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Protected: The Dai Nippon Prisoner Of War In Indonesia Drawing painting sketch collections 1942-1945

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The adventure Of Captain Ivan Smirnoff as the part Of Dai nippon Occupation Indonesia in 1943



The Adventures of Captain Smirnoff ‘The Flight of the diamonds’

Ivan Smirnoff




Capt Smirnoff in U.S.

Capt Ivan Smiroff of The netherland East Indies Air Forces in the U.S. to haved bullet removed from his body in order to be sure of being able to find his way while flying, he told the newsman at press conference in San Fransisco Last week

Captain Smiroff said the steel bullet recieved when shot by the Japanese in March 1942 threw off his plane compass.

His plane was carrying a load of evacuoes from Java when the enemy fifghter shot it down near Broome in Nothern Australia.

On Board were diamonds valued in the neighborhood $21.000.000.which were lost but later discovered.

Since then Smiroff has flown 600 hours with The American Air Transport Command based in Australia.

He praised the work of the work transport planes in war operations, saying without them the Pacific war would not been successfully carried out.

He pointed out the jungle and the lack of roads permitted only transport plane to convey material and troops.

He remarked that unfortunately the transport pilot had no glory , only work.

“The Japs know they are Hecked”he declared Captain Smirnoff . who was famed as an airlined pilot and air racer before the war,pointed out that where as at the time of the Pearl Harbor. The allies were completely unorganized , they now were on offensive



Captain Ivan Vasielivich “Turc” Smirnoff was born at dawn on 30 January 1895 on a small farm near Vladimir, about 120 miles west of Moscow.

Ivan Smirnoff was Russia’s fourth highest Ace in World War I. He was credited with shooting down 11 German aircraft. He was highly decorated as follows:-

– Croix de Guerre
– Cross of St. George (when he was foot soldier)
– White Eagle of Siberia
– Order of St. Anna
– Order of St. George (equivalent to our Victoria Cross)
– Order of St. Stanislaus

Ivan was naturalised as a Dutch citizen. In early 1942, Captain Smirnoff had flown his DC-3 Dakota transport aircraft between Java and Australia evacuating Royal Netherlands Indies Airlines office and ground staff, along with civilians and service personnel.

On 3 March 1942, Dutch Dakota DC-3 PK-AFV of the KNILM (Netherlands East Indies KLM) piloted by Captain Ivan Smirnoff, left Bandung in Java headed for Australia with a plane load of evacuees and a box of diamonds worth approximately £300,000. They managed to escape Java just 3 days before the Japanese took the Bandung area. They were attacked by three Japanese Zeros about 80 kms north of Broome. Captain Smirnoff was wounded several times in his arms and hip. Smirnoff managed to put the Dakota into a steep spiral dive with the Zeros in pursuit and made a forced landing on the beach. The box of diamonds went missing after the crash.

Full details of the above crash
and the loss of the diamonds


Ivan Smirnoff eventually died in a Catholic clinic on the Spanish Island of Majorca on 23 October 1959.

The National Archives’ ANGAM Database shows the following records held regarding Smirnoff:-

SMIRNOFF Tivan – Nationality: Dutch – Arrived Perth per Dutch Air Force Plane 13 March 19421942 to

  Captain in the US 317th Troop Carrier Group

For the first few months the aircraft and crews belonging to KLM/KNILM were busy ferrying supplies from Archerfield, Brisbane, Queensland to US bases in Northern Australia.
The crew members were Te Roller, Hulsebos, Dirk Rap, Peter Deenik, Van Dijk, Jan Van Balkom, Iwan Smirnoff, Van Messel, Dunlop, Frans Van Breemen and Rijers.


But, in May 1942
 came the end. Their aircraft (two DC2, two DC3, three DC5 and four Lockheed-14) needed maintenance and spare parts which only the Americans could supply.


One day when Ivan drove to the airfield he found all the machines in their hangars and the director waiting for the pilots. He told that it was no longer possible for a civil company (KLM/KNILM) to get a licence to bring out spares from the USA.
The director explained that although KNILM operated their aircraft under charter to the U.S. military, General MacArthur had been reluctant to allow so many valuable aircraft to remain in civilian hands. As a result, KNILM were coerced into selling their aircraft to the USAAF.
This coercion took the form of a suspension of logistical support such as the impounding of one hundred cases of spare parts. To prevent the fleet being grounded KNILM had now arranged for its sale to the American Army Command.


Surviving documents suggest that all of the KNILM aircraft were to have been sold to the Australian government for a token £5 each, but the transaction was apparently overruled in favour of a sale to the USAAF. This purchase is reputed to have cost Uncle Sam $530,000.00 for ten aircraft (one Lockheed-14 had been written off).


Nicholas Dijkstra, a friend of Ivan Smirnoff, explains:


“KNILM management negotiated a handover of the aircraft to the US Air Force. Our crews, based in Sydney and Brisbane, were very upset about this decision. It meant that a useful service came to a sudden end, whilst the future of the crew members remained uncertain. Still, in my opinion this was not the reason that five(*)aircraft of KLM/KNILM flew a few days later under the Sydney Harbour Bridge.



On a beautiful Sunday in the month of May 1942, two US ‘Kittyhawks’ had flown under the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
I was in Elizabeth Bay at the time, or near there, and saw them. Traffic on the bridge came to a full stop and people were excited. The following day it was the main item of conversation – everybody thought that it was a great stunt. Nobody had done that before!


A couple of days later on 14 May, when the aircraft of KLM and KNILM were being prepared for the final flight to Wagga Wagga, we were also talking about the ‘Kittyhawk Stunt’.
 We were to make a short flight over Sydney for a final check of the aircraft. Some people of the ground staff suggested that it would be nice to come along for the short flight, so at the end close to fifty people, ground staff personnel, waiters and waitresses from the restaurant at the airport as well as kitchenstaff, were taken on board ready for take off.


Then one of the pilots suggested that we could do better than the two US Kittyhawks and fly some of the aircraft in formation under the Sydney Harbour Bridge. A KLM radio-operator, Joe Muller (he had previously been shot down at Carnot Bay, WA, with KLM Captain Ivan Smirnoff in the DC3 PK-AFV) was asked to go to the control tower to ask permission to fly under the bridge. Watching from the tarmac we could see Joe Muller talking to the personnel in the control tower
. After a few minutes he came out to the walkway alongside the tower, Joe Muller looked in our direction and then raised his thumb in what we took to be the ‘OK’ signal. And off we went…


The five(*)aircraft took off and eventually took up formation approaching the bridge from the Sydney Heads.
Still in formation we flew under the bridge, pulled up, made a wide turn and then flew in single line again under the bridge and then returned to Kingsford Smith Airport.


After we landed and taxied to the ramp, there was hell to pay! Anybody with some kind of authority was there. It then became clear that Joe Muller had not asked for permission to fly under the bridge.
 He explained to us that his thumbs-up signal only meant that the aircraft looked fine! The authorities did not have much to nail us down with, but we heard later that an order had been issued, forbidding to fly under the bridge and that anyone doing so, would be fined one hundred pounds ($200) for every person aboard.”


(*) According to Nicholas Dijkstra there were five machines and he flew with Captain Jan van Bal
At least (according to other sources) the machines flying under the bridge were:


DC2, PK-AFK, piloted by Captain Frans Van Breemen
DC3, PK-ALW “Wielewaal” piloted by Captain Peter Deenik
DC5, PK-ADC, piloted by Captain Dirk Rab with John Gyzemyteras Flight Engineer



….”What about us?” growled Ivan. “You selling us, too?”
Ivan persisted: “I am with you to build things up, not to knock them down. Can you suggest some other way?”
The director was sorry, but he couldn’t.


It was dreadful to think of KLM machines in the hands of the Yanks. It was dreadful to contemplate the prospect of sitting idle, month after month, waiting for the war to end. The Yanks were in dire need of pilots but when Ivan asked for a job the young captain in charge took one look at him and said, dryly: “Thanks, Pop, I guess we’ll get by and not trouble you.”


Ivan lived well now, he had grown ‘fat and flourishing’. In fact he had grown so much that he burst out of all his clothes and had to search the Sydney shops to find seventeen-and-a-half-inch collars.


During most of 1942 the Japanese still thought they were going to win the whole Pacific region, and they found Port Moresby on New Guineato be vital to fulfil that goal. The Allied, on the other hand, had not yet understood how important it really was to defend the very same area.


The first real victory against the Japs in the Pacific Ocean was carried out mostly by Australian troops. From 25 August to 7 September 1942 the Australians defeated the Japanese at Milne Bay about 350 km south-east of Port Moresby. This victorybecame an important turnpoint in WWII, it showed to everyone that the Japs could be beaten, and therefore the morale was now extensively increasing everywhere.


General MacArthur had had his HQ well of the way in Melbourne, but when things eventually started to look better, he moved his HQ to Brisbane. And when the Japs were defeated on New Guinea, he moved his HQ further on, to Port Moresby.


….Finally, on 20 January 1943 Ivan was gazetted Captain (First Pilot) in the 39th Troop Carrier Squadron, 317th Troop Carrier Group(which later that year (30 September) moved their headquarters from Townsville to Port Moresby) for operational flying duty. His appointment was made by General Kenny, Chief of Staff. It was an honour – there were only four First Pilots named. Now Ivan had joined the Americans.


Ivan Smirnoff


But Ivan had to learn about some US flight rules that appeared silly to him. One of the regulations laid down, that unless the weather (In Opinion Of Ground Control) were 100% good, the trip was cancelled. The experienced pilots went wild over this too-cautious rule.


Ivan just refused to accept it and soon after was preparing to leave when ground control signalled:
“Trip off, weather tricky.”
“Nonsense!” he roared down the airfield intercom. “Put me on to the fellah in charge here.”
When he was put through he blew up the airfield commander good and proper.
The commander listened patiently then said:
“I get your point, Captain; just the same, you can’t fly.”
“Like hell I can’t!” bellowed Ivan. “Who is the guy that gives you your orders?”
“Senior Colonel, Divisional Command.” He was given the name of a base a hundred miles away.


To the switchboard operator Ivan roared: “Get me Divisional Command,” and when, an hour later, the call came through, insisted on getting on to the senior colonel and putting a politer version of his case.


“I sure admire your spirit,” said the colonel, “all the same, you can’t fly.”
“Colonel,” growled Ivan, almost crushing the receiver in his hands,
“I know that an order is an order. All the same I am now obliged to send a report to the General in charge of your Air Force.”
“You do just that,” said the colonel, and hung up.


Ivan composed a blistering report and organized a girl typist to “English” it for him.


He never got an answer but in 3 days’ time a directive “from the Old Man himself” went out to all airport commands. “This man Smirnoff,” it said, “he’s Dutch. Let him fly whenever he says, disregard regulation in his case.”


So Ivan was becoming a legend in yet another country, and the ground staffs, at every base, turned out cheerfully in all weathers to give him the best servicing the could. They knew that if Captain Smirnoff said he was going up, he damn’ well would.


Months later Ivan was told that his letter had been circulating in “the highest circles” and that MacArthur had yelled with laughter and said: “Get me some more of those damn’ Dutch, I could do with them.”


The corner of Annerley Road and Laurier Street in Brisbane, Queensland.


….Margot was now living in Brisbane, close to the Brisbane River, in another furnished flat at the corner of Annerley Road and Laurier Street, so that Ivan could sleep at home between his arduous journeys to Port Moresby on New Guinea. There were only 5 kilometres to drive from Archerfield Airport to Annerley Road and Margot.


She had never worked harder in her life – the younger Dutch pilots, unhappy in the local “hotels”, looked upon the Smirnoff home as Netherlands territory. The Australian climate agreed with her, she felt better, and there were experienced doctors at hand who saw to it she suffered no more pain than was absolutely unavoidable.




When Ivan first flew to Port Moresby there was nothing there at all – not a hut, not a yard of tarmac, not a telephone.


MacArthur fixed that. He had the complete airfield – stores, canteens, sick bays, offices, landing strips and all – built in just 3 days. “Those Yanks, they do an amazing job,” said Ivan. Only a month after the first airfield was completed Port Moresby was surrounded by not less than 7 airfields.


Ivan ferried tools, building materials, jeeps, ammunition, bacon and eggs, and medical stores from Brisbane to Port Moresby in a series of bewildering priorities that he could never fathom. On one of his very earliest flights he took a complete plant for making Coca-Cola!


On the return flights to Brisbane Ivan took sick and wounded. Once he evacuated the whole hospital, all down with malaria – patients, doctors, nurses, everybody.


He also carried back Japanese prisoners for interrogation. This was a horrible task; nearly all the prisoners were sick, suffering from dysentery.


En route to Port Moresby Ivan gladly took on additional observation and spotting duties, mostly reporting movements of Jap destroyers and submarines. They soon learned that the Great Barrier Reef was favourite ‘parking lots’ for captains of the enemy submarines. They were easy to spot from high altitudes, and easy to destroy afterwards.


There were 2100 kilometres to fly between Brisbane and Port Moresby, and they normally made an intermediate stop at Townsville both ways. This service was maintained every 24 hours. After a 24 hour round trip to Port Moresby each crew member had a day off.





To the right you see a detail from Ivan’s personal briefcase, which he carried on his missions to Port Moresby on New Guinea. Below in the ID-window the following can be read:


This case and contents are the property of the U.S. Army Air Corps. Click on the picture to enlarge…


At the same time, when Ivan was busy at the US 317th Troop Carrier Group, KLM had managed to build up new activities. In August 1942 they had opened a service to Ciudad Trujillo in Peru and now, one year later, by August 1943, they were running a service of Lockheed-14’s from Miami in USA. The Dutch Air Force had been given a base at Jackson, Mississippi, where the Netherlands flag flew supreme – the only foreign flag, other than those flown at embassies – with permission to wave over United States territory. Ivan now realized that by hook or by crook he must get himself to America.


the transport of the diamonds from Java to WA during WWII, the bombing of Broome, the Dakota crash and survival of half the passengers. Fascinating history. The second part deals with the court case, when three men were charged with stealing the diamonds. Fascinating depiction of the life led by those men in outback Australia in the 1940s


“The Hidden Chapters – Untold Stories of Australians at War in the Pacific”
by Robert Piper

Please look another info from magazine below

“As The third Year Begin”

And try to read the small words, the complete info exist in CD-ROM

An article in the “Knickerbocker Weekly – Free Netherlands-‘of 21 February 1944 the flight of Captain Smirnoff, March 3, 1942.
For general information about the “Knickerbocker Weekly ‘, read the introduction to the thesis of Charlotte Cook,”

The Knickerbocker Weekly and the Netherlands Information Bureau




Protected: Dutch and Australian of Dai Nippon POW built Railway in Burma during WWII

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Bedah Buku Tan Malaka “dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara” dan sejarah terkait.

Buku Tan malaka “dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara”

dan sejarah terkait

269,006 views all-time

Bedah Buku

Karya Tan Malaka


Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (1970)


Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA




Saya baru saja menemukan buku tentang Tan Malaka yang berjudul Dari Penjara Ke Penjara ,buku ini juga telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa jepang,

Untuk mengenal lebih lanjut tentang sejarah buku ini dan juga tentang Tan Malaka silahkan membaca hasil penelitian oleh dr Iwan di Bawah Ini

Jakarta Juli 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA





Image of the title page of: Tan Malaka (1947). Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara. vol 1, 3rd ed. Djakarta: Widjaya.

This is Tan Malaka’s autobiography, which was published in three volumes.

May 31, 2011 at 7:39 am

sejauh ini, saya tidak pernah mendengan tentang “memoar dari penjara ke penjara”. Sebab, buku “dari penjara ke penjara” itu sendiri pada dasarnya memoar dari Tan Malaka (karena dia berupa catatan harian yang ditulis oleh Tan Malaka selama masa pergerakannya 







Selain Madilog, Tan Malaka  menulis beberapa buku, seperti

 Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Tan Malaka adalah orang yang dikagumi karena kecerdasannya. Ia menggagas pemikiran Madilog (Matrealisme Dialektika dan Logika). Selain Madilog, ia menulis beberapa buku, seperti Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara dan Gerpolek. Bahkan, ia adalah orang pertama yang mendeklarasikan Partai Republik Indoneisa di Bangkok. Selama masa hidupnya, Tan Malaka banyak sekali diasingkan dari negeri Indonesia.
Saat pengasingan, Tan Malaka hijrah ke Moskow, Berlin, dan Belanda.

 Meskipun berada di luar Indonesia, Tan Malaka tidak penah berhenti mempejuangkan kemerdekaan.

Ia menulis banyak artikel dan melakukan berbagai propaganda politik melalui media luar negeri. 

Tan Malaka meninggal pada 1949. Harry A Poeze, sejarawan asal Belanda, menyebutkan bahwa ia mati ditembak TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, Kediri.

Dari Penjara Ke Penjara Bagian Satu

by Tan Malaka

Buku sejarah hidup Tan Malaka, Bapak Republik Indonesia yang ditulis secara pribadi ketika beliau berada dalam Penjara di tanah airnya sendiri. Buku ini terdiri dari Tiga jilid, dimana jilid pertama ditulis oleh beliau ketika berada di Penjara Magelang. Hampir sebagian hidup Tan Malaka dihabiskannya di dalam penjara, akibat aktifitas politiknya yang anti kolonialisme.

Namun pada kenyataannya, Tan Malaka tidak hanya dipenjarakan oleh Pemerintah kolonial, tp juga oleh pemerintahan bangsanya sendiri yang berbeda posisi politik dengan Tan Malaka.

Jilid pertama ini mengisahkan kehidupan beliau disekitar masa pemenjaraan oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda dan pemerintah Filipina




Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.



Selama dalam tahanan Ariel mengaku banyak mengisi masa dengan membaca buku2 falsafah, dan sesekali menulis. Salah satu buku yang dibaca adalah karya Tan Melaka, tokoh nasional yang pernah menulis buku Dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara.

Ariel menolak komen saat ditanya soal kekasihnya Luna Maya yang mula kembali aktif berlakon drama, begitu juga saat ditanya kemungkinan dirinya mencipta lagu atau duet dengan Luna.

Ariel mengaku bosan di penjara, kerana itu dirinya banyak mengisi kegiatan dengan membaca dan menulis, harus ada yang dikerjakan.

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan, Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan komunis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai “Pahlawan revolusi nasional” melalui ketetapan parlemen dalam sebuah undang-undang tahun 1963.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan. Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:
Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)
Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)
Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)
Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)
Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara
Menuju Republik Indonesia
Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara, autobiografi






Tan Malaka



Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka atau Ibrahim gelar Datuk Tan Malaka (lahir di Nagari Pandam Gadang, Suliki, Sumatera Barat, 2 Juni 1897 – meninggal di Desa Selopanggung, Kediri, Jawa Timur, 21 Februari 1949 pada umur 51 tahun)[1] adalah Bapak Republik Indonesia,[2] seorang aktivis pejuang kemerdekaan Indonesia, seorang pemimpin sosialis, dan politisi yang mendirikan Partai Murba. Pejuang yang militan, radikal, dan revolusioner ini banyak melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran yang berbobot dan berperan besar dalam sejarah perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dengan perjuangan yang gigih maka ia dikenal sebagai tokoh revolusioner yang legendaris.

Dia kukuh mengkritik terhadap pemerintah kolonial Hindia-Belanda maupun pemerintahan republik di bawah Soekarno pasca-revolusi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Walaupun berpandangan sosialis, ia juga sering terlibat konflik dengan Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI).

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan,


Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan sosialis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai pahlawan nasional melalui Ketetapan Presiden RI No. 53 tanggal 23 Maret 1963.[3]

Tan Malaka juga seorang pendiri partai PARI dan Murba, berasal dari Sarekat Islam (SI) Jakarta dan Semarang. Ia dibesarkan dalam suasana semangatnya gerakan modernis Islam Kaoem Moeda di Sumatera Barat.

Tokoh ini diduga kuat sebagai orang di belakang peristiwa penculikan Sutan Sjahrir bulan Juni 1946 oleh sekelompok orang tak dikenal di Surakarta sebagai akibat perbedaan pandangan perjuangan dalam menghadapi Belanda.[4] [sunting] Riwayat

         Tahun 1897, Tan Malaka lahir di Suliki, Sumatera Barat. Dia lahir di tengah-tengah lingkungan Minangkabau, dari pasangan Rasad Caniago dan Sinah Simabur.

         Saat berumur 16 tahun, 1913, setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke




Karena cerdas, saat berumur 16 tahun, ia dikirim ke Negeri Belanda

         Rijks Kweekschool di Haarlem, Belanda.

Tahun 1919

         ia kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru disebuah perkebunan di Deli. Ketimpangan sosial yang dilihatnya di lingkungan perkebunan, antara kaum buruh dan tuan tanah menimbulkan semangat radikal pada diri Tan Malaka muda.

Tahun 1921,

          ia pergi ke Semarang dan bertemu dengan Semaun dan mulai terjun ke kancah politik

         Saat kongres PKI 2425 Desember 1921, Tan Malaka di undang dalam acara tersebut.

         Januari 1922

         ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang.

         Pada Maret 1922

         Tan Malaka diusir dari Indonesia dan mengembara ke Berlin, Moskwa dan Belanda.

         Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Kanton.

         Tahun 1924,

         diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Pasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern.

         Tahun 1924, menerbitkan buku “Naar de Republiek Indonesia” (Menuju Republik Indonesia) yang berisi konsep tentang negara Indonesia yang tengah diperjuangkan. Lebih dulu dari pleidoi Mohammad Hatta didepan pengadilan Belanda di Den Haag yang berjudul “Indonesia Vrije” (Indonesia Merdeka) (1928) atau tulisan Soekarno yang berjudul “Menuju Indonesia Merdeka” (1933)

         Tahun 1925,

          masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

         Tahun 1926,

          masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

         Tahun 1927,

         bersama Subakat, Sugono, dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia).

         Tahun 1932,

          berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Shanghai.

         Tahun 1936,

         mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

         Tahun 1937,

          Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

         Tahun 1942,

         Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang, dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

         Tahun 1943

         , menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan bawah tanah (ilegal), dengan menjadi buruh (romusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein.

         Tahun 1945,

         mendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah pada masa pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

         Tahun 1946,

          menjadi promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, dan laskar.

         Tahun 1947,

          menentang politik Perundingan Linggarjati.

         Tahun 1948,

         menentang politik Perundingan Renville. Mendirikan Partai Murba dan Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi.

         21 Februari 1949,

          Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di Kediri, Jawa Timur.[1]


Pada tahun 1921

 Tan Malaka telah terjun ke dalam gelanggang politik. Dengan semangat yang berkobar dari sebuah gubuk miskin, Tan Malaka banyak mengumpulkan pemuda-pemuda komunis. Pemuda cerdas ini banyak juga berdiskusi dengan Semaun (wakil ISDV) mengenai pergerakan revolusioner dalam pemerintahan Hindia Belanda. Selain itu juga merencanakan suatu pengorganisasian dalam bentuk pendidikan bagi anggota-anggota PKI dan SI (Sarekat Islam) untuk menyusun suatu sistem tentang kursus-kursus kader serta ajaran-ajaran komunis, gerakan-gerakan aksi komunis, keahlian berbicara, jurnalistik dan keahlian memimpin rakyat. Namun pemerintahan Belanda melarang pembentukan kursus-kursus semacam itu sehingga mengambil tindakan tegas bagi pesertanya.

Melihat hal itu Tan Malaka mempunyai niat untuk mendirikan sekolah-sekolah sebagai anak-anak anggota SI untuk penciptaan kader-kader baru. Juga dengan alasan pertama: memberi banyak jalan (kepada para murid) untuk mendapatkan mata pencaharian di dunia kapitalis (berhitung, menulis, membaca, ilmu bumi, bahasa Belanda, Melayu, Jawa dan lain-lain); kedua, memberikan kebebasan kepada murid untuk mengikuti kegemaran mereka dalam bentuk perkumpulan-perkumpulan; ketiga, untuk memperbaiki nasib kaum miskin. Untuk mendirikan sekolah itu, ruang rapat SI Semarang diubah menjadi sekolah. Dan sekolah itu bertumbuh sangat cepat hingga sekolah itu semakin lama semakin besar.


Perjuangan Tan Malaka tidaklah hanya sebatas pada usaha mencerdaskan rakyat Indonesia pada saat itu, tapi juga pada gerakan-gerakan dalam melawan ketidakadilan seperti yang dilakukan para buruh terhadap pemerintahan Hindia Belanda lewat VSTP dan aksi-aksi pemogokan, disertai selebaran-selebaran sebagai alat propaganda yang ditujukan kepada rakyat agar rakyat dapat melihat adanya ketidakadilan yang diterima oleh kaum buruh.

Seperti dikatakan Tan Malaka pada pidatonya di depan para buruh “Semua gerakan buruh untuk mengeluarkan suatu pemogokan umum sebagai pernyataan simpati, apabila nanti menglami kegagalan maka pegawai yang akan diberhentikan akan didorongnya untuk berjuang dengan gigih dalam pergerakan revolusioner”.

Pergulatan Tan Malaka dengan partai komunis di dunia sangatlah jelas. Ia tidak hanya mempunyai hak untuk memberi usul-usul dan dan mengadakan kritik tetapi juga hak untuk mengucapkan vetonya atas aksi-aksi yang dilakukan partai komunis di daerah kerjanya. Tan Malaka juga harus mengadakan pengawasan supaya anggaran dasar, program dan taktik dari Komintern (Komunis Internasional) dan Profintern seperti yang telah ditentukan di kongres-kongres Moskwa diikuti oleh kaum komunis dunia. Dengan demikian tanggung-jawabnya sebagai wakil Komintern lebih berat dari keanggotaannya di PKI.

Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang masih sangat muda ia meletakkan tanggung jawab yang sangat berat pada pundaknya. Tan Malaka dan sebagian kawan-kawannya memisahkan diri dan kemudian memutuskan hubungan dengan PKI, SardjonoAliminMusso.

Pemberontakan 1926 yang direkayasa dari Keputusan Prambanan yang berakibat bunuh diri bagi perjuangan nasional rakyat Indonesia melawan penjajah waktu itu. Pemberontakan 1926 hanya merupakan gejolak kerusuhan dan keributan kecil di beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Maka dengan mudah dalam waktu singkat pihak penjajah Belanda dapat mengakhirinya. Akibatnya ribuan pejuang politik ditangkap dan ditahan. Ada yang disiksa, ada yang dibunuh dan banyak yang dibuang ke Boven Digoel, Irian Jaya. Peristiwa ini dijadikan dalih oleh Belanda untuk menangkap, menahan dan membuang setiap orang yang melawan mereka, sekalipun bukan PKI. Maka perjaungan nasional mendapat pukulan yang sangat berat dan mengalami kemunduran besar serta lumpuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Tan Malaka yang berada di luar negeri pada waktu itu, berkumpul dengan beberapa temannya di Bangkok. Di ibu kota Thailand itu, bersama Soebakat dan Djamaludddin Tamin, Juni 1927 Tan Malaka memproklamasikan berdirinya Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI). Dua tahun sebelumnya Tan Malaka telah menulis “Menuju Republik Indonesia“. Itu ditunjukkan kepada para pejuang intelektual di Indonesia dan di negeri Belanda. Terbitnya buku itu pertama kali di Kowloon, Hong Kong, April 1925.

Prof. Mohammad Yamin, dalam karya tulisnya “Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia” memberi komentar: “Tak ubahnya daripada Jefferson Washington merancangkan Republik Amerika Serikat sebelum kemerdekaannya tercapai atau Rizal Bonifacio meramalkan Philippina sebelum revolusi Philippina pecah….”

Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai MURBA, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.


Madilog merupakan istilah baru dalam cara berpikir, dengan menghubungkan ilmu bukti serta mengembangkan dengan jalan dan metode yang sesuai dengan akar dan urat kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan dunia. Bukti adalah fakta dan fakta adalah lantainya ilmu bukti. Bagi filsafat, idealisme yang pokok dan pertama adalah budi (mind), kesatuan, pikiran dan penginderaan. Filsafat materialisme menganggap alam, benda dan realita nyata obyektif sekeliling sebagai yang ada, yang pokok dan yang pertama.

Bagi Madilog (Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika) yang pokok dan pertama adalah bukti, walau belum dapat diterangkan secara rasional dan logika tapi jika fakta sebagai landasan ilmu bukti itu ada secara konkrit, sekalipun ilmu pengetahuan secara rasional belum dapat menjelaskannya dan belum dapat menjawab apa, mengapa dan bagaimana.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.


Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai Murba, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi



Sampul Majalah Tempo dengan Tan Malaka

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan.

Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:

         Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)

         Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)

         Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)

         Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)

         Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Fakta-fakta Tan Malaka [5]

         Perjalanan Tan Malaka sepanjang 89.000 km, setara 2 kali keliling bumi. Dia mengunjungi dua benua dan sekurang-kurangnya ke 11 Negara.

         Bahasa Yang Dikuasai : Minang, Indonesia, Belanda, Rusia, Jerman, Inggris, Mandarin, Tagalog.

         Nama Samaran : Elias Fuentes, Estahislau Rivera, Alisio Rivera (Filipina); Hasan Gozali (Singapura), Ossorio (Shanghai), Ong Song Lee (13 varian, Hongkong), Tan Ming Sion (Burma), Legas Hussein, Ramli Hussein, Ilyas Hussein (Indonesia), Cheung Kun Tat, Howard Lee (Cina).

         Teman Dekat Wanita : Syarifah Nawawi (Bukittinggi), Fenny Struyvenberg (Belanda), Nona Carmen (Filipina), Paramita Rahayu A. (Jakarta) dan A.P. Toa Chi (Cina)

         Penjara : Filipina (1937), Hongkong (1932), 11 Penjara di Jawa (1922, 1946-1948)



Tan Malaka

(lengkapnya Sutan Ibrahim Gelar Datuk Tan Malaka) lahir di Suluki, Nagari Pandan Gadang, Sumatera Barat dengan nama Ibrahim. Menurut Harry A. Peoze, tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka secara tepat tidak diketahui. Pada waktu itu belum ada register (daftar) penduduk bagi orang Indonesia.

Peoze menemukan data tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang berbeda: 1893, 1894, 1895, 2 Juni 1896, 2 Juni 1897, dan 1897. Ia sendiri mengatakan bahwa ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1994, tanggal 14 Oktober 1894, dan pada tahun 1896. Poeze cenderung untuk menganggap tahun 1897 sebagai tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang paling tepat; melihat fakta bahwa pada tahun 1903 ia mengikuti pendidikan di sekolah rendah. Maka, dapatlah ditarik kesimpulan bahwa ketika itu ia berusia kurang lebih 6 tahun.

Tan Malaka menyatakan bahwa keluarganya beragama Islam dan beradat asli Minangkabau. Ia lahir dalam kultur yang peduli terhadap pendidikan dan memiliki tradisi keagamaan yang kuat. Keluarganya adalah tergolong taat kepada agama Islam

Tan Malaka memiliki beberapa nama dalam perjalanan hidupnya baik di dalam maupun luar negeri dengan alasan, karena nama Tan Malaka sudah dikenal di seluruh Sumatera dan pemerintah Belanda, nama tersebut tidak dapat mengadakan perjalanan dan juga untuk menyembunyikan identitas.

Ketika memasuki Manila dan Hongkong (1927) Tan Malaka merubah namanya menjadi Elias Fuente. Bernama Oong Soong Lee ketika memasuki Hongkong dari Sanghai (1932), Ramli Husein saat kembali ke Indonesia dari Singapura melalui Penang terus ke Medan, Padang dan Jakarta (1942). Ketika berada di Bayah (Banten), Jawa Barat sebagai pekerja yang membantu romusha di masa revolusi, ia menggunakan nama Ilyas Husein. Namanya yang lain Cheng Kun, Tat, Elisoe, dan Howard Law.Extille adakalanya ditambah dengan Kiang Mai. Ketika menulis karangan untuk pers Komunis, harian Njali yang terbit di Batavia sejak bulan September 1925 sampai Mei 1926. Ia menggunakan, Haji Hasan dalam beberapa surat-surat yang ditulis buat kawan-kawannya, dan nama Nadir. Tan Malaka menyamar sebagai Tan Ho Seng, ketika belajar dan bekerja sebagai guru bahasa di Nanyang Chinese Normal School, Singapura.

Adapun riwayat hidup Tan Malaka secara urutan waktu, sebagai berikut:

1897 Tan Malaka lahir, bermain dan sekolah di Kweekschool.

1913 Setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke Rijks Kkweekschool di Haarlem, Nederland. Selain menuntut ilmu di sekolah, beliau sudah aktif mempelajari keadaan masyarakat Eropa sejak meletus dan selesainya Perang Dunia ke-1 (1914-1918) serta pecah dan selesainya Revolusi Sosial di Rusia (Oktober 1917) yang bersambung dengan mulai berdiri dan mengumandangnya suara Internasionale III.

1918 Atas permintaan Ki Hadjar Dewantara yang mendatangi Tan Malaka bersama Dr. Gunawan di Nederland, mewakili Indische Vereeniging, dalam Kongres Pemuda Indonesia dan Pelajar Indologie di Deventer, memberikan prae-advies tentang pergerakan Nasional.

1919 Kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru sekolah untuk anak-anak kaum buruh perkebunan Senembah, di Sumatera Timur.

1921 Terjun dalam lapangan pendidikan rakyat yang didirikan oleh Serikat Islam Semarang, dan VSTP (Serikat Buruh Kereta Api) yang dipimpin oleh Semaun di Semarang.

Tan Malaka menjadi penganjur utama tentang pentingnya persatuan antara kaum Komunis dan Islam dalam menentang kolonialisme/imperialisme. Hal ini dikemukakan dalam sebuah rapat SI di Semarang bersama dengan Semaun.

Tan Malaka menjadi Wakil Ketua Serikat Buruh Pelikan (Tambang) Cepu yang didirikan oleh Semaun.

– Dalam Kongres PKI dipilih menjadi ketua, mewakili Semaun yang sedang berada di luar negeri (Moskow), di dalam Kongres beliau berpidato tentang pentingnya Persatuan Islam-Komunis dan memperingatkan bahayanya politik ‘pecah & adu’ (devide et impera) yang di kala itu sedang digunakan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda untuk melumpuhkan gerakan-gerakan rakyat Indonesia. Ide Tan Malaka tersebut mendapat dukungan penuh dari seorang tokoh SI, Kyai Tubagus Hadikusumo.

1922 Tan Malaka mewakili Vaksentral-Revolusioner pemimpin pemogokan kaum buruh penggadaian (PPPB) di Jogjakarta dan mengatur solidaritas serta aksi yang dilancarkan oleh serikat buruh anggota Vaksentral-Revolusioner (VSTP., Pelabuhan, Pelikan, Gula, dan lainnya).

– Tanggal 2 Maret ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang (Timur), kemudian dalam bulan itu juga mendapat externing ke Eropa (Nederland). Tan Malaka ditangkap dan diasingkan pemerintah kolonial ke luar negeri. Dari Belanda, ia pergi ke Moskow (Uni Sovyet) melalui Polandia. Ia dikejar-kejar intel dan spionase kolonial Belanda, Inggris, Jepang, Amerika Serikat, Perancis, rezim nasionalis Kumintang. Di mata mereka, Tan Malaka adalah buronan politik “kaliber kakap.”

– Berbicara dalam Perayaan 1 Mei yang diselenggarkan oleh kaum buruh dan Partai Komunis Holland (CPH), kemudian dipilih sebagai calon dalam pemilihan umum parlemen.

– Menuju Jerman dan terjun langsung di tengah-tengah rakyat Jerman yang masih dalam keadaan penderitaan hidup karena harus menanggung seluruh hutang perang Serikat yang dibebankan kepada rakyat Jerman sebagai negeri kalah perang (Perang Dunia ke-1, tahun 1914-1918).

– Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Canton, di mana daerahnya meliputi Seksi-seksi Partai Komunis yang sudah ada atau akan didirikan di daerah ‘Selatan’ yang oleh Tan Malaka disebut ASLIA ialah: Burma, Siam, Annam, Filipina, Malaya dan Indonesia.

– Berhasil bertemu dengan Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Presiden Republik Tiongkok pertama yang daerahnya waktu itu baru meliputi Tiongkok Selatan berpusat di Yenan.

1924 Diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Fasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern (Serikat Sekerja Internasional Merah) yang dikunjungi oleh utusan-utusan dari Tiongkok Utara & Selatan, Indonesia dan Filipina.

– Memimpin Majalah berbahasa Inggris The Dawn (Fajar) sebagai suara dari Biro tersebut.

1925 Masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

1926 Masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

1927 Bersama Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia) untuk meluncurkan kembali langkah-langkah menyusun kekuatan Partai Komunis di Indonesia yang lumpuh akibat pemberontakan Madiun pada akhir tahun 1926.

– Masuk lagi ke Filipina tetapi tertangkap oleh Dinas Rahasia Amerika, di mana dalam perkara tersebut Tan Malaka dibela oleh parlemen dan presiden pertama Republik Filipina, Manuel Quezon. hakim Filipina atas permintaan pemerintah Amerika memutuskan mengeluarkan Tan Malaka dari Filipina ke Amoy.

1932 Berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Syanghai.

1936 Mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

1937 Ketika Jepang mulai mengarahkan serangannya menuju Amoy, Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

1942 Setelah mengalami pertempuran-pertempuran di sekitar Benteng Seletar antara tentara Jepang dan Inggris di Singapura, Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

1943 Menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan di bawah tanah (ilegal) dengan merupakan dirinya sebagai buruh (roomusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein, mengikuti jalannya tempo untuk dicetuskannya kelahiran Republik Indonesia Merdeka melalui revolusi.

1945 Pendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah di waktu pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

1946 Promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, laskar dan lain-lain, di atas dasar program revolusi yang dikenal dengan nama 7 Pasal Minimum Program, menolak politik kompromi dengan imperialis Belanda yang dimulai dengan politik 1 November dan 3 November 1945.

1947 Menentang politik kompromi Linggarjati tahun 1947.

1948 Menentang politik kompromi Renville tahun 1948.

– Pendiri Partai Murba yang melanjutkan Program Persatuan Perjuangan.

– Pendiri Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi (GPP) yang berpusat di Jawa Timur.

1949 Tangggal 19 Februari hilang karena diciderai (ditembak mati dan jenazahnya dilempar ke sungai Brantas) di Kediri, Jawa Timur, di saat beliau sedang memimpin revolusi melawan agresi Belanda, di saat itu pula para pemimpin pemerintahan pusat di Jogja sudah banyak yang ditangkap dan ditawan Belanda.Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di hadapan senapan sekelompok tentara republik sendiri atas perintah gubernur militer Jawa Timur.

Karya-karya Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka termasuk penulis yang cukup produktif dalam menuangkan alam pikirannya. Berikut ini adalah karya-karyanya:

  1. Materialisme-Dialektika-Logika (Madilog)

Tebal kitab ini, 462 halaman, yang ditulis di Rajawati, dekat pabrik sepatu Kalibata, Cililitan, Jakarta dengan waktu yang dipakai lebih kurang 8 bulan, dari 15 Juli 1942 sampai 30 Maret 1943 (berhenti 15 hari), 720 jam. Jadi, menurut Tan Malaka, kira-kira 3 jam sehari. Dalam seminggu empat hari ia pergunakan untuk menulis, yaitu dari pukul 6 sampai pukul 12. Setelah itu berjalan-jalan di desa. Tiga kali seminggu ke perpustakaan di Gambir dengan berjalan kaki yang memakan waktu 4 jam.

Kitab ini ditulisnya dengan tulisan tangan dengan hurup kecil supaya aman dari mata polisi dan tongkat kempetai Jepang. Tidak ada catatan bahan referensi, karena buku-bukunya telantar cerai berai dan lapuk atau hilang di berbagai tempat atau negara, – walaupun demikian menjelang habis Madilog ditulis, ia berjumpa dengan beberapa buku tentang logika dalam bahasa Belanda, Inggris, Jerman dan Spanyol- sehingga ia mengandalkan ingatan Tan Malaka; jembatan keledai (ezelbruggetje).

Maksud penulisan Madilog menurut Tan Malaka, adalah pertama sebagai cara berpikir. Bukanlah suatu Weltanschauung atau pandangan dunia; walaupun, menurutnya, hubungan antara cara berpikir dan pandangan dunia atau filsafat adalah seperti tangga dengan rumah. Rapat sekali. Dari cara orang berpikir, dapat diduga filsafatnya dan dari filsafatnya dapat diketahui dengan cara dan metode apa sehingga sampai ke filsafat itu.

Kedua, Madilog juga diharapkannya sebagai bacaan penghubung kepada filsafat proletar Barat. Karena, menurutnya, otak proletar Indonesia tak bisa mencernakan paham yang berurat dan tumbuh pada masyarakat Barat yang berbeda sekali dengan masyarakat Indonesia dalam iklim, sejarah, keadaan jiwa dan cita-citanya.

Ketiga, untuk mengupas dan mengobati penyakit penjajahan, keterbelakangan dan kolonialisme, Tan Malaka menyajikan landasan pandangan yang beralaskan pada materialisme, dialektika dan logika. yang dituangkannya dalam sebuah buku Madilog. Dari sinilah kemudian, Tan Malaka memandang realitas lokal, nasional dan internasional dalam aneka lini kehidupan, termasuk di dalamnya keberadaan agama yang ia masukkan ke dalam kelompok kepercayaan.

Karya terbesar dari Tan Malaka ini diniatkannya sebagai upaya untuk merombak sistem berpikir bangsa Indonesia, dari pola berpikir yang penuh dengan mistik kepada satu cara berpikir yang rasional. Tanpa perombakan cara berpikir, sulit rasanya bangsa Indonesia untuk maju dan mewujudkan masyarakat Indonesia yang merdeka dan sosialistik. MADILOG sebagai konsep berpikir yang memadukan ketiga unsurnya, yaitu MAterialisme, DIalektika dan LOGika, merupakan kesatuan dan tidak boleh dipecah-pecah.

  1. Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.

  1. Gerpolek (Gerilya Politik Ekonomi)

Ditulis di penjara Madiun 1948. Berisi tentang ajarannya dalam melakukan gerilya politik maupun ekonomi. Uraian tentang cara bergerilya dalam politik dengan strategi militer, maupun dengan penguatan ekonomi dengan merebut seluruh kekayaan asing. Keduanya menjadi satu dan saling menguatkan.

4. Sovyet atau Parlemen

Ditulis tahun 1921 di Semarang. Berisi tentang uraian sistem pemerintahan yang dikenal saat itu seperti sistem parlemen di Inggris mulai abad ke-12, juga di Perancis, Jerman dan lain-lain. Intinya menurut Tan Malaka, parlemen dengan sistem perwakilan yang dikenalnya hanya akan menjadi perkakas dari yang memerintah. Bersamaan dengan mulai menguatnya kapitalisme dengan ujung imperialisme, parlemen pada akhirnya hanyalah alat dari kapitalisme. Kemudian dengan tegas Tan Malaka membedakan parlemen dengan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) yang menurutnya parlemen adalah alat untuk mengekalkan perburuhan dan kapitalisme, sedangkan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) adalah alat sementara guna menghilangkan pengaruh kapitalisme (modal) untuk mendatangkan sosialisme.

  1. Toendoek Kepada Kekoesaan, Tetapi Tidak Toendoek Kepada Kebenaran

Ditulis di Berlin tahun 1922. Berisi tentang pembelaannya ketika ditangkap di Bandung tanggal 13 Februari 1922 dengan tuduhan mengganggu ketertiban umum, membuat keonaran dan yang terberat adalah adalah usaha menggerakkan rakyat untuk mengadakan pemberontakan guna mengusir penjajah Belanda dari bumi Indonesia. Ia menyatakan bahwa tuduhan itu tidak benar dan penguasa kolonial hanya berusaha untuk mematikan aktivitas pergerakan nasional saat itu.

  1. Goetji Wasiat Kaoem Militer

Ditulis tahun 1924 di Saigon. Diterbitkan dengan nama Sumendap dan Daniel, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka.

  1. Indonesiai ejo mesto na proboezjdajoesjtsjemsja vostoke

Diterbitkan di Moskow tahun 1924. Pada brosur ini tertulis Sukindat, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka. Poeze mengatakan, brosur ini berisi tentang thesis bagi keadaan sosial dan ekonomi serta tuntutan untuk berorganisasi yang mengembangkan strategi dan taktik untuk diterapkan di Indonesia.

  1. Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia)

Diterbitkan di Canton, April 1925. Berisi tentang uraiannya akan kondisi dunia, pertentangan dua sistem antara kapitalisme dan komunisme yang diyakininya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme. Dilanjutkan dengan dengan situasi di Indonesia di mana penjajah Belanda melakukan penjajahan dengan biadab, namun Tan Malaka yakin suatu saat penjajah akan kalah apabila semua organisasi perjuangan yang ada terutama PKI, dapat menyusun tujuan revolusionernya.

  1. Massa Actie

Ditulis di Singapura tahun 1926. Secara umum brosur ini berisi tuntutan bagaimana melakukan sebuah revolusi di Indonesia. Sebuah revolusi terutama di Jawa dan Sumatera adalah sesuatu yang tak dapat dihindarkan. Baginya tidak ada sikap yang netral, yang ada adalah berpihak pada penjajah Belanda atau rakyat terjajah Indonesia. Dari sini kemudian baru Tan Malaka beralih pada bagaimana menjalankan revolusi yang benar, dan massa aksi bukan putch, tidak bisa dicapai oleh pemberontakan atau kudeta secara anarkis.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Bangkok)

Ditulis di Bangkok 1927. Berisi uraian tentang perlunya membentuk partai baru dan menamakannya PARI (Paratai Republik Indonesia) yang dibentuk semata-mata untuk kepentingan Indonesia serta akan memberikan yang terbaik untuk itu. Manifesto ini mengoreksi kesalahan PKI, yaitu pemberontakan 1926/1927 yang menyebabkan hancurnya partai dan mereka tidak bermaksud memunculkan partai ini lagi, karena beranggapan tidak mungkin jika mendirikan partai-partai yang telah melakukan cukup kesalahan. Kemudian manifesto juga menyatakan pemutusan dengan Internasionale (Comintren) yang menurutnya tidak akan baik di Indonesia. Dengan mengambil contoh dari Jerman, Italia, Bulgaria dan China dinyatakannya kepemimpinan Moscow gagal untuk negeri lain. Seluruh Internasionale Ketiga (Comintern) dibangun demi kepentingan Rusia dan terutama pemimpin-pemimpin komunis dari Timur cenderung akan terjebak kepada ketaatan buta dan kehilangan kemandirian mereka, akibatnya mereka akan kehilangan hubungan dengan rakyat mereka sendiri yang tentunya berlainan dengan suasana kejiwaan rakyat Rusia.

  1. Lokal dan Nasional Aksi di Indonesia

Diterbitkan di Singapura 1926. Menurut Poeze, brosur ini diterbitkan dalam bagian yang terpisah, secara rahasia disebabkan dengan cara menyalinnya dengan mesin ketik. Bagian pertama dikenal juga dengan judul “Soerat Rahasia boeat lokal aksi di Minangkabau”, 20 September 1926.

  1. SI Semarang dan Onderwijs

Ditulis di Semarang tahun 1921 pada saat Tan Malaka berusaha merumuskan tujuan pendidikan dari sekolah Serikat Islam yang mulai dibangunnya (dikenal juga dengan sekolah Tan Malaka). Berisi pokok-pokok pikiran yang akan dikembangkan/diajarkan dalam sekolahnya.

  1. Asia Bergabung (Gabungan Aslia)

Ditulis tahun 1943. Menurut Poeze hanya selesai separuh.

  1. Semangat Moeda

Ditulis di Manila tahun 1926, namun oleh Tan Malaka dikatakan di Tokyo sebagai tempat penerbitannya.

15. Politik

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 24 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan antara Godam (simbolisasi kaum buruh), Pacul (petani), Toke (pedagang), Den Mas (ningrat) dan Mr. Apal (wakil kaum intelektual). Menguraikan tentang bagaimana caranya merdeka, maksud dan tujuan kemerdekaan, serta bagaimana mengisi kemerdekaan itu dan yang tak kalah penting adalah Indonesia Merdeka harus berdasarkan sosialisme.

16. Rentjana Ekonomi

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 28 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang rencana pembangunan ekonomi, yang menurutnya ekonomi sosialislah yang dapat membawa kemakmuran bagi Indonesia kelak.

  1. Moeslihat

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 2 Desember 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang strategi dan taktik dalam perjuangan untuk membawa Indonesia ke arah kemerdekaan.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Jakarta)

Ditulis di Jakarta tahun 1945. Menguraikan tentang pertentangan sistem yang ada di dunia, antara kapitalisme dengan komunisme yang menurutnya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme serta penolakan atas percobaan pendirian Republik Indonesia yang kapitalis dan membatalkan semua upaya dari luar untuk menjajah kembali Indonesia dengan cara apa pun.

  1. Thesis

Ditulis tahun 1946 di Lawu. Berisi tentang ajarannya mengenai pembentukan negara sosialistis. Uraian tentang perjuangan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia seratus persen. Juga pembelaannya terhadap tuduhan Trotsky yang selalu dituduhkan kepadanya, berkenaan dengan pemberontakan PKI 1926 yang gagal dan oleh pihak PKI kegagalan itu selalu dialamatkan kepada Tan Malaka sebagai orang yang menyabotnya.

  1. Koehandel Di Kaliurang (Perdagangan Sapi di Kaliurang)

Ditulis tanggal 16 April 1948 dengan nama samaran Dasuki. Berisi tentang penolakan terhadap perjuangan diplomasi yang tidak berprinsip, yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah saat itu. Perjuangan lewat diplomasi hanya akan merugikan Indonesia dan menjual Indonesia kepada kaum kapital asing, oleh karena itu perundingan harus dibatalkan atau dihandel dan mempersiapkan kaum MURBA untuk berjuang.

  1. Surat Kepada Partai Rakyat

Ditulis 31 Juli 1948 di penjara Magelang sebagai sambutan tertulis dalam pembentukan Kongres Partai Rakyat tanggal 10-11-12 Agustus 1948. berisi tentang bagaimana mengorganisasikan Partai Rakyat agar menjadi partai yang memperhatikan dan memperjuangkan rakyat MURBA.

  1. Proklamasi 17-8-1945, Isi dan Pelaksanaannya

Pidato tertulis pada Kongres Rakyat Indonesia Desember 1948. Berisi tentang penolakan perundingan yang dilakukan Indonesia saat itu dan persiapan perang kemerdekaan dalam menghadapi agresi militer Belanda.

  1. Uraian Mendadak

Merupakan salinan tertulis dari pidato yang diucapkan di depan Kongres peleburan tiga partai (Partai Rakyat, Partai Buruh, dan Partai Rakyat Jelata) menjadi Partai Murba. Berisi tentang reorganisasi partai dan uraian untuk tetap mempertahankan Republik Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Karya-karya tulis Tan Malaka meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan dan kenegaraan-politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran, terlihat benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesiaan, serta benang merah orsinalitas, kemandirian, kekonsekuenan, dan konsistensi yang direnda jelas dalam gagasan-gagasannya dan perjuangan implementasinya dalam rumusan konsepsional dan penjabaran operasionalnya.

Setting Sosial Politik Tan Malaka

Latar kehidupan Tan Malaka berada dalam ruang dan waktu dengan sosiopolitikkultural yang melingkupinya. Paling tidak, ada tiga situasi dan kondisi penting yang mewarnai pandangan serta perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka yaitu, keadaan internasional, Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat.

Pertama. Keadaan internasional. Menurut Tan Malaka:

Tahun 1918, terjadi perjanjian Versailles. Pada waktu itu dunia sedang gemuruh. Satu negara besar dan baru dalam di segala-gala timbul, ialah Sovyet Rusia. Pada jaman itu saya masih muda, masih belajar di Eropa Barat. Dalam usia Sturm und Drang periode itu, dalam usia sedang bergelora itu saya dilondong topan yang bertiup dari Eropa Timur itu. Dunia Barat sendiri pada masa itu seakan-akan mengikuti Sovyet Rusia. Dari dunia Eropa Timur itulah saya mendapatkan semua ilham dan petunjuk yang saya rasa perlu buat perjuangan politik, ekonomi dan sosial kita.

Di bidang politik di Eropa, terjadi dampak pergolakan politik Pascaperang Dunia I di Eropa pada umumnya dan di Belanda pada khususnya. Revolusi Oktober 1917 di Rusia yang disusul oleh gerakan revolusioner kaum sosial-demokrat Belanda yang dipimpin oleh Troestra memberi inspirasi kepada unsur-unsur progresif Indonesia yang tergabung dalam ISDV untuk menuntut pemerintahan sendiri dan perwakilan hak-hak yang luas.

Di bidang ekonomi, Perang Dunia I mengakibatkan kemacetan pengangkutan hasil perkebunan sehingga pengusaha perkebunan mengurangi produksinya sehingga berakibat rakyat banyak kehilangan pekerjaan dan pendapatan. Penderitaan rakyat bertambah besar lebih-lebih karena gubernemen membebankan pajak yang lebih berat kepada rakyat.

Perkembangan politik kolonial Belanda adalah politik kolonial konservatif (1800-1848), cultuurstelsel (1830-1870), permulaan politik kolonial liberal (1850-1870) dan politik ethis (1900), yakni edukasi, irigasi dan emigrasi.Tan Malaka lahir pada akhir abad ke-19, ketika diberlakukannya politik etis Belanda. Politik etis ini merupakan politik balas budi bangsa Belanda kepada Hindia Belanda oleh keuntungan yang diperolehnya selama dasawarsa-dasawarsa yang lalu. Kebijakan politik ini adalah terbukanya kesempatan yang makin luas di kalangan pribumi untuk memperoleh pendidikan modern ala Belanda. Pendidikan ini juga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan atas tenaga-tenaga terdidik untuk birokrasi. Dari sinilah munculnya beberapa intelektual muda yang bersentuhan dengan pemikiran Barat, termasuk tentang nasionalisme.

Kedua, alam Minangkabau. Secara sosiologis, nagari -kesatuan masyarakat lokal dalam masyarakat Minangkabau- merupakan konsep kosmologis yang di dalamnya terkandung kehidupan religius yang bersifat kontemplatif transenden. Secara holistik, dalam nagari tidak saja diurus masalah teknis pemerintahan, malahan sampai pada hal-hal yang bersifat transenden seperti kehidupan surau. Surau pada jaman dahulu merupakan kelengkapan suku dan tempat berkumpulnya anak-anak muda serta remaja dalam upaya menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Surau sekaligus juga digunakan sebagai tidur bersama, membahas berbagai ilmu agama, dan juga dimanfaatkan sebagai tempat penyelesaian berbagai permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh suku melalui musyawarah bersama yang merupakan inti demokrasi kultural nagari.

Daerah Minangkabau pada permulaan abad ini mengenal tiga paham yang pada umumnya berpengaruh pada diri penduduknya. Ketiga paham itu adalah paham Islam, adat dan kolonialisme serta berbagai implikasi yang dikandungnya. Ketiganya mempunyai pendukung walaupun para pendukung ini juga terpengaruh oleh ketiganya. Bentrokan paham, negosiasi dan saling memanfaatkan dari interaksi pendukung tersebut sering terjadi.

Daerah Minangkabau merupakan daerah terbuka dari lalu lintas dunia internasional untuk melakukan aktivitas politik, ekonomi, agama dan budaya. Sifat pragmatis dari sebagian penduduk cepat mengambil manfaat dari perkembangan yang berlaku. Kemudian dalam mengambil manfaat dari administrasi perdagangan, administrasi pemerintahan dan juga dalam bidang pendidikan.

Bukit Tinggi menjadi pusat pendidikan se-Sumatera. Sekolah Raja, yaitu sekolah guru berbahasa Belanda (Kweekschool) yang berada di kota itu merupakan tempat melatih pada tingkat menengah anak-anak Indonesia dari seluruh Sumatera. Sekolah ini adalah tempat penampungan bagi anak-anak kalangan bangsawan dan orang-orang besar lainnya di pulau tersebut.

Merantau merupakan bagian dari tradisi Minangkabau. Kedudukan perantau begitu mulia dalam masyarakat. Pergi merantau, menurut visi falsafah Minangkabau dapat membuka mata untuk mengenal dunia luar yang luas, di mana mereka akan mendapatkan hal-hal baru yang nanti akan dibawanya pulang. Merantau, bukanlah semata mencari uang atau harta, melainkan juga menuntut ilmu atau mengaji. Berdasarkan batasan ini, menurut Alfian, Tan Malaka adalah seorang perantau, baik fisik maupun mental (pemikiran).

Rantau pertama yang dialami Tan Malaka ialah ketika dia meninggalkan desa tempat lahirnya pergi menuntut ilmu ke “Sekolah Raja” di Bukit Tinggi. Walaupun masih berada di alam Minangkabau, tapi alam asalnya adalah Nagari Pandan Gadang. Sewaktu dia tamat belajar di Bukit Tinggi, ia diberi gelar Datuk Tan Malaka oleh kaum atau sukunya, sebagai kepala adat mereka. Ini berkait erat dengan ilmu yang diperolehnya di rantau. Tidak lama sesudah itu, dia pergi lagi melanjutkan studinya ke negeri Belanda, perantauan yang amat jauh bagi anak muda yang baru berumur 16 tahun. Ruang lingkup alamnya lambat laun berubah dari Nagari Pandan Gadang yang kecil meluas menjadi Minangkabau dan kemudian Indonesia. Modal ini dikembangkan Tan Malaka untuk memahami dan menginterpretasikan permasalahan-permasalahan masyarakat Indonesia.

Visi adat dan falsafah Minangkabau dari merantau untuk mengontraskan atau membandingkan dunia rantaunya dengan realitas alam asalnya, sehingga dapat melihat mana yang baik dan yang buruk dari keduanya. Hal ini mengundang orang berpikir kritis dan dialektis. Oleh karena itu kontradiksi atau konflik dianggap wajar, terutama karena suasana tersebut akan selalu dapat diintegrasikan atau diselesaikan secara memuaskan atau harmonis melalui proses pemilihan mana yang baik dan buruk dengan akal, yaitu kemampuan berpikir secara rasionil. Dengan demikian, visi itu mendorong orang untuk berpikir secara kritis, dinamis atau dialektis. Cara berpikir demikian dengan sendirinya menolak dogmatisme atau parokhialisme. Karena menolak dogmatisme, maka dengan sendirinya menghendaki kebebasan berpikir.

Dalam perantauan, mental Tan Malaka berhasil melepaskan diri dari keterikatan terhadap salah satu dari berbagai corak nilai yang hidup dan berkembang dalam masyarakat dan berhasil melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran baru yang bercorak lain, berbobot dan orisinal. Ini karena mempunyai idealisme untuk membangun manusia dan masyarakat Indonesia baru, menghargai kebebasan berpikir dan memiliki sikap kritis yang tajam serta mempunyai kepercayaan kepada diri sendiri yang kuat sehingga mendorong untuk memiliki keberanian mengembangkan pemikiran sendiri.

Ketiga, alam pikir Barat. Pada usia sekitar 23 tahun, Tan Malaka mengalami pergulatan batin dan pikiran tentang agama yang bekaitan dengan mistik. Dalam satu suratnya Tan Malaka menulis untuk salah seorang temannya, Dick: “…aku pun masih mencari-cari, atau yang lebih tepat, masih menyelidiki. Aku sudah memilih arah pokok dalam kehidupan sosial dan agama, bila yang belakangan ini dapat kusebut demikian. Pertanyaan berikut kini sedang mendapat perhatianku: ‘Yang disebut kejadian di luar hukum alam (gaib) itu, apakah memang benar-benar ada?’ aku hidup di tengah bangsa yang gemar akan mistik. Hari ini atau lusa aku akan berjumpa dengan ahli mistik…”

Tan Malaka memberikan penilaian terhadap agama dan pilihannya marxisme: “…gereja itu, Dick, benar-benar suatu organisai ekonomi…gereja Katolik kupandang sebagai eksploitasi kapitalistis yang paling rendah, karena nama tuhan dipakai.

…tentang Islam lebih baik kita diam saja. Dalam agama itu pun ajaran lebih penting daripada praktik. Setiap praktik kebanyakan masih diarahkan pada pemilihan harta benda, tercapainya kedudukan yang lebih baik, atau kekayaan.

….kulihat dengan kepalaku sendiri apakah artinya mistik Islam. Berhari-hari kuserahkan diriku kepada suatu bimbingan. Kesimpulan akhirnya adalah sebagai berikut: mistik itu mungkin sekali omong kosong saja, atau penipuan, atau kedua-duanya sekaligus. Ah, aku sungguh muak melihat penipuan itu di manapun agama menyelinap di dalam masyarakat! Bukannya aku menolak kebajikan itu sendiri yang juga menjadi tujuan, misalnya Islam. Tetapi itu berlaku pada jaman dulu sekali ketika Muhammad sendiri masih hidup sangat sederhana…

… Jadi, kebajikan dan perdamaian itu kupandang hanya mungkin dapat tercapai melalui revolusi. Begitulah seorang Marxis yang materialistis sesungguhnya mempunyai latar belakang yang idealistis…”

Kelak pada perkembangan kehidupannya Tan Malaka memiliki pandangan bahwa Islam memiliki kekuatan revolusioner dan dapat menjadi alat untuk melawan kolonialisme dan imperialisme dengan melakukan pembelaan dan menganjurkan PKI untuk bekerja dengan terhadap Serikat Islam.Di bidang agama perhatiannya besar sekali pada soal-soal mistik: tetapi di bidang sosial ia sudah memilih gagasan komunisme.

Kepergiannya ke negeri Belanda bisa disebut sebagai jendela awal perkenalannya pada dunia luar. Berkenalanlah dirinya dengan paham sosialisme dan menjadikannya berkenalan dengan pemikiran Nietzche dan karya-karya Th. C. Arlyle, yang membuatnya berada dalam semangat dan paham revolusioner. Tan Malaka menyerap secara kritis alam pikir Hegel, Lenin, Karl Marx, Engels dan Charles Darwin. Ini ditandai dengan banyaknya rujukan kepada tokoh-tokoh tersebut sebagai kerangka acuan pemikirannya, terutama dalam bukunya, Madilog.

Selanjutnya adalah persentuhan pemikiran Tan Malaka dengan berbagai kalangan sampai para aktivis, pemikir dan tokoh dunia Barat. Dengan didukung modal minat, semangat dan kecerdasan yang dimilikinya untuk belajar; jaringan pergaulan, berorganisasi ditambah kemampuan penguasaan bahasa yang banyak, menjadi bekal perjuangannya di dalam maupun luar negeri. Menurut pengakuan Tan Malaka, ia menguasai berbagai bahasa seperti, Belanda, Jerman, Inggris, Melayu, Jawa, Perancis, Tagalog, Siam, dan sedikit bahasa Cina. Dari kemampuan bahasa ini, Tan Malaka mendirikan sekolah bahasa di Amoy, School for Foreigen Languages yang berkembang pesat kemajuannya

Dari sebagian tulisannya, basis pandangan tentang realitas, Tan Malaka memilih menggunakan materialisme dan rasionalisme dan paham komunisme sebagai ideologi perjuangan politik, meski Tan Malaka melakukan penafsiran ulang demi penyesuaian situasi dan kondisi Indonesia. Alam pikir Barat berperan dalam perjalanan kehidupan Tan Malaka. Alam dan kerangka pikir Barat diselami, akan tetapi dalam penggunaannya disaring secara kritis dan dinamis.

Dari latar keadaan internasional, adat Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat, tidaklah aneh jika dia dijuluki nasionalis, sosialis dan komunis yang beragama Islam. Berikut beberapa komentar atas sosok Tan Malaka:

Pokoknya di dalam sekujur tubuhnya mengalir sederas-derasnya, darah anti-Imperialisme, anti-Kolonialisme, sedang setiap denyut jantungnya membersihkan nafas perjuangan kemerdekaan Tanah Air dan Bangsanya.

Saya kenal almarhum Tan Malaka. Saya baca semua ia punya tulisan-tulisan. Saya berbicara dengan beliau berjam-jam, dan selalu di dalam pembicaraan-pembicaraan saya dengan almarhum Tan Malaka ini, kecuali tampak bahwa Tan Malaka adalah pecinta tanah air dan bangsa Indonesia, ia adalah sosialis sepenuh-penuhnya.

Tan Malaka adalah tokoh yang mewakili komunis di Timur Jauh. Ia adalah pemimpin komunis yang paling berhasil dan berpengalaman.

Perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka, pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional Republik Indonesia ini, seringkali diwarnai kegulitaan dalam kesejarahannya. Seperti kepastian kapan Tan Malaka lahir dan kematiannya yang tragis; tidak ada kuburan Tan Malaka, rencana penyerahan kepemimpinan nasional dari Bung Karno kepada Tan Malaka, pandangan terhadap Tan Malaka hendak melakukan kudeta terhadap Soekarno-Hatta dan perpecahan di kalangan kader PKI hingga kematian Tan Malaka penuh teka-teki dan mengenaskan. 
Redaksi : Seniman Kehidupan

Tautan : 

Tags :
Biografi Tan Malaka, sejarah tan malaka, kisah tan malaka, seniman kehidupan, tan malaka


         Senin, 09 Mei 2011

         Tan Malaka Memikirkan Indonesia (2)

         Ditulis ulang : Muhammad Ilham



         Madilog adalah cara berpikir Tan yang menautkan ilmu bukti melalui penyesuaian dengan akar kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan mondial.


          Tidak sepenuhnya memang Tan menyelisihi filsafat materialisme yang sebatas menganggap materi dan kenyataan menampak (fisikiah) sebagai yang ada dan utama; namun dalam Madilog, Tan menekankan bukti (meliputi budi, kesatuan, pikiran, dan inderawi) sebagai yang utama. Bukti merupakan fakta. Adapun fakta menjadi fondasinya ilmu bukti.


         Melalui Madilog, Tan bukan cuma memikirkan realita Indonesia pada masa hidupnya. Namun layaknya seorang futuris, ia membenturkan kontemplasi filsafatnya ini untuk masa depan Indonesia.


         Dan gagasan dalam Madilog-nya menerap dan jalin-menjalin sebagai sebuah pola yang konsisten dan konsekwen (ilmiah dan Indonesia sentris) melalui karya-karya lainnya yang secara holistik memikirkan berbagai permasalahahan Indonesia berikut implementasinya. Maka boleh dibilang pemikirannya tidak lekang dimakan jaman. Avonturisasi politiknya di mancanegara selalu licin. Tapi ironis, di tanah airnya sendiri Tan justru tetap bergerak secara klandestin.


         Tak banyak diketahui dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah bahwa Tan-lah yang menggerakkan massa untuk menggelar rapat raksasa di Lapangan Ikada pada 19 September 1945. Soekarno mengagumi pemikiran Tan yang banyak menginspirasi perjuangan Revolusi Kemerdekaan.

Dalam salah satu artikel Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi yang dimuat Majalah Tempo edisi khusus Tan Malaka (2008), disebutkan begitu kagumnya dengan pemikiran Tan Malaka, Soekarno pernah membuat sebuah testamen ahli waris revolusi untuk Tan jika terjadi sesuatu pada diri Soekarno – Hatta.


         Ketika masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan, Tan lebih memilih jalannya sendiri membentuk Persatuan Perjuangan (PP) pada 1 Januari 1946 untuk mengambil alih kekuasaan dari tangan sekutu. Namun niatnya disalahartikan sebagai sebentuk jalan mengkudeta Soekarno – Hatta.


          Tan dibui, berpindah-pindah di penjara Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur hingga lepas pada September 1948 sejalan dengan tuntasnya naskah Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara yang ia tulis. Sebagai responsnya atas situasi politik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati (1947) dan Renville (1948), Tan merintis Partai Murba pada November 1948. Tan –lagi-lagi– dituding mengkudeta pemerintah. Pada 21 Februari 1949 akhirnya Tan tewas di tangan orang sebangsanya sendiri dan di tanah airnya sendiri. Sejatinya, sejarah tentang seorang tokoh pendiri bangsa lazimnya menyampaikan pesan-pesan moral dan edukasi untuk generasi sesudahnya. Tapi bukanlah sejarah namanya jika kepentingan atas masa lalu sarat juga dengan kepentingan-kepentingan politis yang memungkinkan citra tokoh itu untuk dibelokkan, dikaburkan, bahkan dihilangkan. Asa hidup di alam kemerdekaan berupa keterbukaan dan kejujuran mengungkapkan masa lalu pun kadang terhadang oleh narasi-narasi besar (grand narratives [baca: negara]). Sebagaimana hal itu didapati dari sepinya jejak pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah seputar gagasannya mewujudkan republik ini. Sebagai sosok pejuang sekaligus pemikir yang lain dari keumuman eksponen pergerakan nasional, jalan hidup Tan yang asing dan banyak mengasing itu pun membuat Matu Mona mengiaskan dalam karya Patjar Merah Indonesia­-nya dengan julukan mysteryman. Senyata dengan jejak kehidupannya yang asing dan banyak mengasing. Dan dalam penulisan sejarah Indonesia modern, memori kolektif masyarakat Indonesia –khususnya siswa-siswa sekolah– terhadap sosok Tan Malaka tidaklah sebagus dibandingkan terhadap Soekarno, Hatta, dan Sjahrir. Konteks bagus itu pun tak lebih hanya sebatas mengenal nama, kedudukan, dan momen seputar sang tokoh.



         Napak Tilas periodesasi kiprah Tan Malaka (sumber : : klik gambar

Jejak pemikiran para tokoh pendiri bangsa sebagai hal yang lebih hakiki untuk diteladani justru menguap dalam teks-teks pelajaran sejarah yang diproduksi untuk kepentingan pendidikan nasional. Meski begitu, dalam wacana sejarah selama beberapa dasawarsa terakhir ada pergeseran nilai terkait subjek, perspektif, dan pendekatan masa lalu yang menjauhi narasi-narasi besar. Pergeseran itu dimaklumi juga terjadi karena ketidakpuasan terhadap narasi besar dalam mengendalikan dan memproduksi teks-teks sejarah. Ketika teks tidak berbunyi sebab ada yang ter/di-sembunyikan, maka medium seni visual (seperti fotografi, film, dan teater) menjadi alternatif menggali hakikat dan pemahaman masa lalu melalui pendekatan
subaltern (Nordholt & Steijlen [2007]; rujuk juga Nordholt, Purwanto, & Saptari [2007]). Jelas ini menjadi penting sebagai sebentuk penyi(ng)kapan terhadap narasi besar dalam menarasikan masa lalu, yang mana salah satunya menyangkut citra tokoh semisal Tan Malaka ini.

Setidaknya patut disyukuri adanya ikhtiar menempatkan Tan Malaka berdasarkan sejarah dalam konteksnya (historicizing history), selain melalui teater juga film sebagai alternatif yang baik untuk membangunkan masyarakat dari amnesia sejarah. Saya tidak ada hasrat berlebih untuk terlalu menyoalkan masih ditemukan kelemahan historical mindedness dalam film karya kawan-kawan dari Institut Kesenian Jakarta tersebut. Tapi dengan menyisipkan beberapa perkataan yang lekat dengan cerminan jiwa dan pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam mengecam taklid buta dan fanatisme sempit terhadap ideologi atau kepercayaan apapun dalam fragmen-fragmen film tersebut, telah menyambung lidah “bapak republik” itu untuk mengedukasi mental dan sikap rakyat Indonesia yang hidup pada alam kekinian. Misalnya perkataan Tan (adalah pola pikir madilognya [rujuk juga perkataan ini dalam Alfian. 1977]) di hadapan anak-anak kecil yang diajari berhitung: “Akuilah dengan hati bersih bahwa kalian dapat belajar dari orang Barat. tapi jangan sekali-kali kalian meniru dari orang Barat. Kalian harus menjadi murid-murid dari Timur yang cerdas…

Secara generis, perkataan itu sebetulnya akan terus patut dan layak dipakai kapanpun sebagai pandangan dan kedudukan bangsa Indonesia untuk menilai, menghadapi, dan terlibat dalam kumparan masalah nasional dan dunia. Tidak terjerembab dalam banalitas hubungan kebudayaan Barat dan Timur serta punya prinsip dalam menghadapi benturan peradaban antarkedua kutub tersebut. Relasi ideal antara Barat dan Timur memang menjadi salah satu pokok pemikiran Tan Malaka. Seperti halnya juga Sutan Sjahrir atau Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Tan Malaka –seperti halnya Sjahrir– agaknya gelisah juga dengan tabiat dan sikap kaum bumiputra yang mana satu pihak begitu mengagungkan adiluhungnya dominasi Barat secara taklid sehingga tanpa disadarinya merendahkan diri sendiri sebagai seorang Indonesia. Pihak lain terpenjara dalam kekolotan alam pikiran Timur yang masih dikuasai mitos dan menolak sama sekali segala hal berbau Barat sebagai yang dinilai sesat dan menyesatkan. Permasalahan itu pun kini masih hadir dalam wajah baru, tapi esensinya tak banyak berubah jika menyelami dalam-dalam perkataan Tan Malaka tersebut. Sejarah yang memihak untuk Tan Malaka jelas melebihi apresiasi pemerintah yang pada 1963 sebatas memberinya gelar pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional. Menghadirkan kembali gagasan-gagasan jenialnya tentang Indonesia, tentunya jauh lebih penting melebihi gelar kepahlawanan. Pemikirannya yang mengajarkan: anti-dogmatisme, berpikir kritis, anti-kekerasan sebagai siasatnya melawan kezaliman dan kebodohan pada masa hidupnya, am




Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

         Parlemen atau Soviet (1920)

         SI Semarang dan Onderwijs (1921)

         Dasar Pendidikan (1921)

         Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia) (1924)

         Semangat Muda (1925)

         Massa Actie (1926)

         Pari dan Nasionalisten (1927)

         Pari dan PKI (1927)

         Pari International (1927)

         Manifesto Bangkok(1927)

         Aslia Bergabung (1943)

         Muslihat (1945)

         Rencana Ekonomi Berjuang (1945)

         Politik (1945)

         Manifesto Jakarta (1945)

         Thesis (1946)

         Pidato Purwokerto (1946)

         Pidato Solo (1946)

         Madilog (1948)

         Islam dalam Tinjauan Madilog (1948)

         Gerpolek (1948)

         Pidato Kediri (1948)

         Pandangan Hidup (1948)

         Kuhandel di Kaliurang (1948)

         Proklamasi 17-8-45 Isi dan Pelaksanaanya (1948)

         Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (1970)

[sunting] Referensi

  1. 1.     ^ a b c “Misteri Kematian Tan Malaka Terungkap”, Kompas, diakses Juli 2007
  2. 2.     ^ Muhammad Yamin, Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia: Riwajat Politik Seorang Pengandjoer Revolusioner jang Berfikir, Berdjoeang dan Menderita Membentoek Negara Republik Indonesia, Djakarta: Berita Indonesia, 1946
  3. 3.     ^ M. Yuanda Zara, Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946: Menguak Kudeta Pertama dalam Sejarah Indonesia, MedPress, 2009
  4. 4.     ^ lihat Soejatno dan Anderson B 1974. Revolution and social tensions in Surakarta 1945-1950. Indonesia 17:99-111 (dengan dua rujukan lainnya di catatan kaki).
  5. 5.     ^ Majalah Tempo Edisi Khusus Tan Malaka, 7 Agustus 2008

[sunting] Bacaan lanjutan

         Castle, James W. Diplomasi and Perdjuangan Tan Malaka Contra Sjahrir: Kegelisahan Kepada Revolusi. , 1972.

         Hery, Yunior H. Tan Malaka Dibunuh!: Meneropong Krisis Politik, 1945-1949. Yogyakarta: Resist Book, 2007.

         Mrazek, Rudolf. Semesta Tan Malaka. Yogyakarta: Bigraf Pub, 1994.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta, 2008.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 2. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2009.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 3. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2010.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka: Pergulatan Menuju Republik. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1999.

         Yamin, Muhammad. Tan Malaka: Bapak Republik Indonesia. Djawa Timur: Moerba Berdjoeang, 1946.

         Zulkifli, Arif. Tan Malaka. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG), 2010.

[sunting] Pranala luar


Wikiquote memiliki koleksi kutipan yang berkaitan dengan:

Tan Malaka

       (Indonesia) Catatan Pinggir: Tan Malaka, Sejak Agustus Itu 

       (Indonesia) “Arsip Tulisan Tan Malaka”

       (Indonesia) “Arsip Tulisan Tan Malaka dalam Bahasa Inggris”

       (Indonesia) Tan Malaka (1897-1949)

       (Indonesia) Manifesto Djakarta

       (Indonesia) Petualangan Pacar Merah Indonesia

       (Indonesia) Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi

       (Indonesia) Gerilya Dua Sekawan

       (Indonesia) “ ‘Tan Malaka'”


The Indonesian Music Jazz History Collections

The Indonesian Music Jazz

History Collections


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Copyright@ s013


“The Indonesian Music Record History Collections”

This sample not full illustrated,the complete CD exist but only for Premium Member ,please subscribed via comment.







jazz is important thing/genre for musician, if you can play jazz you can play anything, find as many jazz song as you can get, listen to that song carefully, feel it in your heart, feel the beat, feel the tempo, feel the note, listen to that song, take what they play, and try to improvisation the song with your skill.


 you must know the basic chord for jazz, like Maj7, m7, Dom7, Maj, min, and also you must memorize the 12 major scales, and chord arpeggios, its really useful for playing jazz you know, you can’t play anything, if you can’t play the basic right?



 you must know the chord progression, like circle of fourth, circle of fifth, and the others, its really useful for making jazz songs, with chord progression you can made a nice song, or nice rhytem melodic.


 buy a songbook that have the chord, tone, and also the chord progression, it will help you to play the song, play with low tempo, then try a mid tempo, and try a fast tempo if you can:P


find a software for computer that contains the tone, and the chords sounds, and try to improvise the song with yourself, try the scales, the arpeggios, the chords, and the others.


learn Chord inversion, Pentatonic scales of your favourites chords, blues scales, melodic minor scales, harmonic minor scales, minor scales, major scales, and the modes.


made a jazz band! you couldn’t go forward if there is no friend to ask right? ask many people about the teoric, and practice.

Good luck

 for the exercise!!!, remember, practice not make perfect

The Indonesian Music Jazz Collections



The History of Jazz Music in Indonesia

in the 30’s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30’s.

Brought by

Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

Not only transferring jazz, they also introduced a wind instrument, such as trumpet, saxophone, the music lovers in Jakarta. They play Latin jazz rhythms, such as boleros, rhumba, samba and more.

The names of the musicians who still remember is

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.

read more about The Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

The Philippines Jazz Dance Bands of the 1930s




The new jazz messengers in the Philippines were the dance bands, which performed the “de cajon” or stock arrangements. The brass and horn sections’ harmony was in block, closed-chord position and was often audibly predictable. Among the very popular Swing bands of the 1930s, the Shanghai Swing Masters, the Pete Aristorenas Orchestra, the Cesar Velasco Band, the Tirso Cruz Orchestra at the Manila Hotel, the Mabuhay Band (also overseen by Tirso Cruz), and the Mesio Regalado Orchestra were among the more prominent names that flourished.

These big bands would provide dance music in the Swing style for Manila’s high-class society and for major provincial capitals where fiestas and other social events would take place year- round. It kept the jazz musicians busy and gainfully employed which gave them an opportunity to travel around the country and eventually overseas, where the pay was much higher.

In fact, many of the jazz musicians after discovering other foreign capitals where jazz was appreciated, would decide to have long extended contracts living a more prominent way of life as compared to the economic limitations back home. But home being close to their hearts, these foreign-based Filipino jazz musicians would periodically visit their motherland to update locals with their latest musical wares.

Read more anout

The popular Jazz Band in 1930




Duke Elinton band

For the first time in the Czech Republic, the Duke Ellington Orchestra will perform their stylized magic.


The first-class artistic ensemble interprets the wonderful jazzy music of Duke Ellington, the legendary jazz composer, big band leader and pianist. Duke Ellington was one of the most important figures in the genre of Jazz music and the Duke Ellington Orchestra is known for doing the man proud.

So if you feel like kicking up your jazz feet and experiencing a night of atmospheric music, go have a listen to the Duke Ellington Orchestra performing at Lucerna Hall in Prague. Tickets available at



Count Basie orchestra


Count Basie Orchestra
Directed by Grover Mitchell



Photo: Armond Bagdasarian


***1999 GRAMMY WINNER***
(Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance)

And winner of :

* Total of 17 Grammy Awards
* 2 Grammy Hall of Fame Awards
* 9 DownBeat Readers and Critics Poll Awards

The swing revival currently going gangbusters in clubs and ballrooms across the nation is generating a new audience for swing music, both contemporary and classic. These new-found fans, sensing something big is to be found behind the music of Big Bad Voodoo Daddy and other favorites of the current scene, have started to seek out the originals, the roots of the music. Inevitably, their search leads them to the Count Basie Orchestra.

Something similar happened in the 1980s, when the era’s young lions introduced a new audience to the hard-bop era heroes they emulated. Today’s swing bands – Royal Crown Revue, Squirrel Nut Zippers, Cherry Poppin’ Daddies – are sending new fans to Benny Goodman, Cab Calloway, Louis Jordan and beyond to the birth of swing and Basie. After all, it was in the Basie bands of the ’30s, in front of the dance floor at Kansas City’s Reno Club, that the jazz rhythm section blossomed and what came to be forever known as “Basie swing” developed.

The reemerging popularity of swing in all its forms is just one of the factors in the recent ascendancy of the Count Basie Orchestra. Another is the strength of the ensemble itself. After back-to back-Grammy awards for 1997 and 1998, the Basie band, directed during the last four years by Grover Mitchell, is crackling with musical vibrancy. With drummer Butch Miles back at the center of the rhythm section, the band has roared through a 1999 itinerary that lists multiple trips to Europe, two weeks in Japan and stops in such exotic locations as Istanbul and Brazil. But the orchestra is most busy here in the U.S. with performances in towns running the gamut from Baltimore, New York, Detroit, Chicago and Atlanta to Fort Wayne, Lubbock, Savannah, Worster and Morgantown.

Maybe that’s one reason the orchestra sounds so good on this latest recording Swing Shift. Another is the first-rate writing of Allyn Ferguson and Bob Ojeda. Ferguson is the noted arranger whose pen was central in Sarah Vaughan’s 1981 meeting with the Basie Orchestra’s horn section as well as last year’s Grammy Award-winning Count Plays Duke. His seven new compositions and three standard arrangements embody the classic sound of Basie swing yet reflect the harmonic depth that Ferguson has brought to his writing since his days with Stan Kenton – full of color, contrast and what can only be called artistry in rhythm.

This theme of modernism within the tradition (no contradiction in today’s Basie band) is continued by Ojeda, one of the group’s trumpeters who has written for everyone from Lionel Hampton to George Benson. While Ojeda’s pieces glisten with sleek harmonic touches and rhythmic shifts, they nonetheless read as authentic pages from the Basie omnibus, both in their spirit and the crafted spaces they arrange for soloists.

Add to this mix Grover Mitchell, a leader with deep roots in the orchestra’s history and long associations with its founder. A lyrical lead trombonist and soloist in the tradition of Tommy Dorsey, Lawrence Brown and Jack Teagarden, Mitchell worked with Duke Ellington and Lionel Hampton briefly before joining Basie in 1962. Absent from the band in the ’70s, Mitchell returned in 1980, remaining until Basie’s death in 1984. Of the three directors who have been at the helm since Basie’s passing (Thad Jones and Frank Foster were the others), Mitchell seems best able to project the Basie spirit, to both his band members and audiences. “I knew from the moment I joined this band I was going to lead it someday,” he says. “I can’t tell you why, but I knew it was my destiny.”

Under Mitchell, the band has returned to its hallmarks: swing, precision, and above all, a focus on the ensemble. The current aggregation has its share of great soloists, but Mitchell has stressed the totality of sound and interplay among musicians. He is aided in this endeavor by the remarkable continuity of personnel that continues to connect past to the present in the band. There are five permanent members in the current band who played under Count Basie’s personal leadership: trombonist Bill Hughes, who joined in 1956, John Williams, Butch Miles, Kenny Hing and Clarence Banks. They are part of the musical DNA that is replicating the Basie spirit for present and future members who never played under Basie himself.

This “guarding of the flame” is the same mission that has driven Count Basie Enterprises, the administrative operation behind the Basie Orchestra which has guided its growth and protected its integrity in the post-Basie years. “Our role has been to keep the Basie band a living, breathing, growing orchestra,” says Aaron Woodward III, CEO of Basie Enterprises and an uncompromising purist regarding all matters concerning Count Basie. “Above all, we want to keep the music true to the Basie way.”

Today, the Basie band is bringing generations of fans together as never before. Young audiences who’ve heard their favorite neo-swing band play “One O’clock Jump,” now sit or dance side-by-side with veteran fans who’ve spent a lifetime cherishing Basie’s 1937 recording of the same tune. This multi-generational appeal is what sets the Basie band apart from the current crop of swing bands. Swing music is not a fad, and it is no passing fancy with the Basie Orchestra. Rather, it is a living art form with an esteemed tradition and a history that spans most of our waning century.

The Count Basie Orchestra continues to build new fans the old fashioned way – by hitting the road, meeting its audiences and playing its music, night after night. It has managed to fuse contemporary sensibilities with its own traditions, in part because it is a genuine “working band” with the esprit de corps that comes from facing its listeners nightly – not a rehearsal unit playing for the recreation of its members or a studio unit that comes together occasionally to make a record. The Basie band is that rarest of all musical ensembles today: a full-time touring jazz orchestra. Night in and night out, they let audiences experience firsthand that miraculous combination of power and grace that only exists when 19 jazz musicians stand shoulder to shoulder and call themselves a big band.


Jazz in the 1930s was widely heard on radio as popular music. Besides the usual Duke Ellington and Count Basie hits, local talents abounded, like singer Ding Yalong, who “crooned” in the style of Bing Crosby, then a vocalist in Paul Whiteman’s Orchestra. Radio music in the 1930s had outstanding locally-bred musicians perform live while broadcasting featured instrumentalists like pianists Joe Climaco, Rafael Artigas, and Ariston Avelino. This was a way of informing the listening public that Filipinos were learning rapidly from their foreign counterparts.

Another venue in the 1930s where jazz was predominantly heard was the Ugoy-ugoy Cabaret. This dance hall was dimly lit and the music was non-stop. The taxi dancers were paid by a number of minutes indicated by a whistle, which had nothing to do with the music because the music was continuous. Located in a town in the province of Laguna, ugoy-ugoy, a Tagalog that means “swing” in English. This is probably where the late composer, Miguel “Mike” Velarde, was inspired to name one of his compositions “Ugoy-ugoy Blues”, which became a hit in the early 1930s.




Top left Photo:


The Filipino Band jazzes it up big time at the Saratoga Hotel-Restaurant, Chicago, Illinois, earning $1,000.00 a month in the early 1930s. Courtesy of John Silva Collection.






Bottom right Photo:


 Nemesio Regalado introduced the Tonette wind instrument to the Philippines in 1937.











In addition to playing in Jakarta, such as


the Hotel Des Indes



 (now Ambassador Merlin Plaza)



the Hotel Der Nederlander




(so the government offices),

they also play in other cities, such as


the Hotel Savoy Homann – Bandung



 in Hotel Oranje (Yamato) – Surabaya.

In 1948
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians. One is the famous Dutch musician


Jose Cleber

Jozef Cleber or too often simply written Jos Cleber (born in Maastricht, June 2, 1916 – died in Hilversum, The Netherlands, May 21, 1999 at age 82 years) is a musician (conductor) a Dutch national who arrived in Indonesia in 1949 in cooperation with the Dutch Government and Indonesia in order to develop the music in Indonesia

He was the youngest of eight children Josephus Gerardus Cleber, an organist and choral conductor, his mother Anna Maria Bastian. He was born a Catholic family.

 In 1939

he was married to Elisa Magdelijns (1917-2007), had a daughter (Yvonne Charlotte).


But in 1951

 then divorced and married again in 1951 was also in Jakarta with

Johanna Dirkje de Bruijn (born 1923)

who met at Radio Batavia (Jakarta) and had a daughter also (Karian).

 Music education
He has a tremendous musical talent, and learned music from his father. After completing secondary school, he entered the School of Music Up (muzieklyceum), and continued studying violin and piano at the conservatory in the city of Luik (Belgium). He also studied jazz music, and admirers of



Duke Elington,

and are advised to learn the saxophone and clarinet, but the trombone is a musical choice (which is said to correspond with his trombone mouthpiece).

Experience the music
At the age of 15 years (1931)
 He has played at Stedelijk Maastrichtsch Orchestra (orchestra city) as a viola player. Then he played on


Paul Godwin orchestra,


then at the time of military service in 1939 at


 the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich play.

After World War II ended
 he returned to Holland and worked as a trombone player and a violin


 in ‘Tuschinski-Theater’

under the leadership of musician Max Tak, and the assistance he has worked as a musician in the orchestra Pop trombonis leaders Avro Elzard Kuhlman (AVRO = Algemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep / Radio Broadcasting The Netherlands).

Later in 1942


 He worked as trombonis the Concertgebouw-Orchestra (an orchestra at the Concert Hall of Amsterdam’s famous until now).



Besides, he also learned the conductor, the science of harmony and kontrapun Baaren composer Kees van Amsterdam.

Then he met with


Theo Uden Masman, a dance orchestra leader in Hilversum.


 Not long after he joined



 the Metropolitan Orchestra leader

Dolf van Linden

as a trombone player and aransir between 1945-1948.


He also joined the band and Decca Selecta Swing Combo. [1]
Music career trip to Indonesia since
Off to Indonesia 1948

In the month of June 1948
 He went to Indonsia.
After his return to Holland in 1952,
in 1962
 He and his wife (Joke) and son (Karian) to South Africa.

However, in 1964

 he returned to Holland (Hilversum).
 Year 1981
 his retirement (age 65), and died in Hilversum in 1999 (at age 83 years).
 Jos Cleber history in song Indonesia Raya

In 1948
The Dutch government sent an

orchestra leader



 Yvon Baarspul



coming from the Netherlands about 46 people, but then declined


read more about Yvon Baarspul

Radio Philharmonic Orchestra 1948-1950

In 1947,

the idea to give the radio orchestra of Batavia a professional status arose in The Hague and Jakarta simultaneously. At the instigation of the Colonial Office the conductor Yvon Baarspul was approached to form an up to par symphony orchestra over there, that should be able to play an extensive repertoire.

Added to the NIROM-orchestra that was already in existence, this ensemble would ultimately count approximately 63 members. The musicians (most of them were male) were offered a contract for two years, while the Dutch government sponsored the initiative. Because in those days, it was still long before ‘the East’ could be called a safe place, one might remark that this was a risky business. Anyway, in those turbulent years there was a great need for cultural relaxation ‘overseas’.

The result:



On 5 June 1948,


27 candidates left Rotterdam on the M.S Garoet to the Dutch East Indies.

Another group of 12 musicians followed a little later by plane.


The violinist Herman v.d. Vegt

was released from his occupation for one year to assist Baarspul in the function of leader of the orchestra.

The members of the orchestra who came from the Netherlands were lodged in Hotel Chaulan, at a walking distance from the radio on King’s Square. A year later, the wives and children came over. In those times, a new quarter was being built on the edge of Batavia, and this was where most people were lodged eventually.

The rehearsals started soon in the big studio of the recently renamed ‘Radio Broadcasting Organisation of the Transition Period’ (ROIO). Vice-president Mohammed Atta became the patron of this new orchestra.

On 30 August 1948

the inaugural concert took place in a sold out hall

 (the so-called Garden Hall)


in the Tjikini zoo of Batavia.

(now Taman Ismael Marzuki Garden-TIM)







Read more info about Tjikini Zoo


This old zoo in the former Batavia was obviously very popular with small children. Besides large and dangerous animals, there was a lot of small stuff, you should give even to eat. And if you had been there and it was very hot, you could always go to Tjikini pool next to the zoo. But that there is also no longer


The zoo no longer exists, no longer. He was moved to Jakarta Selatan(south Jakarta) Cilandak and there become Kebun Binatang Ragunan Zoo.

Whether this hippo is still alive I do not know. Not very likely. This picture is from 1958 and I do not know how old these animals can be. What I do know is that every time that I saw I was wide open mouth or sleep or appetite ayam pang corridor. (Chicken roaster)



 my wife is with our firstborn to look at the elephant, remarkable animal, what with that terrible long nose? For such a large animal but he has a small mouth, but still …. better but at a safe distance.

But there was more in that old Kebon Binatang Cikini, a cinema, I am for the first time in my life been to the movies.


I was ten years and was with two friends(sobats) by my father for the party brought to the film. “Tom Saywer” was called.

The story I can not remember, but there was an angry Indian in those with a life-size Golok (native daggers)Tom chased.

Tom fled into a cave and climbed the wall to a ledge he can not go. Then comes that Indian look with recurring Golok between his teeth and a few nasty green eyes closer and closer. Palpitations, almost, just a meters …. and then … tolol Giel jatuh pingsan, fainted and only in the taxi home again added.

The last time I was in that movie theater in 1955 from the Cikini hospital Raden Saleh. I had just visited my wife, who received follow-up after the birth of our firstborn.

The film was called “Them” and went about ants as big as buffaloes. Mutants by atomic radiation during nuclear tests in the desert of Alamagordo. Bukan main say(abismal lover) , people and animals were eaten and the cracking of the bones sounded like Mercon in Tahun Baru Tiong Hoa.(Chinese lunar new year)

Slept poorly that night. And dese crazy, I know all there, but namanya cinema, I can not remember. If anyone knows that yet, please leave a message on this website, I would really like to know. Also a picture of that cinema is very welcome.


Pak Giel

More than 1000 people were in the audience. On the program: Works by Bach, Geraerdts and Brahms with assistance of the oratorium choir.

In the two years that the orchestra existed a number of members formed chamber music ensembles. There were, for instance, two string quartets that came into being. The “Radio Philharmonic Brass quintet” performed with the pianists Frans Szabo and Douda Poliakine and there were numerous recitals and solo-performances. The orchestra went on tour several times:

· September ’49

 to Semarang, Surabaya and Bali on

 the M.S. Ophir (the ship served as a hotel as well).
· November ’49 to Singapore by plane to do 5 concerts in the ‘Victoria memorial Hall’ and a youth concert in ‘Happy World’, a big tent.
· The end of ’49, two concerts in Pladjoe, near Palembang.

From the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra a chamber orchestra was also formed, which was under the leadership of conductor Frits Hinze and which mainly played at the local theatre. In the mean time, the Cosmopolitan orchestra, under the guidance of Jos Cléber, provided for the lighter repertoire. At the same time, the interest of the Indonesian and Chinese side increased.

The management of ROIO, that had been able to establish this new symphony orchestra with strong support from the government, supposed that it would serve the cultural purpose of this institution best not by keeping the orchestra conscientiously within the privacy of the walls of the studio, but by taking care that the concerts were broadcast from the concert hall as much as possible. As a rule, the concerts would be recorded to be broadcast later from the various relay stations in the country, amongst others those of Semarang, Surabaya, Bandung and Makassar. Apart from the ‘Garden Hall’, the concerts also took place

in the ‘Willemskerk’,

 Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church

 The Portuguese ‘Buitenkerk’, the theatre and

 in ‘Concordia’ in Batavia.

read mote about Portugeus Church batavia

Portuguese Church

If you travel to the old city of Jakarta, sempatkanlah stop by the Zion Church. The church is located at the corner of Prince Street and Jalan Mangga Dua White Rose, in West Jakarta area. In the past, the Church Zion Church known as the Portuguese (Portugeesche Buitenkerk). In those days, there are two churches, known as the Portuguese Church, First Church of Zion, called “Portuguese Church Outside the City” (outside the fortress city of Batavia) and the second “Portuguese Church in Town” (located in the fortress city of Batavia). However, the latter church was burned down in 1808 AD, while still standing upright Zion Church with all its glory until now.

Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church


Portuguese Church or Church of Zion are still used as places of worship. According to history, Zion Church was completed in 1695 AD and inaugurated on Sunday, October 23, 1695 AD, with the blessing by the Reverend Theodore ZAS. The full blessing of the church’s story neatly written in Dutch on the notice board, which until now can still be seen on the walls of the church.

Physical construction of a church that has a magnificent architecture takes approximately two years. Laying the first stone made by Pieter van Hoorn in the year October 19, 1693 AD Zion Church is known for the robustness of the building and still have the same furniture since its inception. This church suffered only two times the renovation, which in 1920 and 1978. In fact, it is said the church building suffered no cracks at all, despite the huge earthquake which spread to Australia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines, caused by the eruption of Krakatoa in August 1883 AD This church building is protected by the government as a historic building by the Governor of DKI Jakarta Decree No. CB/11/1/12/1972.

Portuguese Church 4 430x322 Portuguese Church

Zion Church was built on an area of 6725 square meters with building area of 32 X 24 meters which is supported by the main pillar of six and are built with a foundation block of a round rod 10 000. This church building can accommodate at least 1000 the congregation. However, now, shrinking the churchyard after being displaced Prince Jayakarta Road widening and road Mangga Dua, each five meters.

As the name implies, Portuguese Church is a church relic of the Portuguese who had landed in the archipelago since the 16th century. However, mention of the word “Portuguese” as the name of the church have its own story. Perhaps, before the Church of Zion stand, where it stood a chapel (small church) Catholics in the year 1675 AD The chapel was founded by the Portuguese to the slaves who came from Bengal, Malabar, Koromandel, and Sri Lanka. The slaves were brought to the archipelago (including the Batavia) and employed for the sake of commerce and households. In general, they are Catholic and speak Portuguese.

Portuguese Church 2 Portuguese Church

Since VOC Batavia and seize control of Portuguese rule, East India Company built the fort city of Batavia Batavia as a barrier region and areas outside it. In addition, the VOC also brought slaves from around the Portuguese archipelago to the city of Batavia (in the castle) to build urban infrastructure. No exception Portuguese slaves who live around Catholic Chapel-which incidentally is outside the castle of Batavia, was also brought into the City. Since then (1628 AD), a former Portuguese slave is flooding the central region and the outskirts of Batavia.

Zion Church is actually a church built in place of the Catholic Chapel (Portuguese) before, as the release of the Portuguese slave residing on the edge and center of the City of Batavia. Terms of slave liberation is they have to switch religion (the Protestant) and use the Dutch language. The slaves who had been free is what is known as the Mardjiker. In a long time, the Church of Zion has been used by the Mardjiker hereditary, while the elite officials Batavia (VOC) worship in downtown. However, when the church burned in downtown Batavia, the VOC communities, officials, and the family moved worship to the Church of Zion, which lies on the edge of town. Over time this church eventually became the property of the elite Dutch Batavia. The Mardjiker was expelled from the church, but the elite Dutch / VOC already overdo mention this church as Portugeesche Buitenkerk aka Portuguese Church.

Portuguese Church 3 430x218 Portuguese Church

After Indonesian independence, the former church of the Mardjiker is administered under the auspices of the Protestant Churches of Western Indonesia (GPIB). In 1957, when the trial Synod GPIB, Portuguese Church decided to change its name to GPIB Zion Church. By the surrounding community, the church is known as the Zion Church. Zion or Zion comes from the name of a hill in the Palestinian areas and is a symbol of salvation for the nation of ancient Israel.

Zion Church has a unique characteristic, if viewed from the style and form of architecture, and furniture that have. The particular architecture stand out in every detail of the building. It can be seen, the church building to form one long room with three wooden ceilings the same height and curved like a keg. Since 2006, the church which included the type of the church hall (hall church) is also enhanced by the church floor tiles composed of gray granite, glazed entrance, and additional space measuring 6×18 meters around the church.

Design and construction of a church that looked diarsiteki Mr. E. Ewout Verhagen from Rotterdam, it certainly will add to the impression of awe, at once fascinated. Look at the durability and robustness of the church that have survived for hundreds of years. Apparently, this robustness is supported by the construction of a building wall constructed from bricks bonded by a mixture of sand and heat-resistant sugar.

In addition to architectural uniqueness, the furniture of the church also served with its own nuances. Upon entering the church door, for example, immediately posted four chandelier (chandelier), a large candle with a reflector (reflective light) shield-shaped bersimbol City of Batavia. Fourth chandelier is dependent on the corners of the room, since over 300 years ago.

Right in the middle of the room, stands a baroque pulpit work of H. Bruyn (1695 AD). This pulpit supported two pole roll and a large canopy hoods that resembled a crown. Making octagonal pulpit carved with a blend of China, Europe, and India is said to have cost about 260 ringgit. Compare the cost of construction of the church who spend around 3,000 ringgit. Ornaments on the bottom side also gave its own style in the pulpit. Travelers who observe the details of this pulpit will find a complete angel ornaments shaped head with wings painted in colors similar to human skin.

In addition to Pulpit, just to the right (if the tourists facing the altar from the front door), there are several rows of chairs and benches carved from dark wood (ebony). The chairs are often used for meetings of this church have a somewhat unique engraving. In the middle of the back of the chair for example, etched into a holy book that is open and on either side there are two little angels picture. If the tourist gaze into one wall of the church, it will be posted an inscribed stone in the Dutch language, which means: “The first stone church was laid October 19, 1693 by Pieter van Horn.”

In addition, on the upper floor, the back, the travelers also can see the inflatable organ musical instruments (organ), parents who are still well preserved. Old organ which is the daughter of Reverend John Maurits grant Moors in the 17th century can still be used. Tourists can also see an iron wheel on the left side of the organ. Fibrous rubber wheel serves to fill the wind that blew the pipe-organ pipe tone when keys are pressed. Once the wheel is rotated by human power (two people), but since 1982 was replaced by electricity. The organ is supported by four slender pillars was last used on October 8, 2000.

Around the neighborhood church, precisely in the foyer of the church, there are 11 graves in the official Dutch Batavia kumpeni first. Among those officials tomb is the tomb of the Governor-General Zwaardecroon (1718-1725 AD), tomb of the primary surgeon named Frederick Ribalt Batavia City (died in 1735 AD) and his son Francois Ribalt (1695 AD), as well as a sailor, named Commissioner General SH Frijkenius.

Zion Church is located on the corner of Prince Jayakarta and Jalan Mangga Dua Raya, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia. Zion Church is relatively easy to reach tourists, because it is about 300 meters to the City Railway Station (Station Beos City) and 200 meters from the Mangga Dua shopping complex. From Beos City Station, visitors simply walk away or hire a rickshaw heading towards Jalan Mangga Dua and stop down the road, the place where the church is located.

Zion Church is now equipped with facilities such as 8 air conditioner (AC), parking lots, and buildings commonly known by the name of the manse. Manse is a special house built behind the church for the employees and the priest in charge of the church.

A series of 7 concerts, dedicated to Dutch composers, took place in the big hall of the Radio Broadcasting Company of Jakarta. The composition and editorship were in the hands of the oboist Victor Swillens. These concerts were also broadcast by the radio stations of Semarang and Surabaya.

The two valedictory concerts of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra

 in June 1950

made mention of the performance of the 9th symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven, with assistance of Batavia’s mixed choir. On this occasion Yvon Baarspul was knighted as “Ridder in de Orde van Oranje-Nassau”.

The voyage back was made on

the M.S. “Johan van Oldebarnevelt”

on 21 July 1950.

They arrived in Amsterdam on 17 August. Some of the members of the orchestra returned later to form




 the “Orchestra Radio Jakarta”, under the leadership of Henk te Strake,

 which remained in existence until 1953.

Yvon Baarspul


Director of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra in Batavia / Jakarta


Bataviaas Staforkest          


Batviaas Staff Orchestra o.l.v. Nico Gerharz ± 1915

The orchestra being overseas.

Long time, the music loving public depending on ad hoc ensembles, which needs to evolve into an orchestra.

The tournerende buitelandse opera companies often have their own band names that possibly supplemented by local forces or good amateurs.

The music-staff in Batavia emerged with the advent of a real conductor Nico Gerharz symphonic orchestra  that include 20 strings and horns full occupancy standard program could handle. It gave regular symphony concerts with or without soloists.

From 1904-1916

came the orchestra flourished and even went on tour to major cities in Java.

The Käthe Haasse when young, mother of Hella Haasse, the famous writer, performed concerts at that time of Beethoven, Grieg and Paul Seelig.

These gifted professional pianist also composed songs for choral polyphony. Immediately after the Japanese occupation, there were a few concerts in the theater, by the so-called Station Orchestra. (AFRIB) by the Allied Forces Radio broadcast in Batavia.

The later NIROM Radio Orchestra,

the result of smaller formations could, at the initiative of

Theo van der Bijl and Picklertrio

conquer a permanent place in listeners around the archipelago by support channels to let them hear. Fritz Hinze was the first conductor of the orchestra led format.

Locally formed smaller amateur orchestras in places like Surabaya (Vincent Loo) Malang, Makassar, Medan and Bandung.

For the court orchestra of the Sultan were Yokyakarta


artist Walter Spies


Walter Spies with Angelica Archipenko circa 1930

Walter Spies (15 September 1895 – 19 January 1942)

 was a Russian-born German primitivist painter. In 1923 he came to Java, living first in Yogyakarta and then in Ubud, Bali starting in 1927.

He is often credited with attracting the attention of Western cultural figures to Balinese culture and art in the 1930s and he influenced the direction of Balinese art and drama.

In 1937,

 Spies built what he described as a “mountain hut” at Iseh in Karangasem. Adored by the Balinese, Spies was the co-founder of the Pita Maha artists cooperative, through which he shaped the development of modern Balinese art and established the Westerner’s image of Bali that still exists today


Spies was the first to arrive, settling in Ubud in 1927.

The son of a German diplomat, he spent his formative years in Russia and traveled widely, living in Java before settling in Bali. He lived a heady, bohemian existence in those early Ubud days — it was the beginning of the West’s love affair with Bali, drawing luminaries such as Noel Coward, Charlie Chaplin, Vicky Baum, Miguel Covarrubias and Margaret Mead.

As a painter, Spies was profoundly influenced by Bali’s culture and landscape.

 One can see evidence of this in the following works, the first, Das Karussel, painted in 1922 before his travels to Bali, the second and third after his arrival there:




Spies’ life took a tragic turn after a decade of artistic productivity and growing fame.

His openly homosexual lifestyle attracted the disapproval of the Dutch colonial government and led to his imprisonment for “indecent behavior” during much of 1939.

Not long thereafter came the start of World War II and the German invasion of Holland. The Dutch-Indies government arrested all Germans, sending Spies to a prison camp in Sumatra.

From there, Spies was placed on a transport ship to Ceylon, a voyage that ended his life when the ship sank under bombardment by the Japanese




Paul Seelig

muzicus attracted.

Paul Seelig (1876 – 1945)          

Among the musicians in Indonesia there were also a few composers who left behind a voluminous oeuvre. The most important one among them was Paul Seelig, about whom there will be more later on. To just mention a few names: Constant van de Wall, Hector Marinus, Theo Smit Sibenga en Emile Hullebroek.

In Europe, there were also a number of composers who were inspired by eastern music and the gamelan: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Francis Poulenc, Colin McPhee and Peter Schat.  </P


Paul Johan Seelig


On June 13, 1945

 Mr. Cornelis died on Java. He was a talented composer, whose work has remained virtually unknown in the Netherlands until today: Paul John Seelig, born in Breda, 1876.

The course of his life is an absorbing story that for the most part takes place in the Far East. He had an all-round musical education in Germany for the most part and studied with prominent teachers. He studied the piano, the cello, orchestration and theory.

In 1888,

he was 2nd conductor of the Stadttheater in Essen. In the mean time, he was often travelling through countries such as Japan, Palestine, Turkey, Romania, Hungary and the Netherlands.

In 1900,

 Seelig comes back to the Dutch East Indies and becomes the conductor of

the court orchestra of the Susuhunan of Surakarta.

During the following 8 years in Solo,

 a penetrating study is made of eastern music.

After the death of his father, he settles in Bandung,

to take on the leadership of the publishing business (Matatani) and music- and instrument shop his father had founded. However, the wanderings have not yet finished.

Music and dramatic society “Braga” in 1910 with,

 amongst others, Paul Seelig on cello.

Publication Seelig / Matatani



Muziek en toneelvereniging “Braga” in 1910 met o.a. Paul Seelig cello




 In 1911

he leaves for Siam (Thailand). There he becomes

conductor and musical advisor of the Royal Orchestra of Bangkok.

 At that time, he noted down a large number of Siamese folk-melodies and he also composed the national anthem of Siam.


A large collection of songs, recorded from

native singers of Central Java,

would also appear in print afterwards.

The compositions of Seelig display an intriguing combination of eastern and western elements, the structure always betraying the craftsman.

Much of his voluminous, practically undated oeuvre has, apart from the Indies themselves, also been performed in Germany, France, Austria, America and Japan, but strangely enough hardly ever in our country.

After about 1930

 he has composed little more, because he was preoccupied with the publishing- and music business in Surabaya, Bandung (Bragaweg), Batavia and Semarang.

Most of his work has been indexed by his grandson and can also partly be found in the music libraries in this country.

Seelig has become famous mainly because of the so-called Pantun, a Malaysian variant of the Portuguese Moresco, which was accompanied by the plucked instrument, the krontjong. At the time, his piano concerto has been performed in the Indies several times with an orchestra by the pianist Käthe Haasse, the mother of writer Hella Haasse.

The musical score of this work that, like so many of his compositions, had been fancied lost because of the war, has been recovered recently. People are trying to put new life into it, among other things, by way of the computer. The orchestral score must still be worked out with the help of very concise notes.

Finally, the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra composed of local musicians and Hungarian and Dutch forces.

 After 1950,

 there remained a small band in Jakarta led by Henk te Strake


in 1952

to return to the Netherlands.
Some of these musicians (who later settled in Yogyakarta) is the forerunner of educators musicians in Indonesia

since 1952
School of Music with the establishment of Indonesia (SMIND),





Argo Records – RG-2 – P.1952. Side A. 2-A1 Kebiar 8’49


in 1961
transformed into the Academy of Music Indonesia (AMI) in Yogyakarta, which is now named
Indonesian Arts Institute (ISI) since 1984.


Read more info


Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI” another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952

Institut Seni Indonesia Yogyakarta

is known as the ISI is an institution of higher learning the art of status of public universities that have the authority to provide education to the highest level.



was established on the basis of Presidential Decree No. 39/1984 dated May 30, 1984 and inaugurated by the Minister of Education and Culture Prof. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto on July 23, 1984.

Although relatively young age as an institute, but the universities which is a component of the ISI has long existed and has been a long time to take part in the development of the country of art and generate a lot of artists and professionals who are scattered in various functions, professions and expertise, both within as well as abroad. ISI was formed by the fusion of three higher education pre-existing art, namely the College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”, Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”, and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI“.














College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”

as the oldest of its components have been around since early 1950 as a result of the efforts of artists who were then gathered in Yogyakarta. Indonesia has a tradition of high art will be able to maintain and develop kemapuannya. Thus was born the Indonesian Academy of Fine Arts (ASRI) that originated from academy status and obtain a new shape in 1968 as a high school that gave him the authority to open an undergraduate degree.



Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”

another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952; and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI” was born in 1963; a continuation of the Conservatory of Dance Indonesia (KONRI) which born a little way behind, namely in 1961


As with ASRI,

the establishment of AMI and ASTI is also due to the strong encouragement of Indonesia art and culture lovers for mengmbangkan what they have. Although long before that arts education has traditionally been there, but to increase both vertical and horizontal necessary institutions of formal education and modern art

In early 1973,

the trial of the leaders STSRI “ASRI”, AMI, ASTI and several other arts academy with officials from the Ministry of education and Culture, agreed to establish an institution of higher education are more wide-ranging artistic and greater authority in both the field art and in terms of the provisions of higher education


Back to Jos Cleber informations

Then Jos Cleber a classic pop musicians such as Mantovani, working as an orchestra leader Cosmpolitan in Jakarta, because the players made up of various races (kosmospolitan).

 The players there are from Russia (Nicolai Varvolomeyeff), Hungary (George Setet, Henry Tordasi), Philippines (Pablo, Sambayon), Indonesia (Sardi,


Ismail Marzuki .,


(father of

diah Iskandar).
While in Indonesia he had a lot of attention to the art of gamelan.

ndonesia Raya Jos Cleber filmed version of

the Symphony M Jusuf Ronodipuro,



 that when it became the Head of Studio RRI Jakarta,

in 1950


 requested that Jos Cleber (at that time he was 34 years old) make arrangements Indonesia Raya, having successfully worked on the arrangement of songs, Indonesia, among others, Under the Full Moon Light, and Jasmine series.

Jusuf Ronodipuro describes Indonesia Raya, how songs are born and created, as well as explaining the meaning of the song. Cleber commented that he captures the nuances Marseillasse (French national anthem) in Indonesia Raya.


Composed by Jos Cleber was recorded at Studio RRI Jakarta on
beginning in 1951

by involving all the musicians of the orchestra cosmopolitan, recorded with a tape recorder that new Philips owned RRI at that time.

Then in 1997
re-recorded with a digital technique in Australia by Victoria Philharmony led Adie MS.

Bung Karno comments above arrangement Jos Cleber
Jusuf Ronodipuro Jos Cleber then invited to meet President Soekarno to Merdeka Palace to play the tape.
Bung Karno directly criticized the composition Cleber. According to Jusuf, Bung Karno said, “Indonesia Raya is like our Red and White Flag.
No need to be given more lace. “[2]


Orkes Studio Jakarta dalam dunia musik periode 1948-1950


Top of Form

Djakarta Studio Orchestra
One of the orchestra is in Jakarta Indonesia in the early days of independence, led by


















Sutedjo  also the leader of angkasa sound  orchestra

The other two are Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra and

the Orchestra Cosmopolitan led by Jos Cleber.

Jakarta Studio Orchestra in the music world has duty to the period 1948-1950 is not light, which is trying to modernize the art keroncong to fit the era.

Despite facing various obstacles, OSD always tries to give consideration between Western and Eastern music, Hawaian and Malay, as well as jazz and keroncong. Soetedjo OSD lead since the first time established until July 1, 1950.

Cleber’s Jakarta studio  Orchestra cosmopolitan

music game to accommodate California.

 Of new bands springing up like

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

read more about

M Jusuf Ronodipuro

original in native java language

Muhammad Jusuf Ronodipuro utawa Joesoef Ronodipoero

 (Salatiga, Jawa Tengah, 30 September 1919Jakarta Kidul, 27 Januari 2008) iku misuwur minangka salah sawijining perintis RRI.

Saliyané iku dhèwèké uga naté dadi Duta Besar Indonesia. Ronodipuro tau dadi Duta Besar ing Uruguay, Argentina, lan Chili. Jusuf Ronodipuro gegarwa karo Siti Fatima Rassat nganti séda lan pinaringan telung putra: Dharmawan, Irawan lan Fatmi.

Panjenengané séda ing RSAD Gatot Soebroto déning komplikasi stroke lan kanker paru-paru: Ronodipuro misuwur olèhé ngrokok sing nganthi kaya sepur. Banjur panjenengané disarèkaké ing Taman Makam Pahlawan Kalibata, Jakarta Kidul ing tanggal 28 Januari 2008. Nalikané séda ora olèh kawigatèn akèh amerga mbarengi sédané lan panyaréyan Pak Harto.

Ronodipuro iku dianggep sawijining pahlawan Indonesia.

Panjenengané sing biyen bisa kelakon nggiyaraké Proklamasi Kamardikan 1945 lumantar radio menyang bangsa-bangsa saindhenging jagad. Ronodipuro uga sing ngrintis anané Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) nganti saiki iki.

Menawa Dina Radio dipéngeti saben tanggal 11 September, iku amarga dina iku tanggaleYusuf Ronodipuro sakanca sejawaté miwiti ngedegake RRI ing tanggal 11 September 1945

Jaman pendhudhukan Jepang

Ing taun 1942,

Hindia-Walanda dibedhah déning Tentara Dai Nippon lan Tentara KNIL nungkul kasoran. Wiwit iku Hindia-Walanda dibroki Jepang lan Walanda ditendhang metu. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé wiwit taun 1943 dadi wartawan radio militèr Jepang ing Jakarta, sing diarani Hoso Kyoku. Radio kuwi pemimpiné wong Jepang, yaiku Letkol Tomo Bachi, wakilé wong Indonesia anama Utoyo Ramlan. Déné pemimpin redaksiné Bahtar Loebis, kangmasé sastrawan dan wartawan Mochtar Loebis. Mochtar Loebis dhéwé nalika semana dipercaya mligi kanggo siaran mancanegara.

Tekané dina kamardikané bangsa Indonesia wis trontong-trontong. Jepang dibom atom déning Amérika Sarékat, sepisanan Hiroshima ing tanggal 6 Agustus 1945, banjur kasusul tanggal 9 Agustus 1945 Nagasaki uga dibesmi.

Jepang banjur nungkul marang Sekutu, nanging pawarta wigati iki durung tekan ing Indonesia, jalaran nalika semana arang-arang sing ngrungokaké radio.

Ronodipuro dhéwé senadyan nyambut gawé nèng radio Jepang, ya durung ngerti pawarta kuwi. Ujug-ujug siaran luar negeriné Hoso Kyoku ditutup embuh kena apa. Mochtar Loebis sing dipercaya nangani bab pawarta manca kuwi banjur mbisiki jaré Jepang wis nungkul marang Sekutu. Merga jejibahané dadi wartawan, PakYusuf banjur menyang Menteng 31, papan ngumpule para pejuwang mudha.

Nèng kono wis ana rapat wigati sing dipimpin Sukarni. Kabèh wis ngerti yèn Jepang nungkul, mbokmenawa saka Adam Malik sing dadi wartawan Domei. Pas Yusuf teka kabèh padha seneng. Sukarni kandha, jaré kaum mudha arep ngrebut Radio Jepang. Yusuf sing ngerti Hoso Kyoku diajak rembugan kepriyé carané ngrebut. Kamangka wektu kuwi Radio Jepang dijaga rapet banget déning Kempetai, pulisi militèr Jepang sing kejem banget.

 Proklamasi Kamardikan Républik Indonésia

Jemuwah ésuk jam 10.00 tanggal 17 Agustus 1945,

Proklamasi Kamardikan klakon diwacakaké déning Bung Karno ing Dalan Pegangsaan Timur 56. Ronodipuro dhéwé kala semana ora ngerti, sebab wong-wong ing Hoso Kyoku wiwit dina Rebo sadurungé wis ora entuk mlebu utawa metu manèh. Kabèh ana njero. Dumadakan ana wong teka, jenengé Syahrudin, nggolèki Yusuf karo menehaké kitir salembar. Layang cekak aos kuwi saka Adam Malik isiné tèks proklamasi.

Ronodipuro isih bingung, kepriyé carané teka Syahrudin bisa mlebu gedhong radio sing saiki ing Dalan Medan Merdeka Barat 4-5, kamangka wong Kempetai jaga kupeng. Bareng arep nyiaraké, Yusuf Ronodipuro bingung manèh, amarga panggonan siaran kabèh dijaga Kempetai. Tujuné kélingan yèn studio siaran luar negeri wis ora kanggo. Nanging, piyé carané wong pemancare ora ana. Yusuf banjur takon bagéyan teknis, ya nemu akal jempolan. Kabel sing kanggo menyang pemancar dalam negeri dicopoti, disambung karo pemancar luar negeri. Nanging ing studio katoné ya kaya siaran biyasa, amarga swarané ya isih kaya adat sabené. Kamangka wis ora dipancaraké.

Bareng wis tumata, jam 19.00,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro sing umuré ngancik 26 taun, banjur nyiaraké Proklamasi liwat siaran luar negeri. Kira-kira nganti 20 menit, lan ambal-ambalan, uga diterjemahaké menyang basa Inggris. Kuwi tegesé radio-radio BBC London, Radio Amerika, Singapura, lan sapituruté bisa nangkep kabèh, dadi wusana sadonya ngerti Indonesia wis Proklamasi Kamardikané.

Usaha Ronodipuro kuwi wekasané dikonangi déning Tentara Dai Nippon. Mbokmenawa siarané ketangkep radio ing Jepang. Mula, Kempetai dadi nesu banget. Angger kapapag wong Indonesia ing Hoso Kyoku, kabèh dipala. Ronodipuro ditendhang, diidak-idak, lan mèh dibabat samurai. Sikilé diidak nganti dhengkulé dheglok lakuné.

Sawisé iku Ronodipuro ngedegaké Radio Suara Indonesia Merdeka mawa barang-barang bekas.

Tanggal 25 Agustus

Bung Karno diaturi supaya pidato. Iki pidatoné Bung Karno kang sepisanan sasuwéné dadi Présidèn. Bung Hatta pidato

tanggal 29 Agustus.

Nalika semana ing daérah-daérah radio Jepang isih akèh sing siaran.

Ing daérah pancèn ora dijaga rapet kaya Jakarta. Sing njaga mung siji loro, iku merga Kempetainé wis kaya ora nduwé daya sawisé Jepang nungkul.

Mula Yusuf Ronodipuro matur marang Abdurahman Saleh, supaya radio-radio daérah mau beciké ngadani sesambungan siaran kanggo perjuwangan. Gagasané ditampa lan ing

10 September

pimpinan radio-radio daérah, saka Sala, Yogyakarta, Bandung, Semarang, lan liya-liyané bisa kumpul rembugan. Kabèh nyarujuki, njaluk marang pamaréntah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radioné ing Indonésia. Jepang ora gelem, amerga miturut rencana arep diserahaké marang Sekutu.

Tanggal 11 September

rapat manèh, nyarujuki madege Radio Republik Indonesia, lan uga sepisan maneh njaluk marang pemerintah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radio ing daérah. Merga tetep ora gelem, kepeksa banjur dirudapeksa, radio-radio direbut. Wong Jepangé dhéwé wis padha wedi, dadi wis kaya ora ana alangan. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé banjur kapatah minangka Kepala RRI, déné Abdurahman Saleh mélu ngadegaké Angkatan Udara RI. Mula asmané saiki dilestarèkaké dadi jeneng lapangan terbang ing Malang.

Sekutu sing menang Perang Donya II kuwi banjur teka. Nalika semana sawisé Rapat Akbar Ikada, kaum mudha ngrebut kantor-kantoré wong Jepang dadi darbéné Republik, klebu Hoso Kyoku. Nalika Walanda ndomplèng Sekutu arep ngrebut bali Indonesia lumantar

Agresi I ing taun 1946,

 RRI dikuwasani Walanda, lan Yusuf Ronodipuro banjur dicekel lan dipenjara ing

 21 Juli 1947.

 Kedaulatan Indonesia ing taun 1949

Sawisé Walanda ngakoni kedaulatan Indonésia ing

taun 1949,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro lenggah manèh dadi Kepala RRI Serikat.

 Sabanjuré Yusuf Ronodipuro dipercaya ngayahi manéka warna jejibahan utawa tanggung jawab ing negara manca, klebu dadi duta besar utawa utusan menyang PBB.


       (jv) Winarto. 2005. “M. Yusuf Ronodipuro Bapak RRI. Dipala Jepang Nganti Dheglok Marga Nggiyarake Proklamasi” ing Damar Jati 2005:4 kaca 26-27, 36.

Year 1945 – 1950

Famous jazz band in 1945 – 1950 in Surabaya member


 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,


 Bubi Chen (piano), Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges ( piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi Pattirane (guitar), Mario Diaz (drums) and Benny Hainem (clarinet).

When RRI Jakarta handed back to Indonesia,


Jusuf Ronodipuro

doing some renovation. Orchestra on the third Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra, Djakarta Studio Orchestra, and the Cosmopolitan Orchestra – will be retained but leadership is replaced. Ismail Marzuki was appointed as leader of the OSD bam.

Although the sense of hearing is already less than perfect, Jusuf still “forcing” Marzuki to led the orchestra that aspires to “advance the art-noise Indonesia” is.

OSD leadership handover is like a meeting between the “books with mas”. What is arranged Soetedjo continued Ismail Marzuki.

They stand shoulder to shoulder to bring the art of music and sound art to one goal: the music is understood by all the people of Indonesia.

Soetedjo “betrays an array of experts who have been musicians will understand the meaning and significance of training and discipline,” while Ismail was “forging of which is Dear to popularize the songs into the society … the society entertaining.”

Soetedjo maing himself referred to as “the only one who knew arrangeur Indonesia, which could rapidly-tjekatan been working” and “an artist-music-conscious organizations.”

But Ismail Marzuki OSD lead only for three months, then conductor submitted to a sebelurnnya Sjaiful Bahri known as orchestra players Puspa Delima. Sjaiful by Ismail Marzuki considered “fully gifted”.

 OSD advances under Sjaiful Bahri did not escape the influence of Dutch musicians such as Jos Cleber Diessevelt and Tom, who also had to educate Ismail Marzuki song arranging and orchestration. After the death Sjaiful Bahri, Cleber Diessevelt returned to the Netherlands, acting as a writer Ismail Marzuki keroncong arrangements for OSD

In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz.

He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and

 Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).


In the,, history “RHYTHM for 10 years one of the orchestra who has taken a special place in my heart which alone is,, RHYTHM SPECIAL TRIO / Quartet” led by Nick Mamahit, as long as there is no orchestra alone which can give more numerous kapada satisfaction and kesengan but also the difficulty in recording their lagu2 Mamahit besides Nick.

Nick Mamahit

name can not be separated by the establishment RHYTHM 10 years ago. Which begins in a recording studio (garage) small-sized 2×3 M. didjalan H. Agus Salim 65 (now N0.119) and didjalan Besuki 23, Nick et al his friends : Dick Abel (guitar, saxophone), Dick v / d Capellen (bass) and Max v. Preformance (drums) has made its own history with the establishment,, Special Rhythm Trio / Quartet “. They are pioneers in a new style  which show the songs ..

 The term which they use are,, progressief “.

Surely such the song

s style  which can not be so alone accepted by crowded peoples . Having experienced various hurdles and criticism from other artists as well as an duran2 then made a little spin songs  which many may also be accepted by chalajak who crowded bertjorak ie,, commercieel progessief “which means, that they play like what is embodied in their hearts (progressief) , but also not to forget and ignore common sense, or which may be accepted by fans of vinyl records.

Just remember back to lagu2 with,, Special Rhythm Trio “(progessief) al: Angin Mamiri , etc. Ole2 Bandung. which did not get a warm welcome and which is difficult to sold . Besides, there are also songs with new stles together, Rhythm Quartet “(commercieel progessief) which is,, tophit” then al: Lenggang Djakarta, dream last night, and Action Kutjing.Memang ………… Senjum uncompromising art.

Although the opinion and hearing the song was just something kind and quality, if the buyer does not like ………… then he too would not bought it

Recording with Nick Mamahit’s songs  not as easy as with others orchestra. Each player is an expert on their own and the songs  which must also be able to change their,, accentueer “spirit of their own with no one among them depending on their own, while in addition,, recording engineer” should also be able menjelami their spirit.

There is not a song   which can be recorded at night, on the contrary if they are really , in the mood “at least 2 pieces of many songs which can be inserted tape.

After,, the old gang “broke up in 1954,  

associated with the departure of Dick v / d v Capellen and Max. Dick preformance into the land of Abel to the Netherlands and Singapore, then Nick Mamahit own abode in Indonesia and the establishment of a new orchestra which can replace or menjamai,, Special Trio / Quartet “last, while the bauyers  very cold reception.

Then two years later in 1956, 

 Nick formed a trio with Risakotta Bart (drums) and Espehana (bass) who serve lagu2 of instrumental and the outcome  is longplay,, Sarinande “.
What a welcome from buyers and fans of the LPs and abroad on the outward appearance,, Sarinande “Mamahit prove that Nick has successfully captured the hearts of fans of vinyl records and views of,, in terms commercieel” succesnja achieve anyway.
And ……………… 5 years after,, Sarinande “longplay which then made the second by a,, SPECIAL RHYTHM” caption :,, ………… miss NICK Mamahit “.

The period of the recording, Sarinande “with,, miss” is 5 years (1956-1961).

 many problems , but just know that this is,, specifiek “Nick. heard as a contradiction or conflict, but precisely because,, specifiek “which is tjiri  specific  from Nick, it was just a matter of time granted.

Because of these styles coupled with the principles and perseverance which his property own , little give in the course and many other teman2 RHYTHM boost in driving the company which originally was,, hobby “, but then become a necessity in serving the arts.

Young musicians

 in Jakarta sprung up in 70 – 80.

A History of Jazz in Indonesia Note

Fatherly figure was actually initially wanted him to be a musician, but not accomplished. Would end up just listening to it.


Although only one of jazz music lovers, but from his experience will be full of footage and historical development of jazz music in Indonesia.


Familiar with jazz music since the days of Indonesia’s independence war in the 1940s until he was much involved and the man behind the screen a variety of jazz events in Indonesia, especially in London.

With the support of many thousands of documentation about jazz and jazz albums in his home, now he is planning to publish a book of jazz music.


From a glance at the Radio interview with WartaJazz Bikima FM Yogyakarta, Indonesia has revealed that there is a jazz group in 1922. Surely it would be more satisfied if we wait for the book can be published and the important thing is probably what can be described in the book he may be a reflection of us all about the emergence of jazz music in Indonesia.

Jazz News (WJ): reportedly is preparing to launch a book about jazz music?

Sudibyo Pr (SP): Now working on a book, a new approximately 90% complete.

WJ: What motivated you to write a book of jazz?

SP: Actually, in an effort to communicate and socialize jazz music. Since most jazz books here mostly in English and not many books about jazz in Bahasa Indonesia. And of course my own as a jazz lover, want to try to share my experience to better communicate to new generations.

WJ: Do you really see that jazz is not popular in the community in Indonesia?

SP: I think it’s still a lot of the wrong image, wrong understanding. We as a true jazz lovers are also willing to raise the status of jazz as an art.

But until now I still understand that the situation in Indonesia is still so. In the United States alone that jazz before 1950 is actually somewhat neglected community as well.


After receiving the European jazz seriously, Americans are just beginning. And what was in Indonesia I think is still reasonable and it is one effort. It has never been a single published book entitled Jazz Indonesia, whose contents are only telling musicians or anyone who ever played jazz.


With some mixture of jazz and biographies of the characters. In addition, the book might be a little jazz my other guide book of nature is history.

WJ: I wonder what is written in the book?

SP: The first time about starting with what is jazz, all kinds of misconceptions and try to straighten our understanding. Especially knowing that jazz is very different from other music.


For as we look at jazz music with European musical glasses then always be missed. So does jazz have to approach the other way and may not exist in other music.

In the book I describe it, especially compared with European music. European music is music composition. Something that is built and the music should be played like what is written.


So if people like to paint pictures to paint. If jazz, to the contrary, he would express himself as well as the main priority is performance rather than composition.


Whether it’s jazz or not, after playing the new people know that it’s jazz or not. So if you like this game if you play jazz and it’s not like jazz.


 If the classical music, I play the score was able to say I play classical music and jazz that is later used to play, we hear first.


Actual composition was made by the musicians themselves when he was playing. Composition used here only as a basis for improvisation and melody build itself.

WJ: What is it that makes the impression of jazz music in our society is difficult to understand, a music class?

SP: If jazz music really can be difficult to understand as well. If up to now there is the impression that jazz is only for the upper class, was in Indonesia since the beginning of jazz music played on a five-star hotels.


 Because at the time it was difficult to ask clubs or a small café to showcase jazz music. Of their commercial aspect they did not dare. They think that jazz is still too foreign, and also happens to be the manager of these hotels as well as jazz lovers and also a lot of friends there so we finally started playing jazz in there.


Because hotels are five-star hotel, so that came mostly from upper middle class. This gives the impression that they make an exclusive group.


Perhaps it is true, but that eksklusifme jazz that’s more in terms of artistic rather than in terms of prestige.


Actually, they are for the love of jazz music and match the specific groups to form a group. Indeed, until now most are still a lot of jazz played in the major hotels and many have not played in other places though now little by little has been started (played in other places too-red).

WJ: And in the past, anything that you try to promote jazz music?

SP: We previously did not hold in hotels, but on campus. In the beginning was simple.


At that time the only source of jazz from the radio and there are several local musicians. Entertainment while students at the time when there is gathering together every week.


There we can drive around music, dance and always invite some jazz musicians. After that show they play. I often also bring some jazz recordings, finally my friends who love jazz and the other remains might come home we’re late.


At that time I ventured to hold a concert at the ITB LPs are played every full moon on the basketball court. I also love sober explanation according to my knowledge by recording from vinyl records and turntables powered by 50 watt amplifier that it was a great time. Finally nice enough, 2 hours with jazz music and after that we play dance music. Originally the case.

WJ: What exactly is the main activity of the Pak Dibyo it? Is jazz columnist? Or something else?

SP: When I was a lot of activity. But my profession is the architect, former professor of ITB, but indeed from the days of my students are active in promoting jazz, introducing jazz at the time not many people are familiar with jazz music, music that is still considered a lunatic. Although ultimately had an impact too.

WJ: First you study in?

SP: I went to the ITB which I then proceed to study in Britain and America.

WJ: In the book, is there any sort of how to enjoy jazz music?

SP: There are several things to consider, the first is the familiar elements of jazz music are the elements that make music that could be called jazz.


The second part is the identifier of each element of jazz music and a little bit about the structure of jazz music. Next is the history of jazz music, from the birth of jazz music.


Then was the development of style-style, because that person is known to jazz it was a lot of his style. It also indicates that very fast jazz music in its development, which in a century has been remarkable progress.


If the era of classical music from another era to era take hundreds of years. A lot of people that listen to jazz now be confused. Many in the jazz style.


Especially if the person did not know him. I hereby attempt to discriminate between one style with another style. There are funny stories, first time there are no bands that put on a musical instrument drum while wearing only a jazz group only. So that there are people who call the instrument is jazz. If anyone says that the band had a jazz band that means it has a drum.

WJ: What is the history of jazz in Indonesia is also specifically mentioned in the book?

SP: Yes, at the end. According to the data that I got that jazz was first played in Indonesia is about the year 1922.


So actually the first jazz recording ever produced in America was in 1917.


Since then the record began to spread across the world. Actually there is a musician from the Netherlands after a long time in America, he is also a saxophone player, came to Indonesia with his friends and make a band.


At that time regarded as the first jazz band in Indonesia. And I’ve noticed over the history of the game it was the Indo-Dutch almost 80% while the natives probably very few who play jazz music.


Indeed, if their names are read Dutch but judging by the name of the person is actually one of Jember, Banyuwangi and so on.


Why so? I have not found the right reasons but it should be investigated as well.

There are also a source that says about the year 1925 – 1927 many Filipinos into Jakarta and most of them are musicians. It also had an impact. Still some left, if in London there is still a musician whose name is Pablo Benny, Benny Corda, including the head of the radio orchestra in London, Sambayong it was the Filipinos who are jazz musicians who came to Indonesia in 1925.

WJ: Actually its development center in?

SP: Jakarta, Bandung, Bogor, Surabaya and Makassar. Originally used jazz played by a military group that usually they play to the top of his Dutch and Indonesian people, including his right to equal by the Dutch.


In the past they played in Societet, while the people of Indonesia can enter the building can be calculated, and even jazz had entered the palace.


We’ll see, at the time of the Dutch people who already have grammaphon Indonesia’s who?


Perhaps the Sultan alone. Anyway people of Indonesia on the social position like that of course they want to be aligned with the Dutch, who prefer to join the party events, dance with the Dutch.


In the United States was at that time jazz was still at an early stage, ie as much as a musical entertainment, as keadaanya not until now that some people considered as one of the jazz art form.

WJ: In those days, if there is a native who played jazz music?

SP: There is. In the report that I got it menebutkan that indigenous jazz musicians from Indonesia Aceh was the first time.

WJ: Is it true that some of our freedom fighters of the Army or its participating student play jazz to entertain the Netherlands?

SP: That’s not the Army their students, but individuals only. Incidentally I am also of the TP and there are some friends of Yogyakarta is also one of the union leaders that we are familiar with the name calling Pung mas.


He’s a musician too, and many of my friends at school who moved to Jakarta Yogyakarta about the year 1948.


There had with my friend from Ambon named Rudi Wayrata (live Lempuyangan, Yogya) and theists Matulesi, Edi Laluyan of Manado later formed the band in Jakarta.


At the time the band plays songs Hawain and pop songs, even though it in some style Hawain have started a little guitar solo in the direction of jazz music.


So they leave Yogyakarta to Jakarta. At one time mas Pung and I have an idea, why do we make the arrangements of vocal-group jazz arranger.


So that at the time, because mas Pung is also a fairly reliable aransir, has begun to make arrangements that are now possible such as Manhattan Transfer iringannya although still modest.


Playing in the studio until RRI (then still under the Dutch) and found by Jos Cleber (a Dutch orchestra leader).


 When he saw us play he remarked, “you are actually having an excellent vocal group, it helps me swatch cuman a jazz accompaniment is right”.


Eventually found by a trio (piano: Doddy Hughes; Drum: Boetje Pesolima; Bass: Dick Van Der Capellen) and offered to entertain the Dutch army.


So if what we did when it was known by friends in Yogya even later considered traitors. Then also appeared with Nick Mamahit.

WJ: In addition to names such as

Jack Lesmana,

Bubi Chen

and others, would anyone important jazz figures in Indonesia in addition to or before genarasi them?

SP: It depends from where we started. If we start from the beginning of the Republic of Indonesia may be familiar, even though they had died, among others Boetje Pesolima, Dick Van Der Capellen, Tjok Sin Soe (prior to 1950 has been played), Sigar Lucky Brothers (but since there is the assumption that jazz is not have a future in Indonesia they go to California) also Nick Mamahit (he ever get a formal education in the Netherlands),

Iskandar (Diah Iskandar ‘s father )

 he is a saxophone player and aransir already quite advanced, although the game has not been commensurate with aransemenya (the arrangements very well sung by someone else and never brought in a jazz festival in the U.S.).

In addition Etto Lattumeten he made famous Dixieland band The Old Timer in Jakarta. At the beginning of independence there was also a pianist who is both Marihut Hutabarat, who was called ‘George Shearing was Indonesia’.


He is a Bachelor of Law who died in an accident. And he’s the best after Nick Mamahit. Only then entered his generation Bill Saragih, Paul Hutabarat, Eddie Billy, Bing Crosby. Bing Crosby is actually a great singer and a jazz guitarist, even though more people know him as a comedian than a jazz player.


In the first independence war era, including Bing Crosby from one of three famous singer in Indonesia




 (Sam Saimun

and Mantovani).

Additional ‘Bing’ in his name because he was a great admirer of Bing Crosby.

WJ: Does the book also has an appreciation of your own to the development of jazz music in Indonesia today?

SP: There was little comment about it. There may also be some criticism about the jazz festival.


Regarding the development of jazz music here is actually from Indonesia’s population of more than 200 million, is still too little for his jazz players.


So if we look from a variety of events organized jazz will return to the name-that’s all, not many new names.


The process is still slow. Perhaps it happened views of the history of popular music in the 1930s where the music is jazz.


Because jazz at the time it was easy to dance and rhythm accompaniment for young children will easily access.


But after the 1960s jazz more and more complex and complicated that many teens getting away. While the outside of jazz music going on teenage trends that began to roll and swell the rock n roll.


Finally, many teens who fled. In the past, we can one record from the United States alone has been a bone of contention and busy to listen to the radio.


There is also admiration arose because many jazz musicians in Indonesia in the past, only learn from the radio broadcasts that make them a creative and great musicians, for example; Jack Lesmana and so on.

Now we are so many sources even exceptional. There’s MTV, pop subculture that many teens suck there.


So if there’s even a jazz happy teens teen said “odd”. Although in every era, teenagers are always called by certain pulses.


Given the positive fusion exists too. There are beat into jazz fusion, so there is concern and teenagers became interested in jazz rock in the hope they would be interested also in the jazz music itself, but some are not. It could also serve as a bridge early.


Same thing now with people like Kenny G, initially people think that Kenny G is also a jazz player. But it’s also a good start, because teenagers started pleased with instrumental music. Usually the “hero” his solo vocalist, with a hearing Kenny G is a saxophone player, maybe they’ll find another sax player.


Appreciation is always through specific pathways. 1960 may be the bossa nova and more people get into music like jazz.

WJ: When about this book can be published?

SP: Then, depending on the publisher and actually still need sponsors. In the book I also also analyzes the history of each instrument. At the same time I also gave the albums a choice of many jazz musicians.

WJ: What was initially met with figures of jazz lovers or in HPMJI (Association of Jazz Music Enthusiasts Indonesia)?

SP: At the time, jazz was already crowded. Increased local players in Bandung, while that in Jakarta at the USIS once every 2 weeks performing jazz.


Then they’ve asked me to organize a jazz gig in London and a successful event.


After that, they often ask for my help to find a musician if there are events in the USIS. My first assignment here and there looking for musicians and set up some programs.

Finally I got involved also with HPMJI and jazz players whose relationship is close enough.




Bubi Chen was not yet known.


 I just had a friend in Surabaya are familiar with the Bubi. So the next time it comes Tony Scott, Jack Lesmana in Surabaya said that there was a Chinese who can play the blues and bebop.




At first did not believe it. After Bubi Chen invited to the house at that time was young, about age 24 years, getting out of bed and was wearing a sarong. So Bubi play, Tony Scott direct speech, “This man must play with me”.



Read more about bubi chen

Bubi Chen veteran Jazz musician dies


TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – sad news re-covered world of Indonesian music. Bubi Chen, jazz musician who was born in Surabaya, today is Thursday (2/16/2012) reportedly died at the age of 74 years. Bubi died in Semarang at around 18:50 pm last.
News of the death Bubi Chen is a bustling media social networking Twitter.



Here’s a tweet from @ anandasukarlan account owner.
@ anandasukarlan: TLH Bubi Chen’s death, the great jazz Indonesia pk. 18:50 in Semarang. R.I.P. Tlg ya tweeps RT.



Bubi Chen was born in Surabaya, East Java, February 9, 1938 was a jazz musician Indonesia.

Bubi Chen is scheduled to be present in the arena of the great jazz party’s annual Java Jazz from 2, 3 and 4 March through Djarum event SuperMild Java Jazz 2012.

Originally Bubi will be featured at this event along with other jazz musicians, among others, country and Dewa  Budjana Dwiki Dharmawan

WJ: According to some sources, you are also involved in the project Indonesian All Stars album was produced and when it appeared in the Berlin Jazz Festival in 1967?

SP: It was the first to say there are jazz group from Indonesia “Go International”. If you think about the story at first is




Tony Scott’s




visit in Indonesia.


Here he was playing with Bubi Chen, and Jack Lesmana Maryono until eventually they become a thick friend and as a teacher.


 Because Tony Scott is one of a clarinet player, who at that time say the progressive game. He had played with



Charlie Parker,





Billie Holiday  jazz singer and so on.


But for one thing he had to leave Indonesia, so he was not too long here. Tony Scott also happened to be good friends with



a German jazz critic Joachim Berendt.

Berendt him a message to Indonesia if the do not forget to contact



Jack Lesmana.


Berendt to Jakarta and then introduced to



the mas Yos (red-Suyoso Karsono).

Actually he is a Jack father -in-law on wakti Lesmana where he had a record company (Rhythm Records).


After their dialogue on the possibility to send group of Indonesia. That upon the recommendation of Tony Scott.


Finally they made some recordings in Jakarta and then sent to Germany to be played on some radio station there as warming up. Once it was established Indonesian All Stars.


Because they constantly practicing for 2 months, finally they were all in Jakarta moved  to stay in his house Mas Yos.


This is due at the time Jack Lesmana and Bubi Chen is still in Surabaya. And also went to Europe.

Indeed, according to their plans to tour in Europe with a peak to participate in





the Berlin Jazz Festival.


But they were hit by disasters. After the tour a success, when he got in Berlin, Maryono fell ill.


So the festival’s Indonesian All Stars does not appear, but the Bubi himself to play.


So the next time the committee was there to choose International All Stars band in which the members chosen from various countries and Bubi was selected as the accompanist.

Since then, the name Bubi began to be known by jazz critics. And Downbeat magazine in late 1967 issue of the name has been started called “the best in Asia” and “one of the best in the world”.

WJ: Given the economic and political conditions in our country in 1967 about the same as we are experiencing right now, why they seemed to have a ‘power struggle’ high?

SP: That when I look at Jack and Bubi it shows the game is best in their years of suffering and difficulty. Their games are very inspiring.

Among them Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano ), Elfa Secioria (piano).

Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.


Fariz RM name appears. He further categorizes his music as new age. However, some compositions breathe pop jazz, latin and even. Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz, by replacing some of the personnel.

90s up to now,

 a lot of jazz musicians and groups are formed. Brought jazz music is no longer mainstream, but the distillation of a variety of music such as fusion, acid, pop, rock and more. Call it SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials and much more.

Usually a lot of jazz musicians popping up in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya and Bali. This is due to currents flowing jazz more jazz gigs there by (JakJazz, Java Jazz Festival, Victoria Jazz Festival), jazz music schools, recording studios and a cafe featuring jazz. Which also contributed to a “stream” jazz flows into Indonesia is the Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival.

Music Jazz Record Collections

THE Indonesian Vintage music JAZZ record COLLECTIONS



in the 30’s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30’s. Brought by musicians from the Philippines who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

The names of the musicians

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.

In 1948
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians.

One is the famous Dutch musician Cleber Jose.

Cleber’s Jakarta Studio Orchestra music game to accommodate California.

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

Year 1945 – 1950

 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,



Bubi Chen (piano),

Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges (piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi




In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz. He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya  in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).



Feb 21, ’08 7:29 PM
for everyone


Rindu ……… Nick Mamahit & Trio
Rindu … Nick Mamahit & Trio

oleh Sujoso Karsono

(,,Mas Jos” utk. teman2nja)

Young musicians in Jakarta in 70 – 80.

Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano), Elfa Secioria (piano). Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.



 Fariz RM

Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz,

90s up to now,

 SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials
Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival

the end @ copyright @ 2912

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