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Bedah Buku Tan Malaka “dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara” dan sejarah terkait.

Buku Tan malaka “dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara”

dan sejarah terkait

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Bedah Buku

Karya Tan Malaka

 

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (1970)

Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

Pengantar

Saya baru saja menemukan buku tentang Tan Malaka yang berjudul Dari Penjara Ke Penjara ,buku ini juga telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa jepang,

Untuk mengenal lebih lanjut tentang sejarah buku ini dan juga tentang Tan Malaka silahkan membaca hasil penelitian oleh dr Iwan di Bawah Ini

Jakarta Juli 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

Ringkasan

Image of the title page of: Tan Malaka (1947). Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara. vol 1, 3rd ed. Djakarta: Widjaya.

This is Tan Malaka’s autobiography, which was published in three volumes.

May 31, 2011 at 7:39 am

sejauh ini, saya tidak pernah mendengan tentang “memoar dari penjara ke penjara”. Sebab, buku “dari penjara ke penjara” itu sendiri pada dasarnya memoar dari Tan Malaka (karena dia berupa catatan harian yang ditulis oleh Tan Malaka selama masa pergerakannya 

 

 
 

 

 
 

Introduction

 

Selain Madilog, Tan Malaka  menulis beberapa buku, seperti

 Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Tan Malaka adalah orang yang dikagumi karena kecerdasannya. Ia menggagas pemikiran Madilog (Matrealisme Dialektika dan Logika). Selain Madilog, ia menulis beberapa buku, seperti Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara dan Gerpolek. Bahkan, ia adalah orang pertama yang mendeklarasikan Partai Republik Indoneisa di Bangkok. Selama masa hidupnya, Tan Malaka banyak sekali diasingkan dari negeri Indonesia.
Saat pengasingan, Tan Malaka hijrah ke Moskow, Berlin, dan Belanda.

 Meskipun berada di luar Indonesia, Tan Malaka tidak penah berhenti mempejuangkan kemerdekaan.

Ia menulis banyak artikel dan melakukan berbagai propaganda politik melalui media luar negeri. 

Tan Malaka meninggal pada 1949. Harry A Poeze, sejarawan asal Belanda, menyebutkan bahwa ia mati ditembak TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, Kediri.

Dari Penjara Ke Penjara Bagian Satu

by Tan Malaka

Buku sejarah hidup Tan Malaka, Bapak Republik Indonesia yang ditulis secara pribadi ketika beliau berada dalam Penjara di tanah airnya sendiri. Buku ini terdiri dari Tiga jilid, dimana jilid pertama ditulis oleh beliau ketika berada di Penjara Magelang. Hampir sebagian hidup Tan Malaka dihabiskannya di dalam penjara, akibat aktifitas politiknya yang anti kolonialisme.

Namun pada kenyataannya, Tan Malaka tidak hanya dipenjarakan oleh Pemerintah kolonial, tp juga oleh pemerintahan bangsanya sendiri yang berbeda posisi politik dengan Tan Malaka.

Jilid pertama ini mengisahkan kehidupan beliau disekitar masa pemenjaraan oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda dan pemerintah Filipina

 

 

 

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.

 

 

Selama dalam tahanan Ariel mengaku banyak mengisi masa dengan membaca buku2 falsafah, dan sesekali menulis. Salah satu buku yang dibaca adalah karya Tan Melaka, tokoh nasional yang pernah menulis buku Dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara.

Ariel menolak komen saat ditanya soal kekasihnya Luna Maya yang mula kembali aktif berlakon drama, begitu juga saat ditanya kemungkinan dirinya mencipta lagu atau duet dengan Luna.

Ariel mengaku bosan di penjara, kerana itu dirinya banyak mengisi kegiatan dengan membaca dan menulis, harus ada yang dikerjakan.

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan, Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan komunis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai “Pahlawan revolusi nasional” melalui ketetapan parlemen dalam sebuah undang-undang tahun 1963.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan. Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:
Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)
Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)
Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)
Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)
Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Buku
Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara
Menuju Republik Indonesia
Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara, autobiografi
Madilog
Gerpolek

(Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org)

 

 

 

Biography

Tan Malaka

 

 

Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka atau Ibrahim gelar Datuk Tan Malaka (lahir di Nagari Pandam Gadang, Suliki, Sumatera Barat, 2 Juni 1897 – meninggal di Desa Selopanggung, Kediri, Jawa Timur, 21 Februari 1949 pada umur 51 tahun)[1] adalah Bapak Republik Indonesia,[2] seorang aktivis pejuang kemerdekaan Indonesia, seorang pemimpin sosialis, dan politisi yang mendirikan Partai Murba. Pejuang yang militan, radikal, dan revolusioner ini banyak melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran yang berbobot dan berperan besar dalam sejarah perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dengan perjuangan yang gigih maka ia dikenal sebagai tokoh revolusioner yang legendaris.

Dia kukuh mengkritik terhadap pemerintah kolonial Hindia-Belanda maupun pemerintahan republik di bawah Soekarno pasca-revolusi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Walaupun berpandangan sosialis, ia juga sering terlibat konflik dengan Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI).

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan,

 

Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan sosialis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai pahlawan nasional melalui Ketetapan Presiden RI No. 53 tanggal 23 Maret 1963.[3]

Tan Malaka juga seorang pendiri partai PARI dan Murba, berasal dari Sarekat Islam (SI) Jakarta dan Semarang. Ia dibesarkan dalam suasana semangatnya gerakan modernis Islam Kaoem Moeda di Sumatera Barat.

Tokoh ini diduga kuat sebagai orang di belakang peristiwa penculikan Sutan Sjahrir bulan Juni 1946 oleh sekelompok orang tak dikenal di Surakarta sebagai akibat perbedaan pandangan perjuangan dalam menghadapi Belanda.[4] [sunting] Riwayat

         Tahun 1897, Tan Malaka lahir di Suliki, Sumatera Barat. Dia lahir di tengah-tengah lingkungan Minangkabau, dari pasangan Rasad Caniago dan Sinah Simabur.

         Saat berumur 16 tahun, 1913, setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke

 

 

 

Karena cerdas, saat berumur 16 tahun, ia dikirim ke Negeri Belanda

         Rijks Kweekschool di Haarlem, Belanda.

Tahun 1919

         ia kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru disebuah perkebunan di Deli. Ketimpangan sosial yang dilihatnya di lingkungan perkebunan, antara kaum buruh dan tuan tanah menimbulkan semangat radikal pada diri Tan Malaka muda.

Tahun 1921,

          ia pergi ke Semarang dan bertemu dengan Semaun dan mulai terjun ke kancah politik

         Saat kongres PKI 2425 Desember 1921, Tan Malaka di undang dalam acara tersebut.

         Januari 1922

         ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang.

         Pada Maret 1922

         Tan Malaka diusir dari Indonesia dan mengembara ke Berlin, Moskwa dan Belanda.

         Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Kanton.

         Tahun 1924,

         diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Pasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern.

         Tahun 1924, menerbitkan buku “Naar de Republiek Indonesia” (Menuju Republik Indonesia) yang berisi konsep tentang negara Indonesia yang tengah diperjuangkan. Lebih dulu dari pleidoi Mohammad Hatta didepan pengadilan Belanda di Den Haag yang berjudul “Indonesia Vrije” (Indonesia Merdeka) (1928) atau tulisan Soekarno yang berjudul “Menuju Indonesia Merdeka” (1933)

         Tahun 1925,

          masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

         Tahun 1926,

          masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

         Tahun 1927,

         bersama Subakat, Sugono, dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia).

         Tahun 1932,

          berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Shanghai.

         Tahun 1936,

         mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

         Tahun 1937,

          Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

         Tahun 1942,

         Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang, dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

         Tahun 1943

         , menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan bawah tanah (ilegal), dengan menjadi buruh (romusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein.

         Tahun 1945,

         mendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah pada masa pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

         Tahun 1946,

          menjadi promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, dan laskar.

         Tahun 1947,

          menentang politik Perundingan Linggarjati.

         Tahun 1948,

         menentang politik Perundingan Renville. Mendirikan Partai Murba dan Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi.

         21 Februari 1949,

          Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di Kediri, Jawa Timur.[1]

Perjuangan

Pada tahun 1921

 Tan Malaka telah terjun ke dalam gelanggang politik. Dengan semangat yang berkobar dari sebuah gubuk miskin, Tan Malaka banyak mengumpulkan pemuda-pemuda komunis. Pemuda cerdas ini banyak juga berdiskusi dengan Semaun (wakil ISDV) mengenai pergerakan revolusioner dalam pemerintahan Hindia Belanda. Selain itu juga merencanakan suatu pengorganisasian dalam bentuk pendidikan bagi anggota-anggota PKI dan SI (Sarekat Islam) untuk menyusun suatu sistem tentang kursus-kursus kader serta ajaran-ajaran komunis, gerakan-gerakan aksi komunis, keahlian berbicara, jurnalistik dan keahlian memimpin rakyat. Namun pemerintahan Belanda melarang pembentukan kursus-kursus semacam itu sehingga mengambil tindakan tegas bagi pesertanya.

Melihat hal itu Tan Malaka mempunyai niat untuk mendirikan sekolah-sekolah sebagai anak-anak anggota SI untuk penciptaan kader-kader baru. Juga dengan alasan pertama: memberi banyak jalan (kepada para murid) untuk mendapatkan mata pencaharian di dunia kapitalis (berhitung, menulis, membaca, ilmu bumi, bahasa Belanda, Melayu, Jawa dan lain-lain); kedua, memberikan kebebasan kepada murid untuk mengikuti kegemaran mereka dalam bentuk perkumpulan-perkumpulan; ketiga, untuk memperbaiki nasib kaum miskin. Untuk mendirikan sekolah itu, ruang rapat SI Semarang diubah menjadi sekolah. Dan sekolah itu bertumbuh sangat cepat hingga sekolah itu semakin lama semakin besar.

 

Perjuangan Tan Malaka tidaklah hanya sebatas pada usaha mencerdaskan rakyat Indonesia pada saat itu, tapi juga pada gerakan-gerakan dalam melawan ketidakadilan seperti yang dilakukan para buruh terhadap pemerintahan Hindia Belanda lewat VSTP dan aksi-aksi pemogokan, disertai selebaran-selebaran sebagai alat propaganda yang ditujukan kepada rakyat agar rakyat dapat melihat adanya ketidakadilan yang diterima oleh kaum buruh.

Seperti dikatakan Tan Malaka pada pidatonya di depan para buruh “Semua gerakan buruh untuk mengeluarkan suatu pemogokan umum sebagai pernyataan simpati, apabila nanti menglami kegagalan maka pegawai yang akan diberhentikan akan didorongnya untuk berjuang dengan gigih dalam pergerakan revolusioner”.

Pergulatan Tan Malaka dengan partai komunis di dunia sangatlah jelas. Ia tidak hanya mempunyai hak untuk memberi usul-usul dan dan mengadakan kritik tetapi juga hak untuk mengucapkan vetonya atas aksi-aksi yang dilakukan partai komunis di daerah kerjanya. Tan Malaka juga harus mengadakan pengawasan supaya anggaran dasar, program dan taktik dari Komintern (Komunis Internasional) dan Profintern seperti yang telah ditentukan di kongres-kongres Moskwa diikuti oleh kaum komunis dunia. Dengan demikian tanggung-jawabnya sebagai wakil Komintern lebih berat dari keanggotaannya di PKI.

Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang masih sangat muda ia meletakkan tanggung jawab yang sangat berat pada pundaknya. Tan Malaka dan sebagian kawan-kawannya memisahkan diri dan kemudian memutuskan hubungan dengan PKI, SardjonoAliminMusso.

Pemberontakan 1926 yang direkayasa dari Keputusan Prambanan yang berakibat bunuh diri bagi perjuangan nasional rakyat Indonesia melawan penjajah waktu itu. Pemberontakan 1926 hanya merupakan gejolak kerusuhan dan keributan kecil di beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Maka dengan mudah dalam waktu singkat pihak penjajah Belanda dapat mengakhirinya. Akibatnya ribuan pejuang politik ditangkap dan ditahan. Ada yang disiksa, ada yang dibunuh dan banyak yang dibuang ke Boven Digoel, Irian Jaya. Peristiwa ini dijadikan dalih oleh Belanda untuk menangkap, menahan dan membuang setiap orang yang melawan mereka, sekalipun bukan PKI. Maka perjaungan nasional mendapat pukulan yang sangat berat dan mengalami kemunduran besar serta lumpuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Tan Malaka yang berada di luar negeri pada waktu itu, berkumpul dengan beberapa temannya di Bangkok. Di ibu kota Thailand itu, bersama Soebakat dan Djamaludddin Tamin, Juni 1927 Tan Malaka memproklamasikan berdirinya Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI). Dua tahun sebelumnya Tan Malaka telah menulis “Menuju Republik Indonesia“. Itu ditunjukkan kepada para pejuang intelektual di Indonesia dan di negeri Belanda. Terbitnya buku itu pertama kali di Kowloon, Hong Kong, April 1925.

Prof. Mohammad Yamin, dalam karya tulisnya “Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia” memberi komentar: “Tak ubahnya daripada Jefferson Washington merancangkan Republik Amerika Serikat sebelum kemerdekaannya tercapai atau Rizal Bonifacio meramalkan Philippina sebelum revolusi Philippina pecah….”

Pahlawan
Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai MURBA, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.

Madilog

Madilog merupakan istilah baru dalam cara berpikir, dengan menghubungkan ilmu bukti serta mengembangkan dengan jalan dan metode yang sesuai dengan akar dan urat kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan dunia. Bukti adalah fakta dan fakta adalah lantainya ilmu bukti. Bagi filsafat, idealisme yang pokok dan pertama adalah budi (mind), kesatuan, pikiran dan penginderaan. Filsafat materialisme menganggap alam, benda dan realita nyata obyektif sekeliling sebagai yang ada, yang pokok dan yang pertama.

Bagi Madilog (Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika) yang pokok dan pertama adalah bukti, walau belum dapat diterangkan secara rasional dan logika tapi jika fakta sebagai landasan ilmu bukti itu ada secara konkrit, sekalipun ilmu pengetahuan secara rasional belum dapat menjelaskannya dan belum dapat menjawab apa, mengapa dan bagaimana.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.

Pahlawan

Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai Murba, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi

 

 

Sampul Majalah Tempo dengan Tan Malaka

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan.

Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:

         Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)

         Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)

         Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)

         Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)

         Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Fakta-fakta Tan Malaka [5]

         Perjalanan Tan Malaka sepanjang 89.000 km, setara 2 kali keliling bumi. Dia mengunjungi dua benua dan sekurang-kurangnya ke 11 Negara.

         Bahasa Yang Dikuasai : Minang, Indonesia, Belanda, Rusia, Jerman, Inggris, Mandarin, Tagalog.

         Nama Samaran : Elias Fuentes, Estahislau Rivera, Alisio Rivera (Filipina); Hasan Gozali (Singapura), Ossorio (Shanghai), Ong Song Lee (13 varian, Hongkong), Tan Ming Sion (Burma), Legas Hussein, Ramli Hussein, Ilyas Hussein (Indonesia), Cheung Kun Tat, Howard Lee (Cina).

         Teman Dekat Wanita : Syarifah Nawawi (Bukittinggi), Fenny Struyvenberg (Belanda), Nona Carmen (Filipina), Paramita Rahayu A. (Jakarta) dan A.P. Toa Chi (Cina)

         Penjara : Filipina (1937), Hongkong (1932), 11 Penjara di Jawa (1922, 1946-1948)

        

 

Tan Malaka

(lengkapnya Sutan Ibrahim Gelar Datuk Tan Malaka) lahir di Suluki, Nagari Pandan Gadang, Sumatera Barat dengan nama Ibrahim. Menurut Harry A. Peoze, tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka secara tepat tidak diketahui. Pada waktu itu belum ada register (daftar) penduduk bagi orang Indonesia.

Peoze menemukan data tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang berbeda: 1893, 1894, 1895, 2 Juni 1896, 2 Juni 1897, dan 1897. Ia sendiri mengatakan bahwa ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1994, tanggal 14 Oktober 1894, dan pada tahun 1896. Poeze cenderung untuk menganggap tahun 1897 sebagai tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang paling tepat; melihat fakta bahwa pada tahun 1903 ia mengikuti pendidikan di sekolah rendah. Maka, dapatlah ditarik kesimpulan bahwa ketika itu ia berusia kurang lebih 6 tahun.

Tan Malaka menyatakan bahwa keluarganya beragama Islam dan beradat asli Minangkabau. Ia lahir dalam kultur yang peduli terhadap pendidikan dan memiliki tradisi keagamaan yang kuat. Keluarganya adalah tergolong taat kepada agama Islam

Tan Malaka memiliki beberapa nama dalam perjalanan hidupnya baik di dalam maupun luar negeri dengan alasan, karena nama Tan Malaka sudah dikenal di seluruh Sumatera dan pemerintah Belanda, nama tersebut tidak dapat mengadakan perjalanan dan juga untuk menyembunyikan identitas.

Ketika memasuki Manila dan Hongkong (1927) Tan Malaka merubah namanya menjadi Elias Fuente. Bernama Oong Soong Lee ketika memasuki Hongkong dari Sanghai (1932), Ramli Husein saat kembali ke Indonesia dari Singapura melalui Penang terus ke Medan, Padang dan Jakarta (1942). Ketika berada di Bayah (Banten), Jawa Barat sebagai pekerja yang membantu romusha di masa revolusi, ia menggunakan nama Ilyas Husein. Namanya yang lain Cheng Kun, Tat, Elisoe, dan Howard Law.Extille adakalanya ditambah dengan Kiang Mai. Ketika menulis karangan untuk pers Komunis, harian Njali yang terbit di Batavia sejak bulan September 1925 sampai Mei 1926. Ia menggunakan, Haji Hasan dalam beberapa surat-surat yang ditulis buat kawan-kawannya, dan nama Nadir. Tan Malaka menyamar sebagai Tan Ho Seng, ketika belajar dan bekerja sebagai guru bahasa di Nanyang Chinese Normal School, Singapura.

Adapun riwayat hidup Tan Malaka secara urutan waktu, sebagai berikut:

1897 Tan Malaka lahir, bermain dan sekolah di Kweekschool.

1913 Setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke Rijks Kkweekschool di Haarlem, Nederland. Selain menuntut ilmu di sekolah, beliau sudah aktif mempelajari keadaan masyarakat Eropa sejak meletus dan selesainya Perang Dunia ke-1 (1914-1918) serta pecah dan selesainya Revolusi Sosial di Rusia (Oktober 1917) yang bersambung dengan mulai berdiri dan mengumandangnya suara Internasionale III.

1918 Atas permintaan Ki Hadjar Dewantara yang mendatangi Tan Malaka bersama Dr. Gunawan di Nederland, mewakili Indische Vereeniging, dalam Kongres Pemuda Indonesia dan Pelajar Indologie di Deventer, memberikan prae-advies tentang pergerakan Nasional.

1919 Kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru sekolah untuk anak-anak kaum buruh perkebunan Senembah, di Sumatera Timur.

1921 Terjun dalam lapangan pendidikan rakyat yang didirikan oleh Serikat Islam Semarang, dan VSTP (Serikat Buruh Kereta Api) yang dipimpin oleh Semaun di Semarang.

Tan Malaka menjadi penganjur utama tentang pentingnya persatuan antara kaum Komunis dan Islam dalam menentang kolonialisme/imperialisme. Hal ini dikemukakan dalam sebuah rapat SI di Semarang bersama dengan Semaun.

Tan Malaka menjadi Wakil Ketua Serikat Buruh Pelikan (Tambang) Cepu yang didirikan oleh Semaun.

– Dalam Kongres PKI dipilih menjadi ketua, mewakili Semaun yang sedang berada di luar negeri (Moskow), di dalam Kongres beliau berpidato tentang pentingnya Persatuan Islam-Komunis dan memperingatkan bahayanya politik ‘pecah & adu’ (devide et impera) yang di kala itu sedang digunakan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda untuk melumpuhkan gerakan-gerakan rakyat Indonesia. Ide Tan Malaka tersebut mendapat dukungan penuh dari seorang tokoh SI, Kyai Tubagus Hadikusumo.

1922 Tan Malaka mewakili Vaksentral-Revolusioner pemimpin pemogokan kaum buruh penggadaian (PPPB) di Jogjakarta dan mengatur solidaritas serta aksi yang dilancarkan oleh serikat buruh anggota Vaksentral-Revolusioner (VSTP., Pelabuhan, Pelikan, Gula, dan lainnya).

– Tanggal 2 Maret ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang (Timur), kemudian dalam bulan itu juga mendapat externing ke Eropa (Nederland). Tan Malaka ditangkap dan diasingkan pemerintah kolonial ke luar negeri. Dari Belanda, ia pergi ke Moskow (Uni Sovyet) melalui Polandia. Ia dikejar-kejar intel dan spionase kolonial Belanda, Inggris, Jepang, Amerika Serikat, Perancis, rezim nasionalis Kumintang. Di mata mereka, Tan Malaka adalah buronan politik “kaliber kakap.”

– Berbicara dalam Perayaan 1 Mei yang diselenggarkan oleh kaum buruh dan Partai Komunis Holland (CPH), kemudian dipilih sebagai calon dalam pemilihan umum parlemen.

– Menuju Jerman dan terjun langsung di tengah-tengah rakyat Jerman yang masih dalam keadaan penderitaan hidup karena harus menanggung seluruh hutang perang Serikat yang dibebankan kepada rakyat Jerman sebagai negeri kalah perang (Perang Dunia ke-1, tahun 1914-1918).

– Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Canton, di mana daerahnya meliputi Seksi-seksi Partai Komunis yang sudah ada atau akan didirikan di daerah ‘Selatan’ yang oleh Tan Malaka disebut ASLIA ialah: Burma, Siam, Annam, Filipina, Malaya dan Indonesia.

– Berhasil bertemu dengan Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Presiden Republik Tiongkok pertama yang daerahnya waktu itu baru meliputi Tiongkok Selatan berpusat di Yenan.

1924 Diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Fasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern (Serikat Sekerja Internasional Merah) yang dikunjungi oleh utusan-utusan dari Tiongkok Utara & Selatan, Indonesia dan Filipina.

– Memimpin Majalah berbahasa Inggris The Dawn (Fajar) sebagai suara dari Biro tersebut.

1925 Masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

1926 Masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

1927 Bersama Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia) untuk meluncurkan kembali langkah-langkah menyusun kekuatan Partai Komunis di Indonesia yang lumpuh akibat pemberontakan Madiun pada akhir tahun 1926.

– Masuk lagi ke Filipina tetapi tertangkap oleh Dinas Rahasia Amerika, di mana dalam perkara tersebut Tan Malaka dibela oleh parlemen dan presiden pertama Republik Filipina, Manuel Quezon. hakim Filipina atas permintaan pemerintah Amerika memutuskan mengeluarkan Tan Malaka dari Filipina ke Amoy.

1932 Berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Syanghai.

1936 Mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

1937 Ketika Jepang mulai mengarahkan serangannya menuju Amoy, Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

1942 Setelah mengalami pertempuran-pertempuran di sekitar Benteng Seletar antara tentara Jepang dan Inggris di Singapura, Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

1943 Menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan di bawah tanah (ilegal) dengan merupakan dirinya sebagai buruh (roomusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein, mengikuti jalannya tempo untuk dicetuskannya kelahiran Republik Indonesia Merdeka melalui revolusi.

1945 Pendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah di waktu pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

1946 Promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, laskar dan lain-lain, di atas dasar program revolusi yang dikenal dengan nama 7 Pasal Minimum Program, menolak politik kompromi dengan imperialis Belanda yang dimulai dengan politik 1 November dan 3 November 1945.

1947 Menentang politik kompromi Linggarjati tahun 1947.

1948 Menentang politik kompromi Renville tahun 1948.

– Pendiri Partai Murba yang melanjutkan Program Persatuan Perjuangan.

– Pendiri Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi (GPP) yang berpusat di Jawa Timur.

1949 Tangggal 19 Februari hilang karena diciderai (ditembak mati dan jenazahnya dilempar ke sungai Brantas) di Kediri, Jawa Timur, di saat beliau sedang memimpin revolusi melawan agresi Belanda, di saat itu pula para pemimpin pemerintahan pusat di Jogja sudah banyak yang ditangkap dan ditawan Belanda.Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di hadapan senapan sekelompok tentara republik sendiri atas perintah gubernur militer Jawa Timur.

Karya-karya Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka termasuk penulis yang cukup produktif dalam menuangkan alam pikirannya. Berikut ini adalah karya-karyanya:

  1. Materialisme-Dialektika-Logika (Madilog)

Tebal kitab ini, 462 halaman, yang ditulis di Rajawati, dekat pabrik sepatu Kalibata, Cililitan, Jakarta dengan waktu yang dipakai lebih kurang 8 bulan, dari 15 Juli 1942 sampai 30 Maret 1943 (berhenti 15 hari), 720 jam. Jadi, menurut Tan Malaka, kira-kira 3 jam sehari. Dalam seminggu empat hari ia pergunakan untuk menulis, yaitu dari pukul 6 sampai pukul 12. Setelah itu berjalan-jalan di desa. Tiga kali seminggu ke perpustakaan di Gambir dengan berjalan kaki yang memakan waktu 4 jam.

Kitab ini ditulisnya dengan tulisan tangan dengan hurup kecil supaya aman dari mata polisi dan tongkat kempetai Jepang. Tidak ada catatan bahan referensi, karena buku-bukunya telantar cerai berai dan lapuk atau hilang di berbagai tempat atau negara, – walaupun demikian menjelang habis Madilog ditulis, ia berjumpa dengan beberapa buku tentang logika dalam bahasa Belanda, Inggris, Jerman dan Spanyol- sehingga ia mengandalkan ingatan Tan Malaka; jembatan keledai (ezelbruggetje).

Maksud penulisan Madilog menurut Tan Malaka, adalah pertama sebagai cara berpikir. Bukanlah suatu Weltanschauung atau pandangan dunia; walaupun, menurutnya, hubungan antara cara berpikir dan pandangan dunia atau filsafat adalah seperti tangga dengan rumah. Rapat sekali. Dari cara orang berpikir, dapat diduga filsafatnya dan dari filsafatnya dapat diketahui dengan cara dan metode apa sehingga sampai ke filsafat itu.

Kedua, Madilog juga diharapkannya sebagai bacaan penghubung kepada filsafat proletar Barat. Karena, menurutnya, otak proletar Indonesia tak bisa mencernakan paham yang berurat dan tumbuh pada masyarakat Barat yang berbeda sekali dengan masyarakat Indonesia dalam iklim, sejarah, keadaan jiwa dan cita-citanya.

Ketiga, untuk mengupas dan mengobati penyakit penjajahan, keterbelakangan dan kolonialisme, Tan Malaka menyajikan landasan pandangan yang beralaskan pada materialisme, dialektika dan logika. yang dituangkannya dalam sebuah buku Madilog. Dari sinilah kemudian, Tan Malaka memandang realitas lokal, nasional dan internasional dalam aneka lini kehidupan, termasuk di dalamnya keberadaan agama yang ia masukkan ke dalam kelompok kepercayaan.

Karya terbesar dari Tan Malaka ini diniatkannya sebagai upaya untuk merombak sistem berpikir bangsa Indonesia, dari pola berpikir yang penuh dengan mistik kepada satu cara berpikir yang rasional. Tanpa perombakan cara berpikir, sulit rasanya bangsa Indonesia untuk maju dan mewujudkan masyarakat Indonesia yang merdeka dan sosialistik. MADILOG sebagai konsep berpikir yang memadukan ketiga unsurnya, yaitu MAterialisme, DIalektika dan LOGika, merupakan kesatuan dan tidak boleh dipecah-pecah.

  1. Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.

  1. Gerpolek (Gerilya Politik Ekonomi)

Ditulis di penjara Madiun 1948. Berisi tentang ajarannya dalam melakukan gerilya politik maupun ekonomi. Uraian tentang cara bergerilya dalam politik dengan strategi militer, maupun dengan penguatan ekonomi dengan merebut seluruh kekayaan asing. Keduanya menjadi satu dan saling menguatkan.

4. Sovyet atau Parlemen

Ditulis tahun 1921 di Semarang. Berisi tentang uraian sistem pemerintahan yang dikenal saat itu seperti sistem parlemen di Inggris mulai abad ke-12, juga di Perancis, Jerman dan lain-lain. Intinya menurut Tan Malaka, parlemen dengan sistem perwakilan yang dikenalnya hanya akan menjadi perkakas dari yang memerintah. Bersamaan dengan mulai menguatnya kapitalisme dengan ujung imperialisme, parlemen pada akhirnya hanyalah alat dari kapitalisme. Kemudian dengan tegas Tan Malaka membedakan parlemen dengan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) yang menurutnya parlemen adalah alat untuk mengekalkan perburuhan dan kapitalisme, sedangkan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) adalah alat sementara guna menghilangkan pengaruh kapitalisme (modal) untuk mendatangkan sosialisme.

  1. Toendoek Kepada Kekoesaan, Tetapi Tidak Toendoek Kepada Kebenaran

Ditulis di Berlin tahun 1922. Berisi tentang pembelaannya ketika ditangkap di Bandung tanggal 13 Februari 1922 dengan tuduhan mengganggu ketertiban umum, membuat keonaran dan yang terberat adalah adalah usaha menggerakkan rakyat untuk mengadakan pemberontakan guna mengusir penjajah Belanda dari bumi Indonesia. Ia menyatakan bahwa tuduhan itu tidak benar dan penguasa kolonial hanya berusaha untuk mematikan aktivitas pergerakan nasional saat itu.

  1. Goetji Wasiat Kaoem Militer

Ditulis tahun 1924 di Saigon. Diterbitkan dengan nama Sumendap dan Daniel, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka.

  1. Indonesiai ejo mesto na proboezjdajoesjtsjemsja vostoke

Diterbitkan di Moskow tahun 1924. Pada brosur ini tertulis Sukindat, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka. Poeze mengatakan, brosur ini berisi tentang thesis bagi keadaan sosial dan ekonomi serta tuntutan untuk berorganisasi yang mengembangkan strategi dan taktik untuk diterapkan di Indonesia.

  1. Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia)

Diterbitkan di Canton, April 1925. Berisi tentang uraiannya akan kondisi dunia, pertentangan dua sistem antara kapitalisme dan komunisme yang diyakininya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme. Dilanjutkan dengan dengan situasi di Indonesia di mana penjajah Belanda melakukan penjajahan dengan biadab, namun Tan Malaka yakin suatu saat penjajah akan kalah apabila semua organisasi perjuangan yang ada terutama PKI, dapat menyusun tujuan revolusionernya.

  1. Massa Actie

Ditulis di Singapura tahun 1926. Secara umum brosur ini berisi tuntutan bagaimana melakukan sebuah revolusi di Indonesia. Sebuah revolusi terutama di Jawa dan Sumatera adalah sesuatu yang tak dapat dihindarkan. Baginya tidak ada sikap yang netral, yang ada adalah berpihak pada penjajah Belanda atau rakyat terjajah Indonesia. Dari sini kemudian baru Tan Malaka beralih pada bagaimana menjalankan revolusi yang benar, dan massa aksi bukan putch, tidak bisa dicapai oleh pemberontakan atau kudeta secara anarkis.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Bangkok)

Ditulis di Bangkok 1927. Berisi uraian tentang perlunya membentuk partai baru dan menamakannya PARI (Paratai Republik Indonesia) yang dibentuk semata-mata untuk kepentingan Indonesia serta akan memberikan yang terbaik untuk itu. Manifesto ini mengoreksi kesalahan PKI, yaitu pemberontakan 1926/1927 yang menyebabkan hancurnya partai dan mereka tidak bermaksud memunculkan partai ini lagi, karena beranggapan tidak mungkin jika mendirikan partai-partai yang telah melakukan cukup kesalahan. Kemudian manifesto juga menyatakan pemutusan dengan Internasionale (Comintren) yang menurutnya tidak akan baik di Indonesia. Dengan mengambil contoh dari Jerman, Italia, Bulgaria dan China dinyatakannya kepemimpinan Moscow gagal untuk negeri lain. Seluruh Internasionale Ketiga (Comintern) dibangun demi kepentingan Rusia dan terutama pemimpin-pemimpin komunis dari Timur cenderung akan terjebak kepada ketaatan buta dan kehilangan kemandirian mereka, akibatnya mereka akan kehilangan hubungan dengan rakyat mereka sendiri yang tentunya berlainan dengan suasana kejiwaan rakyat Rusia.

  1. Lokal dan Nasional Aksi di Indonesia

Diterbitkan di Singapura 1926. Menurut Poeze, brosur ini diterbitkan dalam bagian yang terpisah, secara rahasia disebabkan dengan cara menyalinnya dengan mesin ketik. Bagian pertama dikenal juga dengan judul “Soerat Rahasia boeat lokal aksi di Minangkabau”, 20 September 1926.

  1. SI Semarang dan Onderwijs

Ditulis di Semarang tahun 1921 pada saat Tan Malaka berusaha merumuskan tujuan pendidikan dari sekolah Serikat Islam yang mulai dibangunnya (dikenal juga dengan sekolah Tan Malaka). Berisi pokok-pokok pikiran yang akan dikembangkan/diajarkan dalam sekolahnya.

  1. Asia Bergabung (Gabungan Aslia)

Ditulis tahun 1943. Menurut Poeze hanya selesai separuh.

  1. Semangat Moeda

Ditulis di Manila tahun 1926, namun oleh Tan Malaka dikatakan di Tokyo sebagai tempat penerbitannya.

15. Politik

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 24 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan antara Godam (simbolisasi kaum buruh), Pacul (petani), Toke (pedagang), Den Mas (ningrat) dan Mr. Apal (wakil kaum intelektual). Menguraikan tentang bagaimana caranya merdeka, maksud dan tujuan kemerdekaan, serta bagaimana mengisi kemerdekaan itu dan yang tak kalah penting adalah Indonesia Merdeka harus berdasarkan sosialisme.

16. Rentjana Ekonomi

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 28 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang rencana pembangunan ekonomi, yang menurutnya ekonomi sosialislah yang dapat membawa kemakmuran bagi Indonesia kelak.

  1. Moeslihat

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 2 Desember 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang strategi dan taktik dalam perjuangan untuk membawa Indonesia ke arah kemerdekaan.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Jakarta)

Ditulis di Jakarta tahun 1945. Menguraikan tentang pertentangan sistem yang ada di dunia, antara kapitalisme dengan komunisme yang menurutnya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme serta penolakan atas percobaan pendirian Republik Indonesia yang kapitalis dan membatalkan semua upaya dari luar untuk menjajah kembali Indonesia dengan cara apa pun.

  1. Thesis

Ditulis tahun 1946 di Lawu. Berisi tentang ajarannya mengenai pembentukan negara sosialistis. Uraian tentang perjuangan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia seratus persen. Juga pembelaannya terhadap tuduhan Trotsky yang selalu dituduhkan kepadanya, berkenaan dengan pemberontakan PKI 1926 yang gagal dan oleh pihak PKI kegagalan itu selalu dialamatkan kepada Tan Malaka sebagai orang yang menyabotnya.

  1. Koehandel Di Kaliurang (Perdagangan Sapi di Kaliurang)

Ditulis tanggal 16 April 1948 dengan nama samaran Dasuki. Berisi tentang penolakan terhadap perjuangan diplomasi yang tidak berprinsip, yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah saat itu. Perjuangan lewat diplomasi hanya akan merugikan Indonesia dan menjual Indonesia kepada kaum kapital asing, oleh karena itu perundingan harus dibatalkan atau dihandel dan mempersiapkan kaum MURBA untuk berjuang.

  1. Surat Kepada Partai Rakyat

Ditulis 31 Juli 1948 di penjara Magelang sebagai sambutan tertulis dalam pembentukan Kongres Partai Rakyat tanggal 10-11-12 Agustus 1948. berisi tentang bagaimana mengorganisasikan Partai Rakyat agar menjadi partai yang memperhatikan dan memperjuangkan rakyat MURBA.

  1. Proklamasi 17-8-1945, Isi dan Pelaksanaannya

Pidato tertulis pada Kongres Rakyat Indonesia Desember 1948. Berisi tentang penolakan perundingan yang dilakukan Indonesia saat itu dan persiapan perang kemerdekaan dalam menghadapi agresi militer Belanda.

  1. Uraian Mendadak

Merupakan salinan tertulis dari pidato yang diucapkan di depan Kongres peleburan tiga partai (Partai Rakyat, Partai Buruh, dan Partai Rakyat Jelata) menjadi Partai Murba. Berisi tentang reorganisasi partai dan uraian untuk tetap mempertahankan Republik Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Karya-karya tulis Tan Malaka meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan dan kenegaraan-politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran, terlihat benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesiaan, serta benang merah orsinalitas, kemandirian, kekonsekuenan, dan konsistensi yang direnda jelas dalam gagasan-gagasannya dan perjuangan implementasinya dalam rumusan konsepsional dan penjabaran operasionalnya.

Setting Sosial Politik Tan Malaka

Latar kehidupan Tan Malaka berada dalam ruang dan waktu dengan sosiopolitikkultural yang melingkupinya. Paling tidak, ada tiga situasi dan kondisi penting yang mewarnai pandangan serta perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka yaitu, keadaan internasional, Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat.

Pertama. Keadaan internasional. Menurut Tan Malaka:

Tahun 1918, terjadi perjanjian Versailles. Pada waktu itu dunia sedang gemuruh. Satu negara besar dan baru dalam di segala-gala timbul, ialah Sovyet Rusia. Pada jaman itu saya masih muda, masih belajar di Eropa Barat. Dalam usia Sturm und Drang periode itu, dalam usia sedang bergelora itu saya dilondong topan yang bertiup dari Eropa Timur itu. Dunia Barat sendiri pada masa itu seakan-akan mengikuti Sovyet Rusia. Dari dunia Eropa Timur itulah saya mendapatkan semua ilham dan petunjuk yang saya rasa perlu buat perjuangan politik, ekonomi dan sosial kita.

Di bidang politik di Eropa, terjadi dampak pergolakan politik Pascaperang Dunia I di Eropa pada umumnya dan di Belanda pada khususnya. Revolusi Oktober 1917 di Rusia yang disusul oleh gerakan revolusioner kaum sosial-demokrat Belanda yang dipimpin oleh Troestra memberi inspirasi kepada unsur-unsur progresif Indonesia yang tergabung dalam ISDV untuk menuntut pemerintahan sendiri dan perwakilan hak-hak yang luas.

Di bidang ekonomi, Perang Dunia I mengakibatkan kemacetan pengangkutan hasil perkebunan sehingga pengusaha perkebunan mengurangi produksinya sehingga berakibat rakyat banyak kehilangan pekerjaan dan pendapatan. Penderitaan rakyat bertambah besar lebih-lebih karena gubernemen membebankan pajak yang lebih berat kepada rakyat.

Perkembangan politik kolonial Belanda adalah politik kolonial konservatif (1800-1848), cultuurstelsel (1830-1870), permulaan politik kolonial liberal (1850-1870) dan politik ethis (1900), yakni edukasi, irigasi dan emigrasi.Tan Malaka lahir pada akhir abad ke-19, ketika diberlakukannya politik etis Belanda. Politik etis ini merupakan politik balas budi bangsa Belanda kepada Hindia Belanda oleh keuntungan yang diperolehnya selama dasawarsa-dasawarsa yang lalu. Kebijakan politik ini adalah terbukanya kesempatan yang makin luas di kalangan pribumi untuk memperoleh pendidikan modern ala Belanda. Pendidikan ini juga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan atas tenaga-tenaga terdidik untuk birokrasi. Dari sinilah munculnya beberapa intelektual muda yang bersentuhan dengan pemikiran Barat, termasuk tentang nasionalisme.

Kedua, alam Minangkabau. Secara sosiologis, nagari -kesatuan masyarakat lokal dalam masyarakat Minangkabau- merupakan konsep kosmologis yang di dalamnya terkandung kehidupan religius yang bersifat kontemplatif transenden. Secara holistik, dalam nagari tidak saja diurus masalah teknis pemerintahan, malahan sampai pada hal-hal yang bersifat transenden seperti kehidupan surau. Surau pada jaman dahulu merupakan kelengkapan suku dan tempat berkumpulnya anak-anak muda serta remaja dalam upaya menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Surau sekaligus juga digunakan sebagai tidur bersama, membahas berbagai ilmu agama, dan juga dimanfaatkan sebagai tempat penyelesaian berbagai permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh suku melalui musyawarah bersama yang merupakan inti demokrasi kultural nagari.

Daerah Minangkabau pada permulaan abad ini mengenal tiga paham yang pada umumnya berpengaruh pada diri penduduknya. Ketiga paham itu adalah paham Islam, adat dan kolonialisme serta berbagai implikasi yang dikandungnya. Ketiganya mempunyai pendukung walaupun para pendukung ini juga terpengaruh oleh ketiganya. Bentrokan paham, negosiasi dan saling memanfaatkan dari interaksi pendukung tersebut sering terjadi.

Daerah Minangkabau merupakan daerah terbuka dari lalu lintas dunia internasional untuk melakukan aktivitas politik, ekonomi, agama dan budaya. Sifat pragmatis dari sebagian penduduk cepat mengambil manfaat dari perkembangan yang berlaku. Kemudian dalam mengambil manfaat dari administrasi perdagangan, administrasi pemerintahan dan juga dalam bidang pendidikan.

Bukit Tinggi menjadi pusat pendidikan se-Sumatera. Sekolah Raja, yaitu sekolah guru berbahasa Belanda (Kweekschool) yang berada di kota itu merupakan tempat melatih pada tingkat menengah anak-anak Indonesia dari seluruh Sumatera. Sekolah ini adalah tempat penampungan bagi anak-anak kalangan bangsawan dan orang-orang besar lainnya di pulau tersebut.

Merantau merupakan bagian dari tradisi Minangkabau. Kedudukan perantau begitu mulia dalam masyarakat. Pergi merantau, menurut visi falsafah Minangkabau dapat membuka mata untuk mengenal dunia luar yang luas, di mana mereka akan mendapatkan hal-hal baru yang nanti akan dibawanya pulang. Merantau, bukanlah semata mencari uang atau harta, melainkan juga menuntut ilmu atau mengaji. Berdasarkan batasan ini, menurut Alfian, Tan Malaka adalah seorang perantau, baik fisik maupun mental (pemikiran).

Rantau pertama yang dialami Tan Malaka ialah ketika dia meninggalkan desa tempat lahirnya pergi menuntut ilmu ke “Sekolah Raja” di Bukit Tinggi. Walaupun masih berada di alam Minangkabau, tapi alam asalnya adalah Nagari Pandan Gadang. Sewaktu dia tamat belajar di Bukit Tinggi, ia diberi gelar Datuk Tan Malaka oleh kaum atau sukunya, sebagai kepala adat mereka. Ini berkait erat dengan ilmu yang diperolehnya di rantau. Tidak lama sesudah itu, dia pergi lagi melanjutkan studinya ke negeri Belanda, perantauan yang amat jauh bagi anak muda yang baru berumur 16 tahun. Ruang lingkup alamnya lambat laun berubah dari Nagari Pandan Gadang yang kecil meluas menjadi Minangkabau dan kemudian Indonesia. Modal ini dikembangkan Tan Malaka untuk memahami dan menginterpretasikan permasalahan-permasalahan masyarakat Indonesia.

Visi adat dan falsafah Minangkabau dari merantau untuk mengontraskan atau membandingkan dunia rantaunya dengan realitas alam asalnya, sehingga dapat melihat mana yang baik dan yang buruk dari keduanya. Hal ini mengundang orang berpikir kritis dan dialektis. Oleh karena itu kontradiksi atau konflik dianggap wajar, terutama karena suasana tersebut akan selalu dapat diintegrasikan atau diselesaikan secara memuaskan atau harmonis melalui proses pemilihan mana yang baik dan buruk dengan akal, yaitu kemampuan berpikir secara rasionil. Dengan demikian, visi itu mendorong orang untuk berpikir secara kritis, dinamis atau dialektis. Cara berpikir demikian dengan sendirinya menolak dogmatisme atau parokhialisme. Karena menolak dogmatisme, maka dengan sendirinya menghendaki kebebasan berpikir.

Dalam perantauan, mental Tan Malaka berhasil melepaskan diri dari keterikatan terhadap salah satu dari berbagai corak nilai yang hidup dan berkembang dalam masyarakat dan berhasil melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran baru yang bercorak lain, berbobot dan orisinal. Ini karena mempunyai idealisme untuk membangun manusia dan masyarakat Indonesia baru, menghargai kebebasan berpikir dan memiliki sikap kritis yang tajam serta mempunyai kepercayaan kepada diri sendiri yang kuat sehingga mendorong untuk memiliki keberanian mengembangkan pemikiran sendiri.

Ketiga, alam pikir Barat. Pada usia sekitar 23 tahun, Tan Malaka mengalami pergulatan batin dan pikiran tentang agama yang bekaitan dengan mistik. Dalam satu suratnya Tan Malaka menulis untuk salah seorang temannya, Dick: “…aku pun masih mencari-cari, atau yang lebih tepat, masih menyelidiki. Aku sudah memilih arah pokok dalam kehidupan sosial dan agama, bila yang belakangan ini dapat kusebut demikian. Pertanyaan berikut kini sedang mendapat perhatianku: ‘Yang disebut kejadian di luar hukum alam (gaib) itu, apakah memang benar-benar ada?’ aku hidup di tengah bangsa yang gemar akan mistik. Hari ini atau lusa aku akan berjumpa dengan ahli mistik…”

Tan Malaka memberikan penilaian terhadap agama dan pilihannya marxisme: “…gereja itu, Dick, benar-benar suatu organisai ekonomi…gereja Katolik kupandang sebagai eksploitasi kapitalistis yang paling rendah, karena nama tuhan dipakai.

…tentang Islam lebih baik kita diam saja. Dalam agama itu pun ajaran lebih penting daripada praktik. Setiap praktik kebanyakan masih diarahkan pada pemilihan harta benda, tercapainya kedudukan yang lebih baik, atau kekayaan.

….kulihat dengan kepalaku sendiri apakah artinya mistik Islam. Berhari-hari kuserahkan diriku kepada suatu bimbingan. Kesimpulan akhirnya adalah sebagai berikut: mistik itu mungkin sekali omong kosong saja, atau penipuan, atau kedua-duanya sekaligus. Ah, aku sungguh muak melihat penipuan itu di manapun agama menyelinap di dalam masyarakat! Bukannya aku menolak kebajikan itu sendiri yang juga menjadi tujuan, misalnya Islam. Tetapi itu berlaku pada jaman dulu sekali ketika Muhammad sendiri masih hidup sangat sederhana…

… Jadi, kebajikan dan perdamaian itu kupandang hanya mungkin dapat tercapai melalui revolusi. Begitulah seorang Marxis yang materialistis sesungguhnya mempunyai latar belakang yang idealistis…”

Kelak pada perkembangan kehidupannya Tan Malaka memiliki pandangan bahwa Islam memiliki kekuatan revolusioner dan dapat menjadi alat untuk melawan kolonialisme dan imperialisme dengan melakukan pembelaan dan menganjurkan PKI untuk bekerja dengan terhadap Serikat Islam.Di bidang agama perhatiannya besar sekali pada soal-soal mistik: tetapi di bidang sosial ia sudah memilih gagasan komunisme.

Kepergiannya ke negeri Belanda bisa disebut sebagai jendela awal perkenalannya pada dunia luar. Berkenalanlah dirinya dengan paham sosialisme dan menjadikannya berkenalan dengan pemikiran Nietzche dan karya-karya Th. C. Arlyle, yang membuatnya berada dalam semangat dan paham revolusioner. Tan Malaka menyerap secara kritis alam pikir Hegel, Lenin, Karl Marx, Engels dan Charles Darwin. Ini ditandai dengan banyaknya rujukan kepada tokoh-tokoh tersebut sebagai kerangka acuan pemikirannya, terutama dalam bukunya, Madilog.

Selanjutnya adalah persentuhan pemikiran Tan Malaka dengan berbagai kalangan sampai para aktivis, pemikir dan tokoh dunia Barat. Dengan didukung modal minat, semangat dan kecerdasan yang dimilikinya untuk belajar; jaringan pergaulan, berorganisasi ditambah kemampuan penguasaan bahasa yang banyak, menjadi bekal perjuangannya di dalam maupun luar negeri. Menurut pengakuan Tan Malaka, ia menguasai berbagai bahasa seperti, Belanda, Jerman, Inggris, Melayu, Jawa, Perancis, Tagalog, Siam, dan sedikit bahasa Cina. Dari kemampuan bahasa ini, Tan Malaka mendirikan sekolah bahasa di Amoy, School for Foreigen Languages yang berkembang pesat kemajuannya

Dari sebagian tulisannya, basis pandangan tentang realitas, Tan Malaka memilih menggunakan materialisme dan rasionalisme dan paham komunisme sebagai ideologi perjuangan politik, meski Tan Malaka melakukan penafsiran ulang demi penyesuaian situasi dan kondisi Indonesia. Alam pikir Barat berperan dalam perjalanan kehidupan Tan Malaka. Alam dan kerangka pikir Barat diselami, akan tetapi dalam penggunaannya disaring secara kritis dan dinamis.

Dari latar keadaan internasional, adat Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat, tidaklah aneh jika dia dijuluki nasionalis, sosialis dan komunis yang beragama Islam. Berikut beberapa komentar atas sosok Tan Malaka:

Pokoknya di dalam sekujur tubuhnya mengalir sederas-derasnya, darah anti-Imperialisme, anti-Kolonialisme, sedang setiap denyut jantungnya membersihkan nafas perjuangan kemerdekaan Tanah Air dan Bangsanya.

Saya kenal almarhum Tan Malaka. Saya baca semua ia punya tulisan-tulisan. Saya berbicara dengan beliau berjam-jam, dan selalu di dalam pembicaraan-pembicaraan saya dengan almarhum Tan Malaka ini, kecuali tampak bahwa Tan Malaka adalah pecinta tanah air dan bangsa Indonesia, ia adalah sosialis sepenuh-penuhnya.

Tan Malaka adalah tokoh yang mewakili komunis di Timur Jauh. Ia adalah pemimpin komunis yang paling berhasil dan berpengalaman.

Perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka, pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional Republik Indonesia ini, seringkali diwarnai kegulitaan dalam kesejarahannya. Seperti kepastian kapan Tan Malaka lahir dan kematiannya yang tragis; tidak ada kuburan Tan Malaka, rencana penyerahan kepemimpinan nasional dari Bung Karno kepada Tan Malaka, pandangan terhadap Tan Malaka hendak melakukan kudeta terhadap Soekarno-Hatta dan perpecahan di kalangan kader PKI hingga kematian Tan Malaka penuh teka-teki dan mengenaskan. 
Redaksi : Seniman Kehidupan

Tautan : http://www.pmii-ciputat.or.id/alumni/kolom-alumni/158-riwayat-tan-malaka.html 

Tags :
Biografi Tan Malaka, sejarah tan malaka, kisah tan malaka, seniman kehidupan, tan malaka

 

         Senin, 09 Mei 2011

         Tan Malaka Memikirkan Indonesia (2)

         Ditulis ulang : Muhammad Ilham

        

          

         Madilog adalah cara berpikir Tan yang menautkan ilmu bukti melalui penyesuaian dengan akar kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan mondial.

          

          Tidak sepenuhnya memang Tan menyelisihi filsafat materialisme yang sebatas menganggap materi dan kenyataan menampak (fisikiah) sebagai yang ada dan utama; namun dalam Madilog, Tan menekankan bukti (meliputi budi, kesatuan, pikiran, dan inderawi) sebagai yang utama. Bukti merupakan fakta. Adapun fakta menjadi fondasinya ilmu bukti.

          

         Melalui Madilog, Tan bukan cuma memikirkan realita Indonesia pada masa hidupnya. Namun layaknya seorang futuris, ia membenturkan kontemplasi filsafatnya ini untuk masa depan Indonesia.

          

         Dan gagasan dalam Madilog-nya menerap dan jalin-menjalin sebagai sebuah pola yang konsisten dan konsekwen (ilmiah dan Indonesia sentris) melalui karya-karya lainnya yang secara holistik memikirkan berbagai permasalahahan Indonesia berikut implementasinya. Maka boleh dibilang pemikirannya tidak lekang dimakan jaman. Avonturisasi politiknya di mancanegara selalu licin. Tapi ironis, di tanah airnya sendiri Tan justru tetap bergerak secara klandestin.

          

         Tak banyak diketahui dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah bahwa Tan-lah yang menggerakkan massa untuk menggelar rapat raksasa di Lapangan Ikada pada 19 September 1945. Soekarno mengagumi pemikiran Tan yang banyak menginspirasi perjuangan Revolusi Kemerdekaan.

Dalam salah satu artikel Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi yang dimuat Majalah Tempo edisi khusus Tan Malaka (2008), disebutkan begitu kagumnya dengan pemikiran Tan Malaka, Soekarno pernah membuat sebuah testamen ahli waris revolusi untuk Tan jika terjadi sesuatu pada diri Soekarno – Hatta.

          

         Ketika masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan, Tan lebih memilih jalannya sendiri membentuk Persatuan Perjuangan (PP) pada 1 Januari 1946 untuk mengambil alih kekuasaan dari tangan sekutu. Namun niatnya disalahartikan sebagai sebentuk jalan mengkudeta Soekarno – Hatta.

          

          Tan dibui, berpindah-pindah di penjara Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur hingga lepas pada September 1948 sejalan dengan tuntasnya naskah Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara yang ia tulis. Sebagai responsnya atas situasi politik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati (1947) dan Renville (1948), Tan merintis Partai Murba pada November 1948. Tan –lagi-lagi– dituding mengkudeta pemerintah. Pada 21 Februari 1949 akhirnya Tan tewas di tangan orang sebangsanya sendiri dan di tanah airnya sendiri. Sejatinya, sejarah tentang seorang tokoh pendiri bangsa lazimnya menyampaikan pesan-pesan moral dan edukasi untuk generasi sesudahnya. Tapi bukanlah sejarah namanya jika kepentingan atas masa lalu sarat juga dengan kepentingan-kepentingan politis yang memungkinkan citra tokoh itu untuk dibelokkan, dikaburkan, bahkan dihilangkan. Asa hidup di alam kemerdekaan berupa keterbukaan dan kejujuran mengungkapkan masa lalu pun kadang terhadang oleh narasi-narasi besar (grand narratives [baca: negara]). Sebagaimana hal itu didapati dari sepinya jejak pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah seputar gagasannya mewujudkan republik ini. Sebagai sosok pejuang sekaligus pemikir yang lain dari keumuman eksponen pergerakan nasional, jalan hidup Tan yang asing dan banyak mengasing itu pun membuat Matu Mona mengiaskan dalam karya Patjar Merah Indonesia­-nya dengan julukan mysteryman. Senyata dengan jejak kehidupannya yang asing dan banyak mengasing. Dan dalam penulisan sejarah Indonesia modern, memori kolektif masyarakat Indonesia –khususnya siswa-siswa sekolah– terhadap sosok Tan Malaka tidaklah sebagus dibandingkan terhadap Soekarno, Hatta, dan Sjahrir. Konteks bagus itu pun tak lebih hanya sebatas mengenal nama, kedudukan, dan momen seputar sang tokoh.

        

          

         Napak Tilas periodesasi kiprah Tan Malaka (sumber : tempo.com)/perbesar : klik gambar

        
Jejak pemikiran para tokoh pendiri bangsa sebagai hal yang lebih hakiki untuk diteladani justru menguap dalam teks-teks pelajaran sejarah yang diproduksi untuk kepentingan pendidikan nasional. Meski begitu, dalam wacana sejarah selama beberapa dasawarsa terakhir ada pergeseran nilai terkait subjek, perspektif, dan pendekatan masa lalu yang menjauhi narasi-narasi besar. Pergeseran itu dimaklumi juga terjadi karena ketidakpuasan terhadap narasi besar dalam mengendalikan dan memproduksi teks-teks sejarah. Ketika teks tidak berbunyi sebab ada yang ter/di-sembunyikan, maka medium seni visual (seperti fotografi, film, dan teater) menjadi alternatif menggali hakikat dan pemahaman masa lalu melalui pendekatan
subaltern (Nordholt & Steijlen [2007]; rujuk juga Nordholt, Purwanto, & Saptari [2007]). Jelas ini menjadi penting sebagai sebentuk penyi(ng)kapan terhadap narasi besar dalam menarasikan masa lalu, yang mana salah satunya menyangkut citra tokoh semisal Tan Malaka ini.

Setidaknya patut disyukuri adanya ikhtiar menempatkan Tan Malaka berdasarkan sejarah dalam konteksnya (historicizing history), selain melalui teater juga film sebagai alternatif yang baik untuk membangunkan masyarakat dari amnesia sejarah. Saya tidak ada hasrat berlebih untuk terlalu menyoalkan masih ditemukan kelemahan historical mindedness dalam film karya kawan-kawan dari Institut Kesenian Jakarta tersebut. Tapi dengan menyisipkan beberapa perkataan yang lekat dengan cerminan jiwa dan pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam mengecam taklid buta dan fanatisme sempit terhadap ideologi atau kepercayaan apapun dalam fragmen-fragmen film tersebut, telah menyambung lidah “bapak republik” itu untuk mengedukasi mental dan sikap rakyat Indonesia yang hidup pada alam kekinian. Misalnya perkataan Tan (adalah pola pikir madilognya [rujuk juga perkataan ini dalam Alfian. 1977]) di hadapan anak-anak kecil yang diajari berhitung: “Akuilah dengan hati bersih bahwa kalian dapat belajar dari orang Barat. tapi jangan sekali-kali kalian meniru dari orang Barat. Kalian harus menjadi murid-murid dari Timur yang cerdas…

Secara generis, perkataan itu sebetulnya akan terus patut dan layak dipakai kapanpun sebagai pandangan dan kedudukan bangsa Indonesia untuk menilai, menghadapi, dan terlibat dalam kumparan masalah nasional dan dunia. Tidak terjerembab dalam banalitas hubungan kebudayaan Barat dan Timur serta punya prinsip dalam menghadapi benturan peradaban antarkedua kutub tersebut. Relasi ideal antara Barat dan Timur memang menjadi salah satu pokok pemikiran Tan Malaka. Seperti halnya juga Sutan Sjahrir atau Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Tan Malaka –seperti halnya Sjahrir– agaknya gelisah juga dengan tabiat dan sikap kaum bumiputra yang mana satu pihak begitu mengagungkan adiluhungnya dominasi Barat secara taklid sehingga tanpa disadarinya merendahkan diri sendiri sebagai seorang Indonesia. Pihak lain terpenjara dalam kekolotan alam pikiran Timur yang masih dikuasai mitos dan menolak sama sekali segala hal berbau Barat sebagai yang dinilai sesat dan menyesatkan. Permasalahan itu pun kini masih hadir dalam wajah baru, tapi esensinya tak banyak berubah jika menyelami dalam-dalam perkataan Tan Malaka tersebut. Sejarah yang memihak untuk Tan Malaka jelas melebihi apresiasi pemerintah yang pada 1963 sebatas memberinya gelar pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional. Menghadirkan kembali gagasan-gagasan jenialnya tentang Indonesia, tentunya jauh lebih penting melebihi gelar kepahlawanan. Pemikirannya yang mengajarkan: anti-dogmatisme, berpikir kritis, anti-kekerasan sebagai siasatnya melawan kezaliman dan kebodohan pada masa hidupnya, am

Bibliografi

 

 

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

         Parlemen atau Soviet (1920)

         SI Semarang dan Onderwijs (1921)

         Dasar Pendidikan (1921)

         Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia) (1924)

         Semangat Muda (1925)

         Massa Actie (1926)

         Pari dan Nasionalisten (1927)

         Pari dan PKI (1927)

         Pari International (1927)

         Manifesto Bangkok(1927)

         Aslia Bergabung (1943)

         Muslihat (1945)

         Rencana Ekonomi Berjuang (1945)

         Politik (1945)

         Manifesto Jakarta (1945)

         Thesis (1946)

         Pidato Purwokerto (1946)

         Pidato Solo (1946)

         Madilog (1948)

         Islam dalam Tinjauan Madilog (1948)

         Gerpolek (1948)

         Pidato Kediri (1948)

         Pandangan Hidup (1948)

         Kuhandel di Kaliurang (1948)

         Proklamasi 17-8-45 Isi dan Pelaksanaanya (1948)

         Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (1970)

[sunting] Referensi

  1. 1.     ^ a b c “Misteri Kematian Tan Malaka Terungkap”, Kompas, diakses Juli 2007
  2. 2.     ^ Muhammad Yamin, Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia: Riwajat Politik Seorang Pengandjoer Revolusioner jang Berfikir, Berdjoeang dan Menderita Membentoek Negara Republik Indonesia, Djakarta: Berita Indonesia, 1946
  3. 3.     ^ M. Yuanda Zara, Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946: Menguak Kudeta Pertama dalam Sejarah Indonesia, MedPress, 2009
  4. 4.     ^ lihat Soejatno dan Anderson B 1974. Revolution and social tensions in Surakarta 1945-1950. Indonesia 17:99-111 (dengan dua rujukan lainnya di catatan kaki).
  5. 5.     ^ Majalah Tempo Edisi Khusus Tan Malaka, 7 Agustus 2008

[sunting] Bacaan lanjutan

         Castle, James W. Diplomasi and Perdjuangan Tan Malaka Contra Sjahrir: Kegelisahan Kepada Revolusi. , 1972.

         Hery, Yunior H. Tan Malaka Dibunuh!: Meneropong Krisis Politik, 1945-1949. Yogyakarta: Resist Book, 2007.

         Mrazek, Rudolf. Semesta Tan Malaka. Yogyakarta: Bigraf Pub, 1994.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta, 2008.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 2. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2009.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 3. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2010.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka: Pergulatan Menuju Republik. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1999.

         Yamin, Muhammad. Tan Malaka: Bapak Republik Indonesia. Djawa Timur: Moerba Berdjoeang, 1946.

         Zulkifli, Arif. Tan Malaka. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG), 2010.

[sunting] Pranala luar

 

Wikiquote memiliki koleksi kutipan yang berkaitan dengan:

Tan Malaka

       (Indonesia) Catatan Pinggir: Tan Malaka, Sejak Agustus Itu 

       (Indonesia) “Arsip Tulisan Tan Malaka”

       (Indonesia) “Arsip Tulisan Tan Malaka dalam Bahasa Inggris”

       (Indonesia) Tan Malaka (1897-1949)

       (Indonesia) Manifesto Djakarta

       (Indonesia) Petualangan Pacar Merah Indonesia

       (Indonesia) Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi

       (Indonesia) Gerilya Dua Sekawan

       (Indonesia) “seniman-kehidupan.blogspot.com ‘Tan Malaka'”

 

The Indonesian Music Jazz History Collections

The Indonesian Music Jazz

History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Copyright@ s013

THIS THE PART OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM

“The Indonesian Music Record History Collections”

This sample not full illustrated,the complete CD exist but only for Premium Member ,please subscribed via comment.

 

 

 

Introductions

JAZZ

First,

jazz is important thing/genre for musician, if you can play jazz you can play anything, find as many jazz song as you can get, listen to that song carefully, feel it in your heart, feel the beat, feel the tempo, feel the note, listen to that song, take what they play, and try to improvisation the song with your skill.

Second,

 you must know the basic chord for jazz, like Maj7, m7, Dom7, Maj, min, and also you must memorize the 12 major scales, and chord arpeggios, its really useful for playing jazz you know, you can’t play anything, if you can’t play the basic right?

 

Third,

 you must know the chord progression, like circle of fourth, circle of fifth, and the others, its really useful for making jazz songs, with chord progression you can made a nice song, or nice rhytem melodic.

Fourth,

 buy a songbook that have the chord, tone, and also the chord progression, it will help you to play the song, play with low tempo, then try a mid tempo, and try a fast tempo if you can:P

Fifth,

find a software for computer that contains the tone, and the chords sounds, and try to improvise the song with yourself, try the scales, the arpeggios, the chords, and the others.

Sixth,

learn Chord inversion, Pentatonic scales of your favourites chords, blues scales, melodic minor scales, harmonic minor scales, minor scales, major scales, and the modes.

Seventh,

made a jazz band! you couldn’t go forward if there is no friend to ask right? ask many people about the teoric, and practice.

Good luck

 for the exercise!!!, remember, practice not make perfect

The Indonesian Music Jazz Collections

 

History

The History of Jazz Music in Indonesia

in the 30’s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30’s.

Brought by

Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

Not only transferring jazz, they also introduced a wind instrument, such as trumpet, saxophone, the music lovers in Jakarta. They play Latin jazz rhythms, such as boleros, rhumba, samba and more.

The names of the musicians who still remember is

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.


 
read more about The Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

The Philippines Jazz Dance Bands of the 1930s

 

 

 

The new jazz messengers in the Philippines were the dance bands, which performed the “de cajon” or stock arrangements. The brass and horn sections’ harmony was in block, closed-chord position and was often audibly predictable. Among the very popular Swing bands of the 1930s, the Shanghai Swing Masters, the Pete Aristorenas Orchestra, the Cesar Velasco Band, the Tirso Cruz Orchestra at the Manila Hotel, the Mabuhay Band (also overseen by Tirso Cruz), and the Mesio Regalado Orchestra were among the more prominent names that flourished.

These big bands would provide dance music in the Swing style for Manila’s high-class society and for major provincial capitals where fiestas and other social events would take place year- round. It kept the jazz musicians busy and gainfully employed which gave them an opportunity to travel around the country and eventually overseas, where the pay was much higher.

In fact, many of the jazz musicians after discovering other foreign capitals where jazz was appreciated, would decide to have long extended contracts living a more prominent way of life as compared to the economic limitations back home. But home being close to their hearts, these foreign-based Filipino jazz musicians would periodically visit their motherland to update locals with their latest musical wares.

Read more anout

The popular Jazz Band in 1930

 

 

 

Duke Elinton band

For the first time in the Czech Republic, the Duke Ellington Orchestra will perform their stylized magic.

 

The first-class artistic ensemble interprets the wonderful jazzy music of Duke Ellington, the legendary jazz composer, big band leader and pianist. Duke Ellington was one of the most important figures in the genre of Jazz music and the Duke Ellington Orchestra is known for doing the man proud.

So if you feel like kicking up your jazz feet and experiencing a night of atmospheric music, go have a listen to the Duke Ellington Orchestra performing at Lucerna Hall in Prague. Tickets available at http://www.ticketpro.cz

 

 

Count Basie orchestra

 

Count Basie Orchestra
Directed by Grover Mitchell

 

GROVER MITCHELL

Photo: Armond Bagdasarian

 

***1999 GRAMMY WINNER***
(Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance)

And winner of :

* Total of 17 Grammy Awards
* 2 Grammy Hall of Fame Awards
* 9 DownBeat Readers and Critics Poll Awards

The swing revival currently going gangbusters in clubs and ballrooms across the nation is generating a new audience for swing music, both contemporary and classic. These new-found fans, sensing something big is to be found behind the music of Big Bad Voodoo Daddy and other favorites of the current scene, have started to seek out the originals, the roots of the music. Inevitably, their search leads them to the Count Basie Orchestra.

Something similar happened in the 1980s, when the era’s young lions introduced a new audience to the hard-bop era heroes they emulated. Today’s swing bands – Royal Crown Revue, Squirrel Nut Zippers, Cherry Poppin’ Daddies – are sending new fans to Benny Goodman, Cab Calloway, Louis Jordan and beyond to the birth of swing and Basie. After all, it was in the Basie bands of the ’30s, in front of the dance floor at Kansas City’s Reno Club, that the jazz rhythm section blossomed and what came to be forever known as “Basie swing” developed.

The reemerging popularity of swing in all its forms is just one of the factors in the recent ascendancy of the Count Basie Orchestra. Another is the strength of the ensemble itself. After back-to back-Grammy awards for 1997 and 1998, the Basie band, directed during the last four years by Grover Mitchell, is crackling with musical vibrancy. With drummer Butch Miles back at the center of the rhythm section, the band has roared through a 1999 itinerary that lists multiple trips to Europe, two weeks in Japan and stops in such exotic locations as Istanbul and Brazil. But the orchestra is most busy here in the U.S. with performances in towns running the gamut from Baltimore, New York, Detroit, Chicago and Atlanta to Fort Wayne, Lubbock, Savannah, Worster and Morgantown.

Maybe that’s one reason the orchestra sounds so good on this latest recording Swing Shift. Another is the first-rate writing of Allyn Ferguson and Bob Ojeda. Ferguson is the noted arranger whose pen was central in Sarah Vaughan’s 1981 meeting with the Basie Orchestra’s horn section as well as last year’s Grammy Award-winning Count Plays Duke. His seven new compositions and three standard arrangements embody the classic sound of Basie swing yet reflect the harmonic depth that Ferguson has brought to his writing since his days with Stan Kenton – full of color, contrast and what can only be called artistry in rhythm.

This theme of modernism within the tradition (no contradiction in today’s Basie band) is continued by Ojeda, one of the group’s trumpeters who has written for everyone from Lionel Hampton to George Benson. While Ojeda’s pieces glisten with sleek harmonic touches and rhythmic shifts, they nonetheless read as authentic pages from the Basie omnibus, both in their spirit and the crafted spaces they arrange for soloists.

Add to this mix Grover Mitchell, a leader with deep roots in the orchestra’s history and long associations with its founder. A lyrical lead trombonist and soloist in the tradition of Tommy Dorsey, Lawrence Brown and Jack Teagarden, Mitchell worked with Duke Ellington and Lionel Hampton briefly before joining Basie in 1962. Absent from the band in the ’70s, Mitchell returned in 1980, remaining until Basie’s death in 1984. Of the three directors who have been at the helm since Basie’s passing (Thad Jones and Frank Foster were the others), Mitchell seems best able to project the Basie spirit, to both his band members and audiences. “I knew from the moment I joined this band I was going to lead it someday,” he says. “I can’t tell you why, but I knew it was my destiny.”

Under Mitchell, the band has returned to its hallmarks: swing, precision, and above all, a focus on the ensemble. The current aggregation has its share of great soloists, but Mitchell has stressed the totality of sound and interplay among musicians. He is aided in this endeavor by the remarkable continuity of personnel that continues to connect past to the present in the band. There are five permanent members in the current band who played under Count Basie’s personal leadership: trombonist Bill Hughes, who joined in 1956, John Williams, Butch Miles, Kenny Hing and Clarence Banks. They are part of the musical DNA that is replicating the Basie spirit for present and future members who never played under Basie himself.

This “guarding of the flame” is the same mission that has driven Count Basie Enterprises, the administrative operation behind the Basie Orchestra which has guided its growth and protected its integrity in the post-Basie years. “Our role has been to keep the Basie band a living, breathing, growing orchestra,” says Aaron Woodward III, CEO of Basie Enterprises and an uncompromising purist regarding all matters concerning Count Basie. “Above all, we want to keep the music true to the Basie way.”

Today, the Basie band is bringing generations of fans together as never before. Young audiences who’ve heard their favorite neo-swing band play “One O’clock Jump,” now sit or dance side-by-side with veteran fans who’ve spent a lifetime cherishing Basie’s 1937 recording of the same tune. This multi-generational appeal is what sets the Basie band apart from the current crop of swing bands. Swing music is not a fad, and it is no passing fancy with the Basie Orchestra. Rather, it is a living art form with an esteemed tradition and a history that spans most of our waning century.

The Count Basie Orchestra continues to build new fans the old fashioned way – by hitting the road, meeting its audiences and playing its music, night after night. It has managed to fuse contemporary sensibilities with its own traditions, in part because it is a genuine “working band” with the esprit de corps that comes from facing its listeners nightly – not a rehearsal unit playing for the recreation of its members or a studio unit that comes together occasionally to make a record. The Basie band is that rarest of all musical ensembles today: a full-time touring jazz orchestra. Night in and night out, they let audiences experience firsthand that miraculous combination of power and grace that only exists when 19 jazz musicians stand shoulder to shoulder and call themselves a big band.

 

Jazz in the 1930s was widely heard on radio as popular music. Besides the usual Duke Ellington and Count Basie hits, local talents abounded, like singer Ding Yalong, who “crooned” in the style of Bing Crosby, then a vocalist in Paul Whiteman’s Orchestra. Radio music in the 1930s had outstanding locally-bred musicians perform live while broadcasting featured instrumentalists like pianists Joe Climaco, Rafael Artigas, and Ariston Avelino. This was a way of informing the listening public that Filipinos were learning rapidly from their foreign counterparts.

Another venue in the 1930s where jazz was predominantly heard was the Ugoy-ugoy Cabaret. This dance hall was dimly lit and the music was non-stop. The taxi dancers were paid by a number of minutes indicated by a whistle, which had nothing to do with the music because the music was continuous. Located in a town in the province of Laguna, ugoy-ugoy, a Tagalog that means “swing” in English. This is probably where the late composer, Miguel “Mike” Velarde, was inspired to name one of his compositions “Ugoy-ugoy Blues”, which became a hit in the early 1930s.

 

 

 

Top left Photo:

 

The Filipino Band jazzes it up big time at the Saratoga Hotel-Restaurant, Chicago, Illinois, earning $1,000.00 a month in the early 1930s. Courtesy of John Silva Collection.

 

 

 

 

 

Bottom right Photo:

 

 Nemesio Regalado introduced the Tonette wind instrument to the Philippines in 1937.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


In addition to playing in Jakarta, such as

 

the Hotel Des Indes

 

 

 (now Ambassador Merlin Plaza)

and

 

the Hotel Der Nederlander

 

 

 

(so the government offices),

they also play in other cities, such as

 

the Hotel Savoy Homann – Bandung

and

 

 in Hotel Oranje (Yamato) – Surabaya.

In 1948
 
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians. One is the famous Dutch musician

 

Jose Cleber

Jozef Cleber or too often simply written Jos Cleber (born in Maastricht, June 2, 1916 – died in Hilversum, The Netherlands, May 21, 1999 at age 82 years) is a musician (conductor) a Dutch national who arrived in Indonesia in 1949 in cooperation with the Dutch Government and Indonesia in order to develop the music in Indonesia

Family
He was the youngest of eight children Josephus Gerardus Cleber, an organist and choral conductor, his mother Anna Maria Bastian. He was born a Catholic family.

 In 1939

he was married to Elisa Magdelijns (1917-2007), had a daughter (Yvonne Charlotte).

 

But in 1951

 then divorced and married again in 1951 was also in Jakarta with

Johanna Dirkje de Bruijn (born 1923)

who met at Radio Batavia (Jakarta) and had a daughter also (Karian).

 Music education
He has a tremendous musical talent, and learned music from his father. After completing secondary school, he entered the School of Music Up (muzieklyceum), and continued studying violin and piano at the conservatory in the city of Luik (Belgium). He also studied jazz music, and admirers of

 

 

Duke Elington,

and are advised to learn the saxophone and clarinet, but the trombone is a musical choice (which is said to correspond with his trombone mouthpiece).

Experience the music
At the age of 15 years (1931)
 He has played at Stedelijk Maastrichtsch Orchestra (orchestra city) as a viola player. Then he played on

 

Paul Godwin orchestra,

and

then at the time of military service in 1939 at

 

 the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich play.

After World War II ended
 he returned to Holland and worked as a trombone player and a violin

 

 in ‘Tuschinski-Theater’

under the leadership of musician Max Tak, and the assistance he has worked as a musician in the orchestra Pop trombonis leaders Avro Elzard Kuhlman (AVRO = Algemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep / Radio Broadcasting The Netherlands).

Later in 1942

 

 He worked as trombonis the Concertgebouw-Orchestra (an orchestra at the Concert Hall of Amsterdam’s famous until now).

 

 

Besides, he also learned the conductor, the science of harmony and kontrapun Baaren composer Kees van Amsterdam.

Then he met with

 

Theo Uden Masman, a dance orchestra leader in Hilversum.

 

 Not long after he joined

 

 

 the Metropolitan Orchestra leader

Dolf van Linden

as a trombone player and aransir between 1945-1948.

 

He also joined the band and Decca Selecta Swing Combo. [1]
Music career trip to Indonesia since
Off to Indonesia 1948

In the month of June 1948
 He went to Indonsia.
After his return to Holland in 1952,
in 1962
 He and his wife (Joke) and son (Karian) to South Africa.

However, in 1964

 he returned to Holland (Hilversum).
 Year 1981
 his retirement (age 65), and died in Hilversum in 1999 (at age 83 years).
 Jos Cleber history in song Indonesia Raya

In 1948
The Dutch government sent an

orchestra leader

 

 

 Yvon Baarspul

 

Philharmoni

coming from the Netherlands about 46 people, but then declined

 

read more about Yvon Baarspul

Radio Philharmonic Orchestra 1948-1950

In 1947,

the idea to give the radio orchestra of Batavia a professional status arose in The Hague and Jakarta simultaneously. At the instigation of the Colonial Office the conductor Yvon Baarspul was approached to form an up to par symphony orchestra over there, that should be able to play an extensive repertoire.

Added to the NIROM-orchestra that was already in existence, this ensemble would ultimately count approximately 63 members. The musicians (most of them were male) were offered a contract for two years, while the Dutch government sponsored the initiative. Because in those days, it was still long before ‘the East’ could be called a safe place, one might remark that this was a risky business. Anyway, in those turbulent years there was a great need for cultural relaxation ‘overseas’.

The result:

 

 

On 5 June 1948,

 

27 candidates left Rotterdam on the M.S Garoet to the Dutch East Indies.

Another group of 12 musicians followed a little later by plane.

 

The violinist Herman v.d. Vegt

was released from his occupation for one year to assist Baarspul in the function of leader of the orchestra.

The members of the orchestra who came from the Netherlands were lodged in Hotel Chaulan, at a walking distance from the radio on King’s Square. A year later, the wives and children came over. In those times, a new quarter was being built on the edge of Batavia, and this was where most people were lodged eventually.

The rehearsals started soon in the big studio of the recently renamed ‘Radio Broadcasting Organisation of the Transition Period’ (ROIO). Vice-president Mohammed Atta became the patron of this new orchestra.

On 30 August 1948

the inaugural concert took place in a sold out hall

 (the so-called Garden Hall)

 

in the Tjikini zoo of Batavia.

(now Taman Ismael Marzuki Garden-TIM)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Read more info about Tjikini Zoo

 

This old zoo in the former Batavia was obviously very popular with small children. Besides large and dangerous animals, there was a lot of small stuff, you should give even to eat. And if you had been there and it was very hot, you could always go to Tjikini pool next to the zoo. But that there is also no longer

 

The zoo no longer exists, no longer. He was moved to Jakarta Selatan(south Jakarta) Cilandak and there become Kebun Binatang Ragunan Zoo.

Whether this hippo is still alive I do not know. Not very likely. This picture is from 1958 and I do not know how old these animals can be. What I do know is that every time that I saw I was wide open mouth or sleep or appetite ayam pang corridor. (Chicken roaster)

 

1957,

 my wife is with our firstborn to look at the elephant, remarkable animal, what with that terrible long nose? For such a large animal but he has a small mouth, but still …. better but at a safe distance.

But there was more in that old Kebon Binatang Cikini, a cinema, I am for the first time in my life been to the movies.

1938,

I was ten years and was with two friends(sobats) by my father for the party brought to the film. “Tom Saywer” was called.

The story I can not remember, but there was an angry Indian in those with a life-size Golok (native daggers)Tom chased.

Tom fled into a cave and climbed the wall to a ledge he can not go. Then comes that Indian look with recurring Golok between his teeth and a few nasty green eyes closer and closer. Palpitations, almost, just a meters …. and then … tolol Giel jatuh pingsan, fainted and only in the taxi home again added.

The last time I was in that movie theater in 1955 from the Cikini hospital Raden Saleh. I had just visited my wife, who received follow-up after the birth of our firstborn.

The film was called “Them” and went about ants as big as buffaloes. Mutants by atomic radiation during nuclear tests in the desert of Alamagordo. Bukan main say(abismal lover) , people and animals were eaten and the cracking of the bones sounded like Mercon in Tahun Baru Tiong Hoa.(Chinese lunar new year)

Slept poorly that night. And dese crazy, I know all there, but namanya cinema, I can not remember. If anyone knows that yet, please leave a message on this website, I would really like to know. Also a picture of that cinema is very welcome.

Source”

Pak Giel

More than 1000 people were in the audience. On the program: Works by Bach, Geraerdts and Brahms with assistance of the oratorium choir.

In the two years that the orchestra existed a number of members formed chamber music ensembles. There were, for instance, two string quartets that came into being. The “Radio Philharmonic Brass quintet” performed with the pianists Frans Szabo and Douda Poliakine and there were numerous recitals and solo-performances. The orchestra went on tour several times:

· September ’49

 to Semarang, Surabaya and Bali on

 the M.S. Ophir (the ship served as a hotel as well).
· November ’49 to Singapore by plane to do 5 concerts in the ‘Victoria memorial Hall’ and a youth concert in ‘Happy World’, a big tent.
· The end of ’49, two concerts in Pladjoe, near Palembang.

From the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra a chamber orchestra was also formed, which was under the leadership of conductor Frits Hinze and which mainly played at the local theatre. In the mean time, the Cosmopolitan orchestra, under the guidance of Jos Cléber, provided for the lighter repertoire. At the same time, the interest of the Indonesian and Chinese side increased.

The management of ROIO, that had been able to establish this new symphony orchestra with strong support from the government, supposed that it would serve the cultural purpose of this institution best not by keeping the orchestra conscientiously within the privacy of the walls of the studio, but by taking care that the concerts were broadcast from the concert hall as much as possible. As a rule, the concerts would be recorded to be broadcast later from the various relay stations in the country, amongst others those of Semarang, Surabaya, Bandung and Makassar. Apart from the ‘Garden Hall’, the concerts also took place

in the ‘Willemskerk’,

 Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church

 The Portuguese ‘Buitenkerk’, the theatre and

 in ‘Concordia’ in Batavia.

read mote about Portugeus Church batavia

Portuguese Church

 
If you travel to the old city of Jakarta, sempatkanlah stop by the Zion Church. The church is located at the corner of Prince Street and Jalan Mangga Dua White Rose, in West Jakarta area. In the past, the Church Zion Church known as the Portuguese (Portugeesche Buitenkerk). In those days, there are two churches, known as the Portuguese Church, First Church of Zion, called “Portuguese Church Outside the City” (outside the fortress city of Batavia) and the second “Portuguese Church in Town” (located in the fortress city of Batavia). However, the latter church was burned down in 1808 AD, while still standing upright Zion Church with all its glory until now.


Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church

 

Portuguese Church or Church of Zion are still used as places of worship. According to history, Zion Church was completed in 1695 AD and inaugurated on Sunday, October 23, 1695 AD, with the blessing by the Reverend Theodore ZAS. The full blessing of the church’s story neatly written in Dutch on the notice board, which until now can still be seen on the walls of the church.

Physical construction of a church that has a magnificent architecture takes approximately two years. Laying the first stone made by Pieter van Hoorn in the year October 19, 1693 AD Zion Church is known for the robustness of the building and still have the same furniture since its inception. This church suffered only two times the renovation, which in 1920 and 1978. In fact, it is said the church building suffered no cracks at all, despite the huge earthquake which spread to Australia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines, caused by the eruption of Krakatoa in August 1883 AD This church building is protected by the government as a historic building by the Governor of DKI Jakarta Decree No. CB/11/1/12/1972.

Portuguese Church 4 430x322 Portuguese Church

Zion Church was built on an area of 6725 square meters with building area of 32 X 24 meters which is supported by the main pillar of six and are built with a foundation block of a round rod 10 000. This church building can accommodate at least 1000 the congregation. However, now, shrinking the churchyard after being displaced Prince Jayakarta Road widening and road Mangga Dua, each five meters.

As the name implies, Portuguese Church is a church relic of the Portuguese who had landed in the archipelago since the 16th century. However, mention of the word “Portuguese” as the name of the church have its own story. Perhaps, before the Church of Zion stand, where it stood a chapel (small church) Catholics in the year 1675 AD The chapel was founded by the Portuguese to the slaves who came from Bengal, Malabar, Koromandel, and Sri Lanka. The slaves were brought to the archipelago (including the Batavia) and employed for the sake of commerce and households. In general, they are Catholic and speak Portuguese.

Portuguese Church 2 Portuguese Church

Since VOC Batavia and seize control of Portuguese rule, East India Company built the fort city of Batavia Batavia as a barrier region and areas outside it. In addition, the VOC also brought slaves from around the Portuguese archipelago to the city of Batavia (in the castle) to build urban infrastructure. No exception Portuguese slaves who live around Catholic Chapel-which incidentally is outside the castle of Batavia, was also brought into the City. Since then (1628 AD), a former Portuguese slave is flooding the central region and the outskirts of Batavia.

Zion Church is actually a church built in place of the Catholic Chapel (Portuguese) before, as the release of the Portuguese slave residing on the edge and center of the City of Batavia. Terms of slave liberation is they have to switch religion (the Protestant) and use the Dutch language. The slaves who had been free is what is known as the Mardjiker. In a long time, the Church of Zion has been used by the Mardjiker hereditary, while the elite officials Batavia (VOC) worship in downtown. However, when the church burned in downtown Batavia, the VOC communities, officials, and the family moved worship to the Church of Zion, which lies on the edge of town. Over time this church eventually became the property of the elite Dutch Batavia. The Mardjiker was expelled from the church, but the elite Dutch / VOC already overdo mention this church as Portugeesche Buitenkerk aka Portuguese Church.

Portuguese Church 3 430x218 Portuguese Church

After Indonesian independence, the former church of the Mardjiker is administered under the auspices of the Protestant Churches of Western Indonesia (GPIB). In 1957, when the trial Synod GPIB, Portuguese Church decided to change its name to GPIB Zion Church. By the surrounding community, the church is known as the Zion Church. Zion or Zion comes from the name of a hill in the Palestinian areas and is a symbol of salvation for the nation of ancient Israel.

Zion Church has a unique characteristic, if viewed from the style and form of architecture, and furniture that have. The particular architecture stand out in every detail of the building. It can be seen, the church building to form one long room with three wooden ceilings the same height and curved like a keg. Since 2006, the church which included the type of the church hall (hall church) is also enhanced by the church floor tiles composed of gray granite, glazed entrance, and additional space measuring 6×18 meters around the church.

Design and construction of a church that looked diarsiteki Mr. E. Ewout Verhagen from Rotterdam, it certainly will add to the impression of awe, at once fascinated. Look at the durability and robustness of the church that have survived for hundreds of years. Apparently, this robustness is supported by the construction of a building wall constructed from bricks bonded by a mixture of sand and heat-resistant sugar.

In addition to architectural uniqueness, the furniture of the church also served with its own nuances. Upon entering the church door, for example, immediately posted four chandelier (chandelier), a large candle with a reflector (reflective light) shield-shaped bersimbol City of Batavia. Fourth chandelier is dependent on the corners of the room, since over 300 years ago.

Right in the middle of the room, stands a baroque pulpit work of H. Bruyn (1695 AD). This pulpit supported two pole roll and a large canopy hoods that resembled a crown. Making octagonal pulpit carved with a blend of China, Europe, and India is said to have cost about 260 ringgit. Compare the cost of construction of the church who spend around 3,000 ringgit. Ornaments on the bottom side also gave its own style in the pulpit. Travelers who observe the details of this pulpit will find a complete angel ornaments shaped head with wings painted in colors similar to human skin.

In addition to Pulpit, just to the right (if the tourists facing the altar from the front door), there are several rows of chairs and benches carved from dark wood (ebony). The chairs are often used for meetings of this church have a somewhat unique engraving. In the middle of the back of the chair for example, etched into a holy book that is open and on either side there are two little angels picture. If the tourist gaze into one wall of the church, it will be posted an inscribed stone in the Dutch language, which means: “The first stone church was laid October 19, 1693 by Pieter van Horn.”

In addition, on the upper floor, the back, the travelers also can see the inflatable organ musical instruments (organ), parents who are still well preserved. Old organ which is the daughter of Reverend John Maurits grant Moors in the 17th century can still be used. Tourists can also see an iron wheel on the left side of the organ. Fibrous rubber wheel serves to fill the wind that blew the pipe-organ pipe tone when keys are pressed. Once the wheel is rotated by human power (two people), but since 1982 was replaced by electricity. The organ is supported by four slender pillars was last used on October 8, 2000.

Around the neighborhood church, precisely in the foyer of the church, there are 11 graves in the official Dutch Batavia kumpeni first. Among those officials tomb is the tomb of the Governor-General Zwaardecroon (1718-1725 AD), tomb of the primary surgeon named Frederick Ribalt Batavia City (died in 1735 AD) and his son Francois Ribalt (1695 AD), as well as a sailor, named Commissioner General SH Frijkenius.

Zion Church is located on the corner of Prince Jayakarta and Jalan Mangga Dua Raya, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia. Zion Church is relatively easy to reach tourists, because it is about 300 meters to the City Railway Station (Station Beos City) and 200 meters from the Mangga Dua shopping complex. From Beos City Station, visitors simply walk away or hire a rickshaw heading towards Jalan Mangga Dua and stop down the road, the place where the church is located.

Zion Church is now equipped with facilities such as 8 air conditioner (AC), parking lots, and buildings commonly known by the name of the manse. Manse is a special house built behind the church for the employees and the priest in charge of the church.

A series of 7 concerts, dedicated to Dutch composers, took place in the big hall of the Radio Broadcasting Company of Jakarta. The composition and editorship were in the hands of the oboist Victor Swillens. These concerts were also broadcast by the radio stations of Semarang and Surabaya.

The two valedictory concerts of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra

 in June 1950

made mention of the performance of the 9th symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven, with assistance of Batavia’s mixed choir. On this occasion Yvon Baarspul was knighted as “Ridder in de Orde van Oranje-Nassau”.

The voyage back was made on

the M.S. “Johan van Oldebarnevelt”

on 21 July 1950.

They arrived in Amsterdam on 17 August. Some of the members of the orchestra returned later to form

 

 

 

 the “Orchestra Radio Jakarta”, under the leadership of Henk te Strake,

 which remained in existence until 1953.


Yvon Baarspul

 

Director of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra in Batavia / Jakarta

 

Bataviaas Staforkest          

 

Batviaas Staff Orchestra o.l.v. Nico Gerharz ± 1915


The orchestra being overseas.

Long time, the music loving public depending on ad hoc ensembles, which needs to evolve into an orchestra.

The tournerende buitelandse opera companies often have their own band names that possibly supplemented by local forces or good amateurs.

The music-staff in Batavia emerged with the advent of a real conductor Nico Gerharz symphonic orchestra  that include 20 strings and horns full occupancy standard program could handle. It gave regular symphony concerts with or without soloists.

From 1904-1916

came the orchestra flourished and even went on tour to major cities in Java.

The Käthe Haasse when young, mother of Hella Haasse, the famous writer, performed concerts at that time of Beethoven, Grieg and Paul Seelig.

These gifted professional pianist also composed songs for choral polyphony. Immediately after the Japanese occupation, there were a few concerts in the theater, by the so-called Station Orchestra. (AFRIB) by the Allied Forces Radio broadcast in Batavia.


The later NIROM Radio Orchestra,

the result of smaller formations could, at the initiative of

Theo van der Bijl and Picklertrio

conquer a permanent place in listeners around the archipelago by support channels to let them hear. Fritz Hinze was the first conductor of the orchestra led format.


Locally formed smaller amateur orchestras in places like Surabaya (Vincent Loo) Malang, Makassar, Medan and Bandung.

For the court orchestra of the Sultan were Yokyakarta

 

artist Walter Spies

 

Walter Spies with Angelica Archipenko circa 1930

Walter Spies (15 September 1895 – 19 January 1942)

 was a Russian-born German primitivist painter. In 1923 he came to Java, living first in Yogyakarta and then in Ubud, Bali starting in 1927.

He is often credited with attracting the attention of Western cultural figures to Balinese culture and art in the 1930s and he influenced the direction of Balinese art and drama.

In 1937,

 Spies built what he described as a “mountain hut” at Iseh in Karangasem. Adored by the Balinese, Spies was the co-founder of the Pita Maha artists cooperative, through which he shaped the development of modern Balinese art and established the Westerner’s image of Bali that still exists today

 

Spies was the first to arrive, settling in Ubud in 1927.

The son of a German diplomat, he spent his formative years in Russia and traveled widely, living in Java before settling in Bali. He lived a heady, bohemian existence in those early Ubud days — it was the beginning of the West’s love affair with Bali, drawing luminaries such as Noel Coward, Charlie Chaplin, Vicky Baum, Miguel Covarrubias and Margaret Mead.

As a painter, Spies was profoundly influenced by Bali’s culture and landscape.

 One can see evidence of this in the following works, the first, Das Karussel, painted in 1922 before his travels to Bali, the second and third after his arrival there:

 

 

 

Spies’ life took a tragic turn after a decade of artistic productivity and growing fame.

His openly homosexual lifestyle attracted the disapproval of the Dutch colonial government and led to his imprisonment for “indecent behavior” during much of 1939.

Not long thereafter came the start of World War II and the German invasion of Holland. The Dutch-Indies government arrested all Germans, sending Spies to a prison camp in Sumatra.

From there, Spies was placed on a transport ship to Ceylon, a voyage that ended his life when the ship sank under bombardment by the Japanese

 

and

 

Paul Seelig

muzicus attracted.

Paul Seelig (1876 – 1945)          

Among the musicians in Indonesia there were also a few composers who left behind a voluminous oeuvre. The most important one among them was Paul Seelig, about whom there will be more later on. To just mention a few names: Constant van de Wall, Hector Marinus, Theo Smit Sibenga en Emile Hullebroek.

In Europe, there were also a number of composers who were inspired by eastern music and the gamelan: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Francis Poulenc, Colin McPhee and Peter Schat.  </P

 

Paul Johan Seelig

(1976-1945)

On June 13, 1945

 Mr. Cornelis died on Java. He was a talented composer, whose work has remained virtually unknown in the Netherlands until today: Paul John Seelig, born in Breda, 1876.

The course of his life is an absorbing story that for the most part takes place in the Far East. He had an all-round musical education in Germany for the most part and studied with prominent teachers. He studied the piano, the cello, orchestration and theory.

In 1888,

he was 2nd conductor of the Stadttheater in Essen. In the mean time, he was often travelling through countries such as Japan, Palestine, Turkey, Romania, Hungary and the Netherlands.

In 1900,

 Seelig comes back to the Dutch East Indies and becomes the conductor of

the court orchestra of the Susuhunan of Surakarta.

During the following 8 years in Solo,

 a penetrating study is made of eastern music.

After the death of his father, he settles in Bandung,

to take on the leadership of the publishing business (Matatani) and music- and instrument shop his father had founded. However, the wanderings have not yet finished.

Music and dramatic society “Braga” in 1910 with,

 amongst others, Paul Seelig on cello.

Publication Seelig / Matatani

 

 

Muziek en toneelvereniging “Braga” in 1910 met o.a. Paul Seelig cello

 

 

 

 In 1911

he leaves for Siam (Thailand). There he becomes

conductor and musical advisor of the Royal Orchestra of Bangkok.

 At that time, he noted down a large number of Siamese folk-melodies and he also composed the national anthem of Siam.

 

A large collection of songs, recorded from

native singers of Central Java,

would also appear in print afterwards.

The compositions of Seelig display an intriguing combination of eastern and western elements, the structure always betraying the craftsman.

Much of his voluminous, practically undated oeuvre has, apart from the Indies themselves, also been performed in Germany, France, Austria, America and Japan, but strangely enough hardly ever in our country.

After about 1930

 he has composed little more, because he was preoccupied with the publishing- and music business in Surabaya, Bandung (Bragaweg), Batavia and Semarang.

Most of his work has been indexed by his grandson and can also partly be found in the music libraries in this country.

Seelig has become famous mainly because of the so-called Pantun, a Malaysian variant of the Portuguese Moresco, which was accompanied by the plucked instrument, the krontjong. At the time, his piano concerto has been performed in the Indies several times with an orchestra by the pianist Käthe Haasse, the mother of writer Hella Haasse.

The musical score of this work that, like so many of his compositions, had been fancied lost because of the war, has been recovered recently. People are trying to put new life into it, among other things, by way of the computer. The orchestral score must still be worked out with the help of very concise notes.

Finally, the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra composed of local musicians and Hungarian and Dutch forces.

 After 1950,

 there remained a small band in Jakarta led by Henk te Strake

 

in 1952

to return to the Netherlands.
Some of these musicians (who later settled in Yogyakarta) is the forerunner of educators musicians in Indonesia

since 1952
School of Music with the establishment of Indonesia (SMIND),

 

and

 

 

Argo Records – RG-2 – P.1952. Side A. 2-A1 Kebiar 8’49

 

in 1961
transformed into the Academy of Music Indonesia (AMI) in Yogyakarta, which is now named
Indonesian Arts Institute (ISI) since 1984.

 

Read more info

 

Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI” another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952

Institut Seni Indonesia Yogyakarta

is known as the ISI is an institution of higher learning the art of status of public universities that have the authority to provide education to the highest level.

 

 ISI

was established on the basis of Presidential Decree No. 39/1984 dated May 30, 1984 and inaugurated by the Minister of Education and Culture Prof. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto on July 23, 1984.

Although relatively young age as an institute, but the universities which is a component of the ISI has long existed and has been a long time to take part in the development of the country of art and generate a lot of artists and professionals who are scattered in various functions, professions and expertise, both within as well as abroad. ISI was formed by the fusion of three higher education pre-existing art, namely the College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”, Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”, and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI“.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASRI

 

College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”

as the oldest of its components have been around since early 1950 as a result of the efforts of artists who were then gathered in Yogyakarta. Indonesia has a tradition of high art will be able to maintain and develop kemapuannya. Thus was born the Indonesian Academy of Fine Arts (ASRI) that originated from academy status and obtain a new shape in 1968 as a high school that gave him the authority to open an undergraduate degree.

AMI

 

Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”

another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952; and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI” was born in 1963; a continuation of the Conservatory of Dance Indonesia (KONRI) which born a little way behind, namely in 1961

ASTI

As with ASRI,

the establishment of AMI and ASTI is also due to the strong encouragement of Indonesia art and culture lovers for mengmbangkan what they have. Although long before that arts education has traditionally been there, but to increase both vertical and horizontal necessary institutions of formal education and modern art

In early 1973,

the trial of the leaders STSRI “ASRI”, AMI, ASTI and several other arts academy with officials from the Ministry of education and Culture, agreed to establish an institution of higher education are more wide-ranging artistic and greater authority in both the field art and in terms of the provisions of higher education

 

Back to Jos Cleber informations

Then Jos Cleber a classic pop musicians such as Mantovani, working as an orchestra leader Cosmpolitan in Jakarta, because the players made up of various races (kosmospolitan).

 The players there are from Russia (Nicolai Varvolomeyeff), Hungary (George Setet, Henry Tordasi), Philippines (Pablo, Sambayon), Indonesia (Sardi,

 

Ismail Marzuki .,

 Iskandar

(father of

diah Iskandar).
While in Indonesia he had a lot of attention to the art of gamelan.
 I

ndonesia Raya Jos Cleber filmed version of

the Symphony M Jusuf Ronodipuro,

 

 

 that when it became the Head of Studio RRI Jakarta,

in 1950

 

 requested that Jos Cleber (at that time he was 34 years old) make arrangements Indonesia Raya, having successfully worked on the arrangement of songs, Indonesia, among others, Under the Full Moon Light, and Jasmine series.

Jusuf Ronodipuro describes Indonesia Raya, how songs are born and created, as well as explaining the meaning of the song. Cleber commented that he captures the nuances Marseillasse (French national anthem) in Indonesia Raya.

 

Composed by Jos Cleber was recorded at Studio RRI Jakarta on
beginning in 1951

by involving all the musicians of the orchestra cosmopolitan, recorded with a tape recorder that new Philips owned RRI at that time.

Then in 1997
re-recorded with a digital technique in Australia by Victoria Philharmony led Adie MS.

Bung Karno comments above arrangement Jos Cleber
Jusuf Ronodipuro Jos Cleber then invited to meet President Soekarno to Merdeka Palace to play the tape.
Bung Karno directly criticized the composition Cleber. According to Jusuf, Bung Karno said, “Indonesia Raya is like our Red and White Flag.
No need to be given more lace. “[2]

 


Orkes Studio Jakarta dalam dunia musik periode 1948-1950

.

Top of Form

Djakarta Studio Orchestra
One of the orchestra is in Jakarta Indonesia in the early days of independence, led by

 

 

 Soetedjo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sutedjo  also the leader of angkasa sound  orchestra

The other two are Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra and

the Orchestra Cosmopolitan led by Jos Cleber.

Jakarta Studio Orchestra in the music world has duty to the period 1948-1950 is not light, which is trying to modernize the art keroncong to fit the era.

Despite facing various obstacles, OSD always tries to give consideration between Western and Eastern music, Hawaian and Malay, as well as jazz and keroncong. Soetedjo OSD lead since the first time established until July 1, 1950.

Cleber’s Jakarta studio  Orchestra cosmopolitan

music game to accommodate California.

 Of new bands springing up like

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

read more about

M Jusuf Ronodipuro

original in native java language

Muhammad Jusuf Ronodipuro utawa Joesoef Ronodipoero

 (Salatiga, Jawa Tengah, 30 September 1919Jakarta Kidul, 27 Januari 2008) iku misuwur minangka salah sawijining perintis RRI.

Saliyané iku dhèwèké uga naté dadi Duta Besar Indonesia. Ronodipuro tau dadi Duta Besar ing Uruguay, Argentina, lan Chili. Jusuf Ronodipuro gegarwa karo Siti Fatima Rassat nganti séda lan pinaringan telung putra: Dharmawan, Irawan lan Fatmi.

Panjenengané séda ing RSAD Gatot Soebroto déning komplikasi stroke lan kanker paru-paru: Ronodipuro misuwur olèhé ngrokok sing nganthi kaya sepur. Banjur panjenengané disarèkaké ing Taman Makam Pahlawan Kalibata, Jakarta Kidul ing tanggal 28 Januari 2008. Nalikané séda ora olèh kawigatèn akèh amerga mbarengi sédané lan panyaréyan Pak Harto.

Ronodipuro iku dianggep sawijining pahlawan Indonesia.

Panjenengané sing biyen bisa kelakon nggiyaraké Proklamasi Kamardikan 1945 lumantar radio menyang bangsa-bangsa saindhenging jagad. Ronodipuro uga sing ngrintis anané Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) nganti saiki iki.

Menawa Dina Radio dipéngeti saben tanggal 11 September, iku amarga dina iku tanggaleYusuf Ronodipuro sakanca sejawaté miwiti ngedegake RRI ing tanggal 11 September 1945

Jaman pendhudhukan Jepang

Ing taun 1942,

Hindia-Walanda dibedhah déning Tentara Dai Nippon lan Tentara KNIL nungkul kasoran. Wiwit iku Hindia-Walanda dibroki Jepang lan Walanda ditendhang metu. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé wiwit taun 1943 dadi wartawan radio militèr Jepang ing Jakarta, sing diarani Hoso Kyoku. Radio kuwi pemimpiné wong Jepang, yaiku Letkol Tomo Bachi, wakilé wong Indonesia anama Utoyo Ramlan. Déné pemimpin redaksiné Bahtar Loebis, kangmasé sastrawan dan wartawan Mochtar Loebis. Mochtar Loebis dhéwé nalika semana dipercaya mligi kanggo siaran mancanegara.

Tekané dina kamardikané bangsa Indonesia wis trontong-trontong. Jepang dibom atom déning Amérika Sarékat, sepisanan Hiroshima ing tanggal 6 Agustus 1945, banjur kasusul tanggal 9 Agustus 1945 Nagasaki uga dibesmi.

Jepang banjur nungkul marang Sekutu, nanging pawarta wigati iki durung tekan ing Indonesia, jalaran nalika semana arang-arang sing ngrungokaké radio.

Ronodipuro dhéwé senadyan nyambut gawé nèng radio Jepang, ya durung ngerti pawarta kuwi. Ujug-ujug siaran luar negeriné Hoso Kyoku ditutup embuh kena apa. Mochtar Loebis sing dipercaya nangani bab pawarta manca kuwi banjur mbisiki jaré Jepang wis nungkul marang Sekutu. Merga jejibahané dadi wartawan, PakYusuf banjur menyang Menteng 31, papan ngumpule para pejuwang mudha.

Nèng kono wis ana rapat wigati sing dipimpin Sukarni. Kabèh wis ngerti yèn Jepang nungkul, mbokmenawa saka Adam Malik sing dadi wartawan Domei. Pas Yusuf teka kabèh padha seneng. Sukarni kandha, jaré kaum mudha arep ngrebut Radio Jepang. Yusuf sing ngerti Hoso Kyoku diajak rembugan kepriyé carané ngrebut. Kamangka wektu kuwi Radio Jepang dijaga rapet banget déning Kempetai, pulisi militèr Jepang sing kejem banget.

 Proklamasi Kamardikan Républik Indonésia

Jemuwah ésuk jam 10.00 tanggal 17 Agustus 1945,

Proklamasi Kamardikan klakon diwacakaké déning Bung Karno ing Dalan Pegangsaan Timur 56. Ronodipuro dhéwé kala semana ora ngerti, sebab wong-wong ing Hoso Kyoku wiwit dina Rebo sadurungé wis ora entuk mlebu utawa metu manèh. Kabèh ana njero. Dumadakan ana wong teka, jenengé Syahrudin, nggolèki Yusuf karo menehaké kitir salembar. Layang cekak aos kuwi saka Adam Malik isiné tèks proklamasi.

Ronodipuro isih bingung, kepriyé carané teka Syahrudin bisa mlebu gedhong radio sing saiki ing Dalan Medan Merdeka Barat 4-5, kamangka wong Kempetai jaga kupeng. Bareng arep nyiaraké, Yusuf Ronodipuro bingung manèh, amarga panggonan siaran kabèh dijaga Kempetai. Tujuné kélingan yèn studio siaran luar negeri wis ora kanggo. Nanging, piyé carané wong pemancare ora ana. Yusuf banjur takon bagéyan teknis, ya nemu akal jempolan. Kabel sing kanggo menyang pemancar dalam negeri dicopoti, disambung karo pemancar luar negeri. Nanging ing studio katoné ya kaya siaran biyasa, amarga swarané ya isih kaya adat sabené. Kamangka wis ora dipancaraké.

Bareng wis tumata, jam 19.00,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro sing umuré ngancik 26 taun, banjur nyiaraké Proklamasi liwat siaran luar negeri. Kira-kira nganti 20 menit, lan ambal-ambalan, uga diterjemahaké menyang basa Inggris. Kuwi tegesé radio-radio BBC London, Radio Amerika, Singapura, lan sapituruté bisa nangkep kabèh, dadi wusana sadonya ngerti Indonesia wis Proklamasi Kamardikané.

Usaha Ronodipuro kuwi wekasané dikonangi déning Tentara Dai Nippon. Mbokmenawa siarané ketangkep radio ing Jepang. Mula, Kempetai dadi nesu banget. Angger kapapag wong Indonesia ing Hoso Kyoku, kabèh dipala. Ronodipuro ditendhang, diidak-idak, lan mèh dibabat samurai. Sikilé diidak nganti dhengkulé dheglok lakuné.

Sawisé iku Ronodipuro ngedegaké Radio Suara Indonesia Merdeka mawa barang-barang bekas.

Tanggal 25 Agustus

Bung Karno diaturi supaya pidato. Iki pidatoné Bung Karno kang sepisanan sasuwéné dadi Présidèn. Bung Hatta pidato

tanggal 29 Agustus.

Nalika semana ing daérah-daérah radio Jepang isih akèh sing siaran.

Ing daérah pancèn ora dijaga rapet kaya Jakarta. Sing njaga mung siji loro, iku merga Kempetainé wis kaya ora nduwé daya sawisé Jepang nungkul.

Mula Yusuf Ronodipuro matur marang Abdurahman Saleh, supaya radio-radio daérah mau beciké ngadani sesambungan siaran kanggo perjuwangan. Gagasané ditampa lan ing

10 September

pimpinan radio-radio daérah, saka Sala, Yogyakarta, Bandung, Semarang, lan liya-liyané bisa kumpul rembugan. Kabèh nyarujuki, njaluk marang pamaréntah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radioné ing Indonésia. Jepang ora gelem, amerga miturut rencana arep diserahaké marang Sekutu.

Tanggal 11 September

rapat manèh, nyarujuki madege Radio Republik Indonesia, lan uga sepisan maneh njaluk marang pemerintah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radio ing daérah. Merga tetep ora gelem, kepeksa banjur dirudapeksa, radio-radio direbut. Wong Jepangé dhéwé wis padha wedi, dadi wis kaya ora ana alangan. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé banjur kapatah minangka Kepala RRI, déné Abdurahman Saleh mélu ngadegaké Angkatan Udara RI. Mula asmané saiki dilestarèkaké dadi jeneng lapangan terbang ing Malang.

Sekutu sing menang Perang Donya II kuwi banjur teka. Nalika semana sawisé Rapat Akbar Ikada, kaum mudha ngrebut kantor-kantoré wong Jepang dadi darbéné Republik, klebu Hoso Kyoku. Nalika Walanda ndomplèng Sekutu arep ngrebut bali Indonesia lumantar

Agresi I ing taun 1946,

 RRI dikuwasani Walanda, lan Yusuf Ronodipuro banjur dicekel lan dipenjara ing

 21 Juli 1947.

 Kedaulatan Indonesia ing taun 1949

Sawisé Walanda ngakoni kedaulatan Indonésia ing

taun 1949,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro lenggah manèh dadi Kepala RRI Serikat.

 Sabanjuré Yusuf Ronodipuro dipercaya ngayahi manéka warna jejibahan utawa tanggung jawab ing negara manca, klebu dadi duta besar utawa utusan menyang PBB.

 Sumber

       (jv) Winarto. 2005. “M. Yusuf Ronodipuro Bapak RRI. Dipala Jepang Nganti Dheglok Marga Nggiyarake Proklamasi” ing Damar Jati 2005:4 kaca 26-27, 36.

Year 1945 – 1950

Famous jazz band in 1945 – 1950 in Surabaya member

 

 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,

 

 Bubi Chen (piano), Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges ( piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi Pattirane (guitar), Mario Diaz (drums) and Benny Hainem (clarinet).


When RRI Jakarta handed back to Indonesia,

 

Jusuf Ronodipuro

doing some renovation. Orchestra on the third Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra, Djakarta Studio Orchestra, and the Cosmopolitan Orchestra – will be retained but leadership is replaced. Ismail Marzuki was appointed as leader of the OSD bam.

Although the sense of hearing is already less than perfect, Jusuf still “forcing” Marzuki to led the orchestra that aspires to “advance the art-noise Indonesia” is.

OSD leadership handover is like a meeting between the “books with mas”. What is arranged Soetedjo continued Ismail Marzuki.

They stand shoulder to shoulder to bring the art of music and sound art to one goal: the music is understood by all the people of Indonesia.

Soetedjo “betrays an array of experts who have been musicians will understand the meaning and significance of training and discipline,” while Ismail was “forging of which is Dear to popularize the songs into the society … the society entertaining.”

Soetedjo maing himself referred to as “the only one who knew arrangeur Indonesia, which could rapidly-tjekatan been working” and “an artist-music-conscious organizations.”

But Ismail Marzuki OSD lead only for three months, then conductor submitted to a sebelurnnya Sjaiful Bahri known as orchestra players Puspa Delima. Sjaiful by Ismail Marzuki considered “fully gifted”.

 OSD advances under Sjaiful Bahri did not escape the influence of Dutch musicians such as Jos Cleber Diessevelt and Tom, who also had to educate Ismail Marzuki song arranging and orchestration. After the death Sjaiful Bahri, Cleber Diessevelt returned to the Netherlands, acting as a writer Ismail Marzuki keroncong arrangements for OSD

In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz.

He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and

 Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).

 

In the,, history “RHYTHM for 10 years one of the orchestra who has taken a special place in my heart which alone is,, RHYTHM SPECIAL TRIO / Quartet” led by Nick Mamahit, as long as there is no orchestra alone which can give more numerous kapada satisfaction and kesengan but also the difficulty in recording their lagu2 Mamahit besides Nick.

Nick Mamahit

name can not be separated by the establishment RHYTHM 10 years ago. Which begins in a recording studio (garage) small-sized 2×3 M. didjalan H. Agus Salim 65 (now N0.119) and didjalan Besuki 23, Nick et al his friends : Dick Abel (guitar, saxophone), Dick v / d Capellen (bass) and Max v. Preformance (drums) has made its own history with the establishment,, Special Rhythm Trio / Quartet “. They are pioneers in a new style  which show the songs ..

 The term which they use are,, progressief “.

Surely such the song

s style  which can not be so alone accepted by crowded peoples . Having experienced various hurdles and criticism from other artists as well as an duran2 then made a little spin songs  which many may also be accepted by chalajak who crowded bertjorak ie,, commercieel progessief “which means, that they play like what is embodied in their hearts (progressief) , but also not to forget and ignore common sense, or which may be accepted by fans of vinyl records.

Just remember back to lagu2 with,, Special Rhythm Trio “(progessief) al: Angin Mamiri , etc. Ole2 Bandung. which did not get a warm welcome and which is difficult to sold . Besides, there are also songs with new stles together, Rhythm Quartet “(commercieel progessief) which is,, tophit” then al: Lenggang Djakarta, dream last night, and Action Kutjing.Memang ………… Senjum uncompromising art.

Although the opinion and hearing the song was just something kind and quality, if the buyer does not like ………… then he too would not bought it

Recording with Nick Mamahit’s songs  not as easy as with others orchestra. Each player is an expert on their own and the songs  which must also be able to change their,, accentueer “spirit of their own with no one among them depending on their own, while in addition,, recording engineer” should also be able menjelami their spirit.

There is not a song   which can be recorded at night, on the contrary if they are really , in the mood “at least 2 pieces of many songs which can be inserted tape.

After,, the old gang “broke up in 1954,  

associated with the departure of Dick v / d v Capellen and Max. Dick preformance into the land of Abel to the Netherlands and Singapore, then Nick Mamahit own abode in Indonesia and the establishment of a new orchestra which can replace or menjamai,, Special Trio / Quartet “last, while the bauyers  very cold reception.

Then two years later in 1956, 

 Nick formed a trio with Risakotta Bart (drums) and Espehana (bass) who serve lagu2 of instrumental and the outcome  is longplay,, Sarinande “.
What a welcome from buyers and fans of the LPs and abroad on the outward appearance,, Sarinande “Mamahit prove that Nick has successfully captured the hearts of fans of vinyl records and views of,, in terms commercieel” succesnja achieve anyway.
And ……………… 5 years after,, Sarinande “longplay which then made the second by a,, SPECIAL RHYTHM” caption :,, ………… miss NICK Mamahit “.

The period of the recording, Sarinande “with,, miss” is 5 years (1956-1961).

 many problems , but just know that this is,, specifiek “Nick. heard as a contradiction or conflict, but precisely because,, specifiek “which is tjiri  specific  from Nick, it was just a matter of time granted.

Because of these styles coupled with the principles and perseverance which his property own , little give in the course and many other teman2 RHYTHM boost in driving the company which originally was,, hobby “, but then become a necessity in serving the arts.

Young musicians

 in Jakarta sprung up in 70 – 80.

INTERVIEW WITH Sudibyo Pr.
A History of Jazz in Indonesia Note

Fatherly figure was actually initially wanted him to be a musician, but not accomplished. Would end up just listening to it.

 

Although only one of jazz music lovers, but from his experience will be full of footage and historical development of jazz music in Indonesia.

 

Familiar with jazz music since the days of Indonesia’s independence war in the 1940s until he was much involved and the man behind the screen a variety of jazz events in Indonesia, especially in London.

With the support of many thousands of documentation about jazz and jazz albums in his home, now he is planning to publish a book of jazz music.

 

From a glance at the Radio interview with WartaJazz Bikima FM Yogyakarta, Indonesia has revealed that there is a jazz group in 1922. Surely it would be more satisfied if we wait for the book can be published and the important thing is probably what can be described in the book he may be a reflection of us all about the emergence of jazz music in Indonesia.

Jazz News (WJ): reportedly is preparing to launch a book about jazz music?

Sudibyo Pr (SP): Now working on a book, a new approximately 90% complete.

WJ: What motivated you to write a book of jazz?

SP: Actually, in an effort to communicate and socialize jazz music. Since most jazz books here mostly in English and not many books about jazz in Bahasa Indonesia. And of course my own as a jazz lover, want to try to share my experience to better communicate to new generations.

WJ: Do you really see that jazz is not popular in the community in Indonesia?

SP: I think it’s still a lot of the wrong image, wrong understanding. We as a true jazz lovers are also willing to raise the status of jazz as an art.

But until now I still understand that the situation in Indonesia is still so. In the United States alone that jazz before 1950 is actually somewhat neglected community as well.

 

After receiving the European jazz seriously, Americans are just beginning. And what was in Indonesia I think is still reasonable and it is one effort. It has never been a single published book entitled Jazz Indonesia, whose contents are only telling musicians or anyone who ever played jazz.

 

With some mixture of jazz and biographies of the characters. In addition, the book might be a little jazz my other guide book of nature is history.

WJ: I wonder what is written in the book?

SP: The first time about starting with what is jazz, all kinds of misconceptions and try to straighten our understanding. Especially knowing that jazz is very different from other music.

 

For as we look at jazz music with European musical glasses then always be missed. So does jazz have to approach the other way and may not exist in other music.

In the book I describe it, especially compared with European music. European music is music composition. Something that is built and the music should be played like what is written.

 

So if people like to paint pictures to paint. If jazz, to the contrary, he would express himself as well as the main priority is performance rather than composition.

 

Whether it’s jazz or not, after playing the new people know that it’s jazz or not. So if you like this game if you play jazz and it’s not like jazz.

 

 If the classical music, I play the score was able to say I play classical music and jazz that is later used to play, we hear first.

 

Actual composition was made by the musicians themselves when he was playing. Composition used here only as a basis for improvisation and melody build itself.

WJ: What is it that makes the impression of jazz music in our society is difficult to understand, a music class?

SP: If jazz music really can be difficult to understand as well. If up to now there is the impression that jazz is only for the upper class, was in Indonesia since the beginning of jazz music played on a five-star hotels.

 

 Because at the time it was difficult to ask clubs or a small café to showcase jazz music. Of their commercial aspect they did not dare. They think that jazz is still too foreign, and also happens to be the manager of these hotels as well as jazz lovers and also a lot of friends there so we finally started playing jazz in there.

 

Because hotels are five-star hotel, so that came mostly from upper middle class. This gives the impression that they make an exclusive group.

 

Perhaps it is true, but that eksklusifme jazz that’s more in terms of artistic rather than in terms of prestige.

 

Actually, they are for the love of jazz music and match the specific groups to form a group. Indeed, until now most are still a lot of jazz played in the major hotels and many have not played in other places though now little by little has been started (played in other places too-red).

WJ: And in the past, anything that you try to promote jazz music?

SP: We previously did not hold in hotels, but on campus. In the beginning was simple.

 

At that time the only source of jazz from the radio and there are several local musicians. Entertainment while students at the time when there is gathering together every week.

 

There we can drive around music, dance and always invite some jazz musicians. After that show they play. I often also bring some jazz recordings, finally my friends who love jazz and the other remains might come home we’re late.

 

At that time I ventured to hold a concert at the ITB LPs are played every full moon on the basketball court. I also love sober explanation according to my knowledge by recording from vinyl records and turntables powered by 50 watt amplifier that it was a great time. Finally nice enough, 2 hours with jazz music and after that we play dance music. Originally the case.

WJ: What exactly is the main activity of the Pak Dibyo it? Is jazz columnist? Or something else?

SP: When I was a lot of activity. But my profession is the architect, former professor of ITB, but indeed from the days of my students are active in promoting jazz, introducing jazz at the time not many people are familiar with jazz music, music that is still considered a lunatic. Although ultimately had an impact too.

WJ: First you study in?

SP: I went to the ITB which I then proceed to study in Britain and America.

WJ: In the book, is there any sort of how to enjoy jazz music?

SP: There are several things to consider, the first is the familiar elements of jazz music are the elements that make music that could be called jazz.

 

The second part is the identifier of each element of jazz music and a little bit about the structure of jazz music. Next is the history of jazz music, from the birth of jazz music.

 

Then was the development of style-style, because that person is known to jazz it was a lot of his style. It also indicates that very fast jazz music in its development, which in a century has been remarkable progress.

 

If the era of classical music from another era to era take hundreds of years. A lot of people that listen to jazz now be confused. Many in the jazz style.

 

Especially if the person did not know him. I hereby attempt to discriminate between one style with another style. There are funny stories, first time there are no bands that put on a musical instrument drum while wearing only a jazz group only. So that there are people who call the instrument is jazz. If anyone says that the band had a jazz band that means it has a drum.

WJ: What is the history of jazz in Indonesia is also specifically mentioned in the book?

SP: Yes, at the end. According to the data that I got that jazz was first played in Indonesia is about the year 1922.

 

So actually the first jazz recording ever produced in America was in 1917.

 

Since then the record began to spread across the world. Actually there is a musician from the Netherlands after a long time in America, he is also a saxophone player, came to Indonesia with his friends and make a band.

 

At that time regarded as the first jazz band in Indonesia. And I’ve noticed over the history of the game it was the Indo-Dutch almost 80% while the natives probably very few who play jazz music.

 

Indeed, if their names are read Dutch but judging by the name of the person is actually one of Jember, Banyuwangi and so on.

 

Why so? I have not found the right reasons but it should be investigated as well.

There are also a source that says about the year 1925 – 1927 many Filipinos into Jakarta and most of them are musicians. It also had an impact. Still some left, if in London there is still a musician whose name is Pablo Benny, Benny Corda, including the head of the radio orchestra in London, Sambayong it was the Filipinos who are jazz musicians who came to Indonesia in 1925.

WJ: Actually its development center in?

SP: Jakarta, Bandung, Bogor, Surabaya and Makassar. Originally used jazz played by a military group that usually they play to the top of his Dutch and Indonesian people, including his right to equal by the Dutch.

 

In the past they played in Societet, while the people of Indonesia can enter the building can be calculated, and even jazz had entered the palace.

 

We’ll see, at the time of the Dutch people who already have grammaphon Indonesia’s who?

 

Perhaps the Sultan alone. Anyway people of Indonesia on the social position like that of course they want to be aligned with the Dutch, who prefer to join the party events, dance with the Dutch.

 

In the United States was at that time jazz was still at an early stage, ie as much as a musical entertainment, as keadaanya not until now that some people considered as one of the jazz art form.

WJ: In those days, if there is a native who played jazz music?

SP: There is. In the report that I got it menebutkan that indigenous jazz musicians from Indonesia Aceh was the first time.

WJ: Is it true that some of our freedom fighters of the Army or its participating student play jazz to entertain the Netherlands?

SP: That’s not the Army their students, but individuals only. Incidentally I am also of the TP and there are some friends of Yogyakarta is also one of the union leaders that we are familiar with the name calling Pung mas.

 

He’s a musician too, and many of my friends at school who moved to Jakarta Yogyakarta about the year 1948.

 

There had with my friend from Ambon named Rudi Wayrata (live Lempuyangan, Yogya) and theists Matulesi, Edi Laluyan of Manado later formed the band in Jakarta.

 

At the time the band plays songs Hawain and pop songs, even though it in some style Hawain have started a little guitar solo in the direction of jazz music.

 

So they leave Yogyakarta to Jakarta. At one time mas Pung and I have an idea, why do we make the arrangements of vocal-group jazz arranger.

 

So that at the time, because mas Pung is also a fairly reliable aransir, has begun to make arrangements that are now possible such as Manhattan Transfer iringannya although still modest.

 

Playing in the studio until RRI (then still under the Dutch) and found by Jos Cleber (a Dutch orchestra leader).

 

 When he saw us play he remarked, “you are actually having an excellent vocal group, it helps me swatch cuman a jazz accompaniment is right”.

 

Eventually found by a trio (piano: Doddy Hughes; Drum: Boetje Pesolima; Bass: Dick Van Der Capellen) and offered to entertain the Dutch army.

 

So if what we did when it was known by friends in Yogya even later considered traitors. Then also appeared with Nick Mamahit.

WJ: In addition to names such as

Jack Lesmana,

Bubi Chen

and others, would anyone important jazz figures in Indonesia in addition to or before genarasi them?

SP: It depends from where we started. If we start from the beginning of the Republic of Indonesia may be familiar, even though they had died, among others Boetje Pesolima, Dick Van Der Capellen, Tjok Sin Soe (prior to 1950 has been played), Sigar Lucky Brothers (but since there is the assumption that jazz is not have a future in Indonesia they go to California) also Nick Mamahit (he ever get a formal education in the Netherlands),

Iskandar (Diah Iskandar ‘s father )

 he is a saxophone player and aransir already quite advanced, although the game has not been commensurate with aransemenya (the arrangements very well sung by someone else and never brought in a jazz festival in the U.S.).

In addition Etto Lattumeten he made famous Dixieland band The Old Timer in Jakarta. At the beginning of independence there was also a pianist who is both Marihut Hutabarat, who was called ‘George Shearing was Indonesia’.

 

He is a Bachelor of Law who died in an accident. And he’s the best after Nick Mamahit. Only then entered his generation Bill Saragih, Paul Hutabarat, Eddie Billy, Bing Crosby. Bing Crosby is actually a great singer and a jazz guitarist, even though more people know him as a comedian than a jazz player.

 

In the first independence war era, including Bing Crosby from one of three famous singer in Indonesia

 

 

 

 (Sam Saimun

and Mantovani).

Additional ‘Bing’ in his name because he was a great admirer of Bing Crosby.

WJ: Does the book also has an appreciation of your own to the development of jazz music in Indonesia today?

SP: There was little comment about it. There may also be some criticism about the jazz festival.

 

Regarding the development of jazz music here is actually from Indonesia’s population of more than 200 million, is still too little for his jazz players.

 

So if we look from a variety of events organized jazz will return to the name-that’s all, not many new names.

 

The process is still slow. Perhaps it happened views of the history of popular music in the 1930s where the music is jazz.

 

Because jazz at the time it was easy to dance and rhythm accompaniment for young children will easily access.

 

But after the 1960s jazz more and more complex and complicated that many teens getting away. While the outside of jazz music going on teenage trends that began to roll and swell the rock n roll.

 

Finally, many teens who fled. In the past, we can one record from the United States alone has been a bone of contention and busy to listen to the radio.

 

There is also admiration arose because many jazz musicians in Indonesia in the past, only learn from the radio broadcasts that make them a creative and great musicians, for example; Jack Lesmana and so on.

Now we are so many sources even exceptional. There’s MTV, pop subculture that many teens suck there.

 

So if there’s even a jazz happy teens teen said “odd”. Although in every era, teenagers are always called by certain pulses.

 

Given the positive fusion exists too. There are beat into jazz fusion, so there is concern and teenagers became interested in jazz rock in the hope they would be interested also in the jazz music itself, but some are not. It could also serve as a bridge early.

 

Same thing now with people like Kenny G, initially people think that Kenny G is also a jazz player. But it’s also a good start, because teenagers started pleased with instrumental music. Usually the “hero” his solo vocalist, with a hearing Kenny G is a saxophone player, maybe they’ll find another sax player.

 

Appreciation is always through specific pathways. 1960 may be the bossa nova and more people get into music like jazz.

WJ: When about this book can be published?

SP: Then, depending on the publisher and actually still need sponsors. In the book I also also analyzes the history of each instrument. At the same time I also gave the albums a choice of many jazz musicians.

WJ: What was initially met with figures of jazz lovers or in HPMJI (Association of Jazz Music Enthusiasts Indonesia)?

SP: At the time, jazz was already crowded. Increased local players in Bandung, while that in Jakarta at the USIS once every 2 weeks performing jazz.

 

Then they’ve asked me to organize a jazz gig in London and a successful event.

 

After that, they often ask for my help to find a musician if there are events in the USIS. My first assignment here and there looking for musicians and set up some programs.

Finally I got involved also with HPMJI and jazz players whose relationship is close enough.

 

 

 

Bubi Chen was not yet known.

 

 I just had a friend in Surabaya are familiar with the Bubi. So the next time it comes Tony Scott, Jack Lesmana in Surabaya said that there was a Chinese who can play the blues and bebop.

 

 

 

At first did not believe it. After Bubi Chen invited to the house at that time was young, about age 24 years, getting out of bed and was wearing a sarong. So Bubi play, Tony Scott direct speech, “This man must play with me”.

 

 

Read more about bubi chen

Bubi Chen veteran Jazz musician dies

 

TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – sad news re-covered world of Indonesian music. Bubi Chen, jazz musician who was born in Surabaya, today is Thursday (2/16/2012) reportedly died at the age of 74 years. Bubi died in Semarang at around 18:50 pm last.
News of the death Bubi Chen is a bustling media social networking Twitter.

 

 

Here’s a tweet from @ anandasukarlan account owner.
@ anandasukarlan: TLH Bubi Chen’s death, the great jazz Indonesia pk. 18:50 in Semarang. R.I.P. Tlg ya tweeps RT.

 

 


Bubi Chen was born in Surabaya, East Java, February 9, 1938 was a jazz musician Indonesia.


Bubi Chen is scheduled to be present in the arena of the great jazz party’s annual Java Jazz from 2, 3 and 4 March through Djarum event SuperMild Java Jazz 2012.


Originally Bubi will be featured at this event along with other jazz musicians, among others, country and Dewa  Budjana Dwiki Dharmawan


WJ: According to some sources, you are also involved in the project Indonesian All Stars album was produced and when it appeared in the Berlin Jazz Festival in 1967?

SP: It was the first to say there are jazz group from Indonesia “Go International”. If you think about the story at first is

 

 

 

Tony Scott’s

 

 

 

visit in Indonesia.

 

Here he was playing with Bubi Chen, and Jack Lesmana Maryono until eventually they become a thick friend and as a teacher.

 

 Because Tony Scott is one of a clarinet player, who at that time say the progressive game. He had played with

 

 

Charlie Parker,

 

 

 

 

Billie Holiday  jazz singer and so on.

 

But for one thing he had to leave Indonesia, so he was not too long here. Tony Scott also happened to be good friends with

 

 

a German jazz critic Joachim Berendt.

Berendt him a message to Indonesia if the do not forget to contact

 

 

Jack Lesmana.

 

Berendt to Jakarta and then introduced to

 

 

the mas Yos (red-Suyoso Karsono).

Actually he is a Jack father -in-law on wakti Lesmana where he had a record company (Rhythm Records).

 

After their dialogue on the possibility to send group of Indonesia. That upon the recommendation of Tony Scott.

 

Finally they made some recordings in Jakarta and then sent to Germany to be played on some radio station there as warming up. Once it was established Indonesian All Stars.

 

Because they constantly practicing for 2 months, finally they were all in Jakarta moved  to stay in his house Mas Yos.

 

This is due at the time Jack Lesmana and Bubi Chen is still in Surabaya. And also went to Europe.

Indeed, according to their plans to tour in Europe with a peak to participate in

 

 

 

 

the Berlin Jazz Festival.

 

But they were hit by disasters. After the tour a success, when he got in Berlin, Maryono fell ill.

 

So the festival’s Indonesian All Stars does not appear, but the Bubi himself to play.

 

So the next time the committee was there to choose International All Stars band in which the members chosen from various countries and Bubi was selected as the accompanist.

Since then, the name Bubi began to be known by jazz critics. And Downbeat magazine in late 1967 issue of the name has been started called “the best in Asia” and “one of the best in the world”.

WJ: Given the economic and political conditions in our country in 1967 about the same as we are experiencing right now, why they seemed to have a ‘power struggle’ high?

SP: That when I look at Jack and Bubi it shows the game is best in their years of suffering and difficulty. Their games are very inspiring.


Among them Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano ), Elfa Secioria (piano).

Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.

Mid-80s,

Fariz RM name appears. He further categorizes his music as new age. However, some compositions breathe pop jazz, latin and even. Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz, by replacing some of the personnel.

90s up to now,

 a lot of jazz musicians and groups are formed. Brought jazz music is no longer mainstream, but the distillation of a variety of music such as fusion, acid, pop, rock and more. Call it SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials and much more.

Usually a lot of jazz musicians popping up in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya and Bali. This is due to currents flowing jazz more jazz gigs there by (JakJazz, Java Jazz Festival, Victoria Jazz Festival), jazz music schools, recording studios and a cafe featuring jazz. Which also contributed to a “stream” jazz flows into Indonesia is the Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival.

Music Jazz Record Collections

THE Indonesian Vintage music JAZZ record COLLECTIONS

Alpha

 

in the 30’s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30’s. Brought by musicians from the Philippines who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

The names of the musicians

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.

In 1948
 
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians.

One is the famous Dutch musician Cleber Jose.

Cleber’s Jakarta Studio Orchestra music game to accommodate California.

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

Year 1945 – 1950

 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,

 

 

Bubi Chen (piano),

Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges (piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi

 

 

 

In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz. He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya  in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).

 

 

Feb 21, ’08 7:29 PM
for everyone

 

Rindu ……… Nick Mamahit & Trio
Rindu … Nick Mamahit & Trio

oleh Sujoso Karsono

(,,Mas Jos” utk. teman2nja)


Young musicians in Jakarta in 70 – 80.

Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano), Elfa Secioria (piano). Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.

 

Mid-80s,

 Fariz RM

Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz,

90s up to now,

 SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials
Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival

the end @ copyright @ 2912

Protected: The Dai Nippon Occupation Java Part One 1942 history collections

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The California History Collections

The California And Los Angeles

 History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

THIS ARTICLE DEDICATED TO

My Sister Elina Widyono,Brother in low John widyono with their children Fam. Kentom widyono  and Fam.Anita and also to my brother son Erwin Utama

They lived now in California Los Angeles area like San Jose,San Diego etc.

I hope after read this history they will know about their homeland now.

the complete info and illustrations look at Driwan E-BOOK IN CD-ROM

california 1800

In April 1850, a harbormaster’s estimate counted 62,000 people from across the globe arriving in San Francisco by ship in the preceding 12 months. Hundreds of ships lay abandoned, their passengers and crews out searching for gold

CALIFORNIA 1810

Priest Doctor from California, from ‘Encyclopedie des Voyages’, engraved by Labrousse, 1810 (coloured engraving)

CALIFORNIA 1820

The Matterhorn and the old city seen from the east, ca. 1820. Situated

 CALIFORNIA 1838

by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, ca. 1830, oil on paper mounted on millboard

THE OLDEST PAPPER TREA IN 1830

 CALIFORNIA 1840

 

 

 

Bring me men to match my mountains,
Bring me men to match my plains,
Men with empires in their purpose
And new eras in their brains.

Major Cooper

As announced last week, Major Stephen Cooper died at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. J.R. Wolfskill, near Winters, May 16th, at the advanced age of ninety-three years. Sunday morning last his body was taken to Colusa for interment in the plot where are buried the remains of members of his family who have gone before, the funeral services being conducted at the Christian church by Rev. Mr. Blake. Many relatives and friends from Oakland, Winters, and other parts of the State were in attendance, the church and town bells were all tolled, and a man known and beloved throughout the length and breadth of the whole State was consigned to his last narrow bed. Major Cooper was among the last of the hardy frontiersmen who did so much to mold the destinies of this nation. He was one of the twelve veterans remaining of the War of 1812, as he told us only a few days before his death. He had a remarkably good constitution, and up to within a few days of his death was very active.

Play: The Battle of New Orleans

Stephen Cooper was a son of Sarshel Cooper, who was a native of Virginia, and one of the first settlers of Kentucky. Stephen was born March 10, 1797. In 1807 his father moved to Howard County, Missouri. Major Cooper’s father was a captain in the War of 1812, and he, only fifteen years old, was a private in his father’s company. This company was in command of General Henry Dodge, afterward United States Senator from Wisconsin. Captain Sarshel Cooper was killed by a shot fired at him by Indians while sitting at the fireside. At the close of the war in 1815 Major Cooper was one of the leaders in the first party to open the Santa Fe Trail in 1822 and 1823. The march from Missouri was through a trackless waste, never trod by civilized man, and the country was filled with hostile Indians. He was captain of thirty men. He was in the Black Hawk War in 1833; in 1837 he and Major Bearcroft were commissioned to work on the northern boundaries of Missouri. He was Indian Agent at Council Bluffs during the Administration of Van Buren. In 1844 he was a member of the Missouri legislature. In 1845 he married Miss Tate, who died a few years ago. In 1845 he started across the plains with General Fremont, but accompanied him only as far as the Arkansas River. In 1846 he came to California. In February 1847, he presided over the first meeting ever held by Americans in California, at Yerba Buena, now San Francisco. In the fall of 1847 he moved to Benicia, and was appointed by Governor Mason, Alcalde. He voted three times for General Jackson. During all his life he was true to the Democracy. He carried the vote of California to Washington for Hancock. In 1854 he moved to Colusa. He had five children, twenty-one grandchildren and eight great grandchildren.    

  Saturday, May 24, 1890 Winters Express

Major Stephen Cooper and Captain E.J. Von Pfister, historical pioneers, located in Benicia this year; and I say historical, for Cooper was the first hotel keeper and magistrate, and Von Pfister was the first merchant of the county.  John R. Wolfskill and David D. Dutton antedate all of the California pioneers living in Solano county. Wolfskill reached Los Angeles in 1836 and Dutton, Fort Ross, Sonoma county, in 1840. But few pioneers of the State can claim a longer residence than these two estimable citizens, who are passing into the sear and yellow leaf, and who will soon be gathered to their fathers and be buried within our borders.

Major Stephen Cooper claims to have been the first Californian to acquaint President Polk of.. Marshall’s discovery of gold at Coloma.. by mailing him a letter from Benicia early in 1848, and I have no doubt but this claim is a proper one, for the old Major was politically ambitious, and belonged to one of the most distinguished and numerous families of the pioneers of Missouri, and moreover, at the time, was nigh up in the councils of the Democratic party.

The elder Coles, Coopers, Callaways and Wolfskills are, inseparably and prominently, connected with the early history and settlement of Missouri, and were all contemporaries of the famous Daniel Boone.

George A.Gillespie  January 24, 1891 Winters Express


Stephen Cooper

 “In the spring of 1846 I started with my family for California.  I was at the head of seven wagons, three of these my own.  We soon fell in with a large train of thirty-five wagons bound for Oregon…. We soon rolled out and twenty-one of the Oregon wagons fell in with us, making twenty-eight wagons in my train, which I brought to California.  The first news I received of the American domination of California was while I was riding down through Humboldt County, then an almost unexplored wilderness.  The day was hot and dusty, my oxen were tired and thirsty, and we were a demoralized lot, slowly creeping down the valley.  Suddenly I saw a man galloping up the valley, shouting, swearing and praying, all in one breath.  He would lash his horse and give a shout.  He would hurrah for Fremont, then for California, and then for America.  When he got opposite me, I stopped and got off my wagon and asked him what the matter was.  He was acting like a madman, shouting until I threatened to thrash him unless he spoke sense.  Then he told me that Fremont had captured California.  I tell you I suddenly ceased to feel tired, and the creaking of the ox-yoke was music in my ears; even the oxen felt revived and walked brisker for that news.  California looked twice as handsome under American rule as it did under the Mexicans.  We reached Sacramento Valley the 5th of November, 1846.  In three days fifty wagons arrived.  We met recruiting officers from Fremont’s camp.  I went into the recruiting business, and through my influence some twenty-six joined me.  I told them I wanted every man who could leave, to join Fremont; that we had to hold the country or leave it at short notice

from the Autobiography of Stephen Cooper in “Colusa County” – by Justus H. Rogers

Here is the tale as it was simply told by Mrs. Van Winkle (Frances Cooper) the other afternoon at her present residence in this city, 911 Van Ness avenue, San Francisco:

“We came to California the same year as the ill-fated Donner party. It started about a month ahead of us, but it kept taking imaginary short cuts and hurrying until it met with frightful disaster. My father (Stephen Cooper), who was captain of our train, led his party of about eighty people across trackless plains and mountains for five months, simply with the sun and the stars as guides, and came west almost as straight as the crow flies. He believed in moving every day, if only three miles and the result was that all our oxen were in better condition when they arrived in California than when they started. Several of the survivors of the Donner party, young George Donner and Mrs. Reed, came to our house in Napa after they were rescued. I heard the other day that Mrs. Reed’s daughter, ‘Patty’ Reed, who was then a very little girl, is living on Franklin street in Oakland. She is Mrs. Martha Lewis now.

“Both father and mother were born in Kentucky, but like a good many other Kentuckians of those days, they moved out to Missouri, where we children were born. Then father was appointed Indian Agent at Council Bluffs, Ia., old Colonel Thomas Benton getting him the position. There was no town there then—just the agency buildings. The only white people besides us were the blacksmith and another family. We children grew up there with the Indians as our playmates.

“There were several Indians—Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawattomies—at the Council Bluffs agency when father was in charge. They were all lazy. They considered it a disgrace to work, and would rather be killed than made to labor. They didn’t know any English, and wouldn’t talk much in their own language, but as a girl I used to speak Indian.

 “So, in May, 1846, we started, I being then 20 years of age. We hadn’t been on the way a month — there were no roads or trails—when we were attacked one day by Indians. Five hundred Cherokees swooped down upon us on horseback and surrounded our wagon train. They rode around and around us. Father knew how to deal with Indians and after the wagons had been drawn together at the first alarm, he stepped out to parley with them, and offered flour and tobacco. The Indians of those days were simply crazy for flour and tobacco. They would take a little flour and mix it with water and make it into tortillas and pat them lovingly for hours like little flapjacks and then cook them on hot stones. Father took out a half barrel of flour and measured it out, a little cupful to each Indian, and he cut plug tobacco up and gave it to them. Then they all smoked the pipe of peace. We knew father simply detested smoking; it made him sick, and we almost laughed to see him puffing away there with all those Indians. We were a little afraid of the Sioux Indians, for they were very wild and fierce, but father smoked with them and gave them flour and tobacco too, when we encountered them a little while later.

“We ran into one herd of about 500 buffalo, and father killed several, but ordinarily he would not permit any delays or turning aside for game. We came steadily along, making about twelve or fourteen miles a day. There was no baggage but bedding and provisions. In one wagon drawn by two big oxen we had the bedding, and we used to ride in that. We rode all the way except up the slopes of the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada. It was awful coming up those mountains. There were great rocks, waist high, that the wheels had to bump over, and it was all the poor oxen could do to drag the lightened loads.

 “We were received at Napa by Mr. Yount, who had lived originally in Howard county, Missouri. He was just as glad to see us as if we had been his own family. He owned seven leagues of land there in the Napa valley, had 600 mares and thousands of horses and cattle. The whole valley was covered with grazing cattle. In those days the only Americans there were the Gregories, the Stewards, the Derbons and a few other families.

“There were so many thousands of long-horned Spanish cattle in the country that anybody that liked went out and killed a beef when he needed meat, and no one said anything. And it was good beef, too, probably because there was so much excellent grass.

“All the Spanish families had Indian slaves. They never permitted them to walk, but made them go about on the trot all the time. Those Indians made good slaves, excellent. The Spanish vaqueros used to go up to what is now Ukiah and ride in among the Indian rancherias and drive out the boys and girls, leaving the mothers behind and killing the bucks if they offered any resistance. Then they would herd the captives down like so many cattle and sell them to the ranchers. About $100 was the standard price. A good girl would bring that, but some sold for as little as $50.

“I bought one Indian girl from a Spaniard for $100, but soon after that another Indian girl and two boys came to my house of their own accord and explained that they had no home and wanted to work. The four of them did all my work, washing, ironing, cooking and housecleaning. One of the girls was a splendid nurse. The shameful treatment of the Indians by the Spanish was never equaled by the whites. As Americans settled up the country the enslaving of young Indians naturally stopped.

“We had a Fourth of July celebration near Napa in 1847. It was given by us at the Yount place. It must have been the first affair of the kind in California. We had about forty guests, most of them Spanish people of some prominence in the country. I made an enormous pound cake for the center of the table. Nobody had brought an American flag to California, so my sister, now Mrs. Wolfskill of Winters, made a little one of some narrow red ribbon and cut some blue silk from her best dress, and sewed on but one star, for material was very scarce, and the whole thing was not bigger than a woman’s handkerchief.  We stuck it in the top of the cake. One of our guests was a Dr. Bailey [Bail], an Englishman of whom we all thought a great deal. He died long ago, but his two daughters are married and are living near St. Helena in Napa county, where they own big wine vineyards.

“Father had written across the little flag, ‘California is ours as long as the stars remain.’ The Spaniards took it all right, but Dr. Bailey became very much excited and snatched at the flag. All through the dinner he insisted upon removing it, declaring that the American flag should never wave over California. After the dinner, as my sister and I were driving to our house, Dr. Bailey rode beside our wagon and we clung to the little silk flag and kept waving it at him from one side and then the other as he urged his horse close and tried to grab it from our hands. About a dozen years ago father lent the flag to the California Pioneers, and they have it in their collection yet.

 “At first we thought California would be a great stock country, a fine place for farming, an elegant climate to live in, but no one had any idea then that there was gold here. But in 1848 and 1849 Dr. Semple was the only man left in Benicia, and mother, my sister and I the only women. All the others had gone to the mines. We lived in Benicia just four years, then we moved to what is now Colusa.

“My husband owned half of Colusa, old Colonel Hagar owning the other half. Dr. Semple had an idea that he could make a fortune out of the land. So we went up there. We were the first white people in that part of the State. There was a big rancheria of Indians right in what is now the heart of the town of Colusa, hundreds and hundreds of them. And five miles up the river was another big rancheria on what is now known as the John Boggs place. John Boggs did not come to Colusa until a good deal later, but he had big droves of cattle, and did well and made money.

“In Colusa, in the early days we raised vegetables to sell to the miners, and we grew grain and shipped it down to San Francisco on steamers. When I first saw Sacramento it was an apparently endless sweep of small tents, not a frame building anywhere in sight. That was in 1850. It was a terrifying place. I was frightened. Men were gambling on all sides. They were shooting and cursing and yelling. The noise and uproar were awful.

Mrs. Susan Cooper Wolfskill of Winters, widow of the late John Wolfskill, who arrived in Los Angeles in 1834, is a sister of Mrs. Van Winkle. She is visiting her younger sister, Mrs. Martha Cooper Roberts.

“I saw the first gold ever discovered in California” said Mrs. Wolfskill. “Marshall came over to our house in Benicia and stayed all night. He was on his way to San Francisco from Sutter’s mill. He said he thought he had gold. He took out a little rag that looked like the bit of a bag that housewives keep aniseed in and opened it. We all looked at it in wonder. Three days after that Sam Brannan, a Mormon, came riding breathless into our place in Benicia and asked John Wolfskill, who was afterward my husband, for a fresh horse. He said that gold had been discovered, and that he was going up there to locate all the land he could and return to Monterey and file on it. Monterey was then the capital of California. But some time before that Brannan had been very unaccommodating to Mr. Wolfskill when he wanted horses to help bring his fruit trees from Los Angeles, so he would not let Brannan have a horse. Brannan rode on, urging his tired beast. He and [John] Bidwell were going to locate the whole gold-bearing country, but Mr. Wolfskill told them it was placer mining, and that they could not hold it all.

“Everybody was guarding the secret of gold in California in hope of monopolizing the product. My father was the first man to write of the discovery. He sent a long letter East to his old friend, Senator Thomas Benton, who had secured him the position of Indian Agent at Council Bluffs years before, and that letter of my father’s was primarily the cause of the gold fever that swept through the Eastern States.

“In 1848 and 1849 we had a school in Benicia. Father started it and got seven pupils to come from a distance and board at our places.  In 1849 and 1850 our only source of social amusement was dancing. And such dances! We used to ride horseback miles to attend them. I rode all the way from Benicia to Sonoma, about thirty miles, and then danced all night. And the only music for these balls was the fiddle. We left Benicia in 1852 and went to Green valley, and lived there three years. Then we moved to Colusa, and I stayed there until 1860, when I was married and went to Winters to live on the old Wolfskill place, where my husband died.”

The Chronicle, San Francisco  September 9, 1900

See: COOPERS, WOLFSKILLS, AND BOONES

 

Edwin, Dwight & George Hemenway

It has been told that the original family member to reach California came by ship around the Horn to San Francisco. It is not known for certain when the original Hemenway first came to California.

“Around 1878, [one] Harvey Hemenway and his family homesteaded 500 acres in the area now known as Canyon Acres, building a two story home on the corner of what is now Arroyo Rd. and Canyon Acres Drive. It is said that he was “shanghaied” in San Francisco, jumped ship off Laguna Beach, and swam ashore. He had the one room school house, which had been built at the Mormon settlement moved to his property across the street from his home, and it stood at the corner of Canyon Acres Drive and Laguna Canyon Rd. where it served as the school for Laguna Beach for a number of years, until about 1905. He also was the head of the school board.”

from a History of Laguna by Belinda Blacketer

Nathaniel Cook, eldest son of Ezra and Permelia Cook, bought land near Kelseyville, Lake County in 1872. It is likely that he was influential in persuading Edwin and Dwight Hemenway to move to California in the early 1880’s. Edwin and Dwight settled there first. Younger brother George and his family followed in 1887, after homesteading in Kansas for several years.

Dwight’s old home still stands on Hemenway Street in Winters. Dwight is buried in Napa. George is buried in the Winters Cemetery. The old Hemenway house on Grant Avenue.
 

The Hemenway and Cooper families were close having intermarried more than once. The Cooper family was also related to the Wolfskills through generations of intermarriage. The Wolfskills were among the few Americans who were able to obtain Mexican Land Grants. Some of the Cooper family would later relocate to San Antonio, Texas.

The Old Wolfskill Home

This photo is of the Cooper/Hemenway family.

In the center are William Braxton (Billy) Cooper and his wife Ella Hemenway Cooper to the right, and next to her is Sarchel Cooper. Chester Hemenway is third from the left on the top row. Eva May Cooper is second from left top row.  Robert Cooper is far left middle row.  Fred C. Hemenway is second from  left in the front row. “Bird” Cooper is second from right front row. She later married John Henry Wolfskill.  Fred and Ella, born in Chicago, were the children of George W. Hemenway and Anna Persis Filer.

 

From the book by G. W. Thissell


Old Pioneers
Front row L-R  J.R.Wolfskill, W.R.Miller, J.M. Pleasants, W.H.Gibbs, J.R.Collins, G.W.Thissell  Back row L-R  W.J. Pleasants, E.R. Thurber, R. Long, J.O. McLain

Courtesy  SCHS

The following excerpt is taken from a History of Solano and Napa Counties:

“An identification with the material development of the west, that began during the year 1849 and has continued to the present time, furnishes the foundation of the success achieved by two generations of the Cooper family and gives them ample reason for maintaining a high opinion concerning the possibilities of the west. The original representative in California and the honored pioneer of 1849 was Humphrey Jackson Cooper, a man of sterling worth, possessing the dauntless courage and quiet endurance to existence upon the frontier. The trip across the plains tested both his courage and his endurance. It was his task, in the division of the work among the emigrants, to drive a flock of sheep from the east. While engaged in this work the Indians shot at him and he had a very narrow escape. His cousin was less fortunate, for the savages shot him with bow and arrows, inflicting a mortal wound. When the unfortunate victim of their malice had passed away his companions buried him and started on, but the Indians dug up the body for the blankets. Again the emigrants made a grave and interred the remains, but again the Indians brought the body to the surface of the ground and robbed it of the blanket used for a shroud. A third internment was made by the emigrants and on this occasion the body was allowed to lie undisturbed.”


Sutter’s Fort


Humphrey Jackson Cooper

Mary Elizabeth Wilkerson Cooper, center, widow of Humphrey Jackson Cooper with her grandchildren.  At the far right are Dolly and Blake Cooper in the second and third rows.   

Photo Courtesy of Pat Powell

Billy Cooper

Charlie Cooper

Various activities, incident to the development of a new country engaged the attention of Humphrey Jackson Cooper after his arrival in California. For many years he cultivated a farm in Yolo county near Woodland and there occurred the birth of his son, William B., March 10, 1865. There the boy attended the public schools and there he was instructed in the details of ranching.

Upon starting out for himself when about twenty-one years of age, William B. went to Texas and secured work in the cattle country near the southwestern border of the state. For six years he remained there, but deciding the region to be far inferior to California he returned to the west. Since then he has lived either in Yolo or in Solano county.
His marriage at Winters united him with Miss Eunice Luella (Ella) Hemenway. Two children bless the union, William B., Jr.(Blake), and Persis Ardis (Dollie), both of whom are now students in the Olive school near the home ranch.

After having worked as foreman on a fruit ranch and thus gained considerable experience in the fruit industry, eighteen years ago William B. Cooper bought twenty-six acres of land in Solano county near the village of Winters. Under his capable management the property has been brought to a high state of development. A vineyard covers eight acres and the balance of the land is in peaches and apricots, both being young orchards just ready to come into bearing. The first crop of apricots was harvested in 1910 and brought excellent returns. During that same season twenty-five hundred crates of grapes were shipped from the farm. In addition to his vineyard and orchard Mr. Cooper has a small tract of land for his stock, consisting of a few head of horses, cattle and hogs. As the years pass by he is more and more pleased with the outlook in Solano county. His farm is paying large dividends on the original investment. The soil is rich, the climate pleasant, the schools excellent, and in the Presbyterian Church at Winters he and his wife have a congenial church home.”


Ella at 15 years

Dolly Cooper

Cooper Brothers Bob,Billy & Sarchel

Myrtle Cooper
Wife of Frank Wolfskill

Billy Cooper

Ardis (Dolly) in Australia

Dolly’s “Big Game” date

Blake Cooper

Blake Cooper & cousin
Clyde Cooper Hemenway


Ella

David Ritchie
future husband of
Jessie Hemenway

Maybell Hemenway

Dwight’s daughter

Maybell and Mr. Moler

Esther
Edwin’s daughter

Blake

                                 

     Joseph Cooper Wolfskill                                Margaret Ann (Peggy) Cooper Wolfskill
     Son  of Mathus Wolfskill                               Wife of Sarchel Cooper Wolfskill 
                                                                                  with grandaughters L-R Lillian Cooper

                                 
         Charles Cooper                                           Molly Wolfskill Cooper                             
Susan CooperWolfskill          Ned Wolfskill          Annie Bollinger Wolfskill
                                                                                 Wife of Ned

                                                                           

                             
Frank Wolfskill                        Sarchel Cooper Wolfskill?

                            Son of Ned Wolfskill


Old Wolfskill School

In 1873 Sarchel Wolfskill and William Baker purchased 2 acres from Theodore Winters to build the first Wolfskill School.  In 1892 from L-R  First row are Ida Mae Baker, Miss Annie Baker, Maude Lamme, Nancy Wolfskill, and Atlanta Wolfskill.  Second row L-R Mark Wolfskill, Reed Wolfskill, Reese Wolfskill, Unknown, Frank Wolfskill, Herman Wolfskill, Ernest Northcutt, Irwin Baker, Arthur Northcutt   – Courtesy YCA


John R. Wolfskill


Frances Wolfskill
daughter of John R. Wolfskill
and Susan Cooper

L-R  Blake Cooper and cousins Buel and ‘Paddy’ Cooper

George Whitfield Hemenway was one of the early postmasters of Winters. He was also a printer and proprietor. He died at a relatively young age while his son Fred was attending school at the University of California in Berkeley. It is said that his service in the war damaged his health, precipitating his untimely death.

 

 

 



George’s war wounds

George W. Hemenway, third from left with cane, was the Postmaster of Winters when this photo was taken in 1890. Above the entrance are the words ‘Post Office’.
Walter Hemenway is pictured second from right.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

G.A.R. Meeting

HEADQUARTERS, COL. A.W. PRESTON POST, NO. 114, DEP’T CAL., G.A.R., Winters, Cal., January 24, 1891.

At a regular meeting of this Post, held in Seaman’s Hall, January 24, 1891, the following officers, being duly elected for the ensuing year, were properly installed by Senior Past Post Commander and Special Aid de Camp, J.P. Trumbull: 

Post Commander, G.W. Hemenway, Senior Vice, Joshua Steward, Junior Vice, J.P. Trumbull, Quartermaster, Samuel Cooper, Surgeon, P.J. Aiken, M.D., Chaplain, James Wilson, Officer of the Day, Joseph Connor, Officer of the Guard, J.W. Ball, Sergeant Major, A.N. Babcock, Quartermaster Sergeant, T.E. Boyd 

Representatives to Department Encampment, J.P. Trumbull, Joseph Connor, A.N. Babcock, G.W. Hemenway and P.J. Aiken, M.D. Alternate, James Wilson.

Comrade Samuel Cooper was admitted a member by transfer card.

from the Winters Express,  1891

DEATH OF G.W. HEMENWAY

An Old Soldier and Well Known Citizen Passes to the Great Beyond

Rather suddenly, though not entirely unexpectedly, the people of Winters were called upon Monday last to attend the last sad rites to the memory of a fellow townsman, G.W. Hemenway.

 

He had long been a sufferer from disease resultant from exposure in the army, but for many years was able to attend to his business until last spring, when his old trouble returned with unusual rigor. On account of his age he had not the vitality to withstand it, and succumbed to the disease at 8:25 o’clock Sunday morning, December 9, at the home of his brother, Dwight Hemenway, where he had been receiving the best of care and undivided attention. A simple and impressive funeral service was held at the house of Dwight Hemenway Monday morning, Rev. H.C. Culton officiating, and the remains were interred in the Masonic cemetery.

George Whitfield Hemenway was born at Wayne, DuPage county, Illinois June 17, 1842. Deceased was third of a family of ten children, six of whom are still living. Mr. Hemenway passed his boyhood days on his father’s farm at Wayne. At the age of nineteen, September 23, 1861, he enlisted for three years as private in Co. K 36th regiment of Illinois volunteer infantry. He served through the Missouri campaign, was at the battle of Stone River, Wilson’s Creek and Pea Ridge. His next battle was at Perryville, and it was during the march from Perryville to Murfreesboro that the disease developed which resulted in his death. It was while in the campaign around Chattanooga and Murfreesboro that he was discharged, October, 20, 1863, as physically unfit for military duty.

 

He returned home and having to some extent recovered, he and his father went to Atchinson, Ill., as broom makers. When Mr. Hemenway again returned home he was elected tax collector of Wayne township. He then completed a course in the business department of Wheaton College and secured employment in the wholesale stationery establishment of Ezra Cook in Chicago.

He was married November 17, 1869, to Anna Filer, whom he met while they were students at Wheaton College. After the Chicago fire in which Ezra Cook’s establishment was burned, he found employment in printing the Christian Cynosure, a paper edited by President Blanchard of Wheaton College. In 1877 Mr. Hemenway and wife moved to Kansas, bringing three children, Walter, Luella and Fred, born to them in Chicago. He remained in Kansas, near Madison, conducting a farm ten years. Here Harvey and Jessie were born.

 

The family moved to Winters in the fall of 1887, where deceased served for six years as postmaster, to the entire satisfaction of the community. The deceased was prominent in G.A.R. circles, a well-known and respected citizen of Winters and an enthusiastic supporter of all patriotic movements. Besides the five children, who are all living, he leaves and invalid wife to mourn his loss. The heartfelt sympathy of the whole community reaches out to comfort the bereaved ones in their deepest sorrow.

-from the Winters Express December 1900

 

The President appoints George Postmaster

Click to enlarge

Walter G. Hemenway owned and operated several studios in Northern and Southern
California, including one in San Diego where he and his wife, the former Cornelia Sweitzer, operated the largest photographic business in that city.  They later moved to Los Angeles and built up the leading gallery in all of Southern California.  Then  Nelia died suddenly, shortly after Wally purchased a gallery in New York City where they were to move.  No one knows what happened to Wally, but he may have remarried.

Walter George (Wally) Hemenway and his studio in San Diego

 


Walter’s Studio Logo

L.A. Street Scene circa 1905

Early Hemenway Photographs

The earthquake of 1892 damaged Winters heavily. Many downtown buildings and residences required major repair (all were repaired within a month) and the Army was asked to provide tent shelters for the homeless during reconstruction.

from City of Winters: Cultural and Historical Heritage

EARTHQUAKE!

…Some were so blanched with fear that they kept motionless, their hearts almost ceasing to beat. Others gave vent to their fear by loud and continuous screaming, while others calmly dressed themselves and got out to see what was going on…

Winters 1892

After surveying the damage to their homes, people started for the business district, where crowds began to gather by 3:00 am. At the Hotel DeVilbiss, where forty guests were lodged, it was said that men, women and children could be seen getting out as fast as they could. Miss Clara Jensen was pinned beneath the fallen stones of the Bertholet building, but was quickly rescued. Jeff Darby, a dishwasher residing in the Cradwick building, was less fortunate. He became the only fatality when he died at the county hospital three days after a brick wall fell upon him.

 

Local photographer Walter G. Hemenway was on hand to record the damage and the initial clean-up efforts. Also, the pages of the Express are full of human interest stories about how individuals dealt with the destruction about them. Within days, the businessmen of the town had either relocated or repaired the damage enough to continue serving their customers.

— Winters: A Heritage of Horticulture, A Harmony of Purpose – J. Larkey


This photo of the Wolfskill’s, who were among the earliest American pioneers in California, was taken by the Hemenway Studio. John R. Wolfskill is seated at
the right. In back of him is his wife Susan Cooper, cousin of Humphrey Jackson Cooper. Milton Wolfskill, on the left with his wife Anna Sweaney, settled in Los Angeles.

Jessie Geraldine (Tid)

Masonic Hall earthquake damage

Ella and Jessie camping out after the 1892 earthquake.

Portrait of Jessie,
youngest daughter of George W. & Anna Persis Filer.
Jessie Ritchie lived her last years in Capitola, CA.


Harvey

Wally

Walter, known as the “Photographer to the Stars”, shot the above portrait during Harvey’s visit to Los Angeles to attend the Olympics in 1932.

            
                

            Nelia                                     Charles & Molly Cooper Children
Walter’s wife                                                                                           

Tid & Ella

Wally’s Hunt

Poker Game

L to R,  Robert Lincoln, Edgar Stevenson, Arthur Cooper, Alex Ritchie

 

                                                                                                                                                                    

Chester’s home in San Francisco

 

Chester, son of Dwight Hemenway, moved to San Francisco after marrying Eva Mae Cooper in Winters.  At one time Charles Hemenway came to live with him.  Chester returned to San Francisco from Winters after the earthquake to find his home damaged but not destroyed.  His son Clyde later moved south to Burlingame where his family ultimately settled.

San Francisco Days Before The 1906 Earthquake
A Trolley Trip Down Market Street

Fire engulfs the Call Building

City Hall

 

“It was bedlam, pandemonium, and hell rolled into one.”
– anonymous

The evacuation of San Francisco 1906

Harvey Edwin (Scoot), youngest son of George and Anna, was an avid hunter and logger in Mendocino County. He is pictured at the far right in the hunt photo.  Scoot led a hard life of drinking and smoking and eventually died of tuberculosis.  It is surmised that the task he had as a child of dressing his father’s war wounds had a detrimental effect on him.


Logging site

 

 California 1849

 

California gold miners in 1850

 

California Gold Rush

Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California.[1] The first to hear confirmed information of the gold rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America, who were the first to start flocking to the state in late 1848. All told, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.[2] Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea and half came from the east overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.

The gold-seekers, called “forty-niners” (as a reference to 1849), often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China. At first, the gold nuggets could be picked up off the ground. Later, gold was recovered from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods were developed and later adopted elsewhere. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today’s dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with little more than they had started with.

The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written, a governor and legislature chosen and California became a state in 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850.

New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service. By 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of “staking claims” was developed. The Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were attacked and pushed off their lands and the mining caused environmental harm. An estimated 100,000 California Indians died between 1848 and 1868, and some 4,500 of them were killed.[3][edit] History

California goldfields (yellow) in the Sierra Nevada and northern California

The California Gold Rush began at Sutter’s Mill, near Coloma.[4] On January 24, 1848 James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River.[5] Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two privately tested the metal. After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if there were a mass search for gold.[6] However, rumors soon started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. The most famous quote of the California Gold Rush was by Brannan; after he had hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies,[7] Brannan strode through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting “Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!”[8]

Gold rush newspaper articles

First newspaper announcement, San Francisco, March 15, 1848
^ First announcement, San Francisco, 1848
Routes to California via Mexico, Panama and Cape Horn, 1849
Gold fields and sailing routes to California, 1849

At the time gold was discovered, California was part of the Mexican territory of Alta California, which was ceded to the U.S. after the end of the Mexican-American War with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848.

On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress.[9] Soon, waves of immigrants from around the world, later called the “forty-niners”, invaded the Gold Country of California or “Mother Lode”. As Sutter had feared, he was ruined; his workers left in search of gold, and squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.[10]

San Francisco had been a tiny settlement before the rush began. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses,[11] but then boomed as merchants and new people arrived. The population of San Francisco exploded from perhaps 1,000[12] in 1848 to 25,000 full-time residents by 1850.[13] Miners lived in tents, wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships.[14] Wherever gold was discovered, hundreds of miners would collaborate to put up a camp and stake their claims. With names like Rough and Ready and Hangtown (Placerville, California), each camp often had its own saloon and gambling house.[15]

In what has been referred to as the “first world-class gold rush”,[16] there was no easy way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and often death on the way. At first, most Argonauts, as they were also known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take five to eight months,[17] and cover some 18,000 nautical miles (33,000 km). An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, and then on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco.[18] There was also a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz. Many gold-seekers took the overland route across the continental United States, particularly along the California Trail.[19] Each of these routes had its own deadly hazards, from shipwreck to typhoid fever and cholera.[20]

To meet the demands of the arrivals, ships bearing goods from around the world came to San Francisco as well. Ships’ captains found that their crews deserted to go to the gold fields. The wharves and docks of San Francisco became a forest of masts, as hundreds of ships were abandoned. Enterprising San Franciscans turned the abandoned ships into warehouses, stores, taverns, hotels, and one into a jail.[21] Many of these ships were later destroyed and used for landfill to create more buildable land in the boomtown.

Merchant ships fill San Francisco harbor, 1850-51

Within a few years, there was an important but lesser-known surge of prospectors into far Northern California, specifically into present-day Siskiyou, Shasta and Trinity Counties.[22] Discovery of gold nuggets at the site of present-day Yreka in 1851 brought thousands of gold-seekers up the Siskiyou Trail[23] and throughout California’s northern counties.[24] Settlements of the Gold Rush era, such as Portuguese Flat on the Sacramento River, sprang into existence and then faded. The Gold Rush town of Weaverville on the Trinity River today retains the oldest continuously used Taoist temple in California, a legacy of Chinese miners who came. While there are not many Gold Rush era ghost towns still in existence, the remains of the once-bustling town of Shasta have been preserved in a California State Historic Park in Northern California.[25]

Gold was also discovered in Southern California but on a much smaller scale. The first discovery of gold, at Rancho San Francisco in the mountains north of present-day Los Angeles, had been in 1842, six years before Marshall’s discovery, while California was still part of Mexico.[26] However, these first deposits, and later discoveries in Southern California mountains, attracted little notice and were of limited consequence economically.[26]

By 1850, most of the easily accessible gold had been collected, and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult locations. Faced with gold increasingly difficult to retrieve, Americans began to drive out foreigners to get at the most accessible gold that remained. The new California State Legislature passed a foreign miners tax of twenty dollars per month ($560 per month as of 2012), and American prospectors began organized attacks on foreign miners, particularly Latin Americans and Chinese.[27] In addition, the huge numbers of newcomers were driving Native Americans out of their traditional hunting, fishing and food-gathering areas. To protect their homes and livelihood, some Native Americans responded by attacking the miners. This provoked counter-attacks on native villages. The Native Americans, out-gunned, were often slaughtered.[28] Those who escaped massacres were many times unable to survive without access to their food-gathering areas, and they starved to death. Novelist and poet Joaquin Miller vividly captured one such attack in his semi-autobiographical work, Life Amongst the Modocs.[29]

[edit] Forty-niners

Panning for gold on the Mokelumne River

The first people to rush to the gold fields, beginning in the spring of 1848, were the residents of California themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented Americans and Europeans living in Northern California, along with Native Americans and some Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians).[30] These first miners tended to be families in which everyone helped in the effort. Women and children of all ethnicities were often found panning next to the men. Some enterprising families set up boarding houses to accommodate the influx of men; in such cases, the women often brought in steady income while their husbands searched for gold.[31]

Word of the Gold Rush spread slowly at first. The earliest gold-seekers were people who lived near California or people who heard the news from ships on the fastest sailing routes from California. The first large group of Americans to arrive were several thousand Oregonians who came down the Siskiyou Trail.[32] Next came people from the Sandwich Islands, and several thousand Latin Americans, including people from Mexico, from Peru and from as far away as Chile,[33] both by ship and overland.[34] By the end of 1848, some 6,000 Argonauts had come to California.[34] Only a small number (probably fewer than 500) traveled overland from the United States that year.[34] Some of these “forty-eighters”,[35] as the earliest gold-seekers were sometimes called, were able to collect large amounts of easily accessible gold—in some cases, thousands of dollars worth each day.[36][37] Even ordinary prospectors averaged daily gold finds worth 10 to 15 times the daily wage of a laborer on the East Coast. A person could work for six months in the goldfields and find the equivalent of six years’ wages back home.[38] Some hoped to get rich quick and return home, and others wished to start businesses in California.

By the beginning of 1849, word of the Gold Rush had spread around the world, and an overwhelming number of gold-seekers and merchants began to arrive from virtually every continent. The largest group of forty-niners in 1849 were Americans, arriving by the tens of thousands overland across the continent and along various sailing routes[39] (the name “forty-niner” was derived from the year 1849). Many from the East Coast negotiated a crossing of the Appalachian Mountains, taking to riverboats in Pennsylvania, polling the keelboats to Missouri River wagon train assembly ports, and then travelling in a wagon train along the California Trail. Many others came by way of the Isthmus of Panama and the steamships of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Australians[40] and New Zealanders picked up the news from ships carrying Hawaiian newspapers, and thousands, infected with “gold fever”, boarded ships for California.[41] Forty-niners came from Latin America, particularly from the Mexican mining districts near Sonora.[41] Gold-seekers and merchants from Asia, primarily from China,[42] began arriving in 1849, at first in modest numbers to Gum San (“Gold Mountain“), the name given to California in Chinese.[43] The first immigrants from Europe, reeling from the effects of the Revolutions of 1848 and with a longer distance to travel, began arriving in late 1849, mostly from France,[44] with some Germans, Italians, and Britons.[39] Most of these national groups arrived from seafaring, coastal regions.

Chinese gold miners in California

It is estimated that approximately 90,000 people arrived in California in 1849—about half by land and half by sea.[45] Of these, perhaps 50,000 to 60,000 were Americans, and the rest were from other countries.[39] By 1855, it is estimated at least 300,000 gold-seekers, merchants, and other immigrants had arrived in California from around the world.[46] The largest group continued to be Americans, but there were tens of thousands each of Mexicans, Chinese, Britons, Australians[47] French, and Latin Americans,[48] together with many smaller groups of miners, such as Filipinos, Basques[49] and Turks.[50] People from small villages in the hills near Genova, Italy were among the first to settle permanently in the Sierra foothills; they brought with them traditional agricultural skills, developed to survive cold winters.[51] A modest number of miners of African ancestry (probably less than 4,000)[52] had come from the Southern States,[53] the Caribbean and Brazil.[54]

A notable number of immigrants were from China. Several hundred Chinese arrived in California in 1849 and 1850, and in 1852 more than 20,000 landed in San Francisco.[55] Their distinctive dress and appearance was highly recognizable in the gold fields, and created a degree of animosity towards the Chinese.[55]

There were also women in the Gold Rush. They held various roles including prostitutes, single entrepreneurs, married women, poor and wealthy women. They were of various ethnicities including Anglo-American, Hispanic, Native, European, Chinese, and Jewish. The reasons they came varied: some came with their husbands, refusing to be left behind to fend for themselves, some came because their husbands sent for them, and others came (singles and widows) for the adventure and economic opportunities.[56] On the trail many people died from accidents, cholera, fever, and myriad other causes, and many women became widows before even setting eyes on California. While in California, women became widows quite frequently due to mining accidents, disease, or mining disputes of their husbands. Life in the gold fields offered opportunities for women to break from their traditional work.[57][58]

[edit] Legal rights

When the Gold Rush began, California was a peculiarly lawless place. On the day when gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill, California was still technically part of Mexico, under American military occupation as the result of the Mexican–American War. With the signing of the treaty ending the war on February 2, 1848, California became a possession of the United States, but it was not a formal “territory” and did not become a state until September 9, 1850. California existed in the unusual condition of a region under military control. There was no civil legislature, executive or judicial body for the entire region.[59] Local residents operated under a confusing and changing mixture of Mexican rules, American principles, and personal dictates.

While the treaty ending the Mexican-American War obliged the United States to honor Mexican land grants,[60] almost all the goldfields were outside those grants. Instead, the goldfields were primarily on “public land“, meaning land formally owned by the United States government.[61] However, there were no legal rules yet in place, and no practical enforcement mechanisms.[62]

Gold miners excavate a river bed after the water has been diverted into a sluice alongside the river

The benefit to the forty-niners was that the gold was simply “free for the taking” at first. In the goldfields at the beginning, there was no private property, no licensing fees, and no taxes.[63][64] The miners informally adapted Mexican mining law which had existed in California.[65] For example, the rules attempted to balance the rights of early arrivers at a site with later arrivers; a “claim” could be “staked” by a prospector, but that claim was valid only as long as it was being actively worked.[66][67] Miners worked at a claim only long enough to determine its potential. If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most were—miners would abandon the site in search for a better one. In the case where a claim was abandoned or not worked upon, other miners would “claim-jump” the land. “Claim-jumping” meant that a miner began work on a previously claimed site.[66][67] Disputes were sometimes handled personally and violently, and were sometimes addressed by groups of prospectors acting as arbitrators.[61][66][67] This often led to heightened ethnic tensions.[68] In some areas the influx of many prospectors could lead to a reduction of the existing claim size by simple pressure.[69]

[edit] Development of gold-recovery techniques

Because the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly concentrated, the early forty-niners simply panned for gold in California’s rivers and streams, a form of placer mining.[70] However, panning cannot take place on a large scale, and industrious miners and groups of miners graduated to placer mining “cradles” and “rockers” or “long-toms”[71] to process larger volumes of gravel.[72] In the most complex placer mining, groups of prospectors would divert the water from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then dig for gold in the newly exposed river bottom.[73] Modern estimates by the U.S. Geological Survey are that some 12 million ounces[74] (370 t) of gold were removed in the first five years of the Gold Rush (worth over US$16 billion at December 2010 prices).[75]

Gold miners excavate a gold-bearing bluff with jets of water at a placer mine in Dutch Flat, California sometime between 1857 and 1870

In the next stage, by 1853, hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the gold fields.[76] In a modern style of hydraulic mining first developed in California, a high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds.[77] The loosened gravel and gold would then pass over sluices, with the gold settling to the bottom where it was collected. By the mid-1880s, it is estimated that 11 million ounces (340 t) of gold (worth approximately US$15 billion at December 2010 prices) had been recovered by “hydraulicking”.[75] This style of hydraulic mining later spread around the world. An alternative to “hydraulicking” was “coyoteing”.[78] This method involved digging a shaft 6 to 13 meters (20 to 40 feet) deep into bedrock along the shore of a stream. Tunnels were then dug in all directions to reach the richest veins of pay dirt.

A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt, heavy metals, and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.[79] As of 2012[update] many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic mining, since the resulting exposed earth and downstream gravel deposits do not support plant life.[80]

Quartz Stamp Mill in Grass Valley crushes the quartz prior to the washing out of the gold

After the Gold Rush had concluded, gold recovery operations continued. The final stage to recover loose gold was to prospect for gold that had slowly washed down into the flat river bottoms and sandbars of California’s Central Valley and other gold-bearing areas of California (such as Scott Valley in Siskiyou County). By the late 1890s, dredging technology (also invented in California) had become economical,[81] and it is estimated that more than 20 million ounces (620 t) were recovered by dredging (worth approximately US$28 billion at December 2010 prices).[75]

Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, gold-seekers also engaged in “hard-rock” mining, that is, extracting the gold directly from the rock that contained it (typically quartz), usually by digging and blasting to follow and remove veins of the gold-bearing quartz.[82] By 1851, quartz mining had become the major industry of Coloma.[83] Once the gold-bearing rocks were brought to the surface, the rocks were crushed, and the gold was separated out (using moving water), or leached out, typically by using arsenic or mercury (another source of environmental contamination).[84] Eventually, hard-rock mining wound up becoming the single largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country.[75][85]

[edit] Profits

A man leans over a wooden sluice. Rocks line the outside of the wood boards that create the sluice

Recent scholarship confirms that merchants made far more money than miners during the Gold Rush.[86][87] The wealthiest man in California during the early years of the Gold Rush was Samuel Brannan, the tireless self-promoter, shopkeeper and newspaper publisher.[88] Brannan opened the first supply stores in Sacramento, Coloma, and other spots in the gold fields. Just as the Gold Rush began, he purchased all the prospecting supplies available in San Francisco and re-sold them at a substantial profit.[88] However, substantial money was made by some gold-seekers as well. For example, within a few months, one small group of prospectors, working on the Feather River in 1848, retrieved a sum of gold worth more than $3 million by 2010 prices.[89]

On average, half the gold-seekers made a modest profit, after all expenses were taken into account. Most, however, especially those arriving later, made little or wound up losing money.[90] Similarly, many unlucky merchants set up in settlements that disappeared, or were wiped out in one of the calamitous fires that swept the towns springing up. By contrast, a businessman who went on to great success was Levi Strauss, who first began selling denim overalls in San Francisco in 1853.[91] Other businessmen, through good fortune and hard work, reaped great rewards in retail, shipping, entertainment, lodging,[92] or transportation.[93] Boardinghouses, food preparation, sewing, and laundry were highly profitable businesses often run by women (married, single, or widowed) who realized men would pay well for a service done by a woman. Brothels also brought in large profits, especially when combined with saloons and gaming houses.[94]

By 1855, the economic climate had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of workers, either in partnerships or as employees. By the mid-1850s, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses.[95]

[edit] Path of the gold

Portsmouth Square, San Francisco, 1851

Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths. First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase food, supplies and lodging for the miners. It also went towards entertainment, which consisted of anything from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes. These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out.[96] These merchants and vendors, in turn, used the gold to purchase supplies from ship captains or packers bringing goods to California.[97] The gold then left California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers of the goods from around the world. A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned “diggings”. For example, one estimate is that some US$80 million worth of California gold was sent to France by French prospectors and merchants.[98] As the Gold Rush progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued “banknotes” or “drafts”—locally accepted paper currency—in exchange for gold,[99] and private mints created private gold coins.[100] With the building of the San Francisco Mint in 1854, gold bullion was turned into official United States gold coins for circulation.[101] The gold was also later sent by California banks to U.S. national banks in exchange for national paper currency to be used in the booming California economy.[102]

[edit] Near-term effects

A forty-niner peers into his gold pan on the banks of the American River

The arrival of hundreds of thousands of new people within a few years, compared to a population of some 15,000 Europeans and Californios beforehand,[103] had many dramatic effects.[104]

[edit] Development of government and commerce

The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy, little-known backwater to a center of the global imagination and the destination of hundreds of thousands of people. The new immigrants often showed remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and cities were chartered, a state constitutional convention was convened, a state constitution written, elections held, and representatives sent to Washington, D.C. to negotiate the admission of California as a state.[105] Large-scale agriculture (California’s second “Gold Rush”[106]) began during this time.[107] Roads, schools, churches,[108] and civic organizations quickly came into existence.[105] The vast majority of the immigrants were Americans.[109] Pressure grew for better communications and political connections to the rest of the United States, leading to statehood for California on September 9, 1850, in the Compromise of 1850 as the 31st state of the United States.

Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000.[110] The Gold Rush wealth and population increase led to significantly improved transportation between California and the East Coast. The Panama Railway, spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in 1855.[111] Steamships, including those owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, began regular service from San Francisco to Panama, where passengers, goods and mail would take the train across the Isthmus and board steamships headed to the East Coast. One ill-fated journey, that of the S.S. Central America,[112] ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in 1857, with approximately three tons of California gold aboard.[113][114]

Within California, the first steamship, the SS California (1848), showed up on February 28, 1849. Soon steamships were carrying miners the 125 miles (201 km) up the Sacramento River to Sacramento, California.

 Negative impact

Attack by Native Americans on miners’ settlement

The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats.[79][80] The surge in the mining population also resulted in the disappearance of game and food gathering locales as gold camps and other settlements were built amidst them. Later farming spread to supply the camps, taking more land from the use of Native Americans. Starvation often provoked the Native tribes to steal or take by force food and livestock from the miners, increasing miner hostility and provoking retaliation against them.

Native Americans also succumbed in large numbers to introduced diseases such as smallpox, influenza and measles. Some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.[115]

By far the most destructive element of the Gold Rush on California Indians was the violence practiced on them by miners and settlers. Miners often saw Native Americans as competition for finding gold or as impediments to their mining activities. Far from women of their own and free from their own justice system, sexual assaults on Native women were quite common. Retribution attacks on solitary miners would result in large scale massacres of Indian populations without regard for age or sex by fearful or outraged miners such as the Bloody Island Massacre. As seen in events like the Bridge Gulch Massacre these “attacks of reprisal” often targeted tribes or villages completely innocent of the original act.

The Act for the Government and Protection of Indians,[116] passed on April 22, 1850 by the California Legislature, allowed settlers to continue the Californio practice of capturing and using Native people as bonded workers. It also provided the basis for the enslavement and trafficking in Native American labor, particularly that of young women and children, which was carried on as a legal business enterprise. Native American villages were regularly raided to supply the demand, and young women and children were carried off to be sold, the men and remaining people often being killed in genocidal attacks.[117] According to the government of California, some 4,500 Native Americans suffered violent deaths between 1849 and 1870.[3]

The Gold Rush thus turned into a virtual “reign of terror” against tribespeople in or near mining districts.[118] Despite resistance in various conflicts, the Native American population in California, estimated at 150,000 in 1845, had dropped to less than 30,000 by 1870.[119] (The pre-European population of Native Americans, estimated at 300,000, had already been decimated, almost exclusively due to diseases carried by the Spanish settlers.)[120]

The factors of disease, however do not minimize the tone of racial violence directed towards California Indians. Peter Burnett, California’s first governor declared that California was a battleground between the races and that there were only two options towards California Indians, extinction or removal. California, apart from legalizing slavery for Native Americans also directly paid out $25,000 in bounties for Indian scalps with varying prices for adult male, adult female and child sizes. California with a consortium of other new Western states stood in opposition of ratifying the eighteen treaties signed between tribal leaders and federal agents in 1851.[121][page needed]

This lithograph dated between 1849-1852 depicts whites, Native Americans and blacks all engaged in gold prospecting.

After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws, and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile.[55][122]

The toll on the American immigrants could be severe as well: one in twelve forty-niners perished, as the death and crime rates during the Gold Rush were extraordinarily high, and the resulting vigilantism also took its toll.[123]

[edit] World-wide economic stimulation

Further information: Chilean wheat cycle

The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile, Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China.[124] The return of large amounts of California gold to pay for these goods raised prices and stimulated investment and the creation of jobs around the world.[125] Australian prospector Edward Hargraves, noting similarities between the geography of California and his house, returned to Australia to discover gold and spark the Australian gold rushes.[126]

Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in 1863, the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento. The line’s completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money,[127] united California with the central and eastern United States. Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days.[128]

 Longer-term effects

California’s name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the “California Dream.”[129] California was perceived as a place of new beginnings, where great wealth could reward hard work and good luck. Historian H. W. Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:

“The old American Dream . . . was the dream of the Puritans, of Benjamin Franklin’s “Poor Richard” . . . of men and women content to accumulate their modest fortunes a little at a time, year by year by year. The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck. [This] golden dream . . . became a prominent part of the American psyche only after Sutter’s Mill.”[130]

Overnight California gained the international reputation as the “golden state”.[131] Generations of immigrants have been attracted by the California Dream. California farmers,[132] oil drillers,[133] movie makers,[134] airplane builders,[135] and “dot-com” entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.[136]

The literary history of the Gold Rush is reflected in the works of Mark Twain (The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County), Bret Harte (A Millionaire of Rough-and-Ready), Joaquin Miller (Life Amongst the Modocs), and many others.[29][137]

Included among the modern legacies of the California Gold Rush are the California state motto, “Eureka” (“I have found it”), Gold Rush images on the California State Seal,[138] and the state nickname, “The Golden State”, as well as place names, such as Placer County, Rough and Ready, Placerville (formerly named “Dry Diggings” and then “Hangtown” during rush time), Whiskeytown, Drytown, Angels Camp, Happy Camp, and Sawyers Bar. The San Francisco 49ers National Football League team, and the similarly named athletic teams of California State University, Long Beach, are named for the prospectors of the California Gold Rush.

Today, aptly named State Route 49 travels through the Sierra Nevada foothills, connecting many Gold Rush-era towns such as Placerville, Auburn, Grass Valley, Nevada City, Coloma, Jackson, and Sonora.[139] This state highway also passes very near Columbia State Historic Park, a protected area encompassing the historic business district of the town of Columbia; the park has preserved many Gold Rush-era buildings, which are presently occupied by tourist-oriented businesses.

 Geology

Gold-bearing magma rising after being subducted under the continental crust

Main article: Gold in California

Geological forces operating over hundreds of millions of years resulted in the large concentration of gold in California. Only concentration makes gold economically recoverable.

Some 400 million years ago, California lay at the bottom of a large sea; underwater volcanoes deposited lava and minerals (including gold) onto the sea floor. Beginning about 200 million years ago, tectonic pressure forced the sea floor beneath the American continental mass.[140] As it sank, or subducted, below today’s California, the sea floor melted into very large molten masses (magma). This hot magma forced its way upward under the future California, cooling as it rose,[141] and as it solidified, veins of gold formed within fields of quartz.[141][142] These minerals and rocks came to the surface of the Sierra Nevada,[143] and eroded. Water carried the exposed gold downstream and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along the sides of old rivers and streams.[144] The forty-niners first focused their efforts on these deposits of gold, which had been gathered in the gravel beds by hundreds of millions of years of geologic action.[145][146]

the Civil War broke out  in 1861

 

 and the soldiers left their frontier posts to fight the Confederates back east.  

The Indians concluded that their intensified raids during the 1850s had finally won them a victory, causing the white men to withdraw.  

The Apache, Yavapai and Mohave took heart and became more ferocious than ever.

 

While the US Civil War raged in 1862,

 

The Battle rage around Shiloh in 1862

 a well-seasoned gold prospector appeared in Arizona.

 

 Joseph Reddeford Walker

was over 6 feet tall and strong, 200 pounds of bone and sinew to help him break trail along the rivers of the Southwest.  Now 63, he had been a beaver trapper since his early twenties.

 For many years, he had explored the western mountains with his friend,

 

 Kit Carson,

 honing his gifts of good judgment, strong will, nimble footing and physical strength. 

They both became guides on a famous

 

 John C. Fremont mapping expedition.

John C. Fremont

Born and raised in the south, John C. Fremont joined the army as a second lieutenant of topographical engineers in 1838.

 

For three years

John C.Fremont helped map the area between the upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.

 Fremont spent the early 1840s exploring and mapping much of the area between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean. With Kit Carson as his guide in 1843, he went to Oregon and California, publishing a detailed report that gave him a national reputation and provided valuable information for settlers eager to move west.

JOHN C. FREMONT

Putting Las Vegas on the Map

While other scouts and adventurers may have come through the valley first, a son of scandal is noted for pointing travelers toward the future Sin City.

 

John C. Fremont, seated, recognized Kit Carson, standing, for the unlettered genius he must have been after their first chance meeting on a steamer. Both men played key roles in the exploring accident that put Las Vegas on the map.
UNLV Special Collections

 

A 12-pounder brass howitzer, like the one shown in this drawing from the mountain artillery manual for the piece, was issued to John C. Fremont. The gun and carriage weighed 515 pounds and special halters and shafts for drawing them, and a full chest of ammunition, would have brought total weight to more than 700 pounds. He abandoned the gun somewhere west of Walker River.

U.S. Army

John C. Fremont put Las Vegas on the map,

but it was almost a footnote to his accomplishments which included provoking a war, running for president, and freeing slaves before Abraham Lincoln did.
UNLV Special Collections

homas Hart Benton, Jessie’s father, was the nation’s foremost exponent of Manifest Destiny. Initially opposed to his daughter’s marriage to Fremont, he became his mentor, as Fremont strove to carry out Benton’s ambitions for a United States stretching from sea to sea.
UNLV Special Collections

Jessie Fremont was a gifted writer and most think her pen vastly improved writings attributed to John Fremont.
UNLV Special Collections

In the spring of 1845,

 

Fremont led sixty-two well armed men on a “scientific” expedition to California, where he helped promote

 

the “Bear Flag” revolt of dissident U. S. citizens against Mexico and

joined

 

Commodore Robert Stockton’s

 naval force in conquering the area.

Captain Robert F. Stockton, USN (1795-1866)

Robert Field Stockton was born in Princeton, New Jersey, on 20 August 1795. He was appointed a Midshipman in the U.S. Navy at the age of sixteen, serving at sea and ashore during the War of 1812.

After that conflict, Lieutenant Stockton was assigned to ships operating in the Mediterranean, in the Caribbean and off the coast of West Africa.

While on the latter station, he helped negotiate a treaty that led to the founding of the state of Liberia. During the later 1820s and into the 1830s, he primarily devoted his attention to business affairs in New Jersey.

In 1838,

Stockton resumed active Naval service as a Captain. He served in the European area, but took leave in 1840 to undertake political work. Offered the post of Secretary of the Navy by

 

 President John Tyler in 1841,

he declined the offer, but worked successfully to gain support for the construction of

 an advanced steam warship with a battery of very heavy guns.

 

 

This ship became USS Princeton (1843-1849),

 the Navy’s first screw-propelled steamer, whose construction he oversaw and which he commanded when she was completed in 1843. Captain Stockton was absolved of responsibility for the February 1844 explosion of a gun on board the ship that killed two cabinet officers and several others. With the temporary title of Commodore, Stockton commanded Naval forces in the Eastern Pacific, and was instrumental in taking California from Mexico in 1846-47.

Captain Stockton resigned from the Navy in May 1850 and returned to business and political pursuits. He served as

a U.S. Senator from New Jersey in 1851-53,

 

Samuel l sout secretaryof the Navy

 during which time he sponsored a bill to abolish flogging as a Navy punishment. After leaving the Senate, Stockton remained active in business and politics.

In 1861 he was a delegate to the unsuccessful conference that attempted to settle the secession crisis. In 1863, he was appointed to command the New Jersey militia when

 

 the Confederate Army invaded Pennsylvania.

 

 Captain Robert F. Stockton died at Princeton on 7 October 1866.

 Appointed governor,

he refused to surrender the office to

 

General Stephen Kearny,

who arrived with official orders to establish a government. He was court-martialed and resigned from the army. Staying in California, he struck gold and became a millionaire, only to lose it all because of a faulty title. Fremont was elected senator in 1849, but his reelection was defeated by the pro-slavery party in 1851.

 

 

The territory of California was under Spanish rule until 1821 when, after two years of political in-fighting,

 

 

 

 

 

 a Spanish military officer in Mexico City declared himself emperor of an independent Mexico

 

Dates: 1821:

 Mexico wins independence from Spain 1835:

 

Emperor Joshua

Most Californians reacted negatively to this news as Spain had treated Californians benignly but were skeptical of Mexican control. Some Californians were even thinking about independence for California, or at least some form of local rule.

 

The Franciscan missionaries in mexico in 1821

were openly hostile to the new, anti-cleric Mexican government because it intended to secularize the missions that dotted the landscape of the territory.

 This policy involved taking the mission lands from the church and giving them to the local inhabitants, Indians and Californios, and army veterans. Although this had been Spain’s plan from the beginning of its New World colonialization, the government and the church had abandoned this plan when it became apparent that the Indians had no desire to Europeanize themselves and that the mission system was self-perpetuating.

 

Mexican rule over California proved chaotic. Political upheavals were routine in Mexico City and a dozen Mexican governors ruled California over the next 26 years. Some of these appointed governors were democratically minded and able servants, while others were tyrranical and incompetent. Some were Californian but most were Mexican.

 

Several rebellions were organized against the worst governors. Twice there was political unrest that resulted in military skirmishes in the Cahuenga Pass north of Los Angeles.

 

In 1831, Manual Victoria,

 the cruelest and most arbitrary of the Mexican governors, banished from California several opponents who demanded democratic reforms. Jose Carrillo and an American, Abel Stearns, were the most active, and they were exiled to Baja California.

From there, they led a small army against Victoria who marched his army south from the capital at Monterey. As the two sides clashed in the Cahuenga Pass, Gov. Victoria’s face was severely slashed. Victoria resigned and the previous governor, Jose Maria de Echeandia, who remained in San Diego after he had been relieved of duty by Victoria, assumed control from his home. Further clouding the political climate, Captain Agustin Juan Vicente Zamorano almost immediately established a rival government in Monterey. The Cahuenga Pass became a sort of border between the two regimes.

 

Pio Pico in 1860. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

 

On June 30,

 

Governor Jerry Brown

 

 signed into law a budget cutting $22 million from the state’s Department of Parks and Recreation. The cuts have resulted in the planned closure of seventy state parks, including one in Whittier that honors the memory of one of Brown’s predecessors:

 

 the last governor of Mexican Alta California, Pío de Jesus Pico.

Perched

 

 above the east bank of the San Gabriel River in Whittier,

L.A.’s Pio Pico State Historic Park On List To Be Possibly Shuttered

Visitors walk through the gardens and orchards that surround the adobe ranch house at Pio Pico State Historic Park, one of many state parks under consideration for closure to save money for the state on August 13, 2009 in Whittier, California. Up to 100 state parks are expected to be closed after Labor Day, the first time ever that California has closed a state park. Large fee increases have been approved for the parks that survive to meet harsh cutbacks imposed on the state park system by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and law makers trying balance the budget. Pio Pico State Historic Park is visited each year by thousands of school children and other visitors who come to see the 19th century adobe ranch buildings and learn about the history and culture of California during the time of Pio de Jesus Pico IV, the last governor of “Mexican” California. Camping fees at popular parks could reportedly rise as high as $21 to $44 per night.

 

Pío Pico State Historic Park

includes the historic adobe where the former governor and land baron once held court. It is scheduled to close on July 1, 2012.

The son of a Spanish artillery sergeant, Pico was born on May 5, 1801 at

 

Mission San Gabriel.

 His 93 year life spanned several distinct periods of Southern California history, from Spanish colonialism to Mexican rule and from American conquest to L.A.’s late-nineteenth-century growth spurt.

Over the course of his life, Pico accumulated great wealth and land-holdings. For many years he and his brother Andres, another leading figure of

 

 

 

 

Mexican California,

 

Mexico California Texas Map 1850’s Gold Districts

 

Owned

 

 Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores,

 

 

 

 

an immense tract in

 

northern San Diego County

that today is

 

Camp Pendleton. Pico

also individually owned large estates

 

 near Whittier

and

 

in the San Fernando Valley.

 

Map of Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores. Courtesy of the The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Pico served twice as governor of California; great upheaval marked both of his terms, and in each case Pico succeeded an ousted governor.

In 1831,

 a dispute over California’s mission lands escalated into

 an open revolt against the rule of

 

 Governor Manuel Victoria,

 who refused to secularize the missions. Victoria and the rebels, led by wealthy landowners, met on

 

a plain near

 

 

Cahuenga Pass on December 5, 1831.

 

Paseo de Cahuenga

This park commemorates the Battle of Cahuenga Pass in 1831, in which Pio Pico defeated Governor Manuel Vitoria, and a second battle in 1845 in which Alvarado and Castro overthrew Governor Micheltorena

The ensuing Battle of Cahuenga Pass was mostly bloodless, but in a bizarre sequence of events Victoria was seriously injured. He fled, leaving his office vacant. As the senior member of the territorial legislature, Pico became governor by default. Victoria’s hand-picked successor disputed Pico’s claim to the office, however, and his tenure lasted only twenty days. But Pico had established himself as a leading political figure in California and, within a year and a half, the process of secularizing the missions had begun.

Thirteen years later, Pico succeeded another deposed governor. Appointed by

 

the authorities in Mexico City, Governor Manuel Micheltorena

found himself facing open rebellion by Californios who wanted a native-born resident to hold the office. Again, the governor’s forces met the rebels in battle near Cahuenga Pass, and again a relatively bloodless battle,

 

the Battle of La Providencia, forced the governor’s ouster in 1845. Pico became acting governor and was duly appointed as Micheltorena’s permanent successor in April 1846.

Read more info

 


In spring, 1973 I went on a field trip with Mrs. Darlington’s biology class; on the way there and back I sat with my new friend Mike McDaniel. (We had met at the beginning of the school year.) As we traveled back into Burbank through the Cahuenga Pass down Barham Blvd., past the famous Smoke House restaurant and the Warner Brothers Studios, Mike mentioned that a battlefield was situated somewhere nearby, and said that cannonballs were frequently dug up in the area. Being infatuated with the American Civil War at the time, and surprised that a real battle had actually been fought in my home town, I wondered about the details. It wasn’t for another 28 years that I did some research and discovered that this battle was fought in 1845, and was known as the Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass, or the Battle of La Providencia. The first battle had been fought in the same place in 1831.

The Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass! The second of two battles! The very name resonates with military glory!

Well, maybe not. What follows are four accounts of the battle.

Excerpt from the 1976 Burbank City Calendar (with illustration!)

 

“An 1845 struggle for power between Mexican Governor Manuel Micheltorena and Pio Pico was resolved by a long range artillery duel that began at Cahuenga Pass and continued the next day at Rancho La Providencia. When the smoke cleared away, not a solider had been hurt, but Governor Micheltorena nontheless surrendered his command to Pio Pico’s troops. Many years later, Burbnank residents occasionally unearthed old cannon balls in the area of Warner Brothers studios.”

Excerpt from Burbank – An Illustrated History by E. Caswell Perry.

“In 1842 an unpopular governor, Manuel Micheltorena, was appointed by Mexico City. Supported by his army of 300 cholos, or convict soldiers, he was bitterly resented by the Californios. In November 1844 an active revolt against him was initiated by both Northern and Southern Californians, themselves rivals but united in their desire to oust Micheltorena. Micheltorena defeated the northern faction, led by Jose Castro, near San Jose. But coming south to Los Angeles, even after building up his army to about 400, he was met by about the same number of Californios led by Juan Bautista Alvarado. The two small armies met between February 19-20, 1845, in the so-called Battle of Cahuenga. This was just west of Cahuenga Pass, on the San Fernando Valley side, at Alamos near present-day Studio City. One side had two small cannon, the other had three, and they limited their combat to a long-range artillery duel. The casualties totaled one horse and one mule, and both sides soon ran out of ammunition. The action could only be continued by each side’s recovering the cannon balls of the other. Even today, an occasional cannon ball turns up when excavations are made in the battlefield area.

Micheltorena withdrew, stopping the desultory conflict. Finally, on February 22, Micheltorena agreed to leave California, taking his army with him. For all practical purposes, Mexico’s control of Alta California was a thing of the past. Pio Pico was made the civil governor at Los Angeles and Jose Castro set up a rival regime at Monterey.”

NOTE: I think Perry is mistaken in locating this “battle” in Studio City, which is a few miles west of Burbank. Or perhaps he is referring to the Warner Brothers Studio complex as Studio City.

Excerpt from A History of Burbank, Burbank Unified School District, 1967.

“In 1845, the Battle of Providencia unseated the tyrannical Mexican governor, Manuel Micheltorena, and replaced him with Pio Pico. Micheltorena’s Mexican forces had three cannons and the Californians under Pico had two. The two forces came within long cannon range of each other near Cahuenga Pass, February 20, 1845. They kept their cannons far enough apart to make sure no one would be injured. Heavy cannonading from these batteries continued throughout the afternoon, but as both armies kept in close shelter under the banks of the Los Angeles River, little damage was done. According to one account of the battle, “a Mexican horse’s head was shot off and a California mule was injured by flying debris.” The next day the battle resumed on the La Providencia Rancho. But still both armies were reluctant to fight. After two hours of cannonading from both sides without visible results, Governor Micheltorena raised the flag of surrender. Most of his men had deserted in favor of Pio Pico. For many years, Burbank residents in the vicinity of Warner Brothers Studio dug up cannon balls from time to time. La Providencia was a proud, slightly battle-scarred old rancho.”

NOTE: In this account, mention is made of the Los Angeles River. It flows perpendicularly to the entrance to Cahuenga Pass – Barham Blvd. intersects it – near the Smoke House Restaurant. As a river, it is a distinct disappointment. In the series pilot of The Beverly Hillbillies, there is a memorable scene of Jed Clampett being shown the L.A. River. He shakes his head side to side and mutters, “Pitiful, just pitiful.”

Excerpt from The Story of Burbank, The Publicity Department, Burbank Branch of Security Trust and Savings Bank, 1927.

“Directly south of Scott’s portion of Rancho San Rafael was Rancho La Providencia, a Mexican land grant of some 4600 acres, which, when the Mexicans’ enjoyment of independence from Spain was at its flood-tide, had been given to Commmandante J. Castro, Luis Arenas and Vincente de la Ossa. Upon its broad acres was fought the historic battle of La Providencia that was to end in the death of a horse and a mule but which nevertheless unseated Governor Emmanuel Micheltorena and placed Pio Pico in his place. As can well be imagined, the battle was fought at long range. Associated with Pico in the rebellion were Manuel Castro, Juan Batista Alvarado and Benjamin D. (Don Belino) Wilson heading a company of 22 Yankees. As Henry K. Norton says, Micheltorena managed to gather a force of nearly four hundred men and started south to crush the rebels. But the rebels did not wait to be crushed. They immediately retreated. In the pursuit, the governor was careful not to come within a hundred miles of them until the rebels picked up courage and returned from Los Angeles to meet him. The two forces mustered about an equal number of men. They came within long cannon range of each other at Cahuenga, the scene of a previous civil conflict. The Mexicans had three cannons and Californians two. Heavy cannonading from these batteries continued throughout the afternoon, but as both armies kept in close shelter under the banks of the Los Angeles River, little damage was done. A Mexican horse’s head was shot off and a California mule was injured by the flying debris. During the night some flanking was attempted which brought the armies together again the next morning at La Providencia. For almost two hours the cannonading was again indulged in without visible result, when Micheltorena raised the white flag and proposed a capitulation. This was accepted by rebels and the erstwhile governor was unceremonially shipped out of the country. The real reason for his surrender was the desertion of a company of Yankees with him to the Yankees headed by Wilson on the other side.

To this day Burbank people dig up cannon balls from time to time in their gardens. One of them is pictured in this booklet. It was unearthed by Thomas Story, Burbank’s first mayor.”

NOTE: In this account, the publicity department invokes Civil War imagery of Yankees and Rebels, which doesn’t seem to fit, given the piddling nature of the Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass.

I think you get the idea of what this “battle” involved, but if you wish to do further reading, two more accounts of this battle are here. I got a kick out of Keffer’s text: “The display of daring horsemanship and the noise from the cannon and rifle fire must have been very impressive, for on the hillside, women and children with crosses in their hands were weeping and wailing, invoking the saints for the safety of their loved ones who were engaged in the battle. Most of the foreigners in both contingents, who had enlisted merely in the hope of securing grants of lands, early decided to get out of danger and, deserting their commands, fraternized among the spectators on the hillside.”

 


Fast forward nearly a hundred years later, to the 1930s and 1940s. The terrible cannon fire in Burbank has ceased, and horses and mules may safely graze without concern of beheading or injury. But perhaps a racial memory of strife and war is retained by Burbank developers and builders, for a new type of structure is being built in the valley: the defensible stucco home. And therein are a class of residents I call The War Lords of Burbank.

I am referring to typical two-bedroom, one-bath homes built in the then-fashionable Spanish rancho style. Most of these had tiled roofs, and they frequently came with martial architectural details, such as crenellated rooflines. My father called these homes “old Spanish dogs,” and when I was a kid there seemed to be a lot of them around Burbank. At the time I began to notice them, when I was about 15, I was deeply interested in Arthurian stories of knights and tournaments. Consequently, I thought these places were really cool and wanted in live in one some day. (Part of my interest was fueled by the 1965 Charleton Heston film The War Lord, which was occasionally shown on TV. The fact that the stone tower used in the film was still standing atop the Universal Studios lot for their early Seventies European Faire made the film all the more interesting to me.)

Stucco, for those of you unfamiliar with this material, is a rough, sandpapery sort of covering applied to the outside surfaces of Southern California homes. It is especially memorable to any kid who ever got into a tussle with some other kid, and had his back or arm scraped against the stuff. When I moved to Virginia I never again expected to see a stucco home. Imagine my astonishment when I first paid a visit to Mount Vernon, George Washington’s estate: the building is covered in a coat of paint that has sand poured into it, a fashionable 18th century process the docents will tell you is called “rustification.” By any other name it’s stucco to me, and looking at it, the skin on my back and arms ached.


 

The ideal example is above, a house just north of Glenoaks Blvd., not far from Burbank High School. In August 1998, on a visit back to my hometown, I described the defensible stucco homes of my youth to Mike McDaniel, a Burbank historian and lifelong resident. He knew right away what I was looking for and drove me to this place. Note the crenellated turret above the front door, with the vents arranged in a diagonal, step-up fashion. Just the place to mount archers in case Pio Pico or a belligerent newsboy pays a visit.


 

The only other defensible home Mike could recall at the time was this place, clearly inspired by the Walt Disney Studios. You will note that there is a turret. However, I did not see any places where archers could be mounted, and so this property, while grand, must be relegated to the wanna-be defensible home category.


 

On another trip to Burbank in August 2000, Mike and I dedicated a few lunchtime hours to driving around, looking for suburban castles. Here’s a defensible stucco home that may or may not have been renovated or redesigned to remove a crenellated roofline. You can see from the insert on the right, that crenellation exists above a side window, which I guess is a kitchen. It makes sense if you want to guard the garrison’s vital food supply from marauders.


 

Now we’re talking! Mike could barely contain his glee when he remembered this place. This lofty stronghold is so isolated and secure that we had a difficult time finding the street to drive up to it, so we settled for this distant shot. One can imagine the difficulty that invaders would encounter, making the exhausting march up the Verdugo hills only to be faced with swarms of arrows from defenders. That patio to the right looks like a good artillery platform, as well. The Burbank War Lord living here sleeps securely at night!


 

Here’s a lordly place with two circular turrets, a weathervane and a two car garage. (Motor transport for cholos, perhaps.) Once again, note the stepped-up windows in the turrets; these have wrought iron bars, to impede access from wall-scaling attackers. I suspect that when this place was built, the circular rooflines were crenellated. Well, at least I’d like to think so. A staff with a banner flapping defiantly in the breeze would be a handsome feature, too.


 

Not all War Lord stucco homes are defensible, and not all of them are in beige or sand tones. Here’s the pink residence of a Burbank resident who proudly displays the royal heraldric crest of Castile and Leon (seen just above the round shrub, and shown in inset). Perhaps he is known as El Cid, unaware of the fact that Manuel Micheltorena was overthrown by the cataclysmic events of the 20th of February, 1845, and pines for the old days when Spanish majesty controlled the San Fernando Valley with a firm, yet Catholic, rule.

Viva Micheltorena!


 

Here’s a War Lord home that is not really defensible, but could perhaps serve as the residence of a military governor, chief of staff or military attache. Note the bold iron galleon atop the low turret. No political correctness at this address! Once again, it could be that a crenellated roofline was originally a feature of the turret; this manor appears to have benefited from a freshening up sometime in its history, and it certainly appears well-maintained.


 

Mike and I gave out a whoop when we stumbled upon this place! Normally a War Lord home has only stylistic hints at defensibility – but this place goes whole hog. Note the drawbridge, which can be raised in time of strife, forcing attackers to, uh… scale that low wall on the front of the porch. (Not exactly an awful prospect.) Yes, this place does have a heraldric banner flying, shown in the inset photo. The same crest appears on the front door. Unfortunately, this property is in the flatlands of Burbank, and not up on the hill. Were it located high up on a crest it might seem a little more impressive than it is. Then again, maybe not.


 

The cannons are stilled and the face of war is not seen in the San Fernando Valley. Even the once great Soviet Union has disintegrated, leaving splinter republics in its wake, one of which is the Republic of Armenia. Sometime in the 1980s, Armenian immigrants began to arrive in neighboring Glendale, and took up residence there and in Burbank. As can be seen from this photo, they know or care not about the Battle of Cahuenga Pass, and began to buy the old Spanish Dogs to greatly enlarge and remodel. This home is representative of the emerging new look of Burbank. It certainly doesn’t have the martial look of the homes of the War Lords; to me it seems suggestive of the Beverly Hillbillies mansion. Whatever it is you call this style, it certainly seems to be influenced more by ancient Greece and Rome than by the days of the Spanish ranchos.


…and so we leave the War Lords of Burbank. When I first thought of writing this article I looked forward to getting many photographs of the old Spanish Dogs to accompany it. It seems, however, that in Burbank they are now an endangered species – perhaps even nearly extinct. With prosperity and expectations for a higher standard of living becoming a feature of the 1980s, homes were remodeled and enlarged, oftentime removing the martial look of the original design. This, to me, is unfortunate. Living in Northern Virginia, where nearly every house looks like a variation of a Colonial center hall style, I appreciated the uniqueness of the defensible stucco homes found so often in my youth. Cramped and poky they may have been for the residents, but at least there was a place to put the trained archers.

In fairness to the City of Burbank I must also point out that there are middle-class castles in other states, too – perhaps in all of them. Where I currently live in Springfield, Virginia, there are a couple of castles and a Tudor mansion or two. Even amid the brush and scrub of arid Sandy, Utah, I stumbled upon a place that had medieval overtones, with the inscription, “This is the home of the knight” lettered on the front wall in marble in what looked like a medieval Icelandic text! (Once, when I drove by, Sir Utah was shirtlessly mowing his lawn.)

I guess the phrase “A man’s home is his castle” is deeply embedded in the American psyche.

 


ADDITIONAL!

Mike McDaniel, Burbank’s roaming photo-essayist, has sent me some additional photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

I suppose it was inevitable that the Burbank corporate world would embrace the militant style. Shown above is the corporate headquarters of Electrosonic, which specializes in light, sound and images (one of the many media businesses located in Burbank). This building reminds me not of the Spanish days, but of that famous Babylonian citadel alongside I-5 on the way to Disneyland. It is strongly defensible, and invokes medieval images for the business term “hostile takeover” (perhaps to include siege engines and catapults).


 

UPDATE: Mike McDaniel, ever on the alert for Burbank castles, sent me this photo of a home fully typifying the style. While there are some differences between this consumer castle and the first one I describe on this page, it appears that the floorplans are similar, if not identical. I suppose that little circular enclosed space around the front door is where one would surrender his arms prior to entering the property. For me, however, the one thing that ruins the overall look is that crooked white mailbox, which is just not lordly enough for the rest of the property. The owner ought to replace it with something made out of dark wood and iron straps.

 

Manuel Micheltorena, whose ouster in 1845 made Pico the last governor of Mexican California. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

By then the dark clouds of war hung over California. With designs on California and other northern territories of Mexico, the United States declared war on May 13. When news of the war reached California, the fall of Mexican California was swift. The American captured Monterey on July 15, prompting Pico to issue this proclamation:

Pío Pico, Constitutional Governor of the Department of California, hereby makes known to its inhabitants that the country is threatened by the United States by land and by sea, that it now occupies Monterey, Sonoma, San Francisco, and other frontier points to the north of this department, where the Stars and Stripes now wave with further threatenings to occupy more ports and towns and to subdue them to its laws; therefore, this government, having stood firmly resolved to do its utmost to oppose the most unjust aggression committed during late centuries, caused by a nation possessed with extraordinary ambitions, purposely authorizing a cleverly disguised robbery, exercising power over us during a period of political weakness.

It was one of his last acts as governor. As American forces advanced on Southern California, Pico fled to Baja California in a futile attempt to raise a resistance force. In the end, Los Angeles fell to the invading troops, and the American capture of Mexico City in September 1847 sealed California’s fate: it became a permanent American possession.

Reluctantly accepting the outcome of the war, Pico returned to Southern California after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established peace between the United States and Mexico. Although Pico would never learn English, relying instead on an interpreter, he remained one of Southern California’s leading citizens through much of the nineteenth century.

 

Exterior of the Pico Adobe in Whittier. 1904 watercolor by Eva Scott Fenyes courtesy of the Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center. FEN.173.

 

Interior of the Pico Adobe in Whittier. 1904 watercolor by Eva Scott Fenyes courtesy of the Braun Research Library Collection, Autry National Center. FEN_174.

In 1850, Pico bought Rancho Paso de Barolo, an 8,991-acre tract situated some twelve miles southeast of Los Angeles. Pico added a chapel, saloon, and other improvements and called his new home “El Ranchito,” but to Yankees the ranch was “Picoville.”

Whatever its name, for decades the rancho preserved the old Californio way of life. A gracious host, Pico welcomed many visitors and hosted dances, cockfights, and horse races. The land was also a working ranch; demand for beef surged with the Gold Rush, and vaqueros tended to Pico’s large herds of cattle and horses. Most of the ranch has since been subdivided into the cities of Whittier, Montebello, and Pico Rivera, but Pico’s homestead on the San Gabriel River survives as Pío Pico State Historic Park.

In the late 1860s, Yankees continued to trickle in to the former capital of Mexican California. Pico saw a profit to be made, and in 1870 he sold his land holdings in the San Fernando Valley to finance construction of the Pico House, a three-story hotel on L.A.’s central plaza that would cater to wealthy out-of-town visitors. The Pico House stands to this day, now part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District.

 

The Pico House and the Los Angeles Plaza circa 1870. Courtesy of the El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historical Monument Photo Collection.

 

A streetcar and buggies in front of the Pico House in 1870. Courtesy of the Watson Family Photo Archive.

 

1940 drawing of the Pico House by Bacilio Olivarez. Courtesy of the Watson Family Photo Archive.

Pico’s later years saw Don Pío, as he was fondly called, fall into penury. Bad investments and unscrupulous companions forced him to sell the Pico House. He lost the future Camp Pendleton to his brother in law, and El Ranchito to a real estate scam–Pico mortgaged the property, but when he tried to repay the loan his creditor refused and seized the land instead. In both cases, the former governor sought relief from the courts–in the latter case, appealing all the way to the California Supreme Court–but lost.

Pico died on September 11, 1894, just as newcomers from the Midwest and East Coast were transforming Los Angeles into a thoroughly Yankee city. Although Pio Pico Historic State Park’s future is uncertain, the legacy of Mexican California’s final governor is permanently enshrined in place names across Southern California: drivers cross Los Angeles every day along Pico Boulevard, and a portion of the don’s former ranchito honors his memory today as the City of Pico Rivera.

 

Portrait of Pico and a copy of his book, ‘Manual de la Conversación.’ Courtesy of the Autry National Center, Griffith Park. 94.121.1.

 

Many of the archives who contributed the above images are members of L.A. as Subject, an association of more than 230 libraries, museums, official archives, personal collections, and other institutions. Hosted by the USC Libraries, L.A. as Subject is dedicated to preserving and telling the sometimes-hidden stories and histories of the Los Angeles region. Our posts here will provide a view into the archives of individuals and cultural institutions whose collections inform the great narrative—in all its complex facets—of Southern California.

 

Following the separation of Texas from Mexico in 1835, Mexico sought to discourage any independence movement in California. However, as American mountainmen blazed new trails over the Rocky Mountains, and more ships visited the coast, more and more settlers established homesteads. Like Texas, Mexico was losing its grip on California.

 

Newly installed Governor Manuel Micheltorena had enraged many Californians by bringing with him about 400 brigands who reportedly were present to bolster law and order. Making Gov. Micheltorena even more unpopular was his favoring the return of the missions and their lands to the church and evicting whoever happened to be there.

A cabal of Californians, led by

 

 Juan Bautista Alvarado

And

 

Jose Castro,

 brought 284 men over the Cahuenga Pass where they met Micheltorena’s force. On February 19 and 20, 1845, the Mexicans and Californians exchanged long-range artillery fire on the banks of the Los Angeles River while concerned citizens watched the cannonballs fly from nearby hillsides.

After a truce was called and both sides met in Los Angeles, Gov. Micheltorena resigned. His successor, the last of the Mexican governors, was California-born Pio Pico, an anti-cleric.

Shortly thereafter, Gov. Pico leased the San Fernando Mission, effectively the entire San Fernando Valley, to his brother,

 

 Andreas Pico,

and

 

Juan Manso.

 

Gov. Pio Pico

By 1845 many Californians had had enough political instability and had begun to look toward the United States. The boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico at Texas became a flashpoint.

 

 President James K. Polk

 embraced the theory that it was “Manifest Destiny” for the United States to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Many Californians hoped it was only a matter of time before they, too, were governed by the United States.

 

Upon Texas becoming a state in 1845, Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with the United States. In early 1846, the Mexican government authorized Governor Pio Pico to take whatever steps he deemed necessary to protect Alta California from a foreign takeover. One of Pio Pico’s largest assets was the former San Fernando Mission. On June 17, 1846, he sold 120,000 acres, not including the mission itself,

 

 

to

Los Angeles resident Eugenio de Celis.

The timing for de Celis could not have been better. Three weeks later U. S. forces captured

 

the provincial capital at Monterey, an event viewed in Washington as the end of Mexican jurisdiction over California.

Read more info

Historic California Posts:

Posts at Monterey

(El Real Presidio de San Carlos de Monterey, El Castillio, Fort Hill, Fort Jones, Fort Stockton; Fort Mervine; Fort Savannah; Fort Halleck; Fort Cape of Pines; Fort Fremont, Monterey Redoubt; Monterey Ordnance Depot, Monterey Barracks, Ord Barracks; Monterey Military Reservation, and The Presidio of Monterey, Camp John P. Pryor, and Camp Murray)

 

 

 

The original Presidio de San Carlos de Monterey, 1793


No other military installation in the United States had as many changes in nomenclature as the two-century-old Presidio of Monterey. The military has played a role in the history of the Monterey Peninsula since 1770 when a small expedition led by Governor Gaspar de Portola officially took possession for Spain of what is now central California. In compliance with instructions “to erect a fort to occupy and defend the port from the atrocities of the Russians, who were about to invade us,” his men constructed a presidio, or fort, at the southern end of the bay.. Portolas actions were influenced by the Spanish fear that other nations, particularly Russia, had designs upon her New World empire. Spain moved to occupy that portion of the western American coast which she had previously neglected. Ripe for colonization and military fortification was the port of Monterey. which had been visited and charted a century and a half before by the Spanish explorer Sebastian Vizcaino

 

Five-page report that a Spanish settlement between mission and presidio had just been established at Monterey, California, by Don Gaspar de Portola and Miguel Costanso, 1770 To view all pages of this document, CLICK HERE

Monterey became one of five Presidios, or forts built by Spain. Others were founded in San Diego, (1769), San Francisco (1776), Santa Barbara (1782) and Tubac, Arizona (1784). The fortunes of the Presidio at Monterey rose and fell with the times. It has been moved, abondoned and reactivated time and time again. At least three times it has been submerged by the tide of history, only to reappear years later with new face, a new master, and a new mission, first under the Spanish, then the Mexicans, ultimately the Americans.

 

Presidio Chapel of San Carlos Borromeo was founded in 1770 by Father Junipero Serra. First chapel was behind palisades next to Presidio, but Father Serra moved to present location to be away from military influence. Six soldiers guarded and helped build church. Serra died here in 1784 and is buried in church. Chapel was presented with barrel organ by English explorer Vancouver in 1793. Address: Church Street near Figueroa.

The first Presidio of Monterey, El Presidio Royal de Monte Rey, Spain’s initial military reservation in Alta California was situated about a mile east of the present day U.S. Army’s Presidio of Monterey. The mission and chapel of the Royal Presidio still stands and appears as it did upon its completion in 1795. The old presidio’s foil, surviving for 50 years, was located on Presidio Hill, a site now listed in the National Register of Historic Places. In 1771 Father Junipero Serra moved his principal religious activities from Monterey to his new mission in Carmel. Soldiers were stationed both there and at Serra’s newer mission, San Antonio de Padua, at Jolon, now Fort Hunter Liggett’s reservation. El Castillo (1792-1846), the fort of the first presidio at Monterey, began as an open V shaped parapet of logs and adobe revetments enclosing a small wooden barracks. Adobe structures were added later. From 1792 to 1822, this fort was the castillio, or fortification, for the Spanish presidio. In 1793, Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy found guns of El Castillo mounted on “sorry kind of barbet battery, consisting of a few logs of wood … cannon, about 11 in number … work cost $450 … was entirely useless.”From 1822 to 1846 (the Mexican era) this was the principal fort protecting the city and harbor of Monterey. Other redoubts included small fortifications at Point Pinos and above El Castillo on Presidio Hill, the site of Fort Mervine’s ruins.

 

Conjectural View of the Presidio of Monterey,circa 1800, by Jack S. Williams from “The Presidio of San Carlos de Monterey: The Evolution of the Fortress – Capital of Alta California.” The Center for Spanish Colonial Archaeology, Technical Publication Series Number 1, Tubac, 1993. Fig. 44, p.145.

Monterey remained the capital of California during the Mexican era. Twice El Castillo fell from Spanish and Mexican control. On November 20, 1819, the French privateer Hippolyte Bouchard sailed into Monterey Bay with two vessels flying the flag of Argentina, then the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. Bouchard easily took El Castillo the next day while half of his forces launched an attack by land. They sacked the town and dispersed the Spainards. Crewmen included Hawaiians who were naked upon landing but soon were clothed in best clothing empty houses could offer. Bouchard’s privateers sailed away on December 1. On October 20, 1842, the fort was taken by U.S. Navy Commodore Thomas Catesby Jones, commander of the Pacific Squadron, who mistakenly believed the United States and Mexico were then at war. El Castillo was renamed Fort Catesby (popularly called Jones’ Fort in many journals of the day) and remained such for one day, until Jones learned of his error, apologized, and reinstated the Mexican standard.

For for information concerning El Real Presidio de San Carlos de Monterey, CLICK HERE

On July 7, 1846, the naval forces of Cornmodore John Drake Sloat, commander of the Pacific Squadron, sailed into Monterey Bay. This time a state of war did exist. Perhaps remembering. Jones’ blunder four years earlier. Sloat chose to send his second in command it to claim Monterey for the United States. Thus, Captain William Mervine landed and ordered the American flag raised over the old Custom House. Instead of occupying El Castillo, the Americans built a new fortification on Presidio Hill above El Castillo. This Fort, later named for Captain Mervine, was the first U.S military reservation in Monterey. In 1902, this post was greatly enlarged into the Presidio of Monterey and the old fort fell into ruins. Today only one ravelin remains, which mounts five guns on Presidio Hill behind the Army’s museum.

In the early American period Monterey was still the capital of California; later, the capital was shifted to Benecia, and ultimately to Sacramento

 

Fort Mervine was built by Americans in 1846, was first known as Fort Stockton. It included blockhouse, earthen redoubt, a 100 by 17-foot barracks, six-room double-story log officers quarters, and 75- by 25-foot stone magazine. By mid-1850’s, inspectors said it was worthless, guns were too small to cover Monterey Bay, and its only commendable attribute was that barracks had been turned over to library society. (Redrawn from Mansfield Report, 1853.)

 

Fort Mervine is remembered by these original earthworks and cannon 145 feet above Monterey. Battery F, Third Artillery manned it, called it “Monterey Redoubt” at first, though other names later included Fort Hill, Fort Halleck, Jones’ Fort, and Fort Fremont. Initially it had 20 mounted 24-pound guns and four 8-inch guns on platforms. It is now part of U.S. Army’s Presidio of Monterey, founded in 1902, overlooking Lighthouse avenue. The Army also was at Monterey for short time in 1865, mainly to see if government buildings were still there.

Construction on Fort Mervine had been begun by an ensign from Sloat’s command. On July 15, 1846, it was named Fort (Robert F.) Stockton in honor of the Pacific Squardron commander who succeeded Sloat. On January 28, 1847, Company F, 3rd Artillery, arrived with orders to complete the permanent fort, which was designed by Corps of Engineer Lieutenant (later Major General) Henry W. Halleck, and the post was renamed Fort Halleck. The fort’s construction was superintended by Lieutenant Edward Ortho Cresap Ord and his second in command Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman, both men becoming distinguished generals during the Civil War. For a brief period during its early construction, the post was also known as Fort Savannah for Sloat’s flagship. From August 1852 to February 1865, Fun Halleck was inactive, although for the first four years of this period the post had been designated the Monterey Ordnance Depot in title and function

On February 17, 1865, the post was renamed Ord Barracks and reactivated for the last month of the Civil War. Two log barracks were constructed to accommodate Company B, 2nd Artillery, Company G, 6th Infantry, and Company B, 1st California Volunteer Infantry. On October 18, 1865, Ord Barracks was deactivated and left in a caretaking status. On September 9, 1902, the 15th Infantry was ordered to take post at the Monterey Military Reservation and begin building a post to house an infantry regiment and a squadron of cavalry. The end of the Spanish American War in 1898 saw a significantly sized force stationed here. The 15th Infantry Regiment as well as a squadron of the 9th Cavalry Regimert, returning from the Philippines, was headquartered here and developed the fort further. On July 13, 1903, General Orders No. 102, Headquarters of the Army officially designated the post Ord Barracks in honor of Major General Edward O. C. Ord. On August 30, 1904, by Presidential direction, War Department General Orders No. 142 designated that in perpetuation of the name of the first Spanish military installation in Alta California, the post would he renamed the Presidio of Monterey.

From 1907 to 1913 the School of Musketry was operated on the post, forerunner of today’s Infantry Center at Fort Benning, Georgia. Several units rotated through between 1902 and 1919. Between the two world wars the post was the home of the 11th Cavalry Regiment and the 2nd Battalion, 76th Field Artillery Regiment.

These units remained at the Presidio until 1940. In 1941, the Presidio of Monterey became a reception center for selectees, and for a while it housed III Corps headquarters. Declared inactive in 1944, the post was reactivated in 1945. For a few months the post was a staging area for civil affairs personnel preparing for the occupation of Japan.

On June 19, 1946 the installation became home to the Military Intelligence Service Language School. It was redesignated the Army Language School in 1947. In 1963, the Department of Defense established a joint service Defense Language Institute (DLI), headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Presidio of Monterey became the Defense Language Institute, West Coast Branch – the Presidio of Monterey, however, kept its name. In 1974 the DLI headquarters moved to the Presidio of Monterey. In 1976 the Defense Language Institute, West Coast Branch became the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC), the Defense Department’s primary center for foreign language instruction.

 

For much of its recent history, DLIFLC was a tenant activity on the Presidio of Monterey. The Presidio itself was a subinstallation of the nearby Fort Ord. On October 1, 1994 this situation changed when Fort Ord closed and the Presidio of Monterey became a separate installation again.

 

 

 


The American Capture of Monterey, 1842 and 1846

 

 

A day out of Lima, Peru, on September 8, 1842, the American ships Cyane, Dale and United States hove to and two captains’ gigs made for the flagship. Captains Armstrong, Scribbling and Dornan gathered in the cabin of Commodore Thomas Ap Catesby Jones.

 

Jones recounted the reports he had heard while in Lima: not only did a state of war exist between the United States and Mexico, but English and French fleets were competing to occupy Northern California. From his nearer location, Jones’ fleet had the advantage. Disregarding the rumor that Great Britain had bought California for $7 million, Jones proposed to make full sail for Monterey and take California for the United States.

 

Jones said it was their “bounden duty” to prevent violation of the Monroe Doctrine by any European power “but more particularly by our great commercial rival England.”

 

Dale returned to Panama to report the plan to Washington. The other ships set full sail for Monterey.

 

“During the battle and strife,” Jones said to his crews, “every man must do his utmost to take and destroy; but when the flag is struck, all hostility must cease, and you must even become the protectors of all, and not the oppressors of any.”

 

At 4:00 p.m. on October 19, Captain Armstrong was sent ashore under a flag of truce to demand the surrender of Monterey’s defenses “to avoid the sacrifice of human life and the horrors of war.”

 

With time to consider until 9:00 a.m. the next day, Juan Bautista Alvarado asked his military commander about the possibility of defending the place. This same Alvarado had led a revolt against the Monterey redoubt in 1835, taking it easily with a mixed force of 125 Californians and Americans. His one cannon had been handled by a lawyer who consulted the instruction book for the firing procedures, but its single shot was sufficient to frighten and force out the governor. The attackers had taken an additional precaution: sending a gift of whiskey ahead to the presidio to “pacify” its garrison.

 

Seven years later after he seized power, Alvarado knew that little bad been done to improve the defenses. His captain’s opinion was expected: the fortifications “were of no consequence, as everybody knows.” He had 29 soldiers, 29 militia, 150 muskets, and 11 rusted cannon with little ammunition.

 

“The next morning at half-past ten o’clock about 100 sailors and 50 Marines disembarked,” a pioneer wrote in his diary. “The sailors marched up from the shore and took possession of the port. The American colors were hoisted. The United States fired a salute of 13 guns; it was returned by the fort, which fired 26 guns.”

“The Marines in the meantime bad marched up to the government-house. The officers and soldiers of the California government were discharged and their guns and other arms taken possession of and carried to the fort. The stars and stripes now wave over us. Long may they wave here in California!”

 

Thirty hours later, the Mexican flag was back on the flagpole. Newspapers and other papers located in Monterey convinced Jones that there was no war with Mexico at the time. The garrison was quickly withdrawn to the ships and a salute was fired in honor of the Mexican flag. Relief was mutual that the erroneous invasion had cost neither lives nor anger.

 

Jones noted that even though “we had 150 seamen and Marines on shore 30 hours, not one private house was entered, or the slightest disrespect shown to any individual; nor was any species of property, public or private, spoiled, if I may except the powder burnt in the salutes, which I have returned twofold.”

 

Later the Mexicans tried to get Jones to reimburse them for the expenses incurred by the Los Angeles garrison that had left to reinforce Monterey. A formal demand for 1,500 infantry uniforms, $15,000, and a set of musical instruments were ignored by Jones and not repeated by the Mexicans. Washington relieved Jones of his command of the Pacific Squadron, but a few years later found him back at the same helm.

 

Monterey learned no lesson by the easy capture of its defenses. Four years later, Commodore John D. Sloat anchored in Monterey Bay and was not bothered in the least by the supposed challenging artillery on the hill. Sloat had learned a lesson, however, and delayed landing until he was told that John C. Fremont and the Bear Flag Revolt had started. Assuming that Fremont was acting as an American agent, Sloat sent a landing party ashore on July 7, 1846, and hoisted the United States flag on the government buildings.

 

 

 

The United States flag is raised over Monterey’s Customs House as sailors and Marines land. Depicted is the Old Custom House, left, with a Mexican redoubt on the point. Commodore Sloat’s forces are seen arriving in small water craft. On the right is the U. S. Sloop-of-War Cyane, U. S. Frigate Savannah (Sloat’s Flagship), and U. S. Sloop-of-War Levant.

 

 

The shift of authority was greeted mildly by the citizens of Monterey. Troops poured in-some of them being dropped at Monterey rather than other ports in order to keep them from the distant gold fields. Lieutenant William Tecumseh Sherman arrived at this time aboard USS Lexington.

 

Sherman’s men expected to do battle as soon as they landed. In his Memoirs, he expresses pride that each man had been sufficiently exercised on the 200-day voyage so that upon arrival at Monterey “every man was able to leave the ship and march up the hill to the fort carrying his own knapsack and equipments.” The rumors of an impending attack on Monterey may have spurred on the troops, as it did the officers. Not knowing how far away the fighting was, Sherman said, “Swords were brought out, guns oiled and made ready, and everything was in a bustle.”

 

Records indicate that less than decisive battles were fought at Monterey. In 1847 Sherman incurred the undying enmity of some townspeople by destroying two barrels of contraband whiskey on the pier. A year later he led the chase to recapture a mass desertion of 28 soldiers for the gold fields; be had to include only officers in his eight man “posse” because he was afraid that bringing enlisted men would only invite more desertions.

 

 

Monterey is pictured in Bartlett’s Personal Narrative as it appeared when boundary commission visited in 1852. Bartlett admired “large and well built adobe buildings” and noted that troops were occupying “the old presidia or garrison on an elevation back of the town.” He especially admired the “fair daughters” of Monterey, many of whom were marrying American military.

 

 

 

 

Two early actors in Monterey drama are memorialized here. Commodore Sloat Monument (left) is part of Fort Mervine ruins. Sherman’s house (right) shows ravages of time that revealed adobe under plaster. Sherman lived here after officers’ mess had to be abolished because cooks deserted for gold fields.

 

 

 

 

When Lieutenant Sherman arrived in Monterey, he first lived in Customs House (above) while serving as quartermaster. This double-story end dated from 1814; center single-story was built in 1833; double-story at opposite end was added by American consul at Monterey, Thomas Larkin. From 1847 to 1849, Sherman lived in plastered adobe house (below) also built by Larkin. Custom House is at Alvarado and Scott streets; Sherman house on Main street near Jefferson.

 

President James K. Polk sent Captain John C. Fremont, a military explorer and surveying engineer, to the Oregon Territory and California on a scientific and surveying expedition.

If a war broke out in California, he was to attempt to negotiate a peace with honor.

 (Polk had already declared war on Mexico over a boundary dispute along the Rio Grande River on May 13, 1846.)

 

John C. Fremont

Great Britain played an important role at this time.

 President Polk and Lt. Col. Fremont were aware that England and Mexico were allies due to a very large debt that Mexico owed England.

 As Fremont was in Monterey a British frigate brought 3,000 settlers to be relocated in

 

the San Joaquin Valley

 

 and thereby establish a foothold in California. But, the settlers left when they found the political situation in so much turmoil.

 

 

 

Read more info about San Joaquin

 

 

Charles David Maria Weber
1814-1881

Charles M. Weber was a German-born businessman in San Jose who obtained a 50,000-acre land grant on which he raised cattle, mined gold, and founded the city of Stockton as a business center for the southern mines.  He led the defense of San Jose during the uprising against Micheltorena in 1845 and led a cavalry company in the same region during the Mexican War to aid the United States

 

 

At this time England and Canada were claiming additional Oregon territory.

 

By mid-summer of 1846,

 Americans forces were in control of the entire province.

Mexican forces in Los Angeles, under Captain Jose Maria Flores, mounted a revolt. The U. S. forces in Los Angeles, under Captain Archibald Gillespie, were under siege at Government House, their headquarters. To strengthen Flores’ effort, General Andreas Pico raised a California army in the San Fernando Valley.

 

Drawing titled ‘Charge of the Caballeros,’ depicting the 1846 Battle of San Pasqual between Californian cavalry and U.S. Army troops. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

 

 

 

U.S. troops battled Californio forces loyal to Mexico on January 8, 1847 on the banks of the San Gabriel River. Drawing by John Southwick of the U.S. Navy, courtesy of the Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of Early Californian and Western American Pictorial Material, Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley.

It was nearly seventy years ago that a Japanese submarine shelled the Santa Barbara coast—the last recorded attack on a Southern California land target. In 1955, the U.S. Army installed a ring of Nike anti-aircraft missiles to defend the Los Angeles area, but by the 1974 the system had been dismantled.

In earlier times, however, Southern California was a geopolitically dynamic region at the edge of the Spanish empire and—later—the Mexican republic. While not common, warfare did occasionally mar the region’s landscape.

 

A Nike anti-aircraft missile site in the San Fernando Valley. The last L.A.-area Nike missile site was closed in 1974. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Public Library Photograph Collection.

One bizarre and nearly bloodless battle took place in present-day Hollywood, next to the Cahuenga Pass–not far from where summer concertgoers picnic under the stars.

From the 1820s until the American conquest in 1846, Mexican California was riven with political tension. Since colonization began in 1769, the Spanish empire had governed California as a military territory. Missions and pueblos operated somewhat autonomously, but ultimately each civilian or religious official reported to a military officer in matters of governance; Los Angeles’ civilian alcalde (mayor) and town council, for example, could be overruled by a designated sergeant at the Santa Barbara presidio. Mexican independence had ushered in a liberal, reformist spirit across the new republic, and many Californios–newly conscious of the concept of political rights–chafed under military rule.

Another point of contention was the secularization of the missions. Inspired by the new spirit of egalitarianism across Mexico, secularization promised to convert the mission fathers to parish priests and empower their Indian charges as free citizens. It also promised to free up California’s choicest agricultural land, which would then be granted to Mexican citizens as private ranches, making governance of California–and its attendant control over the former mission lands–a prized commodity.

In 1831, tensions boiled over when the military governor of California, Manuel Victoria, attempted to reverse what modest reforms already had been enacted. Victoria refused to call the territorial disputacion (legislature) into session, exiled two leading citizens of Los Angeles and jailed at least 100 others, and vowed to resist attempts to secularize the missions. Outraged Californios charged tyranny. Would-be rancheros Juan Bandini, Juan Antonio Carillo, and Pío Pico raised a small rebel force of Angelenos. They were joined by troops from the San Diego presidio, and the combined army marched on Los Angeles, freed the town’s political prisoners, and proclaimed the pueblo liberated.

 

Early drawing of Cahuenga Pass, showing the possible site of the first Battle of Cahuenga Pass. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Public Library Photograph Collection.

Victoria, meanwhile marched south to suppress the insurrection. His roughly 30 troops met a rebel force of 150 at a site west of Los Angeles, near the mouth of the Cahuenga Pass.

The battle was short, according to the account of early California historian Hubert Howe Bancroft. When Victoria saw the San Diego troops arrayed across from him, he ordered their commander, Pablo de la Portillà, to join his ranks. Portillà rode out to parley, but when Victoria realized that Portillà’s troops would not join him, he ordered his men to fire.

Their volley missed, and while most of the rebel troops retreated to their high ground, passion overcame a few. Led by Jose Maria Avila, whom Victoria had imprisoned in the Los Angeles jail, they charged the governor on horseback. Avila first shot one of Victoria’s subordinates in the back, and then turned his sights on the governor. His lance tore through Victoria and knocked the governor off his horse.

Fearing that his wounds were fatal, Victoria resigned his office and fled to Mission San Gabriel. He would survive, but his policies would not. On August 9, 1834, Victoria’s eventual successor, José Figueroa, secularized the mission lands, and many of the rebellion’s leaders became California’s richest landowners.

As the most direct route between Los Angeles and points north, Cahuenga Pass represented one of the region’s most strategically significant sites in a Southern California still vulnerable to war. It is not surprising, then, that in the 1840s the pass would become the site of two more major military events.

In 1845, another skirmish near the pass deposed yet another unpopular governor appointed by Mexico’s central government. Manuel Micheltorena had arrived in 1842,

an appointee of Mexico’s president,

 

Antonio López de Santa Anna.

With hundreds of Americans ambivalent or hostile to Mexican rule living within Alta California, Santa Anna had dispatched Micheltorena and a ragtag army of 300 convicts to secure the province for Mexico.

 

The governor, and especially his rapacious army, soon wore out their welcome

.

A revolt against Micheltorena’s rule broke out in November 1844 near Santa Clara.

The governor conspired with several prominent foreigners, including

 

 the Swiss settler John Sutter

 and several Americans, and marched south to quell the rebellion.

On February 20, 1845,

Micheltorena’s army and a rebel force–equally matched at about 200 troops each–met

 

on the plains of Rancho La Providencia,

 just

 

north of the Cahuenga Pass

 

near present-day Burbank.

 

The two armies exchanged several artillery rounds, and later accounts list the only casualty as a single equine, either a mule or a mustang.

 But the battle–known today as

 

the Second Battle of Cahuenga Pass or, alternately, as the Battle of La Providencia–also claimed Micheltorena’s reign. Burbank construction crews were unearthing cannonballs well into the twentieth century.

 

Manuel Micheltorena, who was ousted by the 1845 Battle of La Providencia. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

Little more than a year passed before war erupted between the United States and Mexico, once again transforming the plains around Los Angeles into a battlefield and making Cahuenga Pass the site of a decisive military event.

American forces under Commodore Robert Stockton first entered Los Angeles on August 11, 1846, only to find the city abandoned by Californio authorities. California’s governor, Pío Pico, and military commander, José Castro, had fled to Sonora to beg the Mexican government for reinforcements. Confident in his control of the city, Stockton withdrew most of his men and sailed north, leaving a small contingent of U.S. Marines under the command of Captain Archibald Hamilton Gillespie.

Stockton and Gillepsie could not have anticipated the ferocity of Californio resistance to the American occupation. Across the state, Californios loyal to Mexico met privately on ranchos, out of sight of the Americans, to raise a resistance force. Within a month, a contingent of lancers under the command of José María Flores closed in on Los Angeles and expelled Gillespie’s marines from the city’s government house. Gillespie’s men fled to

 

 Fort Moore Hill,in 1845

just west of the plaza. The ensuing Siege of Los Angeles lasted until September 29, when Gillespie signed articles of capitulation that allowed him and his men to escape untouched to their ship

 

in San Pedro.

 

 

Drawing titled ‘Charge of the Caballeros,’ depicting the 1846 Battle of San Pasqual between Californian cavalry and U.S. Army troops. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

American troops returned en masse to Southern California in December 1846. Two hundred army troops commanded by

 

 General Stephen W. Kearney

marched toward

 

San Diego from

 

New Mexico,

 while Stockton sailed toward south with 750 men and John C. Frémont led his roughly 400 irregular troops toward Los Angeles.

Kearney’s tired troops clashed first with the Californio forces east of San Diego in the inconclusive Battle of San Pasqual. A more decisive conflict came on January 8-9, when Kearney’s and Stockton’s combined forces met the Californios for two days of battle along the banks of the San Gabriel River. The successive battles of San Gabriel and La Mesa, known collectively as

the Battle of Los Angeles,

 as well as the Americans’ overwhelming numerical advantage, convinced the Californios to lay down their arms.

On January 13, 1847,

 

Andrés Pico, commander of the Californio forces,

 met with Frémont at Campo de Cahuenga to discuss terms of surrender. Receiving guarantees that the Californios’ rights would be protected, Pico signed the Capitulation of Cahuenga, bringing the Mexican War in California to a close and marking the end of land-based warfare in the Los Angeles area.

 

Beginning of the articles of capitulation signed by Frémont and Pico at Cahunega Pass on January 13, 1847. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

 

‘The Capitulation of the Mexican Army at Cahuenga,’ painted by Carl Oscar Borg circa 1931. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries.

 

A re-enactment of the signing of the Capitulation of Cahuenga on a parade float. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Public Library Photograph Collection.

 

As commander of the Californio forces, Andrés Pico signed the Capitulation of Cahuenga, ending the Mexican War in California. Courtesy of the Title Insurance and Trust / C.C. Pierce Photography Collection, USC Libraries

 

After the Bear Flag Revolt in May, 1846, in which Fremont took part in the uprising of American settlers against the Mexican government in California, he accepted from Commodore Robert F. Stockton, America’s Military Governor, the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Fremont formed the California Battalion, composed of settlers and sharpshooters from the Monterey area. They headed south to the City of the Angels (Los Angeles) to confront Mexican Governor Pio Pico’s forces led by General Andreas Pico.

 

Gen. Andreas Pico

Fremont moved south to San Luis Obispo where he captured Mexican General Jesus Pico, a cousin of Pio and Andreas Pico. He readied his forces in the hills above the Santa Barbara Mission on a cold and rainy Christmas morning n 1846. By January 6, 1847, forces under American Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny and Commodore Robert Field Stockton were on their way to Los Angeles from San Diego.

 

After fighting two bloody battles a few miles south of Los Angeles, on January 11, 1847 Kearny and Stockton marched to the main square. Pico’s Californian force was all that remained. Fremont and his men were camped at the San Fernando Mission. In a last effort to rout the American force, Pico attempted a daring maneuveur. His Californios marched north over the Cahuenga Pass in full view of Fremont. Then, in an effort to fool the Americans into believing his force was far larger than it the small band he really had, Pico’s men next passed unseen through a ravine, where Universal City now sits, and came back over the hill thus giving the impression that Pico commanded a large army.

 

“. . .We entered the pass . . .on the morning of the 12th of January. In the afternoon, we encamped at the mission of San Fernando, the residence of Don Andreas Pico, who was at present in chief command of the Californian troops. Their encampment was within two miles of the mission, and in the evening, [my envoy] Don Jesus [Pico], with a message from me, made a visit to Don Andreas. The next morning , accompanied by only Don Jesus, I rode over to the camp of the Californians, and, in a conference with Don Andreas, the important features of a treaty of capitulation were agreed upon.

 

A truce was ordered; commissioners on each side appointed; and the same day a capitulation agreed upon. This was approved my myself as military commandant representing the United States, and Don Andreas Pico, commander-in-chief of the Californians. With the treaty of Couenga [sic] hostilities ended, and California left peaceably in our possession; to be finally secured to us by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848.”

 

The signing of the Capitualtion of Cahuenga occurred on January 13, 1847 on the kitchen table of the abandoned six-room adobe formerly occupied by Tomas Feliz and his family. Copies were signed in English and Spanish. Much to the chagrin of Gen. Kearny, his superior, Fremont gave Pico generous terms. Kearny lost an arm in battle against Pico’s forces at San Pasqual, had fought hard to reach Los Angeles and no doubt had retribution on his mind. Among the seven terms of the agreement were stipulations that the laws of the United States would take effect immediately and that all members of Pico’s brigade, unseen and unnumbered, would never again bear arms against the United States.

 

Gen. Stephen Kearny

Fremont later wrote:

Because their agreement had been so amicable, Pico at once organized a fiesta for Fremont and his men in California that, after decades of turmoil, was finally at peace. A few weeks later, at Kearny’s instigation, Fremont was court-martialed for his actions at the time of the capitulation and convicted of insubordination. However, Commodore Stockton, Military Governor of California, negated any punishment and President Polk later pardoned him. Fremont later had a distinguished political career and in 1856 was the Repubican Party’s first nominee for President of the United States.

 

Commo. Robert Field Stockton

When the Civil War began, Lincoln appointed Fremont as major general in command of the Western Department, based in St. Louis. Recruiting, organizing, arming, and effectively commanding a large, untrained and ill-equipped army surrounded by Confederate sympathizers was beyond Fremont’s experience and ability. He was blamed for inaction that lead to the Union defeat at Wilson’s Creek and the death of General Nathaniel Lyon. Fremont answered the criticisms by ordering the emancipation of the slaves and confiscation of the property of all pro-slavery supporters in Missouri. President Lincoln asked Fremont to rescind the order, but Fremont refused and insisted he would comply with Lincoln’s request only if publicly order to do so. Fremont was reassigned to command another army in Virginia where he performed without distinction against Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson. When his army was merged with another under the command of his long-time enemy, John Pope, Fremont resigned.

He was nominated for president in 1864 by Radical Republicans, but was persuaded to withdraw. For the next several years he was involved in several western railroad projects without success and was ultimately bankrupted by a railroad swindle. He served without controversy as governor of the Arizona Territory from 1878 to 1883 and died in New York City in 1890.

 

Walker was now leading a group of gold prospectors from California into New Mexico, exploring the headwaters of the Gila River in what is now southwestern New Mexico.  At the time of their trek following the Gila westward, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act separating the Territory of Arizona from New Mexico (February 24, 1863) in a vertical split rather than the original horizontal proposal.  But, politics was not of interest for the Walker Party; their sites were set on the mountains north of the Gila where they hoped to find gold.  They passed through Tucson in April and soon reached the Pima and Maricopa Indian villages where they were provided with supplies and native guides.

The Walker party continued west until they came to a tributary to the north leading to the mountains.  The Indians called the tributary “Haviamp” meaning ‘place of big rocks and water.’  The men molded that sound into Hassayampa.

Suddenly a band of Yavapai Indians appeared “within ten paces,” looking ferocious with painted bodies.  One of the prospectors, Daniel Conner, kept a diary and later published their travel adventures.  He wrote, “These naked, barbarous wretches sneak out of their holes as insidiously as so many rats, and are not entitled to a consideration more dignified than that which is accorded to the rats and mice about the city livery stable.”

Such ugly attitudes set the tone for most white settlers and revealed the void in their understanding of the native culture.  The Yavapai made threats regarding any further advance of the white men into their lands.  The Walker party’s Indian guide, Irataba, tried to talk them into turning back.  When they insisted on proceeding, the guide and his warriors left in the night.  With great caution the party continued up the Hassayampa and established a camp about five miles from what would later become Prescott.  They proclaimed the area a mining district and made a compact as to how each member of the party would be assigned mining claims.

In May 1863, they returned to the Pima villages for supplies.  On the way, they joined a group of prospectors from California led by Abraham Peeples with mountain man, Pauline Weaver, their guide.  A Gila River rancher, King S. Woolsey, also joined them.  Woolsey had recently settled the Agua Caliente ranch and was known for his bravery in fighting off Indian raiders.  Woolsey was one of the first to make a gold claim in the Walker district and the gold rush was on.  The Peeples and Walker parties shared the mining districts around Prescott, becoming the first Whites to settle in the newly established Yavapai County.  Miners and ranchers now came from far and wide and began staking out substantial claims, building log houses and laying in food from hunting expeditions while at the same time prospecting for gold.

While hunting, there were encounters with lone Indians, and this sometimes resulted in trade but usually it called for careful avoidance.  An open war between the miners and the Yavapai and Apache had not yet been declared and the white men were wise enough not to assert their belief that “the only good Indian is a dead Indian.”

Companies of the California Infantry and Cavalry had set up a military post in Val de Chino (Chino Valley) to offer protection for the new territorial government, the settlers and miners.  It was named Whipple Barracks to honor Maj. General Amiel W. Whipple who had surveyed the route across northern Arizona and, who had since been killed in the Civil War at the battle of Chancellorsville, VA.  In May 1864, the temporary territorial capital was moved to a permanent location on Granite Creek.  In the meantime, the new government officials and citizens met to establish a town which they named Prescott to honor an eastern historian, William Hickling Prescott, well known for his books about the Aztecs.  It was erroneously believed the Aztecs had been the first settlers in the region.

This growing intrusion of miners and ranchers into Yavapai lands and bordering on Tonto Apache territories brought an immediate response from the Indians.  All of this ‘invasion’ had taken place in only one year and was rapidly escalating!  An all-out war with the Apache and Yavapai Indians was imminent.

Next week, the war erupts with devastating results.

The end @ copyright 2012

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