Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Masterpiece Of Chinese Imperial Ceramic And Artwork Collections

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

THE MASTERPIECE OF CHINESE IMPERIAL CERAMIC AND ARTWORK  COLLECTIONS

 

A peach bloom glazed porcelain beehive water pot & a celadon glazed porcelain bottle vase with carved decoration. Kangxi Period

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A peach bloom glazed porcelain beehive water pot. Kangxi Mark and Period.  Photo Bonhams

Its curving exterior walls incised with three dragon roundels and covered with a mottled rosy-red layer exhibiting patches of faint green beneath the celadon-tinged glaze covering the interior and the base centered with the underglaze blue six-character mark in two rows of regular script, the original mouth and neck replaced by a metal band mount; 5in (12.5cm) diameter. Estimate: US$5,000 – 7,000

Property Formerly from the Daibutsu Gallery, San Francisco, California

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A celadon glazed porcelain bottle vase with carved decoration. Kangxi Period.  Photo Bonhams

Potted with a flared rim to the long neck encircled by a band of overlapping petals while the globular body displays a single chilong striding across a ground of lingzhi fungus and leaf scrolls, the celadon glaze extending from the top of the neck to the exterior of the spreading foot and a colorless glaze appearing on the interior neck and the deeply recessed base displaying an artemesia leaf mark within a double ring drawn in underglaze blue.: 8in (20.5cm) high. Estimate: US$3,000 – 5,000

Property from the Collection of J. Lester Jervis

A Ming blue and white bottle vase. Jiajing period (1522-1566)

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A Ming blue and white bottle vase. Jiajing period (1522-1566). Photo Christies Ltd 2011

Painted around the pear-shaped body with large lotus flowers with feathery petals borne on leafy meandering scrolls, all above a lappet band at the foot, the shoulder with a wide band enclosing a stylised leafy scrolls, the base with a four-character inscription reading ‘yong bao chang chun‘; 9¼ in. (23.5 cm.) high. Estimate £10,000 – £15,000 ($16,710 – $25,065)

Notes: Yong bao chang chun may be translated as ‘Eternal life and everlasting spring’.

Blue and White ‘Lotus’ Guan Jar, ‘Dragon’ bottle vase & Qingbai Ewer and Cover. Yuan Dynasty

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A rare large Blue and White ‘Lotus’ Guan Jar. Late Yuan-Early Ming dynasties. Photo Sotheby’s

robustly potted in ovoid form with a short splayed neck set with a slightly everted rim flange, boldly painted in a dark, greyish cobalt blue with a broad stylised lotus scroll around the centre, with six large blooms alternating in full view and in profile among dense scrolling foliage and attendant buds, set between pendent and upright petal lappets draping the shoulder and skirting the waist, the shoulder lappets containing Buddhist and other auspicious emblems supported on lotus flowers, the lappets below with further emblems alternating with lotus sprays, all below a knobbed classic scroll collaring neck and a lingzhi scroll around the foot; 50.5 cm., 19 7/8 in. Estimate 8,000,000—12,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 9,620,000 HKD

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1623.

NOTE: The style of this lotus scroll with its dense frilly petals and curling foliage, as well as the solid construction of the jar and the colour of the cobalt blue all suggest a date very late in the Yuan or early in the Ming dynasty, in the Hongwu period. Altogether, the painting style seems closer to Yuan dynasty prototypes than to the fully developed Hongwu designs, which tend to be more strictly composed and executed in a paler cobalt blue, and would seem to represent a different stage in the development of blue and white porcelain.

A companion piece to this highly unusual jar from the Au Bak Ling collection, sold in these rooms 3rd May 1994, lot 33, was included in the exhibition 100 Masterpieces of Imperial Chinese Ceramics from the Au Bakling Collection, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1998.

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An important Blue and White ‘Dragon’ bottle vase. Yuan Dynasty. Photo Sotheby’s

the pear-shaped body rising to a slender neck and a wide flaring rim, counterbalanced by a splayed footring, freely painted in dark cobalt blue with a three-clawed striding dragon, its head with elaborate horns gazing up at a flaming pearl, the sinuous body wrapped around the entire vessel with spikes along the spine and cross-hatched scales, the inner mouthrim painted with a ‘classic’ scroll border, the base glazed save for the unglazed footring revealing a yellowish-beige body; 24.7 cm., 9 3/4 in. Estimate 8,000,000—12,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 9,620,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Collection of Charles E. Russell, London (until 1936, one of two vases) .
Sotheby’s London, 12th February 1936, offered for purchase together with its companion, lot 75, while on display at the Royal Academy of Arts.
Collection of Mrs. Alfred Clark (1936 until the 1970s, one of two vases).
Mayuyama & Co, Ltd, Tokyo.
Private Collection, Japan.
J.J. Lally & Co., New York.

EXHIBITED: International Exhibition of Chinese Art, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1935-6, cat. no. 1434 (illustrated).
Ming Blue-and-White Porcelain, Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1946, cat. no. 2.
Chinese Blue and White Porcelain: 14th to 19th Centuries, Oriental Ceramic Society at the Arts Council Gallery, London, 1953-4, cat. no. 1 (illustrated).
Mostra d’Arte Cinese/Exhibition of Chinese Art, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, 1954, cat. no. 600 (illustrated).
The British Museum, London, 1955 (according to label; probably on loan).
Tōyō no sometsuke/Far Eastern Blue-and-White Porcelain, Mitsukoshi, Tokyo, 1977, cat. no. 12 (illustrated).
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1980s, on loan).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Jean Gordon Lee, ‘Some Pre-Ming “Blue-and-White”, Archives of the Chinese Art Society in America, vol. VI, 1952, p. 38, pl. IV, fig. c.
Soame Jenyns, Ming Pottery and Porcelain, London and Boston, 1988 (1953), pl. 12.
Sir Harry Garner, Oriental Blue and White, London, 1973 (1954), pl. 3.
Margaret Medley, Yüan Porcelain and Stoneware, London, 1974, pl. 25.
Sōgyō Shichijūnen Kinen Ryūsen Shūhō/Mayuyama, Seventy Years, Tokyo, 1976, pl. 696.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1620.

NOTE: This vase with its lively, freely painted dragon is an iconic piece of Yuan blue and white, as is testified by its illustrious provenance from the Charles Russell and Alfred Clark collection, the impressive list of exhibitions in which it featured – including the ground-breaking International Exhibition of Chinese Art in London 1935-6 and the seminal Marco Polo Seventh Centenary exhibition in Venice 1954 – and the renowned experts who wrote about it, among them Soame Jenyns, Harry Garner and Margaret Medley.

The vase shared part of its history with a companion piece painted, probably by the same hand, with an almost identical dragon, but with a prunus branch and crescent moon inside the rim. This second vase, later in the Ataka collection and now in the Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, (fig. 1) was included together with the present vase in the Oriental Ceramic Society exhibition 1953-4, op.cit., cat. no. 2, and is illustrated, for example, in Ye Peilan, Yuandai ciqi [Porcelain of the Yuan dynasty], Beijing, 1998, pl. 91. Another vase with a similar dragon and also with a classic scroll inside the rim, in the National Museum of China, Beijing, is published in Peng Qingyun, ed., Zhongguo wenwu jinghua daquan: Taoci juan [Complete masterpieces of Chinese cultural relics: Ceramics volume], Taipei, 1993, p. 328, no. 535; and a fragmentary vase with plain rim, excavated near Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, is published in the exhibition catalogue Empires Beyond the Great Wall. The Heritage of Genghis Khan, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, 1994, p. 141, fig. 91. Fragments of similar vases, probably discovered at Jingdezhen, are also illustrated and their production methods discussed in Huang Yunpeng, ed., Yuan qinghua yanjiu [Research on Yuan blue and white], Shanghai, 2006, p. 10, fig. 4, and p. 256, col. pl. 3.

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A rare Qingbai Ewer and Cover. Yuan Dynasty. Photo Sotheby’s

well potted, the pear-shaped body rising to a tall flared neck, supported on a splayed foot with a prominent flange, the body set with a slender curved spout issuing from the mouth of a dragon, connected to the body by an elaborate S-shaped bridge, set opposite with a curved handle formed by the scaly body of a fish-dragon with the opened mouth swallowing the top of the handle, its mane forming a small loop for attaching the cover, its tail fanning out into a large trefoil motif applied in relief, the body decorated on either side with a phoenix in flight with upturned scrolling tail and a cloud motif, cut from thin sheets of clay and applied with incised details, above a band of upright lappets containing ruyi heads, the neck collared by a key-fret band of pearl strings and slip-painted upright petal lappets containing scroll motifs, all beneath an icy blue-green transparent glaze, fitted with a stepped domed cover and a small eyelet for attachment to the ewer, surmounted by a seated lion delicately modelled with a thick beard, long mane, and bushy tail bent to one side, its left foreleg resting on a ball with thin freely modelled ribbons and a bell tied around its neck, overall 34 cm., 13 3/8 in. Estimate 1,200,000—1,500,000 HKD. Lot Sold  4,220,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Messrs John Sparks, London.
Collection of Mr and Mrs Otto Doering, Snr.
Christie’s New York, 9th November 1978, lot 125.
J.J. Lally & Co., New York.

EXHIBITED: The Art Institute of Chicago (on loan).
Chinese Porcelain and Silver in the Song Dynasty, J. J. Lally & Co., New York, 2002, cat. no. 30 (illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: John Ayers, ‘Some Characteristic Wares of the Yüan Dynasty’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 29, 1954-5, pl. 38, fig. 17.
Margaret Medley, Yüan Porcelain and Stoneware, London, 1974, pl. 10.
Anthony du Boulay, Christie’s Pictorial History of Chinese Ceramics, London, 1984, p. 110, fig. 1.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1614.

NOTE: This ewer reflects the quest for richer ornamentation in the second half of the Yuan dynasty, which eventually was satisfied by the introduction of underglaze painting in colour. It shows the remarkably wide repertoire of decoration techniques experimented with at the time, such as moulding, incising, slip painting, dotted surface structuring, application of clay sheets, freely modelled motifs and pearl strings.

A very similar ewer without cover in the Tokyo National Museum is published in Yutaka Mino, Chūgoku no tōji. Hakuji/Chinese Ceramics. White Porcelain, Tokyo, 1998, col. pl. 79, perhaps the piece illustrated also in Mikami Tsugio, ed., Sekai tōji zenshū/Ceramic Art of the World, vol. 13, Tokyo, 1981, col. pl. 42. A simpler version of this design, perhaps made somewhat earlier than the present ewer, was among the porcelains recovered from the shipwreck off Shinan, Korea, which can be dated to AD 1323; that ewer has a similar phoenix design in relief, but is lacking any applied motifs and has a plain spout, handle and cover; see Relics Salvaged from the Seabed off Sinan. Materials I, Seoul, 1985, pl. 67. A similar smaller ewer without cover, from the collection of a Vietnamese Princess, was sold at Christie’s New York, 22nd April 1999, lot 256.

A pair of meiping vases with similar, but perhaps also somewhat simpler lion covers, excavated from a tomb of AD 1324 in Wannian county, Jiangxi province, is published in Wenwu 1977, no. 4, pl. 9, fig. 5. A fragment of a similar ewer, excavated from a Yuan city site in Inner Mongolia, is published in Chen Yongzhi, ed., Nei Menggu Jininglu gu cheng yizhi chutu ciqi/Porcelain Unearthed from Jininglu Ancient City Site in Inner Mongolia, Beijing, 2004, p. 20, fig. 13; and a similar fragment of a dragon handle, excavated from the Yuan remains at Luomaqiao, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, in Ceramic Finds from Jingdezhen Kilns (10th – 17th Century), Fung Ping Shan Museum, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1992, cat. no. 116.

Sotheby’s. The Meiyintang Collection – An Important Selection of Imperial Chinese Porcelains, 07 Apr 11, Hong Kong www.sothebys.com

A Langyao-red bottle asty, Kangxi period.

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A Langyao-red bottle vase. Qing dynasty, Kangxi period. Photo Sotheby’s

the globular body rising to a tall cylindrical neck, covered overall in a thick bright raspberry-red glaze, streaking slightly down the sides and pooling just above the neatly trimmed tapering foot, the glaze further suffuse.d with a tight network of crackles, the base applied with a crackled straw glaze; 42 cm., 16 1/2 in  Estimate 400,000—600,000 HKD. Lot Sold 500,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Yamanaka & Co., no. 2 (according to label).
Sotheby’s New York, 4th June 1982, lot 228

Chinese celadon-glazed & Ru-type vases from a Palm Beach Private Collector

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A Chinese celadon-glazed bottle vase. Qing dynasty, 18th- 19th century. photo Sotheby’s

the bulbous body tapering to a slender neck and a molded garlic-head mouth, all covered in an even pale celadon glaze; height 11 in. 28 cm. Estimate 15,000—25,000 USD. Lot Sold 68,500 USD

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A Chinese Ru-type bottle vase. Qing dynasty, 18th- 19th century. photo Sotheby’s

covered in a rich gray-blue glaze suffused with fine yellow-brown crackling, the foot dressed in brown; height 11 1/4 in. 28.6 cm. Estimate 10,000—15,000 USD. Lot Sold 34,375 USD

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A Chinese Ru-type pear-shaped vase. Qing dynasty, 18th- 19th century. photo Sotheby’s

covered in a smoky lavender-blue glaze, the foot dressed in brown; height 8 1/2 in. 21.7 cm. Estimate 8,000—12,000 USD. Lot Sold 20,000 USD

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A Chinese celadon-glazed Vase.. Qing dynasty, Kangxi period. photo Sotheby’s

the body incised with scrolling lotus beneath a narrow band of inverted triangles and ruyi-heads around the neck; height 9 3/4 in. 24.8 cm. Estimate 4,000—6,000 USD. Lot Sold 12,500 USD

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A Chinese celadon-glazed Baluster Vase.. Qing dynasty, Kangxi period. photo Sotheby’s

incised with a band of scrolling lotus beneath a narrow border of inverted triangles around the neck; height 10 in. 25 4 cm. Estimate 4,000—6,000 USD. Lot Sold 10,000 USD

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A Chinese celadon vase.. Late Ming-Qing dynasty. photo Sotheby’s

molded with peonies and foliage between lappet borders at the rim and foot, the glaze suffused overall with a fine crackle; height 13 3/4 in., 35 cm. Estimate 2,000—3,000 USD. Lot Sold 8,125 USD

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A Chinese celadon Baluster Vase.. Late Ming-Qing dynasty. photo Sotheby’s

carved with peonies and foliage above a band of incised stiff leaves; height 13 in., 33 cm. Estimate 2,000—3,000 USD. Lot Sold 5,313 USD

Kangxi Blue and White @ Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

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Blue and White ‘Bacchus’ Charger. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 37,5 cm. Price on request

Provenance: private collection, Belgium

A rare large charger decorated with a Western mythological scene of Dionysus, or Bacchus, the Greco-Roman god of wine and merriment. Because of these connotations, he was a favoured symbol for the dining room. Further European influence can be seen in the gadrooned rim, which was copied from silver models. Similar chargers are in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London) and the Hodroff Collection (USA).

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Large Five Piece Garniture. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 64 cm – Price on request

Provenance: Dutch noble family, since the early 18th century

Five-piece garnitures were used as decoration in grand European houses throughout the 18th century. Made in China as separate items, garnitures were formed in Europe by combining covered jars and vases. Large garnitures were often part of private orders made by higher ranking members of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). Until now, this garniture has been in the same Dutch family collection since the early 18th Century.

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Blue and White Bottle Vase.China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 24 cm – Price on request

Provenance: private collection, France

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Underglaze Blue Bowl. China, Kangxi Mark & Period (1662-1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 14,3 cm. Price: € 17.500,-

Provenance: Private Collection Germany

The eight trigrams, or bagua, are mystical symbols comprising of long and short horizontal lines. They symbolize the different aspects of nature between heaven (long lines) and earth (short lines). Other decorations used are waves, rocks, clouds and cranes, all typical Taoist emblems.

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Blue and White Box and Cover. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 11,5 cm  – Price: € 9.500,-

Provenance: Bos collection, The Netherlands

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Two Handled Cup With Cover. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 18,5 cm – Price: € 8.500,-

Provenance: Augustus the Strong collection, Germany, Inventory Number: N=181 VVV

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Blue and White Ewer with Cover. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Silver mounts of the period marked Amsterdam 1720. Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 15 cm – Price: € 7.500,-

Provenance: Simons collection, the Netherlands

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Islamic Jar and Cover. China, Kangxi period (1662-1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 7,5 cm – Price € 4.500,-

Provenance: Lieberman collection, United Kingdom

Although Chinese and the Ottoman Empires seemed far apart in ancient times, an abundance Chinese treasures in the Topkapi Palace Museum (Istanbul) stand proof for their long-term trading relationship. This small jar and cover is an excellent example of Chinese porcelain made for the middle eastern market.

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Calligraphy Brush Cap. China, Kangxi period (1662-1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Height: 13,5 cm – Price € 4.500,-

Provenance: Lieberman collection, United Kingdom

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China, the scholars were highly regarded in Chinese society. Many beautiful items, made from luxurious materials, were used to adorn the scholar’s desk. Among these, a special place was reserved for the brush itself. This object is probably the cap for a porcelain brush – a rare and expensive material only affordable for the very few.

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Blue and White Plate. China, Kangxi period (1662-1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 39,5cm – Price: €4.500,00

Provenance: Collectie van Middelkoop Netherlands.

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Blue and White Plate. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 27 cm – Price: € 3.800,-

Provenance: Wiltox-Bogaers collection, The Netherlands

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Blue and White Dish. China, Kangxi period (1662 – 1722). Courtesy Vanderven & Vanderven Oriental Art

Diameter: 26,5 cm – Price: € 3.500,-

Provenance: Bos collection, The Netherlands

A pair of Chinese Export Famille-Verte powder-blue-ground bottle vases, Kangxi period, early 18th century

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A pair of Chinese Export Famille-Verte powder-blue-ground bottle vases, Kangxi period, early 18th century. photo Sotheby’s

reserved with panels of objects and flowering plants. height 8 1/2 in., 21.6 cm – Estimate 5,000—7,000 USD. Lot Sold 3,125 USD

A Chinese porcelain blue and white bottle vase. Chongzhen, 1628-1644.

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A Chinese porcelain blue and white bottle vase. Chongzhen, 1628-1644. Courtesy Marchant

of compressed globular form with tall flaring neck and central bulb, painted on the body with a dignitary meeting a lady in a fenced garden, the gentleman with three attendants, one holding a canopy, the other a halbard and a third with an axe, all amongst rockwork, banana plants and “V”-shaped grass, the reverse with a cloud bank beneath cloud scrolls and the moon, the shoulder with a continuous band of flowering asters amongst foliage, the neck with stylised tulip divided by lotus flower-heads and foliage on the bulb. 14 5/8 inches, 37.1cm high. Condition: Rim restored. Price on request.

• Formerly in the collection of Professor D. R. Laurence.

• Purchased from S. Marchant & Son, 9th February 2007.

• A similar vase was included by S. Marchant & Son in their exhibition of Ming Blue and White Porcelain: The Drs. A. M. Sengers Collection, no. 72, p. 99; another was included by S. Marchant & Son in their exhibition of Ming Blue and White Including Dated Examples, no. 74, pp. 102/3, a further example from the Ludwig collection in the Cologne Museum is illustrated by Adele Schlombs in China und die Hoffnung auf Glûck, no. 44.

Yongzheng miniature copper-red vase

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A miniature copper-red vase; Yongzheng. photo Bonhams

Of elegant pear-shaped form, covered all over with a rich mottled red glaze, thinning at the mouth to an opaque white, wood stand. 8.4cm high; Sold for HK$48,000

Provenance :/ Formerly in the collection of Brodie and Enid Lodge

Exhibited 出版: The Oriental Ceramics Society, Monochrome Porcelain of the Ming and Manchu Dynasties, London, October 1948, no.5.

清雍正 紅釉荸薺扁瓶擺件

來源:Brodie 與 Enid Lodge舊藏

Chinese Glass @ Bonhams, Hong Kong

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A rare red glass bottle vase. Yongzheng four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of sumptuous globular form, skilfully moulded with a raised ridge at the shoulder and surmounted by a tall tapering neck, the glass of a rich mottled red colour suffused with bubbles and inclusions. 23cm high. Sold for HK$1,560,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 12 May 1988.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.50-51, no.24
R.Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles in the Collection of Mary & George Bloch, British Museum Press, London, 1995, p.xxi, fig.2

清雍正 透明紅玻璃賞瓶 「雍正年製」楷款

來源:1988年5月12日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

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An extremely rare ruby-red and white overlay glass ‘ruyi’ jar.Qianlong four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of elegant rounded form, springing from an accentuated foot, and tapering to the mouth, the lower overlay of a rich ruby-red colour, finely carved as a stylised peony flower with eight interlocking petals with deftly incised veining, the central body an opaque white colour, the upper overlay carved with ruyi motifs, the lipped rim intricately incised with a four character kaishu mark, original carved wood stand; 8.3cm diam. Estimate: HK$200,000 – 400,000, USD 26,000 – 52,000. Sold for HK$1,320,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 4 November 1986.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, p.99, cat. no.73

R.Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles in the Collection of Mary & George Bloch, British Museum Press, London, 1995, p.xxiii, fig.5

Catalogue of the International Art Fair, New York, March 1997, p.15, cat. no.17

清乾隆 白套紅玻璃蓮瓣紋缽「乾隆年製」楷款

來源: 於1986年11月4日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

Qianlong-reign marked jars of this type are extremely rare, representing the pinnacles of achievement of the Beijing Palace glass workshops. The precise form, quality of the ruyi-design carving, and powerful contrasting colours mark this select group out amongst other Imperial Qing dynasty glass wares. A closely related jar from the Qing court collection, preserved in the Palace Museum, Beijing, with additional bands in sapphire-blue around the neck and foot, is illustrated in Luster of Autumn Water: Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshop, Beijing, 2005, p. 208, pl. 59

Only one other jar of this type appears to have been offered at auction, a slightly larger (12.5cm diameter) example, sold at Sotheby’s Hong Kong, The Collection of a Parisian Connoisseur, 8 April 2007, lot 519, differing from the current jar in that the four-character mark is inscribed around the base. Another red-overlay jar, formerly in the Robert Clague Collection, and now in the Hong Kong Museum of Art, is illustrated in The Robert H. Clague Collection. Chinese Glass of the Qing Dynasty, Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, 1987, cat. no 18. Another unpublished example is in the collection of the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery, England

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A rare ‘amethyst’ glass bottle vase. Yongzheng four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of elegant ‘S’-shaped section, supported on a short straight foot, gently undulating inwards and sloping at the shoulders, surmounted by a narrow curved neck, the glass of an attractive purple colour reminiscent of amethyst. 13.9cm high. Sold for HK$660,000.

Provenance: S.Bernstein & Co., San Francisco, 31 July 1993.

Illustrated 出版: S.Bernstein, Chinese Art from Distant Centuries vol.2, 1993, no.49
A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.48-49, no.23

清雍正 紫玻璃花瓶 「雍正年製」楷款

來源:於1993年7月31日購自三藩市S.Bernstein & Co.

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A rare yellow glass zhadou. Qianlong four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

The heavily constructed body of compressed spherical form supported on a straight foot and flaring out to a broad mouth, the base wheel cut with a four-character mark within a double square; 8cm high. Estimate: HK$50,000 – 80,000, USD 6,400 – 10,000. Sold for HK$504,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 1 May 1987.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, p.89, no.61

清乾隆 黃玻璃渣斗「乾隆年製」楷款

來源:於1987年5月1日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

For a Yongzheng reign-marked fluted yellow glass zhadou in the Beijing Palace Museum, see Luster of Autumn Water. Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshop, Beijing, 2005, p. 132, pl. 11.

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A rare green glass bottle vase.Qianlong four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of compressed spherical form supported on a slightly splayed foot, surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck flared slightly at the mouth, the colour of a rich emerald-green, suffused with bubbles. 21.5cm high. Sold for HK$480,000

Provenance: A & J Speelman Ltd., London, 4 February 1993.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.72-73, no.43

清乾隆 透明綠玻璃扁瓶 「乾隆年製」楷款

來源:於1993年2月4日購自倫敦A & J Speelman Ltd.

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A yellow glass ‘lotus leaf’ water dropper. Qing dynasty, 18th century. photo Bonhams

Of deep rounded form, boldly shaped and carved in relief in the form of a lotus leaf, the exterior carved in relief with luxuriant lotus flowers and stems emanating from the base and extending to the lotus flowers, all carved in relief, the irregular shaped rim folded over to simulate the edges of a lotus leaf, lowered and widened at one side to form a spout, the opposite side carved with a lotus seed pod and two frogs, the lip carved with two small crabs depicted clambering over, the exterior and interior of the vessel decorated with gently incised lines conveying the veins of a lotus leaf.11cm diam.Sold for HK$480,000

Provenance: Spink & Son Ltd, London, 14 April 1989.

Illustrated 出版: Minor Arts of China vol.IV, Spink & Son Ltd., 1989, p.86, fig.111, and illustrated on the front cover
Octagon vol.XXVI, Spink & Son Ltd., 1989, p.14, fig.1
C.Brown & D.Rabiner, Clear As Crystal, Red As Flame: Later Chinese Glass, China House Gallery, China Institute in America, New York, 1990, cat. no.42
A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, p.109, no.84
Triptych: 76, Nov-Dec 1995, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, pg.19, no.2
R.Kleiner,Chinese Snuff Bottles in the Collection of Mary & George Bloch, British Museum Press, London, 1995, p.xix, fig.1
Catalogue of the International Art Fair, New York, March 1997, p.15, cat. no.18

清 十八世紀黃玻璃荷葉形水盂

來源:於1989年4月14日購自倫敦Spink & Son Ltd

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A rare pink glass fluted vase. Yongzheng four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of globular form, supported on a short foot, gently rising at the shoulder and flaring at the neck, skillfully moulded into ten vertical flutes extending from the foot to the rim, the colour of a rich pink mottled with pale white splashes, suffused with bubbles and inclusions. 13cm high. Sold for HK$384,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 29 September 1988.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.52-53, no.25
Glass for K’ang Hsi’s Court, Arts of Asia, Sept-Oct 1991, p.133

清雍正 粉色玻璃十棱盤口瓶「雍正年製」楷款

來源:於1988年9月29日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

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A fine large amber glass vase. Qianlong four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of imposing size, the swollen body supported on a short straight foot, surmounted by a long neck gently flaring at the mouth, the glass of an attractive orange-brown colour. 36cm high. Sold for HK$360,000

Provenance: S.Bernstein & Co., San Francisco, 7 October 1992.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.68-69, no.40

清乾隆 瑪瑙色透明玻璃天球瓶 「乾隆年製」楷款

來源:於1992年10月7日購自三藩市S.Bernstein & Co.

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A large white glass bottle vase.. Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of globular form supported on a short straight foot, surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck, incised and inlaid with gold at the rim with an apocryphal Qianlong seal mark, the white glass of exceptional translucence reminiscent of flawless white jade. 27.6cm high. Sold for HK$336,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 7 January 1991.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.84-85, no.55

清 白玻璃長頸瓶「大清乾隆年製」篆款

來源:於1991年1月7日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

A blue glass vase of similar form, also incised and inlaid in gold with an apocryphal Qianlong seal mark, is illustrated in Elegance and Radiance. Grandeur in Qing Glass. The Andrew K.F. Lee Collection, The Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2000, pl.13.

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A pair of ruby-red carved glass ‘lotus’ cups. Qianlong four-character wheel-cut marks and of the period.. photo Bonhams

Each of deep rounded form, the rich ruby-red glass skilfully carved of undulating petal form, the exterior carved in low relief with a duck amidst luxuriant lotus plants, supported on a root coiling around the foot encircling the mark. 6.2cm high. Sold for HK$312,000
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清乾隆 紅玻璃雕荷塘水鴨杯一對 「乾隆年製」楷款

Qianlong glass vessels inscribed with the reign mark on the base are rare, and these marks appear to have been reserved for the highest quality pieces. For an overlay vase with a Qianlong four-character kaishu mark similarly inscribed around the base, see a red-overlay glass vase from the Qing court collection, preserved in the Palace Museum, Beijing, illustrated in Luster of Autumn Water. Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshop, Beijing, 2005, p. 202, pl. 55.

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A ruby-red cylindrical glass brush holder. Mid Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of cylindrical form, the rich ruby-red glass carved in relief with a landscape scene of a groom watching a horse rolling on the ground, framed under gnarled pine branches and leaves, the reverse inscribed in xing cao with a seven-column poem, all reminiscent of a bamboo brushpot by the famous bamboo carver Wu Zhifan. 17.8cm high. Sold for HK$204,000.

Provenance: Robyn Turner Gallery, San Francisco, 24 April 1998.

Illustrated 出版: E.B.Curtis, Chinese Glassmaking, Arts of Asia, Nov-Dec 1998, pp.98-107, no.13 & 14

清中期 紅玻璃雕渡銀河筆筒

來源:於1998年4月24日購自三藩市Robyn Turner Gallery

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A monumental ‘clair-de-lune’ glass bottle vase. Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

The exceptionally large vase of compressed globular form supported on a short, slightly splayed foot, surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck, the glass of an attractive opaque pale blue colour. 44cm high. Sold for HK$180,000

Provenance: S.Bernstein & Co., San Francisco, 30 March 1993.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.82-83, no.51
E.B.Curtis, Journal of Glass Studies vol.41, Corning Museum of Glass, 1999, p.152, fig.3

清天藍玻璃長頸瓶

來源:於1993年3月30日購自三藩市S.Bernstein & Co.

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A pair of gilt-decorated glass ‘dragon’ bowls. Guangxu. photo Bonhams

Each of deep rounded form supported on a short foot, intricately decorated in gilt with nine dragons, the interior with two pairs of dragons depicted in pursuit of a flaming pearl around a central writhing dragon, the exterior with an additional two pairs of dragon rendered in a similar design, all against a dense floral ground, all below a collar of ruyi motifs at the rim and above a narrow band of classic scroll at the foot, the base with apocryphal Qianlong mark.16.3cm diam. Sold for HK$168,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 21 November 1988.

清光緒白玻璃畫金彩龍紋碗一對

來源:於1988年11月21日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

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A pair of white glass Moghul-style bowls.18th century. photo Bonhams

Each of shallow rounded form supported on a short straight foot, the exterior intricately carved with registers of overlapping chrysanthemum petals emerging from the base in concentric patterns and rising to the foliate rim. 7 cm high. Sold for HK$156,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 29 September 1988.

Illustrated 出版: R.Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles in the Collection of Mary & George Bloch, British Museum Press, London, 1995, p.xxiii, fig.6-7

十八世紀 白玻璃蓮花形碗一對

來源:於1988年9月29日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

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A turquoise-green glass vase;Qianlong four-character wheel-cut mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

The heavily constructed body of slender curved form, tapering elegantly from the narrow foot to the swollen central body, rising to a long flared neck, the colour of a rich blue-green suffused with black inclusions and striations in imitation of turquoise, the countersunk base wheel cut with a four-character mark within a double square.18.1cm high. Estimate: HK$40,000 – 60,000, USD 5,200 – 7,700. Sold for HK$144,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 30 October 1986.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.80-81, cat. no.50

清乾隆 仿綠松石色玻璃橄欖瓶「乾隆年製」楷款

來源:於1986年10月30日購自三藩市Ashkenazie & Co.

A vase of identical size and shape from the Qing court collection, preserved in the Palace Museum, Beijing, but in a brilliant ‘sky-blue’, is illustrated in Luster of Autumn Water: Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshop, Beijing, 2005, p. 154, pl. 24. See also a turquoise glass vase illustrated in Elegance and Radiance: Grandeur in Qing Glass. The Andrew K.F. Lee Collection, The Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2000, pl.48.

Dr Alan Feen, a radiation oncologist from Tulsa, Oklahoma, began collecting Chinese glass in 1986 when he purchased his first object, the small Qianlong ruby-red and overlay white brush washer (Lot 208) in San Francisco. Dr Feen had been looking at and studying Chinese glass since a 1983 trip to China, a land he had always wanted to visit. He has now made the decision to let go of the collection for others to enjoy. A second sale of the glass will be held in San Francisco in 2011.

The Alan E. Feen Collection of Chinese Glass
Emily Byrne Curtis

His interest in Chinese glass commenced in 1983. Coincidently this same year also marked the publication of Yang Boda’s seminal study of glass wares from the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Working with records of the Workshops of the Imperial Palace (Zaobanchu), Yang was able to chart the course of Imperial glassmaking from the Yongzheng reign (1723-35) to the end of the Xuantong (1909-11) period. However, since records for the Kangxi era (1662-1722) were lacking, little was known about the Imperial glass workshop the emperor had established in 1696.

Fortunately, historical documents in the archives in Rome and the Vatican contained more specific information regarding the founding of the glassworks. They revealed that the workshop itself, was located within the confines of the Imperial City on a piece of land adjacent to the French Jesuits’ church. This proved to be in accordance with two eighteenth century Chinese texts which state that the entire complex was located on the east side of a street named Canchikou. From other documents conserved in the Japonica/Sinica division of the Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu, we learn from several letters dating to 1696 and written by Jean de Fontaney, SJ (洪若翰 Hong Ruohan), that this glassworks had been erected by Kilian Stumpf, SJ (紀理安 Ji Lian), that it was already producing glass wares. According to the accounts written by Matteo Ripa (馬 國 賢 Ma Guoxian) and housed in the archives of Archivio Storico de Propaganda Fide, in 1711 the glass workshop was still under Stumpf’s direction, and in May 1715 Ripa recorded how Stumpf had built many furnaces for glass making, while attending to the needs of a great number of craftsmen, all of which required his constant attention.

Continuing on, Theodorico Pedrini, CM (德理格De Lige) sent a request to Rome for examples of glass with gold sparkles that shine. Pedrini also added that the glassworks was experiencing difficulties in making this variety. His description brings to mind the copper particles found in aventurine glass. The glass batch for aventurine was in fact, hard to make and nearly impossible to work by blowing. Nonetheless, in 1705 Kangxi presented the military governor of Jiangsu with seventeen pieces of glass among which were two blue vases speckled with gold. All of this reminds one of the vase of transparent blue glass in Dr. Feen’s collection (Lot 216) which contains spangles (pasta stellaria) imitating aventurine. It may be noted further, that similar examples of this type of glass may be found in the collection of the Beijing Palace Museum.

A letter written by Jean-François Foucquet, SJ (傅 聖 澤 Fu Shengze) and preserved in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana describes in detail the gifts Kangxi was sending to the King of Portugal in 1721. Among the glassware we find descriptions for plates the color of celestial red; cups with flower pattern the color of blue sky after rain (yuguo tianqing); pots and plates in the same shade; plates of sky-blue (tianlan); cups and plates of white glass ornamented with flowers; and five cups of white glass and adorned with gilt on the exterior. The latter description may be compared to a pair of gilt decorated bowls (Lot 219) in the Feen Collection which have a four character mark of the Qianlong emperor (r.1736-95) on their bases, representing a style of decor that can be traced back to the earliest days of Imperial glassmaking.

Foucquet’s references to glass with flower patterns recalls a mention by Lodovico Antonio Appiani, CM (畢 天 祥 Bi Tianxiang), of having been in a room ‘full of young artisans who were carving floral patterns on the glasswares,’ while the distinctions made on Foucquet’s list between vessels of ‘sky-blue’ and the ‘blue sky after rain’ colours impart a distinctive Chinese sensibility. One might suggest that the sky-blue tone is met by the large vase (Lot 228) whose colour has also been referred to as being ‘clair de lune.’ As to the color of ‘blue sky after rain,’ this description was probably derived from that of the mysterious Chai stoneware made during the reign of Emperor Shizong ( r. 953-59) in the Five Dynasties period.

Yongzheng (r.1723-35) is said to have exhibited a pronounced preference for vessels made of bright red and purple glass. The method utilized to achieve these colours is believed to have been transmitted to China in the following manner. Kilian Stumpf had attended the Jesuit college in Mainz where the latest modes to produce ruby glass were known. This process included the addition of colloidal gold (gold dispersed as fine particles) to the glass formula. This technology had been transmitted to China has been confirmed by analytical studies of specimens from the Kangxi and Yongzheng periods which showed that the red, pink, and purple enamel colors employed in decorating porcelain had been prepared from ruby glass which contained colloidal particles of gold. In the absence of documented examples for Foucquet’s ‘celestial red’ glass, one can only propose consideration of vessels such as the vase of transparent red glass (Lot 234) might fit this description, and that its color was obtained by making use of this ‘new’ technology. This reasoning may be applied also to the small bottle vase of transparent amethyst glass (Lot 232), and the fluted vase of opaque pink glass (Lot 231), with incised Yongzheng nian zhi marks in standard script on the slightly recessed bases of both vessels.

The Feen Collection contains some notable examples of glass wares intended for scholarly pursuits such as the brush rest of white glass imitating nephrite, in the form of a crouching boy (Lot 222). Beautifully finished, it was probably intended for the desk of a member of the scholar-literati class, who would have only surrounded themselves with objects of the utmost refinement. Among the other vessels a scholar might have placed on his desk include a brush washer (Lot 205), a brushholder (Lot 204), and a zhadou (Lot 203). The zhadou’s wheel engraved Qianlong nian zhi (1736-95) mark within a double square on the base, combined with the yellow color of the three vessels suggest an attribution to the Qing court, especially when one factors in the yellow glass zhadan bearing a Yongzheng mark, which is in the collection of the Beijing Palace Museum. To this group may be added the brush washer (Lot 208) of opaque ivory colored glass with carved overlays of opaque red and an incised Qianlong mark along the lip of the vessel. This brush washer may be compared to a similar vessel in the Hong Kong Museum of Art.

A commonly held view postulates that the overall quality of Imperial glassmaking began to decline in the last quarter of the eighteenth century and that thereafter, nothing of any noteworthy significance was produced. The pair of covered cups in the Feen Collection (Lot 220) challenges this assumption. The transparent amber color glass is of the highest quality, as are the well-engraved Jiajing marks (1796-1819) on both lids and bases.

In some respects the snuff bottle (Lot 221) of transparent blue glass may be seen as complementing the cycle of Imperial glassmaking which started in Kangxi’s reign. Carved in facets, the gem-like colour of the bottle suggests the minerals are emerald or aquamarine. Though bearing a Tongzhi mark (1862-74), it evokes the single known marked piece of Kangxi glass in the collection of the Beijing Palace Museum, a waterpot fashioned of faceted, transparent glass intended to evoke the clarity of crystal.

It is perhaps fitting to conclude these thoughts on the Feen Collection by referring to the tribute to Stumpf made by João Mourão, SJ ( 穆 敬 遠 Mu Jingyuan), which said in essence, that the Reverend Father Kilian Stumpf taught the two arts of making glass and enamel colours. Moreover he taught the construction of making ovens and small kilns, a knowledge that the Chinese ‘today in their ingenious manner use to fashion very curious objects,’ (fazem Hoje obras muito curiozas).

自1986年開始,俄克拉荷馬放射腫瘤學家Dr. Alan Feen便收藏中國玻璃,他的第一件玻璃收藏品便是購自三藩市的白套紅玻璃蓮花瓣紋缽(Lot 208)。1983年中國之旅啟蒙了他對玻璃的興趣,使他愛不釋手。現在他決定把收藏公諸同好,第二部份的玻璃收藏將會在2010年三藩市拍賣。


Emily Byrne Curtis

 

他自1983年便開始對玻璃感興趣,無獨有偶,這一年也是楊伯達先生出版有關清代(1644-1911)玻璃的研究。透過翻閱造辦處檔案,楊伯達先生追尋出雍正(1723-35)至宣統年間(1909-11)御製玻璃的發展軌跡。可是,由於康熙年間(1662-1722)的記錄有所散缺,只能得知很少有關1696年成立玻璃造辦處的資料。

幸運地,羅馬及梵蒂岡歷史文獻記錄了更多詳細的成立造辦處資料。據資料顯示,造辦處建立在故宮內連接在法國耶穌會教堂的空地之上。這剛好對應了18世紀中文文獻所言,整項建築設立在蚕池口以東。在Archivum Romanum Societatis Iseu 內東方部門的其他文獻裡,我們從數封洪若翰在1696年所寫的信件中得知,紀理安在當時已建立造辦處並製作玻璃器。根據現藏在Archivio Storico de Propaganda Fide馬國賢的記錄,1711年的玻璃造辦處仍是在紀理安的帶領下運作,在1715年5月,馬國賢更記錄了紀理安如何修建多個窯爐作玻璃燒製之用、照顧了眾多工匠的需要,這一切一切也少不了紀理安的長期關注。

其後,德理格向羅馬提出取如金般閃耀的飾片玻璃樣本,他更表示造辦處正試驗製造不同形式的玻璃器。他的描述令人聯想起在灑金星玻璃中的銅微粒。事實上,製作灑金星玻璃是一件不容易的事,幾乎不可以用吹的方式來製造。然而,在1705年康熙皇帝賞賜了江蘇將領十七件玻璃,其中兩件便是帶有閃閃發光飾片的藍玻璃瓶。這些都使人想起Dr. Feen珍藏中其中一件收藏(Lot 216),該器含有閃閃發光的飾片,模仿出灑金星效果,同類例子也可從北京故宮博物院收藏中找到。

現藏Biblioteca Apostolica Vatocana的傅聖潭信件,仔細地形容了康熙皇帝在1721年贈予葡萄牙皇帝的貢品。當中玻璃器包括:天霞紅的碟子、飾花卉紋的雨過天青杯、相同顏色的鍋和碟、天藍碟、飾花卉紋白杯碟以及飾金彩白杯五件。最後一項貢品可與Dr. Feen珍藏中白玻璃畫金彩龍紋碗一對(Lot 219)作比較,這也代表了早期御製玻璃的風格。

傅聖潭信件中提到擁有花卉紋的玻璃器,使人聯想到畢天祥的描述:曾經在「很多年輕工匠們正雕花卉紋玻璃」的房間;而傅聖潭資料中「天藍」和「雨過天青」則表示出特殊的中國品味。一般認為「天藍」色可與天藍玻璃長頸瓶(Lot 228)對照,也就是 “clair de lune”。而「雨過天青」色,很有可能是來自一件屬於五代遼世宗(r. 953-59)時期的柴石器。

雍正皇帝(r. 1723-35)曾說過會展示出他尤其愛好的亮紅和紫色的玻璃瓶。相信是透過以下方法來達到這兩種色彩效果:紀理安曾上德國美因茨耶穌會學校,那裡正是製造最新紅玻璃的地方。過程包括在玻璃配方中加上金(被溶化成粒狀的金屬)。從康熙及雍正時期的瓷器可以證明,此技術是入口到中國的,用於飾瓷器上的紅、粉及紫色琺瑯就是來自擁有金的紅玻璃中提煉出來的。在沒有文件例子去證明傅聖潭的「天霞紅」之下,唯說清雍正透明紅玻璃賞瓶(Lot 234)是配合傅聖潭的描述,而這樣的顏色正是透過利用「新」技術而做的。此原因也可以解釋紫玻璃花瓶(Lot 232)和刻有「雍正年製」楷款的粉色玻璃十棱盤口瓶(Lot 231)的原起。

Dr. Feen珍藏之中也有不少珍貴的文房賞玩,如白玻璃童子形筆擱(Lot 222)。如此精美的瑰寶,顯然是文人雅士之物,因為他們對自身用品常有美學上的追求。除此之外,文人還會在桌上放上筆洗(Lot 205)、筆筒(Lot 204)及渣斗(Lot 203)。渣斗上刻「乾隆年製」雙框款,配合黃色的玻璃,表示出很有可能是皇室御製,當我們看到北京故宮博物院也有藏雍正款黃玻璃時,以上的說法更見明顯。白套紅玻璃蓮花瓣紋缽(Lot 208)也可列入此類文房賞玩,其口緣部份也刻有「乾隆年製」款,同類例子可參考在香港藝術館藏品中找到。

習慣地假定御製玻璃到十八世紀後期進入衰退期,以後更沒有特色的玻璃器生產。Feen珍藏中仿瑪瑙透明玻璃蓋杯一對(Lot 220)挑戰了此想法。此瑪瑙色質量甚高,蓋杯上帶有工整「嘉慶年製」款。

清同治透明藍玻璃鼻煙壺(Lot 211)可說是對自康熙年間開始的御製玻璃系統作了一個保充。此鼻煙壺呈多面體,有如綠寶藍寶般。同是同治年製的玻璃製器,可參見北京故宮博物院藏仿水晶透明玻璃水盂。

或許,我們可以借穆敬遠給予紀理安的感謝辭來總結以上對Feen珍藏的聯想,尊敬的紀理安引進了玻璃製作及琺瑯彩,而且,他教授了如何建造爐及窯,是一種「巧妙地製作新奇物件」的知識。

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A pair of large pink glass bottle vases.Qing dynasty, 17th-18th century. photo Bonhams

Each with a sumptuous globular body flattened to comprise four distinct sides, supported on a short splayed foot and surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck, the colour of an opaque pale pink.25cm high. Sold for HK$132,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 1 May 1987.

Illustrated 出版: E.B.Curtis, Chinese Glassmaking, Arts of Asia, Nov-Dec 1998, pp.98-107

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A rare white glass ‘recumbent boy’ brushrest. Qing dynasty, 17th-18th century. photo Bonhams

Naturalistically moulded as a recumbent boy depicted supporting his head on his hands, with an enhanced curve on his long stylised back comprising a support for a brush, the colour of a brilliant opaque white. 11.9cm long. Sold for HK$66,000 

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 30 October 1986.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, p.44, no.18
C.Brown & D.Rabiner, Clear As Crystal, Red As Flame: Later Chinese Glass, China House Gallery, China Institute in America, New York, 1990, cat. no.5
Glass for K’ang Hsi’s Court, Arts of Asia, Sept-Oct 1991, p.132

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A rare ruby-red and yellow glass ‘twin fish’ pendant. Qianlong. photo Bonhams

Skilfully moulded and shaped as two fish, one yellow, the other ruby-red, interlinked at opposite end of each other.5.8cm long. Sold for HK$60,000

Provenance: A & J Speelman Ltd., London, 16 June 1987.

The workmanship on this pendant is reminiscent of that on a Qianlong mark and period glass fish snuff bottle in the Palace Museum, illustrated in Luster of Autumn Water. Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshop, Beijing, 2005, p. 221, pl. 66. See also a red glass tortoise-shaped paperweight, illustrated ibid, pg. 313, pl.137.

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A facetted glass ‘aquamarine’ snuff bottle.Tongzhi four-character wheel-cut four-character mark and of the period. photo Bonhams

Of octagonal facetted form surmounted by a short cylindrical neck, the colour of a brilliant blue-green tone reminiscent of aquamarine, the Mongolian-style stopper inlaid with turquoise and other semi-precious stones.7.1cm high.Sold for HK$57,600

Provenance:Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 5 December 1987.

Illustrated 出版:A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, p.122, no.99

For a closely related Daoguang reign-marked glass snuff bottle, see A Treasury of Chinese Snuff Bottle: The Mary and George Bloch Collection, Volume 5, Hong Kong, 2002, Treasury no. 812, p.314-315.

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A pair of amber glass bowls and covers.Qing dynasty.. photo Bonhams

Each of deep rounded form supported on a short pronounced foot, the cover of domed form surmounted by a prominent ring, the base and interior of the cover carved in relief with apocryphal Jiaqing mark, the colour of a rich orange-brown. 8.3cm high. Sold for HK$54,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 12 January 1987.

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A blue glass ‘aventurine-imitation’ bottle vase.Qing dynasty, 18th century. photo Bonhams

The globular body supported on a short foot and surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck, of a rich blue colour enhanced with irregular splashes of sparkling metal particles in imitation of aventurine. 19cm high. Sold for HK$50,400

Provenance: A & J Speelman Ltd., London, 12 January 1987.

Illustrated 出版: C.Brown & D.Rabiner, Clear As Crystal, Red As Flame: Later Chinese Glass, China House Gallery, China Institute in America, New York, 1990, cat. no.28
Glass for K’ang Hsi’s Court, Arts of Asia, Sept-Oct 1991, p.133
A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.64-65, no.36
E.B.Curtis, Notes on Qing Glassmaking, Journal of Glass Studies vol.39, Corning Museum of Glass 1997, no. 2
E.B.Curtis, A Plan of the Emperor’s Glassworks, Arts Asiatiques tome 56-2001, p.86, fig.6
E.B.Curtis, Pure Brightness Shines Everywhere: The Glass of China, Ashgate, 2004, p.64, fig.7.4

Aventurine glass was made in seventeenth century Venice and later in other European glasshouses. Gold-flecked blue glass is mentioned in the Palace records in Beijing as early as 1705.

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A yellow glass brushwasher.Qing dynasty, 18th century. photo Bonhams

Of compressed spherical form rising from a subtly indented foot, the glass of a rich orange-yellow colour. 12.7cm diam.Sold for HK$48,000

Provenance: S.Bernstein & Co., San Francisco, 18 May 1992.

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A blue glass ‘chilong’ vase.Qing dynasty, 18th century. photo Bonhams

Of elegant pear-shaped form, the sumptuous body rising gently to a tall cylindrical neck, supported on a splayed foot, boldly carved in relief with a pair of chilong dragons depicted clambering around the body, the colour of a rich cobalt-blue. 19.7cm high.Sold for HK$33,600

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 16 June 1986.

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An ‘aquamarine’ glass vase. Mid Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of globular form supported on a flared foot and surmounted by a tall tapering neck, the colour of a vivid blue-green reminiscent of aquamarine. 17.9 cm high. Sold for HK$36,000

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 8 December 1987.

Illustrated 出版: A Chorus of Colors, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 1995, pp.74-75, no.44

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A yellow glass brush holder.Qing Dynasty, 18th century. photo Bonhams

Of cylindral form with well-formed sides rising vertically from the foot, the colour of an attractive orange-yellow colour. 15.7cm high. Sold for HK$28,800

Provenance: S.Bernstein & Co., San Francisco, 15 June 1993.

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A rare yellow glass facetted bowl.Mid Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of deep rounded form supported on a short foot and flaring out at the rim, the sides shaped into twelve distinct vertical facets, the colour of a rich yellow colour. 11cm diam.Sold for HK$26,400

Provenance: Robyn Turner Gallery, San Francisco, 14 January 1997.

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An emerald-green glass bottle vase. Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of sumptuous globular form, surmounted by a tall cylindrical neck and supported on a splayed foot, the colour of a brilliant translucent emerald-green, the base incised with an apocryphal Qianlong four-character mark. 19cm high. Sold for HK$26,400

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 30 October 1986.

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A rare white glass two-handled cup. Late Ming/early Qing dynasty. photo Bonhams

Of deep tapering form supported on a high foot, moulded at the sides with a pair of handles formed from stylised dragon heads, carved in relief on each side with a shou character between two medallions, the colour of an opaque white. 5.4cm high. Sold for HK$6,600

Provenance: Ashkenazie & Co., San Francisco, 12 May 1988

chinese imperial  for euro

 

chine_de_commande_petit_plat_rond_decor_dit_la_tonnelle_1317911676933100

 

Chine de commande. Petit plat rond à décor dit à la Tonnelle. XVIIIe siècle. Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris

 

en émaux de la famille rose d’après une gravure de Cornelis Pronk : une femme, ses servantes et des enfants sont assis dans un paysage sous une tonnelle, sur l’aile douze réserves décorées de papillons et d’insectes alternés de fleurs sur fond de quadrillage vert agrémentés de rinceaux et coquilles en rouge de fer. D.26 cm – Estimation : 800 / 1 000 €

 

chine_plat_rond_decore_en_grisaille_une_scene_centrale_1317911677131405

 

Chine. Plat rond décoré en grisaille . XVIIIe siècle. Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris

 

d’une scène centrale représentant une allégorie de mariage dans un temple à colonnades surmontées d’armoiries, avec au premier plan naïades et tritons. Il porte l’inscription latine sur la façade « Semper Amor Pro Te Firmisimus Atque Fidelis ». Rinceaux dorés sur l’aile. Restaurations sur l’aile. D.35 cm – Estimation : 800 / 1 000 €

 

chine_de_commande_plat_creux_rectangulaire_1317911679862234

 

Chine de commande, plat creux rectangulaire à pans coupés. Fin de la période Kangxi (1662-1722). Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris

 

décoré dans la palette Imari de branches fleuries et de quadrillages dans des réserves. L. 35,5 cm. Estimation : 800 / 1 000 €

 

chine_plat_creux_rectangulaire_pans_coupes_1317911678205189

 

Chine. Plat creux rectangulaire à pans coupés. XVIIIe siècle. Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris

 

décoré en émaux de la famille rose de feuillages et de fleurs. .L. 32 cm – Estimation : 600 / 800 €

 

chine_assiette_ronde_decoree_1317911677999267

 

Chine . Assiette ronde décorée en émaux de la famille rose des blasons des huit provinces des Pays-Bas. XVIIIe siècle. Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris

 

encadrant une armoirie centrale surmontée d’une couronne et d’une tête de cheval ailée. Rinceaux fleuris dorés sur l’aile. Une égrenure. D.23 cm. Estimation : 600 / 800 €

 

chine_assiette_octogonale_131791167861933

 

Assiette octogonale. XVIIIe siècle. Photo Pescheteau-Badin – Paris 

 

Décor en émaux de la famille rose d’un chiffre entouré de fleurs. Egrenure. D.22 cm – Estimation : 300 / 350 €

 

THE OLD BEST VIETNAM NUMISMATIC AND ARTWORK EXHIBITON

detailpic4

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

THE OLD BEST VIETNAM NUMISMATIC AND  ARTWORK EXHIBITION

 

Deux médaillons en or en forme de pièces de monnaie inscrit “Ðong Khánh thông bao”. Vietnam.

deux_medaillons_en_or_en_forme_de_pieces_de_monnaie_1306751851494487

Deux médaillons en or en forme de pièces de monnaie inscrit “Ðông Khánh thông bao”. Vietnam. Photo Pescheteau-Badin

Montés en broches. Diam. 4,5 cm. Estimation : 80 / 100 €

ensemble_comprenant_12_medaillons_en_metal_1306751851951399

Ensemble comprenant 12 médaillons en métal, Vietnam. Photo Pescheteau-Badin

quelques unes avec l’inscription “Ðong Khánh thông bao”, d’autres avec des dragons, une avec des inscriptions arabes. Diam. de 2,2 à 6,5 cm. Estimation : 80 / 100 €Estimation : 80 / 100 €

Pescheteau-Badin – Paris. Vente aux enchères du Lundi 6 juin 2011. Drouot Richelieu – Salle 9 – 9, rue Drouot – 75009 Paris. Pour tout renseignement, veuillez contacter la maison de ventes au 01 47 70 50 90 et au 01 48 00 20 09 pendant l’exposition et la vente.

 Thiệu Trị thông bảo & Vạn thế vĩnh lại en or et argent

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Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳 (1841-1847), 3 tiên. © ngsa.ch

Or; 13,54 g

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1_tien___Thieu_Tri2

Thiệu Trị 紹治 (1841-1847), 1 tiên. © baldwin.co.uk

Or, 3,78 g.

Note: Au neuf différents types créés sous Minh Mạng, philong compris, on en émet onze supplémentaires sous Thiệu Trị . À partir de ce règne, contrairement à ce qui se faisait sous Minh Mạng, il est à peu près certain que tous les types de monnaies d’argent sont aussi frappés en or. Tout le système pondéral est organisé selon le modèle chinois, fondé sur le lạng et le tiền : chaque type et ses sous multiples a un poids déterminé en tiền, qui lui donne une valeur précise selon la parité du métal (or ou argent) avec la monnaie de base. À la 11e lune de la 1e année (1841) un décret fixe la contre-valeur légale, fixée en ligatures quan, des médailles  d’argent et d’or.

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1_lang___Thieu_Tri2

Thiệu Trị thông bảo , Vạn thế vĩnh lại 紹治通寳萬世永賴, «Monnaie courante de Thiệu Trị , Dix mille générations auront perpétuelle confiance». © bowersandmerena.com

en haut, le soleil, la lune, les Cinq Planètes et les Cinq Nuages de bon augure, en bas, la terre émergeant des flots. R/ Poème : «Bijou de jade et cinabre en 1000 ans se transmuent; l’or le plus dur indéfiniment se pérpétue. Récompenser le mérite et distinguer la vertu; comme seule précieuse la sagesse est reconnue». Argent, Ø 63 mm; 38,19 g. Type dit Vạn thế vĩnh lại de dix tiền créé sous Thiệu Trị.

Cette pièce est la plus grande émise par les Nguyễn. Il existe des pièces de ce type de 5 tiền; 5 tiền et 10 tiền (un lạng) ont été frappés en or et en argent.

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5_tien___Thieu_Tri2

Thiệu Trị thông bảo , Vạn thế vĩnh lại 紹治通寳萬世永賴, «Monnaie courante de Thiệu Trị , Dix mille générations auront perpétuelle confiance». © bowersandmerena.com

en haut, le soleil, la lune, les Cinq Planètes et les Cinq Nuages de bon augure, en bas, la terre émergeant des flots. R/ Poème : «Bijou de jade et cinabre en 1000 ans se transmuent; l’or le plus dur indéfiniment se pérpétue. Récompenser le mérite et distinguer la vertu; comme seule précieuse la sagesse est reconnue». Argent, 19 g. Type dit Vạn thế vĩnh lại de cinq tiền créé sous Thiệu Trị .

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Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳 (1841-1847), 1/2 tiên. © baldwin.co.uk

Argent, 1.8g.

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Minh Mạng 明命(1820-1840), Philong 3 tiên, sous le dragon, thập ngũ 十五, «15», pour la 15e année de l’ère, soit 1834. © baldwin.co.uk

Or.

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Minh Mạng 明命(1820-1840), Philong 2 tiên. © ngsa.ch

Or; 7,8g.

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Minh Mạng 明命(1820-1840), Philong 7 ti, sous le dragon, thập ngũ 十五, «15», pour la 15e année de l’ère, soit 1834. © cngcoins.com

Argent, 41 mm, 27,27 g.

 Monnaie lingot de Tự Đức 嗣德 (1848-1883)

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Monnaie lingot de Tự Đức 嗣德 (1848-1883), 4 tiên, 1848. © baldwin.co.uk

Argent, 15g.

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Monnaie lingot de Tự Đức 嗣德 (1848-1883), 3 quan, 1848. © baldwin.co.uk

Argent.

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60_van___Tu_Duc2

Tự Đức bảo sáo 嗣德寳鈔, «monnaie billet de Tự Đức», 1848. © CoinArchives

Chuẩn lục thập văn 準六十文, «valant 60 văn» (9 tiên). Bronze, 48 mm: 30,44 g.

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Tự Đức bảo sáo 嗣德寳鈔, «monnaie billet de Tự Đức», 1848. © TENGU67

Chuẩn lục thập văn 準六十文, «valant 60 văn» (9 tiên). Laiton, 43 mm; 38,20 g.

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20_van___Tu_Duc2

Tự Đức bảo sáo 嗣德寳鈔, «monnaie billet de Tự Đức», 1848. © TENGU67

Chuẩn nhi thập văn 準六十文, «valant 20 văn». Laiton, 12 g.

Note: Les bảo sáo 寳鈔, littéralement «monnaie billet», sont créés par un décret de la 2e lune de la 14e année de l’ère Tự Đức (1861). Le ministère des Finances propose de lancer dans la circulation 6 monnaies de laiton différentes d’une valeur de 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 et 60 văn de zinc, dont les poids seraient respectivement de 1,5 (=5,7 g), 2 (7,6 g), 2,5 (9,5 g), 3 (11,4 g), 3,5 (13,3 g) et 4 tiền (15,2 g). Mais en raison de la trop grande différence entre ces poids et le ratio laiton/zinc, la Cour ordonne de porter les poids à 1,5, 3, 4,5, 6, 7,5 et 9 tiền. Ces nouveaux poids montrent que 1,5 tiền de laiton vaut 10 pièces de 6 phân de zinc, soit 6 tiền de zinc, ce qui fait un rapport de 1 à 4.

À la 9e lune de la 23e année (1870), les autorités lancent une seconde émission de bảo sáo en reprenant les poids de la proposition du ministère des Finances, ce qui fait que les monnaies de la deuxième émission sont beaucoup plus légères.

Il existe enfin une autre émission, non mentionnée dans les textes, dont la contrevaleur est exprimée en mạch (1/10e de quan) et en quan (ligature de monnaies de zinc). Il existe pour cette série, des pièces de 2, 3 et 8 mạch et d’un quan. On peut penser que la série complète a été émise.

(Voir Thierry François, “Monnaies et circulation monétaire au Vietnam dans l’ère Tự Đức (1848-1883)”. Revue Numismatique 1999, pp. 269-317, pl. V-VI )

 嗣德通寳 en argent, 1848

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Monnaie de sept tiên. Tự Đức thông bảo 嗣德通寳, «monnaie courante de Tự Đức», 1848. © cngcoins.com

Revers, deux dragons parmi les nuages,  Long văn 龍文. Argent, 53 mm, 24,88g.

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Tự Đức thông bảo 嗣德通寳, «monnaie courante de Tự Đức», 1848, 1/4 lang. © bowersandmerena.com

Argent, 9.4g.

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Monnaie de trois tiên. Tự Đức thông bảo 嗣德通寳, «monnaie courante de Tự Đức», 1848. © CoinArchives

soleil rayonnant au centre. Revers, dragon. Argent, 13,10 g.

 TU_DUC_2_TIEN_1

TU_DUC_2_TIEN_2

Tự Đức thông bảo 嗣德通寳, «monnaie courante de Tự Đức», 1848, 2 tiền. © CoinArchives

trou carré au centre. Revers, Sử dân phú thọ 使民富壽, «S’efforcer d’assurer au peuple richesse et longévité». Argent, 7,6 g.

TU_DUC_1_TIEN

TU_DUC_1_TIEN_2

Tự Đức thông bảo 嗣德通寳, «monnaie courante de Tự Đức», 1848, un tiền. © CoinArchives

Argent, 27mm, 3.7g.  

 Minh Mạng thông bảo 明命通寳. Philong

Minh_Mang1

Minh_Mang2

Minh Mạng thông bảo 明命通寳. Philong, au revers, thập tứ 十四, «14», pour la 14e année de l’ère, soit 1833.

Les philong ont été créés pour faire obstacle à la circulation massive des réaux espagnols et des pesos mexicains au Vietnam. La nouvelle pièce a le poids et le module des pièces étrangères. À la 6e lune de la 13e année de Minh Mạng, soit en juillet 1832, la frappe débute dans les ateliers de la Cour, Nội vụ phủ ; les monnaies portent au droit les quatre caractères Minh Mạng thông bảo 明命通寳, «monnaie courante de [l'ère] Minh Mạng», avec le soleil rayonnant au centre; au revers figure le dragon impérial saisissant la perle enflammée au milieu des nuages, en dessous le quantième dans l’ère.

Si le poids est d’environ 27 grammes, la composition métallique est inférieure à celle des réaux (93,5%) et des pesos (90,3%). En effet, l’aloi qui était de 70% de métal fin est porté à seulement 80% en 1833. De nombreux faux philong dont l’aloi était parfois inférieur à 38% de fin furent frappés dès 1832. Dans la 16e année de Minh Mạng, les frappes furent arrêtées. (www.transiart.com)

 Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳

Thieu_Tri1

Thieu_Tri2

Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳.

R/ Deux dragons affrontés autour de la perle enflammée. Ø 33 mm, 7,69 g. Type de deux tiền, dit song long, «au deux dragons», créé sous Thiệu Trị.

Au neuf différents types créés sous Minh Mạng, philong compris, on en émet onze supplémentaires sous Thiệu Trị . À partir de ce règne, contrairement à ce qui se faisait sous Minh Mạng, il est à peu près certain que tous les types de monnaies d’argent sont aussi frappés en or. Tout le système pondéral est organisé selon le modèle chinois, fondé sur le lạng et le tiền : chaque type et ses sous multiples a un poids déterminé en tiền, qui lui donne une valeur précise selon la parité du métal (or ou argent) avec la monnaie de base. À la 11e lune de la 1e année (1841) un décret fixe la contre-valeur légale, fixée en ligatures quan, des médailles d’argent et d’or. (www.transiart.com)

 Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳, philong 7 tiền, Annam (1841-1847)

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__KGrHqEOKjcE0r_l_r_oBNZVn_ER8Q___35

Thiệu Trị thông bảo 紹治通寳, philong 7 tiền, Annam (1841-1847)

43 mm, 27 gr.

Succédant à celui de Minh Mạng le règne de Thiệu Trị semble en être la suite glorieuse, mais il apparaît déjà comme une période de stagnation où se manifestent des éléments de décadence. La monnaie est le parfait reflet de ce double aspect, on remarque en particulier dans les grandes monnaies d’un mạch un style plus lourd et plus fruste, mais c’est aussi sous Thiệu Trị que le monnayage d’argent et le monnayage d’or trouve son apogée. La monnaie de base est la pièce de zinc de 6 phân; les monnaies de laiton existent en deux types respectivement de 6 et 9 phân. Le système monétaire était complété par des philong d’or et d’argent, des pièces d’or et d’argent à poids réguliers (1 à 5 tiền, 7 tiền et 1 lạng) et enfin des séries de lingots et lingotins d’or et d’argent. Lê Dụ Tông (1705-1728), Vĩnh Thịnh thông bảo 永盛通寶.

2

02

Lê Dụ Tông (1705-1728), Vĩnh Thịnh thông bảo 永盛通寶.

Dụ Tông monte sur le trône en 1705, instaurant l’ère Vĩnh Thịnh 永盛 (1705-1719), durant cette ère la fonte monétaire reprit un essor comparable à celui de l’ère Vĩnh Thọ 永夀 de Thần Tông. La plupart des monnaies Vĩnh Thịnh thông bảo 永盛通寶 portent au revers le signe cyclique kỉ 己, abréviation pour kỉ-sửu 己丑, année correspondant à 1709, date de l’accession au pouvoir du nouveau seigneur Trịnh, Trịnh Cương connu sous le nom de An Đô Vương, “Roi de la capitale pacifiée”. On sait que depuis 1600, les vrais souverains du Vietnam ne sont pas les empereurs Lê, mais les Seigneurs Trịnh qui sont un peu au Vietnam ce que les Shogun sont au Japon avant Meiji, tout au moins pour le nord du pays (Tonkin et Thanh Hóa), le sud étant aux mains des Seigneurs Nguyễn. Les monnaies Vĩnh Thịnh thông bảo sont nombreuses et les inscriptions monétaires sont toutes écrites en style régulier (kaishu), avec trois différences graphiques minimes. Si, comme pour les Vĩnh Thọ thông bảo, le travail de fonte laisse parfois à désirer, le poids et la qualité du métal sont très généralement bons. Dans l’ère Vĩnh Thịnh, on a aussi fondu de grandes monnaies d’environ 50 mm de diamètre (voir François Thierry, Catalogue des monnaies vietnamiennes, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris 1987, n°616).

Vietnam. Bureau rectangulaire à gradins en bois sculpté de dragons ouvrant à deux tiroirs en façade. Premier quart du XXème sièc

 

33

 

0085

 

Vietnam. Bureau rectangulaire à gradins en bois sculpté de dragons ouvrant à deux tiroirs en façade. Premier quart du XXème siècle. Photo Aguttes – Paris

 

L : 110 H 109 cm. Estimation : 1 000 / 1 500 €

 

 

 

 

 

Vietnam. Plateau ou petite table de lettré rectangulaire, khai, à quatre pieds. Début du XXème siècle

 

00010m

 

Vietnam. Plateau ou petite table de lettré rectangulaire, khai, à quatre pieds. Début du XXème siècle. Photo Aguttes – Paris

 

à décor incrusté en nacre de personnages dans une embarcation sur fond de paysage avec objets précieux, papillons, fleurs et fruits. L : 50 cm. Fentes. Estimation : 600 / 900 €

 

 

Vietnam. Etui à cartes en bois. Début XXème siècle

 

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Vietnam. Etui à cartes en bois. Début XXème siècle. photo Osenat Fontainebleau

 

richement décoré de personnages dans des paysages de Pagodes. H. 11 cm – Estimation : 60/80€

 

A lacquer gilt bronze figure of Budai. China or Vietnam, 18th-19th century

 

00020m

 

A lacquer gilt bronze figure of Budai. China or Vietnam, 18th-19th century. photo Nagel Auctions

 

Wear. H. 5,5 cm – Estimate 300 €

 

 

A fine carved huanghuali cabinet with ivory details, China or Vietnam, possibly made for the cort, 1st half 19th century

 

6

 

7

 

00010m

 

A fine carved huanghuali cabinet with ivory details, China or Vietnam, possibly made for the cort, 1st half 19th century. photo Nagel Auctions

 

with openwork elements, finely carved ivory elements and mother-of-pearl inlays

 

Property from an important German private collection

 

134x120x37 cm – Estimate 28 000 €

 

 

Two metal water pipes & A hardwood box and cover decorated with Mother-of-pearl inlays, Vietnam, 19th century

 

0089

 

Two metal water pipes, one with Mother-of-pearl inlays, Vietnam, 19th century. photo Nagel

 

Losses to Mother-of-pearl inlays, traces of age; H. 21,5-60 cm. Estimate 800 €

 

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A hardwood box and cover decorated with Mother-of-pearl inlays, Vietnam, 19th century. photo Nagel

 

H. 11,4 cm. Estimate 500 €

 

 

Statuettes vietnamiennes en bois @ Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

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Dignitaire taoïste. Vietnam. photo Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

Bois laqué. H. 79 cm Représenté assis la main droite esquissant le geste d’argumentation. Petits accidents et manques visibles. Estimation : 1 000 / 1 500 € – Pas d’adjudication.

 

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Personnage féminin. Vietnam. photo Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

Bois. H. 46 cm. Représenté debout en costume traditionnel rendu spectaculaire par une imposant coiffe circulaire agrémentée de deux pendants latéraux. Il repose sur un socle cerclé de laiton. Estimation : 200 / 400 € – Adjudication : 875 €

 

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Dignitaire. Vietnam. photo Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

Matériau composite .H. 50 cm Représenté assis dans un costume d’apparat. Anciens accidents et manques visibles. Estimation : 300 / 500 € – Adjudication : 375 €

 

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Divinité gardienne. Vietnam. photo Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

Bois polychrome. H. 98 cm. Représentée debout, en armure, tenant une lance. Estimation : 300 / 500 € – Adjudication : 375 €

 

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Divinité. Vietnam. photo Cornette de Saint Cyr

 

Bois polychrome. H. 46 cm Debout, richement costumé, tenant des livres de ses deux mains. Petits accidents et manques visibles à la polychromie. Estimation : 300 / 500 €. Vase. Etain et laiton. Indochine. Ca 1900

 

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Vase. Etain et laiton. Indochine. Ca 1900.

 

H. 66 cm. A décor classique de dragons affrontés autour d’un idéogramme en laiton, le pied, et les anses modelées en forme de dragon sont en laiton. Estimation : 150 / 250 € – Adjudication : 250 €

 

Cornette de Saint Cyr – Paris.  Lundi 17 octobre 2011. Drouot Richelieu - Salle 4 – 9, rue Drouot – 75009 Paris. Experts : Marie-Catherine DAFFOS – Jean-Luc ESTOURNEL

 

 

Annam (Indochine). Barre d’argent d’une valeur de 10 Lang. Dynastie Nguyên. XIX° siècle

 

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Annam (Indochine). Barre d’argent d’une valeur de 10 Lang. Dynastie Nguyên. XIX° siècle. Photo Hôtel des Ventes du Périgord

 

Sans inscription au droit. Lg 111 mm, 360 gr. Divers poinçons et marques.  Estimation : 400/500€

 

Thierry V 241 var. RARE. TTB

 

Gustav Surand, Annam Tiger, Tonkin, 1896

 

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Gustav Surand, Annam Tiger, Tonkin, 1896  

 

 

 

 

early 20thcentury vietnam opium pipe(Pipe à opium, embouts en jade. Indochine, XXème siècle)

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OPIUM PIPE INDOCHINE EARLY 20th Century(Pipe à opium, embouts en jade. Indochine, XXème siècle. )

 

Curieuse canne en bambou sculpté représentant deux squelettes mangeant du riz. Indochine. Circa 1900

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Curieuse canne en bambou sculpté représentant deux squelettes mangeant du riz. Indochine. Circa 1900. Long. : 88 cm. Estimation : 400/500€

Tête de bouddha en grès gris. Vietnam, Cham, 13e siècle

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Tête de bouddha en grès gris. Vietnam, Cham, 13e siècle. Photo Millon & Associés

 H. 10 cm. Estimation : 300 – 500 €

Tête de divinité en grès gris, la coiffe surmonté d’un haut chapeau. Vietnam, art Cham XIIe-XIIIe siècles

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Tête de divinité en grès gris, la coiffe surmonté d’un haut chapeau. Vietnam, art Cham, Vietnam, art Cham,  XIIe-XIIIe siècles.H. 25 cm. Estimation : 600 – 800 €

Statuette de bouddha assis en bois laqué noir et or, les mains en dhyana mudra. Vietnam 19ème siècle

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VIETNAM BUDDHA STATUE Dhyana Mudra  19th Century

 

Lot de feuilles d’or à caractères chinois et vietnamiens

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A wood brush pot decorated. Second halöf 19th century

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228. A wood brush pot decorated. Second half 19th century. Photo Lempertz

with playing children and scholars amidst plants in flat mother-of-pearl inlay. Minor losses, feet reworked. H 16,2 cm. Estimate 500 €

North Vietnamese rosewood panels. Around 1900

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Two North Vietnamese rosewood panels. Around 1900. with birds on plumblossom branches, bamboo and peonies in flat inlay of mother-of-pearl. 14,2 x 25,5 cm. (2). Estimate 500 €.

A Vietnam or South China wood and bone-inlaid table

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A Vietnam or South China wood and bone-inlaid table. Photo Lempertz

with figures in a landscape, blossoming branches and orchids and various patterns. Two very small replacements. H 63,7 cm; L 63 cm; B 63 cm. Estimate 800 €

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A Vietnamese round wood panel with very fine mother-of-pearl inlays . Late 19th century. Photo Lempertz

depicting Frenchmen and Vietnamese fighting and in Roman lettesr the names Camp des lettrés, Bac Ninh, Ninh Binh and Nam Dinh. D 5,7 cm. Estimate 1 800 €

 

Boite ronde en bois exotique. Vietnam, Fin XIXème siècle

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Boite ronde en bois exotique. Vietnam, Fin XIXème siècle.

à décor appliqué de nacre formant architecture (la pagode Thiên Mu à Huê), avec compartiment intérieur et trois gobelets en bois sculpté, intérieur en étain.

Belle boite ronde en palissandre et incrustations de nacre Indochine vers 1900

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Belle boite ronde en palissandre et incrustations de nacre. Vietnam vers 1900.

Bouddha assis – Vietnam, XIXe siècle

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Bouddha assis – Vietnam, XIXe siècle. en bois laqué noir. Estimation : 1200/1500€

 

Raffaîchissoir en métal argenté ciselé et ajouré de motifs de feuilles formant des volutes. Vietnam, Début XXème siècle

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Raffaîchissoir en métal argenté ciselé et ajouré de motifs de feuilles formant des volutes. Vietnam, Début Vietnam, Début XXème siècle.

20,5×29,5×15,5 cm – Estimation : 200/300€

 

Parure en or 14 K et jade jadéite des années 40, Extrême orient

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Parure en or 14 K et jade jadéite des années 40, Extrême orient.

Estimation : 1200/1500€

Grande tenture « les hérons », Indochine vers 1900

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Grande tenture « les hérons », Indochine, vers 1900. sur soie rouge à décor bordé aux fils d’or et d’argent sur fond noir. (150x55cm)

 

Ecran en bois avec incrustations nacre. Tonkin, 19ème siècle

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Ecran en bois avec incrustations nacre. Tonkin, 19ème siècle.

Fente. 43×48. Estimation : 300/400€

Etui à cartes rectangulaire plat en ivoire. Indochine, fin XIX – début XXème siècle

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Etui à cartes rectangulaire plat en ivoire. Indochine, fin XIX – début XXème siècle.

sculpté de personnages dans des pavillons et le parc d’un palais. Haut. 9.5cm – Larg. 5.7cm Prof. 0.9cm

 

Cabinet en bois exotique ajouré et sculpté. Indochine, vers 1900

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Cabinet en bois exotique ajouré et sculpté. Vietnam, vers 1900.

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Cabinet en bois exotique ajouré et sculpté. Vietnam, vers 1900.

 

Fauteuil en bois exotique sculpté à décor de dragons. Vietnam

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Fauteuil en bois exotique sculpté à décor de dragons. Vietnam. H. : 85.5 cm, l. : 70 cm, P. : 50 cm  Estimation : 400/600€

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Fauteuil en bois exotique sculpté à décor de dragons. Vietnam. Photo COUTON VEYRAC JAMAULT

THE MACHOMAN ART PHOTOGRAPHY

 

THE MACHOMAN ART PHOTOGRAPHY

Les beaux mecs du jour par Maciej Grochala

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The Study Of Ming Imperial ceramic originality PART THREE

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

THE  STUDY OF MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ORIGINALITY PART THREE

conclusion.

The three photographs above, taken at 10X, 20X and 30X microscopic power of a minor iron particle (which can be seen inside the Chenghua bowl in the third opening photo of this article), examines the result of a slight imperfection in the initial cleaning of the porcelain, or an iron particle that was imbedded under the glazed portion before final firing of the bowl. Through use wear on the interior, with subsequent cleanings and burial, this slightly raised spot has been worn through to the point where the glaze was sufficiently thin to allow the iron particle to oxide with the moisture it had received over the years. Obviously, this is not an effect of acids or any other treatments, as the glaze next to the particle inside the bowl is in almost perfect condition, as can easily be seen in the large bubble areas around it. Acids or high alkalis would have dulled the entire surface to which they were applied.

In the above three microscopic photographs, we are looking at the only true damage to the Chenghua Emperor’s bowl. It is a slight hairline fracture which extends down from the top rim of the bottom bowl, approximately 1″ in length. We believe this small hairline developed at some date after the piece was first buried. The bottom-third portion of the hairline is ‘fresh’ and has no soil intrusion, and may well have been a minor continuation of the hairline after the item was recovered, as we find the soil-penetration in only the upper portion of the crack. This hairline has been stabilized using low viscosity Paleo Bond glue. On the top portion of the rim, we left an extra little drop of 100 viscosity Paleo Bond (seen in the photos above) for protection, knowing the bowl would be handled and inspected, and we wished to give it a bit of extra insurance while this was occurring. This extra drop can easily be removed by us for the final owner of the bowl, but in the meantime we prefer to keep this delicate piece of important Chinese history better protected. The low viscosity glue has penetrated the hairline, and we know of no finer stabilization solution, other than a re-fire of the porcelain itself, which presents its own set of risks, complications, and drawbacks, and we personally feel this is unnecessary, and would not benefit the item. There are no other chips or hairlines to either of the bowls. With the minor soil penetration seen in the photos above, it is assumed this hairline either occurred late in the burial (as burial for a longer period would have caused more side-to-side penetration), or the bowl may have sustained the fracture when it was exhumed long ago. From the condition of the cleaned surfaces, we expect this bowl has been out of burial conditions for many years now, well cared for, and most likely was sold as an urgent financial necessity rather than an actual attempt to properly market it.

In the three microscopic photographs above (and the three to follow), we are going to show a particular affect which occurs on this type of covered bowl. This style of bowl was used to serve food  (as with the Hongzhi rice bowl); however, the food served in this kind of bowl was not eaten directly from the bowl itself, but rather was scooped into the lid, and then eaten out of the lid, held in the hand. What we see above are old, natural scratches on the top portion of the lid, as it was the part which received the most natural wear from being used and set down again, over and over, while the bottom portion remained more stable as it was used only to bring the food to the dining surface. This type of wear use is to be found all over the top portion of the Chenghua Emperor’s bowl and the sides of the lid. The original wear, pitting and smoothing to the scratches is due to the repeated cleanings after the meal, which smoothed the scratches when washing and drying with cloth, and then again while underground, by natural wear that occurred from minor tectonic activity and degradation while in their burial environment. We have never seen this natural effect duplicated successfully in any of the hundreds of reproductions and restored areas that we have studied under microscopic conditions. Natural wear looks natural, and forced wear scratches always appear to be much more defined, with the look of fresh abrasion, being much more ‘jagged’ in appearance, resembling fresh sanding marks.

The three above photographs are of an area on the side of the lid of the covered bowl. What we are looking at is the same type of scratches we saw on the top portion of the bowl, the only difference being the angle of the photos, and consequently, the lighting is a bit different, causing the bright yellow of the glaze to appear a bit more faded. Again, we can see the natural scratches caused from the heavier use of the lid portion and their further degradation from burial wear, but the main aspect of these photos shows that not all of the scratches are going in the same direction. This is what we find on authentic artifacts – the scratches follow a much more random pattern than on artificially abraded surfaces.The other aspect seen in these photos is best viewed in the last of the three, at 30X power. While this bowl does not quite show the same oxidation iridescence as the Hongzhi Emperor’s rice bowl, we still can see the iridescence in the yellow of the high portions of glaze, above the old, worn, scratched areas. The natural pitting of the scratches shows up extremely well as we reach the higher power photographs, which by far out-perform what can be normally seen using only the usual 10 power loupe.

With this next set of three microscopic photographs, we again find on the top of the lid of the Chenghua Emperor’s bowl an area of the clouds, next to one of the five claws of the Celestial Dragon, which has the same type of naturally-pitted use-scratches, but with the addition of an obvious tree-root track running mostly in the opposite direction to the scratches. We know of absolutely no way this effect can be faked by any replicator, as they have never used microscopic drills and polishing tools, and then naturally aged the artifacts to this extent. Parts of the original glaze also show oxidation iridescence in the photographs above, giving us conclusive evidence of an original burial artifact. The wear and root growth patterns extend to all portions of the exterior of both of the bowls presented in this article – all in the same random patterns we see here, and all with the exact type of natural pitting one finds from almost all long-term burial items. Burial pieces from extremely dry areas of the furthest reaches of the old Chinese Empires will obviously show less root growth tracks, but they are still sometimes found on items even from the driest of regions.

The three microscopic photographs above illuminate an area of high iridescence on the Chenghua bowl lid where the original degradation, potassium salts and detritus still remain. The scratching we find in all three of the microscopic photographs above are from the cleaning of the bowl after it was removed from the burial surroundings. We can easily see the difference in these new cleaning scratches compared to the original, worn and pitted ones we saw above.

In these last three microscopic photographs of the Chenghua Emperor’s covered bowl, we are looking into the interior of the lid, which was the portion which was actually used for eating. What are seeing is very hard to see with the highly fired, blue-white glaze, and even harder to photograph because of the illumination from the florescent light around the microscope, but with an additional light we managed to capture enough shadows to show the very shallow scratching from the eating surface of the bowl. These scratches would be from both the utensils used while eating and from abrasion during the  cleaning process, after the bowl was used. While this last process is rarely considered from a layman’s viewpoint, it is a valid authentication method, as not all water used in the cleaning process of old porcelains was totally free of abrasive materials. It is also good to mention the difference in the depths of the outside scratches to those we see in the interior of the bowl. We would not expect to see the depth of scratches inside as we would on the outside of the bowl (and eating utensils such as bamboo or wooden chopsticks would abrade much less than metal, despite the high silica content in bamboo, although porcelain spoons were also known at this time), since it was the exterior that would have been subject to the heaviest abrasion from use, tectonic activity, tree root growth, water penetration and mineralization.

In these first three photographs of the Hongzhi Emperor’s rice bowl (on the viewer’s right in the first photo above), we can see the advances that had been made by the Imperial Factory in the brighter yellow (which almost matches the lemon yellows of the Kangxi to those of the Qianlong periods of the Qing Dynasties), the more thinly-constructed walls of the bowl, and the finer incising of the designs (the discussion of which we will save for the final three photographs of this article). Also, very apparent is the much more common Imperial reign mark on the bottom of the bowl. Perfectly centered, exquisite calligraphy are the hallmarks of a true Hongzhi Emperor Imperial reign mark. The slightly cloudy areas seen in the reign mark (and are also on the sides in the green Celestial Dragons, fire and clouds) on the last photo above are only slight degradation from burial and original mineral deposits left from its cleaning. The microscopic photos to follow will leave no doubt as to the original burial condition this bowl had endured, the same as the Chenghua Imperial bowl addressed in the first portion of this article.

In the first three microscopic photographs above, taken on top of the Chinese word for Ming, we are looking at the glaze wear, degradation, pitting, and natural soil and detritus inside of the glaze loss. The obviously larger wood- firing bubbles of the period piece can also easily be discerned (under higher powers the microscope will actually penetrate the glaze all the way to the high-kaolin-content porcelain below).The glazing on the Hongzhi Emperor’s bowl was superior to that of the Chenghua bowl glaze, as many strides had been made during the numerous periods of advancement, throughout the entire illustrious Chinese history of ceramics and glazes; relatively speaking, significant advancements occurred in amazingly short period of times. The Chenghua Imperial pieces used by the father would have been made in approximately the year 1465 CE, and the Hongzhi Emperor’s Imperial pieces, used by the son, would have been made during approximately the year 1488 CE. In the following microscopic photos we will all be able to see the differences, despite the degradation due to natural burial conditions, made by some of these historic advances. [But for all the advances, which tend to cluster in times of peace and prosperity, there also come times of regression during war, invasion, and unrest; the arts are later brought back to life by the Chinese in their never ending attempts at perfection].

In this next set of microscopic photographs, we see at 10X, 20X and 30X the foot rim of an Imperial Factory bowl.The perfect trimming is much like the one we examined in the Chenghua bowl; in this case, the rim on the rice bowl is thinner and more exquisite in every detail. This bowl saw less use-wear than the covered bowl, yet it is still smoothed from slight wear and cleaning, with no artificial colorings added (the same as with the covered bowl above). In the last two photos above we can see an area where old dark red lacquer had gotten into the minuscule pores of the foot rim, and has remained there ever since. We believe these lacquer spots are original to the era and have been on the bowl since before burial, as they will not come off even with a high pressure water- gun blasting. Most likely they became attached through their use on an old red lacquer table and have now become a portion of the rim through adhesion. Under higher powers, the red lacquer becomes much more obvious, and at 90X you can view the lacquer all by itself.

Believing these two bowls may well have been from the exact same burial conditions, and may have been appropriated by the Palace eunuchs some 500-plus years ago (it is just too hard to believe that one man ended up with these two bowls from two different Emperors’ tombs), we see in the above microscopic photographs the start of what we believe were the same exacting conditions working on two different glazes. In the first photograph above (taken at an incised area of the Celestial Clouds), we see that minor scratching has occurred to the viewer’s left side of the photograph, with a tree root track crossing over, and then around it. In the following higher magnification photos, we can see the effect the tree root had on eroding the finer, shinier glaze finish of the Hongzhi Emperor’s bowl. The apparently more glassy finish to the bowl will be seen in many of the following photographs. The fine crazing to the thinner and glassier surface also shows the effect of long-term burial pressures (as this bowl was never intentionally crazed when produced). The iridescence we see on this bowl is also much higher on the remaining glassy surface where glaze loss, degradation and trailings of the same type of tree roots have removed portions naturally.

In the three photographs above, we are looking at an incised area on the Celestial Dragon in which the green glaze can be seen as being much thicker in depth inside the incised line (best seen in the first photo). This thicker area seems to have held its original shine and integrity more than the surrounding thinner areas of glaze. While there is still some crazing to this area, it is in remarkable condition considering its having been through burial conditions for such a long period of time. The section of yellow to the right of the incised line bears the marks of tree root tracks in the deeper ‘eaten away’ areas, and these appear to be very fine ‘feeder’ root tracks. The natural crazing to this yellow area between the root tracks can be best seen in the second photograph above. With their incredible natural oxidation iridescence, these photographs show just how beautiful an original burial porcelain can appear. Even with the degradation, mineralization, and natural wear, these items have a special power of their own, not to mention the important historical aspects of both of these exquisite bowls from the famous Imperial Kilns of Jiangdezhen, made exclusively for Imperial use.

Even though these wonderful bowls, when gazed upon with the naked eye, show high glazing and wonderful shine, it is in these types of microscopic photographs that we can view them in their true conditions. As this is a microscopic study, this is what you truly see on old burial artifacts when viewing under clear, higher powers. In all three of the microscopic powers above, all the true iridescence, crazing to the glaze, root tracks, original burial soil, and detritus can be well discerned. Even the minute flaking of the exterior glassy portions of the glaze can be easily seen in the second and third photos above. These effects show aspects of authentication of old porcelain artifacts that have not been duplicatable by the replicators of any age.

In the above three photographs, we are looking into the interior of the Hongzhi Emperor’s rice bowl. As with the inside of the Chenghua Emperor’s covered bowl, we would expect to see use-wear on the inside. The surprising aspect of this particular bowl is that  it does not show as much extensive use-wear as his father’s covered bowl; however, it does have ample wear to verify the bowl. As seen in the photographs above, it was either more gently used, or not used as frequently during the Hongzhi Emperor’s reign. Whether the Emperor preferred the other colors of his sets more, or as suggested before, more gently used in this period, we do not know. However, the scratches found inside the bowl are original to its period, as can be determined by the obvious iridescence which can be seen best in the last photo above at 30X power. In the first photograph above, we can also see one of the incised decoration lines, just above the scratching, which will be highlighted in the final photographs of this article.

In these final three microscopic photographs of this article, we are looking at a portion on the rim of the Hongzhi Emperor’s bowl (just found after many viewings, while I was taking these photographs) which shows what we would most definitely consider an utter impossibility to fake. It is an area which can be viewed best directly under the microscope, as the field of view is larger than those taken in the photos, and the bowl can be rotated slightly to take in the entire original, worn fingerprint, which can still be well discerned in the three photographs above. The natural curving lines of the fingerprint can still be seen, as can all the subsequent wearing away of the depressions left on the bowl more than 500 years ago. These lines are most definitely not scratch marks that have been worn away, as under the microscope they have all the characteristics that are to be found with original fingerprints, which occur on artifact pottery throughout the ages. It was truly a wonderful discovery, and a very exciting one for any verifier of artifacts to discover. It is doubtful this fingerprint has ever really been seen, even in the past, as it lies so subtly on the rim of the Hongzhi Emperor’s bowl. The three following photographs will not be microscopic, but are taken with our regular camera and lens and will be the last three of this article.

With these last three photographs, we show with back-lighting the exquisite incising on the Hongzhi Emperor’s rice bowl. While the same type of incising was used in the making of the Chenghua Emperor’s bowl, the extreme fineness and magnificent workmanship of original Ming Dynasty Imperial Jiangdezhen porcelain, made especially for the Hongzhi Emperor, shows the advancements made in such a short period of time, as mentioned before.

In closing, it has been our extreme pleasure to be chosen to verify and authenticate these marvelous two pieces of truly Imperial Porcelain, and also to be chosen to represent them. It has been our further grace to have met a man such as Mr. Rieger who placed so much trust in us, not only for the authentication, but for just being the kind man he truly is – unassuming and gracious to a fault.

All regular photos taken with Canon EOS XSi using Canon EF 24-70mm f/2,8L Lens

All microscopic photos taken with Canon EOS XSi under microscopic power

FOR MORE STUDY OF MING IMPERIAL ORIGINALITY OF THE CERAMIC BELOW,ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER ,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT.

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More Informations

A blue and white bowl. Xuande Mark and period

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A blue and white bowl. Xuande Mark and period.  Photo Sotheby's

the deep rounded sides rising from a straight foot to a flaring rim, painted to the interior in bright cobalt-blue tones with a lotus blossom borne on feathery leafy tendrils within a double circle in the centre, surrounded by an undulating composite floral scroll in the well and a classic floral scroll at the rim, the exterior similarly decorated with a composite floral scroll above a layer of lotus lappets, the rim bordered by a keyfret pattern and the foot encircled with a classic scroll band, inscribed to the base with a six-character Xuande mark within a double circle; 19.7cm., 7 3/4 in. Estimate 30,000-50,000 GBP

NOTE: A closely related example in the British Museum, London, is illustrated in Jessica Harrison-Hall, Ming Ceramics, London, 2001, pl. 4:24, together with a slightly smaller example, pl. 4:25; another of this size, from the Eumorfopoulos and Braithwaite Collections, was sold in our Hong Kong rooms, 30th April 1991, lot 12; and a third example formerly in the Alfred Clark collection is published in Chinese Porcelain. The S.C. Ko Tianminlou Collection, pt. 1, Hong Kong, 1987, pl. 21.

Compare bowls of this type but of slightly smaller dimensions, such as one included in Mary Tregear, Guide to Chinese Ceramics in the Ashmolean Museum , Oxford, 1966, pl. 30; another in the John A. Pope collection, included in the Exhibition of Ming Blue and White, Philadelphia Museum, Philadelphia, 1949, cat. no. 45; and a third example sold at Christie's Hong Kong, 27th May 2008, lot 1846.

For the inspiration of this bowl see one of this size included in the exhibition Imperial Porcelain of the Yongle and Xuande Periods Excavated from the Site of the Ming Imperial Factory at Jingdezhen, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1989, cat. no. 44, found in the late Yongle stratum.

 

Ming dynasty blue and white porcelains @ Sotheby's Hong Kong

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A rare and magnificent blue and white ewer. Ming dynasty, Yongle period. photo Sotheby's

based on a Persian metal form, the pear-shaped body painted in vibrant colbalt tones with a continuous leafy lotus scroll, growing around and into a ruyi-head shaped cartouche on the center of each side, all below a tapering neck with a band of pomegranate scroll and a pendent ruyi-head band rising to an everted rim painted with gardenia sprays, set with an elegant curved handle surmounted by an eyelet above three moulded bosses simulating pegs, the shapely spout secured to the body by a cloud-shaped strut and decorated with scrolling clouds below a further lotus scroll, all above a slightly splayed foot with hatched design - 28 cm., 11 in. Est. 12,000,000—15,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 18,580,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Mayuyama & Co., Ltd.
Japanese Private Collection, Kyoto, 1920s - 1930s.
Konosuke Matsuhita (1894 - 1989).

EXHIBITED: Chugoku toji meiho ten shiri-zu [Masterpieces of Chinese ceramics series], Gotoh Art Museum, 1965 or 1966.

Shinkan kansei kinen tokubetsu tenrankai zuhan mokuroku/Illustrated Catalogues of the Special Exhibition in Memory of the New Building, Kyoto National Museum, Kyoto, 1966, cat. no. 286.

Genmatsu Minsho no sometsuke ten mokuroku [Catalogue of the exhibition of late Yuan and early Ming blue-and-white], Japan Ceramic Society, Osaka Branch, 1967, cat. no. 23.

NOTE:

A Rare Yongle Blue and White Ewer. by Regina Krahl

Ewers of this form come with various designs but the present one is among the rarest. Its unusual open panel in a somewhat modified ruyi form may be derived from the ruyi elements on cloud collars, where they are joined to a continuous band. It is unusual, however, for the lotus to ‘grow’ into the panel, which evokes the image of a flower seen through the shaped doorway of a Chinese garden.

The form of the pear-shaped ewer, which is often said to be derived from a Middle Eastern metal shape, may in fact have developed from small stumpy egg-shaped ewers produced in the Southern Song dynasty, which had shorter spouts and no separate neck and therefore lacked the joining strut. In the Yuan dynasty already a form similar to the present one had appeared (compare a celadon ewer recovered from a shipwreck sunk off Shinan in AD 1323, in Relics Salvaged from the Seabed off Sinan. Materials I, Seoul, 1985, pl. 125), which was then refined in proportions and reached its most mature, balanced form in the Yongle reign. Soon after, it completely disappeared from Jingdezhen’s repertoire. In China, these ewers were used for wine, in the Middle East for water to wash hands at meal times, where they would have been accompanied by basins or deep dishes to receive the water.

A companion ewer from the royal collection of the Ottoman sultans in Istanbul is illustrated in Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul, London, 1986, vol.II, no.621 and colour plate p. 427. Two ewers of the same design from the royal collection of the Safavid shahs, preserved in the Ardabil Shrine and today probably in the National Museum of Iran, Tehran, are recorded in John Alexander Pope, Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine, Washington, D.C., 1956, pl. 54, nos. 29.429 and 29.430, one with broken spout and handle, the other apparently unpublished.

Only three other ewers of this design appear to have been published, one illustrated in Mayuyama: Seventy Years, Tokyo, 1976, vol. I, no. 738 and sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 27th May 2008, lot 1568; another illustrated in Jean McClure Mudge, Chinese Export Porcelain in North America, New York, 1986, pl. 88; and one was sold at auction in Paris, 16th November 1984, lot 19.

Blue-and-white ewers of this form and period, in five different patterns were preserved both in the Ardabil Shrine, Iran, and in Topkapi Saray, Istanbul; for eight ewers in Iran, including two of the present design, see Pope, pl. 54 and Misugi, vol. III, pls. A78-81 and 236; for six in Topkapi Saray, Istanbul, including one companion piece, see Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul, London, 1986, vol.II, no. 617-21.

Fragmentary ewers with at least four different designs, including three variations on a peach-and-loquat design, but none of the present pattern, have been discovered at the waste heaps of the Ming imperial kiln site at Zhushan, Jingdezhen, three in the Yongle and one in the Xuande stratum; see Jingdezhen Zhushan chutu Yongle guanyao ciqi (‘Yongle Imperial porcelain excavated at Zhushan, Jingdezhen’), Capital Museum, Beijing, 2007, cat. nos. 65-7; and Imperial Porcelain of the Yongle and Xuande Periods Excavated from the Site of the Ming Imperial Factory at Jingdezhen, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1989, cat. no. 80.

The design of peach and loquat branches in quatrefoil panels on opposite sides of the ewer became by far the most common one and at least four examples are in the Palace Museum, Beijing, including a very unusual one with a Xuande reign mark, see The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Blue and White Porcelain with Underglazed Red (I), Shanghai, 2000, pls. 41, 114 and 115; and Geng Baochang, ed., Gugong Bowuyuan cang gu taoci ciliao xuancui (‘Selection of ancient ceramic material from the Palace Museum’), Beijing, 2005, vol. I, pl. 97; another is in the Shanghai Museum, see Lu Minghua, Shanghai Bowuguan zangpin yanjiu daxi/Studies of the Shanghai Museum Collections : A Series of Monographs. Mingdai guanyao ciqi (‘Ming imperial porcelain’), Shanghai, 2007, pl. 1 : 6.

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A fine large blue and white ‘carp’ bowl. Mark and period of Jiajing. photo Sotheby’s

well potted with deep rounded sides rising from a short foot to a everted rim, freely painted in vivid cobalt-blue on the exterior with four carp frolicking in a lotus pond, depicted in various poses swimming amidst water weeds and lotus, all above a band of ruyi-head border and below double-lines borders at the rim, the interior with a double-border circular medallion decorated with another carp and lotus, the base inscribed with the six-character mark within a double circle – 37.5 cm., 14 3/4 in. Est. 500,000—700,000 HKD. Lot Sold 920,000 HKD

NOTE: Two closely related examples, of slightly larger proportions, were sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 28th November 2005, lot 1424, and the other, 19th March 1991, lot 530. For a slightly smaller Wanli bowl of this form and decoration, but the interior rim decorated with a dragon and phoenix pursuing a flaming pearl, and a dragon medallion to the centre, see one sold in these rooms, 26th October 2003, lot 122.

A small Jiajing bowl of this form and similar design was sold in these rooms, 21st May 1984, lot 47; and another, but with rounded sides and a variation of the decorative scheme, was sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 27th November 2007, lot 1744.

‘Fish and waterweed’ designs were first employed as early as 1350 during the Yuan dynasty on blue and white dishes; for example see one illustrated in Margaret Medley, Yuan Porcelain and Stoneware, London, 1974, pp. 37-45; and a ‘Guan’ jar sold at Christie’s London, 8th June 1987, lot 160.

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A blue and white ‘three-dragon’ brushrest. Mark and period of Wanli. photo Sotheby’s

moulded with three peaks, painted in vivid tones of cobalt blue, decorated with three dragons rising from immortal mountains, their bodies wrapped around the peaks, the narrow rectangular base inscribed with a six-character reign mark in regular script – 15.2 cm., 6 in. Est. 250,000—300,000 HKD. Lot Sold 560,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Christie’s New York, 3rd June 1988, lot 258.
Christie’s Hong Kong, 31st October 2000, lot 864.

NOTE: Two brush rests with Wanli marks are collected in the Idemitsu Art Gallery, one illustrated in Toji Takei (New Heibonsha Series), no. 42, pl. 86, another included in the Stockholm Exhibition of Ming Blue and White, 1964, cat. no. 71.

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A large blue and white ‘boys’ dish. Mark and period of Wanli. photo Sotheby’s

painted on the interior with a scene of a class conducted on a terrace, defined by a balustrade and water in the foreground and another balustrade and a stylised pine tree and clouds in the background, the teacher seated in front of a screen bearing a design of stylised waves and the rising sun, listening to one boy reciting, other boys studying at a side table, playing with inkstones and a ruler, and one peering from behind the screen, the cavetto painted with a continuous scene of a pond with lotus, reeds and aquatic birds, the exterior decorated with a tracery of interwined ruyi lappets – 30.8 cm., 12 1/8 in. Est. 250,000—350,000 HKD. Lot Sold 325,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Sotheby’s Hong Kong, 28th November 1979, lot 119.

NOTE: A closely related dish in the Sir Percival David collection, now in the British Museum, London, was included in the exhibition, Elegant Form and Harmonious Decoration. Four Dynasties of Jingdezhen Porcelain, Percival David Foundation, London, 1992, cat. no. 91.

The imagery of children occupied in studies is symbolic of the Confucian ideal for the education and advancement of many sons.

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A blue and white ‘eight treasures’ jar. Mark and period of Jiajing. photo Sotheby’s

of shouldered form, the sides painted with the bajixiang supported on the heads of a continuous lingzhi fungus scroll with curling foliage, the shoulders with a collar of hexagonal latticework and the foot with a classic scroll border, between double and single line borders repeated on the short neck, the underglaze-blue of brilliant purplish colour – 12.7 cm., 5 in. Est. 100,000—120,000 HKD.  Lot sold 212,500 HKD

PROVENANCE: Sotheby’s London, 23rd May 1972, lot 154.
Collection of Sir Esler Dening, G.C.M.G.
Sotheby’s Hong Kong, 20th May 1981, lot 710.

NOTE: Another jar of this pattern in the Gulbenkian Museum of Oriental Art and Archaeology, Universirty of Durham, is illustrated by Legeza in the Malcolm MacDonald Collection cat., pl. LXIV, no. 185.

 

Vase cong, en porcelaine à glacure de type ge. Chine, Dynastie Qing, Marque et Époque Qianlong

 

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Vase cong, en porcelaine à glacure de type ge. Chine, Dynastie Qing, Marque et Époque Qianlong (1736-1795). Photo Artcurial

 

De section carrée, reposant sur un petit pied évasé, le col court tubulaire, chaque côté décoré en léger relief des huit trigrammes, la surface recouverte d’une belle glaçure craquelée, marque à six caractères en cachet de l’Empereur Qianlong à la base ; restauration au col. Hauteur : 28,5 cm. (11 ¼ in.) – Estimation : 25 000 / 35 000 €

A GE-TYPE GLZED VASE CONG, CHINA, QING DYNASTY, QIANLONG MARK AND PERIOD (1736-1795)

 

Contemporary Chinese art in the spotlight at recent international auctions

Phenomenal development of the Chinese art market reflected by excellent prices
After several thousands of years of evolution and changes, Chinese art is no longer just about appreciating bronze ware, ceramics and classical landscape paintings. With a changing society and with influence from the West, modern Chinese art has developed a unique and dynamic style, taking on the international art scene. How is contemporary art analyzed inside and outside China? Of course, auction prices can provide a useful indicator alongside values linked to art criticism

After the Cultural Revolution, artists such as Zeng Fanzhi, Cai Guoqiang, Yue Minjun, Ai weiwei, Zhang Xiaogang – all of whom were born in the 1950s and 60s – depicted the new changes in China with their artworks. They portrayed the country’s politics and society with a kind of sarcasm that people could identify with. Their artworks not only gained recognition at international art shows, but also entered the global market for their commercial appeal. A new generation of contemporary artists has emerged.

Zhang Xiaogang captures the emotions of the Cultural Revolution in his unconventional portraits. His oil paintings interpret typical families during that period, thus demonstrating the Chinese people’s collective memory and experience. At the annual BRIC auction this April, Phillips de Pury & Company will be auctioning his 2006 work “Amnesia and Memory”, estimated to reach from £220,000 to £320,000.

Chin-Chin Yap, a specialist of Chinese Contemporary Art at Phillips de Pury, says that amongst the four countries represented by BRIC, the contemporary Chinese art market is probably the most developed as demonstrated by its diverse offerings in the auction. “The Chinese contemporary art market has experienced phenomenal development over the past 10 years, and many believe that it still has a long way to go, particularly with China’s ascendancy as an economic superpower.” In terms of prices, she thinks that for many blue-chip Chinese artists, prices are still reasonable compared to those of their American or European counterparts. Also, as the Chinese market is still in the process of maturing, it is a great time to identify artists who would have long-term potential for international success, she adds

Contemporary Chinese art in the spotlight at recent international auctions

Phenomenal development of the Chinese art market reflected by excellent prices
After several thousands of years of evolution and changes, Chinese art is no longer just about appreciating bronze ware, ceramics and classical landscape paintings. With a changing society and with influence from the West, modern Chinese art has developed a unique and dynamic style, taking on the international art scene. How is contemporary art analyzed inside and outside China? Of course, auction prices can provide a useful indicator alongside values linked to art criticism.

After the Cultural Revolution, artists such as Zeng Fanzhi, Cai Guoqiang, Yue Minjun, Ai weiwei, Zhang Xiaogang – all of whom were born in the 1950s and 60s – depicted the new changes in China with their artworks. They portrayed the country’s politics and society with a kind of sarcasm that people could identify with. Their artworks not only gained recognition at international art shows, but also entered the global market for their commercial appeal. A new generation of contemporary artists has emerged.

Zhang Xiaogang captures the emotions of the Cultural Revolution in his unconventional portraits. His oil paintings interpret typical families during that period, thus demonstrating the Chinese people’s collective memory and experience. At the annual BRIC auction this April, Phillips de Pury & Company will be auctioning his 2006 work “Amnesia and Memory”, estimated to reach from £220,000 to £320,000.

BRIC Auctions will present several hundreds of artworks from Brazil, Russia, India and China – four countries that have a new and fast-growing market in contemporary art. The auctions will also present “Nine Coloured Pots” by Ai Weiwei, who was a consultant for the National Stadium built for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games; “99 Idol Series” by Yue Minjun, who painted a series of symbolic faces with a huge smile; and works by other contemporary Chinese artists.

Chin-Chin Yap, a specialist of Chinese Contemporary Art at Phillips de Pury, says that amongst the four countries represented by BRIC, the contemporary Chinese art market is probably the most developed as demonstrated by its diverse offerings in the auction. “The Chinese contemporary art market has experienced phenomenal development over the past 10 years, and many believe that it still has a long way to go, particularly with China’s ascendancy as an economic superpower.” In terms of prices, she thinks that for many blue-chip Chinese artists, prices are still reasonable compared to those of their American or European counterparts. Also, as the Chinese market is still in the process of maturing, it is a great time to identify artists who would have long-term potential for international success, she adds.

At Christie’s, Zeng Fanzhi’s “Mask Series 1996 No. 6” reached more than 70 million Hong Kong Dollar, the highest price realized by any Chinese contemporary artist. In this classic series, all the characters wear a white smiling mask, concealing their falsity. His “Mask Series No. 21 3-1” was auctioned under Seoul Auction’s Modern and Contemporary Art category in the beginning of April in Hong Kong. The painting was sold at 1.6 million Hong Kong Dollar.

Aware of the potential of Chinese contemporary art, Seoul Auction started gathering artworks by Chinese artists for auction seven years ago. Recently, it auctioned “New House” by veteran artist Wu Guanzhong, “Girl and Peaches” by Wang Yidong, professor at China Academy of Art, and works by some young post-70s and post-80s artists, including Chen Ke and Gao Yu

the end @copyright dr iwan suwandy 2011

The Study Of Ming Imperial Ceramic Originality part two

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

THE STUDY OF MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ORIGINALITY PART TWO

The three microscopic photographs above, taken at 10X, 20X and 30X microscopic power (as will be all the microscopic photograph sets in this article), will show much clearer detail than using the three common loupe powers, because we have a much wider field of view under the microscope, and much less shaky hand movement common to loupe usage. The three photos above show only a portion of the Chinese word for ‘Great’ in the reign sign; however, over the entire bottom surface we can see the pitting of the glaze, and glaze loss from extended burial. The main feature to be seen in the photos above, and which will be shown on many following photographs of both bowls, is the track of a tree root just to the right of the word Great in the first photo, and shown at greater detail in the following higher powers (look for a shallow depression in a Y-shape). What is easily discernible, in all three photographs, is the natural degradation and pitting caused by the tree root to this portion of the bowl from the root’s extended time of attachment to the high-fired glaze. The large firing bubbles, which are a natural condition of old wood-fired kiln pieces, will be seen throughout this article (some in clearer detail where the bowls, in some areas, took less damage from degrading conditions, which is exactly what one finds in almost all naturally covered and buried artifacts). Even old Tang Dynasty Sancai items, which have seen extremely degrading conditions, will have some portions of the smaller triangular crazing still shiny and with iridescence, while all around it will be degraded areas with potassium salts and a total lack of the fine outer, glass-like surface (this will be shown in future articles). It is also true that some glazes show more oxidation iridescence than others, due to their various components, burial conditions and associated burial objects, among a myriad of other conditions.

We are looking at the foot rim of the Chenghua bowl in the three above microscopic photographs. The high kaolin content and general quality of porcelain used in the making of this bowl is quite obvious, as is the lack of extensive wear often seen in more utilitarian items from the same period. As different colored sets were made  for each Emperor, one would expect to see less wear than what we find on daily use items; however, the bottom of the foot rim on both bowls are wonderfully smoothed, as they should be, and show the slight reddish tinge of an originally wood-fired Ming Dynasty porcelain of Imperial Factory quality. The trimming and perfection of the foot rim itself is another indicator of Imperial quality.

With the above three microscopic photographs, we find in an area on the side of the bottom of the Chenghua covered bowl many ‘tree-root-eaten’ areas like the example magnified above. This one was taken near the cloud decorations next to one of the celestial dragons. The trail the tree roots took in most portions of the two bowls were in the lower lying areas of the exterior of the Ming Dynasty’s famous ‘orange peel’-textured areas, as they generally took the path of least resistance. In our last article, we showed a root track on an old Indus Valley bead which went over two raised areas and through a shallow area. It does occur; however, on this much younger glazed burial bowl, the tracks seem to have preferred following the lower areas. In all three microscopic photographs above, we can see not only the tracks the roots took but the natural pitting and degradation that has followed  after the root had eaten away at the glazed portions on the exterior. Both of the bowls we are presenting in this article must have been well-covered when buried, as the tree-root track growth occurs only on the exterior of the bowls. The interior of both bowls have deposits remaining from minor soil and water penetration, but do not exhibit these tracks, where the roots were free to roam over the surface in a natural way. The effect we see above can not be equally simulated by using any acids or high alkalis. Acids and alkalis will effect stone and jade items to differing degrees of depth, as they are not as homogenous (having harder and softer areas) as a cleanly-fired-on high-vitrification glaze. They also penetrate the jades to differing depths, which we do not see in the photos above. We have seen many replications of Song Dynasty and later items on which acids were used to produce a more matte finish, and all of the surface, under microscopic analysis, looks exactly the same and never has these natural tree- root patterns eaten through the glaze. We have seen the effects of acids to make an identical reproduction of an original Ming Dynasty porcelain (so as to replace one of a pair), but the one which was aged with acid, and the repaired top of the original, were completely homogenous in nature, and it could be easily discerned which was the original surface and which had been acid-etched. Many other microscopic photos to follow in this article will show other identifiers of natural age, so we start here and work our way through to conclusion.

The three photographs above, taken at 10X, 20X and 30X microscopic power of a minor iron particle .

Information about Chinese Ceramic collections

showcases 1,752 pieces of Chinese porcelain from the Song, Ming, Yuan, and Qing dynasties, drawn from the superlative collection assembled

by Sir Percival David.

The core of the David Collection began with porcelain sold off from China’s Imperial City in 1927. It gained acclaim after its first public display at London’s Dorchester Hotel in 1931 and in 1950, administered by the foundation named after its creator, passed into the hands of the University of London. Sadly, the foundation ran into financial difficulties in late 2007. Its long-term loan to the British Museum, facilitated through a generous donation by Sir Joseph Hotung, assures that this important collection will remain accessible to experts and amateurs alike.

 there were some remarkable prices during the evening sale of The Meiyintang Collection, including An Exquisite Blue and White ‘Fish Pond’ Brush Washer, Mark and Period of Xuande, which sold for HK$51,060,000 / US$6,568,358, and An Outstanding Underglaze-Red ‘Chrysanthemum’ Dish, Ming Dynasty, Hongwu Period, which sold for HK$40,980,000 / US$5,271,667, and twelve lots sold for more than HK$10 million, there was guarded bidding on some of the top lots. As we have seen all week long, the market sets its own prices.”

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An exquisite blue and white ‘fish pond’ brush washer. Mark and period of Xuande. Photo Sotheby’s

of ten-lobed mallow shape with flared sides and correspondingly shaped foot, the domed base inside superbly painted in cobalt blue with a carp and a mandarin fish swimming among clumps of lotus and water weeds, the outside with four different fishes in varied attitudes among similar water plants, the fishes finely detailed with hatching and stippling and varied shades of blue to render their peculiar markings, lotus flowers and leaves in different stages, and the latter with veins finely incised through the blue to appear in white, the base inscribed with the reign mark; 18 cm., 7 1/8 in. Estimate 40,000,000—60,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 51,060,000 HKD (6,568,358 USD) to an International Trade

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1653.

NOTE: Brush washers of this form are otherwise known almost only with dragons, phoenixes, or a combination of dragon and phoenix, which would seem to represent a version for official duties, while the present piece, with its scholarly associations may have been intended for the Emperor’s ‘leisure’ activities, such as writing or painting which, although no less official occasions, were deliberately distinguished in character. The Xuande Emperor in particular was renowned as an accomplished poet and painter. The fish pond was of course a most appropriate pattern for a vessel meant to be filled with water.

A broken washer of this design has been recovered from the waste heaps of the Ming imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, see the exhibition catalogue Xuande Imperial Porcelain Excavated at Jingdezhen, Chang Foundation, Taipei, 1998, cat. no. 19-2. Although the catalogue states, p. 202, that “this is one of the most common designs on Xuande imperial ware”, only three other washers of this form and design appear to be recorded: one from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Clark, illustrated in A.D. Brankston, Early Ming Wares of Chingtechen, Peking, 1938, pl. 19, and exhibited, with metal-bound rim, in Blue and White Porcelain from the Collection of Mrs. Alfred Clark at Spink & Son, London, 1974, cat. no. 14; another discovered in Tianjin city, published in Wenwu, 1977, no. 1, p. 92; and a third, of smaller size (16 cm), sold at Hanhai Art Auction Corp., Beijing, 7th October 1995, lot 1031. The Taipei catalogue (op.cit., p. 202) states that in the early Wanli period, the poet and dramatist Tu Long (1542-1605) mentioned mallow-flower shaped Xuande period washers with fish and aquatic plants, but that a painting in the Palace Museum, Beijing, depicting a Xuande hunting scene, shows a vessel of this type serving as a stand for a pear-shaped vase.

The same design is also known from deep Xuande bowls with similar fluted mallow-shaped sides and from circular Xuande dishes, see Mingdai Xuande guanyao jinghua tezhan tulu/Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Selected Hsüan-te Imperial Porcelains of the Ming Dynasty, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1998, cat. nos 140 and 180; a close copy exists in Taipei of a brush washer with the same shape and design of Jiajing mark and period, see Porcelain of the National Palace Museum. Blue-and-White Ware of the Ming Dynasty, Book V, Hong Kong, 1963, pl. 21; and another Jiajing example from the collection of Myron S. Falk was sold at Christie’s New York, 16th October 2001, lot 143. Compare also a Xuande brush washer with pomegranates and other fruits, one with dragon and phoenix and one with phoenixes only in The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Blue and White Porcelain with Underglazed Red, Shanghai, 2000, vol. 1, pls 127-9, the former two probably unmarked.

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An outstanding underglaze-red ‘chrysanthemum’ dish. Ming dynasty, Hongwu period. Photo Sotheby’s

the thick curved foliate walls rising to an everted rim with sixteen corresponding barbed bracket foliations, all supported on a low circular tapered foot, painted on the interior in a light copper red transmuting from strawberry to puce, with a chrysanthemum spray with four large blooms among evenly spaced foliage and buds in the centre, surrounded by formal lotus sprays on the cavetto, the blooms alternately closed and opened revealing the stamens, all encircled on the rim with a stylised border of crested waves, the exterior repeated with further lotus sprays and waves, all beneath a transparent glaze, with the unglazed base covered with an iron-red wash; 45.5 cm., 17 7/8 in. Estimate 25,000,000—35,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 40,980,000 HKD (5,271,667 USD) to an U.S. Private

PROVENANCE: Collection of Montague Meyer.
Christie’s London, 14th April 1980, lot 381.
The Manno Art Museum, Osaka (no. 439).
Christie’s Hong Kong, 28th October 2002, lot 525.

EXHIBITED: Chūgoku no tōji/Special Exhibition of Chinese Ceramics, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, 1994, cat. no. 239 (illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Selected Masterpieces of the Manno Collection, Osaka, 1988, pl. 104.
Hasebe Gakuji and Imai Atsushi, Chūgoku no tōji. Nihon shutsudo no Chūgoku tōji /Chinese Ceramics. Chinese Ceramics Excavated in Japan, Tokyo, 1995, p. 121, fig. 47.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1626.

NOTE: Massive dishes of this type, painted with the difficult-to-control underglaze copper-red pigment, are among the triumphs of the early Ming potters. This dish represents one of the rare successful specimen of a production period that experienced many unsatisfactory results. Only five other red-painted dishes of comparable size have ever been offered at auction.

The three design elements combined on this dish, chrysanthemums, lotus and waves, are characteristic of porcelains of the Hongwu period, and yet are rarely seen in this combination on a large dish. A very similar dish with three chrysanthemums only in the centre, in the Guangdong Provincial Museum, Guangzhou, was included in the exhibition National Treasures. Gems of China’s Cultural Relics, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1997-8, cat. no. 129. A dish of this form and design but with peonies in the centre, in the Shanghai Museum, is published in Lu Minghua, Mingdai guanyao ciqi [Ming imperial porcelain], Shanghai, 2007, pl. 3-5.

Several related dishes are in the Palace Museum, Beijing, see in particular The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Blue and White Porcelain with Underglazed Red, Shanghai 2000, vol. 1, pl. 21: a blue and white example of very similar design; pl. 212: a circular dish painted in red with similar chrysanthemums but a peony scroll round the well; and pls 216-9: barbed red-painted dishes with similar lotus sprays but peonies in the centre, two of them with similar waves. Related fragmentary dishes were also recovered from the waste heaps of the Ming imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, compare the exhibition catalogue Imperial Hongwu and Yongle Porcelain Excavated at Jingdezhen, Chang Foundation, Taipei, 1996, cat. no. 29, with peonies in the centre, and cat. no. 28, a circular blue and white example with similar chrysanthemums.

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A very fine and rare pair of Famille-rose dishes. Marks and period of Yongzheng. Photo Sotheby’s

each dish delicately potted with a flared rim and rising from a short, straight foot, decorated in brilliant famille-rose enamels on the outside with an asymmetrical composition of a blooming hibiscus branch and a weed issuing from the base and extending around the sides, before spreading around the interior and bearing two large flowers, a dragonfly in grisaille hovering nearby, each inscribed on the base with a six-character mark within a double square; 13.4 cm., 5 1/4 in. Estimate 8,000,000—12,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 21,940,000 HKD (2,822,362 USD) to a Hong Kong Dealer

PROVENANCE: Collection of H.M. Knight, The Hague (1950s).
Christie’s Hong Kong, 19th January 1988, lot 363.

EXHIBITED: Oosterse Schatten: 4,000 Jaar Aziatische Kunst, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1954, cat. no. 381.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 2, no. 959.

NOTE: No other saucer of this design and period appears to be recorded, but this exquisite motif is also known from a larger dish in the Umezawa Kinenkan, Tokyo, included in the exhibition Chūgoku no tōji/Special Exhibition of Chinese Ceramics, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, 1994, cat. no. 324. The same motif appears also on dishes with Qianlong seal mark and of that period; a Qianlong dish in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is illustrated in Rose Kerr, Chinese Ceramics. Porcelain of the Qing Dynasty 1644-1911, London, 1986, p. 112, pl. 97; one in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, in Oriental Ceramics: The World’s Great Collections, Tokyo, New York, San Francisco, 1980–82, vol. 11, no. 158. The design was still closely copied in the late Qing or Republican period, an example of which in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, is illustrated in He Li, Chinese Ceramics. A New Standard Guide, London, 1996, pl. 673.

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A magnificent blue and white moon flask with birds on flowering branches. Qing dynasty, Yongzheng period. Photo Sotheby’s

of oval section and nearly circular profile, with a slender neck flanked by two scroll handles, the two sides painted in a deep cobalt blue under a blue-tinged glaze with different flower-and-bird compositions, both depicting a white-cheeked starling perched on a flowering branch entwined with a small stem of bamboo, with prunus on one side and perhaps pear on the other, both scenes bordered above and below by fanciful curly foliage motifs, the neck also with bamboo, and the handles accentuated by a scrolling line, the flat base unglazed; 30.5 cm., 12 in. Estimate ,000,000—12,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 20,260,000 HKD (2,606,246 USD) to a Hong Kong Private

PROVENANCE: Collection of Richard de la Mare (1940s to 1974).
Sotheby’s London, 2nd April 1974, lot 369.
Su Lin An collection.
Sotheby’s Hong Kong, 31st October 1995, lot 325.

EXHIBITED: The Arts of the Ch’ing Dynasty, Oriental Ceramic Society at the Arts Council Gallery, London, 1964, cat. no. 117 (illustrated, pl.41).
The Ceramic Art of China, Oriental Ceramic Society at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1971, cat. no. 197.
Tōyō no sometsuke tōji ten/Far Eastern Blue-and-white Porcelain, Mitsukoshi, Tokyo, 1977, cat. no. 27.
Evolution to Perfection. Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection/Evolution vers la perfection. Céramiques de Chine de la Collection Meiyintang, Sporting d’Hiver, Monte Carlo, 1996, cat. no.139 (illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Anon., ‘Notes on Specimens’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 23, 1947-8, pp. 27-8, pl. 7.
‘The Ceramic Art of China’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 38, 1969-71, pl. 132, no. 197.
Duncan Macintosh, Chinese Blue and White Porcelain, Newton Abbot, 1977, pl. 55.
Sotheby’s. Thirty Years in Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2003, pl. 266.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1712.

NOTE: In its form and decoration, this flask closely copies a Yongle prototype, of which only one example appears to be extant, from the Sir Percival David Collection in the British Museum, London, illustrated in Regina Krahl and Jessica Harrison-Hall, Chinese Ceramics. Highlights of the Sir Percival David Collection, London, 2009, no. 28, p. 61 (figs 1 and 2). Such Qing copies were most likely produced directly after a genuine Ming original, possibly in this case directly after the Percival David flask. The Yongzheng Emperor is known to have repeatedly sent antique porcelains from the imperial collection in Beijing down to Jingdezhen to be copied. During this reign, such wares were often left unmarked, while later, in the Qianlong period, when much larger quantities were produced, they were typically inscribed with the mark of the current reign. Yongzheng examples of this design are very rare.

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Blue-and-white moon flask with birds on flowering branches. Yongle period. Sir Percival David Collection, no. A 612, British Museum, London © The Trustees of the British Museum

The sensitivity of the Qing craftsmen to absorb and reproduce the qualities of the Ming original is remarkable and hardly ever more manifest than in this Yongzheng version and some rare companion pieces. The present flask is so close to the Yongle original that its correct attribution has repeatedly given rise to debates. Richard de la Mare, the then owner, brought this flask to a specimen meeting of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London, in 1947, for its date to be discussed. Although the general opinion then was that it was an 18th-century piece, it was published again with a Yongle date in 1977.

A companion piece to the present flask from the Edward T. Chow collection and now in the Princessehof Museum, Leeuwarden, was also long considered as a Yongle original and is published as ‘early 15th century’, albeit with a question mark, in Daisy Lion-Goldschmidt, Ming Porcelain, London, 1978, pl. 14. Other similar vases were also sold in our London rooms, 21st June 1983, lot 313; and in our New York rooms, 1st December 1992, lot 339.

Medley discusses this design, which is more closely related to Chinese ink painting than virtually any other porcelain motif, and illustrates a related Song (960-1279) painting and a Ming (1368-1644) woodblock print. The slightly squeezed round shape of the flask echoes that of Chinese fans, a popular format for paintings of the bird-and-flower genre. (Margaret Medley, ‘Sources of Decoration in Chinese Porcelain from 14th to 16th Century’, in Margaret Medley, ed., Chinese Painting and the Decorative Style. Colloquies on Art and Archaeology in Asia, no. 5, Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London, 1975, p. 63 and pls III a and c.).

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A fine and rare blue and white ‘Three Friends’ dish. Ming dynasty, Yongle period. Photo Sotheby’s

of deep saucer shape with characteristic low V-shaped foot, the inside painted with a stem of bamboo and branches of pine and prunus, the blossoms reserved in white against haloes of blue, the sides with a composite flower scroll composed of morning glory, peony, rose, lotus, chrysanthemum, hibiscus, mallow, lily, gardenia, camellia, tea and pomegranate, with a key-fret rim border, similarly repeated on the outside with a classic-scroll border above and key-fret below, the deep cobalt-blue with ‘heaping and piling’, the base and footring unglazed and fired an orange tone; 34 cm., 13 3/8 in. Estimate 15,000,000—20,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 17,460,000 HKD (2,246,054 USD) to an Asian Private

PROVENANCE: Private collection, Hong Kong.
Eskenazi Ltd, London, 1994.

EXHIBITED: Yuan and Early Ming Blue and White Porcelain, Eskenazi Ltd, London, 1994, cat. no. 16 (illustrated).
Evolution to Perfection. Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection/Evolution vers la perfection. Céramiques de Chine de la Collection Meiyintang, Sporting d’Hiver, Monte Carlo, 1996, cat. no. 114 (illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1640.

NOTE: As the ‘Three Friends of Winter’, the evergreens bamboo and pine and the winter-flowering prunus that bears blossoms before sprouting leaves, were a popular subject for Chinese works of art, symbolizing endurance in adverse conditions. Several dishes of this type are recorded, but not all have the white prunus blossoms so effectively reserved against a blue halo.

A slightly smaller dish from the Ardabil Shrine in Iran is published in John Alexander Pope, Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine, Washington, D.C., 1956, pl. 40 bottom left; another in the Palace Museum, Beijing, is shown together with one with a wave border inside the rim in Geng Baochang, ed., Gugong Bowuyuan cang Ming chu qinghua ci [Early Ming blue and white porcelain in the Palace Museum], Beijing, 2002, vol. 2, pls 130 and 131, both part of the former Qing court collection; another dish of this design in the Shanghai Museum is published in Lu Minghua, Mingdai guanyao ciqi [Ming imperial porcelain], Shanghai, 2007, pl. 1-20; one with wave border from the Shriro collection, sold in our London rooms 28th May 1963, lot 131, is published in Beatrix von Ragué, Ausgewählte Werke Ostasiatischer Kunst, Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Berlin, 1970, pl. 64; and a dish belonging to Lindsay F. Hay and later in the Cunliffe collection, sold in our London rooms, 25th June 1946, lot 19, was included in the exhibition The Ceramic Art of China, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1971, and is illustrated in the catalogue in Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 38, 1969-71, no. 150. A similar dish from the collection of F.G. and E.H. Morrill, exhibited on loan at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and illustrated in Daisy Lion-Goldschmidt, Ming Porcelain, London, 1978, pl. 5, was sold in our London rooms, 14th November 1967, lot 97, and 29th November 1988, lot 179, and at Christie’s Hong Kong, 28th April 1997, lot 665.

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A fine and extremely rare Famille-Verte ‘bird’ bowl. Mark and period of Kangxi. Photo Sotheby’s

exquisitely painted around the shallow rounded sides with a brown and white bird with a long tail perched on a pendant peach branch in an asymmetrical composition covering most of the sides, the branch bearing finely shaded red fruits, bright green leaves with paler undersides and yellow worm-eaten patches, and pale aubergine branches, the slightly domed centre of the bowl with a single peach on a branch, the sunken base with the six-character mark within a double circle, wood stand; 12.8 cm., 5 in. Estimate 6,000,000—8,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 15,220,000 HKD (1,957,901 USD) to a Hong Kong Private

PROVENANCE: Collection of Captain Charles Oswald Liddell (who lived in China 1877-1913).
Bluett & Sons, London.
Collection of Wildred A. Evill.
Sotheby’s London, 30th November 1965, lot 93.

EXHIBITED: The Liddell Collection of Old Chinese Porcelain, Bluett & Sons, London, n.d. (1929), cat. no. 89.
Evolution to Perfection. Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection/Evolution vers la perfection. Céramiques de Chine de la Collection Meiyintang, Sporting d’Hiver, Monte Carlo, 1996, cat. no. 167.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 2, no. 770.

NOTE:

Laughingthrush and Peaches
Regina Krahl

This small bowl is unique and exceptional in the sensitivity of its painting, which echoes ink paintings on paper or silk. The bird with its distinctive white-rimmed eyes, which is perched on a branch laden with peaches, is a huamei, laughing-thrush, or Chinese thrush, a popular cage bird because of its bright, chirpy song. A very similar bird perched on a flowering peach branch appears in a zoological manual recording birds, their features, habits and habitats, of which a section is preserved in the National Palace Museum, Taipei (see Gugong niao pu/Manual of Birds, Taipei, 1997, vol. 3, p. 30) (fig. 1 below). This handbook was produced for the Qianlong Emperor between 1750 and 1761 by the court painters Yu Xing and Zhang Weibang, following an earlier version painted by Jiang Tingxi (1669-1732), court painter under the Kangxi Emperor.

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Several larger bowls as well as Kangxi ‘birthday dishes’ are known painted with a related, but rather different design, executed by a different hand in a different manner, and showing a different bird. They are rendered in a more ostentatious, ‘boneless’ (no-outline) painting style, which is effective already from a distance, whereas the present bowl invites and requires close inspection to appreciate its fine detail. Compare, for example the pair of bowls sold in these rooms 23 October 2005, lot 371, now in the collection of Alan Chuang, and illustrated in Julian Thompson, The Alan Chuang Collection of Chinese Porcelain, Hong Kong, 2009, pl. 39; or another pair from the Ton-Ying and Barbara Hutton collections, one later in the T.Y. Chao collection and now the Matsuoka Museum of Art, Tokyo, the other later in the British Rail Pension Fund and The Tsui Museum of Art, Hong Kong, sold in these rooms 18 November 1986, lot 122 (fig. 2), and 16 May 1989, lot 75, respectively (fig. 3). The latter bowl is illustrated again, together with a ‘birthday dish’ from the Shanghai Museum collection, in Peter Lam, ‘Lang Tingji (1663-1715) and the Porcelain of the Late Kangxi Period’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 68, 2003-4, pp. 42-3, pls 18 and 19. Other similar bowls are in the British Museum, London, the Tokyo National Museum, and the Eisei Bunko, Tokyo.

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The birds on these larger bowls and dishes seem to represent a different species and are generally identified as magpies; the fruiting branches look similar to those on the Meiyintang bowl, but are often identified as apricot. This may be due to the fact that the design of a magpie and three apricots is interpreted as illustrating a pun on the wish for achieving first place in the three main official exams, provincial, metropolitan and palace; see Terese Tse Bartholomew, Hidden Meanings in Chinese Art, Hong Kong, 2006, p. 84. Apricots are, however, generally – at least in the illustrations of the Ben cao gang mu [Pandects of Natural History], China’s classical pharmaceutical handbook – depicted as ovoid fruit rather than in this heart shape with distinct ridge from the stem to the tip, which is the characteristic form of the peach. The branch on the present bowl, in any case, holds more than three fruit, and the bird is different, too. The Meiyintang bowl thus differs in almost every aspect from all other examples with related design, and may perhaps represent a first model, made with greater attention to detail, which provided the blueprint for the larger, somewhat modified series.

Peter Lam, who has closely studied the calligraphy of reign marks under Lang Tingxi’s tenure as supervisor of the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen, describes (ibid., p. 35) the marks that appear on this group of vessels – the same as on the present bowl – as “very calligraphic, not too regular nor angular” and has argued that they were all written by the same calligrapher and are roughly contemporary with Lang Tingji’s term of service in Jiangxi from 1705 to 1712. The birthday dishes were made towards the end of this period, around 1712, for the Emperor’s 60th birthday in 1713. The present bowl may therefore be attributed to a somewhat earlier date within this period.

Captain Charles Oswald Liddell lived in China from 1877 to 1913 and married in Shanghai. During these years he acquired porcelains from the collections of Yikuang, Fourth Prince Qing, the last Regent of the Qing dynasty, and from the private secretary and adviser of Li Hongzhang, influential statesman and diplomat around the same time. Upon his return to England he settled in Wales, where he added distinct Oriental flavour to an ancient manor house, Shirenewton Hall, by planting a Japanese-style garden with East Asian plants, erecting Oriental pavilions, and installing a large Chinese temple bell on the lawn. His collection was largely sold at Bluett & Sons, London, in 1929.

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A fine and rare pair of coral-ground Famille-verte bowls. Yu Zhi marks and period of Kangxi. Photo Sotheby’s

each bowl of deep rounded form rising from a slightly splayed foot towards a flared rim, painted on the outside with a dense pattern of different flowers growing in lush profusion, with large blooms in blue, pale aubergine, pale yellow and iron-red enamels clustered around the foot and more delicate flowering stems of many different varieties rising towards the rim, the leaves in different tones of green, mostly drawn in fine black outlines and details, all against an intense, deep iron-red ground also covering the foot, the interior of each bowl plain; 10.9 cm., 4 1/4 in. Estimate 8,000,000—12,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 14,100,000 HKD (1,813,824 USD) to an Asian Private

PROVENANCE: Wah Kwong Collection, Hong Kong.
Collection of T.Y. Chao, Hong Kong.
Sotheby’s Hong Kong, 19th May 1987, lot 303.
Christie’s Hong Kong, 20th March 1990, lot 566.
Christie’s Hong Kong, 30th May 2006, lot 1258.

EXHIBITED: Ch’ing Porcelain from the Wah Kwong Collection, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1973-4, cat. no. 108 (one bowl illustrated).
Ming and Ch’ing Porcelain from the T.Y. Chao Family Foundation, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1978, cat. no. 71 (one bowl illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Geng Baochang, Ming Qing ciqi jianding [Appraisal of Ming and Qing porcelain], Hong Kong, 1993, p. 216, pl. 379 (one bowl).
Sotheby’s Hong Kong – Twenty Years, Hong Kong, 1993, pl. 217.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1724.

NOTE: Reign marks with the wording yu zhi [made for imperial use of ...] following the reign name, rather than nian zhi [made in the years of ...] are extremely rare and suggest a closer relationship to the imperial court. Wares enamelled in the imperial workshops in the Forbidden City of Beijing rather than by the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi bear such yu zhi marks, but in overglaze blue or pink enamel, since the plain white porcelains came from Jingdezhen fully glazed and fired. The significance of the underglaze-blue yu zhi mark, which would have been added at Jingdezhen, has been much discussed, especially since identical bowls are also known with underglaze-blue nian zhi marks.

It has been suggested that such bowls were enamelled in the palace at Beijing, with only the mark inscribed at Jingdezhen before firing. They seem, however, very different from the typical Kangxi porcelains from the Beijing palace workshops, and are part of a small but well-known range of pieces with the same design painted in the characteristic Jingdezhen wucai (‘five colour’) palette of the Kangxi period, which in the West is known as the famille verte. It is therefore most likely that they were decorated in Jingdezhen, even if their marks may indicate direct use at the palace. This design continued to be popular throughout the Qing dynasty, and similar bowls are known with Yongzheng (1723-35), Qianlong (1736-95) and Daoguang (1821-50) reign marks.

Another bowl of this shape, design and reign mark in the Shanghai Museum is published in Wang Qingzheng, ed., Kangxi Porcelain Wares from the Shanghai Museum Collection, Hong Kong, 1998, pl. 95; one in the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco is illustrated in He Li, Chinese Ceramics. A New Standard Guide, London, 1996, pl. 653; and a pair from the collection of Edward T. Chow and now in the S.C. Ko Tianminlou collection was included in the exhibition Chinese Porcelain. The S.C. Ko Tianminlou Collection, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1987, cat. no. 89, and sold in these rooms, 25th November 1980, lot 143. Similar bowls with Yongzheng yu zhi, Yongzheng nian zhi as well as six-character Yongzheng and Qianlong reign marks are illustrated in The Tsui Museum of Art. Chinese Ceramics IV: Qing Dynasty, Hong Kong, 1995, pls 158-60 and 166, together with an unusual example with a Kangxi yu zhi mark in pink enamel, pl. 123. A Daoguang example is illustrated together with another with Yongzheng yu zhi mark in Soame Jenyns, Later Chinese Porcelain. The Ch’ing Dynasty (1644-1912), London, 1951, pl. XLV.

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A fine and extremely rare pair of lavender-blue bottle vases. Marks and period of Yongzheng. Photo Sotheby’s

each with a globular body, rising to a cylindrical neck and an everted rim, all supported on a straight foot pierced with two openings in the manner of archaic bronzes, covered on the exterior with an even pale blue glaze, the interiors and base left white, the base inscribed with a six-character mark in underglaze blue; 13.7 cm., 5 3/8 in. Estimate 3,000,000—5,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 12,980,000 HK (1,669,747 USD) to a Hong Kong Private

PROVENANCE: Sotheby’s New York, 18th/19th April 1989, lot 347 (possibly).

EXHIBITED: Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, The British Museum, London, 1994.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 2, no. 852.

NOTE: No other vase of this form and colour appears to be recorded. This glaze colour, which is also sometimes described as ‘clair-de-lune’, is extremely rare, as is this vessel form with openings in the foot. Both colour and shape may be based on celadon vases of the Song dynasty, which in turn are probably inspired by archaic bronze vessels. Compare a pair of octagonal ‘Longquan’ vases of the Southern Song or Yuan dynasty (12th/13th century) from the collection of Sir Alan Barlow at the University of Sussex, England, acquisition no. C 75.

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A fine and very rare set of ten famille-rose bowls with views of Jiangxi. Marks and period of Jiaqing. Photo Sotheby’s

each rounded bowl with widely everted, conical sides faintly flared at the rim, resting on a slightly tapering foot, the outsides each depicting different landscape scenes painted in famille-rose enamels, with inscriptions in black enamel to identify the sites, above a narrow lotus-scroll border in blue enamel on a band of white enamel all within underglaze-blue double lines circling the rim and foot, the insides decorated in iron red with a branch of prunus and one of finger-citron under a pine tree in the centre, within a ruyi border reserved in white on red at the rim; 14.5 to 14.7cm., 5 3/4 in. Estimate 10,000,000—15,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 11,860,000 HKD (1,525,670 USD) to an Asian Trade

PROVENANCE: Acquired in China prior to 1936 (by repute).
Christie’s Hong Kong, 26th September 1989, lot 748.
Christie’s Hong Kong, 29th April 2001, lot 517.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, nos 1762-71.

NOTE: Xunyang jiu pai [Nine Tributaries of the Xunyang], a river scenery in Jiujiang, which is bordered on one side with houses on stilts in front of a city wall with a double-roofed gate and willows and pink-flowering trees in the foreground, on the other shore boats are moored and people are visiting a pavilion, with reed-covered fishing boats nearby and sailing boats in mid-river, one tucking a rowing boat along.

Teng[wang]ge gao feng [Lofty Scenery at the Pavillion of Prince Teng] shows a famous pavilion at the Gan river in Xinjian county that has its origins in the early Tang dynasty and was immortalized in a poem by Wang Bo (AD 649-76), depicted as a building with curved roofs on a terrace overlooking a river with many sailing and rowing boats, guarded on the other side by crenellated walls.

Xuting yan liu [Misty Willows at the Xu Pavilion], a site in Jiujiang depicting two impressive buildings with double roofs with curved-up eaves connected by a multi-arched bridge with an island with small houses among dense willow trees, the white-washed gate to the bridge inscribed …longqiao [... Dragon Bridge], two fishermen in their boats with their nets lowered to one side and a smaller one-hump bridge to the other side next to crenellated walls partly hidden by clouds.

Baihua chun xiao [Spring Dawn at Hundred Flowers], shows Baihua Island in East Lake in Nanchang, famous for a garden laid out there by a Song dynasty (AD 960-1279) scholar, and depicts people crossing a large green, where a pailou (ceremonial arch) has been erected, one man with a shoulder pole, another with a staff, one on a mule followed by an attendant with an umbrella, a walled compound with willows beyond identified as Donghu Shuyuan [East Lake College], further buildings built into the water, connected by a dyke with further willows that leads to a small walled compound with a commemorative stele, with a ferryboat and many fishing boats surrounding the island, some with lowered nets.

Shangqing sheng jing [Scenic Spot of Shangqing] renders a Daoist temple devoted to Shangqing, one of the ‘Three Pure Ones’ in Guixi county, its multi-coloured roofs nestled among dramatic steep blue-green cliffs and surrounded by clouds, with the path leading over a bridge past a figure of a seated stone lion on a pedestal, through a ceremonial arch up broad steps to a front gate inscribed Shangqinggong ['Shangqing Palace'], with people in boats travelling along a river nearby and a waterfall rushing down from a rock face opposite.

Magu xian tan [Altar of the Immortal Magu], depicts the altar of the Daoist Immortal Magu on Mount Magu in Nancheng, with a temple hall built to overhang steep rocky cliffs, partly hidden among clouds, next to a waterfall, another further down, visible through a large circular ‘gateway’ formed by a natural rock formation, and a third building high up on a platform with a vista onto steep cloud-enveloped hills, with pines in the valley and a red sun in the sky.

Lushan pubu [Lushan Waterfall] depicts a dramatic waterfall near Poyang Lake among steep blue-green mountains, with a thatched hut below, a pagoda and temple building to one side and further temple halls among pine trees high up in the blue-green mountains, with people climbing up the steep stone steps.

Xishan die cui [Layers of Kingfisher Blue in the Western Mountains] shows the mountainous landscape of Xishan, southwest of Nanchang, with the waterfall, crossed by a covered walkway, continuing as a winding stream with a bridge in the foreground and group of buildings behind a wall with a triple gateway further away, inscribed with a temple name.

Yuling ji xue [Snow Piling up on Yu Mountain Range] is the title of a snowy landscape in Dayu, also known as Meiling [Prunus Blossom Mountain Range], showing people crossing snow-covered mountain ranges on mules or on foot, the roofs of a tall gateway and other buildings laden with snow, and overall red-flowering prunus and evergreen trees lending colour.

Nanpu fei yun [Nanpu Flying Clouds], a scenic spot southwest of Nanchang, also described by the Tang poet Wang Bo, shows a lakeside view with a tall pagoda and other buildings in the foreground, islets with pavilions among willow trees at the other shore and fishing boats dotted about on the water.

This set depicts famous scenic spots of the region around Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province, where the bowls were made. The different scenes are outstanding in their dramatic composition, quality of the painting and the range of enamel colours. Geng Baochang mentions as characteristic of the Jiaqing reign finely potted and painted porcelains decorated with ten famous views of various areas, such as Ten Views of West Lake, in Hangzhou, Ten Views of Changjiang, the Yangzi River, Ten Views of Lushan, a mountain in Jiangxi, and Ten Views of Dongting, a lake in Hunan; see Geng Baochang, Ming Qing ciqi jianding [Appraisal of Ming and Qing porcelain], Hong Kong, 1993, p.293.

This set appears, however, to be unique and similar complete sets of ten bowls do not appear to have been otherwise published; a single Jiaqing bowl inscribed Magu xian tan, from the collection of Yokogawa Tamisuke is included in Tōkyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan zuhan mokuroku: Chūgoku tōji hen/Illustrated Catalogues of Tokyo National Museum: Chinese Ceramics, Tokyo, 1988-90, vol. 2, no. 672; another inscribed Shangqing sheng jing in the Weishaupt collection is illustrated in Gunhild Avitabile, Vom Schatz der Drachen/From the Dragon’s Treasure: Chinesisches Porzellan des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts aus der Sammlung Weishaupt/Chinese Porcelain from the 19th and 20th Centuries in the Weishaupt Collection, London, 1987, cat. no. 20.

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A fine and rare pair of lime-green cups. Marks and period of Yongzheng. Photo Sotheby’s

each delicately potted with rounded sides resting on a straight foot, covered on the exterior with a bright lime-green enamel, the interior and base left white, the base inscribed with a six-character reign mark within double squares, wood stands; 8.8 cm., 3 1/2 in. Estimate 2,500,000—3,500,000 HKD. Lot Sold 11,300,000 HKD (1,453,632 USD)  to an Asian Private

EXHIBITED: Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, The British Museum, London, 1994.
Evolution to Perfection. Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection/Evolution vers la perfection. Céramiques de Chine de la Collection Meiyintang, Sporting d’Hiver, Monte Carlo, 1996, cat. no. 189.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 2, no. 906.

NOTE: Lime-green is probably the rarest enamel colour prepared in the Yongzheng period, and the square reign mark here used is found on some of the finest Yongzheng porcelains. The present cups may be the only pair of this type preserved. A single cup of the same colour and also with the square mark, from the Paul and Helen Bernat collection, was sold in these rooms, 15th November 1988, lot 68.

Two lime-green cups of slightly different proportions and with the more common circular Yongzheng reign mark in Taipei are published in the Illustrated Catalogue of Ch’ing Dynasty Porcelain in the National Palace Museum, Republic of China. K’ang-hsi Ware and Yung-cheng Ware, Tokyo, 1980, pl. 153; and in the exhibition catalogue Qingdai danse you ciqi tezhan, Taipei, 1981, pl. 44; another pair of that type with circular mark was included in the exhibition Shimmering Colours. Monochromes of the Yuan to Qing Periods: The Zhuyuetang Collection, Art Museum, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2005, cat. no. 113; and a single cup was included in the Exhibition of Ancient Chinese Ceramics, Kau Chi Society of Chinese Art, at the same museum, Hong Kong, 1981-2, cat. no. 136.

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A fine pair of doucai ‘ball-flower’ bowls. Marks and period of Yongzheng.  Photo Sotheby’s

each finely potted with conical sides slightly flaring at the rim all rising from a straight foot, the outside decorated with an asymmetric design of roundels of different sizes and with different geometric patterns, some freely floating, some overlapping, drawn in deep underglaze-blue outlines and coloured in different tones of cobalt-blue, and green, red, yellow and pale pinkish-aubergine enamels, the interior undecorated, the six-character mark within a double square in underglaze blue; 10.2 cm., 4 in. Estimate 5,000,000—7,000,000 HKD. Lot Sold 11,300,000 HKD (1,453,632 USD) to an Anonymous

PROVENANCESotheby’s Hong Kong, 2nd May 2000, lot 676.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1750.

NOTE: This unusual, colourful design, which is unique in its severe abstraction, would seem to be inspired by the Japanese heraldic family symbols, mon. The Yongzheng Emperor is known to have been greatly interested in Japanese works of art and to have commissioned reproductions, in particular of Japanese lacquer ware. The design is popularly known as ‘ball flower’ pattern in the West, although it is clearly not a flower pattern but in fact one of the rare designs not based on nature.

A single bowl of this design from the Nanjing Museum was included in the exhibition Qing Imperial Porcelain of the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong Reigns, Art Gallery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1995, cat. no. 55; another in the Chang Foundation, Taipei, published in James Spencer, ed., Selected Chinese Ceramics from Han to Qing Dynasties, Chang Foundation, Taipei, 1990, pl. 136, was sold in these rooms, 2nd May 2005, lot 501, and probably also in our New York rooms 4th June 1982, lot 269.

The same design appears also on an unmarked jar in the Palace Museum Beijing, illustrated in Zhongguo taoci quanji [Complete series on Chinese ceramics], Shanghai, 1999-2000, vol. 14, pl. 184; and a similar design was in the Yongzheng period also executed in fencai (famille rose) enamels on a bowl of more rounded shape, inscribed with a reign mark in a double circle; see a piece in Taipei in the Illustrated Catalogue of Ch’ing Dynasty Porcelain in the National Palace Museum, Republic of China. K’ang-hsi Ware and Yung-cheng Ware, Tokyo, 1980, pl. 100.

The Falangcai Pheasant Vase (Lot 15) was sold privately after the sale for HK$200 million / US$25.64 million; the Chenghua Palace Bowl (Lot 56) sold privately after the sale for HK$90 million / US$11.54 million.

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A magnificent and unique Falangcai ‘Golden Pheasant’ vase. Blue enamel mark and period of Qianlong.  Photo Sotheby’s

of the rarefied guyuexuan type, the body of tapering ovoid shape resting on an unglazed foot enclosing the countersunk mark, surmounted by the tall cylindrical neck finished with a slightly lipped rim, finely potted in the imperial kilns in Jingdezhen in white porcelain of the purest homogenous structure and applied with an even milky-white glaze suffused with tiny bubbles and with a smooth silky surface; enamelled in the imperial palace workshops within the confines of the Forbidden City in the finest opaque ‘foreign colours’, applied in subtly shaded washes and immaculately depicted detail with a pair of golden pheasants perched on a knotty trunk, the male balancing on one slender yellow leg, the other leg held up to the rich red breast, the head turned back over the shoulder with the long sharp beak flanked by short hairs below the bright oval eye, picked out in black, yellow, red and pink enamels, and the straw-yellow crest falling back over the thick pinkish orange ruff and multi-coloured wing feathers, the long tail depicted in iron red and sepia with yellow spot markings extending to the tip of the longest feather, the female crouching below her mate, the detailing of her feathers subtly picked out in sepia and the only colour being the yellow and puce of her eye; the thick knotted trunk set with spots of pale greenish moss and extending to angled branches sparsely sprouting pale pinkish leaves, small bright blue and deep purple asters with yellow stamens clustering at the base below a rose, the two large pink flowers and a single bud borne on thorny, leafy stems with detailing picked out in black on the green, the whole forming a continuous scene complimented on the neck with a couplet reading Zhaozhao long li yue. Suisui zhan chang chun, (‘May you capture the “beautiful month’ for days on end. May you seize enduring spring year upon year.’) and three seals jiali (‘beautiful’), sishi and changchun (‘enduring spring at all seasons’), the countersunk base with the four-character mark Qianlong nian zhi written within a double-square in a characteristic greyish blue enamel; 20.3 cm., 8 in. Estimate on request. Sold privately after the sale for 200,000;000 HKD (25,064,000 USD)

PROVENANCE: Sotheby’s Hong Kong, 5th November 1997, lot 1353.
Eskenazi Ltd., London.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, ‘Ceramics in China: Making Treasures from Earth’, China. 5,000 Years, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1998, p. 129, fig. 5.
Sotheby’s. Thirty Years in Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2003, pl. 322.
Regina Krahl, ‘Some Notes on the Meiyintang Collection’, Orientations, September 2009, p. 98, fig. 2.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1753, p. 217, fig. 18b, and pp. 278-9.

NOTE:

The Meiyintang Golden Pheasant Vase
Regina Krahl

This bottle vase ranks among the most magnificent extant artefacts created in the imperial palace, and remains one of very few preserved outside the former Qing court collection now kept in Taipei and Beijing, or held in Museums elsewhere. Like all works of art painted by court artists to imperial order in the enamelling workshops of the Forbidden City in Beijing, the vase is unique. Falangcai vases are extremely rare even in the Palace Museums and most examples are of smaller size. The sensitive handling of the nature scene, outstanding brushwork, and range and subtlety of the enamel colours make this one of the finest paintings ever achieved on porcelain.

Falangcai (‘foreign colours’) designates enamelling on copper, porcelain and glass undertaken in specialized workshops in the Yangxindian (Hall of Mental Cultivation), in immediate vicinity of the imperial living quarters in the Forbidden City and under the Emperors’ direct scrutiny. The enamelling workshops had been initiated by European artisans working at the court in the Kangxi period, who encouraged the production of new enamel colours to be applied in Beijing to blank porcelain vessels supplied for that purpose by the imperial porcelain kilns of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province. Porcelain painting was here done in close physical proximity to court painting, and artists of the Painting Academy, both Chinese and Western, were also recruited to paint in the enamelling workshops. Painting styles therefore tend to show distinct influences of Western court artists, who introduced a naturalistic painting manner where the impression of volume, depth and perspective is conveyed through shading. The realistic representation of the birds and the accomplished shading of the flowers on the present vase show the direct influence of artists such as the Italian Giuseppe Castiglione (AD 1688 – 1766), who served as court painter under the three main Qing emperors, Kangxi (r. AD 1662-1722), Yongzheng (r. AD 1723-35) and Qianlong (r. AD 1736-95).

Castiglione himself was ordered to paint on porcelains in the palace workshops by the Kangxi Emperor, but no works can today be attributed to his hand; for the Yongzheng Emperor he painted veritable ‘portraits’ of porcelain vases on silk; and under the Qianlong Emperor he completed the impressive hanging scroll Beautiful Spring [Jin chun tu], a silk painting that depicts the motif of the Golden Pheasants, which appears on the Meiyintang vase (fig. 1). The Qianlong Emperor, for whom the present vase was painted, held Castiglione’s work in particular high esteem and applied eleven seals to this painting. The strong influence of Castiglione’s painting style on falangcai porcelain is obvious in the painting on the Meiyintang vase, whose colophon and seals also take up the ‘Spring’ message of the painting.

Since the Beijing palace workshops were never restrained by the necessity of large-scale production, their creations are marked by an individuality of both their painting styles and their colouring. Individual court artists would be responsible for complete works – rather than specializing on a single aspect only – and the enamels could be mixed in small quantities for specific jobs, rather than being selected from fixed, limited colour schemes like at Jingdezhen with the wucai (famille verte) or fencai (famille rose) palettes.

Although all falangcai work is exquisite, there nevertheless exist differences in quality even among this select group of wares. The perceptive nature study on the Meiyintang vase, with its poignant and touching evocation of the close silent bond between two birds turned away from each other, is a masterwork of painting that goes far beyond the simple depiction of a charming garden scene. The resplendent, powerful male bird, majestically planted onto the tree trunk, is shown proudly standing guard to protect a gentle, delicate female that crouches close to the tree, well concealed in its camouflage plumage against the colours of the bark.

The open composition with large areas of white space, not constrained by any decorative borders, is handled like that of a painted handscroll, and the quality of the brushwork equally approaches that of ink paintings on paper or silk. The variety of enamel tones employed, particularly for the cocks’ plumage, is remarkable; unusual shades were mixed as deemed necessary, for example for the fresh, tender tree leaves, which have just sprouted and not yet acquired their full colour; and texture is rendered through application of thicker enamel, for example for the birds’ legs and claws, and some white fungus growing on the tree.

The elegant shape of the Meiyintang vase, known as ganlanping (‘olive-shaped vase’) – among the largest that were enamelled in the Beijing workshops – is known from a small number of other examples, mostly in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan, all of which have been treated to some of the best and most ambitious painting. Of four vases of this form in Taipei two are painted with flocks of birds, one with a landscape and one with pavilions, see the exhibition Qing gongzhong falangcai ci tezhan/Special Exhibition of Ch’ing Dynasty Enamelled Porcelains of the Imperial Ateliers, National Palace Museum, Taipei, 1992, pls 127-130 (fig. 2); a pair, with flowering and fruiting plants very similar to one in Taipei, but without birds, which entered the Worcester Royal Porcelain Works Museum, England, in the late 19th century, was sold in our London rooms, 18th June 1985, lot 200, and is illustrated in Idemitsu Bijutsukan zōhin zuroku. Chūgoku tōji/Chinese Ceramics in the Idemitsu Collection, Tokyo, 1987, pl. 232; one in the Musée Guimet, Paris, is painted with a tied bow, illustrated in Xavier Besse, La Chine des porcelaines, Paris, 2004, pl. 54; and another landscape-decorated vase, companion to the one in Taipei, is illustrated in Julian Thompson, The Alan Chuang Collection of Chinese Porcelain, Hong Kong, 2009, pl. 118. One pair of vases of this form, with a design of cranes and a seal script reign mark, on the other hand, was decorated at Jingdezhen and represents yangcai rather than falangcai, see Liao Pao Show, Huali cai ci. Qianlong yangcai/Stunning Decorative Porcelains from the Ch’ien-lung Reign, Taipei, 2008, pl. 44.

The same motif of a pair of golden pheasants appears on three smaller falangcai vases of the Qianlong reign, but in all three cases both the message of the painting and the manner of its rendering are very different. The birds are depicted in a more romantic, idealized manner, as a loving couple perched side by side and turned towards each other; the brushwork clearly reveals a different hand; and the scenes are confined to the main part of the body, with formal borders decorating the neck.

On one of these vases, a pear-shaped vase with garlic-head neck from the Charles Russell and Barbara Hutton collections, the golden pheasants appear with the same plants and the same colophon and seals, but in a different composition, see R.L. Hobson, Bernard Rackham and William King, Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, London, 1931, col. pl. 28, and the sale in our London rooms, 2nd June 1971, lot 263 (fig. 3). On a second vase, a yuhuchun ping in the Tianjin Municipal Museum, they are shown among peonies, rocks and a fruiting bush, accompanied by a different poem, see Tianjin Shi Yishu Bowuguan cang ci, Hong Kong, 1993, pls 169 and 170 (fig. 4). On the third piece, a vase with curved handles from the collection of Roger Lam, they are grouped among roses, rocks and a flowering tree, also matched with a different colophon, see Hugh Moss, By Imperial Command. An Introduction to Ch’ing Imperial Painted Enamels, Hong Kong, 1976, pl. 72, and the sale in these rooms, 23rd October 2005, lot 188 (fig. 5).

The Musée Guimet, Paris, further holds a garlic-head vase similar to the Russell/Hutton example, but with a different pair of birds; see Soame Jenyns, Later Chinese Porcelain: The Ch’ing Dynasty (1644-1912), London, 1951, pl. LXXVIII and LXXIX: 1. In the Palace Museum, Beijing, is a related vase from the Qing court collection, but without any birds; see The Complete Collecton of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Porcelains with Cloisonné Enamel Decoration and Famille Rose Decoration, Hong Kong, 1999, pl. 23 (fig. 6).

This Beijing enamelling work, which is today known as falangcai after the term used in the records of the Palace Workshops (zaobanchu) of the Imperial Household Department (neiwufu), was previously often referred to under the term Guyuexuan (‘Ancient Moon Terrace’). No structure of that name is, however, recorded among Qing palace buildings, and there seems to be no other justification for that term to be applied to falangcai either. Already fifty years ago Soame Jenyns remarked (op. cit., p. 85) that the term is a misnomer, erroneously used for what ought to be called falang, and stated that pieces inscribed with this term, mainly small pieces of glass and porcelain and chiefly snuff bottles, tend to be of inferior quality and later date.

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A magnificent blue and white ‘Palace Bowl’. Mark and period of Chenghua. Photo Sotheby’s 

exquisitely potted from a fine creamy-white porcelain, masterly painted on the exterior in a light soft blue cobalt pigment with three large clusters of plump ripe melon vine, all differently rendered with four or six fruits, the thin curling tendrils counterbalanced by the thick broad leaves, all reserved against a white body, the interior left undecorated, the base inscribed in underglaze blue with a six-character reign mark within a double circle; 15.4 cm., 6 1/8 in. Estimate 80,000,000—120,000,000 HKD. Sold privately after the sale for 90,000,000 HKD (11,054,000 USD)

PROVENANCE: Zie Soey Koo, Beijing.
Messrs John Sparks, London (1929).
Collection of R. Wemyss Honeyman.
Thomas Love and Sons Ltd, Perth, England, 24th February 1970 (one of a pair).
Bluett & Sons Ltd, London.
Collection of Leandro and Cecilia Locsin, Manila.
J.J. Lally & Co., New York.
Eskenazi Ltd, London.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 2, no. 677.

NOTE

Palace Bowl with Melons
Regina Krahl

‘Palace bowls’ are the pride or else the desideratum of any museum collection. The term designates blue and white bowls of the Chenghua period (AD 1465-87) of the Ming dynasty, probably used at court for food, which are unsurpassed in their potting, porcelain quality and tactility, soft and subtle painting, and unobtrusive fruit and flower designs. Chenghua porcelains are the rarest Chinese imperial porcelains. Not only does the volume of fragments recovered from the site of the Ming imperial kilns in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, is less than half that unearthed from the stratum of the much shorter Xuande reign (AD 1426-35); this scarcity of recovered sherds is mirrored also by a rarity of surviving examples. The largest number of Chenghua porcelains is today preserved in the National Palace Museum, Taiwan, from the former imperial collection, and only some two dozen pieces of Chenghua mark and period of any type are recorded by Julian Thompson to remain in private hands (The Emperor’s broken china. Reconstructing Chenghua porcelain, Sotheby’s, London, 1995, pp. 116-29).

Chenghua porcelains developed their identity gradually and the excavations at the imperial kilns have brought to light three different stages in their development: the first still much indebted to the style of the Xuande reign; the second where some new ideas were realized; and a third – most mature – phase from AD 1481 to 1487, when the potters developed porcelains of a very distinct character both in terms of their material and their style of decoration. Those seven years, – or perhaps even less – represent the only period when palace bowls were created.

The porcelain itself with its clear, but not harsh white tone and its ultra-smooth surface texture is unrivalled in beauty and tactility. Compared to the crisp and glossy glazes of the best Xuande wares, those of the Chenghua reign are more muted, covering the blue design with a most delicate veil. Chenghua blue and white may be considered the finest blue and white porcelain ever produced at Jingdezhen. The sensual pleasure of handling a Chenghua porcelain vessel is unmatched by porcelains of any other period, and to be fully appreciated, a Chenghua vessel must not only be seen, but touched.

Chenghua decoration is of a striking artlessness and immediacy that inevitably focuses attention on the material. The cobalt pigment is much more even than it was in the Xuande period, without any ‘heaping and piling’. Its attractive soft tone, one of the trademarks of Chenghua blue and white, was apparently achieved by a deliberate admixture of local cobalt to the imported variety previously used.

What has become known as ‘palace bowls’ are bowls that are finely potted, of pleasing proportion, painted in underglaze blue with flower or fruit designs which at first glance appear very simple. Palace bowls come in about a dozen different patterns, of which the present is the only one with fruit, all others being flower designs. Bowls decorated in cobalt blue with flowers or fruits were of course also made in the Yongle (AD 1403-24) and Xuande reigns, but those of the Chenghua reign are unique in introducing deliberate irregularity into seemingly regular patterns, which makes these otherwise subdued designs vibrant and original. With the melon design this was achieved by a varied composition of each of the three vines, with four or six fruits.

Melons evoke in China the name of Shao Ping, whose personality became a symbol of loyalty. Having held the title of Marquis of Dongling during the Qin dynasty (221-206 BC), he lost his rank and became poor, when the Han overthrew the Qin. Rather than associating himself with the Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220), he reverted to growing melons outside Chang’an, the capital, which became famous for their fine quality and became known as Dongling melons after his former title. He was immortalized in a poem by Tao Yuanming (AD 365-427) (quoted in the translation of William Acker, from John Minford and Joseph S.M. Lau, An Anthology of Translations. Classical Chinese Literature, vol. 1: From Antiquity to the Tang Dynasty, Hong Kong, 2000, p. 502):

Fortune and misfortune have no fixed abode;
This one and the other are given us in turn.
Shao Ping working in his field of melons
Was much as he had been when Lord of Dongling.

More popularly, the melon design is understood as a symbol for prosperity and a long lineage of sons and grandsons, as illustrated in the saying guadie mianmian, ‘continuously spreading like melon vines’.

Melon vines were a popular subject of paintings in ink and colour at least since the Song dynasty (AD 960-1279), and are also depicted on blue and white porcelain since the Yuan (AD 1279-1368), and repeatedly in the early Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). An album leaf of the late Yuan or early Ming dynasty depicting a fruiting and flowering melon vine, with seals dating back to around the Chenghua period, was included in the exhibition Seven Classical Chinese Paintings, Eskenazi Ltd, London, 2009, cat. no. 7, illustrated also on the dust jacket (fig. 1).

A fragmentary Chenghua melon bowl was recovered from the waste heaps of the Ming imperial kiln site at Jingdezhen, see the exhibition catalogue A Legacy of Chenghua: Imperial Porcelain of the Chenghua Reign Excavated from Zhushan, Jingdezhen, Tsui Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1993, cat. no. C 82 (fig. 2). Twelve complete bowls appear to be preserved of the present design, but none seems to be remaining in the Palace Museum, Beijing, the National Palace Museum, Taipei, or any other museum in China.

A pair of such bowls was originally in the collection of Sir Percival David, of which one is remaining in the collection and now on display in the British Museum, London, where another example is kept, from the Seligman collection; for the former see Fujioka Ryoichi and Hasebe Gakuji, eds, Sekai tōji zenshū/Ceramic Art of the World, vol. 14, Tokyo, 1976, pls 45 and 46 (fig 3); for the latter, Jessica Harrison-Hall, Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, London, 2001, pl. 6: 3. The second bowl from the David collection, included in the International Exhibition of Chinese Art, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1935-6, cat. no. 1493, and sold in our London rooms, 15th October 1968, lot 97, later entered the Ataka collection and is now in the Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, see Tōyō tōji no tenkai/Masterpieces of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka, 1999, pl. 47. A bowl from the Nora Lundgren collection in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden, was included in the exhibition Mostra d’Arte Cinese/Exhibition of Chinese Art, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, 1954, cat. no. 656.

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Porcelain ‘palace bowl’ with underglaze blue decoration. Mark and period of Chenghua. Sir Percival David Collection, 1973,0726.363. British Museum, London © The Trustees of the British Museum

A melon bowl from the Frederick M. Mayer collection, sold at Christie’s London 24th June 1974, lot 98, is now in the Tianminlou collection, illustrated in Chinese Porcelain. The S.C. Ko Tianminlou Collection, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1987, pl. 31; one from the Charles Russell collection, published in R.L. Hobson, Bernard Rackham and William King, Chinese Ceramics in Private Collections, London, 1931, fig. 314, sold in our London rooms, 6th June 1935, lot 83 and in these rooms, 1st November 1994, lot 40, and illustrated in Sotheby’s. Thirty Years in Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2003, pl. 245, is now in the Au Bakling collection and was exhibited at the British Museum, London, 1998.

A bowl from the collection of Major L.F. Hay was sold in our London rooms, 16th June 1939, lot 101; one from the collections of Herschel V. Johnson and Mr and Mrs R.D. Pilkington, illustrated in Adrian M. Joseph, Ming Porcelains. Their Origins and Development, London, 1971, pl. 38, was sold in our London rooms, 21st February 1967, lot 38; one from the R.H.R. Palmer and K.S. Lo collections, illustrated in Soame Jenyns, Ming Pottery and Porcelain, London, 1953, pl. 63 A, was sold at Christie’s London, 14th June 1982, lot 79 and is now in the Flagstaff House Museum of Tea Ware, Hong Kong; and one from the collection of T.T. Tsui, illustrated in The Tsui Museum of Art, Hong Kong, 1991, pl. 73, was sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, 8th October 1990, lot 424.

The porcelains of this period were always greatly admired and remained highly treasured throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. Ts’ai Ho-pi relates many anecdotes recorded in the historical literature attesting to the value and esteem of Chenghua wares in later periods (The Emperor’s broken china, op.cit., pp. 16ff). A copy of the design, perhaps executed by one of the commercial kilns, can be seen on a slightly later bowl without reign mark, but from the Qing court collection and still preserved in the Palace Museum, Beijing, in The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum. Blue and White Porcelain with Underglazed Red, Shanghai, 2000, vol. 2, pl. 48, attributed to the Hongzhi period

 

Impressionism and the Chinese art market

There is increasing interest in modern Western art on the part of Chinese investors, and auction houses are moving accordingly
The Mainland Chinese are the world’s third-biggest buyers of luxury goods, and this interest is extending to new areas of the market. It comes as no surprise to find that Ming Dynasty porcelain and paintings continue to be purchased at considerable prices by domestic buyers – from both mainland China and Hong Kong – but what is more significant is that such purchasers are showing considerable interest in Western modern art. Possibly this is due to the widespread conviction in Chinese society that art is a sounder investment than stocks and shares, and so their migration into new areas such as Western art, wine, watches and jewellery is a form of diversification

Impressionism and the Chinese art market

There is increasing interest in modern Western art on the part of Chinese investors, and auction houses are moving accordingly
The Mainland Chinese are the world’s third-biggest buyers of luxury goods, and this interest is extending to new areas of the market. It comes as no surprise to find that Ming Dynasty porcelain and paintings continue to be purchased at considerable prices by domestic buyers – from both mainland China and Hong Kong – but what is more significant is that such purchasers are showing considerable interest in Western modern art. Possibly this is due to the widespread conviction in Chinese society that art is a sounder investment than stocks and shares, and so their migration into new areas such as Western art, wine, watches and jewellery is a form of diversification.

An idea of the appreciable purchasing power of the Chinese market can be gained from Sotheby’s Hong Kong spring 2010 sales, in which over 2,400 lots were auctioned for a total of over US$256 million, with several world records for Southeast Asian paintings (Bali Life by Lee Man Fong sold for US$3,240,000). This was followed by even better results in October, with the Hong Kong auction taking US$400 million in sales. Commenting these results, Kevin Ching, CEO of Sotheby’s Asia, said, “What made this sale series groundbreaking in many ways was the growing involvement and participation by Mainland Chinese.”
As regards Western art, the interest in Chinese buyers is principally for the Impressionists. As a result, Sotheby’s has announced a major selling exhibition for autumn 2010, with 20 works by Monet, Renoir, Chagall, Picasso, Degas and others

 “We have been impressed by the interest in the field of Impressionist and modern art from within China and across Asia in our recent auctions (…) and mounting a selling exhibition specifically for the Asian market is a unique opportunity for our many clients in the region.”

 “There have been a very few Chinese people buying Impressionist modern paintings since 2004 and 2005, but suddenly, since last year, there has been almost a surge.” It is likely that up until now, the remarkable results at auctions attributable to Chinese investors can be ascribed to just a couple of dozen investors, but now that the top echelons of Chinese society are familiar with luxury cars, yachts and property, they are looking for new ways of expressing their sophistication. Christie’s is conscious of the need to provide more information on Western art for Chinese collectors, and the auction house runs lectures to small groups of collections, events that are usually sponsored by investment banks.

the Chinese are paying record prices, they are doing so with considerable business acumen, showing that investment is the name of the game. They are happy to pay out to secure a piece, but they want to be sure that they will see a return on their investment in the space of five years. Western art is becoming part of the Chinese investment portfolio, and so the Impressionists are a safer bet than contemporary art. Though of course, taste may well come into it. Impressionism is a style that appeals to many Chinese people, while old master paintings and religious compositions are not appreciated. Likewise, Western contemporary art is more difficult. Would a mainland Chinese appreciate one of Damian Hirst’s sectioned animals in formalin?
There are further developments later down the line, of course. The Chinese will start to assemble public and private museums, and this will fuel more purchases. The art market is enjoying the new, optimistic feel that Chinese buyers have bought and looking forward to what the future holds in store.

MORE INFORMATIONS LOOK PART THREE

The study of Ming Imperial Ceramic originality part one

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

 

 

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

 

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

 

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

 

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

 

      THE FOUNDER

 

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

                     

 

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

THE STUDY OF MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ORIGINALITY PART ONE

 

 Chenghua Emperor Covered Bowl Measurements: 6″ Diameter X 3-1/4″ HeightHongzhi Emperor Rice Bowl Measurements: 6-3/4″ Diameter X 3″ HeightWe have been blessed to be able to authenticate and represent these two Imperial Emperor’s bowls for the last two years. , and as such,  the several pieces we did authenticate (original or fake??), most were newer reproductions .

The two particular bowls featured above are the result of a distant approach by a old Chinese man offering these bowls for purchase. It was a wise decision he made when he agreed to buy them, and his ‘feel’ for the pieces was perfect, as he loved their delicate construction – especially the exquisite Hongzhi rice bowl that he felt was a piece of perfection. In this microscopic study you will see why these pieces had that ‘special feel’ when we first saw the bowls.

Both of these bowls initially underwent an intensive, month-long cleaning and extensive study by expert  before we first announced their authenticity. In preparation for the composition of this article, we  re-cleaned the bowls, as initially performed, in acetone and then a strong solution of soap and water, to determine that all remaining deposits were indeed natural to the bowls, and not later replicators’ attempts at deception, nor hiding a repair. In the last cleaning, we even briefly used a solution of oxalic acid to make sure no aliphatic cements or petroleum based glues had been used. Initially these bowls were most likely cleaned in China, in a weak vinegar solution to remove any deposits that were on them (later microscopic photographs will show where this had occurred and the accompanying, minuscule new scratches that are associated with this cleaning).

These two truly Imperial Bowls are Pre-UNESCO Treaty Legal and have been displayed at our last two jade shows, including our Jade Through The Ages Show. We will be showing, with the progressive microscopic photographs throughout this article, authenticating identifiers, in response to which some skeptics might say the usual “Oh, the Chinese replicators can do that” – they cannot! These are authentic Ming Dynasty Imperial Porcelain Bowls and carry the ‘Antiquities, Plus… Guarantee’ as long as they are in our possession to sell. Out of respect to the father of the Emperor Hongzhi, we will be starting this article with the Emperor Chenghua’s Covered bowl, and will be ending it with the Hongzhi Emperor’s rice bowl.

In the three photographs above, we show the top of the Chenghua Emperor’s covered bowl, the bottom of the bowl, and a close-up of the reign mark and part of the foot rim. For those who do not know, the Chenghua Emperor preferred as his reign mark a calligraphy of his own making, done while he was a child; these marks do not have the usual perfection of a ‘typical’ reign mark. The bowl in general is not quite as finely produced as is the Hongzhi Emperor’s bowl, and is a bit heavier in construction, but still is a masterpiece for a porcelain made at the start of the Emperor’s reign in 1465 CE (remembering that this is not just an Imperial factory porcelain, but actually made for Imperial use). Additional research will lead the reader to the many different types and colors of Imperial Family porcelains which were traditionally produced for each Emperor upon his ascension to the throne; however, in this article we will be dealing only with these two bowls and their history of usage, along with their burial conditions. The exact  ’how and why’ particulars of their burial may never be known (unless some record exists in the archives in China), but we suspect these two items may have been among those known objects, which upon retirement from service when the new Emperor took the throne, were appropriated by eunuchs of the Forbidden City and ‘hidden away’ for posterity, or perhaps they were ‘discovered’ when the foreign industrialists routed the old railways through the Ming Dynasty tomb areas. However they were found, they are at least now safe and ready for their possible return home.

I have read a tips about collecting artwork from my friend :

Collecting art is a genuine pleasure, when you take time to research, learn and appreciate the items that you are considering. Different art forms appeal to different people. While the luscious colours of Impressionist masters and the provocative depictions of contemporary themes appeal to certain buyers, tangible objects such as ceramics remain the most accessible art form to many collectors.

Accessibility and appreciation are two key words when you collect. They are very important things to think about especially if you want to purchase artworks for investment purposes. This adds value as you know that they will likely have a turnover in the future. Browsing, studying and purchasing new items during your travels is a great way to add to your collection while deepening your knowledge of what is available in different parts of the world.

 Focusing on Chinese ceramics, we took the opportunity to ask Senior Specialist Chi Fan Tsang from the Chinese Ceramics & Works of Art Department at Christie’s Hong Kong for some tips and insights on collecting ceramics.

How to get started
For collectors new to the category, the easiest area to begin with is ceramics because so much research has been done in this area and so many examples have sold at auction that can serve as references. To get some basic knowledge, get a good reference book from an art bookstore. Reading footnotes in past catalogue auctions is helpful too.

Go to auction viewings and handle some pieces as this is the best way to learn. The weight and feel of an object is very important in judging its authenticity. Ask specialists for their opinion and guidance on the bidding levels.
In what condition is the item?
Get a condition report from the auction house before buying anything and, if possible, seek the advice of an independent expert or restorer. A barely visible hairline crack on a dish can affect its value by as much as 70%. However, if you are just looking to buy a study piece, then you can get an item with very minor damage at a fraction of the price.

How rare is it?
Was it something made uniquely for the Emperor, or was it produced in large quantities for the Chinese court and noblemen? Rarity is an important factor that determines the value of a piece. This is why you have to do research and read all the notes in the catalogue to find out.

Where does it come from?
There are more and more sophisticated copies on the market. To avoid the disappointment of purchasing a fake, you should look for pieces that have a clear history, tracing back as far as possible, to the time when it was first acquired. Items that have been in part of an important collection or institution are highly desirable.

Determining quality
Details, details, details. You should look for outstanding quality. Serious collectors invest a lot of time in learning about the workmanship that goes into a beautiful piece. It is a wonderful learning process that can greatly increase your appreciation and understanding of how valuable the item can become.

Ms. Tsang points out that ceramics, particularly Imperial Qing dynasty ceramics, remain the most accessible art form today and therefore continue to attract the highest prices. While collecting categories such as jade, lacquer, Imperial clocks, rhinoceros horn carvings, glass and bamboo are getting more popular and are achieving unprecedented prices, why not begin with Chinese ceramics? You will never look at a vase the same way again.

 Where does it come from?
There are more and more sophisticated copies on the market. To avoid the disappointment of purchasing a fake, you should look for pieces that have a clear history, tracing back as far as possible, to the time when it was first acquired. Items that have been in part of an important collection or institution are highly desirable.

Determining quality
Details, details, details. You should look for outstanding quality. Serious collectors invest a lot of time in learning about the workmanship that goes into a beautiful piece. It is a wonderful learning process that can greatly increase your appreciation and understanding of how valuable the item can become.

Ms. Tsang points out that ceramics, particularly Imperial Qing dynasty ceramics, remain the most accessible art form today and therefore continue to attract the highest prices. While collecting categories such as jade, lacquer, Imperial clocks, rhinoceros horn carvings, glass and bamboo are getting more popular and are achieving unprecedented prices, why not begin with Chinese ceramics? You will never look at a

for more info look the part two.

The Cecil Beaton Art Photography

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

THE CECIL BEATON ART PHOTOGRAPHY

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.


“Cecil Beaton: the New York Years”, The exhibition traces the artist’s astonishing career in New York City. Photographs of Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, Mick Jagger, Marilyn Monroe, Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), and Andy Warhol, among many other 20th-century icons, taken by a man who made himself iconic—the legendary Cecil Beaton .”Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” will feature vintage fashion photographs and celebrity portraits, award-winning set and costume designs for celebrated stage productions, original drawings, and other ephemera.  A book, entitled Cecil Beaton: the New York Years, accompanies the exhibition; featuring 200 stunning images, it is published by Skira Rizzoli and will be available in the Museum’s Shop and elsewhere.

  “New York City provided especially fertile territory for Cecil Beaton in the mid-20th century.  Presented with its kaleidoscopic scene, he photographed everything from the jewel-toned gowns of Charles James to the scrappy t-shirts of Warhol’s Factory members, and everyone from Greta Garbo to Tom Wolfe, and even himself in many guises. Cecil Beaton was enchanted by New York, and in turn he enchanted the world with its glamour.” The exhibition documents the artist’s colossal success in New York City from the height of the Jazz Age through the 1980s.  As a result of his prescience, which brought him to the city as it was becoming a world capital, and his talent, which catapulted him to the heights of his profession almost instantly, Cecil Beaton enthralled New Yorkers and the rest of the world with his prodigious output, blurring the boundaries between art, theater, commerce, high society, and counter-culture. “Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” is the second exhibition of the artist’s work at the Museum, which in 1969 mounted 600 Faces by Beaton.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Audrey Hepburn Costume for Film Version of My Fair Lady, 1963 Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby'sHighlights of the exhibition include photographs that stunningly document the pantheon of celebrated fashion designers of the day, including Balenciaga, Irene, Charles James, Lanvin, Mainbocher, Elsa Schiaparelli, and others, drawings and photographs of the women who played key roles in Beaton’s career and life—Mona Bismarck, Greta Garbo, Diana Vreeland, and Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), material related to Beaton’s firing by Condé Nast in early 1938 for an anti-Semitic comment that was inadvertently published, although Beaton was brought back to the magazine in the early 1940s, Beaton’s photographs of Greta Garbo, counted among the greatest images of her ever taken, which were made when the two were romantically involved, photographs of such 20th-century figures as Adele and Fred Astaire, Marlon Brando, Maria Callas, Martha Graham, Elsa Maxwell, Babe Paley, Diana Vreeland, and more. The exhibition will also feature Beaton’s hand-drawn portraits, caricatures, and sketches beside costume and set designs for Broadway plays, including Noël Coward’s Quadrille (1954), Lerner and Loewe’s My Fair Lady (1956), and Lerner and Previn’s Coco (1969) and the New York City Ballet productions of Camille (1946), Illuminations (1950), and Swan Lake (1951).

British-born Cecil (Walter Hardy) Beaton (1904-1980) arrived in New York City in 1928, having achieved early success in his homeland.  Trans-Atlantic connections resulted in his near-instant introduction to New York City’s elite, including Elsie de Wolfe and Edna Woolman Chase, the editor of Vogue magazine at the time. What followed is the stuff of legend:  a remarkably agile career which spanned fifty years and as many visionary works in which Beaton brought his rarefied vision to bear on fashion photography, illustration and caricature, portraiture (in drawings and photographs), and set and costume design for stage and film. Cecil Beaton’s stratospheric ambition was nurtured and sustained by mid-20th–century New York, where his career was able to maintain a feverishly high pitch. Society figures, media giants, impresarios, celebrities, actors, artists, writers, and the merely famous passed in front of his camera in an endless parade of glamour and style. The pages of Condé Nast publications—most notably, Vogue magazine—showcased his elaborately staged photo shoots, in which his eye for opulence and drama animated such sitters as Fred (and his wife, Adele) Astaire, Maria Callas, Greta Garbo, Martha Graham, Audrey Hepburn, Katharine Hepburn, and the woman who would become the ultimate 20th-century icon:  Marilyn Monroe. He enlivened his photographs with sets in which he borrowed liberally and extravagantly from European art forms, incorporating formal elements of modern (and classical) painting and sculpture into his work, and bringing elements of such major aesthetic movements as impressionism, surrealism, and others into the homes of magazine readers nationwide.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marilyn Monroe", 1956. Courtesy of  © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton" until February 20th 2012.

Beaton’s photographs, in essence, were sets—or tableaux—enabling him to shift effortlessly into design for the performing arts just as post-WWII New York was becoming an international cultural capital. His extraordinary stage sets and costumes for Broadway, the Metropolitan Opera, and the New York City Ballet were masterful evocations of “place” in the extreme.  He depicted the ancient Chinese society of Turandot (1961) with a visual hierarchy of robed chorus members and tiered pagodas; original costumes for this opera will be on view in Cecil Beaton:  The New York Years.  The Metropolitan Opera’s opening season at Lincoln Center featured Beaton’s production of La Traviata; original costumes from this opera will also be on view. His costume designs for the Ascot Race scene in Broadway’s My Fair Lady (1956), for which he won a Tony Award, pointedly exaggerated Edwardian fashion and later inspired Truman Capote’s renowned Black and White Ball of 1966.  The facility with which he designed for the stage coupled with his mastery of photographic technique catapulted him into film, where his costume and set designs for My Fair Lady (1964) earned him two Academy Awards, both in addition to the one he’d received for his costumes in the beloved film Gigi (1958).

In the 1960s Beaton turned his lens on Andy Warhol and the Factory.  Like Beaton and his close friend and confidante (and subject of numerous photographs), Truman Capote, Warhol moved easily both within New York society (where each found artistic inspiration) and outside of it (where each was able to work obsessively).  Unlike Beaton, Warhol had publicly expressed his belief that art and commerce were inextricably linked.  Unlike Warhol however, Beaton was criticized—by Hilton Kramer in The New York Times—for his proximity to society’s riches.  Possibly inspired by, or recognizing a kindred spirit in Warhol, Beaton pursued a new, young generation of the rich or famous, including a study of Factory members Candy Darling and Ultra Violet, as well as others, such as Mick Jagger and Tom Wolfe.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

THE BIOGRAPHY OF CECIL BEATON

 

Biography

 

Beaton was born on 14 January 1904 in Hampstead the son of Ernest Walter Hardy Beaton (1867–1936), a prosperous timber merchant, and his wife Etty Sissons (1872–1962). His grandfather, Walter Hardy Beaton (1841–1904), had founded the family business of Beaton Brothers Timber Merchants and Agents, and his father followed into the business. Ernest Beaton was also an amateur actor and had met his wife, Cecil’s mother, when playing the lead in a play. She was the daughter of a Cumbrian blacksmith named Oldcorn who had come to London to visit her married sister.[2] It is through this connection that Cecil is related to the Blessed Father Edward Oldcorne who was involved in the Gunpowder Plot. They had four children — in addition to Cecil there were two daughters Nancy (1909–99) and Baba (1912–73), and another son Reggie (1905–33).

Nancy married Sir Hugh (Smiley Baronets) (1905–90) and Baba married Alec Hambro.

Cecil Beaton was educated at Heath Mount School (where he was bullied by Evelyn Waugh) and St Cyprian’s School, Eastbourne, where his artistic talent was quickly recognised. Both Cyril Connolly and Henry Longhurst report in their autobiographies being overwhelmed by the beauty of Beaton’s singing at the St Cyprian’s school concerts.[3][4] When Beaton was growing up his Nanny had a Kodak 3A Camera, a popular model which was renowned for being an ideal piece of equipment to learn on. Beaton’s nanny began teaching him the basics of photography and developing film. He would often get his sisters and mother to sit for him. When he was sufficiently proficient, he would send the photos off to London society magazines, often writing under a pen name and ‘recommending’ the work of Beaton.[5]

 

Beaton attended Harrow, and then, despite having little or no interest in academia, moved on to St John’s College, Cambridge, and studied history, art and architecture. Beaton continued his photography, and through his university contacts managed to get a portrait sitting with the Duchess of Malfi — actually George “Dadie” Rylands and, as Beaton recalled years later, “It was a slightly out-of-focus snapshot of him as Webster’s Duchess of Malfi standing in the sub-aqueous light outside the men’s lavatory of the ADC Theatre at Cambridge.”[6] The resulting images gave Beaton his first ever piece of published work when Vogue magazine bought and printed the photos.[5]

 

Beaton left Cambridge without a degree in 1925, but only coped with salaried employment in his father’s timber business for eight days.[6] His brother Reggie however entered the business and remained until his death in October 1933.

For fifteen years between 1930 and 1945

 

, Beaton leased Ashcombe House in Wiltshire, where he entertained many notable figures.

In 1948 he bought Reddish House, set in 2.5 acres of gardens, approximately 5 miles to the east in Broad Chalke. Here he transformed the interior, adding rooms on the eastern side, extending the parlour southwards, and introducing many new fittings. Greta Garbo was a visitor.[7] The upper floor had been equipped for illegal cock-fighting at the beginning of the 20th century but Beaton used the cages as wardrobes to store the costumes from his set design of My Fair Lady. He remained at the house until his death in 1980 and is buried in the churchyard.[8][9][10] In 1947, he also bought a townhouse at number 8 Pelham Place in London.

 Career

 Photography

Beaton designed book jackets and costumes for charity matinees, learning the professional craft of photography at the studio of Paul Tanqueray, until Vogue took him on regularly in 1927.[6] He also set up his own studio, and one of his earliest clients and, later, best friends was Stephen Tennant; Beaton’s photographs of Tennant and his circle are considered some of the best representations of the Bright Young People of the twenties and thirties.

 

He was a photographer for the British edition of Vogue in 1931 when George Hoyningen-Huene, photographer for the French Vogue traveled to England with his new friend Horst. Horst himself would begin to work for French Vogue in November of that year. The exchange and cross pollination of ideas between this collegial circle of artists across the Channel and the Atlantic gave rise to the look of style and sophistication for which the 1930s are known.[11]

 

Beaton is best known for his fashion photographs and society portraits. He worked as a staff photographer for Vanity Fair and Vogue in addition to photographing celebrities in Hollywood.

Beaton’s first camera was a Kodak 3A folding camera. Over the course of his career, he employed both large format cameras, and smaller Rolleiflex cameras. Beaton was never known as a highly skilled technical photographer, and instead focused on staging a compelling model or scene and looking for the perfect shutter-release moment.

Beaton often photographed the Royal Family for official publication.[12] Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother was his favourite Royal sitter, and he once pocketed her scented hankie as a keepsake from a highly successful shoot. Beaton took the famous wedding pictures of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor (wearing an ensemble by the noted fashion designer Mainbocher).

During the Second World War, Beaton was initially posted to the Ministry of Information and given the task of recording images from the home front. During this assignment he captured one of the most enduring images of British suffering during the war, that of three-year-old Blitz victim Eileen Dunne recovering in hospital, clutching her beloved teddy bear. When the image was published, America had not yet officially joined the war—but splashed across the press in the US, images such as Beaton’s helped push the American public to put pressure on their Government to help Britain in its hour of need.[5]

Beaton had a major influence on and relationship with two other leading lights in British photography, that of Angus McBean and David Bailey. McBean was arguably the best portrait photographer of his era—in the second part of McBean’s career (post-war) his work is clearly heavily influenced by Beaton, though arguably McBean was technically far more proficient in his execution. Bailey was also enormously influenced by Beaton when they met while working for British Vogue in the early 1960s, Bailey’s stark use of square format (6×6) images bears clear connections to Beaton’s own working patterns.

Stage and film design

After the war, Beaton tackled the Broadway stage, designing sets, costumes, and lighting for a 1946 revival of Lady Windermere’s Fan, in which he also acted.

His most lauded achievement for the stage was the costumes for Lerner and Loewe‘s My Fair Lady (1956), which led to two Lerner and Loewe film musicals, Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964), both of which earned Beaton the Academy Award for Costume Design. He also designed the period costumes for the 1970 film On a Clear Day You Can See Forever.

Additional Broadway credits include The Grass Harp (1952), The Chalk Garden (1955), Saratoga (1959), Tenderloin (1960), and Coco (1969). He is the winner of four Tony Awards.

He also designed the sets and costumes for a production of Puccini’s last opera Turandot, first used at the Metropolitan Opera in New York and then at Covent Garden.

He also designed the academic dress of the University of East Anglia.[13]

 Diaries

Cecil Beaton was also a published and well-known diarist. In his lifetime six volumes of diaries were published, spanning the years 1922–1974. Recently a number of unexpurgated diaries have been published. These differ immensely in places to Beaton’s original publications. Fearing libel suits in his own lifetime, it would have been foolhardy for Beaton to have included some of his more frank and incisive observations.[14]

Personal life

He was made a Knight Bachelor in the New Year Honours 1972.[15]

Two years later he suffered a stroke that would leave him permanently paralysed on the right side of his body. Although he learnt to write and draw with his left hand, and had cameras adapted, Beaton became frustrated by the limitations the stroke had put upon his work. As a result of his stroke, Beaton became anxious about financial security for his old age and, in 1976, entered into negotiations with Philippe Garner, expert-in-charge of photographs at Sotheby’s. On behalf of the auction house, Garner acquired Beaton’s archive—excluding all portraits of the Royal Family, and the five decades of prints held by Vogue in London, Paris and New York. Garner, who had almost singlehandedly invented the photographic auction, oversaw the archive’s preservation and partial dispersal, so that Beaton’s only tangible assets, and what he considered his life’s work, would ensure him an annual income. The first of five auctions was held in 1977, the last in 1980.

Reddish House

By the end of the 1970s, Beaton’s health had faded. In January 1980, he died at Reddish House, his home in Broad Chalke in Wiltshire, at the age of 76.[5]

The great love of his life was the art collector Peter Watson, although they were never lovers. He had relationships with various men. He also had relationships with women, including the actresses Greta Garbo and Coral Browne, and the British socialite Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse.

Honours, awards and medals

Work

Photographs

Bibliography

  • My Royal Past, 1939
  • Ashcombe: The Story of a Fifteen-Year Lease, 1949
  • Photobiography, 1951
  • Persona Grata, 1953
  • Indian Diary and Album
  • The Glass of Fashion
  • My Bolivian aunt: a memoir
  • Chinese Diary and Album
  • Japanese, 1959
  • Ballet
  • Portrait of New York
  • Self-portrait with Friends: the Selected Diaries of Cecil Beaton, 1926–1974
  • The wandering years; diaries, 1922–1939
  • Cecil Beaton’s The Years Between Diaries, 1939–44
  • The strenuous years, diaries, 1948–55
  • The restless years: diaries, 1955–63
  • The parting years: diaries, 1963–74
  • The Unexpurgated Beaton: The Cecil Beaton Diaries as He Wrote Them, 1970–80
  • Beaton in the Sixties: The Cecil Beaton Diaries as He Wrote Them, 1965–69
  • Cecil Beaton’s ‘Fair Lady’ (diary excerpts and costume sketches), 1966 .
  • The face of the world: an international scrapbook of people and places.
  • I take great pleasure
  • Quail in Aspic: the Life Story of Count Charles Korsetz

[edit] Exhibitions

Major exhibitions have been held at the National Portrait Gallery in London in 1968 and in 2004.

The first international exhibition in thirty years, and first exhibition of his works to be held in Australia was held in Bendigo, Victoria from 10 December 2005 to 26 March 2006.

In October 2011, the BBC’s Antiques Roadshow featured an oil portrait by Beaton of rock star Mick Jagger, whom Beaton meet in the 1960s. The painting, originally sold at the Le Fevre Gallery in 1966, was valued for insurance purposes at £30,000.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

The Masterpiece Of International Artwork Exhibitions

 

 

 artwork: Salvador Dali - Flordali I , 1981- Courtesy of William Bennett Gallery, NYC

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

artwork: Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881 - 1973) - Studio with Plaster Head, Summer 1925. - Oil on canvas. Unframed: 97.9 x 131.1 cm. -  © 2011 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Purchase, 1964. -  Digital Image © The Museum.

THE MASTERPIECE OF INTERNATIONAL ARTWORK COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

Allegory and History, Man and Contemporary Life, Man and Nature and Solitude.

PAINTER:  HENRI ROSSEAU,ALEXANDER CABANET,JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET

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artwork: Henri Rousseau - "War or The Cavalcade of Discord", circa 1894 - Oil on canvas - 114 x 195 cm. - Collection of the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. On view at National Museum of Singapore in "Dreams & Reality: Masterpieces of Painting, Drawing & Photography from the Musée d’Orsay" until February 5th 2012.

At the turn of the century from 1848 to 1914, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, a rapidly urbanising social and economic landscape in Europe compelled Man to react towards modernity. The arts particularly grew in prominence as artists were confronted by a whole new world of ideas, possibilities and influences. Some chose to pursue their desire to capture contemporary subjects; others who were anguished and disorientated by the onslaught of massive change, sought refuge in their dreams and imagination founded on mythologies, legends and ancient civilisations. Their varied response generated new ways of depicting reality and a proliferation of artistic styles, redefining their own identities amidst the radical transformations taking place around them. This exhibition is divided into four main sections: Allegory and History, Man and Contemporary Life, Man and Nature and Solitude.

artwork: Alexandre Cabanel - "The Birth of Venus", 1863 - Oil on canvas - 130 x 223 cm. - Collection of the Musée d’Orsay, Paris.

Allegory and History is illustrated with works by artists such as Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, who blended myths of classical antiquity with history and reality, creating a new trend that was perpetuated in the Salons during the second half of the 19th century. Gods and goddesses were increasingly depicted as stylised figures, stripped of meaning. During the Romantic period in the 19th century, the links between literature, theatre, music and painting grew. Artists sought to free themselves of classicism; yearning freedom, they embraced a dark melancholy and rebellious pessimism. After France surrendered and lost two provinces Alsace and a large part of Lorraine to Prussia in the 1870 War, many artists were affected by the tragic events and dedicated paintings and drawings to the defence of Paris and the Commune – a resistance movement against the Empire’s defeat. Man and Contemporary Life Family Family was the only constant source of stability, comfort and moral support for the artists. Family members thus became tractable models with whom the artists could share their difficulties in artistic creation. When the once agrarian society transited into an urban one, some artists  felt nostalgic towards the countryside as a sort of “lost paradise”, while others denounced the archaic conditions and exploitation of peasants.

Another group of artists looked at a different reality – contemporary life in the city and the exalted heroism of factory workers. As Paris modernised, an array of new leisure activities sprung up. Artists began to discover the beauty of modern life by painting new places like theatres, public gardens and railways. Man and Nature The Human Figure From the mid-19th century, traditional approaches to figure-painting, portraits and nudes were widely challenged and succeeded by new artistic styles which included informal poses, people donning their own clothes performing daily tasks in their homes or on the streets. While landscape in art was initially linked to history, mythology and the Bible, it moved towards a more subjective and lyrical interpretation from the second half of the 18th century onwards. Towards the end of the 19th century, landscapes became increasingly devoid of human presence, underlining the insignificance of man as a subject compared to the forces of Nature. Man as a solitary being Surrounded by progress on all fronts, a group of artists were concerned about the irreversible changes made to the fast urbanising environment, hence, they set out to depict Man as a solitary being. In the artists’ perspective, the only way humans can escape the weight of science and technology is through the individual’s mind.

artwork: Jean-François Millet - "Spring", 1868-1873 - Oil on canvas - 86 x 111 cm. - Collection of the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. On view at National Museum of Singapore in "Dreams & Reality" until February 5th 2012.

With a history dating back to its inception in 1887, the National Museum of Singapore is the nation’s oldest museum with a progressive mind. The National Museum is a custodian of the 11 National Treasures, and its Singapore History and Living Galleries adopt cutting-edge and varied ways of presenting history and culture to redefine conventional museum experience. A cultural and architectural landmark in Singapore, the Museum hosts vibrant festivals and events all year round – the dynamic Night Festival, visually arresting art installations, as well as amazing performances and film screenings – in addition to presenting lauded exhibitions and precious artefacts. The programming is supported by a wide range of facilities and services including F&B, retail and a Resource Centre. The National Museum of Singapore reopened in December 2006 after a three-year redevelopment. The museum used to house a vast collection of zoological items, but were transferred to the National University of Singapore (NUS) and other museums in the Commonwealth.

Among the highlights of the collections are the Singapore Stone, the Gold Ornaments of the Sacred Hill from East Java, a Dagguerreotype of Singapore Town which was one of the earliest photographs of Singapore, the will of Munshi Abdullah, the portrait of Frank Athelstane Swettenham, the hearse of Tan Jiak Kim, a Peranakan coffin cover, the mace of the City of Singapore commemorating King George VI’s raising of the island’s status to a city in 1951, the Xin Sai Le puppet stage, William Farquhar’s drawings of flora and fauna and the portrait of Shenton Thomas, who was the former governor of Singapore. Rocks from the nearby Fort Canning Hill were used to create two sculptures commissioned from Cultural Medallion-winner Han Sai Por.    

Modern Art Presents a Retrospective of Ignacio Burgos

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artwork: Ignacio Burgos - "Bobsleigh 1", 2010 - Mixed media on canvas - 150 x 150 cm. - Courtesy The Moscow Museum of Modern Art. On view in "Ignacio Burgos: A Retorspective" from November 9th until December 14th.


 the solo exhibition of Ignacio Burgos, one of the most interesting contemporary artists in his country. His art is recognizable and self-contained; for long years, the master is faithful to his style and does not surrender to the dictation of markets, galleries, and curators. His manner can be defined as ‘figurative expressionism’: in his canvases, the exquisite palette of blues, purples and ochres comes into balance with a special Mediterranean light, and soft but precise brushwork. “Ignacio Burgos: A Retorspective” .

Attention: open in a new window. artwork: Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881 - 1973) - Studio with Plaster Head, Summer 1925. - Oil on canvas. Unframed: 97.9 x 131.1 cm. -  © 2011 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Purchase, 1964. -  Digital Image © The Museum.


 Modern Antiquity: Picasso, de Chirico, Léger, and Picabia in the Presence of the Antique, , focuses on how four eminent artists reinvented and transformed antiquity between 1906 and 1936. Classicizing creations such as de Chirico’s enigmatic piazzas, Picasso’s post-cubist women, Léger’s mechanized nudes, and Picabia’s “transparencies” made the arts of antiquity modern. Following its showing at the Getty, the exhibition will be on view at the Musée Picasso, Antibes 
   

Christie’s Impressionist & Modern Art evening sale in NYC totals $140,773,500artwork: Max Ernst "The Stolen Mirror" - Oil on canvas, painted in 1941. - Estimate: 4,000,000-6,000,000. Sold for: $16,322,500 USD / £10,283,175. Photo: Christie's Images Ltd 2011.


NEW YORK, N.Y.- Christie’s Impressionist & Modern Art Evening Sale achieved $140,773,500 (£88,687,305/ €102,764,655), with three works of art selling above the $10 million mark. Despite spots of selective bidding throughout the sale, Surrealist works and modern sculpture performed well overall, and buyers competed aggressively for rare works and those offered fresh to the market from private and museum collections. Christie’s offered the three top private collections this season, including the Property From the Collection of Lew and Edie Wasserman, which totaled $8.5 million; The Collection of John W. Kluge, sold to benefit Columbia University, which achieved $4.9 million; and A Distinguished West Coast Collection, which realized $10.5 million.
artwork: Yves Tanguy - "Untitled", 1938 - Tempera on paper - 9.3 x 23.3 cm. - Collezione Peggy Guggenheim, Venezia. On view at the Lucca Center of Centemporary Art in "Revealing Papers: The Hidden treasures of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection" until January 15th.

The Lucca Center of Centemporary Art is proud to be showing “Revealing Papers: The Hidden treasures of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection”,. Peggy Guggenheim’s career, as patron and collector, was driven by her readiness to support, both financially and morally, the intellectual vanguard, whether literary or artistic, and her desire to communicate to others her own enthusiasm for the art of her time. Her vision went beyond the mere acquisition of works of contemporary art to the creation of a comprehensive collection of museum standard. Peggy worked to bring about the acceptance of the avant-garde not only in the United States, but also in Europe and in particular in Italy. This exhibition presents a selection of seldom seen works on paper from the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice.]

   

 3 Abstract Artists Attention: open in a new window.

artwork: Meghan McKnight - "I Untitled", 2011 - Acrylic on wood - 122 x 183 cm. - Courtesy p|m Gallery in Toronto. On view at Galerie Trois Points, Montreal in "p | m gallery @ Montreal " from November 12th until December 17th.


 the exhibition of three Ontarian painters . The three artists featured, William Griffiths, Meghan McKnight, and Amanda Reeves all approach their abstract practice through distinctly different layering strategies.
artwork: Lady Pink - "Ghetto Pink", 2011 - Acrylic on canvas - 116.8 x 177.8 cm. - Courtesy of the Woodward Gallery, New York. On view in "Lady Pink - Evolution" from November 5th until December 30th.


 “Lady Pink – Evolution”, . Lady Pink is the first woman in graffiti based art.  In her current solo exhibition “Evolution,” Lady Pink re-masters work she once created as public murals. Lady Pink muses on old lettering outlines which have evolved from three decades of writing. To the cultured eye, Lady Pink’s street tag can be identified from the period in which it was deliberately constructed. The colorful POP- surreal canvases today, have her trademark name interwoven throughout the elaborate image, as if to authenticate her mark in art history. Lady Pink’s unique personal vision has been communicated throughout her evolution from subway writer to fine artist.
artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

“Cecil Beaton: the New York Years”, The exhibition traces the artist’s astonishing career in New York City. Photographs of Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, Mick Jagger, Marilyn Monroe, Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), and Andy Warhol, among many other 20th-century icons, taken by a man who made himself iconic—the legendary Cecil Beaton

and Queen Elizabeth II coronation

 

.”Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” w

 

ill feature vintage fashion photographs and celebrity portraits, award-winning set and costume designs for celebrated stage productions, original drawings, and other ephemera.  A book, entitled Cecil Beaton: the New York Years, accompanies the exhibition; featuring 200 stunning images, it is published by Skira Rizzoli and will be available in the Museum’s Shop and elsewhere.

  “New York City provided especially fertile territory for Cecil Beaton in the mid-20th century.  Presented with its kaleidoscopic scene, he photographed everything from the jewel-toned gowns of Charles James to the scrappy t-shirts of Warhol’s Factory members, and everyone from Greta Garbo to Tom Wolfe, and even himself in many guises. Cecil Beaton was enchanted by New York, and in turn he enchanted the world with its glamour.” The exhibition documents the artist’s colossal success in New York City from the height of the Jazz Age through the 1980s.  As a result of his prescience, which brought him to the city as it was becoming a world capital, and his talent, which catapulted him to the heights of his profession almost instantly, Cecil Beaton enthralled New Yorkers and the rest of the world with his prodigious output, blurring the boundaries between art, theater, commerce, high society, and counter-culture. “Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” is the second exhibition of the artist’s work at the Museum, which in 1969 mounted 600 Faces by Beaton.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Audrey Hepburn Costume for Film Version of My Fair Lady, 1963 Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby'sHighlights of the exhibition include photographs that stunningly document the pantheon of celebrated fashion designers of the day, including Balenciaga, Irene, Charles James, Lanvin, Mainbocher, Elsa Schiaparelli, and others, drawings and photographs of the women who played key roles in Beaton’s career and life—Mona Bismarck, Greta Garbo, Diana Vreeland, and Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), material related to Beaton’s firing by Condé Nast in early 1938 for an anti-Semitic comment that was inadvertently published, although Beaton was brought back to the magazine in the early 1940s, Beaton’s photographs of Greta Garbo, counted among the greatest images of her ever taken, which were made when the two were romantically involved, photographs of such 20th-century figures as Adele and Fred Astaire, Marlon Brando, Maria Callas, Martha Graham, Elsa Maxwell, Babe Paley, Diana Vreeland, and more. The exhibition will also feature Beaton’s hand-drawn portraits, caricatures, and sketches beside costume and set designs for Broadway plays, including Noël Coward’s Quadrille (1954), Lerner and Loewe’s My Fair Lady (1956), and Lerner and Previn’s Coco (1969) and the New York City Ballet productions of Camille (1946), Illuminations (1950), and Swan Lake (1951).

British-born Cecil (Walter Hardy) Beaton (1904-1980) arrived in New York City in 1928, having achieved early success in his homeland.  Trans-Atlantic connections resulted in his near-instant introduction to New York City’s elite, including Elsie de Wolfe and Edna Woolman Chase, the editor of Vogue magazine at the time. What followed is the stuff of legend:  a remarkably agile career which spanned fifty years and as many visionary works in which Beaton brought his rarefied vision to bear on fashion photography, illustration and caricature, portraiture (in drawings and photographs), and set and costume design for stage and film. Cecil Beaton’s stratospheric ambition was nurtured and sustained by mid-20th–century New York, where his career was able to maintain a feverishly high pitch. Society figures, media giants, impresarios, celebrities, actors, artists, writers, and the merely famous passed in front of his camera in an endless parade of glamour and style. The pages of Condé Nast publications—most notably, Vogue magazine—showcased his elaborately staged photo shoots, in which his eye for opulence and drama animated such sitters as Fred (and his wife, Adele) Astaire, Maria Callas, Greta Garbo, Martha Graham, Audrey Hepburn, Katharine Hepburn, and the woman who would become the ultimate 20th-century icon:  Marilyn Monroe. He enlivened his photographs with sets in which he borrowed liberally and extravagantly from European art forms, incorporating formal elements of modern (and classical) painting and sculpture into his work, and bringing elements of such major aesthetic movements as impressionism, surrealism, and others into the homes of magazine readers nationwide.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marilyn Monroe", 1956. Courtesy of  © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton" until February 20th 2012.

Beaton’s photographs, in essence, were sets—or tableaux—enabling him to shift effortlessly into design for the performing arts just as post-WWII New York was becoming an international cultural capital. His extraordinary stage sets and costumes for Broadway, the Metropolitan Opera, and the New York City Ballet were masterful evocations of “place” in the extreme.  He depicted the ancient Chinese society of Turandot (1961) with a visual hierarchy of robed chorus members and tiered pagodas; original costumes for this opera will be on view in Cecil Beaton:  The New York Years.  The Metropolitan Opera’s opening season at Lincoln Center featured Beaton’s production of La Traviata; original costumes from this opera will also be on view. His costume designs for the Ascot Race scene in Broadway’s My Fair Lady (1956), for which he won a Tony Award, pointedly exaggerated Edwardian fashion and later inspired Truman Capote’s renowned Black and White Ball of 1966.  The facility with which he designed for the stage coupled with his mastery of photographic technique catapulted him into film, where his costume and set designs for My Fair Lady (1964) earned him two Academy Awards, both in addition to the one he’d received for his costumes in the beloved film Gigi (1958).

In the 1960s Beaton turned his lens on Andy Warhol and the Factory.  Like Beaton and his close friend and confidante (and subject of numerous photographs), Truman Capote, Warhol moved easily both within New York society (where each found artistic inspiration) and outside of it (where each was able to work obsessively).  Unlike Beaton, Warhol had publicly expressed his belief that art and commerce were inextricably linked.  Unlike Warhol however, Beaton was criticized—by Hilton Kramer in The New York Times—for his proximity to society’s riches.  Possibly inspired by, or recognizing a kindred spirit in Warhol, Beaton pursued a new, young generation of the rich or famous, including a study of Factory members Candy Darling and Ultra Violet, as well as others, such as Mick Jagger and Tom Wolfe.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

 its heritage of diversity, opportunity, and perpetual transformation. Founded in 1923 as a private, nonprofit corporation,artwork: The Leopold Museum (on the far right) in the famous  Museumsquartier of Vienna, Austria . . Over 11,500 m2 of display space at The Leopold. Housed in a striking modern building designed by Pritzker Prize winning architects Ortner & Ortner and opened in 2001

In 1994, with support from the National Bank of Austria, the Leopold Museum was founded by Professor Rudolf Leopold and the Republic of Austria. The first task of the foundation was to grant public access to the comprehensive collection (over 5,700 artworks from the Leopold’s private collection) through the construction of a new 11,500 m2 modern museum. The result, the Leopold Museum, occupies a striking modern building designed by Pritzker Prize winning architects Ortner & Ortner, which opened in 2001. Located in Vienna’s Museum Quarter, the building appears as a light-flooded cube of shell-white limestone. The building’s interior only allows daylight to penetrate at specific points along the length of the rooms (with side light along the breadth) and only allows one-sixth of the exhibition area to be lit by daylight from above. A few very deliberately positioned picture windows create the kind of randomness found in “bourgeois“ homes, consistent with the pictures having been painted for that certain stratum of society. The voluminous building could almost be said to house two museums, one above the other. The part of the building above ground level is entirely dedicated to the Leopold Collection, the three lower floors are mainly used for the graphics collection, temporary exhibitions, communication (the auditorium) and storage. Visitors enter at the high atrium level, and can either take the single-flight staircase to the right, or enter the Klimtsaal (Klimt gallery), the first large gallery on the left. The top of the main stairs overlooks another big gallery which is in fact accessed on a lower floor and is part of the temporary exhibition area. The staggered heights of these galleries create a mezzanine which houses the museum shop, which in turn leads up to the café above the entrance hall. The functional “confusion“ of the spatial order in the entrance area is presumably not an artistic principle but a response to a simple need, one which has been translated into an instrument of spatial perception throughout the entire museum. It is on the next floor that the whole concept of the sequence of interlocking rooms becomes clear, both in terms of the simplicity of the arrangement and the variations in the repeated basic configuration. In Addition to featuring the works of the expressionist Egon Schiele, the Leopold Museum has also made a name for itself as the museum of Viennese Art Noveau. No other museum offers a comparable cross section of the exceptional achievements of this uniquely Viennese tradition. The finest examples of turn-of-the-century Viennese craftsmanship are combined with a presentation of painting, graphic art and sculpture, providing insight into this remarkable era. Designed by artists like Kolo Moser or Josef Hoffmann and produced by the Wiener Werkstätte, these objects bear witness to the timeless elegance of art in Vienna around 1900. Visit The Leopold Museum at : www.leopoldmuseum.org/

artwork: Egon Schiele - "Reclining Woman" (1917) - Oil on canvas From the Leopold Museum's extensive collection of Egon Schiele artwork

Professor Rudolf Leopold (1925-2010) was born in Vienna, and obtained his doctoral degree in medicine in 1953. During his medical studies, he began to attend art history lectures and to collect paintings and objects of art at the same time, above all, works of the then little-respected Egon Schiele. He purchased his first painting (“The Hermits” by Egon Schiele) using the 30,000 Austrian Schillings that his mother had promised him for a car as a reward for completing of his medical studies. But Rudolf Leopold decided against the car and bought the Schiele, thus beginning his collecting career with a brilliant coup. Over the years, professor Leopold not only amassed a large and significant collection (extending to other significant Austrian artists), but became the foremost expert on Schiele, curating exhibitions of his work and publishing a critical catalogue of Schiele’s works with a detailed list of his motifs. The museum owns 44 oil paintings and 180 gouaches and watercolours by Egon Schiele (the largest collection of Egons Schiele’s art in the world), as well as other Austrian art of the 20th century, including key paintings and drawings by Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Richard Gerstl, Albin Egger-Lienz, and paintings and prints by Herbert Boeckl, Hans Böhler, Anton Faistauer, Anton Kolig, Alfred Kubin, and Wilhelm Thöny. The historical context is illustrated by major Austrian works of art from the 19th and 20th centuries.The panoramic windows of the museum offer a unique view of the Vienna city centre, with Maria Theresien-Platz and the Imperial Palace.

artwork: Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) - "Girl with tears" (1977) - Oil and magna on canvas - 117 x 101.5 cm. Currently on loan from the Beyeler collection" and at exhibition at the Leopold Museum Fondation Beyeler, Tieh / Basel © VBK, Vienna 2010 - Photo: Peter Schibli, Basel

Two exhibitions are  “Cezanne – Picasso – Giacometti” extended until 2 provides an opportunity to see masterpieces from the Beyeler Foundation in Basel. The main interest of the Beyelers lay mainly in collecting “well-approved” works of art. The approval process entailed a private ambience that allowed the works to be viewed over a long period of time, under varying conditions. The main purpose was not to reflect a history of modern art but rather the deep relationship the couple had built to the work they had collected, the accent lying always on the singularity and permanence of each work. Key works by artists like Paul Cézanne, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Vincent van Gogh, Francis Bacon, Jackson Pollock, Roy Lichtenstein or Andy Warhol stand out in an abundance of distinguished names. Over time, a series of work groups emerged, for which the Beyeler Foundation enjoys worldwide acclaim. These include groups of work by Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Fernand Leger, Alberto Giacometti, Paul Klee and Jean Dubuffet. A second exhibition, “Florentina Pakosta” (until 18 April 2011) provides an overview of work to date by the contemporary Viennese artist Florentina Pakosta. Her work takes socially critical realism as its starting point. Beginning in the late 1950s, Florentina Pakosta used pencil drawings and India ink works to examine anonymous character types whom she met at inns, on the streets or in train stations. Parallel to this, she was also experimenting with a cubist formal language. Over the course of time, her psychology-focused portrayals of human beings were reduced to stereotypical characters which she sometimes alienated to the point of becoming caricatures, and which occasionally even ended up as monstrosities. In the 1970s, Pakosta began creating the monumental character heads which were to garner her widespread fame. Further themes in Florentina Pakosta’s works from the 1980s are uniformity and control.

   

Collodion Images of Ken Merfeld

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artwork: Ken Merfeld - ' Gethsemane ' - 14 1/2 

San Pedro, CA – One of the few masters producing images in this 19th Century photographic art process is Los Angeles artist, Ken Merfeld, who will be premiering his new, exquisite body of Collodion work at Flazh!    

Abstract Art in South & North America artwork: Antonio Llorens (1920-1995) - Composición (Composition), 1952 - Oil on board -  © Estate of Antonio Llorens Colección Galería Oscar Prato, Montevideo, Uruguay / Constructive 8

: Abstract Art in South and North America, 1920s–50s. This groundbreaking exhibition is the first to bring together South American and U.S. geometric abstraction and includes a range of paintings, sculptures, prints, photographs, drawings and films.

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artwork: Salvador Dali - Flordali I , 1981- Courtesy of William Bennett Gallery, NYC

 A retrospective two years in the making providing a fresh insight to the lifelong dialogue Salvador Dal í had with Love, Poetry, Religion, Bullfighting and Surrealism. Featuring a selection of original works on paper and Dalí’s rarest graphic portfolios. showing Alice in Wonderland | Paradise Lost | Divine Comedy | The Biblia Sacra | The Hippies | The Tauromachie Surréaliste | Greek Mythology | Carmen | and other selected works at William Bennett Gallery.   

First Retrospective of Artist & Critic Lil Picard Debuts artwork: Photograph by Julie Abeles of Lil Picard performing Construction Destruction-Construction, October 20, 1967, Judson Memorial Church , NY Gelatin silver photograph, 8 x 10 in. - Lil Picard Papers, University of Iowa Libraries © Julie Abeles.

 Lil Picard and Counterculture New York comprises over 70 works by a pioneering feminist artist who played varied and vital—but under-acknowledged―roles in the New York art world during the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s. This first comprehensive American museum exhibition presents paintings, sculptures, drawings, collages, and several landmark installations and performances. Also included are photographs, writings, and films. All the works are drawn from the collections of the University of Iowa Museum of Art (UIMA), which organized the show, and from the University of Iowa Libraries, which houses the artist’s extensive papers. .
The life of this self-described “primitive sophisticated artist” is as intriguing as her art. Born Lilli Elisabeth Benedick in Landau, Germany, in 1899, the multitalented Picard worked as a cabaret actress, accessories designer, and writer in the heady, avant-garde scene of Berlin between the wars. In the 1930s, she focused on writing and criticism, working as a cultural reporter for Berliner Tageblatt, and asa fashion editor for Zeitschrift für Deutsche Konfektion. Best known there as a journalist and critic, she emigrated to the U.S. in 1937, following the rise of Nazi Germany and the revocation of her press credentials due to her Jewish heritage. In New York, she opened a custom millinery shop on Madison Avenue, selling her designs to Lord & Taylor, Macy’s, and Bloomingdale’s. After studying at the Art Students League and with Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, she began painting in earnest in 1939; less than a decade later, she was exhibiting in Greenwich Village’s Tenth Street galleries.

http://img.artknowledgenews.com/files2010apr/Lil-Picard-Lady-Woolworth.jpg&#8221; alt=”artwork: Lil Picard -<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Lady Woolworth, 1963. Assemblage on cardboard, 28 x 24 in. Lil Picard<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Collection, © University of Iowa Museum of Art Colection” width=”275″ height=”419″ align=”left” border=”0″ hspace=”10″ />“A very early practitioner of socio-political Happenings and installations,” notes Kathleen A. Edwards, UIMA’s chief curator, who organized the show, “Picard was several generations older than groundbreaking female performance artists such as Carolee Schneemann and Hannah Wilke. The Estate of Lil Picard, which came to the University of Iowa in 1999, is a remarkable treasure trove of the artist’s work as well as a resource for scholars and students working on New York’s underground art scene in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s.”

Studying and making art in New York in the 1940s, Picard met artists such as Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, and Jackson Pollock. Later she frequented Andy Warhol’s Factory and participated in the nascent performance scene with colleagues like Schneemann, Claes Oldenburg, and Yoko Ono. Her personal photographs and letters document her love affairs with artists Al Jensen and Ad Reinhardt. By the 1950s, she had resumed her journalistic career to support her art, most notably as the New York art correspondent for Die Welt, a prominent German daily. Through these writings, she was instrumental in shaping German perceptions of American art, especially Pop art, which she championed vigorously. She also contributed articles to Kunstforum International, Das Kunstwerk, Arts Magazine, East Village Other, and Interview.

Throughout her career, Picard referenced her own life in her art. Her autobiographical observations and experiences―recorded in personal journals, snapshots, and notes―as well as drafts, published articles, and images of her past work, all provided fodder for her visual and performance art. Beginning with her early work Crossing, 1947, with its vigorous, expressive brushstrokes, the exhibition follows Picard’s move toward the dynamic and brightly colored collaged canvases of the 1950s. Layered with the detritus of her everyday existence—theater tickets, wine bottles, cigarette labels, and scraps of clothing—paintings such as the four-paneled Love, 1958–59, and the complex Collage in Blue, 1957, with their active, highly tactile surfaces, reflect the artist’s simultaneous engagement with both past and present.

With the advent of the 1960s, Picard first concentrated on sculpture and assemblage, and later moved toward Happenings and installations. Her playful yet haunted Hide and Seek House, 1960, is featured, along with a series of mixed-media assemblages dating from 1962 to 1964. Both socially and politically aware, Picard demonstrated her feminist concerns in Lady Woolworth, 1963, a work that functions as an early critique of mass media’s manipulation of women. A participant in the NO! art movement who embraced its strategy of melding artistic production with socio-cultural action, Picard explored the trauma of war. She soon preferred performances and installations as vehicles for the expression of her views on the Vietnam War and social oppression, as seen in Construction-Destruction-Construction. This 1967 installation and performance piece incorporated collaged paintings, maimed mannequins, vibrantly painted costumes, spray-painted Associated Press photographs, and an altered American flag quilt, and will be represented in the exhibition by original props and a slide show.

Picard was keenly aware of the intellectual and aesthetic currents of her time. For example, the title of her series of drawings from the mid-1970s known as “dematerializations” was inspired by Lucy Lippard’s book Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Object, published in 1973. Picard’s Napkinian Portraits series also demonstrates the depth of her involvement in New York’s art and literary world, and works such as Socialite Napkin, 1975, with its collaged photograph and mirrored drawings, hint at the artist’s interest in the notion of celebrity.

artwork: LIL PICARD - Cosmetic sculpture II, 1965

By the time of her death in 1994, Picard had had 15 solo exhibitions in the U.S. and Germany, and her work had been included in more than 40 group shows. Her first solo show was at the David Anderson Gallery in 1960. In 1976, she enjoyed simultaneous exhibitions at New York’s Goethe House, Ronald Feldman Gallery, and Holly Solomon Gallery. Her last major show was a 1978 retrospective at the Neue Berliner Kunstverein in Berlin. “The Grey Art Gallery is thrilled to host this important and overdue exhibition,” notes Lynn Gumpert, the Grey’s director. “It reinforces the Grey’s mission to focus on Lower Manhattan’s amazing history of avant-garde art and culture, where artists from a surprisingly broad range of backgrounds converged in a rich and fertile mix. University museums are uniquely equipped to present such scholarly reassessments, and we are pleased to work with Kathy Edwards and the UIMA to reintroduce Lil Picard to New York audiences.” The show will also include two films about Picard by New York filmmaker Silviana Goldsmith: Art is a Party, the New Party is Art and Lil Picard.

Lil Picard and Counterculture New York will be accompanied by a state-of-the-art interactive web site, which will include hundreds of photographs of both Picard’s artworks and the artist with art-world friends. It will also present selected critical writings by Picard, pages from her diaries, some of her recorded interviews with artists, and film clips. Following its debut at the Grey, the exhibition will be on view at the Black Box Theater at the Iowa Memorial Union in Iowa City in Spring 2011.

Picard pursued a remarkable career devoted to art, writing, performance, and fashion that spanned a century. Living in Berlin in the 1920s, she studied art, literature, ballet, and voice. Associated with the Berlin Dada group―which included George Grosz, Hugo Ball, and Richard Huelsenbeck―and influenced by Brecht’s “epic theater” and use of critical satire, she performed in prominent cabarets as well as film. Celebrated as a muse to the postwar New York art world, she became a member of Andy Warhol’s inner circle and counted among her friends numerous art-world luminaries. Drawn entirely from the artist’s estate and its extensive archives at the University of Iowa, Lil Picard and Counterculture New York sheds welcome light on the life and work of an important German-born American artist and critic.
 THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Qing Imperial Landscape decoration Ceramic Found In Indonesia

 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

The Rare Qing Imperial Landscape Decoration Ceramic

Found In Indonesia

 

Introductions

During Qing Dinasty, not many landscape decoration ceramic gift by the emperor to Indonesian Sultanate.

I have only found two ceramic from the imperial Qing de Zhen one bigger plate 35 cm and one cup, many repro items with lower quality exist.

If the Indonesian collectors have the  imperial landscape decoration ceramic which found in Indonesia , please be kind to  report.

I need the informations to complete my research,for that thanks very much.

For all collectors Merry Christmas 2011 and happy new year 2012

Jakarta,December 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

Dr Iwan Collections

Qing Imperial Landscape Stampcup

qing imperial lanscape plate

 original artifact(digital Restoration)

landscape of the imperial saucer

I have found Saucer artifact with the unidentified landscaped red brown color painting of Indonesia gulf port with Stupa ,fort and in the sea-gulf Euro trader’s ship, native fisherman ship, and native with the local ship came to the euro ship, I cann’t identified the port location because no stupa at old Bantam port, the stupaonly found at old Taruma negara port at cibuaya but that time euro didn.t came , the Chinese junk different shape, please comment about the location and this ceramic made in China or Euro ? look carefully the other painting of this UNFO sucer ceramic.@copyright 2010 , I need the sponsored to developed this special site UNFO in this blog, because need much spece for illustration, please contact through e.mail or comment .Dr Iwan S.
Foreign ship( VOC,EIC or Portugeus?) in the sea-gulf (where? may be Old Bantam port , but in hat area no stupa)

 

Native fisherman ship

 

Local people with their ship went to the foreign bigger ship at the gulf (where?)

 

The landscape at the beach of the gulf ,look at the traditional fisherman trap.at the rim of the soucers.

 

Dutch Indie Company (VOC) Port

Compare with Dr Iwan non imperial landscape Ewer(tea Pot)

 

 

 

International Collections

 

 

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DSC01547

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Imperial porcelain blue and white, underglaze copper-red and celadon vase. Six-character mark of Kangxi and period

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M2502a

M2502b

M2502c

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A Chinese Imperial porcelain blue and white, underglaze copper-red and celadon vase. Six-character mark of Kangxi in underglaze blue and of the period, 1662-1722. Courtesy Marchant

of club form slightly tapering towards the foot, painted on each facet with a mountainous river landscape with houses, viewing pavilions, pine, wuti and incised celadon rockwork, two panels with fishermen, one beneath the moon, each panel within underglaze blue double lines, the flat shoulder with four sprays of prunus, lotus, bamboo and daisy with tall branches of bamboo, repeated on the cylindrical flaring tall neck. 21 1/8th inches, 53.7 cm high. The unglazed base with recessed glazed centre, bearing a six-character mark of Kangxi in underglaze blue and of the period, 1662-1722. – Price on request

Formerly in a private American collection. 

No other vase of this type appears to be recorded.

A similar blue and white vase, painted with a night visit to the Red Cliff and inscribed with part of the poem, together with a similar Kangxi mark and identical sprays of bamboo on the neck, is illustrated by Wang Qingzheng in Kangxi Porcelain Wares from the Shanghai Museum Collection, no. 31, pp. 42-43, another from the Wang Xin Lou collection is illustrated by Julian Thompson and Dr. Robert D. Jacobsen, in Imperial Perfection, The Palace Porcelain of Three Chinese Emperors, no. 2, pp. 30-31.

A_blue_and_white_porcelain_tripod_censer

A blue and white porcelain tripod censer. Kangxi Period. Photo Bonhams

Carefully potted with a raised ridge to the flared rim, a cloud pattern painted to the waist and a continuous landscape with scholars and attendants encircling the convex exterior walls raised on three short feet, the celadon-tinged glaze stopping in a circle within the feet; 9 1/2in (24cm) diameter.
Estimate: US$5,000 – 7,000

Property from Various Owners

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

D’Orsoy The Dandyman Art Lithography Collections

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

 FOUNDER

  Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

D’Orsay Art Lithography Collections

Count d’Orsay, yang meninggal  pada tahun 1852, ia banyak digambarkan sebagai “pangeran” atau – lebih dgn biasa saja – “yang terakhir” dari pesolek. Fenomena pesolek menggelitik keingintahuan intelektual dalam hitungan yang asli Prancis, di mana ia adalah subjek dari setidaknya satu buku-panjang studi pada abad ke-19. Dalam karyanya Inggris angkat, tempat kemenangan sosialnya, ia terbatas untuk berjalan-pada bagian dalam berbagai kronik usia sementara juga muncul sebagai karakter tipis-terselubung dalam fiksi kontemporer.

Untuk yang terbaik dari pengetahuan saya, W. Teignmouth Shore D’Orsay, atau The Complete Dandy biografi Inggris pertama dari pelat pasca-Kabupaten besar mode, muncul hampir 60 tahun setelah kematiannya. Aku sudah dikutip dari buku Shore, di mana ia menggambarkan d’toilet Orsay’s dan tinggi sendirian menolak penginapannya yang kami kunjungi di London (sebuah perjalanan yang mungkin telah meringankan itu saya telah menyadari volume yang lain Shore, Touring London dengan W Teignmouth Shore;. sebuah buku kecil pedoman friendly bagi mereka yang mengunjungi London, & mereka yang diam di London).

Lengkungan, bertele-tele prosa biografi Shore tanpa henti menghibur tampaknya lebih ke era milik sendiri daripada hitungan menjelang Perang Besar. “Meskipun tidak ada otoritas untuk membuat pernyataan,” avers dia dalam sambutannya, “kita tidak berpikir bahwa kita salah dalam menyatakan bahwa pada hari ketika Adam pertama kali mengeluh kepada Hawa bahwa ia tidak memotong daun ara nya celana sesuai dengan fashion terbaru pesolekan lahir. “

Bapak yang tak perlu dari para pesolek, Beau Brummell, sudah rias London paling berpengaruh saat Gedeon Gaspard Alfred de Grimaud (juga terdaftar sebagai Alfred Guillaume Jibril), Comte d’Orsay, lahir di Paris pada tahun 1801. D’Orsay membuat entri sendiri ke dalam kota 20 tahun kemudian, dengan waktu yang telah diburu Brummell ke pengasingan oleh kreditor, dan itu akan lebih lama masih sebelum menghitung mengambil tempat tinggal. Pertemuan yang tidak lazim romantis – termasuk urusan yang panjang dengan masyarakat maven Lady Blessington, dan mungkin suaminya Tuhan Blessington yang menjadi ayah mertuanya ketika ia menikah dengan putri remaja Earl dari pernikahan sebelumnya – mungkin mengejutkan (dan bingung) kota jiwa lebih sensitif. Tapi d’Orsay gabungan kecantikan fisik, kecerdasan berkilauan, amour propre-magnetik dari dandy serta bau berbahaya dari petualangan Napoleon dan gelar pra-Revolusi, baik diwariskan oleh ayah umumnya. Ini adalah minuman yang memabukkan dan masyarakat jatuh di kakinya indah-bersepatu.

D’Orsay adalah sebagai menghina kesederhanaan fiskal karena ia moralitas borjuis. Ia berbagi tekad Brummell untuk menaikkan hidupnya sendiri untuk status kultus sementara mengabaikan tuntutan yang lebih keras, meskipun jika apa pun bahkan lebih boros. Dia pasti cemerlang. Sebagai salah satu avatar d’Orsay’s sastra mengatakan dalam Henrietta Temple, “Saya ingin sedikit; rumah bagus, baik kereta, kuda baik, lemari pakaian lengkap, yang terbaik opera-kotak, koki pertama, dan uang saku – yang adalah semua Saya membutuhkan “. D’belanja Orsay’s gratis lalai membawanya jauh melampaui berarti nya.

Itu jelas untuk memenuhi hutang bahwa menghitung mengejar potret sebagai karier. Hitungannya adalah networker tak kenal lelah dan untuk rakyatnya dia harus tidak terlihat lagi dari lingkaran sendiri, beberapa orang London yang paling modis dan berpengaruh (dan beberapa wanita), termasuk Disraeli novelis kemudian-dandyish, penulis Henrietta Temple, yang kemudian menjadi Perdana Menteri.

Melihat ke karir Orsay’s d’artistik untuk pertama kalinya aku berpaling untuk Shore untuk pencerahan lebih lanjut, dan ia tidak mengecewakan. Bab “Artis ini” diawali dengan kata-kata berikut (dan Anda benar-benar perlu membaca ini keras-keras dalam napas putus asa untuk mencapai efek yang diinginkan): “Ini mendorong kami sekarang untuk membayar perhatian ke D’Orsay’s klaim sebagai seorang seniman, jika dia telah bertanyakan hanya sebagai amatir, keheningan akan mungkin, tetapi ia bekerja untuk uang, masuk daftar dengan seniman lain, dan karena itu meletakkan dirinya terbuka untuk penghakiman. “Dan kemudian ia pergi selama beberapa halaman dalam bahasa Prancis, mengutip artikel surat kabar yang Shore alami diasumsikan pembaca berpendidikan akan mengerti dalam bahasa aslinya.

Cukuplah untuk mengatakan, Shore tidak sangat terkesan, tapi kolektif d’Orsay’s potret merupakan sesuatu seperti dewa Britannic dari paruh pertama abad ke-19: Byron, Disraeli, Carlyle, Wellington, Dickens – dan d’Orsay dirinya. Banyak dari mereka, baik gambar asli dan litograf, sekarang diadakan di National Portrait Gallery London. Dengan hanya sedikit pengecualian, pengasuh ditampilkan dari tubuh dalam profil kiri; keseluruhan keseragaman ketat membuat untuk sebuah ensemble sangat elegan. Cara ini menetapkan komposisi keintiman hilang dari potret yang lebih besar dan memungkinkan d’Orsay untuk berkonsentrasi pada detail busana yang dia begitu dihargai. Ada timbal balik yang aneh narsisme bekerja dalam foto-foto yang sangat menambah daya tarik mereka: rusa muda aristokrat di sekitar kota akan sangat tersanjung untuk memiliki pangeran pesolek menangkap profilnya, d’Orsay seperti tersanjung melihat pakaiannya mendikte sehingga hati-hati diamati.

Dilihat dalam isolasi, memang benar, potret itu mengungkapkan karakter lebih dari bakat, dan ada sedikit kemajuan dalam keterampilan d’dilihat Orsay’s selama bertahun-tahun 20 atau lebih di mana ia bekerja. Potongan-potongan yang lebih ambisius – seperti potret minyak Wellington atau “Swedia burung bulbul” Jenny Lind – meninggalkan d’Orsay’s ingin prestasi teknis terkena dan tampaknya untuk membenarkan meremehkan Shore. “Semua hal dipertimbangkan kita dapat menuliskan Perhitungan d’Orsay sebagai amatir cukup tingkat pertama,” kata Shore, sebelum menambahkan duri akhir: “sebagai terampil dalam bidang seni seperti setiap keren yang pernah.”

Dalam kasus apapun, Count d’penciptaan Orsay’s terbesar adalah – sebagai harus menjadi kasus untuk setiap dandy sejati – sendiri.

Sebuah pilihan potret d’Orsay’s:

 
 
 

 

original info

Count d’Orsay, who died on this day in 1852, was variously described as “the prince” or – more prosaically – “the last” of the dandies. The phenomenon of the dandy piqued intellectual curiosity in the count’s native France, where he was the subject of at least one book-length study in the 19th century. In his adoptive England, the scene of his social triumphs, he was confined to walk-on parts in numerous chronicles of the age while also appearing as a thinly-veiled character in contemporary fiction.

To the best of my knowledge, W. Teignmouth Shore’s D’Orsay, or The Complete Dandy was the first English biography of the great post-Regency fashion plate, appearing almost 60 years after his death. I’ve already quoted from Shore’s book, in which he describes d’Orsay’s toilet and high-handedly dismisses his lodgings which we visited in London (a journey which might have been lightened had I been aware of another Shore volume, Touring London with W. Teignmouth Shore; a little book of friendly guidance for those who visit London & those who dwell in London).

The arch, prolix prose of Shore’s endlessly entertaining biography seems to belong more to the count’s own era than the eve of the Great War. “Though there is not any authority for making the statement,” he avers in his opening remarks, “we do not think that we are wrong in asserting that on the day when Adam first complained to Eve that she had not cut his fig-leaf breeches according to the latest fashion dandyism was born.”

The undisputed daddy of the dandies, Beau Brummell, was already London’s most influential dresser when Gédéon Gaspard Alfred de Grimaud (also listed as Alfred Guillaume Gabriel), Comte d’Orsay, was born in Paris in 1801. D’Orsay made his own entry into the city 20 years later, by which time Brummell had been hounded into exile by his creditors, and it would be longer still before the count took up residence. His unconventional romantic encounters – including a long affair with society maven Lady Blessington, and possibly her husband Lord Blessington who became his father-in-law when he married the Earl’s teenage daughter from a previous marriage – may have shocked (and confused) the city’s more sensitive souls. But d’Orsay combined physical beauty, sparkling wit, the magnetic amour-propre of the dandy as well as a dangerous whiff of Napoleonic adventure and a pre-Revolutionary title, both bequeathed by his general father. It was a heady brew and society fell at his exquisitely-shod feet.

D’Orsay was as scornful of fiscal temperance as he was of bourgeois morality. He shared Brummell’s determination to raise his own life to the status of a cult while ignoring its harsher exigencies, though if anything he was even more extravagant. He was certainly flashier. As one of d’Orsay’s literary avatars says in Henrietta Temple, “My wants are few; a fine house, fine carriages, fine horses, a complete wardrobe, the best opera-box, the first cook, and pocket money – that is all I require”. D’Orsay’s heedless free spending took him far beyond his means.

It was evidently to meet his debts that the count pursued portraiture as a career. The count was a tireless networker and for his subjects he needed to look no further than his own circle, some of London’s most fashionable and influential men (and a handful of women), including the then-dandyish novelist Disraeli, author of Henrietta Temple, who would later become Prime Minister.

Looking into d’Orsay’s artistic career for the first time I turned to Shore for further enlightenment, and he didn’t disappoint. The chapter “The Artist” begins with the following words (and you really need to read this aloud in an exasperated sigh to achieve the desired effect): “It behoves us now to pay some attention to D’Orsay’s claims as an artist; if he had posed simply as an amateur, silence would be possible, but he worked for money, entered the lists with other artists, and therefore laid himself open to judgment.” And then it goes on for a couple of pages in French, quoting a newspaper article which Shore naturally assumed the educated reader would have understood in the original.

 

Suffice to say, Shore was not greatly impressed, but collectively d’Orsay’s portraits constitute something like a Britannic pantheon of the first half of the 19th century: Byron, Disraeli, Carlyle, Wellington, Dickens – and d’Orsay himself. Many of them, both original drawings and lithographs, are now held in London’s National Portrait Gallery. With only a few exceptions, the sitter is shown from the torso up in left profile; overall the rigorous uniformity makes for a supremely elegant ensemble. This mode of composition establishes an intimacy missing from larger portraits and allows d’Orsay to concentrate on the sartorial details which he so valued. There’s a strange reciprocal narcissism at work in these pictures which greatly adds to their fascination: the aristocratic young buck around town would have been highly flattered to have the prince of dandies capturing his profile, d’Orsay just as flattered to see his dress dictates so carefully observed.

Viewed in isolation, it is true, his portraits reveal more character than talent, and there is little discernible progression in d’Orsay’s skills over the 20 or so years in which he worked. His more ambitious pieces – such as oil portraits of Wellington or “Swedish nightingale” Jenny Lind – leave d’Orsay’s want of technical accomplishment exposed and seem to justify Shore’s disdain. “All things considered we may write down Count d’Orsay as a quite first-rate amateur,” says Shore, before adding the final barb: “as skilful in the arts as any dandy has ever been.”

In any case, Count d’Orsay’s greatest creation was – as must be the case for any true dandy – himself.

A selection of d’Orsay’s portraits:

 

NPG 4026(56); Charles Augustus Bennet, 6th Earl of Tankerville by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(12); Charles William Bury, 2nd Earl of Charleville by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(13); Henry Fothergill Chorley by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(14); Ulick de Burgh, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(16); Charles Spencer Cowper by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D20137; Charles Dickens; Alfred, Count D'Orsay by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D7814; Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield after Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(20); Thomas Slingsby Duncombe by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(21); Edwardes by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D8626; Thomas Grosvenor Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(22); John Fairlie by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(23); Lord Frederick Fitzclarence by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D11463; Albany William Fonblanque by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(33); George Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Marquess of Hastings by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(36); Edward Hughes Ball Hughes by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D8378; Walter Savage Landor by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D1880; Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton after Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(51); Jack Spalding by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(53); Lincoln Stanhope by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D4545; Charles Tyrwhitt by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(61); Sir George Wombwell, 3rd Bt by Alfred, Count D'Orsay

 OTHER INFOMATIONS

 

 

Sub-titled “the scandalous life and escapades of Count Dorsay” you might be excused for thinking this is an expose of aristocratic life. In fact I was left wondering just what it was that could be called scandalous in a modern context although I suppose a french aristocrat being squired around the grand tour by an apparently bisexual irish lord and his wife would have raised an eyebrow or two way back then. This is a surprisingly interesting, true tale about life at the top of the money chain, set against the context of the revolutions of 1815 and 1848. It’s also a moral tale: in the end, Lord Blessington the Irishman dies, his wife is trapped by the bailiffs and Count dorsay escapes to france in penury. Even then money didn’t necessarily buy you everything, but it sounded like fun trying to make it so.
 
 

 

 

 

A biography of Count Alfred d’Orsay, a dandy, soldier and celebrity in Nineteenth Century Britain and France. It’s an interesting read for anyone interested in the Regency to Victorian period.
Count d’Orsay met with most of the great names of the time, Dickens, Thackery, Byron and many others, and drew them.
The book is interesting but irritatingly does not provide translations of the french quotes, and although I do understand them in a general way I’m sure there’s implications I missed with not having an in depth knowledge of french. It follows Count d’Orsay’s life from birth to death and sometimes doesn’t get as in depth as you’d perhaps like. His life was tinged with scandal as he was closely linked to both Lord and Lady Blessinton, possibly sexually close. A few more illustrations of period dress would have been useful. The Bibliography is extensive and it’s well indexed.
Nick Foulkes is quite nasty about the Irish of the period and also has a tendency to be a bit judgemental about manners and mores of the time.
 
THE MEANING OF DANDY AND OTHER DANDYMAN AND WOMEN

 

Sporty Parisian dandies of the 1830s: a girdle helped one achieve this silhouette. The man on the left wears a frock coat, the man on the right wears a morning coat

A dandy[1] (also known as a beau, or gallant[2]) is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of Self.[3] Historically, especially in late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain, a dandy, who was self-made, often strove to imitate an aristocratic style of life despite coming from a middle-class background.

Though previous manifestations, of Alcibiades, and of the petit-maître and the muscadin have been noted by John C. Prevost,[4] the modern practice of dandyism first appeared in the revolutionary 1790s, both in London and in Paris. The dandy cultivated skeptical reserve, yet to such extremes that the novelist George Meredith, himself no dandy, once defined “cynicism” as “intellectual dandyism”; nevertheless, the Scarlet Pimpernel is one of the great dandies of literature. Some took a more benign view; Thomas Carlyle in his book Sartor Resartus, wrote that a dandy was no more than “a clothes-wearing man”. Honoré de Balzac introduced the perfectly worldly and unmoved Henri de Marsay in La fille aux yeux d’or (1835), a part of La Comédie Humaine, who fulfills at first the model of a perfect dandy, until an obsessive love-pursuit unravels him in passionate and murderous jealousy.

Charles Baudelaire, in the later, “metaphysical” phase of dandyism[5] defined the dandy as one who elevates æsthetics to a living religion,[6] that the dandy’s mere existence reproaches the responsible citizen of the middle class: “Dandyism in certain respects comes close to spirituality and to stoicism” and “These beings have no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons, of satisfying their passions, of feeling and thinking …. Contrary to what many thoughtless people seem to believe, dandyism is not even an excessive delight in clothes and material elegance. For the perfect dandy, these things are no more than the symbol of the aristocratic superiority of his mind.”

The linkage of clothing with political protest had become a particularly English characteristic during the 18th century.[7] Given these connotations, dandyism can be seen as a political protestation against the rise of levelling egalitarian principles, often including nostalgic adherence to feudal or pre-industrial values, such as the ideals of “the perfect gentleman” or “the autonomous aristocrat”, though paradoxically, the dandy required an audience, as Susann Schmid oberserved in examining the “successfully marketed lives” of Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron, who exemplify the dandy’s roles in the public sphere, both as writers and as personae providing sources of gossip and scandal.[8]

Contents

Etymology

Eccentricity defined as taking characteristics, such as dress and appearance, to extremes, began to be applied generally to human behavior in the 1770s;[9] similarly, the word dandy first appears in the late 1700s: In the years immediately preceding the American Revolution, the first verse and chorus of “Yankee Doodle” derided the alleged poverty and rough manners of American-born colonists, suggesting that whereas a fine horse and gold-braided clothing (“mac[c]aroni“) were required to set a European apart from those around him, the average American’s means were so meager that ownership of a mere pony and a few feathers for personal ornamentation would qualify one of them as a “dandy” by comparison to and/or in the minds of his even less sophisticated compatriots.[10] A slightly later Scottish border ballad, circa 1780,[11] also features the word, but probably without all the contextual aspects of its more recent meaning. The original, full form of ‘dandy’ may have been jack-a-dandy.[12] It was a vogue word during the Napoleonic Wars. In that contemporary slang, a “dandy” was differentiated from a “fop” in that the dandy’s dress was more refined and sober than the fop’s.

In the 21st century, the word dandy is a jocular, often sarcastic adjective meaning “fine” or “great”; when used in the form of a noun, it refers to a well-groomed and well-dressed man, but often to one who is also self-absorbed.

Beau Brummell and early British dandyism

Caricature of Beau Brummell by Richard Dighton (1805).

The model dandy in British society was George Bryan “Beau” Brummell (1778-1840), in his early days, an undergraduate student at Oriel College, Oxford and later, an associate of the Prince Regent. Brummell was not from an aristocratic background; indeed, his greatness was “based on nothing at all,” as J.A. Barbey d’Aurevilly observed in 1845. [13] Ever unpowdered, unperfumed, immaculately bathed and shaved, and dressed in a plain dark blue coat,[14] he was always perfectly brushed, perfectly fitted, showing much perfectly starched linen, all freshly laundered, and composed with an elaborately knotted cravat. From the mid 1790s, Beau Brummell was the early incarnation of “the celebrity,” a man chiefly famous for being famous–in his case, as a laconically witty clothes-horse.[citation needed]

By the time Pitt taxed hair powder in 1795 to help pay for the war against France, Brummell had already abandoned wearing a wig, and had his hair cut in the Roman fashion, “à la Brutus”. Moreover, he led the transition from breeches to snugly tailored dark “pantaloons,” which directly led to contemporary trousers, the sartorial mainstay of men’s clothes in the Western world for the past two centuries. In 1799, upon coming of age, Beau Brummell inherited from his father a fortune of thirty thousand pounds, which he spent mostly on costume, gambling, and high living. In 1816 he suffered bankruptcy, the dandy’s stereotyped fate; he fled his creditors to France, quietly dying in 1840, in a lunatic asylum in Caen, just before age 62.[citation needed]

Joachim Murat, the French King of Naples, was dubbed the “Dandy King” because of his flawless appearance.[15]

Men of more notable accomplishments than Beau Brummell also adopted the dandiacal pose: George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron occasionally dressed the part, helping reintroduce the frilled, lace-cuffed and lace-collared “poet shirt.” In that spirit, he had his portrait painted in Albanian costume.[citation needed]

Another prominent dandy of the period was Alfred Guillaume Gabriel d’Orsay, the Count d’Orsay, who had been friends with Byron and who moved in the highest social circles of London.

By the mid-19th century, the English dandy, within the muted palette of male fashion, exhibited minute refinements — “The quality of the fine woollen cloth, the slope of a pocket flap or coat revers, exactly the right colour for the gloves, the correct amount of shine on boots and shoes, and so on. It was an image of a well-dressed man who, while taking infinite pains about his appearance, affected indifference to it. This refined dandyism continued to be regarded as an essential strand of male Englishness.”[16]

Dandyism in France

The beginnings of dandyism in France were bound up with the politics of the French revolution; the initial stage of dandyism, the gilded youth, was a political statement of dressing in an aristocratic style in order to distinguish its members from the sans-culottes.

During his heyday, Beau Brummell’s dictat on both fashion and etiquette reigned supreme. His habits of dress and fashion were much imitated, especially in France, where, in a curious development, they became the rage, especially in bohemian quarters. There, dandies sometimes were celebrated in revolutionary terms: self-created men of consciously designed personality, radically breaking with past traditions. With elaborate dress and idle, decadent styles of life, French bohemian dandies sought to convey contempt for and superiority to bourgeois society. In the latter 19th century, this fancy-dress bohemianism was a major influence on the Symbolist movement in French literature.[citation needed]

Baudelaire was deeply interested in dandyism, and memorably wrote that a dandy aspirant must have “no profession other than elegance … no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons … The dandy must aspire to be sublime without interruption; he must live and sleep before a mirror.” Other French intellectuals also were interested in the dandies strolling the streets and boulevards of Paris. Jules Amédée Barbey d’Aurevilly wrote The Anatomy of Dandyism, an essay devoted, in great measure, to examining the career of Beau Brummell.[citation needed]

Later dandyism

Robert de Montesquiou (1855-1921) portrait by Giovanni Boldini

The literary dandy is a familiar figure in the writings, and sometimes the self-presentation, of Oscar Wilde, H.H. Munro‘s Clovis, P.G. Wodehouse‘s Bertie Wooster and Ronald Firbank, writers linked by their subversive air.

The gilded 1890s provided many suitably sheltered settings for dandyism in real life. The poets Algernon Charles Swinburne and Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater, the American artist James McNeill Whistler, Joris-Karl Huysmans, and Max Beerbohm were dandies of the period, as was Robert de MontesquiouMarcel Proust‘s inspiration for the Baron de Charlus. In Italy, Gabriele d’Annunzio and Carlo Bugatti exemplified the artistic bohemian dandyism of the fin de siecle.[citation needed]

George Walden, in the essay Who’s a Dandy?, identifies Noël Coward, Andy Warhol, and Quentin Crisp as modern dandies. The character Psmith in the novels of P. G. Wodehouse is regarded to be a dandy, both physically and intellectually; Bertie Wooster, narrator of Wodehouse’s Jeeves novels, does his most to be a dandy, only to have Jeeves undermine all his plans to this end.

In Japan, dandyism became a fashion subculture during the late 1990s.

Further information: Lolita Fashion#Ōji (Boystyle)

The artist, writer, and hedonist Sebastian Horsley identifies himself as a dandy, and discusses the subject at length in his biography.

Female Dandies

The female counterpart is a quaintrelle. In the 12th century, cointerrels (male) and cointrelles (female) emerged, based upon coint[17], indicating a person of beautiful dress and refined speech. By the 18th century, coint became quaint,[18], indicating elegant speech and beauty. Middle English dictionaries note quaintrelle as a beautifully dressed woman (or overally dressed), but do not include the favorable personality elements of grace and charm. The notion of a quaintrelle sharing the major philosophical components of refinement with dandies is a modern development, one which returns quaintrelles to their historic roots.

An 1819 Dandizette

Female dandies did overlap with male dandies for a brief period during the early 19th century when dandy had a derisive definition of “fop” or “over-the-top fellow”; the female equivalents were dandyess or dandizette. Charles Dickens, in All the Year Around (1869) comments, “The dandies and dandizettes of 1819-1820 must have been a strange race. Dandizette was a term applied to feminine devotees to dress and their absurdities were fully equal to those of the dandy.” In 1819, the novel Charms of Dandyism was published “by Olivia Moreland, chief of the female dandies”; although probably written by Thomas Ashe, “Olivia Moreland” may have existed, as Ashe did write several novels about living persons. Throughout the novel, dandyism is associated with “living in style”. Later, as the word dandy evolved to denote refinement, it became applied solely to men. Popular Culture and Performance in the Victorian City (2003) notes this evolution in the latter 1800s: “…or dandizette, although the term was increasingly reserved for men.”

the end @ copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011