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The mystery of Aztec Mexican Quetzalcoatl Flying Dragon legend

Aztec Quetzalcoatl

Flying Dragon mystery

Picture

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

 

 Huitzilopochtli, The Aztec God of War

 

 Quetzal Bird

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forward

Moctezuma's headdress in the Museum of Ethnology, Vienna

I am jus seen at discovery channel TV about the legend of Aztec bigger flying dragon Qetzal or quetzalos(?0. This legend very interesting due to the recent discovery of the bigger flying dynosaurus which near same with the Aztec quetzal dragon legend. In that legend told that every 52 years the world will became worst if the ritual with sacrifice to the Aztec dragon did not done.

A Scaly Image of Quetzalcoatl

To open The mystery I will research the informations realted with this Aztec Quetzal flyingdragon.

I hope this informations will useable for the next generations especially for my grandson Antoni and grand daughter cessa and celine for them this study dedicated.

Jakarta Mei 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

THE INFORMATIONS REALTED WITH QUETZALCOALTZ AZTEC DRAGON

  

FLYING DINOSAURS, FLYING REPTILES, PTEROSAURS

QUETZALCOATLUS

 

Dragon of the Flying Reptiles, page 35 (Cryptonaut) Tags: vintage paleontology pterosaur quetzalcoatlus paleoart

Clouds

 

Flying reptiles have captured the popular imagination ever since Arthur Conan Doyle made them part of his science fiction story The Lost World. These great creatures have been extinct since the Mesozoic era ended 65 million years ago. Scientists named them “flying lizards” or pterosaurs (TERA sores), nearly two centuries ago, when their fossil remains were first found. How such large animals could actually fly has long been a scientific puzzle, since they weighed about as much as a human being. Today’s hang-glider pilots must solve the problem of getting themselves airborne by using other aircraft, or leaping from great heights. How a giant lizard would take off is an unanswered question. The flying reptile was called “one of the greatest freaks of all time” by the late Harvard professor Percy Raymond. The flight mechanism was bat-like rather than bird-like. A membrane of skin stretched from the trunk to the front limb, but was attached to a greatly elongated fourth finger of the hand, and not to all four fingers as with a bat. Flying reptiles were probably soarers and gliders rather than active flyers. They could fold their wings like bats, and may have had similar roosting habits.

Plumend Serpent Head

Until recently, it was thought that a wingspan of about 24 feet was the maximum size, for one of these winged lizards. Then in 1971, Douglas Lawson, a University of Texas student, discovered the fossil bones of an even larger specimen, with a wingspan of 36 to 39 feet. It was named after the Aztec god who looked like a feathered serpent: Quetzalcoatlus northropi. Pronounced “kwet zel KWAT lus,” this creature was one of the last of the pterosaurs to survive. Its neck was extremely long, its slender jaws were toothless, and its head was topped by a long bony crest. Like other pterosaurs, it had fingers on the front edge of its wing with sharp claws that could grip prey.

 

The eating habits of QuetBoa Constrictorzalcoatlus are

 

 

 

 

unknown, and there are different theories about the feeding habits of flying reptiles. Some experts think they ventured far out to sea, skimming over the surface of the water, and skillfully fed on fish. Others think they may have been carrion feeders, like modern vultures, and fed upon the carcasses of dinosaurs. Their long beaks and necks made them capable of probing deeply for food, on sea or land.

Aeronautical engineers and paleontologists have theories about how large animals launched themselves into space and stayed there. As a flying machine Quetzalcoatlus lacked the muscle power to run rapidly until it reached an airspeed that allowed it to take off. Likewise, it did not have the muscle or skeletal structure to flap its wings constantly to maintain flight. Perhaps it became airborne by dropping from the height of a cliff, or the crest of a wave. Or perhaps it waited until the hot sun warmed the ground and created strong thermal updrafts. Maybe it could stand up on its hind legs and catch an appropriate breeze, and with a single flap of its wings and a kick of its feet become airborne. Once aloft, it may have stayed in the air for long periods, riding air currents with minimal effort as it soared slowly and gracefully over land or water looking for prey. Its aeronautical design suggests that it could coast more slowly than a bird, before it stalled and had to land. The great wings may have allowed it to land gently, but its size, weight and long, weak hind limbs suggest that it did not live in trees as birds do.

Flying reptiles became extinct about the same time that dinosaurs did, at the close of the Age of Reptiles, or the Mesozoic Era. Even as they reached new records of size, a changing geography and their failure to adapt to new environments doomed pterosaurs. The Inland Sea, which covered so much of the interior of North America, drained away, and similar events around the globe affected the climate and food supply. Birds were better suited to flight and adapting for survival in almost every way, and became increasingly diversified.

 


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Quetzalcoatlus 1.14.11 (Houston Museum of Natural Science) Tags: museum houston science exhibition sciencemuseum pterosaur hmns quetzalcoatlus houstonsciencemuseum assemblingapterosaur
 
Quetzalcoatlus 1.14.11 (Houston Museum of Natural Science) Tags: museum houston science exhibition sciencemuseum pterosaur hmns quetzalcoatlus houstonsciencemuseum assemblingapterosaur
 
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Quetzalcoatlus 1.14.11 (Houston Museum of Natural Science) Tags: museum houston science exhibition sciencemuseum pterosaur hmns quetzalcoatlus houstonsciencemuseum assemblingapterosaur
 
 
 
Quetzalcoatlus 1.14.11 (Houston Museum of Natural Science) Tags: museum houston science exhibition sciencemuseum pterosaur hmns quetzalcoatlus houstonsciencemuseum assemblingapterosaur
 
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THE LEGEND: Does The Cloud Dragon Live On?

 Picture

 

Policeman Arturo Padilla of San Benito, Texas, was driving his police cruiser through the wee hours of the morning in 1976 when something unusual appeared in his headlights. It looked like a big bird. Only a few minutes later fellow officer Homer Galvan reported it too. A black silhouette that glided through the air. According to Galvan it moved without ever flapping it’s wings.

Picture

A short time later Alverico Guajardo, a resident of Brownsville, Texas, reported he’d heard a thumping noise outside his mobile home at about nine-thirty at night. When he looked out the door he saw a monstrous bird standing in his yard. “It’s like a bird, but it’s not a bird,” he said. “That animal is not from this world.”

Sightings of the big bird multiplied. A radio station offered a reward for the creature’s capture. A television station broadcast a picture of an alleged bird track. It was some twelve inches long. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, concerned that hunters might mistake a large rare and protected bird, like a whooping crane, for this creature announced that, “All birds are protected by state or federal law.”

In February 1976 several school teachers told of a large flying creature, at least 12 foot across, diving at their cars as they drove to work. One of them checked the school library and found a name for the animal: A Pterosaur.

Pterosaurs were an order of reptiles that lived, and went extinct, with the dinosaurs. They were the first true flying animals with vertebrates. Their wings were composed of a membrane of skin that stretched from the side of the body, along the arm, out to the tip of an enormously elongated fourth finger, and then back to the ankle.

Computer analysis of pterosaur fossils suggest that they were slow gliders capable of making very tight airborne turns. A large Pteranodon, with a wingspan of 30 feet could turn, in mid-flight, in a circle only 34 feet in diameter.

The largest known Pterosaur (indeed the largest known flying animal of all time), the Quetzalcoatlus, had a wingspan of 50 feet (larger than that of many small planes) and weighed about 190 pounds. Unlike many of the other Pterosaurs Quetzalcoatlus lived inland and probably had a vulture-like existence. It’s long neck would have helped it to “probe” dinosaur carcasses for meat.

Quetzalcoatlus, interestingly enough, brings us back to Texas. The first Quetzalcoatlus fossils were discovered in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1972, just four years before the first sightings of the Texas “Big Bird.” Is there a connection?

Have there been Pterosaurs hiding in Texas for the last 65 million years? Or could it be the publicity surrounding the discovery of Quetzalcoatlus four years before triggered the misidentification of normal large birds like the sandhill crane, brown pelican or the vulture? We may never know, because after the two month flap of sightings in 1976, reports of the big birds dwindled. The Pterosaurs, if they ever existed, have gone back into hiding.

THE ABOVE ARTICLE: Copyright Lee Krystek 1996. All Rights Reserved.

 


Petroglyph found among Native American rock art,
San Rafael Swell, Black Dragon Wash, Utah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Above : A generalized pterosaur wing (hum= humerus, r= radius, u= ulna, mc= metacarpus, pt= pteroid, c= carpus, I-IV= numbered digits). Also pictured: A generalized pterosaur pectoral girdle (sc= scapula, cor= coracoid, hum= humerus, ster= sternum).

 

 

The pterosaur wing (shown above) was supported by an elongated fourth digit (that is, like on a hand, a “pinky finger” several feet long). Pterosaurs had other morphological adaptations for flight, such as a keeled sternum (shown above) for the attachment of flight muscles, a short and stout humerus (the first arm bone), and hollow but strong limb and skull bones. Pterosaurs also had modified scales that were wing-supporting fibers, and that possibly formed hairlike structures to provide insulation — bird feathers are analogous to the wing fibers of pterosaurs, and both are thought to possibly have been evolved originally for the primary purpose of thermoregulation (which implies, but does not prove, that both pterosaurs and the earliest birds were endothermic). Pterosaurs also had a bone unique to their clade. It is called the pteroid bone, and it pointed from the pterosaur’s wrist towards the shoulder, supporting part of the wing membrane. Such a novel structure is rare among vertebrates, and noteworthy; new bones are unusual structures to evolve — evolution usually co-opts bones from old functions and structures to new functions and structures rather than “reinventing the wheel”. The wing membrane of pterosaurs most likely did not include the hindlimbs; there is no evidence for the existence of such a membrane, but if such a membrane were to exist, a gliding origin for pterosaur flight would probably be more feasible.

For an interesting comparison in wing design and flight adaption between the elongated fourth finger approach used by the pterosaurs and the feathered bird-wing structure used by the twenty-five foot wingspan Teratorn

THE LEGEND OF AZTEC QUETZAL FLYING DRAGON

 

Mexico inches closer to loan of Moctezuma’s headdress

Moctezuma's headdress in the Museum of Ethnology, Vienna

Moctezuma’s headdress is a large and elaborate 16th century crown which according to legend once belonged to Aztec emperor Moctezuma II, made from the iridescent green tail feathers of the Resplendent Quetzal. Moctezuma either gave it to Hernán Cortés as a gift upon his arrival at Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire and modern day Mexico City, or it was pillaged by Cortés’ forces after the siege of Tenochtitlan in 1521.

There is no record of where it was taken, nor is there any evidence that it belonged to Moctezuma. We don’t even know for sure that it’s a headdress. It doesn’t match any of the headdresses depicted in contemporary accounts. In the 19th century the assumption was that it was a mantle, and recent scholarship suggests they might have been right about it being a mantle, but that it was worn by a priest to ritually transform him into the incarnation of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, rather than by the king.

What we do know is that by 1575 it was in the extensive private collection of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, at Ambras Castle in Innsbruck. Ferdinand was the nephew of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who was also King of Spain during the Conquista. He could easily have gotten his hands on the headdress via his family connections.

It remained in the castle until the early 19th century when Vienna’s Museum of Ethnology was entrusted with most of the Castle Ambras collection. The headdress was the subject of much anthropological fascination from then on, including from Zelia Nuttall, the American archaeologist, anthropologist and expert in pre-Columbian Mexico who in 1890 first identified it as an Aztec “quetzalapanecayotl” or a featherwork crown.

Resplendant Quetzal

The piece is 46 inches high at the peak and 69 inches wide. In addition to the 400 dramatic quetzal tail feathers that adorn the outer layer, there are rows of blue Lovely Cotinga feathers, pink flamingo feathers, smaller quetzal feathers and white and red feathers from the squirrel cuckoo. The inner rings are studded with gold and gemstones. The Aztecs venerated the Resplendent Quetzal as the god of the air, a symbol of rebirth and of freedom.

Given its beauty, historical significance and powerful symbolism, it’s no surprise that the headdress has been the subject of a long-standing dispute between Mexico and Austria.

 Replica of Moctezuma's headdress at the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City

There are no Aztec headdresses left in Mexico because the Spanish took them all — the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City only has a replica of Moctezuma’s headdress on display — so Mexico has been trying for decades to get this one back, even going so far as to petition the United Nations for its return, but to no avail.

In 2008, the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) entered into talks with the Austrian Government and the Kunsthistorisches Museum, the parent institution of the Museum of Ethnology. They agreed first to do an extensive scientific analysis on the headdress to assess its condition and do any conservation necessary that will allow the piece to travel. In 2011, a tentative deal was struck: Mexico would officially recognize Austria’s uncontested ownership of the headdress, Austria would loan Mexico the headdress and in return Mexico would loan Austria the golden stagecoach of Maximilian I of Mexico, emperor of the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867) and brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria.

There was still one major stumbling block, however. According to Mexican law, all pre-Columbian artifacts belong to the nation. Once they cross the border, no matter who else might lay claim to them, they become property of the state and cannot leave the country. No matter the terms of the loan agreement, Austria had no intention of letting the headdress into Mexico until the government’s assurances had the force of law.

A new bilateral cultural exchange agreement between Austria and Mexico that would resolve the issue has just been approved by the Mexican Senate and Austria’s cabinet. The Senate’s amendments to the cultural property law allow for long-term loans of artifacts while acknowledging the lender’s ownership rights. Austria’s legislature has to approve the deal, which is expected to happen within the next few months, and both parties need to sort out how to transport the fragile headdress without damaging it, but it looks like the biggest obstacle to the return of this glorious symbol of Mexican heritage might just have been overcome.

 

Quetzalcoatl and the Nak

 
 
One of the interesting legends to examine cross-culturally is the Mexican deity Quetzalcoatl, who is depicted at times as a plumed serpent and other times as a human being. Quetzalcoatl was considered the god of the wind, wisdom and life.In contrast, the mythical nak of the Lao are often connected to bodies of water, such as the rivers, lakes, and oceans, and they were symbolic of fertility, wisdom and immortality. The nak are capable of also appearing as human beings.From a speculative literature point of view, it might be interesting to consider the possibilities were the two to ever meet, especially given both cultures’ later engagement with colonial powers. But would they find other interesting points of commonality or conflict worth exploring?

Stories of a plumed serpent named Kukulcan emerged around 500 BC to AD 900, and around the end of the 12th century, the king of the Toltecs, Topiltzin conferred upon himself the title of Quetzalcoatl. At some point, the Aztecs incorporated legends of the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl into their pantheon.

According to one legend, after a series of conflicts and  the treachery of his nemesis Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl was said to have left the Americas on a raft of entwined serpents, sailing to the east, although the Aztecs predicted one day he would return.

The Plumed Serpent, Quetzalcoatl: A Symbol of Connectedness

Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent,” played a dominant role as a god, model, myth, historical figure and symbol in ancient Mexican consciousness of Aztecs, Mayans and other cultures. He was an hombre-dios (“man-god”), who incarnated on earth, to bring spirit and matter into harmony. In his human form, according to legend, he founded the fabulous capital of the Toltecs, Tollan, where art and culture thrived. The myth of Quetzalcoatl also becomes intricately tied to the fortunes of a later empire, the Aztecs.

A Scaly Image of Quetzalcoatl

A Scaly Lizard-like Image of Quetzalcoatl from crystalinks.com

The history of the Aztec Empire begins with the Toltecs, since the Aztecs borrowed “Tollan” and “Quetzalcoatl” as symbols of authority and legitimation of their rule. These words became associated with different places and men, as symbols of connection to classical lineage of the Toltec rulers. Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs, borrowed the legend of Quetzalcoatl to justify its pre-eminence in Mesoamerica along with linking the origins of the Aztecs to ancient Tollan, “the city of the Gods.” However, the legend of Quetzalcoatl also contained within it the seeds of destruction for their civilization under the Spanish.

View of Tula-Tollan
The modern ruins of the fabled Tollan of the Toltecs

Atlantes Warriors
Statues of Altante Warriors on top of the pyramid

The Plumed Serpent has proved to be an illusive figure for scholars, so many interpretations have emerged about him. The three main schools of thoughts are the diffusionist, symbolic and historical. Diffusionist writers view Quetzalcoatl as originating outside ancient Mexico in a Judeo-Christian, Asian or other foreign culture. They claim that the bearded depictions of Topiltzin, the legendary ruler connected to the god Quetzalcoatl, are not characteristic of American Indians. Therefore, he must have come across a Transatlantic journey to teach the indigenous people a mystical, visionary religion that encouraged high moral standards of penance and self-sacrifice.

This school has been discredited among serious scholars due to unusual claims, including claims of Topiltzin’s extraterrestrial origins. Many writers in this school also exhibit ethnocentric biases, particularly with the assumption that original thought in Indian peoples must have an outside source.

The historical school wishes to uncover the actual Quetzalcoatl who inhabited Tollan. It takes an extremely rational and empiricist attitude to myth and legend of Quetzalcoatl. The problem with this approach lies in the lack of authentic Pre-Columbian sources. So their arguments cannot go beyond speculation.

The symbolic school because of its acceptance of myth as testament of Mesoamerica’s imagination offers the most depth. Quetzalcoatl as a symbol represents the Ancient Mexicans search for wholeness and integration. His name can be divided into Quetzal, a beautifully plumed bird, and Coatl, a snake or serpent.

Quetzal Bird The Quetzal represented the aspiration of the spirit in its flight, and many tales were told of her ability to communicate with the gods in flight similar to the eagle in North American Indian stories.
Boa Constrictor The serpent, in contrast, represented an association with the earth, since it crawls upon the ground or borrows underneath. It represented the energies of the earth in fertility and cyclic renewal.

Quetzalcoatl, called Kukulcan and Gugumatz among the Mayans, was not merely an historical figure to the Ancient Mexicans but he was a figure that united spirit and matter. The quetzal bird represented the spiritual urge to take flight and transcend the bounds of corporeal existence and the serpent represented being grounded in physical reality to the rhythms and cycles of nature.

Myths embody the the universal quest for meaning in life, and the desire to know the transcendent spiritual world. Quetzalcoatl as the legendary Topiltzin, tried to overcome the duality of spirit and matter, and reconciled them in a holistic vision as embodied in the Plumed Serpent. Topiltizin becomes the Redeemer of humankind through his reconciliation of opposites.

The ancient Mexicans were largely concerned with sublime mysticism and transcendence of the human spirit but the Aztecs degraded this spiritual vision as a cult of human sacrifice grew, even though the original Quetzalcoatl myth extolled the virtues of self-sacrifice over the killing of others.

During the creation of a new age or sun, according to mythic accounts, Quetzalcoatl through his own blood gave life to humans, formed from the bones and ashes of people from the previous age. When Quetzalcoatl appears in the form of Topiltzin, he teaches people to turn away from human sacrifice and instead to engage in self-sacrifice in service of others. Legends also attribute him with encouraging his followers to be creative through the arts.

Plumed SerpentPlumend Serpent Head

Under Topiltzin, the human incarnation of Quetzalcoatl, Tollan prospered under his peaceful rule but priests wanting to reinstate human sacrifice conspired against him. He was forced to flee to the Yucatan, where afraid of being captured he sacrificed himself in a burning pyre and his heart rose to heaven as the morning star, Venus. The Aztec account varies. In their version, he says farewell to his followers with the prophecy to return one day from the East and reclaim his rule. He then floats away on a raft of snakes.

Quetzalcoatl’s brother, Huitzilopochtli, becomes the main god in the Aztec pantheon. He is the sun god and the god of war who requires human sacrifice. In Aztec cosmology, the sun required energy from human blood in order to continue. Without those sacrifices, the present age and their rule would come to an end. The Queztalcoatl tradition extolled virtues of self-sacrifice, which the Aztec rulers reduced to the massive sacrifice of others. In this way, the Aztec empire betrayed its spiritual inheritance to gain worldly power.

Huitzilopochtli, The Aztec God of War
Fierce image of Huitzilopochtil

A Pious Image of Quetzalcoatl by Susanne Iles
Painting by Susanne Iles, a painter and writer. Visit her site for detailed information on dragon mythology by clicking her name above.
The Aztecs legitimated their rule by claiming they were Topiltzin’s descendants and they would rule until the return of their god, Quetzalcoatl. When Montezuma met Cortez, he thought that Quetzalcoatl had returned. The myth that justified Aztec power also ironically became the cause of its demise, since the Aztec ruler was paralyzed to ask his warriors to attack a god. The Spanish conquerors took advantage of this weakness with the eventual domination of Spanish colonial rule and the suppression of indigenous cultures.

The study of Quetzalcoatl is complicated by the fact that he takes on many aspects, though underlying motif remains an attempt to reconnect body and spirit. The Plumed serpent becomes a perfect representation of wholeness, since it combines the spirit’s longing for spiritual transcendence, yet the body is the vehicle through which we can serve others. Sublime teachings such as these can be lost when worldly power guides rulers. The balance between the spiritual and physical then is broken.

Personally I developed a fascination with snakes during my childhood in Central India where I grew up in an undeveloped, forested area at that time. I was able to see different species of snakes or their old skin left behind after shedding it. I also heard mythic stories of snakes in Indian folklore. Later in my university life, the myth of Quetzalcoatl piqued my interest and imagination in another direction. Those experiences along with study of Quetzalcoatl, find expression in our novel.

 
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                                                                           Quetzalcoatl: Manifestations of the Feathered Serpent
  Of all deities that can be found throughout the ancient world, none has inspired the human imagination and curiosity more than the concept of the Feathered Serpent from ancient Mexico. The reason for this curious phenomenon would of course be obvious. The elemental concept of the Feathered Serpent is wholly a human conceptualization of nature, consisting of two opposites converging that amounts to a being that was at first a (Feathered) Bird, and then also finally a Serpent. The question then, and which has haunted the contemporary mind for so many decades now is: “How did this Serpent ever become feathered?” There almost seems to be a process involved, now forgotten over the long era’s of time since this deities inception, which came shortly after the  birth of Mesoamerica perhaps now almost 3,000-years ago.  Furthermore, the image and iconography of the Feathered Serpent is in itself intriguing, as the image seems to conjure up so much uplifting emotion, and flights of fancy that relate to the notion of a transformation of the mind, within the environmental entrapment’s of matter that finally congeal pointedly to emerge in the realization of an ultimate oneness that is found between the opposite forces of matter the (Serpent), and the mental spirit or the (Feathered Bird). Therefore, with this intriguing symbol we are summoned to seek the psychological transformation that we innately sense  as our own personal right, and as our ultimate human duty. The intuitive conclusion is that Quetzalcoatl as the Feathered Serpent, is a symbol of the spiritual enlightenment that is found and discovered through the convergence and full consolidation of life’s lessons, which are to be perceived within the infinite potential of the moment at hand. To this degree, the Feathered Serpent is indeed a symbol of personal fulfillment through the endorsement of transformed perception – thus the implication of this deities resplendent  feathers that grace the body of the symbolically rejuvenated reptile.  The very word “Quetzalcoatl,” is a joint Nahuatl word meaning, Quetzal (Bird) and Coatl (Serpent). However, because the deity in concept is older than the Nahuatl language itself, it  has of course then taken on other names throughout the time of Mesoamerican history. For that matter, the deity is a cultural inheritance that was for the most part, previously derived  from the southeastern regions of the rainforests where the ancient Olmec and Maya had once dwelled. One of the oldest monuments dedicated to the likeness of the Feathered Serpent, in fact comes from the rainforest region of La Venta, which displays a priest involved in a ritualistic adornment, and who almost seems to be coiled and emerging, as he is pulled upwards along with the large beaked serpent whose head  travels up towards the heavens with a characteristic crest of feathers indicating its transformed status from one being into another. A being which like a cloud emerges from the lower worlds of water, and evaporates up into the higher worlds of the air through the dynamic element of fire. Indeed, the flight of clouds thru the air is in reality one of the original and preeminent symbols of the Feathered Serpent, since its initial conceptualization with the original agricultural societies within Mesoamerica.
                                                                                                                                               
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                                                                                  Monument 19 from La Venta 
  One of the earliest depictions of Quetzalcoatl, as “The Feathered Serpent,” from the ancient Olmec site of La Venta. The deity as a full fledged concept is plainly pronounced with the depiction of a crest of feathers atop the serpents head, which itself has been endorsed with the beak of a bird to indicate the transformed status of the zoological phenomenon that bridges the opposites of the higher, and the lower worlds as a indication of the precipitation and floral bounty found throughout the rainforests. The human being at the center of the stela does not necessarily itself have to represent Quetzalcoatl as the human archetype found in later representations throughout ancient  Mesoamerica, however it could very well be just that, implying that the figure is beginning a trip into the underworld via the path of the Feathered Dragon.
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  In the premier agricultural realm of Teotihuacan, we find many iconographic displays of this deity’s image strewn all throughout the ancient city. This is especially prevalent upon the frontal decoration of what is presumed to be the temple of this deity at Teotihuacan, where carved serpent heads with crested feather collars alternate with another deity that is presumed to be an ancient version of the goggled eyed rain god later known as Tlaloc. This ancient Teotihuacan version of Tlaloc was previously in those times a war god, whose frightening characteristics of thunder and lightning no doubt then colored his later emergence as a war god, right along with the multitudinous drops of rain that fell like arrows across the land. This is despite this deities previous positioning as an agricultural god, which he would by default naturally retain along with the attractive company of the Feathered Serpent as a companion deity; and or, as an avatar as some prefer to see these two separate deities as operating within the realms of rain, water, and fecundity.
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  The ancient Teotihuacan war god or “Tlaloc,” was first and foremost a solar agricultural deity, which was responsible for bringing the rain waters from within the underworlds of the mountain caves out into the open air in the form of the clouds that then became the much needed and desired precipitation. The legacy of this ancient deity displays clearly the iconographic marks of a bird deity, which are plainly displayed with the curious “goggle eye’s,” so common in many other ancient Mesoamerican deity’s of rain. The goggle eyes are apparently a symbol of the midnight owl who’s flight into the underworld darkness was designed to retrieve the the essence of the water serpent found in the deeps of the mountain caves. As the bird of midnight (the sun) obtained the water serpent, and then rose once again with the serpent within it’s beak, the two beings then merged as one to become a Feathered Serpent, or symbolically the form of a rain cloud also represented by the form of the Milky Way.  This Teotihuacan mural form the De Young Museum collection clearly shows the iconographic mark of the owl with the “owl claw,” that emanates outward from the headdress to the lower right. This is undoubtedly the symbol of the midnight sun with its duty of retrieving the water serpent. The pinnacles within the headdress are apparently snow capped mountains, which contained the watery resource.            The difference which lies between the two deities of Tlaloc and Quetzalcoatl is an important question to explore, since they both pertain to the generation of rain storms, and to the abundance of agricultural greenery that is produced therein. However, as both god heads refer to the characteristics of the seasonal onslaught of life giving rain storms, it was the symbol of Quetzalcoatl as the Feathered Serpent that would eventually come to embrace the image of the shifting winds, and even more specifically, to the hurricanes that visit the coasts from the immediate seas where these cyclones are born. Tlaloc on the other hand, is the inland storm whose collective eminence is born from the peaks of mountains where rain clouds gather; or from the massive mountainous white thunderheads that rise from the inland desert floor.    In any case, it seems that the Tlaloc rain god is to be understood as the elder deity, while the Feathered Dragon is to be understood as the cultural aftermath that really is in essence finally an avatar or “reincarnation” of Tlaloc, just as would be the case in: Tlaloc as (Mountain Water Source), and Quetzalcoatl as (Wind and Rain Cloud). Once again however, it would be the difference between the inland environments, and the outward designations of the watery sea’s that should ultimately create a diversion between these two companion deities from an earlier historical standpoint. For that matter, Quetzalcoatl would have previously, early on retained a relationship to the ancient primordial water goddess; the one who we would come to know thru the Nahuatl name as the “Precious Skirt of Jade,” Chalchihuitlicue. This feminine water source deity would be the earlier counterpart of the upcoming masculine Quetzalcoatl, who would later become by reputation as a rain maker, also the male god of water. Finally, in the latest version of Aztec mythologies we see Tlaloc and Chalchihuitlicue as being related thru marriage.  Therefore, it is to be understood that there is a correlation between all three of these deities that would subsist on the most basic and essential element of water and its availability through the seasons. We should take special note of the fact that Chalchihuitlicue serves as the ruler of the day sign of “Coatl,” or the Serpent, which holds a high degree of physical similarity with the movement and flow of waters found within the indispensable rivers of ancient history that were a key source of survival and territorial designation for those times.                                                                                                                                                        2
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  The ancient Teotihuacan version of the water goddess “Chalchihuitlicue,” meaning, ‘Skirt of Jade’. She was the personification of all water sources in the forms of lakes, rivers, and the oceans as well. In this pictograph mural, she is seen pouring fourth the bounty of the waters, which in them contain life forms such as sea shells, and other beings indicating her status as a bearer and a preserver of all life forms. In her headdress, there is the symbol of the Quetzal Bird, which also bears the fangs of the solar Tlaloc Rain deity. The curious headdress itself is a symbolic pictograph of the Milky Way, which in this case also apparently contain the implications of male sexual organs as symbols of fertility. The goddess herself also wears the “Tlaloc Rain Fangs,” as a nose pendant indicting her affiliation to the cult of fertility. 
 
  The opposite of water is fire, and the direct manifestation of the earthly fire is the upward solar fire or sun, which is the true source of rain and its deliverance. When in coming to terms with the ancient Tlaloc deity, one must go beyond singular definitions of godhead, and instead journey into the realm of  the multifaceted manifestations that permeate various monotheistic concepts. In this respect, the ancient Tlaloc is not only the primordial and fecundate earth monster, but it is also the sun that arises out of the bowels of earth at dawn, and that will plunge into the darkness of evening to be finally delivered to the hour of midnight in the form of an owl – the midnight solar bird of darkness. The solar connection of the ancient Tlaloc deity to the owl is obvious, with the trademark goggled eyes that designate this god all throughout Mesoamerican history. The origins of this goggled eyed characteristic are to be found specifically with the Zapotec conceptual rain deity of “Cocijo.” As well, goggled eyed deities are to be found within the Maya realm as well, although usually in more of a subtle form, but nonetheless just as frequently. In short, these goggled eyes, which permeate Mesoamerican iconography could just as well be said to represent the midnight sun. Indeed, the true identity of the ancient Tlaloc deity is the midnight sun, in the form of an owl that finally picks up the water serpent at the midnight hour. Upon rising upward, these two animals merge as one to become a Feathered Serpent, or more specifically the form of a rain cloud. 
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                                                                              Mural 1: Olmec Cave Rock Painting from Oxtotitlan.     These rock paintings that are to be found at the natural rock shelter of “Oxtotitlan,” are said to represent the earliest sophisticated paintings of the Mesoamerican culture, and are dated from about 900 BCE to 500 BCE. The human figure is clearly regarded as a ruler deity or (Quetzalcoatl) who is wearing the contraption of an Owl Costume, and once again representing here the nature of the precipitation phenomenon in the form of the midnight sun, which is an owl that takes up the water serpent that is found within the resource of the mountains, and the caves. The painting itself is a full sky constellation form, with the double avian seat of the ruler representing the Milky Way. From the mouths of the double avian images seem to hang the formation of water serpents; but also at once the frontal version of the image indicates that this is a serpent head with fangs, and so therefore once again indicating the message of the retrieved Feathered Serpent. The Owl Head to the upper left is the constellation of Ursa Major, while the Red Dot above the rulers hand is the star Arcturus. The backward slash symbols or, “\\ \\” are in all probability the specified direction of the spiral arms of the Andromeda Galaxy as they are seen appearing within the Milky Way Arm. (Interpretation from the author: October 2011).     
  Thus, for that matter the true facial identity of the ancient Tlaloc Serpent Mask is that of an owl picking up a serpent with its beak, only that the owl beak for aesthetic reasons has long ago disappeared from the iconographic record. For that matter, it is also true that the Tlaloc Mask also bears features of the “Midnight Mountain Jaguar,” Tepeyollotl, and therefore making this Tlaloc being a mixed combination of owl and jaguar. The fangs of the Tlaloc being indeed are to be understood as elongated drops of rain falling from the bitten ‘rain serpent’, and in essence representing the serpents blood, which has fallen as a result of being consumed by the midnight owl. However, it could also be added that at least in concept that if this ‘ midnight sun owl’ has indeed arrived to the center of the earth, then in keeping with tradition it has in a sense died there as well. Thus, for having caught the rain serpent at the hour of midnight, the midnight bird has died as well along with the water serpent, and now (at least theoretically) the spirit of both beings will emerge to finally rise from the head of the dead owl (now a Jaguar being) as one entity, in the form of the resplendent and luminous Feathered Milky Way being, which is the true iconographic source of the “Quetzalcoatl Concept” since its initial inception so long ago. With this idea we also become more familiar with Quetzalcoatl’s vague iconographic Jaguar affiliation. (From the Author: October 1, 2011). 
                                                                                                                                                     
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   The famous drawing by Alfonso Caso, showing the evolutionary source of the Tlaloc Mask as it stemmed initially from the Olmec sources, and moved simultaneously into the Mayan and Zapotec worlds, and which finally amounted to the Teotihuacan version that would finally become the Mixtec version; which finally became the well outlined and documented “Tlaloc Rain God Mask,” of the later Nahuatl speaking Aztec Civilizations. The mask is principally understood as a Jaguar being, however there are also the overriding implications of the “Midnight Owl,” aspect indicated by the goggles as a symbol of the midnight sun, which takes part in the seasonal precipitation phenomenon.
 

  By applying this intuitive hypothesis variably, we perhaps can now become more acquainted with how the Quetzalcoatl Milky Way being had ever become the symbol of the wind, with the notion that this luminous Milky Way being could indeed be the ‘released spirit’ of the physical midnight sun, which theoretically had died with the water serpent in its mouth within a heroic act of service towards life and humanity.  Of course, the traditional Quetzalcoatl symbol displays the more esteemed and colorful feathers of the Guatemalan Quetzal Bird, and this is perhaps indicative of the difference that is found between the two formulations in the whole process of the resurrection, and diffusion of energy that is finally symbolized with the fecundate, dark-gray bloated rain clouds that vacillate over head. These will bring about the desirable and renewed greenness to the land, thus the implication of the green Quetzal Bird.
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  The Teotihuacan Quetzalcoatl Dragon Maw: A symbol of the Milky Way and the Galactic Center as a source of fertility.   Furthermore, it is the luminous conglomeration of the Galactic Center that seems to be billowing from out of the Feathered Milky Way Dragons Maw. This bright luminous center had become the preeminent symbol of wind and rainfall as this constellation center was seen moving across the southern sky’s during the summer months when the monsoon rains of Mexico were in their season. In its own way, this massive Dragon constellation form seems to be deliberately showering the earth as it moves across the sky. Many murals at Teotihuacan recall just such an image of the early Quetzalcoatl Milky Way being as the deliverer of rain and the following abundance it produces. Also, for that matter however, it would appear that the Milky Way Dragon would also be responsible for the other more powerful forces of hurricanes which battered the land with destructive winds, and that were in turn greatly feared for having the potential to carry off the populace, just as was said to have happened to the 2nd Sun of “Ehecatl Tonatiuh,” as it is seen featured on the face of the Aztec Sunstone. These people of the second creation were said in myth to have been transformed into Monkey’s. In this way, the zoological reference of the Monkey then by default becomes an inherit aspect of the Quetzalcoatl concept.    However, it is precisely where the ancient Milky Way Dragon begins to become more, and more diversified in concept that the initial premonition of the Feathered Dragon as the wind and rain giver, then eventually begins to fade into many other much more numerous, and yet less concise conceptualizations. It could be said for that matter that at some hypothetical point in history, that the Milky Way Dragon had lost its sole identification with the sinuous Feathered Body of the early Serpent form, in order to take on a more resolute and determined role as the servant of man. This change seemed to have taken place sometime after the fall of Teotihuacan, with the later emergence of groups such as the Mixtec’s. Indeed, it is in the Mixtec Codices that we are to find the likeness of a “man-like being,” who emerges and is born from within the core of the heavens, and then takes on the name of “9-Wind,” the birth date name of the conceptualized “Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl,” or “Wind Serpent Man.”  Soon after this point in history, it would then seem that the initial fertile aspect of the Milky Way Dragon had disappeared a little further into the background, in order so that the more male oriented element of Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, which was positioned as a being that acted as a cultural curator of the arts, and the sciences could then emerge as an archetype for the new growing communities. It is also true that the iconographic representations listed earlier above and  beginning as far back with the Olmec may have been representing this man like archetype as well, however it becomes even more prominent later in Mesoamerican history.  With this change that was initiated, the priests then began to further construct and advertise a man like entity gifted with the pertinent intellectual skills, and the superhuman prowess that retained some of the earlier supernatural powers of the Milky Way Dragon as being a bearer, and creator of either the constructive or destructive weather conditions that man subsisted on. For that matter, the  Milky Way Dragon was retained as the logo of Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, but was also reserved as an iconographic eccentricity that recalled the past, and the greatness of the former civilizations from within Mesoamerica’s ancient foundations.                                                                                                                                                       4
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  Quetzalcoatl from the Codex Laud: Here in the form of Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, the male human orientated figure inherits the luminous “Dragon Maw Mask” of the Milky Way, although now more specifically it is the eccentric “Buccal Wind Mask,” often thought of as the relic of an exotic jungle bird. The actual Feathered Serpent can also dawn this mask as well, for in reality the mask initially came from the earlier dragon source anyway. Also however, the mask can symbolize the stars of Leo, where Quetzalcoatl’s royal scepter is to be found as the sun passes along throughout the hurricane season through these and other nearby stars. (From the Author: May 1994). Ehecatl’s function found here on the royal Jaguar seat indicates his status as the god of royal lineages, and the foundation of law and order. The above image may contain some of the legacy about Quetzalcoatl as the high priest who attempted to abolish sacrifice in a acculturated mythological concept, but not necessarily as a historical fact, which it is usually pursued as. The concept and source of the Feathered Dragon is more important to the study and comprehension of the deity, as it comes down to us from the confused mythological histories of Mesoamerica.  For that matter, the brightness of the nearby Galactic Center to the concept of the Dragon Maw, may in itself just as well indeed create a bridge-link between the significance of the brightness of the planet Venus, and the meaning of Quetzalcoatl as well as being related to stellar light sources.    
 
  Also deep within the former glory of the Feathered Dragon as a zoological stellar being, and also as a being, which for having been related to the production of weather it was to also have had by default very specific ‘solar associations’ that were more pronounced with the ‘solar Tlaloc war god affiliation’ that had denoted the cycles of the sun as the seasonal cause of annual precipitation. Along with the daily, and the yearly cycles of the sun, the cycle of Venus as a companion of the sun on its journey throughout the parameters of space and time had been closely noted long ever since the time of Mesoamerica’s beginnings. The connection of the planet Venus to a water and fertility Milky Way Dragon has naturally been lost due to the misappropriation of the stellar cosmologies that once permeated the Mesoamerican psychological landscape. Along with the stellar orientation of the summer solstice sun, we are also to find and discover the most important and brightest star in the sky “Sirius,” shining brightly in the Milky Way Dragons tail near the ecliptic when the sun entered the summer months. Due to the inherit brightness of the star Sirius, and the planet Venus, a simulacrum had been long developed between the two bodies, which could have also hinged on the cycle of the rains found during those summer months when the sun was generally conjunct the star Sirius. With this innate affiliation of the star Sirius and the planet Venus we might finally resurrect a connection between the planet Venus and the cycles of rain that are aptly an integral part of the Quetzalcoatl legacy.  Because the brightness of the star Sirius directly opposes the Galactic Center at the opposite end of the Milky Way Dragon, there may indeed be the bases of a long lost concept of death and resurrection of the solar god head at the two ends of the winter and summer solstices.        
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   Tlaloc-Mixcoatl-Tlahuizcalpantecutli: In this unique aboriginal representation of the Tlaloc Rain Deity, we can see elements of three different godheads stemming from the rain god, with the ancient hunter associations of the Mixcoatl (Cloud Serpent), which bears the red and white stripes of the ‘running blood rain clouds’. For this prevalent aspect, there then is also is a Venus War element that must be acknowledged as well, as we see the deity bearing a shield on his wrist, while he hurls a lighting bolt in the other. The jaw bone deities painted on the vessel also allude to the Venus Warlord principal of this Tlaloc manifestation, which is probably related more specifically to the winter and summer solstice rains.               
  Traditionally, as well the planet Venus had always had associations of war due to its observed cycles falling in conjunction with the various conflicts throughout the land. For this reason, the following archetype of Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl was to retain certain attributes of battlefield skills that aided the warrior on the battlefield; these were retained in the form of the Venus War lord “Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli.” These warrior like aspects of Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl could even indeed be said to have been initially garnered from the even more ancient deity of “Mixcoatl,” a Nahuatl word meaning “Cloud Serpent,” that also referred to the Milky Way Dragon. The two mythologies of Quetzalcoatl, and Mixcoatl in fact have so much in common that in one corpse of mythologies, Mixcoatl was said to be the father of Quetzalcoatl under his veneration of the date name of “Ce Acatl,” or 1-Reed, which outlined Quetzalcoatl’s  jurisdiction as the Toltec god of warriors. Here again, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli would configure heavily within the Quetzalcoatl mythologies, and more specifically we might even conclude that Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli is actually a regenerated derivative of the earlier Mixcoatl aboriginal legacy.                                                                                                                                                      5
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                                                                                                                                             Official Map of the Universe. Copyright. Courtesy of: Tomas J. Filsinger 
Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli: Lord of the House of Dawn, was more likely a derivative of the aboriginal hunter plains deity of Mixcoatl. In this observation, we are more likely to derive a Dragon aspect for the Venus War Lord, which could take on many aspects of the fearful portent that went along with the sight of Venus as both the Morning or Evening Star. Above we see a turquoise back shield made in the image of the god, which encapsulates the four directions. It is being assumed here by this author that the “Bird-Dragon,” aspect of the symbol has been extracted specifically from the southern end of the Milky Way as a Double Headed Dragon. The eye of the deity in this case sits in an area where the summer solstice currently resides, there can also be found as well various stellar filaments that resemble an eye; giving new meaning to the concept of “Gem in Eye.” The mouth in this case incloses the 1st brightest star Sirius, counterpart of the Venus War Lord, and then curves upward geometrically to surmount the 14th brightest star of Procyon.  Orion in this case forms the lower jaw of the Dragon. (Personal Discovery of the Author: 2002).      Both the legacy of Mixcoatl as an ancient aboriginal hunter-warrior, and the legacy of the meaning of the ‘reed shaft’ as an arrow used in the art of the hunt and war may variably and justifiably be related to the star Sirius, and the similar stellar locality of the hunter constellation of Orion.  Indeed for that matter, Mixcoatl in the Mesoamerican mythologies was known as a god of the rains, which was demonstrated by the red and white body paintings that signified a rain of blood falling like water from the whiteness of clouds above; and which were also symbolized by way of a simulacrum with the “White Milky Way Cloud Dragon.” Mixcoatl was indeed related though somewhat confusingly along with Quetzalcoatl to the planet Venus, but this can be further confirmed and corroborated with the star Sirius and planet Venus connection. The legacy of Mixcoatl in Mesoamerica, can very much resemble that of Osiris in the ancient Egyptian world  as a superintendent of the dead signified by the white road of the Milky Way, the passage way to the underworld.
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  Mixcoatl from the Codex Laud. Here we see Mixcoatl in a classic and repeated image of the god attacking a jaguar, and as a symbol of the Milky Way the cat is bleeding. The cat is seen turning around to claw the organ of the naked aboriginal god – in truth this Codice painting is a star map in reverse. The gods organ is the Andromeda Galaxy, while the jaguars paw is the constellation of Perseus. See star map above. (From the Author: October 2011).
 
  Intrinsic to the Quetzalcoatl / Mixcoatl archetypical affiliation garnered through the Milky Way Dragon, and the planet Venus associations, there was to remain as well, the underworld association brought forth from the earlier Mixcoatl blueprint that survived in the newly emerging Quetzalcoatl archetype within the form of his inherit twin deity known as “Xolotl,” who is outlined as specifically a god of death, the place of the underworld, and it’s inherit dark contraption of the ball game. Within this dualistic two fold mythology between Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl, we then find the appropriation of the two different phases of Venus as a Morning and Evening star as being assigned to each one of these two Quetzalcoatl archetypes. Naturally, as Xolotl was to absorb the more dark and deathly element of the Quetzalcoatl religion, this deity would of course be identified with the Evening Star phase of Venus, which follows the sun into the dark underworld after sunset. Accompanying the sun on it’s underworld journey, this deity was aptly to absorb the classic affiliation of the ‘dog servant ‘ companion of the sun through the underworld. The vestiges of Sirius as the “Dog Star,” are evident here with the earlier mention of the Sirius / Venus connection that pervades the cyclic nature of the sun, and it’s celestial journeys through the encampments of night, and the passageways of the ecliptic throughout the year where the sun once again meets with Sirius for a helical setting in May, and later a helical rising in August.                                                                                                                                                        6
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   A unique and rare ceramic mask of a humanoid dog being wearing the “Tlaloc Owl Eyes,” of the underworld. Such a comparative blend of mythological elements proves indeed that the Owl Eyes are an aspect of the underworld, which the sun traverses at night. The dog is the companion of the dead on the journey through the underworld, and often dogs were ritually killed ahead of time to assist the owner in their future deaths. The twin of Quetzalcoatl, or Xolotl, which basically means “wrinkled,” had assigned manifestations of the Lord of the Dead (Mictlantecuhtli). One of these ancient aspects of Mictlantecuhtli was the symbol of the dog as a celestial omen and as the 10th day sign of “Izcuintli,” which is seen mounted on the face of the Aztec Calendar Stone in conjunction with a Sirius star symbol along side the 11th sign of the Monkey. When Xolotl is featured in the Codices wearing the dog head it specifically represents Quetzalcoatl’s Evening Star aspect. Picture is used with permission from the Justin Kerr collection at the Maya Vase website. #6486©
http://www.famsi.org/research/kerr/                                                                                                                                                                                                     www.mayavase.com.

  Due to the dual nature of the Quetzalcoatl / Xolotl archetype, the planet Venus with its dual modes of Morning and Evening Star appearances has been the most formally accepted version of  the Quetzalcoatl identity.  However, this “Venus Archetype,” for the Quetzalcoatl legacy has suffered on certain accounts of iconographic identification since in reality, once again, the true meaning of ‘Quetzalcoatl’ is indeed the image of the “Feathered Serpent,” while Venus can only fulfill the nature of a serpent form conceptually, and perhaps only as being a ‘forerunner’ and providing the official path of the sun on its journey throughout the heavens. For this matter, in reality, as we saw earlier the true identity of the Feathered Serpent image should come to be understood as being originally derived from the Milky Way, mean while the location of the star Sirius within the Milky Way Dragons tail could indeed provide some good evidence for the further associations of the planet Venus to the legacy of the Feathered Dragon and its iconographic designations. However, this does not mean that there are not to be other stellar iconographic legacies that are to be related to the Quetzalcoatl archetype as it was exercised throughout Mesoamerican history.
  Germane to the Quetzalcoatl iconographic legacy is also the scepter that he is often seen carrying, which is called the “xoniquilli,” and which is usually seen encrusted with seven stars that have been said to represent the ‘little dipper’ or Ursa Minor. The specifics of the stellar connection to Quetzalcoatl’s scepter have been outlined by various authors (Brundage.1981:85). Yet along with Ursa Minor, the curved constellation of Leo may configure strongly as well in this regard since the scepter held by Quetzalcoatl has implications of royalty. These royal implications are stressed as well by the location of Ursa Major in the sky, which serves as the rotating pivotal center symbolized by the star Polaris. While authors have noted this inherent connection of Ursa Minor, what has not been well noted, or understood is the fact that a stellar representation of Quetzalcoatl is actually holding the royal xoniquilli in the northern sky. (From the Author: June 1986) This formal image of Quetzalcoatl is indeed the stellar body of Perseus as it appears to be standing on the Pleiades star cluster. For this reason, Quetzalcoatl has been referred to as the “god who stands on the marketplace stars.” This perception is instructively reinforced with the pointed constellation of Cassiopeia that is seen routinely emerging out of the northeastern sky as a symbol of Quetzalcoatl’s pointed “Huaxtec Cap.”     
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  Quetzalcoatl from the Codex Ramirez, and as is seen in the book “Americas Assignment with Destiny,” by Manny P. Hall. Unknown to the general public, and the scholarly community as well, this codice picture actually outlines one of the most important constellation forms in ancient Mesoamerica, which is Quetzalcoatl as the Perseus and Cassiopeia star groups. The Mesoamerican Pleiades symbol are quite evident below this deities foot, and the scepter he bears is also well known and accepted to be the constellation of Ursa Minor. The journey that the Perseus star group makes into the underworld on a daily and seasonal basis provides strong evidence for the legend of Quetzalcoatl’s underworld journey to retrieve the bones of man. The constellation form is routinely seen rising in the north-eastern horizon beginning in the summer months at the time of dawn. This is due to the fact that when the sun is at the summer solstice, that it is also apparent that the constellation form seems to be pulling ahead of the sun at dawn, somewhat in the same sense that the planet Venus moves ahead of the sun as the Morning Star. This constellation form also lies within a vicinity of the Milky Way where it would seem that it is darting out like an arrow of light from the vicinity of the star Sirius. (Specific Discovery of the Author: See T.I.M.E. Chapter above for more details pp. 2 and 3). Also Note: That this constellation discovery was the bases and the inspiration of the painting at the top of this page in the header that was created by the author in 1991.           There then are the legends of Quetzalcoatl as the deity that journeys into the underworld to retrieve the bones of man. At times he is specifically designated as the god Xolotl in this case.  As usual, we are perhaps to retrieve the usual planetary Venus archetype to understand this occupation of the legendary Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl here as the redeemer of man. However, due to the periodic rising’s and falling of the Perseus constellation, we might actually have the bases of the myth that sends Quetzalcoatl into the underworld to retrieve the bones of man, and where he then confronts the Lord of the Dead (Mictlantecuhtli) who tests and challenges Quetzalcoatl before finally tripping him as he tries to flee from the underworld with the bones of man. Quetzalcoatl having been tripped by the Lord of the Dead, then accidentally drops the bones of man, which shatters the bones into numerous pieces. Having been evaded of the Perseus connection of the Quetzalcoatl legacy, we have not yet been able to retrieve the possibility concerning the whereabouts of the broken bones of man. However, in truth, the Pleiades star cluster has been referred to as many things throughout history. In Mesoamerica, they could be thought of as a hand full of seeds, but always they were thought of pertaining to the concept of ‘many’ parts due to their numerous bright appearance. For that matter, one of their current Nahuatl names is known as “Miactin,” meaning ‘many’. Although far from the usual deliverance of narrative information, the facts nonetheless could point to the Pleiades as being the dropped and shattered bones of man. Bones were indeed thought of as the ‘seeds’ of life that were rejuvenated by the labors of Quetzalcoatl. (From the Author: September 23, 2010).        This particular stellar constellation of Quetzalcoatl may have been important to the Xochicalco New Fire Ceremony, which reopened the new 52-year cycle with the date of 2-Serpent. The assumption here would be that the old 52-year cycle was closed with the date of 1-Lizard, which is related to the constellation of Perseus by virtue of the angle that this constellation rises in, and which is found in the north-eastern direction where the 4th sign of the Lizard or (Cuetzpallin) is situated within the 20-day horizontal compass. If this 52-year New Fire Ceremony reopening had taken place on the date of 2-Serpent, in the year of 1-Rabbit, then the date of observance would have been around October 20th. This may have meant that this particular version of the rite was taken care of nearer to the dawn, and as well it is the speculation of this author that it may have involved the situation of the Andromeda Galaxy with respect to the Pleiades, since both stars are located within the Perseus stellar complex. In fact, interestingly, the smaller portion of the Andromeda Galaxy seems to be the expelled breath of this Perseus-Quetzalcoatl constellation as it relates to the star group of Cassiopeia. (See page 10 of the “New Fire Ceremony,” chapter found above).  Of course, as is well known, the name of this 4th sign of the 20-day cycle in the Mayan version is called “KAN,” and specifically refers to ‘ripe corn’. The legacy of the Quetzalcoatl archetype revolves around the rejuvenation of mankind through resurrecting the bones of man from the underworld. Alternatively, Quetzalcoatl is said to have resurrected the corn seed from the same location as well, and then was to mix the two with his own blood to create the new version of man. For the matter of the Mayan day sign, this Perseus star group buried in the middle of the Milky Way Arm indeed can resemble a corn plant as it ‘sprouts’ from the north eastern horizon. On the subject of the origin of the Quetzalcoatl mythology, some would prefer to believe that the earlier Mayan mythology of Hun Nal Ye was to be the precursor to the Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl concept. However, in reality, there are many elements of iconography that displace such a narrowed view point that assigns the origins of Quetzalcoatl specifically to Hun Nal Ye.   For one thing, there never was any specific association of Hun Nal Ye, to the Milky Way Dragon. Nor was there ever any association of Hun Nal Ye to the wind or the rain. Only does this most precise association come through with the death and resurrection of the corn god from the underworld, and the occupation of the ‘twins’ who execute this duty, and who only resemble Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl in concept. For that matter, the reality of the situation is that Hun Nal Ye is more aptly related to the Flayed God of Springtime, Xipe Totec. In truth, this ancient horrific deity is actually the true counterpart to Quetzalcoatl in his more humanoid archetypical form. Indeed, the Perseus star group is also related to Xipe Totec as well. As can be seen in various iconographical representations, both gods wear the conical “Huaxtec Cap,” which is variably related to the Cassiopeia star group. Also, both deities of Xipe, and Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl have the characteristic stripe down the eye and through the cheek. This is firstly an aspect of the Xolotl Dog, and the Huehue Coyotl concept that was then projected upon these two deities by virtue of the stellar location of the Andromeda Galaxy and its barred spiral arm. (From the Author: 2002). The buccal nose mask seen above and so indicative to Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl is borrowed over from the area of the Galactic Center as an initial aspect of the “Feathered Milky Way Dragon,” which was then placed upon the more humanoid Quetzalcoatl archetype.                            
                                                             

                                                                                                                                                       8
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  Xipe Totec from the Codex Laud: Here he is seen as the god of spring, and attending to the planting care of the young corn deity, who is subject to interference from animals and birds. This gods Metztli, which took place in the spring of late February and early March, was also relevant to the placement of the sun within and around the constellations of Perseus and Cassiopeia. Therefore, Xipe Totec’s 2nd Metztli is indispensable in recognizing that the 18-periods of the year in the Aztec Calendar are not part of a slip cycle, but instead are fixed by virtue of the correction procedure held in every 52-years when the Pleiades reached the zenith at midnight in the year 2-Reed on the day 4-Movement.     
  
   The relative relationship of Xipe Totec, and Quetzalcoatl is reinforced and yet suppressed all at once, with the location of the spring rites of the second 20-day Metztli of “Tlacaxipeualiztli,” and finally the 3rd and 4th Metztli’s of “Tozoztontli,” and “Huey Tozoztli,” the Small and Great Feasts of “Vigilance,” implying ‘penance’. Xipe and Quetzalcoatl are the two gods of penance and sacrifice, except that Quetzalcoatl had become the god of self-sacrifice and penance. This idea is recognized and put forward in the 40-day period of Tozoztli, but strangely these two 20-day Metztli cycles found in late March and April are not ruled by him. It is the supposition of this author that possibly these two Metztli cycles were at one time perhaps related to Quetzalcoatl in other cultures, but were to have been later suppressed by the Mexica-Azteca. If this is by any chance the case, then it is no wonder that Quetzalcoatl has no official rulership of any of the 20-day Metztli cycles found in the later Mexica-Azteca religions. The first smaller feast was officially ruled by the earth goddess Coatlique, while the great feast was ruled by the corn god “Centeotl,” and “Chicome Coatl,” or 7-Serpent; two deities which are variably Quetzalcoatl affiliations. It is also worth noting as well that these two ceremonies took place, and still occur when the sun is within a relative vicinity to the Perseus constellation complex.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
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   The 3rd and 4th Metztli cycles of Tozoztontli, and Hue Tozoztli: “The Lesser and Greater Vigil’s” that were celebrated in late March, and through the latter part of April, were specifically dedicated to the gods of the spring and the blossoming of the earth with flowers and agriculture. The first cycle was ruled by the earth goddess Coatlique (Serpent Skirt), while second greater cycle was ruled by Centeotl, and Chicome Coatl (7-Serpent), and who are both agricultural deities of the of corn growing ritual. Above it can be seen that both cycles have been represented by a stellar constellation represented by a bird being pierced by a bone. These two diagrams, which are both from Diego Duran’s “Ancient Calendar,” specifically show elements of the spring blossoming as part of the environmental scenario. According to Duran, as it was mentioned by him in his manuscript, this stellar formation was thought to be specifically the stars of “Taurus,” and while this idea may be subject to further debate we can still be assured that this is nonetheless a spring ceremony when the sun is approaching the Hades Star Cluster in any case. In the opinion of this author, rather it would seem instead that the bird iconography is not so precise in this case, and that instead the light of the Andromeda Galaxy would represent the bone thrusted into the image of an outstretched bird that is the full extent of the Milky Way. When this is taken into consideration, it can be seen where the constellation form would correspond perfectly with the solar time of year when the sun is just within the vicinity of the Andromeda Galaxy. Other than that the Gemini / Orion / Taurus star groups would be setting in the west at sunset during this time of year. (See star map under page 5 above).              As the theory is generally accepted, Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl as a legendary and/or mythological ruler was to have undergone a certain historical expulsion from his empire between 923 and 947 CE. The evidence for such a divine human legacy in Mesoamerica is actually, though not surprisingly very sparse. The uniqueness of a semi-divine ruler has permeated high culture ever since the dawn of major civilizations, and was used to serve as a bases of edict for their ruling classes. The consequences have always naturally resulted in the negative circumstances, or of failure for the semi-divine ruler, who for having succumbed to their own human nature had become derailed by typical community sins. With this natural inclination of the semi-divine ruler as being part human in the first place, a role model was being provided to remind the earthly human rulers of their own mortality, and potential for personal ruin through negligence, and lack of religious vigilance.         The myth of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl is no different in this respect, and for that matter there were many historical rulers and priests who were given the name, title, and role of “Quetzalcoatl.” It is very unfortunate that the general public who briefly peers into the mysteries of ancient Mesoamerica, must become forever sidetracked by relating every aspect of the Feathered Serpent symbolism to the legend of the mythical ruler for the city of “Tollan,” which means the ‘Place of Reeds’ by the archetypical lake of the community of: In Atl, In Tepetl: The place of ‘the water, and the mountain’, which served as the celestial foundation of the human home and community on earth. For that matter, there were to be many Tollans as well, found throughout the land of ancient Mexico, both in concept and in name. Of course, it was the natural reaction of the natives to focus the mythological reputation of a conceptual community history onto their own past and cultural record, in order to serve as a bases for their own social engineering.                                                                                                                                                          9
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  Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl from the Florentine Codex: After the Spanish Conquest Bernadino de Rivera (Sahagun) had written a volume on the myth of Topiltzin (Our Prince) Quetzalcoatl, as advised through native informants. However, despite the implied legitimacy of the former rulers legacy, in truth each and every aspect of this ‘deities’ regalia is a result of stellar iconography: The Pointed Crown, the Curved Staff, the Shelled Earing, the Striped Cheek, and even the pose of letting blood from the shins is of a stellar origin. The Shield? Therefore, what aspect of this ‘deity’ is actually human? Deep within the reservoir of the symbolic language of mythology, and the stellar format from which it is derived, there remains the potential within the development of so many gods arriving from the heavens to finally embody a ‘flesh and blood presence’ about them. This is demanded by the community at large, who would demand that their gods should be as real as they feel they are. For this task of being real, there is also the command that these ‘super-humans’ should also rule them as well. The concept of a celestial emissary has haunted the imagination of man for as long as the concept has been needed to relieve the hardship of political rivalry, and social confusion in a world ruled at large by humans. 
 
  In the case of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, the legacy of his implied rulership centers around the abolishment of human sacrifice throughout the land, and pointing therefore to the controversial need to do so in Mesoamerica. In place of the old edict, the divine ruler only demanded that there should be the sacrifice of butterfly’s, snakes, birds, and other animals, as offerings to the gods. As an aspect of social legitimacy, the offering of one’s own blood was the center piece of the royal edict, which then became part of the essential symbolism repeated within the iconographic legacy associated with the divine ruler. As earlier mentioned above, this may have been part and parcel of the spring rites of “Tozoztontli,” and “Hue Tozoztli,” the Small and Great Vigil, which took place after the rites of Xipe Totec. However, for the mythological reputation associated with Quetzalcoatl as being anti-human sacrifice, the later Mexica-Azteca may have suppressed this aspect of the deities affiliation with those ceremonies. Nonetheless, this spring ceremony affiliation might have been principally recognized in places sacred to the Quetzalcoatl mythology, such as in the ancient city of Cholula, (circa 100-1521 CE) where the largest pyramid in Mesoamerica now stands; and where in truth the original edict for the abolishment of human sacrifice may have actually ever arrived from, if it indeed is true. The city of Cholula was an eventual mecca point for the authority of kings who had arrived there from throughout the land to receive royal legitimacy born from out of the Quetzalcoatl concept.
 
  However, royal lineage was a legacy of Mesoamerica in whole since its beginning, therefore there is no need to associate the bases of the royal lineage with the mythological legacy of Topitzin Quetzalcoatl. Rather instead, the Feathered Serpent concept had gained this aspect of social hegemony, for the very element of reliability and stability that the Feathered Serpent had portended as a good omen pertaining to a generous rainfall, and the blossoming of vegetation that came about as a result. Quetzalcoatl was the myth of plenty, and the promise of fulfillment found in a structured world of divine order. For this reason, his early mythology related heavily to the needs of man for the bases of rain, and the abundant foods it produced. Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent was therefore the god of universal generosity, and an advocate for the survival of man as being apart of his very spirit as the movement of the winds.

  Naturally,
as a part of the overall Milky Way serpent legacy, the virtual image of man was to be found there in the heavens as well. The suggestion has been earlier given by default, with the explanation of so many deities arriving out of the heavens in the basic form of man with his serpent like body, and other serpent like extensions to aid him in the environment. Therefore, the Feathered Dragon had early on in Mesoamerica, had become the god of man both in physical form, and therefore in religious resolution. In Mesoamerica, the 5-fold star created by the 584-day journey of Venus upon the ecliptic may have been a symbol of man’s body, although admitting as well that there is no official word of this found in any codices. Nonetheless, most anything associated with man was associated with Quetzalcoatl as the Feathered Dragon in Mesoamerica; and that included both man’s life at birth, and as well as his death. For this reason when we see the image of a man arriving out of the jaws of a Feathered Dragon in Mesoamerica, we do not necessarily see the image of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl as an ancient king, but rather our own image as a divine mortal of periodic reawakening’s.       
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Aztec Mythology: The Influence of Aztec Mythology on Mexican Culture and History

James W. Salterio Torres
Jordan High School for Careers

Introduction

The impact of the Latin American intellectual explosion in literature dramatically increased the number of books written by Latin American writers translated from Spanish to English and the number of persons reading this literature. After the Mexican Revolution, the awakened interest in Mexican authors (such as Carlos Fuentes, Octavio Paz, Juan Rulfo, Rosario Castellanos, and other writers) in Mexican mythology and culture was reflected in their works.

In art, Mexican mural painters Diego de Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Rufino Tamayo, and painter Frida Kahlo expressed their deeply felt Mexican heritage by focusing on traditional pre-Columbian art and artifacts, especially on the art and mythology of the Aztecs.

This unit will introduce students to the Aztec major and minor gods and their attributes and functions within Aztec society. Unfortunately, the rich range of the mythology of the Aztecs has been overshadowed by their belief in their sun’s need for human sacrifice to survive, a practice that was especially repugnant to the Spanish priests, and was a direct cause of the destruction of Aztec temples and religious writings and practices. Enough, however, has survived and been rewritten, often by churchmen themselves, to once again describe these gods and the rites that accompanied their worship. In this unit I shall retell some of these tales.

This unit will describe unique characteristics belonging to each god and his influence in the everyday life of the people. For example, Yacatecutli was a god important to the economy of the state. He was the god of the merchants or pochtecas. Much like the Greek god Hermes, he protected merchants from all sorts of dangers during their travels. Tezctzoncatl, the god of pulque wine, was blamed for the offences of his intoxicated followers, similar to the Greek god Dionysus whose ate, or madness, overpowered his maenads. Others gods are responsible for providing men with sustenance, such as Chicomencoatl, the goddess of corn maize, and the god Opochtli, worshiped by fishermen, who is said to have invented the fishing net and type of spear used by fishermen.

This unit will point out similarities between Aztec mythology and other world mythologies. From the Aztecs’ creation myth and its variations, to the long northern trek of the Aztecs led by their tribal god Huitzilopochtli, who refers to them as “the chosen,” until they received a sign indicating where they should build their capital, Tenochtitlan. Students will compare this journey to Moses leading the Jews from Egypt into the promised land of Israel.

I will use this unit to argue that the Mexican psyche has been enormously shaped by its mythological background and history, that the celebration of the Day of the Dead, the Mexican belief that “la vida no vale nada” (life is worthless), and other aspects of popular Mexican culture are reflections of this mythology, and that this Mexican worldview works itself into literary works, such as Juan Rulfo’s Pedro Páramo, where the protagonist descends to a town called Comala, an allegorical descent into Hell, and walks among and speaks to the dead, while

seeking an almost mythical cacique long since dead and El llano en llamas; Ruben Romero’s La vida inútil de Pito Pérez; Octavio Paz’s brilliant essays on the Mexicans’ fundamental nature El laberinto de la soledad; Agustin Yanez’s Al filo del agua; Carlos Fuentes’ La muerte de Artemio Cruz; and other Mexican writings.

Students will discuss specific authors who have used Aztec mythology, in one form or another in their writings, including the Chilean Nobel prize-winning poet Pablo Neruda in his Canto General. Students will discuss the mythological elements in Carlos Fuentes’ science fiction story Chac Mol, even though the story deals with a Mayan, not an Aztec, deity.

This unit is written for a 12th grade Advanced Placement course in Spanish and Spanish-American Literature. It will expose my Spanish AP students to Mesoamerican mythology, allowing them to study and compare the similarities and differences with the better-known classical Greek and Roman myths. Students will study and use handouts and visual aids, that is, illustrations of the gods taken from the various codices.

This unit will be taught completely in Spanish; therefore, all of the material in the unit will be translated into Spanish.

OBJECTIVES

This unit will meet the following Project Clear for Languages Other Than English (Foreign Language) objectives:

Goal 1: Communication (Reading) 9.1.h Students will read to discover meaning through context and visual clues.

Goal 1: Communication (Writing) 9.1.i Students will write in the target language to convey a message or to exchange information about everyday activities or oneself.

Goal 2: Cultures: 9.2.a Students will describe some of the daily activities of the people of the target language and how this is reflected in their culture and language.

9.2.b Students will locate the major countries and areas of the world where the target language is spoken and identify some well-known personalities as well as some of the characteristics of the people.

Goal 3: Connections: 9.3.a Students will use the language to make connections with other subject areas and to acquire information.

Goal 4: 9.4.a Students will compare and contrast one language and culture to another language and culture.

UNIT BACKGROUND

Foreword

Desde ‘ab inicio’ adoramos nuestros dioses y los tenemos por buenos, así deben ser los vuestros y no cureis más al presente de hablarnos de ellos./Throughout all time we have worshipped our own gods and thought they were good. I do not doubt the goodness of the god whom you worship, so do not trouble to speak to us about them at present. (Díaz del Castillo 317)

Moctezuma’s words to Cortes contain the seed for the destruction of the Aztec religious system by the Spanish Catholic Church. The religious intolerance of the Spaniards, which had been reinforced by their long and bloody reconquista of Spain from the Moors, ending with the expulsion of the Moors and the Jews from Spain in 1492, was in sharp contrast to the Aztec religion, which had already incorporated a great number of ancient Mesoamerican gods into its pantheon. Edith Hamilton contrasts the gods of the Greeks with those of primitive man as follows:

Horrors lurked in the primeval forest, not nymphs and naiads. Terror lived there, with its close attendant, Magic, and its most common defense, Human Sacrifice…These and their like were what the pre-Greek world worshipped. One only need place beside them in imagination any Greek statue of a god, so normal and natural with all its beauty, to perceive that a new idea had come into the world. With its coming, the universe became rational. (4, 8)

It is precisely the Aztec’s desire to make their world rational that gave rise to many, even the most terrifying of their myths. Many of the Aztec gods are agricultural gods, and the need to appease these gods through ritualistic planting and sacrifices is shared by cultures that depend on agriculture. The Aztec’s creation myths are an attempt to explain the origins of the universe and of man. Unfortunately for the Aztecs, human sacrifice, the most disgusting ritual, is normally the focus of a study of the Aztecs and their religion.

The Aztec religion was polytheistic and some of the anthropomorphic gods in the Mexican pantheon were originally human heroes elevated to divine stature, for example Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl of Tula and Mixcoatl among the Chichimecs. Mesoamerican religion is pervasive in every aspect of their culture. In a very crowded pantheon it is difficult to assign lordship over a distinct sphere – sun, moon, maize, pulque or earth – to one specific god. To add more confusion, the Aztec gods often have a number of avatars (e.g. Quetzalcoatl, Ehecatl, Xolotl Tlahuizcalpentecuhtli).

In the end, the Spaniards destroyed Indian libraries, temples, and idols, and other religious manifestations of the Mesoamerican Indians. Most of the accounts and descriptions of the Aztecs and Mayan gods that have survived are seen through a Hispanic prism. But, you only have to attend the Catholic rituals in some of the regions populated by the descendants of the Aztecs and the Maya in Mexico and Central America and of the Incas in Peru, and you will witness the power these religions had to assimilate the gods of other cultures. The semblance may be a normal Catholic mass, but it is always refreshing to see that the conqueror’s religion has been assimilated into the religion of the conquered, which has discovered under the guise of the saints and prophets of the Catholic faith many of their old, familiar gods. They are as familiar to them as when an old, Mexican peasant still addresses corn, the sacred plant, as “Your Lordship.”

The Origin of the Aztecs

About nine hundred years ago, a tribe of Native Americans called the Aztecs were told by their gods that to the south lay a fertile land where they would found a great city. Led by their tribal god Huitzilopochtli, they abandoned their homeland, reportedly Chicomoztoc, or Seven Caves, or, according to other accounts, from another place called by different names, Aztlan and Azcatitlan, probably located in northwestern Mexico. Modern researchers have not been able to locate this site. According to legend, eight different tribes abandoned this site, among them the Mexica-Azteca.

Huitzilopochtli smeared resin on their ears and foreheads and stuck balls of feather-down on them as a sign that they were his chosen people. The god also commanded them to change their name from Aztecs to Mexica. They began an arduous three-hundred-year journey southward in search of a new place to live.

About AD1250 the Aztecs arrived and settled in Chapultepec, or Grasshopper Hill, but they made many enemies among the surrounding tribes by stealing their married women and because of their repugnant sacrifices. They were driven from Chapultepec and forced to hide in the swamps surrounding the Lake of Tezcoco (Lake of the Moon). Later, they settled in some small islands in the Lake of Tezcoco, near what is now Mexico City.

The fertile highland valley in which they settled had been under the rule of the Toltecs who had consolidated their power gradually in the area after founding their capital Tula about AD 950. The Toltecs enjoyed a rich legacy of myths and legends. In 1168, the Chichimecs destroyed the city of Tula and Toltec rule came quickly to an end. When the Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico, they found several tribes living in the area, but after the fall of the Toltecs no dominant power had risen to take their place. The Toltecs’ influence over the Aztecs, however, was significant because the Aztecs adopted their culture, including their myths and legends. As historian Nigel Davies puts it:

Basic to the Mexica version of their history is the reported intermarriage of their elite with the Culhua nobility, par excellence, the guardians of the Toltec tradition. This injection of Culhua blood served the Mexica as a pretext, however contrived, to pose as the true heirs of Tula, depicted in Aztec legend as a fabulous city whose temples were faced with gold and turquoise. By virtue of this claim, in their future career of conquest they were merely regaining what was theirs by right, as the ‘Colhua Mexica,’ or the latter-day Toltecs. (224)

Religion permeated every aspect of Aztec life. The Aztecs assimilated many of the gods from other cultures into their pantheon, including such vital gods as Quetzalcoatl and Tlaloc, and others, from early Mesoamerican cultures, such as the Toltecs and other neighboring tribes.

As the chosen people of the Sun God Huitzilopochtli, the Aztecs had the divine mission to feed the god the hearts and blood needed to make sure the Sun God had the strength to keep moving through the sky. Rather than apply mechanical methods to meet life’s challenges, the Aztecs applied spiritual methods. For this reason they practiced countless ceremonies, rituals, divinations, magical phrases and formulas to appease or coerce their gods to grant their wishes.

Foundation Myth

The Founding of Tenochtitlán

The witch, Malinalxochitl, sister of the god Huitzilopochtli, did nothing but cause trouble for the Mexica during their long journey from the north. She charmed spiders and scorpions and ordered them to bite her enemies. The Mexica asked her brother, Huitzilopochtli, what could be done with her. “Leave her behind,” he replied, “when she is fast asleep, pick up and leave her behind.” And the Mexica did just that. They left her behind at Malinalco.

When the goddess woke up, she became extremely angry with the Mexica. Malinalxochitl learned that the Mexica were at Chapultepec and ordered her young son Copil to avenge her. Copil went and stirred up trouble among the local tribes against the Mexica. He climbed a hill near Chapultepec to watch the Mexica’s defeat.

But two Mexica priests climbed up the hill behind him and captured him. They sacrificed him, cut out his heart and threw it away near the present site of the Zocalo.

Copil’s heart landed on a rock and from that rock grew a nopal cactus that would later give its name to Tenochtitlán (Place of the Cactus Stone). The date of the founding of Tenochtitlan is generally given as 1324 or 1325, but other dates as early as 1280 and as late as 1362 have been suggested.

Etiological Myth

The Origin of the Nopal Cactus

A long time ago, the Aztecs, who called themselves the Mexica, from whence we get the name “Mexican,” were a tribe that inhabited northern Mexico. The gods spoke to the tribal priests and said to move south to a fertile land where they would found a great city. Led by their tribal god, the warlike and cruel Huitzilopochtli, they began a journey to the south that lasted several hundred years, undergoing many hardships, until they reached a fertile valley surrounded by mountains and two volcanoes. In the middle of this valley was the Lake of Texcoco dotted with large and small islands. Peaceful tribes inhabited the shores of the lake. The Aztecs settled on one of the islands to wait for a sign from the gods, a beautiful eagle sitting atop a plant, where the gods had instructed them to build their capital.

Huitzilopochtli, their tribal god and god of war, was a cruel deity who demanded human sacrifices every day. Soon, the Aztecs were at war with their peaceful neighbors to capture prisoners to sacrifice to the god.

To the North lived Huitzilopochtli’s sister with her husband and their son, Copil. Young Copil grew up hearing stories of his uncle’s cruelty. Copil felt his uncle’s behavior brought shame to the family and it was especially painful to his mother. Copil promised his mother that he would raise an army to capture his uncle and stop the killing and suffering. He reached the shores of the Lake of Texcoco, the Lake of the Moon, and in the distance, in the middle of the lake, he saw the island inhabited by the Aztecs and their god. Tired of the long day’s march, Copil decided to rest his men and make camp for the night. He would carry out his plan early the next morning.

But, little did the naïve Copil know that his uncle had received warning of his approach from his innumerable spies. Huitzilopochtli flew into a rage and angrily ordered three of his priests to paddle across the lake under the darkness of night and, while Copil and his men slept, cut out his nephew’s heart and bring it to him as an offering. At midnight, the three priests paddled across the dark lake, and found Copil and his men asleep after their long journey. The high priest easily cut Copil’s chest open with an obsidian sacrificial knife and ripped out his heart. They brought back Copil’s heart to Huitzilopochtli and asked him what he wanted done with the bloody offering. They were ordered to bury it on the island in the middle of the lake. The next morning they found a green plant with red flowers growing where the heart was buried. The high priest told Huitzilopochtli that the plant was called a nopal cactus. According to the priest, it grew from Copil’s heart to remind them throughout the ages of his courage and nobility. A few days later, the Aztecs saw an eagle with a serpent in its beak standing on top of a branch of the nopal cactus. The Aztecs built a beautiful city on this spot. They called the city Tenochtitlán, the place of the tenochtli, the hard-fruited prickly pear.

Creation Myth

Creation of the Earth and the Sky

The dualistic gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, lightness and darkness, looked down from their dwelling in the sky at the water below. Floating on top of the water was an enormous Earth Monster goddess who devoured all things with her many mouths, for the goddess had gaping mouths at the knees, elbows and other joints.

Everything the twins created, the enormous, floating, terrible, insatiable goddess ate. The twin gods, normally implacable enemies, agreed she had to be stopped. They transformed themselves into two enormous, slithering snakes, and slid silently into the dark, cool water, their cold eyes and flicking tongues seeking her body.

One of the snakes wrapped itself around the goddess’s arms and the other snake coiled itself around her legs and together they tore the immense Earth Monster goddess in two. Her head and shoulders became the earth and her belly and legs became the sky. Some say Tezcatlipoca fought the Earth Monster goddess in his human form and the goddess ate one of his feet, therefore his one-legged appearance. Angered by what the dual gods had done, and to compensate for her dismemberment, the other gods decided to allow her to provide the people with the provisions they needed to survive.

From her hair were created the trees, the grass and flowers; from her eyes, caves, springs and wells; rivers flowed from her mouth; and hills and mountains grew from her nose and shoulders.

The goddess, however, was unhappy, and after the sun sank into the earth the people would often hear her crying. Her thirst for human blood made her weep, and the people knew the earth would not bear fruit until she drank. This is the reason she is given the gift of human hearts. In exchange for providing food for human lives, the goddess demanded human lives.

Virgin Birth of Huitzilopochtli

Our mother, the earth goddess Coatlique, was impregnated by an obsidian knife and gave birth to Coyolxanuhqui, goddess of the moon, and male children, the stars. She was doing holy work at Serpent Mountain, near Tula, when she picked up a ball of feathers and tucked it in her bosom. She looked for it later, but it was gone. Coatlique soon realized she was pregnant. She told her children, the moon and the stars, the story, but they did not believe her. The gods grew angry because a goddess could only give birth once to an original brood of gods and they vowed to kill her. They gathered an army led by the moon goddess Coyolxanuhqui. High above in the mountain shrine, Coatlique heard their raised voices planning her death. She shivered in fear, but then she heard a voice from her womb telling her to not be afraid and that her new child will protect her.

At that moment, Coatlique gave birth to Hutzilopochtli, the Aztec god of war, who sprang forth fully grown and fully armed from her womb, much like Athena from the head (or some say thigh) of Zeus. With the help of a xiuhcoatl, or fire-snake, he killed and decapitated his sister, Coyolxanuhqui, tore her body into pieces, and threw the pieces into a mountain gorge where her body lies dismembered forever. He threw her head into the sky, which became the Moon. Then he scattered and killed his four hundred brothers who became the stars. This victory established Huitzilopochtli as the principal god in the Aztec pantheon.

Hero Myth

The Myth of Tepoztecatl

According to Tepoztlan oral tradition, Tepoztecatl’s mother was a young virgin who would go to the river every day to wash clothes. As she dashed her clothes against the rock a small bird landed on her shoulder and danced on it. A short time later, the virgin became aware the she was pregnant. Ashamed, she told her parents and added that the only contact she had was with a bird. Determined to hide her and her family’s dishonor, they decided they would get rid of the baby. They made several attempts; on one occasion, the baby’s grandfather threw him from a cliff hoping to dash him against the rocks below, but the winds carried and deposited the baby safely onto a plain; on another occasion, they left the baby near some maguey plants to starve, but the maguey plants bent over and gave the baby honeyed-water to drink; and then he was thrown among giant, black ants, but instead of biting and devouring him, they fed him. Finally, they placed the baby in a box and tossed it in the river, but on that day two old villagers named El Coli and La Nana heard the baby’s cry and rescued him from drowning. And they raised him as their own.

 

The boy grew tall and strong. He asked La Nana to knit him a matlat or net bag, and he asked El Coli to make him a bow. With his matlat and his bow, he ventured out into the hills to hunt game and collect obsidian stones.

Near Tepoztecatl’s home lived a monster-serpent called Mazacoatl. Every year the village had to sacrifice one of its oldest citizens to the monster-serpent. One year the villagers chose El Coli to be sacrificed to the beast. Tepoztecatl decided he would face Mazacoatl in his father’s place. During their encounter, the giant serpent swallowed him whole; however, it also swallowed Tepoztecatl’s obsidian knife. Tepoztecatl knifed his way through the belly of the beast, killing it instantly.

Then, Tepoztecatl smoke signaled his victory to the people in the valley who immediately began celebrating the god’s victory at the house of the family with the largest patio in the village of Tepoztlan. All of the villagers came to the celebration dressed in their finest clothes.

Soon, a stranger arrived dressed in dirty, ragged, linen clothes. Mud covered his feet and body. The host of the party was angered by the uninvited guest’s appearance and asked him to leave. No one had recognized the god underneath the mud and the dirty clothes. Tepoztecatl returned to his temple angry and sad. He washed in a stream and put on his finest white, cotton clothes embroidered in bright colors and flashing feathers, and his sandals, symbols of his lordship. Then, he descended to Tepoztlan where he was received with the great admiration, reverence and honor a god deserves. The feasters offered him the most exquisite food and drink and were surprised the god did not open his mouth to eat but instead offered the food and drink to his clothes.

“You feed the clothes, not the man,” the god told everyone present. “I am the same shabbily-dressed, mud caked man you turned away. I had just knifed my way out of the belly of the beast.” The god lowered his majestic head, his precious feathers quivering in the air, and he cast his shining eyes upon the host and his family. “Now that I am dressed in my divine clothes you wish to honor me. But you failed to do so when I first appeared as an honest, poor, unknown stranger. Pointing his finger at the man who had offended him earlier that day, Tepoztecatl thundered an awful punishment. “I order you and your family to leave this valley!” (Miguel Ibarra’s The Myth of Tepoztecatl translated and edited by the author)

Since then, when a Tepoztlan family organizes a feast, they do not deny anyone entrance and they do not ask for the name of any unknown guests. They treat all who enter with respect.

Aztec Gods and Goddesses

Creators

Ometeotl

The creator of all things, an androgynous god whose masculine and feminine sides are Ometecuhtli, Lord of Duality, and Omecihuatl, Lady of Duality, also known as Tonacatecuhtli, Lord of Sustenance, and Tonacacihuatl, Lady of Sustenance. This cosmic pair gave birth to four gods: Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, and Chalchiuhtlicue, who would later create the Four Suns and all of the other gods. Responsible for the creation of the world and the gods, he had nothing to do with the creation of mankind. He is said to have created the earth on the back of a giant crocodile. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

Sun, Moon, and Venus

Huitzilopochtli (left-handed hummingbird) Lord of War and Thunderstorms, Lord of the Sun

The most important god in the Aztec pantheon is Hutzilopochtli. He is the Aztec’s own special tribal god and a patron saint of the nobility. He led the Aztecs on their lengthy and perilous journey from the North and gave them the sign – the eagle and the serpent on top of a nopal cactus – for the spot where they would found their capital Tenochtitlan.

Huitzilopochtli is the son of the virgin goddess Coatlique and is said to have sprung from her womb fully grown and in battle-gear to save his mother from being killed by her daughter and sons. He is the Aztec ’s answer to the Greek war god Ares. Huitzilopochtli is very robust, has extraordinary strength and is a very belligerent destroyer of cities and slayer of peoples. His adversaries fear him as living fire. As protector of the sun, he puts the night gods to flight. Also, he is a necromancer able to change himself into the shape of birds and beasts.

Huitzilopochtli is pictured wearing a helmet in the form of a hummingbird ’s head and holding a terrible snake-dragon that breathes fire from its mouth. He carries a shield (chimalli) with five balls of down, and also darts and bow and arrows. He is a relative latecomer, but his primacy before and after the founding of Tenochtitlan is not to be doubted. During the migration and the settlement in a new place, Huitzilopochtli was the driving force. But like Dionysus, he is a new comer and is seen as the usurper of the supreme role of Tezcatlipoca in Mesoamerica.

(Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borbonicus)

Quetzalcoatl (Plumed or Precious Serpent) Lord of the Morning Star, Lord of the Wind

 

Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, also known by the names of his avatars or nahaulsTlahuizcalpantecuhtli, Lord of the House of Dawn, or Morning Star, or Venus, Ehecatl, Lord of the Wind, Ce Atl (One Reed) and Xolotl (Monster), and White Tezcatlipoca to contrast him with the black Tezcatlipoca. An ancient Mesoamerican deity, he is one of the main gods worshipped by many Mexican and Central American civilizations, including the Olmec, the Mixtec, the Toltec, the Maya and the Aztecs. The Mayans call him Kukulkan and the Quiche Gukumatz. He is the god of life and fertility. He is the creator of man, for whom he invented agriculture and to whom he gave the calendar. He gave man maize corn, having stolen kernels of corn by changing into an ant and stealing them from the ants that had hidden it. He is the patron of many arts and industries. He is also the patron of twins, being himself a twin god.

 

Quetzalcoatl was the creator of the Second Sun that was knocked from the sky and destroyed by his dualistic opposite Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl was deceived by his avatar Tezcatlipoca into committing a sin with his sister and went into exile on a raft of serpents. He promised to return in the year Ca Atl; unfortunately about the time Cortes appeared in Mexico, with devastating results for the Aztec Empire.

Quetzalcoatl’s appearance is as follows: he wears a pointed ceremonial hat on his head with quetzalli plumes. The hat is painted like a jaguar’s skin. His face and body were stained black and he wears a worked, loose fitting shirt reaching down to his waist. He wears turquoise earrings, a gold collar with small, precious, marine shells hanging from it, and on his back an emblem resembling flames. His shoes are made of jaguar skin, in his left hand he carries a painted shield with five angles and in his right hand he carries a scepter. He is the temple’s high priest.(Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borbonicus)

Tezcatlipoca

(Smoking Black Mirror) Creator of Fire, Lord of Death, Lord of the Night Sky, Warriors, Jaguars and Sorcery

 

In the Toltec’s dualistic belief system, Tezcatlipoca is Quetzalcoatl’s opposite but equal god. Smoking Black Mirror is the black god who can assume any shape, is omnipotent and omnipresent, and is connected with the night sky, stellar deities, the moon, and with night monsters of evil and destruction. He is the god of night, patron of highwaymen, of sorcerers, and of mysterious goings-on. In the place of a leg bitten off by the Earth Monster, he wears a smoking mirror. When he is on earth he causes wars, enmity, and discord. Called the “fomenter of discord on both sides” he provokes one group to war upon another; and only he understands the world order, and he alone gives man prosperity and fame when it pleases him.

He is the most important god of the priests. He is an enemy of Huitzilopochtli and of Quetzalcoatl, and is symbolized as a jaguar, whose spotted skin represents the night sky. He is connected with all phases of native religion because of his many functions, attributes, and disguises.

Tezcatlipoca is usually depicted holding a dart in an atl (spear thrower) in his right hand and his shield or mirror with four spare darts in his left hand. In his mirror he can see the actions and deeds of mankind reflected. He wears a round leather ring with a yellow ribbon on his chest that symbolizes eternity (anahuatl), which his three brothers occasionally borrow. His face is striped black and yellow.

He is the avenger of secret sin, the punisher of crime, and a god who can bring luck and good things, but who is often quick to take offense, becoming destructive and evil. He will take on a grotesque human form to give battle to warriors who are alone at night, testing their courage. A warrior who seizes Tezcatlipoca can ask as a ransom a number of maguey spines, signifying the number of prisoners he will capture in his next battle. A gruesome disguise the .god sometimes assumed is a headless body with two doors in his chest that open and close and make a noise like a tree being chopped down with an axe. (Redrawn from the Codex Borgia)

Tlahuizcalpentecuhtli, Lord of the Star of Dawn, Venus as Morning Star

Another avatar of the god Quetzalcoatl, as the morning star he is known as Tlahuizcalpentecuhtli, which means literally “the Lord of the Star of Dawn.” He is the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize corn to mankind, and sometimes a symbol of death and resurrection because the morning star also dies and is reborn each day. Quetzalcoatl is also the patron of priests and the title of the Aztec high priest. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

 

Xolotl, Lord of the Evening Star

Another avatar of the god Quetzacoatl, Xolotl is also the god of fire and of bad luck. He is a celestial twin of Quetzalcoatl, the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlique, and he is the evil personification of Venus, the Evening Star. He guards the sun when it travels through the underworld at night. He also brought forth humankind and fire from the underworld. His abilty to change shapes makes him a patron of magicians and sorcerers. He is the god of monsters and of twins, and is also associated with dogs. He is also a patron of the Mesoamercian ballgame. He is identified with Xocotl as being the Aztec Lord of Fire. Xolotl is depicted as a skeleton, a dog-headed man or a monster animal with reversed feet. (Restored by the author form the Codex Borgia)

Tonatiuh, Lord of the Sun

The Aztecs believe the sun takes different forms at different times of the day. He is reborn every day as the ancient god Tonatiuh. He is a young, vibrant man with an ochre and red painted face and a red painted body. At its zenith, the sun turns into Huitzilopochtli. As the sun descends it is devoured by the Earth Monster Tlaltecuhtli; by night, the sun travels through the dread realms of the underworld Mictlan in the shape of Tepeyolohti, a jaguar named “Heart of the Hard Mountain.” Dawn is a time for concern. The moment of transition between dark and light might be the world’s last. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

Coyolxanuhqui (Golden Bells) Lady of the Moon

Coyolxanuhqui (which means “golden bells”) is the goddess of the Moon. She is the daughter of Coatlique and sister of Huitzilopochtli. She was slain and her body was dismembered by Huitzilopochtli. He threw her head into the sky — it became the Moon. A frieze shaped like a shield was found at the base of the Great Temple in Tenochtitlan that depicts Coyol-xanuhqui lying on her side. Her arms, legs and head have been cut from her body. She is drawn with balls of eagle down in her hair, a bell symbol on her cheek, and a skull at her belt. (Drawn by the author from the above-mentioned frieze).

Itzpapalotl

(Obsidian or Clawed Butterfly)

 

Star goddess is associated with fire and lightning. She is depicted disguised as a butterfly or wearing a suit studded with obsidian knives on its wings. She has a skeletal face and rules over Tomoanchan. She wears a cape that makes her invisible. Her fingers are like a jaguar’s claws and her feet are like an eagle’s talons. She is considered the collective archetype of wisdom and is a powerful sorceress. (Restored by author from the Codex Borgia)

 

Earth and Fertility

Xipe-Totec (Our Lord the Flayed One) Lord of Fertility and Springtime

 

 

Xipe-Totec is the god of spring and fertility. His cult is especially repugnant to us because of his ritual that consists of skinning a slave alive and having his priest wear the flayed skin symbolic of the rebirth of earth renewing its mantle of vegetation. Xipe –Totec is pictured wearing the skin of a flayed human being laced up the back, and his body is painted red and white. During tlaxipeoalitzi, a 20-day celebration to this god, a band of his followers wear the skin of flayed prisoners and fight with another band of brave soldiers. After the game, the worshippers go from door to door and demand alms for their god. They are rewarded with strings of corn place around their necks and pulque. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

Xochipilli (Principal Lord of the Flowers) Lord of Games, Dance and Love

 

Xochipilli is the god of love, games, beauty, dance, flowers, maize, and song. He is also known as Macuuilxóchitl (five flowers) and is the god who most often dwells in the homes of gentlemen and the palaces of princes. Feasts are held in this god’s honor and all who celebrate must fast for four days before the feast. If any man has contact with a woman or a woman with a man during this fast, the fast is pronounced tainted. This annoys Xochipilli, and he will spread such diseases as hemorrhoids and rot to the private parts of those who break it. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

Cioacoatl or Coatlique, The Earth-Mother Goddess

The Earth-Mother Goddess is called the “Snake Woman” or the “One with the Serpent Skirt.” She is also known as Tonantzin, which means “Our Mother.” Coatlique is the mother of Huitzilopochtli. This goddess brings adverse things like poverty and ruin. The dress and ornaments of this goddess are white. Her hair is arranged to look like two horns crossed on her forehead, she carries a baby’s cradle on her back, and she will go to the market, mingle among other women and leave the cradle there. When the other women notice that the cradle has been left behind, they look to see what is in it and will find a flint rock as hard as an iron lance with which the sacrificed are killed. And people know the goddess Coatlique has left it there.

Centeotl, The Lord of Maize

Centeotl, or Cinteotle, is the god of maize or corn. He is pictured as a young man with his body painted yellow. He has ears of corn on his headdress, back or in his hands. He has a distinctive black line drawn that runs from his forehead down his cheek to his jaw. (Redrawn from by the author from the Codex Borgia.)

 

 

 

Chicomecoatl

(Seven Serpents) or Xilonen(The Hairy One) Lady of Vegetation, Ripening Corn and Sustenance

 

Chicomecoatl is Tlaloc’s sister; she is also known as Chicomolotzin. She carries the nickname “The Hairy One” because of the tassels that grow on corn. She is the goddess of vegetation, maintenance, ripening corn and of sustenance, what is eaten as well and what is drunk. She is pictured with a red-painted face, a four-sided paper crown on her head, and flowers on her dress and blouse. In her right hand she holds a glass, in her left hand a shield with a large flower. The adornments on her feet, known as cueitl, and her skirt, or uipilli, and sandals, are all red. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Maglabecchiano)

Xochiquetzal

(Precious Flower or Flower Feather) Lady of Flowers and Weaving

 

Xochiquetzal is the Goddess of Love, fertility, flowers, pregnancy and manual and domestic skills. She is the Mother of the twin gods Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl. She was married to Tlaloc but kidnapped by Tezcatlipoca. Other versions have her married to Macuuilxochitl or to Xochipilli. She is also associated with the ball game. In appearance she has her hair fixed in double trellises or has two quetzal feathers on her head. She wears a checkered shirt. She is the patron of wives, prostitutes, lovers, weavers, painters and sculptors. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Mayahuel, Lady of the Maguey Plant

Mayahuel is the sister of the Tlaloques and of Centzontotchin. She is depicted as a beautiful young woman and a maguey plant.

She represents the maguey plant and all of its products which include not only the fermented drink pulque, but leaves for burning of roofing, roots for making food or sugar, needles and nails, fiber for twine and clothing, and candy. The maguey plant forms part of her body, and she has pulque foam in her hair or dress. She is often conceived of as full of milk and having one hundred breasts.

 

Mayahuel is also the goddess that brought love to mankind; Quetzalcoatl fell madly in love with Mayahuel, the granddaughter of one of the terrible night-demons called tzitzimine. Quetzalcoatl stole her away to Mesoamerica where the two expressed their love by turning into an entwined two-fork tree. Mayahuel’s enraged grandmother tracked her down. Mayahuel was torn to pieces by her grandmother and a host of tzitzimine who fed on her flesh. Weeping, Quetzalcoatl buried the goddess’s remains. His tears saturated the earth. In time the remains of Mayahuel grew into the maguey cactus from which men and women learned to make pulque from the cactus’s milky sap. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Tlazolteotl, Lady of Fertility, Love and Eater of Filth or Sin

Lady of Fertility, the Purification of Filth, Sickness and Excesses, she embodies the dual aspects of goddess of fertility and childbirth and goddess of purification of filth, lust, and sexual excesses. In her role as sin eater, she comes to a man at life’s end and “confesses” him and cleanses his soul by eating its filth, or sins, if he is willing to make amends and perform the penitential acts prescribed by her priestesses. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Nuttal)

 

Death and Destiny

Tezcatlipoca (See Sun, Moon, and Venus)

Rains, Winds, and Waters

Tlaloc, Lord of the Rain

Tlaloc Tlamacazqui, also know as Nuhualpilli, is the god of rain and fertility. He brings the rains to irrigate the earth, and the rains make grass, trees, fruits and other goods grow. He also sends hail, and lightning, and thunder, and storms, and the dangers of the rivers and the seas.

 

Called Tlaloc Tlamacazqui means that he is the god that inhabits the earthly paradise and gives men the sustenance they need to live. Responsible for floods, Tlaloc is the force that brings the rain and droughts. He is commonly depicted as a goggle-eyed blue being with fangs. (Redrawn from the Codex Borbonicus)

Ehecatl, Lord of the Winds and Birds

Using the attributes of Ehecatl, Lord of the Winds, Quetzalcoatl represents the winds that bring the rain. He sweeps the path for the gods of rain as evidenced by when rains are preceded by great gusts of wind and dust. His breath moves the sun and pushes away rain. He fell in love with a human girl named Mayahuel and gave mankind the ability to love so that she could return his passion. He is depicted wearing his “wind mask,” a bright red mask in the form of a protruding beak or nose and mouth that covers his lower face. (Redrawn from the Codex Borgia)

 

 

Chalchiuhtlique, Lady of the Water

Chalchiuhtlique is said to be the sister of the rain gods called tlaloques. She is worshipped because she has power over rivers and the seas to drown those who traveled these waters, to create storms and whirlwinds in the water, and sink ships, boats, and other barks that move through the waters. Those who worship this goddess and celebrate her rites are all those who have their farms in the water, those who sell water from their canoes and those who sell water from earthen jars in the plaza. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borbonicus)

Itztlacoliuhqui, Lord of Winter, Cold, Stone and Punishment, and Blind-folded Justice

Itztlacoliuhqui is the god of coldness and of punishment. He is usually drawn blindfolded and colorless except for his neatly sculpted black obsidian face. He carries a tlachpanoni(decorated straw broom) in his hand as a symbol of cleansing.

 

(Restored by the author from the Codex Borbonicus)

 

Hunting

Mixcoatl (Cloud Serpent) Lord of Hunting

He is one of Tonacatecuhtli and Cihuacoatl’s four children. Mixcoatl is identified with the Milky Way, the stars, and the heavens. In the Aztec pantheon his role is lesser that Huitzilopochtli’s. He is often worshipped as the red aspect of Tezcatlipoca. He is represented with a black mask over his eyes and distinct red and white candy stripes on his body. He carries a bow and arrows and a net or basket to carry dead game. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Opochtli (The Left-handed One) Lord of Hunting, Fishing and Bird-Snaring

This god is included among the gods called Tlaloques, which means “Inhabitants of an Earthly Paradise.” Opochtli is said to have invented fishing nets and a harpoon-like instrument called minacachalli which has three points in a triangle, like a trident, and is used kill fish and birds. He also invented snares to kill birds and oars to row. When worshippers hold a festival for this god, the fishermen offer him things to eat and the wine they drink which is called uctli, or by another name pulque. They also offer him stalks of green corn and white incense called copalli. (Restored by the author from the Codex Rios)

 

Fire

Huehueteotl or Hiuhtecuctli (Lord of the Year) Lord of Fire

This god is know by many other names, among them Ixcozauhqui, which means “yellow-faced,” another is Cuezaltzin, or “Flame of Fire,” also Huehueteotl, which means the “Ancient or the Oldest of the Gods,” and finally Tata which means “Our Father.” He is represented as a wrinkled old man with one tooth, bent over or squatting, with brazier on back or head. Everyone considers him as his father when one considers all that he does. He burns, and his flames rise and consume things causing fear. At other times he causes love and reverence. He provides warmth to persons who are cold. He cooks meat to eat, and roasts, boils, toasts and fries food to eat. He makes salt and thickens honey; he makes carbon and coal; he heats the bath waters to bathe in; and he makes the oil called úxitl. He heats up the lye and the water to wash dirty clothes. And at festivals, he is always the last one to arrive because he walks very slowly, indicating his antiquity. (Drawing from the Codex Borgia)

 

War

Hutzilopochtli (See Sun, Moon and Venus)

Traders

Yacatecuhtli, Lord of Merchants or Pochtecas, Traders and Travelers, and Birds

Yacatecuhtli, like the Greek Hermes, is the god of merchants, traders and travelers. He is pictured with white and black facial decorations, his hair is bound in a high sheaf, and he carries a staff and a flywhisk. He is honored by having his statues wrapped in paper wherever they are found. Merchants hold their walking stick, a massive cane called an utlatl in high esteem. They carry these walking sticks when traveling and when they arrive at a place they are to sleep, they gather all of their sticks in one bundle and tie them together, lay them at the head where they are to sleep and spill drops of blood in front of them from their tongue, ears or arms and legs; they offer copal and light a fire that burns before the walking sticks which they hold as the image of the god himself. This is their way of asking for the god’s protection from all dangers. (Restored by the author from the Codex Fejervany Mayer)

 

Ancestral Gods/Cultural Heroes, and Others

Chantico (She Who Dwells in the House) Lady of the Hearth and Volcanoes

Chantico is the goddess of fires in the family hearth and volcanoes. She wears a crown of poisonous cactus thorns, and takes the form of a red serpent. Tonacatecuhtli changed her into a dog for eating pepper on a roasted fish violating a day pepper was banned. (Restored by the author from the Codex Rios)

 

Queztalcoatl-Topiltzin, Another attribute of Quetzalcoatl

Huitzilopochtli (See Sun, Moon and Venus)

Mixcoatl (See Hunting)

Medicine and Foods

Patecatl, Lord of Healing and Fertility. Lord of the Pulque Root

Patecatl is the god of healing, fertility and the discoverer of peyote. He is the consort of Mayahuel and the father of the Centzon Totochin (The Four Hundred Rabbits), the divine rabbits, and the gods of drunkenness. Like Mayahuel and the Centzon Totochin, Patecatl himself is a god of pulque, the alcoholic beverage made from the maguey plant. (Redrawn by the author from the Codice Borgia)

 

Underworld (Mitlan)

The Mesoamerican underworld was a frightening place. It was the resting place of all persons who died but escaped a violent death. Mictlantecuhtli and his wife Mictecacihatl ruled over the underworld where they live in a house without windows.

 

Mictlantecuhtli, God of the Underworld

Lord of the Land of the Dead. With a skull for a head, is often accompanied by skulls and bones. He wears a diadem called Xihuitzolli and paper rosettes. He is painted as a bleached-white skeleton with red blood spots, and long, curly, black hair sprinkled with stars. His clothes are strips of bark paper. He has huge claw like hands that can rip a body into pieces. He wears a necklace made of eyeballs and his liver hangs from a hole in his stomach. He wears sandals to show his lordly standing. He is the patron god of dogs. (Redrawn by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Mictecacihuatl, Goddess of the Underworld

Queen of the Land of the Dead she is the wife of Mictlantecuhtli. She is said to keep watch over the bones of the dead and also to preside over the festivals of the dead. She and her husband live in Mictlan in a house without windows.

Paynal, Swift Runner

Painal is Huitzilopochtli’s second in command. When Huitzilopochtli decides to make war against a province, Painal moves swiftly to meet the enemy, because painal, which means “speed,” or “celerity,” is always necessary in war. This god wears a black mask with white dots on the edge. His body is stained with blue and yellow paint.

 

During a feast held in his honor, one of the satraps takes his image made of rich ornaments and leads a lengthy procession during which the god’s image is carried at a run by him and other of the god’s worshippers. This ritual represents the speed needed to face the enemy who often unsuspectingly run into ambushes. (Restored by the author from the Codex Rios)

Ciuapipilti or Ciaopipilli

The goddesses called Ciuapipilti are said to be women who have died giving birth to their first child and have been elevated to the position of warriors and goddesses. They fly through the air and appear before the living at will. They give children diseases such as palsy by entering the body. They lie in wait at the crossroads to cause harm. For this reason parents forbid their children from leaving the house on certain days of the year so they will not be harmed when these goddesses descend from the sky. And when someone gets palsy or falls suddenly ill, these goddesses are to blame. This is the reason feasts are held in their honor and during these feasts they are offered bread shaped into different figures in their temple or at the crossroads.

Napatecutli

One of the Tlaloques, he is the god who invented the art of making mats know as petates, seats called icpales, and cane screens called tolcuextli, and that is why artisans engaged in this craft worship him. By his virtue, sedge, reeds, and canes sprout and grow. He is also a rainmaker. His worshippers hold celebrations in his honor to demand he give them the things he normally provides such as water, sedges, reeds, and canes.

Napatecutli is represented as a man dyed in black except for a few white specks on his face. He wears a paper crown painted black and white. In his left hand he carries a shield shaped like a water lily and in his right hand he holds a stalk of flowering paper flowers.

Tepoztecatl or Tezctzoncatl, Lord of Pulque

Tepoztecatl is the Lord of pulque, drunkenness, fertility, and rabbits. One of the four hundred children of the god Pantecatl and Mayahuel he is associated with fertility cults and with Tlaloc.

The Aztec religion is open, their pantheon is hospitable, and this is why Tepoztecatl, a rustic god of the harvest, a local deity worshipped by agricultural people of Tepoztlan, easily found his way in. Tepoztecatl’s temple is found on a hillside near the town of Tepoztlan.

Tepeyollohti or Tepeyollotl (Heart of the Mountains) The Jaguar God

 

Tepeyollohti, the most important of the jaguar gods, is the god of earthquakes, echoes and is associated with the night, caves and the Underworld. He is related to Tezcatlipoca. He is depicted as a jaguar leaping towards the sun. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Huehuecoyotl (Old Coyote). The Trickster God, the God of Deception

Huehuecoyotl, Old Coyote, the Trickster, god of deception, this god is a prankster who loves to pull pranks on people and on the gods. Sometimes, he unwittingly pulls pranks on himself. The god is a shape-changer. He is able to turn himself into any shape, animal or human. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

 

 

Chalchihuitotolin (The Jeweled Fowl)

Chalchihuihtotolin is a powerful sorcerer. An avatar of Tezcatlipoca he tempts human into self-destruction. When he takes on the shape of a guajolote or turkey, he can cleanse men of contamination, guilt and overcome fate. (Restored by the author from the Codex Borgia)

Tzitzimitl (Star Demon of Darkness

The most feared of all demons are the tzitzimene. To initiate a new 52-year cycle, the people put out all fires and wait in darkness for the conclusion of the New Fire ceremony. Priests stand on the Hill of the Stars at midnight the day before the New Year to see if Venus, or the Pleiades pass overhead. Then, they sacrifice a victim and start a New Fire in the chest cavity of the victim. It is believed that if the New Fire is not created on the Hill of Stars, the tzitzimene will attack the sun and also dive headfirst from the heavens and destroy earth. The tzitzimeneare usually considered women and are compared to spiders hanging upside down from their thread.

 

The tzitzimenes are most to be feared during an eclipse of the sun or the moon when they dive down from their dwelling in the sky and devour humans. (Restored by the author from the Codex Magliabechiano).

LESSONS PLANS

This unit will meet the following Project Clear for Languages Other Than English (Foreign Language) objectives:

Goal 1: Communication (Reading) 9.1.h Students will read to discover meaning through context and visual clues.

Goal 1: Communication (Writing) 9.1.i Students will write in the target language to covey a message or to exchange information about everyday activities or oneself.

Goal 2: Cultures: 9.2.a Students will describe some of the daily activities of the people of the target language and how this is reflected in their culture and language.

9.2.b Students will locate the major countries and areas of the world where the target language is spoken and identify some well-known personalities as well as some of the characteristics of the people.

Goal 3: Connections: 9.3.a Students will use the language to make connections with other subject areas and to acquire information.

Goal 4: 9.4.a Students will compare and contrast one language and culture to another language and culture.

Lesson Plan 1

Objective

Spanish AP students will read and discover early Mesoamerican cultures through the history and mythology of the Aztec Nation and their lengthy journey and founding of their capital. Students will compare the Aztec foundation myth with the Biblical account of Moses leading the people of Israel from Egypt to the Promised Land. The students will compare similarities and differences between the two foundation myths.

Activities

Students will:

Read the section titled the Origin of the Aztecs.

Students will discuss and fully answer or complete the following:

  1. After reading the foundation myth, and “The Origin of the Nopal Cactus,” are there any facts to be discerned from the mythical foundation of Tenochtitlan?
  2. Rewrite the “Origin of the Nopal Cactus” as if you were reporting a factual occurrence in a newspaper leaving out any part of the story that might seem dubious.
  3. What famous Biblical exodus does the journey of the Aztecs remind you of?
  4. What did the god Huitzilopochtli do to show his tribe that they were his “chosen people”?
  5. How does the concept of “the chosen people” fit in with the Biblical story?
  6. What sign were the Aztec people given by their god Huitzilopochtli regarding where they would build their capital? What was the name of the capital? What does it mean?
  7. The sign given to the Aztecs is still present in the lives of the descendants of the Aztec nation. Where are these symbols still being used today? Bring a sample. (A Mexican flag, Mexican currency, etc.)
  8. Why were the Aztecs so willing and eager to marry into the Colhua nobility?
  9. Later, these marriages were used to justify what Aztec policies?

Lesson Plan 2

Objectives

The students will improve their understanding of other cultures, read the mythical story of the founding of the great city of Tenochtitlan and its companion piece on the origin of the nopal cactus, compare the two versions of the myth, tour the city of Tenochtitlan through computer generated graphics, compare this magnificent Mesoamerican city as witnessed by Cortes and his followers with European cities of the time, and understand that Mesoamerican culture was as advanced, and in some cases, more advanced than the European cultures prevailing at that time.

Activities

Students will discuss and fully answer or complete the following:

  1. Is the emphasis of the two myths placed on the same issue? If not, what are the differences?
  2. Examine the way each of the main characters of the two myths is portrayed. Is there a difference in their characterization? Why do you think the authors chose to portray them differently?
  3. Using the Internet, do research on the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. As part of this investigation, make a map of the capital city of Tenochtitlan once located in the middle of the Lake of Tezcoco that coincides with contemporary descriptions of the city. Include quotations of the description of the city of Tenochtitlan from the works of contemporary authors on which you based your drawing.
  4. Locate the site of the Sacred Precinct, or the religious center of Tenochtitlan, in a modern map of Mexico City. Where would the Sacred Precinct be located today? What happened to the Sacred Precinct following Cortes’ conquest of the Aztec empire? What happened to the great temples dedicated to the gods Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc in the Sacred Precinct?
  5. There is a discrepancy in the meaning of the word Tenochtitlan in Nahuatl in the two accounts you have read. What reasons can you give for this discrepancy? Are there any other discrepancies between the two stories?

Students will watch a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that includes impressive computer-generated graphics of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan (Los Aztecas).

Lesson Plan Three

Objective

To improve students’ understanding of other cultures. Students will read the two Aztec creation myths. Students are to compare the Aztec creation myth with any other creation myth they may know.

Activity

Students will discuss and fully answer or complete the following:

  1. The first creation myth is an account of the dismemberment of a Monster goddess to form the earth and the sky. Read the Babylonian myth of Marduk and Tiamat. Compare the creation of the earth and the sky in the Aztec myth and the Babylonian myth.
  2. Using the details given in the story, in your own words, describe the Earth Monster goddess in as frightening a description as you can muster.
  3. In the myth that narrates the birth of Huitzilopochtli, what is the reason given by the gods for their anger against their mother, the earth goddess Coatlique? Do you believe the reason for plotting against their mother is really what they say it is, or do you think there is an underlying reason for their anger?
  4. Write a one-page, single-spaced essay confirming or denying the following statement: Gods fear being usurped by the next generation of gods. Do they have a legitimate reason to fear? Give examples from other myths to support your argument.
  5. In the story of Huitzilopochtli’s birth, the god is described as born a fully grown god, in full-battle gear, and ready to fight against his half-brothers and half-sister. What other famous warrior goddess reportedly sprung from her father’s head, or thigh, in other accounts, fully armed? What Babylonian god is also said to have been born fully grown?
  6. Huitzilopochtli, the Aztec’s tribal god, gained power over all of the other gods in Mesoamerica. In a historical context, what does this myth convey regarding the position of Aztecs in relation to the surrounding tribes?
  7. The myth also serves to explain the birth of the Moon and stars. According to this myth, what is the origin of these celestial bodies?
  8. The myth describes how Hutzilopochtli comes from the womb of the Earth Mother with a ray of light and kills the Moon and the stars. On what daily occurrence is this myth based?.

Lesson Plan Four

Objective

To improve the students’ understanding of other cultures. Students will read the Myth of Tepoztecatl. This myth deals with a local hero and was possibly not known to the Aztecs. But I have included it for reading because of its moral teaching. Students are to compare the Tepoztlan hero’s myth with other known Christian stories and Greek myths.

Activities

Students will discuss and fully answer or complete the following:

  1. The virgin birth at the beginning of the Tepoztecatl myth is similar to many other stories and myths. Compare this myth with other well-know stories and myths you know.
  2. In many myths, a child is abandoned or exposed to the elements to avoid the fulfillment of a prophesy. Compare this myth with the biblical story of Moses and the myth of Oedipus. How are they similar? How do they differ? What is the motive for killing the newborn infant in each case? Why did King Herod order the killing of all children less than two years of age in and around Bethlehem?
  3. Compare Mazacoatl’s swallowing of the god Tepoztecatl whole with other tales of monsters or Leviathans swallowing of a person or hero whole. Compare and discuss the differences.
  4. When the god enters the patio where the celebration of his successful fight against Mazacoatl has begun, he goes unrecognized by the revelers and is ill treated because he is dressed in dirty, torn rags. What other mythical heroes suffer the same fate? Discuss fully.
  5. There is an old saying that states, “Clothes make the man.” How does this myth support or destroy the saying. Explain fully.
  6. What social custom does the myth of Tepoztecatl establish and enforce by exiling the host’s family from the Valley and village of Tepoztlan? How does the god feel about hospitality?

Define the following new words: insatiable, implacable, dismemberment, impregnated, obsidian knife, decapitated, pantheon, necromancer, cacique and avatar.

APPENDICES

A Brief Key to Pronunciation of Names of Aztec Gods

Most of the names in this unit come from Nahuatl, the language spoken by the Aztecs, and still spoken today by about 1.45 million people living in Mexico (Censo general de población y vivienda 2001).

The Aztecs had a fine tradition of picture writing. Their history was written in pre-Hispanic painted books called codices. Most of these were destroyed during the conquest and scarcely a dozen pre-Hispanic codices survive. (Peterson 231)

As soon as the Aztecs and the Mayas learned to use the alphabet they transcribed some of the codices into Spanish letters, among the most important of these the Mayan Popol Vuh (Book of the Council), the Aztecs Leyenda de los soles, and Anales de Cuauhtitlan.

Nahuatl and Spanish vowels are pronounced alike with a few exceptions. Vowels are pronounced as follows: a as in dart, e as in bet, i as in elite, o as in bore, and u a in loot. Most consonants are pronounced like in English, except j is like the English h, and g before e or i is like the English h, otherwise it is pronounced like a regular g, as in goat.

Unlike Spanish, the h is pronounced.

Many Aztecs words have the consonant cluster tl pronounced like the tl in beetle, the x which is pronounced like s or sh, qu is pronounced like in Kay, and z is pronounced like s.

Nahuatl words are stressed in the next-to-the-last syllable, except when they end in n or s, and then they are stressed on the last syllable.

Examples:

Huitzilopochtli (Hweet-see-lo-POCH-tlee)

Coatlique (Koa-TLI-Kway)

Tezcatlipoca (Tes-kay-tli-PO-kay)

Mixcoatl (Mish-KO-atl)

Xolotl (SHO-lotl)

Tlaloc (TLAY-lok)

Tenochtitlan (Tey-noch-ti-TLAN)

Xipe (SHEE-pay)

Ometeotl
Ometecohtli (Tonacatecuhtli) = Omecihuatl (Tonacacihuatl)

 

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Works Cited

Barlow, Genevieve. “The Origin of the Nopal Cactus.” Stories from Latin America. Chicago: Passport Books, 1995.
Side-by-side book (Spanish-English) that includes sixteen legends from Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela.

Censo general de población y vivienda. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática /National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science, 2001.

Davies, Nigel. The Aztec Empire: The Toltec Resurgence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Nigel argues that the Mexica’s version of history allows them to pose as the true heirs of the Toltec tradition “through marriage of their elite with the Culhua nobility, par excellence the guardians of the Toltec tradition.” Thus, in their future conquests “they are merely regaining what was theirs by right.”

Díaz del Castillo, Bernal. La historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España. Linkgua S. L., 2007: 317.
An interesting account of the conquest of Mexico as retold by one of Cortez’ men. The description of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan is especially captivating.

Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1942.
This is still my favorite introduction for young students to Greek mythology.

Ibarra, Miguel. “El mito de Tepoztecatl.” 5 April 2007. <http://es.catholic.net/jovenes/216/550/articulo.php?id=7743&gt;.
This is the source for the Tepoztecatl myth which I have translated and edited from Spanish to English.

Los Aztecas. 25 Feb 2007. <http:www.louisville.edu.a s/cml spanish/classes/laculture/aztecas.pdf>
A Microsoft PowerPoint presentation on Aztec civilization with impressive computer generated graphics of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán.

Peterson, Frederick. Ancient Mexico: An Introduction to Pre-Hispanic Cultures. New York: Capricorn Books, 1962.
Professor Peterson’s is a good one-volume introduction to the history of ancient Mexico that includes a concise history of the rise and sudden fall of its great empires, its daily life, religion, art and social relations.

Supplemental Resources

Aztecs at Mexicolore. 22 March 2007. <http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/index.php?one=azt&two=aaa&gt;.
From the U.K. comes one of the most exciting sites for Aztec enthusiasts. Packed with information and illustrations. Among my favorites topics “Aztec Music” (hear and see actual Aztec instruments), “Ask the Experts”, and “Aztec Pronunciation” that includes the correct pronunciation of the names of Aztec gods.

Aztec Mythology: The Gods of Ancient Mexico. 2 Feb 2007. <http://godchecker.com/pantheon/aztec-mythology.php&gt;.
A very complete list of Aztec gods including many minor deities.

Diana Doyle. “Aztec and Mayan Mythology” Yale-New Haven Teacher’s Institute. 2 Feb. 2007. <http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1993/3/94.03.04.x.html.&gt;.
Yale-New have Teacher’s Institute report on Aztec and Mayan Mythology which includes some excellent reading materials for young students.

Díaz, Gisele. Codex Borgia: A Full-Color Restoration of the Ancient Mexican Manuscript. New York: Dover Publications. 1993.
A beautiful facsimile of the Codex Borgia with restoration of the original pictographic language.

Green, Jen, Fiona MacDonald, Philip Steele, and Michael Stotter. The Encyclopedia of the Ancient Americas. London: Anness Publishing Limited, 2001.
Profusely illustrated. Contains numerous projects for middle and high school students.

Helland, Janice. “Aztec Imagery in Frida Kahlo’s Paintings: Indigenity and Political Commitment.” Woman’s Art Journal 11.2 (Autumn 1990 – Winter 1991): 8-13.
The article provides information on Kalo’s expression of her Mexican identity through a depiction of indigenous Mexican mythology in her paintings, especially Aztec mythology.

Kirkpatrick, Berni. “The Creation and the Legend of the Four Suns.” 2 Feb. 2007. <http://www.create.org/myth/997myth.htm.&gt;.
Gives an account of the legend of the Fours Suns, and the creation of the Fifth Sun, our current sun.

Lapesa, Rafael. Historia de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Editorial Gredos, S. A. 1991.
A classic work on the history of the Spanish language. Ever wonder the origins of the English words hurricane, Caribbean, hammock, maize, chocolate, iguana, jaguar, toucan and many others came from?

“Los Dioses.” <http://www.angelfire,com.bernaldiaz/boton.htm&gt;.
This article includes illustrations of the gods taken from various codices and descriptions of the Aztecs gods. It is written in Spanish.

Miller, Mary and Taub, Karl. An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. 2004.
Profusely illustrated with copies form the codices and photographs of the archeological sites.

Phillips, Charles. The Mythology of the Aztec and Maya: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Gods, Myths and Legends of the Aztecs, Maya and Other Peoples of Ancient Mexico. London: Southwater, 2006.

Pohl, John. “Mesoamerica.” 18 April 2007. <http://www.famsi.org/spanish/research/pohl/index.html&gt;.
The Fundación para el avance de los estudios mesoamericanos (Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies) FAMSI is by far the most complete site on the Internet to cover Mesoamerican cultures. It includes history of Mesoamerican cultures, chronological timeline, writing systems, archeological sites, archives of the Spanish conquest, ancient texts (complete facsimiles of the Indian codices), and so forth

Soustelle, Jacques. The Daily Life of the Aztecs. London: Phoenix Press, 2003.
Soustelle paints a vivid, sympathetic picture of the Aztecs at the moment in history of their greatest achievement.

“Two Aztecs Creation Myths.” 2 Feb. 2007. <http://www.crystallinks.com/azteccreation.html&gt;.
Article gives two different Aztec creation myths.

Valiant, George C. The Aztecs of Mexico. New York: Penguin, 1950.
Although somewhat dated it is still a very readable, factual account of the Aztec Civilization

THE KOREA NUMISMATIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

THE KOREA NUMISMATIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

FORWARD

 during my visit Korea in 2007, I saw many ancient korea coins there but I didnot bough one because I donn’t understand about that coin.

When back home in five year I made the study of Korean numismatic collections especially the cast coin and this is the report of the study

I hope all Korean collectors will happy to look this amizing informations

Jakarta Mai 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

BEFORE READ THE REPORT PLEASE

 look  profile  Dr Iwan adventure in Korea

nami island

I laso look in this island King Seogjong tomb

 , and in seoul his palace

 

Dr Iwan Travel adventure  in Korea will be illustrated with some photos during I joined My wife Lily W.MM as official Indonesia Health and medical record federation(Formiki) t joined the inetrnational federation Record orgnational meeting at COEX building Seoul Korea June 2006 with another delegation. (look at Our famiy photo at Namu island where many Korean love stroy film were shooting). I am not joined the meeting, during the delegation joined the meeting I have made the uniquecollection hunting around Seoul about six days from flea market Insaodng to the Uniquecollection shop -Nam Dai Moon market n order to find the Korea unique collections, because ery difficult to find in Indonesia, my first Korea Stamps and reveneu were found in 1974 from an old chineseman collections, after camehome to Jakarta I found another Korea unique collection including Book,stamps,revenue and another type of collection and put in this blog. I am sorry that many false written because I write by my laptop straight to the internet via wordpress facility, but I think the collectors will understand and be patient if the ther information not to fast , many info everyday I put alone according with collector’s choice, minimal two new information will put in the blog,please send your comment and your collector choice via comment .
In the Front of International children Book exhibition at Namu Island, I have seen many children book fromall over the world, very lucky I have found some old vintage Koren book at the Book flae market beside the exhibition room, the unique book about Koren ceramic, and the history of Koren Christian with many illustration . This unique book illustration will put in my Blog”uniquecollection.wordpress.com” with another vintage book i have found at Insadong seoul flea market ,please choose the best collection to put in IMUC cybermuseum.

 

me and the traditional korean children statue in the front of International Children book exhabition at nami Island, I joined the Indonesian embassy delegation by bus to showed the Indonesian traditional art dancing and song at the exhibition.

 

Dr Iwan S inthe front of ancient Nam Dai Moon(South Great Gate) Seoul , beside this monument I found Nam Dai Moon market, two days I am seeking the unique collection shop because at the Insadong flea market I didn’t found the collection, at the end I found under the ground between this market and seoul Post Office.

 

During this Indonesian Helath and medical record Federation(FORMIKI) Dr Iwan S. joined aparrt beside his wife -the President of that organization in the meeting of IFRO -International Federation Of Record Organization meetin at COEX building, also DR Gemala Hatta and Siswati M>Kes -the past president and two another delegation, we stayed at Indonesian Embassy Guest House “Wisma Indonesia” about one weeks, one night after came to Seoul Dr Iwan S and his Wife walked around and came to very beautiful Bridge shining with thousand lamp across the Han River-look the photo.
 I want to send my thank verymuch to all the Indonesian embessy man who gave us very well and free friendly Indonesian tour to nami island by bus. During the official FORMIKI leader joint the conference, I have made the Unique collections hunting around Seoul from Insadong flea market to Nam Dai Mon Market , I found many Stamps , revenue,coins and phonecard ‘s shops at underground between Nam Dai moon market and Seoul Post office.
postal history found in seoulcity
at underground shop at nam daemon gate market,please native korean help me to translate the korean character script below

.:

 

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

dai nippon korean military card

 

AND NOW PLEASE LOOK AT THE KOREA  COIN HISTRY COLLECTIONS

Korean Coins

han guo qian bi

History of Korean Coinage

 

Korea did not begin to use money until the Koryo Period (Goryeo 高麗) (936-1392 AD) when coins from China’s Song Dynasty (宋朝)(960-1279 AD) were imported and began to circulate.  Prior to this time, barter based on rice and cloth was the principal means of exchange.
 
kon won chung boReverse side of kon won chung bo with tong guk ("Eastern Country")The first coins actually minted in Korea occurred during the 15th year (996 AD) of the reign of King Songjong (成宗). 
 
 This coin was cast in both bronze and iron and was based on the standard Chinese cash coin which was round with a square hole in the center.A bronze example of the coinis shown at the left.  It was unearthed in the city of Kaiyuan (开原) in China’s northeast province of Liaoning (辽宁省).  The bronze coins are much rarer than the iron ones and most of these coins have been found in China’s northeast (Dongbei 东北) and in the northern part of the Korean peninsula.The coin has the same Chinese character inscription, 乾元重寶 (kon won chung bo), as the coins cast during the reign (758-762) of Emperor Su Zong (肅宗)of the Tang Dynasty.
look tang emperor profile below
 

While the inscription on the Korean version

Tang Gao Zu
Tang Gao Zu
tang tai zong
Emperor Tang Tai Zong, one of the
greatest emperor of China
qian ling wu zhe tian tomb
Qian Lin Mausoleum, Tang Gao Zong and Wu Zhe Tian’s
final resting place
tang wu zong
tang ming huang escape to shu
A Chinese painting depicting
Tang Ming Huang’s retreat to Sichuan
tang de zong
Tang De Zong
qian lin
Sculptures of foreign ambassadors at
the Mausoleum of Li Zhi
tang xuan zong
Tang Xuan Zong

of the coin is identical to that of the Chinese,

two additional Chinese characters

東國 (tong guk), meaning “the country of the East”,

Reverse side of kon won chung bo with tong guk ("Eastern Country")

were added to the reverse side of the coin to indicate that the coin was from Korea which is a country east of China.

There is some controversy,

 however, concerning who actually produced the coin since no ancient Korean historical references mention it and the coin did not appear in any coin catalogues until 1938 when a Japanese coin catalogue attributed it as being Korean.

Some experts believe that these coins were actually cast by a Chinese state known as Bohai (渤海国) which existed in the area during the period 698-926. 

read more about bohai

Bohai Kingdom Cultural Relics

bohai dancer sent to japan ancient painting

 

The Koreans consider the state to have been

 a Korean kingdom known as Balhae (발해渤海).

general Koguryo the founder of Balhae kingdom

look the map of this kingdom

 

 

Unfortunately, no historical records exist from Bohai (Balhae) in regard to its coinage.

During the period 998-1009 AD, another coin was produced which was also based on a Chinese coin.  This coin had the inscription 開元通寶 (kae won tong bo) which was the same as the coins cast during the reign of Emperor Gao Zu (高祖) of the Tang Dynasty.

However, use of these coins gradually declined and barter again became the predominant means of exchange.

Korean "tong guk tong bo" coin issued in 1097King Sukjong (

肅宗) of Koryo tried again to establish a monetary system by casting a variety of coins during the years 1097-1107 AD.  These coins included the 東國 (tong guk “Eastern Country”), 海東 (hae dong “Eastern Sea”) and 三韓 (sam han “Three States”) series of coins.

In 1101 AD, King Sukjong had a very distinctive form of money produced.  The money was in the form of a silver vase (unbyŏng 銀瓶) in the shape of the Korean peninsula.  The vase had a wide mouth and contained one kun (斤), or about 600 grams, of silver.

The unbyŏng silver vases were very popular with the aristocracy for use in large-scale transactions and to pay bribes. 

 Unfortunately, no specimens are now known to exist.

maybe like the coin below

In the end, however, none of King Sukjong’s attempts to establish a monetary system proved to be successful and the country again returned to using barter with rice and cloth as the medium of exchange.

Other attempts were made to create a monetary system during the next two centuries. 

 In 1331, during the reign of Ch’unghyewang (忠惠王), bottle-shaped pieces of silver alloyed with copper and weighing about 454 grams were introduced as a form of money.  Each of these bottle-shaped “coins” was worth the equivalent of one hundred pieces of linen.

I am soory illustration still unavailable until now but I stiil seeking be patient

During the reign (1352-1374) of Kongminwang (恭愍王), a standardized silver coin was issued but, regrettably, no specimens have survived and their actual appearance remains unknown.

Korea issued its first paper money in the year 1401 during

the reign of T’aejong (太宗). 

 This paper currency imitated an old Chinese note that was first issued in 1287.

Bronze coins were not cast again until the year 1423 AD during the reign of King Sejong

(世宗) of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910 AD).  These coins had the inscription 朝鮮通寶 (chosun tong bo “Chosun Currency”). 

Chosun means “morning fresh” or “new morning” and is an ancient name for the country of Korea.

 

The chosun tong bo coins were s

 

tong gaek tong bao coin

tandardized at 150 coins to one kun (600 grams) of silver.

However, this coinage ceased after a few years

because of the lack of raw materials and due to the exchange rate having fallen to less than the intrinsic value of the coin.Artist's concept of ancient Korean "arrow coin"

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1464, King Sejo (Sei Jo 世祖)

introduced

a most unusual and versatile form of money. 

The “arrow coin” (chŏn p’ye, jun pei 箭幣) was in the shape of an arrowhead which allowed it to be used as money during times of peace and as an arrowhead during times of war. 

The arrowhead was 55 mm long with the stem adding an additional 52 mm to the length.

According to the Moon Heun Pi Ko (文猷備考), the royal instructions regarding the “arrow coin” can be translated as follows: “Different moneys were used in different reigns but each one suits its time.  The arrow coin, though never used by the ancients, will surely prove useful to a warlike country and we see no reason why it should not be used.”

The blade of the “arrow coin” resembled a willow leaf and on the stem was inscribed “eight directions universal money” (“currency in eight directions” p’albang t’onghwa 八方通寶) indicating that the coin was good everywhere.

One “arrow coin” was worth the equivalent of four pieces of paper money.

Unfortunately, this novel form of money was not well received by the people and, again, a money-based economy failed to be established.  No specimen of this “arrow coin” is known to exist.

Coins were again cast during the 3rd year (1625 AD) of the reign of King Ingo (仁祖) of the Yi Dynasty (李紀)

These coins had the same inscription 朝鮮通寶 (chosun tong bo “Chosun Currency”) as those of King Sejong (世宗).  This time, however, laws were promulgated to enforce the usage of the coins.  Stores were established to sell wine and food for money, and people gradually began to realize the advantages of a money system.

Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coinHowever, it was not until the year 1633 during the reign of King Ingo (仁祖) that the coin that has became most representative of the coinage of Korea was first cast.  This is a round coin with a square hole in the center, made of copper or bronze, that has the inscription sang pyong tong bo (sang p’yŏng t’ong bo 常平通寶, 상평통보; Chinese pinyin: chang ping tong bao).  The reverse sides of these coins can display a number, an astronomical symbol like a star, moon or sun, a character from the ancient Chinese text “The Thousand Character Classic”, a character of “The Five Elements”, etc.

An example of a sang pyong tong bo (sangpyungtongbo 常平通寶) coin is shown at the left.

There are estimated to be more than 5,000 varieties of this coin and the sang pyong tong bo coins were used for more than 250 years (1633-1891 AD) which was longer than any other coin in Korean history.

When Korean ports finally opened to foreign businessmen, it became apparent that these small denomination bronze coins were not convenient for doing business.  Therefore, beginning in 1882, Korea started to mint silver coins with the inscription 大東 (daedong).

However, many of these coins ended up being taken out of the country to be melted and recast as “horse hoof silver” (馬蹄銀) ingots.  As a result, the minting of these coins ceased in 1893.

During the time Korea endured being colonized by Japan starting in 1910, Japanese coinage was used instead of Korean coinage.

"Turtle Ship" on Korean 50 won coin dated 1959 (Korean calendar year 4292)
Modern Korean coinage began in 1959 (Korean calendar year 4292) with coins denominated in won (원).

The mugunghwa (Rose of Sharon 무궁화) flower, which is the national flower of Korea, was displayed on the 10 won coin.

The famous “Turtle Ship” (kobukson 거북선 龜船) of Admiral Yi Sunsin (李舜臣), as seen at the left, was on the 50 won coin and a portrait of Korea’s first president, Syngman Rhee (이승만 李承晩), was on the 100 won coin.

Coins of King Sukjong of the Koryo Dynasty

The first bronze coins were cast during the reign of King Sukjong (肅宗) of the Koryo Dynasty (Goryeo 高麗) during the period 998-1097 AD.  The inscriptions are written in Chinese characters and the coins are modeled after those of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) of China.Korean "tong guk tong bo" (dongkuktongbo) coin cast during the years 998-1097This coin was cast during the years 998-1097 AD of the reign of King Sukjong.

The inscription is tong guk tong bo (dongkuktongbo 東國通寶) and the characters are read in the following order: top, bottom, right, left.
The inscription translates as “Eastern country currency”.The inscription is written in seal script (篆書) but other specimens exist in clerical script (隸書), regular script (楷書), and running script (行書).

Most specimens of this coin have the characters written in this order.  However, there also exists a rare variety of this coin written in regular script
(楷書) in which the inscription is read clockwise beginning with the top character.

Similar to the Northern Song Dynasty coins which they imitate, these coins also have blank reverse sides with no characters or other symbols.

There are a number of varieties of this coin.  Diameters range from 23 ~ 25 mm with weights from 2.4 ~ 3 grams.

The example shown above is known as the “long cap” variety because the top horizontal stroke of the bo
(寶) character, located to the left of the square hole, extends downwards toward the bottom of the character on both sides.In addition to this small cash coin, there were also larger “Value Two” coins cast with a diameter of about 30 mm and a weight of about 5.8 grams.  These Value 2 coins are well-made and are extremely rare.  Most have been excavated in the area of Kaesong (開城), the present capital of North Korea, which was the ancient capital city of Korea.This particular coin has a diameter of 23 mm and a weight of 2.6 grams.

 


Korean "tong guk chung bo" coin cast during years 998-1097 of reign of King SukjongThis coin was also cast during the years 998-1097 of the reign of King Sukjong (肅宗) of the Koryo Dynasty (高麗
).

The inscription is
東國重寶 (tong guk chung bo, tong guk jung bo, dongkukjungbo) and the characters are read in the following order: top, bottom, right, left.

Specimens of this coin also exist with the inscription read in a clockwise manner but they are considered scarce.

The inscription translates as “Eastern country heavy currency”.

All
tong guk chung bo coins are written in a simple regular script (楷書).

These coins tend to be thicker and heavier than the tong guk tong bo (東國通寶) coin shown above.

There are several varieties of this coin with the differences being in the way the characters are written and how broad or narrow is the outside rim.

Most of these coins are about 25 mm in diameter and weigh 2.8 ~ 3.6 grams.

This particular coin has a diameter of 24 mm but weighs a hefty 4.2 grams.
Korean "sam han tong bo" coin cast during the years 1097-1105The 三韓通寶 (sam han tong bo) coins were cast during the years 1097-1105 AD of the reign of King Sukjong of the Koryo Dynasty (高麗).  These coins are similar to the hae dong and tong guk coins in that they imitate the coins cast during the Song Dynasty of China.

Coins with this inscription exist written in seal script (篆書), clerical script (隸書) and running script (行書).

There is a very rare version of the coin with the “three” (三) written in “official script” as .  Only one or two specimens of this coin are known to exist.

All of these coins have blank reverses.

The sam han tong bo coins tend not to be well-made.  The rims are not uniform and the characters are not distinct.

The coins are fairly scarce.

Most of the coins have diameters of 23-25 mm and a weight of 2.6-3.4 grams.

This particular coin has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 2.1 grams.

Korean "sam han chung bo" coin cast during the years 1097-1105The 三韓重寶 (sam han chung bo, sam han jung bo) coin was cast during the years 1097-1105 AD.

The inscription translates as “Three Han heavy currency”.

“Three Han” was another name for ancient Korea which consisted of three states with names ending in “Han”.  These were Ma Han (馬韓), Jin Han (辰韓) and Biun Han (辨韓).

This coin was made during the same time period as the 三韓通寶 (sam han tong bo) discussed above but, in general, appears to be slightly more refined.

Some sam han chung bo coins, such as the example at the left, have inscriptions written in the following order: top, bottom, right, left.

Other specimens have inscriptions written to be read in a clockwise manner starting with the character at the top.

All sam han chung bo coins have blank reverses.

Based on differences in the size of the characters and how broad or narrow the rim is, there are a number of varieties of this coin.

Most of these coins are approximately 25 mm in diameter.

This particular specimen has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 4 grams.

Korean "hae dong tong bo" coin cast during years 1097-1105 of reign of King SukjongThe inscription on this coin is read clockwise, beginning with the character at the top, as 海東通寶 (hae dong tong bo).

The inscription translates as “Eastern Sea currency”.

The “Eastern Sea” refers to Korea which is located east of the Yellow Sea.

These coins began to be cast in the 7th year (1097 AD) of the reign of King Sukjong (肅宗) and continued to 1105 AD.

Coins with this inscription were also cast with the characters read in the following order: top, bottom, right, left.

This coin is written in seal script (篆書) but other specimens exist in clerical script (隸書), regular script (楷書), and running script (行書).

This coin has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 2.9 grams.

Korean "hae dong chung bo" coin cast during years 1097-1105 of reign of King SukjongThe inscription on this coin is read clockwise as 海東重寶 (hae dong chung bo, hae dong jung bo) which translates as “Eastern Sea heavy currency”.

These coins began to be cast in the 7th year (1097) of the reign of King Sukjong (肅宗) and continued to 1105 AD.

Only coins written in regular script (楷書) are known to exist.

Certain characteristics of these coins may indicate that they were cast before the 海東通寶 (hae dong t’ong bo) coins For example, these coins tend to be thicker and the Chinese characters tend to be plainer.  They more closely resemble the Korean version of the 乾元重寶 (qian yuan zhong bao) coins.

Most of these coins are about 25 mm in diameter and weigh about 4 grams.

This example has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 3.1 grams.

There also exist versions of this coin with the inscription 海東寶 (hae dong won bo) written in regular script (楷書) which closely resemble the Chinese Song Dynasty coins.  The Chinese characters are very large.  The coins are about 24 mm in diameter but relatively heavy at about 5.1 grams.  On the reverse sides, below the square hole, there appears to be what looks like a Chinese character.  If it is a character, however, it has not yet been identified.

The 海東 coins are very rare and most old Korean reference books do not even include them.

The only recent specimens have been excavated in the area near Kaesong (開城), the present capital of North Korea.

Coins of King Sejong (世宗) of the Yi Dynasty

In 1392 AD, General Yi Songgye (李成桂) of the Yi Dynasty (Choson or Chosun or Joseon Dynasty 1392-1910 AD) proclaimed himself to be King Taejo (太祖) and changed the name of the country to Choson (朝鮮).

Korean "choson tong bo" coin cast during the reign of King Sejong of the Yi DynastyChoson tong bo
(朝鮮通寶) coins were actually cast during two time periods.  The first period was during the 5th - 7th years (1423-1425 AD) of the reign of King Sejong (世宗) when the coins were cast written in “orthodox” script (楷書).

The coin at the left is an example of a choson tong bo (朝鮮通寶)The characters are read in the following order: top, bottom, right, left.

The inscription translates as “Choson currency”.

The characters on these coins tend to be clear and distinct.  The reverse sides are blank.

The coins are about 24 mm in diameter and weigh 3.2 – 4 grams.

There are many varieties of this coin.

This specimen has a diameter of 24.5 mm and a weight of 2.4 grams.

Coins of King Ingo (仁祖) of the Yi Dynasty

The second time coins with the inscription Choson tong bo (朝鮮通寶) were cast was 200 years later in the 3rd year (1625 AD) of the reign of King Injo (仁祖) of the Yi Dynasty (Choson or Chosun or Joseon Dynasty 李紀).

Korean "choson tong bo" coin cast during the reign of King Injo of the Yi DynastyUnlike the earlier Choson tong bo (朝鮮通寶) coins, these coins had the inscription written in “official style” (palbun 八分) as in the example at the left.

The coins tend to have a yellow-brown color and the characters are not very standardized.  The strokes can be thin or thick and small or large.  Some varieties have broad rims while others have narrow rims.

Both government and private versions were cast and, therefore, coins can vary from well-made to crude.

Unlike the earlier version of the coin, coins with inscriptions written in clerical script (隸書) are much scarcer.

Finally, there exists a “Value Ten” version of the coin.  These coins have a diameter of 45 mm and a weight of about 30 grams.

These “Value Ten” coins are very rare.

Chosŏn T’ong Bo “Value Ten” and “One Chŏn” Test Coins

Test coins with the inscription chosŏn t’ong bo (朝鮮通寶) in denominations of “Value Ten” (sip 十) and “One Chŏn” (il chŏn 一錢) were cast in or about the year 1881.

These coins are very rare and were not released for circulation.

Unfortunately, there exists very little reliable information regarding the coins.

According to this Chinese article, the Value Ten test coins can have either a plain reverse (光背) or have the character 十 (sip), meaning “ten”, above the square hole on the reverse side.

Also, the plain reverse coins can be found in two varieties depending on whether the characters on the obverse side are “small” (小字) or “large” (大字).
Rare Korean Choson T'ong Bo "One Chon" (Il Chon) Test CoinReverse side of Korean Choson T'ong Bo "One Chon" (Il Chon) Test CoinThere is also a chosŏn t’ong bo denomination “One Chŏn” (il chon 一錢) test coin, displayed at the left, which on the reverse side has the character 户 (ho) above and the characters 一錢 (il chŏn) to the right of the square hole.

Ho () is the mint mark of the Treasury Department (Hojo 户曹) and il chŏn (一錢) represents the denomination “one chŏn“.

At the time, 400 small cash coins were the equivalent in value to one tael (一两) of silver.  One of these il chŏn (一錢) test coins would have been worth the equivalent of 40 of the Value 10 test coins.

Some varieties of this coin have a line (一) above the 户, as in this specimen.  Other coins lack this top bar.

There can also be slight differences in the way the “head” or upper part of the t’ong (通) is written.

Regarding the sŏn () character, there are slight differences in the way the four “dots” at the bottom of the 魚 are written as well as the way the “head” of the is written.

No diameter or weight is given in the article for the chosŏn t’ong bo “One Chŏn” coin displayed above.

The other Chinese article, however, does provide information on the specimens it discusses.  The plain reverse “Value Ten” test coin has a diameter of 48.2 mm and a weight of 29 grams.  The “One Chŏn” test coin has a diameter of 47.6 mm and a weight of 31 grams.

As already mentioned, these test coins are very rare and not well documented.  As a result, there is some dispute among Korean coin experts as to which specimens are authentic and which are later reproductions. 

“Sang Pyong Tong Bo” (常平通寶) Coins

Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast during years 1633-1891 which circulated for over 300 years
Beginning in the year 1633 AD during the reign of King Injo (仁祖) of the Yi Dynasty (Choson, Chosun, Joseon Dynasty 李紀), the “Stabilization Office” (
Sangpyongchong 常平廳), which was a famine relief office, began to cast coins utilizing the first two characters of the office name 常平 (sang pyong, sang p’yŏng) in the coin inscription 常平通寶 (sang pyong tong bo, sang p’yŏng t’ong bo, sangpyungtongbo 상 평통보; Chinese pinyin: chang ping tong bao).

The inscription can be translated as “always even currency”.

The reverse side of these first coins was blank.

The coin at the left is an example of a sang pyong tong bo (常平通寶) coin.

In 1651, King Hyojong (孝宗) issued a decree ordering the people to use the coin and prohibiting them from using cloth as money.

sip jun tong bo (sip chon tong bo "ten cash currency")
Also, private mintage was permitted at this time.

The inscription on the coin at the left is sip jun tong bo (sip chŏn t’ong bo 十钱通宝; Chinese shi qian tong bao) which translates as “ten cash currency”.

There is some controversy as to when these “Value Ten” cash coins were actually cast.  Some experts believe that they were privately cast around 1651 during the reign of King Hyojong.

Others believe that these coins were cast beginning in the year 1793 during the reign of King Chŏngjo (Jeongjo 正祖).

These “ten cash currency” coins exist in sizes ranging from 28 mm to 40 mm and in different calligraphic styles which seems to support the belief that they were privately cast.

The use of coins and the implementation of an economy based on money, instead of cloth or rice, was further strengthened when King Sukjong (肅宗) in 1678 ordered that additional mints be established to produce the sang pyong tong bo coins.

Sang pyong tong bo coins were cast from 1633 to 1891 and continued to circulate for over 300 years.  In addition to the large number of government and military mints that made these coins, many sang pyong tong bo coins were also privately cast.

Denominations of Sang Pyong Tong Bo Coins

Sang pyong tong bo coins were cast in four denominations: One Mun (Value One), Two Mun (Value Two), Five Mun (Value Five) and One Hundred Mun (Value One Hundred).

The mun was the Korean equivalent of the wen (文) or “cash” coin (“leaf money”, “leaf coin” yŏpchŏn, yupjun 葉錢) of China and the mon () of Japan.

Korean "sang pyong tong bo" one mun coinReverse side of "one mun" "sang pyong tong bo" Korean coin

This is an example of a One Mun (“Value One” dangiljun 當一錢) sang pyong tong bo coin.

The image at the far left is the obverse side with the inscription read (top, bottom, right, left) as sang pyong tong bo (常平通寶).

The one mun coins have a diameter of 24-25 mm.

Korean "two mun" "sang pyong tong bo" coinReverse side of "two mun" "sang pyong tong bo" Korean coin

This is a Two Mun (“Value Two” dangijun 當二錢) sang pyong tong bo coin.

Two mun coins began being cast in 1679.

The two mun coins have a diameter of 27-29 mm.

Korean "five mun" "sang pyong tong bo" coinReverse side of "five mun" "sang pyong tong bo" Korean coin

This is a Five Mun (“Value Five” tangojon or dangohjun 當五錢) sang pyong tong bo coin.

Casting of five mun coins began in 1883.

The five mun coins have a diameter of 31-33 mm.


Korean "one hundred mun" "sang pyong tong bo" coinReverse side of "one hundred mun" "sang pyong tong bo" Korean coin
This is a One Hundred Mun (“Value Hundred”
tangbaekchon or dangbaekjun 當百錢) sang pyong tong bo coin.

The One Hundred Mun is the only denomination of sang pyong tong bo coinage for which accurate mint records exist.  These coins were first cast by the Treasury Department on December 12, 1866 and put into circulation beginning January 15, 1867.  The last coin was produced on June 16, 1867 which means these coins were cast for only 172 days.  A total of 1,784,038 “One Hundred Mun” coins were cast by the government.
 
The One Hundred Mun coins minted by the government have a diameter of 40.6 mm, a thickness of 2.8 mm and a weight of 25.1 grams.
With so many mints producing the smaller denomination coins over such a long period of time, it is inevitable that the diameter and weight of the coins would vary.

In general, coins that are well-cast with clear inscriptions and a yellowish color were produced during an early period at a government mint.

Coins that are less refined were cast at a later period.

Most privately cast coins tend to have a crude appearance with indistinct characters and a blackish tint.

Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin made of ironAt the left is a sang pyong tong bo coin made of iron (铁).

I am not aware of any historical records indicating Korean coins of this period having been made of iron.  However, this iron coin was, according to reports, recently found in a hoard of coins in Dongbei (东北 “Manchuria”) which is the area of northeast China that borders on Korea.

The cache included coins from the Tang (618-907) to the Qing (1644-1911) dynasties.  The earliest coins were kai yuan tong bao (开元通宝 621-907) and the latest were qian long tong bao (乾隆通宝 1736-1795).  Coins from Korea, Annam (Vietnam) and Japan were also found in the hoard which is believed to have originally come from “traders”.

The reverse side is blank with no indication of the mint or any other symbol.  It is, therefore, unknown when or where the coin was made.

The owner states that the coin is modeled after the Northern Song Dynasty tai ping tong bao (太平通宝) coin with the tai () being changed to a sang (“chang”).  He also thinks the coin may have been cast in the early years of the sang pyong tong bo series.

This coin was the only iron sang pyong tong bo coin in the hoard and may be unique.

The coin has a diameter of 24.13 mm and a weight of 4.2 grams.

I am grateful to lindascoin, the present owner, for providing the information on this rare coin.

Many sang pyong tong bo coins eventually made their way to China where they circulated together with Chinese cash coins.

Sang pyong tong bo coins were also popularly used to embellish old Korean charms.

Characteristics of the Sang Pyong Tong Bo Inscription

On all the coins, the Chinese characters sang pyong tong bo (常平通寶) are written in “Regular” (“Orthodox”) Script” (楷書).  The calligraphy on the earlier minted coins, however, deviates slightly from a pure “Regular Script” in that the 通 (tong) character has only one “dot” instead of two which is actually a characteristic of the “Official” or “Clerkly” Script (隸書).  This is good way to distinguish an earlier cast coin from one that was cast at a later period.

All the characters on the reverse side are also written in “Regular Script” with the sole exception of the character
(kyong), indicating the “Government Office of Pukhan Mountain Fortress, which is written in “Running Script” (行書).

Another characteristic of the inscription on sang pyong tong bo coins is that there is only the tong bo (通寶) or “universal currency” version.  “Original currency” (元寶) and “heavy currency” (重寶) are not used in the inscriptions to indicate larger denominations of the coins as is common with Chinese cash coins.  Therefore, even the “One Hundred Mun” coin is a “通寶.  If it had been cast in China at an earlier time, it could very well have been a 重寶or “heavy currency”.The reason why onlytong bo (通寶) was used in the inscription, despite differences in denominations, has to do with the very close ties that existed between the Yi (Choson) Dynasty (1392-1897) and the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) of China.All the cash coins of the Ming Dynasty are also designated as通寶(tong bao).The元寶 (yuan bao) designation was not used on the coinage of the Ming Dynasty because it was prohibited to use the Emperor’s name.  The founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty was the Hongwu Emperor (洪武帝), also known as Emperor Tai Zu.  Emperor Tai Zu’s real name was Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋).  You will note that there is a “ character in his name.  For this reason, it was prohibited to use the designation “元寶” on Ming Dynasty coins and the Koreans respected this prohibition on their own coinage.
 

Mints Casting Sang Pyong Tong Bo Coins

In 1633, the “Stabilization Office” (Sangpyongchong 常平廳) became the first mint to cast sang pyong tong bo coins.  Over the next 250 years, other government offices and military units also established mints to cast these coins.

The following chart identifies these major government and military mints as well as the year they first began to cast sang pyong tong bo coins.

Sang Pyong Tong Bo Mint Marks
Mint mark Agency English
First Year Cast
户曹  Hojo Treasury Department 1678
工曹  Kongjo Ministry of Industry 1685
均役廳  Kyunyokchong Government Tithe Office 1807
司仆寺  Kyong Saboksi Bureau of Royal Transportation 1678
賑恤廳  Chinhyulchong Charity Office in Seoul 1742
粮餉廳  Yanghyangchong Food Supply Office 1742
宣惠廳  Sonhyechong Rice and Cloth Department 1742
宣惠廳  Sonhyechong Rice and Cloth Department 1806
典圜局  Chonhwanguk Central Government Mint 1833
兵曹  Pyongjo Ministry of Defense 1742
備邊司  Pibyonsa National Defense Bureau 1742
捻戎廳  Chongyungchong General Military Office 1692
营 or 營 御营廳  Oyongchong Special Army Unit 1678

武備司  Mubisa
武衛營  Muwiyong
Armaments Bureau
Guard Office at the Palace
1742
禁衛營  Kumwiyong Court Guard Military Unit 1742
訓練都監  Hullyondogam Military Training Command 1678
精抄廳  Chongchochong Commando Military Unit 1678

統營  Tongyong
統衛營  Tongwiyong
Tongyong Naval Office
Military Office in Seoul
1727
經理廳  Kyongnichong Government Office of Pukhan Mountain Fortress 1830
守御廳  Suochong Seoul Defense Fort 1742
沁華管理營  Sim Kanghwa Kwalliyong Kanghwa Township Military Office 1883
開城管理營  Kaesong Kwalliyong Kaesong Township Military Office 1678
開城管理營  Kaesong Kwalliyong (Song) Kaesong Township Military Office 1882
利原管理營  Iwon Kwalliyong Iwon Township Military Office 1882
水原管理營  Suwon Kalliyong Suwon Township Military Office 1727
原州管理營  Wonju Kwalliyong Wonju Township Military Office 1678
海州管理營  Haeju Kwalliyong Haeju Township Military Office 1742
春川管理營  Ch’unch’on Kwalliyong Ch’unch’on Township Military Office 1888
端川管理營  Tanch’on Kwalliyong Tanch’on Township Military Office 1883
昌德宮  Ch’angdok Kung
昌原管理營  Ch’angwon Kwalliyong
Ch’angdok Palace Mint
Ch’angwon Township Military Office
1864
廣州管理營  Kwangju Kwalliyong Kwangju Township Military Office in Kyonggi Province 1742
京畿監營  Kyonggi Kamyong Kyonggi Provincial Office 1742
京水 京畿水營  Kyonggi Suyong Kyonggi Naval Station 1742
黃海監營  Hwanghae Kamyong Hwanghae Provincial Office 1742
平安監營  P’yongan Kamyong P’yongan Provincial Office 1678
平兵 平安兵營  P’yongan Pyongyong P’yongan Military Fort 1678
咸鏡監營  Hamgyong Kamyong Hamgyong Provincial Office 1742
咸北 咸鏡北營  Hamgyong Pugyong North Hamgyong Provincial Office 1742
咸南 咸鏡南營  Hamgyong Namyong South Hamgyong Provincial Office 1742
江原監營  Kangwon Kamyong Kangwon Provincial Office 1742
慶尚監營  Kyongsang Kamyong Kyongsang Provincial Office 1695
尚水 慶尚水營  Kyongsang Suyong Kyongsang Naval Station 1695
尚右 慶尚右營  Kyongsang Uyong Kyongsang Right Naval Base 1695
尚左 慶尚左營  Kyongsang Chwayong Kyongsang Left Naval Base 1695
全羅監營  Cholla Kamyong Cholla Provincial Office 1682
全兵 全羅兵營  Cholla Pyongyong Cholla Military Fort 1678
全右 全羅右營  Cholla Uyong Cholla Right Naval Base 1678
全左 全羅左營  Cholla Chwayong Cholla Left Naval Base 1678
忠清監營  Ch’ungch’ong Kamyong Ch’ungch’ong Provincial Office 1742
The “mint mark” (first column in above table) on the sang pyong tong bo coins can be found at the top (above the square hole) on the reverse side of the coin.The table below shows examples of sang pyong tong bo coins from some of these mints.
 

Examples of Sang Pyong Tong Bo Coins with Different Mint Marks
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Treasury Department" mint


Treasury Department
1731
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Charity Office in Seoul" mint


Charity Office in Seoul
1695-1742
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Central Government Mint"


Central Government Mint
1883
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "General Military Office" mint


General Military Office
1757
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Special Army Unit" mint


Special Army Unit
1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Court Guard Military Unit" mint


Court Guard Military Unit
1823
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Military Training Command" mint


Military Training Command
1857
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Government Office of Pukhan Mountain Fortress" mint with flower (rosette) hole


Government Office of Pukhan Mountain Fortress
1830
* (flower hole)
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Kaesong Township Military Office" mint


Kaesong Township Military Office
1816
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Ch'unch'on Township Military Office" mint


Ch’unch’on Township Military Office
1888
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Kyonggi Provincial Office" mint


Kyonggi Provincial Office
1888
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the P'yongan Provincial Office" mint


P’yongan Provincial Office
1891
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Hamgyong Provincial Office" mint


Hamgyong Provincial Office
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Kyongsang Provincial Office" mint


Kyongsang Provincial Office
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Government Tithe Office" mint


Government Tithe Office
1807
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Military Office in Seoul" mint


Military Office in Seoul
1883
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Kwangju Township Military Office in Kyonggi Province" mint


Kwangju Township Military Office in Kyonggi Province
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Rice & Cloth Department" mint


Rice & Cloth Department
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Rice & Cloth Department" mint


Rice & Cloth Department
1806
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Cholla Provincial Office" mint


Cholla Provincial Office
1679-1695
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Kangwon Provincial Office" mint


Kangwon Provincial Office
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin cast at the "Ministry of Industry" mint


Ministry of Industry
1685-1752

* If you look carefully, you will notice that this coin cast at the “Government Office of Pukhan Mountain Fortress” has an eight-sided “flower hole” (“rosette hole”).  In China, coins with flower holes were very scarce until the Song Dynasty (960-1279).  Coins exhibiting flower holes gradually decreased during the following dynasties.  The last Chinese coins with flower holes were probably cast at the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD).  This particular Korean coin is most unusual because very few non-Chinese coins with flower holes have been found. For additional information on “flower hole” coins please see “Chinese Coins with Flower (Rosette) Holes“.

Symbols, Numbers and Special Characters

In addition to the mint mark which was placed at the top (above the square hole) of the coin’s reverse side, many sang pyong tong bo coins display other symbols as well.These markings began to appear in the year 1742 and are believed to indicate “furnace” or “series” numbers.Many of the coins simply show a Chinese number.But the sang pyong tong bo coins are unique in that they also use several other methods to express “numbers”.For example, some coins have dots, circles, crescents, horizontal lines, and vertical lines.  “Dots” represent “stars”.  “Circles” represent the “sun”.  “Crescents” represent the “moon”.  The “horizontal lines” represent the “earth” and the “vertical lines” represent “man”.These are very old symbols that first appeared on ancient Chinese coins.Examples of sang pyong tong bo coins with Chinese numbers as well as dots, circles, crescents and lines may be seen below.

Numbers, Stars, Suns, and Man
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "dot" ("star") and number 2

“Star” (dot)
Number “2” (二)
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "circle" ("sun") and number 3

“Sun” (circle)
Number “3” (三)
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "crescent" ("moon") and number 8

“Moon” (crescent)
Number “8” (八)
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "vertical line" ("man") and number 2
“Man” (vertical line)
Number “2” (二)

Other “special” symbols were also used to indicate furnace or series numbers on sang pyong tong bo coins.  These include characters from “The Thousand Character Classic“, “The Five Elements“, “The Ten Celestial Stems“, “The Twelve Terrestrial Branches“, “The Eight Trigrams“, and “Miscellaneous Characters“.

These special symbols are discussed in the sections below.

The Thousand Character Classic

Korea invented its own writing system, called Hangul (한 글), in 1443 during the reign of King Sejong (世宗).  However, Hangul did not come into common use until centuries later.Up until the early 20th Century, Korea instead relied on the use of Chinese characters for its written language which is why all the inscriptions on old Korean coins are written with Chinese characters.For many centuries one of the principal books for learning Chinese in both China and Korea was the 千字文 or “Thousand Character Classic” (Chinese: qian zi wen  Korean: cheonjamun, ch’ŏn ja mun).  The “Thousand Character Classic” was written in China by Zhou Xingxi (周兴嗣) at the request of Emperor Wu (武梁帝) who reigned during the years 502-549 AD of the Liang Dynasty.The primer is actually a poem structured as 250 phrases with each phrase composed of only 4 Chinese characters.  The entire poem is thus 1000 characters and no character is used more than once.Since it was written as a poem, it could be fairly easily memorized and therefore served as an excellent tool to teach Chinese.As an example, the following are the first 44 characters of the Thousand Character Classic:

天地玄黄 宇宙洪荒
日月盈昃 辰宿列張
寒来暑往 秋收冬藏
閏餘成歲 律吕調陽
雲騰致雨 露結為霜
金生麗水
“Heaven is dark, the earth is yellow; the universe is vast and barren
The setting sun, the full moon, and the stars, arranged in order
  Cold comes and heat departs; autumn harvests provide winter hoards
The intercalary surplus completes the year; music harmonizes the two principles of nature
Clouds ascend and bring rain; dew congeals and forms frost
Gold is found in the Li River; …”

Since no character is repeated, the “Thousand Character Classic” was frequently used as a numbering system for the numbers 1 to 1,000.

Starting in the year 1742, some sang pyong tong bo coins began to display furnace or series numbers on their reverse sides.  Chinese numbers were commonly used but other symbols were sometimes used as well.

For example, the first 44 characters of the Thousand Character Classic displayed above were used on some sang pyong tong bo coins for this purpose.

These characters are usually placed at the bottom (below the square hole) on the reverse side of the coins.

Examples of sang pyong tong bo coins with characters from the “Thousand Character Classic” are shown below.

 
Sang pyong tong bo coins with characters from “The Thousand Character Classic”
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "chon" meaning "heaven"


“chon”
“Heaven”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "chu" meaning "time"


“chu”
“Time”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "hong" meaning "flood"


“hong”
“Flood”
1852
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "il" meaning "sun"


“il”
“Sun

1891
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "wol" meaning "moon"


“wol”
“Moon”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "han" meaning "cold"


“han”
“Cold”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "song" meaning "completes"


“song”
“Completes”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "chi" meaning "earth"


“chi”
“Earth”
1852
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "chang" meaning "extend"


“chang”
“Extend”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "nae" meaning "comes"


“nae”
“Comes”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "hwang" meaning "barren"


“hwang”
“Barren”
1753
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "yong" meaning "full"


“yŏng”
“Full”
1753
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "ch'uk" meaning "the declining afternoon sun"


“ch’ŭk”
“The Declining Afternoon Sun”
1753
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "u" meaning "space"

“u”
“Space”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "hyon" meaning "dark"


“hyŏn”
“Dark”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "hwang" meaning "yellow"


“hwang”
“Yellow”
1742-1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "Thousand Character Classic" character "wang" meaning "depart"


“wang”
“Depart”
1742-1752
 

 

The Five Elements

In addition to the Chinese characters from the “Thousand Character Classic”, the characters of the “Five Elements” (Chinese: wu xing 五行) were also used to indicate furnace or series numbers on certain sang pyong tong bo coins.The “Five Elements” refer to the ancient Chinese belief that the entire universe is composed of these five basic essences or “elements”: metal (kum 金), wood (mok 木), water (su 水), fire (hwa 火) and earth (to 土).An example of a sang pyong tong bo coin with one of the “Five Elements” located below the square hole may be seen below.

“Five Element” character on sang pyong tong bo coins
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "five elements" character "metal"


“kum”
“Metal”
1752
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with "five elements" character "water"


“su”
“Water”
1752


The Ten Celestial Stems

Another “numbering” system used on the sang pyong tong bo coins is the “Ten Celestial Stems” also known as the “Ten Heavenly Stems”.The traditional Chinese calendar is based on pairing one of the “Ten Celestial Stems” with one of the “Twelve Terrestial Branches”.  These pairings result in 60 combinations which form the sixty-year cycle of the calendar.  When one cycle is completed, another begins.

Ten Celestial Stems
Celestial Stem Korean Chinese
gap jia
eul yi
byeong bing
jeong ding
mu wu
gi ji
gyeong geng
sin sin
im ren
gye gui
As an example, a (jeong), the fourth of the “Celestial Stems”, can be seen to the left of the square hole on the reverse side of the sang pyong tong bo coin below.

Sang pyong tong bo coin with one of the Ten Celestial Stems
Korean "san pyong tong bo" coin with "jeong" of the "ten celestial stems"


“jeong”
1832

The Twelve Terrestrial Branches

As mentioned above, the traditional Chinese calendar is based on the pairing of a “Celestial Stem” with a “Terrestrial Branch”.Some sang pyong tong bo coins have one of the “Twelve Terrestrial Branches” on the reverse side to indicate a series or furnace number.The “Twelve Terrestrial Branches”, also known as the “Twelve Earthly Branches”, are identified in the following table.
Twelve Terrestrial Branches
Terrestrial Branch Korean Chinese
cha zi
ch’uk chou
in yin
myo mao
ch’en chen
sa si
o wu
mi wei
sin shen
yu you
sul xu
hae hai

The Eight Trigrams

A trigram is a three-line symbol.  Each of the three lines in a trigram can be either continuous or broken.A solid line represents the yang (阳), or “male”, while a broken line represents the um (阴),or “female”. Yin Yang (阴阳 Korean: um yang) is the Chinese term for the basic polarities of the universe, e.g. male/female, light/dark, strong/weak, etc.There are eight possible combinations of trigram components and these combinations are known as the “eight trigrams” (八卦).The “eight trigrams” have been used in divination since very ancient times.A very few of thetwo mun (“Value Two” dangijun 當二錢) sang pyong tong bo coins cast at the “T’ongyong Naval Office” (統營) mintdisplay symbols of the “eight trigrams” on the reverse side.For a better understanding of the “Eight Trigrams”, please see “Trigrams and Bagua“.

Miscellaneous Characters

One final set of Chinese characters can sometimes be found below the square hole on the reverse side of sang pyong tong bo coins.

These characters appear to be yet another system to refer to a specific furnace or series, but their exact meaning and purpose remains unknown.

Miscellaneous Characters
Character Translation Korean Chinese
enter ip ru
big tae da
work kong gong
thousand chon qian
cash mun wen
the first won yuan
heaven chon tian
middle chung chong
upright chong zheng
produce saeng sheng
light kwang guang
complete chon quan
auspicious kil ji
finish wan wan

Examples of sang pyong tong bo coins with “miscellaneous characters” located on the reverse side below the square hole may be seen below.

Sang pyong tong bo coins with “Miscellaneous Characters
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "tae" meaning "big" below the hole on the reverse side


“tae”
“Big”
1857
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "kong" meaning "work"


“kong”
“Work”
1857

Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "won" meaning "the first"


“won”
“The First”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "chung" meaning "middle"


“chung”
“Middle”
1857
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "saeng" meaning "produce"


“saeng”
“Produce”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "kwang" meaning "light"


“kwang”
“Light”
1852
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "chŏn" meaning "perfect"


“chŏn”
“Perfect”
1832
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "mun" meaning "cash"


“mun”
“Cash”
1857
Korean "sang pyong tong bo" coin with Chinese character "chong" meaning "upright"


“chŏng”
“Upright”
1857
 

Korea’s First Modern Milled Coinage


In 1892, after more than 250 years, casting of the sang pyong tong bo coins in copper and bronze finally ended.

Korean Dae Dong silver coin (Chon) minted in 1882But prior to that time, in the year 1882 which was the 19th year of the reign of King Gojong (Kojong 高宗 고종), Korea began to cast a new type of coin.

Unlike the copper sang pyong tong bo coins, these coins were made of silver and no longer had a square hole in the center.

The inscription on these new coins begins with dae dong (大東) and includes a number from one through three.

Dae dong (大東) means “Great East” (Great Eastern Kingdom) and is another name for Korea.

The denomination was chon () which was “1/10 of an ounce”.  A Korean “ounce” was 37.5 grams.  The numbers “one” (), “two” () and “three” () represented 0.1 ounce, 0.2 ounce and 0.3 ounce, respectively.

For example, the coin shown here is a number “one” (1 Chon 一錢, 20 mm, 3.4-3.7 grams) and the inscription is 大東一錢.  The inscription for the 2 Chon coin (28 mm, 7.1-7.7 grams) is 大東二錢 and that for the 3 Chon coin (33 mm, 10.6 grams) is 大東三錢.

There are several varieties of the 3 Chon coin including large character, medium character and small character.

These new silver coins also have a distinctive reverse side.  All the coins were made by the same Treasury Department Mint (戶曹 Hojo) that had been casting the sang pyong tong bo coins.  However, the mint mark (戶 Ho) on the new coins was placed in a circle in the middle of the reverse side and was surrounded by colored enamel (blue, green or black).

Unfortunately, these new coins, which imitated Western coins, failed to achieve their goal of stabilizing the monetary system.  The price of silver was rising as was the cost of production.  The coins were hoarded by the yangban (양반 兩班), who were the nobles and ruling class, and taken out of the country for their intrinsic metal content.  As a result, minting of these coins ceased in June 1883.

In 1883, Korea purchased from Germany the equipment to produce milled (machine-struck) coins.

Korean 1 warn coin minted in 1888In 1888 (開國497), a very small number of milled (machine-struck) coins denominated in mun (文) and hwan (“warn”, “whan” 圜) were minted.  The “warn” was equivalent to 1,000 mun.

The design of the coins was very similar to that of Japanese yen coins.

These coins were produced by the government mint in Seoul (gyeongseong 京成典圜局) in three denominations: 5 mun (5 文), 10 mun (10) and 1 warn (1圜).

The 5 mun and 10 mun coins are composed of 98% copper, 1% tin and 1% zinc.  The 5 mun coin has a diameter of 21.7 mm and a weight of 2.8 grams.  The 10 mun coin has a diameter is 27.5 mm and a weight of 6.5 grams.

The 1 warn coin, which is displayed here, is particularly rare since only 1,300 coins were struck.  It is composed of 90% silver and 10% copper.  The diameter is 38 mm and the weight is 26.95 grams.

Korean Fun, Yang and Whan Coins (1892-1902)


Korean 5 yang coin minted in 1892The currency of Korea began to be based on the yang (兩) beginning in the year 1892 with the implementation of the silver standard currency reform.  The yang was further divided into fun (分) which was equal to 1/100th of a yang.  The coin denominations and their compositions were 1 fun (brass), 5 fun (copper),
¼ yang (initially cupronickel and later copper around silver), 1 yang (80% silver) and 5 yang (90% silver).

An example of a 5 yang (五兩) coin minted in 1892 (開國501) is displayed at the left.  Only 19,923 of these coins were produced.

There was also a 1 whan (1) coin minted in 1893 (開國502) composed of 90% silver but this coin is extremely rare since only 77 coins were produced.

Some denominations in this series continued to be minted until 1902.  All the coins were produced at the mint in Incheon (仁川典局).
 
The dates on the coins discussed above reflected the number of years since the founding (gaeguk 開國) of the Choson (Joseon) or Yi Dynasty in 1392 (“year 1″) by General Yi Seong-gye.  The Choson Dynasty (including the short-lived Korean Empire (1897-1910)) ended in 1910 when Korea became a colony of Japan.

Portrait of King Gojong who became Korea's first emperor (Emperor Gwangmu)As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Korea found itself free of Chinese hegemony.  In 1897, the Yi (Choson, Josean) Dynasty ended with King Gojong proclaiming the establishment of the “Empire of Korea”.  In so doing, King Gojong became Emperor Gwangmu.

A portrait of King Gojong, who became Korea’s first emperor, is shown at the left.

Beginning in 1897, the regnal year of the monarch began to be used on coins to denote the year instead of calculating the year since the founding of the Choson Dynasty.

Coins minted 1897-1907 are dated from the year Emperor Gwangmu (Kuang Mu, Kwangmu 光武 광무제), formerly King Gojong (Kojong 高宗 고종) of the Choson (Yi) Dynasty, ascended the throne of the “Great Korean Empire” (大韓帝國 대한제국 1897-1910) with the year 1897 being “year 1″ (元年).

Coins minted 1907-1910 are dated from the year Emperor Yunghui (Yung Hi 隆熙 융희제), formerly known as Sunjong (純宗 순종), ascended the throne with 1907 being year 1″ (元年).

The name of the country was variously displayed on the coins as “Great Korea” (大朝鮮), “Korea” (朝鮮) or “Daehan” (大韓).

Coins denominated in fun and yang continued to be minted from 1892-1902.

Examples of 1 fun, 5 fun and ¼ yang coins are shown below.

1 Fun (一分) Coins

Korea minted 1 fun (一分) coins during the years 1892-1896 except for the year 1894 when no 1 fun coins were struck.The coins are composed of brass (95% copper and 5% aluminum).In 1895, some coins were produced with the country name “Great Korea” (大朝鮮) while others were minted using the name “Korea” (朝鮮).These coins have a diameter of 23.4 mm and a weight of 3.3 grams.All 1 fun coins were made at the mint in Incheon (仁川典局).Examples of 1 fun coins may be seen below.
1 Fun Coins
Reverse side of Korean 1 fun coin produced during the years 1892-1896

Reverse side
一分
Korean 1 fun coin minted in the year 1892 (gaeguk 501)

開國501年
1892
Korean 1 fun coin minted in the year 1893 (gaeguk 502)

開國502年
1893
1 fun coin minted in Korea in 1895 (gaeguk 504)

開國504年
(大朝鮮)
1895
1 fun coin minted in Korea and dated 1896 (gaeguk 505)

開國505年
1896

5 Fun (五分) Coins 

The 5 fun (五分) coins were produced from 1892 to 1902 except during the years 1897, 1900 and 1901.These copper coins are composed of 98% copper, 1% tin and 1% zinc.The coin has a diameter of 27 mm, a thickness of 1.5 mm and a weight of 6.9 grams.All 5 fun coins were made in Incheon (仁川典局) except for those produced in 1902 which were minted at Yongsan (龍山典局).There are varieties with small (小子), medium (中子) and large (大字) characters or letters as well as ones displaying the country name as “Great Korea” (大朝鮮),“Korea” (朝鮮) and “Daehan” (大韓).Examples of 5 fun coins may be seen below.
5 Fun Coins
Reverse side of Korean 5 fun coin

Reverse side
五分
Korean 5 fun coin minted in 1892 (gaeguk 501)

開國501年
1892
Korean 5 fun coin with date 1893 (gaeguk 502)

開國502年
1893
Korean 5 fun coin dated 1894 (gaeguk 503)

開國503年
1894
Korean 5 fun coin minted in 1895 (gaeguk 504)

開國504年
(朝鮮)
1895
Korean 5 fun coin dated 1895 (gaeguk 504) with country name "Great Korea"

開國504年
(大朝鮮)
1895
Korean 5 fun coin dated 1896 (gaeguk 505)
開國505年
(朝鮮)
1896
5 fun coin minted in 1896 (gaeguk 505) with small characters and country name "Great Korea"

開國505年
(大朝鮮)小字
1896
Korean 5 fun coin with date 1896 (gaeguk 505) with large characters

開國505年
(大朝鮮)大字
1896
Korean 5 fun coin struck in 1898 (gwangmu 2)

光武2年
1898
Korean 5 fun coin minted in 1902 (gwangmu 6)

光武6年
1902

¼ Yang (二錢五分) Coins

The ¼ yang (二錢五分) coins were minted during the years 1892-1901.Their composition is 75% copper and 25% nickel.These coins have a diameter of 20.7 mm and a weight of 4.8 grams.Varieties of this coin were produced in certain years and can include differences in the country name (“Great Korea” 大朝鮮, “Korea” 朝鮮, “Daehan” 大韓) and the size of the letters or characters (large characters 大字, small characters 小字).From 1892-1897, the ¼ yang coins were struck at the mint in Incheon (仁川典局).  The Yongsan mint (龍山典局) produced these coins from 1998-1901.Examples of ¼ yang coins are shown below.
 
¼ Yang Coins
Reverse side of Korean ¼ yang coin minted during the years 1892-1901

Reverse side
二錢五分
Korean ¼ yang coin dated 1893 (gaeguk 502)

開國502年
1893
Korean ¼ yang coin made in 1898 (gwangmu 2)

光武2年
1898

Korean Gold Standard Coins (1906-1909)

In response to the adoption by other countries of the gold standard for their currencies, Korea decided to follow suit and implemented a similar monetary reform on May 22, 1901.

Korean 20 won gold coin minted in 1906Gold coins were minted in the three denominations of 5 won (五園), 10 won (十園) and 20 won (二十).  The won () was equivalent to 20 chon ().

An example of a 20 won gold coin dated 1906 (光武10年) is shown at the left.

All of the coins are composed of 90% gold and 10% copper.

The 5 won (五園) coin has a diameter of 17 mm and a weight of 4.2 grams.  The 10 won (十園) coin has a diameter of 21.2 mm and a weight of 8.3 grams.  The 20 won (二十园) coin has a diameter of 28.8 mm and a weight of 16.7 grams.

A distinctive feature of these coins is that there is no English inscription.  The coins only have Chinese and Hangul (한글) inscriptions.

The 5 won gold coins are dated 1908 (隆熙2年) and 1909 (隆熙3年).  Only two pieces of the 1909 coin are known to exist with one piece selling at auction for $460,000 in September 2011.

The 10 won gold coins are dated 1906 (光武10年) and 1909 (隆熙3年).  Only two examples of the 1909 coin are known to exist with one specimen selling at auction for $299,000 in September 2011.

The 20 won gold coins are dated 1906 (
光武10年), 1908 (隆熙2年) and 1909 (隆熙3年).  Only two specimens of the 1909 coin are known to exist with one piece selling at auction for $632,500 in September 2011.

Because the Korean Mint Bureau, which had been striking coins for 20 years, was pressured to close by the Japanese in 1904, all of these gold coins were produced at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局).

Korean Chon and Won Coins (1902-1910)

During the years 1902-1910, the coins of Korea were denominated in won () and chon (錢).  The chon was equal to  1/100th of a won.

Korean "half won" silver coin minted in 1906The coin denominations consisted of ½ chon (半錢), 1 chon (一錢), 5 chon (五錢), 10 chon (十錢), 20 chon (二十錢), and half won (半園).The half won (半園) coins were only minted during the years 1905-1908.At the left is an example of a half won (半園) coin struck during the 10th year (1906) of the reign of Emperor Gwangmu.The half won coins made in 1905 and 1906 are composed of 80% silver and 20% copper.  The diameter is 31 mm and the weight is 13.5 grams.The half won coins struck in 1907 and 1908 are also 80% silver and 20% copper but are slightly smaller with a diameter of 27.5 mm and a weight of 10.0 grams.The dragon symbol was replaced by the phoenix on the ½ chon, 1 chon and 5 chon coins.All of the coins from this period were made at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局).Examples of these coins are shown below.

½ Chon (半錢) Coins

The ½ chon (半錢) coin was only produced during the period 1906-1910.

For the first year (1906 “gwangmu 10″), the ½ chon coin had a diameter of 21.9 mm, thickness of 1.5 mm, and weight of 3.4 grams.

The coin was slightly smaller in all of the following years with a diameter of 19.1 mm, thickness of 1 mm, and weight of 2.1 grams.

The composition of all the ½ chon coins are the same:  95% copper, 4% tin and 1% zinc

There is some question as to whether or not a ½ chon coin was minted in the 11th year of the reign of Gwangmu (Kuang Mu).

Also, the ½ chon coins minted in 1907 (yunghui, yung hi first year) and 1910 (yunghui, yung hi year 4) are very scarce.

Examples of Korean ½ chon coins are shown below.

 
½ Chon Coins
Reverse side of Korean ½ chon coin

Reverse side
半錢
Korean ½ chon coin made in 1906 (gwangmu 10) at the mint in Osaka, Japan

光武10年
1906
Korean ½ chon coin dated 1908 (yunghui 2) produced at the mint in Osaka, Japan

隆熙2年
1908
½ chon Korean coin dated 1909 (yunghui 3)

隆熙3年
1909


1 Chon (一錢) Coins

The Korean 1 chon (一錢) coins were produced during the period 1905-1910.  All the coins were made at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局).For the first two years (1905-1906), the coins had a diameter of 28 mm, a thickness of 1.5 mm, and a weight of 7.1 grams.The coins produced during the following years (1907-1910) were smaller with a diameter of 22.5 mm, a thickness of 1 mm, and a weight of 4.1 grams.All the 1 chon coins, however, had the same composition:  98% copper, 1% tin, and 1% zincShown below is a complete set of Korean 1 chon coins.


1 Chon Coins
Reverse side of Korean 1 chon coins produced during the years 1905-1910 at the mint in Osaka, Japan

Reverse side
一錢
Korean 1 chon coin minted in 1905 (gwangmu 9)

光武9年
1905
Korean 1 chon coin minted in 1906 (gwangmu 10)

光武10年
1906
1 chon Korean coin dated 1907 (gwangmu 11)

光武11年
1907
Korean 1 chon coin dated 1907 (yunghui yuan or first year)

隆熙元年
1907
Korean 1 chon coin made in 1908 (yunghui 2)

隆熙2年
1908
Korean 1 chon coin dated 1909 (yunghui 3)

隆熙3年
1909
Korean 1 chon coin dated 1910 (yunghui 4)

隆熙4年
1910


5 Chon (五錢) Coins

The 5 chon (五錢) coins were only produced in the years 1905, 1907 and 1909 with the 1909 (yunghui, yung hi 3) coin being very rare.One 19095 chon coin sold at auction for $138,000 in September 2011.All the coins were made at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局) and have a diameter of 20.8 mm, a thickness of 2 mm, and a weight of 4 grams.The composition of the coins are 75% copper and 25% nickel.Examples of the 5 chon coins may be seen below.


5 Chon Coins
Reverse side of Korean 5 chon coin minted in the years 1905, 1907 and 1909

Reverse side
五錢
Korean 5 chon coin minted in 1905 (gwangmu 9)

光武9年
1905
Korean 5 chon coin dated 1907 (gwangmu 11) and made at the mint in Osaka, Japan

光武11年
1907


10 Chon (十錢) Coins

The 10 chon (十錢) coins were minted during the years 1906-1910 although there is some question as to whether or not any 10 chon coins were actually made in 1909.

All the 10 chon coins are silver with a composition of 80% silver and 20% copper.

The coins have a diameter of 17.6 mm and a thickness of 1.5 mm.  All the coins weigh 2.5 grams with the exception of those dated 1907 (gwangmu 11) which weigh 2.25 grams.

Also, all the coins were produced at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局).

Examples of the 10 chon coins are shown below.

10 Chon Coins
Reverse side of Korean 10 chon coin

Reverse side
十錢
Korean 10 chon silver coin dated 1906 (gwangmu 10) produced at mint in Osaka, Japan

光武10年
1906
Korean 10 chon silver coin minted in 1907 (gwangmu 11)

光武11年
1907
Korean 10 chon silver coin minted in 1908 (yunghui 2)

隆熙2年
1908
Korean 10 chon silver coin minted in 1910 (yunghui 4)

隆熙4年
1910


20 Chon (二十錢) Coins 

The 20 chon (二十錢) silver coins were produced during the years 1905-1910 at the mint in Osaka, Japan (日本大阪造幣局).

During the years 1905 (gwangmu 9) and 1906 (gwangmu 10), the 20 chon coins had a diameter of 22.8 mm, a thickness of 1.5 mm and a weight of 5.4 grams.

The coin was slightly smaller in the following years with a diameter of 20.3 mm, a thickness of 1.5 mm and a weight of 4 grams.

The composition of all the coins, however, was the same:  80% silver and 20% copper

Examples of 20 chon coins are shown below.

20 Chon Coins
Reverse side of Korean 20 chon silver coin

Reverse side
二十錢
Korean 20 chon silver coin minted in 1906 (gwangmu 10)

光武10年
1906
Korean 20 chon silver coin minted in 1909 (yunghui 3)

隆熙3年
1909
Korean 20 chon silver coin dated 1910 (yunghui 4) made at mint in Osaka, Japan

隆熙4年
1910

Korean “Eagle” Coins Issued by the Russo-Korean Bank

As a result of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), China’s influence in Korea was replaced by that of the victorious Japanese.  China’s weakened position also allowed for Russian interests in the Far East to expand greatly.

Under the leadership of Mr. Alexiev, who was the financial advisor to Korea sent by Russia, the first Asian branch of the Russo-Korean Bank was established on March 1, 1898.

Korean silver half won coin with image of Russian imperial eagle minted in 1901In 1901, Alexiev authorized the minting of a new set of three coins.  The denominations were 1 chon (一錢 28 mm, 8 grams), 5 chon (五錢 20.5 mm, 5.4 grams) and half won (半園 30.9 mm, 13.5 grams).

An example of the half won coin is shown at the left.

Thehalf won coins are dated 1901 (Gwangmu year 5 光武5年) while the 1 chon and 5 chon coins are dated 1902 (Gwangmu year 6 光武6年).

The composition of the half won coin is 90% silver and 10% copper.

The composition of the 1 chon coin is 98% copper, 1% tin and 1% zinc while that of the 5 chon coin is 75% copper and 25% nickel.

A major characteristic of these coins is that the image of the Crowned Russian Imperial Eagle replaced the traditional dragon or phoenix.  For this reason, these coins are referred to as “eagle” coins or the Eagle Series.

There was also a set of experimental or trial coins produced but never circulated.  This coin series included a copper 10 won, copper 20 won and silver “half dollar” (half won).  All these trial coins were reportedly minted in 1901 although the coins display dates of 1899, 1901, 1902 or 1903.

All of the “eagle” coins were produced at the mint at Yongsan, Korea (龍山典局).

Japan was the victor in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and, as a consequence, confiscated and destroyed almost all of the “eagle” coins.  For this reason, these coins are very rare.

One example of a 1 chon coin dated 1902 sold at auction for $149,500 in September 2011.  A 20 won coin dated 1902 sold at the same auction for $115,000.

Korea became a Japanese protectorate under the Eulsa Treaty of 1905 and was annexed by Japan in 1910.

The “Japanese Imperial Period” in Korea ended in 1945 with Japan’s defeat in World War II.

Modern Korean Coins

With the end of Japan’s occupation of Korea at the close of World War II and the cessation of active fighting following the Korean War, Korea was finally able to return to using its own currency.The new coins were denominated as won().  The first of Korea’s modern coinage was a series of coins with denominations of 10 won, 50 won and 100 won.These first coins were issued in 1959 and minted at the Philadelphia Mint in the United States.The 10 won coin has an image of the mugunghwa (Rose of Sharon 무궁화) flower which is the national flower of Korea.  The coin’s composition is 95% copper and 5% zinc.  The coin has a diameter of 19.1 mm and a weight of 2.46 grams.The 50 won coin shows an image of the famous “Turtle Ship”(kobukson 거북선 龜船) designed by Admiral Yi Sunsin (李舜臣). This warship had a curved ironclad deck which was covered with iron spikes.  These ships proved successful in battles against the Japanese who tried to conquer Korea during the years 1592-1598.The 50 won coin has a composition of 70% copper, 18% zinc and 12% nickel.  The coin has a diameter of 22.86 mm and a weight of 3.69 grams.The final coin in this series is the 100 won coin.  The coin displays the portrait of Syngman Rhee (이승만 李承晩) who was the first president of the Republic of Korea.  The coin has a composition of 75% copper and 25% nickel.  The diameter is 26 mm and the weight is 6.74 grams.All three coins in the series were minted in 1959 but the date on the coins is “4292”.Up until the year 1961, Korea used the traditional Korean calendar which calculates the year from the time when the first Korean kingdom was established.  According to ancient Chinese and Korean texts, Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검 檀君王檢) established the kingdom of Gojoseon (고조선 古朝鮮) in the year 2333 BC.  The year “4292” in the Korean calendar is therefore equivalent to the year “1959” in the Gregorian or Western calendar.The 10 won and 50 won coins, but not the 100 won coin, were again minted in the year “4294” (1961).  Korean coins after 1961 show the year according to the Western calendar.The 100 won coin was withdrawn from circulation in 1962 but the 10 won and 50 won coins circulated until 1975.This complete series of coins is shown below.

Korea’s first modern series of 10 won, 50 won and 100 won coins
Korean "10 won" coin dated 1959 (4292) with mugunghwa flower (Rose of Sharon)

Obverse side
10 won
Mugunghwa Flower
(Rose of Sharon)
Reverse side of Korean 10 won coin with date 4292 (1959)

10 won
(Korean calendar year 4292)
1959
Reverse side of Korean 10 won coin with date 4294 (1961)

10 won
(Korean calendar year 4294)
1961
Korean "50 won" coin with "Turtle Ship" dated 1959 (4292)

Obverse side
50 won
Turtle Ship
Reverse side of Korean 50 won coin dated 4292 (1959)

50 won
(Korean calendar year 4292)
1959
Reverse side of Korean 50 won coin dated 4294 (1961)

50 won
(Korean calendar year 4294)
1961
Korean "100 won" coin with Syngman Rhee dated 1959 (4292)

Obverse side
100 won
Syngman Rhee
Reverse side of Korean 100 won coin dated 4292 (1959)

100 won
(Korean calendar year 4292)
1959

The Northern Sung History Collections

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Ancient Chinese  Numismatic History collections

Part One(4)

Northern SongDynasty

 

Bronze 30mm North Song Orthodox script Ta Kuan tong bao

Created By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

FORWARD

I have collecting china numismatic including coins and papermoney from ancient to modern era almost 50 years, and starting to study the collections in 25 years.

At first very difficult because during President Suharto era 1966-1998 forbidden to read and collected Chinese literatures but the china numismatic could found easily with cheapest price until 1988 after the open diplomatic relationship between Indonesia and China I can found a little informations.

Since the President Gus Dur (abdulrahman Wahid) Era

my son anton for him this e-book dedicated

the Chinese overseas origin or Tionghoa ethnic became the Indonesian Ethnic nationality in the years 2000 I can found some informations and I could study in legal.but the collection very difficult to find because many chese nationality visit Indonesia and they swept all the Chinese numismatic collections.

I have visit china three times, first in 2007 to south china from Hanoi to

 

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by

 

Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

Xianmen city

 

at Sin Hua Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue

 

Native market like in Indonesia

 

 

 

 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 

 my grandpa homeland

 

 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look

 

 

 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan with

 

 oldest turtle stone and

 

 

 

 

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 

 Beijing by China Airlines to look

 

olympic games station,

 

 

With my wife Lily

 

 

forbidden city,

 

 great wall ,and at least in 2009 by flight and bus to

south china Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

3.THE SHI BA SUI WATERFALL AT HEZOU
The common waterfall was decorated with Handmade lake, beautiful and clean road to the waterfall which made the exciting landscape . the clever decrated area must be copy by many countries like Indonesia where more exciting waterfall still in the riginalsituations the same with another place , if the landscape were ddecrated like the picture below , I think will be more beautiful an interesting area.

 

4.THE TEMPLE OF DRAGON’S MOTHER AT WUZHOU
The temple of the mother of China Emperors Prince Crown was from Wu Zhou, in this temple there were the Statue of the China Empires Prince Crown during the ancient Emprire Before Christ, at the top of the hill beside the Yuanyang River was the Dragons Mother statue. Dragon was the symbols of the China Emperor, I think She was a concubine and his son became the crwn prince because the Empress didnot have the sons (the same as the Empress Dwager Xi Cie). Look at the paintings and the monument below (the Mother and crown prince will illustrated at the unique collections from WuZhou.

 

 

5.YUE XIU PARK GUANZHOU
This beautiful and exciting park sitatuated at YueXiu Hill in the Guan Zhou (before Canton), consist seven hill, three builded Lake and The Goat Statue of Guan Zhou city emblem ,look at that city emblem photo illustrations below.

.at guangzhou night market I found many achina numismatic collection with colour illustration which help me much to open the mystery of chinese cast coin script and code of reign

I have write in e-book CD-ROM about this and upload the sample in my web blog with caption  the dr iwan Adventure in China.

I bought the first catalogue Krause in 1989, in 2008 the Chinese coin catalogue with Chinese character,in 2008 my son Anton bought the best coin catalogue that made more understand how to read the chine native script  and in the same years I found several numismatic catalogue at Guangzhou.

I am starting writing about Chinese numismatic in my old web blog hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com which visit by 80.000 collectors.

This day I just found very best information about Chinese numismatic collections,and with this informations my study finish and I have writing the amazing e-book in CD-ROM about the report of my study with notification which coin ever found in Indonesia with mark @,this the first study ever report,and this informations will be the fact related to Chinese traded in Indonesia, the sample I upload in my other web blog hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.worpres.com which visit by 210.000 collectors from all over the world. The complete e.book in CD-ROM exist with full info and illustrations which made everyone can understand about the Chinese numismatic including the value ,but this only for premium member of the blog,that is why please subscribed via comment.

Why I am interesting to reasech about Chinese cast coin, the first reason that the coin came from My Grandpa homeland which relatated with my father and my self also hole family. The second reaond  this unique cast coin with hole in the center which known in Indonesia as Gobok coin and many find in Bali because they used as the magic lucky charm alhouth they didn’t now that the charm with rosette hole, from every character ,type of script  and position from the hole top,bottom,left andf right of the hole have their own name and used for special charm of magic power.They cannot read the Chinese character,the Hindu Bali native people gave tir own name,

like the grass script (scribbling or fast script) of  Yuan Feng tong bao,the yuan like flower and thy named the flower coin

 

.the eror printing cast coin with double print ar reverse which look like crescent moon they called  the Moon coin.

 

The grass script(Scribling) of Zhi Dao Yuan Bao,the character  at left  of circling they named as the symbol of happiness(bahagia) ,the owner will always happy all the time and they name this the happiness coin.

 

The Jian(Chien) Yen  tong Bao of southern song the yen character like grass,and they used as the lucky charm coin for the ranch of Horse because the horse eating the grass

 

Read at the souther Song dynasty history collections.

The metal of cast coin many from bronze, rare from iron and also from tin the heaven money coin.

All the Chinese cast coin collector will have the informations how to read the character Top-Bottom-left-Right or Top-Right-Bottom-ring contra clock wise the bali native called

 

the coin ‘s the position like cheng ho

tong bao,the ho char at  bottom 

, also info the difference between four type script from orthodox,Seal,grass(scribbling) and Li script.

Also info the character many used like Yuan,Tong ,Bao, Thien,Thay,Ho etc. 

I understand that this study not complete,more info and correction still need,please send your comment,for that thanks very much.

Jakarta April 2012

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 


China was unified again by

the Song Dynasty

 (960 – 1279).

The Song dynasty produced a complex series of coins. Song emperors used many reign titles

and different calligraphy styles were used in the coins.

 

A particular type of coin is the “matched coin” (dui qian).

These are coins with inscriptions of different calligraphic style but identical make

(rim, thickness, hole and size). This is a unique feature of Northern Song coins.


The seal script  Tian Sheng Yuan Bao

 

 

seal script Zheng ho tong bao

is an example of a dui qian. It existed in

 seal script

 

Tian Sheng Yuan Bao cash, Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063), China

 

li script and regular orthodox  scripts

also

@

n

seal script Xi Ning yuan  bao (熙宁元宝) inscription.

Xi at top,Ning at lef and yuan at bottom,this charm coin look the rosette hole

 compare witn above coin hole square

This inscription, however, is written in seal script.

Coins with this style of calligraphy were cast during the years 1068-1077 of the reign of Emperor Shen Zong.

; attributed to Emperor Ren Zong who used

 orthodox script tian sheng tong bao , tian at top,sheng at left clockwise read

as the period title of the years 1023 to 1031.

 

THE SUNG or SONG DYNASTY (960-1279)  

Over 300 years of Sung history is divided into the two periods of Northern and Southern Sung.

Because of the barbarian occupation of northern China the second half of the Sung rule

was confined to the area south of the Huai River. (Photo – painting of a scholar 11th century).

    Northern Sung (960-1126).

 General Chao K’uang-yin, later known as

 

Sung T’ai Tsu,

 was said to have been coerced to become emperor in order to unify China.

Wary of power-hungry commanders, Sung T’ai Tsu made the military into a national army under his direct control. Under his less capable successors, however, the military increasingly lost prestige.

Unfortunately for China, the weakening of the military coincided with the rise of successive strong nomad nations on the borders.

    In contrast to the military’s loss of prestige, the civil service rose in dignity.

The examination system that had been restored in the Sui and T’ang was further elaborated and regularized.

 Selection examinations were held every three years at the district, provincial, and metropolitan levels.

    Only 200 out of thousands of applicants were granted the jinshi degree, the highest degree,

and appointed to government posts. From this time on, civil servants

became China’s most envied elite, replacing the hereditary nobles and landlords.

   

Sung dominion extended over only part of the territories of earlier Chinese empires.

The Khitans controlled the northeastern territories, and

 the Xi Xia (Western Xia) controlled the northwestern territories. Unable to recover these lands,

the Sung emperors were compelled to make peace with the Khitans in 1004

 and with the Hsi Hsia in 1044. Massive payments to the barbarians under the peace terms depleted

the state treasury, caused hardship to taxpaying peasants, and gave rise to a conflict in the court among

advocates of war, those who favored peace, and reformers.

(Photo – Star Chart from Su Song’s Xin Yi Fa Yao published in 1092).

    In 1069

Emperor Shen Tsung (left)appointed Wang An-shih (right)as chief minister. Wang proposed a number of sweeping reforms based on the classical text of the `Rites of Chou’. Many of his “new laws” were actually revivals of earlier policies, but officials and landlords opposed his reforms.

When the emperor and Wang died within a year of each other, the new laws were withdrawn. For the next several decades, until

the fall of the Northern Sung in 1126,

 the reformers and antireformers alternated in power, creating havoc and turmoil in government.

   

In an effort to regain territory lost to the Khitans,

the Sung sought an alliance with the newly powerful Juchens from Manchuria.

Once the alliance had expelled the Khitans, however, the Juchens turned on the Sung and occupied the capital of Kaifeng.

The Juchens established the dynasty of Chin,

 a name meaning “gold,” which lasted from 1115 to 1234, in the north. They took the emperor and his son prisoner, along with 3,000 others, and ordered them to be held in Manchuria. (Photo – Astronomical Clock Tower from Su Song’s book, 1092).

    Southern Sung (1126-1279).

Another imperial son fled south and settled in 1127 at Hangzhou,

where he resumed the Sung rule as the emperor Kao Tsung. The Sung retained control south of

 

the Huai River,branch of Yangtse river at Hangzhou

where they ruled for another one and a half centuries.Although militarily weak and limited in area,

Hangzhou
杭州

In 2009

Dr Iwan ever Visit Hangzou by bus from Guangzhou to Guillin and sailed around

the Hangzhou lake

 

with many beautiful villa around the lake

 

at the hill espacially during sunset

—  Sub-provincial city  —

杭州市

At HANGZHOU IN THE MORNING AT THE FROM HOTEL

 dr iwan found local phone card with the picture of native china dancer, and the old man and women TAI Chi dancer sport, and many plays table tennis Pingpong.

Read more info in another CD-ROM

Dr Iwan Adventur In South China

The sample also exist at

Hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com and

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseun.wordpress.com

Look the amazing landscape of

 Hangzhou

below

 

 

Location of Hangzhou City in Zhejiang

 

 

Hangzhou

Location in China

Coordinates: 30°15′N 120°10′E

 

   

 

 

  

THE NORTHERN SUNG DYNASTY

This is a guide to the coins of

the Northern Sung Dynasty

(AD 960 to 1126),

the coin uncommon and rare.

Dr Iwan Notes

The Nothern Song found many than the Southern Song Coins in Indonesia before 1980,but after that became scarce.

The rare of another song cast coin are

the rosette hole ,lucky cham coin,

 Dr Iwan only found one coin ching te tong bao

soory no illustration

 

The Sung Dynasty, established in AD 960,

 saw relative stability in China, although conflict with the Tartars and Mongols continued. In AD 1127 the northern provinces were lost to them

and

 the capital had to be moved from

 

 K’ai-feng Fu (Pien-liang) in the north

 

To

 

 

 Lin-an Fu (Hangchou) in the south.

We now refer to the period before the move as the Northern Sung and after the move as Southern Sung.

This is a complex series, with nine Emperors using dozens of reign titles and many inscription and calligraphy variations which defined dates and mints. If the variations were catalogued, they would number in the thousands. Unfortunately the key to understanding them no longer exists..

Song Dynasty,

Is Many Armor Leaves (Iron Sheet) One Kind Of Iron Armor Which Connects With The Rawhide Or The Armor Nail Becomes. It Protects The Whole Body Nearly, For China Ancient Armor’s Apex.

AD960-AD1279


Northern Song Dynasty

 

 

       

Emperor Song Taizu

Emperor Song Taizong

Emperor Song Huizong

Emperor Song Gaozong

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Taizu – Song Dynasty

sorry no illustration 

[ ] Emperor Taizu [Tai-tsu] , the first emperor

 

 sorry no illustration

[ ]Emperor Taizong

 

 illustration only for premium member

 

[ ]Emperor Zhengzong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ] Emperor Renzong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ]Yinzong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ]Shenzong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ]Zhezong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ]Huizong

 illustration only for premium member

[ ]Qinzong

 

OUTLINE OF THE BRONZE COINS

At the standard in use since the T’ang, the Northern Sung monetary system was based on full weight bronze 1 cash averaging 3.5 grams, 2 cash averaging 7 grams cast sporadically after AD 1093, and on a few occasions, usually during times of war, bronze 3 and 10 cash fiduciary coins cast to the 2 and 3 cash standard. In addition to bronze coins, fiduciary iron coins were also cast through much of this period.

AD 960 to 1041.

 

 The only bronze northern song coins were full-weight 1 cash.

 

 

AD 1041.

 

 Fiduciary 3 cash (S-505) of about 7 grams and 29 mm. This was the earliest North Sung issue higher than a 1 cash. As a fiduciary issue it proved unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and in AD 1059 was devalued to 2 cash, consistent with the weight.

AD 1070.

 

Fiduciary bronze 10 cash (S-538) of 7.2 grams and 30 mm were issued to raise funds for the Western Wars. As with the earlier fiduciary issues, these were unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and were devalued to 2 cash at the war’s end. Iron 10 cash were also issued at this time.

 

 

 

 

AD 1093.

 

 Full-weight 2 cash of about 7.0 grams and 29 mm. (S-575) were introduced as a regular part of the currency, but only issued sporadically.

AD 1102.

 Fiduciary 10 cash (S-621) were cast in an attempt to introduce them as a regular part of the coinage. At about 11 grams and 31 mm these contained 3 cash worth of metal and were devalued to value 3 cash in AD 1111.

AD 1107.

 A full weight 10 cash was issued (S-630) at about 27 grams and 50 mm, but was withdrawn within a year. These appear to have been hoarded, and used as a cheap source of metal for counterfeiting the fiduciary 10 cash issues still circulating from the issue of AD 1102.


 

 

 

 

 

 

OUTLINE OF THE IRON COINS

 

The earliest northern Song iron coins

 consisted of non-fiduciary 1/10 cash. Schjoth (page 28) records: “In the 2nd year of Ching-te (AD 1005) large iron coins were cast in the two localities of Chia-ting Fu and Chiung-chou in Szechuan, value one copper cash or ten small iron cash. These all circulated jointly and gave much satisfaction.”

The large iron coins, of bronze 1 cash value, seem to be S-472 (10.83 grams, 35 mm). We believe

 

the “small iron cash”

valued at 1/10th of a copper cash are the well known iron issues of bronze cash size and weight which start with the T’ai-p’ing (S-462) issues of AD 976-984. This would explain a passage where Schjoth records Mr. Hu, in AD 978, paid for copying some sacred classics with

 

120 strings of iron money. Recording payment specifically in iron money would not be necessary unless iron and copper cash were valued differently. This establishes iron at about 1/10th the value of copper, a figure very important to understanding other iron issues. The larger iron coin (S-472), at about 11 grams, was fiduciary with only about 0.3 cash worth of iron.

A careful analysis of the coins, as well as the literary evidence, suggests the following sequence:

AD 978. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins are first cast. It is possible that earlier specimens may one day come to light.

AD 990. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins cease to be cast, but continue to circulate until at least AD 1005.

AD 1004 (possibly a little earlier). Fiduciary iron 1 cash ware introduced (S-472) at 11 grams, 35 mm and issued sporadically throughout the Northern Sung period but at ever-reducing weights and sizes.

AD 1017. The standard for iron 1 cash is reduced to about 7 grams, 28 mm (S-483).

AD 1023. The size of iron 1 cash is reduced to about 25 mm, but the weight remains at about 7.0 grams (S-487).

AD 1070. Fiduciary iron 10 cash (S-542a) of 35 mm and variable weight between 7.5 and 11 grams are issued to finance the Western Wars. At the end of the war these are devalued to 2 cash.

AD 1093. Iron 2 cash (S-580) introduced at the same standard as the 10 cash of AD 1070, but prove an unsuccessful experiment and by the end of AD 1094 are trading at scrap iron prices (about 0.4 cash).

AD 1101. The weights of iron 1 cash become variable (S-615) averaging about 5.75 grams but specimens between 3.5 and 7 grams are encountered. The size remains consistent at about 25 mm.

AD 1111. Iron 2 cash (29 mm, 7-10 grams) (S-643) and

3 cash (32 mm, 9-11 grams) are cast but again faile to be accepted.


 

THE NATURE OF THE FIDUCIARY ISSUES

When we were first writing this site, the issuing and later devaluations of fiduciary coins appeared somewhat random, but it quickly became obvious this was not the case.

All of the iron coins, with the exception of the early 1/10 cash issues were fiduciary. Fiduciary 1 cash iron coins were accepted throughout this period, but all attempts at higher denominations were rejected.

It appears that almost all fiduciary bronze coins, and most fiduciary iron over 1 cash, were only cast during times of war or other emergencies and afterwards the bronze coins were devalued to denominations consistent with their size and weight, while iron coins were demonetized and withdrawn from circulation.

Fiduciary bronze was always cast to standards consistent with lower denominations, allowing them to be devalued later and still fit into the pre-existing coinage system. This shows planning, suggesting they were cast with the full intent of a future devaluation. (The same is not true of fiduciary iron coins).


 

INSCRIPTION VARIETIES

Northern Sung coins present a complex series of inscription variations which, while easily catalogued, are poorly understood. Date and mint codes are probably hidden in these variations, but it is possible we will never understand them.

 

CALLIGRAPHY STYLES

Schjoth’s introduction to Northern Sung coinage (page 27) says: “As regards the style of writing, the coins in the ‘seal’ writing come first, followed by those in the clerkly or orthodox writing, and ultimately finishing up with the ‘running’ hand, or ‘grass-character’ style of writing.”

By using “or” he is saying “clerkly” and “orthodox” are one script style, “running hand” and “grass-character” are a second. Seal script is the third style. A quick examination of the coins shows his statement of only three styles of calligraphy are correct.

1)    “SEAL” –

 

Seal script Zhong he (Cheng ho)tong bao@

a very formal style of writing. Rounded characters with a fixed form and all details of each character included. The differences between coins are minor. There is no real Western equivalent, but type set block capital letters come closest.

 

 

 

2)    “ORTHODOX” –

 

Orthodox script Chong he (cheng Ho) tong bao

 

Orthodox script Ta chung tung pao

also referred to as “clerkly”. Angular characters with a generally square or rectangular appearance in which most details are made up of distinct either straight or slightly curved stokes. The general layout of a character is fixed, but small details can be left out. From coin to coin there can be significant differences. The closest Western equivalent is handwritten small-case printing.

 

 

 

3)    “GRASS” –

 

Grass script sheng song  yuan bao@

 

grass script Yuan feng tong bao@

The feng char at left of hole  like flower,the Balinese native people called the flower coin

Compare the same coin in seal script

In Bali the native people called this circling Yuan char as  the emblem of Hapiness,the happiness coin which made the owner always happy(Bahagia)

Li script

li script yuan feng tong bao

li script Jing Kang Tong Bao

Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127,

Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, H16.518, S-669, Li script, aVF $180.00 sold 7/4/2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

also referred to as “running hand”. Flowing characters on which several details of a character can be represented by a single wavy or jagged line. A form of shorthand in which a character can show major differences from coin to coin. This is distinctly like Western handwriting (as opposed to hand printing).

Confusion throughout the general listings, such as for S-633-637 (page 33) where he states the type exists in both “clerkly” and “orthodox” script leads us to believe Schjoth did not write this part of the catalogue. It must have been written by someone working from his rough notes in which must the terms have been used interchangeably.

We relied on Schjoth’s drawings and descriptions to determine the calligraphy style of most issues, but the drawings are not always accurate. Some of the drawings show coins with a mix of orthodox and grass characters, in which cases we list the coin by the style of the 12 o’clock character. If actual specimens confirm this mixing of types, we will comment on them later.

 

S-630
Orthodox slender gold Script@

“TA-KUAN YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script, with very fine calligraphy said to be in the Emperor’s own hand, which Hartill refers to as

 “slender gold” script.

 

CALLIGRAPHY VARIETIES

From the work of Mr. Berger, we know the Ch’ing Dynasty (AD 1644-1911) used subtle calligraphy variations indicating dates, with two changes per year at each mint. With many mints operating, this produced hundreds of variations for any type issued for more than one or two years. Northern Sung coins also have many variations per issue, suggesting a similar system was already in use, but unlike the Ch’ing coins, for which many official records have survived, and the code has been broken, the Northern Sung code is unlikely to be completely understood (we are told Mr. Berger is trying).

 

INSCRIPTION ENDINGS

In his introduction to the Northern Sung coinage, Schjoth (page 27) writes “It will be noted that the Yuan-paos, implying the ‘opening’ or ‘beginning’ currency are placed before the T’ung-paos, implying the principle of the ‘flowing’ currency.”

A simple examination of the coins shows no such relationship exists. There is also a third ending,”Chung-pao”, which Schjoth has ignored in this passage. We have noted the following pattern in the use of these endings:

 

 

AD 960 to 989 –

 

all coins use “T’UNG PAO”.

AD 990 to 1007 –

 

 all coins use “YUAN-PAO”.

AD 1008-1016 –

 both “T’UNG PAO” and “YUAN-PAO” during the same reign title.

AD 1041 –

 

Chung ning chung pao

a third ending of “CHUNG-PAO” was introduced.

AD 1017-1041 –

 only one ending was used during any reign title, but it could be either “T’UNG PAO”, “YUAN-PAO” or (after AD 1041) “CHUNG-PAO.

AD 1053-1126 –

 no evident pattern. Anywhere from one to three endings used in any reign title. In the cases where only one was used, it could be any of the three.

At this time we cannot comment of the significance of these endings, but there must be one. Coins of some reign titles are very rare and it is possible new types may turn up which will help establish a more significant pattern.

 

INSCRIPTION ORIENTATIONS

Northern Sung coins occur with inscriptions reading either

@

TOP, BOTTOM, LEFT, RIGHT

Tai ping tung bao

or

@

TOP, LEFT, BOTTOM, RIGHT.

Grass script Northern Song Dynasty, Sheng Song Yuan Bao 1101-1106A.D.

1cash “Knotted Sheng” – Price 55 USD

Other example

 

Seal script Yua Ping yuan bao@

 

Orthodox script Tong Seng Yuan bao

Both orientations occur throughout and some issues can be found either way. We have not yet been able to determine any significance of these two orientations.


 

MINTING TECHNIQUES AND WEIGHT VARIATIONS

Starting in the late 5th century AD, the majority of Chinese coins were cast in two-piece moist sand molds into which a master coin (called a seed) was used to make many impressions. Channels were cut to connect the impressions and, after joining the two pieces, molten metal was poured in. When taken apart, the mold yielded what looked like a tree studded in coins, which was then cut apart.

The impression of the mold’s sand grains leaves a granular surface. The coins were run over a rasp to smooth the surfaces, leaving a series of parallel file marks which wear off very quickly and are only visible on very high grade specimens (a few Ming Rebel issues have courser file marks that do not wear off). The lower points on the coin are not affected by the rasp and usually retain some evidence of the pebbled surface on all but the most worn coins (difficult to see on a heavily patinated coin).

Cutting the coins from the tree left a rough spot on the edges which was then filed smooth. The coins were cast with wide rims to allow for this filing.

This method was easy, very fast and, because all of the coins were impressed with the same seed coin, thousands and even millions of identical coins were possible, allowing calligraphy variations to be used as mint and date control marks. Each coin would be exactly the same diameter except for small size variations caused by filing the edges. The only major drawback was in controlling the weights. It was impossible to control the exact depth of each seed impression, and a slightly deeper impression gave a heavier coin and a shallow one a light coin. Weights could vary as much as 25% from coin to coin, so officials concerned themselves with the average weight of one thousand coins, not the weight of each individual coin, as discussed earlier.

 

Java tin imitation song coin

 

 

Compare with original song coin

Earlier Song  coins were often cast in handcarved stone (steatite) moulds.

 No two molds could have identical calligraphy, and controlling the exact depth of the carving was difficult, so coins cast by this method (many of the knife, spade and ban-liang) could vary considerably in weight. The molds had a limited useful life and one could not cast tens of thousands of identical coins. Other early coins were cast in non-reusable clay molds which were produced with a type of seed coin, but the mould-making process was too slow to serve the needs of China’s expanding population. The Chinese were aware of lost-wax casting, and used it for many purposes, but the process was far too slow for casting hundreds of millions of coins.

It is difficult to determine the intended denomination of a coin simply by weight. The problem is not too bad with Northern Sung bronze 1 cash which were cast to a standard of 3.5 grams, but could weigh between 2.75 and 4.5 grams. It is worse for 2 cash which at a 7 gram standard vary from 5.5 to 9 grams and overlap with 3 cash at a 10.5 gram standard but vary between 8.25 to 13.5 grams. As can be seen, the heavier 2 cash can weigh more than a light 3 cash. The problem gets worse for higher denominations.


 

SIZE AND DENOMINATION

These small copper coins did not have a lot of purchasing power and except for the smallest transactions, they were tied together in strings of 100 coins. In this form it was impossible to weight each coin, so how could one be sure a string was not of mixed denominations? The answer is fairly simple. Make each denomination a consistent size and without any special equipment and even a blind man would be able to tell if there were a few small coins in the middle of a string of large coins (or vice versa).

 

 

 

 

 

The following chart shows the sizes and average weights known to exist for bronze coins of each reign title (omitting reign titles for which no coins are known). It leaves little doubt that there were distinct size ranges.

 

Kai yuan tong bao coin@

 

Tai ping tong Bao Coin@

DURING THIS ERA THE ROSETTE HOLE LUCKY CHARM COIN DIFFICULT TO FOUND, I HAVE ONLY ONE,LOOK THE DIFFERENT BETWEEN ROSETTE HOLE(LEFT) AND SQUARE HOLE(RIGHT)

 

 

sorry after this the illustration only in complete CD-ROM special for premium member ,subscribe via comment to look the illustrations of the amizing collection of 50 years research

DATE

TITLE

under
23
mm

23-26
mm

27-30
mm

31-35
mm

over 35
mm

968-975

KAI-PAO

 

 

Sung yuan tong bao

3.2 grams

976-984

T’AI-P’ING

@

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 grams@

990-994

SHUN-HUA

@

 

 

@

3.2 grams

995-998

CHIH-TAO yuan pao

@

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5 grams

998-1004

HSIEN-P’ING Yuan Pao

 

@

 

3.6 grams

1004-1007

CHING-TE yuan pao

@

3.5 grams

1008-1016

HSIANG-FU

 

 

3.7 grams

1017-1021

T’IEN-SHI

 

@

3.2 grams

1023-1031

T’IEN-SHENG

@

3.7 grams

1032-1033

MING-TAO@

 

3.9 grams

1034-1037

CHING-YU@

3.7 grams

1038-1039

PAO-YUAN

huang yu tong pao @

 

 

 

3.6 grams

1040

K’ANG-TING

3.3 grams

1041-1048

CH’ING-LI

 

3.3 grams

7.2 grams

1049-1053

HUANG-YU

2.7 grams

1054-1055

CHIH-HO

@

3.7 grams

1056-1063

CHIA-YU yun pao

 

3.5 grams

1064-1067

CHIH-P’ING yuan pao@

 

3.6 grams

1068-1077

HSI-NING@

 

3.5 grams@

7.2 grams@

1078-1085

YUAN-FENG@

 

3.3 grams@

7.0 grams

1086-1093

YUAN-YU@

 

3.2 grams

7.8 grams

1094-1097

SHAO-SHENG@

 

3.7 grams

7.0 grams
@

1098-1100

YUAN-FU@

 

1.7 grams

3.2 grams

7.4 grams

1101

CHIEN-CHUNG

Shen shung yuan pau

 

2.0 grams

3.6 grams@

6.5 grams

1102-1106

CH’UNG-NING@

 

2.7 grams

10.3 grams

1107-1110

TA KUAN@

3.85 grams

?? grams

23.5 grams

1111-1117

CHENG-HO@

 

 

3.3 grams2

7.2 grams

1118

CHUNG-HO

4.9 grams

1119-1125

HSUAN-HO

3.4 grams

6.1 grams

6.7 grams@

1126

CHING-K’ANG

7.3 grams

 

 

 

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CHINA, coins of the Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127,
    Generally speaking, a few centuries of peace.  Culture encouraged.  Excesses of rich people constrained for a time.  Scientific advancement.  Dynasty faced pressure from the north – horse barbarians.  Had to abandon the capital and move south.

276-117. CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Tai Ping Tong Bao, 976-94, 1 cash, H16.20v, S-461v, horizontal line R rev., VG $36.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xian Ping Yuan Bao, 998-1004, S-470?, FD-878, 9mm outer rim obv., rev. blank, center hole not created, 33mm bronze, 26.5g, VG $135.00 sold 6/17/2010
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xian Ping Yuan Bao, 998-1004, S-470?, FD-878, 9mm outer rim obv., rev. blank, 33mm, 19.3g, F $140.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song Dynasty, 960-1127, Xian Ping Yuan Bao, 998-1004, S-470?, FD-878v, 9mm outer rim obv., rev. blank, 33mm, 19.3g, 30mm, 10.3g, line & dot R rev., F $140.00 sold 6/17/2010
.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

273-119. CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Jing De Yuan Bao, 1004-07, iron 10 cash, H16.51, S-472, FD-882, VG $55.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xiang Fu Tong Bao, 1008-16, iron 3 cash, H16.58, S-478, aG $36.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Tian Sheng Yuan Bao, 1023-31, iron 2 cash, H16.80, S-487, orthodox script, VG $76.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

273-128. CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Huang Song Tong Bao, 1038, iron 2 cash?, H16.118, S502v, 27mm, 7.4g, ex-Dan Ching, choice F $45.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

273-133. CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zhi He Tong Bao, 1054-55,1 cash, H16.141, S-513, 2 mould breaks nicely placed on obv rim, rev. 25% offset, nice looking error coin, F $45.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zhi He Zhong Bao, 1054-55, iron 3 cash, S-nl, FD-927v, orthodox script, choice VG-F $71.00 sold 4/7/2009
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zhi He Zhong Bao, 1054-55, iron 3 cash, S-nl, FD-932, orthodox script, VG $25.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zhi He Zhong Bao, 1054-55, iron 3 cash, H16.144, S-nl, Fang top rev., Fangzhou, Shaanxi, VG $89.00 sold 4/7/2009
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zhi He Zhong Bao, 1054-55, iron 3 cash, H16.145A, S-nl, Tong top rev., Tongzhou, Shaanxi, VG $61.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xi Ning Yuan Bao, 1068-77, 1 cash, H16.181, S-nl, FD-954, orthodox, Heng top rev., F/G 45.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xi Ning Yuan Bao, 1068-77, 1 cash, H16.181, S-nl, FD-954, orthodox, Heng top rev., F/G $45.00 sold 11/20/2007
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

277-149. Xi Ning Yuan Bao, 1068-77, 1 cash, H16.181, S-nl, FD-954, Heng top rev., F/G $45.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

277-152. Xi Ning Yuan Bao, 1068-77, 1 cash, H16.184, S-531, spectacularly off center rev., aF $45.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Xi Ning Yuan Bao, 1068-77, 1 cash, H16.184, S-531,  orthodox script, double outer rim rev., aVF $25.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Yuan Feng Tong Bao, 1078-85, iron 3 cash, S-561, FD-978v, seal, down pointing moon top rev., F $53.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Yuan Yu Tong Bao, 1086-93, iron 3 cash, S-581, FD-989, grass, excellent F+ $41.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Shao Sheng Yuan Bao, 1094-97, 1 cash, H16.308v, S-591v, running script, bar across top of Sheng, 4mm rev. rim, VG $10.00 sold 6/18/2009
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Yuan Fu Tong Bao, 1098-1100, iron 3 cash, H16.336, S-nl, FD-1015, seal script, aVF $36.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Yuan Fu Tong Bao, 1098-1100, iron 1 cash, H16.348, S-nl, seal script, Shang top rev., aF $100.00 sold 11/20/2007
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Yuan Fu Tong Bao, 1098-1100, iron 1 cash, H16.348, S-nl, seal script, Shang top rev., VG $81.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Sheng Song Yuan Bao, 1101, iron 3 cash, H16.371, S-nl, FD-1032, seal script, aVF $36.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Chong Ning Tong Bao, 1102-06, H16.398, S-619, aF $56.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Chong Ning Zhong Bao, 1102-06, 10 cash, H16.400v, S-621v, FD-1040v, big & deliberate nailmark bottom R rev., F $33.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, N. SONG Dynasty, 960-1127, Chong Ning Zhong Bao, 1102-06, iron 3 cash, S-nl, FD-1052,  horns projecting from top left & bottom left corners of inner rim rev., 33mm, 9.5g, aVF $48.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Da Guan Tong Bao, 1107-10, 10 cash,  S-630, FD-1062, a beautifully made large coin, VF $17.50 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zheng He Tong Bao, 1111-17, 2 cash, S-640, FD-1078, Fugo-49 var (R2 – second highest rarity), orthodox, “Wen” Zheng, strangely drawn characters, aF $175.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

273-139. CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Zheng He Tong Bao, 1111-17,iron 3 cash, H16.440, S-643, FD-1087, VF+ $30.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Chong He Tong Bao, 1118, 1 cash, H16.465, S-nl, seal script, aG $160.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Chong He Tong Bao, 1118, 1 cash, H16.466, S-647,  Li script, VF $182.00
(Might not be genuine – I’m not sure.  Usual guarantee.)
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Chong He Tong Bao, 1118,1 cash, H16.466, S-647, Li script, aG $90.00
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

tttb
CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, S-670, FD-1138, orthodox, 2 specimens on hand, @ aVF $155.00 each both sold 3/21/2009
Click pictures for enlargement.
    It has been noted that many of the coins of this batch have been treated by a rub with a file or sandpaper followed by a dusting of white powder to improve their appearance.  As, um, the face of a conventionally beautiful woman is said to be enhanced with cosmetics yet few will think the worse of her, quite the contrary in fact, so with these coins, rare and beautiful even if covered with dirt.
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, H16.513, S-669, orthodox script, aVF $170.00 sold 3/21/2009
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 

 
 

CHINA, Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127, Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, H16.518, S-669, Li script, aVF $180.00 sold 7/4/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 

 

Included in the average weights are numbers of worn coins which reduce the average weight slightly. In most cases, the original weights were probably about 0.2 grams higher than the average of the surviving coins.

Many of these issues are extremely rare and, for many types, we have been unable to locate actual specimens from which to take weights and measurements. The only readily available source of this information is the Schjoth catalogue, so we have based this table, and our descriptions of the types, on information provided by Schjoth. It is possible, especially for sizes, that some errors are included, but we will modify our listing if actual specimens indicate discrepancies.


 

 

COUNTERFEITS

It is important to read our discussion of weights before proceeding in this section.

 

TYPE 1

By counterfeit, we refer to illicit castings made at about the same time as the official castings, with the intent of spending them. These can be difficult and in some cases impossible to tell from official castings. Coins made recently, with the intent of fooling collectors, are called forgeries and are generally much easier to spot. No discussion of the forgeries will occur on this site as it would inform the forgers as to what they are doing wrong and allow them to make forgeries that are much more difficult to spot.

Chinese cash were all cast, making the counterfeiter’s job very easy, as casting is also the easiest of all counterfeiting methods.

By gathering heavier coins and recasting them as lighter coins, a counterfeiter could turn one hundred coins averaging 4 grams into 145 coins averaging 2.75 grams, a profit of 45%. Assuming an official coin was used as the master, each counterfeit would be at the low end of the acceptable weight range with the correct alloy, size, and calligraphy.

These coins must have been very difficult to spot back then, and almost impossible today. We can safely assume many coins at the lower end of the weight standards are counterfeits, but cannot be sure which ones. Official and counterfeit coins freely circulated side by side at the time, so both are part of China’s numismatic history and we therefore see little reason to worry about them.

 

TYPE 2

Many coins, including some listed by Schjoth, are much smaller and generally lighter than the normal standard. It is likely that most of these are illicit castings. There are some documented cases of very crude, small, light coins with Northern Sung (and other) types being cast for local use in parts of Southeast Asia. They were never meant to fool anyone in China and in some cases were cast hundreds of years after the official castings. They are an interesting collecting area unto themselves.

 

 

Emperor CHAO K’UANG YIN
AD 960-976

Chao K’uang Yin, chief General of the Posterior Zhou Dynasty disposed of Emperor Shih Tsung in AD 959, declaring himself Emperor and casting

 

Posterior Zhou coins with the “ZHOU-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” inscription. Within one year he established the Northern Sung Dynasty, adopting

 

the T’ai Tsu reign title.

 

 

Emperor Song Taizu

 

 

 

Emperor CHAO K’UANG YIN
AD 960-976

Chao K’uang Yin, chief General of the Posterior Zhou Dynasty disposed of Emperor Shih Tsung in AD 959, declaring himself Emperor and casting Posterior Zhou coins with the

“ZHOU-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” inscription.

Within one year he established the Northern Sung Dynasty, adopting the T’ai Tsu reign title.

 

Reign title: T’AI TSU, AD 960-968

 

Schjoth (page 27) lists “T’ai Tsu” as the Emperor’s name and not a reign title. We cannot identify any coins of this period, but the

 

“SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” @

issues attributed to the following reign title may have first been cast at this time, as one would expect these to have been Chao K’uang Yin’s first issue.

Compare with  Dr Iwan Collections

 

 

Seal  script Sung Yuan Tong Bao

 

 

 ROSETTE HOLE LEFT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: KAI-PAO, AD 968-975

 

S-451
Orthodox Script@

 

Kai-pao is Chao K’uang Yin’s second reign title, but does not appear on his coins as it was considered incorrect for the character for “Pao” to occur twice on the same coin. Rather, “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” (referring to the coinage of Sung) was used.

 

S-451. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 25.2 mm, 3.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00@

 

We recently notice some specimens of this type that were only about 23.0 mm and around 2.40 grams (not included in the average above) while this type is nearly always over 25 mm and greater than 3 grams (we have seen one that was 25.7 mm, 4.20 grams). At this point we are not certain what the status of these smaller coins is, but suspect they are either contemporary counterfeits, or possibly Japanese or Annamese imitative coins.

 

S-452-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: any of various nail marks, dots and vertical strokes, but there are more types than Schjoth lists. Average (4 specimens) 25.0 mm. Average 4.71 grams.

VG   $5.00     F   $7.50     VF   $11.50@

 

We have noted the following variations:

 

TOP

 

crescent

 

UPPER RIGHT

crescent

   

RIGHT

vertical stroke

   

LOWER RIGHT

     

BOTTOM

crescent

   

LEFT

 

crescent

vertical stroke

UPPER LEFT

crescent

   

 

S-459. Iron 1/10 cash (see above). Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.09 grams. We have not seen one of these and cannot assign a value at this time.

 

These are reported to have been cast in Szechuan, Shansi or Fukien. Ding Fubao (Fisher’ s Ding) suggest these might be mother cash (models used to cast the seed cash), but average rim width makes that impossible.

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: T’AI TSU, AD 960-968

Schjoth (page 27) lists “T’ai Tsu” as the Emperor’s name and not a reign title. We cannot identify any coins of this period, but the “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” issues attributed to the following reign title may have first been cast at this time, as one would expect these to have been Chao K’uang Yin’s first issue.

Emperor T’AI TSUNG
AD 976-997

 

 

Emperor Song Taizong

 

Reign title: T’AI-P’ING, AD 976-984

 

S-460
Orthodox Script@

 

S-460. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (meaning “Money of the Heavenly Kingdom”). Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimens) 24.8 mm, 3.21 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

Dr Iwan collections

Orthodox script Tai Ping Tung Pao(two coins)

 

 

 

 

                

 

S-461. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at top. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.1 grams We have not had one, and cannot provide a value at this time (this does not necessarily mean it is rare).

 

S-462. Iron 1/10 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.16 grams. These are rare and we have no record of a value for the issue.

 

(The 1/10 cash denomination is based on information discussed above.)

It is recorded that a proposal was put forward to cast larger iron coins for this reign title. We assume the larger 1 cash similar to those of the “CHING-TE” reign title were intended, but we find no evidence they were cast.

 

Reign title: ??, AD 985-989

Schjoth, Fisher’s Ding and Mitchiner record no information about this period, but clearly show a gap between the preceding and following reign title. We will have to look further into this in the future.

 

 

Reign title: SHUN-HUA, AD 990-994

   

S-463
Orthodox Script

S-464
Running hand Script@

 

S-463-464. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse:

 

Rosette hole “SHUN-HUA YUAN-PAO” in orthodox

and

 

 

running hand script.@

Schjoth says there is a grass script type by we have not seen one, and neither Schjoth nor Hartill lists one. Reverse: blank. We have noted specimens with star holes. Average (4 specimens) 24.4 mm, 3.3 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

 

Compare dr Iwan Collections

Running hand or  grass script Shun Hua Yuan Pao

 25 mm

 

27 mm

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title : CHIH-TAO, AD 995-998

     

S-465
Orthodox Script@

S-467
Mixed Scripts

S-468
Grass Script@

 

 

 

 

 

 Dr iwan collections

Orthodox script Chi yuan bao

24 mm(not clear)

 

26 mm(best illustration)

 

 

 

 

 

Grass script Chi Tao yuan bao

      

  

 

 

 

S-465-468. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-TAO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox, grass script and one type of

 

 mixed scrip (top and bottom in grass script, left and right in orthodox script). Reverse: blank. 24.6 mm. Average (12 specimens) 3.58 grams (excluding a 2.2 gram specimen must have been a contemporary counterfeit).

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

Reign title: KAI-PAO, AD 968-975

 

S-451SUN YUAN TUNG PAO
Orthodox Script

 

Kai-pao is Chao K’uang Yin’s second reign title, but does not appear on his coins as it was considered incorrect for the character for “Pao” to occur twice on the same coin. Rather, “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” (referring to the coinage of Sung) was used.

 

S-451. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 25.2 mm, 3.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00

 

We recently notice some specimens of this type that were only about 23.0 mm and around 2.40 grams (not included in the average above) while this type is nearly always over 25 mm and greater than 3 grams (we have seen one that was 25.7 mm, 4.20 grams). At this point we are not certain what the status of these smaller coins is, but suspect they are either contemporary counterfeits, or possibly Japanese or Annamese imitative coins.

 

S-452-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: any of various nail marks, dots and vertical strokes, but there are more types than Schjoth lists. Average (4 specimens) 25.0 mm. Average 4.71 grams.

VG   $5.00     F   $7.50     VF   $11.50

 

We have noted the following variations:

 

TOP

 

crescent

 

UPPER RIGHT

crescent

   

RIGHT

vertical stroke

   

LOWER RIGHT

     

BOTTOM

crescent

   

LEFT

 

crescent

vertical stroke

UPPER LEFT

crescent

   

 

S-459. Iron 1/10 cash (see above). Obverse: “SUNG-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 4.09 grams. We have not seen one of these and cannot assign a value at this time.

 

These are reported to have been cast in Szechuan, Shansi or Fukien. Ding Fubao (Fisher’ s Ding) suggest these might be mother cash (models used to cast the seed cash), but average rim width makes that impossible.

 

 

 

 

Emperor CHEN TSUNG or Zheng zong
AD 998-1022

 

 

[ ]Emperor Zhengzong  

 

Reign title : HSIEN-P’ING, AD 998-1004

 

S-470
Orthodox Script@
Broad rims

 

S-469-470. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIEN-P’ING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. There is only one caligraphy style for this issue, but it comes with both narrow (S-469) and wide (s-470) rims. Average (6 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.54 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

Dr Iwan collections

 

Orthodox script Hsien Ping Yuan Pao

 

 

 

Type one

 

 

Type two(imitation from bali?)

 

Reign title: CHING-TE, AD 1004-1007


S-471. Bronze cash. Obverse: “CHING-TE YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (9 specimens) 24.6 mm. 3.78 grams

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

 

Schjoth (page 28) records 1,830,000 strings of this issue were cast in each of the four years of this reign title. Each string was 100 coins, indicating about 732 million coins cast.

 

S-472. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-TE YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 35 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.83 grams. Rare, no value can yet be assigned.

 

In spite of the weight, it is fairly certain these were issued as 1 cash (see our discussion of iron coins). He records (page 28) these were cast in the second year of Ching-te (AD 1005) at Chia-ting Fu and Chiung-chou in Szechuan.

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Chen Tsung, AD998-1022, Large IronCash, Value 3 – CH’ING-TE YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 60.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: HSIANG-FU, AD 1008-1016

   

S-474
Orthodox script
Yuan-Pao ending

S-477
Orthodox script
T’ung Pao ending@

 

With “T’UNG PAO” and “YUAN-PAO”, this is the first occurrence of multiple inscription endings during a reign title (See our discussion of inscription varieties).

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

 

 

Orthodox script Hsiang fu yuan Pao

 

          

Orthodox script Hsiang fu Tong Bao

 

S-473-474. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script (large and small calligraphy). Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 24.9 mm. 3.94 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-475. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’s specimen was 26.0 mm. 5.58 grams. This coin has very wide rims, is 1.2 mm larger than usual, and is considerably above the 1 cash standard weight range. It has all the characteristics one would expect from a SEED CASH and as such should be considered a very rare specimen, however the size is in line with 2 examples of S-477 we describe below, and in fact this may turn out to be fairly common. More research needs to be done on this issue, and we cannot currently assign a value to it.

 

S-478. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 34 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.82 grams (about the same as S-472). This is a rare coin and we cannot provide a valuation.

 

S-476-477. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIANG-FU T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script (large and small calligraphy) Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 25.7 mm, 4.55 grams (Schjoth shows his specimens as about 24 mm. Average 3.8 grams, however the 2 specimens we recently examined averaged 25.7 mm, 4.55 grams, suggesting Schjoth’s listing may have been in error).

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

Reign title: T’IEN-HSI, AD 1017-1021

   

S-479
Four different scripts.

S-480
Orthodox Script@

 

Dr Iwan collections

Orthodox script Tien-Hsi(Xi) tong bao

 

 

 

 

Schjoth (page 29) records that during the last year (AD 1021) at least four mints were casting copper coins (Yung-ping at Jao-chou in Kiangsi, Yung-feng at Ch’ih-chou in Anhui, Kuang-ning in Fookien, and Feng-huo at Chien-chou in Shansi) and a few other mints may have operated briefly at Pien-liang (the capital) and Hangchow. Three mints cast iron coins (Chiung-chou, Chia-ting-fu and Hsing-chou, all in Szechuan) and in one year 1.5 million strings were cast, but it is not clear if this includes the iron issues.

He also records a formula for the bronze alloy: in 5 cattie of coins was 3 cattie 10 ounces of copper, 1 cattie 8 ounces of lead and 8 ounces of tin.

 

S-479. Not in Hartill or FD, so a scarce type.

 

Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in rare four different scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 23.8 mm, 2.79 grams.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00.

 

BECAREFUL different WITH common Tien-“hsi”seal script

 

Dr Iwan collections

Seal script Tien “hsi” Yuan Bao

 

 

 

Schjoth states that this type has a different calligraphy styles on each of the four characters:

“T’IEN” – seal script, “HSI” – orthodox script, “T’UNG” – grass script, “PAO” in li (official) script, and while this is not clear from his drawings, the specimens we have now seen bare this out.

This is the earliest occurrence of seal script on a Northern Sung coin, possibly an experimental coin to see how it would look. However, this is controversy over this type, as while Schjoth believed it to be a Chinese issue (hence we include it here) there are others that think it is an Annamese issue, but there appears to be no clear consensus on this.

 

S-480,482. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 24.5 mm, Schjoth had two specimens, one of 24 mm. 4.16 grams. Schjoth has a specimen that was only 21 mm, 2.48 grams, which is likely a counterfeit of the period and which has be left out of our average size and weight figure.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

              

S-481. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at top left. 24 mm. 3.15 grams. We have not had this type and cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

S-483. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-HSI T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.52 grams. This is a very rare coin and we cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

This is smaller and lighter than the iron coins cast during the previous two reign titles, but slightly heavier than those of the next. Please see our general discussion of the iron coins for why we believe they are 1 cash and not 2 cash as Schjoth suggests.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CH’IEN-HSING, AD 1022

No coins seem to have been cast for this reign title.

 

Emperor JEN TSUNG
AD 1023-1063

 

 

[ ] Emperor Renzong  

 

Jen Tsung used nine reign titles,

 

casting coins for all of them. He used as many as ten denominations of mixed iron and bronze, with numerous variations in script style and orientation, providing dozens of major and hundreds of minor varieties.

 

 

 

Reign title: T’IEN-SHENG, AD 1023-1031

   

S-484
Seal Script@

S-486@
Orthodox

 

S-484-486. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (12 specimens) 24.8 mm 4.11 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

Dr Iwan collections

 

Orthodox script Tien Sheng yuan Bao

 

Type 1

 

 

 

 

 with back double print   half rim board coin like moon crescent in bali they called moon coin (RARE)

 

        

Type 2

 

 

 

back blanc

 

 

S-487-488. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens of 25 mm and averaging 6.6 grams, smaller and lighter than those cast in the previous reign title. This type is rare and we have not been able to establish a value for it.

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Jen Tsung, AD1023-1063, T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 30.00

 

 

Reign title: MING-TAO, AD 1032-1032

Dr Iwan Collections

 

 

S-489
orthodox Script@

S-490
Seal Script@

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

Seal Script Ming Tao Yuan Pao

 

 

Back broad  rim

 

Orthodox script ming Tao yuan pao

 

S-489-490. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “MING-TAO YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Schjoth had two specimens averaging 4.0 grams. The orthodox script variety is common but we are not certain about

 

the rarity of the seal script type.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-491. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “MING-TAO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 25 mm. Reverse: nail mark in top left corner. Schjoth had one specimen of 3.55 grams. We have not yet determined a value for this variety.

 

Schjoth does not record any iron coins for this reign title.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHING-YU, AD 1034-1037

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-492
Seal Script@

S-494
Orthodox Script@

 Dr Iwan collections

 

May be seal script Ching Yu Yuan Pao reverse blanc(no example exist),but this is also may be sheng sung yuan pao

 

 

Seal script Sheng sung yuan Pao

 

 

S-492-494. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-YU YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Average 3.73 grams.

   

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $5.00@

 

S-495. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-YU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script.@ Reverse: blank. 25 mm. 6.8 grams. We have not handled one of these and cannot provide a valuation for it.

 

Schjoth records: “Hsu Chia’s proposal to cast coins by a chemical process, of fusing copper and iron, was adopted.”. We assume this refers to a copper-iron alloy but have not been able to determine which coins these were. As copper was worth more than iron, it makes little sense to issue iron coins with a copper content, but a considerable saving could be had by adding some iron to mostly copper issues. Some years ago we had a few North Sung cash that looked like rusty iron, but were non-magnetic, which we assumed just had a peculiar patination. However, they were issued under the reign title HSUAN-HO around AD 1119-1125 which is 100 years after this

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: PAO-YUAN, huang Sung Yuan Po AD 1038-1039

   

S-498
Seal Script@

S-500
Orthodox Script

 

“Huang-Sung” @was used instead of “Pao-Yuan” on these coins. To do otherwise would have repeated the character “Pao”, a practice considered to be incorrect.

Dr Iwan collections

 

 

Seal script Huang Sung Tung Pao

S-496-500. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-SUNG T’UNG-PAO” (Imperial currency of Sung) in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank but one example with a star shaped hole. Average (2 specimens) 24.5 mm. 3.35 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-501-502. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-SUNG T’UNG-PAO” (Imperial currency of Sung) in seal and orthodox script. Schjoth had two specimens, one of 24 mm, 7.53 grams and the other of 25 mm, 7.07 grams. These are rare and we cannot provide a valuation at this time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: K’ANG-TING, AD 1040

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-503
Orthodox Script

 

Jen Tsung only used this reign title for less than a year and very few coins were issued. We have never seen one.

 

S-503. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “K’ANG-TING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 18 mm. 3.35 grams. This specimen is far too small for an official casting, but the weight is too high to suggest a contemporary counterfeit. As this is very rare and does not fit with then normal structure of the coinage, it may be a modern forgery. We note Fisher’s Ding (Ding Fubao) lists two Iron 1 cash for this reign title, but no bronze coins.

 

Schjoth (page 29) records: “In the K’ang-ting year, the official, Pi Chung-yuan, drawing attention to the bad state of the finances and the requirements for frontier expenditure, proposed the issue of a large currency, ‘value ten’ of copper and iron.” We have found no evidence that value ten cash were cast during this or either of the next two reign titles, but this passage is important as it shows that iron and copper coins could be cast and be circulating at identical denominations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CH’ING-LI, AD 1041-1048

   

S-504
read from top, then
around to the right

S-505
read top-bottom-right-left

 

S-506. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’ING-LI CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script reading top-bottom right left. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. 3.35 grams. We have not recorded a value for this type.

 

S-504 and 505. Bronze, 3 cash. Obverse: “CH’ING-LI CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script with orientations reading top-bottom right-left (504) and top around to the right (505). Reverse: blank. Average (10 specimens) 7.4 grams with a range from 6.2 to 8.6 grams, 30-31 mm (the 8.6 gram specimen was 32 mm).

F   $15.00     VF   $25.00

Rare coin

 

These weights are correct for value 2 cash, but Schjoth (page 30) records: “In the 4th year of Chia-yu (AD 1059), owing to the increased casting by the people of illicit coins, the ‘value three’ coins of the heavy issue of Ching-li chung-paos were reduced to the value of two cash”.. This clearly suggests the heavier “Ch’ing-li” coins were issued as a fiduciary three cash, making them subject to counterfeiting.

 

Reign title: HUANG-YU, AD 1049-1053

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-507
Orthodox Script

 

S-507-508. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HUANG-YU YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 23 mm. Schjoth had two specimens weighing 2.15 and 3.2 grams.

This issue is rare and we have no record of a price for it.

 

It appears from Schjoth (page 30) that during this reign title an order was given to cast value 10 large copper and iron coins, but there is no evidence that these coins were actually cast.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHIH-HO, AD 1054-1055

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

 

S-509
Seal Script
with YUAN-PAO@

S-511
Orthodox Script
with YUAN-PAO

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-512
Seal Script
with T’UNG-PAO

S-513
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG-PAO

 

S-509-511. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-HO YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.72 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

Dr Iwan collections

 

 

 

Seal script Chih Ho Yuan Pao reverse blanc

 

S-512-513. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse:

“CHIH-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script.@ Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.62 grams. We have no valuation records for this type

 

Reign title: CHIA-YU, AD 1056-1063

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

 

S-514
Seal Script

S-515
Orthodox Script

 

S-514-515. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIA-YU YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. We have noted an orthodox script example with a star shaped hole. 24 mm. Average 3.87 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-516-518. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIA-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth notes an orthodox script example with a star shaped hole. 24 mm. Average 3.32 grams.

VG   1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor YING TSUNG
AD 1064-1067

 

 

[ ]Yinzong  

 

Reign title: CHIH-P’ING, AD 1064-1067

   

S-519
Seal Script@

S-522
Orthodox Script

S-519-523. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-P’ING YUAN-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.34 grams.

VG   1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

This type often exists with an unusual style of “CHIH”. Munro believes these were cast in Japan, which is possible. We will elaborate on this at some future date.

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-524
Seal Script

S-526
Orthodox Script

 

S-524-526. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-P’ING T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.97 grams. Our records do not include a price for this type, but it is probably the same as those above.

 

Schjoth (page 30) records that during this reign title, 1,700,000 strings of cash (100 coins per string) were cast annually from six minting departments.

Dr Iwan collections

Seal script Chih Ping Tung Pao reverse blank

 

Compare withthis almost same and What the different between 

 

Orthodox script chi ping

with

 

Hsien ping

 

hsien ping beloe

Dr Iwan collections

 

Orthodox script Hsien Ping Yuan Pao

 

 

 

Type one

 

 

Type two the leg of yuan  script off

 

 

 

Emperor SHEN TSUNG
AD 1068-1085

 

 

[ ]Shenzong

 

[ ]Zhezong  

 

 

 

 

Emperor Shen Zong

Schjoth (page 31) records that as many as twenty-six mints operated during this period, with a combined annual mintage as high as five-and a half million strings.

 

 

Reign title: HSI-NING, AD 1068-1077

 

Seal Script version 1
with Yuan-pao

 

@?

Seal Script version 2
with Yuan-pao

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

Seal script “Hsi”-Ning yuan Pao

 

@

xi ning tong bao inscription.

This inscription, however, is written in seal script.

Coins with this style of calligraphy were cast during the years 1068-1077 of the reign of Emperor Shen Zong.

 

 

 

@

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

Orthodox script  “Hsi-Ning” Yuan Pao

Orthodox Script (one of several styles)
with Yuan-pao

     

S-527
Seal Script version 1
with Yuan-pao

S-529
Seal Script version 2
with Yuan-pao

S-535
Orthodox Script (one of several styles)
with Yuan-pao

Compare sela script  xi ning yuan pao above with the coin below(not same this sheng sung yuan bao)

 

     

S-538
Seal Script
with Chung-pao

S-537
Orthodox Script style 1
with Chung-pao @

S-542
Orthodox Script style 2
with Chung-pao

 

All coins of this reign title read from the top around to the right. Early in the reign only 1 cash coins were cast, and those with orthodox script tend to be style 1. Later in the reign the large denominations were cast, on which those with orthodox script tend to be style 2. It is not yet clear to me is the 1 cash denomination continued to be made after the larger denominations were introduced.

 

 

EARLY ISSUES

S-527-530 and 532-535. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” in seal (two different versions) and orthodox scripts (3 different versions). Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 23.8 mm. Average 3.12 grams. One with a star-shaped hole has been noted.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

One of Schjoth’s specimens weighed only 1.63 grams. It is probably a contemporary counterfeit and in not included is the average weight calculation.

 

S-531. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: crescent at bottom. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.7 grams. We have not recorded a value for this type.

 

S-544. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING YUAN-PAO” (or “T’UNG-PAO”) in orthodox script. Schjoth’s specimen must have been in poor condition as the exact reading was uncertain). Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.53 grams. We cannot provide a valuation for this type at this time.

 

At 7.53 grams and 25 mm, this appears to be a 1 cash and must have been part of this early series.

 

S-536-537. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING CHUNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 25 mm. Average 3.57 grams. Our records do not currently include a value for this type.

Schjoth describes these as larger than usual, but 25 mm is not enough larger to be significant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

LATER ISSUES

Schjoth (page 31) records the following passage:

“During the years the armies moved westward, coins value ten were cast. When the war was ended and the armies withdrawn, the illicit casting of coins set in, and the value of the large coinage had to be reduced to ‘three’ and eventually to ‘two’.

On the recommendation of some high officials, henceforward, of the larger issues of coins only value two were cast and these circulated throughout the empire.”

 

S-538-42a. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING CHUNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. The size of these varies between 30 and 32 mm, with significant weight variations between about 6.5 and 8.5 grams. Based on 43 specimens we found an average weight of about 7.8 grams. These fit a 2 cash standard but appear to have been issued at 10 cash, later devalued to 2 cash. We have noted one example with a star-shaped hole.

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00     VF   $7.50, gVF   $9.00

 

From a recent hoard we noticed that the type S-538 seems to come in both the 30 to 32 mm size (later re-valued to 3 cash) and in the 28 to 29 mm size (later re-valued to 2 cash). It is possible that the 28-29 mm specimens were a distinctly different issued from the 30-32 mm specimens.

 

S-543. Iron 10 cash. Obverse: “HSI-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. 35 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.54 grams. These are rare and we have not seen one, and cannot provide a valuation for it.

 

The passage about war-issue 10 cash coins (see above) does not mention iron coins, but at 35 mm these are large coins and are likely of this series as they do not fit anywhere else.

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: YUAN-FENG, AD 1078-1085

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

   

S-546
Orthodox Script

S-545
Seal Script

S-556
Grass Script@ok

 

Dr iwan collections

 

Seal script yuan Feng tung pao

 

Grass script Yuan Feng Tung Pao

1 CASH ISSUES

S-545-550. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal, orthodox and grass scripts. Reverse: blank or with crescent. We have also seen one example with a star hole (add about 60% to the price for a crescent or star hole). Average (36 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.90 grams. We have noted that there is a range of sizes with specimens noted from 23.5 to 25.1 mm.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.75     VF   $5.00@

 

S-551-552. Bronze larger 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 25.6 mm, 3.56 grams (range 2.87 to 4.15 grams). These are interesting coins, and the consistently large size suggest they are a separate issue from those above, but the weights are well within the 1 cash weight range. At this point, we do not know why the two issues exist, but we do not that coins of this size were cast during earlier reign titles (see S-477 above).

VG   $7.50     F   $9.75     VF   $12.50@

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, AE 2 Cash
grass script yuan feng tung pao

 

Price US$ 35.00

S-563-564. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens of 25 and 24 mm. Average 7.05 grams. The same weight and size as the iron 1 cash cast prior to the war and appear to be a re-introduction of that denomination at the end of the war. We have not seen an example of these and cannot provide any valuation for them at this time.

 

LARGE ISSUES

S-553, 556. Bronze 10 (2) cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: blank. These vary between about 28 and 31 mm (average is 30 mm), and based on 31 specimens we found an average weight of 7.44 grams. We have also seen some examples with a star hole which should be worth a small premium).

 

VG   $2.50     F   $4.00     VF   $6.00

 

 

 

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

24 mm Grass script Yuan feng tung Pao

 

26 mm Grass script Yuan feng tung Pao

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, AE 2 Cash

Yuan feng tong bao

Price US$ 35.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China, 1078-1085 AD., Northern Sung dynasty, emperor Shen Tsung, 2 Cash, Schjoth 556.

China, Northern Sung dynasty (906-1127 AD.), emperor Shen Tsung (1068-1085 AD.), reign title: Yuan Feng (1078-1085 AD.), 1078-1085 AD.,
Æ 2 Cash (29-30 mm / 5,68 g),
Obv.: Yuan / Feng / T’ung / Pao , in Chinese grass script, clockwise top-right-beneath-left of central hole.
Rev.: (plain) .
Fredrik Schjoth. Chinese currency. Oslo, 1929, no. 556 .

 

S-554, 555, 557-559. Bronze 10 (2) cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: several varieties with an assortment of dots and crescents. 28 mm. Schjoth had 5 specimens averaging 6.45 grams. We do not have any records of valuations for these variations, but they should be worth some premium over the plain-reverse examples above.

 

S-560-562. Iron 10 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse blank or with a nail mark. 30 mm. Averaging 11.88 grams, these are of the same standard as the fiduciary 10 cash issues cast during the previous reign title.

 Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3
seal script yuan feng tong bao
Price US$ 75.00

 

The Western Wars were ongoing during the early years of this reign title, so these heavy coins were probably a continuation of the fiduciary 10 cash of the previous reign title which were devalued at first to 3 and then to 2 cash.

Schjoth records (page 31): “In the 8th year of Yuan-yu ‘(AD 1086)’, when Che Tsung ascended the throne, fourteen of the old mints were closed. During the eight years that followed Shansi had orders to re-issue its small currency.”

It appears Shansi issued larger coins until AD 1086. We have not found the year in which the Western War ended, but it appears to have been before AD 1086 indicating some of these heavy coins were cast at a 2 cash denomination (we believe this probably only applies to the bronze issues). As the bronze 10 cash were cast to the two cash standard, it is probably not possible to differentiate early 10 cash from later 2 cash.

 

 

 

Emperor CHE TSUNG
AD 1086-1100

 

Reign title: YUAN-YU, AD 1086-1093

   

S-565
Seal Script

S-567
Grass Script@

 

 

 

 

 

Dr Iwan collection

 

27 mmm grass script Yuan Yu Tung Pao

 

S-565-8. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 24.5 mm. Average about 3.85 grams (17 specimens).

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

 

S-569-572. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. There are unusual North Sung issues with the following reverses: S-569 – numeral 1, S-570 – numeral 2, S-571 – “Ch’uan” (a stream) and- S-572 – characters meaning “ten months”. 24 mm. Average 2.96 grams. These are rare. We have never seen one and cannot provide a valuation for them.

 

These coins do not fit with the rest of the North Sung series. Schjoth’s suggestion that these may have been cast is Japan could be correct. There is no indigenous coinage from Japan during the Northern Sung period and it appears Japan used Chinese coins during this period, so it is likely some North Sung types were cast in Japan.

 

S-573-574. Metal ?? value ??. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth lists these as bronze 1 cash, but the weights of 6.06 and 5.52 grams fit into the weight/size standard for iron 1 cash. Until we are able to confirm the alloy and weights of these two coins, we do not wish to classify them. We would appreciate hearing from anyone with access to the Schjoth collection (we think it is in Oslo, Norway) who can check them for us.

 

S-577-578. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. 24 mm. Averaging about 7.12 grams.

The weight and size are at the iron 1 cash standard suggesting these are early issues of this reign title. Schjoth does not mention orthodox script for this type, but his illustration of S-578 shows “YUAN” in orthodox script. We have not handled any of these and cannot currently provide a valuation for them.

 

ISSUES OF AD 1093

Schjoth (page 31) records value two cash were re-introduced in AD 1093, but discontinued in favor of 1 cash after two years. This title ends in the first year, so some must have been cast under the following reign title. Schjoth indicates all two cash were discontinued, but numismatic evidence indicates only iron 2 cash were discontinued while bronze two cash continued to be cast.

 

S-575-576. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 29 mm. Average 7.85 grams (the weight standard previously established for bronze 2 cash). We note these usually show up in gF or better.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

 

S-580-581. rare Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-YU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. 34 mm. Average 11.03 grams (the standard used during the previous two reign titles for 10 cash later reduced to 2 cash).

F   $25.00     VF   $37.50

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Che Tsung,

yuan yu tong paoAD1086-1100, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 85.00

 

These are the earliest Northern Sung iron coins we have seen available in recent years. It is very possible they came from a single hoard and may turn out to be scarcer than the values we have seen would indicate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: SHAO-SHENG, AD 1094-1097

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-582
Seal Script
with YUAN PAO

S-586
Grass Script
with YUAN-PAO

S-592
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG-PAO

Dr Iwan collections

 

24 mm seal script Shao  Sheng yuan Pao

 

30 mmm seal script shao sheng yuan bao

 

23 mm shao sheng yuan pao(bali mint?)

 

 

 

Name: S586. Che Tsung AE Cash
Description: Northern Sung Dynasty, Emperor Che Tsung, 1086 – 1100 ADAE Cash. Obv: grass script Shao Sheng Yuan Pao
Pao. Schjoth586
Price: US$ 5.00 (2007-04-25)

 

 

ISSUES OF AD 1094

S-597-598. Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 34 mm. Average 11.0 grams (the size and weight standard of the iron 2 cash issued in AD 1093).. These must be part of the series discontinued after AD 1094.

F   $25.00     VF   $42.50@

Rare coin

 

Schjoth records that the “Book of Economical Economy of Sung” (v. Hui-k’ao, vol iv p. 24a) states: “During the first years of the Shao-sheng style, the copper coins were daily becoming more scarce, while the iron ones were increasing numerous, a thousand copper-cash were received in exchange of two thousand five hundred of iron.”

This is an interesting passage. It appears bronze coins were being issued at their metal value of about 3.5 grams per cash (see below), but the 11-12 gram iron 2 cash had been demonetized (or people refused to accept them) and were trading at their scrap iron value. Two and a half iron 2 cash, between 27.5 and 30 grams of iron, were exchangeable for a 3.5 gram copper 1 cash (an 8 or 9 to 1 ratio). This supports our earlier belief that iron was worth about 10% of copper and that this had changed little by the late Northern Sung period.

The government’s response was to withdraw the iron 2 cash coins, although it appears that iron 1 cash were still cast and accepted. We find no evidence of iron 2 cash being cast again during the balance of the Northern Sung period, but some brief but unsuccessful attempts at other denominations did occur.

 

OTHER ISSUES OF AD 1094 AND LATER

S-582, 585, 586, 591. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse blank. Average (4 specimens) 24.5 mm, average 3.90 grams (excluding S-585 which at only 21 mm and 1.82 grams is probably a contemporary counterfeit).

F   $2.50     VF   $4.50@

 

583-584, 587-590. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: a variety of crescents and dots. Average (6 specimens) 24.5 mm, 3.87 grams. We have no records of values for these, but they should be worth some premium over the blank-reverse type.

 

S-596. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in grass script. 24 mm. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 7.02 grams. We have no records of value for this type at this time.

 

S-593-595. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass script. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 29.3 mm, 6.85 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

S-592. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHAO-SHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 2.94 grams. We have no record of handling this type.

Read more info

 
 
Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, AE 2 Cash

Price US$ 35.00

    Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 75.00

 
 
Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Che Tsung, AD1086-1100, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 85.00

    Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Chien-Chung, SHEN SUNG YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 30.00

Sorry, this item has been sold.

 
 
Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, IRON Value 1, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 185.00

    Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

 
 
Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

    Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 75.00

 
 
Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

Sorry, this item has been sold.

    Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Value 2 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25), HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 35.00

 

 

 

 

Reign title: YUAN-FU, AD 1098-1100

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-606 vareity
Seal Script
with T’UNG-PAO@

S-602
Grass Script
with T’UNG-PAO

 

S-599, 602. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 23 mm. Average about 3.21 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.50@

 

S-600-601. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU YUAN-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: crescents in various positions. 23 mm. Average about 3.41 grams. We have no record of handling these.

Dr Iwan collections

 

25 mm Seal script Yuan Fu Tung Pao

 

25 mmm orthodox script yuan Fu Tong Bao

S-603. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in grass script. Reverse: blank. At 21 mm and 1.66 grams this is probably a counterfeit.

 

S-606. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. 29 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 5.86 grams. We do not have a valuation for this type.

 

S-604-605. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Average 7.40 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $3.50     VF   $6.50

 

H-16.336 (Schjoth does not list this denomination). Iron 3 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 34.2 mm, 13.23 grams.

F   $30.00     VF   $45.00


 

Rare “YUAN-FU T’UNG-PAO” in seal script.

Average (1 specimen) 34.2 mm, 13.23 grams.

F   $30.00     VF   $45.00

 

Emperor HUI TSUNG
AD 1101-1125

 

[ ]Huizong

 

 

Hui Tsung’s coinage is very complex with several attempted reforms, including the introduction of some new fiduciary issues.

We have done our best to sort these out, but in some cases only speculations can be offered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHIEN-CHUNG CHING-KUO, AD 1101

 

sheng –sung yuan pao

   

S-607
Seal Script

S-609
Grass Script

 

An unusual reign title, composed of four rather than two characters, which does not fit the normal coin layout. “SHENG-SUNG” was used instead.

Dr Iwan collection

(two coins)

 

 

 

 

Seal script Sheng sung yuan Pao

S-607, 609. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 24 mm. Average 3.65 grams.

VG   $1.75     F   $2.50     VF   $4.00

 

S-608, 610. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. S-608 at 19 mm, 1.92 grams and S-610 at 21 mm, 2.16 grams. The size and weights suggest Schjoth’s specimens were contemporary counterfeits, but the types do exist at regular size and weight.

 

S-611. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in grass script. Reverse: crescent. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.28 grams. We have not handled one of these and cannot currently suggest a value.

 

S-612-614. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank. 28 mm. Average 6.53 grams.

VG   $2.50     F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

The iron coins of this reign title are a little perplexing. This is one of the areas where we can only offer speculations, and more study is needed.

 

S-615-617. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in seal and grass scripts. Reverse: blank.



Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 75.00

The sizes and weights of Schjoth’s specimens are very inconsistent. One of 23 mm, 3.91 grams, one of 25 mm, 5.67 grams and one of 21 mm, 2.72 grams.

VG   $55.00     F   $70.00     VF   $100.00

 

During the balance of the Northern Sung, 23 to 24 mm iron coins were sporadically cast at both a 5 to 6 and 3 to 4 gram standard. It is important to remember iron coins are fiduciary, even at the heavier standard containing about 0.2 cash worth of metal. It has been our observation that size is more significant than weight in determining denomination, and that both of these standards are intended to be value 1 cash. We believe the 21 mm specimen above may have been a counterfeit of the period.

 

S-618. Iron coin of uncertain denomination. Obverse: “SHENG-SUNG YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. At 33 mm and 12.59 grams this coin is larger and heavier than the iron 2 cash issued earlier, but the same as the earlier iron 10 cash that were later demonetized. This appears to be an attempt to introduce a large fiduciary iron coinage, but we have found no evidence to suggest the intended denomination, although the size is the same as the bronze 10 cash of the next reign title. Rare, we have no valuation currently available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CH’UNG-NING, AD 1102-1106

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-620
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO
read top-bottom-right-left

S-621
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO
read top-right-bottom-left

S-626
Orthodox Script
CH’UNG-NING YUAN-PAO
read top-right-bottom-left

 

While the coins with the Chung-Pao ending, and those with the T’ung-Pao ending, appear to have very different caligraphy styles, they are both variations of Othodox Script.

Schjoth lists value 1, 5 and 10 cash for this series, but his literary reference mentions only 10 cash. We have so far found no convincing evidence of any coins cast with the intent of a 5 cash denomination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REGULAR SERIES

S-626. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. 25 mm. 6.04 grams. We have not seen an example of these and cannot provide a valuation at this time.

LOOK IN AUCTIONS

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125,

IRON Value 1, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 185.00

 

Schjoth does not list any bronze coins with the “YUAN-PAO” inscription, but the existence of this iron coin proves the inscription was used. It is likely that bronze issues exist but are very rare.

 

S-619, Rare bronze 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 25 mm. 3.27 grams. This is consistent with a 1 cash denomination. The 1 cash is rare with this inscription.

VF   $90.00

 

S-625, iron 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 24 mm. At 3.46 grams, this is consistent with the iron 1 cash denomination (S-615) issued under the previous reign title. We have not seen one of these and cannot provide a value.

 

S-620, bronze 1 cash, “CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO”. Orthodox script. 25 mm. At 2.12 grams it is unlikely that this is an official issue, but it may be a contemporary counterfeit of a value 1 cash coin of this type. We cannot provide a value for this type at this time.

 

FIDUCIARY 10 CASH SERIES

 

Schjoth records (page 32): “In the 1st year of Ch’ung-ning (AD 1102) the Board of Revenue directed that the four minting departments of Chiang, Yao, Shih and Chien should hand in samples of the new currency …… Each string of a thousand of the value-ten coins weighed 14 catties 7 liang, 9 catties 7 liang 2 mace being copper, 4 catties 12 liang 6 mace being lead, 1 catty 9 liang 2 mace being tin, the waste by melting being 1 catty 5 liang. Each coin weighed 3 mace.”

As far as we have been able to determine 3 mace is about 11 grams, so this passage must be referring to an issue of larger bronze coins. We also note that the two halves may not belong together. The first is about testing 1000 coins that already exist. In the second part “waste by melting” suggests the formula is the amount of metal needed to cast 1000 coins, including the casting sprew that is left after the coins are removed from the trees. This is still open to interpretation.

Schjoth (page 33) also records: “In the 1st year of Cheng-ho (AD 1111), orders were issued that ‘value ten’ coins, which grasping officials for momentary gain some years before had issued to the harm of the government and the people, should be reduced to ‘value three’. The Minister Chang Shang-ying (died 1121) obtained leave to demonetize all the spurious ‘value 10′ coins met with and cast them into light weight Hsiao-p’ing cash”.

Bronze 3 cash should weigh about 10.5 grams, but this passage also makes it clear that 10 cash coins were being cast to a 3 cash standard. It is also clear that counterfeits were abundant. We believe the large coins of this period are the coins referred to, and that any under 8 grams are probably examples of the counterfeits.

 

S-621. Bronze 10 cash (Schjoth calls it a 5 cash). Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (8 specimens) 34.1 mm, 11.47 grams (at the 3 cash standard). These are generally well cast coins with bold characters and fairly high rims.

F   $8.00     VF   $15.00     XF $22.50

 

S-624 is a double-obverse example of the S-621 issue (31 mm, 12.38 grams). Double-obverse coins were never a tradition in China and it is unlikely to be an authentic issue. There are other double-sided fantasy coins that are believed to have been cast during the 19th century for the collector’s market.

 

S-622, 623. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (7 specimens) 9.65 grams, with the range between 7.6 and 13.3 grams. The range from 34 to 36 mm. Two of the specimens were under 8 grams were poorly cast and probably old counterfeits, leaving an average of 10.5 grams for the remaining specimens. These are generally bold, well cast coins.

F   $10.00     VF   $15.00

 

Schjoth (page 32) records a story of the enemy melting iron coins to manufacture iron weapons, so tin and lead were added to the alloy to make the metal soft and brittle, not suitable for weapons. The iron coins of this series may be those referred to. “Enemies making weapons” shows these fiduciary coins were cast in a time of war, just as similar coins were cast during the Western Wars 35 years earlier.

 

S-627. Iron 10 (?) cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 32 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 10.07 grams. This is in the same weight and size standard as the bronze 10 cash issue, suggesting this was intended to circulate at that denomination. Rare.

 

Reign title : TA KUAN, AD 1107-1110

 

 

S-630
Orthodox slender gold Script@

“TA-KUAN YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script, with very fine calligraphy said to be in the Emperor’s own hand, which Hartill refers to as

 “slender gold” script.

They come in a number of different denominations, in both bronze and iron, all with blank reverses. In later times this was a popular model for amulets with a wide variety of reverse types, which are are not coins.

 

 

Bronze 1 cash, 23 to 24 mm, average 3.85 grams. S-628-629.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00@

Dr Iwan collections

 

 

Bronze 23 mm Ta Kuan Yuan bao

 Uncommon,

and the rare 29 mm below

 

 

 

 

Rare Bronze 2 cash, 29 mm. FD-1059, Hartill 16.421.

F   $60.00     VF   $85.00

 

Rare Bronze 10 cash, average (5 specimens) 41.0 mm, 17.5 grams. S-630.

VF   $25.00     XF   $45.00

This is a large and impressive type first cast in AD 1107, which is reported to have been withdrawn in AD 1109 due to excessive counterfeiting, although we expect that report is a little muddled. When these were issued at about 17 grams, the 11 to 12 gram value 10 coins of the previous reign title were still circulating and counterfeiters could make a significant profit melting these and using the bronze to cast the earlier type. The recall was probably to stop this counterfeiting of that earlier type. These are far too common for a coin officially withdrawn after only two years, suggesting they were hoarded in large numbers at the time.

Schjoth’s specimen weighs 23.52 grams and 40 mm, equivalent to value 8 cash, but it was double-sided and probably an amulet made much later (probably Ming or even Ching period).

 

 

S-632 – iron
Orthodox Script

 

Rare Iron 1 cash. Schjoth’s specimen was about 23 mm, 3.42 grams. S-631.

F   $40.00     VF   $75.00

 

Rare Iron 10 cash (what Hartill calls a 2 cash). Average (2 specimens) 30.5 mm. 7.35 grams. S-632. The size and weight are within the standard for fiduciary 10 cash of the previous reign and since those 10 cash were not devalued to 3 cash until after these coins were issued, we believe these were also issued as feduciary 10 cash.

F   $30.00     VF   $55.00

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHENG-HO, AD 1111-1117

   

S-645
Seal Script@

S-646
Orthodox Script@

 

Dr Iwan collections

 

Bronze 24 mmm orthodox script Cheng(Zheng)-ho tung Pao

 

Bronze 24 mm seal script Cheng Ho Tung Pao

 

Bronze 25 mm seal script Cheng ho tung bao

 

S-633-636. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.37 grams.

F   $2.50     VF   $4.00     XF   $7.00

 

S-637. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox scripts. Reverse: crescent. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.11 grams. We currently have no record of a value for this type.

 

S-638-640. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. Average (4 specimens) 29 mm, 6.89 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50

 

 

S-641-642. rare Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank.

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 75.00

Schjoth has two specimens, one of 25 mm, 6.51 grams and another of 21 mm, 5.56 grams (possibly a counterfeit).

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

No bronze 3 cash were cast during this reign title, but Schjoth (page 33) records information suggesting many bronze value 3 cash must have been in circulation: “In the 1st year of Cheng-ho (AD 1111), orders were issued that ‘value ten’ coins, which grasping officials for momentary gain some years before had issued to the harm of the government and the people, should be reduced to ‘value three’. The Minister Chang Shang-ying (died 1121) obtained leave to demonetize all the spurious ‘value 10′ coins met with and cast them into light weight Hsiao-p’ing cash”.

This passage cannot be referring to the type S-630 as these contained at least 8 cash worth of copper and had been recalled in AD 1109. The 10 cash of the western wars had been devalued long before, so the reference must be to the value 10 coins of the Ch’ung-ning reign title which contain about 3 cash worth of metal.

“Hsiao-p’ing cash” is a term that can describe any lightweight cash. In some other references it appears to refer to value 1 cash of either bronze or iron, but in a few references seems to specifically mean fiduciary iron coins where “lightweight” means coins which weigh far less than the value at which they circulated, in which case they may be the following two coins:

 

S-643-644. Iron 2 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. 29 mm. Schjoth had two specimens, 6.82 and 9.66 grams. The size and weight of these suggests a value 2 denomination was intended.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

S-645-646. Iron 3 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse blank. Average (2 specimens) 31.8 mm, 32 mm. Average 9.10 grams. The size and weight of these suggests a value 3 denomination was intended.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHUNG-HO, AD 1118

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-647
Orthodox Script

 

S-647. Bronze 1 (?) cash. Obverse: “CHUNG-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 26 mm. 4.97 grams. This coin is peculiar in not fitting into any of the regular size and weight standards. If truly a medieval coin, it would probably be a counterfeit value 2 cash, and being a rare type, we would prefer to examine it for authenticity before committing to a classification for it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: HSUAN-HO, AD 1119-1125

   

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-656
Seal Script
with T’UNG PAO@

S-660
Orthodox Script
with T’UNG PAO@

S-652
Orthodox Script
with YUAN PAO

 

S-648-650 & 653-655. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Average 3.51 grams.

F   $3.50     VF   $6.00

Dr Iwan collections

Bronze 28 mmm orthodox script Hsuan Ho Tung Pao

 

 

 two illustrations

 

Bronze 28 mm seal script Hsuan ho Tung Pao (may be cheng ho?)

Compare with coin below

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Value 2 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25), HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 35.00

 

 

 

S-651. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: crescent at the top and star (more like a donut) at the bottom. 24 mm. 3.05 grams. We have not had this type, and cannot suggest a value at this time.

 

S-662. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO”. Orthodox (?) script. Reverse: “SHEN”. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.0 grams. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

We assume “SHEN” is a mint mark (very unusual on a Northern Sung coin). Schjoth lists this as a bronze pattern for the iron coin of the same type (see below), but at this time we have no reason to believe this to be true.

 

S-666. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox (?) script. Reverse: “SHEN” (see above). 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.58 grams. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

S-663-665. Iron 1 cash.

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Iron Value 1 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25)

Price US$ 45.00

Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Schjoth’ had two of 23 mm averaging 5.85 grams, and one of 21 mm, 4.16 grams. These appear to be of and iron 1 cash but the 21 mm specimen may be a counterfeit. These are rare and we cannot currently assign a value to them.

 

S-656-657. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox scripts. Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimens) 28.1 mm. Average 6.28 grams. These are common, and must have been a huge issue as these are very common.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50@

 

S-658-661. Bronze 2 or 3 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank or with a crescent. Average (five specimens) 30 mm, 6.6.84 grams. The crescent reverse should be worth a premium. These are common, and must have been a huge mintage.

F   $3.50     VF   $5.50@

 

These larger “HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO” coins are a bit of a mystery. The two distinct sizes of 28 and 30 mm suggests two denominations, but both specimens weigh in the 2 cash standard. We need to examine more specimens, and study the coins that follow in the Southern Sung, before commenting further on this series.

 

S-652. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSUAN-HO YUAN-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 24 mm. Schjoth’s specimen weighed 3.24 grams, which he notes had an alloyed appearance, but we are not certain what he meant by that. We have no record of a value for this type.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor CH’IN TSUNG, AD 1126

 

 

[ ]Qinzong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reign title: CHING-K’ANG, AD 1126

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-667
Seal Script

S-670
Orthodox Script@

Dr Iwan collections

Bronze 24 mm orthodox script Ching Kang yuan  Bao(may be another type,two times illustrations  ,because I haven’t the illustration for comparative)

 

 

Coins of this reign title are all rare although we have had a few over the years. Unfortunately we do not have a record of the prices. We are attempting to track down the purchasers in order to retrieve this information and image the coins.

 

S-669-670. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CHING-K’ANG T’UNG-PAO” in seal and orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had two specimens, one of 21 mm, 5.7 grams and the other of 24 mm, 7.13 grams. These fall into the weight standard for late North Sung iron 1 cash, but the 21 mm specimen is too small and may be a counterfeit. Rare, no valuation available.

 

S-667-668. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHING-K’ANG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. 30 mm. Average 7.25 grams. Rare, no valuation available.

 

Schjoth mentions the existence of varieties not represented in his collections, including some with the “CHING-K’ANG YUAN-PAO” inscription, as well as specimens with orthodox script.


 

The dynasty name was changed to Southern Sung after the northern provinces were lost to the Mongol invaders in AD 1127. For a discussion of the Southern Sung coinage please continue to the next page.

 

 

 

Let practice your knowledge with the Northern song Coin script coin below:

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Chen Tsung, AD998-1022, Large IronCash, Value 3 – CH’ING-TE YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 60.00

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Jen Tsung, AD1023-1063, T’IEN-SHENG YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 30.00

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, AE 2 Cash

Price US$ 35.00

 

 

 

 

 

 Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD1068-1085, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 75.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Che Tsung, AD1086-1100, Iron Cash, Value 3

Price US$ 85.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Chien-Chung, SHEN SUNG YUAN-PAO

Price US$ 30.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, IRON Value 1, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 185.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CH’UNG-NING CHUNG-PAO

 

Price US$ 85.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CH’UNG-NING T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 75.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD 1101-1125, Large Iron Cash, Value 3, CHENG-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 85.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Value 2 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25), HSUAN-HO T’UNG-PAO

Price US$ 35.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, AE 2 Cash, Title Cheng-ho (AD1111-17)

Price US$ 45.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Sung Dynasty, AD 960-1126, Emperor Hui Tsung, AD1101-1125, Iron Value 1 Cash, Title Hsuan-ho (AD1119-25)

Price US$ 45.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Song Dynasty, “Shao Hsing Yuan Pao” iron mother coin, XF.

 

US $ 933

 

 

 

 

 

Song Dynasty, “Dah Kuan Tung Pao” (3), XF.

 

US $ 560

The end @ copyright

Please look another E-BOOK IN CD-ROM  about

China history collections

Part Southern Song dynasty and Jin Tartar,liao and xia dynasty.

 

THE RAREST COLLECTIONS OF THE WORLD

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E BOOK INCD_ROM,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIVE VIA COMMENT

 

Rarest Gems

The world’s rarest gem is believed to be painite, a gem that most have never heard of. The painite is orangish or reddish brown and was first discovered in Burma in the ’50s. Within the last couple of years, the source of the two original painite crystals was discovered and now a few hundred faceted stones exist. A more well-known (but still very rare) gem is the red diamond

 

 Meteorites are rare and wondrous things, fragments of worlds other than our own.

The weight of gold that has been mined on Earth far exceeds the total weight of all meteorites in the world’s collections. Among the rarest of meteorites are pallasites, in which translucent yellow or green crystals of the gem mineral olivine occur embedded in crystalline nickel-iron metal.

Photo by Iris Langheinrich, pallasite slice on display in the Window on Our World, click image to enlarge.

In their raw state, pallasite meteorites are far from attractive. Their exteriors are blackened by the intense heat of entry through Earth’s atmosphere, or rusted by centuries embedded in soil. But cut into thin slices they can be stunningly beautiful.

Their structure is unlike anything found on Earth, but perhaps resembles what lies deep beneath our feet. The Earth has an iron core surrounded by a thick layer, the mantle, composed of olivine. Pallasite meteorites are from the core-mantle boundary of a small rocky planet that formed very early in the solar system but was later destroyed by planetary collision. These windows into another world give us a tantalizing glimpse of the deep interior of our own planet.

This particular pallasite slice, 46cm wide by 35cm high and weighing 3.45kg, is from a large meteorite found 150km northwest of the town of Seymchan, in the Magadan district of north-eastern Siberia. It was acquired by the Ulster Museum in 2009 and is on display on the upper level of Window on our World. More meteorites are on display in the Origins gallery of the Nature Zone

Rarest Signature

He may have done a lot of writing, but with only 6 of them in existence William Shakespeare’ s signature is one of the rarest of all and is valued somewhere around $3 million dollars.

 

‘Georgie Boy’ &  ‘Motherdear’

 

Collecting seems to bring out that primitive instinct for the hunt in some of its devotees, who stalk their prey with skill.  – Alicia Craig Faxon

That instinct for the hunt has given a friend of mine the ability to assemble a “world class” collection of very rare stamps.  The stamps are, in fact, so rare that I will make an exception to my usual rule that all posts must relate to cars.  My friend, Mahendra Sagar has spent a lifetime hunting and acquiring the rarest stamps in the Philatelic world, called “Inverted Centers.”

These inverted centers, are stamps with the design element upside down with respect to the rest of the stamp.  Most famous of these types is the inverted Jenny,  a stamp with the printing of the plane upside down.  These errors are so rare, and so priceless, that they are pursued by only the most determined, skilled, and knowledgeable collectors.

Mahendra Sagar is such a man.  He started collecting stamps when he inherited his older brothers collection at an early age.  Now he specializes in these rarest of rare inverted centers.  His collection includes many choice stamps from other major collections, as well as some previously unknown stamps, all of which were acquired through years of auction bidding throughout the world.

The Mahendra Sagar Collection, as it is called, is one of the greatest offerings of inverted center stamps.  Portions of the proceeds from the sale of the collection will go to various charitable institutions, like Vipassana Research Institute, and Buddhist Global Relief.

Even if you are not a stamp collector, the catalogue is a brief history lesson into the world of inverted centers, and worthy of a look.  The auction house has created a special website linked here, which describes the collection in detail, and offers a printed brochure for prospective bidders.

It is one thing when a friend tells you that he is a stamp collector, but it is entirely different when you learn that his collection is “world class.”  In the car world, it would be like finding out your best friend doesn’t just own a classic car, but has a collection that rivals Ralph Lauren or Jay Leno.  You have to be impressed.

.

 

 

 the world’s rarest classic cars

louwman1.jpgA 1914 Dodge Type 30 was the initial inspiration for the Louwman Collection of classic cars and automotive art housed in the newly-constructed National Automobile Museum of the Netherlands in the Hague. Located near the Queen’s Palace, the collection dates back to 1934 when a Dutch car importer happened upon the 20-year-old Dodge that was already vintage classic. The Louwman family continued to expand over the years to its current size, boasting over 230 cars.

louwman4.jpgThe cars are divided up into sections consisting of Dawn of Motoring, Motoring, Racing and Luxury. Highlights include a 1900 Georges Richard, which is rumored to have been found in a Parisian side street and “Genevieve,” a 1904 Darracq from the 1953 film. Rare 1948 Tatra T87 and a Spatz Victoria bubble car with central tube chassis, are both designed by the legendary Hans Ledwinka.

louwman3.jpgThe collection includes an impressive range of vehicles, ranging in year and stature from 1944 Willys Jeep Model MB to a 1875 Thirion Modele N 2 Horse Drawn Steam Fire-Engine and 1922 American Lafrance Hook and Ladder Aerial Type 31/6.

louwman2.jpgConceived by architecture firm Michael Graves & Associates, the 185,000-square-foot structure with its peaked roofs and woven brick facade, consists of temporary and permanent exhibition galleries, a reception hall, an auditorium and workshops for conservation and car repairs.

Rarest Cats Dogs

Of the rarest cat breeds, the Ashera (pic. left) is the most expensive ($20K+), the Sokoke the most exotic (from the wilds of Africa), and the Egyptian Mau has the coolest history (lived with the Egyptians). As for dog breeds, the one that keeps popping up on all the “rare” lists is the Lundehund, originally bred by the Vikings to hunt Puffins. Other rare breeds include Otterhounds and Stabyhounds.

 

 

Rarest Stamps

According to Wikipedia, the most expensive item by weight and volume is the Treskilling Yellow stamp from Sweden. It has a current estimated worth of $2.3 million. Here’s what makes it so valuable: In 1858, when the currency was known as the skilling, the 3-skilling stamp (“treskilling”) was printed in blue. And an 8-skilling stamp was printed in yellow. But due to a printing error, a few 3-skilling stamps were printed in yellow.

 

 

Rarest Sea Salt

The earliest known sea salt produced by the Japanese may be the rarest of all. Called Amabito No Moshio (“Ancient Sea Salt”), unpolluted sea water is collected from the Seto-uchi inland sea, infused with seaweed to develop the “unami”, and then processed by cooking in an iron kettle, put into a centrifuge, and finally, cooked over an open fire while stirring constantly. The salt is worth over $40 per pound.

 RAREST PHOTOSHOP CREATIONS

01. Don’t Leave me Alone

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

02. Transform Your Portrait in to Zombie

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

03. Surreal ocean scape in a bottle

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

04. Simple 3D Text Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

05. Seductive Digital Art

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

06. Trap Your Friends in a Jar

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

07. Beautiful Abstract Portrait

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

08. Create an Abstract Playing Card

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

09. Create an Anti-Smoking Ad

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

10. Create a Fantasy Miniature World

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

11. A Professional Cartoon Effect from a Real Photograph

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

12. Creating an Ecological Fairy Tale

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

13. Create a Beautiful Fan Surrounded by Magic Shapes, Runes and Plants

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

14. Flaming Car

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

15. The Police Officer

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

16. Powerful Human Disintegration Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

17. Create a Beautiful Fantasy Angel

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

18. Creating Mechanical Horse

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

19. Create a Disturbing Scene of a Flooded Room with a Giant Hand Carrying a Fish

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

20. Underwater Vector Illustration

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

21. Create Movie Poster

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

22. Underwater 3D Text Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

23. Road of Dreams

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

24. Fly High Light Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

25. Texture Cube

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

26. Unique Abstract Text Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

27. Create A Warm and Serene Portrait

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

28. create a Puss in Boots movie poster

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

29. Create an Exploding Light Text Effect

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

30. Create 3 Retro MP3 Players

30 Rare Outstanding Collections of Photoshop Tutorials 

<!–

BTW, you could Print Calendars online at Psprint.com

–>

 

Rarest Jeans

According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the most valuable jeans are an original pair of Levi Strauss Co 501 jeans aged over 115 years old which were sold to a collector in Japan for $60,000 through eBay in 2005. Quite rare indeed considering a new pair sells for $46.

 

 

Rarest Baseball Cards

In February 2007, a “near mint-mint” Honus Wagner sold for $2.3 million, at that point probably the highest sale for a baseball card in history. Then, in September 2007, the same card was reportedly sold again. This time for $2.8 million to a private collector. The card in question, aT206 Honus Wagner, was made by the American Tobacco Company in 1909. It has been called the “Mona Lisa of baseball cards.”

 

 

Rarest Comic Books

One of the rarest comic books still in existence in near-perfect condition is an issue of “Amazing Spider-Man #1,” rare not only because of its singularity but also because of its quality. The comic book sold for only 12 cents per copy when it was published in March 1963, and is now worth over $40K — not an exceedingly high price for comic books — but extremely rare in such pristine condition.

 

 

Rarest Real Estate

At the intersection of location, exclusivity and history you find some of the rarest pieces of real estate. With that criterion, Luxist.com blogger’s pick for the rarest piece of real estate currently on the market is Bran’s castle, the castle in Transylvania that inspired Bram Stoker’s Dracula, which is expected to fetch upwards of $135 million.

 

 

Rarest Horses

The Sorraia Horse is said to be the direct descendant of the wild Iberian horse but only 200 currently remain living in South Iberia. The Tiger Horse is a rare breed which is said to have existed in Ancient Spain and the beginning of the New World. Rare in terms of its abilities and characteristics, is the Lipizzaner (pic. left). Bred for its military prowess, one of these animals can sell for up to $100,000.

 

 

Rarest Books

There are countless rare books in the world, but by most experts’ standards the rarest of them all is the Gutenberg Bible. It was the first book ever printed back in 1456, and although several hundred copies were originally printed finding a complete first edition would net you $25-$35 million. In today’s market single pages alone go for $25K each, and several years ago just 1 volume (it’s a 2 volume set) sold for $5.5M.

 

 

 

Rarest Necklaces

In the world of rare necklaces, a couple million dollars doesn’t get you much. Even ten million dollars is cheap for these babies. The most expensive necklace may likely be one built around the Blue Empress, a rare natural blue diamond. The pear-shaped diamond weighs about 14 carats. It is set in 18k white gold and surrounded with white diamonds. It’s estimated to be worth $16 million.

 

 

 

Rarest Wine

One of the rarest bottles of wine ever sold was purchased by Christopher Forbes for a mere £105,000 ($160,000). It was an unmarked green glass bottle with the inscription of “1787 Lafitte Th. J.” (now known as Lafite and thought to be owned by Thomas Jefferson), found behind a wall in Paris.

 

 

 

Rarest Vases

In 2006, a 20-inch high blue and white Yuan Dynasty vase fetched over $2 million. That sounds rare but at the end of that year, casino owner Steve Wynn paid even more for a rare vase. The small copper red and white porcelain vase, is a 14th century Ming vase (pic. left) decorated in scrolling flowers. It is from the exceptionally rare Hongwu period and went for around $10.9 million, making it the world’s most expensive.

 

 

 

Rarest Coins

As a general rule the more rare a coin is the more it’s worth, so what’s the rarest coin ever? It’s a debatable subject as not all experts always agree, but if the Double Eagle isn’t at the top of that list it’s sure near it. Back in 2002 the only Double Eagle coin left to be in private hands (or so everybody thought) sold for $7.9 million dollars.

 

 

 

Rarest Food

Served in China for over 400 years, the primary ingredient in bird’s nest soup or “Caviar of the East” is saliva nests built by cave swifts. Among one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans it is believed to aid digestion, raise libido, and even alleviate asthma as it is dissolved in water to create a gelatinous soup. In Hong Kong, a bowl costs up to $30. Red version can cost $10K per gram.

 

 

 

Rarest Travel Trips

What is the rarest trip? There’s no real consensus on this, but Luxist.com blogger Deidre Woodward says that the trek to summit Mount Everest still remains among the rarest trips in the world. But even this has become something that is accessible to more people. In two months and for around $60,000 you can join a group and make the attempt of a lifetime.

 THE END @ COPYRIGHT 2012

__._,_.___

 
 

The China Yuan Mongol empire History Collections

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E_BOOK IN CD_ROM ,THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

Goal of 710 Posts Completed. Congratulations!

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The best time for planning a book is while you’re doing the dishes. Agatha Christie

The Yuan Mongol Dynasty

History collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FORWARD

 

I hope this information in limited e-book will useable for the collectors or the writer as the basic info for their collections or for writing book and research book.

During my study I realized that the rare and very difficult cast coind were during YUAN MONGOL DYNASTY

During Yuan dynasty  for the first time issued the  cast coin with

 Mongol stye script the informations related with this type of cast coin very limited and many lack informations.

I have found only a litle of yuan dynasty  coins in Indonesia because after emperor Kublai khan sent the army to subdue Kng Kartanegara Of singosari kingdom at java and how the raden wijaya trick to sent back the Yuan mongol army back home(please read at Majapait kingdom e-book in CD-ROM)  but I never found enough info related with this cast coin.also ther ceramic art work related with this coins.

I hope all the collectors and scientist sinology will be kind to help me with their own informations especially to comment and correctios ,also upload the sample  cast coinst from Yuan mongol dynasty

I hope with this study we can know why the Yuan mongol qounquered  Chinese empire , and what kind of  numismatic collections .  Also what another ceramic

 and

art work exist during that era.

 

 

This is the whole world study as the movement to save the world heritage from china empire which many relation with South east asia country,s kingdom especially from Thailand,Vietnam and Indonesia like srivijaya kingdom,and old Java Kingdom.

For all that info ,thanks very much.

.

Jakarta 2012

The Author

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

INTRODUCTION

The brief History

 

THE YUAN (Mongol) DYNASTY (1279-1368)

   

The Mongols were the first of the northern barbarians to rule all of China. After creating an empire that stretched across the Eurasian continent and occupying northern China and Korea in the first half of the 13th century, the Mongols continued their assault on the Southern Sung. By 1276 the Southern Sung capital of Hangzhou had fallen, and in 1279 the last of the Sung loyalists perished. (Photo – Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty).

    Before this, Kublai Khan, the fifth “great khan” and grandson of Genghis Khan, had moved the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Peking. In 1271 he declared himself emperor of China and named the dynasty Yuan, meaning “beginning,” to signify that this was the beginning of a long era of Mongol rule.

    In Asia, Kublai Khan continued his grandfather’s dream of world conquest. Two unsuccessful naval expeditions were launched against Japan in 1274 and 1281. Four land expeditions were sent against Annam and five against Burma. However, the Mongol conquests overseas and in Southeast Asia were neither spectacular nor were they long enduring.

Mongol rule in China lasted less than a century. The Mongols became the most hated of the barbarian rulers because they did not allow the Chinese ruling class to govern. Instead, they gave the task of governing to foreigners. Distrusting the Chinese, the Mongol rulers placed the southern Chinese at the lowest level of the four classes they created. The extent of this distrust was reflected in their provincial administration. As conquerers, they followed the Ch’in example and made the provincial governments into direct extensions of the central chancellery. This practice was continued by succeeding dynasties, resulting in a further concentration of power in the central imperial government. (Photo – Yuan Banknote with its printing plate, 1287).

 


    The Chinese despised the Mongols for refusing to adapt to Chinese culture. The Mongols kept their own language and customs. The Mongol rulers were tolerant about religions, however. Kublai Khan reportedly dabbled in many religions.

   

The Mongols and the West. The Mongols were regarded with mixed feelings in the West. Although Westerners dreaded the Mongols, the Crusaders hoped to use them in their fight against the Muslims and attempted to negotiate an alliance with them for this purpose. Friar John of Carpini and William of Rubruck were two of the better known Christian missionaries sent to establish these negotiations with the Mongol ruler. (Photo – Bailin Temple Pagoda built in 1330).

    The best account of the Mongols was left by a Venetian merchant, Marco Polo, in his `Marco Polo’s Travels’. It is an account of Polo’s travels over the long and perilous land route to China, his experience as a trusted official of Kublai Khan, and his description of China under the Mongols. Dictated in the early 14th century, the book was translated into many languages. Although much of medieval Europe did not believe Polo’s tales, some, like Christopher Columbus, were influenced by Polo’s description of the riches of the Orient.

After the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, successive weak and incompetent khans made the already hated Mongol rule intolerable. Secret societies became increasingly active, and a movement known as the Red Turbans spread throughout the north during the 1350s. In 1356 a rebel leader named Chu Yuan-chang and his peasant army captured the old capital of Nanjing. Within a decade he had won control of the economically important middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, driving the Mongols to the north. In 1368 he declared himself the emperor Hung-wu and established his capital at Nanjing on the lower Yangtze. Later the same year he captured the Yuan capital of Peking. (Photo – Hand Cannon from the period).

    Kublai Khan (1215-94). The founder of China’s Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty was a brilliant general and statesman named Kublai Khan. He was the grandson of the great Mongol conqueror, Genghis Khan, and he was overlord of the vast Mongol Empire. The achievements of Kublai Khan were first brought to the attention of Western society in the writings of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveler who lived at the Chinese court for nearly 20 years.

Kublai Khan was born in 1215, the fourth son of Genghis Khan’s fourth son. He began to play a major role in the consolidation of Mongol power in 1251, when his brother, the emperor Mongke, resolved to complete the conquest of China. He therefore vested Kublai with responsibility for keeping order in conquered territory. After Mongke’s death in 1259, Kublai had himself proclaimed khan. During the next 20 years he completed the unification of China. He made his capital in what is now Beijing.

    Kublai’s major achievement was to reconcile China to rule by a foreign people, the Mongols, who had shown little ability at governing. His failures were a series of costly wars, including two disastrous attempts to invade Japan; they brought little benefit to China. Although he was a magnanimous ruler, Kublai’s extravagant administration slowly impoverished China; and in the 14th century the ineptitude of his successors provoked rebellions that eventually destroyed the Mongol dynasty.

 

Archibishop John of Cilician Armenia, in a painting from 1287. His dress displays a Chinese dragon, an indication of the thriving exchanges with the Mongols during the period.

 

Realet Info

About Marcopolo

 

 

 

 

 

  Marco Polo (1254-1323?)

 

In 1298 a Venetian adventurer named Marco Polo wrote a fascinating book about his travels in the Far East. Men read his accounts of Oriental riches and became eager to find sea routes to China, Japan, and the East Indies. Even Columbus, nearly 200 years later, often consulted his copy of `The Book of Ser Marco Polo‘.

    In Marco’s day the book was translated and copied by hand in several languages. After printing was introduced in the 1440s, the book was circulated even more widely. Many people thought that the book was a fable or a gross exaggeration. A few learned men believed that Marco wrote truly, however, and they spread Marco’s stories of faraway places and unknown peoples. Today geographers agree that Marco’s book is amazingly accurate.

    Marco Polo was born in the city-republic of Venice in 1254. His father and uncles were merchants who traveled to distant lands to trade. In 1269 Marco’s father, Nicolo, and his uncle Maffeo returned to Venice after being away many years. On a trading expedition they had traveled overland as far as Cathay (China). Kublai Khan, the great Mongol emperor of China, asked them to return with teachers and missionaries for his people. So they set out again in 1271, and this time they took Marco.

    From Venice the Polos sailed to Acre, in Palestine. There two monks, missionaries to China, joined them. Fearing the hard journey ahead, however, the monks soon turned back. The Polos crossed the deserts of Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan. They mounted the heights of the Pamirs, the “roof of the world,” descending to the trading cities of Kashgar (Shufu) and Yarkand (Soche). They crossed the dry stretches of The Gobi. Early in 1275 they arrived at Kublai Khan’s court at Cambaluc (Peking). At that time Marco was 21 years old.

    Polo at the Court of the Great Khan

Marco quickly became a favorite of Kublai Khan. For three years he governed busy Yangchow, a city of more than 250,000 people. He was sent on missions to far places in the empire: to Indochina, Tibet, Yunnan, and Burma. From these lands Marco brought back stories of the people and their lives.

    The Polos became wealthy in Cathay. But they began to fear that jealous men in the court would destroy them when the khan died. They asked to return to Venice. Kublai Khan refused. Then came an envoy from the khan of Persia. He asked Kublai Khan for a young Mongol princess for a bride. The Polos said that the princess’ journey should be guarded by men of experience and rank. They added that the mission would enable them to make the long-desired visit to Venice. The khan reluctantly agreed.

    Since there was danger from robbers and enemies of the khan along the overland trade routes, a great fleet of ships was built for a journey by sea. In 1292 the fleet sailed, bearing the Polos, the princess, and 600 noblemen of Cathay. They traveled southward along Indochina and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. Here the voyage was delayed many months.

    The ships then turned westward and visited Ceylon and India. They touched the East African coast. The voyage was hazardous, and of the 600 noblemen only 18 lived to reach Persia. The Polos and the princess were safe. When the Polos landed in Venice, they had been gone 24 years. The precious stones they brought from Cathay amazed all Venice.

Later Marco served as gentleman-captain of a ship. It was captured by forces of the rival trading city of Genoa, and he was thrown into a Genoese prison. There he wrote his book with help from another prisoner. Marco was released by the Genoese in 1299. He returned to Venice and engaged in trade. His name appears in the court records of his time in many lawsuits over property and money. He married and had three daughters. He died about 1323.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A peasant revolt started the collapsed of the Yuan Dynasty.

 ceramic collections

Art work Collections

Numismatic collections

Gold Coin

Silver Coin

Cast Coin

 

 

 

Yuan Dynasty

 

 

[ ] Genghis Khan
Portrait of Genghis Khan in his sixties, following his conquests. Painted by a Chinese artist on stretched silk.
Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

 

 

[ ]TaiZong [Ogadei Khan]

 

[ ] Khubilai Khan (Shizu)[Shih-tsu] , first emperor of Yuan Dynasty

 

[ ]Queen of Khubilai Khan (Shizi)[Shih-tsu] , first empress of Yuan Dynasty

 

[ ]ChengZong [Temur Oljeitu]

 

[ ]WuZong [KhaiShan]

 

[ ]RenZong [Ayurbarwada]

 

[ ]WenZong [Tugh Temur]

 

[ ]NingZong [Renqinbar]

 

[ ]Shundi[Tohan Temur]

 

 

Yuan Dynasty

Warriors Armor ,The Yuan Dynasty Armor Has Willow Leaf Armor, To Have The Iron Round First-Class. The Hard Round Armor Inner Layer Makes With The Cowhide, The Outer Layer For The Hard Net Armor, The Armor Piece Connected Like Scale, The Arrow Cannot Penetrate, The Manufacture Is Extremely Exquisite. In Addition Has Leather Armor, The Cloth Cover First-Class. AD1271—AD1368

 

YUAN (MONGOL) DYNASTY

Emperor CH’ENG TSUNG
AD 1295-1306

reign title: YUAN-CHEN, AD 1295-1296

 

FD-1711. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-CHEN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 24.2 mm, 3.08 grams.

VF   $650.00

 

There is some question in our mind about the authenticity of the specimen illustrated above. We would appreciate hearing form anyone that can give a reasonable informed opinion on it.


 

Emperor WU TSUNG
AD 1308-1311

reign title: CHIH-TA, AD 1308-1311

   

S-1098
Orthodox Script

S-1099
Mongolian Seal script

 

S-1098. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-TA T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. The size and weigh of this issues seems to vary somewhat. The last two specimens we had access two were 24.5 mm at 3.1 grams and 23.5 mm at 2.85 grams.

VG   $3.00     F   $5.00

 

S-1099, Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in Mongol seal-writing. Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 42.3 mm, 20.5 grams. These are said to have been first cast in the third year of Chih-Ta (AD 1310). These tend to be crudely cast, often with casting holes in the fields, and attractive specimens are scarce and command a premium.

F   $32.00     VF   $45.00

 

Paper money was used extensively during this period, although to the best of my knowledge only two examples of Yuan Dynasty paper money are know to still exist today.


 

Emperor HEN TSUNG
AD 1312-1320

reign title: HUANG-CH’ING, AD 1312-1313

S-1102, “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in Mongol seal-writing. Value 2. RARE. The only specimen was have handled was VG with the top character weakly cast.

VG   $225.00

 


Emperor SHUN TI
AD 1333-1367

Shun Ti’s coins of the first two years of his reign (AD 1333 to 1334) do not have a reign title on them, but rather come YUAN TONG YUAN BAO inscription in Chinese characters.

 

reign title: CHIH-YUAN, AD 1335-1340

Shun Ti adopted the title CHIH-YUAN in AD 1335 and used it until 1340. The coin of this period are rare, and we do not have one yet available to image.

 

S-1102. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in Mongolian square script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth specimen was about 28 mm, 5.08 grams.

VG   $225.00

 

reign title: CHIH-CHENG, AD 1341-1367

 

IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE

S-1103
Orthodox Script

S-1102
Mongolian Seal script

Shun Ti adopted the title CHIH-CHENG in AD 1341 and used it until he died in 1367. This is an interesting series, in that many of the coins have date and/or denomination indicators on them.

 

S-1103. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “MAO” in Mongol seal script. MAO is short for HSIN MAO, indicating this coin was struck in AD 1351. The date indicator on the reverse is normally somewhat weak on these. Average (2 specimens) 25 mm, 3.55 grams.

F   $65.00     VF   $85.00

 

  S-1109. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: The number “2” written in Mongolian script above the hole, and in chinese numbers below the hole. Average (2 specimen) 28.9 mm, 6.2 grams (range 5.04 to 7.15 grams)

F   $65.00     VF   $100.00

 

S-1107. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “SSU” in Mongol seal script. SSU is short for Kuei Ssu indicating this coin was struck in AD 1353. Average (2 specimens) 30.1 mm, 8.5 grams.

F   $75.00     VF   $100.00

 

  S-1108. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “SHEN” in Mongol seal script. SHEN is short for PING SHEN indicating this coin was struck in AD 1356. Average (1 specimens) 34.0 mm, 11.22 grams.

F   $75.00     VF   $115.00     XF   $195.00

 

  S-1110. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: The number “3” written in Mongolian script above the hole, and in chinese numbers below the hole. Average (2 specimen) 35.5 mm, 11.55 (range 9.85 to 12.24 grams)

F   $75.00     VF   $110.00

 

S-1111. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “”CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: the denomination indicator as the Mongol seal script word for “10” above the hole. Average (two specimens) 45 mm, 22.9 grams.

F   $75.00     VF   $110.00

 


FULL IMAGE

FD-1810. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “”CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: the denomination indicator as the Mongol square script word for “10” above the hole, and the Chinese number “10” with a dot above it, below the hole. Average (1 specimen) 48 mm, 63.6 grams. The casting on this particular coin is rather crude with only partially finished rims. The specimen illustrated while grading only F for visual appearance is pretty much as cast with full original file marks on the high points.

F   $450.00

 

This type tends to be bold and well cast with high rims,
but the edges tend to be poorly finished.

 

YUAN REBELS

Pretender Emperor CH’EN YU-LIANG OF HAN
AD 1358-1363

reign title: T’ien-ting, ca. AD 1363

 

S-1124, Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN TING T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 32.5 mm, 8.89 grams.

F   $175.00     VF   $245.00

 

CHU YUAN-CHANG as the REBEL PRINCE WU
AD 1364-1367

Chu Yuan-Chang (later to become Emperor Tai Tsu, the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (see below)) was one of the Yuan Rebels fighting each other to see who would take control of China at the eventual fall of the Yuan Dynasty. His coins of this period bare the inscription TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO but TA-CHUNG is not actually a reign title.

I have run into some confusion over the Ta-Chung coinage, because Schjoth states that the inscription was first cast by Chu Yuan-Chang in AD 1361 when the Pao-Yuan Minting Department was set up at Nanking, however as he did not declare himself as Prince Wu until 1364, this draw into question exactly who he was minting them for between 1361 and 1364. Apparently only the 1 cash denomination was cast during this period.

In 1364, after defeating Ch’en Yu-liang of Han (another of the Yuan Rebels), and gaining control over a much larger part of China, Chu Yuan-chang declared himself the Prince Wu and adopted the reign title of Ta-ming but rather than putting the Ta-ming title on the coins he continued casting the Ta-Chung types, but now from a number of mints. In 1368 he controled enough of China to Declare himself as Emperor T’ai Tsu of the Ming Dynasty, at which time he adopted the reign title Hung-Wu.

The Ta-chung coinage tends to be somewhat crudely cast when compared to the later coins cast under the Ming Dynasty.


S-1127. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 23.5 mm (range 23.2 to 24.0 mm), average 3.30 grams. These coins tend to be of inferior quality to the later coinage of Ming.

VG   $4.50     F   $8.50     VF   $15.00

S-1128. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “PEI-P’ING” (a mint in Chihli). Average (1 specimen) 23.5 mm, 3.44 grams. We do not have a record of a price for this type at this time.

S-1129. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “CHE” (Chekiang mint). Average (1 specimen) 23.5 mm, 2.53 grams. We do not have a record of a price for this type at this time.

 

S-1130. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 29 mm, 6.11 grams.

VF   $35.00

 

S-1131. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 35 mm, 10.10 grams.

VF   $49.50

 

S-1132. Bronze 5 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 41 mm, 17.49 grams.

VF   $42.50

 

S-1133. Bronze 5 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “YU” (Honan mint). Average (1 specimens) 40 mm, 15.41 grams.

VF   $145.00

 

  S-1134. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH” (for value 10). Average (2 specimens) 45.5 mm, 23.8 grams (these vary several grams either side of this).

VG   $65.00     F   $99.50

 

S-1135. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH CHE” (for value 10 of Chekiang mint). Average (1 specimens) 45.5 mm, 25.69 grams. We have not yet recorded a value for this type.

 

S-1136. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH CHI” (for value 10 of Shantung mint)). Average (1 specimens) 45.5 mm, 27.09 grams. We have not yet recorded a value for this type.

 

 

8198

 
Late Yuan Dynasty, Hsu Shou-hwei, “Tien Tien Tung Pao”, diameter 32mm, XF. US $ 244

US $ 280

8199

 
Late Yuan Dynasty, Chan You-liang, “Dah Yee Tung Pao”, diameter 31mm, XF.ta yee tung pao US $ 244

US $ 709

8200

 
Yuan Dynasty, “Chih Cheng Tung Pao” reverse “Chen” (2), diameter 29mm & 33mm, XF. US $ 244

US $ 560

 

 

 

 

 

The end @ copyright

Please read more e-book in CD_ROM about Ming, Qing and Republic era of China History Collections

 

 

Alyssa Milano art Photography Collections

ALYSSA MILANO

VINTAGE PICTURE COLLECTIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THIS THE SAMPLE OF COLLECTIONS IN cd-rom,THE COMPLETE cd WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER ,TO LOOK THE ILLSUTRATION SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT PLEASE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alyssa Milano has some Italian roots which is probably where this sexy naked body comes from. I think in the meantime, she’s undergone lots of plastic surgery to fix her face and now she’s pretty gross. But back in 1993, she had hot, fuckable body.

If you happen to not know, Alyssa Milano is an actress mostly known from TV sitcom series, such as “Charmed” or “Who The Boss?”. Nothing I’d be interested in watching, but she’s one hot ass biootch. I think she had breast implants done when she was 20, which would mean these pictures already have fake tits in them. If those are silicones, then plastic surgeon did some fucking good job on them.

IF THE COLLECTORS WANT TO LOOK ALYSSA MILANO VINTAGE ARTPHOTOGRAPHY PLASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL UPLOAD HER VINTAGE ARTPHOTO PICTURES

 

Hairstyle with Smoothly Angled Sides

Alyssa Milano at the “2 B Free’s Spring 2006 Collection” event on October 15th 2005 in Hollywood.
 

Moving closer to the present Alyssa could be wigging it for the day. Either way, her hair has layers about two inches from the bottom. The sides are smoothly angled to frame her face. The most important tip for this smooth look is not to forget that smoothing lotion for your ends.
 Actress Alyssa Milano was born on December 19th 1972 in Brooklyn, New York. She is well known for her role as Phoebe Halliwell in the series Charmed and Samantha Micelli in the sitcom Who’s the Boss?.
 

(Click to enlarge)

The brunette beauty with deep brown eyes and a light to tanned complexion can wear extreme short haircuts or feminine long hairstyles with luscious waves. Her style includes it all and she can play with looks to her hearts content. Since her face is heart shaped with expressive cheekbones and a wide forehead she should avoid styles that have their volume around the crown and upper face area. In her clothing she prefers a casual to elegant style and looks best in natural, earthy colors, greens, yellows and the palette of a tropical sunset.

 

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Alyssa Milano Hairstyles

Try on Alyssa Milano hairstyles. We provide easy “How to style” tips as well as letting you know which hairstyles will match your face shape, hair texture and hair density.

·         Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

 

 

This fantastic upstyle is curled and pinned to the back of the head to form this spectacular ‘do which is great for any special occasion and can be easily re-created with the right tools and products. This look is best suited for those with round face shapes.

Styling Time: 30+ minutes

·         Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

 

This stunning bob is cut to sit under the jaw-line with wispy layers cut through the front to frame front of the face. This simple yet sexy bob is great for those with round face shapes and easy to maintain with regular trims. Highlights are added all over for contrast and completes this style perfectly.

Styling Time: 30 minutes

·         Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

This classic look sit perfectly on the shoulders showing the blunt cut length with long subtle layers cut through the front for a brilliant finish to a simple style. This look is best suited for those with round face shapes and will need regular trims to maintain style.

Styling Time: 30 minutes

·         Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

This splendid ‘do falls over the shoulder to show off the gorgeous length and long layers which creates soft movement through the mid-lengths to ends. The middle part in this long hairstyle makes it perfect for those with round face shapes.

Styling Time: 30 minutes

·         Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

We love this pixie look; it’s fresh and cute and looks a treat on Alyssa. The hair has been cut with lots of wispy short layers to frame the face and accentuate Alyssa’s striking features. This style is a super option for oval face shapes and will flatter smaller features.

 

 

Alyssa Milano is wearing her hair in a simple sleek straight hairstyle, with her front strands tucked behind her ears while attending the world premiere of Walt Disney’s ‘Beverly Hills Chihuahua’ held at The El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California.

 

Alyssa Milano Hairstyle

 

 

 

 

 

Description

This fantastic upstyle is curled and pinned to the back of the head to form this spectacular ‘do which is great for any special occasion and can be easily re-created with the right tools and products. This look is best suited for those with round face shapes.

Type

  • Hair Category: Formal
  • Hair Length: Updo Long
  • Hair Elasticity: Curly

Suitability

  • Gender: Women
  • Face Shape: Round, Oval, Heart, and Triangular
  • Hair Density: Thin/Medium
  • Hair Texture: Fine/Medium
  •  
  • Age: Under 21, 21 – 30, 31 – 40, and 41 – 50
  • Height: Any
  • Weight: Thin/Average/Large
  • Glasses: Suits with and without

Styling

  • Styling Time: 30+ minutes
  • Styling Tip: Allow up to 2 hours styling time for hot roller setting, teasing, pinning and spraying. This long lasting style is great for all occasions and all weather conditions.

 



Premiere Of Warner Bros. “Yes Man” – Arrivals


Chicago Cubs v Los Angeles Dodgers, Game 3


Entertainment Weekly’s 6th Annual Pre-Emmy Celebration – Arrivals


79th MLB All-Star Game


33 Club Party Presented By MLB.com


NBA All-Star Pre-Game and Halftime Performances

 
NBA All-Star Saturday Night Celebrities & Performances


MAGIC Day 3


In Style Magazine And Warner Bros. Studios Golden Globe After Party


MAGIC Convention in Las Vegas – Day Two


Universal Pictures Premiere Of “The Break Up” – Arrivals


Maxim Magazine Hosts The 7th Annual Hot 100 Party

 

Alyssa Milano with Very Long Beautiful Highlighted Hair

Alyssa Milano (37) let her hair grow out for several years since her popular pixie (2003). Did it take seven years to grow this long? She hasn’t been tempted yet to return to that cut–despite its renewed popularity in 2010.

 

 
 
 

A medium hair style is the best when it accentuates facial features, lays just right and has lots of shine. All three of the medium hair styles below have these features. Sandra Bullock is the first styls. She has very long layers combined with long side swept bangs for a very shiny healthy hair style.

This style is a big favorite among women looking for a versatile medium length hair style. The ‘in your eyes’ bangs add a soft sexy look to this polished style.

The next 2 styles are worn by celebrities Scarlett Johansson and Alyssa Milano. These are not their current styles, rather they are styles from several years ago.

Charlize Theron has changed her hair style many times for various movie roles. This style features a medium length cut with very long, somewhat choppy layers. You can create the piecey look with this hair style by applying a small amount of pomade or wax to the ends of the layers. Use your fingertips to apply the pomade and be careful not to apply too much.

 

Alyssa Milano probably hasn’t worn this medium length hair style in forever. It is a simple, yet classy take on the bob hair style. The style features a deep side part with all one length blunt ends. Extra shine and highlights can make this style a big hit.

VINTAGE PICTURE

 

 

Original Vintage Photo~Alyssa Milano 8×10

 

Alyssa Milano Is All Grown Up—and in a Lather Over Fiancé Scott Wolf

 

Alyssa Milano-Phoebe

 

Alyssa Milano-Mermaid

 

Celebrity Bride Alyssa Milano

 

Alissa Milano – Charmed

 

 

Alyssa Milano, From Tomboy Child

 

Alyssa Milano as Jenny Matrix in Commando (1985)

Check out the awesome ’80s hair and duds Milano sported in the Arnold Schwarzenegger action vehicle Commando. Milano (natch) played Arnold’s kidnapped daughter Jenny.

 

 

 

Alysson Milano before Famous

 

 

ALYSSA MILANO Portrait WHOS THE BOSS VINTAGE PHOTO

 

Alyssa Milano  Tape

 

Alyssa Milano video

 

Alyssa Milano Is A Cheap Tweep!

 

 

Alyssa Milano Do Something Awards 2010

 

Celebrity Alyssa Milano Latest Hairstyle Picture Alyssa Milano Celebrity Alyssa Milano Latest Shoulder Length Hairstyle Picture Alyssa Milano Celebrity…

 

Alyssa Milano has getting hitch

 

 

THE Picture Collections

 

   
     
     

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Showing off her growing bump, Alyssa Milano made her arrival on the set of the new tv show, “Breaking In” on Tuesday, March 1st, 2011 in Los Angeles, California. She was seen making trips from her trailer to the nearby hair and make up stations.

Milano looked comfy in her bathrobe before changing into an all black ensemble, puffy jacket, and Uggs. Gotta be a stylish momma to be right?

The photo agency is claiming the girl in the blue coat is actress Mandy Moore but I’ve looked over the pictures over and over and it looks more like a Milano/Moore hybrid. My guess is that Milano’s character is not meant to be pregnant and this is her stand in. Though I could be totally wrong!

The Happy Madison production follows a high tech security firm that takes extreme, and often questionable, measures to sell their protection services. It stars Bret Harrison, Odette Yustman, and Christian Slater. Milano will star as the character Oz’s (Slater) ex wife.

Breaking In is set to air on the Fox Network on April 6th, 2011.

 

 

 Alyssa Milano

 

Alyssa Milano

Actor Information
Name Alyssa Jayne Milano
Birthplace Brooklyn, New York, USA
Birth date December 19th, 1972
Portrayed Phoebe Halliwell
Season Season 1 to 8
Episode(s) 178 Episodes
.

Alyssa Milano (born December 19, 1972 in Brooklyn, New York) portrayed Phoebe Halliwell throughout the entire television series, except in the unaired Season 1 premiere.

She also portrayed Pearl Russell in Season 2 as well as the characters that also had her appearance at one time, including Marshall, Paige Matthews, Cole Turner, Kaia, Mitzy Stillman, Imara and Phoenix

Biography

 

Alyssa Milano and the Book of Shadows.

Alyssa Milano is the daughter of Italian-American parents Lin, a fashion designer, and Tom M. Milano, a film music editor and boating enthusiast. She has a younger brother, Cory (born in 1982), who is also an actor. Alyssa was born in a working class neighborhood in Brooklyn and grew up in a modest house on Staten Island. One day, her babysitter, who was an aspiring dancer, dragged Alyssa along to a an open audition for the first national tour of Annie. But it was Alyssa, not the sitter, who beat out 1,500 other wanna be stage actresses to snag a role. So at the tender age of seven, with her mother in tow, Alyssa joined the tour as July, one of the orphans. After 18 months on the road, Alyssa, who had begun to garner a reputation as an energetic and charismatic young actress, left Annie to be featured in off-Broadway productions and television commercials. Then, in 1983 at age 10, she landed her breakthrough role on the new sitcom “Who’s the Boss?” (1984) as Tony Danza’s saccharine sweet daughter, Samantha Micelli, a kid whose native Brooklyn accent rivaled her TV dad’s. In order for Alyssa to accept the gig, the Milano family had to uproot and move 3,000 miles to Hollywood

 

 

 

Career

Film

  • Old Enough (1984)
  • Commando (1985)
  • Canterville Ghost, TheThe Canterville Ghost (1986)
  • Crash Course (1988)
  • Dance ’til Dawn (1988)
  • Speed Zone! (1989)
  • Little Sister (1992)
  • Where the Day Takes You (1992)
  • The Webbers (1993)
  • Conflict of Interest (1993)
  • Casualties of Love: The Long Island Lolita Story (1993)
  • Candles in the Dark (1993)
  • Confessions of a Sorority Girl (1994)
  • Double Dragon (1994)
  • Deadly Sins (1995)
  • Embrace of the Vampire (1995)
  • The Surrogate (1995)
  • Jimmy Zip (1996)
  • Poison Ivy 2: Lily (1996)
  • Fear (1996)
  • Glory Daze (1996)
  • To Brave Alaska (1996)
  • Public Enemies (1996)
  • Below Utopia (1997)
  • Hugo Pool (1997)
  • Goldrush: A Real Life Alaskan Adventure (1998)
  • Lady and the Tramp II: Scamp’s Adventure (2001)
  • Diamond Hunters (2001)
  • Buying the Cow (2002)
  • Kiss the Bride (2002)
  • Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star (2003)
  • Dinotopia: Quest for the Ruby Sunstone (2005)
  • The Blue Hour (2007)
  • Wisegal (2008)
  • Pathology (2008)
  • DC Showcase: The Spectre (2010)
  • My Girlfriend’s Boyfriend (2010)
  • Sundays at Tiffany’s (2010)
  • Hall Pass (2011)
  • New Year’s Eve (2011)
  • Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked (2011)
  • Young Justice (2011)

Television

Regular

  • Who’s the Boss? (1984-1992)
  • Melrose Place (1997-98)
  • Charmed (1998-2006)
  • Reinventing the Wheelers (2007)
  • My Name Is Earl (2007-2008)
  • Single with Parents (2008)
  • Romantically Challenged (2010)
  • Kick Buttowski: Suburban Daredevil (2010-present)

Guest

  • Jem (1985)
  • Living Dolls (1989)
  • Série rose (1990)
  • The American Film Institute Presents: TV or Not TV? (1990)
  • The Outer Limits (1995)
  • Spin City (1997)
  • Fantasy Island (1998)
  • Family Guy (2001)
  • Spin City (2001)
  • Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius (2004)
  • Castle (2010)
  • Breaking In (2011)

Music

Studio albums

  • Look in My Heart (1989)
  • Alyssa (1989)
  • Locked Inside a Dream (1991)
  • Do You See Me? (1992)

Compilations

  • The Best in the World: Non-Stop Special Remix/Alyssa’s Singles (1995)
  • The Very Best of Alyssa Milano (1995)

Singles

  • “What a Feeling” (1989)
  • “Look In My Heart” (1989)
  • “Straight to the Top” (1989)
  • “I Had a Dream” (1989)
  • “Happiness” (1989)
  • “The Best in the World” (1990)
  • “I Love When We’re Together” (1990)
  • “New Sensation” (1991)
  • “Voices That Care” (1991)
  • “Do You See Me?” (1992)
  • “No Secret” (1993)

Personal Life

 

Alyssa and her husband David

Alyssa Milano has had a Dyslexia Disorder ever since she was in elementary school.

 In 2004 Milano came out and explained in a interview how she had learned to deal and work with her disorder:

“I’ve stumbled over words while reading from teleprompters. Sir John Gielgud, whom I worked with on The Canterville Ghost years ago, gave me great advice. When I asked how he memorized his monologues, he said, ‘I write them down.’ I use that method to this day. It not only familiarizes me with the words, it makes them my own.”

Milano has always been a huge fan of the Los Angeles Dodgers. In 2007 she created her own signature “Touch” line of team apparel for female baseball fans, currently available on Major League Baseball’s website, along with her own baseball blog, which began selling in 2009, through a boutique store located in Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets. She has an interest in the Los Angeles Kings, a National Hockey League team and is involved with a related clothing line. In 2008, she expanded that to NFL football, as a New York Giants fan. Since Milano is in the same hometown as NFL Network’s Rich Eisen (Staten Island), she revealed some of her family’s connections with the New York Giants while she picked the winners of NFL games for week 7 of 2008.

Milano has a collection of 8 tattoos on her body:

  • The rosary tattoo placed on her right shoulder blade shows this deep devotion for her religion.
  • The tattoo on her neck is a variation of the Bhuddist symbol for HUM and can be interpreted as a symbol for depth of wisdom and unity
  • The left wrist is the Buddhist symbol for Om which is used in many religious chants and symbolizes the essence of the universe
  • The right wrist contains a tattoo of an ouroboros, a snake biting it’s own tale that represents the circular flow of things including death and rebirth
  • On her left ankle she has an angel, which also has the initials of an ex flame
  • On her right ankle is a wraparound chain of roses, red petals and green leaves
  • Her other tattoos consist of a kneeling fairy with grass and flowers on her lower stomach
  • and Her lower back region has a sacred heart which symbolizes a zeal for life and love

Milano is a vegetarian and appears in numerous PETA advertising campaigns for vegetarianism. Outside of acting, her hobbies include photography, humanitarian work, and spending time with her three dogs and eight horses.

In 2005, she was ranked #5 in the “50 Cutest Child Stars — All Grown Up”.

Milano starded dating with the lead singer of Remy Zero, Cinjun Tate in August 1998. They were briefly married from 1 January 1999, but seperated in November 1999; they were divorced later in 2000.

She briefly dated Justin Timberlake in 2002. She has dated a number of professional athletes, including Brad Penny, Carl Pavano, Barry Zito and Russell Martin. She is currently married to CAA agent David Bugliari; the couple started dating in December 2007 and became engaged on December 18, 2008, after more than a year of dating. The couple were married on August 15, 2009 in an Italian, garden-themed ceremony at her parents’ New Jersey estate. On February 22, 2011, it was announced Milano and Bugliari are expecting their first child. Alyssa has tweeted three times about this, both from Alyssa_Milano and AlyssaDotCom:

  • I’m obsessed with my belly. I can’t stop touching it.
  • Me: I hope our baby has your eyes & athleticism. Him: I hope our baby has your nose & Internet surfing skills.

On March 14, Milano announced that she is expecting a baby boy. http://alyssa.com/ She is due around mid September 2011.

On August 31, 2011 at 9:27 a.m., Milano gave birth to her son Milo Thomas Bugliari. He weighed 7 lbs., and was 19 inches long. On his names she stated:

“Milo was named after his two grandfathers, Miller and Thomas,” she said. Milano considers the two to be “very important” in her life.

 

 

Trivia

Alyssa at one of her Touch stores

  • Alyssa has dyslexia
  • Alyssa is a Roman Catholic.
  • Alyssa is 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) tall.
  • Alyssa loves Baseball but hated the fact that there was no baseball clothing for women. This is the reason behind her own clothing line Touch by Alyssa Milano.
  • Ariel, the Little Mermaid’s appearance was based on Alyssa Milano, who was 16 at the time.
  • She is a big fan of the LA Dodgers.
  • Alyssa is a big supporter of “Trick or Treat for UNICEF”.
  • Alyssa is a big supporter of PETA.
  • Alyssa is a vegetarian and supports it openly.
  • Her pets:-4 dogs – Lucy, Ripley, Hugo and Stella and 4 cats – Simon, Lucy, Daisy and Miles.
  • Her favorite color is red.
  • Both Alyssa and Holly married a David.
  • Dated Charmed Co-stars Brian Krause and Eric Dane.
  • Is the cousin of both Eric Lloyd and Emily Ann Lloyd.
  • Milano said she cried for two weeks after Charmed ended.
  • She is a big part of the “Help to cure AIDS” in Africa.
  • She has a best-selling exercise video in 1988 called Teen Steam.
  • Holly Marie Combs and Shannen Doherty were her bridesmaids at her wedding to Cinjun August Tate.
  • Alyssa is allergic to soy products.
  • Alyssa and Holly Combs are close friends.

 

Alyssa as Snooki

  • Alyssa Milano and Rose McGowan were both mentioned in Veronica Mars. Alyssa in season 1, Rose in season 3.
  • Alyssa states in “The Women of Charmed’ interview that Aaron Spelling called her while she was in Hawaii and asked her to be Phoebe which of course, she gladly accepted.
  • She follows all of the three other main Charmed co-stars on Twitter.
  • Alyssa and Shannen Doherty were both cast in two of Aaron Spelling’s famous TV Teen Soaps, Shannen on Beverly Hills 90210 and Alyssa on Melrose Place. Ironically, Melrose Place is a spin-off of Beverly Hills 90210.
  • Alyssa is extremely turned off by the MTV series Jersey Shore and it’s misrepresentation of Italian-American people & residents of New Jersey, she has been called the “fearless leader” of those against the show. In December 2009, in association with the website FunnyorDie.com, Alyssa created a video where she is transformed into Snooki, showing how Italians and New Jerseyans are misrepresented in the series. Alyssa has said: “My husband actually showed me the trailer on YouTube last night, and I got upset. It upset me. I was like, ‘Turn that off!’ So no, I don’t think I’ll be watching that!'”. [1]
  • In 2010, Alyssa became a spokesperson for Wen by Chaz Dean; a hair care system to prolong hair color.

The end@copyright 2012

THE END @ COPYRIGHT 2012

The Chinese Jin Tartar,Liao and Xia dynasty History Collections

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE ONE WITH FULL ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT.

The  Chinese  History collections

Part One(6)

Jin Tartar , Liao And Xin Dynasty

 

the tartar warrior painting

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

FORWARD

I have collecting china numismatic including coins and papermoney from ancient to modern era almost 50 years, and starting to study the collections in 25 years.

At first very difficult because during President Suharto era 1966-1998 forbidden to read and collected Chinese literatures but the china numismatic could found easily with cheapest price until 1988 after the open diplomatic relationship between Indonesia and China I can found a little informations.

Since the President Gus Dur Era the Chinese overseas origin or Tionghoa ethnic became the Indonesian Ethnic nationality in the years 2000 I can found some informations and I could study in legal.but the collection very difficult to find because many chese nationality visit Indonesia and they swept all the Chinese numismatic collections.

I am starting to study the Chinese Cast coin almost 50 years, and this the report of the study consist several part.

jin emperor

This Jin Tartar Era cast coin very difficult to found in Indonesia and another country because the situations,

rare jin dynasty coin Da Ding or Ta ching  tong Bao

 and also another art work collections like

jin dynasty ceramic,

painting etc.

I hope this study can help the collectors and the scholar for their research,because this study still not complete which need more info,comment and corrections

Jakarta Mei 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

WHY NOTHER SUNG MOVER TO THE SOUTH?

THIS THE ANWERE

Invasion from the North During The Song Dynasty

 

Northern Invasion

Song Dynasty were endlessly to get the attack from the North since its inception. Liao, Xi Xia, and Jin are the three main threats faced.
Liao
 
The first time was known as the Khitan, Liao is a nomadic ethnic minorities appeared in the East China Sea. They live at the upper end of the Liao River. During the Late Tang and Five Dynasties, Yelu Abaoji circumcision tribe unite and declare himself emperor.
 
Year 927 AD, Son Abaoji, Yelu Deguang, took the throne and control of 16 prefectures in the North Yanmen Pass and with the help of Jin Shi Jingtang establish End. This marks the beginning of the Liao forces entered the Central Plains. Year 947 AD, Yelu Deguang change the Liao dynasty title.
 
To restore the lost territory in the North, Emperor Taizong of Song launched two punitive expedition but were confronted by army troops Song Liao. Since then, the Song Dynasty Liao did not dare to attack again. Year 1004 AD, Liao troops attacked the Central Plains. Song forces defeat the attackers, but approved the peace treaty with the Liao, where Song had to give 100,000 taels of silver and 200,000 rolls of silk to the Liao each year. Song emperor made fraternity and had to call the emperor of Liao woman as her aunt.

Xixia

Western Xia was a descendant of the People’s etnisyang group called Dangxiang. They established the kingdom in the region located in the North and Saanxi Ningxia, northwestern Gansu, Qinghai, northeastern, and western Inner Mongolia.

When the Western Xia managed to increase strength and power, he began attacking the Chinese border. However, the Xia was not successful because of the successful defense of officials such as Han Qi Song and Fan Zhongyan. Year 1004 AD, Song and Xia make a deal in which Xia Song acknowledges fellowship. Meanwhile, Song will give Xia 7200 taels of silver, 153,000 rolls of silk, and 30,000 every year the pound.

Jin

Jurchen nation is a tribe that is active in the northeast part of China. Year 1115 AD, Wanyan Aguda declared themselves as kasiar and use the title of the Jin Dynasty. In the history he became known as the Emperor Taizu from Jin. In 1125 AD, Jin army defeated the Liao and Song began eyeing the vast region.

In 1125 AD, Jin Song menyeran territory and launch attacks into the capital Bianjing. Song regimes seek peace with Jin, and Song agreed to greet the emperor emperor In as her uncle, gave Taiyuan, Zhongsan, and Hejian and offers 60,000 taels of gold and silver at Jin.

Year 1127 AD, Jin troops back toward the south and capture the Emperor Huizong and Qinzong along with 3,000 members of the royal family. In this history known as the “Disaster Jinkang.” As a result the Northern Song Period ends.

Song and Jin Negotiating Peace

After the disaster Jinkang, Emperor Gaozong make new capital Lin’an, started the Southern Song period. Jin began attacking troops continue into Song territory. Therefore, the Southern Song divided into supporters of the peace talks and support the defense.

General Yue Fei

General Yue Fei’s most famous fortifications. Yue Fei was a native of Xiangzhou tangyin. Yue Fei studied literature and martial arts in childhood. He became a skilled martial arts as adults. In 1112 AD, he entered the army, his mother tattooed his back with a four-letter “jing zhong bao guo” “Pay the State with the highest fidelity.” Yue have never failed to carry these words during his life.

yue fei when tattooed by his motherYue Fei was appointed commissioner in charge Tongtai recruit former rebels and the generals who solve their own problem. Forces Yue Fei is known for his application of strict military discipline. Whenever they arrived in the village, they will be camping on the roadside.

Yue troops have been many great win over Jin and managed to regain the lost territory. Jin troops are very scared to hear the name of Yue Fei and agree that “It’s easier than shaking the troops move mountains Yue Fei.”

In the year 1140 AD, Yue Fei’s forces defeat Jin forces by cutting off their hooves. Yue troops win battles one by one and reach a town called Zhuxianzhen. Yue Fei then immediately ordered his troops to immediately attack the capital of Jin in Huanglongfu (yellow dragon palace). When Yue Fei and other general anti Jin pertemnpuran fight against the enemy in a bloody, Prime Minister Qin Hui peace plan proposed by Jin and asked the Emperor Gaozong interesting Yue Fei with 12 orders issued royal succession. Qin Hui and then make false accusations and plans to kill Yue Fei.

Year 1142 AD, Song and Jin negotiate. Song became the State of Jin. Song had to pay 250,000 taels of silver and 250,000 rolls of silk in Jin every year. In 1162 AD, the Emperor Xiaozong seized power and sent an expedition to the North. Song and Jin negotiate once again. Emperor Jin Song should greet the Emperor as his young uncle. In 1206 AD, Song forces were attacked once again, the Song and Jin negotiate peace a third time. This time the Emperor had to call the emperor’s Song Jin as his old uncle.

 
READ MORE INFORMATIONS

 

LIAO DYNASTY, AD 907-1125

LIAO DYNASTY VESSEL

The Liao were a Tartar Dynasty known as the Ch’i-tan or Ki-tan Tartars, first established by T’ai Tsu in AD 907 during the period of the 5 dynasties. The dynasty lasted for 218 years until AD 1125, ruling from their capital at Beijing. For most of their existence they existed along side the Northern Sung Dynasty, in what appears to be somewhat less than peaceful co-existance.

The first Emperor of Liao did not issue any coins. There were five Emperors between AD 907 and 1031 who issued coins, but only a handful of each type is known to exist and it is unlikely any genuine examples will come on the market. We have not listed them here as it is unlikely anyone viewing this site to identify a coin will have one, but you will find information on them on page 216 of David Hartill’s book CAST CHINESE COINS. Schjoth (page 41) notes a record of the Liang Dynasty Emperor Mo, using the reign title Lung-te, issuing large numbers of coins during this period, which are likely what circulated in the Liao region for what little need the Liao people had of coins at that time.

The earliest readily available coins of Liao begin with the Emperor Hsing Tsung during his second reign title of Ch’ung Hsi after he established the first Liao central mint in Manchuria in AD 1053. The mint was not particularly skilled and most Liao coins are fairly crude, poor quality castings.

There are some differences in the dating of the Liao reign titles by Schjoth and Hartill, and we have chosen to use those given by Hartill as it is much more recent and almost certainly more reliable research.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 265 AD-581

AD Western and Eastern Jin Dynasty Emperors

       

Sima Yan

Sima Rui

Fu Jian

Sima Dewen

 

the Chin or Jin Dynasty

 (1115 – 1234 AD)

The Jin Dynasty was founded by

 

Wanyan Aguda

in Northern Manchuria.

The Jin conquered Northen China by conquering the Liao and defeating the Song Dynasty.

Liao and Song coins were used early on the Jin rule.

 In 1158,

Read more about Jin Dynasty

   

金朝 The Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchen

 

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda in 1115.

The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty,

 which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries.

 In 1121,

the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia.

 In 1125,

 after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China.

On January 9, 1127,

Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces.

Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cession of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of

 

Song General Yue Fei

 

in return for peace.

 

Invasion from the North During The Song Dynasty

Northern Invasion

Song Dynasty were endlessly to get the attack from the North since its inception. Liao, Xi Xia, and Jin are the three main threats faced.

 

 

Liao

Lioa first emperor

 

The first time was known as the Khitan, Liao is a nomadic ethnic minorities appeared in the East China Sea. They live at the upper end of

 

the Liao River. During the Late Tang and Five Dynasties,

Liao River ,Liao He Guide

The Liao River is the principal river in southern Manchuria (1,345 km).

 

 

The province of Liaoning

And

 

 

 the Liaodong Peninsula derive their name from the river.

The Liao River originates as two stems in the west:

 

the Laoha He in southeastern Inner Mongolia,

 

 the Xinkai He (dry in its upper reaches except after thunderstorms) further north, and

 

 

 the Hulin He (which almost never reaches the main stem of the river) in the extreme northwest of Liaoning. The eastern stem of the river is known as

 

 the DongLiao River and rises in low mountains in central Liaoning. The two stems of the river meet

 

 

near the junction of Liaoning, Jilin and Inner Mongolia and flow across a vast plain to

 

 the Bohai Gulf.

 

Two major tributaries of the river,

 

the Hun He (“muddy river”)

 

and the Taizi He, both of which flow down from the

 

 

 Qianshan range, used to flow into the Liao River shortly before it flowed into the sea, but the Atlas of China (Beijing, Sinomaps Press, 2006) shows that while the two tributaries continue to follow their traditional route and flow into the sea at what this atlas still identifies as

 

 the “Liao River Kou”, the mouth of the Liao River, virtually all of the water of the Liao River has been diverted into

 

 the ShuangTaizi He, which flows into

 

 

Bohai Gulf about 35 kilometers to the northwest. Google Earth also shows this new pattern.

 

Several major cities are located on the Hun He, including

 

Shenyang, the provincial capital,

 

 

Fushun, farther upstream, and

 

 

Yingkou at the mouth.

 

 

Anshan is located on the southeastern edge of the basin.

The Liao River drains an area of over 232,000 square kilometres, but its mean discharge is quite small at only about 500 cubic metres per second – about one-twentieth that of

 

 

 the Pearl River.

Like the Huang He, the Liao River has an exceedingly high sediment load because many parts of it flow through powdery loess.

 

 

Yelu Abaoji circumcision tribe unite and declare himself emperor

.

Emperor Taizu of Liao – The First Emperor of the Liao Dynasty

The Emperor Taizu of Liao (辽太祖) was the first emperor of the Liao Dynasty (907-926). His given name was Abaoji (阿保机). Some sources also suggest that the surname Yelü (耶律) was adopted during his lifetime, though there is no unanimity on this point.

He was born in 872 and died in 926 in China. He had a turbulent childhood. His grandfather was killed in a conflict between tribes, and his father and uncles fled. Yelü Abaoji was hidden by his grandmother for his safety.

 

Year 927 AD,

 Son Abaoji, Yelu Deguang, took the throne and control of 16 prefectures in the North Yanmen Pass and with the help of

 

 

Jin Shi Jingtang establish End.

This marks the beginning of the Liao forces entered the Central Plains.

 

Year 947 AD,

Yelu Deguang change the Liao dynasty title

 

Emperor Xingzong of Liao – Emperor of the Liao Dynasty

 

Emperor Xingzong of Liao (辽兴宗) (1015–1054), born Yelv Zongzhen (耶律宗真), was an emperor of the Liao Dynasty. He reigned from 1031 to 1054.

Xingzong was the eldest son of Shenzong, and was made Prince in 1021 when he was six years old. He was crowned emperor when Shenzong died in 1031.

Xingzong’s reign was the beginning of the end for the Liao Dynasty. The government was corrupt and the army stated to fall apart. He attacked the Western Xia dynasty many times, and waged war upon the Song dynasty. However, the frequent wars were not looked kindly upon by his people, and there were much anger among them for the high taxes. Xingzong was also into Buddhism and spent lavishly for his own pleasure. He died in 1054.

 

.

 

To restore the lost territory in the North,

 

Emperor Taizong of Song launched two punitive expedition but were confronted by

 

army troops Song Liao.

 

Since then, the Song Dynasty Liao did not dare to attack again.

 Year 1004 AD,

Liao troops attacked the Central Plains. Song forces defeat the attackers, but approved the peace treaty with the Liao, where Song had to give

 

 

 

 

 

 

 100,000 taels of silver

 

and

 

200,000 roll of song silk to the Liao each year. Song emperor made fraternity and had to call

 

the emperor of Liao woman as her aunt.

Xixia

 

Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia – The First Emperor of the Western Xia

 

Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia – The Last Emperor of Western Xia



Western Xia was a descendant of the People’s etnis yang group called Dangxiang. They established the kingdom in the region located in the North and Saanxi Ningxia,

 

northwestern Gansu,

 

 

Qinghai,

 

northeastern, and

 

western Inner Mongolia.

When the Western Xia managed to increase strength and power, he began attacking the Chinese border. However, the Xia was not successful because of

 

 the successful defense of officials such as Han Qi Song and Fan Zhongyan.

 

Year 1004 AD,

 Song and Xia make a deal in which Xia Song acknowledges fellowship. Meanwhile, Song will give Xia 7200 taels of silver, 153,000 rolls of silk, and 30,000 every year the pound.

Jin

Jurchen nation is a tribe that is active in the northeast part of China.

Year 1115 AD,

 

Wanyan Aguda declared themselves as kasiar and use the title of the Jin Dynasty. In the history he became known as the Emperor Taizu from Jin.

 In 1125 AD,

 Jin army defeated the Liao and Song began eyeing the vast region.

 

In 1125 AD, Jin Song attacked  territory and launch attacks into

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 the capital Bianjing.

 

Song regimes seek peace with Jin, and Song agreed to greet the emperor emperor In as her uncle, gave

 

Taiyuan,

 

Zhongsan, and

 

Hejian

and offers 60,000

 

Results 1-25 of 724  

   
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Han Dynasty (BC 206-220 AD): Gold “Ban-Liang”, 23mm, 7.6g (Ding p.49 for type). About very fine. Estimate: US$200-250

Price: 1600 USD
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Wang Mang (7-23 AD): Gold “Huo Quan”, 22mm, 7.6g (Ding p.55 for type). Fine. Estimate: US$200-250

Price: 1100 USD
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Northern Song (960-1127 AD): Gold “Sheng Song Yuan Bao” in seal script, 24mm, 7.8g (Ding p.95 for type). About very fine. Estimate: US$200-250

Price: 1600 USD
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Burial Coins : Gold Uniface Burial Coins (2): “Da Tang Tong Bao”, 42mm, 2.4g; “Zhi Ping Tong Bao”, 25mm, 0.8g. Both good fine. (2pcs) Estimate: US$250-300

Price: n/a
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Burial Coins : Gold Uniface Burial Coins (2): “Song Yuan Tong Bao”, 41mm, 2.5g; “Da Guan Tong Bao”, 42mm, 3.4g. Both about very fine. (2pcs) Estimate: US$250-300

Price: n/a
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Burial Coins : Gold Burial Coin, 21mm, 2.4g. Very fine. Estimate: US$150-180

Price: n/a
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Burial Coins : Gold Burial Coins (2), 5.8g and 6.2g, possibly Ming Dynasty. Both very fine with reddish brown encrustation. (2pcs) Estimate: US$500-600

Price: n/a
 
 
 
CHINA, ANCIENT CHINESE COINS, Gold Ornament : Gold Pendant, Obv two stylised characters, Rev two stylised characters, 22mm x 28mm, 5.0g. About extremely fine. Estimate: US$150-200

Price: 180 USD
 
 
     

 

song taels of gold and silver at Jin.

 

 

Year 1127 AD,

Jin troops back toward the south and capture

 

the Emperor Huizong and

 

 Qinzong

along with 3,000 members of the royal family. In this history known as

 

the “Disaster Jinkang.” As a result the Northern Song Period ends.

Read more info

Invasion from the North During The Song Dynasty

Northern Invasion

Song Dynasty were endlessly to get the attack from the North since its inception. Liao, Xi Xia, and Jin are the three main threats faced.

 

 

 

Liao

 

The first time was known as the Khitan, Liao is a nomadic ethnic minorities appeared in the East China Sea. They live at the upper end of the Liao River. During the Late Tang and Five Dynasties, Yelu Abaoji circumcision tribe unite and declare himself emperor.

 

Year 927 AD, Son Abaoji, Yelu Deguang, took the throne and control of 16 prefectures in the North Yanmen Pass and with the help of Jin Shi Jingtang establish End. This marks the beginning of the Liao forces entered the Central Plains. Year 947 AD, Yelu Deguang change the Liao dynasty title.

 

To restore the lost territory in the North, Emperor Taizong of Song launched two punitive expedition but were confronted by army troops Song Liao. Since then, the Song Dynasty Liao did not dare to attack again. Year 1004 AD, Liao troops attacked the Central Plains. Song forces defeat the attackers, but approved the peace treaty with the Liao, where Song had to give 100,000 taels of silver and 200,000 rolls of silk to the Liao each year. Song emperor made fraternity and had to call the emperor of Liao woman as her aunt.

Xixia

Western Xia was a descendant of the People’s etnisyang group called Dangxiang. They established the kingdom in the region located in the North and Saanxi Ningxia, northwestern Gansu, Qinghai, northeastern, and western Inner Mongolia.

When the Western Xia managed to increase strength and power, he began attacking the Chinese border. However, the Xia was not successful because of the successful defense of officials such as Han Qi Song and Fan Zhongyan. Year 1004 AD, Song and Xia make a deal in which Xia Song acknowledges fellowship. Meanwhile, Song will give Xia 7200 taels of silver, 153,000 rolls of silk, and 30,000 every year the pound.

Jin

Jurchen nation is a tribe that is active in the northeast part of China. Year 1115 AD, Wanyan Aguda declared themselves as kasiar and use the title of the Jin Dynasty. In the history he became known as the Emperor Taizu from Jin. In 1125 AD, Jin army defeated the Liao and Song began eyeing the vast region.

In 1125 AD, Jin Song menyeran territory and launch attacks into the capital Bianjing. Song regimes seek peace with Jin, and Song agreed to greet the emperor emperor In as her uncle, gave Taiyuan, Zhongsan, and Hejian and offers 60,000 taels of gold and silver at Jin.

Year 1127 AD, Jin troops back toward the south and capture the Emperor Huizong and Qinzong along with 3,000 members of the royal family. In this history known as the “Disaster Jinkang.” As a result the Northern Song Period ends.

Song and Jin Negotiating Peace

After the disaster Jinkang, Emperor Gaozong make new capital Lin’an, started the Southern Song period. Jin began attacking troops continue into Song territory. Therefore, the Southern Song divided into supporters of the peace talks and support the defense.

 

 

 

General Yue Fei
General Yue Fei’s most famous fortifications. Yue Fei was a native of Xiangzhou tangyin. Yue Fei studied literature and martial arts in childhood. He became a skilled martial arts as adults. In 1112 AD, he entered the army,

 

 his mother tattooed his back with a four-letter “jing zhong bao guo” “Pay the State with the highest fidelity.” Yue have never failed to carry these words during his life.

 

yue fei when tattooed by his mother

Yue Fei was appointed commissioner in charge Tongtai recruit former rebels and the generals who solve their own problem. Forces Yue Fei is known for his application of strict military discipline. Whenever they arrived in the village, they will be camping on the roadside.

Yue troops have been many great win over Jin and managed to regain the lost territory. Jin troops are very scared to hear the name of Yue Fei and agree that “It’s easier than shaking the troops move mountains Yue Fei.”

In the year 1140 AD,

Yue Fei’s forces defeat Jin forces by cutting off their hooves. Yue troops win battles one by one and reach a town called

 

Zhuxianzhen.

 Yue Fei then immediately ordered his troops to immediately attack

 

the capital of Jin in Huanglongfu (yellow dragon palace).

When Yue Fei and other general against Jin battles  fight against the enemy in a bloody,

 

Prime Minister Qin Hui

 peace plan proposed by Jin

 and asked

 

 

 

the Emperor Gaozong of Nothern song

interesting Yue Fei with 12 orders issued royal succession.

Qin Hui and then make false accusations and plans to kill Yue Fei.

Year 1142 AD,

Song and Jin negotiate. Song became the State of Jin. Song had to pay 250,000 taels of silver and 250,000 rolls of silk in Jin every year.

 

 

 

 In 1162 AD,

 

the Emperor Xiaozong

seized power and sent an expedition to the North. Song and Jin negotiate once again.

 

Emperor Jin Song should greet the Emperor as his young uncle.

 

In 1206 AD,

 

Song forces were attacked once again Jin, the Song and Jin negotiate peace a third time. This time the Emperor had to call the emperor’s Song Jin as his old uncle.
Song and Jin Negotiating Peace

 

After the disaster Jinkang, Emperor Gaozong make

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 new song  capital Lin’an,

started the Southern Song period. Jin began attacking troops continue into Song territory. Therefore, the Southern Song divided into supporters of the peace talks and support the defense.

 

 

General Yue Fei

General Yue Fei’s most famous fortifications. Yue Fei was a native of Xiangzhou tangyin. Yue Fei studied literature and martial arts in childhood. He became a skilled martial arts as adults. In 1112 AD, he entered the army, his mother tattooed his back with a four-letter “jing zhong bao guo” “Pay the State with the highest fidelity.” Yue have never failed to carry these words during his life.

 

yue fei when tattooed by his mother

Yue Fei was appointed commissioner in charge Tongtai recruit former rebels and the generals who solve their own problem. Forces Yue Fei is known for his application of strict military discipline. Whenever they arrived in the village, they will be camping on the roadside.

Yue troops have been many great win over Jin and managed to regain the lost territory. Jin troops are very scared to hear the name of Yue Fei and agree that “It’s easier than shaking the troops move mountains Yue Fei.”

In the year 1140 AD, Yue Fei’s forces defeat Jin forces by cutting off their hooves. Yue troops win battles one by one and reach a town called Zhuxianzhen. Yue Fei then immediately ordered his troops to immediately attack the capital of Jin in Huanglongfu (yellow dragon palace). When Yue Fei and other general anti Jin battle  fight against the enemy in a bloody, Prime Minister Qin Hui peace plan proposed by Jin and asked the Emperor Gaozong interesting Yue Fei with 12 orders issued royal succession. Qin Hui and then make false accusations and plans to kill Yue Fei.

Year 1142 AD, Song and Jin negotiate. Song became the State of Jin. Song had to pay 250,000 taels of silver and 250,000 rolls of silk in Jin every year. In 1162 AD, the Emperor Xiaozong seized power and sent an expedition to the North. Song and Jin negotiate once again. Emperor Jin Song should greet the Emperor as his young uncle. In 1206 AD, Song forces were attacked once again, the Song and Jin negotiate peace a third time. This time the Emperor had to call the emperor’s Song Jin as his old uncle.

 

 the Jin Dynasty made their own coins and

 

Chinese Jin Dynasty SILVER coins:Fu Chang Tong Bao 29mm*11g US $45.00

 

Zheng-Long Yuan-Bao Coin / China Jin Dynasty AD 1156 US $9.99

 

Zheng-Long Yuan-Bao Coin / China Jin Dynasty

 

Taihetongbao Coin Of Jin Dynasty

 

 

 

 later used coins,

 

 

 

 

Song note

 

ming note

notes and

silver.

Coins cast during this period were of superb quality and excellent calligraphy.

 

The Fu Chang Yuan Bao,

 

Fu Chang Tong Bao

and Fu Chang Zhong Bao

 were three of the finest Jin coins. They were minted during the puppet regime of Emperor Liu Yu who used

 

“Fu Chang” as his period title.  

Casting coins became unprofitable when inflation starts to hit the Jin Dynasty economy.

 

Jin Dynasty Silver Coin”Fu Chang Yuan Bao” $34.00

 

Mints were closed down and coin production ceased for 30 years prior to the defeat of the Jin by the Mongols.

This coin still never found in Indonesia(Dr Iwan Notes)

Read more about Jin Dynasty

 

.

THE JIN DYNASTY

 

The Jīn Dynasty (1115–1234),

also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet. (Photo: Jade Ornament)

 

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda (完顏阿骨打) in 1115. The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty, which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. In 1121, the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia. In 1125, after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China. (Photo: A wooden Bodhisattva)

 

On January 9, 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace. (Photo: The Chengling Pagoda, Hebei, built 1161 – 1189AD Wikipedia)

The Fenyang Cemetery of Jin Dynasty

 

 

Kublai Khan (Emperor Shi Zu), the grandson of Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan, conquered the whole Chinese and established the Yuan Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE JIN TARTAR AND LIAO DYNASTY ART WORK COLLECTIONS

Ceramic

 

 

A fine and rare small ‘jun’ splashed tripod censer. Jin-Yuan dynasty.

the globular body with short wide neck and flat everted rim supported on three short cabriole legs, applied with a fine pale blue glaze liberally splashed with three copper-red blushes transmuting from misty purple to intense pinkish-red tone, later Japanese pierced white metal cover – 7.4cm., 2 7/8 in. Est. 60,000—80,000 GBP Lot Sold 91,250 GBP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

YUAN / JIN DYNASTY OLIVE-GLAZED GLOBULAR JAR

 Ammonite Impressed Decoration

China, 1115-1368 A.D.  

  

Of globular form with a transparent olive glaze and short rounded mouth rim, the shoulders with a

single incised line above a body with impressed intricate spiral ammonite motifs.

Ammonites were considered in early Chinese cultures to be symbols of good luck &

prosperity, enhancing the vitality, harmony, prosperity, and overall well-being of occupants

and visitors of a home.
11″ High

 

 

    

Henan Province, China, 1115–1234 A.D.

 

The Henan-type glazed stoneware jar with tapered globular body and trumpet-form rim, the shoulders

with spur appendages; the rich black “hare’s fur” type glaze with coffee-colored streaking and mottling

and incised patterns descending to attractive tear-drop dripping toward the base

7 1/4″ High

 

 

 

A Jin Dynasty Chun Vase

 

Genuine Ancient Glazed “Celadon Green” “Hun’ping” Funerary Urn/Spirit Jar (Rare!) 300 A.D.

CLASSIFICATION: Funeraru Urn.

ATTRIBUTION: Ancient China, Jin Dynasty (about 300 A.D.). Possibly an 18th or 19th Century Revival Imitative

SIZE/MEASUREMENTS:

Height: 318 millimeters (12 2/3 inches)

Diameter: 190 millimeters (7 2/3 inches) at belly; 100 millimeters (4 inches) at base.

CONDITION: Exceptional. Entirely intact except for the normal oxidation of the glaze and one ancient chip (repairable upon request). Otherwise just the normal potting blemishes associated with crude hand production; and assorted minor bumps and bruises consistent with wear due to ancient usage and then burial since ancient times. All quite normal for a 2,000 year old vessel.

DETAIL: Although it is probable that this specimen is much older, it is also possible that this piece might be a revivalist imitative produced for the European market of the 18th or 19th century. It is widely known that Chinese porcelain and other ceramic artwork was quite popular in Victorian Europe. Carrying Chinese porcelain from China to Europe was an industry for the seafaring mariners of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Entire fleets of sailing ships plied the trade, especially the Dutch and English. However in addition to porcelain, ancient Chinese ceramics were also extremely popular in Victorian Europe, where Chinese ceramic artwork was highly appreciated and in great demand.

Although the style of this specimen is very convincing and suggests it might indeed be of Jin Dynasty origin, a large portion of the antique/ancient Chinese ceramics in Europe date to the 18th or 19th century, so it is quite possible that this is an imitative revival piece. Judging by the style it is likely considerably older, but only a $1,000 thermoluminescence test would establish this conclusively (and even then the reliability and accuracy of such testing is still debated). So we’ll simply err on the side of being conservative and suggest that you consider it a revival piece, and if it is indeed older, so much the better. However whether an antique several centuries old, or an antiquity a few centuries older, this is a valuable and collectible piece of art.

This unusual green glaze jar belongs to a particular type of funerary vessel which was made during the Three Kingdoms and Western Jin dynasties. It is a wonderfully preserved specimen, with no significant blemishes other than the expected degradation of the glaze. This means that rather than being entirely glossy, some of the glaze has decomposed, and has lost its glossiness, and is rather powdery, or rough to the touch. Notwithstanding these blemishes (and a decomposing glaze is quite typical of ancient earthenware), it remains in wonderful condition! There’s a few very minor scratches and abrasions as can be seen in the images, but otherwise no damage aside from the normal little dings and bruises one would expect with an ancient earthenware vessel. As well there are the normal blemishes (warts, dimples, pimples and pits) one expects with earthenware fashioned and glazed by hand. There is one single chip – seemingly an ancient chip – which would probably never be noticed. If you look at the lowest tier of buildings, close examination will reveal that of the four structures, one is missing a roof support which was broken off. It’s a tiny little piece – there’s supposed to be one on each side of roof – and one is missing. We can repair it if requested.

Known as a “hun’ping”, or “spirit jar”, it is a funerary urn with a conventionally shaped body (much like a Han granary jar) topped by a configuration of tiered architectural elements, peoples, and animals. In some examples birds or other animals will dominate the theme. This particular piece as you can see depicts dozens of birds, lots of buildings and structures, as well as a ring of seated Buddha’s. The vessel type was generally limited to the area south of the Yangzi River corresponding to modern northern Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. The vessel type dates to the relatively short period of time from about 250 to 300 A.D. This magnificent example with olive-green celadon glaze covering the body possesses an extraordinarily rich assortment of modeled figures and architecture in a well-proportioned, tiered arrangement. Of particular interest is the row of Buddhas sitting in meditative postures around the waist of the vessel. These are among the earliest Buddhist images known in China.

The hun’ping reflects the southern tradition of “burial of the summoned soul.” Placed in a tomb together with armrests, banqueting tables, food, and drink, it was hoped that the soul of the deceased would return to reside in the urn, entering through the uppermost gate and building. The auspicious birds and the seated Buddhas represent mystical entities that could guide the soul to be reborn in paradise. If you would like to see some other examples of similar vessels, including one at the New York Metropolitan Museum, please click here, here, and here.

Of course, we are not trying to suggest that this piece is equivalent to these museum pieces. The glaze of this particular specimen is partly decomposed – glossy only in spots. The museum pieces here are simply extraordinary in their pristine condition – but of course they are priceless and unobtainable as well. Though clearly the celadon green glaze is partly decomposed or oxidized; most of the glaze remains intact. Furthermore, there are no significant chips, no breakage, no cracks, and no repairs. If you’d like an authentic ancient earthenware vase to proudly display, you could not go wrong with this one. It is solidly shaped, nicely featured, and nicely proportioned. Though not perfect, you could showcase this with great pride either at work home. Either way, it will certainly generate curiosity, envy, and you can be certain that outside a museum, you’ll never see another one.

HISTORY OF JIN DYNASTY CERAMICS: It was beginning with the the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD) that grave interiors were richly furnished with a wide variety of miniature objects, usually fashioned as replicas of actual possessions, animals, or buildings. Called “spirit goods”, these items were used as substitutes for valuable possessions, and were usually produced in ceramic and were glazed or colorfully painted. The wealthy elite’s increasing interest in elaborately furnished tombs led to the mass production of armies of ceramic figures made using molds. In the case of the royal burial of the sole Qin Emperor, a terra cotta army of 6,000 was produced in full size. Burial ceramics made during the Han dynasty were decorated with simple but colorful designs painted directly onto the unglazed fired pieces or with brown and green lead-based glazes that could be fired at low temperatures.

The period between the collapse of the Han Dynasty in 220 A.D. and the rise of the Sui and Tang Dynasties (starting in 589 A.D.) was characterized by the fragmentation of China and a prolonged power struggle. Together with the period of the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties, the “Three Kingdoms” together with “Southern” and the “Northern” Dynasties cover a period of three and one-half centuries during which, despite the chaotic conditions of the period, the ceramic industry developed rapidly and ceramic production flourished. By then, porcelain-making techniques in Southern China had been enhanced and the ceramics-making area and scale increasingly expanded with kiln sites spread throughout many provinces. Excavation of white porcelain objects from noble tombs shows that white porcelain was already in production in the Northern provinces, and its emergence paved the way for further development porcelain production in the coming Sui and Tang Dynasties.

There were many other notable advances in ceramic arts, including green-glazed stoneware, highly durable and often fashioned into bowls and jars. The discovery of what became known as “celadon glazing” was a major development during the period. Fine ash or ash mixed with clay was painted onto the vessel and after firing it turned pale green. This rare funerary urn belongs to this class of vessels. Potters of the era continued improving the quality of these early “celadon” wares both with respect to glaze color and in body clay. The production of glazed porcelain was a significant achievement in Chinese ceramic history. It was eventually exported as far as the Philippines and Egypt. Ceramic figurines produced during the period were notable for increased detail. The most profound influence on the art of the period (including ceramics) was the Buddhist religion which came from neighboring India. Objects imported from the Middle East and Central and West Asia also strongly influenced the period’s ceramic arts.

In spite of the political and social confusion of the period, major changes occurred in the spiritual life of the Chinese. Daoism, which had played a previously minor role in religious thought, was revitalized, and Buddhism reached the Chinese court from India and Tibet. The Buddhist notion of Bodhisattvas – compassionate beings who have delayed their own enlightenment in order to guide others along the right path – was integrated into existing beliefs, along with ideas of Buddhist heavens and symbols of worship. The quest for eternity gained great favor and people sought methods such as drinking mercury and other potions devised by alchemists to prolong their lives. These unsettled times were also a period of transition in the development of ceramics wares. The ‘proto-celadon’ wares described above were precursors to the renowned celadon wares of the Song dynasty (960-1279 A.D.). The increasing prominence of religion including Daoism and the emergence of Buddhism in China greatly expanded the design repertoire. Daoist Immortals, cosmological symbols and Buddhist guardians were all represented in ceramic forms. The replicas of humans and animals became more and more life-like, while images of the ‘unreal’ such as guardian spirits, became more and more imaginary and fanciful.

HISTORY OF THE JIN DYNASTY: The collapse of the Han dynasty was followed by nearly four centuries (220-589 A.D.) of relative anarchy. Petty kingdoms waged incessant warfare against one another. Unity was restored briefly in the early years of the Jin Dynasty (265-420 A.D.), but by 317 A.D. China again disintegrated into a succession of petty dynasties that was to last from 304 to 589 A.D. The Jin Dynasty followed the “Three Kingdoms” Period and preceded that of the “Southern” and “Northern” Dynasties. The Western Jin Dynasty (265-316 A.D.) was founded by Emperor Wu, and a brief period of unity followed the Jin conquest the Kingdom of Wu in 280 A.D. The entire country was united again for a brief interlude between the turbulent age of the Three Kingdoms and the devastating barbarian invasions.

For a short time, the government attempted important fiscal and political reforms, mainly intended to curb the power of the great families by regaining control of taxation and reducing the exorbitant rents that powerful landowners were extracting from the people. However the power of the great local families was never really broken, and they even continued to maintain their own private armies. Thus weakened and fragmented internally, ultimately the Jin Dynasty could meet the external challenge from the invasion of nomadic peoples after the devastating “War of the Eight Princes”. This devastating internal struggle occurred when the emperor divided the kingdom into 25 provinces, one for each son. The struggle between the 25 successors to the throne eventually distilled into a war between the eight strongest contenders.

These wars lasted a total of 16 years, killed hundreds of thousands of people and laid waste to many cities and towns. The consequences included a dislocated social economy, a paralyzed government, and an exhausted capacity to govern. Society became feudalistic, essentially controlled by great landowning families, each with hordes of serfs and their private armies. Nomandic groups like the Turks and the Avars, took advantage of the central government’s instability to attack the frontier. Their mounted archers easily outfought the less mobile Chinese forces. Crippled and fragmented, the country and the Jin Dynasty fell in 316 A.D. The remnants of the Jin court fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court near modern-day Nanjing, founding the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420 A.D.). Militaristic authorities and crises plagued the Eastern Jin court throughout its 104 years of existence. It survived several rebellions and usurpations. During this period and for another century to follow, China was divided into two different societies, northern and southern, with a proliferation of would-be dynasties.

Millions of Chinese peasants, led or herded by aristocrats, moved from nomadic-conquered northern China down south of the Yangtze River. The Eastern Jin was racked by revolts, court intrigues, and wars with the nomadic northern states. It did not have any more success than the Western Jin in controlling the power of huge landowners; it was at the mercy of powerful families, with government controlled by changing groups of aristocratic clans. Eventually the last emperor of the Dynasty, Emperor Gong, was installed in 419 A.D. His abdication a year later ushered in the turbulent “Southern Dynasty”. Meanwhile Northern China had been ruled by the “Sixteen Kingdoms” of the nomadic peoples. The conquest of the Northern Liang by the Norther Wei Dynasty in 439 A.D. ushered in the “Northern Dynasty”. A turbulent and fragmented society was to pervade for another 150 years until the ascendancy of the Sui Dynasty in 589 A.D. and the Tang Dynasty in 618 A.D.

HISTORY OF CHINESE CERAMICS: The first Chinese ceramics archaeologists have found date back more than 10,000 years. These were earthenware, which means they were made from clay and fired at the kind of low temperatures reached by a wood fire or simple oven. In China, most ceramics made before the Tang dynasty (600 A.D.) are earthenware. They may be glazed or unglazed, and are occasionally painted, often brightly colored. Stoneware ceramics are harder and less porous than earthenware and are fired at hotter temperatures-between 2100шF and 2400шF. At these high temperatures, the surface of the clay melts and becomes glassy. Although stoneware is usually waterproof, most stoneware ceramics are glazed for decoration. The glazes often contain ash, which allows the glaze to harden at stoneware temperatures.

During the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.) bronze metallurgy superceded ceramics as the favored art form of the ruling class. However both the ceramic and the bronze industries evolved into complex systems of production that were supported by the aristocracy. Decorative designs rich in symbolism were created first in bronze were then imitated in clay. Chinese burial customs included the tradition of placing clay replicas of material possessions, animals and people in the tomb to accompany the deceased and serve them in the next life. Although archaeological finds have revealed that glazed pottery was produced as early as 1100 B.C. during the Zhou dynasty, the production of glazed wares was not common until about 200 B.C. during the Han Dynasty. However from about 1000 B.C. onwards during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, primitive porcelain wares emerged. Real porcelain wares appeared in the Han dynasty around 200 A.D. In the process of porcelain development, different styles in different periods blossomed.

The production of porcelain became widespread by about 500 A.D. Using a special clay with ground rock containing feldspar, a glassy mineral, the material was fired at very high temperatures above 2400шF. The surface of the clay melts at such high temperatures and becomes smooth as glass. Early porcelains were undecorated and were used by the Imperial court and exported as far as the Middle East. For instance during the Han Dynasty principally celadon (green) and black porcelain were mainly produced. The famous blue and white porcelain was created with blue paint made from cobalt and then covered with a clear glaze, which can withstand the high temperatures of the kiln. The technical and creative innovations of Chinese potters are unique accomplishments in the cultural heritage of the world. Today, archaeological excavation and research in China are revealing new sites and new examples of the genius of the Chinese potter.

HISTORY OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION:

Remains of Homo erectus, found near Beijing, have been dated back 460,000 years. Recent archaeological studies in the Yangtse River area have provided evidence of ancient cultures (and rice cultivation) flourishing more than 11,500 years ago, contrary to the conventional belief that the Yellow River area was the cradle of the Chinese civilization. The Neolithic period flourished with a multiplicity of cultures in different regions dating back to around 5000 B.C. There is strong evidence of two so-called pottery cultures, the Yang-shao culture (3950-1700 B.C.) and the Lung-shan culture (2000-1850 B.C). Written records go back more than 3,500 years, and the written history is (as is the case with Ancient Egypt) divided into dynasties, families of kings or emperors. The voluminous records kept by the ancient Chinese provide us with knowledge into their strong sense of their real and mythological origins – as well as of their neighbors.

By about 2500 B.C. the Chinese knew how to cultivate and weave silk and were trading the luxurious fabric with other nations by about 1000 B.C. The production and value of silk tell much about the advanced state of early Chinese civilization. Cultivation of silkworms required mulberry tree orchards, temperature controls and periodic feedings around the clock. More than 2,000 silkworms were required to produce one pound of silk. The Chinese also mastered spinning, dyeing and weaving silk threads into fabric. Bodies were buried with food containers and other possessions, presumably to assist the smooth passage of the dead to the next world. The relative success of ancient China can be attributed to the superiority of their ideographic written language, their technology, and their political institutions; the refinement of their artistic and intellectual creativity; and the sheer weight of their numbers.

A recurrent historical theme has been the unceasing struggle of the sedentary Chinese against the threats posed by non-Chinese peoples on the margins of their territory in the north, northeast, and northwest. China saw itself surrounded on all sides by so-called barbarian peoples whose cultures were demonstrably inferior by Chinese standards.

This China-centered (“sinocentric”) view of the world was still undisturbed in the nineteenth century, at the time of the first serious confrontation with the West. Of course the ancient Chinese showed a remarkable ability to absorb the people of surrounding areas into their own civilization. The process of assimilation continued over the centuries through conquest and colonization until what is now known as China Proper was brought under unified rule.

A certificate of authenticity (COA) is available upon request.

 

Yueh jin dynasty

A small zoomorphic ewer. Yue kilns – China, Jin Dynasty (265-420 century) © Wei Asian Arts

Pale green glazed pottery. L : 15 cm – Price On Request

Notes: Determining the name and the function of these lion-shaped vessels has been subject of discussion among scholars. This example with an handle might have served as ewer.

This pale green glazed porcelaneous ware is typical of the pottery of “yue “ or celadon wares in the province of Zhejiang.

A similar example is kept in the museum of the Zhejiang Province.

Ref: “Zhongguo Daozi – Yueyao” Shanghai Remin Meishu chubanshi,pp 84, 1983
“The splendor of Chinese Celadons”, The ROC society of art collectors,pp 79-81,1991
“Chinese ceramics,the new standard guide” by He Li, pp 83, Thames & Hudson, 1995

 

A Yaozhou moon-white glazed ceramic bowl made in the Jin dynasty (1115-1234).

 

Antique Chinese Jin Dynasty Ceramic Jar

Ancient Chinese Western Jin Dynasty (265 AD – 316 AD) large ceramic jar with ovoid body surmounted by a wide mouth with short flaring rim and covered overall with olive green glaze.
MEASUREMENTS: Height: 33cm (13inches).Width: 32cm (102 5/8 inches).
CONDITION: in good condition considering its age, no repairs or restorations with beautiful old showing the age patina.


Due to the fact that the market is flooded by reproductions of Chinese antiques we would like to inform our clients that all our artifacts are 100% authentic antiques, not reproductions, and Accompanied by a Certificate of Authenticity
.

 

Antique Chinese Western Jin Dynasty (265-316 AD)

green glazed stoneware bowl.
MEASUREMENTS: Diameter: 16.5cm (6 ½ in) height: 5.2 cm (2 in).
CONDITION: chips to the rim otherwise in good condition.

ALL OUR ARTIFACTS ARE ACCOMPANIED BY A CERTIFICATION OF AUTHENTICITY

 

Antique Chinese Jin Dynasty Ceramic Bowl

Antique Chinese Western Jin Dynasty (265-316 AD) green glazed stoneware bowl.
MEASUREMENTS: Diameter: 16.5cm (6 ½ in) height: 5.2 cm (2 in).
CONDITION: chips to the rim otherwise in good condition.

 

A Cizhou bowl, probably Jin Dynasty, circa 12-13th century,

 

 

 

Green Glazed Speckled Hu Pot with Handles from the Yue Kiln.Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 317 ~ 420).Collected by Shanghai Museum.

 

West jin dynasty

 

Near pair of Cizhou Meiping vases, Jin Dynasty, carved with bands of lotus in a cream glaze cut through to a light grey body. Height 25 cm. Provenance: Private collection, South Australia

 

 

Southern song dynasty

 

 

 

Other art

Work

Liao Dynasty Wooden Go Board and Stones

內蒙古敖漢旗白塔子遼墓出土圍棋具

[No Image Available]

Description : Wooden Go board and set of Go stones excavated in 1976 from a tomb at Aohanqi 敖漢旗 in Inner Mongolia (see Kaogu 考古 1978.2).

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125).

Size : 40 × 40 cm.

Grid : 13×13.

Stones : 79 black and 76 white stones; 14 short of the expected 169 stones (Board Layout).


Liao Dynasty Go Board and Stones

遼寧錦西市孤山遼墓出土圍棋具

[No Image Available]

Description : Wooden Go board and set of Go stones excavated in 1984 from the tomb of Xiao Xiaozhong 蕭孝忠 near Jinxi 錦西 in Liaoning province.

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125).

Size :

Grid :

Stones : 75 black and white pottery stones (presumably for use with a 13×13 board).


Liao Dynasty Go Stones

遼寧省凌源縣溫家屯遼墓出土陶質圍棋子82枚

[No Image Available]

Description : Set of Go stones excavated in 1979 from a tomb at Lingyuan 凌源 in Liaoling province (see Liaohai Wenwu Xuekan 遼海文物學刊 1994.1).

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125).

Stones : 82 black and white stones (presumably for use with a 13×13 board).


Liao Dynasty Go Stones

遼寧朝陽市遼墓出土瑪瑙圍棋子

[No Image Available]

Description : Set of Go stones excavated in 1966 (or 1968?) from a tomb at Chaoyang 朝陽 in Liaoning province.

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125).

Stones : 186 black agate and 186 white agate stones.


Mural from a Liao Dynasty Tomb

河北宣化7號遼墓壁畫

 

Source : Liao Mural Painting (Columbia University Art History & Archaeology Database) Item ID:24609

Description : Part of a mural in the tomb of Zhang Wenzao 張文藻 (d.1093) (M7) at Xuanhua 宣化 in Hebei province (see Wen Wu 文物 1996.9).

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125) : 1093.

Grid : 13×13.


Silk Painting from a Liao Dynasty Tomb

遼寧法庫縣葉茂臺7號遼墓出土《深山會棋圖》

 

Source : 深山会棋图

Description : Silk painting from a Liao dynasty tomb at Faku 法庫 in Liaoning province. It shows a group of three people playing go. The motif of two go players and an observer derives from the story of a woodcutter who happens upon two immortals playing go deep in the mountains; the man is engrossed in the game, and when it is over and he goes back home hundreds of years have passed.

Date : Liao dynasty (907–1125).


Western Xia Brick Go Boards

拜寺溝西夏方塔出土磚圍棋盤

 

Source : Ningxia Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Bàisìgōu Xīxià Fāngtǎ 拜寺沟西夏方塔 [The Western Xia Square Pagoda at Baisigou] (Beijing: Wenwu Chubanshe, 2005) Plate XX no.3

Description : Three fragments (largest shown above) of brick Go boards discovered in the ruins of the Baisigou Square Pagoda, Helan County, Ningxia. One fragment is a corner with six grid lines in each direction; one fragment is unfinished, with no vertical grid lines on the right side.

Date : Western Xia (1038–1227).

Size : A) 21.3 × 22.0 × 7.0 cm; B) 18.0 × 10.0 × 5.0 cm.

Grid : Uncertain.


Western Xia Pottery Go Board Fragment and Ceramic Go Stones

西夏圍棋盤殘塊及圍棋子兩罐

 

Source : 西夏瓷推开一扇西夏窗

 

Source : 西夏围棋子

Description : Fragment of a pottery Go board, and a set of black and white ceramic Go stones in black and white ceramic bowls, These are in a private collection, and their source is unknown, although it can be reasonably surmised that they could only have come from a robbed tomb. A number of similar ceramic Go stones were discovered between 1983 and 1986 at the site of the Lingwu kiln 靈武窯 in Ningxia province.

Date : Supposedly Western Xia (1038–1227), but with no archaeological context this cannot be verified.

Grid : Uncertain, probably 19×19 from the number of stones.

Stones : Reportedly 200 black stones and 200 white stones, but not certain whether this is an approximate or an exact count.


Mural from a Jin Dynasty Tomb

陝西甘泉4號金墓壁畫

 

Source : Wenwu 文物 2009.7 page 38 fig.34

Description : Part of a mural in a tomb dated 1189 (M4) at Ganquan 甘泉 in Shaanxi province (see Wen Wu 文物 2009.7). This is one of a set of four murals representing the four scholarly arts (琴棋書畫), all featuring female figures.

Date : Jin dynasty (1115–1234) : 1189.

Grid : 17×17 (?).


Jin Dynasty Go Stones

金上京出土圍棋子

 

Source : 围棋子 金代

Description : Go stones excavated from the site of the first Jin dynasty capital (Shangjing 上京) at Acheng 阿城 in Heilongjiang province.

Date : Jin dynasty (1115–1234).

Stones : 18 black and 14 white Go stones of various sizes.


Jin Dynasty Stoneware Pillow

金大定十八年磁州窯瓷枕

 

Source : Philadelphia Museum of Art 1957-26-1

Description : Cizhou ware stone pillow from the Jin dynasty.

Date : Jin dynasty (1115–1234) : 1178.


Southern Song Painting

《會昌九老圖》

 

Source : Gugong Bowuyuan Cang Wenwu Zhenpin Quanji [Jin Tang Liang-Song Huihua 3] 故宮博物院藏文物珍品全集 [晉唐兩宋繪畫 3] (Beijing, 2008) pages 168–175

Description : Handscroll in the Palace Museum Beijing that depicts a gathering in Luoyang during the Huichang period (specifically the year 845), including two men playing Go on a boat.

Date : Southern Song (1127–1279).

Grid : 19×19.

 

 

THREE JIN DYNASTY CERAMIC TILES,c. 265-420 AD,

decorated with a musician in polychrome mineral earth pigments, China, 46x34cm (3)Provenance: From an Australian collection Auction Location:
Galerie Finn, 23 Bay Street, Double Bay, Sydney, Australia

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Not withstanding any other terms of these Condition, if within 21 days after the sale EATC have received from the Buyer of a Lot notice in writing that in his/her view the Lot is a deliberate forgery and within seven days after such notification the Buyer returns the same to EATC in the same condition as at the time of sale and by producing evidence, the burden of proof to be upon the Buyer, satisfies EATC that considers in the light of entry in the Catalogue the Lot is a deliberate forgery, then the sale of the Lot will be rescinded and within seven Working days of the Vendor refunding to EATC the amount paid to the Vendor in respect of the Lot EATC will reimburse the Buyer for the Hammer Price paid for the relevant Lot within seven Working days.

12. Catalogue Descriptions and Statements

(a) EATC do not accept responsibility for the authenticity, attribution, genuineness, origin, authorship, date, age, period, condition or quality of any Lot, unless they have been instructed in writing by the Vendor so to certify, and in such cases EATC do so as agents of the Vendor and are not themselves responsible for such a claim. Any Illustration in the Catalogue is solely for guidance for prospective buyers and is not intended to be relied upon in terms of tone or colour or necessarily to reveal imperfections in any Lot (b) All statements, whether printed in the Catalogue or made orally, as to matters set out in (a) above are statements of opinion only and are not to be taken as being or implying any warranties or representations of fact by the Agent unless they have been instructed in writing by the Vendor so to certify, and in such cases EATC do so as agents of the Vendor and are not themselves responsible for such a claim. (c) Any claim by statute must be received in writing by EATC within ten days of the relevant sale. (d) All conditions, notices, descriptions statements or any other matters in a Catalogue and elsewhere concerning any Lot are subject to any statements modifying or affecting any Lot made publicly by the Agent prior to any bid being accepted for any Lot.

13. Illustrations and Photography

In accordance with the Consignment Form or any further written advice, EATC shall have the right to photograph, digitally record and make illustrations of any Lot supplied by the Seller, whether or not in conjunction with Sale, at a cost to the seller. The copyright of all photographs taken, digital images and illustrations made of any Lot by and on behalf of EATC shall be the absolute property of EATC.

14. Indemnity

The Vendor shall indemnify EATC against any claims in connection with and goods sold by EATC on the Vendor’s behalf.

15. Default

EATC disclaim any responsibility for default by either the Buyer or the Vendor because they act as agents for the Vendor only and therefore do not pay out to the Vendor until payment is received from the Buyer. Instructions given by telephone are accepted at the sender’s risk and must be confirmed in writing forthwith.

16. Payment and Removal of Purchases

(a) The purchase Price must be paid in full to the Agent within two working days after the sale unless such other terms or period have been specified or agreed to prior to the sale. (b) Payment shall be made in Australian Dollars either in Cash, via Western Union, Paypal, VISA, MasterCard, Bank Card and International Banking Transfers direct to the Agent. Payments by Credit will incur a charge of 2.6%. Payments by Western Union and International Banking Transfers will incur a Banking Fee of AUD $15.00. Payment by Personal Cheque is accepted at the discretion of the Agent (c) No Lot may be removed until the full Purchase Price has been received by the Agent and ownership of the Lot will not pass to the Buyer until cleared funds in payment of the full Purchase Price shall have been received by the Agent. (d) On acceptance of bid by the fall of the hammer or by the acceptance of a bid by Absentee Bid instructions the successful bidder may be required to provide a deposit equal to 20% of the Hammer Price in cash or by Bank Cheque. If the successful bidder fails to do so, the Lot may, if the Agent decides (at its absolute discretion) be re-offered for sale

17. Removal and Responsibility of Purchased Lots

(a) All Lots must be removed not later than two working days after the sale. (b) The Buyer shall be responsible for any removal, storage or other charges for any Lot not removed in accordance with the time limit specified in (a). (c) The Buyer shall be responsible for any loss or damage to a Lot purchased by him/her from the acceptance of bid by the fall of the hammer or by the acceptance of a bid by Absentee Bid instructions and neither EATC, its agents nor its employees shall be responsible for any loss or damage of any kind, whether caused by negligence or otherwise, while the Lot is in its custody or under its control. (d) The Buyer shall be solely responsible for obtaining any export License or permit that may be required in connection with a purchased Lot.

18. Non-Payment or Failure to Remove Purchases

1. If the Purchase Price is not paid in full to the Agent within two working days after the sale or according to such other terms or period specified or agreed to prior to the sale and/or the Lot has not been removed within two working days after the sale the Agent shall without further notice to the Buyer and at its absolute discretion, be entitled to exercise one or more of the following remedies: (a) To re-sell the Lot without any Reserve and the Buyer agrees that any re-sale price achieved shall be reasonable; (b) To absolutely forfeit any monies the Buyer may have paid; (c) To remove, store and insure the Lot at the expense of the Buyer; (d) To charge interest on the Purchase Price and Expenses at a rate of 15% calculated on a daily basis after as well as before judgment or order, from the date which the Purchase Price becomes payable; (e) To retain any Lot sold by the Buyer at the same or any other sale until payment of the of the Purchase Price by the Buyer; (f) To apply the proceeds of the sale of any Lot then due or at any time thereafter becoming due to the Buyer in payment or part payment of the Purchase Price; (g) To exercise a lien on, and at the Agents’ discretion, exercise a power of sale over any other property of the Buyer in the Agents control for any purpose; (h) To rescind the sale of the Lot or any other Lot sold to the Buyer at the same or any other sale; (i) To repossess any goods comprising any Lot in respect of which payment is overdue and thereafter resell the same, and for this purpose the Buyer herby grants an irrevocable License to EATC its employees and its agents to enter upon all or any of the Buyer’s premises, with or without vehicles, during normal business hours, without prejudice to any other rights of EATC; (j) To issue legal proceedings against the Buyer for damages for breach of contract; (k) To reject a bid from the Buyer at any future sale or to require the Buyer to pay a deposit before any bid is accepted by the Agent at any future sale. 2. The Buyer shall pay all legal and other costs if enforcement incurred by EATC and/or the Vendor, whether or not Court proceedings shall be issued, on a full indemnity basis together with interest thereon at the rate specified in condition 1 (d) above from the date the Buyer shall have become liable to pay costs.

19. Public Liability Risk of personal Loss or Injury

Every person on the Agent’s premises at any time including any premises where a sale may be conducted or a Lot or part of a Lot, may be on view from time to time shall be deemed to be there at his / her own risk and shall have no claim against EATC, its employees or agents in respect of any accident which may occur, or injury, damage or loss howsoever caused.

20. Law of Conditions

These Conditions of Business shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the law of the State in which the sale has been conducted and all parties concerned hereby submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of that State’s Courts.

Definitions of Clauses

“Agent and EATC”: Refers to East Australian Trading Consolidated ABN 70 095 511 603, its agents and employees
“Buyer”: The person to whom a Lot is sold
“Catalogue”: Includes any advertisement, brochure, Price List and other publication
“Expenses”: In relation to the sale of any Lot refers to the Agents’ charges and Expenses for insurance, illustration, special advertising, packaging, storage, freight, and any other Expenses properly incurred for the Sale
“GST”: Refers to The Good and Services Tax
“Hammer Price”: Refers to the price in Australian Dollars at which a Lot is sold by the Agent to the Buyer.
“Lot”: Refers to any item or items consigned with a view to its or their sale at Public Auction, Auction by Private Treaty, or Private Treaty Sale
“Purchase Price” Refers to the aggregate of the Hammer Price, the Buyers Premium and any other charges and Expenses due from the Buyer
“Reserve”: Refers to the minimum Hammer Price agreed between the Agent and the Vendor at which a Lot may be sold
“Sale Proceeds”: Refers to the net amount due to the Vendor, being the Hammer Price less the Vendors Commission, Expenses and any other amount due to the Agent from the Vendor in whatever capacity and howsoever arising
“Vendor”: Refers to the owner and /or owners of each and every Lot offered for sale
“Vendor’s Commission”: Refers to the commission due to the Agent from the Vendor upon the sale of a Lot

 

 

 

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THE MONGOL EMPIRE HISTORY

 

THE COMPLETE HISTORY COLLECTIONS LOOK AT The Yuan mongol dynasty CD-ROM

 

Heavy Cavalry of the Imperial Guards

Introduction

Perhaps no empire in history has risen so spectacularly as that of the Mongols. In less than 80 years, a band of warriors originally comprised of several men grew to an empire that encompassed all from the Pacific Ocean to the Danube River. This story is about one of the most dramatic series conquests in history and how it was the Mongols themselves who shattered their own invincibility.

In the 12th century, various Turkic and Mongol-Tungusic tribes roamed the steppes of Mongolia. One of these tribes was the Mongols. Around the 1130, the Mongols emerged as a powerful tribe, defeating neighboring nomads and forcing the Jin Empire of Northern China to pay tribute. However, the glory was short lived. In 1160, the Mongol Kingdom was shattered, having been defeated by the neighboring Tartars tribe. The Mongol clans (divisions within a tribe) became disunited and fought amongst themselves for what little there was.

 

 Drawing of Genghis Khan

The leader of the Mongol Kiyad Sub-Clan was Yesugei, who happened to be a descendant of a Khan (chieftain) of the former Mongol Kingdom. In 1167, Yesguei and his wife had a son named Temujin, the one who would become Genghis Khan. When Temujin was nine years old, his father was poisoned by Tartar chiefs. Since he was much to young to rule, his clansmen deserted him. Temujin and his family (7 people total) moved to the most desolate areas of the steppes, eating roots and rodents for living. He had many great adventures, ranging from chasing horse thieves to being captured by enemies. When Temujin was 16, the Merkid Tribe attacked his family and captured his wife. With an army of five men, Temujin could not retaliate on his own, so he turned to one of his father’s old friends, Toghrul Khan of the Kereyid Tribe, who in turn, also enlisted a Mongol coalition leader, Jamugha. Together they defeated the Merkids and Temujin recovered his wife. Temujin quickly took advantage of his powerful allies, particularly Jamugha, who was also happened to be a Mongol and a childhood friend of his, and became a notable figure on the steppes. Temujin and Jamugha took control over most of the Mongol Clans, but that was not enough for Temujin.

 
According to the Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty, one day while Temujin and Jamugha were riding at the front of the Mongols, Temujin decided to “keep going” while Jamugha stopped to pitch tent. Temujin broke up with Jamugha and the Mongols were split into two groups. Hostilities soon broke out between the two parties. In a clash over a minor event, Temujin was defeated and was forced into exile. However, Temujin returned ten years later and reestablished his position. From there, he embarked on a conquest of the Mongolia that lasted several years. Unfortunately, the details are too great to be perused in this article. In short, by 1204 Temujin had subjugated all that opposed him. He defeated the Tartars, the Kereyids tribe under Toghrul Khan (who eventually betrayed him), the Naimans the Merkids, and Jamugha’s Mongol clans

 

The Empire by 1204 

The Empire by 1204

In 1206, Temujin held a great Khuriltai (assembly) on the banks of the Onon River. There, he took the title Chingis Khan. The name Chingis Khan is commonly referred to as Genghis Khan. However, “Genghis” is actually a corrupted variation, and thus for accuracy reason, he will be referred to as “Chingis” Khan. During the Khuriltai of 1206, Chingis Khan decreed the structure and laws for his new Empire. To ensure stability and cooperation between people of the tribes that he united, Chingis Khan installed a military superstructure to integrate all the peoples of his Empire. The population was divided into units responsible for maintaining a certain amount of warriors ready at any given time, thus overriding previous tribal organizations. Furthermore, he decreed many specific laws and created an efficient administrative hierarchy. Chingis Khan created the most advanced government of any steppe nation up to that time. His horde would soon prove to be the most disciplined, the most powerful and the most feared army to ride from the steppes.

 

The Khuriltai of 1206. From a manuscript by Rashid ad-Din

 The War in Northern China

 

Mongol horsemen battle Jin
Warriors in the Mountains

Chingis Khan became emperor of “all who lived in felt tents,” but his dreams was to conquer the world. First, he led his men in a series of campaigns against the Xi Xia Empire in western China. In 1209, the Xi Xia capital was threatened, but the Mongols were satisfied with tribute after their camp was unexpectedly flooded. It must be understood that the Mongols were still more interested in and tribute plunder rather than to capture cities. However, as the Empires in China discontinued to pay tribute once the Mongols withdraw, the raids soon turned into conquest.

In 1211, Chingis Khan took 65,000 men and marched against the Jin Empire of Northern China. With the help of the Ongguts, a people who lived on the Jin’s northern border, Chingis Khan easily passed through the defenses and marched into Jin territory. He continued a trail of plunder until he met a large force of around 150,000 men, which he defeated. Chingis split his army and launched a multiple pronged attack on the Jin. He and his generals dealt several blows against the Jin, including capturing the strategic Juyong pass. Unfortunately, Chingis was wounded during a siege and withdrew to Mongolia. Subsequently, Jin forces began to recapture territories loss to the Mongols.

In 1213, the Mongols returned after learning that the Jin had refortified their locations. Chingis divided his army into three parts, one under command by himself and the other two, under his sons. The three Mongol armies devastated the Jin Empire, and by 1214, most of the area north of the Huang He (Yellow river) was in Mongol hands. One exception was the city of Chungdu, capital of the Jin Empire. Like other nomadic armies, Chingis Khan’s Mongol hordes were entirely cavalry, and the weakness of cavalry forces was the lack of ability to capture fortifications. Chingis realized this weakness and was quick to capture Chinese siege engineers to learn siege tactics. Despite so, Chungdu withstood the Mongols’ assaults. Chingis’s men became short on supplies and were ravaged by plague, but he tenaciously continued the siege. Accounts describe that every tenth man was sacrificed to be fed to the others. But the siege went on for so long that Chingis had to personally abandon the campaign. He then placed his general Mukali in charge. The Mongols finally entered the city in 1215, but by then, the Jin capital had already been moved south to Kai-feng.

 

 The Empire at 121

The First Move West – the Conquest of the Kwarazm-Shah Empire

Chingis lost interest in the war in China and instead, turned his attention towards the west. In 1218, he sent his general Chepe westward and conquered the Kara Khitai Empire. But the real issue was with the huge Kwarazmian Empire in Perisa. Hostilities broke out when the Kwarazm Shah attacked a Mongol caravan and humiliated Chingis’s ambassadors by burning their beards. Since Chingis sent the ambassadors for the purpose of making peace, he was outraged. Chingis prepared for the largest operation he had yet performed and assembled a force that totaled around 90-110,000 men. The total numerical strength of the Kwarazm shah was two to three times greater, but Chingis’ army was better disciplined, and most of all, better led.

In 1219, Chingis’s sons Chaghadai and Ogedei set out to attack the city of Utar located east of the Aral Sea. Meanwhile, Chingis’ general, Chepe, marched southwestward to protect the left flank during the operation. The main attack, however, was led by Chingis Khan himself, who along with general Subedei, marched through the Kizil Kum desert and outflanked the Kwarazmiam forces. The plan was that the Kizil Kum desert was considered impractical to cross, which made it a great opportunity to surprise the enemy. Chingis and his army disappeared into the desert and suddenly, out of nowhere, he appeared at the city of Bokhara. The city garrison was stunned, and was quickly defeated. Next, Chingis marched towards Samarkand, capital of the Kwarazmian Empire. The magnificent city was heavily fortified and had a garrison of 110,000 men, which vastly outnumbered Chingis’ besieging army. The city was expected to be able to hold out for months, but on March 19, 1220 its walls were breached in just ten days. After the fall of Samarkand, the Mongols overran much of the Empire. The destruction was profound. Cities were leveled and populations were massacred. At the city of Merv, accounts described an execution of 700,000. At Samarkand, women were raped and sold into slavery. Devastation was so great that the Kwarazmian Empire itself was nearly wiped away from history. The conquest of the Kwarazm also created another remarkable event. After his defeat, the Kwarazm Shah fled west and Subedei followed in pursue with a force of 20,000 men. The Kwarazm Shah died, however, but Subedei went further. He brought his army north and defeated a heavily outnumbering Russian and Cuman army at the Khalka River. He went further and attack the Volga Bulgars before returning back. As said by the famed history Gibbons, Subedei’s expedition was one of the most daring expeditions in history, unlikely to be repeated ever again.

 

The Campaign in Northern China and
the Conquest of the Kwarazmian Empire.

During the entire campaign, the Kwarazm Shah failed to assemble an army to fight the Mongols on the battlefield. The Kwarazm strategy relied on its extensive city garrisons that outnumbered the besieging Mongol armies. This of course, failed in every way. The only well organized resistance against the Mongols came from Jalal ad-Din, who after the fall of Samarkand, organized a resistance force in modern day Afghanistan. At Parwan, he defeated a Mongol force led by one of Chingis’ adopted son, making it the only Mongol defeat in the entire campaign. Chingis chases after Jalal ad-Din and destroyed his army at the Indus River. The defeat of Jalal ad-Din meant the consolidation of rule of Transoxania. However, the southern parts of the Kwarazmian Empire were left unconquered and later turned into a collection of Independent states. It is said that the Mongols decided not to advance when the sight of a unicorn demoralized their vanguard.  

At the age approaching sixty, Chingis’ health was at a decline. He sought the legendary Daoist monk Changchun for the exilir to Immortality. His wish did not come true, as Changchun had no magical exilir, but Chingis praised his wisdom and the two became good friends. Following the meeting with the Daoist monk, Chingis returned to the administration side of his objectives. Unlike Attila the Hun and Alexander the Great, Chingis Khan realized the importance of a smooth succession after his death. Before he completed his conquest of the Kwarazmian Empire, he had already carefully chosen his son Ogedei to be his successor. After Chingis returned to Mongolia to finish establish the administration structure of his empire, all the matters were in good order, except for the Tanguts. The Tangut Xi Xia Empire had long been defeated by the Mongols, but became more of a tributary rather than being annexed. However, the Tanguts had stopped complying with terms while Chingis was away. In 1226, Chingis Khan led his army against Xi Xia and captured its capital.

 
The Death of Chingis Khan

 

Chingis Khan 

The campaign against the Xi Xia was his last campaign Shortly later in August 1227, Chingis Khan died at the age of 60. The reason remains unsolved, with theories ranging from internal injuries after a hunting accident, to malaria, to prophecies of the Tanguts.

At his death, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Yellow Sea to the Caspian Sea. No other empire in history has seen such an extraordinary expansion in the lifetime of one man. Although Chingis Khan brought much destruction in his conquests, it is clear that he did not intend to commit mass genocide like that of Hitler, even though the death tolls far exceeded anything in history. Chingis’s dream was conquest, and whenever surrender was seen, bloodshed was avoided. He was exceptionally respectful to those who supported him, and it was not uncommon for him to befriend defected enemies. In any case, Chingis was a brilliant military strategiest and an exceptionally gifted leader, making him one of the most intriguing figures in history.

The Great Khan Ogedei

After the death of Chingis, the Mongol Empire was divided into four ulus, each given to his four “main” sons. Although these ulus (inheritances) were politically united in the same empire, they would later serve as the basis of future khanates. As said before, Ogedei had already been chosen by Chingis to be his successor. Two years after Chingis’ death, Ogedei was officially proclaimed as the ruler of the Mongol Empire. Ogedei took the title of Khakhan (“Great Khan” or “Khan of Khans”), a title used by rulers of the greatest steppe Empires. Chingis however, never officially used this title. Nonetheless, Ogedei ascended with a smooth transition.With the fall of Kiev, the Mongols were victorious in Russia, pulling off the only successful winter invasion of Russia in history. As the result of the Mongols’ sweep into Russia, many groups fled across the border and sought refugee in Hungary. Among these were the Cumans and Kipchaks, who were also nomadic cavalrymen like the Mongols. When Batu Khan learned of this he was furious, because they were “his subjects” and thus were not allowed to escape. Whether or not this was the case, Subedei quickly planned a campaign against Europe. The plan was a two-pronged invasion: A flanking force of 20,000 men would be sent into Poland, while he himself (and Batu) will lead the main force of 50,000 men. On March 1241, Subedei and Batu’s force dissolved into the Carpathian Mountains, appearing out of nowhere on the other side. But instead of advancing further into Hungary, the Mongols withdrew. Upon seeing this, the Hungarians became somewhat arrogant, and even dismissed the Cumans and Kipchaks, who were also nomadic cavalrymen much like the Mongols. Meanwhile, the northern army stormed into Poland, laid waste to the countryside, and sacked Cracow. On April 9, a European force led by Duke Henry of Silesia crossed into Poland and challenged the 20,000 strong Mongols. The heavily armored European knights were no match for the quickness of the Mongol horsemen, and consequently were defeated. Meanwhile, King Bela of Hungary realized that the Mongol retreat was feigned, and were now actually closing in. King Bela rode out with a force numbering 60-80,000 men and met the army of Batu and Subedei’s at the opposing side of the Sajo River. After an indecisive clash at the bridge of the river,

The “Devil’s Horsemen”

 

 The Empire at the ascension of Ogedei Khan

The first thing one Ogedei’s mind was to subjugate the remaining fragments Kwarazem Empire, which was earlier destroyed by Chingis Khan in 1221, but had been later restored in modern day Azerbaijan. This objected was completed in 1231. The next goal was to complete the conquest of the Jin Empire. The Jin Empire had already lost a great deal of territory to Chingis Khan, and later to Mukali, who was assigned by Chingis to take over as commander in the Northern China theatre. But after Mukali’s death in 1223, the Jin began to fiercely fight back. In 1231 a large Mongol army led by Ogedei, the renowned general Subedei, and Tolui (Ogedei’s brother) set off against the Jin. After a series of setbacks, the Mongols finally stormed the Jin capital of Kai Feng in 1234 with the aid of 20,000 Song Chinese auxilleries, thus ending the great sedentary Empire that oversaw the steppes for over a century.

While the Ogedei was campaigning in the Jin Empire, he had already ordered the construction of an Imperial capital for the Empire. When the city, named Karakorum, was completed in 1235, it stood as the grandest site in Mongolia. (Karakorum had already been founded long ago by Chingis, but was more of an outpost back then rather than a capital.) Although the city did not grow to an impressive size like the cities of China, the city was impressively diverse and multi-cultural flourished with professional craftsmen, as later remarked by the European traveler Rubruck.  Ogedei also made several reforms in the government, of them begin an improvement of the postal system (the Yam).

The Invasion of Russia

Although the Mongols had already made contacts with the Russians a decade earlier in 1222, during Subedei’s legendary expedition, the Mongols did not establish any permanent government in those lands. When Chingis Khan died, the northwestern territories of the empire were given to his son, Jochi. One of Jochi’s sons was Batu Khan, who inherited the westernmost territories of Jochi’s ulus. But Batu’s land was small and a great part of the land he was “given,” was not yet under Mongol control. In the Khuriltai of 1235, Batu showed his intension to bring these lands under Mongol control. This decision would create an extraordinary conquest that in the end, Batu’s army would have traveled five thousand miles! Subedei agreed to go with Batu; and in 1237, the two gathered a force that numbered 120,000 men ready to cross the frozen Volga into Russia.

During winter, the Mongols crossed the Volga River, and afterwards, ridding north into the forests to hide their presence. The first major city they came to was Riazan, which fell after a five-day catapult assault. Then they rode north and captured Kolumna, Moscow, and defeated the Grand Duke of Suzdal, the most powerful force in the northern half of Russia. From there the Mongols advanced towards Novgorod. However, the siege was abandoned after the marshes proved too frustrating to travel through. Although Novgorod became one of the only major cities in Russia to avoid the Mongol conquest, they would keep a friendly relation with the Mongols by paying tribute. After the frustration at Novgorod, Batu and Subedei rode south and attacked the city of Kozelsk, which valiantly held off the Mongols and even successfully ambushed a Mongol vanguard – a feat rarely ever been done. Kozelsk held off for seven weeks, and after it finally fell, the entire population was slaughtered in a way so great that the Mongols named it the City of Woe. The last obstacle in Russia was the great city of Kiev, often called the “Mother of all Russian cities”. Because Kiev was so important in Eastern Europe, the Mongols even tried to take it undamaged. Prince Michael of Kiev did indeed realize the inevitable capture of Kiev. Unfortunately, he fled, and his second in command was a tenacious officer and decided to resist. When the Mongols did storm the city, the only major structure that was not destroyed was the Cathedral St Sophia.

The Invasion of Europe

 

The Mongol Invasion of Europe 

With the fall of Kiev, the Mongols were victorious in Russia. Interestingly, this was the only successful large-scale winter invasion of Russia in history. As the result of the Mongols’ incursion into Russia, many groups fled across the border and sought refugee in Hungary. Among these were the Cumans and Kipchaks, who were also nomadic cavalrymen like the Mongols. When Batu Khan learned of this he was furious, because they were “his subjects” and thus were not allowed to escape. Whether or not this was the case, Subedei quickly planned a campaign against Europe. The plan was a two-pronged invasion: A flanking force of 20,000 men would be sent into Poland, while he himself (and Batu) would lead the main force of 50,000 men. On March 1241, Subedei and Batu’s force dissolved into the Carpathian Mountains, appearing out of nowhere on the other side. But instead of advancing further into Hungary, the Mongols withdrew. Upon seeing this, the Hungarians became somewhat arrogant, and even dismissed the Cumans and Kipchaks, who could’ve provided valuable cavalry support. Meanwhile, the northern army stormed into Poland, laid waste to the countryside, and sacked Cracow. On April 9, a European force led by Duke Henry of Silesia crossed into Poland and challenged the 20,000 strong Mongols. The heavily armored European knights were no match for the quickness of the Mongol horsemen, and consequently were defeated. Meanwhile, King Bela of Hungary realized that the Mongol retreat was feigned, and were now actually closing in. King Bela rode out with a force numbering 60-80,000 men and met the army of Batu and Subedei’s at the opposing side of the Sajo River. After an indecisive clash at the bridge of the river, Subedei brought a contingent south and crossed the river without the Hungarians noticing. When Subedei appeared on the other side, the Hungarians were dumbstruck. Soon Batu broke across the bridge and the Hungarian army was surrounded.

The two major victories by two separate Mongol armies in a period of mere days apart show the brilliancy of Subedei’s generalship. In one month, Poland and Hungary were defeated. Days after the victory at Sajo River, (the name of the battle is also known as Mohi) the two Mongol forces joined and laid waste to the remaining Hungarian forces, capturing cities such as Pest. The grand and splendid city of Gran was captured on Christmas day.

By early 1242, when Batu considered to go even farther into Europe, he suddenly received news from Mongolia that the Great Khan Ogedei had died. This news was significant. Batu’s concern was the possibility of his personally disfavored Guyuk Khan receiving the title of Great Khan. Since Batu had conquered so much land, the political instability in Mongolia would provide trouble. He decided to return to Russia and politically establish his domains to avoid any trouble. As a result, the Mongol army entirely withdrew from Poland and Hungary.

Europe was abandoned and Batu returned to the north of the Caspian Sea. There, he established his capital at Sarai Batu (Old Sarai), and transformed his “inherited lands” into a kingdom, or Khanate. Batu’s Khanate became known as the Blue Horde. Batu’s two brothers, Orda and Shiban, who also participated in the campaign also formed their Khanates. Orda’s Khanate became known as the White Horde, located east to Batu’s Blue Horde. Because Batu and Orda were both member of the Golden Clan, the two Khanates were in reality, depencencies of one another, and became known together under the name of “The Golden Horde”. Shiban’s Khanate, however, is obscurely known. Although the Khans of the Golden Horde would continue to recognize the superiority of the Great Khan and “remain” as part of the Mongol Empire for four more decades, in reality the Golden Horde (and all the other Khanates that would eventually form), had political independence at will.

The Great Khan Guyuk

 

 The Empire c. 1246

Guyuk succeeded as Khakhan (or Kha’an – Great Khan) in 1246. Tensions between Batu and Karakorum soared into heights. Fortunately, Guyuk’s died in 1248, just two years after his enthronement. Guyuk’s early death prevented a major civil war, but the weakness of the Mongol Empire had been foreshadowed. It would be civil disunity that would ultimately bring the Mongol Empire down. The reign of Guyuk achieved little; let alone the disunity in the Empire that it caused.

The Mongol Crusaders – The Great khan Mongke

The next Khakhan, Mongke, was elected in 1251. Upon begin crowned Khakhan, Mognke announced his ambitions to continue the line of conquests that was halted during Guyuk’s reign. The first was to conquer the Song (Sung) Empire, the last of the three pre Chingis Empires in “China” free from Mongol control. This and the long series of campaigns against the Song will be examined later. His other motive was to destroy the presence of the Assasins (Ismailis), who have been threatening the governors of the western provinces, and bring the Abbasid Caliph into submission. Thus, this campaign would travel through Persia and into Mesopotamia and towards the Middle East.

The Mongols had seen a limited incursion into the Middle East when Baiju conquered the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in 1243. However, further campaigns into Baghdad were canceled at that time due to the instability of the newly acquired Asia Minor and the political troubles in Karakorum. Mongke’s proposed expedition, however, was planned to be a great one, and indeed it would live up to its name. While Mongke Khan was to personally lead the attack against the Song, he entrusted his brother, Hulegu, to lead the Mongol “Crusade.”

Hulegu’s “Crusade”

 

Hulegu’s campiagn 

In 1253, Hulegu departed from Mongolia to begin the largest operation since Batu’s invasion of Russia. It was also the most advanced Mongol army yet to campaign, with the latest in world siege weapon technology, and a group of experienced lieutenants. Hulegu’s expedition attracted great enthusiasm among Christian communities, including a number of Georgian and Alan volunteers. Hulegu’s army marched slowly compared to Mongol standards, taking three years to finally reach Persia. He made his way into Khurasan (region in Persia), annexing the local dynasty in the area. The first of the primary objectives was completed with the capture of the Assassins’ (the Hashashins) fortress of Gerdkuh on the south side of the Caspian Sea. Hulegu then advanced west and captured Alamut, forcing the Assassins’ Grand Master to surrender.

 

 Mongols Besiege a city in the Middle East

After the capture of Alamut, Hulegu marched toward the grand prize of Baghdad. The Caliph of Baghdad happened to be an incompetent military commander, one foolishly ignorant of the Mongol threat. When the Caliph decided to prepare for a siege, Hulegu was already closing in. Upon his arrival, a force of 20,000 cavalrymen rode out to confront the Mongols. This force was easily defeated, making the siege inevitable. Baghdad held out for a week until its east walls were breached. On February 13, 1258, the city surrendered and a devastating slaughtered ensued. The treasure was looted, the magnificent mosques were destroyed, and the populated was massacred. (An interesting thing is that all the Christian inhabitants in the city were spared.) Accounts claim a slaughter of 800,000 men. This may have been an exaggeration, as the city was later revitalized to an extent. However, there is no doubt that the greatest city in the Middle East had forever lost its glory and that there is no doubt the fall of Baghdad was one of the greatest blows to Islam.

Egypt is saved

Hulegu then withdrew almost his entire army except a minor force of 15,000 men to his general Kedburka to keep an eye on the horizon. Meanwhile, the Mameluks were expecting the full fury of the Mongols, and gathered a large force of 120,000 men. But Hulegu had already withdrawn. Thus, the Mameluks only met Kedburka’s 25,000 (15,000 Mongols and 10,000 allies) men at Ain Jalut. The heavily outnumbered Mongols lost in a battle that has traditionally been exaggerated symbolize the dramatic halt of Mongol expansion. In truth, it was the death of Mongke Khan that really saved Egypt, much like how the death of Ogedei Khan saved Europe.

Mongke’s death, Civil war and Kublai Khan

The death of Mongke Khan in 1259 was a significant turning point in the history of the empire. In the West, it meant that Hulegu’s campaign was at an end. The political envoironment in the East became unstable, and thus, Hulegu had to settle down to claim his land. Hulegu Khanate in Persia became known as the Il-Khanate. However, there was even more problems. Hulegu’s campaing agaisnt the Caliph bitterly angered the Muslim Khan Berke of the Golden Horde. With throne of the Great Khan in vacancy, unable to regulate peace, civil war erupted between Berke and Hulegu. Interestingly, this civil war also forced Berke to abandon his plans to ravage Europe once more.

In the East, two brothers competed fiercely for the throne of the Great Khan. One year after Mongke Khan’s death in 1259, Kubilai Khan was elected Khakhan in a Khuriltai. Shortly later, his brother, Ariq Boke, was also elected Khakhan at a rivaling Khuriltai. The civil war lasted until 1264 (parallel to the civil war in the west), when Kubilai was victorious over Ariq Boke, thus becoming the undisputed Khakhan. This civil war had an implied meaning. During the war, Kublai Khan based himself in China while Ariq Boke based himself in Karakorum. Kublai Khan’s victory implied that China was becoming more over important to the Empire than Mongolia, symbolizing the sinification of the Mongols in the East.

To the Empire as a whole, these years of the civil war meant an end to cohesion. A bitter divide now existed in the west, and the in the East, the Great Khan became only interested in China. Thus, one may argue that the death of Mongke Khan in 1259 meant the end of the “Mongol Empire”, (although the Mongol Empires would continue to thrive invidually). However, because Kublai Khan later became so great of a ruler, some prefer to have the timeframe of the “Mongol Empire” inclusive until the end of Kublai’s Reign, who did hold nominal power over the other Khanatse.

Kublai Khan The Conquest of the Song

The conquest of the Song Empire, sometimes called the “true” Chinese dynasty as opposed to the Jurchen-established Jin Dynasty, began during Mongke Khan’s reign. The Song Empire was the most formidable and most geographical challenging Empire to conquer due to its tough infastructure and mountainous terrain. While Mongke Khan fought in the north, Kublai Khan (who then had not yet become Khan) took a well-sized force, marched through Tibet, and attacked the Song Empire from the south. His men were eventually depleted, however, and he had to withdraw. However, Mongke Khan was able to pull off a series of success until he fell to disease contacted during war. The death of Mongke Khan and the subsequent civil war between Kublai and Ariq Boke caused a stall in campaigning for four years. In 1268, the Mongols were ready for another major assault. Kublai Khan assembled a large naval force and defeated a Song force of 3000 ships. Following the naval victory was the successful capture of Xiang Yang in 1271, which gave confidence in the war. However, the war could not accelerate to the speed of the previous conquest. Finally in 1272, a Mongol army led by Bayan, a general who served under Hulegu, crossed the Yangtze River and defeated a large Song army. The tide began to clearly favor the Mongols as Bayan then continued a line of victories cumulating in the capturing of the Song capital of Hangzhou after an exhausting siege. The Song royal family, however, was able to escape. The final defeat came in 1279 in the form of a naval battle near Guangzhou, where the last Song Emperor was killed. 1279 marked the date of the Song Dynasty’s end.

 

Kublai Khan 

Victory in China was complete and the “Mongol Empire” enjoyed its time of zenith. However, a lot had changed by now in the lifestyles of the Great Khans. Unlike his grandfather, Kubilai Khan retreated from the harsh life of being a nomad and adopted the confortable life of a Chinese Emperor. As Kublai Khan became more into the Chinese way of life, the Mongol government followed as well. In 1272, seven years before the defeat of the Song, Kublai adopted the Chinese dynastic title of Yuan – taking the traditional path of legitimizing oneself as the rightful ruler of China. Being both the Yuan emperor of China and the Great Khan of the Mongols, the Yuan dynasty and the Mongol Empire are often counted as the same during the reign of Kublai. Besides making his empire Chinese, Kublai moved the Mongol Imperial capital from Karakorum to modern day Beijing. The new capital at Beijing was named Ta-tu. The Mongol Empire experienced another dramatic change – although in a different way. Defying the style of pervious conquests, Kublai launched two naval invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281. Both of these were ill fated and were destroyed by the “Kamikaze” typhoons. Kublai also launched a series of campaigns into southern Asia. In Burma, the Mongols were victorious, but eventually abandoned the campaign. In Vietnam, a temporary Mongol victory was turned around into defeat. A naval expedition to Java was unsuccessful as well, being forced to withdraw. Far more serious was the insurrection of Kaidu, decendent of the Ogedeites, who formed a rebel Khanate in Western Mongolia. Kublai’s reign would not see the end of this civil war

 

 

The Mongol Empires c. 1280

Final Collapse of Unity

Despite the few military fiascos taken by Kublai, there is no doubt that Kublai Khan’s reign was the zenith of Mongol rule as a whole. The dominion stretched from China to Mesopotamia to the Danube to the Persian gulf – a size five times that of Alexander’s Empire. Although much of the land suffered great destruction during the conquests, the superior organized Mongol government that followed gradually made this up. Economic activity flourished and trade spread throughout the gigantic empire. Despite the formation of the Khanates in the other sections of the Empire, the authorities of the Great Khan Kublai were recognized in all corners of the Empire. Kublai enjoyed his position as one of the powerful rulers of all time, being Emperor of an Empire that ruled most of the known world. The famed Italian traveler Marco Polo described Kublai as the “greatest lord there will ever be”.

While Kublai Khan was still recognized as the ruler of the Mongols, he himself did not seem to bother with the rest of the Empire outside of his personal dominions. The other Khanates, as well, began to develop a better sense of self-governance. The Mongols lost unity and no longer did they act as a unified government. Of course, this disunity had a long buildup, but once Kublai Khan died, the potentials for disunity finally broke loose. When Kublai Khan died in 1294, his successor would continue to hold the title of “Yuan Emperor”, but there would be no more “Great Khan of the Mongols.” The Mongols discontinued to have a universal ruler and thus, one could say the death of Kublai Khan meant the end of the Mongol Empire. This is somewhat ironic, as the Mongol Empire ended immediately after its golden age. Although the Mongol Empire had eased to exist as a whole, Mongol power remained in the form of the various independent Khanates:

The Five Khanates

 

The Empires 

The Yuan Dynasty in the Far East (also the Khanate of the Great Khan Kublai) continued their rule in China. However, after Kublai, there were no skilled rulers. A series of internal strife followed by natural disasters triggered a major rebellion. In 1368, the Yuan dynasty overthrown and was replaced by the Ming Dynasty under the rule of Ming Hong-wu.

The Il-Khanate of Persia (founded by Hulagu in 1260) did not fare so well at start, struggling with the economy and another embarrassing defeats by the Mameluks. However, under Ghaza Il-Khan, the Il-Khanate regained military superiority and began an economical surge that continued until the reign of Abu Sa’id, where during his rule, Persia enjoyed a great deal of Prosperity. However, Abu Sa’id did not have a successor, in 1335, the Il-Khanate received the same irony as the Mongol Empire -collapsing immediately after its golden age. The lands of the Il-Khanate were eventually reunited under Timer Lenk (Tamerlane) into the “Timurid” Empire.

The Blue Horde in Russia enjoyed a period of fairly good economic activity. The Khanate allied with the Mameluks and officially turned Muslim during the reign of Ozbeg Khan. But similar to the Il-Khanate, the line of Blue Horde Khans eventually came to a no successor situation in the mid 14th century. The Blue Horde collapse and fell into anarchy. It was later reunited as the Golden Horde but fell once again became fractured. This story, however, is too complex to pursue here. It should be noted that this area of the Mongol Empire is commonly a source of confusion. Often times, the entire western quarter of the Mongol Empires is named “Golden Horde.” In actuality, while the western sections, including the “White Horde” did have some type of coalition with one another, they were really separate entities until the later unification by Toktamish Khan. There are also more than one names that refer to this region of the Mongol dominion, with the “Kipchak” Khanate another name. The term “Golden Horde” appears in contemporary sources such as the account of Carpini, who uses the term “Aurea Orda” (Golden Horde).

The Chaghadai Khanate grew directly out of the ulus inherited by Chingis’s son Chaghadai. The Chaghadai grew steadily until the rise of Tamerlane, which destroyed its power. After Tamerlane’s death, the Khanate remained as a minor state until the Qing Dynasty of China annexed it in the 18th century.
 

Legacy of the Mongol Conquests

One may see the Mongol Empire as a gigantic political force, bringing almost the entire continent of Asia under the control of one Great Khan. The Mongol government was a superior one, and thus the whole continent became interconnected. During the Mongol Empire, one was guaranteed safety in travel throughout the entire empire. Thus, the Empire created a huge economical boom and a great exchange of culture and knowledge throughout the entire world. As a result of the Mongol conquests, the Silk Road was reopened and the route from Europe to Asia was no longer thought to be impassable. A great deal of knowledge reached Europe, including art, science, and gunpowder; which greatly contributed in bringing Western Europe out of the dark ages. Likewise, in Asia, we saw an exchange of ideas between Persia and China.

The Mongols obviously had a direct on the political situation of the world. China was once again united under a single ruler. Russia was separated from the rest of Europe, but was no longer a disunited feudalistic society. The Mongols ended the short-lived Kwarezmian Empire, and brought the fall of the Abbasid Caliph and dealt a great blow to Islamic culture. Although the Mongols did indeed bring a huge list of deaths and destruction, the economical boom that followed is obviously something not to be overlooked. One of the only ones that clearly did not benefit from Mongol conquest was Poland and Hungary, and that was because the Mongols withdrew and did not set up a revitalizing government. In conclusion, the Mongol Empire is one of great significance; for the better or worse of the world, it is not one that is to be forgotten.

Today the Mongols and their great leaders are sometimes remembered in two different: as valiant heroes who conquered vast lands against all odds to build a mighty empire or as ruthless conquerors who destroyed everything in their path. The latter is particularly interesting because it is probably more of a natural consequence of the sheer extent of the Mongol conquests rather than the actual creulty of the Mongols since conquerors like Caesar or Alexander the Great were just as cruel as Chingis Khan. Furthermore, the Mongols did not destroy everything in their path. In the end, civilization was rebuilt and benefited greatly from the newly established global economy. In any case, the Mongols should be remembered as a significant player in world history. The significance of their conquests surpasses what any history article can describe…

List of Great Khans

1206-1227 Chingis / Genghis Khan
1229-1241Ogedei Khan (Khakhan) – Son of Chingis
1246-1248 Guyuk Khan (Khakhan) – Son of Ogedei
1251-1259 Mongke / Mengku Khan (Khakhan) – Cousin of Ogedei

After the death of Mongke, in 1260, two Khakhans were elected by rivaling Khuriltais (assemblies): Ariq-Boke (brother of Kubiliai), who ruled from Karakorum, and Kubilai, who ruled from China. Kubilai defeated Ariq-Boke in 1264 to secure sole leadership.

1264-1294 Kubilai Khan (Khakhan) – Brother of Kubilai

No ruler was elected after Kubilai
*Khakhan (also Kaghan, Haqan, meaning “Khan of Khans”): Title used by Khans of the greatest steppe Empires, including the Mongol Empire. This title was officially used by all Khans of the Mongol Empire except for Chingis Khan.

Regents (Temporary rulers) during the election interludes
1227-1229 Tolui – Son of Chingis, Father of Kubilai and Mongke
1241-1246 Toregene Khatun – Wife of Ogedei, mother of Guyuk
1248-1251 Oghul Ghaymish

Chronology

1167? Brith of Temujin (Genghis/Chingis Khan)
1206. The great Khuriltai (assembly) of
1206. Temujin takes the title of “Chingis Khan”
1209-10. Campaign against the Xi Xia.
1211, 1213, 1215. Campaigns against the Jin Empire.
1214. Mongols lay siege to the Jin capital of Zhongdu (modern day Beijing), which falls in
1215. Areas north of the Huang He becomes under Mongol control. Jin capital is moved south to Kai-feng.
1218. Conquest of the Kara Kitai. Mongols raid Korea.
1220. Mongol caravan and ambassadors are murdered by the Khwarazmians. War against Khwarazm (Persia) begins. Capture of Bokhara and Samarkand.
1221. Subedei begins expedition around the Caspian Sea and into Russia.Jalal ad-Din rises in Persia and challenges the Mongols. Jalal ad-Din defeated at the battle of Indus. War with the Kwarazmian Empire concludes.
1226. Final campaign against the Xia Xia.
1227. Genghis Khan dies. War with the Xi Xia concludes.
1228. Ogedei Khan ascends throne and becomes Khakhan (Great Khan)
1235. First serious invasion of Korea.
1234. War against the Jin Empire concludes.
1235. Construction of Karakorum, Mongol imperial capital
1237. Batu Khan and Subedei begin the conquest of Russia.
1241. War in Korea concludes
1241. Batu Khan and Subedei invades and conquers Poland and Hungary. Defeat of the Europeans at Liegnitz and Sajo River. Death of Ogedei Khan
1242. Upon hearing the death of Ogedei Khan, Batu khan withdraws from Europe to secure his conquests in Russia. Political establishment of the Golden Horde Khanate, with Batu as its first Khan.
1246-8. Reign of Guyuk Khan
1251. Election of Mongke Khan as Khakhan.
1252. Invasion of the Sung Empire of south China begins.
1253. Hulegu begins his campaign into the Middle East.
1258. Hulegu captures Baghdad. Death of the last Abassid Caliph.
1259. Death of Mongke Khan.
1260. Hulegu withdraws from Syria upon hearing the death of Mongke, saving the Muslims from further invasion. A minor force left behind is defeated by the Mameluks at Ain Jalut. Hulegu settles in Persia and creates the Il-Khanate, with him becoming the first Il-Khan.
1260. Disagreement on succession of the Mongol throne leads to civil war between the two candidates, Kubilai and Ariq-boke.
1264. Kubilai is victorious over Ariq-boke, becomes Khakhan.
1266. Kubilai builds a new imperial capital at Tatu (modern day Beijing)
1271. Journey of Marco Polo begins.
1272. Kubilai adopts the Chinese dynastic title of Yuan. Kubilai becomes both the Khakhan of the Mongol Empire and the “Yuan Emperor” of China.
1274. First invasion of Japan. The fleet is destroyed in a storm.
1276. Hangzhou, capital of the Sung Empire, falls to the Mongols.
1277-8. Mongols invade Burma, installs a puppet government.
1279. Death of the last Sung emperor during a naval battle.
1294. Death of Kubilai. The Yuan dynasty continues but the Mongol Empire ceased to have a Khakhan. In name, the Mongol Empire ends, as it fractures into four clearly distinct kingdoms.
1335. Death of Abu Sa’id. The Il-khanate failed to produce a successor and becomes fractured. The Il-khanate ends.
1359. As with the Il-khanate, the line of rules of the Golden Horde ended and the khanate failed to produce a successor. The Golden Horde becomes more of a puppet government.
1330. Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) is born in Samarkand. Reunites Persia and defeats both the Russians and the Golden Horde. Builds the so-called Timurid Empire.
1368. Yuan rule in China ends.
1370. Death in Karakorum of Toghon Temur, last Yuan emperor.
1405. Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) dies. The Timurid Empire, referred to as the last great nomadic power, ends. Persia and the Golden Horde are again without a clear ruler. The Golden Horde fractures and becomes separate states.
1502. The Russians overthrow Mongol rule in Russia

The Mongol War Machine – an Overview

The Mongol (or Turkish-Mongol, actually) army was probably the most disciplined, well led, and effective fighting force ever until well into the age of gunpowder. Being “hunters all their lives,” steppe nomads were masters of the horsemanship and were deadly with their composite bow. Unlike Roman Legionnaires or hoplites who had to be trained in camps or academies, nomadic warriors were already skilled warriors. Nomadic warriors were well renown for their horse archers, being able to hit targets accurately while galloping on the horse. But the “Mongol” army was not merely a steppe army.

 

Mongol Trebuchet. The Mongols originally had no knowlege of Siege warfare, but later became masters of it through careful acceptance of new technologies 

When Chingis Khan rose to power, he set a standard of organization, discipline, equipment, and most all the mentality to fight as a group. Chingis organized his army into a decimal system, with a commander for every series of 10 units elected by the troops. Military tactics were rehearsed well in preparation and each warrior was expected to know precisely what to do from the signals of the commanders, which took form in flaming arrows, drums, and banners. The Mongol horde had extremely high discipline. Failure to maintain equipment, and desertion in battle were punishable by death. The combination of skill, discipline, tactics, and some of the most brilliant commanders in history shocked all who fought against them. When the western knights fought the Mongol horsemen, they were utterly destroyed, unable to match the Mongol horde in any category. On the battlefield, the Mongols were capable of a wide array of tricks. Being an army of entirely cavalry, the Mongols could easily dictate the positional flow of the battle, particularly feigned retreats, which could easily fool an enemy into a foolish charge, and encirclement, which is difficult for the enemy to uphold due to the speed and cavalry strength of the Mongols.

Siege machines and gunpowder learned from the Chinese and Persians played an important role in the horde. Besides their use in sieges, siege weapons were widely deployed on the battlefield. The Mongols mastered the use of quick assemble catapults that could be transported on horseback and assembled on the battlefield. Learned from the Chinese, the Mongols developed gunpowder weapons such as smoke grenades (used to hide movement) and firebombs. Both of these contributed to the Mongol success in the invasion of Europe. The Mongol’s acceptance and adaptations to such new methods meant that they were not only an army of the most traditionally skilled warriors, but also an army with the best technology the world has to offer

 

 

THE DETAILED STUDY OF Jin Tartar and Liao dynasty cast coins

CHIN DYNASTY, THE NU-CHENG TARTARS

Emperor WAN-YEN LIANG
AD 1149-1161

reign title: CHENG-LUNG, AD 1156-1161

@

S-1083. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-LUNG YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (12 specimen) 3.83 grams. 25.1 mm.

F   $6.00     VF   $8.50     XF   $12.50@

This is a fairly well cast coinage, with consistently clear characters and very well formed rims. We have found that the size and weights have very little variation within most specimens.


 

Emperor SHIH TSUNG
AD 1161-1189

 

reign title: TA TING, AD 1161-1189

 

S-1085-1086. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (7 specimens) 25.4 mm, 4.14 grams.

F   $6.00     VF   $8.50    XF   $12.50

 

  S-1087. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “SHEN” at top indicating this type was struck in AD 1188. Average (2 specimen) 3.29 grams. 24.4 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1088. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “SHEN” at bottom indicating this type was struck in AD 1188. Average (1 specimen) 2.95 grams. 24.5 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 

  S-1089. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “YU” at top indicating this type was struck in AD 1189. Average (4 specimen) 3.37 grams. 25.6 mm.

F   $22.50     VF   $39.50     XF   $60.00

We recently handled a specimen of this type that was only 2.25 mm and 2.3 grams. The patination and casting showed that the coin is genuine from the time, but we suspect it is a contemporary (of the time) counterfeit.

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1090. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “YU” at bottom indicating this type was struck in AD 1189. Average (1 specimen) 3.50 grams. 25.4 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1091. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Schjoth had such a specimen, but we doubt that it was authentic. At 2.75 grams is was light for coins of the period.

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1092. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had such a specimen, which weighed 3.41 grams. We cannot confirm if the type actually exists or not, but if it does it has to be very rare and we cannot establish a value at this time.

 

Emperor CHANG TSUNG
AD 1190-1208

reign title: T’AI-HO, AD 1201-1208

 

 

S-1093-94. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-HO CHUNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. The two different Schjoth numbers are for narrow (1093) and wide (1094) rims, with the wide rim variation being the scarcer. We have seen narrow rim examples from 16.29 to 24.3 grams with the average of 3 specimens was 19.91 grams, 44.5 mm. The single wide rim example we saw was 27.75 grams, 47.6 mm.

Narrow -VF   $80.00     XF   $120.00
Wide – VF   $125.00     XF   $175.00

 

Schjoth records four specimens of this series, two with blank reverses averaged 16.35 grams, one with Ch’uan Huo on the reverse at 17.24 grams, and one that is most probably a later amulet, with the obverse repeated on the reverse at 32.92 grams. Because of the very high relief of this issue, they are never seen below a grade of VF, and are always very well made coins.

 

Chin or JIN TARTAR,
(A.D. 960 to )

 

This page is a reference guide for Chinese coins issued by the Tartar, Mongol, Ming and other medieval non-Sung Dynasties between (A.D. 960 to 1644 A listing of the ancient and medieval Chinese coins we currently have available can be viewed on our e-book in CD-ROM China coin Four collections.

 

Images used on this page represent the types, but bear no relationship
to the actual size of the coins. Where known, the actual sizes will be listed.

 

the Jin Dynasty

 (1115 – 1234 AD)

was founded by Wanyan Aguda in Northern Manchuria. The Jin conquered Northern China by conquering the Liao and defeating the Song Dynasty.

Liao and Song coins were used early on the Jin rule.

 In 1158,

 the Jin Dynasty made their own coins and later used coins, notes and silver.

Coins cast during this period were of superb quality and excellent calligraphy.

 

The Fu Chang Yuan Bao,

 

Fu Chang Tong Bao

and Fu Chang Zhong Bao

 were three of the finest Jin coins. They were minted during the puppet regime of Emperor Liu Yu who used

 

“Fu Chang” as his period title.  

Casting coins became unprofitable when inflation starts to hit the Jin Dynasty economy.

 

Jin Dynasty Silver Coin”Fu Chang Yuan Bao” $34.00

 

Mints were closed down and coin production ceased for 30 years prior to the defeat of the Jin by the Mongols.

This coin still never found in Indonesia(Dr Iwan Notes)

Read more about Jin Dynasty

 

.

THE JIN DYNASTY

 

The Jīn Dynasty (1115–1234),

also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet. (Photo: Jade Ornament)

 

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda (完顏阿骨打) in 1115. The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty, which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. In 1121, the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia. In 1125, after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China. (Photo: A wooden Bodhisattva)

 

On January 9, 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father, Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeeding Southern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song General Yue Fei in return for peace. (Photo: The Chengling Pagoda, Hebei, built 1161 – 1189AD Wikipedia)

The Fenyang Cemetery of Jin Dynasty

 


The 13th Century Mongolia Soldier,

This Is A Study Time .

 

 

LIAO DYNASTY, AD 907-1125

The Liao were a Tartar Dynasty known as the Ch’i-tan or Ki-tan Tartars, first established by T’ai Tsu in AD 907 during the period of the 5 dynasties. The dynasty lasted for 218 years until AD 1125, ruling from their capital at Beijing. For most of their existence they existed along side the Northern Sung Dynasty, in what appears to be somewhat less than peaceful co-existance. 8190

 
Liao Dynasty, “Hwang Ti Wan Sui” reverse moons, diameter 37.5mm, XF. US $ 649

 

The first Emperor of Liao did not issue any coins. There were five Emperors between AD 907 and 1031 who issued coins, but only a handful of each type is known to exist and it is unlikely any genuine examples will come on the market. We have not listed them here as it is unlikely anyone viewing this site to identify a coin will have one, but you will find information on them on page 216 of David Hartill’s book CAST CHINESE COINS. Schjoth (page 41) notes a record of the Liang Dynasty Emperor Mo, using the reign title Lung-te, issuing large numbers of coins during this period, which are likely what circulated in the Liao region for what little need the Liao people had of coins at that time.

The earliest readily available coins of Liao begin with the Emperor Hsing Tsung during his second reign title of Ch’ung Hsi after he established the first Liao central mint in Manchuria in AD 1053. The mint was not particularly skilled and most Liao coins are fairly crude, poor quality castings.

There are some differences in the dating of the Liao reign titles by Schjoth and Hartill, and we have chosen to use those given by Hartill as it is much more recent and almost certainly more reliable research.


Liao Armor ,

What Mainly Uses Is The Tang End Five Dynasties And Song’s Style, By Song Primarily. Armor’s Superstructure And Song Dynasty Are Completely Same, Only Then Leg Skirt Obviously Compared To Song Dynasty’s Short, Around Two Square Shapes Gu Tail Armor Cover Above Leg, Then Maintained The Tang End Five Dynasties’ Characteristic. The Armor Protects The Abdomen Probably To Use The Leather Belt To Hang Before The Abdomen, Is Fixed With The Waistband, This Point And Song Dynasty’s Leather Armor Is The Same, But Center The Front Large-Scale Circle Protects, Was Liao Unique.

 

Emperor HSING TSUNG
AD 1031-1055

reign title: CHING-FU, AD 1031

No coins were cast by Emperor Hsing Tsung under this title.

 

reign title: CH’UNG-HSI, AD 1032-1055

S-1065. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’UNG-HSI TUNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank Average 24 mm. These coins tend to be poorly cast.

VF   $250.00

 

Schjoth (page 41) records that “in the 22nd year of Ch’ung-hsi (AD 1053) a cash bureau was established at Ch’ang-ch’un in Manchuria”. We assume this is the same as saying a Mint was established there. From this time on, the coinage of Liao becomes much more abundant. We hope to one day look into the events that may have prompted them to take such a move.


 

 

 

Emperor TAO TSUNG
AD 1055-1101

reign title: CH’ING-NING, AD 1055-1064

 

S-1066. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’ING-NING T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 2.57 grams, 24.3 mm (but the specimen was rather worn). These coins tend to be poorly cast, and we apologize for the image of a very worn specimen, bu it is the best specimen we have been able to image.

F   $95.00     VF   $135.00

 

Tartars (Khitan branch, ca AD 907-1125), Liao Dynasty, Emperor Tao Tsung, AD1055-1100, AE Cash

Price US$ 95.00

reign title: HSIEN-YUNG, AD 1065-1074

 

S-1067. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “HSIEN-YUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. These very somewhat in weight. Th average of what we have seen (3 specimen) is 24.3 mm and 3.53 grams, but we have seen them from 2.75 to 3.9 grams. As with most Liao coins, this tends to be a a poorly cast issue. It is also the most common coin of the Liao Dynasty.

VF   $135.00

 

reign title: TA-K’ANG, AD 1075-1084

 

S-1069. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-K’ANG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average 24 mm. These coins tend to be poorly cast.

F   $115.00

 

S-1068. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-K’ANG Y’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average 24 mm. These coins tend to be poorly cast. We have handled this type, but it was before we started recording values and do not currently have a value for it.

This appears to be the only time when two distinct types were issued during the Liang Dynasty. We note that all Liao coins previous to this reign title were caste with “T’UNG-PAO”, and all Liao coins afterwards with “Y’UNG PAO”. We assume that means that for this reign title, the T’ung-pao issues are the earlier of the two. We wonder if this might present a clue as to why many Northern Sung reign titles also occur with more than one of these (and other) variations.

 

 

reign title: TA-AN, AD 1085-1094

 

S-1070-71.Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-AN YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 24.5 mm, 3.51 grams. There are some varieties in this type, with Schjoth noting one with a star hole, and another with a small dot in the upper left corner. We have owned a specimen with a small nail mark on the reverse. These variations would be worth a premium. These coins tend to be poorly cast with slightly irregular rims.

F   $95.00     VF   $135.00

The presence of a dot or nail mark on the reverse, or a star hole on a coin of this type is probably intentional, as similar star holes are very common on Northern Sung coins of this same period. Their meaning is as yet uncertain.

 

reign title: SHOU-CH’ANG, AD 1095-1101

 

S-1072. H 18.19. Obverse: “SHOU-CH’ANG YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimen) 24.0 mm, 3.62 grams. These coins tend to be poorly cast and somewhat irregular rims, and that must be allowed for in their grading.

F   $95.00   VF   $145.00


 

Emperor T’IEN CHA
AD 1101-1125

reign title: CH’IEN-T’UNG, AD 1101-1110

S-1073. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’IEN-T’UNG Y’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average 24 mm. These coins tend to be poorly cast.

F   $95.00     VF   $135.00

 

reign title: T’IEN CH’ING, AD 1111-1120

S-1074. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN CH’ING Y’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average 24 mm. These coins tend to be poorly cast.

F   $85.00     VF   $120.00

 

This appears to be the last coin issued by the Liao Dynasty, even though the dynasty was to last for another five years after this title ended. Hartill (CAST CHINESE COINS, page 217) discusses and additional group of coins which are sometimes attributed to the Liao Dynasty, although all are rare and seldom encountered types which we have not included here. 8188

 
Jin Dynasty, “Tai Ho Chung Pao” large money, diameter 56mmm, XF. US $ 974

US $ 5,974

8189

 
Jin Dynasty, “Tai Ho Chung Pao”, XF. US $ 812  
 

8191

 
Jin Dynasty, “Tai Ho Chung Pao”, diameter 44mm, XF. US $ 649

US $ 1,027

8192

 
Jin Dynasty, “Tai Ho Chung Pao” (2), XF. US $ 649

US $ 747

8193

 
Jin Dynasty, “Dah Ting Tung Pao”, VF. US $ 162  
                 

 

WESTERN HSIA DYNASTY

This was a dynasty fo the Tangut people. Their capital was in Kansu Province, but it is not certain if their capital was in Kanchow or Soochow. In AD 1227, after breaking a promise to support Genghis Khan, this dynasty was exterminated.


 

Emperor JEN TSUNG
AD 1140-1193

reign title: T’IEN-SHENG, AD 1149-1168


As S-1078 but copper 1 cash. Obverse: ‘T’IEN-SHENG YUAN PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (13 specimens) 23.9 mm, 3.51 grams.

F   $12.00     VF   $25.00

 

These are always well cast coins with bold characters and seldom seen in a grade below gF. The the brass has a very distintive light-brown tone to it. Schjoth says that the copper of this type is rare and that iron is common, but we currently find the opposite to be true

 

reign title: CH’IEN-YU, AD 1169-1193

 

S-1080. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “CH’IEN-YU YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (4 specimen) 24.8 mm, 3.82 grams.

F   $35.00     VF   $75.00

 


 

Emperor HSIANG TSUNG
AD 1206-1212

reign title: HUANG-CHIEN, AD 1210-1212

S-1081, “HUANG-CHIEN YUAN-PAO”. This is an unusual coin in that the inscription starts at the top and is read around to the right, rather then the usual top-bottom-left-right.

gVF   $145.00

 


 

Emperor SHEN TSUNG
AD 1212-1222

reign title: KUANG-TING, AD 1212-1222

 

S-1082, “KUANG-TING YUAN-PAO. This is an unusual coin in that the inscription starts at the top and is read around to the right, rather then the usual top-bottom-left-right. The specimens of this type that we have seen tend to be crudely cast from course sand molds. Average (1 specimen) 24.9 mm, 4.07 grams.

F   $75.00     VF   $110.00

 

CHIN DYNASTY, THE NU-CHENG TARTARS

Emperor WAN-YEN LIANG
AD 1149-1161

reign title: CHENG-LUNG, AD 1156-1161

@

S-1083. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHENG-LUNG YUAN-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (12 specimen) 3.83 grams. 25.1 mm.

F   $6.00     VF   $8.50     XF   $12.50@

This is a fairly well cast coinage, with consistently clear characters and very well formed rims. We have found that the size and weights have very little variation within most specimens.


 

Emperor SHIH TSUNG
AD 1161-1189

 

reign title: TA TING, AD 1161-1189

 

S-1085-1086. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (7 specimens) 25.4 mm, 4.14 grams.

F   $6.00     VF   $8.50    XF   $12.50

 

  S-1087. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “SHEN” at top indicating this type was struck in AD 1188. Average (2 specimen) 3.29 grams. 24.4 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1088. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “SHEN” at bottom indicating this type was struck in AD 1188. Average (1 specimen) 2.95 grams. 24.5 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 

  S-1089. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “YU” at top indicating this type was struck in AD 1189. Average (4 specimen) 3.37 grams. 25.6 mm.

F   $22.50     VF   $39.50     XF   $60.00

We recently handled a specimen of this type that was only 2.25 mm and 2.3 grams. The patination and casting showed that the coin is genuine from the time, but we suspect it is a contemporary (of the time) counterfeit.

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1090. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: “YU” at bottom indicating this type was struck in AD 1189. Average (1 specimen) 3.50 grams. 25.4 mm.

F   $20.00     VF   $35.00     XF   $55.00

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1091. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Schjoth had such a specimen, but we doubt that it was authentic. At 2.75 grams is was light for coins of the period.

 


IMAGE NOT
YET AVAILABLE

S-1092. Iron 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-TING T’UNG-PAO” in orthdox script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth had such a specimen, which weighed 3.41 grams. We cannot confirm if the type actually exists or not, but if it does it has to be very rare and we cannot establish a value at this time.

 

Emperor CHANG TSUNG
AD 1190-1208

reign title: T’AI-HO, AD 1201-1208

 

S-1093-94. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “T’AI-HO CHUNG-PAO” in seal script. Reverse: blank. The two different Schjoth numbers are for narrow (1093) and wide (1094) rims, with the wide rim variation being the scarcer. We have seen narrow rim examples from 16.29 to 24.3 grams with the average of 3 specimens was 19.91 grams, 44.5 mm. The single wide rim example we saw was 27.75 grams, 47.6 mm.

Narrow -VF   $80.00     XF   $120.00
Wide – VF   $125.00     XF   $175.00

 

Schjoth records four specimens of this series, two with blank reverses averaged 16.35 grams, one with Ch’uan Huo on the reverse at 17.24 grams, and one that is most probably a later amulet, with the obverse repeated on the reverse at 32.92 grams. Because of the very high relief of this issue, they are never seen below a grade of VF, and are always very well made coins.

 

 

 

Read more info

   
 
Tartars (Khitan branch, ca AD 907-1125), Liao Dynasty, Emperor Tao Tsung, AD1055-1100, AE CashPrice US$ 95.00Sorry, this item has been sold.     Tartars (Khitan branch, ca AD 907-1125), Liao Dynasty, Emperor T’ien Cha, AD1101-1125, AE CashPrice US$ 95.00Sorry, this item has been sold.  
 
Tartars, Western Hsia Dynasty, AD982-1227, Emperor Jen Tsung, AD1140-1193, AE CashPrice US$ 15.00Sorry, this item has been sold.     Tartars, Western Hsia Dynasty, AD982-1227, Emperor Jen Tsung, AD1140-1193, AE CashPrice US$ 45.00  
 
Tartars, Western Hsia Dynasty, AD982-1227, Jen Tsung Emperor, AD1140-1193, CH’IEN-YU YUAN-PAO (AD1169-1193), Iron CashPrice US$ 65.00     Tartars (Tangut branch), Western Hsia Dynasty, AD982-1227, Emperor Shen Tsung, AD 1212-1222, AE CashPrice US$ 120.00  

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