jeinal. He fixed his camp within half a league of the city, and gave notice to Ibrahim of the state in which matters were, who speedily joined him, being anxious to render himself master of the place before the promised succours from the king of Aru could arrive. His first step was to issue a proclamation, giving notice to the people of the town that whoever should submit to his authority within six days should have their lives, families, and properties secured to them, but that all others must expect to feel the punishment due to their obstinacy. This had the effect he looked for, the greater part of the inhabitants coming over to his camp. He then commenced his military operations, and in the third attack got possession of the town after much slaughter; those who escaped his fury taking shelter in the neighbouring mountains and thick woods. He sent a message to the commander of the fortress, requiring him to abandon it and to deliver into his hands the kings of Pidir and Daya, to whom he had given protection. Henriquez returned a spirited answer to this summons, but, being sickly at the time, at best of an unsteady disposition, and too much attached to his trading concerns for a soldier, he resolved to relinquish the command to his relation Aires Coelho, and take passage for the West of India.

1523.

He had not advanced farther on his voyage than the point of Pidir, when he fell in with two Portuguese ships bound to the Moluccas, the captains of which he made acquainted with the situation of the garrison, and they immediately proceeded to its relief. Arriving in the night they heard great firing of cannon, and learned next morning that the Achinese had made a furious assault in hopes of carrying the fortress before the ships, which were descried at a distance, could throw succours into it. They had mastered some of the outworks, and the garrison represented that it was impossible for them to support such another shock without aid from the vessels. The captains, with as much force as could be spared, entered the fort, and a sally was shortly afterwards resolved on and executed, in which the besiegers sustained considerable damage. Every effort was likewise employed to repair the breaches and stop up the mines that had been made by the enemy in order to effect a passage into the place. Ibrahim now attempted to draw them into a snare by removing his camp to a distance and making a feint of abandoning his enterprise; but this stratagem proved ineffectual. Reflecting then with indignation that his own force consisted of fifteen thousand men whilst that of the Europeans did not exceed three hundred and fifty, many of whom were sick and wounded, and others worn out with the fatigue of continual duty (intelligence whereof was conveyed to him), he resolved once more to return to the siege, and make a general assault upon all parts of the fortification at once. Two hours before daybreak he caused the place to be surrounded with eight thousand men, who approached in perfect silence. The nighttime was preferred by these people for making their attacks as being then most secure from the effect of firearms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the powder would not burn. As soon as they found themselves perceived they set up a hideous shout, and, fixing their scaling ladders, made of bamboo and wonderfully light, to the number of six hundred, they attempted to force their way through the embrasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before them like a hedge, and overset all the men who were on it. Javelins and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but upon setting fire to powder under their trunks they drew back with precipitation in spite of all the efforts of their drivers, overthrew their own people, and, flying to the distance of several miles, could not again be brought into the lines. The Achinese upon receiving this check thought to take revenge by setting fire to some vessels that were in the dockyard; but this proved an unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occasioned the garrison were enabled to point their guns, and did abundant execution.

1524.

Henriquez, after beating sometime against a contrary wind, put back to Pase, and, coming on shore the day after this conflict, resumed his command. A council was soon after held to determine what measures were fittest to be pursued in the present situation of affairs, and, taking into their consideration that no further assistance could be expected from the west of India in less than six months, that the garrison was sickly and provisions short, it was resolved by a majority of votes to abandon the place, and measures were taken accordingly. In order to conceal their intentions from the enemy they ordered such of the artillery and stores as could be removed conveniently to be packed up in the form of merchandise and then shipped off. A party was left to set fire to the buildings, and trains of powder were so disposed as to lead to the larger cannon, which they overcharged that they might burst as soon as heated. But this was not effectually executed, and the pieces mostly fell into the hands of the Achinese, who upon the first alarm of the evacuation rushed in, extinguished the flames, and turned upon the Portuguese their own artillery, many of whom were killed in the water as they hurried to get into their boats. They now lost as much credit by this ill conducted retreat as they had acquired by their gallant defence, and were insulted by the reproachful shouts of the enemy, whose power was greatly increased by this acquisition of military stores, and of which they often severely experienced the effects. To render their disgrace more striking it happened that as they sailed out of the harbour they met thirty boats laden with provisions for their use from the king of Aru, who was himself on his march overland with four thousand men: and when they arrived at Malacca they found troops and stores embarked there for their relief. The unfortunate princes who had sought an asylum with them now joined in their flight; the sultan of Pase proceeded to Malacca, and the sultan of Pidir and chief of Daya took refuge with the king of Aru.

1525.

Raja Nara, king of Indragiri, in conjunction with a force from Bintang, attacked the king of a neighbouring island called Lingga, who was in friendship with the Portuguese. A message which passed on this occasion gives a just idea of the style and manners of this people. Upon their acquainting the king of Lingga, in their summons of surrender, that they had lately overcome the fleet of Malacca, he replied that his intelligence informed him of the contrary; that he had just made a festival and killed fifty goats to celebrate one defeat which they had received, and hoped soon to kill a hundred in order to celebrate a second. His expectations were fulfilled, or rather anticipated, for the Portuguese, having a knowledge of the king of Indragiri’s design, sent out a small fleet which routed the combined force before the king of Lingga was acquainted with their arrival, his capital being situated high up on the river.

1526.

In the next year, at the conquest of Bintang, this king unsolicited sent assistance to his European allies.

1527.

However well founded the accounts may have been which the Portuguese have given us of the cruelties committed against their people by the king of Achin, the barbarity does not appear to have been only on one side. Francisco de Mello, being sent in an armed vessel with dispatches to Goa, met near Achin Head with a ship of that nation just arrived from Mecca and supposed to be richly laden. As she had on board three hundred Achinese and forty Arabs he dared not venture to board her, but battered her at a distance, when suddenly she filled and sunk, to the extreme disappointment of the Portuguese, who thereby lost their prize; but they wreaked their vengeance on the unfortunate crew as they endeavoured to save themselves by swimming, and boast that they did not suffer a man to escape. Opportunities of retaliation soon offered.

1528.

Simano de Sousa, going with a reinforcement to the Moluccas from Cochin, was overtaken in the bay by a violent storm, which forced him to stow many of his guns in the hold; and, having lost several of his men through fatigue, he made for the nearest port he could take shelter in, which proved to be Achin. The king, having the destruction of the Portuguese at heart, and resolving if possible to seize their vessel, sent off a message to De Sousa recommending his standing in closer to the shore, where he would have more shelter from the gale which still continued, and lie more conveniently for getting off water and provisions, at the same time inviting him to land. This artifice not succeeding, he ordered out the next morning a thousand men in twenty boats, who at first pretended they were come to assist in mooring the ship; but the captain, aware of their hostile design, fired amongst them, when a fierce engagement took place in which the Achinese were repulsed with great slaughter, but not until they had destroyed forty of the Portuguese. The king, enraged at this disappointment, ordered a second attack, threatening to have his admiral trampled to death by elephants if he failed of success. A boat was sent ahead of this fleet with a signal of peace, and assurances to De Sousa that the king, as soon as he was made acquainted with the injury that had been committed, had caused the perpetrators of it to be punished, and now once more requested him to come on shore and trust to his honour. This proposal some of the crew were inclined that he should accept, but being animated by a speech that he made to them it was resolved that they should die with arms in their hands in preference to a disgraceful and hazardous submission. The combat was therefore renewed, with extreme fury on the one side, and uncommon efforts of courage on the other, and the assailants were a second time repulsed; but one of those who had boarded the vessel and afterwards made his escape represented to the Achinese the reduced and helpless situation of their enemy, and, fresh supplies coming off, they were encouraged to return to the attack. De Sousa and his people were at length almost all cut to pieces, and those who survived, being desperately wounded, were overpowered, and led prisoners to the king, who unexpectedly treated them with extraordinary kindness, in order to cover the designs he harboured, and pretended to lament the fate of their brave commander. He directed them to fix upon one of their companions, who should go in his name to the governor of Malacca, to desire he would immediately send to take possession of the ship, which he meant to restore, as well as to liberate them. He hoped by this artifice to draw more of the Portuguese into his power, and at the same time to effect a purpose of a political nature. A war had recently broken out between him and the king of Aru, the latter of whom had deputed ambassadors to Malacca, to solicit assistance, in return for his former services, and which was readily promised to him. It was highly the interest of the king of Achin to prevent this junction, and therefore, though determined to relax nothing in his plans of revenge, he hastened to dispatch Antonio Caldeira, one of the captives, with proposals of accommodation and alliance, offering to restore not only this vessel, but also the artillery which he had taken at Pase. These terms appeared to the governor too advantageous to be rejected. Conceiving a favourable idea of the king’s intentions, from the confidence which Caldeira, who was deceived by the humanity shown to the wounded captives, appeared to place in his sincerity, he became deaf to the representations that were made to him by more experienced persons of his insidious character. A message was sent back, agreeing to accept his friendship on the proposed conditions, and engaging to withhold the promised succours from the king of Aru. Caldeira, in his way to Achin, touched at an island, where he was cut off with those who accompanied him. The ambassadors from Aru being acquainted with this breach of faith, retired in great disgust, and the king, incensed at the ingratitude shown him, concluded a peace with Achin; but not till after an engagement between their fleets had taken place, in which the victory remained undecided.

In order that he might learn the causes of the obscurity in which his negotiations with Malacca rested, Ibrahim dispatched a secret messenger to Senaia Raja, bandhara of that city, with whom he held a correspondence; desiring also to be informed of the strength of the garrison. Hearing in answer that the governor newly arrived was inclined to think favourably of him, he immediately sent an ambassador to wait on him with assurances of his pacific and friendly disposition, who returned in company with persons empowered, on the governor’s part, to negotiate a treaty of commerce. These, upon their arrival at Achin, were loaded with favours and costly presents, the news of which quickly flew to Malacca, and, the business they came on being adjusted, they were suffered to depart; but they had not sailed far before they were overtaken by boats sent after them, and were stripped and murdered. The governor, who had heard of their setting out, concluded they were lost by accident. Intelligence of this mistaken opinion was transmitted to the king, who thereupon had the audacity to request that he might be honoured with the presence of some Portuguese of rank and consequence in his capital, to ratify in a becoming manner the articles that had been drawn up; as he ardently wished to see that nation trafficking freely in his dominions.

1529.

The deluded governor, in compliance with this request, adopted the resolution of sending thither a large ship under the command of Manuel Pacheco, with a rich cargo, the property of himself and several merchants of Malacca, who themselves embarked with the idea of making extraordinary profits. Senaia conveyed notice of this preparation to Achin, informing the king at the same time that, if he could make himself master of this vessel, Malacca must fall an easy prey to him, as the place was weakened of half its force for the equipment. When Pacheco approached the harbour he was surrounded by a great number of boats, and some of the people began to suspect treachery, but so strongly did the spirit of delusion prevail in this business that they could not persuade the captain to put himself on his guard. He soon had reason to repent his credulity. Perceiving an arrow pass close by him, he hastened to put on his coat of mail, when a second pierced his neck, and he soon expired. The vessel then became an easy prey, and the people, being made prisoners, were shortly afterwards massacred by the king’s order, along with the unfortunate remnant of De Sousa’s crew, so long flattered with the hopes of release. By this capture the king was supposed to have remained in possession of more artillery than was left in Malacca, and he immediately fitted out a fleet to take advantage of its exposed state. The pride of success causing him to imagine it already in his power, he sent a taunting message to the governor in which he thanked him for the late instances of his liberality, and let him know he should trouble him for the remainder of his naval force.

Senaia had promised to put the citadel into his hands, and this had certainly been executed but for an accident that discovered his treasonable designs. The crews of some vessels of the Achinese fleet landed on a part of the coast not far from the city, where they were well entertained by the natives, and in the openness of conviviality related the transactions which had lately passed at Achin, the correspondence of Senaia, and the scheme that was laid for rising on the Portuguese when they should be at church, murdering them, and seizing the fortress. Intelligence of this was reported with speed to the governor, who had Senaia instantly apprehended and executed. This punishment served to intimidate those among the inhabitants who were engaged in the conspiracy, and disconcerted the plans of the king of Achin.

This appears to be the last transaction of Ibrahim’s reign recorded by the Portuguese historians. His death is stated by De Barros to have taken place in the year 1528 in consequence of poison administered to him by one of his wives, to revenge the injuries her brother, the chief of Daya, had suffered at his hand. In a Malayan work (lately come into my possession) containing the annals of the kingdom of Achin, it is said that a king, whose title was sultan Saleh-eddin-shah, obtained the sovereignty in a year answering to 1511 of our era, and who, after reigning about eighteen years, was dethroned by a brother in 1529. Notwithstanding some apparent discordance between the two accounts there can be little doubt of the circumstances applying to the same individual, as it may well be presumed that, according to the usual practice in the East, he adopted upon ascending the throne a title different from the name which he had originally borne, although that might continue to be his more familiar appellation, especially in the mouths of his enemies. The want of precise coincidence in the dates cannot be thought an objection, as the event not falling under the immediate observation of the Portuguese they cannot pretend to accuracy within a few months, and even their account of the subsequent transactions renders it more probable that it happened in 1529; nor are the facts of his being dethroned by the brother, or put to death by the sister, materially at variance with each other; and the latter circumstance, whether true or false, might naturally enough be reported at Malacca.

1529.

His successor took the name of Ala-eddin-shah, and afterwards, from his great enterprises, acquired the additional epithet of keher or the powerful. By the Portuguese he is said to have styled himself king of Achin, Barus, Pidir, Pase, Daya, and Batta, prince of the land of the two seas, and of the mines of Menangkabau.

1537.

Nothing is recorded of his reign until the year 1537, in which he twice attacked Malacca. The first time he sent an army of three thousand men who landed near the city by night, unperceived by the garrison, and, having committed some ravages in the suburbs, were advancing to the bridge, when the governor, Estavano de Gama, sallied out with a party and obliged them to retreat for shelter to the woods. Here they defended themselves during the next day, but on the following night they re-embarked, with the loss of five hundred men. A few months afterwards the king had the place invested with a larger force; but in the interval the works had been repaired and strengthened, and after three days ineffectual attempt the Achinese were again constrained to retire.

1547.

In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder, the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.

Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.

1556.

The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.

1565.

He was succeeded by sultan Hussein­shah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.

1567.

His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.

1567.

The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.

1568.

In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword. It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.

1568

 

Fatahillah (1568-1570)

Kekosongan pemegang kekuasaan itu kemudian diisi dengan mengukuhkan pejabat keraton yang selama Sunan Gunung Jati melaksanakan tugas dakwah, pemerintahan dijabat oleh Fatahillah atau Fadillah Khan.

Fatahillah kemudian naik takhta, dan memerintah Cirebon secara resmi menjadi raja sejak tahun 1568. Fatahillah menduduki takhta kerajaan Cirebon hanya berlangsung dua tahun karena ia meninggal dunia pada tahun 1570, dua tahun setelah Sunan Gunung Jati wafat dan dimakamkan berdampingan dengan makam Sunan Gunung Jati di Gedung Jinem Astana Gunung Sembung.

Panembahan Ratu I (1570-1649)

Sepeninggal Fatahillah, oleh karena tidak ada calon lain yang layak menjadi raja, takhta kerajaan jatuh kepada cucu Sunan Gunung Jati yaitu Pangeran Emas putra tertua Pangeran Dipati Carbon atau cicit Sunan Gunung Jati. Pangeran Emas kemudian bergelar Panembahan Ratu I dan memerintah Cirebon selama kurang lebih 79 tahun.

1649

Panembahan Ratu II (1649-1677)

Setelah Panembahan Ratu I meninggal dunia pada tahun 1649, pemerintahan Kesultanan Cirebon dilanjutkan oleh cucunya yang bernama Pangeran Rasmi atau Pangeran Karim, karena ayah Pangeran Rasmi yaitu Pangeran Seda ing Gayam atau Panembahan Adiningkusumah meninggal lebih dahulu. Pangeran Rasmi kemudian menggunakan nama gelar ayahnya almarhum yakni Panembahan Adiningkusuma yang kemudian dikenal pula dengan sebutan Panembahan Girilaya atau Panembahan Ratu II.

Panembahan Girilaya pada masa pemerintahannya terjepit di antara dua kekuatan kekuasaan, yaitu Kesultanan Banten dan Kesultanan Mataram. Banten merasa curiga sebab Cirebon dianggap lebih mendekat ke Mataram (Amangkurat I adalah mertua Panembahan Girilaya). Mataram dilain pihak merasa curiga bahwa Cirebon tidak sungguh-sungguh mendekatkan diri, karena Panembahan Girilaya dan Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa dari Banten adalah sama-sama keturunan Pajajaran. Kondisi ini memuncak dengan meninggalnya Panembahan Girilaya di Kartasura dan ditahannya Pangeran Martawijaya dan Pangeran Kartawijaya di Mataram.

Panembahan Girilaya adalah menantu Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo dari Kerajaan Mataram (Islam). Makamnya di Jogjakarta, di bukit Giriloyo, dekat dengan makam raja raja Mataram di Imogiri. Menurut beberapa sumber di Imogiri maupun Giriloyo, tinggi makam Panembahan Giriloyo adalah sejajar dengan makam Sultan Agung di Imogiri.

1677

Terpecahnya Kesultanan Cirebon

Dengan kematian Panembahan Girilaya, maka terjadi kekosongan penguasa. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa segera menobatkan Pangeran Wangsakerta sebagai pengganti Panembahan Girilaya, atas tanggung jawab pihak Banten. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa kemudian mengirimkan pasukan dan kapal perang untuk membantu Trunojoyo, yang saat itu sedang memerangi Amangkurat I dari Mataram. Dengan bantuan Trunojoyo, maka kedua putra Panembahan Girilaya yang ditahan akhirnya dapat dibebaskan dan dibawa kembali ke Cirebon untuk kemudian juga dinobatkan sebagai penguasa Kesultanan Cirebon.

Perpecahan  Cirebon I (1677)

Pembagian pertama terhadap Kesultanan Cirebon, dengan demikian terjadi pada masa penobatan tiga orang putra Panembahan Girilaya, yaitu Sultan Sepuh, Sultan Anom, dan Panembahan Cirebon pada tahun 1677. Ini merupakan babak baru bagi keraton Cirebon, dimana kesultanan terpecah menjadi tiga dan masing-masing berkuasa dan menurunkan para sultan berikutnya. Dengan demikian, para penguasa Kesultanan Cirebon berikutnya adalah:

  • Sultan Keraton Kasepuhan, Pangeran Martawijaya, dengan gelar Sultan Sepuh Abil Makarimi Muhammad Samsudin (1677-1703)
  • Sultan Kanoman, Pangeran Kartawijaya, dengan gelar Sultan Anom Abil Makarimi Muhammad Badrudin (1677-1723)
  • Pangeran Wangsakerta, sebagai Panembahan Cirebon dengan gelar Pangeran Abdul Kamil Muhammad Nasarudin atau Panembahan Tohpati (1677-1713).

Perubahan gelar dari Panembahan menjadi Sultan bagi dua putra tertua Pangeran Girilaya ini dilakukan oleh Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, karena keduanya dilantik menjadi Sultan Cirebon di ibukota Banten. Sebagai sultan, mereka mempunyai wilayah kekuasaan penuh, rakyat, dan keraton masing-masing. Pangeran Wangsakerta tidak diangkat menjadi sultan melainkan hanya Panembahan. Ia tidak memiliki wilayah kekuasaan atau keraton sendiri, akan tetapi berdiri sebagai kaprabonan (paguron), yaitu tempat belajar para intelektual keraton. Dalam tradisi kesultanan di Cirebon, suksesi kekuasaan sejak tahun 1677 berlangsung sesuai dengan tradisi keraton, di mana seorang sultan akan menurunkan takhtanya kepada anak laki-laki tertua dari permaisurinya. Jika tidak ada, akan dicari cucu atau cicitnya. Jika terpaksa, maka orang lain yang dapat memangku jabatan itu sebagai pejabat sementara.

Perpecahan Cirebon II (1807)

Suksesi para sultan selanjutnya pada umumnya berjalan lancar, sampai pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Anom IV (1798-1803), dimana terjadi perpecahan karena salah seorang putranya, yaitu Pangeran Raja Kanoman, ingin memisahkan diri membangun kesultanan sendiri dengan nama Kesultanan Kacirebonan.

Kehendak Pangeran Raja Kanoman didukung oleh pemerintah Kolonial Belanda dengan keluarnya besluit (Bahasa Belanda: surat keputusan) Gubernur-Jendral Hindia Belanda yang mengangkat Pangeran Raja Kanoman menjadi Sultan Carbon Kacirebonan tahun 1807 dengan pembatasan bahwa putra dan para penggantinya tidak berhak atas gelar sultan, cukup dengan gelar pangeran. Sejak itu di Kesultanan Cirebon bertambah satu penguasa lagi, yaitu Kesultanan Kacirebonan, pecahan dari Kesultanan Kanoman. Sementara tahta Sultan Kanoman V jatuh pada putra Sultan Anom IV yang lain bernama Sultan Anom Abusoleh Imamuddin (1803-1811).

1906

Masa kolonial dan kemerdekaan

Sesudah kejadian tersebut, pemerintah Kolonial Belanda pun semakin dalam ikut campur dalam mengatur Cirebon, sehingga semakin surutlah peranan dari keraton-keraton Kesultanan Cirebon di wilayah-wilayah kekuasaannya. Puncaknya terjadi pada tahun-tahun 1906 dan 1926, dimana kekuasaan pemerintahan Kesultanan Cirebon secara resmi dihapuskan dengan disahkannya Gemeente Cheirebon (Kota Cirebon), yang mencakup luas 1.100 Hektar, dengan penduduk sekitar 20.000 jiwa (Stlb. 1906 No. 122 dan Stlb. 1926 No. 370). Tahun 1942, Kota Cirebon kembali diperluas menjadi 2.450 hektar.

Pada masa kemerdekaan, wilayah Kesultanan Cirebon menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Secara umum, wilayah Kesultanan Cirebon tercakup dalam Kota Cirebon dan Kabupaten Cirebon, yang secara administratif masing-masing dipimpin oleh pejabat pemerintah Indonesia yaitu walikota dan bupati.

Perkembangan terakhir

Setelah masa kemerdekaan Indonesia, Kesultanan Cirebon tidak lagi merupakan pusat dari pemerintahan dan pengembangan agama Islam. Meskipun demikian keraton-keraton yang ada tetap menjalankan perannya sebagai pusat kebudayaan masyarakat khususnya di wilayah Cirebon dan sekitarnya. Kesultanan Cirebon turut serta dalam berbagai upacara dan perayaan adat masyarakat dan telah beberapa kali ambil bagian dalam Festival Keraton Nusantara (FKN).

Umumnya, Keraton Kasepuhan sebagai istana Sultan Sepuh dianggap yang paling penting karena merupakan keraton tertua yang berdiri tahun 1529, sedangkan Keraton Kanoman sebagai istana Sultan Anom berdiri tahun 1622, dan yang terkemudian adalah Keraton Kacirebonan dan Keraton Kaprabonan.

Pada awal bulan Maret 2003, telah terjadi konflik internal di keraton Kanoman, antara Pangeran Raja Muhammad Emirudin dan Pangeran Elang Muhammad Saladin, untuk pengangkatan tahta Sultan Kanoman XII. Pelantikan kedua sultan ini diperkirakan menimbulkan perpecahan di kalangan kerabat keraton tersebut.

Kerajaan Islam di Maluku

Kerajaan Gapi atau yang kemudian lebih dikenal sebagai Kesultanan Ternate (mengikuti nama ibukotanya) adalah salah satu dari 4 kerajaan Islam di Maluku dan merupakan salah satu kerajaan Islam tertua di nusantara. Didirikan oleh Baab Mashur Malamo pada 1257. Kesultanan Ternate memiliki peran penting di kawasan timur nusantara antara abad ke-13 hingga abad ke-17. Kesultanan Ternate menikmati kegemilangan di paruh abad ke -16 berkat perdagangan rempah-rempah dan kekuatan militernya. Di masa jaya kekuasaannya membentang mencakup wilayah Maluku, Sulawesi utara, timur dan tengah, bagian selatan kepulauan Filipina hingga sejauh kepulauan Marshall di pasifik.

Asal Usul

Pulau Gapi (kini Ternate) mulai ramai di awal abad ke-13, penduduk Ternate awal merupakan warga eksodus dari Halmahera. Awalnya di Ternate terdapat 4 kampung yang masing – masing dikepalai oleh seorang momole (kepala marga), merekalah yang pertama – tama mengadakan hubungan dengan para pedagang yang datang dari segala penjuru mencari rempah – rempah. Penduduk Ternate semakin heterogen dengan bermukimnya pedagang Arab, Jawa, Melayu dan Tionghoa. Oleh karena aktivitas perdagangan yang semakin ramai ditambah ancaman yang sering datang dari para perompak maka atas prakarsa momole Guna pemimpin Tobona diadakan musyawarah untuk membentuk suatu organisasi yang lebih kuat dan mengangkat seorang pemimpin tunggal sebagai raja.

Tahun 1257 momole Ciko pemimpin Sampalu terpilih dan diangkat sebagai Kolano (raja) pertama dengan gelar Baab Mashur Malamo (1257-1272). Kerajaan Gapi berpusat di kampung Ternate, yang dalam perkembangan selanjutnya semakin besar dan ramai sehingga oleh penduduk disebut juga sebagai “Gam Lamo” atau kampung besar (belakangan orang menyebut Gam Lamo dengan Gamalama). Semakin besar dan populernya Kota Ternate, sehingga kemudian orang lebih suka mengatakan kerajaan Ternate daripada kerajaan Gapi. Di bawah pimpinan beberapa generasi penguasa berikutnya, Ternate berkembang dari sebuah kerajaan yang hanya berwilayahkan sebuah pulau kecil menjadi kerajaan yang berpengaruh dan terbesar di bagian timur Indonesia khususnya Maluku.

Organisasi kerajaan

Di masa – masa awal suku Ternate dipimpin oleh para momole. Setelah membentuk kerajaan jabatan pimpinan dipegang seorang raja yang disebut Kolano. Mulai pertengahan abad ke-15, Islam diadopsi secara total oleh kerajaan dan penerapan syariat Islam diberlakukan. Sultan Zainal Abidin meninggalkan gelar Kolano dan menggantinya dengan gelar Sultan. Para ulama menjadi figur penting dalam kerajaan.

Setelah Sultan sebagai pemimpin tertinggi, ada jabatan Jogugu (perdana menteri) dan Fala Raha sebagai para penasihat. Fala Raha atau Empat Rumah adalah empat klan bangsawan yang menjadi tulang punggung kesultanan sebagai representasi para momole di masa lalu, masing – masing dikepalai seorang Kimalaha. Mereka antara lain ; Marasaoli, Tomagola, Tomaito dan Tamadi. Pejabat – pejabat tinggi kesultanan umumnya berasal dari klan – klan ini. Bila seorang sultan tak memiliki pewaris maka penerusnya dipilih dari salah satu klan. Selanjutnya ada jabatan – jabatan lain Bobato Nyagimoi se Tufkange (Dewan 18), Sabua Raha, Kapita Lau, Salahakan, Sangaji dll. Untuk lebih jelasnya lihat Struktur organisasi kesultanan Ternate.

Moloku Kie Raha

Selain Ternate, di Maluku juga terdapat paling tidak 5 kerajaan lain yang memiliki pengaruh. Tidore, Jailolo, Bacan, Obi dan Loloda. Kerajaan – kerajaan ini merupakan saingan Ternate memperebutkan hegemoni di Maluku. Berkat perdagangan rempah Ternate menikmati pertumbuhan ekonomi yang mengesankan, dan untuk memperkuat hegemoninya di Maluku Ternate mulai melakukan ekspansi. Hal ini menimbulkan antipati dan memperbesar kecemburuan kerajaan lain di Maluku, mereka memandang Ternate sebagai musuh bersama hingga memicu terjadinya perang. Demi menghentikan konflik yang berlarut – larut, raja Ternate ke-7 Kolano Cili Aiya atau disebut juga Kolano Sida Arif Malamo (1322-1331) mengundang raja – raja Maluku yang lain untuk berdamai dan bermusyawarah membentuk persekutuan. Persekutuan ini kemudian dikenal sebagai Persekutan Moti atau Motir Verbond. Butir penting dari pertemuan ini selain terjalinnya persekutuan adalah penyeragaman bentuk kelembagaan kerajaan di Maluku. Oleh karena pertemuan ini dihadiri 4 raja Maluku yang terkuat maka disebut juga sebagai persekutuan Moloku Kie Raha (Empat Gunung Maluku).

Kedatangan Islam

Tak ada sumber yang jelas mengenai kapan awal kedatangan Islam di Maluku khususnya Ternate. Namun diperkirakan sejak awal berdirinya kerajaan Ternate masyarakat Ternate telah mengenal Islam mengingat banyaknya pedagang Arab yang telah bermukim di Ternate kala itu. Beberapa raja awal Ternate sudah menggunakan nama bernuansa Islam namun kepastian mereka maupun keluarga kerajaan memeluk Islam masih diperdebatkan. Hanya dapat dipastikan bahwa keluarga kerajaan Ternate resmi memeluk Islam pertengahan abad ke-15.

Kolano Marhum (1465-1486),

penguasa Ternate ke-18 adalah raja pertama yang diketahui memeluk Islam bersama seluruh kerabat dan pejabat istana. Pengganti Kolano Marhum adalah puteranya, Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Beberapa langkah yang diambil Sultan Zainal Abidin adalah meninggalkan gelar Kolano dan menggantinya dengan Sultan, Islam diakui sebagai agama resmi kerajaan, syariat Islam diberlakukan, membentuk lembaga kerajaan sesuai hukum Islam dengan melibatkan para ulama. Langkah-langkahnya ini kemudian diikuti kerajaan lain di Maluku secara total, hampir tanpa perubahan. Ia juga mendirikan madrasah yang pertama di Ternate. Sultan Zainal Abidin pernah memperdalam ajaran Islam dengan berguru pada Sunan Giri di pulau Jawa, disana beliau dikenal sebagai “Sultan Bualawa” (Sultan Cengkih).

 

1500

Kedatangan Portugis dan perang saudara

Di masa pemerintahan Sultan Bayanullah (1500-1521), Ternate semakin berkembang, rakyatnya diwajibkan berpakaian secara islami, teknik pembuatan perahu dan senjata yang diperoleh dari orang Arab dan Turki digunakan untuk memperkuat pasukan Ternate. Di masa ini pula datang orang Eropa pertama di Maluku, Loedwijk de Bartomo (Ludovico Varthema) tahun 1506. Tahun 1512 Portugis untuk pertama kalinya menginjakkan kaki di Ternate dibawah pimpinan Fransisco Serrao, atas persetujuan Sultan, Portugis diizinkan mendirikan pos dagang di Ternate. Portugis datang bukan semata – mata untuk berdagang melainkan untuk menguasai perdagangan rempah – rempah Pala dan Cengkih di Maluku. Untuk itu terlebih dulu mereka harus menaklukkan Ternate. Sultan Bayanullah wafat meninggalkan pewaris – pewaris yang masih sangat belia. Janda sultan, permaisuri Nukila dan Pangeran Taruwese, adik almarhum sultan bertindak sebagai wali. Permaisuri Nukila yang asal Tidore bermaksud menyatukan Ternate dan Tidore dibawah satu mahkota yakni salah satu dari kedua puteranya, pangeran Hidayat (kelak Sultan Dayalu) dan pangeran Abu Hayat (kelak Sultan Abu Hayat II). Sementara pangeran Tarruwese menginginkan tahta bagi dirinya sendiri. Portugis memanfaatkan kesempatan ini dan mengadu domba keduanya hingga pecah perang saudara. Kubu permaisuri Nukila didukung Tidore sedangkan pangeran Taruwese didukung Portugis. Setelah meraih kemenangan pangeran Taruwese justru dikhianati dan dibunuh Portugis. Gubernur Portugis bertindak sebagai penasihat kerajaan dan dengan pengaruh yang dimiliki berhasil membujuk dewan kerajaan untuk mengangkat pangeran Tabariji sebagai sultan. Tetapi ketika Sultan Tabariji mulai menunjukkan sikap bermusuhan, ia difitnah dan dibuang ke Goa – India.

Disana ia dipaksa Portugis untuk menandatangani perjanjian menjadikan Ternate sebagai kerajaan Kristen dan vasal kerajaan Portugis, namun perjanjian itu ditolak mentah-mentah Sultan Khairun (1534-1570).

 

 

Kesultanan Bacan

1521

Kesultanan Bacan adalah suatu kerajaan yang berpusat di Pulau Bacan, Kepulauan Maluku. Raja Bacan pertama yang memeluk Islam adalah Raja Zainulabidin yang bersyahadat pada tahun 1521. Meski berada di Maluku, wilayahnya cukup luas hingga ke wilayah Papua. Banyak kepala suku di wilayah Waigeo, Misool dan beberapa daerah lain yang berada di bawah administrasi pemerintahan kerajaan Bacan.

 

1569.

In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca.

The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.

It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.

1570

Pengusiran Portugis

Perlakuan Portugis terhadap saudara – saudaranya membuat Sultan Khairun geram dan bertekad mengusir Portugis dari Maluku. Tindak – tanduk bangsa barat yang satu ini juga menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat yang akhirnya berdiri di belakang sultan Khairun. Sejak masa sultan Bayanullah, Ternate telah menjadi salah satu dari tiga kesultanan terkuat dan pusat Islam utama di Nusantara abad ke-16 selain Aceh dan Demak setelah kejatuhan kesultanan Malaka tahun 1511. Ketiganya membentuk Tripple Alliance untuk membendung sepak terjang Portugis di Nusantara.

 

1570

Tak ingin menjadi Malaka kedua, sultan Khairun mengobarkan perang pengusiran Portugis. Kedudukan Portugis kala itu sudah sangat kuat, selain memiliki benteng dan kantong kekuatan di seluruh Maluku mereka juga memiliki sekutu – sekutu suku pribumi yang bisa dikerahkan untuk menghadang Ternate. Dengan adanya Aceh dan Demak yang terus mengancam kedudukan Portugis di Malaka,

Portugis di Maluku kesulitan mendapat bala bantuan hingga terpaksa memohon damai kepada sultan Khairun.

Secara licik Gubernur Portugis, Lopez de Mesquita mengundang Sultan Khairun ke meja perundingan dan akhirnya dengan kejam membunuh Sultan yang datang tanpa pengawalnya.

Pembunuhan Sultan Khairun semakin mendorong rakyat Ternate untuk menyingkirkan Portugis, bahkan seluruh Maluku kini mendukung kepemimpinan dan perjuangan Sultan Baabullah (1570-1583), pos-pos Portugis di seluruh Maluku dan wilayah timur Indonesia digempur, setelah peperangan selama 5 tahun, akhirnya Portugis meninggalkan Maluku untuk selamanya tahun 1575. Kemenangan rakyat Ternate ini merupakan kemenangan pertama putera-putera nusantara atas kekuatan barat.

Dibawah pimpinan Sultan Baabullah, Ternate mencapai puncak kejayaan, wilayah membentang dari Sulawesi Utara dan Tengah di bagian barat hingga kepulauan Marshall dibagian timur, dari Philipina (Selatan) dibagian utara hingga kepulauan Nusa Tenggara dibagian selatan. Sultan Baabullah dijuluki “penguasa 72 pulau” yang semuanya berpenghuni (sejarawan Belanda, Valentijn menuturkan secara rinci nama-nama ke-72 pulau tersebut) hingga menjadikan kesultanan Ternate sebagai kerajaan islam terbesar di Indonesia timur, disamping Aceh dan Demak yang menguasai wilayah barat dan tengah nusantara kala itu. Periode keemasaan tiga kesultanan ini selama abad 14 dan 15 entah sengaja atau tidak dikesampingkan dalam sejarah bangsa ini padahal mereka adalah pilar pertama yang membendung kolonialisme barat.

 

1580

Kedatangan Belanda

Sepeninggal Sultan Baabullah Ternate mulai melemah, Spanyol yang telah bersatu dengan Portugis tahun 1580 mencoba menguasai kembali Maluku dengan menyerang Ternate. Dengan kekuatan baru Spanyol memperkuat kedudukannya di Filipina, Ternate pun menjalin aliansi dengan Mindanao untuk menghalau Spanyol namun gagal bahkan sultan Said Barakati berhasil ditawan Spanyol dan dibuang ke Manila. Kekalahan demi kekalahan yang diderita memaksa Ternate meminta bantuan Belanda tahun 1603. Ternate akhirnya sukses menahan Spanyol namun dengan imbalan yang amat mahal. Belanda akhirnya secara perlahan-lahan menguasai Ternate, tanggal 26 Juni 1607 Sultan Ternate menandatangani kontrak monopoli VOC di Maluku sebagai imbalan bantuan Belanda melawan Spanyol. Di tahun 1607 pula Belanda membangun benteng Oranje di Ternate yang merupakan benteng pertama mereka di nusantara.

Sejak awal hubungan yang tidak sehat dan tidak seimbang antara Belanda dan Ternate menimbulkan ketidakpuasan para penguasa dan bangsawan Ternate. Diantaranya adalah pangeran Hidayat (15?? – 1624), Raja muda Ambon yang juga merupakan mantan wali raja Ternate ini memimpin oposisi yang menentang kedudukan sultan dan Belanda. Ia mengabaikan perjanjian monopoli dagang Belanda dengan menjual rempah – rempah kepada pedagang Jawa dan Makassar.

Perlawanan rakyat Maluku dan kejatuhan Ternate

Semakin lama cengkeraman dan pengaruh Belanda pada sultan – sultan Ternate semakin kuat, Belanda dengan leluasa mengeluarkan peraturan yang merugikan rakyat lewat perintah sultan, sikap Belanda yang kurang ajar dan sikap sultan yang cenderung manut menimbulkan kekecewaan semua kalangan. Sepanjang abad ke-17, setidaknya ada 4 pemberontakan yang dikobarkan bangsawan Ternate dan rakyat Maluku.

  • Tahun 1635, demi memudahkan pengawasan dan mengatrol harga rempah yang merosot Belanda memutuskan melakukan penebangan besar – besaran pohon cengkeh dan pala di seluruh Maluku atau yang lebih dikenal sebagai Hongi Tochten, akibatnya rakyat mengobarkan perlawanan. Tahun 1641, dipimpin oleh raja muda Ambon Salahakan Luhu, puluhan ribu pasukan gabungan Ternate – Hitu – Makassar menggempur berbagai kedudukan Belanda di Maluku Tengah. Salahakan Luhu kemudian berhasil ditangkap dan dieksekusi mati bersama seluruh keluarganya tanggal 16 Juni 1643. Perjuangan lalu dilanjutkan oleh saudara ipar Luhu, kapita Hitu Kakiali dan Tolukabessi hingga 1646.
  • Tahun 1650, para bangsawan Ternate mengobarkan perlawanan di Ternate dan Ambon, pemberontakan ini dipicu sikap Sultan Mandarsyah (1648-1650,1655-1675) yang terlampau akrab dan dianggap cenderung menuruti kemauan Belanda. Para bangsawan berkomplot untuk menurunkan Mandarsyah. Tiga diantara pemberontak yang utama adalah trio pangeran Saidi, Majira dan Kalumata. Pangeran Saidi adalah seorang Kapita Laut atau panglima tertinggi pasukan Ternate, pangeran Majira adalah raja muda Ambon sementara pangeran Kalumata adalah adik sultan Mandarsyah. Saidi dan Majira memimpin pemberontakan di Maluku tengah sementara pangeran Kalumata bergabung dengan raja Gowa sultan Hasanuddin di Makassar. Mereka bahkan sempat berhasil menurunkan sultan Mandarsyah dari tahta dan mengangkat Sultan Manilha (1650–1655) namun berkat bantuan Belanda kedudukan Mandarsyah kembali dipulihkan. Setelah 5 tahun pemberontakan Saidi cs berhasil dipadamkan. Pangeran Saidi disiksa secara kejam hingga mati sementara pangeran Majira dan Kalumata menerima pengampunan Sultan dan hidup dalam pengasingan.
  • Sultan Muhammad Nurul Islam atau yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Sultan Sibori (1675 – 1691) merasa gerah dengan tindak – tanduk Belanda yang semena – mena. Ia kemudian menjalin persekutuan dengan Datuk Abdulrahman penguasa Mindanao, namun upayanya untuk menggalang kekuatan kurang maksimal karena daerah – daerah strategis yang bisa diandalkan untuk basis perlawanan terlanjur jatuh ke tangan Belanda oleh berbagai perjanjian yang dibuat para pendahulunya. Ia kalah dan terpaksa menyingkir ke Jailolo. Tanggal 7 Juli 1683 Sultan Sibori terpaksa menandatangani perjanjian yang intinya menjadikan Ternate sebagai kerajaan vazal Belanda. Perjanjian ini mengakhiri masa Ternate sebagai negara berdaulat.

Meski telah kehilangan kekuasaan mereka beberapa Sultan Ternate berikutnya tetap berjuang mengeluarkan Ternate dari cengkeraman Belanda. Dengan kemampuan yang terbatas karena selalu diawasi mereka hanya mampu menyokong perjuangan rakyatnya secara diam – diam. Yang terakhir tahun 1914 Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah (1896-1927) menggerakkan perlawanan rakyat di wilayah – wilayah kekuasaannya, bermula di wilayah Banggai dibawah pimpinan Hairuddin Tomagola namun gagal. Di Jailolo rakyat Tudowongi, Tuwada dan Kao dibawah pimpinan Kapita Banau berhasil menimbulkan kerugian di pihak Belanda, banyak prajurit Belanda yang tewas termasuk Coentroleur Belanda Agerbeek, markas mereka diobrak – abrik. Akan tetapi karena keunggulan militer serta persenjataan yang lebih lengkap dimiliki Belanda perlawanan tersebut berhasil dipatahkan, kapita Banau ditangkap dan dijatuhi hukuman gantung. Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah terbukti terlibat dalam pemberontakan ini oleh karenanya berdasarkan keputusan pemerintah Hindia Belanda, tanggal 23 September 1915 no. 47, sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah dicopot dari jabatan sultan dan seluruh hartanya disita, beliau dibuang ke Bandung tahun 1915 dan meninggal disana tahun 1927. Pasca penurunan sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah jabatan sultan sempat lowong selama 14 tahun dan pemerintahan adat dijalankan oleh Jogugu serta dewan kesultanan. Sempat muncul keinginan pemerintah Hindia Belanda untuk menghapus kesultanan Ternate namun niat itu urung dilaksanakan karena khawatir akan reaksi keras yang bisa memicu pemberontakan baru sementara Ternate berada jauh dari pusat pemerintahan Belanda di Batavia.

Dalam usianya yang kini memasuki usia ke-750 tahun, Kesultanan Ternate masih tetap bertahan meskipun hanya tinggal simbol belaka. Jabatan sultan sebagai pemimpin Ternate ke-49 kini dipegang oleh sultan Drs. Hi. Mudhaffar Sjah, BcHk. (Mudaffar II) yang dinobatkan tahun 1986.

Warisan Ternate

Imperium nusantara timur yang dipimpin Ternate memang telah runtuh sejak pertengahan abad ke-17 namun pengaruh Ternate sebagai kerajaan dengan sejarah yang panjang masih terus terasa hingga berabad kemudian. Ternate memiliki andil yang sangat besar dalam kebudayaan nusantara bagian timur khususnya Sulawesi (utara dan pesisir timur) dan Maluku. Pengaruh itu mencakup agama, adat istiadat dan bahasa.

Sebagai kerajaan pertama yang memeluk Islam Ternate memiliki peran yang besar dalam upaya pengislaman dan pengenalan syariat-syariat Islam di wilayah timur nusantara dan bagian selatan Filipina. Bentuk organisasi kesultanan serta penerapan syariat Islam yang diperkenalkan pertama kali oleh sultan Zainal Abidin menjadi standar yang diikuti semua kerajaan di Maluku hampir tanpa perubahan yang berarti. Keberhasilan rakyat Ternate dibawah sultan Baabullah dalam mengusir Portugis tahun 1575 merupakan kemenangan pertama pribumi nusantara atas kekuatan barat, oleh karenanya almarhum Buya Hamka bahkan memuji kemenangan rakyat Ternate ini telah menunda penjajahan barat atas bumi nusantara selama 100 tahun sekaligus memperkokoh kedudukan Islam, dan sekiranya rakyat Ternate gagal niscaya wilayah timur Indonesia akan menjadi pusat kristen seperti halnya Filipina.

Kedudukan Ternate sebagai kerajaan yang berpengaruh turut pula mengangkat derajat Bahasa Ternate sebagai bahasa pergaulan di berbagai wilayah yang berada dibawah pengaruhnya. Prof E.K.W. Masinambow dalam tulisannya; “Bahasa Ternate dalam konteks bahasa – bahasa Austronesia dan Non Austronesia” mengemukakan bahwa bahasa Ternate memiliki dampak terbesar terhadap bahasa Melayu yang digunakan masyarakat timur Indonesia. Sebanyak 46% kosakata bahasa Melayu di Manado diambil dari bahasa Ternate. Bahasa Melayu – Ternate ini kini digunakan luas di Indonesia Timur terutama Sulawesi Utara, pesisir timur Sulawesi Tengah dan Selatan, Maluku dan Papua dengan dialek yang berbeda – beda. Dua naskah Melayu tertua di dunia adalah naskah surat sultan Ternate Abu Hayat II kepada Raja Portugal tanggal 27 April dan 8 November 1521 yang saat ini masih tersimpan di museum Lisabon – Portugal.

 

 

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1547.

In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder, the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.

Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.

1556.

The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.

1565.

He was succeeded by sultan Hussein­shah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.

1567.

His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.

1567.

The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.

1568.

In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword. It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.

1568

 

Fatahillah (1568-1570)

Kekosongan pemegang kekuasaan itu kemudian diisi dengan mengukuhkan pejabat keraton yang selama Sunan Gunung Jati melaksanakan tugas dakwah, pemerintahan dijabat oleh Fatahillah atau Fadillah Khan.

Fatahillah kemudian naik takhta, dan memerintah Cirebon secara resmi menjadi raja sejak tahun 1568. Fatahillah menduduki takhta kerajaan Cirebon hanya berlangsung dua tahun karena ia meninggal dunia pada tahun 1570, dua tahun setelah Sunan Gunung Jati wafat dan dimakamkan berdampingan dengan makam Sunan Gunung Jati di Gedung Jinem Astana Gunung Sembung.

Panembahan Ratu I (1570-1649)

Sepeninggal Fatahillah, oleh karena tidak ada calon lain yang layak menjadi raja, takhta kerajaan jatuh kepada cucu Sunan Gunung Jati yaitu Pangeran Emas putra tertua Pangeran Dipati Carbon atau cicit Sunan Gunung Jati. Pangeran Emas kemudian bergelar Panembahan Ratu I dan memerintah Cirebon selama kurang lebih 79 tahun.

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Kerajaan Islam di Maluku

Kerajaan Gapi atau yang kemudian lebih dikenal sebagai Kesultanan Ternate (mengikuti nama ibukotanya) adalah salah satu dari 4 kerajaan Islam di Maluku dan merupakan salah satu kerajaan Islam tertua di nusantara. Didirikan oleh Baab Mashur Malamo pada 1257. Kesultanan Ternate memiliki peran penting di kawasan timur nusantara antara abad ke-13 hingga abad ke-17. Kesultanan Ternate menikmati kegemilangan di paruh abad ke -16 berkat perdagangan rempah-rempah dan kekuatan militernya. Di masa jaya kekuasaannya membentang mencakup wilayah Maluku, Sulawesi utara, timur dan tengah, bagian selatan kepulauan Filipina hingga sejauh kepulauan Marshall di pasifik.

Asal Usul

Pulau Gapi (kini Ternate) mulai ramai di awal abad ke-13, penduduk Ternate awal merupakan warga eksodus dari Halmahera. Awalnya di Ternate terdapat 4 kampung yang masing – masing dikepalai oleh seorang momole (kepala marga), merekalah yang pertama – tama mengadakan hubungan dengan para pedagang yang datang dari segala penjuru mencari rempah – rempah. Penduduk Ternate semakin heterogen dengan bermukimnya pedagang Arab, Jawa, Melayu dan Tionghoa. Oleh karena aktivitas perdagangan yang semakin ramai ditambah ancaman yang sering datang dari para perompak maka atas prakarsa momole Guna pemimpin Tobona diadakan musyawarah untuk membentuk suatu organisasi yang lebih kuat dan mengangkat seorang pemimpin tunggal sebagai raja.

Tahun 1257 momole Ciko pemimpin Sampalu terpilih dan diangkat sebagai Kolano (raja) pertama dengan gelar Baab Mashur Malamo (1257-1272). Kerajaan Gapi berpusat di kampung Ternate, yang dalam perkembangan selanjutnya semakin besar dan ramai sehingga oleh penduduk disebut juga sebagai “Gam Lamo” atau kampung besar (belakangan orang menyebut Gam Lamo dengan Gamalama). Semakin besar dan populernya Kota Ternate, sehingga kemudian orang lebih suka mengatakan kerajaan Ternate daripada kerajaan Gapi. Di bawah pimpinan beberapa generasi penguasa berikutnya, Ternate berkembang dari sebuah kerajaan yang hanya berwilayahkan sebuah pulau kecil menjadi kerajaan yang berpengaruh dan terbesar di bagian timur Indonesia khususnya Maluku.

Organisasi kerajaan

Di masa – masa awal suku Ternate dipimpin oleh para momole. Setelah membentuk kerajaan jabatan pimpinan dipegang seorang raja yang disebut Kolano. Mulai pertengahan abad ke-15, Islam diadopsi secara total oleh kerajaan dan penerapan syariat Islam diberlakukan. Sultan Zainal Abidin meninggalkan gelar Kolano dan menggantinya dengan gelar Sultan. Para ulama menjadi figur penting dalam kerajaan.

Setelah Sultan sebagai pemimpin tertinggi, ada jabatan Jogugu (perdana menteri) dan Fala Raha sebagai para penasihat. Fala Raha atau Empat Rumah adalah empat klan bangsawan yang menjadi tulang punggung kesultanan sebagai representasi para momole di masa lalu, masing – masing dikepalai seorang Kimalaha. Mereka antara lain ; Marasaoli, Tomagola, Tomaito dan Tamadi. Pejabat – pejabat tinggi kesultanan umumnya berasal dari klan – klan ini. Bila seorang sultan tak memiliki pewaris maka penerusnya dipilih dari salah satu klan. Selanjutnya ada jabatan – jabatan lain Bobato Nyagimoi se Tufkange (Dewan 18), Sabua Raha, Kapita Lau, Salahakan, Sangaji dll. Untuk lebih jelasnya lihat Struktur organisasi kesultanan Ternate.

Moloku Kie Raha

Selain Ternate, di Maluku juga terdapat paling tidak 5 kerajaan lain yang memiliki pengaruh. Tidore, Jailolo, Bacan, Obi dan Loloda. Kerajaan – kerajaan ini merupakan saingan Ternate memperebutkan hegemoni di Maluku. Berkat perdagangan rempah Ternate menikmati pertumbuhan ekonomi yang mengesankan, dan untuk memperkuat hegemoninya di Maluku Ternate mulai melakukan ekspansi. Hal ini menimbulkan antipati dan memperbesar kecemburuan kerajaan lain di Maluku, mereka memandang Ternate sebagai musuh bersama hingga memicu terjadinya perang. Demi menghentikan konflik yang berlarut – larut, raja Ternate ke-7 Kolano Cili Aiya atau disebut juga Kolano Sida Arif Malamo (1322-1331) mengundang raja – raja Maluku yang lain untuk berdamai dan bermusyawarah membentuk persekutuan. Persekutuan ini kemudian dikenal sebagai Persekutan Moti atau Motir Verbond. Butir penting dari pertemuan ini selain terjalinnya persekutuan adalah penyeragaman bentuk kelembagaan kerajaan di Maluku. Oleh karena pertemuan ini dihadiri 4 raja Maluku yang terkuat maka disebut juga sebagai persekutuan Moloku Kie Raha (Empat Gunung Maluku).

Kedatangan Islam

Tak ada sumber yang jelas mengenai kapan awal kedatangan Islam di Maluku khususnya Ternate. Namun diperkirakan sejak awal berdirinya kerajaan Ternate masyarakat Ternate telah mengenal Islam mengingat banyaknya pedagang Arab yang telah bermukim di Ternate kala itu. Beberapa raja awal Ternate sudah menggunakan nama bernuansa Islam namun kepastian mereka maupun keluarga kerajaan memeluk Islam masih diperdebatkan. Hanya dapat dipastikan bahwa keluarga kerajaan Ternate resmi memeluk Islam pertengahan abad ke-15.

Kolano Marhum (1465-1486),

penguasa Ternate ke-18 adalah raja pertama yang diketahui memeluk Islam bersama seluruh kerabat dan pejabat istana. Pengganti Kolano Marhum adalah puteranya, Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Beberapa langkah yang diambil Sultan Zainal Abidin adalah meninggalkan gelar Kolano dan menggantinya dengan Sultan, Islam diakui sebagai agama resmi kerajaan, syariat Islam diberlakukan, membentuk lembaga kerajaan sesuai hukum Islam dengan melibatkan para ulama. Langkah-langkahnya ini kemudian diikuti kerajaan lain di Maluku secara total, hampir tanpa perubahan. Ia juga mendirikan madrasah yang pertama di Ternate. Sultan Zainal Abidin pernah memperdalam ajaran Islam dengan berguru pada Sunan Giri di pulau Jawa, disana beliau dikenal sebagai “Sultan Bualawa” (Sultan Cengkih).

 

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1569.

In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca.

The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.

It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.

1570

Pengusiran Portugis

Perlakuan Portugis terhadap saudara – saudaranya membuat Sultan Khairun geram dan bertekad mengusir Portugis dari Maluku. Tindak – tanduk bangsa barat yang satu ini juga menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat yang akhirnya berdiri di belakang sultan Khairun. Sejak masa sultan Bayanullah, Ternate telah menjadi salah satu dari tiga kesultanan terkuat dan pusat Islam utama di Nusantara abad ke-16 selain Aceh dan Demak setelah kejatuhan kesultanan Malaka tahun 1511. Ketiganya membentuk Tripple Alliance untuk membendung sepak terjang Portugis di Nusantara.

 

1570

Tak ingin menjadi Malaka kedua, sultan Khairun mengobarkan perang pengusiran Portugis. Kedudukan Portugis kala itu sudah sangat kuat, selain memiliki benteng dan kantong kekuatan di seluruh Maluku mereka juga memiliki sekutu – sekutu suku pribumi yang bisa dikerahkan untuk menghadang Ternate. Dengan adanya Aceh dan Demak yang terus mengancam kedudukan Portugis di Malaka,

Portugis di Maluku kesulitan mendapat bala bantuan hingga terpaksa memohon damai kepada sultan Khairun.

Secara licik Gubernur Portugis, Lopez de Mesquita mengundang Sultan Khairun ke meja perundingan dan akhirnya dengan kejam membunuh Sultan yang datang tanpa pengawalnya.

Pembunuhan Sultan Khairun semakin mendorong rakyat Ternate untuk menyingkirkan Portugis, bahkan seluruh Maluku kini mendukung kepemimpinan dan perjuangan Sultan Baabullah (1570-1583), pos-pos Portugis di seluruh Maluku dan wilayah timur Indonesia digempur, setelah peperangan selama 5 tahun, akhirnya Portugis meninggalkan Maluku untuk selamanya tahun 1575. Kemenangan rakyat Ternate ini merupakan kemenangan pertama putera-putera nusantara atas kekuatan barat.

Dibawah pimpinan Sultan Baabullah, Ternate mencapai puncak kejayaan, wilayah membentang dari Sulawesi Utara dan Tengah di bagian barat hingga kepulauan Marshall dibagian timur, dari Philipina (Selatan) dibagian utara hingga kepulauan Nusa Tenggara dibagian selatan. Sultan Baabullah dijuluki “penguasa 72 pulau” yang semuanya berpenghuni (sejarawan Belanda, Valentijn menuturkan secara rinci nama-nama ke-72 pulau tersebut) hingga menjadikan kesultanan Ternate sebagai kerajaan islam terbesar di Indonesia timur, disamping Aceh dan Demak yang menguasai wilayah barat dan tengah nusantara kala itu. Periode keemasaan tiga kesultanan ini selama abad 14 dan 15 entah sengaja atau tidak dikesampingkan dalam sejarah bangsa ini padahal mereka adalah pilar pertama yang membendung kolonialisme barat.

 

1580

Kedatangan Belanda

Sepeninggal Sultan Baabullah Ternate mulai melemah, Spanyol yang telah bersatu dengan Portugis tahun 1580 mencoba menguasai kembali Maluku dengan menyerang Ternate. Dengan kekuatan baru Spanyol memperkuat kedudukannya di Filipina, Ternate pun menjalin aliansi dengan Mindanao untuk menghalau Spanyol namun gagal bahkan sultan Said Barakati berhasil ditawan Spanyol dan dibuang ke Manila. Kekalahan demi kekalahan yang diderita memaksa Ternate meminta bantuan Belanda tahun 1603. Ternate akhirnya sukses menahan Spanyol namun dengan imbalan yang amat mahal. Belanda akhirnya secara perlahan-lahan menguasai Ternate, tanggal 26 Juni 1607 Sultan Ternate menandatangani kontrak monopoli VOC di Maluku sebagai imbalan bantuan Belanda melawan Spanyol. Di tahun 1607 pula Belanda membangun benteng Oranje di Ternate yang merupakan benteng pertama mereka di nusantara.

Sejak awal hubungan yang tidak sehat dan tidak seimbang antara Belanda dan Ternate menimbulkan ketidakpuasan para penguasa dan bangsawan Ternate. Diantaranya adalah pangeran Hidayat (15?? – 1624), Raja muda Ambon yang juga merupakan mantan wali raja Ternate ini memimpin oposisi yang menentang kedudukan sultan dan Belanda. Ia mengabaikan perjanjian monopoli dagang Belanda dengan menjual rempah – rempah kepada pedagang Jawa dan Makassar.

Perlawanan rakyat Maluku dan kejatuhan Ternate

Semakin lama cengkeraman dan pengaruh Belanda pada sultan – sultan Ternate semakin kuat, Belanda dengan leluasa mengeluarkan peraturan yang merugikan rakyat lewat perintah sultan, sikap Belanda yang kurang ajar dan sikap sultan yang cenderung manut menimbulkan kekecewaan semua kalangan. Sepanjang abad ke-17, setidaknya ada 4 pemberontakan yang dikobarkan bangsawan Ternate dan rakyat Maluku.

  • Tahun 1635, demi memudahkan pengawasan dan mengatrol harga rempah yang merosot Belanda memutuskan melakukan penebangan besar – besaran pohon cengkeh dan pala di seluruh Maluku atau yang lebih dikenal sebagai Hongi Tochten, akibatnya rakyat mengobarkan perlawanan. Tahun 1641, dipimpin oleh raja muda Ambon Salahakan Luhu, puluhan ribu pasukan gabungan Ternate – Hitu – Makassar menggempur berbagai kedudukan Belanda di Maluku Tengah. Salahakan Luhu kemudian berhasil ditangkap dan dieksekusi mati bersama seluruh keluarganya tanggal 16 Juni 1643. Perjuangan lalu dilanjutkan oleh saudara ipar Luhu, kapita Hitu Kakiali dan Tolukabessi hingga 1646.
  • Tahun 1650, para bangsawan Ternate mengobarkan perlawanan di Ternate dan Ambon, pemberontakan ini dipicu sikap Sultan Mandarsyah (1648-1650,1655-1675) yang terlampau akrab dan dianggap cenderung menuruti kemauan Belanda. Para bangsawan berkomplot untuk menurunkan Mandarsyah. Tiga diantara pemberontak yang utama adalah trio pangeran Saidi, Majira dan Kalumata. Pangeran Saidi adalah seorang Kapita Laut atau panglima tertinggi pasukan Ternate, pangeran Majira adalah raja muda Ambon sementara pangeran Kalumata adalah adik sultan Mandarsyah. Saidi dan Majira memimpin pemberontakan di Maluku tengah sementara pangeran Kalumata bergabung dengan raja Gowa sultan Hasanuddin di Makassar. Mereka bahkan sempat berhasil menurunkan sultan Mandarsyah dari tahta dan mengangkat Sultan Manilha (1650–1655) namun berkat bantuan Belanda kedudukan Mandarsyah kembali dipulihkan. Setelah 5 tahun pemberontakan Saidi cs berhasil dipadamkan. Pangeran Saidi disiksa secara kejam hingga mati sementara pangeran Majira dan Kalumata menerima pengampunan Sultan dan hidup dalam pengasingan.
  • Sultan Muhammad Nurul Islam atau yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Sultan Sibori (1675 – 1691) merasa gerah dengan tindak – tanduk Belanda yang semena – mena. Ia kemudian menjalin persekutuan dengan Datuk Abdulrahman penguasa Mindanao, namun upayanya untuk menggalang kekuatan kurang maksimal karena daerah – daerah strategis yang bisa diandalkan untuk basis perlawanan terlanjur jatuh ke tangan Belanda oleh berbagai perjanjian yang dibuat para pendahulunya. Ia kalah dan terpaksa menyingkir ke Jailolo. Tanggal 7 Juli 1683 Sultan Sibori terpaksa menandatangani perjanjian yang intinya menjadikan Ternate sebagai kerajaan vazal Belanda. Perjanjian ini mengakhiri masa Ternate sebagai negara berdaulat.

Meski telah kehilangan kekuasaan mereka beberapa Sultan Ternate berikutnya tetap berjuang mengeluarkan Ternate dari cengkeraman Belanda. Dengan kemampuan yang terbatas karena selalu diawasi mereka hanya mampu menyokong perjuangan rakyatnya secara diam – diam. Yang terakhir tahun 1914 Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah (1896-1927) menggerakkan perlawanan rakyat di wilayah – wilayah kekuasaannya, bermula di wilayah Banggai dibawah pimpinan Hairuddin Tomagola namun gagal. Di Jailolo rakyat Tudowongi, Tuwada dan Kao dibawah pimpinan Kapita Banau berhasil menimbulkan kerugian di pihak Belanda, banyak prajurit Belanda yang tewas termasuk Coentroleur Belanda Agerbeek, markas mereka diobrak – abrik. Akan tetapi karena keunggulan militer serta persenjataan yang lebih lengkap dimiliki Belanda perlawanan tersebut berhasil dipatahkan, kapita Banau ditangkap dan dijatuhi hukuman gantung. Sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah terbukti terlibat dalam pemberontakan ini oleh karenanya berdasarkan keputusan pemerintah Hindia Belanda, tanggal 23 September 1915 no. 47, sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah dicopot dari jabatan sultan dan seluruh hartanya disita, beliau dibuang ke Bandung tahun 1915 dan meninggal disana tahun 1927. Pasca penurunan sultan Haji Muhammad Usman Syah jabatan sultan sempat lowong selama 14 tahun dan pemerintahan adat dijalankan oleh Jogugu serta dewan kesultanan. Sempat muncul keinginan pemerintah Hindia Belanda untuk menghapus kesultanan Ternate namun niat itu urung dilaksanakan karena khawatir akan reaksi keras yang bisa memicu pemberontakan baru sementara Ternate berada jauh dari pusat pemerintahan Belanda di Batavia.

Dalam usianya yang kini memasuki usia ke-750 tahun, Kesultanan Ternate masih tetap bertahan meskipun hanya tinggal simbol belaka. Jabatan sultan sebagai pemimpin Ternate ke-49 kini dipegang oleh sultan Drs. Hi. Mudhaffar Sjah, BcHk. (Mudaffar II) yang dinobatkan tahun 1986

 

Warisan Ternate

Imperium nusantara timur yang dipimpin Ternate memang telah runtuh sejak pertengahan abad ke-17 namun pengaruh Ternate sebagai kerajaan dengan sejarah yang panjang masih terus terasa hingga berabad kemudian. Ternate memiliki andil yang sangat besar dalam kebudayaan nusantara bagian timur khususnya Sulawesi (utara dan pesisir timur) dan Maluku. Pengaruh itu mencakup agama, adat istiadat dan bahasa.

Sebagai kerajaan pertama yang memeluk Islam Ternate memiliki peran yang besar dalam upaya pengislaman dan pengenalan syariat-syariat Islam di wilayah timur nusantara dan bagian selatan Filipina. Bentuk organisasi kesultanan serta penerapan syariat Islam yang diperkenalkan pertama kali oleh sultan Zainal Abidin menjadi standar yang diikuti semua kerajaan di Maluku hampir tanpa perubahan yang berarti. Keberhasilan rakyat Ternate dibawah sultan Baabullah dalam mengusir Portugis tahun 1575 merupakan kemenangan pertama pribumi nusantara atas kekuatan barat, oleh karenanya almarhum Buya Hamka bahkan memuji kemenangan rakyat Ternate ini telah menunda penjajahan barat atas bumi nusantara selama 100 tahun sekaligus memperkokoh kedudukan Islam, dan sekiranya rakyat Ternate gagal niscaya wilayah timur Indonesia akan menjadi pusat kristen seperti halnya Filipina.

Kedudukan Ternate sebagai kerajaan yang berpengaruh turut pula mengangkat derajat Bahasa Ternate sebagai bahasa pergaulan di berbagai wilayah yang berada dibawah pengaruhnya. Prof E.K.W. Masinambow dalam tulisannya; “Bahasa Ternate dalam konteks bahasa – bahasa Austronesia dan Non Austronesia” mengemukakan bahwa bahasa Ternate memiliki dampak terbesar terhadap bahasa Melayu yang digunakan masyarakat timur Indonesia. Sebanyak 46% kosakata bahasa Melayu di Manado diambil dari bahasa Ternate. Bahasa Melayu – Ternate ini kini digunakan luas di Indonesia Timur terutama Sulawesi Utara, pesisir timur Sulawesi Tengah dan Selatan, Maluku dan Papua dengan dialek yang berbeda – beda. Dua naskah Melayu tertua di dunia adalah naskah surat sultan Ternate Abu Hayat II kepada Raja Portugal tanggal 27 April dan 8 November 1521 yang saat ini masih tersimpan di museum Lisabon – Portugal.

 

 

1573.

In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.

1574.

In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.

1575.

Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates, with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part non­effective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.

1582.

In 1582 we find the king appearing again before Malacca with a hundred and fifty sail of vessels. After some skirmishes with the Portuguese ships, in which the success was nearly equal on both sides, the Achinese proceeded to attack Johor, the king of which was then in alliance with Malacca. Twelve ships followed them thither, and, having burned some of their galleys, defeated the rest and obliged them to fly to Achin. The operations of these campaigns, and particularly the valour of the commander, named Raja Makuta, are alluded to in Queen Elizabeth’s letter to the king, delivered in 1602 by Sir James Lancaster.

About three or four years after this misfortune Mansur-shah prepared a fleet of no less than three hundred sail of vessels, and was ready to embark once more upon his favourite enterprise, when he was murdered, together with his queen and many of the principal nobility, by the general of the forces, who had long formed designs upon the crown.

1585.

This was perpetrated in May 1585, when he had reigned nearly eighteen years. In his time the consequence of the kingdom of Achin is represented to have arrived at a considerable height, and its friendship to have been courted by the most powerful states. No city in India possessed a more flourishing trade, the port being crowded with merchant vessels which were encouraged to resort thither by the moderate rates of the customs levied; and although the Portuguese and their ships were continually plundered, those belonging to every Asiatic power, from Mecca in the West to Japan in the East, appear to have enjoyed protection and security. The despotic authority of the monarch was counterpoised by the influence of the orang-kayas or nobility, who are described as being possessed of great wealth, living in fortified houses, surrounded by numerous dependants, and feeling themselves above control, often giving a licentious range to their proud and impatient tempers.

The late monarch’s daughter and only child was married to the king of Johor,* by whom she had a son, who, being regarded as heir to the crown of Achin, had been brought to the latter place to be educated under the eye of his grandfather. When the general (whose name is corruptly written Moratiza) assumed the powers of government, he declared himself the protector of this child, and we find him mentioned in the Annals by the title of Sultan Buyong (or the Boy).

(*Footnote. The king of Achin sent on this occasion to Johor a piece of ordnance, such as for greatness, length, and workmanship (says Linschoten), could hardly be matched in all Christendom. It was afterwards taken by the Portuguese, who shipped it for Europe, but the vessel was lost in her passage.)

1588.

But before he had completed the third year of his nominal reign he also was dispatched, and the usurper took formal possession of the throne in the year 1588, by the name of Ala-eddin Rayet-shah,* being then at an advanced period of life.

(*Footnote. Valentyn, by an obvious corruption, names him Sulthan Alciden Ryetza, and this coincidence is strongly in favour of the authenticity and correctness of the Annals. John Davis, who will be hereafter mentioned, calls him, with sufficient accuracy, Sultan Aladin.)

The Annals say he was the grandson of Sultan Firman-shah; but the Europeans who visited Achin during his reign report him to have been originally a fisherman, who, having afterwards served in the wars against Malacca, showed so much courage, prudence, and skill in maritime affairs that the late king made him at length the chief commander of his forces, and gave him one of his nearest kinswomen to wife, in right of whom he is said to have laid claim to the throne.

The French Commodore Beaulieu relates the circumstances of this revolution in a very different manner.*

(*Footnote. The commodore had great opportunity of information, was a man of very superior ability, and indefatigable in his inquiries upon all subjects, as appears by the excellent account of his voyage, and of Achin in particular, written by himself, and published in Thevenot’s collection, of which there is an English translation in Harris; but it is possible he may, in this instance, have been amused by a plausible tale from the grandson of this monarch, with whom he had much intercourse. John Davis, an intelligent English navigator whose account I have followed, might have been more likely to hear the truth as he was at Achin (though not a frequenter of the court) during Ala-eddin’s reign, whereas Beaulieu did not arrive till twenty’ years after, and the report of his having been originally a fisherman is also mentioned by the Dutch writers.)

He says that, upon the extinction of the ancient royal line, which happened about forty years before the period at which he wrote, the orang-kayas met in order to choose a king, but, every one affecting the dignity for himself, they could not agree and resolved to decide it by force. In this ferment the cadi or chief judge by his authority and remonstrances persuaded them to offer the crown to a certain noble who in all these divisions had taken no part, but had lived in the reputation of a wise, experienced man, being then seventy years of age, and descended from one of the most respectable families of the country. After several excuses on his side, and entreaties and even threats on theirs, he at length consented to accept the dignity thus imposed upon him, provided they should regard him as a father, and receive correction from him as his children; but no sooner was he in possession of the sovereign power than (like Pope Sixtus the Fifth) he showed a different face, and the first step after his accession was to invite the orang-kayas to a feast, where, as they were separately introduced, he caused them to be seized and murdered in a court behind the palace. He then proceeded to demolish their fortified houses, and lodged their cannon, arms, and goods in the castle, taking measures to prevent in future the erection of any buildings of substantial materials that could afford him grounds of jealousy. He raised his own adherents from the lower class of people to the first dignities of the state, and of those who presumed to express any disapprobation of his conduct he made great slaughter, being supposed to have executed not less than twenty thousand persons in the first year of his reign.

From the silence of the Portuguese writers with respect to the actions of this king we have reason to conclude that he did not make any attempts to disturb their settlement of Malacca; and it even appears that some persons in the character of ambassadors or agents from that power resided at Achin, the principal object of whose policy appears to have been that of inspiring him with jealousy and hatred of the Hollanders, who in their turn were actively exerting themselves to supplant the conquerors of India.

 

 

Locally produced textiles on the Indian Ocean periphery 1500-1850: East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia

William Gervase Clarence-Smith

Ravi Palat and Immanuel Wallerstein claim that India ‘deindustrialised’ its Indian Ocean periphery, by exploiting its advanced proto-industrial techniques, especially for the production of cloth. (Pearson 1998: 109-12, 121, 126)

 

After 1500,

 

the picture was complicated by the violent irruption of Europeans, and yet they failed to dislodge South Asian cloth from its hegemonic position. All scholars agree on the continued market penetration of Indian cottons and silks in early modern times, although statistics hardly exist, and publications are patchy over the thousands of kilometres that separated Luzon from Arakan, and Mozambique from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

 

There is a real problem in determining what the performance of

peripheral textiles might have been without imports from India. (Pearson 1998: 121-2) Anthony Reid postulates a ‘zero-sum game,’ whereby local output fell when Indian cottons surged in, but increased when imports from India were curtailed for some exogenous reason. (Reid 1988: 96) The evidence put forward in this paper does not bear out this mechanistic model. In reality, imports from India were as much a stimulus as a threat to local industries.

 

 

Complicating matters was a marked blurring of the traditional distinction between ‘manufactured imports’ and ‘local raw materials’, given that imported textiles could serve as intermediate goods. Local artisans decorated coloured cloth from abroad, printed and dyed imports of plain white cloth, and wove yarn that had been spun far away. Indeed, they even unpicked finished cloth to obtain the dyed yarn that they desired.

To further complicate matters, ‘local’ cloths sold over quite wide areas. Although peripheral textiles never became truly global commodities like those of India and China, the ability of some to transcend local contexts was a clear demonstration of proto-industrial vitality. A few of these products reached the Atlantic world, although a more consistently important outlet was probably the Hijaz. Pilgrims from all over Islamdom exchanged their cloths with fellow pilgrims, or sold it to Meccan merchants, whereas the holy city itself was almost devoid of manufacturing. (Issawi 1966: 302-3)

 

The role of early modern states was ambivalent. Europeans, representing monarchs or chartered companies, exercised a precarious overall naval hegemony in the Indian Ocean from 1500, but their attempts to favour sales of their own cloth failed dismally. They then faced the same predicament as indigenous rulers, whether to protect and tax local artisans, or benefit from lucrative import duties on Indian and Chinese products. Unlike local rulers, European thalassocracies further stood to benefit from transporting Indian and Chinese textiles.

 

General characteristics of peripheral textiles

Cotton predominated as a raw material, but other fibres were of great significance. Artisans produced silk goods for the higher end of the market, sometimes drawing on wild insects. Bast, vegetable fibres that did not require spinning, came from flax [for linen], hemp, different kinds of palm [e.g. raffia] and banana [e.g. abacá], ramie, the bark of some trees, and newly introduced American pineapple and sisal plants. Kapok was used for quilting. Bark cloth, felted rather than woven, was common in forested zones from the South Pacific to Central Africa. Where pastoralism flourished, sheep, goats, camels, and yaks supplied hair, which could be either spun and woven, or felted. In addition, hides, skins

 

and furs at times substituted for cloth. (Picton and Mack 1989; Schaedler 1987; Lombard 1978; Baker 1995; Fraser-Lu 1988; Hitchcock 1991)

Indigo was grown in many places, and typically supplied the blues and blacks of the Indian Ocean world. Almost priceless saffron, or cheaper safflower and turmeric root, yielded yellows. Reds came from coccus insects, precious woods such as sappan and brazil, or roots such as madder. Dyestuffs and mordants were widely traded. (Baker 1995: 29-31; Hitchcock 1991: 42-51)

Islam tended to imprint certain characteristics on textiles of the Indian Ocean periphery, for the sector was largely in Muslim hands.

 

Pious Muslims disapproved of luxury, and particularly frowned upon silk, which a Hadith reserved for the hereafter. That said, Shi’i and Isma’ili ulama were more tolerant than their Sunni counterparts, and political elites frequently ignored religious strictures. Another Hadith exempted cloth from the overall prohibition on representing living beings, and yet there remained a persistent iconoclastic bias against figuration. White was often preferred for men, and green for descendants of the Prophet, whereas dark blue and black served for women. Special colours were also at times imposed to distinguish unbelievers living in Muslim societies. (Baker 1995: 16-17, 62, 68; Otavsky et al. 1995: 24; Lamm 1937: 229, 242; Maxwell 1990: 328-9) Non-Muslim societies had their own preferences and cultural codes, as in Madagascar and Mainland Southeast Asia. (Mack 1989: 43-4; Fraser-Lu 1988)

 

Southeast Asian textiles

Anthony Reid states that Southeast Asia was a consumer rather than a producer of textiles, but then almost immediately writes that ‘cloth was Southeast Asia’s leading item of manufacture.’ Local cloth occasionally acted as currency, and was often paid as tax.

 

Cotton was widely grown and processed in drier areas, on either side of the

 

equatorial belt, whereas silk was more developed in Mainland areas. (Reid 1988: 90-3) In the eastern archipelago, bark cloth remained significant, connecting with the traditions of the South Pacific. (Andaya 1989: 29-30)

 

An early and widespread technique for decorating cloth was ikat, whereby lengths of yarn were dyed in different colours by tying and covering yarn to resist dyes prior to weaving.

 

Ikat was recorded in 939 CE in Java, and has been dated from the fourteenth century in archaeological sites in the Philippines. (Hitchcock 1991: 73-83)

 

More controversial are the origins of batik, a system of dyeing cloth in stages, with wax used to resist dyes. This technique, found in various locations around the world, has been dated back to the sixth century CE in East Asia.

 

It may already have been practised in Java by the tenth or twelfth century, and was possibly first mentioned in a text of 1518.

 

In any event, most scholars agree that batik was produced in Java by the early seventeenth century.

 

The finest kind was drawn by hand, but wooden blocks, on the Indian model, were also used. (Kerlogue 2004: 17-18, 20-1; Hitchcock 1991: 23, 86-9, 94, 127; Matsuo 1970: 77; Maxwell 1990: 327-9)

 

Java, Madura and Bali certainly produced a great deal of cloth, reflecting the size of their population and the abundance of raw cotton.

32; Kerlogue 2004: 19; Hall 1996:117). omé Pires was impressed by the sheer quantities of cotton cloth produced all around Java in the 1510s, albeit not so much by its quality. (Pires 1944: 169-70, 180) From Tom Pires description of  the 1510. it seems that cotton cloth was mainly woven in the uplands, where cotton grew, and was sent down to the coast. (Pires 1944: 148)

 

Traditional kingdoms of Maluku, early 15th century, and the spheres of influence of Ternate and Tidore, early 16th century

As the main reason for European interest in the Indies, the Spice Islands were amongst the first to experience direct European military intervention. Ternate and Tidore were unable to prevent first the Portuguese and Spanish and later the Dutch and English from establishing fortified trading posts in the region, though Ternate had a number of military victories over the Europeans in the course of the sporadic hostilities of the 16th and early 17th centuries.

By the middle of the 17th century, however, Ternate’s need for free trade in spices was fundamentally in conflict with the Dutch aims for monopoly. In 1652, the Dutch extracted a treaty from Ternate giving the Company a monopoly of clove production, and broke the power of local Ternatean lords in a series of bloody campaigns during the next few years. The Company then centred clove production on Ambon and sent out periodic expeditions to destroy clove trees in other regions.

The great island of New Guinea was also a major centre of population, but its people were concentrated in the interior and except on the fringes close to Maluku there is no record at all of political forms before the 17th century.

Imagining the Archipelago

Although trade routes had tied the Indonesian archipelago to China, India and the Middle East since very early times, the region remained relatively unknown to outsiders until five or six centuries ago. Long distances and the hazards of travel, together with the fact that Indonesians themselves carried most of the products of their islands to the outside world, meant that scholars in the major centres of civilization generally relied on sparse and often second hand accounts of Southeast Asia.

In the West, the Egyptian geographer Claudius Ptolemy (c. 85–165 AD) prepared a major geographical work, the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, containing a compilation of information on the region gathered from traders and seafarers. Ptolemy described a Golden Chersonese, or peninsula, far to the east which is normally identified with the Malay Peninsula and he records the existence of many islands in the vicinity. Ptolemy’s geography formed the basis of most Western conceptions of the Far East until the 16th century, and also influenced some of the Arab geographers. The maps of Idrisi (d. 1165) show a good deal more detail than those based on Ptolemy’s account, but they clearly reflect an attempt to reconcile imprecise and contradictory information originating from several centuries and a wide variety of sources.

1573.

In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.

1574.

In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.

1575.

Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates, with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part non­effective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.

 

 

 

 

1580

In the 1580′sthere was the mission in East Java which is still part of Hindu religion; a century later, an Italian priest named Ventimiglia managed to penetrate into the interior of South Kalimantan. But the effort failed.

 

Developments in other Eastern Indonesia. As noted above, there the Portuguese could not determine its own direction they wish to travel, but more must react to the actions of others.

 

Similarly with their mission. Christianity was successfully implanted in Eastern Indonesia. Only, unlike the way the expansion of rice or other food crops, grown in a planned, but more like the grasses that grow anywhere seed carried by wind or birds. Society of Jesus tried to spread the Gospel with more regular. But in the midst of storms of war, they had not managed to instill congregations in new areas. Later, in China, Japan, and India, the Jesuits and members of other orders indicates that they are able to build a solid church, so long as they can work in peace.

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