Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom”The World War I sencored cover Postal history”



The WW I Sencored Cover Postal History


Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sewnior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012


Sent from New Guinea to Holland and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation. There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(source Tim)Image

Heinrich  Zahn, the Missioner Of Papaua New  Guinea  letter in 1915

Read more about Missioner Henrich Zahn



FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.





The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914


The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 German stamp Paper

info about War News

Pro Patria

The Belgian charity Stamps

War Mark still They Come !!

Censor Mark number

Swiss Field mark

Red Cross Stamps


Censor Mark numbers INFO FROM sTAMP mAGAZINE 1914 


Protected: The Sample of Dr Iwan e-book In CD-ROM “The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 1942”

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The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book The Vietnam during Indochine Franch :rare Cover

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwab E-Book In Cd-Rom edition




Vietnam During French Indochine 1862-1940













Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter


              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam Cybermuseum) 

the delegation is sent to Saigon by Emperor Tu Duc to negotiate the peace treaty of 1862

the first vietnam indochine stamp

Vietnamese wooden cannon captured at the Vinh Long citadel by the French on 23 March 1862.jpg




File:Vietnamese wooden cannon captured at the Vinh Long citadel by the French on 23 March 1862.jpg



Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, Mandarins who participated in the peace treaty

Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,

Albumen print, 24 x 28 cm.

A photograph of Disdéri (catalog No. 104, albumen print, 24 x 28 cm, Disderi stamp on the carton, estimate € 1000/1200)  It represents a group portrait, “Mandarins who participated in the peace treaty in Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,” the delegation is sent to Saigon by Emperor Tu Duc to negotiate the peace treaty of 1862.

By the treaty signed June 5, 1862 and ratified on 16 April 1863 Hue, Vietnam cedes to France the three eastern provinces (Gia Dinh, Bien Hoa and My Tho) and the islands of Con Dao (Pulo Condor) opens three ports (including Da Nang) to trade between France and Spain, will pay a war indemnity of four million dollars and finally tolerate the freedom of Christian worship. The two principal ambassadors were then Phan Thanh Gian Lam Duy and Tiep. We know that during their stay in Saigon, Vice-Admiral Bonard had been photographed and the photographs had been the model for the engravings published in L’Illustration of November 29, 1862 bearing the words “from the photographs provided by M. Rigault, corresponding Vice-Admiral Bonard. “

Detail. Signatures of ambassadors

Disdéri of photography.

Three inscriptions in Chinese characters found on the carton assembly, between photography and Disderi stamp, bearing the names of three ambassadors:

Center: 正 使 潘清 简 Phan Thanh Gian chanh knew, “the first ambassador, HE Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867)”

Right: 副使 笵 富庶 Pho Phu Pham Thu knew “Vice-Ambassador Pham Phu Thu”

Left: 陪 使 魏克 袒 boi knew Nguỵ Khac Djan, “Deputy Ambassador Nguy Khac Dan.”

Thus, it is not coming from the embassy in Saigon negotiate the Treaty of 1862 (ratified in Hue in April 1863), but the embassy that was from the Emperor Tu Duc in July 1863, under the pretext of thanking the gifts sent by Napoleon III, to negotiate the purchase of the three eastern provinces.

The delegation left Saigon on July 4, 1863 a French warship to reach Suez August 17th where she embarked on the Labrador to win Toulon on September 10. She arrived in Paris on September 13 and was received by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, M. Feuillet de Conches on the 18th September, on behalf of the emperor who was on holiday in Biarritz.

At the request of the Emperor Napoleon III, Jacques-Philippe Potteau (1807-1876), who was the successor of Louis Rousseau at the Natural History Museum and devoted himself to scientific and ethnographic photography, was designated to capture the photographic portrait the ambassador and his entourage. At the first meeting (September 20, 1863), he made two portraits of Ambassador Phan Thanh Gian, one sitting, the other foot (currently kept at the Laboratory of Anthropology of the Museum of Natural History in Paris, No. 10,608 and No. 10,610), one of Pham Phu Thu, one of Nguy Khac Dan and a group. These portraits were presented at the meeting of December 15, 1863.

Jacques-Philippe Potteau, Portrait of HE Phan Thanh Gian.

Laboratory of Anthropology Museum of Natural History, Paris.

In the Journal of the embassy, ​​Pham Phu Thu noted:

“At ngo (noon), the sky became a little calm. Dressed in the costume of the court, one by one we went to the floor of the hotel which is covered with glass, and we shoot we did. Here is the essence of photography: first we take a glass plate covered with a combination of liquids: it is placed behind a glass tube, before which stands the person who looks inside of the opposite tube, under the action of sunlight coming through the tube, the glass plate receives the impression of an image, there is not even a hair of difference. The Europeans used to do this operation with great desire. All those with whom we just want to know talk to you a portrait of the upper and lower are all the same, saying they see is the testimony of a memory reciprocal.

In the following, under the conduct of the staff, photographers often came with their camera to the hotel and invited us to shoot us, they gave us each a copy of these portraits. After the draw, each of the small amounts to a huge portraits, price of labor, those who are slightly larger cost 4 or 5 francs “(Pham Phu Thu, (trans. Tran Xuan Toan),” The Embassy of Phan Than Gian (1863-1864) “BAVH, 1921, p. 156.)

Thus, after Jacques-Philippe Potteau, Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (1819-1889) was one of the photographers who were invited to capture the features of the Ambassador and the delegation. The photograph will be on sale May 7, 2011 Chartres was performed on this occasion.

In 1854, Disdéri invented a new camera which lets you play six shots on the same glass plate and patented the format of the card whose paternity of the invention is to be attributed either to Marseille Dodero Aguado. The fashion for portraits-cost cards spread rapidly in France.

In the Journal of the Embassy, ​​Pham Phu Thu noted that: “The 20th Day (1 November 1863) it rained. At vi (from 1 to 3 pm), Mr. Cam-ba-xa-the GIO, French Minister of Rites [Author’s note: This is the Grand Master of Ceremonies], we did bring in an official letter which stated that “At vi (from 1 to 3 pm) the 24th day, he would take us, and in the middle of the same vi hours, we came to the Royal Court of France. “Soon after, Mr. Ha-ba-ly [Author’s note: this is Mr. Aubaret, Commander, Officer of Foreign Affairs, who served as interpreter during the stay of the mission in France.] Brought us three cards and said that the Minister of Rites did convey his compliments to the three of us. At nightfall, he returned and took us three cards in response to the compliments of the Minister “(Pham Phu Thu (trans. Tran Xuan Toan),” The Embassy of Phan Thanh Gian, 1863-1864, “Bulletin Friends of Old Hue, 1921, No. 1-4, pp. 266-267).

Document signed by Phan Thanh Gian

Personal collection.

In October 2007, a document dated 01st November 1863, was sold on ebay. This is a certificate signed by the hand of Phan Thanh Gian confirming the receipt of a letter from the Grand Master of Ceremonies of the Emperor.

Phan Thanh Gian signatures

Left: on the document to the head of the Cabinet of the Emperor

Right: the photograph of Disdéri.

By comparing this signature with that appearing in the photograph of Disdéri, it is undeniable that this is the manual signature of Phan Thanh Gian. This photograph had to be carried out between November and December 1863.

The reception of the ambassadors of Annam was held November 7 at a public hearing at the Palais des Tuileries, after the return of the Empress Eugenie of Spain, where she was visiting her family. The emperor was not opposed to negotiations. He relied on the payment of 85 million promised by the king of Annam to offset the deficit of 972 million francs. After the reception, the negotiations began, and November 12, Le Moniteur Universal announced that the peace treaty of June 5, 1862 would be amended. Once his mission is completed, Phan Thanh Gian left France carrying with him his photographic portraits by Jacques-Philippe Potteau (01st November 1863) and Adolphe Eugene Disdéri (November-December 1863) and by other photographers.

Details: Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, Mandarins who participated in the treated

Peace in Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,

Albumen print










Diplôme de Chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam (1875)


L’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam

The Order of the Dragon of Annam: founded by Emperor Dong Khanh on 14th March 1886. Awarded in five classes (1. Grand Cordon, 2. Grand Officer, 3. Commander, 4. Officer, and 5. Knight) with two ribbons (red with gold border stripes by the Emperor, and green with gold border stripes by the French President).


The Order of the Dragon – Grand Cordon, breast star


The Order of the Dragon – Officer, breast badge with “colonial ribbon”


Croix de chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam (fac

e et dos)



Croix de chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annama

Croix de chevalier (au dos : ovale alu collé : La Gerbe d’Or, CHAPUS 86 rue de Rivoli Paris)


Restoration of the oldest communal house of Vietnam in Ha Tay
The province of Ha Tay (North) has recently begun the restoration of the oldest town hall in the country. Built in the 16th century, Thuy Communal House Phieu, in the town of Thuy An, Ba Vi district, will be renewed for one year. Cost: $ 7 billion VND. The town hall is dedicated to the worship of Tan Vien, one of the most powerful four geniuses of Vietnamese mythology. (CVN) Cathedral of Phat Diem or what acculturation?

The Cathedral of Phat Diem, Ninh Binh province (North), 121 km south of Hanoi, was at the time of French colonization a center of Catholicism in the North. But even more, this is one of the earliest architectural examples of acculturation that took place during this period.
A few weeks ago now, Alain J. Lemaitre, PhD in anthropology, history and literature, lecturer in Modern History at the University of Haute Alsace, gave the occasion of International Day of Francophonie conference on acculturation. This term was born in the field of ethnology describes “all the phenomena resulting from continuous contact between two different cultural groups causing changes in the 2 groups.”

In the colonial perspective, these phenomena were seen as unidirectional as the dominant idea was that of supremacy of European culture. Thus, only the indigenous culture change is in contact with the culture of the colonizers, merely reproduced as is the customs of the latter. However, following decolonization and independence of peoples, ethnology has adjusted this concept by incorporating the idea of ​​two-dimensionality cultural exchange, an idea that is now consensus within the scientific community. In a continuous contact between two groups, there is not only integration of a new culture but also maintaining the original culture that produces an impact on how acculturation and is its outcome.

The situation in Asia at the time of colonization was more specific. Indeed, while Europe meets the ancient civilizations who know the writing (even longer for it) and, therefore, have a written memory. This was a major difference with, for example, the civilizations of South America. Predominantly oral culture, they showed much less resistant to contact with another culture, and this especially since it was imposed by force. Thus, if some countries in South America such as Peru, part of Mexico and Guatemala, retain strong traits of their original culture, most of the other present only very few indigenous elements as is the case for example in Chile. Another difference is so special to Asia at this time lies in the way contacts between cultures were performed. Colonies in Asia were not settlements. Europeans proceeded through the establishment of trading posts that left side of the vast territories and large populations. Contact with Western culture and were indirect and allowed greater flexibility to the natives, could more freely assimilate the elements of the dominant culture.

During the French colonization in Vietnam, there was actually acculturation. However, this has not only led to the integration of European culture but also, fortunately, the maintenance of indigenous culture. The architecture of the Cathedral of Phat Diem is one of the first manifestations of this cultural phenomenon.

An architectural example of acculturation
Mecca of Catholicism in the North at the time of French colonization, the country’s division in 1954 led to the departure en masse to the south of Catholics and the closure of the sanctuary. This is called “Cathedral of Phat Diem” actually consists of many buildings whose construction was completed in 1891. The ensemble was founded by a Vietnamese priest named Six, whose tomb is on the front of the cathedral, the main building. All around stand several kinds of chapels, each dedicated to a saint. However, if visiting this place of Catholic worship, you expect to find the towers that are characteristic of these buildings, you will leave disappointed. All stone, curved roofs similar to those of a pagoda, the architecture of this place is largely based on the Buddhist temples. The mixture of two cultures is undeniable here.

The priest saw to Six represent the main elements of the Vietnamese village, including the town hall, the pond and the tree while a bell feeder, which is indispensable to any place of Catholic worship stands at the back of the cathedral. However, the first floor of this tower, there is a large size drum, an instrument used to strike the hour in the Buddhist religion. On the second floor hangs a bell, however, forged on the model oriental. It has 4 contact points to sound the hours, one per season. Each is identified by a sinogram while a song of prayer is inscribed on it in Latin. Four small towers stand at each corner of the building, each surmounted by a representation of a saint. However, while they traditionally represented standing here, they sit in the way of the Buddha.

Leaving the cathedral to enter one of the many chapels surrounding it. The traces of the influence of European culture mingling with the Sino-Vietnamese remain. At the back of the chapel stands a stone altar surmounted by a statue of the Virgin Mary. The bas-reliefs on the front of this altar are the Western symbols of purity: a garden and a well closed. The side faces in turn, are engraved with lotus flowers, representing the same idea of ​​purity in the oriental imagination.

The importance of cultural policy
The Sino-Vietnamese architecture of European inspiration of this building is one of many examples of the impact of European culture on Vietnamese culture during colonization. It shows however, that in the case of Vietnam, the indigenous culture was not destroyed but kept. This is due in large part by its tradition of written culture, which has forged a strong collective identity, that is to say a set of characters that unite men and women of the same group but the also differ from other groups.

Thus, whatever the force of acculturation on an economic and even social, that there is a written culture to forge a strong collective identity, allows an exchange between cultures (incidentally still unequal exchange) and a non-destruction thereof. However, today, perhaps more than ever, culture is intimately linked to the economic field, especially facilitating the destruction of cultural systems.

Hence the need for each country to defend it by a cultural policy that can meet the challenges of globalization. This is the objective of the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity, established by UNESCO in October 2005. The importance of the issues raised by this treaty is widely recognized internationally as since then it has been signed and ratified by 56 countries and the European Union (regional as a unit). The fact that the United States, including the cultural sector plays a major role in the U.S. economy, is opposed to its adoption in the vote to UNESCO, only confirms this idea. (Anaïs Chavanne / CVN



Restauration de la plus vieille maison communale du Vietnam à Hà Tây

La province de Hà Tây (Nord) a récemment commencé la restauration de la plus ancienne maison communale du pays. Construite au 16e siècle, la maison communale de Thuy Phiêu, dans la commune de Thuy An, district de Ba Vi, sera rénovée pendant un an. Coût des travaux: 7 milliards de dôngs. Cette maison communale est dédiée au culte de Tan Viên, un des 4 génies les plus puissants de la mythologie vietnamienne. (CVN)La cathédrale de Phat Diêm ou qu’est-ce que l’acculturation ?


“Received a letter from her? The Grand Master of Ceremonies of the Emperor” – “The first Ambassador of HM the King of Annam” – Signature of Phan Thanh Giang calligraphy.
(Grade: strong horizontal fold edges and dusty) –



“Reçu une lettre de son ? le Grand Maître de Cérémonie de l’Empereur” – “Le 1er ambassadeur de S.M. le roi d’Annam” – Signature calligraphique de Phan Thanh Giang.
(Etat: pli horizontal marqué et bords poussiéreux) –



Đúng 120 năm trước, Thái tử nước Nga viếng thăm Sài Gòn ngày 21-3-1891

Le Voyage du Tsarévitch – Fêtes données en l’honneur de Son Altesse à Saïgon, 21-3-1891 – Đúng 120 năm trước đây, vào ngày 21-3-1891, Thái tử nước Nga Oukhtomsky mà sau này là Sa hoàng Nikôlai Đệ nhị, đã ghé thăm Sài Gòn trong chuyến thăm viếng vùng Viễn Đông. (Năm đó Thái tử 23 tuổi, và 3 năm sau, vào năm 1894 ông lên ngôi Sa hoàng, kế vị Sa hoàng Alexandre III cha ông vừa mất vì bịnh).


The rare Postally used cover  posted from Bangkok, to. Saigon  It cancelled CCH (Cochinchine)!


It is also addressed to Saigon, Cochinchine, so surely that is an arrival mark? My Ceres catalogue does not identify the postmark on the French Colonies stamp, but CH would seem to be appropriate.


The cover ended, not surprisingly, at US$ 2,638.88. The highest bidder has 552 feedbacks, so it should be for real.

Covers cancelled in Vietnam in this period are fairly rare, with only some French dealers/collectors having enough materials for quality exhibits

. As far as I know, only one Vietnamese philatelist, Mr Ta Phi Long, has managed to compile an exhibit of French colonies used in Vietnam, which won him a gold medal (?) at an Asian show, which I unfortunately have no knowledge of.

The lozenge cancel reads CCH, as noted by Robert G. Stone, A Key to the Lozenge Obliterators of French Colonies 1860-1892, The France and Colonies Philatelic Society, New York 1977

Image Image Image




Saigon 1882 – Le Cercle des Officiers (47 bd Le Duan)

CLB Sĩ quan Pháp, nay là UBND Q1. Cạnh bên là công trường xây dựng nhà thờ Đức Bà, với mái ngói xuống thật thấp, che phần nền móng đang thi công

L’escadre russe dans le port de Saigon – Hạm đội Nga trong cảng SG



                                                       Indochina native vietnam army


( Compile by Dr iwan s from his own collections added from internet google exploration.)


(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).

The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)


(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

2) 1902

Vintage Dr Sun Yat Sen visit vietnam pictures

Tập tin:Sun Yat Sen in Vietnam 1902.png

(2) Old Vintage Saigon Picture Postcard with indochine overprint bold big 05  red on 15 cent red stamp and indochine definitive  1 cent stamps, CDS not clear.


SAIGON – Entrée de la Rue Catinat 1902

3. 1903

Art du Champa : Site de My Son


Site de My Son. Fouilles de Henri Parmentier et de Charles Carpeaux en 1903-1904, mise en place d’un palan (photothèque EFEO, PAR01584, cliché H. Parmen

old Vietnam pictures in 1903

Woman at work being fanned by her servant, Vietnam, ca. 1903
Location Depicted  
Subjects (LCTGM)  
Digital Collection  
Repository Collection  
Object Type  

Indochina postcard 1904

 1)In this year Bank of IndoChina issued 5 Piasters Paper Money


2) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

6. 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)



Saîgon. Cochinchine. Pousse pousse.

1906. Postal used anamese tribes picture postcard with Indochina stamps cds saigon


SAIGON – Types Anamites 1906

7. 1907

(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

8) 1908


Annam. University Bachelor Students, 1908

9) 1909


Passerelle à Cholon – 1909


Saïgon vers 1909 – La Rue Catinat


Saïgon 1909 – Les réjouissances Publiques du 14 Juillet – L’invention de la Grande Roue


Saïgon 1909 – La Rue Catinat

Annam, Huê. Vue sur la Pagode des Cantonais


Annam, Huê. Vue sur la Pagode des Cantonais

 Annam, Huê. Eléphants royaux à l’entrée du Palais.


Annam, Huê. Eléphants royaux à l’entrée du Palais.

 Annam. Montagnes de marbre près Tourane – Chef ou Pape des bonzes


Annam. Montagnes de marbre près Tourane – Chef ou Pape des bonzes

Annam, Huê. Gardiennes et servantes chargées des Cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Thiêu Tri.


Annam, Huê. Gardiennes et servantes chargées des Cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Thiêu Tri.Annam. Mandarin rendant la justice.


Annam. Mandarin rendant la justice__KGrHqJ__lQE5YyoCm0wBOdid_wY____60_12

Annam, Huê. le Président du Conseil dela famille royale en costume de cour.


Deux nouvelles photos de l”Empereur Khai Dinh

Visite de l’Empereur Khai Dinh au Palais


Arrivée de l’Empereur Khai Dinh au Palais Kien Trung



Annam, Huê. Les musiciens du Roi jouant sous le soleil du Portique Radieux


Annam, Huê. Elephant caparaçonné contenant la foule pendant les fêtes


Huê (Annam). Porte monumentale, dite Hien Dhon(?)


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de l’empereur Dông Khanh


Annam, Huê. Chef des Makouis et ses satellites. Scène diabolique jouée au Palais


Annam, Huê. Les deux Reines par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Thiên Tri (Temple de la Lumière)


Annam, Huê. Porte d’entrée du Co Mât


Annam, Huê. Tibunes Cavalier du Roi, vue des jardins


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Minh Mang (Temple de la Lumière)


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Tu Duc (Temple de la Stèle)


Annam, Huê. Annam, Huê. Porte du Palais Co Mât par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Temple des Edits


Annam, Huê. Eléphants traversant une rivière.


Annam, Huê. Rotissage d’un boeuf


Annam, Huê. Allée des Portiques de droite conduisant au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Les Corbeilles de Fleurs


Annam, Huê. Groupe de femmes annamites par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Le tombeau de Gia Long (la triple enceinte) par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Ensemble des cours et pagodes du tombeau de Minh Mang par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Cours et pagodes au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Pagode où se font les cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Porte de l’enceinte extérieure au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Groupe d’ennuques par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Palais du Prince Tuyên Hoà, frère du Roi par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Cours et pagode au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Une colonne commémorative au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. La Montagne du Roi et le Cercle de la Rive Droite par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Le Cavalier du roi, vu de la Trbune


Annam, Huê. Palais de l’Empereur. Le Trône


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Tu Duc

11) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

12) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
14) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)


SAIGON – Place du Théâtre et la Rue Catinat 1914


16) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

17) 1917
Not yet info

Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

19) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the present years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

20) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

Vietnam was at this time part of French Indochina, with communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)

(4) old Charmer Hotel saigon picture postcard


SAIGON – Bd Charner et l’Hôtel de Ville 1920



(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)


(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)Emperor Khai dinh at His Palace

d1)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

24) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

Ho leave Paris because his communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2)In November 1924 Hồ arrived in Guangzhou(canton)  on a boat from Vladivostok.[4] He posed as a Chinese citizen named Lý Thụy (Li Shui) and worked as a translator for Comintern agent and Soviet arms dealer Mikhail Borodin.
(3)Saigon Catinat Road Postal Pictured postcard Used CDS Saigon

Rue Catinat 1924

(4) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.


37) 1925

 ANNAM. Obséques de SM KHAI DINH. Acteurs, 1925


Annam. Obséques de SM Khai Dinh. Acteurs, 1925
(a)Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .

 and interior very artistic

Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb – auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

(b)In May 1925, Hồ participated in the founding of Thanh Niên, or Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association. This group was a forerunner of today’s Vietnamese Communist Party.

26.  1926

Emperor Bo dai Ascended The throne

Emperor Bao Dai

Born Prince Nguyen Vinh Thuy on Oct. 22, 1913, he was given the imperial name Bao Dai (which is pronounced bah-oh dye and means or “Protector of Grandeur” or “Keeper of Greatness” “Preserver of Greatness”) on his succession as Emperor in 1926. Boa Dai ascended the throne in 1925 at the age of 12 on the death of his father, Emperor Khai Dinh, but did not return to Viet Nam until 1932 after he had completed his education in France. He returned home to the imperial city of Hue in 1932, assuming the ceremonial duties of the 13th Emperor of the Nguyen dynasty.

 “Intronisation de S.M. Bao Dai dernier Empereur d’ANNAM – Musique traditionnelle au Palais Thai Hoà” le 08 janvier 1926


“Intronisation de S.M. Bao Dai  dernier Empereur d’ANNAM –  Musique traditionnelle au Palais Thai Hoà” le 08 janvier 1926 

Some Vietnamese attempted to advance the cause of national liberation through reforms from above. They looked to the young Emperor Boa Dai as their best hope. Bao Dai was greeted with enthusiasm by the Vietnamese, who expected that he would be able to persuade the French to install a more liberal regime. Boa Dai attempted to reign as a constitutional monarch, according to the terms oithe treaty of 1884 establishing the protectorate, and he strove to modernizethe ancient imperial administration at Hue. Among his young collaborators was Ngo Dinh Diem, governor of the Phan Thietarea in Binh Thuan Province, who was given the portfolio of minister of the interior and appointed head of the secretariat of a Vietnemese-French commission which was charged with the responsibility of implementing Bao Dai’s reform proposals. When it became obvious that the French had no intention of granting real power to the Vietnamese administration and would make noconcessions toward unification of the country, the youthful emperor appeared to lose interest, and Ngo Dinh Diem resigned his official position.

Portrait de l’Empereur Bao Dai par le Studio Harcourt


Portrait de l’Empereur Bao Dai par le Studio Harcourt

Cette photo, en tirage argentiquen de format 18 x 24 cm, a été proposée à 100 € + 5 € d’envoi et n’a pas trouvé preneur ce jour.

The Japanese coup of 09 March 1945 caught the Viet Minh by surprise. But if the Japanese thought the removal of the French would win over the Viet Minh, they were soon disabused of that notion. The Viet Minh publicly objected to the Japanese coup, seeing it as a substitution of one colonial master for another. The Japanese viewed the Viet Minh dissatisfaction as sour grapes at being left out of the action. The investiture of Bao Dai in Hue and the cabinet under Pham Quynh was greeted by opposition, public meetings, and demonstrations in Hanoi organized partly by the Viet Minh. So serious was this opposition that Bao Dai dissolved his cabinet on 19 March 1945 and installed a new one under Tran Trong Kim, an academic of modest nationalist tendencies with no stomach for thesnakepit of Indochinese politics.

Within two days of the Japanese acceptance of the Potsdam declaration, the Viet Minh began to take power in the cities of Indochina. In Hanoi, a Political Action Committee was formed to facilitate cooperationwith Bao Dai’s government.” By 23 August 1945, Hue was solidly Viet Minh, as was Saigon, where the Executive Committee of the South Vietnam Republic was established. The Viet Minh seized the government buildings in Hanoi on the 19th.

Bao Dai, apparently convinced that a united and independent nation offered the only possibility of preventing the return of French control, decided to abdicate. Recogniting only the nationalist character of the Viet Minh movement and assuming that it had Allied support, he abdicated. in its favor on August 25, 1945 ; and handed over his imperial seal and others ymbols of office to representatives of the newly proclaimed Provisional Government of the Republic of Vietnam.

Pleas by Ho Chi Minh and Emperor Bao Dai to Truman, Charles De Gaulle, Stalin, and British prime minister Atlee to forestall the French return went unanswered. French forces were permitted to land in the North. Bao Dai, who had been acting as high counselor to Ho Chi Minh, was sent on a “good will” mission to China where he remained in exile, thus eliminating the possibility that he might provide a rallying point for groups not thoroughly aligned with the Viet Minh.

Negotiations with France continued for two years, but by June 1949 France finally approved of limited independence for “the State of Vietnam” within the French Union. Bao Dai was coaxed home by the French, who saw him as a possible alterative to Ho Chi Minh, whose guerrillas were then at war with the French colonial army. In February 1950, Great Britain and the United States recognized the State of Vietnam headed by the ex-emperor Bao Dai as the legitimate government. France concluded agreements with Laos and Cambodia simiiar to that with Viet Nam, the three countries became the Associate States of Indochina and were accorded diplomatic recognition by more than 30 other nations.

Bao Dai assumed the role of chief of state, and returned to Vietnam with the titles of Premier and — again — Emperor. In its efforts to win popular support, the Bao Dai regime was unsuccesstul. Bao Dai left major decisions to his French-backed advisers, preferring to spend time with his many mistresses at his hunting lodge in the highlands of central Vietnam. His administration was marked by the institutionalization of corruption, prostitution, smuggling, racketeering, and drug trafficking through his association with the Binh Xuyen gang in Saigon.

The principal nationlists (including Ngo Dinh Diem) failed to unite behind him, since they claimed that the French did not offer real independence. Confronted with a choice between French colonialism and the Communist-led nationalist movement, many Vietnamese, attracted by its appeal for independence and unity, tended to side with the Viet Minh organization. In the meantime; Ho Chi Minh rid his coalition government of the moderates and nationalists whom he had accepted earlier and showed himself to be completely Communist. In March 1951 the Indochinese Communists Party (dissolved in 1945) was revived as the Workers Party (Dang Lao Dong).

Cessation of the Indochina War in 1954 left the Associated States of Indochina divided into four countries: Cambodia, Laos, North Viet Nam and South Viet Nam. The Chief of State, Bao Dai, called on Ngo Dinh Diem, to form a government, but although in office, he lacked control, especially over the army. After a time, Diem brought the army under control. Diem turned his attention to his own status and called for a referendum to al1ow Vietnamese to choose between Diem and Emperor Bao Dai. A referendum was ordered for October 23, 1955. Diem’s bid to replace Bao Dai was successful. Official Vietnamese government records showed that 91.8 percent of the voting population participated and that 98.2 percent of the voters chose to replace Bao Dai with Diem.

Bao Dai played almost no role in his homeland thereafter, choosing instead a life in Paris and along the Riviera that centered around golf, bridge tournaments and women. Bao Dai, the last Emperor in a line that held the throne in Vietnam for a century and a half, died on August 2, 1997 in France,

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)



Rare Album artisanal d’un recueil de 20 photographies couvrant le couronnement de l’empereur Bao-Dai le 8 janvier 1928


Rare Album artisanal d’un recueil de 20 photographies couvrant le couronnement de l’empereur Bao-Dai le 8 janvier 1928

the rare album of 20 photograpies emperor Bodai January,8th.1928


This work was carried out by the school in Hue, Vinh Tang rue Paul Bert. Black and white prints in the format 11.8 x 17cm. The legends made ​​on a paper strip added below. The 20 photographs are:
1 Arrive in Hue S.A Prince Vinh Thuy-
2 Arriving at the palace of Prince
3 Reception of the Prince by the court
4 ceremony of prostration
5 s.m Bao Dai went to the palace
6 Arrival at the Palace
7 Arrival of the Governor Mr. Varenne
8 European Assistance
9 Position of the mandarins before making Thai Hoa Lays Deaver
10 Lays of the 2nd phase
11 The mandarins of lower rank to its knees
12 After the enthronement SM Bao Dai returned to the palace
13 Out of HM Bao Dai in a litter by the Golden Gate
14 Bao Dai wins walk Mieu Pagoda Tea
15 SM in position for Lays in the Pagoda Tea Mieu
SM 16 out of the pagoda, hailed the Regent vparr SE
17 Return of the pagoda





(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)



Annam, Huê. La fête du Nam Giao en 1933

(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

34) 1934



(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)


(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.


(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
– 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
– 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012


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The Story Behind The Nice Letter collections Mourning Letter from Jamnu To Srinagar

THIS Is  The Sample Of  Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

The Nice Letter Collectections, the complete Cd exist but onlty for premium member

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a nice mourning cover (Mourning covers were black-edged envelopes used to send bereavement notices.)

It has several points of interest:

– It was sent from


Jammu is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which is in the country of India.According to the latest stats, Jammu has a population of 465,600. It is located in the Asia/Calcutta timezone.

Here are some photographs from this beautiful city:

Jammu image
Jammu Jammu and Kashmir
Compiled from a list of old routes to Srinagar given in ‘The Happy Valley: Sketches of Kashmir and the Kashmiris’ by W. Wakefield (1879).

Travellers in Kashmir.  By  Miss G. Hadenfeld  
Route 1
The Gujerat and Pir Panjal Route (or the Mugal route)
The Banihal Route from Jammu was off limits for visitors and for the longest time was only meant for personal use of the royal Dogra family based in Jammu.*
The route began at Railway terminal at Jammu Tawi. Involved crossing Banihal Pass (at 9,200 feet) and you arrived in Srinagar via Verinag. 
* From: ‘A guide for visitors to Kashmir’ (1898) by W. Newman, Updated by A. Mitra.
Route 6
via The Hindustan and Tibet Road. Given in ‘Travels in Ladâk, Tartary, and Kashmir’ (1862) by Lieut.- Colonel Torrens 
You could arrive into Srinagar (and still can) via Leh. But to reach Leh you had to take the The Hindustan and Tibet Road road (for sometime the British did think about road linking Delhi and China). Shimla to Shikpi Pass.  Crossing Chandra Bhaga (Chenab) at Koksar on dead inflated buffalo skin.   

Map of the Kashmir Valley and Jehlum Valley. From ‘The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir’ (1916) by Sir James McCrone Douie.




Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir State in India, a few years after the Jammu & Kashmir State Post Office closed.

– It was sent to the wife of

Sir Francis Younghusband, who led the 1904 British Expedition to Tibet

– The cover was sent during Winter in Kashmir, when the State administration normally moved down from Srinagar, which could be cut off by snow, to Jammu.


Why did Lady Younghusband remain in Srinagar?

– The distance between Jammu and Srinagar is about 160 km – as the crow flies.


 The runners carrying this letter took 3 days to cover the distance, having to make a wide detour to the West to reach Srinagar because the passes would have been blocked by snow.

Sad to say, the Edward VII Indian Half Anna stamp is effectively worthless.

Read More Info

Retired doctor’s family to meet Dalai Lama

Retired doctor’s family to meet

The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,

Dalai Lama

In 1903,

fearful that the Chinese were on the verge of granting Tibet to Russia  and endangering their Raj in India, the British sent a military expedition into Tibet to prevent the rumor from becoming a reality.

The commander of the expedition, Sir Francis Younghusband, brought along British civil servant and photographer John Claude White to document the campaign.

White took a series of seventy photographs which were collected in an album c. 1905.

Amongst the platinum prints and two folding panoramas is

 this striking image of Tibetan nuns.

Considering that Buddhist nuns are required to keep their hair cropped short it is unclear why this group allowed their hair to grow to such impious length. As recently as 2002, the Chinese were imprisoning Tibetan nuns and forcing them to let their hair grow out, the least offensive of their many humiliating punishments.

The Tibetans were none too happy with the British incursion, the Chinese even less so, and the British were none too kind to the Tibetans.



Brigadier-General James Ronald Leslie Macdonald,


leading a military force of over 3,000, including Nepalese Gurkhas, faced off against 3,000 Tibetan troops armed with muskets at

the Battle of Guru, and a very short battle it was.

 After  negotiations to head things off failed, confusion ensued and the shooting began. The British, armed with Maxim machine guns, mowed down between 600-700 Tibetan troops.

The rest were allowed to peacefully retreat. Younghusband, who now assumed command of the British army, marched into Lhasa and negotiated a treaty with the Regent, who declared, “When one has known the scorpion [China] the frog [Britain] is divine.”

The British military mission ended in 1904, unpopular at home and everywhere else.

This album was recently at Bonhams for auction. It sold for £38,400 ($61,592), inclusive of buyer’s premium.

[WHITE, JOHN CLAUDE]. An album of important images taken by John Claude White during Sir Francis Younghusband’s Tibet Mission of 1903-1904. 70 platinum prints and 2 folding panoramas, images approximately 160 x 210mm., captioned on the mounts, contemporary half green morocco, lettered ‘TIBET’ on the upper cover, sailcloth chemise, oblong folio, [c.1905]


Some works of John Claude White

Extracted between 5 works in the catalog of Arcadja

John Claude White - Tibet And Lhasa

John Claude White – Tibet And Lhasa


Back to catalogue Place Bid or Track Lot Lot No: 528 � WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Tibet and Lhasa, 53 photogravure plates, including a folding map, autograph letter signed (“John White”) and postmarked envelope from Lhasa pasted down to verso of upper cover, occasional light soiling, contemporary red cloth gilt, spine sunned, oblong 4to (200 x 265mm.), Johnston and Hoffman, [1908] Estimate: �7,000 – 9,000, � 7,900 – 10,000 Request Condition Report Footnote: A RARE SERIES OF IMAGES FROM YOUNGHUSBAND’S TIBET MISSION OF 1903-1904. Johnston and Hoffman’s promotional catalogue of 1905 mentions that the images were initially issued individually or in albums, as half-tone or carbon prints. They were later issued in a two volume set with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Bayley, dated 1907-08. These were almost immediately withdrawn from circulation for fear that the information contained would reveal classified details to the Chinese. Consequently, very few copies remain and are exceptionally rare. Hardly less rare is the volume offered here was published a few months later. For example, there is no copy of this edition in the British Library. When the 1903 expediton was formed White had already been in Sikkim for at least fifteen years. Together with the thrusting Younghusband, and supported by two hundred Indian troops, under the military command of General Macdonald, the expedition was to force the Tibetans to trade with British India, and to investigate concerns that Russia was gaining influence in Lhasa. Although Kurt and Pamela Meyer state in In the Shadow of the Himalayas: A Photographic Record of John Claude White 1883-1908 , that “[White’s] incomparable photographs have thus turned out to be the only lasting legacy of the ill-fated adventure of the Imperial Raj into Tibet”, the expedition succeeded, and was followed by many years of Anglo-Tibetan friendship and trade. White’s fascinating letter, on Tibet Frontier Commission headed paper, is dated 6.8.04 and addressed from Lhasa to R.H. Morton at a tea estate in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. In it White mentions a letter written by Morton which he has forwarded to “the Chief Supply and Transport Officer” regarding a “very large order”, presumed to be for White’s photographs. As he goes on to state: “You can obtain copies of my plates later. At present I have not seen proofs.” Images in this volume include: two views of Khambajong, the fort that was the first place visited by the Mission and where initial negotiations took place; the Abbot at Khambajong (illustrated); Gyantze Jong; Debung monastery; a group of lamas of Debung monastery; four views at Nejung monastery; a group portrait of the two stewards and senior lamas of Sera monastery; the entrance to Lhasa; eight views of the Potola, the palace of the Dalai Lama; a portrait of Ti Rimpochi, the Regent of Tibet with whom “the Dalai Lama left the ecclesiastical seal when he fled, and it was he who affixed the seal, and his own, to the Treaty signed in the Potola on 7th September 1904”; “The Shapes”, or the Executive Council of Four and a group portrait of Tongsa Penlop and his retinue. Contact the Specialist to discuss this lot or selling in a future sale Email: Francesca Spickernell Tel: +44 20 7468 8350 To subscribe to or order a Printed Catalogue quote ref: 18942 Tel: +44 (0) 1666 502 200
John Claude White - The Mission Post At Gyantze

John Claude White – The Mission Post At Gyantze



TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) ‘The Mission Post at Gyantze’, carbon print on Whatman paper, with printed text leaf giving title and description, image 235 x 285mm., 1904, published 1906 John Claude White was an amateur photographer, who accompanied Younghusband on his mission to Tibet in 1903-4, having previously served in the Indian Public Works Department from 1876. While on the mission, White took a series of mainly landscape views. Some of these were issued in two photogravure volumes by Johnston and Hoffman of Calcutta in 1906. However, they were soon withdrawn due to the politically sensitive nature of the text and are now very scarce. Through extant Johnston and Hoffman adverts we know that single prints on ‘print-out paper’ were availabe at 2 ruppees each, whereas platinum prints were available at 3 ruppees each. The carbon prints offered here come from “edition de luxe”, which contained one hundred carbon prints made from the original negatives onto plate-sunk Whatman mounts, bound in two albums with soft-padded morocco covers for 300 ruppees. There are only four or five of these deluxe editions extant, and individual carbon prints are extremely rarely found. The accompanying caption reads: “The Mission Post at Gyantze. This is where the Mission sustained what may almost be called a state of siege for several months. They were under constant fire from the Jong, and on the occasion of the first fight at Karola, when many of the garrison were away with that force, a large body of the enemy attempted to rush the Mission Post, and one man actually got over the wall.”
John Claude White - Views Of Tibet

John Claude White – Views Of Tibet


platinum prints. 13,5 x 20 cm and 13,4 x 20,6 cm. Both annotated in pencil on the verso. The prints offered here are images. There are only six known copies of the complete Tibet album by White. The images were taken during the last ‘Tibet Mission’, an attempt by the British to force the Tibetans to cooperate on a mapping survey. – Fine strong prints in very good condition.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet


John Claude White ‘tibet’. an album of seventy-six photographs of tibet and lhasa, and a rare further series of studies including panoramas by an unidentified hand, circa 1900 and 1904 comprising seventy-five mounted studies, including one four-part panorama of Lhasa, Platinum Prints, one mounted three-part panorama of the Tsang Po Valley, Silver Prints, twenty-three mounted studies documenting the progress of the Younghusband Expedition and twelve loose studies including one three-part and one two-part panorama, Printing-out-Paper Prints (the majority in a panoramic format), the platinum prints approx. 133 by 203mm or the reverse, the panoramic prints approx. 63 by 185mm, the other printing-out-paper prints from 53 by 176mm to 143 by 208mm, the platinum prints and panorama of Tsang Po Valley titled in ink on album page, the majority of mounted panoramic prints numbered in pencil on album page, the majority of loose prints numbered in pencil on the reverse, full green leather, green cloth boards gilt-titled ‘Tibet’, oblong 4to In 1903 John Claude White, a political officer in Sikkim, was asked to join as Joint-Commissioner the ‘Tibet Frontier Commission’ under the command of Francis (later Sir Francis) Younghusband. They were joined by Captain Frederick O’Conner, who acted as interpreter, and an escort of two hundred Indian troops under the command of Brigadier-General J.R.L. Macdonald. The British officers’ secret and politically sensitive mission was to negotiate in favour of British interests in Asia in the face of the rumours that the Chinese were about to hand over Tibet to the Russians. White photographed extensively in the border regions of Tibet during his twenty years as political officer in Sikkim. However by far his most highly prized works are these, one of the earliest and most extensive photographic records of the interior and peoples of Tibet. In 1905 Messrs. Johnston & Hoffmann of Calcutta issued a promotional catalogue of the photographs taken by White. The photographs were available individually as platinum or printing-out-paper prints, in a single album of eighty prints printed in half-tone or a luxury edition of one hundred carbon prints. Johnston & Hoffmann later published the photographs as a two volume album, with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Baylay, dated 1907-8, and a smaller format one volume album of photogravures was issued in the following year. Copies of the 1907-8 publication are extremely rare (only a handful copies are known). Even rarer are albums such as this with ink manuscript titles. This album, which belonged to Lt. Col. James Arthur Prendergast Manson, officer in charge of supply and transport on the Younghusband expedition, is mounted with seventy-eight photographs by White, the titles of which appear in the Johnston & Hoffmann catalogue. Significantly, it also contains thirty-five additional mounted and loose photographs, the majority in panoramic format. More informal than the platinum prints, the photographs (which may be by White or another member of the expedition) provide a rare and fascinating record of the progress of the British officers and their Indian troops. Compare with the album sold at Christie’s, London, 30 April 1997, lot 127. Compare the additional silver prints with those attributed to Major MacCarthy Reagh Emmet Ray (1867-1906) in the collection of the National Army Museum, London. The 1907-8 publication: Sotheby’s, New York, 6 April 2000, lot 77 (previously sold Sotheby Parke Bernet, 2 November 1979, lot 258). Sotheby’s, London, 13 May 1994, lot 20. Sotheby’s, New York, 10 & 11 May 1983, lot 531. Provenance: Lt. Col. James Arthur Predergast Manson. Thence by descent.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet



TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Two views of the Chaksam Ferry, carbon prints on Whatman paper, images 185 x 310mm., 1904, published 1906 (2) The expedition under Younghusband reached the Chaksam Ferry on the 25th July, 1904. It took seven days for all the troops and equipment to cross the Tsangpo, and tragically on their first day, Major G.H. Bretherton, D.S.O., the chief supply and transport officer drowned

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment. Objects gathered by him in Tibet as “souvenirs” in the course of the Sir Francis Younghusband “expedition” to Tibet in 1903-4, are to be returned to Tibet, as represented by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month. Photographer unknown


EDINBURGH, Scotland, 12 June 2012

The sound they make is said to be an eerie, haunting kind of wail, the kind of bone-chilling howl that some might suggest is enough to wake the dead.

Perhaps that is not entirely surprising, given that the bizarre whistle, or kangling, is made from the thigh bone of a long-dead Tibetan monk.

Retrieved from a battleground, bound with carefully plaited leather, adorned with human skin and silver thread, the curious instrument was brought to Edinburgh more than 100 years ago, a keepsake from a time which, with hindsight, was hardly Britain’s finest hour.

Now, as the visit to Scotland by Tibet’s spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, approaches, it is to be finally returned home.

The foot-long bone whistle was among a collection of souvenirs from the roof of the world gathered by Edinburgh-born Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

He was involved when the regiment took part in the infamous Sir Francis Younghusband expedition to Tibet in 1903-4, a venture into what was then a closed and deeply private nation where outsiders rarely ventured, which would end in violence, mayhem and bloodshed.

The religious artefact — along with a collection of other Tibetan objects — was eventually brought to Edinburgh and later ended up with a family member in London.

But now Col Turnbull’s grandson, Dr Michael Turnbull, has decided the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month means the time has come to return it into Tibetan possession.

“It is an act of reconciliation,” says Dr Turnbull, 71, of Longniddry. “I think my grandfather probably did not understand quite what he was doing. It was a long time ago.

“Certainly, this is an item that has no real place in my home. It is time for it to go back to its own home.”

It was late March 1904 when his grandfather, the Merchiston Castle-educated son of a Scot who had gone on to become major surgeon general in Bombay, India, found himself at the heart of what has been called “one of the most shameful acts of British history.”

A formidable army, led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, had been formed to march on the closed country of Tibet, on the shaky premise that the Russians planned to expand their empire into that strategic part of Asia.

Around 3000 troops from the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment, armed with machine-guns and accompanied by a further 7000 camp followers, poured into the Himalayan country to be met by locals, rich in religious spirit but armed with a rusty collection of 18th century flintlock rifles.

Who shot first is one of history’s great mysteries. Regardless, the result was bloodshed and carnage.

Some 700 lightly-armed Tibetan monks were killed in the village of Guru alone.

Overall, around 3000 Tibetans — some reports suggest 5000 — were slaughtered by Younghusband’s forces in an action sanctioned during what became known as the Great Game — the desperate race for influence in central Asia, at the heart of which sat the tiny mountainous nation.

By contrast, it’s said the British casualties amounted to five.

The hope had been to force the tiny country bordering colonial India to engage in trade and diplomacy with the British Empire, keeping any aspirations of the Russian Tsar firmly in check.

While it may have brought Tibet to its knees, the strategy was effective. In the capital, Lhasa, in August 1904, a treaty was signed effectively turning Tibet into a British protectorate.

Yet the British claims that the action had simply been intended to settle disputes over the Sikkim-Tibet border were derided by others as an invasion of Tibet.

Col Turnbull was, says his grandson, a young officer at the time without, of course, the benefits of hindsight.

“He was nominated for the Victoria Cross,” he adds. “There are illustrations in a magazine which show him dragging a wounded comrade to safety. So while it wasn’t perhaps the finest moment in British history, it wasn’t completely one-way traffic.”

Dr Turnbull, who was looked after by Col Turnbull and his wife, Jessie, after his mother died in a car accident when he was a child, has only vague recollections of his grandfather. “He died in 1952, I hardly knew him. But I do remember him as a stern and distant figure. At one point, he became deputy lord provost for Edinburgh Town Council.

“He adopted me, so to speak. I remember them taking me to St Peter’s Church for mass, even though they weren’t Catholic, but they respected the promise my father had given to my mother to raise me that way. I went on to do my PhD at New College, so they couldn’t have been too bad.”

Other items from Col Turnbull’s Tibetan collection had already been given to the National Museum by the family, including a striking three-feet -high, 17th century silver goddess and dozens of photographic slides taken during the expedition.

But the whistle — which is regarded by Tibetans to have special and magical qualities — had been kept at a London-based relative’s home.

He made the offer to return the relic to Tibet through the Edinburgh Inter-Faith Association which has helped organise the Dalai Lama’s three-day tour.

He has been granted an early morning audience with the spiritual leader on June 22, during which he will return the item.

Traditionally, a kangling is made from a hollowed-out thigh bone. Holes are made in the knee area to create a kind of trumpet while a mouthpiece is created at the other end.

Beeswax is often poured in to keep it dry and free from micro-organisms.

A kangling is used in various Himalayan Buddhist rituals.

“It might sound quite gruesome to have an instrument made from bone, but it’s not really,” said Dr Turnbull.

“To play this flute would have been a sacred thing to do. It is a precious church object and I’m very pleased that it is finally going home.”

source:Johnston Publishing Ltd

A practical, though lethal, gift for the Dalai Lama


The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,
Excerpt from Chapter 17 of The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds published in the Ottawa Citizen.  

“The Chinese authorities seem to guard the Dalai Lama closely,” Baron Gustaf Mannerheim wrote in his diary in July 1908. The Russian colonel, who was on a secret intelligence-gathering mission in China, had just arrived at Wutai Shan, the most sacred of four Buddhist mountains in China. One of its mountaintop temples was, he wrote, “the present abode, not to say prison, of the Buddhists’ pope, the Dalai Lama.”

A Chinese army captain named Wang told Mannerheim that “a cordon of soldiers” guarded the approaches to Wutai Shan in northeast Shanxi province. In the event of an attempt to escape, Wang explained, the Dalai Lama “would be stopped, by armed force if necessary.” But in his wanderings around Wutai Shan, Mannerheim saw no such cordon. “I could not help noticing, however, that [Wang] watched my movements with the greatest interest.”

Pusading Temple was the "prison" of the Dalai Lama in 1908.

Wang urged Mannerheim to take him as his interpreter during his audience with the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. But a Tibetan prince had already secretly informed Mannerheim that Wang was not welcome. The Tibetans despised Wang, whom they considered a spy, and prohibited him and his troops from the inner precincts of the temple.

Wutai Shan was more podium than prison for the Dalai Lama. Upon arriving here in the spring of 1908, His Holiness sent messages to the Peking Legations inviting envoys to visit. William Woodville Rockhill, the American ambassador to China, was the first. He pulled on his walking boots and set out for Wutai Shan on foot, a five-day trek from Peking. Rockhill was a scholar and diplomat who had explored Inner Asia in the 1890s and spoke Tibetan. He had left Wutai Shan only a day before Mannerheim’s arrival.

“The Talé Lama seems to me a man of undoubted intelligence, open-minded… a very agreeable, kindly, thoughtful host, and a personage of great dignity,” Rockhill reported back to President Theodore Roosevelt. The Dalai Lama told Rockhill about his struggles against the Chinese and how his country’s remoteness meant Tibet had “no friends abroad.” Rockhill assured His Holiness that he was mistaken: Tibet had many foreign well-wishers who hoped to see Tibetans “prosper and happy.” Later, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Peking, Rockhill became a confidant to the Tibetan leader, quietly pushing a rapprochement with the Chinese.

In the summer of 1908, the Dalai Lama received a parade of envoys: a German doctor from the Peking Legation; an English explorer named Christopher Irving; R.F. Johnson, a British diplomat from the Colonial Service; and Henri D’Ollone, a French army major and viscount. The Dalai Lama hoped to patch up his relations with Britain after its invasion of Lhasa in 1904 and bolster his international standing. These first audiences with the mysterious Buddhist pontiff were much anticipated.

On his second day in Wutai Shan, a messenger ran into Mannerheim’s room in the Tayuan Temple and gestured that the Dalai Lama was ready to receive him. Mannerheim duly prepared himself. While he was shaving and changing his clothes, another frantic messenger arrived to express the Dalai Lama’s impatience. “I was just as impatient,” he wrote, “but could not possibly dress any faster.” A few minutes later, an anxious Tibetan prince appeared to ask what Mannerheim meant by keeping His Holiness waiting. At a swift pace, the Baron and prince climbed the steep staircase to Pusading Temple.

Staircase to the Pusading Temple in Wutai Shan

Wang, in full dress uniform, was waiting at the top with a Chinese honour guard. The Chinese had reason to worry about Mannerheim’s visit. Chinese authorities had just arrested two Russian military officers who were inciting the Mongols to break from China and become a Russian protectorate. During his stay in Urga (now Ulan Baatar), the Dalai Lama sent messages to the Tsar through various envoys. His Holiness told one Russian military intelligence officer that both Tibet and Mongolia should “irrevocably secede from China to form an independent allied state, accomplishing this operation with Russia’s patronage and support, avoiding bloodshed.” If Russia wouldn’t help, the Dalai Lama insisted, he would even ask Britain—his former foe—for help. After his visit with the Dalai Lama, Mannerheim, in fact, trekked to Inner Mongolia to gauge the rebellious mood of the Mongols.

Wang could barely hide his wrath when Mannerheim told him that he could not attend his audience with the Tibetan pontiff. The Chinese captain argued with two of the Dalai Lama’s assistants. As the Baron slipped into a small reception hall, he caught sight of Wang “making vain efforts to force his way in behind me.”

The Dalai Lama sat on a gilded armchair placed on a dais along the back wall of the small room. Two old Tibetans, unarmed, with beards and hair speckled with grey stood behind him. The Dalai Lama was frocked in “imperial yellow with light-blue linings” and a “traditional red toga.” The thirty-three-year-old pontiff had a dark brown face, shaved head, moustache and a tuft of hair under his lower lip. His eyes were large and his teeth gleamed. Mannerheim noticed “slight hollows in the skin of his face, which are supposed to be pockmarks.” He appeared a bit nervous, “which he seems anxious to hide.” Otherwise, Mannerheim thought he was “a lively man in full possession of his mental and physical faculties.”

Mannerheim made a “profound bow,” which the Dalai Lama acknowledged with a slight nod. They exchanged silk scarves. His Holiness began with small talk, asking Mannerheim about his nationality, age and journey. The Dalai Lama then paused and, twitching nervously, asked if the Tsar had sent a secret message for him. “He awaited the translation of my reply with obvious interest,” wrote Mannerheim, who informed him that he hadn’t the opportunity to personally speak with Tsar Nicholas II before his departure. The Dalai Lama then gestured, and a beautiful piece of white silk with Tibetan letters was brought out. It was a gift that Mannerheim was to deliver personally to Nicholas II.

The Dalai Lama told Mannerheim he had been enjoying his journeys in Mongolia and China, but “his heart was in Tibet.” Many Tibetans were urging him to return. His officials claimed up to twenty thousand pilgrims visited the Dalai Lama each month, but Mannerheim thought it was “an undoubted exaggeration.” The Tibetan pontiff was in the midst of a showdown with Empress Dowager Cixi, who wanted him to come to Peking to perform the kowtow. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim wrote, “does not look like a man resigned to play the part the Chinese Government wishes him to, but rather like one who is only waiting for an opportunity of confusing his adversary.” The wily Tibetan pontiff had postponed his journey so many times that a joke was circulating in Peking referring to him as the “Delay Lama.”

Mannerheim spoke encouragingly about Russia’s sympathies for Tibet’s struggles against the Chinese. Russia’s troubles were over, the Baron assured him, and “the Russian Army was stronger than ever.” Now, all Russians watched His Holiness’s footsteps with great interest, he added. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim recalled, “listened to my polite speeches with unconcealed satisfaction.”

Twice the Dalai Lama ordered his bodyguards to check if Wang was eavesdropping on their conversation. It was a dangerous time for the Dalai Lama, who knew his life may be in danger if he returned to Lhasa. The Chinese were tightening their grip on Tibet. Lamas were being assassinated, monasteries plundered and Tibetans evicted from their nomadic pastures. Peking needed the Dalai Lama to be a compliant vassal who could calm his restless followers and ease Tibet’s incorporation into the Chinese Empire.

But the Dalai Lama proved defiant. He visited Peking that September and immediately fell out with the Imperial Court, which issued a decree demoting him to “a loyal and submissive Vicegerent bound by the laws of the sovereign state.” A prominent Imperial censor also openly denounced him as “a proud and ignorant man.” Rumours spread in Tibet that he had been assassinated. Outraged at various reforms, lamas threatened a “holy war” against the Chinese. By the end of 1908, a rebellion broke out, leading to the defeat of Chinese troops. The Dalai Lama eventually returned to Lhasa in 1909 and sent telegrams to Britain and all European countries attacking Peking’s claim over Tibet.

In February 1910, Chinese troops invaded Lhasa. The Dalai Lama fled to India. An Imperial decree denounced His Holiness as “an ungrateful, irreligious obstreperous profligate who is tyrannical and so unacceptable to the Tibetans, and accordingly an unsuitable leader of Lamas.” After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, His Holiness returned to Tibet in 1913, declaring the country independent. He died in 1933, leaving a prophetic last testament for the next Dalai Lama:

We must guard ourselves against the barbaric red communists… the worst of the worst. It will not be long before we find the red onslaught at our own front door… and when it happens we must be ready to defend ourselves. Otherwise our spiritual and cultural traditions will be completely eradicated… and the days and nights will pass slowly and with great suffering and terror. 

Recognizing the clear and present danger, Mannerheim offered the Dalai Lama an unusual, though practical, gift: a Browning revolver. The Baron apologized that he didn’t have a better offering, but explained that after two years’ journey he had no other items of value. The Dalai Lama laughed, “showing all his teeth,” as Mannerheim showed His Holiness how to quickly reload seven cartridges into the revolver. The Dalai Lama relished the demonstration. “The times were such,” Mannerheim wrote, “that a revolver might at times be of greater use, even to a holy man like himself, than a praying mill.”




From The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China by Eric Enno Tamm. Copyright © 2010 by Eric Enno Tamm. Published by arrangement with Douglas & McIntyre.

Ladakh and Kashmir, 1908

33 photographs from ‘An eastern voyage: A journal of the travels of Count Fritz Hochberg through the British empire in the East and Japan (1910) by Hochberg, Friedrich Maximilian, Graf von, (1868-1921) ,Volume: 1. Year 1908. With that the total number of photographs uploaded to this blog comes around to about 3000. And my hard-disk is still cluttered with hundreds more!

Ladakhi Woman and Chid, showing the sheepskin headgear.
Ladakhi woman at Leh
Canal between Floating Garden, Dal Lake, Srinagar 

Uri Road
Harrowing in Ladakh
Old Hindu Monuments near Dras
Indus Valley near Leh
Kashmiri Women Pounding Rice. 
Ladakhi women Harvesting
Ladakhi women weaving
Lamayuroo Convent
main Street Leh
Nimoo Resthouse
Shah Jehan’s Summer House . (Probably Nishat Bagh. This structure was apparently pulled down in relatively recent time)
Tibetans travelling
Wooden Bridge on way to Leh

ight @ 2012

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