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The Cuba history collections Part four



Cuba History Collections

Part Four

Spanish-Cuban-American War


Created By

Dr iwan suwandy,MHA



Spanish-Cuban-American War








February 24 –

Second Cuban Insurrection begins.


April –


 General Gomez,


 General Antonio Maceo,


 Jose Maceo,

 Cebreco, Crombet, Guerra,


 Jose Marti


and Borrero land in Cuba

May 19 – 


Cuban Jose Marti killed in encounter at Dos Rios Oriente Province.

June 13 –


Spanish General Fidel de Santoclides killed in


 the battle of Peralejo Oriente Province.  He died, killed by sharpshooter Andres Fernandez of


Antonio Maceo’s escort, while protecting


Arsenio Martinez Campos Spanish Governor of Cuba. 


Martinez Campos takes refuge in Bayamo and is soon removed from his position and returned to Spain.

September 17 –

 Battleship MAINE commissioned.



October 1895-January 1896. 


Antonio Maceo and


Maximo Gomez take their forces on


 the “La Invasion” fighting almost every day from Mangos de Baragua Oriente Province eastern Cuba to


Mantua, in Pinar del Rio Province in extreme western Cuba.

November 30, 1895


 Battle at Iguara. 

It is in  this “La Invasion” encounter that


Winston Churchill is given a medal “Red Cross” by the Spanish.  Spanish claim  victory but numerically inferior Cubans continue to advance.






1896 Cuba 5 Pesos EL BANCO ESPANOL VF




January, 1896 –



Antonio Maceo and


Maximo Gomez end their “La Invasion.”

February 16 –



General Weyler issues first of reconcentrado orders.


February, 1896: Reconcentration Policy

In 1896, General Weyler of Spain implemented the first wave of the Spanish “Reconcentracion Policy” that sent thousands of Cubans into concentration camps. Under Weyler’s policy, the rural population had eight days to move into designated camps located in fortified towns; any person who failed to obey was shot. The housing in these areas was typically abandoned, decaying, roofless, and virtually unihabitable. Food was scarce and famine and disease quickly swept through the camps. By 1898, one third of Cuba’s population had been forcibly sent into the concentration camps. Over 400,000 Cubans died as a result of the Spanish Reconcentration Policy.


Dyal, Donald H.. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT, 1996.

O’Toole, G.J.A., The Spanish War: An American Epic-1898. W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 1984


March 24 – 


Calixto Garcia, escaped from Spain, arrives in Cuba with well armed expedition.

August 26 –

 Philippine Revolution begins.

December, 7 –


Antonio Maceo


killed in encounter at



Punta Brava,


 Havana Province.

December 30:

Filipino national hero Dr. Jose Rizal is executed by Spanish troops.


March 4 –


William McKinley inaugurated as president of the United States.

March 13 –


Calixto Garcia now using cannon


enters the fortified town of Jiguani Oriente Province.

June 19 –


Stewart Woodford appointed U.S. Minister to Spain

August 8 –


One hundred and fourteen years ago today, in the tiny Spanish spa town of Santa Agueda, Spain’s autocratic and much-hated

prime minister Cánovas del Castillo was assassinated:

gunned down as a final act of revenge by an Italian anarchist who could no longer tolerate this Spaniard’s decade-long policies of Neo Inquisition-style repression.

For the brutal Medieval-style torture of Castillo’s enemies – from mainland Spain to its American colonies – had long included the burning of victims’ flesh, the breaking of their bones, even the removal of their tongues. 

 To the insufferable autocrat Cánovas del Castillo, such modern concepts as Universal Suffrage and Freedom of Religion could be met with only one response: brute force.

But while the extreme sufferings of his Cuban colonists had long been the subject of international debate, it was right here on the Spanish mainland itself that Cánovas would perpetrate his worst crimes, concentrated acts of such bloodlust and bitterness that they would only drive ‘his’ people away from such pro-royal, pro-church nationalism towards those concepts of Catalan and Basque Separatism that still resound even today.

But the infamous incident which precipitated Cánovas del Castillo’s assassination – his singlemost controversial and most pivotal action yet perpetrated against the Spanish people – occurred in Barcelona, during the Corpus Christi Day processions of June 7th 1896, when a bomb – thrown by an unknown, and apparently randomly – succeeded in killing five Spanish workmen and a policemen.

 Using this as an excuse for more extraordinary brute force, Cánovas del Castillo had over 400 arrested and incarcerated inside the hilltop fortress of Montjuic (‘the hill of the Jews’), where torture, squalid conditions and the insufferable Mediterranean summer heat killed many as they awaited trial.

On hearing the accounts of Cánovas’ policies directly from the mouths of fleeing Spaniards who had suffered under his dreadful policies, the London-based Italian anarchist


Michele Angiolillo

decided that extreme action must be taken immediately. And so, traveling to Spain with just a small suitcase containing a few sticks of dynamite and two revolvers, Angiolillo followed his target to the spa town of Santa Agueda, where – on the afternoon of August 8th – he shot and killed Cánovas del Castillo just as the prime minister sat enjoying the spa waters. The assassin was at once apprehended but offered no resistance. Angiolillo was put before a summary court martial and confessed to the assassination, insisting that he had acted alone as a reprisal for the institutional murder of his comrades at Montjuic.

 He was sentenced to death on 20th August 1897. To the spectators who had come to view his execution, Angiolillo’s final word was “Germinal” – being the seventh month of the French Republic calendar.

Having at no time during his trial nor during the days leading up to his execution shown any sign of remorse, Angiolillo then walked calmly to his execution by strangulation at the garrote.

Several days later, at a New York celebration of Michele Angiolillo’s heroic actions, the Italian anarchist Salvatore Pallavencini emphatically declared the anarchist position thus: “The man who killed Cánovas was a martyr to the cause of humanity and progress.” He concluded: “Anarchists think it is better to kill a ruler who is a tyrant than to have a revolution in which thousands have to die because of his acts.”


Spanish Prime Minister


 Canovas assassinated.


August 30 –


The Spanish forts

 at Tunas, north western Oriente Province fall to


Calixto Garcia.



October 4 –


Prime Minister Sagasta takes office in Spain.

October 31-


 Prime Minister Sagasta recalls


 General Weyler from Cuba.


November 28 –


The Spanish forts at Guisa, Northern foothills of Sierra Maestra Oriente Province,  fall to Calixto Garcia

Read more Info



1895 COLOMBIA. U.S. troops invade the Colombian state of Panama to “protect American interests”.

1895: UNITED STATES. Josiah Strong, minister of the Christian religion, publishes Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis, in which he contends that the United States, as the home of the “superior” Anglo-Saxon race, has an obligation to spread political “liberty”, “Christianity” and “civilization”. Strong’s book was enormously popular and the first edition sold 158,000 copies. The delusions of racial, moral and societal superiority promulgated by Strong were an important factor in encouraging Americans of the day to rationalize U.S. aggression against other nations.

1895: COLOMBIA. U.S. Marines invade the Colombian state of Panama. Again.

1895: UNITED STATES. Whites attack black workers in New Orleans killing six.

1896: UNITED STATES. Once again in the forefront of freedom and liberty, the United States Supreme Court puts its stamp of approval on apartheid in the land of the free. In Plessy v. Ferguson the Court rules that “separate but equal” facilities satisfy guarantees under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

1895-98: UNITED STATES. Yellow media mogul and Nazi mouthpiece-to-be William Randolph Hearst and yellow media tycoon Joseph Pulizter engage in a contest to see which man can reduce American journalistic standards to the lowest possible level. A mixture of exaggeration, outright lies and fabrications, jingoistic nonsense, xenophobia and sensationalism, so-called “yellow journalism”, apparently sells newspapers in the U.S. and Hearst and Pulitzer strive to outdo each other in their race to the sewers. The two newspaper barons play the major role in “manufacturing consent” by manipulating the U.S. public before and during the long-planned war which led to the U.S. invasions of Cuba, the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.

In fantasyland America, Pulitzer, who plumbed the depths of sleazy and dishonest publishing, will ultimately be remembered only for the Pulitzer Prize, ironically intended as a recognition of quality journalism.

1896: UNITED STATES. Vivisection gets a boost when Dr. Arthur Wentworth performs spinal taps on twenty nine children at Children’s Hospital in Boston to determine if the procedure is harmful.

1896: NICARAGUA. U.S. Marines invade the port of Corinto.

1896: UNITED STATES. Corporations directly buy their first presidential election. William McKinley is elected with $6 million in cash from from corporations. His opponent, populist William Jennings Bryan, has only $600,000 to spend on the campaign. The six mil buys McKinley’s campaign hundreds of trained speakers, millions of posters, buttons, and billboards, and three hundred million campaign flyers printed in nine languages.

McKinley was peculiarly susceptible to the boys with the money. In 1893, he had been rescued from bankruptcy with $100,000, a pretty big chunk of change in 1893, by a conspiracy, sorry, consortium, of John D. Rockefeller, his friend Mark Hanna and similar types. Hanna duly became McKinley’s top political adviser and chairman of the Republican National Committee. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust kicked in a cool quarter million to McKinley’s election campaign. And, to keep Rockefeller’s rival, J.P. Morgan, happy, his minion Garret A. Hobart, the director of various Morgan enterprises including the Liberty National Bank of New York, was made Vice-president, nicely rounding out the robber baron ticket.

A grateful McKinley will soon, on behalf of the same corporate interests who bought his election, preside over the illegal annexation of the nation of Hawaii and a war of empire against Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.

All questions in a democracy
are questions of money.

Mark Hanna

McKinley’s Campaign Manager

1896: UNITED STATES. State militia are used to break a miners’ strike in Leadville, Colorado.

1897-ongoing: UNITED STATES. America’s leading merchants of death, the Dupont family, enter into a conspiracy with their European competitors to monopolize the world gunpowder market. Better killing through chemistry.

1897: UNITED STATES. Theodore Roosevelt, tightly allied to the J.P. Morgan banking interests, is made Assistant Secretary of the Navy. During a speech at the U.S. Naval War College where plans for a war of empire against Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines have been under development since 1894, Roosevelt says, “diplomacy is utterly useless where there is no force behind it; the diplomat is the servant, not the master, of the soldier…No triumph of peace is quite so great as the supreme triumphs of war.”

1896: NICARAGUA. U.S. forces invade the Nicaraguan port of Corinto to “protect American interests”.

1897: UNITED STATES. At the Lattimer Mine in Pennsylvania, a sheriff and his deputies open fire on striking mineworkers, killing nineteen. Most of the victims are shot in the back.

I897: UNITED STATES. Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, sends a cable to Admiral George Dewey advising him to prepare for an attack on the Spanish fleet in the Philippines pending “developments” in Cuba. Whoa there Teddy, we haven’t blown the Maine up yet. And six weeks before the Maine does blow up, Roosevelt writes a letter to his very good friend, gun runner William Astor Chanler, saying, “I earnestly hope that events will so shape themselves that we must interfere (in Cuba) some time not in the distant future


Chronology of the Spanish American War

Spanish-Cuban-American War



 January 8 –


A second appeal by President McKinley for contributions to aid suffering Cubans
                      announced the co-operation of


 the American Red Cross Society.

 January 12 –

                      Rioters instigated by volunteers in Havana made a demonstration against newspaper
                      offices of
El Reconcentrado.



January 17 –

                      General Lee,


in communications to the State Department, suggested that a ship to protect Americans in Havana

in the event of another riot

January 21 –

                      General Castellanos

with 1,600 troops raided Esperanza, the seat of the insurgent
                      government in the Cubitas Mountains. Government officials escaped.

January 24 –

Maine ordered to Havana.

January 25 –

Maine arrived at Havana and moored at the govermnent anchorage.

January 25 –

                      Filibuster steamer
Tillie foundered in Long Island Sound, four men drowned.

  January 27 –
                      Brigadier-General Aranguren was surprised and killed


in his camp near Tapaste, Havana
                      province, by


 Lieutenant-Colonel Benedicto with the Spanish Reina Battalion.

He  recently put to death Lieutenant-Colonel Ruiz, who had brought him an offer of money from


Captain-General Blanco

to accept autonomy.

February 9 –
                      Copy of a letter written by

 Dupuy de Lome attacking President McKinlev printed.


Señor Dupuy de Lome

admitted writing the letter, and his recall was demanded  Department.

   February 15 –

Feb. 15 — USS Maine explodes, sinks; 266 crewmen lost. The Maine’s captain urges suspension of judgment on the cause of the explosion.

         USS MAINE blowned up            

264 men and two officers killed


 spanish  Minister De Lome

sailed for Spain.

February 16 –

                      General Lee

asked for a court of inquiry on the Maine disaster.

February 17 –
                      Captains W. T. Samps and F. E. Chadwick, and Lieutenant-Commanders W. P. Potter
                      and Adolph Marix, detailed as




Naval Board of Inquiry.

February 18 –

                      Spanish warship
Vizcaya arrived at New York harbor.

         February 21 –

                      Naval court of inquiry arrived at Havana and began investigation

I897: UNITED STATES. Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, sends a cable to Admiral George Dewey advising him to prepare for an attack on the Spanish fleet in the Philippines pending “developments” in Cuba. Whoa there Teddy, we haven’t blown the Maine up yet. And six weeks before the Maine does blow up, Roosevelt writes a letter to his very good friend, gun runner William Astor Chanler, saying, “I earnestly hope that events will so shape themselves that we must interfere (in Cuba) some time not in the distant future.”

 February 25 –

Vizcaya sailed from New York for Havana.

   March 6 –
                      Spain unofficially asks for


Fitzhugh Lee’s recall.


Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee

(1835 – 1905)


Former Confederate Major-General Fitzhugh Lee was the consul-general of the United States to Havana, Cuba at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War.  During the war he commanded the VII Army Corps.


The son of a U.S. (and later Confederate) naval officer, Lee was born in Virginia in 1835.  He attended the West Point Military Academy from 1852-1856, flirting with expulsion for pranks before graduating 45 out of a class of 49.

Following graduation, Lee served as a cavalry officer in Texas for two and a half years before being appointed an assistant instructor of tactics at West Point in late 1860.  While in Texas, Lee saw his first combat in battles against Indians.  He was seriously wounded in a skirmish on May 19, 1859.

Lee’s tenure as an instructor at his alma mater would last only 6 months. Like many Southern officers (including Lee’s famous uncle, Robert E. Lee) he resigned his commission in May, 1861 and was named a first lieutenant in the regular Confederate army shortly after.

Promotion in the Confederate army was fast for young Lee (far faster than it would have been in a peacetime US Army!); he rose to lieutenant-colonel in August, then to brigadier-general the following July.  His highest rank, major-general, would be attained in September, 1863; after achieving his greatest notoriety in the Battle of  Chancellorsville where, leading the only full brigade of Confederate cavalry, he guarded the Confederate’s flanking march around Union General Hooker’s exposed right wing.

Lee saw much more action throughout the war.  In September, 1864 he was wounded again and out of action for four months.  By the time of his return, however, the Southern fate was all but certain. Lee surrendered on April 11, 1865.

Following a short stint as a Union prisoner, Lee turned his efforts to farming, taking pride in his success in the endeavor.  In addition to farming Lee wrote several books in this period.  He also began improving his political skills.  Lacking any boastfulness and quick-witted, with an excellent sense of humor, the above-average soldier was an even better politician.  The unusual mix of abilities would serve him well.

The public arena beckoned a return in 1885, as Lee’s famous name and popular personality gained him election as governor of Virginia.  Though his single term was relatively uneventful, it served to cast him in the political arena.  In 1893 he was defeated for the Democratic nomination to the United States Senate.  The following year hewrote his finest book, a biography of Uncle Robert E. Lee.

Democratic President Grover Cleveland, battling the continued economic woes of the 1890’s, diplomatic troubles with Spain and England, and harsh congressional critics such as conservative Henry Cabot Lodge, appointed Lee consul-general to Havana in 1896.

Lee arrived in June to an island torn by civil war and mass poverty. Three weeks after his arrival he informed the State Department that Cuban rebels did not have the strength to drive the Spanish out, but that the Spanish were equally unable to subdue the rebellion.  He railed against the Spanish tactics to suppress the rebels and fought for the rights of American citizens in Cuba (including some suspected by the Spanish of aiding the rebels and held captive in Cuba, such as crewmen of the filibustering vessel COMPETITOR, and Dr. Ricardo Ruiz de Ugarrio y Salvador, a naturalized American citizen).

Ironically, Lee won the praise of Cleveland’s staunchest critics, who used Lee’s strong stance against Spain as further fuel against the more benevolent President.  Lodge wrote of Lee’s “good sense and firm courage,” while lamenting that Lee “was not sustained by the (Cleveland) Administration as he should have been.”

December, 1897 saw more unrest in Havana.  While much of the violence wasactually caused by the Cuban rebels (often directed toward American-owned sugar plantations), Lee’s concern was chiefly the safety of Americans in Cuba, thus causing him to exaggerate the threat he feared from Cubans loyal to Spain. Lee requested a warship be ready in Key West in case violence erupted.  The MAINE was ordered to Florida in January, and Captain Sigsbee maintained steady communication with the consul-general’s office. Early that month, the situation appeared to Lee to have taken aturn for the worse.  He sent a preliminary signal to Sigsbee, prompting him to ready hisship.  Whether Lee felt he had over-estimated the danger or the situation calmed, he never sent a further call for the MAINE. President McKinley and Navy Secretary John Long, however, did order MAINE to Havana.


Though Lee was unnerved by the MAINE‘s sudden arrival when he had specifically advised against it’s visit at that time, months later he would recall the arrival as “a beautiful sight and one long to be remembered.”  Perhaps this underscored his ownuncertainty of the situation.  Adding to the uncertainty was the prospect of growingGerman influence in the Caribbean (which, some speculate, was McKinley‘s motivationin sending the MAINE to Cuba).  Whatever the reasoning, late 1897-early-1898 saw Lee take a step back from his earlier blatant criticism of the Spanish. Proponents of Leein 1896-8 saw his actions as decisive and pro-American, leading nicely to the “splendid little war,” while later critics would charge that his misreading of theCuban situation(which, some would believe was intentional) moved both sides closer to war.



In spite of Lee’s misgivings, MAINE arrived in Havana on January 25.  Lee and Sigsbee were treated to a bullfight by hosting Spanish officers as part of the “good will” visit.  Underneath it all, however, was an undeniable tension.  Washington soon began to realize that the presence of the MAINE would only serve temporary goals, and many wondered how long she should remain in Havana.

One of those who worried about overstaying his welcome was Secretary of Navy Long.  Nearly the opposite of his fiery assistant, Theodore Roosevelt, Long openly considered pulling the MAINE out of Cuba.  Upon that suggestion, Lee threw away earlier  objections to  the ships visit, and both he and Sigsbee strongly opposed withdrawing the MAINE, unless it was relieved by another warship. “Many will claimSpain demanded it should go,” Lee wrote Washington,” we are master of the situationhere and I would not disturb or alter it.”

The explosion of the MAINE on February 15 suddenly changed everything. While McKinley and Washington moved closer to war by the day, Lee’s chief concern was the safety and evacuation of Americans in Cuba.  As threats and ultimatums grew more intense, Lee cabled the President for more time, stating that he could not assure the safety of all Americans by Tuesday, April 5, a deadline previously set for Spanish agreement to terms set forth by the White House.  He requested McKinley delay any statements until at least Saturday the 9th.  Under intense pressure McKinley stalled, delaying the message that would lead to war until Monday, April 11, a day after Lee’s arrival in Florida.

Following his return to a hero’s welcome in the U.S., Lee was commissioned major-general of volunteers and assigned the VII Army Corps.  The appointment was largely political, as McKinley had made it a point to place a few well known former Confederate officers in key commands to unite the nation (Joe Wheeler was another).  VII Corps trained in preparation of a major role in a fall offensive, though the war’s quick end (quicker than many thought, that is) kept VII Corps from any action. Lee’s logistical and planning abilities and previous military experience exhibited itself through the VII Corp’s few health and administrative problems; problems which plagued many of the other army corps.  After the war he commanded what amounted to an army of occupation in Havana and was charged with the restoration of order on the island.

Fitzhugh Lee retired a brigadier-general on March 2, 1901.  He died four years later. Lee was buried in his U.S. Army uniform, which caused one ex-Confederate to say “What’ll [deceased Confederate general] Stonewall think when Fitz turns up in heaven wearing that!”



 March 8 –

                      $50,000,000 war fund

voted unanimously by the House of Representatives.

5 Silver US Dollars 1896




US $2 1896

Silver Certificate
1 Dollar – Series of 1886
Signs: Rosecrans/ Nebeker
Condition: VF
Martha Washington
Price: $ 499.00  


Silver Certificate
1 Dollar – Series of 1896
Signs: Tillman/ Morgan
Condition: Ch CU/ Gem
Educational Note
One of the most beautiful US banknote.
Price: $ 2590.00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form



Silver Certificate
1 Dollar – Series of 1899
Signs: Teehee/ burke
Condition: Ch CU/ Gem
Eagle, Lincoln & Grant
Price: $ 479.00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form



Silver Certificate
1 Dollar – Series of 1923
Signs: Speelman/ White
Condition: CU
Price: $ 159.00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form



Silver Certificate
2 Dollar – Series of 1899
Signs: Vernon/ McClung
Condition: F
Price: $ 249.00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form



Silver Certificate
5 Dollar – Series of 1891
Signs: Rosecrans/ Nebeker
Condition: VG
Ulysses S. Grant-18th president
Price: $ 299.00

Top of Form

Bottom of Form



Silver Certificate
5 Dollar – Series of 1899
Signs: Speelman/ White
Condition: VG
Indian head(Oncpapa tribe of Sioux Indian
Price: $ 479.00  


 March 9 –
                      War fund of $50,000,000 passed unanimously by the Senate.

March 12 –
                      Government purchased


Brazilian cruiser Amazonas

and other ships abroad

 March 14 –

                      Spain’s torpedo flotilla

sailed for


Cape Verde Islands.



 March 17 –

                      Senator Redfield Proctor,

in a speech to the Senate, told of the starvation and ruin  observed in Cuba.

 March 21 –
Maine Court of Inquiry finished

its report and delivered it to


Admiral Sicard




Key West.

  March 22 –

Maine report sent to Washington.

March 25 –
Maine report delivered to the President, and officially announced that


The  MEINE was blown up by a mine.

 March 26 –
                      President McKinley sent two notes to Spain one on the
Maine report, and the other
                      calling for the cessation of the war in Cuba.

  March 28 –
                      President McKinley sent the
Maine report to Congress, with a brief message stating
                      that Spain had been informed of the court’s findings.

March 28 –
                      Report of the Spanish Court of Inquiry, declaring the
Maine was destroyed by an
                      interior explosion, was received in Washington.

 March 30 –
                      President McKinley,



Minister Woodford,

 asked Spain for a cessation of hostilities
                      in Cuba and negotiations for ultimate independence.

  March 31 –
                      Spain refused to accede to any of President McKinley’s propositions.

 April 1 –
                      House of Representatives appropriated $22,648,000 to build war vessels.

April 6 –


cabled President McKinley

to suspend extreme measures pending

 the Vatican’s
negotiations with Spain.

April 7 –
                      Ambassadors of England, Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Russia appealed to the
                      President for peace.

April 9 –
                      Spain ordered


Captain-General Blanco to proclaim an armistice in Cuba

              April 9 –

                      Consul Fitzhugh Lee

and American citizens left Havana.

 April 11 –
                      President sent consular reports and message to Congress, asking authority to stop the war
                      in Cuba.

April 16 –
                      United States Army began moving to the coast.

 April 19 –
                      Both Houses of Congress adopted resolutions declaring Cuba free and empowering the
                      President to compel Spain to withdraw her army and navy.

April 20 –

                      President McKinley

 signed the resolutions and sent his ultimatum to Spain, and the Queen
                      Regent sent a warlike message to the Cortes.

 April 21 –

 Minister Woodford

was given his passport.

April 22 –
                      The President issued his proclamation

to the neutral powers, announcing that Spain

                      the United States

were at war.


 Commodore Sampson’s fleet sailed from Key West to be in
                      a blockade of Havana.


Gunboat Nashville captured


 the Spanish ship Buena Ventura.

April 23 –
                      President issued a call

for 125,000 volunteers.

April 24 –
                      Spain formally declared

that war existed with the United States.

April 25 –

                      Commodore George Dewey’s fleet ordered to sail from Hong Kong for the Philippines.

April 27 –

                      Matanzas bombarded


the New York, Cincinnati and Puritan.

 April 30 –

 Spanish Admiral

 Pascual Cervera

and his squadron left the Cape Verde Islands for the West Indies.

May 1

                      Commodore Dewey defeated


Admiral Montojo in Manila Bay,

destroying eleven ships
                      and killing and wounding more than five hundred of the enemy. American casualities, seven
                      men slightly wounded.

May 11 –

                      Commodore Dewey

promoted to be a rear-admiral.


Attacks made on



at which Ensign Worth Bagley and five of the Winslow‘s crew killed.

 May 11 –


Admiral Cervera’s


 squadron sighted off Martinique.

 May 12 –

                      Commodore Sampson bombarded

San Juan, Puerto Rico, but caused little damage.

 May 13 –
                      The F]ying Squadron,



 Commodore Schley,

left Hampton Roads for Cuban

May 17 –

                      Cervera’s fleet, after coaling

at Curaçao, put into


the harbor of Santiago de Cuba.

 May 22 –


sailed from San Francisco for Manila.

 May 24 –

Oregon arrived off


Jupiter Inlet, Fla.,

 from her great trip from San Francisco,
                      which she left March.

 May 25 –
                      The President issued his second call for volunteers, 75,000. First Manila expedition


   San Francisco.


May 27 –

  Commodore Schley

 discovered that


Cervera’s fleet


 was in Santiago harbor and
                      blockaded him.

May 30 –

                      Commodore Sampson’s fleet



Commodore Schley’s.

May 31 –
                      Forts commanding the entrance to Santiago harbor bombarded.

June 3 –

     Hobson and seven men

sank the Merrimac in the channel entrance to Santiago harbor,

being captured were confined in Morro Castle.

Read more

The Sinking of the Merrimac


The hide-and-seek action that ultimately ended with the naval battle at Santiago two months into the Spanish-American War started with the initial declarations of war by Spain on April 21st and the United States on April 25th.  With the opening declaration of hostilities, Spain moved swiftly to protect its citizens in the Caribbean.  Beyond the fleet at Manila, the remainder of the once mighty Spanish Armada was located in Spain and off the Cape Verde Islands.

The flotilla at home was undergoing  maintenance and repair at Cadiz, Spain.  These ships would not be battle-ready for at least a month, so defense of the Caribbean was delegated to the Cape Verde flotilla.

Rear Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete was surprised and dismayed when he received orders to lift anchor at his haven in the Cape Verde Islands off the coast of West Africa, and proceed to the West Indies (Caribbean).  “This is a very risky adventure, for the defeat of my ships in the Caribbean could result in great danger for the Canaries, and perhaps the bombardment of our coastal cities,” he wired back to Madrid.  “Any division of our fleet, and any separation from European seas, is a strategic mistake.”

Admiral Cervera was a respected naval officer and not a man fearful to do his job, but the orders sending his flotilla to meet the American warships in the Caribbean gave him an ominous foreboding of disaster.  When his appeal to Madrid was denied, he dutifully hoisted anchor on April 29th and set a course for Cuba.  Before his departure he registered his concern one more time, wiring Madrid that, “Nothing can be expected of this expedition except the total destruction of our flotilla.  With a clear conscience I go to the sacrifice, but I cannot understand the (Spanish) navy’s decision.”



As quickly as the media in the United States heard the news that Admiral Cervera’s ships were heading west, the yellow journalists worked up a frenzy of fear and dread, proclaiming in large headlines that the Spanish Armada was on its way and would bombard American coastal cities within two weeks.  Despite the fact that the “Armada” actually consisted of only four outdated cruisers and three smaller torpedo boats, the news reports quickly sensationalized the coming conflict to epic proportions.   The panic and public outcry that followed prompted immediate naval action at home.  Even as Admiral Dewey was enroute from China to Manila Bay for the infamous battle of May 1st,  preparations were underway to move the US Navy’s Atlantic fleet to the Caribbean.

Navy Secretary John D. Long was convinced Cervera and his ships would most likely head for San Juan, Puerto Rico on the eastern border of the Caribbean, though he left open the possibility that the Spanish Admiral might instead elect to steam straight for Havana.  The Atlantic fleet was under the command of US Rear Admiral William T. Sampson, a worthy opponent for Admiral Cervera.  Sampson proposed quick strikes, first to capture Havana, then a rapid voyage to shell and capture San Juan.  He reasoned that such a move would deny the Spanish flotilla any safe haven when they arrived in the Caribbean, projected by Secretary Long to be on or near the date of May 10th.

Once again however, it was the media that would dictate the order of battle.  Public panic and the cry for protection of American coastal waters prompted Long to split Sampson’s fleet, pulling the battleships Texas, Massachusetts and Iowa back to Hampton Roads, Virginia as a “flying squadron” under Commodore Winfield Scott Schley.  Sampson’s other warships were limited to blockade duties around the island of Cuba, further stripped by the transfer of two of his cruisers to support efforts of a naval militia under Commodore John Howell that was assigned routine patrol duty of the Atlantic coastline from Maine to Florida.

Those first two weeks of the Spanish-American War were filled with frustration and boredom in the Caribbean.  The inaction was further compounded when the sailors of Sampson’s fleet began hearing the glorious reports of the victory at Manila Bay, half a world away.  When Cervera’s flotilla had not arrived in the West Indies by Secretary Long’s predicted date of May 10th, the American commander, his officers, and his men were both disappointed and further frustrated.  It was this continuing erosion of morale that prompted Captain McCalla of the Marblehead to engage his ships in the cable-cutting operation of May 11th, and that also prompted Captain Todd to send his vessels into Cardenas Harbor that same day.  Both efforts had broken the boredom, but both had also ended in near disaster.

Feeling the same frustration as his men and with the Spanish flotilla proving to be a “no show”, Admiral Sampson chose to commence a reconnaissance of Puerto Rico.

The small island less than 3,500 square miles was located on the eastern fringe of the Caribbean, and sat between Cuba and the expected flotilla from Cape Verde.  Claimed for Spain by Christopher Columbus and colonized by Ponce De Leon, the people of Puerto Rico had begun requesting independence from Spanish rule. In 1897 Madrid granted the people of Puerto Rico a limited degree of self-government, but resisted all demands for independence.

When Admiral Sampson began his reconnaissance in May 1898, the Spanish had three forts on the long, narrow island.  On May 12th Sampson entered the harbor at San Juan on the western edge of the island.  His fleet consisted of seven warships, a torpedo boat, a tug and supporting supply vessels.  Carefully the fleet maneuvered around the sunken hulks of two ships in the harbor at San Juan, and proceeded towards the forts deep inside.   Sampson had hoped to find Cervera’s ships at anchor inside the calm waters, but all he found as he circled the harbor three times, were three small gunboats.  

As the fleet passed the enemy forts inside the harbor at San Juan, Admiral Sampson opened fire.  In the brief battles that followed, Sampson’s ships neither rendered or received any major damage.  As the ships withdrew however, an enemy shell exploded on the New York, killing two men and wounding seven.  Discouraged, disappointed and now running low on fuel, Admiral Sampson directed his fleet to return to Key West for resupply and repairs.

Steaming for Key West the day following his bombardment of San Juan, Admiral Sampson received some disappointing news.  The U.S.S. Solace caught up to the American ships with a report that Admiral Cervera’s fleet had returned to Cadiz, in Spain.  As the bulk of the American naval presence departed the Antilles, on May 14th the Spanish gunboats Conde de Venadito and Nueva Espana made a brief and generally ineffective sortie out of Havana.  The following day the U.S.S. Porter caught up to Admiral Sampson bearing surprising news.  The report he’d received two days earlier from the Solace was in error.  Admiral Cervera’s squadron had indeed arrived in the Antilles, and had been spotted at Martinique on May 12th, then in Curaco on the 14th.  Also, on May 13th Commodore Schley’s flying squadron had left Hampton Roads for Cuba.

The news, rather than raising the excitement level, served only to add to the frustration.   Low on fuel, Sampson had no choice but to continue his course for Key West.  In the two weeks that followed, events moved rapidly in the Caribbean and the commander of the Atlantic fleet chaffed at the bit to return and meet the enemy.  On May 18th the New York arrived in Key West and Admiral Sampson met briefly with Commodore Schley and ordered him to immediately steam for the harbor at Cienfuegos, the place he deemed the most likely destination of Admiral Cervera’s flotilla.

On the morning of May 19th Admiral Cervera’s ships reached the entrance to Santiago harbor at the southeast end of the island of Cuba.  It was the same day that the remainder of Admiral Sampson’s ships finally arrived in Key West.  The following day the Navy Department notified Admiral Sampson that in all probability, reports of Cervera’s fleet arriving at Santiago were correct.  It was anticipated that the enemy ships would proceed immediately for Cienfuegos, 300 miles and a single day’s travel, further to the west.  Based upon the location of Sampson’s ships in Key West and the route of the flying squadron under Schley, Cervera would be unmolested in this effort.

It wasn’t until midnight on May 21st that the flying squadron reached Cienfuegos, Commodore Schley’s warships riding out the darkness of night from a distance of about 20 miles.  With daylight however, his ships cruised closer to Cienfuegos, hoping to draw fire and confirm the presence of the enemy fleet.  They met only silence.  Somehow, once again, the Spanish fleet had eluded the Americans.  Meanwhile Admiral Sampson had returned to the Antilles, taking a blockading position in his flagship northwest of Cuba.  Here he sent a message to Commodore Schley to proceed with his flying squadron to Santiago, where Sampson expected the squadron to arrive on May 24th.  The search for the enemy fleet was still underway in the cat-and-mouse game that was now nearly a month old.

In fact, Admiral Cervera had taken his ships inside the narrow confines of Santiago Harbor.  While Cienfuegos may have been preferable, his ships were low on coal, and the 300-mile voyage to Cienfuegos had to be postponed.  That action not only sheltered the Spanish flotilla, but left the Americans wondering where the mighty armada of the Spanish Empire had vanished.

Commodore Schley didn’t leave immediately for Santiago however, remaining outside Cienfuegos where he was joined at noon on May 22nd by the  Iowa and the Dupont.  That afternoon he again sent his ships in closer to Cienfuegos, and this time he believed he could see  the tops of an enemy man-of-war.  Dupont was sent closer to reconnoiter and reported seeing several ships inside the harbor.  Schley initially believed he had found Admiral Cervera.  While continuing this blockade of Cienfuegos, the flying squadron was joined by additional American ships including the Castine, an armed yacht, and the aging collier Merrimac.  On the evening of May 24th Schley ordered the Castine to take up position in front of the harbor at Cienfuegos, though he was now convinced the Spanish fleet was not to be found nearby.  The Dupont was returned to Key West, and the flying squadron proceeded towards the opening to Santiago harbor 300 miles away.  Schley’s squadron included the Brooklyn, Iowa, Texas, Massachusetts, Marblehead, Vixen, Hawk, Eagle and Merrimac.


U.S.S. Merrimac

Not to be confused with the Civil War ironclad, the Merrimac was an aging collier the Navy purchased from T. Hogan & Sons of New York City on April 12, 1898 for the sum of $342,000.  With no armaments and no armor, the 333-foot ship was pressed into a Spanish-American War support role a few weeks after purchase, under the leadership of Commander Miller.

Almost from the beginning of the Merrimac’s brief stint of US Naval service, it was  plagued by problems.  The ship broke down so frequently it was the butt of common jokes, and it was said that at times “the full engineer force of the Brooklyn was sent about to get her running again.”

On the day Schley set course for Santiago, he also sent a message to Admiral Sampson indicating there was no sign of the Spanish flotilla at Cienfuegos, and that his ships did not have enough coal to maintain a blockade at the opening to Santiago harbor.  Unaware that the enemy warships were hidden within the narrow harbor, on May 26th Schley left the St. Paul to watch the harbor, then set his squadron on a course for Key West.  Enroute and about 40 miles from Santiago, the Merrimac broke down so completely it had to be taken under tow by the Yale.  

In the meantime, Admiral Sampson learned that in fact, the enemy warships had taken anchor inside Santiago Harbor, and was determined to end the chase.  He returned to Key West to obtain permission to personally take command of the blockade at Santiago Harbor and, he hoped, subsequently destroy Admiral Cervera’s squadron.  His request granted, on May 29th Admiral Sampson departed Key West for Santiago de Cuba in his flagship U.S.S. New York.  Joining his flotilla, in addition to the Mayflower and the Porter, was the newly arrived U.S.S. Oregon.  (The powerful battleship Oregon, under the command of Captain Charles Clark, had left port in San Francisco on March 12th to travel around the Cape and arrive in Florida after a 14,700 nautical mile, 71-day race against time.  The length of time it took the battleship to move from coast to coast would give rise to ideas for a shorter route, perhaps a canal in the narrow finger that joined the continents of North and South America.)


The Harbor of Santiago de Cuba is a long, narrow finger of calm tropical sea that reaches inland nearly 10 miles.  The shoreline is dotted with hidden coves and inlets, the perfect hiding place for small gunboats to protect any ships anchored inside.  Access to the harbor from the sea could only be accomplished through a narrow inlet, only 200 yards across.  The inlet itself was protected from the west by the Socapa Battery and on the eastern shore by the Morro Castle.

Before leaving Key West, Admiral Sampson had conferred with Captains Converse and Fogler and Commodore Watson in efforts to format a plan of action.  Unlike the harbor at Manila, there was no hope for American warships to enter and destroy the armada.  By chance, more than by design, Cervera’s ships were stuck in a harbor that offered far more protection from attack than had they been able to continue to Cienfuegos.  The culmination of these conferences was that, if the American ships couldn’t get in to destroy Admiral Cervera, then they would pen his ships inside.  There were discussions about loading several small schooners with brick and rocks and then sinking them in the narrow inlet.  Captain Converse thought of the broken down, 333-foot Merrimac and suggested that it might provide a greater sunken barrier than several schooners.

As Admiral Sampson steamed towards the enemy in his flag ship, the plan of action had been determined.  All that remained was to figure out a way to accomplish it.  The mission would be a dangerous one, sailing the large ship directly into the fire of enemy cannon, then sending it to the bottom of the sea.  Perhaps the HOW would be far more difficult than the WHAT, and even more critical than either perhaps, 

was the WHO!



Assistant Naval Contractor Richmond Pearson Hobson was a 28-year old lieutenant on the staff of Admiral Sampson as the New York steamed towards Santiago and the Spanish squadron of Admiral Cervera.  Hobson was a unique individual, somewhat of a loner who kept to himself.  At the age of 15 Hobson had entered the US Naval Academy at Annapolis and four years later graduated FIRST in his class of  1889.

It was during Hobson’s first three years at the Academy that much of his military personality would be shaped.  A man of principle and dedication, some would say he went to the extreme.   He was quick to report infractions, even when it involved midshipment of his own class.  During his first three years at Annapolis, classmates refused to talk to him except when official business required it.  Hobson took the situation in stride, concentrating on his studies.  In his senior year his classmates extended an olive branch, inviting the 18-year old youth back into their fraternity.  Having become used to the silent treatment, young Richmond informed his classmates that he was content with the status quo.

 On the night of May 29th as the New York headed back to Cuba, Admiral Sampson called the young officer to his quarters.  Briefly he outlined the plan to sink the Merrimac in the shallow waters of the entrance to Santiago Harbor, looking to the Naval Contractor for assurances as to the missions viability.  Hobson listened intently, then requested time to plan such a mission.  \The following day, his work completed, Lieutenant Hobson presented his plan to Admiral Sampson.

Hobson’s plan was to fit out the aging collier with a series of explosive charges along the port side, ten of them in all.   Under the cover of darkness the Merrimac would then enter the harbor, slowly steaming to the shallow waters in the narrowest passageway, where the bow anchor would drop causing the current to swiftly turn the ship sideways.  At this point the stern anchor would drop, holding the ship in place as the torpedoes were electrically detonated.  With the port side facing into the harbor entrance, the holes opened by the torpedoes would fill with water swiftly in the onrushing current, and the Merrimac would sink in less than two minutes.

Admiral Sampson listened attentively to Hobson’s proposals, including the part of the plan that called for the young lieutenant to lead the mission personally.  The Admiral approved it in its entirety, then set the men of the New York to the tasks of preparing the ten water-tight canisters that, when filled with nearly 80 pounds of brown powder, would be strapped below the water line on the port side of the Merrimac.

The following day, May 1st, Sampson’s ships arrived outside the harbor entrance, far enough away to be beyond the range of the guns at Socapa Battery or the Moro Castle.  The Merrimac, repaired again at least for the moment, was brought alongside the New York so that Lieutenant Hobson could supervise the placement of the ten charges that would put the old ship “out of its misery”.  He also carefully supervised placement of the detonators that would trigger these charges.  

The plan was for the mission to commence that very evening.  One additional task remained.  One man alone could not maneuver the 333-foot ship into the channel, drop the bow anchor, drop the stern anchor, and then detonate all ten charges.  It was not a mission the Lieutenant could accomplish by himself….this time Hobson would have to recruit assistance and work as part of a team.

Before Admiral Sampson issued his request for volunteers, he explained in explicit terms just how dangerous the mission would be.  For all practical purposes, it appeared to be a suicide mission, attempting to sail the old ship directly into the guns of the enemy, sink her, and then escape and evade the enemy to return on a small catamaran carried on the deck of the doomed collier.  His ominous speech concluded, the Admiral asked for volunteers.  Three hundred men at once offered to risk their lives, including Captain Miller who was reluctant to turn command of his vessel over to another.

From the ranks of the eager sailors, Hobson selected six men.  From the New York he selected Gunners Mate First Class George Charette and Coxswain Randolph Clausen.  From the USS Iowa he selected Coxswain J. E. Murphy.  Remaining to guide their vessel Merrimac in its final voyage were three sailors who had joined the Navy little over a month earlier, volunteers all of them.  Machinist First Class George Phillips and Water Tender Francis Kelly would operate the engines of the Merrimac for one final operation,  while Coxswain Osborn Deignan would man the helm to steer his ship to her final, glorious conclusion.

Preparations for the May 1st attack did not go well.  It seemed nothing had ever gone smoothly for the Merrimac when it joined the US Navy.  All ten charges were in place, the volunteers were ready to go, but there were only enough batteries to fire six of the ten explosive charges.  To Hobson’s chagrin, the mission was postponed and work continued on the ship the following day.

As Hobson reviewed his plans, he felt he needed one more volunteer for the crew.  Not only did he want a man to handle the task of dropping the stern anchor at the critical moment, he wanted an experienced sailor who could lead the others if anything should happen to himself.  Hobson discussed the matter with the New York’s executive officer, then approached 29-year old Master-At-Arms of the Admiral’s flagship.  Daniel Montague not only had seven years of experience in the United States Navy, prior to that service he had been a member of the British Royal Navy.  Montague promptly volunteered for the dangerous mission.

In the early morning darkness of May 3rd, what would become one of the most historic missions since the Great Locomotive Chase of the Civil War began.  In addition to Hobson and his seven volunteers, the Merrimac’s pilot and assistant engineer remained aboard for the first leg of the journey.  As they moved the ship towards the harbor, Hobson began testing his explosive charges.  To his frustration and dismay, only seven of the ten charges passed his initial test–he was going in at only 70%.  Refusing to be delayed another day, Hobson ordered the Merrimac to continue, steaming at full speed of 9 knots.

As the Merrimac neared the harbor entrance she slowed momentarily.  A small steam launch piloted by Cadet Powell steered close enough to take aboard the pilot and assistant engineer.  The plan was for Powell to keep his launch close to the harbor entrance to pick up Hobson and his seven volunteers who would return on the small catamaran once the Merrimac had been scuttled.

It was near total darkness as Hobson again commanded his doomed ship to move forward at full speed, riding the swell of the flood tide and hiding beneath a night  no longer illuminated by the moon.  Straight into the enemy guns the warriors sailed, hoping against hope that the darkness would be their one ally in the dangerous waters of the enemy.  It was not to be.

Within 500 yards of the narrow channel, the Merrimac suddenly came under heavy enemy fire.  Even in near total darkness, an enemy picket boat had discovered the ship.  Despite the loss of the element of surprise, and in the face of the intense enemy fire, the volunteer crew of the Merrimac continued at full speed into the jaws of death.  Within minutes a torrent of heavy cannon fire rained on the ship from all sides as it boldly entered the channel under the deadly guns of the Socapa Battery and Morro Castle.

The aged ship shook with the repeated battery of heavy enemy shells, but continued to steam valiantly ahead at full speed.  Hobson himself later wrote, “The striking of projectiles and flying fragments produced a grinding sound, with a fine ring in it of steel on steel.  The deck vibrated heavily, and we felt the full effect, lying, as we were, full-length on our faces.  At each instant it seemed that certainly the next would bring a projectile among us…I looked for my own body to be cut in two diagonally, from the left hip upward, and wondered for a moment what the sensation would be.”

Near the stern anchor, Montague heard a heavy round crash into the structure, cutting the anchor lashings.  At the helm, Coxswain Deignan yelled to Hobson, “She won’t respond sir!  The tiller ropes have been shot away!”  The same round had destroyed the collier’s all-important steering gear.  Almost beyond navigation now, the ship continued forward, propelled by the momentum of its full-speed approach and the swift currents of the flood tide.  And then the ship was in the channel, braving the continuing fire but moving ever closer its destination as the crew remained at their posts.  Despite the hail of fire that raked his ship,  Hobson stood exposed on the bridge, stripped to his underwear, to monitor the situation.  And then the Merrimac was sliding sideways, drifting away from the narrowest part of the channel and into deeper waters.

In the distance the Spanish warships Colon and Oquendo added their fire to the fusillade from the shore batteries.  Even when the Reina Mercedes sent two torpedoes to make direct hits on the Merrimac, nearly ripping it in half, Hobson and his volunteers stood faithfully at their stations.  Above the din of battle, Hobson shouted the order and Murphy dropped anchor to halt the rapidly drifting ship.  The stern anchor shot away, the doomed collier continued to drift as it dragged the lone anchor across the floor of the harbor.  Kelly began knocking the caps from the sea valves as Hobson set to the process of detonating the explosive charges.  The enemy fire had also destroyed batteries and detonators.  Only two of the charges exploded into the early morning sky.

The lack of working explosives failed to sink the ship in the less than two minute span previously plotted.  Instead, it remained afloat for more than an hour, burning intensely and slowly going to its grave.  Only a short distance from the shallow waters, the ship had come so close, only to fail in the end to accomplish its goal.

As the Merrimac burned, the catamaran fell up-side-down into the harbor.   Stripped to their underwear, the seven volunteers clung tenuously to their last vestige of haven, waiting for Hobson to leap overboard to join them.  Beyond the mouth of the harbor Cadet Powell continued to move through the darkness, waiting for the heroic men of the Merrimac to appear.  Finally, as morning dawned, he turned his launch back to rejoin the fleet with tales of the incredible display of enemy firepower he had witnessed, and the sad report that apparently none of the brave sailors had survived the night.  Within minutes, word had spread throughout Admiral Sampson’s ships.  It was a morning for sorrow and mourning.

Inside the harbor, Richmond Hobson and his valiant sailors clung to their overturned catamaran, hoping and praying that the current would turn and sweep them back out to sea…and to safety.   Instead the tide only moved them closer to the enemy.  

In that first dangerous hour, small arms fire from the nearby shore forced them to use their “raft” as a shield.  But as the Merrimac burned out and slowly sank, the enemy fire tapered off, then stopped.   In the early morning haze the eight sailors noted the approach of a Spanish launch–and then it was upon them.  Hobson yelled to the enemy, “Is there any officer in the boat to accept our surrender as prisoners of war.”

An gentlemanly looking Spanish officer appeared and motioned towards the men, ordering his sailors to lower their weapons and help the American sailors board his launch.  The officer that accepted their surrender was none other than Spanish Rear Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete himself.  As Hobson and his brave sailors surrendered to the enemy, Cervera surveyed the scene around him, taking in all that these young men had attempted to do, all that they had endured, and the risk that they had taken.  Turning to them he spoke one word……



Later that afternoon a small Spanish tug left the harbor under a flag of truce.  Steaming next to the New York, it halted while Cervera’s chief-of-staff, Captain Bustamente delivered a message from the Spanish admiral that Richmond Hobson and all of his men were safe.  It was a dramatic example of compassion in time of war, an enemy commander’s show of respect for true heroism even when exhibited by his enemy.   The message delivered, Bustamente returned to Santiago with provisions of clothing and a small amount of money for the captured sailors.

Initially the 8 prisoners were confined at Morro Castle, then later moved into the city of Santiago De Cuba.  Three weeks later Daniel Montague became very sick and was moved to a hospital.  (Though he recovered, the tropical illness contracted during his captivity, led to ill health in the years to follow and eventually contributed to his death in 1912.)  On July 6th, after a desperate battle during which Admiral Cevera would attempt to escape the harbor with his fleet, all eight volunteers from the ill-fated Merrimac sinking were paroled in a prisoner exchange.


Richmond Hobson and his men came home to be hailed as heroes.  On November 2, 1899, all seven of the sailors who had volunteered for the Merrimac mission were awarded Medals of Honor.  As a Naval officer, Hobson himself was ineligible for his Nation’s highest recognition of uncommon valor.  

(Prior to 1917, the Navy Medal of Honor was reserved for presentation ONLY to ENLISTED sailors and Marines.)        






John E.


The lack of success of the mission to trap the Spanish fleet by sinking the Merrimac could not damper the coverage in the media, or the public adoration showered on Hobson and his heroes.  Also despite Hobson’s failure to receive the Medal of Honor, he became recognized as one of our Country’s greatest heroes of that Splendid Little War.

A special commemorative poster was later widely circulated depicting the history of that conflict.   The photos of 10 of the leaders and heroes of that war were printed on that poster.  Richmond Hobson’s photo was among the ten, positioned in the center just below a painting of the capture of his team by Admiral Cevera and the Spanish.  (You can click on the smaller image of this poster at left, to view or print a larger copy in a separate window.)

 On October 8, 1898, just six months after Hobson’s heroic mission, Mr. and Mrs. Hilton of Westville, South Carolina were blessed with a baby boy.  They named him after the hero of their day.  Twenty years later their son would find himself facing his own war in France, a war in which 20-year old Sergeant Hilton would earn the Medal of Honor.  On the official roll of honor his name is listed as Richmond H. Hilton….his full name however…Richmond Hobson Hilton.

In his post-war years, Hobson himself chose to leave his Naval career.  In 1904 he was a Presidential elector from his home state of Alabama.  From 1907 to 1915 Hobson served his state’s 6th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives.

One year before Hobson’s namesake received the Medal of Honor, our Nation’s highest award underwent several major changes.  Among these was a new provision that no longer restricted award of the Medal to enlisted sailors and Marines.  In future wars, heroes like Richmond Hobson would be recognized for their courage, regardless of their rank.

On April 29, 1933 Richmond Hobson was invited to the White House.  The United States Congress had taken special action to add Hobson’s name to the Roll of Honor along with his those of his valiant sailors.  On that day, by that special act of Congress, President Franklin D. Roosevelt presented Richmond Hobson the Medal of Honor for his heroism 35 years earlier.  

Elsewhere the occasion was surely a moment of unique pride for Richmond Hobson Hilton, the Spanish-American war hero’s namesake.  With that award, Hilton became the only known person in history, named for a Medal of Honor recipient, to receive it himself.

              June 6 –

                      Spanish cruiser
Reina Mercedes sunk in the Santiago harbor entrance by the Spaniards
                      to prevent ingress of American war vessels.
          read more


The Battle of Santiago

Spanish Wrecks after the Battle

On 3 July 1898 a US force demolished the Spanish squadron at Santiago, Cuba, in one of the two major naval actions of the Spanish-American War. The Spanish squadron was poorly manned, poorly maintained and out-gunned, so it was an easy victory for the US. Six Spanish ships took part in the action – the armored cruisers Vizcaya, Infanta Maria Teresa, Cristobal Colon and Almirante Oquendo, and the destroyers Furor and Pluton. All these ships were run ashore, except Pluton, which sank. In addition, the Spanish cruiser Reina Mercedes was scuttled in the channel. Because many of the ships were beached, we have this unusual chance to view the ruined hulks of the Spanish ships.

Armored Cruiser Vizcaya

The armored cruisers Vizcaya, Infanta Maria Teresa and Almirante Oquendo were sisterships. Each ship carried two 11″ guns, but they were lightly armored. All three were lost at Santiago.


Vizcaya prior to the war. The 11″ guns were housed in two single turrets, one forward and one aft.


Broadside view of Vizcaya’s hulk, from the starboard side, aft. The destruction is evident even from a good distance away, with nothing but the funnels left standing above decks, and the entire hull blackened by fire.


Port side view of Vizcaya’s hulk from astern. A fallen mast rests across the aft 11″ turret.


Onboard view of Vizcaya’s ruined decks and demolished superstructure. The deck is entirely burned away, the secondary guns ruined, and the superstructure flattened.


Another onboard view, showing the general destruction of the ship. The secondary batteries have been completely smashed in.


Vizcaya’s after 11 inch gun following the battle. Her fallen mainmast lies across the turret.


Armored Cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa

Infanta Maria Teresa prior to the war.


Infanta Maria Teresa in April 1898, not long before her destruction.


Port side view of Infanta Maria Teresa’s hulk. Her funnels and one mast are still standing, but little else remains.


Wreckage of Infanta Maria Teresa’s bridge.


The starboard side spar deck. As in her sistership, the deck is entirely burned away.


Teresa’s after 11 inch gun turret. Amazingly, the US Navy salvaged this shattered hulk, and tried to tow the ship back to the US – but she went around in the Bahamas and was lost.


Armored Cruiser Almirante Oquendo

Almirante Oquendo prior to the war.


The wreck of Almirante Oquendo.


Armored Cruiser Cristobal Colon

Cristobal Colon prior to the war, with laundry hung out to dry. Spain acquired this ship from Italy in 1897, but her 10 inch guns were never installed, leaving her nearly defenseless.


The officers of Cristobal Colon prior to the war. One of the ship’s empty 10″ gun mountings appears behind the officers.


The wreck of Cristobal Colon.


Old Cruiser Reina Mercedes

Reina Mercedes early in her career. This old cruiser was completely obsolete by 1898, and she played no active part in the war. Some of her guns were removed and used for shore defenses, and she was scuttled as a blockship at Santiago.


Reina Mercedes scuttled in the channel. She was raised by the US Navy on 1 March 1899, then repaired and rebuilt in the US. She served as a receiving ship after 1902, mainly at Newport and Annapolis. By the 1950’s she was serving as a residence for the commander of the Naval Academy. In 1957 it was deemed too expensive to maintain the ancient ship, and she was stricken and scrapped.


June 11 –
                      Body of marines landed at Guantanamo from the
Marblehead and Texas, and had a
                      brisk skirmish.

June 12-14 –

                      General Shafter embarked at

Tampa for Santiago with an army of 16,000 men.




             June 15 –

                      Caimanera forts bombarded by US war ships.

 June 15 –
                      Admiral Cámara

with a fleet of ten of Spain’s best war ships

left Cádiz for


Via port suez canal to Manila
             June 20 –
                      General Shafter disembarked his army of invasion at Daiquirí, with a loss of one man killed
                      and two wounded.

 June 21 –

                      Angara capital of Guam, one of the islands of the Ladrones, captured by

the Charleston.

June 24 –

In Cuba,

Juraguá captured


the Spanish were defeated  


Las Guásimas.


Heavy loss on both
                      sides, among the Americans

killed being Capron and Fish.

The SANTIAGO and several other transports languished off of Santiago for several days. In the disorganization of the disembarking troops, supplies, etc. at Daiquiri, Maj. Gen. Shafter simply had forgotten about the transports in the diversionary movement! The men spent their time swimming, and trying to cope with the crowded conditions. The morning of June 25 dawned to reveal something no one aboard the SANTIAGO had expected – an empty sea! During the night, the other transports had received belated orders to proceed to Siboney. In the darkness, the SANTIAGO was not seen and did not receive the orders. Finally the orders arrived in the morning. The first had become the last! The Ninth was finally able to begin to disembark at about 3:00 p.m., passing the wounded arriving from the skirmish at Las Guasimas as it came ashore.


The 9th U.S. arrives at Siboney

The next day was spent in helping to unload supplied from the transports. On June 27th, the Ninth finally took up their line of march toward Santiago. The unit made four miles that day, the men laboring in the intense heat, carrying their blanket rolls and ammunition. That night the regiment camped at Sevilla.

As the Ninth finally approached Santiago and the San Juan heights, it found itself in the valley between the American artillery and the Spanish forces. Shells of all types filled the air, luckily a safe distance above the regiment. Orders were issued to stack the blanket rolls, which were placed under guard, prior to going into action. The unit began its advance, forming its line, though it was not clear in which direction they should advance. The bullets of the Spanish Mausers sliced the air, but the smokeless powder completely concealed the Spanish positions. Finally, they were ordered ahead by Gen. Kent, and lead to a path that lead to the left off of the main road. In the movements, the first and second battalions of the regiment got separated with the 24th Infantry placed between. As the units moved into position, they past the 71st New York Volunteer Infantry hunkered down and trying to shield itself from the enemy’s fire.

In the space of a short time, Colonel Wikoff was killed, Lieutenant Colonels Worth and Liscum were both wounded. The Ninth Infantry and the other regiments of the 3rd Brigade advanced toward San Juan Hill, in spite of not having a brigade commander! Lt. Col. Ezra P. Ewers, who was now the senior officer in the Brigade would not learn this fact until after San Juan Hill was captured!

The men had to pass over five hundred yards under heavy enemy fire. Instead of aiming for the blockhouse atop the heights, the brigade aimed for the space between to the blockhouse, and the end of the hill, placing the unit in a very pivotal position. The troops of the Third, Ninth and 24th Infantries intermixed in their crossing of the San Juan River. The men were ordered to cease firing, but the order was of no avail. Some of the troops began to move ahead. The Ninth followed a few seconds later. As it reached the crest of San Juan Hill, its men took part in the volley firing against the retreating Spanish troops.


The 9th U.S. prepares to move out toward San Juan Hill

From the heat and exhaustion, the men lay down on the reverse side of the slope, out of range of the Spanish bullets. They remained in this position until Gen. Hawkins ordered them to get back into position at the crest to fire on the Spanish, in case the enemy counter-attacked. The expected counter-attack did not come. During the ensuing night, the regiment dug in, and by morning was entrenched.

On July 3, the men of the Ninth heard the sound of a distant bombardment. It was not until the next day that they learned that the firing was from the naval battle of Santiago, and that they had listened to the sacrificing of the dreaded Spanish squadron.

The men now settled into the siege of Santiago. From July 3 to July 10, they worked to reinforce their trenches. Each company  was sent down to the river to bathe until it was learned that the river was being used for drinking water by the units downstream. The bathing was quickly stopped unfortunately for the men of the Ninth.

No company cooking equipment had been provided, so each man had to fend for himself. Between gathering firewood, obtaining supplies (which were always in short supply, and only being replenished in the nick of time), cooking their food, etc. each man spent nearly six hours a day simply in keeping himself fed.

During the Battle of San Juan Hill, and the ensuing siege of Santiago, the Ninth U.S. Infantry lost one officer and 4 enlisted men killed and 27 enlisted men wounded. The surrender came on July 17. The Ninth may have taken part in the surrender ceremonies or have arrived just afterward, marching into Santiago, and watching the raising of the U.S. flag. After the ceremony, the regiment took up quarters in the Teatro de la Reina (“the Queen’s Theater”). It began guard duty in various sites around the town. At about this time, khaki uniforms were finally issued to the men.

It was also at about this time that sickness began to make its appearance in the regiment. Up until July 13, between four and nine men were usually reported sick each day. By July 17, the number had risen to about 17 men per day.  Within two days, the sick count had risen to 28 men. By July 20, the number jumped to 78 men, the next day to 92 men, and by July 22, 132 men out of the regiment’s 433 men were reported sick. Many of the men who were not officially reported as sick were also in poor condition, and barely able to perform their duties. The first death from sickness occurred on July 21. The second occurred on July 30. Two more men died on August 2.

On August 2, the Ninth was relieved by Col. Hood’s 2nd U.S. Volunteers, which was considered to be an “immune” regiment. By August 10, the Ninth was given orders to withdraw. The three mile march to the docks was difficult on the weakened men. Fifteen officers and 323 men made the trip. Leaving the docks, the men passed the sunken hulk of the REINA MERCEDES and were taken out to the ST. LOUIS, along with the 10th U.S. Infantry and part of the 71st New York Volunteer Infantry.

Aboard the transport one man died, and his death was attributed to yellow fever. As a result, the vessel was put in quarantine. The men were also put through a rigorous cleaning, and given new blue uniforms. The Ninth reached Montauk [Camp Wikoff] on August 13, with only 277 men present for duty, the remainder being placed in the hospital. On August 21 the unit was released from quarantine, though many of the men remained in the hospital.


The 9th U.S. Infantry at Montauk Point

By early September, the Ninth U.S. Infantry was back in the Madison Barracks. However, its stay would be short. By March of 1899, the unit was ordered to proceed to the Philippines to take part in the Philippine-American War. Before the unit left, the legacy of Cuba showed itself one more time – 26 men were discharged


June 28 –

     General Merritt


 left for Manila to assume


command of the American army operating in the

 July 1 –

 Terrific fighting in


 front of Santiago.


El Caney and San Juan Hill were carried by assaults in
                      which the American loss was great.

July 3 –


 Admiral Cervera’s


squadron of four armored cruisers and two torpedo-boat destroyers

 annihilated by


Commodore Schley’s


blockading fleet.

The surrender of Santiago was
  demanded by


 General Shafter.

July 6 –

                      Hobson and his comrades were exchanged for six Spanish officers
             Constructor Richmond Pearson Hobson

By Patrick McSherry

Click here for a link to Hobson’s home of Magnolia Grove
Click here  to visit another page with info. on Richmond Hobson
Click here see a view of Richmond Hobson, late in life, the Medal of Honor from Franklin Demalon Roosevelt
Click here to see a view of the USS HOBSON, DD-464, named for Richmond Hobson

Richmond Pearson Hobson was one of the great heros of the Spanish-American War, following only Theodore Roosevelt and George Dewey. Hobson’s fame and popularity was the result of leading an unsuccessful attempt to block the harbor of Santiago de Cuba by sinking the collier MERRIMAC in the entrance.

Hobson was born August 17, 1870, in Greensboro, Alabama. His father was a Confederate veteran of the American Civil War, and the family lived on the family estate of Hobson’s mother, a plantation called “Magnolia Grove”. He was the second of seven children. Young Richmond attended private school, and the Southern University in Greensboro from 1882 to 1885. He won a competitive test for appointment to the Naval Academy at age fourteen.

At Annapolis, Richmond was the youngest in his class. His strong religious views created difficulties for him with classmates. Midshipman Hobson was later put in “coventry”, or cut off from all social contact with his classmates, for putting some of the other students on report. He spent his last two years in this state of isolation. However bad his social situation, his academic life flourished. During his years at the Academy Hobson never ranked lower than third in his class. He also developed an interest in steam engines and naval architecture.

Hobson graduated from Annapolis in 1889, ranked first in his class. He was offered the opportunity to study naval architecture abroad and did so, in Paris at the Ecole National Superieurdes Mines in 1890 and 1891. This was followed by studies at the Ecole d’ Application du Genie Maritime from 1891 to 1893, where he graduated “with distinction.”

After his return to the United States, Hobson served for a year and a half as an assistant naval constructor in the Navy Department’s Bureau of Construction and Repair at Washington D.C. He attempted to get a posting to Asia during the Sino-Japanese War, and also to Europe, but his requests were denied. Instead, Hobson was sent aboard the USS NEW YORK, and served in various shipyards in the northeast. During this time, a superior officer accused Hobson of neglect of duty for accepting some defective metal castings. He was eventually vindicated by Acting Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt.

In 1897, Hobson created and ran the third year program for naval construction at Annapolis. As war loomed, the entire class went to Key West, Florida to continue the students’ education with the North Atlantic Squadron. It was while serving with Admiral Sampson on the USS NEW YORK that Hobson was given the task of sinking the MERRIMAC to block the entrance to Santiago Harbor. The effort failed and Hobson was taken prisoner. He was exchanged on July 6, 1898, and, to his surprise, found himself a national hero.

After the war, Hobson had himself appointed Inspector of Spanish Wrecks, charged with determining if any of the damaged and sunken Spanish vessels at Cuba could be raised and reused. He succeeded in raising the REINA MERCEDES and the INFANTA MARIA TERESA. Hobson next went to the Far East to continue his salvage efforts with the victims of Dewey‘s attack. Here he salvaged the ISLE DE CUBA, ISLE DE LUZON and DON JUAN DE AUSTRIA. On his way to the Philippines, Hobson, still the popular war hero, was accused of kissing his way across the United States as he accepted the requests of ladies to be kissed. When the press began making an issue of it an embarrassed Hobson refused all future requests. Hobson’s hero status also created tension with his fellow officers, many of whom avoided him. About this time, he began to suffer from inflammation of the retina, which was aggravated by exposure to sunlight and desk work. Hobson requested a medical discharge beginning in 1900. The request was denied.

In 1901 Congress passed a joint resolution thanking Hobson for his exploits aboard the MERRIMAC. The resolution promoted him from Lieutenant to Captain, and also advanced him ten positions on the Construction Corps seniority list. This action served to make Hobson even more of an outcast among his fellow officers, who resented the preferential treatment. He resigned his commission in 1903.

Hobson’s departure from the Navy gave him time for other pursuits also. In 1905 he married Grizelda Houston Hull, the great-great niece of Confederate general Leonidas Polk, the great niece of former Alabama governor, George Houston, and a cousin of General “Fightin’ Joe” Wheeler. These connections would serve him well in political life.

As a civilian, Hobson took up the lecture circuit, traveling across the country in 1903 and 1904. In 1907, on his second attempt, the former Captain was elected to Congress, serving four terms. In 1908, before an unfriendly Democratic National Convention, Hobson commented that President Theodore Roosevelt had stated that there was a good possibility of war with Japan in the near future. Roosevelt denied the comments. With his Great White Fleet preparing to sail around the world, talk of trouble with Japan, either military or diplomatic, was not appreciated by the President. In spite of the acrimonious debate, Hobson continued predicting war with Japan until even the press tired of reporting his comments on the issue.

Congressman Hobson served on the Naval Affairs Committee from 1907 to 1914, working to strengthen the fleet and warning of future clashes with European powers, Japan and Russia. He was an early supporter of Womens’ Suffrage and fought for Black soldiers unjustly accused of rioting and killing a civilian in Brownsville Texas. In 1911, he introduced the first National Prohibition bill. Hobson’s views, unpopular with many of his constituents, ended his political career in 1916.

Later in life, Hobson continued to act against alcohol and drug abuse, serving as general secretary of the American Alcohol and Education Association, president of the International Narcotic Education Association and the World Narcotic Defense Association. He was also the organizer of the 1926 World Conference on Narcotic Education.

In 1933, Hobson was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions aboard the MERRIMAC during the Spanish-American War. His crew had received the medal in 1899, but officers were not eligible for the honor at that time. In 1934, Hobson was made a Rear Admiral on the retired list and granted a pension.

Richmond Pearson Hobson died of a heart attack on March 16, 1937, and was buried with honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

On January 22, 1942, the U.S. Navy commissioned a destroyer named in Richmond Hobson’s honor, the DD-464 HOBSON. The vessel saw extensive action throughout World War Two, in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific theaters of operations. She was awarded  six battle stars and shared in a Presidential unit Citation. She was lost in 1952 after a tragic collision with the aircraft carrier, USS WASP.


 July 8 –

   Admiral Cámara

was ordered to return with his fleet to Cádiz to protect Spanish coast
                      threatened by American warships.

 July 10 –
                      A second bombardment of Santiago, which severely battered Morro Castle.

  July 11 –

 General Miles



General Miles was a steamship constructed in 1882 which served in various coastal areas of the states of Oregon and Washington, as well as British Columbia and the territory of Alaska. It was apparently named after US General Nelson A. Miles.

Originally a sailing schooner built in 1879, the General Miles was extensively reconstructed in 1890 and renamed Willapa. In 1903 the name was changed again to Bellingham. After a conversion to diesel power in 1922, the vessel was renamed Norco. The vessel is notable for, among other things, for having been first a sailing vessel from 1879 to 1882, a steamship from 1882 to 1918, a sailing barge from 1919 to 1922, and a motor vessel (diesel-powered) from 1922 to 1950


joined the American Army before Santiago and conferred with


 General Shafter as to the means for reducing the city

 July 17 –
                      After the expiration of

 two periods of truce


General Toral surrendered Santiago and the
                      eastern province of Cuba to General Shafter.

             July 20 –

                      General Leonard Wood was appointed Military Governor of Santiago, and entered upon
                      his duties by feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute and cleaning the city.

  July 21 –
                      The harbor of Nipe was entered by four gunboats, which, after an hours’ fierce
                      bombardment, captured the port.

 July 25 –
                      General Miles, with 8,000 men, after a voyage of three days, landed at Guánica, Puerto
                      Rico. He immediately began his march towards Ponce, which surrendered on the 28th.

 July 26 –
                      The French Ambassador at Washington,


 Jules Cambon, acting for Spain, asked the
                      President upon what terms he would treat for peace.

July 30 –
                      The President communicated his answer to M. Cambon.

 July 31 –
                      The Spaniards made a night attack on the Americans investing Manila but were repulsed
                      with severe losses.

August –
                      The Rough Riders left Santiago for Montauk Point, Long Island

August 9 –
                      A large force of Spanish were defeated at Coamo, Puerto Rico, by General Ernst. The
                      Spanish Government formally accepted the terms of peace submitted by the President
            August 12
                      The peace protocol was signed, an armistice proclaimed, and the Cuban blockade raised.
           August 13 –
                      Manila was bombarded by Dewey’s fleet and simultaneously attacked by the American
                      land forces, under which combined assaults the city surrendered unconditionally
           August 20 –
                      Great naval demonstration in New York harbor.
           August 22 –
                      All troops under General Merritt remaining at San Francisco ordered to Honolulu.
           August 23 –
                      Bids opened for the construction of twelve torpedo boats and sixteen destroyers. General
                      Merritt appointed governor of Manila. General Otis assumed command of the Eighth
                      Corps in the Philippines.
           August 25 –
                      General Shafter left Santiago.
           August 26 –
                      President officially announced the names of the American Peace Commissioners. Last of
                      General Shafter’s command leaves Santiago for this country.
           August 29 –
                      Lieutenant Hobson arrived at Santiago to direct the raising of the
María Teresa and
Cristobal Colón.
           August 30 –
                      General Wheeler ordered an investigation of Camp Wikoff.
         September 2 –
                      Spanish Government selected three peace commissioners.
         September 3 –
                      President visited Montauk.
         September 9 –
                      Peace Commission completed by the appointment of Senator Gray. President ordered
                      investigation of War Department.
        September 10 –
                      Spanish Cortes approved Peace Protocol
        September 11 –
                      American Puerto Rico Evacuation Commission met in joint session at San Juan.
        September 12 –
                      Admiral Pascual Cervera left Portsmouth, N. H., for Spain.
        September 13 –
                     Roosevelt’s Rough Riders mustered out of service. Spanish Senate approved Protocol.
        September 14 –
                      Evacuation of Puerto Rico began. Queen Regent signed Protocol.
        September 17 –
                      American Cuban Evacuation Commissions met in joint session at Havana. Peace
                      Commissioners sailed for Paris.
        September 20 –
                      Spanish evacuation of outlying ports in Puerto Rico began. First American flag raised in
        September 24 –
                      Jurisdiction of Military Governor Wood extended to embrace entire province of Santiago
                      de Cuba. First meeting of the War Investigating Committee held at the White House.
        September 25 –
                      Lieutenant Hobson floated the
María Teresa.
        September 27 –
                      American Peace Commissioners convened in Paris.
        September 28 –
                      American Commissioners received by French Minister of Foreign Affairs.
        September 29 –
                      Spanish and American Commissioners met for first time, at breakfast given at the Foreign
                      Offce, Paris.
           October 1 –
                      Peace Commissioners held first joint session.
           October 4 –
                      2,000 irregular Spanish troops revolted near Cienfuegos and refused to lay down arms
                      until paid back salaries. Battleship
Illinois launched at Newport News.
          October 1O –
                      American flag hoisted over Manzanillo, Cuba.
          October 12 –
Iowa and Oregon left New York for Manila.
          October 16 –
                      Opening of Peace Jubilee in Chicago.
          October 18 –
                      United States took formal possession of Puerto Rico.
          October 24 –
                      Spanish evacuation of Puerto Rico completed
          October 25 –
                      Philadelphia Jubilee began with naval parade in the Delaware.
          October 30 –
María Teresa left Caimanera for Hampton Roads.
          October 31 –
                      American Peace Commissioners demanded cession of entire Philippine group.
          November 5 –
María Teresa, cruiser, reported lost off San Salvador, Bahamas.
          November 8 –
María Teresa reported ashore at Cat Island, Bahamas.
         November 17 –
                      Evacuation of Camp Meade completed
         November 21 –
                      American ultimatum presented to Spanish Peace Commissioners.
         November 25 –
                      First United States troops landed in Havana province.
         November 28 –
                      Spain agreed to cede Phllippines.
         November 30 –
                      Captain-General Blanco left Havana for Spain.
         December 10 –
                      Peace Treaty signed.
         December 11 –
                      Small riot in Havana. Three Cubans killed.
         December 14 –
                      Fitzhugh Lee arrived in Havana.
         December 24 –
                      Peace Treaty delivered to President McKinley.
         December 27 –
                      American Evacuation Commissioners issued a proclamation to the inhabitants of Cuba.
         December 31 –
                      Last day of Spanish sovereignty in Westem Hemisphere.








Spanish-Cuban-American War


Click on the pictures


Pacific campaign

Santiago de Cuba harbor




Santiago de Cuba and vicinity 1898

Santiago de Cuba and vicinity July 14, 1898


Spanish-American War in Cuba

Cuba Struggle for Independence (1868-1898)
and then (Washington Post published), starts
the “Splendid Little” War . What follows are some benchmarks along the way:


April 10, 1895 — Jose Marti, Cuban revolutionary,



launches insurrection against Spanish rule.



He is killed May 19.



The most famous cigar ever rolled in Tampa went out not as a Corona or a Presidente, but as a liberator to spark the Cuban Revolution of 1895. This cigar cost thousands of lives, but eventually won the independence of Cuba from Spain.

  The story of the cigar that went to war starts Jan. 29, 1895, at the residence of Gonzalo De Quesada, secretary of the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York City. Jose Marti, the leader of the Cuban crusade for freedom, called a secret meeting of the revolutionary junta at the Quesada home.

Present were General Jose Mayia Rodriguez, representing Generalisimo Maximo Gomez, and General Enrique Collazo, representing the Revolutionary Junta of Havana. Among the Cuban patriots taking part in the historic junta was Emilio Cordero, who in later years would become a prominent leader in the cigar industry of America marketing his popular brand Mi Hogar.        Gonzalo de Quesada        Jose Marti


Jan. 1, 1898 —

 In an effort to defuse the insurrection, Spain gives Cubans limited political autonomy.

Jan. 12 —

Spaniards in Cuba riot against autonomy given to Cubans.


Jan. 25 — USS Maine arrives in Havana Harbor to protect American interests.

Feb. 15 — USS Maine explodes, sinks; 266 crewmen lost. The Maine’s captain urges suspension of judgment on the cause of the explosion.

March 28 —

Naval Court of Inquiry says Maine destroyed by a mine.


April 11 —

President William McKinley asks Congress for declaration of war.

April 25 —

State of war exists between United States and Spain.


June 10 — U.S. Marines land at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.


July 1 —


 Battles of El Caney and San Juan Hill in Cuba


result in American victories and instant national acclaim for


Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, the former Navy Department official and future president who leads the Rough Riders at San Juan Heights.

Among Theodore Roosevelt’s many accomplishments were two terms as President of the United States, the publishing of more than forty works of nonfiction, the exploration of the South American wilderness, and having his likeness sculpted on Mount Rushmore. However, even with all of these and many other achievements, Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt often stated that participating in the Battle of San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War was one of his proudest moments. Roosevelt’s service with the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, also known as the “Rough Riders,” lasted only four months, but he proclaimed “there are no four months of my life to which I look back with more pride and satisfaction.”(1) To most people, the charge up San Juan Hill is one of the two most memorable events connected with the “Splendid Little War.”(2) The other is the sinking of the USS Maine, which helped set the stage for war.

The American victory over Spain placed the nation among the world’s great powers. For Roosevelt, the Spanish-American War fulfilled a lifelong dream. While friends in the newspaper business ensured that his exploits in Cuba were not overlooked by the public, the future President yearned for even greater acclaim. He coveted the country’s highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor. Despite an intense lobbying effort by some of his superior officers and a close friend, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Roosevelt’s request for the medal was denied by the War Department. Questions remain as to whether Roosevelt was refused the Medal of Honor because he was undeserving or if friction between himself and the War Department was the actual reason for denial.

Although countless pages have documented the Rough Riders in Cuba, the Medal of Honor issue has been largely ignored in print. Even two of Roosevelt’s own publications, The Rough Riders and An Autobiography, fail to mention in the narrative his desire for the award.(3) A multitude of War Department documents and Roosevelt’s own published letters clearly state his argument that “I am entitled to the Medal of Honor and I want it.”(4) With the centennial of the Spanish-American War approaching, perhaps this is an appropriate time to reevaluate Roosevelt’s role in the conflict and determine if his contribution was as worthy as he claimed.

After the Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, Cuba, on February 15, 1898, popular opinion in the United States cried for retaliation against Spain. The fever was fueled by yellow journalists such as Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and William Randolph Hearst of the New York Journal. One of the most anxious Americans was Theodore Roosevelt. When he had taken office as assistant secretary of the navy in April 1897, he used his position to expound upon America’s future role as a world power. He felt this goal could not be achieved without war. During a June 2, 1897, speech at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, the assistant secretary noted that “diplomacy is utterly useless where there is no force behind it; the diplomat is the servant, no the master, of the soldier. . . . No triumph of peace is quite so great as the supreme triumphs of war.”(5)

With war declared on April 21, 1898, the self-proclaimed jingo saw his wishes come true and was anxious to take part in the upcoming fray. Several years after the war, he boasted that “I had always felt that if there were a serious war I wished to be in a position to explain to my children why I did take part in it, and not why I did not take part in it.”(6) The latter portion of this statement was probably a reference to his father’s decision not to serve in the military during the Civil War, which haunted Roosevelt throughout his life. According to one of his biographers, “family, friends, and superiors all implored Roosevelt to remain in the post in which he had done so much to prepare the navy for war.”(7) Roosevelt ignored these pleas and instead lobbied Secretary of War Russell A. Alger for an army commission. Opportunity came for Roosevelt when the War Department mobilized the army for war.

A severe shortage of men prevented the army from immediately setting forth on an expedition to Cuba. To remedy the situation, President William McKinley proposed to Congress a first call for 125,000 state volunteers. The proposal became law on April 22. Four days later, additional legislation was passed to increase the regular army to more than twice its strength. On May 25, McKinley issued a second call for 75,000 volunteers to bring the army up to adequate strength for whatever expeditions might be required.

Most of the volunteers under the first call came from existing state militia or national guard outfits since they numbered about 125,000 men. The order for troops also permitted the federal government to raise three volunteer cavalry regiments to serve independently from the state units.(8) Secretary of War Alger knew the perfect candidate to command the first regiment: Theodore Roosevelt. Upon learning from Alger that the First United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was his to command, Roosevelt was ecstatic. He declined the offer, however, since his only military service had been three years in the New York National Guard, and he felt this was not enough experience to lead an entire regiment during wartime. As a compromise, Roosevelt suggested that he serve as lieutenant colonel if his good friend Leonard Wood was named as the commander. Alger agreed, and the Rough Riders were born.(9)

Wood was an ideal choice to command the newly formed regiment. He had many of the same political connections as Roosevelt, whom he had met in mid-1897 while serving as the White House physician, and they developed a deep friendship. Besides a career as a medical officer, Wood had served as both an army assistant surgeon and line officer during the expedition against Geronimo in 1886. He distinguished himself in the campaign and received the Medal of Honor in March 1898 for his role in Geronimo’s surrender. Wood was the only officer serving in the long campaign to receive the award, and rumors circulated that his political ties were the reason he had been singled out.(10)

Secretary of War Alger authorized Wood to raise and organize “a regiment of Volunteers possessing special qualifications as horsemen and marksmen.” Furthermore, War Department Special Order #98, April 27, 1898, directed Wood to report to Muskogee, Indian Territory; Guthrie, Oklahoma; Sante Fe, New Mexico; Prescott, Arizona Territory; Carson City, Nevada; and Salt Lake City, Utah for recruiting.(11) But once the word spread that the Rough Riders were recruiting men, applications came from all over the country. Originally the regiment was allotted 780 men by the War Department, but popular interest in becoming a Rough Rider quickly enlarged the number to 1,000. By July 7, 1898, the regiment exceeded the legal limit of men, with more than 1,100 names on the muster rolls.(12)

The origin of the name “Rough Riders,” according to Roosevelt, was created “both by the public and by the rest of the army . . . doubtless because the bulk of the men were from the Southwestern ranch country and were skilled in the wild horsemanship of the great plains.”(13) Publicly, Roosevelt invoked an image as a cowboy because of the several years he spent ranching in the Dakota Territory and the publication of his multivolume work The Winning of the West. In addition to the majority of cowboys and ranchers, recruits came from Ivy League schools such as Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Roosevelt also recruited at the various social clubs of Boston and New York with which he was well acquainted. From this contingent Roosevelt especially sought athletes such as cross-country riders and polo players. Notable among the blue-blood eastern families recruited for the Rough Riders was Hamilton Fish, the nephew of former Secretary of State Fish. Most noteworthy of the western recruits was William “Bucky” O’Neil, who was the mayor of Prescott, Arizona, and a famous sheriff. A number of Native Americans representing tribes such as the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks rounded out the regiment.(14)

The Rough Riders trained in San Antonio, Texas, for about four weeks, then joined the other outfits congregating in Tampa, Florida, for transport to Cuba.(15) The expedition was organized as the U.S. Army’s Fifth Corps. They were led by the rotund Maj. Gen. William R. Shafter, a Medal of Honor winner during the Civil War and veteran of the Indian wars. The Rough Riders had the distinction of being one of only three volunteer regiments that initially went to Cuba.(16)

  Officers at camp in Tampa, Florida: Maj. George Dunn, Major Brodie, former Confederate Gen. Joseph Wheeler, Chaplain Brown of the Rough Riders, Col. Leonard Wood, and Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt. (NARA 111-SC-93549)

“I Am Entitled to the Medal of Honor and I Want It”
Theodore Roosevelt and His Quest for Glory, Part 2

Leaving Tampa on June 6, the Fifth Corps anchored a week later off the coast of Santiago de Cuba and remained there until an advance force of the U.S. Army landed at the small port of Daiquiri, seventeen miles from Santiago. With the help of naval gunfire and a small force of Cuban revolutionaries under the command of Gen. Calixto Garcia, the three hundred Spanish troops in the area of Daiquiri were forced to withdraw on June 22. Because of heavy surf conditions, Shafter selected a landing point eight miles closer to Santiago at the port of Siboney. By June 26, most of the expedition was on shore, but not without casualties. Two men and a number of artillery horses and pack mules drowned in the rough sea. Roosevelt remembered that “we did the landing as we had everything else–that is, in a scramble.”(17)

  Landing at Daiquiri. (NARA 111-SC-94528)

Upon landing in Cuba, the mission of the Fifth Corps was unclear. The War Department gave Shafter instructions to destroy the Spanish forces at Santiago, and how to go about this was left up to him. As soon as a sufficient force landed on shore at Siboney, Shafter ordered the march toward Santiago. Although the Spaniards put up no resistance to the American landings, Cubans in the area reported that a force of two thousand Spaniards were about four miles from Siboney in the village of Las Guasimas. Former Confederate officer Maj. Gen. “Fighting” Joe Wheeler, who commanded the Fifth Corps cavalry division as a volunteer, sent Brig. Gen. Samuel B.M. Young on a reconnaissance toward the village with his brigade, which included the Rough Riders and the African American Tenth U.S. Cavalry. After a two-hour fight, Young’s brigade had the enemy fleeing toward Santiago.(18)

Sixteen Americans and ten Spaniards were killed in the fight. Figuring prominently in the skirmish were the Rough Riders, who suffered eight casualties. Newspapers across the United States proclaimed it a Rough Riders victory. Most responsible for the accolades was correspondent Richard Harding Davis, who tagged along with the Rough Riders and acted as Roosevelt’s own press secretary. In reality, Wheeler had advanced the cavalry prematurely, and they had been ambushed. Two of the Rough Riders killed were among the regiment’s more promising troopers, Capt. Allyn K. Capron and Sgt. Hamilton Fish. The most positive aspect of the skirmish was that it boosted morale among the soldiers and gave them confidence for the big fight that lay ahead.(19)

After the unexpected Las Guasimas fight, Shafter decided against any further advances until he could build up substantial supplies at Siboney and Daiquiri. On June 28 Shafter learned that a Spanish relief force was heading to reinforce troops entrenched among the heights surrounding Santiago. Two days later he ordered his forces to be ready to march toward Santiago on July 1. The ultimate goal was San Juan Hill, which was also known as either San Juan Heights or San Juan Ridge.(20)

The San Juan Heights rise above Santiago, about two miles east of the city. A small rise known as Kettle Hill was named for an abandoned mill and its iron kettles used to refine sugar. San Juan Hill rises to the southwest, about 400 yards further than Kettle Hill, and stands about 125 feet high with a brick blockhouse at the summit. Just east of Kettle and San Juan Hills flows the San Juan River. Approximately a thousand yards west of the San Juan Heights there was a strong line of Spanish fortifications that included barbed-wire entanglements, rifle pits, and trenches dug on the heights and to their rear.

Shafter’s plan to assault the San Juan Heights, based upon reconnaissance by his own troops and the Cuban army, was to send the Fifth Corps through the only two practicable routes in the jungle-covered terrain. The First Infantry Division under Brig. Gen. Jacob F. Kent and Wheeler’s cavalry would approach Kettle and San Juan Hills through the same road the army had followed from Siboney. The first phase of the attack was for Brig. Gen. Henry W. Lawton’s Second Infantry Division to take the village of El Caney on the right flank by way of the road to Guantanamo, which he claimed was possible in two hours. Lawton was then to move on to Santiago with Kent and Wheeler approaching to his left. If the plan went as designed, the three divisions would clear the Spaniards from the San Juan Heights and bring Santiago under siege.

The Battle of Santiago began early in the morning of July 1 with Lawton attacking El Caney, but his force of sixty-six hundred men met heavy resistance from the five hundred Spaniards garrisoned at the village. Not until late afternoon did El Caney come under American control.

With Lawton bogged down in El Caney, the First Cavalry Division and First Infantry Division with about eight thousand men would have to attack the defenses of San Juan Heights without the planned infantry support. The cavalry was now under the command of Brig. Gen. Samuel S. Sumner, who temporarily replaced an ill General Wheeler. As result of Wheeler’s illness, Wood was promoted to brigadier general, and Roosevelt was raised to the rank of colonel of the Rough Riders.

The infantry division under General Kent moved behind the Sumner’s cavalry division along the road leading to the heights at about 11 a.m. Gradually the infantry pressed up alongside the cavalry, then both divisions took position in an area that provided little cover, with the cavalry on the right and the infantry on the left. Not yet having received orders from Shafter’s headquarters, the men were exposed in the open with no clear course of action. Before the men completed their deployment, the Spanish troops on San Juan and Kettle Hills commenced rifle and artillery fire.

What triggered the Spanish fusillade was an observation balloon operated by the Signal Corps. Their mission was to obtain more intelligence about the Spanish position, but the balloon gave the Spaniards a perfect marker on which to aim their fire. How many American casualties the balloon caused is impossible to say. On the positive side, the two observers aboard the balloon gathered information on the enemy’s strength at San Juan Hill and discovered an alternate trail that helped spread the deployment of the Fifth Corps infantry.(21)

Sumner and Kent realized that San Juan Hill was heavily defended and the infantry and cavalry would be decimated unless they either advanced or retreated. Kent’s infantry, followed by Sumner’s cavalry, deployed along a narrow path, and by 1 p.m. the Americans established a firing line facing the heights against the Spanish right flank. Lt. John H. Parker and his battery of Gatling guns caused the most destruction. At a range of six hundred to eight hundred yards, Parker demoralized the Spaniards by firing continuously for little over eight minutes.(22)

Using Parker’s guns as a cover, the cavalry and infantry finally received permission to attack the Spanish forward positions along San Juan Heights. What actually happened at this point is still quite confusing. A number of different versions of the battle by its participants conflict with each other. Of particular interest to this study is Roosevelt’s own account of the events. In his two reports to Leonard Wood that were published in the Report of the Secretary of War, as well as his postwar story in The Rough Riders, Roosevelt gives the impression that he alone was the first to charge the San Juan Heights to drive away the entrenched Spaniards. This image of Theodore Roosevelt was propagated with the help of Richard Harding Davis. Reporting for the New York Herald, Davis transcribed what Roosevelt told him, then added his own twist to the story. In addition to the newspaper articles, magazines and books picked up his story. Davis depicted a fearless Roosevelt, wearing a blue polka-dotted bandanna, charging up the hill mounted on his horse, Texas. Thus the legend of Theodore Roosevelt was created.(23)

  Roosevelt and his Rough Riders atop San Juan Hill. (NARA 306-ST-505-58-4822)

The first report, written on July 4, 1898, provides Roosevelt’s initial claim for credit in charging the heights. He wrote,

After crossing the river at the ford we were moved along and up its right bank under fire, and were held in reserve at a sunken road. . . . We then received your order to advance and support the regular cavalry in the attack on the entrenchments and blockhouses on the hills to the left. The regiment was deployed on both sides of the road, and moved forward until we came to the rearmost lines of the regulars. We moved forward until I ordered a charge, and the men rushed the blockhouse and rifle pits on the hill to the right of our advance. They did the work in fine shape, though suffering severely. The guidons of Troop E and G were first planted on the summit, though the first men up were some A and B troopers, who were with me.

After the passage of almost three weeks, Roosevelt’s final report to Wood elaborated even further on his immortal charge.

We moved through several skirmish lines of the regiment ahead of us, as it seemed to me that our only chance was in rushing the entrenchments in front. . . . Accordingly we charged the blockhouse and entrenchments on the hill to our right against a heavy fire. It was taken in good style, the men of my regiment thus being the first to capture any fortified position and to break through the Spanish lines. The guidons of G and E troops were first at this point, but some of the men of A and B troops who were with me personally got in ahead of them. At the last wire fence up this hill I was obliged to abandon my horse and after that went on foot. . . . By the time San Juan was taken a large force had assembled on the hill we had previously captured, consisting not only of my own regiment but of the ninth and of portions of other cavalry regiments.(24)

  An “Oath of Office” certifies Theodore Roosevelt’s promotion to colonel of the First Volunteer Cavalry. (NARA, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780s-1917, RG 94)

In The Rough Riders, written almost a year after the war, Roosevelt provides further assessment of his gallantry.

The General [Sumner] at once ordered the first brigade to advance on the hills, and the second to support it. The instant I received the order I sprang on my horse and then my “crowded hour” began. . . . I started in the rear of the regiment, the position in which the colonel should theoretically stay. . . . I had intended to go into action on foot . . . but the heat was so oppressive that I found I should be quite unable to run up and down the line . . . moreover, when on horseback, I could see the men better and they could see me better.

I soon found that I could get that line, behind which I personally was, faster forward than the one immediately in front of it. . . . This happened with every line in succession, until I found myself at the head of the regiment. . . . The Ninth Regiment was immediately in front of me, and the First on my left, and these went up Kettle Hill with my regiment. The Third, Sixth, and Tenth went partly up Kettle Hill (following the Rough Riders and the Ninth and the First). . . . By the time I came to the head of the regiment we ran into the left wing of the ninth regulars . . . , who were lying down. I spoke to the captain in command. . . . I asked where the Colonel was, and as he was not in sight, said, “Then I am the ranking officer here and I give the order to charge. . . .” Naturally the Captain hesitated to obey this order. . . . So I said, “Then let my men through sir,” and rode on through the lines, followed by the grinning Rough Riders. . . .

Wheeling around, I then again galloped toward the hill, passing the shouting, cheering, firing men. . . . Some forty yards from the top I ran into a wire fence and jumped off Little Texas. . . . Almost immediately afterward the hill was covered by the troops, both Rough Riders and the colored troops of the Ninth, and some of the men of the First. There was the usual confusion, and afterward there was much discussion as to exactly who had been on the hill first. The first guidons planted there were those of the three New Mexican troops, G, E, and F, of my regiment . . . , but on the extreme right of the hill, at the opposite end from where we struck it, Captains Taylor and McBain, and their men of the Ninth were first up. Each of the five captains was firm in the belief that his troop was first up.(25)

While Roosevelt’s accounts and Davis’s articles make exciting reading, they do not tell the complete story. Based on official reports that Roosevelt either did not consult or refused to believe, historians writing about the battle for Santiago since July 1, 1898, have exposed a number of inaccuracies in Roosevelt’s versions. Ultimately the revised histories place credit for the charge on the San Juan Heights with the regular army, whom Roosevelt ignored in his accounts. Another obvious mistake is Roosevelt’s insistence in his official reports that he charged San Juan Hill, when in reality his immediate assault was on Kettle Hill. According to historians Peggy and Harold Samuels, Roosevelt had convinced himself that he had charged San Juan Hill as had Hawkins. “Although San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were separated by geography and by difference in the quality of defenses, Roosevelt lumped together the hill, the knoll, the valley before them, and the heights as ‘the battlefield at San Juan Hill.’ He glossed over the clear physical difference between San Juan Hill in particular and the entire San Juan battlefield.”(26)

What the evidence supports is that the cavalry division advanced to the northwest across the San Juan River and up Kettle Hill. By the time the assault reached the top of Kettle Hill the ground was practically deserted by the Spanish soldiers. Due to the confusion of the heavy fire, cavalry units were intermingled with white soldiers of the Rough Riders firing beside the colored soldiers of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regiments.(27) Who reached Kettle Hill first is where the confusion lies. First Lt. Edward D. Anderson made the claim for Troop C of the Tenth Cavalry. His report states that “while advancing near the road, Colonel Wood, the brigade commander, came by and told me to move my troop to the right and toward the blockhouse. I had 1 man killed and 7 wounded in reaching the top of the hill. . . . Shortly, Colonel Roosevelt and part of his regiment joined our right and I reported to him with my troop. His command took the position behind the crest in which we now occupy.”(28)

The troops on Kettle Hill under the orders of Sumner and the inspiration of Theodore Roosevelt started down the west slope of the hill and up the northern extension of San Juan Hill. The cavalry encountered trenches filled with dead Spaniards or those who wished to surrender. Some of the bolder enemy were shot in full flight by the Rough Riders and other regiments now firmly in place on San Juan Hill. The assaults against Kettle and San Juan Hills were against Spanish troops that had already begun pulling back. Around noon their two field artillery pieces had been depleted of ammunition, and their infantry had been decimated by the Gatling gun, artillery, and rifle fire. Those who remained in the trenches when the U.S. cavalry appeared were either dead or wounded. The Rough Riders did charge San Juan Hill, but only after the assault on the more strategically important Kettle Hill.

The July 1 assault on the San Juan Heights drove the Spaniards from the high ground surrounding the city of Santiago. This was accomplished at a severe cost, though, as the Fifth Corps sustained more than 1,300 casualties. The Rough Riders, who were about 490 strong when the battle started, suffered 15 men killed and 73 wounded. One of those killed was Bucky O’Neil, who was shot through the back of the head while parading in front of Troop A. Morale among the officers and men was at the lowest point of the campaign because of the high casualty rate and confusion of the day’s battle.

To make matters worse, logistical problems in getting supplies and food to the men on San Juan Hill, as well as abysmal medical services, prompted Shafter to consider withdrawing on July 2 to reorganize. But the Fifth Corps remained and debated with the navy for the next several days over the course to follow for an attack on Santiago. Shafter wanted the navy to force its way through Santiago Harbor and bombard the city, while Adm. William T. Sampson wanted the army first to seize the forts at the entrance of the harbor. In the meantime, negotiations commenced between Shafter and the new commander of the Spanish forces at Santiago, Gen. Jose Toral. Shafter threatened Toral with a combined sea and land attack if the Spanish did not surrender. The final blow for the Spanish force was the fiery destruction of their squadron as it tried to flee Santiago Harbor on July 3. This, coupled with an increase in sickness and lack of food for Toral’s men, induced the Spanish commander to surrender, and formal ceremonies took place on July 17.(29)

  Spanish forces march through the streets of Santiago. (NARA 111-SC-81840)

The Spaniards were not the only ones suffering from disease. By the end of July, almost 20 percent of Shafter’s men were hospitalized because of yellow fever, dysentery, and a large number of malaria cases. At first the War Department felt the Fifth Corps should remain in Cuba and wait out the epidemics, but Shafter warned that the disease would worsen unless the sick men were returned to the United States. Shafter solicited the views of his division and brigade commanders, and they concurred that the weakened soldiers must leave Cuba immediately or risk yellow fever deaths rising by the hundreds. All three of Shafter’s division commanders and several of the brigade officers, including Roosevelt, drafted and signed a letter stating their views on the withdrawal from Cuba. The letter was included with Shafter’s dispatch and sent to the War Department on August 3. Roosevelt also took matters into his own hands and sent an urgent plea to his friend, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. A copy of Shafter’s dispatch was leaked to an Associated Press correspondent at the Fifth Corps headquarters, and the generals’ letter was printed in newspapers across the United States. Although the exact source of who leaked the dispatch was never revealed, Roosevelt has often been considered the prime suspect. Because the dispatch went through so many hands, it was called the “Round Robin” letter.

The letter caused great embarrassment to the McKinley administration, which appeared cold and callous to the American public for leaving the sick troops in Cuba. McKinley was also fearful that news of a decimated army would give the Spanish more bargaining power when negotiating the armistice. The scandal became known as the “Round Robin Affair,” and as a result, McKinley allowed Shafter to start sending his men north as soon as possible. The first shipload of troops left Santiago on August 7, and by August 25 the entire corps had left Cuba. The Rough Riders were among those transported on one of the first ships to leave Cuba and arrived at Montauk Point, Long Island, on August 15 to a cheering crowd.(30)

Before Roosevelt and his Rough Riders left Cuba for the United States, he commenced fighting another, personal, battle. General Wheeler promised to recommend him to the War Department for a Medal of Honor, and his good friend Leonard Wood got the ball rolling by submitting the first endorsement on July 6. In a letter to the War Department Adjutant General’s office in Washington, Wood plainly stated that “I have the honor to recommend Lieut. Col. Theodore Roosevelt . . . for a Medal of Honor for distinguished gallantry in leading a charge on one of the entrenched hills to the east of the Spanish position in the suburbs of Santiago de Cuba, July First, 1898.”(31)

Although a nice gesture, Wood’s recommendation had very little merit. He had not been present during the actual charge, and Wood’s enemies asserted that he had got lost in the woods trying to maneuver his brigade, reaching San Juan Hill only after the fighting had ended. He was therefore not a reliable witness, and the War Department would later reveal this fact. Following Wood’s recommendation were similar endorsements from Generals Wheeler and Shafter. Like Wood, they also had not witnessed Roosevelt’s alleged heroic charge.

Roosevelt also pushed the Medal of Honor issue to his long-time companion, Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Roosevelt boasted to him “that General Wheeler intends to recommend me for the Medal of Honor; naturally I should like to have it.” In a another letter to Lodge complaining about the deplorable conditions in Cuba and the deaths that might result from the malaria, Roosevelt reflected upon his own possible death. He told Lodge that “if I do go, I do wish you would get that medal for me anyhow, as I should awfully like the children to have it, and I think I earned it.”(32)

Impatient to hear news about the Medal of Honor, Roosevelt wrote to the War Department in September 1898. Assistant Secretary of War George D. Meikeljohn responded that they had Wood, Wheeler, and Shafter’s letters on file, but “owing to the pressure of current work the Department is unable to give consideration cases of this class at the present time, but the application made in your behalf will receive careful attention as soon as it is found practicable to take up these cases.”(33)

Although Roosevelt may have deemed Meikeljohn’s response a snub, his application was indeed one of many pouring into the War Department. Joining him on the Medal of Honor and Brevet list were more than fifty other veterans of the Spanish-American War. In order to deal with each case in a fair manner, Secretary of War Alger established on November 9, 1898, a “board of officers . . . for the purpose of making recommendations for brevet promotions, the awards of medals of honor, and certificates of merit for the officers, and enlisted men who participated in the campaigns of Santiago, the Philippines, and Porto Rico.”(34)

Known as the “Brevet Board,” the three officers in charge received mountains of paperwork from the Adjutant General’s Office that no doubt included Roosevelt’s numerous letters and supporting documents. To determine eligibility for the Medal of Honor, the Brevet Board had to follow paragraph 177 of the United States Army regulations. It states that “in order that the Congressional Medal of Honor may be deserved[,] service must have been performed in action as such conspicuous character to clearly distinguish the man for gallantry and intrepidity above his comrades–service that involved extreme jeopardy of life or the performance of extraordinary hazardous duty. Recommendations for the decoration will be judged by this standard of extraordinary merit, and incontestible proof of performance of the service will be exacted.”(35) Since its creation during the Civil War, the Medal of Honor had been haphazardly awarded because there were no clear rules or policies for documenting and authenticating the acts of gallantry befitting the decoration. The Brevet Board served to temporarily correct this dilemma.

Four months after submission of his name for the Medal of Honor, Roosevelt became more obsessed with the issue. He painfully told Lodge on December 6 that “if I didn’t earn it, then no commissioned officer can ever earn it. . . . I don’t ask this as a favor–I ask it as a right. . . . I feel rather ugly on this medal of honor business; and the President and War Dept. may as well understand it. If they want fighting, they shall have it.” Three weeks later in another letter to Lodge, Roosevelt changed his tone. He told his friend “now, please don’t, in the midst of all your worry over big matters, do another thing in connection with the medal.”(36)

  Roosevelt repeatedly stressed recommendations on his behalf by Generals Wood, Wheeler, and Shafter. Wood vaguely praised the “conspicuous gallantry” of Roosevelt’s leadership. (NARA, Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780s-1917, RG 94)

He prepared himself for possible denial after learning from Senator Lodge that Secretary Alger had told him at a White House dinner that the Rough Rider would not receive the medal. Roosevelt also claimed that Alger had made this announcement to others on a number of occasions. He wrote to Leonard Wood and told him “pray do not think of the medal anymore. There is nothing to be done about it. I really care more for the recommendations for it than the medal itself.”(37) In a letter to Gen. Francis Vinton Greene, Roosevelt vented his frustrations about Alger: “You will readily understand however, that both my friends and myself feel that when the Secretary announces in advance publicly and repeatedly that the medal must not and will not be given, this mere fact itself amounts to coercion of the Board, and I shall think that the Board might better <<display>> sensitiveness about the coercion than about my friends having called in consequence of the Secretary’s public statements.”(38)

Roosevelt also expressed these same feelings in a barrage of letters to the office of the Adjutant General of the War Department, Henry C. Corbin. Corbin responded that “one word as to the reported remark of the Secretary of War that ‘you were not entitled to a medal of honor.’ I am fully persuaded that the Secretary never made any such statement to any one. My relations with the Secretary have been intimate and your name has been frequently mentioned and there was never a suggestion from him that was not full of kindly regard and appreciation. What he probably did say was ‘the case as presented by General Wood would not, under the rules of the office, entitle you to this consideration,’ and you must agree that Wood’s recommendation was lacking in the special features that warrant the issuance of medals to any one. As you have written him, I hope he will be able to set forth in detail just why it should be done. Should he do this, I undertake to say the Secretary will share with me the pleasure of bestowing this honor upon you.”(39)

Taking Corbin’s advice, Roosevelt solicited another statement from Wood. But Wood’s second letter quoted almost verbatim the official reports submitted to him in July by Roosevelt. In other words, Wood could not offer himself as an eyewitness. Roosevelt began to realize that there may not be any accurate witnesses to his valor because “I don’t know who saw me throughout the fight, because I was almost always in the front and could not tell who was close behind me, and was paying no attention to it.” Not giving up the fight, Roosevelt requested statements from regular army officers and volunteers who were either with him or in the area during the attack on San Juan Heights.

Roosevelt was correct. The statements submitted on his behalf were of little help because they provided conflicting and vague accounts of his bravery. Capt. C. J. Stevens of the Ninth Cavalry stated that “Col. Roosevelt was among the very first to reach the crest of the hill.” On the other hand, 1st Lt. Robert Howe of the Sixth Cavalry recalled that the “Colonel’s life was placed in extreme jeopardy, owing to the conspicuous position he took in leading the line, and being the first to reach the crest of that hill.” Gen. Samuel S. Sumner, as though he felt an obligation to support Roosevelt’s Medal of Honor case, simply says that “Col. Roosevelt by his example and fearlessness inspired his men at both Kettle Hill and the ridge known as San Juan, he led his command in person.” Sumner, whose testimony had great merit, provides no comments on whether Roosevelt was the first or among the first on the hill. The statements from former officers in the Rough Riders, such as Maxwell Keyes, W. J. McCann, and M. J. Jenkins, were biased in support of Roosevelt. They essentially echoed their colonel’s argument.(40)

With the Medal of Honor issue dragging on, Roosevelt’s emotions took on a childlike, vindictive tone. In a letter to Gen. Bradley Tyler Johnson, he wrote, “I do not believe the War Department has the slightest intentions of granting it, and I have really given up thinking about it. You see I cannot blame the War Department for feeling bitterly toward me now, for I have hit, and intend to hit them, hard for what they have done and left done and left undone, and I am rather pleased than otherwise that they should have given me no excuse to feel under any obligation to them. Now they can grant me the medal or not, just as they wish, for it will not make a particle of difference in what I shall write about them.”(41) When Roosevelt states that “I have hit the War Department hard,” he is most likely referring to the Round Robin affair and his testimony before the “Commission Appointed by the President to Investigate the Conduct of the War Department in the War With Spain.”

The long wait for news about his award ended for Roosevelt on June 8, 1899, when the Brevet Board submitted its recommendations for the Medal of Honor to the secretary of war. The three board members stated that “many cases of bravery and unquestioned courage in battle have been presented, but the application of the rules laid down for the guidance of the Board in awarding Medals of Honor constrains it to limit its recommendations.”(42) Twenty-eight participants of the Santiago Campaign were approved to receive the Medal of Honor for gallantry in action, but Roosevelt’s name was not among them. Instead, his name appeared with other volunteer officers on a separate list for recommendation as brevet colonel and brevet brigadier general.

Exactly why the Brevet Board denied Roosevelt the award is not officially documented. There are no extant War Department records nor similar correspondence among the personal papers of Russell Alger that hint at why Roosevelt was rejected. Certainly no evidence exists to support the contention that Alger held a grudge over the Round Robin affair or Roosevelt’s testimony to the congressional committee. On the contrary, letters from the War Department to Roosevelt indicate that they were more than willing to assist him in getting the Medal of Honor. One can only assume that the Brevet Board came to the conclusion that, though Roosevelt’s conduct in Cuba was quite admirable, it was not worthy of a Medal of Honor.

  The Medal of Honor was awarded to twenty-eight men in the battle for Santiago, but Roosevelt failed to secure it. (U.S. Army Center of Military History)

Regardless of why Roosevelt was not awarded the Medal of Honor, it was the correct decision. In one way or another, most of the officers participating in the fighting on July 1, 1898, performed very well. Military historian Graham Cosmas states that “in most regiments, the officer casualty rate was about double that for enlisted men–an indication of the extent and price of leadership from the front.”(43) To single out Roosevelt as a hero among the other line officers would have been a great injustice, and the merit of the award would have been cheapened. The denial of the Medal of Honor does not diminish the fact that Roosevelt gave his best effort in attempting to bring order to the chaos along the San Juan Heights. He risked his life by riding his horse during the charge while the Spanish bullets rained down upon him. There is no doubt that he was an inspiration to the men of the Rough Riders and the troops of the cavalry division.

Roosevelt took the Brevet Board’s decision with great disappointment, as might be expected. But time also helped heal any ill feelings he may have harbored, at least publicly. Since he was no longer serving in the United States Army, the brevet ranks of colonel and brigadier general had only political value to Roosevelt.(44) His career as a politician was right on track, and there was no reason to stew about the Medal of Honor any further. In 1907 he rejected an offer to join the Medal of Honor Club for the reason that “I was recommended for it [Medal of Honor] by my superior officers in the Santiago campaign, but I was not awarded it; and frankly, looking back on it now, I feel that the board which declined to award it took exactly the right position.”(45)

The reasons behind Roosevelt’s adamancy about getting the Medal of Honor are open to conjecture, but political ambition was certainly one of his motives. Clearly Roosevelt had sights on the presidency, and the medal was the perfect vehicle to help get him into the White House. He may also have been in awe of the Medal of Honor winners with whom he served in Cuba: Nelson A. Miles, William R. Shafter, Henry W. Lawton, Robert Lee Howe, and Leonard Wood. As an overly confident volunteer, Roosevelt hoped for acceptance by the regular officers. In his eyes, the Medal of Honor would put him on the same level as the career soldiers. Politically, not receiving the Medal of Honor certainly did not impede Roosevelt’s career as a civil servant. Because of his participation in the Spanish-American War, he was considered one of the most popular and colorful political figures in the United States. Almost immediately after the war, Roosevelt was elected governor of New York, then selected by McKinley as his vice president, then became President of the United States. His political successes were a direct result of the image he made for himself in Cuba.

Theodore Roosevelt passed away in 1919 from complications relating to an adventure in South America. Had Roosevelt still been alive in 1944, he would have been proud to learn that a Roosevelt did eventually win the award he so coveted. His son Brig. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honor posthumously for “gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, in France.”(46) However, this Medal of Honor was awarded with its own bit of controversy. Originally, Theodore jr. had been cited for the Distinguished Service Cross. Some commanding officers in the First Army, including Maj. Gen. J. Lawton Collins and Lt. Gen. Courtney Hodges, considered this to be the appropriate award, but the War Department upgraded the citation to a Medal of Honor.(47)

Even though he did not receive his nation’s highest military decoration, Theodore Roosevelt will forever be known as one of America’s most well-liked and vibrant characters. His charge up Kettle Hill, even though he insisted it was San Juan Hill, conjures a heroic image that will likely never fade with time. Theodore Roosevelt will always be remembered as the embodiment of the Spanish-American War, a significant historical event that he called the “time of my life.”(48)


The Crowded Hour

The Charge at
El Caney & San Juan Hills

PHOTO RIGHT:  Rough Rider Color Sergeant Wright

Among the regiments assembled and digging for shelter from the enemy guns at the foot of San Juan Hill was the 6th US Infantry, a part of General Kent’s 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division under Brigadier General Hamilton S. Hawkins.  Among the members of Hawkins’ staff was an eager young lieutenant who had told a friend he would return from battle as either a colonel or a corps.  As the enemy fire continued to rain upon the stalemated American soldiers, Lieutenant Jules Ord turned to his commander.  Tired of the wait he informed General Hawkins, “General, if you will order a charge, I will lead it.”


A veteran of Civil War assaults on fortified enemy positions, General Hawkins considered the young lieutenant’s offer, weighing it against the high rate of casualties he knew such a charge would create. 


 Lieutenant Ord broke the silence of the general’s contemplation.  “If you do not wish to order a charge, General, I should like to volunteer,” he offered.  “We can’t stay here, can we?”

“I would not ask any man to volunteer,” General Hawkins replied.

“If you do not FORBID it, I will start it,” Ord implored.  “I only ask you not to refuse permission.”

Of a truth, it was an unusual conversation between a commanding general and a junior staffer.  But the grizzled veteran also realized that Lieutenant Ord was right, the men couldn’t stay where they were and continue to suffer at the mercy of the enemy guns above them.  “I will not ask for volunteers, I will not give permission and I will not refuse it,” the general finally responded ambiguously.  “God bless you and good luck!”

Shirtless against the heat and armed with a pistol in one hand and saber in the other, Lieutenant Ord rose up and shouted to his men, “Come on, you men.  We can’t stay here.  Follow me!”.   In the tension of the moment and inspired by the sight of the brave lieutenant, the men of General Hawkins’ 6th Infantry rose to their feet to charge directly into the guns of the Spanish.  Almost immediately, Lieutenant Ord was struck by enemy rounds and fell dead, but his shout had energized the moment and the 6th Infantry continued to rush the hillside.  

To the right of the 6th, the men of the Rough Riders saw Lieutenant Ord and his men begin their assault and rose also, attacking the enemy above.  To the rear the 10th US Cavalry became caught up in the excitement, rushing forward to join the attack.  In the spontaneity and confusion of the moment,  the all-black regiment split with part of the 10th joining the 6th Infantry to attack San Juan Hill, and the other half mingling with the Rough Riders to assault Kettle Hill.

Focus on

Lieutenant J. Ord Hume L.F.



Born in Edinburgh 1864, he was one of the best known Composers and Bandmasters in late 1800s and early 1900s. He had a remarkable career as Bandsman, Bandmaster, Composer and Adjudicator. He joined the Duke of Duccleuch-Dalkeith Militia Permanent Staff when only eleven years old and became Cornet Soloist a year later.  At the age of sixteen he went to the Band of the Royal Scots Greys as Cornet Soloist, and remained with that regiment until 1887.

He was then appointed Organist of the Military Presbyterian Church, Aldershot, and Bandmaster of the Aldershot and Farnham Institute Bands. He held numerous other appointments, including the Bandmastership of the 3rd. V.B. Durham Light Infantry. Mr Ord Hume published uptowards 1,000 pieces. It was he who composed the test pieces for the first two 1,000 Guineas Challenge Cup Competitions at the Crystal Palace, and had been Chief Adjudicator in that Contest for many years. 

For a number of years he had headed the list of Adjudicators in the country, and as a Professional Teacher had been associated with practically every band of importance in the country.  Mr Ord Hume also had the Editorial Control of a number of important publications. In 1902 he toured the Commonwealth of Australia as Adjudicator at musical function of all kinds.

He was adjudicator at the Championship of Ulster Contest in Belfast in October 1905 and continued to adjudicate from time to time until the 20th N.I.B.A. Championship in Belfast, November 1931. This was his last appearance at this contest.  His last decision at a Band Contest, was given at the Aonach Tailteann Band Championship in the Mansion House, Dublin on Saturday 9th July, 1932. (This contest was won by Bloomfield Amateur Flute Band, Belfast. Piccolo player was Donald Sloan).

He passed away on 28th November 1932 after having been in ill health for sometime. His death was deeply regretted, not only by the N.I.B.A. but by all Bandsmen in Northern Ireland, by whom he was well known and greatly respected. He also arranged many fine test pieces for the Flute Bands over the years.


Notes taken from the Ulster Amateur Flute Band History, complied by Donald Sloan.




Among the Buffalo Soldiers that mingled with the Rough Riders was the 10th Cavalry’s regimental quartermaster, an 1886 graduate of West Point who had been an instructor at his alma mater when the Spanish-American War broke out.  He had requested a combat assignment with the statement that, “If I did not make every effort to obtain an opportunity for field service I should never forgive myself.”

When the young lieutenant was informed that all West Point instructors were frozen in their positions, and when repeated letters to the assistant secretary of war proved fruitless, he threatened, “I shall resign (the West Point position) and join some National Guard or volunteer unit that stands a chance of being sent to Cuba.”  Having previously served with the 10th US Cavalry, he also wrote his friend



 Colonel Guy V. Henry, commander of the 10th, requesting a return to service in his old unit.  When Colonel Henry requested the assignment of the young lieutenant to the 10th as it prepared for duty in Cuba, the assistant secretary of war finally granted him permission to leave his teaching duties.

As a white officer among the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th, the lieutenant had been given a nickname.  Though his first name was John, he was facetiously referred to as “BLACK JACK”.  It was a moniker that would follow him for life, long after his service with the 10th Cavalry ended, and nearly twenty years later would become one of the most famous names in military history when Lieutenant John J. Black Jack Pershing would become a general and lead the Untied States Expeditionary forces in


John J. Black Jack Pershing would become a genereral

The Great War.


As Lieutenant Pershing charged up Kettle Hill among the men of his 10th Cavalry and Colonel Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, he was more than impressed by what he was witnessing.  He later wrote:

“Each officer or soldier next in rank took charge of the line or group immediately in his front or rear and halting to fire at each good opportunity, taking reasonable advantage of cover, the entire command moved forward as coolly as though the buzzing of bullets was the humming of bees.  White regiments, black regiments, regulars and Rough Riders, representing the young manhood of the North and the South, fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color, unmindful of whether commanded by ex-Confederate or not, and mindful of only their common duty as Americans.”


Read more

July 3 —


Spain’s Atlantic fleet, having sought refuge in the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, attempts to escape and is destroyed by American naval forces.


Fort Huachuca: The Traditional Home of the Buffalo Soldier


Buffalo Soldier statue at Fort Huachuca’s Main Gate.
It was dedicated in 1977 to recognize the part Huachuca
has played in African-American military history.
U.S. Army photo

Henry O. Flipper was the first African-American graduate (1877) of the U.S. Military Academy. The 10th Cavalry officer was dismissed from the service in 1882 after discrepancies were found in the post commissary funds of which he was in charge. Flipper maintained his innocence. He stayed on the Mexican border, serving as a mining engineer and publishing the Nogales Sunday Herald. He later became the interpreter for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1919-1922, an assistant to the Secretary of Interior, 1922-1923, and an engineer with a New York oil company operating in Venezuela. He authored several books before his death in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1940 at the age of 84. U.S. Army Signal Corps photo.

The story of black Americans fighting under their nation’s flag is older than the flag itself. First introduced as slaves by the British early in the 17th century, blacks served alongside their white masters in the first colonial militias organized to defend against Indian attacks.

By the time of the American Revolution, some freed slaves were taking a stand for independence along with the white colonists. A freedman named Crispus Attucks was among those eleven Americans gunned down in the Boston massacre of March 5, 1770, when they defied the British soldiery. When the war broke out, blacks like Peter Salem and Salem Poore were in the thick of the fighting. Salem was credited with shooting the British commander at Bunker Hill and Poore was cited for gallantry. A number of other blacks were serving in New England militia units in 1775, but when the Continental Army was officially formed in 1775, Congress bowed to the insistence of the southern slaveholders and excluded blacks, free or slave, from service. These regulations were soon overridden by the necessities of the desperate fighting and the need for manpower. Black veterans were retained and new recruits were accepted.

“A Halt to Tighten the Packs,” Frederic Remington

In all, there were approximately 5,000 blacks who served in the American Revolutionary War. Despite the fact that they continued to make real military contributions in the War of 1812 and in the Civil War, it was not until after that latter war that blacks were accepted into the regular Army.

Fort Huachuca, more than any other installation in the U.S. military establishment, was at the heart of half a century of black military history. It was here that black soldiers came to reflect upon their worth, to remember the part they had played in taming Comanche, Kiowa, Apache, and Sioux; in punching a hole through Spanish lines on a Cuban hilltop so Teddy Roosevelt and his Rough Riders could dash through it; and in winning the day against Mexican forces at Agua Caliente in 1916. If their white fellow Americans did not show them the respect they deserved, their foes in battle did. The Indians called them “Buffalo Soldiers.” The Germans in World War I referred to them as “Hell Fighters.”

Sergeant George Berry of the 10th Cavalry who planted the colors of the 10th Cavalry on San Juan Hill, Cuba, 1 July 1898. [ He is holding those same colors and standing in front of the headquarters at Huachuca.]

It was on Huachuca’s parade field that they felt the stirrings of pride that only the soldier knows, and they marched with a growing sense of equality that their brother civilians would not be allowed to feel until decades later. Problems of discrimination were as widespread in the Army as they were in other parts of American society, but minority barriers fell faster in the Army where the most important measure of a man is his dependability in a fight.

In 1866 six black regular Army regiments were formed. They were the 38th, 39th, 40th and 41st Infantry and the 9th and 10th Cavalry. Three years later, as part of a reduction in the size of the Army, the 38th and 41st were consolidated to form the 24th Infantry and the 39th and 40th made up the new 25th Infantry. Officered by whites, these regiments went on to justify the belief by black leaders that men of their race could contribute mightily to the nation’s defense. Some of the service of each of these regiments in the latter part of the 19th century is highlighted in the paragraphs that follow.

The 24th Infantry Regiment participated in 1875 expeditions against hostile Kiowas and Commanches in the Department of Texas. One of the engagements of this campaign saw Lieutenant John Bullis and three Seminole-Negro Indian scouts attack a 25-man war party on the Pecos River. Sergeant John Ward, Private Pompey Factor and Trumpeter Isaac Payne were rewarded with the Medal of Honor for their exceptional bravery in this encounter.

General Benjamin H. Grierson in 1863. Grierson had earned a reputation as a daring cavalryman during the Civil War and was named the commander of the newly formed 10th Cavalry regiment, the Buffalo Soldiers, in 1866.

The 25th Infantry Regiment spent its first ten years in Texas building and repairing military posts, roads and telegraph lines; performing escort and guard duty of all description; marching and counter-marching from post to post; and scouting for Indians. In 1880 the regiment was ordered to the Department of Dakota and stationed at Fort Missoula, Montana. It participated in the Pine Ridge Campaign of 189091, the last stand of the Sioux, and quelled civil disorders in Missoula during the Northern Pacific Railroad strike in 1894.

The 10th Cavalry Regiment, or “Buffalo Soldiers,” is probably the most renowned of the black regiments. At its inception, the commander, Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson, was determined to fill the ranks only with men of the highest quality. Orders went out to recruit none but “superior men … who would do credit to the regiment.” The 10th’s record in several Indian War campaigns attests to the fact that Grierson achieved his goal. In 1886, the Buffalo Soldiers tracked Geronimo’s renegades in the Pinito Mountains in Mexico and several months later ran down the last Apache holdout Mangas and his band.

In 1890 the Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, the last major fight of the Indian Wars, pitted the U.S. 7th Cavalry against Big Foot’s Sioux. The 9th Cavalry Regiment also took part in this campaign and played a dramatic part in the Battle of Clay Creek Mission. Over 1,800 Sioux under Little Wound and Two Strike had encircled the battle-weary 7th. The situation looked grave until the 9th Cavalry arrived on the field and drove off the Indian force with an their rear. For conspicuous gallantry displayed on this occasion, Corporal William O. Wilson, Troop 1, 9th Cavalry, was granted the Medal of Honor.

Frederic Remington. “Saddle Up”

The paths of all four of these regiments would intersect in a scenic canyon in southeastern Arizona, just twenty miles from the Mexican border. The place was called Fort Huachuca and it had played an important part in the Apache campaigns since its establishment in 1877.

The first black regiment to arrive at Huachuca was the 24th Infantry which sent companies there in 1892. During the next year, the entire regiment would come together at the fort. Here they remained until 1896, a year that saw some excitement for the troops who thought that the Indian Wars were ended. It was in that year that Colonel John Mosby Bacon took Companies C and H, of the 24th Infantry out of Fort Huachuca to run down Yaqui Indians who had been raiding around Harshaw and Nogales. The search for these Mexico-based Indians proved inconclusive.

“Dismounted Negro, Tenth Cavalry,” Frederic Remington

Companies A and H of the 25th Infantry regiment took up residence in Huachuca Canyon in 1898, after returning from fighting in Cuba, and A Company remained there until the end of April 1899.

Troops of the 9th Cavalry joined the 25th Infantry at Fort Huachuca in 1898 and rotated its units in and out of the post until 1900. A detachment of the 9th would return briefly for a short tour in 1912.

Although the 9th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry regiments had all served briefly at Fort Huachuca during the 1890s, it wasn’t until the 10th Cavalry, or the “Buffalo Soldiers,” arrived there in December 1913 that the continuous era of black soldiers began at Huachuca. (The nickname “Buffalo Soldiers” was first given to the men of the 10th Cavalry by the Indians of the plains who likened their hair to that of the buffalo. Over the years this name has been extended by veterans to include soldiers of all of the original black regiments.)

This proud cavalry unit had served in Arizona before, in the last century, rotating from one post to another in Arizona, New Mexico or Texas, wherever they were needed to track down Apache renegades. So the startling vistas were not new to many of the veterans. Nor was the relentless desert sun a stranger to these horsemen who doggedly followed the trail of Pancho Villa into Mexico in 1916. In Huachuca Canyon they found a home for the next eighteen years, the longest this mobile unit would stay at any one place since its formation in 1866.

Men of the 25th Infantry warm themselves around a Sibley stove at Fort Keough, Montana, in 1890-91.

Right after their arrival at Huachuca, in 1914, the men of the 10th were spread out at encampments along the Arizona-Mexico border from Yuma on the West to Naco on the east. They corralled their horses and stretched their tents at points in between like Forrest, Osborne, Nogales, Lochiel, Harrison’s Ranch, Arivaca, Sasabe, La Osa, and San Fernando. Many would sweat it out under canvas for as long as ten months before being rotated back to their home station in the cooler elevations of the Huachucas.

They were picketed along the border, not as some training exercise, but to enforce neutrality laws. Mexico was experiencing political upheaval on a scale that alarmed statesmen in Washington, D. C., and they quickly legislated that there could be no encroachments upon American soil.

Kitchen scene, 25th Infantry during winter campaign, 1890-91, Fort Keough, Montana. U.S. Army Signal Corps photo (SC83763).

They were relieved in 1931 by the 25th Infantry Regiment. First arriving at the post in 1928, the 25th continued the tradition of black soldiering there. Like the 10th Cavalry, they had seen hard combat in both the Indian Wars and in Cuba. Also like the Tenth, they were to serve there for 14 years until 1942 when they were incorporated as cadre into the newly formed 93d Infantry Division.

The 93d and 92d Divisions trained one after the other at Fort Huachuca during World War II. The 93d, which would be the first black division to see action in the war, arrived in Arizona in 1942 and shipped out to the Pacific in 1944. Because its regiments, the 368th and 369th, were assigned to the French Army in World War 1, the light blue French helmet became the division’s shoulder patch.

A squad room interior of the 24th Infantry at Huachuca around 1892.

The 92d too had regiments (365th, 370th and 371st) that could trace their lineage to some heroic fighting in France in 1918, but the division chose to reach back to the Indian Wars of the 1870s and 80s for their symbol. They chose for their shoulder patch the buffalo, recalling the “Buffalo Soldiers,” as the black troops were respectfully called by the Indians of the Western plains.

Company B of the 25th Infantry was stationed at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, from 1883-1888.
They pose here in their full dress uniforms. U.S. Army Signal Corps photo SC 83637.

To some blacks Huachuca was a mountain refuge far away from the immense struggle that was taking place in America’s city streets and country lanes, a fight for equality. But for others it was a way to participate in the struggle, to take up a profession that offered dignity, service to country, and maybe a warrior’s death. For whatever reason they joined the Army (the Marines did not admit blacks; the Navy had only a few openings for the menial job of messboy), Fort Huachuca would be an almost inevitable stop along their way. Some found it to be “a very fine place to serve.” To others it was “an infamous place.” For all it was, for a time, home. Black infantrymen and cavalrymen carved out a place in history there. If the sobriquet “Buffalo Soldier” has come to stand collectively for the black men who served in the four regular army regiments from 1866 to World War 11, then Fort Huachuca has earned the distinction of being “Home of the Buffalo Soldier.”

“A Campfire Sketch,” Frederic Remington——————“A Pull at the Canteen,” Frederic Remington



Though the Colors of the United States of America were flying from the summits of San Juan and Kettle Hills by 2:00 o’clock in the afternoon,


General Henry Lawton’s 2nd Infantry Division was still struggling for both survival and victory at El Caney.  Among the first to attack in the early morning was the 71st Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, many of its men falling to the devastating fire from the Spanish blockhouses.  Two regular infantry regiments moved into position as the 71st fell back, the ranks of these units likewise being quickly repulsed as they pushed through the high jungle grass in their attempt to charge the enemy.

The Spanish were not, however, without their own tragic losses.


General Vara de Rey fought his soldiers well, until falling himself…shot through both legs.  While being carried to safety on a stretcher, he was hit again, this time in the head, and died instantly.  Before the day came to a close, two of his sons, serving under him at El Caney, would also be killed.

Two hours after the US Colors had risen over San Juan Hill, Lawton’s 3rd, 20th, and 25th US Infantry launched a heavy assault.  Much like the earlier charge at San Juan Hill, it was an almost spontaneous eruption of brave American soldiers who had fought all day and tired of the constant rain of enemy fire from the trenches.  The terrain was now littered with the bodies of dead and wounded Americans while, inside the city a small handful of leaderless Spanish soldiers was all that remained to make a final valiant stand.  Of the 520 Spanish soldiers who had defended the city earlier in the day, less than 100 remained to face the American charge.  





The charge began as Lieutenant Kinnison of the 25th observed, “We cannot take the trenches without charging them,” then almost immediately fell wounded by an enemy round before he could sound the charge.  Second Lieutenant A. J. Moss replaced him as yells and whoops “which would have done credit to a Comanche Indian” went up and down the ranks, according to Sergeant Major Frank Pullen of the 25th.  The Buffalo Soldiers charged with a fury, ignoring the men that fell around them, to charge the enemy trenches and rout the last of the enemy defenders.  Company H was first to reach the blockhouse where Private Butler took possession of the enemy flag for his company.  (Later an officer of the 12th infantry entered and ordered Butler to give up the flag.  Dutifully, Butler followed the white officer’s orders, but not before cutting a swatch from the enemy standard to later substantiate his claim that his company and his regiment had been the first to take the position.)

Within half an hour the battle was over, the city secured and the stone fort at El Viso destroyed.  By five in the evening all Spaniards who had not escaped into the jungle were either dead or captured.  The “two hour victory” had taken a full day, but because of the valor and determination of the young American soldiers, victory had at last come.  It was not without great cost, 81 Americans killed at El Caney, another 360 wounded.  Nine members of the 17th Infantry Regiment received Medals of Honor, all for “GALLANTLY ASSISTING IN THE RESCUE OF THE WOUNDED FROM IN FRONT OF THE LINES UNDER HEAVY FIRE OF THE ENEMY.

At both El Caney and at San Juan Hill, the efforts to bury the dead and treat and evacuate the wounded went long into the night and after the midnight hour.  At San Juan the Americans pitched their tents and dined on captured enemy provisions.  Throughout the night an alert vigil was maintained against the expected counter-attack that never materialized.

At El Caney General Lawton prepared his troops to finally move south to join with the other two divisions, nearly a full day behind schedule.  


El Caney

17th US Infantry

2LT Charles Roberts
1Lt Benjamin Hardaway

Company C


Company D

Cpl Ulysses Buzzard   Cpl Norman Ressler
Pvt George Berg   Cpl Warren Shepherd
Pvt Oscar Brookin    
Pvt Thomas Graves    
Pvt Bruno Wende    

San Juan & 
Kettle Hill

Company F
10th US Cavalry


SgtMaj Edward Baker

Company F
10th US Infantry


Company H
21st US Infantry

Pvt Charles Cantrell   Pvt John Deswan
Sgt Andrew Cummins   Cpl Thomas Doherty
Pvt William Keller   Pvt Frank Fournia
Pvt James Nash   Pvt Thomas Kelly
Pvt Alfred Polond   Pvt George Nee
    Mus Herman Pfisterer

Company A
13th US Infantry


US Volunteers

Sgt Alexander Quinn   Cpt Albert Mills








Though Colonel Theodore Roosevelt emerged from the Spanish-American war a larger-than-life hero, in great part due his reckless but valiant leadership at Kettle Hill.  Never-the-less, he was denied the Medal of Honor.  Many historians believe this was due to his outspoken criticism of Secretary of War Alger and other top military planners.  While the public adored “Teddy” and fed vociferously on the reports of his Rough Riders, those who were the subjects of Roosevelt’s scathing reports of poorly planned military actions and inept efforts to properly equip and supply his soldiers, exacted their revenge.  Indeed, Roosevelt went so far as to say publicly, “I Am Entitled to the Medal of Honor and I Want It”.

Though two Medal of Honor recipients who had witnessed Roosevelt’s actions at Kettle and San Juan Hills (Generals Shafter and Wood) recommended the intrepid leader of the Rough Riders, his political enemies succeeded in denying it to him during his lifetime.  Beyond Roosevelt’s death, his actions were debated for decades and finally, more than 100 years after his famous charge during the Spanish-American War, Congress approved the award.  On January 16, 2001 President William Clinton presented Theodore Roosevelt’s Medal of Honor to his great-grandson Tweed Roosevelt, in ceremonies at the White House.  His award brought the total of awards earned in the July 1, 1898 battles at El Caney, Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill to an even two-dozen.  Ironically, Roosevelt’s long-sought Medal of Honor would be the ONLY posthumous award of the entire Spanish-American War.

Theodore Roosevelt’s MOH Citation





Governor-General of Cuba 
Ramon Blanco y Erenas







Spanish-American War in Cuba

Cuba Struggle for Independence (1868-1898)
and then (Washington Post published), starts
the “Splendid Little” War . What follows are some benchmarks along the way:


April 10, 1895 — Jose Marti, Cuban revolutionary,



launches insurrection against Spanish rule.



He is killed May 19.


The most famous cigar ever rolled in Tampa went out not as a Corona or a Presidente, but as a liberator to spark the Cuban Revolution of 1895. This cigar cost thousands of lives, but eventually won the independence of Cuba from Spain.

  The story of the cigar that went to war starts Jan. 29, 1895, at the residence of Gonzalo De Quesada, secretary of the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York City. Jose Marti, the leader of the Cuban crusade for freedom, called a secret meeting of the revolutionary junta at the Quesada home.

Present were General Jose Mayia Rodriguez, representing Generalisimo Maximo Gomez, and General Enrique Collazo, representing the Revolutionary Junta of Havana. Among the Cuban patriots taking part in the historic junta was Emilio Cordero, who in later years would become a prominent leader in the cigar industry of America marketing his popular brand Mi Hogar.        Gonzalo de Quesada        Jose Marti


Jan. 1, 1898 —

 In an effort to defuse the insurrection, Spain gives Cubans limited political autonomy.

Jan. 12 —

Spaniards in Cuba riot against autonomy given to Cubans.


Jan. 25 — USS Maine arrives in Havana Harbor to protect American interests.

Feb. 15 — USS Maine explodes, sinks; 266 crewmen lost. The Maine’s captain urges suspension of judgment on the cause of the explosion.

March 28 —

Naval Court of Inquiry says Maine destroyed by a mine.


Spanish-Cuban-American War
Embarkation at Tampa, Florida


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U.S. Regulars leaving for Cuba. 








Company A, First United States Volunteer Engineers.

Spanish-Cuban-American War
Embarkation at Tampa, Florida


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Spanish-Cuban-American War
Embarkation at Tampa, Florida


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The Spanish-Cuban-American War 
The Sinking of the U.S.S. Merrimac
June 3, 1898


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Merrimac being scuttled at the mouth of Santiago de Cuba harbor.







The smokestack of the Merrimac near Estrella Point.


Spanish-Cuban-American War
Disembarkation and Attack at Guantanamo Bay
June 11-12, 1898



April 11 —

President William McKinley asks Congress for declaration of war.

April 25 —

State of war exists between United States and Spain.


June 10 — U.S. Marines land at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.


June 11 –
                      Body of marines landed at Guantanamo from the
Marblehead and Texas, and had a
                      brisk skirmish







Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. disembarkation at Aserraderos, 
Cuba, June 20, 1898


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     Gen. Shafter and Admiral Sampson received by
     Cuban Liberation Army at Aserraderos.



Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. disembarkation at Daiquiri, Cuba
June 22, 1898


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Horses and mules being thrown off transports swim to shore.




Troops landing on the dock at Daiquiri.

Troops landing on the dock at Daiquiri.



Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. disembarkation at Daiquiri, Cuba
June 22, 1898


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The Rough Riders disembarking at Daiquiri



Troops assembling at Daiquiri before marching to Siboney.




Wrecked locomotive at Daiquiri


Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. disembarkation at Siboney, Cuba
June 23, 1898


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Massachusetts volunteers disembark from the New York at Siboney. 

 Troops landing on the beach at Siboney.







Siboney blockhouse

Siboney blockhouse

Spanish-Cuban-American War
Battle of Las Guasimas
June 24, 1898


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Spanish-Cuban-American War
Artillery duel at El Pozo, Cuba
July 1, 1898


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The Battle of El Caney
July 1, 1898



The Crowded Hour

The Charge at
El Caney & San Juan Hills

PHOTO RIGHT:  Rough Rider Color Sergeant Wright

Among the regiments assembled and digging for shelter from the enemy guns at the foot of San Juan Hill was the 6th US Infantry, a part of General Kent’s 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division under Brigadier General Hamilton S. Hawkins.  Among the members of Hawkins’ staff was an eager young lieutenant who had told a friend he would return from battle as either a colonel or a corps.  As the enemy fire continued to rain upon the stalemated American soldiers, Lieutenant Jules Ord turned to his commander.  Tired of the wait he informed General Hawkins, “General, if you will order a charge, I will lead it.”


A veteran of Civil War assaults on fortified enemy positions, General Hawkins considered the young lieutenant’s offer, weighing it against the high rate of casualties he knew such a charge would create. 


 Lieutenant Ord broke the silence of the general’s contemplation.  “If you do not wish to order a charge, General, I should like to volunteer,” he offered.  “We can’t stay here, can we?”

“I would not ask any man to volunteer,” General Hawkins replied.

“If you do not FORBID it, I will start it,” Ord implored.  “I only ask you not to refuse permission.”

Of a truth, it was an unusual conversation between a commanding general and a junior staffer.  But the grizzled veteran also realized that Lieutenant Ord was right, the men couldn’t stay where they were and continue to suffer at the mercy of the enemy guns above them.  “I will not ask for volunteers, I will not give permission and I will not refuse it,” the general finally responded ambiguously.  “God bless you and good luck!”

Shirtless against the heat and armed with a pistol in one hand and saber in the other, Lieutenant Ord rose up and shouted to his men, “Come on, you men.  We can’t stay here.  Follow me!”.   In the tension of the moment and inspired by the sight of the brave lieutenant, the men of General Hawkins’ 6th Infantry rose to their feet to charge directly into the guns of the Spanish.  Almost immediately, Lieutenant Ord was struck by enemy rounds and fell dead, but his shout had energized the moment and the 6th Infantry continued to rush the hillside.  

To the right of the 6th, the men of the Rough Riders saw Lieutenant Ord and his men begin their assault and rose also, attacking the enemy above.  To the rear the 10th US Cavalry became caught up in the excitement, rushing forward to join the attack.  In the spontaneity and confusion of the moment,  the all-black regiment split with part of the 10th joining the 6th Infantry to attack San Juan Hill, and the other half mingling with the Rough Riders to assault Kettle Hill.

Focus on

Lieutenant J. Ord Hume L.F.



Born in Edinburgh 1864, he was one of the best known Composers and Bandmasters in late 1800s and early 1900s. He had a remarkable career as Bandsman, Bandmaster, Composer and Adjudicator. He joined the Duke of Duccleuch-Dalkeith Militia Permanent Staff when only eleven years old and became Cornet Soloist a year later.  At the age of sixteen he went to the Band of the Royal Scots Greys as Cornet Soloist, and remained with that regiment until 1887.

He was then appointed Organist of the Military Presbyterian Church, Aldershot, and Bandmaster of the Aldershot and Farnham Institute Bands. He held numerous other appointments, including the Bandmastership of the 3rd. V.B. Durham Light Infantry. Mr Ord Hume published uptowards 1,000 pieces. It was he who composed the test pieces for the first two 1,000 Guineas Challenge Cup Competitions at the Crystal Palace, and had been Chief Adjudicator in that Contest for many years. 

For a number of years he had headed the list of Adjudicators in the country, and as a Professional Teacher had been associated with practically every band of importance in the country.  Mr Ord Hume also had the Editorial Control of a number of important publications. In 1902 he toured the Commonwealth of Australia as Adjudicator at musical function of all kinds.

He was adjudicator at the Championship of Ulster Contest in Belfast in October 1905 and continued to adjudicate from time to time until the 20th N.I.B.A. Championship in Belfast, November 1931. This was his last appearance at this contest.  His last decision at a Band Contest, was given at the Aonach Tailteann Band Championship in the Mansion House, Dublin on Saturday 9th July, 1932. (This contest was won by Bloomfield Amateur Flute Band, Belfast. Piccolo player was Donald Sloan).

He passed away on 28th November 1932 after having been in ill health for sometime. His death was deeply regretted, not only by the N.I.B.A. but by all Bandsmen in Northern Ireland, by whom he was well known and greatly respected. He also arranged many fine test pieces for the Flute Bands over the years.


Notes taken from the Ulster Amateur Flute Band History, complied by Donald Sloan.




Among the Buffalo Soldiers that mingled with the Rough Riders was the 10th Cavalry’s regimental quartermaster, an 1886 graduate of West Point who had been an instructor at his alma mater when the Spanish-American War broke out.  He had requested a combat assignment with the statement that, “If I did not make every effort to obtain an opportunity for field service I should never forgive myself.”

When the young lieutenant was informed that all West Point instructors were frozen in their positions, and when repeated letters to the assistant secretary of war proved fruitless, he threatened, “I shall resign (the West Point position) and join some National Guard or volunteer unit that stands a chance of being sent to Cuba.”  Having previously served with the 10th US Cavalry, he also wrote his friend



 Colonel Guy V. Henry, commander of the 10th, requesting a return to service in his old unit.  When Colonel Henry requested the assignment of the young lieutenant to the 10th as it prepared for duty in Cuba, the assistant secretary of war finally granted him permission to leave his teaching duties.

As a white officer among the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th, the lieutenant had been given a nickname.  Though his first name was John, he was facetiously referred to as “BLACK JACK”.  It was a moniker that would follow him for life, long after his service with the 10th Cavalry ended, and nearly twenty years later would become one of the most famous names in military history when Lieutenant John J. Black Jack Pershing would become a general and lead the Untied States Expeditionary forces in


John J. Black Jack Pershing would become a genereral

The Great War.


As Lieutenant Pershing charged up Kettle Hill among the men of his 10th Cavalry and Colonel Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, he was more than impressed by what he was witnessing.  He later wrote:

“Each officer or soldier next in rank took charge of the line or group immediately in his front or rear and halting to fire at each good opportunity, taking reasonable advantage of cover, the entire command moved forward as coolly as though the buzzing of bullets was the humming of bees.  White regiments, black regiments, regulars and Rough Riders, representing the young manhood of the North and the South, fought shoulder to shoulder, unmindful of race or color, unmindful of whether commanded by ex-Confederate or not, and mindful of only their common duty as Americans.”




El Viso Fort on hilltop, left. The blockhouse and defense line, right. 

Ducoureaud plantation, on El Caney-Santiago road, declared neutral by both sides.



Village of El Caney as seen from El Viso Fort.

El Caney street looking northeast.



The blockhouse and defense line at El Caney.

U.S. 7th Infantry Regiment firing on El Caney from the north.



El Viso Fort on hilltop.


The Battle of El Caney
July 1, 1898


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Final charge of Chaffee’s Brigade (7th, 12th, 17th, Regular Infantry)

The Spanish defense El Caney.



Capron’s Battery in action at El Caney





Interior of El Viso Fort after its capture.



Capron’s Battery



El Viso Fort damaged by artillery fire from Capron’s battery.





Spanish-Cuban-American War
Battle of San Juan Hill
July 1, 1898


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Charge of the 24th and 25th USCT and Rescue of Rough Riders.



Observation balloon being inflated at the battle of San Juan Hill.

In the trenches facing the Spanish blockhouse at San Juan Hill before the battle.





Spanish-Cuban-American War
Battle of San Juan Hill
July 1, 1898


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Gatling guns hauled by mules arrive to turn the tide at San Juan Hill.

Four Gatling guns won victory where conventional artillery failed.



Gatling guns cover the advance.

Teddy Roosevelt on horse leads the charge up San Juan Hill.



U.S. troops under a heavy barrage.

    Charging uphill toward the Spanish blockhouse.




Spanish-Cuban-American War
Battle of San Juan Hill
July 1, 1898


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10th Cavalry USCT advances on San Juan Hill




Capture of the Spanish Blockhouse.


       U.S. wounded take shelter behind the captured
      blockhouse with corpses from both sides in front. 

The blockhouse after its capture.




 Artillery pock marks on blockhouse
at San Juan Hill.


Capt. Theophilus Morrison,
killed at San Juan Hill.
Union Dale Cemetery
Pittsburgh, Pa.


The Spanish-Cuban-American War 
Naval Battle of Santiago
July 3, 1898


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The U.S. Navy smashes Admiral Pascual Cervera’s Spanish fleet.

Naval battle at Santiago de Cuba

The converted yatch Gloucester attacked two Spanish destroyers before being joined by the USS Indiana.


The Spanish-Cuban-American War 
Naval Battle of Santiago
July 3, 1898


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Explosion on the Vizcaya.

The Vizcaya had been raked by the USS Oregon.



Starboard quarter of the Vizcaya.

Vizcaya’s 13-inch gun and fallen mast, after it ran aground.



Starboard quarter of the Vizcaya

Portside of the disabled Vizcaya

Portside of the disabled Vizcaya


The Spanish-Cuban-American War 
Naval Battle of Santiago
July 3, 1898


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The Almirante Oquendo, struck 57 times. Its captain died of a heart attack after its surrender.

Starboard side of the Almirante Oquendo. Its steel plates were bulging apart.



The cruiser Reina Mercedes before Morro Castle.

Furor sinking



Cervera’s flagship, the Infanta Maria Teresa, was the first to be
disabled with 29 hits.

     The Cristobal Colon, with guns pointing upward, scuttled at the mouth of the Turquino
     River after a 75-mile chase.


The Spanish-Cuban-American War 
Naval Battle of Santiago
July 3, 1898


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 July 3 —


Spain’s Atlantic fleet, having sought refuge in the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, attempts to escape and is destroyed by American naval forces.


Spanish-Cuban-American War
The Siege of Santiago de Cuba
July 1898


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Spanish-Cuban-American War
The Siege of Santiago de Cuba
July 1898

       71st New York Regiment cook a meal during the 16-day
     siege of Santiago. 





 July 3 —


Spain’s Atlantic fleet, having sought refuge in the harbor of Santiago, Cuba, attempts to escape and is destroyed by American naval forces.


July 6 —

 Congress, caught up in expansionist fever fed by the war, votes to annex Hawaii, which has nothing to do with Spain.

July 14 —


Santiago surrenders.


On July 17, 1898,


General Jose Toral (center right) surrenders at Santiago, Cuba to the American commander,


Major General William Shafter (center left).


The Siege of Santiago

After setting up a telegraph connection to Washington, D.C., the V Corps began its march to Santiago on June 24. Fearful that tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever would overtake his troops, Shafter resolved to get them to Santiago as fast as possible.


The V Corps’ first battle occurred that day at Las Guásimas, a few miles from the landing point. Led by General Wheeler and Colonel Leonard Wood (1860–1927), the American troops ran into Spanish soldiers retreating toward Santiago. Death totals were low by military standards, but the Americans learned how hard it is to fight an enemy in jungle terrain. For example, most Spaniards used rifles with smokeless powder, but many American volunteers, including the Rough Riders, used rifles that revealed a soldier’s location with a puff of smoke as soon as he pulled the trigger.


After the battle at Las Guásimas, a series of hills called San Juan Heights and the town of El Caney were all that separated the Americans from Santiago. Meeting with his officers on June 30, Shafter said his plan was simply to storm those city defenses. Finally ashore, Shafter traveled to high ground at a place called El Pozo, where he could see Santiago two-and-a-half miles away. Communication problems, however, prevented Shafter from having any real input during the daylong battle on July 1.


The battle proved to be the deadliest of the war. Shafter expected General Lawton’s regiment to take El Caney in two hours. It took nine. Meanwhile, Generals Kent and Wheeler stormed San Juan Heights, an operation that included the Rough Riders as well as two African American army regiments. By the end of the day, hundreds of Americans and Spaniards were dead as the surviving Spanish soldiers retreated to temporary safety in Santiago.


Surrender and suffering

Two days later, on July 3, Admiral Cervera’s fleet tried to escape Santiago harbor to go to Havana or Cienfuegos. As Admiral Sampson was on his way to a meeting with Shafter, Commodore Winfield S. Schley (1839–1909) led the Atlantic Fleet to victory against Cervera. With no naval defenses and hundreds of people starving in the city, Spanish commander José Torál surrendered Santiago and all twelve thousand of his troops in the surrounding region on July 17.


Surrender gave Shafter another chance to insult the Cubans and disgruntle the news correspondents. Although the Cuban rebels had been fighting against Spain for over three years, Shafter refused to let them participate in the surrender ceremonies on July 17. This snub led Calixto García to resign from the Cuban army the next day. At the ceremony, while U.S. soldiers raised the American flag over the palace in Santiago, Shafter ordered his troops to remove American news correspondent Sylvester Scovel from the palace roof. Scovel refused to get down voluntarily upon Shafter’s order to do so and allegedly struck at Shafter in an ensuing argument.


The V Corps then found itself stuck in Cuba during the deadly summer months, when tropical diseases such as malaria and yellow fever were at their worst. According to Foner, when asked to identify his best generals during the revolution against Spain, Cuban general Gómez had named June, July, and August. But those months had attacked American soldiers also, who were not used to the muggy climate. The majority of the fifty-five hundred American casualties of the war came about as a result of sickness and disease rather than from combat.


Cuba’s second-largest city suffered during its siege. About half of its prewar populace, some 20,000 civilians, were allowed to evacuate for El Caney. Its buildings were then shelled from the encircling heights until July 14, when General Toral was asked to capitulate. After telegraphing Madrid, he accepted the Americans’ terms, so General Shafter raised the Stars and Stripes over the governor’s palace by noon on July 17.

The rebel leader García was excluded from this arrangement, however, and his followers were not allowed into the devastated city. Instead, the young Wood was installed as military governor on July 20, 1898, despite objections from rebels who argued that at least its civic administration “should be turned over to Cubans.” Shafter grudgingly agreed to share some duties, so the wealthy, French-educated rebel general Demetrio Castillo was temporarily named mayor. But the Americans remained distrustful and contemptuous of the ragtag insurgents, most of whom were black, and believed that only the former Spanish municipal officials could manage the city’s resurrection.

Castillo therefore was removed a few days later in favor of Santiago’s

ex-Spanish mayor, Leonardo Ros. García’s aggrieved followers retired into the hills, their vision of Cuban independence having been dashed. As some rebels still wished to avenge years of repression, roads inland remained dangerous for travelers, and no produce reached market. Some defeated Spaniards in turn continued to treat all Cubans with vindictiveness, while the American occupiers often regarded black inhabitants—almost 57 percent of Santiago’s peacetime populace—with blatant racism.

Fortunately, Wood proved to be an excellent administrator. He immediately addressed the needs of the few surviving residents, who were still suffering so badly from disease and famine that the death rate exceeded 200 people a day. Water and sewer systems had been destroyed, and no public funds were available. Wood hired citizens to clear streets of bodies and debris, then turned to repairing the docks and bridges. At first, he paid wages with rations, then he issued checks as the economy revived. García was allowed to make a ceremonial visit on September 22, yet the Americans still refused to relinquish control. Wood’s authority was even expanded the next month to encompass all of eastern Cuba, with Castillo as his token vice governor.


Yellow fever breaks out among American troops the next day.


Spanish-Cuban-American War
Surrender of Santiago de Cuba
July 13, 1898




Gen. Toral’s surrender to Gen. Shafter, July 13, 1898



American and Spanish troops fraternize after the surrender.




The Tree of Peace





Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. invasion of Puerto Rico
July 25, 1898


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U.S. landing site. Guánica, Puerto Rico.



Spanish troops in P.R.



N.Y. 17th Volunteer Regiment lands at Arroyo, Puerto Rico.



N.Y. 17th Volunteer Regiment

U.S. troops in Arroyo



U.S. flag raised over Guayama City Hall.

U.S. Cavalry passing through San German

Sixth Mass. Infantry soldiers dead at Utuado, P.R.
 July 25 — U.S. Army invades Puerto Rico.


July 26 — Spain asks for peace.

Aug. 6 — Spain accepts American terms for peace.

Aug. 12 — Truce is signed with Spain.

Oct. 1 — Peace negotiations with Spain commence in Paris.

Dec. 10, 1898 — War ends, officially, with signing of the Treaty of Paris (With no Cuban Representative present). United States pays Spain $20 million for Philippines. Spain also cedes Puerto Rico and Guam and agrees to renounce sovereignty over Cuba.





Spanish-Cuban-American War
U.S. and Cuban Liberation Army
Joint Operations


Click on the pictures

     Left to right: Aide to Gen. Demetrio Castillo Duany, and generals Castillo,
     William Shafter, Joe Wheeler, Kent, Nelson Miles, Calixto Garcia. 


     Brig. Gen. William Ludlow and Maj. Gen. Calixto Garcia.   


     Gen. Shafter and Admiral Sampson received
     by Cuban Liberation Army at Aserraderos.







Spanish-Cuban-American War
Medical Corps




Ambulance Corps




1898-1900: CHINA. U.S. troops invade to oppose the Boxer Rebellion which is an attempt to end Western domination of China.

1898: NICARAGUA. U.S. Marines invade the Nicaraguan port of San Juan del Sur.

1898: UNITED STATES. White Democrats disagree with an editorial written by the Wilmington, North Carolina Daily Record’s black editor. They march on the newpaper’s office, burning and destroying it. The mob goes on a racist rampage in the city, killing fourteen blacks. The Democrats then stage a coup forcing Wilmington Mayor Silas P. Wright and black and white members of the city government to resign.

1898: UNITED STATES. Once again the United States Supreme Court demonstrates clearly whose pulling its strings when it declares invalid a section of the Erdman Act which had made it a criminal offense for railroads to dismiss employees or discriminate against prospective employees based on their union activities. Can’t be havin’ none of that in the land of the free.

1898: UNITED STATES. Wall Street stock market manipulator E.H. Harriman and Judge Robert Scott Lovett gain control of the Union Pacific Railroad with cash arranged by William Rockefeller and the Warburg family’s Kuhn, Loeb Company. In return, Harriman deposits the vast receipts from the railroad into the Rockefellers’ City Bank and, when he issues tens of millions of dollars in “watered” (fraudulent) railroad stock, Harriman sells most of it through the crooks at Kuhn, Loeb.

Harriman and the Rockefellers have a nice little conspiracy going. Harriman charges those oil companies competing with the Rockefellers vastly inflated freight rates. The Rockefellers then buy the struggling companies for peanuts and build Standard Oil into a monstrous and utterly ruthless monopoly. The Rockefellers sell oil products below cost in every market in which there is a competitor, driving it out of business. The Rockefellers then jack up their prices to the absolute maximum they can extort from consumers.

1898-1959: CUBA. In the midst of countless hostile actions, the destruction of the Cuban economy and an ongoing, vitriolic propaganda campaign by the U.S. against Spain, the USS Maine enters Havana Harbor on the patently absurd pretext of it being, in the words of the grotesque U.S. consul in Havana, a “friendly act of courtesy”. The secondary pretext, of protecting Americans in Cuba, is equally absurd as Frederic Remington pointed out.

Remington, an illustrator for the Hearst newspapers, the key element in the propaganda campaign preparing the U.S. public for the long-planned U.S. invasion of Cuba, sends a cable to Hearst telling him that, contrary to the hysterical tales being invented and carried in the Hearst papers, “all is quiet” in Cuba and asks for permission to return to the U.S. Hearst sends Remington a cable saying, “Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”


On cue and as though by magic, the USS Maine oh-so-conveniently blows up in Havana Harbor, resulting in the death of two hundred and sixty six U.S. sailors. By a fabulous stroke of luck, of the two hundred and sixty six corpses, only two belong to officers and to junior officers at that. Enlisted men were barred from going ashore. Officers were not.

By another fabulous stroke of luck, the U.S. has, since 1894, been beavering away planning for a full scale war against Spain and the seizure of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. The blowing up of the USS Maine is the starting whistle.

The “act of terrorism” is, of course, immediately blamed on the Spanish who, self-evidently, had absolutely nothing to gain and everything to lose by blowing up the Maine. A massive and hysterical propaganda campaign in the U.S. mass media, largely owned by Hearst and his fellow media slut, Pulitzer, whips the American public, who have already been well prepared by several years of vicious anti-Spanish propaganda, into a mindless war frenzy.

American newspapers carry out their sacred duty of printing lies to deceive the masses and carry headlines such as “The Warship Maine Was Split in Two by an Enemy’s Infernal Machine”, “How the Maine Looks As It Lies, Wrecked by Spanish Treachery” and “The Maine Was Destroyed by Treachery”. Illustrations in the newspapers, presented as fact and accepted as such by the American public, show imaginary explosives beneath the Maine and imaginary wires running ashore to imaginary Spanish evildoers.

And Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, who had, prior to the Maine explosion, warned Admiral Dewey to be ready to attack the Spanish, cold bloodedly kicks off the wars against Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines when he tells American newspapers that the Maine explosion definitely was not an accident, a statement for which there was absolutely no factual basis and was clearly designed to inflame the American public.

Six weeks later, a U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry surprises no one by coming to the conclusion that the Maine explosion was caused by a mine and we’re all supposed to know who put it there, aren’t we? The head of the Court of Inquiry, Captain William T. Sampson, will be duly rewarded with a nice fat promotion to the command of the U.S. North Atlantic Fleet.

But there are one or two things about this Court of Inquiry which seem to have been forgotten. The Judge Advocate of the U.S. Navy, Adolf Marix, reported to the court that his informants in Havana indicated that a two hundred pound mine had been placed beneath the Maine’s powder magazines by divers working for Cuban businessmen, not by the Spanish, who were, of course, the last people in the world who would do anything to give the U.S. an excuse to attack.

The Cuban businessmen were, in turn, connected to the American gun runner William Astor Chanler who had been involved in smuggling arms to Cuba and was, purely coincidentally, a very good friend of Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt. And Roosevelt wasn’t the least bit squeamish about killing a few hundred Americans. In one of his less guarded moments, he had written to Henry Cabot Lodge, “I don’t care whether our sea-coast cities are bombarded or not, this country needs a war.”

In 1971, British historian Hugh Thomas will quote William Astor Chanler as claiming responsibility for the blowing up of the Maine in a conversation with the American ambassador to the USSR, William C. Bullitt in the early 1930’s. Shortly after the conversation with Bullitt, Chanler died. Information on the cause of his death is difficult to find.

The blowing up of the USS Maine serves as the pretext for the U.S. attack on all Spanish possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific which had been planned by the U.S. since 1894. The U.S. invades Cuba and occupies and seizes Puerto Rico, preventing its first scheduled democratic election. The U.S. later seizes Guam and invades the Philippines. In the fantasyland of American “history”, this unprovoked war of aggression and empire building is called the Spanish-American War. In Cuba, it is more accurately known as the U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.

And now that Theodore Roosevelt has the splendid little war he has been so keen on, it’s time to turn it to political advantage. Roosevelt heads off to “liberate” Cuba with the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, the so-called Rough Riders. Roosevelt has very good friends in the U.S. mass media and he makes sure there is a constant flow of reports of his exploits, real or imagined. To be doubly sure, he has his very own “embedded” reporter, Richard Harding Davis of the New York Herald, whose glowing reports are picked up by a host of other American newspapers and magazines. Roosevelt’s propaganda engine would have us believe that he and the Rough Riders defeated the Spanish at San Juan Hill in Cuba virtually single handed. Roosevelt lobbied mightily for a Congressional Medal of Honor but he and his cronies couldn’t persuade the War Deparment to cough up. It would have to wait until 2001 for William “Wet Willy” Clinton to put the icing on Roosevelt’s propaganda cake.

The Humboldt (California) Times puts a nice racist spin on things when it prints a New York press story reporting that “Japs are excluded” from serving in the U.S. Navy. The report continues that “in view of the fact that there were several Japanese on board the Maine when it was blown up, it is interesting to learn the government has adopted a method that will keep them out of our navy.” The idea, apparently is that all people of Japanese ancestry are spies and those who were killed on the Maine had “useful information which (could) have been used for Japan’s benefit.” Well, Praise the Lord that those yellow devils got themselves blown up before they could betray the world’s loudest demockracy. The paper goes on, “The government has passed a rule that men admitted to the navy must be more than five feet, four inches tall. Navy officers say that will exclude the Japs.”

And who is making tens of millions of dollars yet again in their role as America’s leading merchants of death during this “splendid little war”? None other than the Duponts of course, who provide the majority of gunpowder to the U.S. government for its conquest of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Once again, it’s a case of Better Killing Through Chemistry thanks to the Dupont family.

When the Spanish in Cuba are defeated, the U.S. immediately changes its tactics, which were purportedly intended to help Cubans win their independence. The U.S. military refuses to allow Cuban independence fighters, the majority of whom are black, to take part in the surrender ceremonies or the creation of a Cuban government. The U.S. does not allow the Cubans to be present at the signing of the peace treaty in Paris. To prevent democracy prevailing and the Cuban government falling into the hands of its, gasp, black majority, U.S. dictator John R. Brooke disbands the mainly black Cuban army but leaves the previously demonized white Spanish officials in place. Hold on there John, I thought we were fighting the Spanish and helping the Cubans…

Unlike Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam, Cuba is not directly seized by the U.S. due to the Teller Amendment to the U.S. declaration of war against Spain. Instead, following U.S. military occupation, a series of repressive, racist dictatorships, ultimately connected with the U.S. Mafia, is installed. American sugar companies, multinationals, the Mafia, various Nazi supporters and merchants of death such as the DuPont family and other wealthy, white friends of the various U.S. supported dictatorships prosper while the great majority of Cubans live short lives of poverty, hopelessness and fear.

1898. NICARAGUA. U.S. Marines invade the port city of San Juan del Sur.

1898-present: HAWAII. In the midst of all this murderous empire building, the U.S. purports to formally annex the independent nation of Hawaii, the government of which had been overthrown by a coup of American sugar barons in 1893. By happy coincidence, the illegal annexation of Hawaii happens just in time for the U.S. to use Hawaii as a base for its planned invasion and occupation of the Philippines.

The U.S. remains in illegal occupation of Hawaii until the present day.

1898: HAWAII. Now that Hawaii has been stolen by the U.S., the great benefits of freedom and equality enjoyed in the U.S. are generously given to Hawaiians. Congress extends the racist Chinese Exclusion Act to Hawaii and the immigration of people of Chinese descent from Hawaii to the U.S. is prohibited. The U.S. appoints commissioners to run Hawaii. Unsurprisingly, among them is sugar baron and coup leader Sanford Dole. And to ensure harmony with our not-quite-white brothers in Hawaii, the list of commissioners is nicely rounded out by John T. Morgan, a grand dragon of the Ku Klux Klan, an advocate of apartheid, a supporter of legalized lynching and a devout opponent of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which was intended to prevent the denial of voting rights based on race.


PUERTO RICO. The U.S. invades and occupies Puerto Rico, a rich island with a strategic position long coveted by American militarists and robber barons, just as its one million people are in the process of achieving independence from Spain and are about to hold their first democratic elections. The first priority of the world’s loudest demockracy is, of course, to cancel the scheduled elections which, as in Cuba, would have resulted in a free country ruled by, gasp, black people. The nation of Puerto Rico is stolen from its people and becomes an occupied colony of the U.S. Repeated independence movements are ruthlessly and murderously crushed by the U.S. Puerto Rican patriots and independence leaders are imprisoned and tortured. The Spanish language is outlawed in schools and the American colonizers send missionaries to further the destruction of local culture. Local agriculture is systematically destroyed, making the island dependent on food imports from the U.S. and driving Puerto Ricans to work as virtual slave labor on what rapidly become American-owned plantations. Other Puerto Ricans are driven into the factories of U.S.-owned companies as cheap labor. A completely powerless puppet legislature is installed to create the usual tawdry illusion of democracy. In plain fact, Puerto Rico is a dictatorship run by the U.S. military.

The U.S. forces Puerto Ricans to become U.S. citizens in 1917 in order to allow them to be drafted into the military after the U.S. enters WW I just in time to be in on the treaty signing. In the fine tradition of American demockracy, Puerto Rico is given “non-voting” status in the U.S. Congress. The U.S. constructs major military bases and uses large parts of Puerto Rico, particularly the islands of Culebra and Vieques, as bombing ranges. Puerto Rico’s El Yunque rainforest is used by the U.S. for chemical warfare testing. The island of Vieques is used for test firing radioactive depleted uranium (DU) armaments (dirty bombs) which the U.S. will later use in its covert nuclear wars against the people of Iraq, Yugoslavia and Afghanistan.

General Nelson A. Miles, who headed the U.S. invasion of Puerto Rico was not just a talented genocide artist who had carried out innumerable slaughters of native Americans so that their land could be stolen, he was also, as befits a senior U.S. military officer, a truly gifted liar. Miles said, “We have not come to make war upon the people of a country that for centuries has been oppressed, but, on the contrary, to bring you protection, not only to yourselves but to your property, to promote your prosperity, and to bestow upon you the immunities and blessings of the liberal institutions of our government.” Well gee, thanks a lot there Nelson. Thought for a minute you were here to steal our country.


 GUAM. The U.S. invades and seizes the strategically located island of Guam. It becomes a permanent part of the American Empire.


The U.S. Navy under Admiral Dewey, who was warned by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt BEFORE the Maine explosion to be ready to attack the Spanish, destroys the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay. Filipino independence leader Emilio Aguinaldo returns from exile and resumes the Filipino war of independence against the Spanish. On June 12, 1898, having defeated all Spanish forces in the Philippines outside the capital of Manila, Aguinaldo signs the Philippine Declaration of Independence and ranges twenty thousand Filipino independence fighters in fourteen miles of trenches around the city of Manila, trapping fifteen thousand Spanish troops.

The ever-benevolent United States is, of course, in the Philippines only, as Admiral Dewey says, to “protect the natives and free them from the yoke of Spain”, a sort of nineteenth century Operation Filipino Freedom. Aguinaldo honors an American request not to attack the Spanish garrison, holding off for three months as Dewey waits for U.S. troops to arrive. Unknown to Aguinaldo, Dewey assures the U.S. government that he will “enter the city and keep the Indians (Filipinos) out.” When U.S. troops finally arrive, Dewey and General Wesley Merritt make a secret agreement with the Spanish governor, Fermin Jaudenes, for a mock battle after which the Spanish will surrender to the U.S. Dewey warns the Filipino independence fighters to stay out of Manila or they will be fired on by the U.S. The farce is carried out and the Spanish duly surrender to the U.S.

A few weeks later, the Philippine assembly ratifies the Malolos Constitution, establishing the Philippine Republic as an independent nation. During the Paris Peace Conference between the U.S. and Spain, President William McKinley first orders that the U.S. annex Luzon, Guam and Puerto Rico but not the Philippines. But, apparently, God has other ideas. On the night of October 24th, the President of the United States of America receives formal instructions from The Lord God Almighty.

I walked the floor of the White House night after night until midnight; and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night. And one night late it came to me this way, that there was nothing left for us to do…but to take them all (the former Spanish colonies) and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed, and went to sleep, and slept soundly, and the next morning I sent for the chief engineer of the War Department and I told him to put the Philippines on the map of the United States.

William McKinley’s jihad against the Filipino people has begun. When told that the people of the Philippines are Roman Catholic, McKinley responds, “Exactly.”

1898: UNITED STATES. In December,

 McKinley issues what is farcically called the Benevolent Assimilation proclamation, one of the most outrageous pieces of hypocrisy ever crafted.

We come, not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, either by active aid or by honest submission, co-operate with the Government of the United States to give effect to these beneficent purposes will receive the reward of its support and protection. All others will be brought within the lawful rule we have assumed, with firmness if need be, but without severity, so far as possible…..Finally, it should be the earnest wish and paramount aim of the military administration to win the confidence, respect, and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines by assuring them in every possible way that full measure of individual rights and liberties which is the heritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that the mission of the United States is one of BENEVOLENT ASSIMILATION substituting the mild sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule. In the fulfillment of this high mission, supporting the temperate administration of affairs for the greatest good of the governed, there must be sedulously maintained the strong arm of authority, to repress disturbance and to overcome all obstacles to the bestowal of the blessings of good and stable government upon the people of the Philippine Islands under the free flag of the United States.

Needless to say, the reality didn’t quite align with McKinley’s pious lies.

In the path of the Washington Regiment and Battery D of the Sixth Artillery there were 1,008 dead niggers, and a great many wounded. We burned all their houses. I don’t know how many men, women, and children the Tennessee boys did kill. They would not take any prisoners. U.S. Soldier


The real Battle of Manila takes place when U.S. troops slaughter three thousand Filipinos in a battle for the capital of the Philippines. Admiral Dewey steams up the Pasig River and fires five hundred pound shells into the Filipino trenches. Filipino corpses are so numerous that the Americans later use the bodies to makes breastworks. A British witness says, “This is not war; it is simply massacre and murderous butchery.”

The slaughter at Manila was necessary, but not glorious. The entire American population justifies the conduct of its army at Manila because only by a crushing repulse of the Filipinos could our position be made secure. We are the trustees of civilization and peace throughout the islands. Chicago Tribune



 As always, the U.S. press is doing a fine job of brainwashing the masses and, however we may criticize them for their whoring on behalf of the the ruling elite, we have to admire their flexibility. In the blinking of an eye, Filipino independence leader Emilio Aguinaldo, who had foolishly decided to oppose the U.S. theft of the Philippines, is repositioned from international statesman to brutish dictator. Aguinaldo even undergoes a change in skin color, appropriate since America’s war against the Filipino people is, fundamentally, a racist war of conquest against “niggers” and “Indians”.

1899: PHILIPPINES. In March,

U.S. troops capture Malolos, the seat of Aguinaldo’s government. The U.S. conducts a war against the Filipino people throughout 1899 in a series of bloody battles. The U.S.-appointed dictator of the Philippines is the military governor, General Elwell Stephen Otis. Otis is well qualified for the position, having been instrumental in carrying out the United States Government’s successful genocide of native Americans. Otis’ command is staffed with officers who, too, have learned the craft of genocide, killing native Americans.

The war against the people of the Philippines becomes nothing more than an extension of America’s racist wars against native Americans and its enslavement of blacks. American troops in the Philippines routinely talk and write of hunting and killing “niggers” and “Indians”. The phrase “nigger hunting” frequently occurs in letters written by American troops to the folks back home. Such letters also include gruesome details of burning villages, slaughtering prisoners and civilians, forced labor and looting. In 1900, Otis is replaced by another talented genocide artist, General Arthur McArthur, who carries on the good work.

U.S. Army Colonel Jacob Smith tells American reporters that fighting the Filipinos is “worse than fighting Indians”. Smith says that he is using tactics against the Filipinos which he had learned fighting “savages” in the American west and Smith, a “veteran” of the Wounded Knee massacre of three hundred and fifty native American men, woman and children, knows all about exterminating the inferior races. The New York Times enthusiastically endorses Smith’s embrace of genocide as “long overdue.” The American press, as always doing its sacred duty to deceive and manipulate the American public on behalf of the ruling elite, routinely refers to the Filipinos fighting the foreign invaders of their country as “insurgents”.

In the U.S. Senate, Albert Beveridge isn’t shy about stating the real motives for America’s war against the people of the Philippines.

The Philippines are ours forever….And just beyond the Philippines are China’s illimitable markets. We will not retreat from either….We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race, trustee, under God, of the civilization of the world…..The Pacific is our ocean…..Where shall we turn for consumers of our surplus? Geography answers the question. China is our natural customer….The Philippines give us a base at the door of all the East….No land in America surpasses in fertility the plains and valleys of Luzon. Rice and coffee, sugar and cocoanuts, hemp and tobacco…..The wood of the Philippines can supply the furniture of the world for a century to come. At Cebu the best informed man on the island told me that 40 miles of Cebu’s mountain chain are practically mountains of coal……I have a nugget of pure gold picked up in its present form on the banks of a Philippine creek. . . .It has been charged that our conduct of the war has been cruel. Senators, it has been the reverse…..we are not dealing with Americans or Europeans. We are dealing with Orientals.

And the mass murder of the Filipino people and the theft of their country has another motive. One of the major goals of the U.S. ruling elite was the economic conquest of the Far East and especially the opening of the vast Asian markets to the petroleum products of the Rockefellers. At the time, the U.S. fleet lacked a base in the Far East. The extension of American military might to the Far East on behalf of the Rockefellers and their clubmates demanded a place where American warships could be based, repaired and replenished with coal and ammunition. Unfortunately for the Filipinos, their country fit the bill perfectly.

1899: GUAM.

 The U.S. establishes a prison for Filipino political prisoners on the the island of Guam.


 The staff correspondents of the American newspapers stationed in Manila cable a joint protest against censorship of the press by the U.S. military. The correspondents make the shocking allegation that the American people have been deceived about what is going on in the Philippines. They report that they have been forced to participate in this misrepresentation. Genocide artist General Elwell Otis, U.S. military dictator of the Philippines, explains the suppression of the truth as being a good thing. The truth, he says, “would alarm the people at home.” Can’t be havin’ nobody alarmed in the land of the free.


. U.S. troops attack Chippewa Indians at Leech Lake, Minnesota.


 The American Anti-Imperialist League is formed to oppose the U.S. annexation of the Philippines. Among the members is Mark Twain who will serve as vice president of the league from 1901 until his death in 1910. It will have to wait until 1992, however, until many of Twain’s anti-imperialist writings are published in book form. Better late than never.


Funny thing about America, the boys in the back room have got everyone so thoroughly brainwashed they’ll kill and die for them on the most ludicrously fabricated pretexts even though, during and after every war, men in uniform are treated like shit. It’s been that way since the Revolution and it’s still that way today.

The war against Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines was no different. American troops were inadequately housed, poorly fed and had shoddy medical care. Thousands died from communicable diseases such as typhoid. There were allegations of contaminated meat. The patriotic folks at Armor supplied 500,000 pounds of canned meat to the military. It had already been shipped to Britain and returned but, hey, business is business. The answer? Appoint a commission to “investigate” the problem.

And what fine, upstanding person of unquestioned integrity do we select to head this noble commission? Why none other than Grenville Dodge, big time genocide artist and, more to the point, big time railroad swindler and a man who committed treason for cash against the federal government during the Civil War. One of Dodge’s best rackets had been defrauding the federal government of millions of dollars on per-mile railroad construction subsidies. Appointing Dodge to investigate possible fraud and mismanagement by the War Department is sort of like appointing Allen Dulles to the Warren Commission or Henry Kissinger to the 9-11 Commission. Oh yeah, we did that too.

Unsurprisingly, Dodge does his job just the way he’s supposed to and finds that everything in the War Department is just swell. What a relief!


 U.S. forces invade parts of Nicaragua to “protect interests” during the revolution of Juan Reyes. What they are really doing is trying to help Reyes who will be more “understanding” to American gold mining and other commercial interests.


. U.S. forces invade the Colombian state of Panama.

1899: SAMOA.

 U.S. and British forces invade to “protect interests” and control the succession to the Samoan throne so it comes out right.


Two thousand people gather in Georgia to witness the lynching of Sam Holt, a black farm laborer accused of killing his white employer. A contemporary newspaper report states that Holt’s ears, fingers and other parts of his body were cut off. He was then burned at the stake. Holt’s bones were crushed and his heart and liver cut into small pieces. Souvenir collectors paid twenty five cents for a piece of bone. A piece of Holt’s liver, cooked, sold for ten cents.


. In a six week period during March and April, twelve black men are lynched in Georgia including a minister of religion, Elijah Strickland, who was tortured before being lynched. Yet again it’s a case of Truth, Justice or the American Way and none of the murderers is charged.

1899-1901: UNITED STATES

. On behalf of corporate interests, the U.S. Army occupies the Coeur d’Alene, Idaho mining region to break a miners’ strike.


The U.S. invades and occupies Wake Island to use it as a cable station as part of its military strategy against the people of the Philippines.


In a long-running battle with mineowners, miners blow up machinery in Wardner, Idaho. President William McKinley sends federal troops to crush the miners and, using the ruling elite’s standard divide and conquer tactic, picks black units from the segregated U.S. army on the theory that racial divisions will prevent them sympathizing with the white miners. The troops conduct house-to-house searches at bayonet-point and make mass arrests throughout the area. More than a thousand people are held prisoner without charge or trial for months in so-called “bullpens”. Eventually all are released without a single charge being laid.


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The Japan Manga Comic History Collections

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   [MANGA.] Miyao, Shigeo. Karutobi Karusuke. Tokyo, 1927.          
First edition, 8vo, pp. [4], 212, [16]; illustrated throughout and printed in green, blue, and orange; pictorial paper-covered boards; remains of original glassine, publisher’s pictorial box; box slightly soiled and with one short split, else generally fine. Shigeo Miyao (1902-1983) was primarily known as a manga artist creating humorous children’s manga such as Kushisuke Manyuki (“The Adventures of Dango Kushisuke”) during the Taisho period. He was born in Tokyo and studied manga with Okamoto Ippei (1886-1948), generally considered the godfather of manga. He was one of the first artists to use the word manga (literally, “funny pictures”) close to its current sense. “Miyao had the distinction of being one of the first professional artists to specialize in children’s comics.” In 1922, he began serializing a 6-panel Manga Taro [Comics Taro] in a daily newspaper which the following year was put into book form “just in time for most copies to be destroyed in the 1923 earthquake. In the present book he writes of the adventures of the samurai super-hero, Karutobi Karusuke. (See Schodt, Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics, 1986, p. 48-49.) Sixty-three hits for Miyao in OCLC, all but one after 1948, the earliest being 1934.

Printed During the American Occupation

  [MANGA.] Taniuchi, Rokuro. Shinjitsu-Ichiro Kun. Tokyo, 1948.   
First edition, small 8vo, (approx. 18 x 12 cm.), pp. [2], 64; text printed in English, kanji, and katakana, pictorial title page printed in orange, 256 illustrated panels in the text (4 to a page), each page spread alternately printed in blue and brown, original color printed wrappers; minor worming in the margins of several leaves, small chip from the corner of one cover, moderate wear, but generally a good or better example. A rare Japanese manga printed during the American occupation of Japan. What makes this manga so interesting is that it seeks to instruct the native English (i.e. American) speaker in the new katakana character, which went through a series of orthographic reforms following World War II as illustrated here; each panel contains phonetic Japanese captioned in English and katakana, and with frequent footnotes explaining the nonstandard American words such as “ain’t” or “cuz” or “lemme.” The katakana syllabary consists of 48 syllables and was originally considered “men’s writing”. Since the 20th century, the katakana character has been used mainly to write non-Chinese loan words, onomatopoeic words, foreign names, in telegrams, and for emphasis (the equivalent of bold, italic or upper case text in English). Before the 20th century all foreign loanwords were written with kanji. Rokuro Taniuchi (born 1921) is a well-known Japanese artist who first began work as a comic artist during the 1940’s. A dozen or so titles of his work appear in OCLC but not one before 1965.

Naruto Manga Chapter 001 Uzumaki Naruto
Naruto Manga Chapter 002 Konohamaru
Naruto Manga Chapter 003 Uchiha Sasuke
Naruto Manga Chapter 004 Hatake Kakashi
Naruto Manga Chapter 005 Carelessness is Your Worst Enemy
Naruto Manga Chapter 006 Not Sasuke-kun
Naruto Manga Chapter 007 Kakashi’s Conclusion



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 2

Naruto Manga Chapter 008 That’s Why You’re Failures
Naruto Manga Chapter 009 The Worst Possible Client
Naruto Manga Chapter 010 Two Down
Naruto Manga Chapter 011 Disembark!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 012 It’s Over
Naruto Manga Chapter 013 I’m a Ninja
Naruto Manga Chapter 014 Secret Plan
Naruto Manga Chapter 015 Sharingan Resurrected
Naruto Manga Chapter 016 English Who Are You?
Naruto Manga Chapter 017 English Preparation for Battle



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 3

Naruto Manga Chapter 018 Training Commences!
Naruto Manga Chapter 019 Symbol of Courage
Naruto Manga Chapter 020 The Country That Had a Hero
Naruto Manga Chapter 021 Encounter in the Forest
Naruto Manga Chapter 022 A Rival Appears
Naruto Manga Chapter 023 Two Surprise Attacks
Naruto Manga Chapter 024 Speed
Naruto Manga Chapter 025 For the Sake of Dreams
Naruto Manga Chapter 026 Crumbling Dreams
Naruto Manga Chapter 027 Awaken



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 4

Naruto Manga Chapter 028 Nine-Tails
Naruto Manga Chapter 029 An Important Person
Naruto Manga Chapter 030 Your Future Is…
Naruto Manga Chapter 031 Their Own Battles
Naruto Manga Chapter 032 A Tool Called Shinobi
Naruto Manga Chapter 033 The Bridge of Heroes
Naruto Manga Chapter 034 Intruders!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 035 Iruka vs. Kakashi
Naruto Manga Chapter 036 Sakura’s Depression



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 5

Naruto Manga Chapter 037 The Worst Match-up
Naruto Manga Chapter 038 An Important Person
Naruto Manga Chapter 039 Challengers
Naruto Manga Chapter 040 The First Test
Naruto Manga Chapter 041 The Devil’s Whisper
Naruto Manga Chapter 042 Each Person’s Battle
Naruto Manga Chapter 043 The Tenth Question
Naruto Manga Chapter 044 Tested Ability
Naruto Manga Chapter 045 The Second Test



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 6

Naruto Manga Chapter 046 The Codeword Is…
Naruto Manga Chapter 047 Predator
Naruto Manga Chapter 048 The Purpose Is…
Naruto Manga Chapter 049 Coward
Naruto Manga Chapter 050 I Must…
Naruto Manga Chapter 051 The Beautiful Beast
Naruto Manga Chapter 052 Condition of Usage
Naruto Manga Chapter 053 Sakura’s Decision
Naruto Manga Chapter 054 Sakura and Ino



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 7

Naruto Manga Chapter 055 All-out War
Naruto Manga Chapter 056 Granted Power
Naruto Manga Chapter 057 Ten Hours Earlier
Naruto Manga Chapter 058 Witnesses
Naruto Manga Chapter 059 Tragedy of Sand
Naruto Manga Chapter 060 Last Chance
Naruto Manga Chapter 061 The Path You Should Take
Naruto Manga Chapter 062 Trapped Rats
Naruto Manga Chapter 063 The Other Face



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 8

Naruto Manga Chapter 064 Hokage’s Message
Naruto Manga Chapter 065 Life-Risking Battles
Naruto Manga Chapter 066 Sakura’s Request
Naruto Manga Chapter 067 Opposing Ability
Naruto Manga Chapter 068 The Uchiha Blood
Naruto Manga Chapter 069 The Terrifying Visitor
Naruto Manga Chapter 070 The One Who Will Die Is…
Naruto Manga Chapter 071 A Wall Too High
Naruto Manga Chapter 072 Rivalry



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 9

Naruto Manga Chapter 073 Announcement of Defeat…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 074 The Sixth Match and Them…
Naruto Manga Chapter 075 Naruto’s Growth
Naruto Manga Chapter 076 Kiba’s Comeback!! Naruto’s Comeback!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 077 Naruto’s Trick
Naruto Manga Chapter 078 Neji and Hinata
Naruto Manga Chapter 079 The Hyuuga
Naruto Manga Chapter 080 Surpass the Limit
Naruto Manga Chapter 081 Gaara vs…



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 10

Naruto Manga Chapter 082 Lee’s Secret!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 083 Absolute Defense Crumbles!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 084 The Genius of Hard Work
Naruto Manga Chapter 085 Now…
Naruto Manga Chapter 086 A Great Ninja…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 087 Prelims Conclude…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 088 Where’s Sasuke…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 089 Naruto’s Request…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 090 What About the Training!?



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 11

Naruto Manga Chapter 091 Disciple Application
Naruto Manga Chapter 092 Leaf and Sound and Sand and…
Naruto Manga Chapter 093 Each’s Passion
Naruto Manga Chapter 094 Key
Naruto Manga Chapter 095 The Meeting
Naruto Manga Chapter 096 The Sudden Intruder
Naruto Manga Chapter 097 Reason to Exist
Naruto Manga Chapter 098 A Proud Failure
Naruto Manga Chapter 099 Main Event Commences!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 12

Naruto Manga Chapter 100 Prepared to Die…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 101 The Other…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 102 The Bird in the Cage…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 103 Loser!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 104 The Power to Change…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 105 The Great Flight!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 106 Sasuke Fails…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 107 The Guy with No Motivation!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 108 A Hidden Path to Victory…!?



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 13

Naruto Manga Chapter 109 Leaf, Dance…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 110 Finally…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 111 Sasuke vs. Gaara!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 112 Sasuke’s Taijutsu…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 113 Reason for the Lateness…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 114 Attack…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 115 Chuunin Test, Conclusion…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 116 The Crumbling Leaf…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 117 The Assigned Mission…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 14

Naruto Manga Chapter 118 Forced to Stay…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 119 My Life…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 120 Hokage vs. Hokage!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 121 Horrible Reality Test…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 122 Inherited Dying Will!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 123 The Final Sealing
Naruto Manga Chapter 124 The Eternal Battle…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 125 The Moment of Awakening…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 126 Unprepared…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 15

Naruto Manga Chapter 127 Feeling Alive…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 128 Beyond His Limits…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 129 Pain…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 130 Love…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 131 A Name Called Gaara…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 132 Two Boys… Darkness and Light
Naruto Manga Chapter 133 Strong Guys…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 134 Naruto Ninja Chronicles!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 135 The Flight Like a Storm!!



Naruto Manga (Comics) Volume 16

Naruto Manga Chapter 136 The Final Blow…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 137 The Shinobi of the Leaf…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 138 The Crumbling Leaf, End!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 139 The Person’s Name Is…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 140 Proximity…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 141 Uchiha Itachi!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 142 Kakashi vs. Itachi
Naruto Manga Chapter 143 Yondaime’s Inheritance!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 144 A Young Pursuit



Naruto Manga (Comics) Volume 17

Naruto Manga Chapter 145 Memory of Despair
Naruto Manga Chapter 146 Hatred…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 147 My Fight!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 148 Itachi’s Ability!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 149 Legendary…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 150 Start of the Training…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 151 Chance…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 152 Second Stage
Naruto Manga Chapter 153 Explorers!!



Naruto Manga (Comics) Volume 18

Naruto Manga Chapter 154 Arrived…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 155 The Third Step
Naruto Manga Chapter 156 Business
Naruto Manga Chapter 157 And the Answer is…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 158 I Won’t Forgive You…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 159 The Wager…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 160 The Necklace of Death…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 161 Tsunade’s Decision!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 162 The Heart That Can’t Resist…!!



Naruto Manga (Comics) Volume 19

Naruto Manga Chapter 163 What Refuses to Decay…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 164 Medical Ninja!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 165 Naruto, Attacks!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 166 A Ninja’s Talents…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 167 The Arrangement…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 168 Just One More Time
Naruto Manga Chapter 169 To Bet One’s Life…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 170 The Battle of the Legendary Three
Naruto Manga Chapter 171 The Inheritor



Naruto Manga (Comics) Volume 20

Naruto Manga Chapter 172 Returning Home
Naruto Manga Chapter 173 Affliction
Naruto Manga Chapter 174 Each and Their Path…!
Naruto Manga Chapter 175 Naruto vs. Sasuke!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 176 Bitter Rivalry…
Naruto Manga Chapter 177 The Four Sounds
Naruto Manga Chapter 178 The Temptation of the Sound…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 179 Don’t Forget…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 180 It’s a Promise!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 21

Naruto Manga Chapter 181 The Fight Begins…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 182 The Gathering!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 183 Promise of a Lifetime
Naruto Manga Chapter 184 Sound vs. Leaf!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 185 In Pursuit of the Sounds…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 186 Mission… Failed!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 187 Praying for Mercy…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 188 Hidden Leaf’s Shinobi…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 189 The Power of Trust…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 190 Inexcusable!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 22

Naruto Manga Chapter 191 Friends…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 192 Plan…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 193 Game Over
Naruto Manga Chapter 194 Probing Each Other
Naruto Manga Chapter 195 Strategy…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 196 The Strongest Foe!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 197 Unyielding Determination!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 198 Reincarnation…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 199 Desire…!!



[b]Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 23

Naruto Manga Chapter 200 According to Plan…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 201 Miscalculation…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 202 The Three Wishes!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 203 Sakon’s Secret
Naruto Manga Chapter 204 Ukon’s Abilities
Naruto Manga Chapter 205 Kiba’s Decision!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 206 Crisis…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 207 The Game is Up
Naruto Manga Chapter 208 The First Hand is a Feint!!



[b]Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 24

Naruto Manga Chapter 209 Reinforcements on the Scene!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 210 Lee’s Secret!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 211 Unpredictable…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 212 Pinch, Pinch, Pinch!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 213 A Large Debt…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 214 Retreat for the Time Being…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 215 Gaara of the Desert
Naruto Manga Chapter 216 Spear and the Shield…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 217 For Precious People



[b]Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 25

Naruto Manga Chapter 218 Brothers of the Leaf!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 219 The Future and the Past
Naruto Manga Chapter 220 Older Brother and Younger Brother
Naruto Manga Chapter 221 A Distant Brother
Naruto Manga Chapter 222 Suspicious of Itachi
Naruto Manga Chapter 223 Sasuke and His Father
Naruto Manga Chapter 224 That Day…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 225 Within the Darkness…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 226 To My Dear Friend…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 26

Naruto Manga Chapter 227 Chidori vs. Rasengan!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 228 Kakashi’s Premonition
Naruto Manga Chapter 229 Bonds…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 230 Time of Awakening!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 231 A Special Power!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 232 Valley of the End
Naruto Manga Chapter 233 The Worst Conclusion…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 234 The Day of Separation…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 235 Mission Failure…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 27

Naruto Manga Chapter 236 The Promise That I Could Not Keep
Naruto Manga Chapter 237 Fool…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 238 The Day of Setting Off!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 239 Kakashi Gaiden 1: Mission Start…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 240 Kakashi Gaiden 2: Teamwork!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 241 Kakashi Gaiden 3: The True Hero
Naruto Manga Chapter 242 Kakashi Gaiden 4: The Crybaby Ninja!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 243 Kakashi Gaiden 5: Present
Naruto Manga Chapter 244 Kakashi Gaiden 6: The Sharingan Hero



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 28

Naruto Manga Chapter 245 Naruto’s Homecoming!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 246 Growth of the Two
Naruto Manga Chapter 247 Those Who Invade the Sand
Naruto Manga Chapter 248 The Ambush on the Sand…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 249 As the Kazekage…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 250 New Team, New Mission!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 251 To The Sand…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 252 Emotions, Racing…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 253 Reliable Reinforcements…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 29

Naruto Manga Chapter 254 Siblings…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 255 Close By!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 256 Those Blocking the Way!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 257 The Value of Kakashi’s Experience
Naruto Manga Chapter 258 Gai vs. Kisame
Naruto Manga Chapter 259 Itachi’s Strength…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 260 Kakashi vs. Itachi!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 261 Jinchuuriki…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 262 Racing Emotions…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 30

Naruto Manga Chapter 263 A Furious Cry…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 264 Sasori’s Art…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 265 Chiyo and Sakura
Naruto Manga Chapter 266 Sasori Appears…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 267 Violent Determination
Naruto Manga Chapter 268 Puppeteer vs. Puppeteer!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 269 All I Can Do
Naruto Manga Chapter 270 Miscalculation…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 271 Unknown Abilities…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 31

Naruto Manga Chapter 272 Chiyo vs. Sasori…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 273 Last Battle!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 274 Ungrantable Dream
Naruto Manga Chapter 275 The Reward
Naruto Manga Chapter 276 New Sharingan
Naruto Manga Chapter 277 Ultimate Art Form
Naruto Manga Chapter 278 The Death of Gaara
Naruto Manga Chapter 279 Wonderous Chakra
Naruto Manga Chapter 280 The Entrusted Wish



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 32

Naruto Manga Chapter 281 The Road to Sasuke!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 282 Kakashi’s Group Returns
Naruto Manga Chapter 283 Search for More Members
Naruto Manga Chapter 284 New Companions
Naruto Manga Chapter 285 You, from “Root”
Naruto Manga Chapter 286 Naruto, and Sasuke, and Sai
Naruto Manga Chapter 287 Untitled
Naruto Manga Chapter 288 Incomprehensible Feelings
Naruto Manga Chapter 289 Akatsuki Sp



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 33

Naruto Manga Chapter 290 The End of Treason
Naruto Manga Chapter 291 The Trigger of Anger
Naruto Manga Chapter 292 The Third Tail
Naruto Manga Chapter 293 Running Wildly
Naruto Manga Chapter 294 The Third Tail
Naruto Manga Chapter 295 To the Kyuubi…
Naruto Manga Chapter 296 A Sorrowful Conclusion
Naruto Manga Chapter 297 Sai’s Mission
Naruto Manga Chapter 298 Secret Mission
Naruto Manga Chapter 299 The Source of Strength…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 34

Naruto Manga Chapter 300 Sai’s Picture Book!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 301 Sai and Sasuke!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 302 Infiltration…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 303 Sai’s Betrayal!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 304 The Reverse Side of Betrayal!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 305 The Bond With Your Friend
Naruto Manga Chapter 306 The Hour of Reunion…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 307 Whim…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 308 Sasuke’s Strength!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 309 Conversation with Kyuubi!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 35

Naruto Manga Chapter 310 Title
Naruto Manga Chapter 311 Nickname
Naruto Manga Chapter 312 Silent Approaching Threat!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 313 The New Duo!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 314 Akatsuki’s Invasion…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 315 Special Training
Naruto Manga Chapter 316 Training Starts
Naruto Manga Chapter 317 The Nightmare Begins
Naruto Manga Chapter 318 Favorable Training
Naruto Manga Chapter 319 The Motivation



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 36 – Cell Number 10

After Naruto gains proper control over the wind element, Kakashi tells him that creating his own unique attack will require mixing wind with his Rasengan. As Naruto struggles to accomplish this task, a Niju Shotai team consisting of Shikamaru Nara and Asuma Sarutobi finds Hidan and Kakuzu. Although they are quickly able to deliver a fatal blow to Hidan, it becomes apparent that Hidan cannot be killed by normal means. Hidan is soon able to “link” himself to Asuma, causing any damage he receives to be transferred to Asuma. As such, Hidan tries to stab himself in the heart, which would kill Asuma yet leave himself unfazed. Shikamaru does his best to prevent this, though Hidan ultimately proves successful. As reinforcements arrive the Akatsuki duo is driven off,and the Niju Shotai members return home to bury Asuma.


Naruto Manga Chapter 320 Bounty Head Money

Naruto Manga Chapter 321 Smooth Talking…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 322 He Can’t Be Killed

Naruto Manga Chapter 323 God’s Judgment

Naruto Manga Chapter 324 Shikamaru’s Analysis

Naruto Manga Chapter 325 There is No After…!

Naruto Manga Chapter 326 Desired Pain…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 327 Within Despair…

Naruto Manga Chapter 328 Team 10

Naruto Manga Chapter 329 The True Goal…!!


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 37 – Shikamaru’s Battle

In this volume, Shikamaru sets out with the remaining members of Team 10 to find Hidan and avenge Asuma. To help them in their quest Kakashi joins them as leader, leaving Yamato in charge of overseeing Naruto’s training. Once they find the Akatsuki pair, Shikamaru restrains them with his shadow while Kakashi pierces Kakuzu’s chest. Kakuzu, having multiple extra hearts, survives the attackand frees Hidan, allowing the two to join forces against the Konoha ninja. Needing to separate the two, Shikamaru captures Hidan againand leads him away, where he avenges Asuma by blowing Hidan up and burying his still speaking remains. Kakashi and the others have a considerably more difficult time with Kakuzu who is able to use his extra hearts to a great advantage. Just as they are about to be killed, Naruto arrives with Yamato, Sakura,and Sai to save them.

Naruto Manga Chapter 330 The Sad News…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 331 Team 10 Heads Out…!
Naruto Manga Chapter 332 Shikamaru’s Battle!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 333 Affinity…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 334 Black Transformation…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 335 The Terrible Secret!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 336 Complete Turn Around, Predicament…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 337 Shikamaru’s Genius
Naruto Manga Chapter 338 When He Was Cursed…
Naruto Manga Chapter 339 New Jutsu…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 38 – Practice Makes Perfect

Having advanced his training enough to form a usable attack, Naruto forms his new jutsu. Although Kakuzu is able to avoid the attack for a while, Naruto is ultimately able to strike him with it, destroying his remaining hearts and ending the battle. As the Konoha ninja return home, Sasuke, elsewhere, decides he has learned all he can from Orochimaru. Uninterested in giving Orochimaru his body, Sasuke tries to kill him, though Orochimaru is still able to initiate the body-stealing process. Through the use of his Sharingan, Sasuke is able to turn the process around and absorbs Orochimaru into his own body. Freed from Orochimaru’s control, Sasuke at long last begins recruiting ninja he has deemed essential in his plan to kill his brother, Akatsuki member Itachi Uchiha. After recruiting Suigetsu Hozuki and Karin, he begins searching for the final member of his team, Jugo

Naruto Manga Chapter 340 Dangerous Bridge
Naruto Manga Chapter 341 Fruits of the Training…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 342 King
Naruto Manga Chapter 343 Heartlessly
Naruto Manga Chapter 344 Snake and…
Naruto Manga Chapter 345 The Ritual…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 346 The New Jutsu’s Secret
Naruto Manga Chapter 347 Dropping By on the Way
Naruto Manga Chapter 348 The Next One
Naruto Manga Chapter 349 North Base



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 39 – On the Move

With some reluctance, Jugo agrees to join Sasuke and the others. His team assembled, Sasuke calls them “Snake”, and they split up to search for clues about Itachi’s whereabouts. Once word of Orochimaru’s defeat by Sasuke reaches Konoha, Naruto decides that this would be a good opportunity to try and retrieve Sasuke again. Realizing that Sasuke is looking for Itachi, Naruto sets out with Sakura, Sai, Kakashi, Yamato, and the members of Team 8 to find either of the Uchiha brothers. Akatsuki also learns of Orochimaru’s defeat, and mobilizes Deidara and his new teammate Tobi to deal withSasuke. The two soon find Sasuke, and Deidara meets him in battle, though Sasuke’s abilities soon prove to be more than a match for Deidara’s bombs.

Naruto Manga Chapter 350 Shocking News…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 351 Man to Man Talk
Naruto Manga Chapter 352 The Objective
Naruto Manga Chapter 353 “Akatsuki” Meeting…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 354 The People Starting to Move
Naruto Manga Chapter 355 Which Way…!?
Naruto Manga Chapter 356 Collision…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 357 Deidara vs. Sasuke!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 358 Cornered by C2!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 359 Those Eyes…!!



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 40 – The Ultimate Art

Sasuke survives Deidara’s strongest attacks. Left without options if he is to gain victory, Deidara blows himself up, hoping to take Sasuke with him. Sasuke escapes the blast, though is forced to regroup with the other members of Snake to rest. After he recuperates, they head to a nearby Akatsuki lair where Sasuke is able to meet with Itachi. Once Sasuke exhibits his increased skills, Itachi consents to meeting with him elsewhere for their last battle. Meanwhile, Tobi, despite seeming to have died during Deidara’s explosion, begins to put his plans into motion. After revealing himself as Madara Uchiha, he assigns the Akatsuki leader, Pain, the task of capturing Naruto. Before Pain can set out on this mission, however, Jiraiya infiltrates Amegakure, and Pain is forced to deal with him before he can go after Naruto.

Naruto Manga Chapter 360 C4 Karura
Naruto Manga Chapter 361 Weak Point…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 362 Ultimate Art!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 363 Sasuke’s Death…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 364 The Objective…!!
Naruto Manga Chapter 365 Chasing Itachi
Naruto Manga Chapter 366 Brothers
Naruto Manga Chapter 367 Itachi and Sasuke
Naruto Manga Chapter 368 Reconnaissance
Naruto Manga Chapter 369 About Pain



Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 41 – Jiraiya Choice

After gathering some intelligence on Pain, Jiraiya goes to confront him. Before he can do so, however, he is found by Pain’s partner, Konan, a former student of his. During a brief battle Jiraiya begins to suspect that Pain is also a former student, Nagato, a belief that is confirmed upon the Akatsuki leader’s arrival. Konan falls back while Pain battles with Jiraiya, and the two exchange blows with their summons. Once Jiraiya’s toads begin to gain the upperhand, Pain summons two additional Pains to fight alongside him. Though caught off guard by this turn of events and left outnumbered, Jiraiya is able to finish off the three bodies. Believing the battle to be won, Jiraiya continues on his way, only to be badly injured by the appearance of three more Pains in addition to the three he just killed.


Naruto Manga Chapter 370 Uneasiness

Naruto Manga Chapter 371 An Old Friend…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 372 A Crying Country!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 373 The Student-and-Teacher Era…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 374 Growth Into a God!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 375 The Two Hermits…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 376 Child of Prophecy!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 377 Sage Mode!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 378 One on One…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 379 Jiraiya’s Choice!!


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 42 – The Secret of the Mangekyo

Though able to capture one of the six, Jiraiya is unable to defeat Pain’s other five bodies. Knowing this will be the only chance to learn the secret behind Pain, he sends the captured body to Tsunade and, doubting that Pain is actually Nagato, goes to investigate the Akatsuki leader’s true identity. Jiraiya succeeds and sends his discovery to Naruto and the rest of Konoha, but dies of the wounds he sustains. Elsewhere, Sasuke meets with Itachi, leaving Snake behind to deal with his partner, Kisame. As Naruto and company near their location, Tobi steps in to stall them so that the two brothers can fight uninhibited. The battle between Sasuke and Itachi commences, and Sasuke is able to use his years of hatred to push Itachi to his limits.


Naruto Manga Chapter 380 That Face…!

Naruto Manga Chapter 381 His True Identity!

Naruto Manga Chapter 382 My Real Decision!

Naruto Manga Chapter 383 The Epilogue, And The…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 384 Two Roads

Naruto Manga Chapter 385 The Secret of the Mangekyou!

Naruto Manga Chapter 386 My New Light!

Naruto Manga Chapter 387 Reality…!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 388 The Gap Between Our Power!

Naruto Manga Chapter 389 Sasuke Turns the Tide!


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 43 – The Man Who Knows the Truth

To bring the battle to a swift end Sasuke conjures up a bolt of lightning to strike Itachi down. Itachi survives the attack, though after removing Orochimaru from Sasuke’s body and saying goodbye to his little brother, dies of a preexisting disease. Tobi collects Sasuke to attend to his injuries and Naruto, having lost Sasuke’s trail, is forced to return home. Once Sasuke regains consciousness Tobi tells him of the Uchiha’s history: that after he, Madara Uchiha, helped to found Konoha, a mistrust between Konoha’s leadership and the Uchiha was created. When years later the Uchiha began planning to overthrow this leadership, Itachi was ordered by Konoha to eliminate his own clan to prevent the Uchiha’s rebellion. While Itachi did as instructed, he chose to spare Sasuke and lived as a criminal so that he could someday die by Sasuke’s hands, effectively avenging the Uchiha. Realizing that Itachi was as much of a victim as he was, Sasuke heads out to destroy Konoha.


Naruto Manga Chapter 390 The Final Jutsu!

Naruto Manga Chapter 391 …With the Thunder!

Naruto Manga Chapter 392 Susano’o!

Naruto Manga Chapter 393 My Eyes…!

Naruto Manga Chapter 394 Sasuke’s Victory

Naruto Manga Chapter 395 The Mystery That Is Tobi

Naruto Manga Chapter 396 Introduction

Naruto Manga Chapter 397 The Man Who Knows The Truth

Naruto Manga Chapter 398 The Leaf’s Origins

Naruto Manga Chapter 399 The Beginning of Everything

Naruto Manga Chapter 400 In The Pits of Hell

Naruto Manga Chapter 401 Illusion

Naruto Manga Chapter 402 Last Words


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 44 – Passing Down the Senjutsu…!!

Upon his return to Konoha, Naruto learns of Jiraiya’s death. Knowing that Akatsuki will be coming for him, Naruto decides to learn how to use senjutsu to prepare himself for the inevitable encounter with Pain. He goes to the home of the toads to train, just as Jiraiya had years earlier, and leaves deciphering Pain’s identity to his friends in Konoha. Elsewhere, Sasuke agrees to have Snake, now renamed “Hawk”, work with Akatsuki in return for their help in destroying Konoha. Hawk is sent to capture the eight-tailed beast, and upon finding its host (Killer Bee) they engage him in battle. Even though Killer Bee proves an even match for the four of them, he nevertheless decides to release the beast within him.


Naruto Manga Chapter 403 Tears

Naruto Manga Chapter 404 Hawk and Akatsuki

Naruto Manga Chapter 405 What He Left Behind

Naruto Manga Chapter 406 Unlock The Future

Naruto Manga Chapter 407 To Naruto

Naruto Manga Chapter 408 Fukasaku’s Proposal

Naruto Manga Chapter 409 Passing Down The Sage Technigues

Naruto Manga Chapter 410 Battle Of Thunder-Cloud Gorge

Naruto Manga Chapter 411 8 Tails VS Sasuke

Naruto Manga Chapter 412 Unprecedented Fear


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 45 – Battlefield Konoha!!

With the full power of the Eight-Tailed Beast, Killer Bee is able to decimate Hawk. Fearing the deaths of his teammates, Sasuke unleashes his newly acquired Mangekyo Sharingan to suppress the beast’s influence and capture Killer Bee. When the Raikage, the leader of Kumogakure and Killer Bee’s brother, learns of this, he decides to convene the five Kage to discuss how to deal with the growing threat that is Akatsuki. As word of the meeting is sent out, Akatsuki attempts to extract the eight-tailed beast from Killer Bee’s body, only to discover that the body is a fake and that Killer Bee still roams free. Elsewhere, Naruto masters senjutsu and begins to apply its teachings to some of his old techniques. While he does so, Pain’s six bodies arrive in Konoha and attack the village in search of him. Taken by surprise, Konoha mobilizes its forces, Kakashi even engaging two of Pain’s bodies at once.


Naruto Manga Chapter 413 Crash

Naruto Manga Chapter 414 Raging Bull

Naruto Manga Chapter 415 A New Power

Naruto Manga Chapter 416 The Legend Of Gusty Ninja…

Naruto Manga Chapter 417 The Raikage Moves

Naruto Manga Chapter 418 Naruto, The Sage!

Naruto Manga Chapter 419 Attack!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 420 Battlefield Leaf!

Naruto Manga Chapter 421 Call Naruto Back!!…

Naruto Manga Chapter 422 Kakashi vs Pain!


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 46 – Naruto Return

Although he is able to defeat one of the six paths, Kakashi is unable to land a blow on the Deva Path and is left on the brink of death. Across the village, Konoha’s other ninja have similar difficulties with the remaining bodies, all the while struggling to find out as much as they can about Pain. Pain eventually discovers Naruto’s whereaboutsand destroys Konoha to teach the villagers the pain of fighting. Naruto returns from his training immediately following Pain’s attack,and takes it upon himself to avenge the damage done to the village and its inhabitants. Using his new senjutsu abilities, Naruto reduces the Six Paths of Pain to two.


Naruto Manga Chapter 423 The Power of Deva Realm!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 424 Determination!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 425 Hatake Kakashi

Naruto Manga Chapter 426 Naruto And Konoha [url]…nonymous-X.rar

Naruto Manga Chapter 427 Reunion

Naruto Manga Chapter 428 Conversation!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 429 “Pain”

Naruto Manga Chapter 430 Naruto’s Return!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 431 Naruto Erupts!!

Naruto Manga Chapter 432 The Return of The Rasen Shuriken!!


Naruto Manga (Comic) Volume 47

Naruto Manga Chapter 433 The Sage’s Arts Give Out…?!…

Naruto Manga Chapter 434 Naruto vs The Deva Path!…

Naruto Manga Chapter 435 Divine Attractor…

Naruto Manga Chapter 436 Peace…

Naruto Manga Chapter 437 Confession…

Naruto Manga Chapter 438 The Seal Shatters…

Naruto Manga Chapter 439 Chibaku Tensei…

Naruto Manga Chapter 440 Speaking With The Fourth!!…

Naruto Manga Chapter 441 Rasen Shuriken vs Shinra Tensei…

Naruto Manga Chapter 442 The Final Gamble!!…



The kanji for “manga” from Seasonal Passersby (Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, by Santō Kyōden and Kitao Shigemasa.

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Manga (kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ; About this sound listen (help·info); English /ˈmɑːŋɡə/ or /ˈmæŋɡə/) is the Japanese word for “comics/cartoons” and consists of comics and print cartoons (sometimes also called komikku コミック). In the West, the term “manga” has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.[1] In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II,[citation needed] but they have a long, complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art.[2]

In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others.[3] Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,[4] representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 (approximately $3.6 billion) and ¥420 billion ($5.5 billion) in 2009.[5] Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience.[6] In Europe and the Middle East the market is worth $250 million.[7] In 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market was valued at $175 million. The markets in France and the United States are about the same size. Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white,[8] although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon.[9] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[10] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,[11] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films[12] (e.g. Star Wars).

“Manga” as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.[13] However, manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Taiwan (“manhua“), South Korea (“manhwa“),[14] and China, notably Hong Kong (“manhua“).[15] In France, “la nouvelle manga” has developed as a form of bande dessinée (literally drawn strip) drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the United States, people refer to what they perceive as manga “styled” comics as Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga). Still, the original term “manga” is primarily used in English-speaking countries solely to describe comics of Japanese origin.



[edit] Etymology

The Chinese characters used to write the word manga in Japanese can be translated as “whimsical drawings”. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden‘s picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa’s Manga hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (1814–1834) containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[16] Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word “manga” in the modern sense.[17]

[edit] History and characteristics

Main article: History of manga

Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.

One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga strongly reflect U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[18] Alternately, other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga.[19]

Modern manga originated in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s), while a previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure. An explosion of artistic creativity occurred in this period,[20] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san).

A kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa. Sazae appears with her hair in a bun.

Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere,[21] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san continues to run as of 2011[update], regularly drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television. Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka’s “cinematographic” technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[22] Hasegawa’s focus on daily life and on women’s experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[23] Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[24]

In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (“year 24” comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists).[25] The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi, and they marked the first major entry of female artists into manga.[9] Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women.[26] In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[27] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and “Ladies Comics” (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性).[28]

Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[29] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori‘s Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch Reiko Yoshida‘s Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi‘s Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[30] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together.[31]

Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga);[32] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.[33] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of “seinen”—青年 for “youth, young man” and 成年 for “adult, majority”—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin (“adult” 成人) manga.[34] Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.

Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure.[35] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.[36]

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo)[37] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[38]

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations.[39] However, in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict harmful content.[1]

The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[40] Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato‘s 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja’s Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[41] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[42]

[edit] Publications

In Japan, manga constituted an annual 406 billion yen (approximately $3.6 billion USD) publication-industry by 2007.[43] Recently, the manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the stories together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to “catch up” with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, “deluxe” versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.

Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.[44] In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on.

Japan also has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drink coffee and read manga, and sometimes stay there overnight.

There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if available in print.

The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[45]

[edit] Magazines

Eshinbun Nipponchi; credited as the first manga magazine ever made.

Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or “anthology magazines”, as they are also known (colloquially “phone books”), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few “one-shot” manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.[46]

[edit] History

Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879.[47] Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children’s literature back then. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[48]

In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,[49] Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit.[50] After Tokyo Pakku in 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine.[51] Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children’s manga magazine. The children’s demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period. Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children’s magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924, Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children’s manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku.[50] During the boom, Poten (derived from the French “potin”) was published in 1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one.[49] Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent.[50]

Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world. Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August 1940.[52]

[edit] Dōjinshi

Main article: Dōjinshi

Dōjinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series’ story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007, dōjinshi sold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD).[43]

[edit] International markets

Main article: Manga outside Japan

As of 2007[update] the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades.[53] “Influence” is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.

The reading direction in a traditional manga

Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more “Western” left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as “flipping”.[54] For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads “MAY” on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to “YAM”), who may be ignorant of how awkward is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that’s quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, but these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.[55]

[edit] United States

Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[56] Some U.S. fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.[57] However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[58] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.[59] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa‘s Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980–1982).[60] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz MediaEclipse Comics.[61] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel ComicsEpic Comics imprint and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang‘s F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995).

In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga.[62] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow‘s Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima‘s Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[63] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan’s catalogue and translation skills.[54]

A young boy reading Black Cat in a Barnes & Noble bookstore

Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mid-1990s due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga.[64] The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow’s Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among fans.[65] Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon.[66] By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe.[67] In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP‘s Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi Iwaaki‘s Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi‘s Ice Blade in the monthly manga magazine MixxZine. Two years later, MixxZine was renamed to Tokyopop before discontinuing in 2000. Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[68]

In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[69] As of 2008[update], the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales.[70] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.[71]

[edit] Europe

Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way somewhat different from the U.S. experience. Broadcast anime in Italy and France opened the European market to manga during the 1970s.[72] French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonisme),[73] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[74] In France, beginning in the mid-1990s,[75] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.[76] According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.[72] France represents about 50% of the European market.[77] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat, Asuka, Casterman, Kana, and Pika Édition, among others.

European publishers also translate manga into German, Italian, Dutch, and other languages. As of 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany are manga.[78] Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House.

[edit] Localized manga

A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example, Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[79] Others include Frank Miller‘s mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith’s 1988 The Dirty Pair,[80] Ben Dunn‘s 1987 Ninja High School, Stan Sakai‘s 1984 Usagi Yojimbo, and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).

By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing label of manga.[81] In 2002, I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.[82] In 2004 eigoMANGA launched Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[83] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[84] TokyoPop is currently the largest U.S. publisher of original English language manga.[85]

Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frédéric Boilet‘s la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[86]


36 Great Manga Missed by the Eisner Awards

Sure, there were some great manga nominated for an Eisner award in 2009 but what about the ones that didn’t get the nod from the nominating committee? See the year’s best manga that got missed by the Eisner Awards, but are still worth your money and attention, as recommended by some of the web’s top bloggers, critics, and comics creators.

See the seven manga nominated for the 2009 Eisner Awards, and the 2008 and 2007 nominees.

2007 Will Eisner Awards Manga Nominees

San Diego Comic-Con International, July 23, 2007

The 2007 Will Eisner Awards recognized the growing influence of manga in the American comics scene by creating a new category, Best U.S. Edition of International Material – Japan. A variety of titles were nominated, including Old Boy by Garon Tsuchiya, Antique Bakery by Fumi Yoshinaga and Naoki Urasawa’s Monster.

The winners were be announced at the 2007 San Diego Comic-Con International at a Friday night reception on the San Diego Convention Center, and in the end, only Old Boy walked off with a prize.

The Walking Man by Jiro Taniguchi

The Walking Man by Jiro Taniguchi

Antique Bakery by Fumi Yoshinaga

Antique Bakery by Fumi Yoshinaga

Naoki Urasawa’s Monster

Naoki Urasawa’s Monster

Old Boy Volume 1 by Garon Tsuchiya and Nobuaki Minegishi

Old Boy Volume 1 by Garon Tsuchiya and Nobuaki Minegishi

After School Nightmare by Setona Mizushiro

Dramacon Volume 1 by Svetlana Chmakova

Dramacon Volume 1 by Svetlana Chmakova

Ode to Kirihito by Osamu Tezuka


2008 Will Eisner Awards Manga Nominees

San Diego Comic-Con International, July 27, 2008

Continuing the trend from the 2007 Eisners, Comic-Con International has recognized 13 manga and manga-related titles in its nominations for the 2008 Will Eisner Awards.

Besides nominating five noteworthy titles in the manga-specific category, Best U.S. Edition of Foreign Material–Japan, the Eisner judges also nominated Japanese creators in several other categories, including Best Short Story (Book by Yuichi Yokoyama and Town of Evening Calm by Fumiyo Kouno; Best Publication for Kids (Yotsuba&! by Kiyohiko Azuma) and two creator-specific nominations for Fumi Yoshinaga and Takeshi Obata. See the full list of 2008 Eisner nominees.

The winners will be announced at the 2008 San Diego Comic-Con International at a reception on Friday, July 25 at the San Diego Convention Center.

New Engineering

Book, from New Engineering

The Ice Wanderer and Other Stories

Return to the Sea, from The Ice Wanderer and Other Stories

Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms

Town of Evening Calm

Naoki Urasawa’s Monster

Naoki Urasawa’s Monster


Scene from Yotsuba Volume 3

Apollo’s Song

Apollo’s Song – Synthians


2009 Will Eisner Awards Manga Nominees

San Diego Comic-Con International, July 23 -26, 2009

After nominating 13 manga titles in 2008, there were significantly fewer Japanese comics given the nod for the 2009 Will Eisner Awards, with only 8 nominations, including a double nomination for Naoki-Urasawa’s Monster.

Voting for the Eisner Awards is limited to comics professionals, including comics creators, editors, publishers, and retailers. Comics press, marketing / PR professionals in the comics biz and fans are not allowed to vote in the Eisners. See the full list of 2009 Eisner nominees.

The winners will be announced at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con International at a reception on Friday, July 24 at the San Diego Convention Center.


Naoki Urasawa’s Monster Volume 18

Naoki Urasawa’s Monster Volume 18



Dororo Volume 1

Dororo Volume 1

Quest for the Missing Girl

Cat-Eyed Boy Volume 1

Cat-Eyed Boy Volume 1







SAILOR MOON Mixx Manga English Comic Books 1st Prints

Sailormoon English Manga comic books put out by MiXX Magazine before they changed into ToykoPop. These are beautiful as new condition having been put away for many years



The Differences Between Japanese Manga & American Comics

What are the primary differences between Japanese Manga (Comics) and American Comics?


There is a big difference in art styles between Manga, which is more stylized (exaggerated) and American comics, which tend to be more “realistic”. There are also quite a few serious differences between the two types of comics. Some of the differences, just to mention a few of them are the cost, creation, diverse audience and genres, presentation and even size.

The creation of Manga as well as its presentation is quite different than American Comics. Manga is printed in black-and-white format while American comics are the majority of the time in full color. Also, when you look at a graphic novel or Manga you will notice a difference in the size. Manga is frequently smaller than traditional American comic books, usually digest-size and roughly half to one-third the size of American comics. But where the American comics are generally thin like a small magazine, running about 32 pages, Manga comic books are thick and can be hundreds of pages in length!


In page count, Manga is quite similar to graphic novels, which are often just collections of the ongoing American comics. But unlike American graphic novels, which are usually just a collection of monthly comics in a single unified story or story arc, Manga books are often apart of an even bigger story and a complete Manga storyline can run thousands of pages.

Another difference between traditional American comics is that mainstream American comics are often created in a sort of assembly-line fashion. They have a writer (story), a penciler (initial sketch), inker (uses a pen to ink over the sketch), letterer (adds dialog) and a colorist (colors the inked sketch). Most Manga books are done by a single creator, who combines all those chores (except coloring).


Also Manga story lines usually move at a much quicker pace. Due to the high page count, one reads a Manga book at an accelerated pace. Manga books almost always have fewer panels and less dialogue (rambling) per page than American comic books. The price for Manga is also more than the average comic book and a bit more than a standard paperback novel, the small size of Manga and black-and-white printing rather than full color keeps the cost down. The lack color is made up when you consider the story development that it’ll have with the amount of pages it has.


In Japan, Manga is not viewed as just for kids unlike the American stereotype. There pretty much is a Manga for everyone. With that being stated there are three main genres in Japanese Manga: Shonen Manga (boy’s comics), Shojo Manga (girl’s comics) and Hentai (adult comics).

Shonen Manga is pretty much comics that are primarily action and/or adventure geared. If you’d like to view some examples of that genre, I’d recommend “Bleach” and/or “Full Metal Alchemist”. Shojo Manga is for the opposite sex; they are often about relationships and/or love interests. Please note that even though a particular genre is geared towards a certain audience it’s not limited to just that audience (unless otherwise stated). Finally Hentai Manga, I won’t delve much into this since it is primarily for adults and NOT suitable for children (just to be safe in case a child is reading this). Anyways, Hentai Manga is sometimes sexually explicit and/or adult-themed. In other words, do not purchase this for your child.

Next time someone asks you what the difference is between Manga and [American] comics, you can surprise them with your knowledge.




four volumes in manga – comic book

these were two books – The Dangerous Mr Ryder and The Marriage Debt – each in a two voume set.


Here is Mr Ryder with the blonde heroine above. (The scene on the orange bedspread is not as sinister as it looks, by the way – Jack Ryder is trying to prevent the infuriated Grand Duchess knifing him in the back!) This is the first of my Those Scandalous Ravenhursts series, so I’m hoping this one does well and they print all 6!


Below is The Marriage Debt with my hero, Nicholas, in Newgate, about to hang as Black Jack Standon, notorious highwayman. I love the way the artist has captured Katherine’s fierce determination to save him from the gallows.


I had no idea what to expect inside – would the story be cut, changed – how could I tell? But it was soon very clear that the manga version was incredibly true to the original book: I could follow it easily from the pictures and it all seems to be there.

I’m not sure that I entirely like the heroines with their huge eyes, but the heroes are to die for! Sexy, smouldering men of action who are also accomplished, tender lovers – definitely swoon-making.


Here’s an example of the inside at the beginning of The Marriage Debt.


I think it is vivid and really carries you through the story. This scene is from the extract below – see what you think. The hero looks just as I imagined him.


What was particularly interesting, from the point of view of image, was that The Marriage Debt is being reprinted this month in the UK in the first volume of The Regency Collection 2011. Regency Pleasures also contains The Model Debutante – I’m not sure what the Manga artist would have made of the nude modelling scenes in that!


The very different cover for that volume is shown at the bottom of the page.


The beginning of The Marriage Debt –


The tall man in the frieze coat sat cross-legged on the hard bench, put his elbows on his knees, his chin on his clasped hands and thought. It required some concentration to ignore the shackles on his legs, the cold that seeped out of the damp walls, the rustles and squeaking in the rotten straw that covered the floor and the constant noise that echoed through the long dark corridors.
A few cells away a man was screaming an incoherent flood of obscenities that seemed to have gone on for hours. More distantly someone was dragging a stick across the bars of one of the great rooms, a monotonous music which fretted at the nerves. A boy was sobbing somewhere close. Footsteps on the flags outside and the clank and jingle of keys heralded the passing of a pair of turnkeys.
Long ago his father had said he was born to be hanged. At the time he had laughed: nothing had seemed more improbable. Now the words spoken in anger had been proven right: in eight days he would step outside Newgate gaol to the gallows platform and the hangman’s noose.

One small mercy was that they had put him in a cell by himself, not thrown him into one of the common yards where pickpockets and murderers, petty thieves and rapists crowded together, sleeping in great filthy chambers as best they might, fighting amongst themselves and preying on the weakest amongst them if they could.
Apparently his notoriety as Black Jack Standon was worth enough in tips to the turnkeys for them to keep him apart where he could be better shown off to the languid gentlemen and over-excited ladies who found an afternoon’s slumming a stimulating entertainment. The sight of an infamous highwayman who had made the Oxford road through Hertfordshire his hunting ground was the climax of the visit to one of London’s most feared prisons.
He had hurled his bowl at the group who had clustered around the narrow barred opening an hour or two ago and smiled grimly at the shrieks and curses when the foul liquid which passed as stew splattered the fine clothes on the other side of the grill. He doubted they’d feed him again today after that. It was no loss, he seemed to have passed beyond hunger after the trial – if such it could be called.

What do you think of the manga version? Attractive or off-putting? I love them, but I like the elegant lady on the Pleasures cover as well

[edit] Awards

The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include:

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.[87

Protected: The Paraguay History Collections Part One

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The Rare Antique Picture CD

Created by Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

 Copyright@ 2012








Paul fraser have sent me the information about rare art photography collections

About Us

5 unique items not to be missed…

Photography is perhaps the most important art form of the 20th century.

Like no other, it transformed the way we see the world around us and captured the immediacy of modern life.

Today photography is growing quickly into what Christie’s has described as a “highly competitive” market.

Now recognised by galleries and major auction houses around the world, photography prices are increasing as both traditional art collectors and dedicated photography collectors battle it out for the most important and iconic works.

This effect can be clearly seen in auction results from the past 12 months:

In June 2011,

the only known photograph of the infamous outlaw Billy the Kid smashed its estimate of $300,000 to sell for an amazing $2.3 million.


Read more info

William Koch buys portrait of Billy the Kid for $2.3

A member of the infamous modern gangster Koch family, William Koch, has purchased the only known photograph of wild west gangster Billy the Kid.

I would say there’s a certain symmetry here but that would be redundant.



In November 2011,


 Andreas Gursky’s image ‘Rhein II’ became the world’s most expensive photograph when it sold for a World record price of $4.33 million. It was the second time the record had been broken in the space of just six months.

Read more info

Earlier this week, art history was made when an anonymous buyer paid a record-breaking $4.34 million for Andreas Gursky’s photograph of the Rhine River, called Rhein II. Sold at Christie’s impressionist and modern art auction in New York, it became the most expensive photograph ever sold at auction. It beat Cindy Sherman’s Untitled #96, which sold for a whopping $3.89 million this May. Gursky’s print, made in 1999, and depicts a stunning panorama of Germany’s most famous river.


Here are some of the most expensive photographs ever sold



Why This Photograph is Worth $578,500

via PetaPixel

Last week, a collection of 36 prints by William Eggleston was sold for $5.9 million at auction.  The top ten list of most expensive photographs ever sold doesn’t contain a single work worth less than a cool million. Just a few months ago, Andreas Gursky’s ‘Rhine II’ became the world’s most expensive photograph, selling for $4.3 million. Every time news like this reaches the Internet, the comments sections of photography blogs explode with righteous indignation.


And just last month, in March 2012,

 a single New York photography auction set an impressive eight new World Record prices – with images selling for up to 344% above their initial estimates.

As a recent article in the British Telegraph newspaper commented;

“There’s good reason to believe that photography prices will continue to rise, with more people willing to invest large sums in it…the National Gallery announced their first ever major blockbuster exhibition of photography next year, cementing the art form as a medium of major historic and cultural significance that now even the naysayers can’t deny.”

There’s no doubt that the market for iconic photography is booming – and here at Paul Fraser Collectibles we’re witnessing it first-hand.

In recent months we’ve sold more photographs than ever, as our clients take advantage of this rapidly rising market.

In the past few weeks we’ve sold items including:


SOLD FOR £9,500



SOLD FOR £8,955


The demand for original, iconic photographs far outstrips the supply, and after years of building up our catalogue we now have just a few examples remaining:


A rare signed photograph of JFK and his children at the White House


This beautiful silver gelatine print depicts President John F. Kennedy, along with his children Caroline and John Kennedy Jr., on the White House terrace with their pony Macaroni.


It perfectly captures a peaceful moment in the young President’s home life, and is uniquely signed by all four members of the family including his wife Jackie Kennedy. Price: £19,950


An original Charlie Chaplin photograph signed by the man himself


Charlie Chaplin is one of the most influential and important figures in movie history.


His character ‘The Tramp’ is perhaps the best-loved and most iconic character from the Golden Age of Hollywood – timeless, and instantly recognisable.

This superb vintage sepia-toned photograph shows Chaplin as ‘The Tramp’, and is signed “To my friend Frank, from Charlie Chaplin”. Price: £4,500




One of the best signed James Dean photographs we’ve ever seen


This iconic signed photograph of James Dean is one of the finest we’ve ever seen.


Featuring the actor sat in a thoughtful pose, the striking black and white image bears Dean’s signature and an inscription in which he describes himself as “the Thinker” in reference to the famous sculpture by Rodin. Price: £18,500


James Dean Signed Photograph

For Sale: £18,500.00

Cultural icon James Dean starred in many films such as Rebel Without a Cause, Giant and East of Eden.

The combination of his talent, good looks and tragic death at the tender age of 24 has cemented his legendary status.

This vintage, glossy, black and white photo shows James Dean sitting on a stool with one hand on his temple. Dean has autographed the photo, which measures 6.5″ x 8.25″, in blue fountain pen ink, adding the note “To Hana, my very best from (the thinker), James Dean”.

“The thinker” appears to be a reference to Auguste Rodin’s sculpture of the same name which depicts a man sitting in a thoughtful pose, with his hand resting on his chin.

This autographed photograph has some slight creasing and mounting remnants to the reverse but is otherwise in very good condition. It is professionally mounted, framed and glazed using UV glass.

The PFC40 Autograph Index shows that signed photographs of Dean have increased in value by 681.3% since 2000 and by 4.17% in the last year alone.

A rare opportunity to own a beautiful signed photograph of the Hollywood legend.





A unique, candid signed photograph of Elvis taken in Germany


This unique, candid photo of Elvis Presley was taken in Germany during his military service. It was during this period he met Priscilla Beaulieu, who would later become Priscilla Presley.

The moment captures Presley smiling in his U.S Army uniform, and bears his signature in blue ink on the reverse. Previously unseen, this image was acquired by the Aunt of one of Priscilla’s classmates in Wiesbaden. Price: £3,500


Rock-and-roll star Elvis Presley drafted today in 1957 while spending Christmas at Graceland, shipped to Germany

By WcP.Story.Teller – Posted on 20 December 2008


By December of 1957, Elvis Presley was twenty-three years old, healthy, rich, and more famous than he could ever dreamed. Everything he touched turned to gold. It was as if nothing could get in his way. That is, until December 10, 1957, when Elvis received a letter from the Memphis Draft Board notifying him that he was up for the next military draft. Army, Navy, and Air Force recruiters immediately called to offer him special enlistment opportunities if he signed up before being drafted. The Navy even offered to form an “Elvis Presley Company” that would include soldiers from the Memphis area. Elvis declined all the enlistment offers and decided to take his changes with the draft. On December 19, nine days after he received his initial draft notification, Elvis got final word from the Memphis Draft Board; he was to report for induction into the Army on January 20, 1958, the very same day he was scheduled to start filming King Creole.


Things suddenly got very quiet around Graceland. Elvis was sure that after two years in the Army and being out of the public eye his career would be over. Hal Wallis and Paramount were equally distressed about Elvis being drafted. They had already invested $350,000 in King Creole and were now faced with the possibility of shelving the project, if not canceling it entirely. Wallis and Colonel Parker contracted the Memphis Draft Board, requesting a deferment until March 20, when shooting of the film would be complete. The Draft Board had already been deluged by letters from angry fans who saw the conscription as a government attempt to sabotage Elvis’s career. They argued that Elvis Presley was a national treasure and therefore should be exempt from the draft. The president himself even received letters regarding the “Elvis Presley draft situation.”

In order to ebb the tide of criticism, the draft board agreed to grant Elvis a sixty-day deferment. Elvis went to Hollywood in January to film King Creole as planned. On March 24, 1958, Elvis reported to Local draft Board 86 to begin his service in the United States Army. The enlistment process turned into a media circus, instigated no doubt by Colonel Parker. Dozens of reporters and photographers as well as a film crew were there to document the historic event. Flash bulbs popped constantly as Elvis went from station to station. He was asked questions, examined, tested, issued his equipment, and designated his serial number-53310761. He then boarded a bus for Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, to continue the processing.


Newspapers immediately announced the downfall of Elvis Presley. They predicted that two years out of the limelight was too much for even Elvis to overcome. Suddenly, his income was cut from $400,000 to $78 a month. Although Elvis tried to take everything in stride, deep down he was afraid for his career. Elvis knew his fans were dedicated, but two years seemed like an awfully long time to wait. Colonel Parker, however, knew better. Elvis had plenty of recorded material that had not yet been re-released, as well a lot of material recorded at Sun that was still to be re-released. If RCA spaced out the releases properly, there would be more than enough to keep Elvis on charts while he was in the Army. Colonel Parker quickly put his promotional machine in motion. If anything, Elvis joining the Army was a public-relations boon. He could now be seen as a patriotic young man who would willingly serve his country with great pride. Nearly everybody thought that Elvis would request the Special Services Branch of the Army. Indeed, the Army hierarchy was hoping that that would be the case. In the Special Services, Elvis could sing his way through his service as well as appear on print and television commercials to help the Army boost enlistment.

At Parker’s insistence, however, Elvis turned down Special Services and announced that he did not want any special treatment. Parker knew that if Elvis went through basic training, carried his own gear and rifle, marched, and went on guard duty, all just like a normal soldier, that it would help his public image.


Instead of Special Services, Elvis was assigned to a Company, Second Medium Tank Battalion, Second Armored Division. After four days of processing at Fort Chaffee, Elvis was shipped to Fort Hood, Texas, to begin basic training. According to Elvis, he was kidded and chided quite a bit by his fellow soldiers at the beginning of boot camp; however, once they saw that he didn’t expect to be treated any differently and that he was just another grunt, they soon grew to like him.

While he was stationed at Fort Hood, the Army allowed Elvis to live off base with his parents and his grandmother, Such as practice was not unusual for a soldier with a dependent family. The Presleys originally lived in a trailer, but later moved into a four-bedroom house at 605 Oak Hill Drive in Killeen, Texas. While Elvis was in the middle of basic training, Gladys grew increasingly ill. She tried to hide her illness from her family until Vernon came home one day and found her collapsed on the kitchen floor. After seeing a doctor, it was agreed that Gladys would go back to Memphis and check into a hospital for tests. Gladys had not been very healthy for some time now. She had always dreamed of the best for Elvis and wanted his singing career to take off. However, as his popularity grew, he was home less and less, and Gladys sank into depression. To deal with her loneliness and fears, Gladys drank heavily while Elvis was away, and even began taking diet pills in order to lose weight.


Gladys Love Smith Presley died at 3:00 a.m. on August 14, 1958 of a heart attack. She was forty-six years old. In September 1958, Elvis Presley and the 1,400 other members of his company boarded a train to New York, where they were to have a brief layover before being shipped off to West Germany, where Elvis would finish the final year and a half of his service. As had become commonplace, the train was greeted by throngs of fans, reporters, and photographers. An Army band played “Hound Dog” and a press conference was held.

On September 22, Elvis and his fellow soldiers were shipped out of the Brooklyn Navy Yards aboard the USS General Randall, bound for Bremerhaven, West Germany. On the eve of their departure, Elvis was promoted to Private First Class. Unbeknownst to Elvis, he was nearly as popular in West Germany as in the United States. In fact, he had looked forward to his foreign service to provide a break from the media scrutiny and fan obsession. Peace and quiet were not to be found, however. Nearly 2,000 screaming German fans greeted the USS General Randall when it docked in Bremerhaven on October 1st.


As in Texas, Elvis was permitted to live off base with his family. He rented a modest four- bedroom, two-story house in Bad Nauheim where he lived with Vernon, his grandmother Minnie Mae, as well as a few members of the Memphis Mafia.

Elvis was assigned duty as a jeep driver-the perfect assignment for a man who loved cars as much as he did. On June 14, he was rewarded for his diligence by being promoted to Corporal.

Elvis behaved just like any other soldier, he carried a gun, and he pulled KP and guard duty. At night, however, he returned to his home in Bad Nauheim, where he invited a vast array of family, friends, and fellow soldiers over practically every night. The parties consisted mostly of a number of people just hanging out, talking, with the occasional jam session taking place. On one such night late in 1959, one of Elvis’s army buddies, U.S. Airman Currie Grant, brought over a young girl named Priscilla Beaulieu. For Priscilla, meeting Elvis Presley was a dream come true. Like millions of other teenagers, she had bought all of Elvis’s records and followed his career closely in the fan magazines. Just as she became used to the idea that she was dating Elvis Presley, however, it seemed as if the whole romance would come to an abrupt end. Only a few months after they met, Elvis’s tour of duty with the Army was over.


One night some military genius decided to post Elvis on guard duty. That was completely fair, of course, but also seriously dumb. Because Elvis was huge in Europe and the fans must have had some kind of radar, because whenever Elvis was exposed where the public could get him, they appeared in droves. And this night a huge crowd gathered , with Elvis doing guard duty at some gate. There he was standing like he was supposed to, but surrounded, absolutely surrounded by hundreds and hundreds of fans. It took platoons to rescue him. That was the last guard duty Elvis pulled.

Elvis’ army MOS was tank gunner. Which I guess, looking back, was a pretty appropriate assignment. Elvis loved guns, and these were big guns. But there was a problem, because those guns were loud. And one day Elvis came home and I asked him how it went that day and he walked right on past me. I followed him into the bedroom and said, “Hey, didn’t you hear me?” “What are you talking about?” Elvis answered, and I realized he hadn’t heard a word I’d said. I asked him if he was all right and he said, “My ears are ringing so loud I can’t even hear.” I immediately got Colonel Parker on the phone in the states and told him we had a problem. A big problem. Colonel Tom knew a guy at the Pentagon, and he just wore this man’s butt out until they reassigned Elvis out of that damned tank.


With the exception of an impromptu jam session with Charlie Hodge on the troop ship to Europe, Elvis did no public performances while he was in the army. At home, in his apartment in Gruenwald, West Germany, however, music was a big part of his life and over the years several tapes of sessions in his apartment have surfaced and been released, mostly, as bootlegs.

Priscilla waved a tearful goodbye to Elvis as he boarded the plane leaving Germany for the United States. Elvis searched her out of the large crowd before he got on the plane and waved to her. In the press, she became known as “the girl he left behind.” When questioned at a press conference back in the States, Elvis denied that any type of romance was going on between him and Priscilla. He simply described her as a young girl he met and befriended, that it was nothing special. Well before he came home, America had already begun preparing for the return of Elvis Presley. Even though he had spent two years without making a record or a public appearance, Elvis Presley still ruled the record charts on the radio. Elvis Presley was coming home to the United States as an even bigger star than when he had left.


Photos courtesy of AP Photo, Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc., Getty Image, Hollywood Yesterday, and

Original Source: Elvis Collector’s Gold and BBC News


The Beatles and Muhammad Ali – five 20th century icons together


This incredible photograph depicts first meeting between some of the biggest cultural icons of the 20th century – Muhammad Ali and The Beatles.

Both were rapidly rising in fame –



 the Beatles were on their first U.S tour which saw the birth of international ‘Beatlemania’, and


 Ali (then still known as Cassius Clay) was just days away from his first fight with Sonny Liston which would see him crowned World Heavyweight Champion.


The photo depicts the Beatles lying in a boxing ring at the feet of Ali, as he beats his chest and roars above them. The photograph is also signed by Ali himself in blue ink. Price: £1,950

Your next step…

We’re proud to offer these pieces, each of which would grace any top collection.

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Cindy Sherman’s Untitled #96 (1981) sold for $3,890,500 in 2011


Andreas Gursky’s 99 Cent II Diptychon (2001) sold for $3,346,456 in 2006


Edward Steichen’s The Pond-Moonlight (1904) sold for $2,928,000 in 2006



The Nicaragua revolution in 1979 History Collections

Nicaragua Revolution


 History Collections


Created by

 Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited EditionIn CD-ROM

Nicaragua Quest


Copyright @ 2012

sandinista stamps


President Somoza



Sandinista rebellion


I have just looking the amizing vintage MGM movie at my TV Cable,the movie about the US Journalist who searching the Photos of Rafael the leader of Sandinista rebellion during Nicaragua revolution in 1979 at Managua city,


Look some pictures and compare with the original collections of that amazing revolutions just several years after the Vietnam war were ended

Jakarta April 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy






A gun and a digging tool. Sandino said: “Only the workers and the peasants will endure to the end.”

And he established a self-sustaining community at Wiwilí: rooted in cooperation and the land, it was his model for a sustainable Nicaragua.

In these days of belated realization of the catastrophe of Northern greed, he is a truly global figure – his model vital for the very survival of the planet under global warming. Somoza destroyed the Wiwilí community when he murdered Sandino.

As Cheney put it more recently, “The Amurican Way of Life is not negotiable.”

Post Revolution Phase1.
Workers back in their proper place and attitude; no sign of Sandino.

Post.Revolution Phase 2.
Woman back in her place, barefoot, pregnant, on her knees.

In the background, hidden by trees and a high wall, the ruins of the 1972 earthquake that demolished the heart of Managua and killed 10,000 people.

Fixing them up instead of making maudlin statues would at least ensure that more families actually had ktchens.

4.Post-Revolution. Phase 3.

 The Return of Religosity:
“Pilgrims will come from all over the the world to see these great works of art,” they said. The few that come, come


Phase 5

.Revolution Post-Revolution.

View from the warrior peasant, which is located just up the road from the newly re-constituted Revolutionary Square.

The statue of the newly repressed workers is in front, and, beyond them, that of the pregnant woman.

Despite attempts to blow it up, the statue still stands defiant and proud.

Phase 6

Bloodied but Unbowed.

The Carrion store is aptly named. Like vultures, carrion crows feed on dead animals, offal and road kill. So “savage consumerism” is consuming itself.


As he stands a top Somoza’s last bunker,

 brooding over high water mark of consumerism’s catastrophic stupidity within Nicaragua, Sandino offers us all a more intelligent, sustainable, and indeed happy, way of life, reminding us of the fate of all civilizations that get too big for their boots – their roots in the Earth:


history Background

America In The Post-Vietnam Era




The Empire

America in the post-Vietnam Era: The Reawakening of the Empire.

After the defeat in Vietnam the United States found itself unsure of its place in the world, it was a nation adrift in the ocean of a cold war seeking for its identity amidst a current that seemed to be flowing against it.

The years that followed the end of the war in South East Asia saw serious setbacks to American hegemony.


The Islamic revolution in Iran dethroned the U.S. staunchest ally in the Middle East, and

 in the same year (1979), the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Both events signaled a decrease of American power in the region and battered the pride of a flailing nation.

In 1980 the American electorate overwhelmingly elected Ronald Reagan and sent him to the White House with a mandate – restore the American roar.

The presidency of the former Hollywood actor and General Electric spokesman promised that America would regain its cowboy swagger, and stride with confidence into the canteen of international affairs. To reinvigorate and consolidate its power the U.S. turned to its “backyard”.

The United States transformed Central America into the new theatre of war, where it could play the role of triumphant hero, rewrite history, and thus cleanse itself from a shameful past. As the story would unfold, the country became entrenched with allied governments that were not exemplary models of liberty and democracy and ended in a tragic finale of human suffering.

Latin America traditionally has been the domain of the United States. Since the beginning of the 19th Century with the Monroe Doctrine the country positioned itself as the voice of the hemisphere. It was Latin American that first witnessed and suffered the incipient imperial endeavors of

the United States in the Mexican-American War (1848). And at the turn of the century Latin American waters were

the battle grounds of the Spanish-American War (1898), from which the United States emerged as a world power. Six years later the doctrine of Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny was epitomized by the Roosevelt Corollary Effects of the Roosevelt Corollary. That infamous amendment that reinforced the Monroe Doctrine and clearly articulated the U.S.’s self-bestowed right of intervention in the domestic affairs of the regions country. Through the 20th century Latin America awarder the dubious honor of being in the gravitational sphere of influence had fallen squarely into the economic and political realm of the United States. Cuba, of course, is the great exception that has hunted every American administration since 1959. Supportive government, usually in the command of dictators and military juntas, sprouted (with the assistance of national elites and foreign intervention) from the Isthmus of Panama to the Patagonia. Except for the parenthesis of the Good Neighbor Policy The Good Neighbor Policy under President Franklin D. Roosevelt American hegemony in the continent had been exercised recklessly and gone mostly unchallenged.

If the 1980s was to be the decade of restoration of the American Empire, Latin America was going to provide the canvass on which it would be created. The U.S. Empire regrouped on known and proven ground. With South America under the control of sympathetic government Central American, this impotent, impoverished and mostly inconsequential region provided a laboratory for an empire that had wandered off its bellicose path. As historian Greg Grandin argues, because of the unimportance of Central America neo-conservatives in Washington saw it as the ideal place in the world to retry the third-world wars from which the U.S. had found itself unable to emerge victorious. A land scarce in natural resources and within the “natural” hemispheric influence of the U.S. would not confront large degree of intervention from the Soviet Union. On its drive to reaffirm power the U.S. tried to play two diametrically opposed roles. In the traditional fashion of western empires it formed an alliance with

autocratic governments in Guatemala and El Salvador.

 But it balanced it with an innovative approach that marketed support for insurgents in Nicaragua as a battle between David and Goliath. The U.S. was able to portray itself as the patron of freedom fighters. Central America was to be a testing ground for those who advocated the “Reagan Doctrine”, a repudiation of détente and a belief that the U.S. should focus not only in containing the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union but reducing it. With the arrival of Reagan at the White House there was a shift in policy away from the emphasis of human rights under the Jimmy Carter administration and the adoption of a stance of realpolitik, i.e., support for friendly government regardless of their bloodshed record. The perceived “softness” of the Carter administration (this presidency, although not as warmly as its successor, supported many dictatorships in Central American and elsewhere) was blamed by some members of the Reagan administration for the rise of governments that did not blindly submit to the Washington consensus. Officials like Jeane Kirkpatrick formulated ideas for the justification of U.S. support of dictatorships by arguing for a focus on pragmatism, of stability above all other concerns. The cost of this “stabilization” was the assassination of 300,000 people in Central America during the Reagan presidency.


When Reagan came to power, events that had been brewing for a long time in these oppressed lands where coming into full force. The region and the U.S. were not without their troubled history.

In the 1850s William Walker,

 a warrior entrepreneur from New Orleans (probably the inspiration of Marlon Brando’s character, who goes by the same name, in Gillo Pontecorvo’s film Burn), invaded Nicaragua, reestablished slavery and became the first and only American to be elected President of the country. Eighty years later nationalists, led by Augusto Sandino, drove U.S. marines out of Nicaragua in 1927. U.S. involvement in Central America was not limited to Nicaragua.


United States intervention (1909–33)


In 1909,

the United States provided political support to conservative-led forces rebelling against President Zelaya. U.S. motives included differences over the proposed Nicaragua Canal, Nicaragua’s potential as a destabilizing influence in the region, and Zelaya’s attempts to regulate foreign access to Nicaraguan natural resources. On November 18, 1909, U.S. warships were sent to the area after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) were executed by order of Zelaya. The U.S. justified the intervention by claiming to protect U.S. lives and property. Zelaya resigned later that year.

In August 1912

the President of Nicaragua, Adolfo Díaz, requested that the Secretary of War, General Luis Mena, resign for fear that he was leading an insurrection. Mena fled Managua with his brother, the Chief of Police of Managua, to start an insurrection. When the U.S. Legation asked President Díaz to ensure the safety of American citizens and property during the insurrection he replied that he could not and that…

U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua

President Emiliano Chamorro

José Santos Zelaya
U.S. Marines clearing 
barriers from the track.
U.S. Marine MajorSmedley Butler
  Inauguration of Conservative President Adolfo Díaz (center), with U.S. diplomat Lawrence Dennis and
former president Emiliano Chamorro.
Two Marines at Coyotepe Hill, the 
   Liberal rebel stronghold, in Oct. 1912.
El Coyotepe fortress.
El Coyotepe entrance El Coyotepe wall

The Assault on Coyotepe (1912)

The Assault on Coyotepe
U.S. Marines Trounce Rebellious Liberals

On a leisurely drive to Masaya from  Managua, looming up on the left of the highway is the old mountaintop  fortress, Coyotepe. Many tales have been told about it, usually bloodcurdling stories of torture during the rule of Somoza or the Sandinistas, depending on one’s political bent. What is almost never  heard about is something that really happened on this hill. One of Nicaragua’s national heroes, Benjamín Zeledón, is associated with this place. It is an interesting story with a variety of versions.

One battle was fought there in October 1912.

 Lasting perhaps one hour, maybe less, it established Zeledón as a national hero and martyr, kept President Adolfo Díaz in power
until the 1916 elections, and began the tradition of direct, American involvement in Nicaragua’s internal politics.


 was a turbulent year in Nicaragua. The regime of José Santos Zelaya, subject to
many Conservative uprisings and a poisonous relationship with the Catholic Church,
finally tottered and fell when a Conservative “revolution” headed by Juan J. Estrada in Bluefields finally appeared to have the military power to defeat Zelaya.

Two mercenaries from the United States contracted by Conservatives to sabotage ships in the harbor had been caught by the authorities and summarily executed.

U.S. Marines were sent to the rescue and landed in Bluefields to insure that the revolution would not fizzle out.

 Zelaya reportedly consulted with his friend to the north, Dictator Porfirio Díaz of  Mexico, who advised him to get on a boat and leave.

With the end of the Zelaya  regime, a period of instability took hold in Nicaragua that was supposed to end with the naming of mining accountant Adolfo Díaz as president.

 A member of a shaky  Conservative coalition that was supported by only a small minority of Nicaraguans, Díaz  did not lead many except his immediate followers and members of his household.

 Soon he had a rebellion on his hands when two generals -one Conservative, General Mena, and one Liberal, General Benjamín Zeledón- joined forces at Masaya, formed a  rival government, and threatened to march on Managua. Díaz hit the panic button and  asked for the Marines to land and save his regime.

Mena’s forces had commandeered  U.S.-owned river steamers and the railroad for strategic reasons, and so the U.S.  obliged and sent 3,000 Marines to protect “American lives and property.

” They  marched on Masaya and Granada.

 General Mena finally capitulated and agreed to keep his garrison in its barracks in  Granada, but Zeledón still had to be disarmed. In 1910, at the age of 31, Zeledón had been Minister of War in the cabinet of Zelaya’s presidential appointee José Madriz, earning that post for his fame as a hero in the victorious war with Honduras and El Salvador in 1907.

Zeledón -born in San Rafael del Norte, Jinotega- was strongly  opposed to the U.S. intervention and was prepared to die in order to defend his country
 from what he called “foreign despotism.”

 By 1912 he was the last leading Liberal still in the field who actively desired the
 immediate toppling of the Díaz government, which he regarded as a puppet of the  Americans. Zeledón’s hostility toward the Díaz regime, and subsequently toward the  U.S. Marines, brought on the confrontation at Coyotepe in October 1912.

 Storm the heights

 Located on the end of the Masaya Lagoon are two large hills, one called Coyotepe and the other called La Barranca.

 Before the Marines showed up, Liberal forces fortified both hills. Coyotepe was the more strategic of the two as the main railroad leading from
 Granada to Managua passes directly under its heights; a few small pieces of artillery on  Coyotepe can effectively disrupt traffic since it also overlooks the main road between  Masaya and Granada. It was obvious that the Marines would have to take the hill in  order to control access to Granada and defeat the rebel coalition of Zeledón and Mena.

 Telegrams were exchanged between the U.S. forces and Zeledón: the Marines asked  him to leave Coyotepe: he politely refused and told them they would have to fight him.

 Before dawn on October 4, 1912,

Company “C” of the First Battalion, First Provisional Regiment, U.S. Marines, Nicaraguan Expedition, under the command of Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, assembled at the foot of Coyotepe Hill and made ready their  assault.

 At first light they started up the hill. They shot their way to the top, and took control of  Coyotepe Hill. Zeledón’s forces had retreated off the hill as the Marines approached the  summit. Irregulars from Conservative forces began combing the area for Zeledón and his men.

The next morning near Diriomo, Zeledón ran into a Conservative force and
 shot it out with them.

 He was struck in the spine by a bullet. He was taken by mule or by wagon, according  to different versions, to Catarina. The wound had been fatal and he was dead on arrival.
 Another version

 has Zeledón being captured in Catarina and taken to Masaya where he
 was executed on orders from the Marines. The corpse was then paraded through the streets. A young Augusto César Sandino may have witnessed this procession, or perhaps his burial in the cemetery at Catarina. Zeledón lay there, unremarked upon, until Sandinista Comandante Tomás Borge dedicated a large monument in the form of a Winchester rifle to him in 1980. Charge!

Regarding the assault, the only accurate account of the battle and the condition of
 the hill at the time of the battle is found in an address that Colonel Pendleton gave in
 1913 at the dedication of a plaque to honor the dead who took part in that battle. That
 plaque is mounted on a wall in the Marine barracks in Boston, where the great
 majority of the men who took part in the assault had come from. Pendleton finally
 told what happened on the hill outside of Masaya.

 Commanded in the field by Captain Fortson, Company “C” had made it part way up the
 hill before they were detected by a sentry stationed on the summit of Coyotepe, who
 started waving a sword.

 The strategy of the Marines was to have one group of soldiers pin down the defenders
 with accurate rifle fire as the others climbed the hill. This worked until the Marines
 reached an open space right under the summit. A machine gun had been placed to
 cover it, and it was also blocked with barbed wire.

 As soon as the Marines made it there, three were shot dead and several others were
 wounded seriously. A fourth Marine named Durham continued forward and was shot
 down, but not before he had managed to cut the barbed wire. The Marines then took
 the summit. The assault on Coyotepe was over. American losses were four killed and
 several wounded; Nicaraguan losses unknown.

 It is also clear from Pendleton’s description that the summit of Coyotepe was lined with
 trenches and that there were no buildings there at that time. This lays waste to versions
 that have the fortress being built late last century.

 Judging from the architecture, it appears that the fortress was built between the two
 world wars. Though it surely does command the Masaya Highway and old railway line
 to Granada, it could easily be destroyed by one 500-pound bomb.

 In the mid-1960s, the Somoza family had turned the old fortress over to the Boy
 Scouts, who used it for their annual jamboree. Somoza’s National Guard apparently
 used it briefly during the insurrection against him in 1979 to shell the Masaya. The
 dungeons below were reportedly used to isolate political prisoners then, and again
 during the 1980s when the Sandinistas were in power. However, the tales of brutal
 torture of prisoners during either regime are undocumented, though they lend an aura of
 intrigue while one walks around inside. In the early years of the Sandinista revolution,
 the authorities turned Coyotepe over for use by the Association of Sandinista Children,
 a Nicaraguan version of the Pioneers in Cuba.

 By 1988, it was completely abandoned, adorned with spray-painted graffiti, including
 some elaborately drawn pornographic sketches. It has been returned once again to the
 Boy Scouts, probably its most effective use. Meanwhile, you can visit the installation
 and let your imagination run rampant as you walk the underground corridors past the
 cells in this 20th century dungeon.

Fortaleza de El

  Pío Blandón Arróglia (left) and Pedro Blandón Arróglia, ca. 1930.    Two archived copies of the same photo.  Both of these men were Sandinista sub-jefes in the area from El Jícaro to La Concordia-La Pavona and Condega from at least late 1929 (this is NOT the better-known Sandinista General Pedro Blandón).  The two brothers, cousins of EDSN jefe Doroteo Blandón, are mentioned by old-time Sandinista Martín Blandón Rodríguez, IES 033: 7, and in PC30.01.20 Uhrig Contact Report; Pedro Arróglia is also mentioned as a Sandinista jefe in IR30.01.18 and IR30.03.22 and other reports from the first six months of 1930.  On the rear of the second photo is the following:


   Damage at La Luz Mine from Sandinista raid of April 1928.     

For US-generated records describing the events surrounding the destruction of the mine,.


George Marshall, Superintendent La Luz Mine (April-May 1928).   George Marshall, superintendent at La Luz Mine, was seized by the Sandinistas and died in captivity, though evidence indicates he died of dysentery, not Sandinista mistreatment; in fact it appears the rebels treated him well.  These photos show Marshall during his captivity.  In the last photo (3C), the arrow on the left points to “Arcadio Herrera,” and on the right, to what looks like “J. M. Lopez”.


 Sandino’s wedding to Blanca Aráuz, May 1927.  

Augusto Calderón Sandino and Blanca Aráuz, day of their wedding, May 19, 1927.

The wedding party, outskirts of San Rafael del Norte, May 19, 1927.  The last cropping is of Pedro Altamirano, or Pedrón.


 Sandino and Blanca Aráuz in camp, ca. 1930. 



 Sandino and Liberals in Jinotega during the Civil War?   The man labeled “1-Sandino” looks very much like Sandino.  “2” is labeled Pedro Lopez.  Pedro López’s name appears exactly once in extant Sandinista correspondence, in the early stage of the war   What’s the man doing with the handkerchief in the left foreground?  Judging from the position of the roof corner in the building in the background, this photo was probably snapped a few moments after the photo below, as the photographer moved along with the crowd and horsemen.If the writing on this photo says “Sandino,” it’s probably wrong.  Note that the photographer faces the middle of a large tall windowless building with elaborate molding to the left, suggesting a church.  The photographer is probably moving to his left, following the flow of the horses and procession, and will soon get to the corner of the building and roof, at which point Sandino and Pedro López ride by and he snaps the first photo.  That seems likeliest anyway.These two photos present something of a puzzle.  They were pasted onto the page of a Marine Corps photo album with the title “Groups of Sandino’s Bandits, July 1928,” as seen in the thumbnail above.  The two were clearly taken the same day during the same event, by someone in the street near the town plaza, watching a passing parade of Liberal or Sandinista soldiers.  The troops were probably entering a bigger town — evidenced by the size of the building in the background, probably the church. The likeliest places are Ocotal, Jinotega, Estelí, or Matagalpa.  The only time Sandino rode triumphantly through major towns was during the Civil War and right after.  It thus seems reasonable to surmise that these two photos were taken in a bigger Segovian town around February-March 1927, while the Civil War still raged.  These were probably Liberal Sandinistas.


 Sandinistas in the Western Segovias, 1927-28. 
This photo, and the four to follow, appear to be in the Western Segovias, probably around San Lucas-Somoto. Note the characteristic half-moon shape of the horsemen’s formation, with rifles raised and the skull-and-crossbones red-and-black flag in the center.

 Similar half-moon formation.

Evidently a mock battle being staged in the center of the half-moon formation.  Appears almost ritualized, and certainly theatrical. Such mock combat is also seen in the next photo.

Pointing rifles directly in each other’s faces. The piled-stone and thatch dwelling suggests an area of longtime indigenous settlement, such as around Somoto-San Lucas.


  EDSN Sargeant Major Alejandro Molina.   

The illegitimate son of wealthy Estelí landowner Blas Miguel Molina, Alejandro Molina served as a Sergeant Major in Sandino’s Ejército Defensor for about 15 months (from December 1927 to February 1929), after which he went into exile in Honduras with his mother.  Soon after he was arrested, imprisoned at the National Penitentiary in Managua.  Was this photograph found on his person?  How did it end up in a “July 1928” Marine photo album? 


 Sandinistas and Ismael Peralta in Jinotega.  

The man on the far right is identified as Ismael Peralta, a Sandinista general in the Yalí-Constancia district, which suggests that this photo was taken somewhere around Jinotega.  The men seem especially interested in brandishing their weapons. Two separate prints of the same photo, followed by a second version, of much higher quality, from the collection of Walter C. Sandino.  That a poor quality version of this photo found its way into the Marines’ archives suggests that this image circulated widely during the period.


Sandinista anti-aircraft battery in the jungle. 

Three versions of the same photograph, again suggesting its widespread circuation at the time.  The first two images, of lesser quality, are in RG127; the third is from the collection of Walter C. Sandino.  Caption of the top photo reads, “A BANDIT LEWIS MACHINE GUN.”  In this photo, four men point their weapons skyward — three rifles on the left, and a Lewis machine gun resting on a man’s right shoulder on the right.  The man in the white shirt in the center seems to direct the two men in front of him.  All this suggests these six rebels were posing in an offensive posture directed against airplanes.  The third image, of higher quality, reveals another individual, in the background whose hat protrudes over the extended right arm of the man in the white shirt.  This makes eight men total:  seven in the photo plus the photographer, marked by his shadow.

The lettering here looks like “Explorando el campo, 13 de mayo de 1928.”  The photo album page says July 1928, which is probably close, perhaps in the Eastern Segovias or Jinotega area.

No title, EDSN column in the jungle, ca. 1928.


Augusto Sandino, Francisco Estrada, Juan Gregorio Colindres, 1928.

No date. Sandino on left, Francisco “Pancho” Estrada in middle, Juan Gregorio Colindres on the right. Probably 1927-28.


 Lorenzo Blandón, Carlos Salgado, Clemente Torres H.

Probably 1928, probably the Western Segovias.  Carlos Salgado, of course, was one of the leading Sandinista generals in this region from the end of the Civil War till the end of the rebellion, and one of the shrewdest and most capable of all rebel chieftains.


  Sandinista horsemen. 

No title, no date, ca. 1928, two archived copies of the same photo.



  Sandinista Generals Manuel María Girón Ruano and Francisco Estrada.

This photo, and the next one (Photo 16) were taken a few moments apart by the same person standing in the same place, as one can see by comparing the corner of the roof.  The place was probably La Luz Mine, the time April 1928 (see Photo Cluster 2 on this page).  The inscriptions read “Jiron,” “Estrada,” and (in Photo 16) “Carlos Quesada.”  On the capture and execution of Girón in Feb-March 1929


  Sandinista Colonel Carlos Quesada.

This and the previous photo (Photo 14) appear to have been taken a few moments apart.


 jefes Pedro Torres, Celestino Zeledon? and Carmen Torres?

My best interpretation of the lettering on this photo  is: “3. Pedro Torres. 2. Celestino Zeledon. 1. Carmen Torres.”  The latter’s name appears frequently as a Sandinista sub-jefe; the other two names do not correspond to any names in my databases.  Were these men Sandinistas?  Liberals?  Conservatives?  Unknown.


Major General Joseph H. Pendleton, USMC


In consequence my Government desires that the Government of the United States guarantee with its forces security for the property of American Citizens in Nicaragua and that it extend its protection to all the inhabitants of the Republic.[25]

U.S. Marines occupied Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933,[26] except for a nine month period beginning in 1925. From 1910 to 1926, the conservative party ruled Nicaragua. The Chamorro family, which had long dominated the party, effectively controlled the government during that period. In 1914, the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed, giving the U.S. control over the proposed canal, as well as leases for potential canal defenses.[27] Following the evacuation of U.S. Marines, another violent conflict between liberals and conservatives took place in 1926, known as the Constitutionalist War, which resulted in a coalition government and the return of U.S. Marines.[28]

From 1927 until 1933,



 Gen. Augusto César Sandino led a sustained guerrilla war first against the Conservative regime and subsequently against the U.S. Marines, who withdrew upon the establishment of a new Liberal government. Sandino was the only Nicaraguan general to refuse to sign the el tratado del Espino Negro agreement and then headed up to the northern mountains of Las Segovias, where he fought the U.S. Marines for over five years.[29] When the Americans left in 1933, they set up the Guardia Nacional (National Guard),[30] a combined military and police force trained and equipped by the Americans and designed to be loyal to U.S. interests. Anastasio Somoza García, a close friend of the American government, was put in charge. He was one of the three rulers of the country, the others being Sandino and

the President Juan Bautista Sacasa.

After the U.S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua in January 1933, Sandino and the newly elected Sacasa government reached an agreement by which he would cease his guerrilla activities in return for amnesty, a grant of land for an agricultural colony, and retention of an armed band of 100 men for a year.[31] But a growing hostility between Sandino and Somoza led Somoza to order the assassination of Sandino.[30][32][33] Fearing future armed opposition from Sandino, Somoza invited him to a meeting in Managua, where Sandino was assassinated on February 21 of 1934 by soldiers of the National Guard. Hundreds of men, women, and children from Sandino’s agricultural colony were executed later.[34]

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1954 overthrew the democratically elected Guatemalan government, in a mission that was among the first for the newly created agency. Jacobo Arbenz, president of Guatemala at the time of the coup d’etat, adopted New Deal era polices to reform the economy of his country but what had healed the American economy was an impermissible affront to U.S. corporate interest in the country. I

t was an event that would have a lasting impression on an Argentinean who witnessed it, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, who a few years later, by then a revolutionary leader, vowed that – “Cuba will not be Guatemala”. With no government or any one group in control of Guatemala, fiasco ensued, which led to thirty years of civil war. Under this chaos in 1966 the U.S. created and managed the “first sustained campaign of death-squad-executed ‘disappearances’ of political dissidents.”

Sandisnista History Collections

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By the early eighties the atrocities in Guatemala reached a genocidal scale. Between 1981 and 1983 a hundred thousand Mayan peasants were killed giving the country the tragic distinction of suffering the highest number of casualties among its neighbors.


With the genocide raging in all its vigor Regan met Guatemalan president Efrain Rios Montt, an evangelical Christian and one of the principal figures behind the atrocities, and complemented him as a man “totally committed to democracy.”

 Extermination of Mayan peasants was not the only game in town.

Three decades after the overthrow of Arbenz as the 70s came to an end and the United States prepared to change directions to the right of the political spectrum, the Nicaraguan Revolution triumphed. The 1979 revolution brought to power a coalition of “progressive capitalist, socialist, Marxists, and Catholics” that Washington found intolerable.

This event, more that any other, was the catalyst that sparked renewed attention to the region. The FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front) forcefully removed the autocratic government of the Somoza family, who had enjoyed a longstanding relationship with the United States. The Sandinistas, who took their name from the country’s anti-imperialist fighter earlier in the century, throughout their years in power battled insurgent forces sponsored by the United States. Washington and it allies in the region recruited former members of Nicaragua’s National Guard and organized them into an insurgent force that came to be know as the Contras. To finance and supply the anti-Sandinista rebel group the U.S. turned to various illicit activities. The Pentagon, in violation of the U.S. arms embargo, sold weapons to Iran and siphoned the proceeds to the Contras. Drug traffickers that loaned their airplanes to ship weapons and other supplies into Nicaragua in exchange were provided with access to the American market.

It was support of the Contras that allowed the former Viet Cong fighter to manipulate the story and pose itself as a defender of grassroots freedom fighters. Of course, eventually the operation erupted in the Iran-Contra scandal that sent Reagan officials to prison and tarnished the reputation of the administration. Another legacy of the conflict was the withdrawal of the U.S. from the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. When the international body ordered the U.S. to pay billions of dollars in damages to Nicaragua for “mining its harbor and conducting an illegal war of aggression” Washington refused to acquiesce with the court’s verdict and retired the country from its authority.6 No damages were paid but a very high cost was levied on Nicaragua: 30,000 civilians dead, mostly in the hands of the Contras.7 In one of those events that reveal that history more often than not can be read as farce, the leader of the Sandinistas Daniel Ortega recently won the presidential elections in Nicaragua, although the newly elected leader plagued by corruption scandals is a far cry from the promise of the revolutionary rhetoric of decades ago.



To contain Nicaragua and stop the spread of Marxism in the region, besides enacting an embargo and carryout an “illegal war of aggression”, the U.S. reinforced the surrounding governments. The next battlefield would be a neighbor of the Central American country, El Salvador. The U.S. had reason to be concerned about Nicaragua. It presented a real threat to U.S. Cold War discourse because it was an attempt (much like the Salvador Allende government in Chile) to prove that Marxism and democracy could coexist, the Sandinista government could not be summarily dismissed as a totalitarian regime. Nicaragua enjoyed the support and political recognition of Mexico as well as that of many social democrat governments in Western Europe. The Sandinistas threatened the agenda of American style democracy – liberalism and free market economics – that the White House pushed at home and abroad. In response the Reagan Administration assembled a group called National Security Planning. Composed of the President and some of the highest members of his cabinet (The Vice-President, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Director of Central Intelligence…), the group drafted a document titled United States Policy in Central America and Cuba Through F.Y.’84 in which it outlined a plan for the prevention of a “proliferation of Cuba-model states” and the aid, military and economic, the U.S. was to provide to allied governments in Central America.8

Secretary of Sate for Ronald Reagan, Alexander Haig stated we “draw the line” against Communism in El Salvador and lobbied Congress (and obtained) a doubling of U.S. aid for the country.9 This intensification of the conflict would result in $4 billion in American assistance that yielded a prolonged civil war that lasted over a decade and left many more thousands of dead Salvadorians.10 El Salvador was not new to U.S. military support. The country had been a recipient of U.S. assistance under the Carter administration, but it had been a tumultuous relationship. Even before that, during the Alliance for Progress when Washington was fortifying the intelligence apparatus of governments across Latin America in El Salvador to agencies were create to monitor and suppress dissidence (death squads were among its methods of persuasion), the Agencia Nacional de Servicios Especiales (ANSESAL) and Organización democrática Nacionalista (ORDEN). Full support, however, was not to come until the advent of the “Reagan Revolution” and the revival of American “hard power”. The times of fragile patriarchy under Presidents Ford and Carter and the rampant feminism that had weakened the “moral fiber” of America were over, and the days of a return to masculine voracity just beginning.

El Salvador provided the battleground to relive and rewrite Vietnam, but with the important difference that American forces maintained a low-profile. A paradox of all the bellicose rhetoric emanating from Washington was that the U.S. was willing to fund the war but not fight it. The “Vietnam Syndrome” had not been completely overcome. Legislators knew there constituency was weary of seeing American soldiers return home in body bags and shied away from the responsibility of committing its soldiers to fight communist guerrillas. The U.S. learned an important lesson in Vietnam: outsource the dirty ground work. Congress placed restrictions on the number of military personnel that could operate in the country (limited to 55 advisers, although the real number was three times as high) and consequently the size of the Salvadorian army was increased from 5,000 to 53,000 and many officers were trained by the ARMY at the School of Las Americas in Fort Benning, Georgia.11 The military campaign against the rebel group Frente Faribundo Marti para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) was accompanied by rhetoric about reform. With consent from Washington in 1984, Jose Napoleon Duarte, of the Christian Democratic Party, was elected (with the consent of Washington) as President of El Salvador. His lection was championed by the U.S. as evidence that reform minded politicians were taking control of the country. The U.S. supported many initiatives like land reform and democracy. But U.S. insistence on free trade policies coupled with the ever constant threat of a military coup severely incapacitated the possibilities of Duarte and in 1989 his party lost to the National Republican Alliance (ARENA), a party described by Reagan’s Ambassador to the country, Robert White, as a fascist party modeled after the Nazis.12


Through the decade a continuous flow of funding and advisors arrived as long as certain “moral standards” were promised by the recipient governments. To be eligible for U.S. assistance governments had to be “certified” by the Executive Branch as non-violators of human rights when the President requested congressional appropriation of funds. And in the case of El Salvador the White House did certify it despite all the evidence of atrocities committed by the government. Even U.S. Ambassador Deane R. Hinton acknowledged “serious excesses in human rights abuses” in a report he sent to Secretary Haig, placing the majority of the responsibility on government soldiers.13 The absurdity of the battle for freedom from Communism did not elude Salvadorians; as one Roman Catholic Church spokesman in the country pointed out President Reagan’s appeal to “light a candle as an expression of solidarity with the people of Poland at a time when there had been seven Polish workers killed […] was totally contradictory to the President’s conclusion that the human rights situation here [El Salvador] was improving.”14 He was of course making a contrast to events happening in Poland while the country was under Soviet martial law.

All the war in El Salvador accomplished after 12 years of war and $6 billion in U.S. aid was the murder of as many as 90,000 people.15 Contradictions and military assistance to totalitarian governments was the legacy of American intervention in its poor neighbors to the south. In 1991, with the end of the Cold War the U.S. forced the FMLN and the Salvadorian government to the negotiating table the rebel group demanded implementation by the government of many of the reform policies the American government had advocated but to which it never gave its full support. The nation with perhaps the strongest history of freedom, liberty and democracy – and the zeal to bringing those ideals to the world – has been remarkably unsuccessful exporting them.


1 Greg Grandin, Empire’s Workshop: Latin America, the United Sates, and the rise of the New Imperialism (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006), 71.

2 Grandin, 96.

3 Grandin, 90.

4 Grandin, 110.

5 Grandin, 112.

6 Grandin, 118.

7 Grandin, 116.

8 Raymond Bonner, “President Approved Policy on Preventing ‘Cuba-Model States’”, The New York Times, April 7, 1983.

9 Mark Danner, The massacre at El Mozote: a parable of the Cold War (New York: Vintage Books, 1994), 40.

10 Danner, 10.

11 Grandin, 101.

12 Grandin, 103.

13 Raymond Bonner, “Reagan’s Salvador Rights Report: The Balance Sheet,” The New York Times, February 26, 1982.

14 Raymond Bonner, “Reagan’s Salvador Rights Report: The Balance Sheet,” The New York Times, February 26, 1982.

15 Grandin, 108.


Satellite image of Central America

Daniel Noriega




 Nicaragua Postal History


 Image Image

 the Nicaragua set shown earlier.  the story that this stamp changed history. Someone, possibly a competitor nation, posted letters bearing this stamp to all the members of the committee planning the Nicaragua Canal project. This was to link the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and would bring wealth and jobs to Nicaragua. The committee saw the hidden message and did more research and found that there were activ volcanoes in Nicaragua and the whole project was moved to Panama.

 the oldest nicargua volcano stamp :


Nicaragua 1931 Will Rogers Airmail Stamps on FDC

1931 Will Rogers Flight to Nicaragua after Managua Earthquake

Centenary in 1962:

Chronology history collections


The Somoza dynasty (1936–79)

Nicaragua has experienced several military dictatorships, the longest being the hereditary dictatorship of the Somoza family for much of the 20th century. The Somoza family came to power as part of a US-engineered pact in 1927 that stipulated the formation of the Guardia Nacional, or the National Guard, to replace the US marines that had long reigned in the country.[35] Somoza slowly eliminated officers in the National Guard who might have stood in his way, and then deposed Sacasa and became president on January 1, 1937 in a rigged election.[30] Somoza was 35 at the time.

Nicaragua declared war on Germany on December 8, 1941, during World War II.[36] Although war was formally declared, no soldiers were sent to the war, but Somoza did seize the occasion to confiscate attractive properties held by German-Nicaraguans, the best-known of which was the Montelimar estate which today operates as a privately owned luxury resort and casino.[37] In 1945 Nicaragua was among the first countries to ratify the United Nations Charter.[38]

Throughout his years as dictator, “Tacho” Somoza ‘ruled Nicaragua with a strong arm’.[34] He had three main sources for his power: control of Nicaraguan economy, military support, and support from the US. When Somoza used the National Guard to take power in 1937, he destroyed any potential armed resistance.[39] Not only did he have military control, but he controlled the National Liberal Party (LPN), which in turn controlled the legislature and judicial systems, giving him complete political power.

Despite his complete control, on September 21, 1956, Somoza was shot by Rigoberto López Pérez, a 27-year-old liberal Nicaraguan poet. Somoza was attending a PLN party to celebrate his nomination for the Presidency. He died eight days later. After his father’s death, Luis Somoza Debayle, the eldest son of the late dictator, was appointed President by the congress and officially took charge of the country.[30] He is remembered by some for being moderate, but was in power only for a few years and then died of a heart attack. Then came president René Schick Gutiérrez whom most Nicaraguans viewed “as nothing more than a puppet of the Somozas”.[40] Somoza’s brother, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, a West Point graduate, succeeded his father in charge of the National Guard, controlled the country, and officially took the presidency after Schick.

Nicaragua experienced economic growth during the 1960s and 1970s largely as a result of industrialization,[41] and became one of Central America’s most developed nations. Due to its stable and high growth economy, foreign investments grew, primarily from U.S. companies such as Citigroup, Sears, Westinghouse, Coca Cola, Bank of America, Chase Manhattan Bank, “Morgan Guaranty Trust and Wells Fargo Bank.[citation needed] Other investors included London Bank and the Bank of Montreal.[citation needed]

The capital city of Managua suffered a major earthquake in 1972 which destroyed nearly 90% of the city, creating major losses,[42] and leveling a 600-square block area in the heart of Managua. Some Nicaraguan historians see the 1972 earthquake that devastated Managua as the final ‘nail in the coffin’ for Somoza. Instead of helping to rebuild Managua, Somoza siphoned off relief money to help pay for National Guard luxury homes, while the homeless poor had to make do with hastily constructed wooden shacks. The mishandling of relief money also prompted Pittsburgh Pirates star Roberto Clemente to personally fly to Managua on 31 December 1972, but he died enroute in an airplane accident.[43] Even the economic elite were reluctant to support Somoza, as he had acquired monopolies in industries that were key to rebuilding the nation,[44] and did not allow the businessmen to compete with the profits that would result.

In 1973, the year of reconstruction, many new buildings were built, but the level of corruption in the government prevented further growth. Strikes and demonstrations developed as citizens became increasingly angry and politically mobilized. The elite were angry that Somoza was asking them to pay new emergency taxes to further his own ends. As a result, more of the young elite joined the Sandinista Liberation Front (FSLN). The ever increasing tensions and anti-government uprisings slowed growth in the last two years of the Somoza dynasty.

 Nicaraguan Revolution

In 1961 Carlos Fonseca turned back to the historical figure of Sandino, and along with two others founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).[30] Fonseca turned to the KGB and Cuba’s DGI for arms and assistance. The FSLN was a small party throughout most of the 1960s, but Somoza’s apparent hatred of it and his heavy-handed treatment of anyone he suspected to be a Sandinista sympathizer gave many ordinary Nicaraguans the idea that the Sandinistas were much stronger.[citation needed]

After the 1972 earthquake and Somoza’s apparent corruption, alleged mishandling of relief aid, and refusal to rebuild Managua, the ranks of the Sandinistas were flooded with young disaffected Nicaraguans who no longer had anything to lose.[39] These economic problems propelled the Sandinistas in their struggle against Somoza by leading many middle- and upper-class Nicaraguans to see the Sandinistas as the main hope for removing the brutal Somoza regime.

In December 1974, a group of FSLN, in an attempt to kidnap U.S. Ambassador Tuner Shelton, held some Managuan partygoers hostage (after killing the host, former Agriculture Minister Jose Maria Castillo), until the Somozan government met their demands for a large ransom and free transport to Cuba. Somoza granted this, then subsequently sent his National Guard out into the countryside to look for the perpetrators of the kidnapping, described by opponents of the kidnapping as ‘terrorists’. While searching, the National Guard allegedly pillaged villages and imprisoned, tortured, raped, and executed hundreds of villagers. This led to the Roman Catholic Church withdrawing support of the Somoza regime. Around this time, Chilean president Salvador Allende was removed from power in a military coup that prompted Allende to take his own life as the presidential palace came under fire. With right-wing Augusto Pinochet in power in Chile, several hundred committed Chilean revolutionaries joined the Sandinista army in Nicaragua.[45]

On January 10, 1978, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, the editor of the national newspaper La Prensa and ardent opponent of Somoza, was assassinated.[46] This allegedly led to the extreme general disappointment with Somoza. It is alleged that the planners and perpetrators of the murder were at the highest echelons of the Somoza regime and included the dictator’s son, “El Chiguin” (“The Kid”), the President of Housing, Cornelio Hueck, the Attorney General, and Pedro Ramos, a Cuban expatriate and close ally, who commercialized blood plasma.[46]

Nicaraguan refugees, 1979

The Sandinistas, supported by some of the populace, elements of the Catholic Church, and regional governments (including Panama, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Venezuela), took power in July 1979. The Carter administration, refusing to act unilaterally, decided to work with the new government, while attaching a provision for aid forfeiture if it was found to be assisting insurgencies in neighboring countries.[47] A group of prominent citizens known as Los Doce, “the Twelve”, denounced the Somoza regime and said that “there can be no dialogue with Somoza … because he is the principal obstacle to all rational understanding … through the long dark history of Somocismo, dialogues with the dictatorship have only served to strengthen it”, Somoza fled the country and eventually ended up in Paraguay, where he was assassinated in September 1980, allegedly by members of the Argentinian Revolutionary Workers Party.[48]
To begin the task of establishing a new government, the Sandinistas created a Council (or junta) of National Reconstruction of five members: Sandinista militants Daniel Ortega, Moises Hassan, novelist Sergio Ramírez Mercado (a member of Los Doce), businessman Alfonso Robelo Callejas, and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro). Sandinista supporters thus comprised three of the five members of the junta.

The non-Sandinistas Robelo and Chamorro later resigned because they had little actual power in the junta. Sandinista mass organizations were also powerful: including the Sandinista Workers’ Federation (Central Sandinista de Trabajadores), the Luisa Amanda Espinoza Association of Nicaraguan Women (Asociación de Mujeres Nicaragüenses Luisa Amanda Espinoza), and the National Union of Farmers and Ranchers (Unión Nacional de Agricultores y Ganaderos).

On the Atlantic Coast a small uprising occurred in support of the Sandinistas. A group of Creoles led by a native of Bluefields, Dexter Hooker (known as Commander Abel), raided a Somoza-owned business to gain access to food, guns and money before heading off to join Sandinista fighters who had liberated the city of El Rama. The ‘Black Sandinistas’ returned to Bluefields on July 19, 1979 and took the city without a fight. The Black Sandinistas were challenged by a group of mestizo Sandinista fighters. The ensuing standoff between the two groups, with the Black Sandinistas occupying the National Guard barracks (the cuartel) and the mestizo group occupying the Town Hall (Palacio), gave the revolution on the Atlantic Coast a racial dimension absent from events in other parts of the country. The Black Sandinistas were assisted in their power struggle with the Palacio group by the arrival of the Simón Bolívar International Brigade from Costa Rica.

One of the brigade’s members, an Afro-Costa-Rican called Marvin Wright (known as Kalalu) became known for his rousing speeches, which included elements of Black Power ideology, in his attempts to unite all black militias that had formed in Bluefields. The introduction of a racial element into the revolution was not welcomed by the Sandinista National Directorate, which expelled Kalalu and the rest of the brigade from Nicaragua and sent them to Panama.[49]

Sandinistas and the Contras

ARDE Frente Sur Contras in 1987

Robert Pastor, President Carter’s National Security Advisor on Latin America explained why the administration had to back Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza untill he could no longer be sustained to then move to bar the FSLN from power through the “preservation of existing institutions, especially the National Guard” [50] even though it had been massacring the population “with a brutality a nation usually reserves for its enemy.”:

“The United States did not want to control Nicaragua or the other nations in the region, but it also did not want to allow developments to get out of control. It wanted Nicaraguans to act independently, except when doing so would affect U.S. interests adversely.” [51]

Shortly after Somoza fled to Miami, National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski declared that “we have to demonstrate that we are still the decisive force in determining the political outcomes in Central America.” [52] As the Sandinista forces entered the capital, the Carter administration “began setting the stage for a counter revolution,” Peter Kornbluh observes. On July 19, a U.S. plane disguised with Red Cross markings evacuated the remnants of the National Guard to Miami. The old Guardia was then built into the counter revolutionary force known as the ‘Contras’ by the C.I.A. [53]]


Nicaragua 1978



MANAGUA, Nicaragua—President Anastasio Somoza Debayle opening a new session of the National Congress, 1978.


Nicaragua: June, 1978 – July, 1979″. Photographs by Susan Meiselas; edited with Claire Rosenberg; Pantheon Books; #0394512650; c1981; est. 105 pages. The work has been reprinted in various formats, with various pagination; it was just reprinted c2008 as, “Susan Meiselas: Nicaragua”, by Aperture Press: #59711071X, and this edition includes a bonus DVD interview with the photographer on her work in Nicaragua.

Meiselas is responsible for some of the most recognizable images of the early Sandinista Revolution. Her work was adapted (without permission) by both sides in the conflict. Later, her images, particularly those from Esteli, were the subject of several well-known infringement/illegal use cases in the U.S. and abroad (one such example is depicted in a fairly recent Harper’s Magazine article, On the rights of Molotov Man, named after one of the most recognizable images from Meiselas.

The work is divided into three broad sections: “June 1978 – The Somoza Regime”; “September, 1978 – Insurrection”; “June, 1979-July, 1979 – The Final Offensive”. The work also includes a detailed section of captions, quotations, and an historical chronology. Even if you don’t believe a “picture is worth a 1000 words”, the images stand on their own merits. It is an rather impressive time-capsule look at Nicaragua.
Though small when compared to some of the Latin American image collections that followed (there are just over 70 plates in the volume), it has had lasting impact. Meiselas later won the Robert Capa Gold Medal for outstanding courage in reporting, as well as the Cabot Prize Photojournalism from Columbia University for her extended coverage of Latin America. Her Nicaragua work later led to her inclusion in Adam Weinberg’s “On the Lind: The New Color Photojournalism” (unlike most other photographers there at the time, Meiselas was not shooting traditional b&w news stock films).

Meiselas is represented by Magnum Photos. Their archive includes samples of her work, and their one will find much more than the Nicaragua project reviewed here. Those interested can use the “Photographer” link at the top, then her name, then the portfolio link in the lower left corner of the Magnum page. Additional information and select audio commentary can be found on her homepage – though not all aspects of the web page were functioning as of this summer. She is also often featured on The Museum of Contemporary Photography.
Of particular interest is that years later, Meiselas, with this book in hand, went back to Nicaragua to learn what had become of the people she photographed. This was the focus of the documentary film, Pictures from a Revolution, not another book, as if often said on the internet. The film is quite interesting regardless of whether or not you have seen the original collection of images, are interested in documentary photography, or the role it plays in historical works and/or journalism. There is an extended comment here on, TV Guide, aNew York Times story/review on the film, and a note mention of it, here on this site.

Other works by Susan Meiselas include the exhibition catalogs and book-length efforts: “Carnival Strippers”, “El Salvador: The Work of 30 Photographers”, “Pandora’s Box”, “Chile from Within”, “Encounters with Dani”, “Learn to See”, and, “Kurdistan – In the Shadow of History”. She has also been included in “Witness in Our Time: Working Lives of Documentary Photographers” & “On the Lind: The New Color Photojournalism”. She has co-directed (w/ Richard P. Rogers and Alfred Guzzetti) two documentary films: “Living at Risk: The Story of a Nicaraguan Family” & “Pictures from a Revolution: A Memoir of the Nicaraguan Conflict”, and co-created the multi-media project, “Mined in China”. She also did the associated photographic work for one of the better autobiographical accounts of life in Central America, “Don’t Be Afraid, Gringo: A Honduran Woman Speaks from the Heart – The Story of Elvia Alvarado” (as told by Alvarado, translated and edited by Medea Benjamin. Harper Collins, #006097205X, c1989, a reprint of the same, formerly printed at least twice by, The Institute for Food and Development).









MANAGUA, Nicaragua—A student demonstration is broken up by the National Guard with the use of tear gas, June 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MONIMBO, Nicaragua—Wall graffiti on a Somoza supporter’s house burned in Monimbó, asks, “Where is Norman González? The dictatorship must answer,” 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MONIMBO, Nicaragua—A motorcycle brigade, followed by a crowd of 100,000, leading Los Doce (“The Twelve”) into Monimbó, July 5, 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


NICARAGUA—New National Guard recruits practice dismantling a U.S.-made M-16 rifle while blindfolded, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MATAGALPA, Nicaragua—Muchachos await a counterattack by the National Guard, 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


ESTELI, Nicaragua—Fleeing the bombing to seek refuge outside of Esteli, 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MONIMBO, Nicaragua—A woman carries her dead husband home to be buried in their back yard, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MASAYA, Nicaragua—Returning home, September 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


NICARAGUA—Searching everyone traveling by car, truck, bus, or on foot, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MANAGUA, Nicaragua—”Cuesta del Plomo” hillside outside Managua, a well-known site of many assassinations carried out by the National Guard. People search here daily for missing persons, 1978.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


ESTELI, Nicaragua—Sandinistas at the walls of the Esteli National Guard headquarters, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


ESTELI, Nicaragua—The final assault on the Esteli National Guard headquarters, July 16, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MANAGUA, Nicaragua—Near the central plaza, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


Nicaragua 1979


MANAGUA, Nicaragua—A street fighter, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


MASAYA, Nicaragua—National Guard reinforcements entering Masaya besieged by FSLN, 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos

June 1979


MANAGUA, Nicaragua—A neighborhood bomb shelter dug under the street in anticipation of renewed air attacks, June 1979.

© Susan Meiselas / Magnum Photos


During the summer of 1979, the Nicaraguan capital of Managua fell to Sandinista guerrillas, days after President Anastasio Somoza Debayle fled the country. Susan Meiselas’ photographs of the revolution in Nicaragua form a compelling narrative, showing what rebellion in the Third World involves. Meiselas returned to Nicaragua to interview participants in the revolution. Excerpts from these interviews, edited with the help of French journalist Claire Rosenberg, accompany the more than 70 images in this extraordinary book.

MANAGUA, Nicaragua—President Anastasio Somoza Debayle opening a new session of the National Congress, 1978.



Rally of 600,000 Celebrates 32nd
Anniversary of Sandinistas’ Victory

Managua, Nicaragua, July 19, 2011

On July 19, a mass celebration was held in central Managua, Nicaragua, to mark the 32nd anniversary of the victory of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) over U.S.-backed dictator Anastasio Somoza. The July 19, 1979 overthrow of the four-decade-long Somoza dictatorship is the most important event on the Sandinista calendar and coincides this year with the 50th anniversary of the FSLN’s founding in 1961, as the organization that led the Nicaraguan people’s independence struggle.

The people’s forces celebrate victory over the Somoza dictatorship in central Managua, July 20, 1979.

TML sends its warmest greetings to the Nicaraguan people and their revolutionary Party on this significant anniversary. Since the historic victory 32 years ago, brought about through great sacrifice by the revolutionary forces, the people have continued their struggle for control over their destiny, free from outside interference, and to build a human-centred society.

The people’s confidence in the revolutionary process and the leadership of President Daniel Ortega, elected in 2006, was amply expressed by the more than 600,000 people gathered at the main square in Managua, where the proceedings were overseen by President Ortega, First Lady and fellow revolutionary Rosario Murillo, and Cardinal Miguel Obando y Bravo.

The cardinal congratulated the government, the president and first lady for all their achievements in the interests of the people. He described himself as a “witness to the works” that drive the government, giving the example of the schools and hospitals that have been built in the country.

First Lady Murillo expressed her great pleasure at seeing the massive participation of the people in the square to celebrate the epic struggle of all Nicaraguans to overthrow the Somoza dictatorship, which she called one of the bloodiest of the past century in Latin America and the Caribbean.

President Ortega acknowledged the many guests and messages of greeting received from foreign dignitaries. He mentioned in particular the message of President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, and wished him well in his recuperation from his recent illness. He also called on the U.S. government to release the five Cuban patriots unjustly imprisoned in its jails.

News agencies reported that some of the other notable participants included retired general and FSLN candidate for vice president in the fall election Omar Hallesleven, representatives of the different state bodies and institutions, as well as special guests such as Nobel Peace Prize winner Guatemalan Rigoberta Menchu, Miguel Diaz Canel, a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba and that country’s Minister of Higher Education.


FSLN: Summation of the People’s Struggle

First Lady Rosario Murillo and President Daniel Ortega.

President Ortega spoke of the significance of the FSLN, saying that the Party represents the summation of the Nicaraguan people’s struggle for their freedom and ensures a revolutionary present and future.

Ortega noted that one of the outstanding features of the insurrection in 1979 was that it united all the people in struggle against the Somoza dictatorship, at a time when it had been strengthened by the support of the U.S. and some Central American military regimes.

He said that with this awareness, guerrilla uprisings emerged in cities across the country “until finally, in a total national insurrection, it was possible to end the long tyranny imposed by the Yankees.”

“It was a heroic battle and the Sandinista Front was the soul and focus of that struggle. Without the Sandinista Front, this great victory would not have occurred,” he said.

Referring to famous revolutionary and national hero General Augusto Sandino, whose name the FSLN bears, he pointed out that it was Sandino who began to outline a clearly revolutionary program for Nicaragua, which stated that victory would only be achieved by the unity of the workers and peasants. He said that on this basis, the FSLN has been forging the unity of all sectors to fight poverty and hunger which are the main challenges of this new era. The president affirmed that the red and black flag of the FSLN will continue to be raised in defence of Nicaragua’s blue and white flag, as did General Sandino.

Ortega made special mention of the revolutionary youth of Nicaragua militating in the ranks of the FSLN, saying that the conscious work to incorporate these youth into the struggles of the present will ensure the revolution carries on into the future.

As concerns the near future, President Ortega, who will again run for office in the presidential election on November 6, 2011, said the FSLN’s political program for a next presidential term will be announced in August when the campaign officially begins. However, he pointed out that it is the same as that which is being implemented at the present, referring to the pro-social programs that are improving the people’s standard of living and well- being. News agencies report that Ortega is considered the favourite to prevail.

Call for U.S. Payment of Reparations and Debt to U.S.

President Ortega also raised the issue of the debt owed to the U.S. and reparations to be paid by the U.S. for its dastardly role in the country’s civil war. He proposed a referendum on whether to demand reparations of $17 billion from the U.S. for the damage it caused. The proposal was warmly received by all present.

Of U.S. imperialism’s dirty wars in Latin America and the Caribbean, its role in backing the Somoza regime and the counter- revolutionary Contras which followed the dictatorship’s downfall, are amongst the most infamous.

In 1986, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague ruled in favour of a lawsuit filed by Nicaragua that the U.S. had violated international law by funding the Contras and mining Nicaragua’s harbours. The ICJ ordered compensation to be paid, although it did not fix an amount. For its part, the U.S. government blocked implementation of the ruling by vetoing a UN resolution requiring its compliance. It has since opposed all subsequent demands to make amends for its crimes.

The ruling took place during President Ortega’s first administration (1985-1990). However, the subsequent administration of pro-U.S. President Violeta Chamorro, 1990 to 1997, relinquished the claim. Notably, the U.S., which backed Chamorro’s campaign politically and financially, only stopped funding the Contras following Chamorro’s election.

“I want to advance and submit to the decision of Nicaraguans a first proposal, considering that U.S. leaders, the U.S. government was condemned by the International Court of Justice in The Hague for their acts of war against Nicaragua, terrorism against Nicaragua, and that the same court ordered it to compensate Nicaragua,” he said.

Regarding the debt owed to the U.S. in cases of U.S. citizens who had their land confiscated and expropriated during the 1980s, the president explained that Nicaragua has been honouring the debt owed. “To date we have paid more than $500 million,” said President Ortega. “For this reason it is considered that the debt the U.S. has with the Nicaraguan people is paid.”

Women Salute Achievements of Sandinista Government

The participation of women was a significant feature in July 19 celebrations and reflects the achievements of the Sandinista government’s social programs in ensuring women’s rights and their participation in the social and political life as an integral part of the nation’s development.

“The women feel happy and celebrate the 32nd anniversary of the Revolution proudly next to the Nicaraguan President, Daniel, because he is the only one who has given us the place we deserve,” one participant said. She added that women have been advancing their rights through various government programs like the Zero Usury credit program, the Zero Hunger food program, supportive housing, etc.

“We are joyful to be in the square today celebrating the triumph of the Revolution with President Daniel and his partner Rosario [who has held various leadership roles, including government minister — TML Ed. Note] because the government has given many opportunities to women,” said another.

Through the Sandinista government women have regained their dignity, said one woman, while another cited as one of the government’s most important achievements the fifty per cent participation of women in state institutions and the FSLN.

(, Voz del Sandinismo, Prensa Latina)



At the Intercon, Managua, Nicaragua 1979



Photo by Susan Meiselas from her book Nicaragua featuring images she took during the Sandinista revolution in 1979. A decade later she returned to Nicaragua and co-directed a video, Pictures from a Revolution, documenting that trip. Few of the films and videos made during the Sandinista revolution that circulated in the United States in the ’80s are still in distribution.

In this way, two contradictory factors enter into my desire for an archive of video documenting “Nicaragua Libre,” as Sandinista Nicaragua was known. I know the window for preserving the video taken in those years is very short, due both to what gets thrown out and videotape’s rate of decay. But I also feel an obligation to protect those in the videos, both those in the foreground, who may be giving interviews, and those in the background, perhaps attending a union meeting or gathering on the street. As independent videomakers, we take a lot of time to complete our documentaries; but the state apparatus that now also “data mines” images has lots more technology and personnel at its disposal to scan and use these images quickly and effectively for surveillance and identification.

In retrospect, we know that the Stasi in East Germany collected huge dossiers of photos and reports on individuals, and it has taken years for the extent of this paper empire to come to public awareness (fictionalized in The Lives of Others, 2006). More recently, mobile phones were widely used in protests during Iran’s disputed elections and consequently monitoring technology led to activists’ persecution and arrests. Cell phone messages, photos and video, Flickr, YouTube, Skype—all these are powerful tools for activism, but they have other consequences as well.

I do not have a way around these contradictions. But they keep me from romanticizing the archive, much as I seen the need to preserve these documents from a revolution. We need these videos for an in-depth understanding of a moment when we could see a people’s optimism and social change


Memories of the 1979 Final Offensive

Photo shows the Sandinistas headquartered at Hoyt’s house.

On the Occasion of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Sandinista Revolution
By Katherine Hoyt
[Hoyt is National Co-Coordinator of the Nicaragua Network]

Right after Bayardo [Dr. Bayardo Gonzalez of Matagalpa, Nicaragua] and I were married in 1967, my father had told us, “When ‘comes the revolution,’ you send us the kids!” At that time, the Somoza family looked well-entrenched in power with no revolution in sight and we certainly had no kids. But, of course, the revolution did come and we did send the kids


Nicaragua by its statues

Paul Baker Hernandez reflects on the meaning of some of Nicaragua’s public art:

  1. 1979. Revolution.
A gun and a digging tool. Sandino said: “Only the workers and the peasants will endure to the end.”

And he established a self-sustaining community at Wiwilí: rooted in cooperation and the land, it was his model for a sustainable Nicaragua.

In these days of belated realization of the catastrophe of Northern greed, he is a truly global figure – his model vital for the very survival of the planet under global warming. Somoza destroyed the Wiwilí community when he murdered Sandino.

As Cheney put it more recently, “The Amurican Way of Life is not negotiable.”


2. Post Revolution Phase1.
Workers back in their proper place and attitude; no sign of Sandino.


3. Post.Revolution Phase 2.
Woman back in her place, barefoot, pregnant, on her knees.In the background, hidden by trees and a high wall, the ruins of the 1972 earthquake that demolished the heart of Managua and killed 10,000 people.Fixing them up instead of making maudlin statues would at least ensure that more families actually had ktchens.
4.Post-Revolution. Phase 3. The Return of Religosity:
“Pilgrims will come from all over the the world to see these great works of art,” they said. The few that come, come to snigger.
 The first statue of the Virgin had to be replaced: her off-balance pose earned her the title of  “Drunken Virgin”. The second statue is better, marginally. Intriguingly, the photo is from an event to commemorate the 56th anniversary of the Moncada barracks in Cuba. Among other speakers, Comandante Tomas Borge.    “Beach Ball Jesus” speaks for Himself. Unfortunately. Some evangelical literalist has sprayed “Check Deuteronomy” on the base. Presumably referring to the command: “Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image”. Vive la difference! As we gleefully sang at school: “You’ll know they are Christians by their guns, by their guns …”
5.Revolution Post-Revolution.View from the warrior peasant, which is located just up the road from the newly re-constituted Revolutionary Square.The statue of the newly repressed workers is in front, and, beyond them, that of the pregnant woman.Despite attempts to blow it up, the statue still stands defiant and proud.  
  6. Sandino:
Bloodied but Unbowed.
The Carrion store is aptly named. Like vultures, carrion crows feed on dead animals, offal and road kill. So “savage consumerism” is consuming itself. As he stands atop Somoza’s last bunker, brooding over high water mark of consumerism’s catastrophic stupidity within Nicaragua, Sandino offers us all a more intelligent, sustainable, and indeed happy, way of life, reminding us of the fate of all civilizations that get too big for their boots – their roots in the Earth:

“I met a traveler from an antique land
 Who said: ‘Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
 Stand in the desert…. Near them, on the sand,
 Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
 And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
 Tell that its sculptor well those passions read,
 Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
 The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed.
 And on the pedestal these words appear:
 ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
 Look upon my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’
 Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
 Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
 The lone and level sands stretch far away.” 

 after revolution


On assuming office in 1981, US President Ronald Reagan condemned the FSLN for joining with Cuba in supporting Marxist revolutionary movements in other Latin American countries such as El Salvador. Reagan said he was also concerned about the growing Soviet and Cuban presence in Nicaragua, and the Soviet hope to turn Nicaragua into a “second Cuba”.

In contrast to the administration’s warnings of a ‘Soviet beachead’ in Nicaragua, the June 1984 Bureau of Intelligence and Research report, “Soviet Attitudes Towards, Aid to, and Contacts with Central American Revolutionaries,” reported that “Soviet military aid to Nicaragua is unobtrusive and sometimes ephemeral.” The author of the report, Dr. Carl Jacobsen found that “the limited amounts of truly modern equipment acquired by the Sandinistas . . . came from Western Europe not the Eastern bloc.” The report concluded that “all too many US claims proved open to question” and that “the scope and nature of the Kremlin’s intrusion are far short of justifying the President’s exaggerated alarms.” [54]

Furthermore, the International Court of Justice determined that “the evidence is insufficient to satisfy the Court that, since the early months of 1981, assistance has continued to reach the Salvadorian armed opposition from the territory of Nicaragua on any significant scale, or that the Government of Nicaragua was responsible for any flow of arms at either period.” [55]

Under the Reagan Doctrine, his administration authorized the CIA to have paramilitary officers from their elite Special Activities Division begin financing, arming, training and advising rebels, some of whom were the remnants of Somoza’s National Guard, as anti-Sandinista guerrillas that were branded “counter-revolutionary” by leftists (contrarrevolucionarios in Spanish).[56] This was shortened to Contras, a label the anti-socialist forces chose to embrace. Edén Pastora and many of the indigenous guerrilla forces unassociated with the “Somozistas” also resisted the Sandinistas. The Contras operated out of camps in the neighboring countries of Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south.[56] As was typical in guerrilla warfare, they were engaged in a campaign of economic sabotage in an attempt to combat the Sandinista government and disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaragua’s Port of Corinto,[57] an action condemned by the International Court of Justice as illegal.[58] The US also sought to place economic pressure on the Sandinistas, and the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo.[59]

US support for this Nicaraguan insurgency continued in spite of the fact that impartial observers from international groupings such as the European Economic Community, religious groups sent to monitor the election, and observers from democratic nations such as Canada and the Republic of Ireland concluded that the Nicaraguan general elections of 1984 were completely free and fair. The Reagan administration disputed these results, despite the fact that the government of the United States never had any observers in Nicaragua at the time.

The Reagan administration critisized the elections as a “sham” based on the charge that Arturo Cruz, the candidate nominated by the Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense, comprising three rightwing political parties, did not participate in the elections. However, the administration privately argued against Cruz’s participation for fear his involvement would legitimize the elections. U.S. officials admitted to the New York Times that “The Administration never contemplated letting Cruz stay in the race because then the Sandinistas could justifiably claim that the elections were legitimate, making it much harder for the United States to oppose the Nicaraguan Government.” [60]

After the U.S. Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras in 1983, the Reagan administration continued to back the Contras by covertly selling arms to Iran and channeling the proceeds to the Contras (the Iran–Contra affair).[61] When this scheme was revealed, Reagan admitted that he knew about the Iranian “arms for hostages” dealings but professed ignorance about the proceeds funding the Contras; for this, National Security Council aide Lt. Col. Oliver North took much of the blame.

Senator John Kerry‘s 1988 U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report on Contra-drug links concluded that “senior U.S. policy makers were not immune to the idea that drug money was a perfect solution to the Contras’ funding problems.”[62] According to the National Security Archive, Oliver North had been in contact with Manuel Noriega, a Panamanian general and the de facto military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989 when he was overthrown and captured by a U.S. invading force.[63] He was taken to the United States, tried for drug trafficking, and imprisoned in 1992.[64]

In August 1996, San Jose Mercury News reporter Gary Webb published a series titled Dark Alliance, linking the origins of crack cocaine in California to the Contras.[65] Freedom of Information Act inquiries by the National Security Archive and other investigators unearthed a number of documents showing that White House officials, including Oliver North, knew about and supported using money raised via drug trafficking to fund the Contras. Sen. John Kerry’s report in 1988 led to the same conclusions; major media outlets, the Justice Department, and Reagan denied the allegations.[66]

The International Court of Justice, in regard to the case of Nicaragua v. United States in 1984, found; “the United States of America was under an obligation to make reparation to the Republic of Nicaragua for all injury caused to Nicaragua by certain breaches of obligations under customary international law and treaty-law committed by the United States of America”.[67] United States however rejected and did not comply with the judgement under the ‘Connally Amendment’ (part of the conditional participation of USA in the International court of Justice, which excludes from ICJ’s jurisdiction “disputes with regard to matters that are essentially within the jurisdiction of the United States of America, as determined by the United States of America”).[68

 the edn @ copyright 2012


princess soraya art photography

Princess Soraya (Iran)

Soraya Esfandiary (1932 – 2001) was the second wife and Queen consort of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari  
Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari
Soraya and Bijan Esfandiari Bakhtiari were the children of Khalil Khan Esfandiari-Bakhtiari, and Eva Karl of Germany. Soraya was born in Isfahan on June 22nd, 1932 and Bijan was born 5 years later on 15th of October 1937 also in Isfahan.After the death of their grandfather, Esfandiar Khan (Sardar Asad)1, Bibi Maryam (Soraya’s grandmother) had sent Khalil to Berlin and her other son, Soltan Morad (later Montazem-Dolleh) to London to study. It appears that the decision to send children to different European countries to study were for political reasons. The family leaders needed to be close to the spheres of influence irrespective of which super-power came on top in any given period.
  Khalil Esfandiari
Khalil Esfandiari
Eva Karl in Berlin
Eva Karl in Berlin
  Esfandiar Khan, paternal grandfather
Esfandiar Khan, paternal grandfather
Bibi Maryam, paternal grandmother
Bibi Maryam, paternal grandmother
On the trip to Germany, a stepbrother, Hormoz Khan, accompanied Khalil. They arrived in Berlin in autumn of 1924 and were immediately drawn to it. Most of Khalil Khan’s time in Berlin was spent however in pursuit of beautiful blonds with whom he had great success due to his looks and his aristocratic Eastern background.He was only 21 and a student of political science when he met and fell in love with 16 year old Eva Karl, daughter of Franz Karl who had been living in Czarist Russia for some years representing German manufacturers and had returned to Germany at about the same time as the beginning of the First World War. Franz Karl had three children; Eva, Barbara, and Franz. After one-year courtship, Khalil and Eva were married on the 22nd June 1926 and moved to Isfahan 2 years later.
Moving to Isfahan
Isfahan was the birthplace of Khalil khan and most of his family still lived there so he was no stranger to the city. Isfahan had a large German community and was also known to be the center of influence of German agents like Meyr and Wassmuss who had sought and secured the protection of some of the Bakhtiaris and had plotted subversive actions against the British interests especially in and around the oil installations. In such surroundings, Khalil and Eva were both comfortable and felt secure and far away from the troubles of Europe. They began building a beautifully designed house complete with an orchard.
On the 22nd of June 1932 Soraya was born in the English Missionary Hospital in Isfahan. A beautiful girl with blue/green eyes. In the Persian tradition, it is usually believed that the first-born should be a boy. It would win admiration to the mother and does honour to the father. But in the Esfandiary household such customs were not of great importance and birth of a healthy child was always a good omen for an enlightened couple especially when the child was born on the 6th wedding anniversary of her parents.
Back to Germany
Soon after Soraya was born, Khalil Khan and Eva decided that the child and Eva should go back to Germany to ensure that the baby would have good health care and return when she was stronger. Khalil told his wife that he could not leave Iran at that time but Eva should take the child with her to Germany and that he would follow as soon as he could. So mother and daughter left Isfahan for Germany when Soraya was only 8 months old and considered fit to be taken on such a long journey. The trip took them to the Caspian Sea to the port of Enzeli, by boat to Baku, and then train to Berlin where they stayed with Eva’s parents.
  Soraya's German Grandparents
Soraya’s German Grandparents, Mr. & Mrs. Karl
Soraya Age 5
Soraya age 5
Meanwhile the situation in Iran was getting very unhealthy for the Bakhtiaris as the new Shah began persecuting, imprisoning, and executing their leaders. The Shah had decided that the Bakhtiaris had to be crushed for several reasons. Their semi-autonomy was troubling to the central government and their agreement with the British over the protection of oil pipelines and shares in the oil profits were not in line with the new policies of the Shah in terms of consolidation of the shareholdings of the Anglo Iranian Oil. The Bakhtiaris were ordered to surrender their Arms to the representatives of the Government and the Khans were forced to sell or relinquish their shares in the oil companies. Bakhtiaris were also rounded up for conscription duties away from their territory. The strange bed-fellowship of the British and the Bakhtiaris was especially troubling to Reza Shah as he had become a great admirer of the Germans and had closed his eyes to the activities of the German agents in the country. He was convinced in his heart that the Axis powers would be victorious in the War. A belief that would eventually cost him his throne. An uprising by a small faction in the Bakhtiari territory gave the Shah the excuse to arrest the Khans and sentence some to death and others to varying prison terms.Khalil khan felt it was time to be away from Iran for a while and decided to join his wife and daughter in Berlin; so it was after a 6 months separation that the young family was united again. The family rented a 4 room apartment in Nestorstrasse and Khalil khan registered with the police, much against his will, as a “farmer” because his family owned land and farms in Persia. His own claim to be registered as a Khan was brushed aside as there was no such “profession” in Germany!
Life in Berlin
During the family’s stay in Berlin, Soraya or ‘Raya as she was called, became inseparable from her grand father Franz Karl. He would come and fetch her every Sunday to take her to the zoo and go for walks. Franz Karl recalled that she was choosy and would not play with everyone. She would scrutinize especially the boys most carefully and it wasn’t long before she was ordering even the biggest and oldest ones about. He remembers that Soraya was quite fearless at that young age and gives an example “I remember a walk through the Grunwald, when a huge black dog pursued us. His wild looks and violent barking quite frightened me, but Soraya ran towards him and put her arms round his neck. I was terrified. There was no need to be. The dog and the little girl became friends immediately”.2 From her childhood Soraya had a great love for animals. In her home in Berlin she looked after a yellow canary and a mischievous black-and-white fox terrier.A new world had opened up for Soraya in Berlin. She always remembered and recalled her first children’s party outside of Berlin near one of the many lakes. There were a lottery, shooting gallery, sack racing and egg-and-spoon racing. There was also a little open-air theatre where she played the part of the Sleeping Beauty. Her part consisted solely in being awakened from her hundred-years sleep by the young prince’s kiss, an experience that even at that age she found extremely pleasant!

The stay in Berlin was uneventful and Khalil khan was constantly thinking of returning to Iran and waiting for the political climate for the Bakhtiaris to become tolerable. Nineteen thirty-six and thirty-seven were tough years for the young Esfandiary family. Hitler had announced general conscription and from him and Marshall Goring the talk was now of war.

  Soraya and friend in Berlin Zoo
Soraya and friend in Berlin Zoo
Return to Isfahan
Khalil khan was beginning to become aware of the political situation in Europe, which he had so far ignored. Now it suddenly affected him personally. It was becoming more difficult to get all the money he needed out of Persia and the family were headed for financial crisis for the first time and the likelihood of him being drafted into the Armed Forces was becoming real. So it was in the autumn of 1937 with Eva pregnant that they decided once more to leave Berlin and return to Isfahan. Tearfully, little Soraya said goodbye to her grandfather and her friends and her toys were given to a church.3
After an arduously long journey, they reached Isfahan. This time however, they were not particularly welcomed and the parents were immediately put under supervision by the authorities and could not leave town without the permission of the police. This was due to the order of the king that all Bakhtiari movements be watched and reported. Apart from this inconvenience, they were left in peace. By the time of their arrival, the house in Isfahan was nearly ready for occupation and it was a short time later that Eva gave birth to a beautiful boy, Bijan, on the 15th of October 1937. Soraya was now a lovely little 5 year old when her brother Bijan was born. Bijan was chubby, blond and full of life. The family started working on the house to complete it and especially on the gardens by planting more fruit trees and building a small round pond for dipping in during the hot days of summer.
  The house in Isfahan
The house in Isfahan
The design of the house was a mixture of both Persian and European. It was a comfortable home for the young family and their German Sheppard dog and a greyhound. It was equipped with wood-burning fireplaces and stoves. It also had bath with running hot and cold water, which was a luxury in those days. Soraya attended the German school in Isfahan run by a Mrs. Mentel and spent much time with the children of other German families her own age.
The traditional Persian studies however were not ignored and a teacher would come to the house to teach both kids the school syllabus in Farsi. The German school remained open until June 1941 when the Allied forces closed it down and expelled the German citizens. Frauline Mentel however remained in Iran and continued her teachings in private at her modest home. It was in 1944 that the children began their schooling at the English Missionary School in Isfahan and continued until their departure for Europe in 1947.Whenever they could, the young family would spend time in the village of Ghahfe-rokh and stayed at Esfandiar Khan’s fort, play in the surrounding forest and fishing and swimming in the stream. They would also ride on horseback and Khalil khan would do some game hunting. Soraya was a pretty good rider but Bijan would get on a horse reluctantly.
  Soraya, Eva, Bijan in Isfahan 1940
Soraya, Eva, Bijan in Isfahan 1940
Soraya and Bijan at Esfandiar Khan's Fort in Ghahfe-Rokh 1942
Soraya and Bijan at Esfandiar Khan’s Fort in Ghahfe-Rokh 1942
  Isfahan 1947
Isfahan 1947
The Shah asks Soraya’s hand in marriage
When the 2nd World War ended, Eva who was longing to return to Europe after 10 years in Isfahan persuaded Khalil Khan that it was time to return. They moved to Switzerland in 1947 and rented an apartment in Zurich. Soraya was sent to “La Printaniere” in Montreaux, a finishing school to polish up her French. A year later she was transferred to “Les Roseaux” near Lausanne, another finishing school. She became fluent in French and learned some English. To improve her English, it was arranged that she would spend the summer of 1950 in England. Some of her 2nd cousins also lived in London. Two of whom, Goudarz, a keen amateur photographer, and Malekshah were staying at a boarding house near St. James’s Park with Bibi Shoakat, Goudarz’s mother and attending a language school. Soraya was also enrolled in the same school and moved in with her cousins and Bibi Shoakat in order to enjoy the protection and supervision of these family members.
  In Switzerland
In Switzerland
At this time, the Shah after having divorced his first wife, Princess Fauzieh of Egypt, was looking for a wife and many candidates were being introduced to him either in person or through photographs. One day, the Queen Mother (Taj-ol-Moluk) asked her close friend and confidant Forough Zafar Bakhtiari, daughter of Sardar Zafar, that surely she could find a suitable bride for the Shah amongst the vast Bakhtiari family. Forough Zafar began her search and remembered that one of her nieces, Ghamar Ahmadi who had just returned from a trip to Europe, had mentioned that while in Switzerland, she was invited to Khalil Khan Esfandiari’s apartment and had met his daughter Soraya whom she found to be a very beautiful, well educated, and spoke several languages. Ghamar Ahmadi also added that Soraya was now studying in England to polish up her English. When Forough Zafar mentioned Soraya to the Queen Mother, the Queen asked to see some photographs. Forough Zafar contacted Goodarz, in London and asked him to take some photos of Soraya and send them to her in Tehran as soon as possible. As it was just after the World War II, mail was not very fast or efficient so it took a while for the photos to arrive. Meanwhile, before the arrival of the photos, Princess Shams was traveling to London to see and interview two other candidates for the Shah. Forough Zafar asked the Princess, “while in London, perhaps you could also arrange to meet Soraya Esfandiari by inviting my nephew Malekhah. I will make sure he brings Soraya along with him so you could meet her personally”. The meeting took place at the Princess’s private suites and she was so impressed by Soraya’s beauty and personality that she dispatched an urgent message to the Queen Mother telling her that “Having met Forough Zafar’s cousin, I don’t need to see any other girl. This woman is born to be a Queen. She is beautiful, very well educated, and has excellent mannerism”.4 At this time the photographs from London also reached Forough Zafar who immediately took them to the Queen Mother who in turn passed them on to the young Shah. The Shah looked at the photographs and listened to the description that Princess Shams had given of her, and expressed his desire that they should meet. Message was sent to Princess Shams to bring Soraya to Tehran with her.
  Forough Zafar
Forough Zafar
Soraya writes in her memoirs, “Le Palais de Solitudes” that “when Malekshah asked me to go to the reception with him, at first I was reluctant to meet any of the Pahlavi family because of what they had done to the Bakhtiaris but I had heard that Princess Shams was a nice and attractive women so my curiosity got the better of me”. Princess Shams and Soraya went to Paris from London to do some shopping at the fashion houses of Dior and Channel. Upon hearing the news of Soraya’s impending trip to Tehran, Forough Zafar wrote to Khalil Khan telling him what was happening and suggested that he should join the Princess and Soraya in Paris. The Princess and Soraya flew from Paris to Rome where they were joined by Khalil Khan and then on to Tehran. Coincidentally, Amir Jang was also traveling to Tehran on the same flight but unaware of what was happening. It was with a full wardrobe of the latest Parisian fashion that they arrived in Tehran.Soraya was pretty much exhausted after the long trip and wanted to rest but the Queen Mother and the Shah were so curious to see her as soon as possible that she was summoned to the Queen Mother’s palace for a small dinner the same evening. The Royal family received her warmly and for a quarter of an hour, they exchanged small talk followed by the usual Persian custom of enquiring after her health and the health of her relatives! They all awaited the arrival of the Shah.

Princess Shams had told Soraya that her brother was not particularly handsome in order not to raise her expectations. At last someone announced the arrival of His Majesty the Shah. They all got to their feet and the Shah appeared in the dress uniform of a general of the Iranian Air Force which was evidently his favourite uniform. He embraced his mother and then Soraya was presented to him. The two were drawn to one another instantly and sparks began to fly. At the dinner table, Soraya sat next to the Shah and talked about Switzerland and the country around Montreux and Lausanne and her likes and dislikes. After dinner they played games and the family became more relaxed. Late that evening Soraya left to get some sleep but at 2 in the morning the Shah telephoned and asked to speak to Khalil Khan. When Khalil Khan came to the phone, the Shah told him that he is asking for Soraya’s hand and he wants to know how she felt about it. Soraya’s answer was of course yes as she too was smitten by the young handsome Shah. Next morning, the imperial Court informed the news media and Soraya’s photographs were distributed amongst the newspapers.5 The next day the Shah came to visit Soraya who was staying at Amir Hossein Khan Zafar’s villa, and began courting her. It was towards the end of that year on the 11th of October 1950, that they were officially engaged.

In the ensuing weeks, the Shah and his fiancée saw one another almost daily and with each meeting, they grew more intimate. They went riding in the foothills of Shemiran, played tennis, and went flying with the Shah at the controls. In the evenings the Shah’s sisters and brothers gave small parties for the couple that were lots of fun. They also inspected several of the Royal palaces in and around Tehran for their future residence. Soraya eventually chose one modest and small palace on Pasteur Ave as their future residence and decorators were hired to do the necessary work. The couple also set a date of December 26th as their wedding day. At this time, Soraya suddenly fell ill with typhoid and as her fever did not abate, the wedding was postponed.

The wedding
Soraya recovered sufficiently for the wedding to take place on the date they had set in February although still very weak and shaky. On the 12th of February 1951 the couple were married. The wedding ceremony took place at the famed Hall of Mirrors at the Golestan Palace amidst much pomp and circumstance. The wedding guests numbered 1,600 according to some news reports. The bride wore a beautifully crafted wedding dress by Christian Dior consisting of 37 yards of silver lame with 20,000 feathers and 6,000 diamond pieces sewn on. Soraya was still very weak from her recent fight with Typhoid and was shivering in the cold that February night. The Shah draped a beautiful Dior mink jacket around her shoulders, which added to her difficulty in walking under such heavy load of the jacket and the dress with the long train. The Shah and Dr. Ayadi came up with a solution. A skillful lady-in-waiting was summoned with a pair of scissors who cut off yards of the petticoat and the trail without her having to take off the wedding gown.6
  The wedding of the Shah and Soraya The Shah and Soraya  
In Rome
Shah and Soraya lived very happily and very much in love for the next two years without much event until the relationship between the King and the popularly elected and nationalistic Prime Minister, Dr. Mossadegh came to a head. The events that led to the events of 1953 have been well documented and many of the details have now been written about and no need to go through them in this article. It should however be mentioned that the Shah, the British, and the US had agreed that Mossadegh ought to be dismissed from his post and the Shah subsequently ordered his dismissal and remained in his residence by the Caspian awaiting news of Dr. Mossadegh’s reaction. First reports were not good and he decided to leave Iran with Soraya and his personal pilot. After a brief stop in Baghdad, the Royal couple arrived in Rome with mush anxiety and not sure of the next phase of their lives. The Shah and Soraya stayed at the Hotel Excelsior in Rome. The media was having a field day and one interview after another was being given. Soraya is well remembered in her dotted strapless dress and her large sunglasses.The Shah and Queen Soraya were staying in their suite most of the time with ears pinned to the short wave radio tuned to Radio Tehran. What they heard on the radio was not encouraging and the Shah was getting desperate and losing his nerve. The young couple discussed their next move and the Shah turned to Soraya and said: “We shall have to economize, for I am sorry to say that I don’t have much money; enough perhaps to buy us a farm somewhere”. Soraya then asked where would they go and to her horror he replied: “probably America. My mother and my sister Shams are already there and I hope my brothers may be able to follow us. We could then all live together in order to live economically”. The Shah’s capital at that time consisted of the estate that his father had left him and the Shah’s allowance of $750,000 per annum out of which he had to meet all the expenses of the Court as well as providing for his family dependents. In consequence he had been unable to put much aside.7
  In exile in Rome
In exile in Rome
News of the Coup
It was two o’clock in the afternoon of 19th August 1953. The Shah and Soraya had just returned from a shopping spree and were having lunch at the hotel’s dining room when a young reporter from Associated Press came to their table and triumphantly handed them a Teletype message. It read: “MOSSADEGH OVERTHROWN-IMERIAL TROOPS CONTROL TEHRAN-ZAHEDI PREMIER”. The news had just come over the Teletype and while they continued with their lunch, the AP reporter hastened back and forth between his office and the hotel bringing them the latest breaking news and developments. Soraya was calm but the Shah had turned so pale that Soraya feared he might faint. The Shah and Soraya embraced and rushed downstairs where all the media had gathered. As the royal couple reached the lobby, the hotel manager rushed forward and handed the Shah a telegram, which had just arrived. The telegram read: “Your Majesty, the people of Iran have risen. We are all awaiting Your Imperial couple’s safe and speedy return to the capital” the telegram was signed: “General Zahedi, Prime Minister”. The CIA and the British Intelligence Services had pulled off the coup successfully the Shah returned to Tehran on the 21st August 1953 to a hear t warming welcome. Soraya also returned shortly after.
  Soraya and the Shah Soraya and the Shah  
Soraya liked having some of her family members around her at the Court. Rostam Amir Bakhtiar became her Private Secretary and Malekshah Zafar, Ghobad Zafar, Majid Bakhtiar, Salar Bakhtiar and Jamshid Bakhtiar became frequent visitors to the Court and were nightly partners of the Shah in games of Poker and Bridge. General Teymour Bakhtiar, a distance cousin of Soraya, a brave and charismatic commander of an Armoured Brigade who had moved towards Tehran at the head of his brigade to back the Royalists, was rewarded and became the Military Governor of Tehran. He later became the most powerful man in Iran as the head of the newly formed Internal Security, SAVAK.The quiet days of marriage followed. The Royal couple were constantly together and they had time to travel. Amongst the trips were the state visit to Russia in 1956 to meet Mr. Khrushchev; other visits took them to India, the United States, Britain, Turkey, Spain, and Lebanon. These journeys also provided a sort of delayed honeymoon for the couple.8 Back in Tehran, Soraya busied herself with renovating and fixing up their residential palaces and attending to charity organizations formed under her patronage. “Queen Soraya Pahlavi Charity” was the principal charity of her patronage, which was formed and managed efficiently by Forough Zafar.

Meanwhile, the Shah had appointed Soraya’s father ambassador to Germany, a post he cherished even though he did not involve himself with the duties of an ambassador. He left that to the Minister and other Foreign Office professionals posted to the embassy.

The Divorce
When in 1949 an attempt was made upon the Shah’s life from which he escaped with only minor injuries, his advisers urged him to consider an heir for the sake of continuity of the monarchy. In many instances in other monarchies of the world, a brother or an uncle would be appointed as heir until a direct heir was born but the Shah always resisted such suggestion. He did however consider for a while, appointing Prince Ali Reza as his heir but when he died in an air crash, this subject became more troubling. With the political situation in Iran becoming quiet and more stable, the question of succession became a topic of everyday conversation and concern between the Soraya and the Shah. Soraya had been to every known specialist in the world to find a cure for her sterility but of no avail. Even during their December 1954 visit to the U.S. Soraya was seen by the best but the news was not encouraging. One doctor had suggested a very risky operation with a minimum chance of success but maximum risk, which the couple did not accept.One day in July 1957 the couple went for a long walk in the Palace grounds. The Shah talked about the dynasty’s survival and brought up the heir issue and the fact that they would soon have to make a decision no matter how painful. They talked about alternatives like the Shah taking a second wife and perhaps changing the constitution to allow one of his half brothers to become king after him. They couldn’t agree on any of these alternatives and found each one unacceptable. They finally decided with tears in their eyes and with very heavy hearts, to separate. Before departure for Europe, Soraya burnt all her personal papers; packed her souvenirs and gifts she had received, and left Tehran on the 14th of February 1958 never to see her beloved country again. Soraya settled in the Shah’s Saint-Moritz villa for a while and during her stay, the Shah would call her every day, and then he decided to stop. From Switzerland she went home to stay with her parents in Germany for a while. Amir Jang, the elder of the family and a Senator was dispatched to see Soraya in order to try and persuade her to agree to the Shah taking a second wife but she refused. General Yazdanpanah accompanied by his wife and General Dr. Ayadi also traveled to Germany on two occasions to persuade Soraya to return. Eva received them but Soraya refused even to meet with them. The Shah and Soraya divorced on the 14th March 1958 after 7 years of marriage. They had already said their sad tearful good byes in private. Their love for one another remained until the end. Soraya began her grief in private and in dignity like a true Bakhtiari.
Soraya’s years away from Iran
The Shah had been intent on providing a life of comfort and dignity for his ex-Queen. He had settled a sum of money on her in addition to having made several settlements in her favor during the course of their marriage in the form of money as well as land and securities. Soraya under advise from her father, had invested well so at the time of the divorce, she had a modest fortune that together with the Shah’s final settlement would be enough to enable her to live in comfort. The shah also issued a special decree and bestowed upon Soraya the title of Imperial Princess for life accompanied by a diplomatic passport. She therefore became by rank, equal to Shah’s sisters and the Persian Embassies had to continue treating her as a member of the Royal family. Furthermore, in the European society, she took precedence over many members of the highest nobility. She enjoyed the diplomatic passport and the privileges that came with it until the 1979 Iranian revolution when King Hassan of Morocco ordered that a Moroccan diplomatic passport be issued to her. Eventually, she became a German citizen just a few years before her death.Soraya lived in Rome for a while heart broken and a recluse. She rented a pretty villa located among vineyards, thirty minutes from Rome. Her old friends would come and keep her company but on the whole she lived quietly and slowly began to enjoy her new life but her restless soul could not settle down. Soon, she became restless and during the summer months when Rome became too hot, she traveled to Northern Europe and stayed in Cologne for a while with her mother with whom she felt secure. The period of sadness and aimless life seemed to have no end for her. Now alone and without any aids or protection of the Imperial court, she had to do everything herself, and even harder still was that she now had to learn how to live the life of an ordinary citizen again. She was alone, frightened, and uncertain of her future. Her only security and comfort was in her immediate family. She began traveling extensively.

She moved from Rome to Cologne, to Munich, to Paris, to Rome to Monaco and eventually ended up in Rome again. She was allured by the movie industry as it had always been her dream to one day become a movie star. She met Dino de Laurentis at a party one evening in Rome. Dino offered her a role in a movie he was making. Soraya readily accepted. The movie’s title was “Three faces of a woman” and Mauro Bolognini, Michelangelo Antonioni and Franco Indovina directed it. The movie was a disaster. The rumor has it that when the Shah heard that Soraya was to appear in a movie, he was so infuriated that the whole world would now his ex-wife in romantic scenes that he ordered all the copies be bought and destroyed. Soraya kept one copy, which was eventually sold at the auction of her estate in Paris in May of 2002 together with all her personal effects.

  Movie poster
Movie Poster
Auction of Soraya's belongings
Auction of Soraya’s belongings
Princess Soraya fell under the spell of Franco Indovina and found comfort in his expressions of love. A passionate love affair began to flourish between the two but the future was uncertain. Franco was married and had two children. Indovina told her that he would divorce his wife and they would have a life together.9 Soraya left for Munich and came back 6 months later to join Franco who had just separated from his wife. The couple had a blissful 5 years of life together filled with love and happiness until that fateful day on the 4th of May 1972 when Franco’s plane crashed in Sicily and he was tragically killed.
  With Indovina at the movie set
With Indovina at the movie set
This second blow to her life and the tragedy of losing her loved one in such manner drove her at first into a period of total solitude. It took her several months to come out of the state of grief and moved to Paris where she was welcomed and embraced by the High Society of the European nobility most of whom found it a privilege to have the ex-Empress of Iran on their guest list. She also spent much time in her villa in Marbella, Spain.During this period of exile, Khalil Khan kept in touch with General Dr. Ayadi 10 and Assadollah Alam 11 in Tehran. Ayadi was the Shah’s personal physician and a great admirer of Queen Soraya. Through Dr. Ayadi, the Shah was also kept up to date with news of Soraya and her well being. Khalil khan would use this conduit to ask for financial assistance for Soraya every now and again. Soraya would also write to the Shah through Mr. Alam asking for financial assistance. For example, she wrote to Alam in 1976 asking the Shah to purchase for her an apartment she had seen in Avenue Montaign of Paris. Mr. Alam was instructed to act immediately and arrange the purchase. 12 On another occasion in 1973, Soraya wrote to the Shah through the office of Alam saying that due to the collapse of the share prices in the stock market, her income and standard of living had greatly suffered. The Shah ordered Alam to make the necessary arrangements to transfer money to her account.13
Soraya’s Death
Soraya continued her life in Paris and spent her summers at her Villa Maryam (named after her grandmother) in Marbella, Spain. She moved in the high society circles and spent her time with a select few friends. The sad end came at 2 PM Thursday 25th of October 2001. She was only 69. Her maid found her dead on the floor of her bedroom in her apartment at 46 Ave Montaign. Apparently a massive brain hemorrhage was the cause of Soraya’s death.The service at the American Church in Paris, a close walking distance from Soraya’s apartment was arranged for the 7th of November 2001 and her brother Bijan along with other family members and Paris dignitaries were to attend the services. Bijan, aided by a companion, traveled by car from Koln a few days earlier. Sadly while staying at Hotel George V in Paris, Bijan died suddenly before he could attend the funeral of his sister.
  With her brother Bijan in later years
With her brother Bijan in later years
On the day of the service, “Cathedrale Americaine de la Sainte Trinite” in Avenue George V filled up with approximately 400 friends, family and dignitaries including Count of Paris Henri d’Orleans, Prince Gholam Reza Pahlavi and his wife, Beatrix de Hohenlohe, Rixa de Oldenburg, Anne de Bourbon, some members of the Bakhtiari family and her friends. Outside the Cathedral, a large crowd of camera teams and photographers from all over the world had gathered looking for prominent faces. The memorial service began at 3 PM when the coffin was brought in draped in blue silk and adorned with a single rose carried by 6 pallbearers.
  Funeral services for Soraya  
Canon Sharon Gracen gave the sermon. During her sermon, she recited some of Rumi’s writings; she was followed by some kind words and remembrance by the ex-ambassador of France to Iran, Francis Dore, followed by Alexandre de Villiers who had once been commissioned by Queen Farah to write a book about Iran and the Imperial family. A distinguished former cabinet minister of Iran, Dr. Majid Majidi spoke on behalf of the Iranian exiles in France and expressed his condolences to the Bakhtiari family for their loss. Iranian soprano, Darya Dadvar delivered a beautiful Ava Maria by Franz Schubert to the music of the organist.The body was taken to Germany on Friday 16th of November and buried in her family tomb in the cemetery of Westfriedhof, Munich.

As a young girl, Soraya had pictures of some movie stars framed, in addition to a photo of the young Shah. She would tell all her friends and cousins that one day she will either become an actress or marry the king. Both aspirations became realities but none brought her lasting happiness.

indonesia version

Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari
Soraya dan Bijan Esfandiari Bakhtiari adalah anak-anak Khalil Khan Esfandiari-Bakhtiari, dan Eva Karl dari Jerman. Soraya lahir di Isfahan pada tanggal 22 Juni 1932 dan Bijan lahir 5 tahun kemudian pada 15 Oktober 1937 juga di Isfahan.
Setelah kematian kakek mereka, Esfandiar Khan (Sardar Asad) 1, Bibi Maryam (nenek Soraya) telah mengirimkan Khalil ke Berlin dan anaknya yang lain, Soltan Morad (kemudian Montazem-Dolleh) ke London untuk belajar. Tampaknya keputusan untuk mengirim anak ke negara-negara Eropa yang berbeda untuk belajar adalah untuk alasan politik. Para pemimpin keluarga yang dibutuhkan untuk menjadi dekat dengan lingkungan yang berpengaruh terlepas dari yang super-kuasa yang di atas dalam periode tertentu.

Khalil Esfandiari
Eva Karl di Berlin
Esfandiar Khan, kakek dari pihak ayah
Bibi Maryam, nenek dari pihak ayah

Di perjalanan ke Jerman, saudara tiri, Hormoz Khan, disertai Khalil. Mereka tiba di Berlin pada musim gugur 1924 dan segera tertarik untuk itu. Sebagian besar waktu Khalil Khan di Berlin dihabiskan namun dalam mengejar blonds indah dengan siapa ia telah sukses besar karena penampilannya dan latar belakang aristokrat Timur itu.
Dia hanya 21 dan seorang mahasiswa ilmu politik ketika ia bertemu dan jatuh cinta dengan 16 tahun Karl Eva, putri dari Franz Karl yang telah tinggal di Tsar Rusia selama beberapa tahun mewakili produsen Jerman dan telah kembali ke Jerman pada hampir sama waktu sebagai awal Perang Dunia Pertama. Franz Karl memiliki tiga anak; Eva, Barbara, dan Franz. Setelah satu tahun pacaran, Khalil dan Eva menikah pada 22 Juni 1926 dan pindah ke Isfahan 2 tahun kemudian.

Pindah ke Isfahan
Isfahan adalah tempat kelahiran Khalil khan dan sebagian besar keluarganya masih tinggal di sana sehingga ia tidak asing dengan kota. Isfahan memiliki komunitas besar dan Jerman juga dikenal sebagai pusat pengaruh agen Jerman seperti Meyr dan Wassmuss yang telah mencari dan dijamin perlindungan dari beberapa Bakhtiaris dan telah diplot tindakan subversif terhadap kepentingan Inggris khususnya dalam dan di sekitar minyak instalasi. Dalam lingkungan seperti itu, Khalil dan Eva sama-sama nyaman dan merasa aman dan jauh dari masalah Eropa. Mereka mulai membangun rumah indah dirancang lengkap dengan kebun buah-buahan.

Pada 22 Juni 1932 Soraya lahir di Rumah Sakit Misionaris Inggris di Isfahan. Seorang gadis cantik dengan biru / hijau mata. Dalam tradisi Persia, biasanya percaya bahwa sulung harus laki-laki. Ini akan memenangkan kekaguman kepada ibu dan melakukan kehormatan untuk ayah. Namun dalam rumah tangga Esfandiary kebiasaan seperti itu tidak penting dan kelahiran anak yang sehat selalu pertanda baik untuk pasangan yang tercerahkan terutama ketika anak lahir pada ulang tahun pernikahan 6 orang tuanya.
Kembali ke Jerman
Segera setelah Soraya lahir, Khalil Khan dan Eva memutuskan bahwa anak dan Eva harus kembali ke Jerman untuk memastikan bahwa bayi akan memiliki kesehatan yang baik dan kembali ketika dia masih kuat. Khalil mengatakan kepada istrinya bahwa ia tidak bisa meninggalkan Iran pada waktu itu tetapi Eva harus membawa anak bersamanya ke Jerman dan bahwa ia akan mengikuti sesegera mungkin. Jadi ibu dan anak meninggalkan Isfahan untuk Jerman saat Soraya hanya 8 bulan dan dianggap cocok untuk dibawa pada suatu perjalanan panjang. Perjalanan membawa mereka ke Laut Kaspia ke pelabuhan Enzeli, dengan perahu ke Baku, dan kemudian melatih ke Berlin di mana mereka tinggal dengan orang tua Eva.
Kakek-nenek Jerman Soraya, Mr & Mrs Karl
Soraya usia 5

Sementara itu situasi di Iran menjadi sangat tidak sehat bagi Bakhtiaris sebagai Shah baru mulai menganiaya, memenjarakan, dan mengeksekusi para pemimpin mereka. Shah telah memutuskan bahwa Bakhtiaris harus dihancurkan karena beberapa alasan. Semi-otonomi mereka mengganggu kepada pemerintah pusat dan perjanjian mereka dengan Inggris atas perlindungan jaringan pipa minyak dan saham dalam keuntungan minyak tidak sejalan dengan kebijakan baru Shah dalam hal konsolidasi kepemilikan saham dari Iran Anglo minyak. Bakhtiaris diperintahkan untuk menyerah Senjata kepada perwakilan Pemerintah dan para Khan dipaksa untuk menjual atau melepaskan saham mereka di perusahaan minyak. Bakhtiaris juga ditangkap karena tugas wajib militer jauh dari wilayah mereka. Tempat tidur persekutuan-aneh dari Inggris dan Bakhtiaris itu terutama mengganggu ke Reza Syah saat ia telah menjadi pengagum besar dari Jerman dan telah menutup matanya untuk kegiatan agen Jerman di negara ini. Dia yakin dalam hatinya bahwa kekuatan Poros akan menang dalam perang. Sebuah keyakinan yang akhirnya akan membuatnya kehilangan tahtanya. Pemberontakan oleh sebuah faksi kecil di wilayah Bakhtiari memberi Shah alasan untuk menangkap para Khan dan kalimat beberapa mati dan orang lain untuk berbagai penjara.
Khalil khan merasa sudah waktunya untuk pergi dari Iran untuk sementara waktu dan memutuskan untuk bergabung dengan istri dan anak perempuannya di Berlin; jadi setelah pemisahan 6 bulan bahwa keluarga muda itu bersatu lagi. Keluarga itu menyewa sebuah apartemen 4 kamar di Nestorstrasse dan Khalil khan terdaftar dengan polisi, banyak bertentangan dengan keinginannya, sebagai “petani” karena keluarganya memiliki tanah dan peternakan di Persia. Klaim-Nya sendiri untuk didaftarkan sebagai Khan menepis karena tidak ada “profesi” seperti di Jerman!

Hidup di Berlin
Selama tinggal keluarga di Berlin, Soraya atau ‘Raya sebagai ia dipanggil, menjadi tak terpisahkan dari kakek-nya Franz Karl. Dia akan datang dan menjemputnya setiap hari Minggu untuk membawanya ke kebun binatang dan pergi untuk berjalan. Franz Karl ingat bahwa dia adalah pemilih dan tidak akan bermain dengan semua orang. Dia akan meneliti terutama anak laki-laki yang paling hati-hati dan tidak lama sebelum ia memesan bahkan yang terbesar dan tertua tentang. Dia ingat bahwa Soraya cukup kenal takut pada usia muda dan memberi contoh “Saya ingat berjalan melalui Grunwald, ketika seekor anjing hitam besar mengejar kami terlihat liar Nya dan menggonggong kekerasan cukup menakutkan aku,. Tapi Soraya berlari ke arahnya dan menempatkannya lengan mengelilingi leher, aku takut.. Tidak perlu untuk menjadi. Anjing dan gadis kecil menjadi teman segera “.2 Dari masa kecilnya Soraya memiliki cinta yang besar untuk hewan. Di rumahnya di Berlin setelah dia melihat burung kenari kuning dan terrier hitam-putih nakal rubah.
Sebuah dunia baru telah dibuka untuk Soraya di Berlin. Ia selalu ingat dan ingat pesta anak pertamanya di luar Berlin di dekat salah satu dari banyak danau. Ada lotere, galeri tembak, balap karung dan telur-dan-sendok balap. Ada juga teater terbuka kecil di mana ia memainkan bagian dari Sleeping Beauty. Bagiannya terdiri semata-mata terbangun dari seratus tahun tidur oleh ciuman pangeran muda, pengalaman yang bahkan pada usia itu dia menemukan sangat menyenangkan!

Tinggal di Berlin adalah lancar dan Khalil khan terus-menerus berpikir untuk kembali ke Iran dan menunggu iklim politik untuk Bakhtiaris menjadi lumayan. Sembilan belas tiga puluh enam dan tiga puluh tujuh adalah tahun berat bagi keluarga Esfandiary muda. Hitler mengumumkan wajib militer umum dan dari dia dan Marshall Goring bicara itu sekarang perang.

Soraya dan teman di Berlin Zoo

Kembali ke Isfahan
Khalil khan mulai menjadi sadar akan situasi politik di Eropa, yang telah selama ini diabaikan. Sekarang tiba-tiba terpengaruh secara pribadi. Itu menjadi lebih sulit untuk mendapatkan semua uang yang dibutuhkan dari Persia dan keluarga itu menuju krisis keuangan untuk pertama kalinya dan kemungkinan dia sedang disusun ke dalam Angkatan Bersenjata itu menjadi nyata. Jadi, pada musim gugur 1937 dengan hamil Eva bahwa mereka memutuskan sekali lagi untuk meninggalkan Berlin dan kembali ke Isfahan. Sambil menangis, sedikit Soraya mengatakan selamat tinggal pada kakeknya dan teman-teman dan mainannya yang diberikan kepada church.3
Setelah perjalanan panjang susah payah, mereka mencapai Isfahan. Namun kali ini, mereka tidak terlalu disambut dan orang tua itu segera diletakkan di bawah pengawasan oleh otoritas dan tidak bisa meninggalkan kota tanpa izin dari polisi. Hal ini disebabkan urutan raja bahwa semua gerakan Bakhtiari diawasi dan dilaporkan. Selain ketidaknyamanan ini, mereka dibiarkan dalam damai. Pada saat kedatangan mereka, rumah di Isfahan hampir siap untuk pendudukan dan itu adalah waktu kemudian bahwa Eva melahirkan seorang anak cantik, Bijan, pada tanggal 15 Oktober 1937. Soraya kini sedikit indah 5 tahun ketika Bijan adiknya lahir. Bijan adalah gemuk, berambut pirang dan penuh kehidupan. Keluarga itu mulai bekerja pada rumah untuk melengkapinya dan terutama pada kebun dengan menanam pohon lebih banyak buah dan membangun kolam bulat kecil untuk mencelupkan dalam pada hari-hari panas musim panas.
Rumah di Isfahan

Desain rumah itu campuran keduanya Persia dan Eropa. Itu adalah rumah yang nyaman bagi keluarga muda dan anjing Jerman mereka Sheppard dan greyhound. Ia dilengkapi dengan pembakaran kayu perapian dan kompor. Hal ini juga harus mandi dengan air panas dan dingin, yang merupakan kemewahan pada masa itu. Soraya menghadiri sekolah Jerman menjelang Isfahan oleh Mentel Ibu dan menghabiskan banyak waktu dengan anak-anak dari keluarga Jerman lainnya sebayanya.

Studi-studi Persia tradisional namun tidak diabaikan dan guru akan datang ke rumah untuk mengajar kedua anak-anak silabus sekolah di Persia. Sekolah Jerman tetap terbuka hingga Juni 1941 ketika pasukan Sekutu menutupnya dan mengusir warga Jerman. Frauline Mentel namun tetap di Iran dan kembali mengajar dia secara pribadi di rumah sederhana itu. Itu adalah tahun 1944 bahwa anak-anak mulai sekolah mereka di Sekolah Misionaris Inggris di Isfahan dan berlanjut sampai keberangkatan mereka untuk Eropa tahun 1947.
Setiap kali mereka bisa, keluarga muda akan menghabiskan waktu di desa Ghahfe-Rokh dan tinggal di benteng Esfandiar Khan, bermain di sekitar hutan dan memancing dan berenang di sungai. Mereka juga akan naik di atas kuda dan Khalil khan akan melakukan beberapa permainan berburu. Soraya adalah seorang pembalap cukup bagus tapi Bijan akan naik kuda enggan.

Soraya, Eva, Bijan di Isfahan 1940
Soraya dan Bijan di Esfandiar Khan di Fort Ghahfe-Rokh 1942
Isfahan 1947

Shah meminta tangan Soraya dalam pernikahan
Ketika Perang Dunia 2 berakhir, Eva yang rindu untuk kembali ke Eropa setelah 10 tahun di Isfahan membujuk Khalil Khan bahwa sudah waktunya untuk kembali. Mereka pindah ke Swiss pada 1947 dan menyewa sebuah apartemen di Zurich. Soraya dikirim ke “La Printaniere” di Montreaux, sebuah sekolah akhir untuk memoles bahasa Prancis-nya. Setahun kemudian ia dipindahkan ke “Les Roseaux” dekat Lausanne, sekolah lain Finishing. Dia menjadi fasih berbahasa Prancis dan belajar bahasa Inggris. Untuk meningkatkan bahasa Inggris-nya, itu diatur bahwa ia akan menghabiskan musim panas 1950 di Inggris. Beberapa sepupu 2nd nya juga tinggal di London. Dua di antaranya, Goudarz, seorang fotografer amatir yang tajam, dan Malekshah tinggal di sebuah rumah kos di dekat Park St James dengan Bibi Shoakat, ibu Goudarz dan menghadiri sekolah bahasa. Soraya juga terdaftar di sekolah yang sama dan pindah bersama sepupu-sepupunya dan Shoakat Bibi untuk menikmati perlindungan dan pengawasan dari anggota keluarga.
Di Swiss

Pada saat ini, Syah setelah menceraikan istri pertamanya, Putri Fauzieh Mesir, sedang mencari seorang istri dan calon banyak yang diperkenalkan kepadanya baik secara langsung atau melalui foto.
Suatu hari, Bunda Ratu (Taj-ol-Moluk) bertanya pada teman dekat dan orang kepercayaan Forough Zafar Bakhtiari, putri Sardar Zafar, yang pasti ia bisa menemukan pengantin yang cocok untuk Shah di antara keluarga Bakhtiari luas. Forough Zafar mulai pencariannya dan ingat bahwa salah satu keponakannya, Ghamar Ahmadi yang baru saja kembali dari perjalanan ke Eropa, telah menyebutkan bahwa sementara di Swiss, ia diundang ke apartemen Khalil Khan Esfandiari dan telah bertemu Soraya putrinya yang dia ditemukan menjadi beberapa bahasa yang sangat indah, berpendidikan, dan berbicara. Ghamar Ahmadi juga menambahkan bahwa Soraya kini belajar di Inggris untuk memoles bahasa Inggris-nya. Ketika Forough Zafar disebutkan Soraya kepada Ibu Ratu, Ratu meminta untuk melihat beberapa foto. Forough Zafar dihubungi Goodarz, di London dan meminta dia untuk mengambil beberapa foto Soraya dan mengirimkannya padanya di Teheran secepat mungkin. Seperti itu hanya setelah Perang Dunia II, surat itu tidak terlalu cepat atau efisien sehingga butuh beberapa saat untuk foto-foto tiba. Sementara itu, sebelum kedatangan foto, Syams Putri sedang melakukan perjalanan ke London untuk melihat dan mewawancarai dua calon lain untuk Shah. Forough Zafar meminta sang Putri, “sementara di London, mungkin Anda juga bisa mengatur untuk bertemu Soraya Esfandiari dengan mengundang Malekhah keponakan saya, saya akan memastikan ia membawa Soraya bersamanya sehingga Anda bisa bertemu dengannya secara pribadi.”. Pertemuan berlangsung di suite pribadi sang Putri dan dia sangat terkesan dengan keindahan Soraya dan kepribadian yang dia mengirim pesan darurat kepada Ibu Ratu mengatakan bahwa “Memiliki sepupu bertemu Forough Zafar, saya tidak perlu melihat gadis lain. Wanita ini lahir akan menjadi Ratu. Dia cantik, sangat berpendidikan, dan memiliki perangai yang sangat baik “.4 Pada saat foto-foto dari London juga mencapai Forough Zafar yang segera membawa mereka ke Ibu Ratu yang pada gilirannya meneruskannya ke Syah muda. Shah melihat foto-foto dan mendengarkan uraian bahwa Putri Syams telah diberikan, dan menyatakan keinginannya bahwa mereka harus bertemu. Pesan itu dikirim ke Syams Putri untuk membawa Soraya ke Teheran dengannya.

Forough Zafar

Soraya menulis dalam memoarnya, “Le Palais de kesunyian” bahwa “ketika Malekshah meminta saya untuk pergi ke resepsi dengan dia, pada awalnya saya enggan memenuhi salah satu keluarga Pahlevi karena apa yang telah mereka lakukan Bakhtiaris tetapi saya harus mendengar bahwa Putri Syams adalah seorang perempuan yang bagus dan menarik sehingga rasa ingin tahu saya mendapat yang lebih baik dari saya “. Putri Syams dan Soraya pergi ke Paris dari London untuk berbelanja di rumah mode Dior dari dan Channel. Setelah mendengar berita tentang perjalanan yang akan datang Soraya ke Teheran, Forough Zafar menulis kepada Khalil Khan mengatakan kepadanya apa yang terjadi dan menyarankan bahwa ia harus bergabung dengan Putri dan Soraya di Paris. Putri dan Soraya terbang dari Paris ke Roma di mana mereka bergabung dengan Khalil Khan dan kemudian ke Teheran. Secara kebetulan, Amir Jang juga bepergian ke Teheran dengan penerbangan yang sama tetapi tidak menyadari apa yang terjadi. Itu adalah dengan lemari penuh dari mode Paris terbaru yang mereka tiba di Teheran.
Soraya cukup banyak kelelahan setelah perjalanan panjang dan ingin beristirahat tapi Bunda Ratu dan Shah begitu penasaran untuk melihatnya sesegera mungkin bahwa dia dipanggil ke istana Ibu Ratu untuk makan malam kecil pada malam yang sama. Keluarga Kerajaan diterima dengan hangat dan selama seperempat jam, mereka bertukar obrolan ringan diikuti dengan kebiasaan Persia biasa bertanya setelah kesehatannya dan kesehatan keluarganya! Mereka semua menunggu kedatangan Shah.

Putri Syams mengatakan kepada Soraya bahwa kakaknya tidak terlalu tampan agar tidak meningkatkan harapan dia. Akhirnya seseorang mengumumkan kedatangan Mulia Shah. Mereka semua bangkit berdiri dan Shah muncul di seragam seorang jenderal dari Angkatan Udara Iran yang jelas seragam favoritnya. Ia memeluk ibunya dan kemudian Soraya yang disajikan kepadanya. Keduanya tertarik satu sama lain langsung dan percikan api mulai terbang. Di meja makan, Soraya duduk di samping Shah dan berbicara tentang Swiss dan negara sekitar Montreux dan Lausanne dan sejenisnya dan tidak suka. Setelah makan malam mereka bermain game dan keluarga menjadi lebih rileks. Larut malam Soraya tersisa untuk tidur tetapi pada 2 pagi Shah menelepon dan minta bicara dengan Khalil Khan. Ketika Khalil Khan datang ke ponsel, Shah mengatakan kepadanya bahwa ia adalah meminta tangan Soraya dan dia ingin tahu bagaimana perasaannya tentang hal itu. Jawaban Soraya tentu saja ya sebagai dia juga sedang dikalahkan oleh Shah tampan muda. Keesokan paginya, Pengadilan kekaisaran informasi media berita dan foto-foto Soraya dibagikan antara newspapers.5 Keesokan harinya Shah datang mengunjungi Soraya yang tinggal di Hossein Amir Khan Zafar vila, dan mulai merayunya. Saat itu menjelang akhir tahun itu pada 11 Oktober 1950, bahwa mereka resmi bertunangan.

Pada minggu-minggu berikutnya, Shah dan tunangannya melihat satu sama lain hampir setiap hari dan dengan setiap pertemuan, mereka tumbuh lebih intim. Mereka pergi naik di kaki bukit Shemiran, bermain tenis, dan pergi terbang dengan Shah di kontrol. Di malam hari saudari Syah dan saudara memberikan partai kecil bagi pasangan yang menyenangkan. Mereka juga memeriksa beberapa istana Kerajaan di Teheran dan di sekitar tempat tinggal untuk masa depan mereka. Soraya akhirnya memilih salah satu istana sederhana dan kecil di Pasteur Ave sebagai tempat tinggal masa depan mereka dan dekorator yang disewa untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang diperlukan. Pasangan itu juga menetapkan tanggal 26 Desember sebagai hari pernikahan mereka. Pada saat ini, Soraya tiba-tiba jatuh sakit tipus dan demam nya tidak mereda, pernikahan ditunda.

Soraya cukup pulih untuk pernikahan akan berlangsung pada tanggal mereka telah ditetapkan pada bulan Februari meskipun masih sangat lemah dan gemetar. Pada 12 Februari 1951 pasangan menikah. Upacara pernikahan berlangsung di Aula terkenal of Mirrors di Istana Golestan di tengah-tengah banyak kebesaran dan keadaan. Para tamu pernikahan bernomor 1.600 menurut beberapa laporan berita. Pengantin wanita mengenakan gaun pengantin indah dibuat oleh Christian Dior terdiri dari 37 meter dari perak lumpuh dengan 20.000 bulu dan potongan berlian 6.000 dijahit pada. Soraya masih sangat lemah dari pertarungan terakhir dengan Tifoid dan menggigil dalam dingin yang Februari malam. Shah tersampir sebuah jaket bulu Dior indah di sekitar bahunya, yang menambah kesulitan dia dalam berjalan di bawah beban berat seperti jaket dan baju dengan kereta panjang. Syah dan Dr Ayadi datang dengan solusi. Sebuah terampil dayang-menunggu dipanggil dengan gunting yang memotong meter dari rok dan jalan tanpa dia harus melepas pernikahan gown.6

Di Roma
Shah dan Soraya hidup sangat bahagia dan sangat mencintai selama dua tahun berikutnya tanpa acara banyak sampai hubungan antara Raja dan dipilih secara populer dan Perdana Menteri nasionalistik, Dr Mossadegh datang ke kepala. Peristiwa yang menyebabkan peristiwa tahun 1953 telah didokumentasikan dengan baik dan banyak rincian kini telah ditulis tentang dan tidak perlu pergi melalui mereka dalam artikel ini. Namun itu harus disebutkan bahwa Syah, Inggris, dan Amerika Serikat telah sepakat bahwa Mossadegh harus diberhentikan dari jabatannya dan Shah kemudian memerintahkan pemecatannya dan tetap di kediamannya oleh berita Kaspia menunggu reaksi Dr Mossadegh itu. Laporan pertama adalah tidak baik dan ia memutuskan untuk meninggalkan Iran dengan Soraya dan pilot pribadinya. Setelah singgah sebentar di Baghdad, pasangan Kerajaan tiba di Roma dengan kecemasan bubur dan tidak yakin dari fase berikutnya dari kehidupan mereka. Syah dan Soraya tinggal di Excelsior Hotel di Roma. Media sedang mengalami hari lapangan dan wawancara satu demi satu sedang diberikan. Soraya dengan baik diingat dalam gaun tanpa tali putus-putus dan kacamata hitam besar itu.
Shah dan Ratu Soraya tinggal di suite mereka sebagian besar waktu dengan telinga ditempelkan ke radio gelombang pendek sesuai untuk Radio Teheran. Apa yang mereka dengar di radio tidak mendorong dan Shah sudah mulai putus asa dan kehilangan keberaniannya. Pasangan muda mendiskusikan langkah berikutnya dan Shah beralih ke Soraya dan berkata: “Kita harus menghemat, sebab Aku menyesal untuk mengatakan bahwa saya tidak punya uang banyak, cukup mungkin untuk membeli kami pertanian di suatu tempat”. Soraya kemudian bertanya di manakah mereka pergi dan dengan ngeri dia menjawab:. “Mungkin Amerika Ibu dan Syams adikku sudah ada dan saya harap saudara-saudara saya mungkin dapat mengikuti kami Kami semua kemudian bisa hidup bersama untuk hidup secara ekonomi. “. Modal Syah pada waktu itu terdiri dari warisan bahwa ayahnya telah meninggalkannya dan penyisihan Syah sebesar $ 750.000 per tahun dari luar yang harus memenuhi semua biaya Pengadilan serta menyediakan untuk tanggungan keluarganya. Karena ia tidak mampu menempatkan banyak aside.7

Di pengasingan di Roma

Berita tentang kudeta
Saat itu pukul dua sore hari 19 Agustus 1953. Syah dan Soraya baru saja kembali dari berbelanja dan sedang makan siang di ruang makan di hotel ketika seorang reporter muda dari Associated Press datang ke meja mereka dan menyerahkan mereka penuh kemenangan pesan Teletype. Bunyinya: “Mossadegh digulingkan-IMERIAL PASUKAN PENGENDALIAN Teheran-Zahedi PREMIER”. Berita itu baru saja selama Teletype dan sementara mereka dilanjutkan dengan makan siang mereka, reporter AP bergegas bolak-balik antara kantor dan hotel membawa mereka berita terbaru dan perkembangan. Soraya tenang tapi Syah telah berubah jadi pucat yang Soraya takut ia akan pingsan. Syah dan Soraya memeluk dan bergegas ke lantai bawah di mana semua media berkumpul. Sebagai pasangan kerajaan sampai di lobi, manajer hotel bergegas ke depan dan menyerahkan Shah telegram, yang baru saja tiba. Telegram itu berbunyi: “Yang Mulia, rakyat Iran telah meningkat Kita semua menunggu kembali beberapa Imperial Anda yang aman dan cepat ke ibukota.” Telegram itu ditandatangani: “Jenderal Zahedi, Perdana Menteri”. CIA dan Badan Intelijen Inggris telah ditarik dari kudeta berhasil Shah kembali ke Teheran pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1953 sampai dengan mendengar pemanasan t diterima. Soraya juga segera kembali.

Soraya suka memiliki beberapa anggota keluarganya di sekitarnya di Pengadilan. Rostam Amir Bakhtiar menjadi Sekretaris Pribadi dan Malekshah Zafar, Ghobad Zafar, Majid Bakhtiar, Salar Bakhtiar dan Jamshid Bakhtiar menjadi sering pengunjung ke Pengadilan dan merupakan mitra malam dari Shah dalam permainan Poker dan Jembatan. Umum Teymour Bakhtiar, sepupu jarak Soraya, seorang komandan berani dan karismatik dari Brigade lapis baja yang bergerak menuju Teheran di kepala brigade-nya untuk mendukung royalis, dihargai dan menjadi Gubernur Militer Teheran. Dia kemudian menjadi orang yang paling berkuasa di Iran sebagai kepala Keamanan Dalam Negeri yang baru terbentuk, SAVAK.
Hari-hari yang tenang pernikahan diikuti. Pasangan Kerajaan itu selalu bersama-sama dan mereka punya waktu untuk bepergian. Di antara perjalanan adalah kunjungan kenegaraan ke Rusia pada tahun 1956 untuk memenuhi Mr Khrushchev, kunjungan lain membawa mereka ke India, Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Turki, Spanyol, dan Lebanon. Perjalanan ini juga memberikan semacam bulan madu yang tertunda untuk Kembali couple.8 di Teheran, Soraya menyibukkan diri dengan merenovasi dan memperbaiki istana tempat tinggal mereka dan menghadiri kepada organisasi-organisasi amal yang dibentuk berdasarkan patronase nya. “Ratu Soraya Amal Pahlevi” adalah amal utama patronase nya, yang dibentuk dan dikelola secara efisien oleh Forough Zafar.

Sementara itu, Shah telah menunjuk duta besar ayah Soraya ke Jerman, sebuah pos ia dihargai meskipun ia tidak melibatkan diri dengan tugas-tugas seorang duta besar. Ia meninggalkan kepada Menteri dan para profesional Office lainnya Luar Negeri diposting ke kedutaan.

Perceraian ini
Ketika pada tahun 1949 upaya yang dilakukan pada kehidupan Syah dari mana ia melarikan diri dengan hanya luka ringan, penasihatnya mendesak dia untuk mempertimbangkan ahli waris demi kelangsungan monarki. Dalam banyak kasus di kerajaan-kerajaan lain di dunia, saudara atau paman akan diangkat sebagai ahli waris sampai ahli waris langsung lahir tapi Shah selalu menolak saran tersebut. Namun ia tidak menganggap untuk sementara waktu, menunjuk Pangeran Ali Reza sebagai ahli warisnya tetapi ketika ia meninggal dalam kecelakaan udara, hal ini menjadi lebih mengganggu. Dengan situasi politik di Iran menjadi tenang dan lebih stabil, persoalan suksesi menjadi topik percakapan sehari-hari dan perhatian antara Soraya dan Shah. Soraya telah berkunjung ke setiap spesialis dikenal di dunia untuk menemukan obat untuk kemandulan, tapi ada gunanya. Bahkan selama 1954 kunjungan Desember mereka ke Soraya AS terlihat oleh yang terbaik tetapi berita itu tidak menggembirakan. Satu dokter menyarankan operasi yang sangat berisiko dengan kesempatan minimal sukses tetapi risiko maksimum, yang pasangan tidak menerima.
Suatu hari pada Juli 1957 pasangan itu pergi berjalan-jalan di halaman Istana. Shah berbicara tentang kelangsungan hidup dinasti dan dibesarkan isu pewaris dan fakta bahwa mereka akan segera harus membuat keputusan tak peduli betapa menyakitkan. Mereka berbicara tentang alternatif seperti Shah mengambil istri kedua dan mungkin mengubah konstitusi untuk memungkinkan salah satu saudara tirinya untuk menjadi raja sesudah tuanku. Mereka tidak bisa menyepakati salah satu alternatif dan menemukan masing-masing tidak dapat diterima. Mereka akhirnya memutuskan dengan berlinang air mata dan dengan hati yang sangat berat, untuk memisahkan. Sebelum berangkat untuk Eropa, Soraya membakar semua surat-surat pribadinya; dikemas souvenir dan hadiah yang telah diterimanya, dan meninggalkan Teheran pada 14 Februari 1958 tidak pernah melihat negara tercinta lagi. Soraya menetap di Saint-Moritz Syah vila untuk sementara dan selama tinggal, Shah akan meneleponnya setiap hari, dan kemudian ia memutuskan untuk berhenti. Dari Swiss ia pulang untuk tinggal bersama orang tuanya di Jerman untuk sementara waktu. Amir Jang, yang lebih tua dari keluarga dan Senator sebuah dikirim untuk melihat Soraya untuk mencoba dan membujuknya untuk menyetujui Shah mengambil istri kedua tetapi dia menolak. Umum Yazdanpanah didampingi oleh istri dan Umum Dr Ayadi juga berkunjung ke Jerman pada dua kesempatan untuk membujuk Soraya untuk kembali. Eva menerima mereka tetapi Soraya bahkan menolak untuk bertemu dengan mereka. Syah dan Soraya bercerai pada 14 Maret 1958 setelah 7 tahun menikah. Mereka sudah mengatakan selamat tinggal sedih mereka menangis baik secara pribadi. Cinta mereka satu sama lain tetap sampai akhir. Soraya mulai kesedihannya dalam martabat pribadi dan dalam seperti Bakhtiari benar.

Tahun Soraya dari Iran
Shah telah bertekad menyediakan kehidupan yang nyaman dan martabat bagi mantan Ratu-nya. Dia telah menetap sejumlah uang pada dirinya selain telah membuat beberapa pemukiman yang mendukung dia selama pernikahan mereka dalam bentuk uang serta tanah dan surat berharga. Soraya bawah menyarankan dari ayahnya, telah diinvestasikan baik sehingga pada saat perceraian, ia memiliki keberuntungan sederhana yang bersama-sama dengan penyelesaian akhir Syah akan cukup untuk memungkinkan dia untuk hidup dengan nyaman. Syah juga mengeluarkan keputusan khusus dan diberikan kepada Soraya judul Imperial Putri untuk hidup disertai dengan paspor diplomatik. Dia karena itu menjadi oleh pangkat, sama dengan saudara Shah dan Kedutaan Persia harus terus memperlakukan dia sebagai anggota keluarga kerajaan. Selanjutnya, dalam masyarakat Eropa, ia mengambil diutamakan daripada banyak anggota bangsawan tertinggi. Dia menikmati paspor diplomatik dan hak istimewa yang datang dengan itu sampai revolusi Iran tahun 1979 ketika Raja Hassan dari Maroko memerintahkan paspor diplomatik Maroko dikeluarkan padanya. Akhirnya, ia menjadi warga negara Jerman hanya beberapa tahun sebelum kematiannya.
Soraya tinggal di Roma untuk jantung sementara rusak dan pertapa. Dia menyewa sebuah villa cantik yang terletak di antara kebun-kebun anggur, tiga puluh menit dari Roma. Teman-teman lamanya datang dan menemaninya tetapi secara keseluruhan ia tinggal dengan tenang dan perlahan mulai menikmati kehidupan barunya tetapi jiwa gelisah dia tidak bisa tenang. Segera, ia menjadi gelisah dan selama musim panas ketika Roma menjadi terlalu panas, ia pergi ke Eropa Utara dan tinggal di Cologne untuk sementara waktu dengan ibunya dengan siapa dia merasa aman. Masa kesedihan dan kehidupan tanpa tujuan sepertinya tidak ada habisnya untuknya. Sekarang sendirian dan tanpa alat bantu atau perlindungan dari pengadilan Imperial, ia harus melakukan semuanya sendiri, dan bahkan lebih sulit lagi adalah bahwa dia sekarang harus belajar bagaimana menjalani kehidupan warga negara biasa lagi. Dia sendirian, ketakutan, dan tidak pasti tentang masa depannya. Satu-satunya keamanan dan kenyamanan berada di keluarga dekat. Dia mulai bepergian secara ekstensif.

Dia pindah dari Roma ke Cologne, ke Munich, ke Paris, ke Roma untuk Monaco dan akhirnya berakhir di Roma lagi. Dia terpikat oleh industri film karena selalu mimpinya untuk suatu hari menjadi bintang film. Dia bertemu Dino de Laurentis pada malam satu partai di Roma. Dino menawarinya peran dalam film yang ia buat. Soraya mudah diterima. Judul film ini adalah “Tiga wajah seorang wanita” dan Mauro Bolognini, Michelangelo Antonioni dan Franco Indovina diarahkan itu. Film ini adalah bencana. Rumor mengatakan bahwa ketika Shah mendengar bahwa Soraya adalah untuk muncul dalam film, ia begitu marah bahwa seluruh dunia sekarang akan mantan istrinya dalam adegan romantis yang ia memerintahkan semua salinan dibeli dan dihancurkan. Soraya terus satu salinan, yang akhirnya dijual dengan lelang real di Paris dalam bulan Mei 2002 bersama dengan semua efek pribadinya.

Film Poster
Lelang barang milik Soraya

Putri Soraya jatuh di bawah mantra Franco Indovina dan menemukan kenyamanan dalam ekspresi cintanya. Sebuah kisah cinta yang penuh gairah mulai berkembang antara kedua tapi masa depan tidak pasti. Franco adalah menikah dan punya dua anak. Indovina mengatakan bahwa dia akan menceraikan istrinya dan mereka akan memiliki kehidupan together.9 Soraya berangkat ke Munich dan kembali 6 bulan kemudian untuk bergabung Franco yang baru saja berpisah dari istrinya. Pasangan ini memiliki 5 tahun bahagia hidup bersama penuh dengan cinta dan kebahagiaan sampai hari yang menentukan pada 4 Mei 1972 ketika pesawat Franco jatuh di Sisilia dan ia tragis tewas.
Dengan Indovina di set film

Ini pukulan kedua untuk hidup dan tragedi kehilangan dia cintai dengan cara tersebut mengantarnya pada awalnya menjadi sebuah periode kesendirian total. Butuh waktu beberapa bulan dia untuk keluar dari keadaan kesedihan dan pindah ke Paris dimana dia disambut dan dianut oleh Masyarakat Tinggi kaum bangsawan Eropa yang sebagian besar merasa hak istimewa untuk memiliki-Ratu mantan Iran dalam daftar tamu mereka . Dia juga menghabiskan banyak waktu di vilanya di Marbella, Spanyol.
Selama masa pengasingan, Khalil Khan terus berhubungan dengan Jenderal Dr Ayadi 10 dan Assadollah Alam 11 di Teheran. Ayadi adalah dokter pribadi Syah dan pengagum Ratu Soraya. Melalui Dr Ayadi, Shah juga terus up to date dengan berita dan Soraya nya kesejahteraan. Khalil khan akan menggunakan saluran ini untuk meminta bantuan keuangan untuk Soraya setiap sekarang dan lagi. Soraya juga akan menulis ke Shah Alam melalui Mr meminta bantuan keuangan. Sebagai contoh, ia menulis kepada Alam pada tahun 1976 meminta Shah untuk membeli sebuah apartemen untuknya ia terlihat di Jalan Montaign Paris. Pak Alam diperintahkan untuk segera bertindak dan mengatur pembelian. 12 Pada kesempatan lain pada tahun 1973, Soraya menulis kepada Shah melalui kantor Alam mengatakan bahwa karena runtuhnya harga saham di pasar saham, pendapatan dan standar hidup telah sangat menderita. Syah memerintahkan Alam untuk membuat pengaturan yang diperlukan untuk mentransfer uang ke account.13 nya

Soraya Kematian
Soraya melanjutkan hidupnya di Paris dan menghabiskan musim panas nya padanya Villa Maryam (bernama setelah neneknya) di Marbella, Spanyol. Dia bergerak di kalangan masyarakat tinggi dan menghabiskan waktu dengan beberapa teman pilih.

[1] 1844-1903. “Sardar Asad” was a title given by the king. Sardar means, “Head of the Army, or a General”.
[2] Soraya, Queen of Persia by Walter W. Krause 1956 London
[3] Soraya, The Autobiography of Her Imperial Highness. Doubleday & Co., New York 1964
[4] As recalled by Marie Meghdadi, Forough Zafar’s daughter
[5] As recalled and told by Princess Soraya to her close friends
[6] Autobiography of H.I.H, Princess Soraya; English translation from German
[7] Soraya, The Autobiography of H.R.H. Princess Soraya. Page 93. Doubleday and Company, NY 1964
[8] “Mission for My Country” by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. 1961
[9] Autobiography of Soraya “Le Palais Des Soltudes”. 1st Edition, Michel Lafon, 1991
[10] Dr. Ayadi was a very powerful man who had the ear of the Shah. He was a wealthy landowner and had the concession for the export of Iranian shrimp from The Persian Gulf. He was a leader of the Bahai sect in Iran.
[11] Shah’s closest confidant
[12] Alam’s memoirs, volume 5
[13] Alam’s memoirs