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The Aung San Syuu Kyi History Collections

The Aung San Syuu Kyi History

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THE AUNG SAN HISTORY COLLECTION

 

Aung San

 
Aung San
အောင်ဆန်း
Myanmar-Yangon-Aung San Statue.jpg
Statue of Aung San on the northern shore of Kandawgyi Lake in Yangon
Nickname Buffalo General
Born 13 February 1915
Natmauk, Magwe, British Burma
Died 19 July 1947 (aged 32)
Rangoon, British Burma
Allegiance Burma National Army
Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League
Communist Party of Burma
Rank Major General
Battles/wars World War II
 
History of Burma
WikiProject Burma (Myanmar) peacock.svg

Bogyoke (General) Aung San (Burmese: အောင်ဆန်း; MLCTS: buil hkyup aung hcan:, pronounced [bòdʑoʊʔ àʊɴ sʰáɴ]); 13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, and founder of the modern Burmese army (Tatmadaw), and considered to be the Father of (modern-day) Burma.

He was a founder of the Communist Party of Burma and was instrumental in bringing about Burma’s independence from British colonial rule in Burma, but was assassinated six months before its final achievement. He is recognized as the leading architect of independence, and the founder of the Union of Burma. Affectionately known as “Bogyoke” (General), Aung San is still widely admired by the Burmese people, and his name is still invoked in Burmese politics to this day.

Aung San is the father of Nobel Peace laureate and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

Contents

 [hide

Youth

Aung San was born to U Pha, a lawyer, and his wife Daw Suu in Natmauk, Magway District, in central Burma on 13 February 1915. His family was already well known in the Burmese resistance movement; his great uncle Bo Min Yaung fought against the British annexation of Burma in 1886.

Aung San received his primary education at a Buddhist monastic school in Natmauk, and secondary education at Yenangyaung High School. He went to

 Rangoon University (now the University of Yangon) and received a B.A. degree in English Literature, Modern History, and Political Science in 1938. 

Names of Aung San

  • Name at birth: Htein Lin (ထိန်လင်း)
  • As student leader and a thakin: Aung San (သခင်အောင်ဆန်း)
  • Nom de guerre: Bo Tayza (ဗိုလ်တေဇ)
  • Japanese Name: Omoda Monji (面田紋次)
  • Chinese Name: Tan Lu Sho
  • Resistance period code name: Myo Aung (မျိုးအောင်), U Naung Cho (ဦးနောင်ချို)
  • Contact code name with General Ne Win: Ko Set Pe (ကိုစက်ဖေ)

 Struggle for independence

After Aung San entered Rangoon University in 1933, he quickly became a student leader.[1] He was elected to the executive committee of the Rangoon University Students’ Union (RUSU). He then became editor of their magazine Oway (Peacock’s Call).[2]

In February 1936, he was threatened with expulsion from the university, along with U Nu, for refusing to reveal the name of the author of the article Hell Hound At Large, which criticized a senior University official. This led to the Second University Students’ Strike and the university authorities subsequently retracted their expulsion orders. In 1938, Aung San was elected president of both the Rangoon University Student Union (RUSU) and the All-Burma Students Union (ABSU), formed after the strike spread to Mandalay.[2][3] In the same year, the government appointed him as a student representative on the Rangoon University Act Amendment Committee.

In October 1938, Aung San left his law classes and entered national politics. At this point, he was anti-British, and staunchly anti-imperialist. He became a Thakin (lord or master – a politically motivated title that proclaimed that the Burmese people were the true masters of their country, not the colonial rulers who had usurped the title for their exclusive use) when he joined the Dobama Asiayone (Our Burma Union), and acted as their general secretary until August 1940. While in this role, he helped organize a series of countrywide strikes that became known as ME 1300 Revolution (၁၃၀၀ ပြည့် အရေးတော်ပုံ, Htaung thoun ya byei ayeidawbon), named after the Burmese calendar year.

He also helped found another nationalist organization, the Freedom Bloc (ဗမာ့ထွက်ရပ်ဂိုဏ်း, Bama-htwet-yat Gaing), by forming an alliance between the Dobama, the ABSU, politically active monks and Dr Ba Maw‘s Sinyètha (Poor Man’s) Party, and became its general secretary. What remains relatively unknown is the fact that he also became a founder member and first secretary-general of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in August 1939. Shortly afterwards he co-founded the People’s Revolutionary Party, renamed the Socialist Party after the Second World War.[2] In March 1940, he attended the Indian National Congress Assembly in Ramgarh, India. However, the government issued a warrant for his arrest due to Thakin attempts to organize a revolt against the British and he had to flee Burma.[3] He went first to China, seeking assistance from the government there[4] (China was still under nationalist government during World War II), but he was intercepted by the Japanese military occupiers in Amoy, and was convinced by them to go to Japan instead.[2]

World War II period

Whilst Aung San was in Japan, the Blue Print for a Free Burma, which has been widely but mistakenly attributed to him, was drafted.[5] In February 1941, Aung San returned to Burma, with an offer of arms and financial support from the Fumimaro Konoe government. He returned briefly to Japan to receive more military training, along with the first batch of young revolutionaries who came to be known as the Thirty Comrades.[2] On 26 December 1941, with the help of the Minami Kikan, a secret intelligence unit formed to close the Burma Road and to support a national uprising and headed by Colonel Suzuki, he founded the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in Bangkok, Thailand (which was aligned with Japan for most of World War II).[2]

The former capital of Burma, Rangoon (now Yangon), fell to the Japanese in March 1942 (as part of the Burma Campaign in World War II). The BIA formed an administration for the country under Thakin Tun Oke that operated in parallel with the Japanese military administration until the Japanese disbanded it. In July, the disbanded BIA was re-formed as the Burma Defense Army (BDA). Aung San was made a colonel and put in charge of the force.[3] He was later invited to Japan, and was presented with the Order of the Rising Sun by the Emperor.[3]

On 1 August 1943, the Japanese declared Burma to be an independent nation. Aung San was appointed War Minister, and the army was again renamed, this time as the Burma National Army (BNA).[3] Aung San became skeptical of Japanese promises of true independence and of Japan’s ability to win the war. He made plans to organize an uprising in Burma and made contact with the British authorities in India, in cooperation with Communist leaders Thakin Than Tun and Thakin Soe. On 27 March 1945, he led the BNA in a revolt against the Japanese occupiers and helped the Allies defeat the Japanese.[2] 27 March came to be commemorated as ‘Resistance Day’ until the military regime later renamed it ‘Tatmadaw (Armed Forces) Day’.

Post-World War II

After the return of the British, who had established a military administration, the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO), formed in August 1944, was transformed into a united front, comprising the BNA, the Communists and the Socialists, and renamed the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL). The Burma National Army was renamed the Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF) and then gradually disarmed by the British as the Japanese were driven out of various parts of the country. The Patriotic Burmese Forces, while disbanded, were offered positions in the Burma Army under British command according to the Kandy conference agreement with Lord Louis Mountbatten in Ceylon in September 1945.[2] Aung San was offered the rank of Deputy Inspector General of the Burma Army, but he declined it in favor of becoming a civilian political leader and the military leader of the Pyithu yèbaw tat (People’s Volunteer Organisation or PVO).[2]

In January 1946, Aung San became the President of the AFPFL following the return of civil government to Burma the previous October. In September, he was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma by the new British Governor Sir Hubert Rance, and was made responsible for defence and external affairs.[2] Rance and Mountbatten took a very different view from the former British Governor, Sir Reginald Dorman-Smith, and also Winston Churchill, who had called Aung San a ‘traitor rebel leader’.[2] A rift had already developed inside the AFPFL between the Communists and Aung San, leading the nationalists and Socialists, which came to a head when Aung San and others accepted seats on the Executive Council, culminating in the expulsion of Thakin Than Tun and the CPB from the AFPFL.[2][3]

Aung San was to all intents and purposes Prime Minister, although he was still subject to a British veto. On 27 January 1947, Aung San and the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee signed an agreement in London guaranteeing Burma’s independence within a year; Aung San had been responsible for its negotiation.[2] During the stopover in Delhi at a press conference, he stated that the Burmese wanted ‘complete independence’ not dominion status and that they had ‘no inhibitions of any kind’ about ‘contemplating a violent or non-violent struggle or both’ in order to achieve this, and concluded that he hoped for the best but he was prepared for the worst.[3]

Two weeks after the signing of the agreement with Britain, Aung San signed an agreement at the Panglong Conference on 12 February 1947 with leaders from other national groups, expressing solidarity and support for a united Burma.[2][6] Karen representatives played a relatively minor role in the conference and, as subsequent rebellions revealed, remained alienated from the new state. U Aung Zan Wai, U Pe Khin, Major Aung, Sir Maung Gyi and Dr. Sein Mya Maung and Myoma U Than Kywe were among the negotiators of the historical Panglong Conference negotiated with Bamar representative General Aung San and other ethnic leaders in 1947. All these leaders unanimously decided to join the Union of Burma.

In general elections held in April 1947, the AFPFL won 176 out of 210 seats in the election for a Constituent Assembly, while the Karens won 24, the Communists 6 and Anglo-Burmans winning 4.[7] In July, Aung San convened a series of conferences at Sorrenta Villa in Rangoon to discuss the rehabilitation of Burma.

Assassination

On 19 July 1947, a gang of armed paramilitaries of former

Prime Minister U Saw[citation needed]

broke into the Secretariat Building in downtown Rangoon during a meeting of the Executive Council (the shadow government established by the British in preparation for the transfer of power) and assassinated Aung San and six of his cabinet ministers, including his older brother Ba Win, father of Sein Win leader of the government-in-exile, the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB). A cabinet secretary and a bodyguard were also killed. U Saw was subsequently tried and hanged. During his trial a number of middle-ranking British army officers were implicated in the plot; they also were tried and imprisoned. Rumours of higher-level British involvement, and/or involvement by Ne Win, Aung San’s long-term rival for leadership within the AFPFL, are unproven and probably unfounded.[8]

related info

 

General Aung San, the leader of Burma’s independence movement, was assassinated on 19 July 1947. Burma’s first constitution was established in 1948. Therefore Mr Yeo’s incoherent comments were completely incorrect.  The Burmese  military did not rule the country  “since independence”, as Mr Yeo said.

Chronologically, Burma was a fully democratic republic from 1948 to 1962.  On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister.

Why does Mr Yeo owe an apology to Aung San Suu Kyi? Mr Yeo said “that it was also General Aung San who created the rule that a Burmese who married a foreigner cannot rule the country and that now Aung San Suu Kyi is married to a foreigner.”

Mr Yeo is thoroughly mistaken.

The 1948 Constitution stated: “No person shall be eligible for election to the office of President unless he is a citizen of the Union who was, or both of whose parents were, born in any of the territories included within the Union.” Aung San Suu Kyi’s parents were both Burmese. She was born in Burma and she is still a Burmese citizen. Therefore she can be President of Burma, as stated in the Consitution.

Mr Yeo’s comment is thus a great insult to  Aung San Suu Kyi and her family. Also, Mr Yeo, who is Singapore’s Foreign Minister, has insulted over 52 million Burmese who hold the highest respect for General Aung San.

As Burma’s first constitution was established only in 1948, after General Aung San had been murdered, it is  impossible for General Aung San to create a rule to ban any Burmese  who married a foreigner from ruling  the country . The  military junta  only introduced  the   rule  in 2008,  deliberately aimed at preventing Aung San Suu Kyi’s participation in the 2010 elections.

Mr Yeo would have Burmese adhere to the Constitution which was first suspended when General Ne Win came to power through a coup, and which was later amended by the junta for political purposes. Equally, should not Mr Yeo be demanding that the Burmese junta adhere to the results of the 1990 elections which Aung San Suu Kyi’s NLD won overwhelmingly?

Mr Yeo’s  comments, which shows his ignorance of Burmese history, has added fuel to the fire, especially at a time when Aung San Suu Kyi is in a politically-motivated mock trial for breaking the conditions of her house arrest. The charges were laid after an American man paid an uninvited visit to her home. It is widely expected she will  end up in jail. The verdict of her trial is expected to be delivered on Friday.

Mr Yeo said:  “It was because her husband is a foreigner and from the ‘western world’ that the ‘western world’ has come to support Aung San Suu Kyi and have failed to recognise the rule of the military”.

In 1972, Aung San Suu Kyi married  Dr Michael Aris, a scholar of Tibetan culture, in Bhutan. The following year she gave birth to their first son, Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Following this, she earned a Ph.D. at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1985.

Mr Yeo denigrated not only Aung San Suu Kyi’s personal life , his comments also  cast aspersions on  her family and her supporters. Mr Yeo’s labeling of Dr Aris as someone from the ‘western world” shows his lack of  sympathy for Aung San Suu Kyi, her husband and their children.

Dr Aris died of cancer on his 53 birthday on March 27 1999. He had requested to see his wife one last time in Burma but his request was denied by the military junta.

The fact that the ‘western world’ supports  Aung San Suu Kyi has  nothing to do with her husband being a foreigner .  The support for the Burmese cause and for Aung San Suu Kyi comes from all parts of the world,  including Asean countries.

Mr Yeo added that “the problem in Burma is actually a very deep family dispute and the road to democracy for Burma is long and that the elections next year is but a small step towards that goal.”

Burma’s political imbroglio is created by neither Aung San Suu Kyi nor her party, the National League for Democracy (NLD) . The NLD had won a landslide victory in the 1990 elections organised by the military junta which, till today, has refused to hand power over to the NLD. Burma’s problems  are created by the military regime itself such as forcing millions of ethnic minorities  to flee to   neighboring countries, ignoring humanitarian aid to  cyclone Nargis’ victims and killing monks and protesters. The military  regime imprisons  thousands of political prisoners.  News are now emerging that the regime is also seeking to build nuclear reactors with help from North Korea.

Mr Yeo said that “ASEAN has worked well in keeping the peace in this region, in subjecting the member nations to peer pressure and in trying to forge economic integration.”

Ironically,  Mr Yeo’s statement is contradicted by Singapore’s Senior Minister, Mr Goh Chok Tong, who had said that “Singapore investors will likely wait until after Myanmar’s elections next year before pouring any more money into the country”. His comment came at the end of a four-day trip to Burma in June where he met  with Burma’s top generals, including Senior Gen Than Shwe.

To conclude, Singapore’s Foreign Minister insulted Aung San Suu Kyi, her  husband Dr Michael Aris and Burma’s independence leader, General Aung San.

Given the fact that Mr Yeo has gotten his facts wrong, Does he not owe Aung San Suu Kyi – and the Burmese people – an apology?

—–
John Moe is a Burmese pro-democracy activist who had lived and worked in Singapore for eleven years.  He was expelled from Singapore for his involvement in a protest in Singapore in 2007. John can be reached at jmoekt@gmail.com

 Family

While he was War Minister in 1942, Aung San met and married Khin Kyi, and around the same time her sister met and married Thakin Than Tun, the Communist leader. Aung San and Khin Kyi had four children. Their youngest surviving child, Aung San Suu Kyi, is a Nobel Peace Prize laureate and leader of the Burmese Opposition, the National League for Democracy (NLD), and was until 13 November 2010, held under house arrest by the military regime. Their second son, Aung San Lin, died at age eight, when he drowned in an ornamental lake in the grounds of the house. The elder, Aung San Oo, is an engineer working in the United States and has disagreed with his sister’s political activities. Their youngest daughter, Aung San Chit, born in September 1946, died a few days after her birth.[9] Aung San’s wife Daw Khin Kyi died on 27 December 1988.

[edit] Legacy

A statue of Aung San in Mandalay

His place in history as the Architect of Burmese Independence and a national hero is assured both from his own legacy and due to the activities of his daughter. Aung San Suu Kyi was only two when her father died. A martyrs’ mausoleum was built at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda and 19 July was designated Martyr’s Day (Azani nei), a public holiday. His literary work entitled “Burma’s Challenge” was likewise popular.

Aung San’s name had been invoked by successive Burmese governments since independence until the military regime in the 1990s tried to eradicate all traces of Aung San’s memory. Nevertheless, several statues of him adorn the former capital Yangon and his portrait still has pride of place in many homes and offices throughout the country. Scott Market, Yangon’s most famous, was renamed Bogyoke Market in his memory, and Commissioner Road was retitled Bogyoke Aung San Road after independence. These names have been retained. Many towns and cities in Burma have thoroughfares and parks named after him. His portrait was held up everywhere during the 8888 Uprising in 1988 and used as a rallying point.[2] Following the 8888 Uprising, the government redesigned the national currency, the kyat, removing his picture and replacing it with scenes of Burmese life.

References

  1. ^ Maung Maung (1962). Aung San of Burma. The Hauge: Martinus Nijhoff for Yale University. pp. 22, 23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London and New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 90, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 69, 66, 68, 62–63, 65, 77, 78, 6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Aung San Suu Kyi (1984). Aung San of Burma. Edinburgh: Kiscadale 1991. pp. 1, 10, 14, 17, 20, 22, 26, 27, 41, 44. 
  4. ^ Stewart, Whitney. (1997). Aung San Suu Kyi: fearless voice of Burma. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-8225-4931-4
  5. ^ Gustaaf Houtman, In Kei Nemoto (ed) – Reconsidering the Japanese military occupation in Burma (1942–45) (30 May 2007). “Aung San’s lan-zin, the Blue Print and the Japanese Occupation of Burma”. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA), Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN978-4-87297. pp. 179–227. http://ghoutman.googlepages.com/houtmanAung-sanslan-zintheblueprinta.pdf
  6. ^ “The Panglong Agreement, 1947”. Online Burma/Myanmar Library. http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/panglong_agreement.htm
  7. ^ Appleton, G. (1947). “Burma Two Years After Liberation”. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944–) (Blackwell Publishing) 23 (4): 510–521. JSTOR 3016561
  8. ^ Kin Oung, “Who killed Aung San?” (Bangkok: White Lotus, 1993)
  9. ^ Wintle, Justin (2007). Perfect hostage: a life of Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma’s prisoner of conscience. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 9781602392663

Books on Burma


Letters from Burma by Aung San Suu Kyi
“In these fifty-two pieces, originally written for a Japanese newspaper and begun soon after her release from house arrest, she paints a vivid, poignant yet fundamentally optimistic picture of her native land.These letters were awarded the prestigious Japanese Newspaper Association’s Award for 1996. They are illustrated with pencil drawings by the Burmese artist Heinn Htet. ” ~ Penguin Books
The Voice of Hope by Aung San Suu Kyi and Alan Clements
“The Voice of Hope is a rare and intimate journey to the heart of her struggle. Over a period of nine months, Alan Clements, the first American ordained as a Buddhist monk in Burma, met with Aung San Suu Kyi shortly after her release from her first house arrest in July 1995. With her trademark ability to speak directly and compellingly, she presents here her vision of engaged compassion and describes how she has managed to sustain her hope and optimism.” ~ Barnes and Nobel
Freedom from Fear by Aung San Suu Kyi
“This collection of writings, now revised with substantial new material, including the text of the Nobel Peace Prize speech delivered by her son, reflects Aung San Suu Kyi’s greatest hopes and fears for her people and her concern about the need for international cooperation, and gives poignant and humorous reminiscences as well as independent assessments of her role in politics.” ~ Barnes and Noble
Undaunted: My Struggle For Freedom and Survival in Burma by Zoya Phan
Named for a courageous Russian freedom fighter of World War II, Zoya Phan was born in the remote jungles of Burma to the Karen ethnic group, who since the 1960’s has struggled for freedom and democracy against the brutal Burmese military dictatorship. Even though her family constantly lived in hiding, her parents educated her and her siblings to understand the importance of resisting the repressive, to hold their dreams of living in a free society, and to survive myriad relentless attacks.
Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity by Martin Smith
With unparalleled command of largely inaccessible Burmese sources and interviews with many of the leading participants, Martin Smith charts the rise of modern political parties and unravels the complexities of the long-running insurgencies waged by opposition groups, including the Communist Party of Burma, the Karen National Union and a host of other ethnic nationalist movements. In this revised and updated edition, the author vividly explains how one of the most fertile and potentially prosperous countries in Asia has collapsed to become one of the world’s poorest.
Than Shwe: Unmasking Burma’s Tyrant by Benedict Rogers – coming soon
Than Shwe is one of the world’s most brutal dictators, presiding over a military regime that persists in repressing and brutalizing its own people. Until now, his story has not been told. Than Shwe: Unmasking Burma’s Tyrant provides the first-ever account of Than Shwe’s journey from postal clerk to dictator, analyzing his rise through the ranks of the army, his training in psychological warfare, his belief in astrology, his elimination of rivals, and his ruthless suppression of dissent.
The Lizard Cage by Karen Connelly
In her long-awaited first novel, Karen Connelly recreates the world of a Burmese prison, and of the country’s tumultuous years in the late 1980’s, when millions of people rose up to protest against the brutality of their military government. This is a story of human resilience, love and humour — a potent act of empathy and witness.
 
The Iron Road by James Mawdsley
Twenty-eight-year-old James Mawdsley spent much of the past four years in grim Burmese prisons. The Iron Road is his story, and the story of the regime that jailed him, the way it jails, tortures, and kills hundreds of Burmese each day. Mawdsley was working in New Zealand when he learned about the struggle of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the Burmese Nobel laureate who is under house arrest. Outraged, he went to Burma, staged a one-man protest, and was jailed.
From the Land of Green Ghosts: A Burmese Odssey by Pascal Khoo Thwe
Pascal, a member of the Kayan Padaung tribe, was the first member of his community to study English at a university. Within months of his meeting with Dr. Casey, Pascal’s world lay in ruins. Burma’s military dictatorship forces him to sacrifice his studies, and the regime’s brutal armed forces murder his lover. Fleeing to the jungle, he becomes a guerrilla fighter in the life-or-death struggle against the government. In desperation, he writes a letter to the Englishman he met in Mandalay.
From the Land of Green Ghosts unforgettably evokes the realities of life in modern-day Burma and one man’s long journey to freedom despite almost unimaginable odds

THE AUNG SAN SYUU KYI HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Aung San Suu Kyi

Aung San Suu Kyi
အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်
Leader of the National League for Democracy
Incumbent
Assumed office
27 September 1988
Preceded by Position established
Personal details
Born (1945-06-19) 19 June 1945 (age 66)
Rangoon, British Burma
(now Yangon)
Political party National League for Democracy
Spouse(s) Michael Aris (1972–1999)
Children Alexander
Kim
Alma mater University of Delhi
St Hugh’s College, Oxford
University of London
Religion Theravada Buddhism
Awards Rafto Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Jawaharlal Nehru Award
International Simón Bolívar Prize
Olof Palme Prize

Aung San Suu Kyi, AC (Burmese: အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည်; MLCTS: aung hcan: cu. krany, Burmese pronunciation: [ʔàʊɴ sʰáɴ sṵ tɕì]; born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese opposition politician and the General Secretary of the National League for Democracy. In the 1990 general election, her National League for Democracy party won 59% of the national votes and 81% (392 of 485) of the seats in Parliament.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] She had, however, already been detained under house arrest before the elections. She remained under house arrest in Burma for almost 15 of the 21 years from 20 July 1989 until her most recent release on 13 November 2010,[8] becoming one of the world’s most prominent (now former) political prisoners.[9]

Suu Kyi received the Rafto Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. In 1992 she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding by the government of India and the International Simón Bolívar Prize from the government of Venezuela. In 2007, the Government of Canada made her an honorary citizen of that country,[10] one of only five people ever to receive the honor.[11] In 2011, she was awarded the Wallenberg Medal.[12]

On 1 April 2012, her opposition party, the National League for Democracy, announced that she was elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the lower house of the Burmese parliament, representing the constituency of Kawhmu,[13] when the party claimed to have swept the election in a landslide victory;[14] however, the election results must be confirmed by the official electoral commission which has yet to release any outcome, and may not make an official declaration for days.[15]

Suu Kyi is the third child and only daughter of Aung San, considered to be the father of modern-day Burma.

 

[edit] Name

Aung San Suu Kyi derives her name from three relatives: “Aung San” from her father, “Suu” from her paternal grandmother and “Kyi” from her mother Khin Kyi.[16] She is frequently called Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Daw is not part of her name, but is an honorific, similar to madame, for older, revered women, literally meaning “aunt.”[17] She is also often referred to as Daw Suu by the Burmese (or Amay Suu, lit. “Mother Suu,” by some followers),[18][19] or “Aunty Suu”, and as Dr. Suu Kyi,[20] Ms. Suu Kyi, or Mrs. Suu Kyi by the foreign media. However, like other Burmese, she has no surname (see Burmese names). The pronunciation of her name is approximated as “Awn Sahn Sue Chee,” although the “ch” in “Chee” is unaspirated.[21]

[edit] Personal life

Part of a series on the
Democracy movements in Burma
Flag of National League for Democracy.svg
The fighting peacock flag
Background
Post-independence Burma
Internal conflict in Burma
Burmese Way to Socialism
State Peace and Development Council
Mass protests
8888 Uprising · Protests of 2007
Concessions and reforms
Roadmap to democracy
New constitution
Reforms of 2011
Elections
1990 · 2010 · 2012
Organizations
National League for Democracy · 88 Generation Students Group · Burma Campaign UK · Free Burma Coalition · U.S. Campaign for Burma · Generation Wave · All Burma Students’ Democratic Front · The Irrawaddy · Democratic Voice of Burma · Mizzima News
Figures
U Nu · Aung Gyi · Tin Oo · Aung San Suu Kyi · Min Ko Naing · Thein Sein
Related topics
Human rights in Burma · Politics of Burma · Foreign relations of Burma

Aung San Suu Kyi was born in Rangoon (now named Yangon).[22] Her father, Aung San, founded the modern Burmese army and negotiated Burma’s independence from the British Empire in 1947; he was assassinated by his rivals in the same year. She grew up with her mother, Khin Kyi, and two brothers, Aung San Lin and Aung San Oo, in Rangoon. Aung San Lin died at age eight, when he drowned in an ornamental lake on the grounds of the house.[16] Her elder brother emigrated to San Diego, California, becoming a United States citizen.[16] After Aung San Lin’s death, the family moved to a house by Inya Lake where Suu Kyi met people of very different backgrounds, political views and religions.[23] She was educated in Methodist English High School (now Basic Education High School No. 1 Dagon) for much of her childhood in Burma, where she was noted as having a talent for learning languages.[24] She is a Theravada Buddhist.

Suu Kyi’s mother, Khin Kyi, gained prominence as a political figure in the newly formed Burmese government. She was appointed Burmese ambassador to India and Nepal in 1960, and Aung San Suu Kyi followed her there, she studied in the Convent of Jesus and Mary School, New Delhi and graduated from Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi with a degree in politics in 1964.[25][26] Suu Kyi continued her education at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, obtaining a B.A. degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1969. After graduating, she lived in New York City with a family friend and worked at the UN for three years, primarily on budget matters, writing daily to her future husband, Dr. Michael Aris.[27] In 1972, Aung San Suu Kyi married Aris, a scholar of Tibetan culture, living abroad in Bhutan.[25] The following year she gave birth to their first son, Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Subsequently, she earned a PhD at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1985. She was elected as an Honorary Fellow in 1990.[25] For two years she was a Fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Shimla, India. She also worked for the government of the Union of Burma.

In 1988 Suu Kyi returned to Burma, at first to tend for her ailing mother but later to lead the pro-democracy movement. Aris’ visit in Christmas 1995 turned out to be the last time that he and Suu Kyi met, as Suu Kyi remained in Burma and the Burmese dictatorship denied him any further entry visas.[25] Aris was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 which was later found to be terminal. Despite appeals from prominent figures and organizations, including the United States, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Pope John Paul II, the Burmese government would not grant Aris a visa, saying that they did not have the facilities to care for him, and instead urged Aung San Suu Kyi to leave the country to visit him. She was at that time temporarily free from house arrest but was unwilling to depart, fearing that she would be refused re-entry if she left, as she did not trust the military junta‘s assurance that she could return.[28]

Aris died on his 53rd birthday on 27 March 1999. Since 1989, when his wife was first placed under house arrest, he had seen her only five times, the last of which was for Christmas in 1995. She was also separated from her children, who live in the United Kingdom, but starting in 2011, they have visited her in Burma.[29]

On 2 May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, Suu Kyi lost the roof of her house and lived in virtual darkness after losing electricity in her dilapidated lakeside residence. She used candles at night as she was not provided any generator set.[30] Plans to renovate and repair the house were announced in August 2009.[31] Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010.[32]

 Political beginnings

Coincident with Aung San Suu Kyi’s return to Burma in 1988, the long-time military leader of Burma and head of the ruling party, General Ne Win, stepped down. Mass demonstrations for democracy followed that event on 8 August 1988 (8–8–88, a day seen as auspicious), which were violently suppressed in what came to be known as the 8888 Uprising. On 26 August 1988, she addressed half a million people at a mass rally in front of the Shwedagon Pagoda in the capital, calling for a democratic government.[25] However in September, a new military junta took power.

Influenced[33] by both Mahatma Gandhi‘s philosophy of non-violence[34][35] and more specifically by Buddhist concepts,[36] Aung San Suu Kyi entered politics to work for democratization, helped found the National League for Democracy on 27 September 1988,[37] but was put under house arrest on 20 July 1989. Offered freedom if she left the country, she refused.

One of her most famous speeches was “Freedom From Fear”, which began: “It is not power that corrupts, but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it.”

She also believes fear spurs many world leaders to lose sight of their purpose. “Government leaders are amazing”, she once said. “So often it seems they are the last to know what the people want.”[38]

[edit] Political career

[edit] 1990 general election

In 1990, the military junta called a general election, in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) received 59% of the votes, guaranteeing NLD 80% of the parliament seats. Some claim that Aung San Suu Kyi would have assumed the office of Prime Minister;[39] in fact, however, as she wasn’t permitted, she did not stand as a candidate in the elections (although being a MP isn’t a strict prerequisite for becoming PM in most parliamentary systems). Instead, the results were nullified and the military refused to hand over power, resulting in an international outcry. Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house arrest at her home on University Avenue (

) in Rangoon, during which time she was awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990, and the Nobel Peace Prize the year after. Her sons Alexander and Kim accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on her behalf. Aung San Suu Kyi used the Nobel Peace Prize’s 1.3 million USD prize money to establish a health and education trust for the Burmese people.[40] Around this time, Suu Kyi chose non-violence as an expedient political tactic, stating in 2007, “I do not hold to non-violence for moral reasons, but for political and practical reasons,”[41] however, nonviolent action as well as civil resistancein lieu of armed conflict are also political tactics in keeping with the overall philosophy of her Theravada Buddhist religion. 

[edit] 1996 attack

On 9 November 1996, the motorcade that she was traveling in with other National League for Democracy leaders Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung, was attacked in Yangon. About 200 men swooped down on the motorcade, wielding metal chains, metal batons, stones and other weapons. The car that Aung San Suu Kyi was in had its rear window smashed, and the car with Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung had its rear window and two backdoor windows shattered. It is believed the offenders were members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) who were allegedly paid 500 kyats (@ USD $0.5) each to participate. The NLD lodged an official complaint with the police, and according to reports the government launched an investigation, but no action was taken. (Amnesty International 120297)[42]

[edit] House arrest

Aung San Suu Kyi has been placed under house arrest for 15 of the past 21 years, on different occasions, since she began her political career,[43] during which time she was prevented from meeting her party supporters and international visitors. In an interview, Suu Kyi said that while under house arrest she spent her time reading philosophy, politics and biographies that her husband had sent her.[44] She also passed the time playing the piano, and was occasionally allowed visits from foreign diplomats as well as from her personal physician.[45]

The media were also prevented from visiting Suu Kyi, as occurred in 1998 when journalist Maurizio Giuliano, after photographing her, was stopped by customs officials who then confiscated all the reporter’s films, tapes and some notes.[46] In contrast, Suu Kyi did have visits from government representatives, such as during her autumn 1994 house arrest when she met the leader of Burma, General Than Shwe and General Khin Nyunt on 20 September in the first meeting since she had been placed in detention.[25] On several occasions during Suu Kyi’s house arrest, she had periods of poor health and as a result was hospitalized.[47]

The Burmese government detained and kept Suu Kyi imprisoned because it viewed her as someone “likely to undermine the community peace and stability” of the country, and used both Article 10(a) and 10(b) of the 1975 State Protection Act (granting the government the power to imprison people for up to five years without a trial),[48] and Section 22 of the “Law to Safeguard the State Against the Dangers of Those Desiring to Cause Subversive Acts” as legal tools against her.[49] She continuously appealed her detention,[50] and many nations and figures continued to call for her release and that of 2,100 other political prisoners in the country.[51][52] On 12 November 2010, days after the junta-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) won elections conducted after a gap of almost 20 years, the junta finally agreed to sign orders allowing Suu Kyi’s release,[53] and Suu Kyi’s house arrest term came to an end on 13 November 2010.

[edit] UN involvement

The UN has attempted to facilitate dialogue between the junta and Suu Kyi.[54] On 6 May 2002, following secret confidence-building negotiations led by the UN, the government released her; a government spokesman said that she was free to move “because we are confident that we can trust each other”. Aung San Suu Kyi proclaimed “a new dawn for the country”. However on 30 May 2003 in an incident similar to the 1996 attack on her, a government-sponsored mob attacked her caravan in the northern village of Depayin, murdering and wounding many of her supporters.[55] Aung San Suu Kyi fled the scene with the help of her driver, Ko Kyaw Soe Lin, but was arrested upon reaching Ye-U. The government imprisoned her at Insein Prison in Rangoon. After she underwent a hysterectomy in September 2003,[56] the government again placed her under house arrest in Rangoon.

The results from the UN facilitation have been mixed; Razali Ismail, UN special envoy to Burma, met with Aung San Suu Kyi. Ismail resigned from his post the following year, partly because he was denied re-entry to Burma on several occasions.[57] Several years later in 2006, Ibrahim Gambari, UN Undersecretary-General (USG) of Department of Political Affairs, met with Aung San Suu Kyi, the first visit by a foreign official since 2004.[58] He also met with Suu Kyi later the same year.[59] On 2 October 2007 Gambari returned to talk to her again after seeing Than Shwe and other members of the senior leadership in Naypyidaw.[60] State television broadcast Suu Kyi with Gambari, stating that they had met twice. This was Suu Kyi’s first appearance in state media in the four years since her current detention began.[61]

The United Nations Working Group for Arbitrary Detention published an Opinion that Aung San Suu Kyi’s deprivation of liberty was arbitrary and in contravention of Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, and requested that the authorities in Burma set her free, but the authorities ignored the request at that time.[62] The U.N. report said that according to the Burmese Government’s reply, “Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has not been arrested, but has only been taken into protective custody, for her own safety”, and while “it could have instituted legal action against her under the country’s domestic legislation … it has preferred to adopt a magnanimous attitude, and is providing her with protection in her own interests.”[62]

Such claims were rejected by Brig-General Khin Yi, Chief of Myanmar Police Force (MPF). On 18 January 2007, the state-run paper New Light of Myanmar accused Suu Kyi of tax evasion for spending her Nobel Prize money outside of the country. The accusation followed the defeat of a US-sponsored United Nations Security Council resolution condemning Burma as a threat to international security; the resolution was defeated because of strong opposition from China, which has strong ties with the military junta (China later voted against the resolution, along with Russia and South Africa).[63]

In November 2007, it was reported that Suu Kyi would meet her political allies National League for Democracy along with a government minister. The ruling junta made the official announcement on state TV and radio just hours after UN special envoy Ibrahim Gambari ended his second visit to Burma. The NLD confirmed that it had received the invitation to hold talks with Suu Kyi.[64] However, the process delivered few concrete results.

On 3 July 2009, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon went to Burma to pressure the junta into releasing Suu Kyi and to institute democratic reform. However, on departing from Burma, Ban Ki-moon said he was “disappointed” with the visit after junta leader Than Shwe refused permission for him to visit Suu Kyi, citing her ongoing trial. Ban said he was “deeply disappointed that they have missed a very important opportunity.”[65]

[edit] Periods under detention

  • 20 July 1989: Placed under house arrest in Rangoon under martial law that allows for detention without charge or trial for three years.[54]
  • 10 July 1995: Released from house arrest.[16]
  • 23 September 2000: Placed under house arrest.[43]
  • 6 May 2002: Released after 19 months.[43]
  • 30 May 2003: Arrested following the Depayin massacre, she was held in secret detention for more than three months before being returned to house arrest.[66]
  • 25 May 2007: House arrest extended by one year despite a direct appeal from U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan to General Than Shwe.[67]
  • 24 October 2007: Reached 12 years under house arrest, solidarity protests held at 12 cities around the world.[68]
  • 27 May 2008: House arrest extended for another year, which is illegal under both international law and Burma’s own law.[69]
  • 11 August 2009: House arrest extended for 18 more months because of “violation” arising from the May 2009 trespass incident.
  • 13 November 2010: Released from house arrest.[70]

[edit] 2007 anti-government protests

Protests led by Buddhist monks began on 19 August 2007 following steep fuel price increases, and continued each day, despite the threat of a crackdown by the military.[71]

On 22 September 2007, although still under house arrest, Suu Kyi made a brief public appearance at the gate of her residence in Yangon to accept the blessings of Buddhist monks who were marching in support of human rights.[72] It was reported that she had been moved the following day to Insein Prison (where she had been detained in 2003),[73][74][75][76] but meetings with UN envoy Ibrahim Gambari near her Rangoon home on 30 September and 2 October established that she remained under house arrest.[77][78]

[edit] 2009 trespass incident

U.S. Senator Jim Webb visiting Suu Kyi in 2009. Webb negotiated the release of John Yettaw, the man who trespassed in Suu Kyi’s home, resulting in her arrest and conviction with three years’ hard labour.

On 3 May 2009, an American man, identified as John Yettaw, swam across Inya Lake to her house uninvited and was arrested when he made his return trip three days later.[79] He had attempted to make a similar trip two years earlier, but for unknown reasons was turned away.[80] He later claimed at trial that he was motivated by a divine vision requiring him to notify her of an impending terrorist assassination attempt.[81] On 13 May, Suu Kyi was arrested for violating the terms of her house arrest because the swimmer, who pleaded exhaustion, was allowed to stay in her house for two days before he attempted the swim back. Suu Kyi was later taken to Insein Prison, where she could have faced up to five years confinement for the intrusion.[82] The trial of Suu Kyi and her two maids began on 18 May and a small number of protesters gathered outside.[83][84] Diplomats and journalists were barred from attending the trial; however, on one occasion, several diplomats from Russia, Thailand and Singapore and journalists were allowed to meet Suu Kyi.[85] The prosecution had originally planned to call 22 witnesses.[86] It also accused John Yettaw of embarrassing the country.[87] During the ongoing defence case, Suu Kyi said she was innocent. The defence was allowed to call only one witness (out of four), while the prosecution was permitted to call 14 witnesses. The court rejected two character witnesses, NLD members Tin Oo and Win Tin, and permitted the defense to call only a legal expert.[88] According to one unconfirmed report, the junta was planning to, once again, place her in detention, this time in a military base outside the city.[89] In a separate trial, Yettaw said he swam to Suu Kyi’s house to warn her that her life was “in danger”.[90] The national police chief later confirmed that Yettaw was the “main culprit” in the case filed against Suu Kyi.[91] According to aides, Suu Kyi spent her 64th birthday in jail sharing biryani rice and chocolate cake with her guards.[92]

Her arrest and subsequent trial received worldwide condemnation by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Security Council,[93] Western governments,[94] South Africa,[95] Japan[96] and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, of which Burma is a member.[97] The Burmese government strongly condemned the statement, as it created an “unsound tradition”[98] and criticised Thailand for meddling in its internal affairs.[99] The Burmese Foreign Minister Nyan Win was quoted in the state-run newspaper New Light of Myanmar as saying that the incident “was trumped up to intensify international pressure on Burma by internal and external anti-government elements who do not wish to see the positive changes in those countries’ policies toward Burma”.[87] Ban responded to an international campaign[100] by flying to Burma to negotiate, but Than Shwe rejected all of his requests.[101]

On 11 August 2009 the trial concluded with Suu Kyi being sentenced to imprisonment for three years with hard labour. This sentence was commuted by the military rulers to further house arrest of 18 months.[102] On 14 August, U.S. Senator Jim Webb visited Burma, visiting with junta leader Gen. Than Shwe and later with Suu Kyi. During the visit, Webb negotiated Yettaw’s release and deportation from Burma.[103] Following the verdict of the trial, lawyers of Suu Kyi said they would appeal against the 18-month sentence.[104] On 18 August, United States President Barack Obama asked the country’s military leadership to set free all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi.[105] In her appeal, Aung San Suu Kyi had argued that the conviction was unwarranted. However, her appeal against the August sentence was rejected by a Burmese court on 2 October 2009. Although the court accepted the argument that the 1974 constitution, under which she had been charged, was null and void, it also said the provisions of the 1975 security law, under which she has been kept under house arrest, remained in force. The verdict effectively meant that she would be unable to participate in the elections scheduled to take place in 2010 – the first in Burma in two decades. Her lawyer stated that her legal team would pursue a new appeal within 60 days.[106]

[edit] 2009: International pressure for release, and Burmese general election 2010

It was announced prior to the Burmese general election that Aung San Suu Kyi may be released “so she can organize her party,”[107] However, Suu Kyi was not allowed to run.[108] On 1 October 2010 the government announced that she would be released on 13 November 2010.[109]

Burma’s relaxing stance, such as releasing political prisoners, was influenced in the wake of successful recent diplomatic visits by the US and other democratic governments, urging or encouraging the Burmese towards democratic reform. U.S. President Barack Obama personally advocated for the release of all political prisoners, especially Aung San Suu Kyi, during the US-ASEAN Summit of 2009.[110]

Democratic governments[which?] hoped that successful general elections would be an optimistic indicator of the Burmese government’s sincerity towards eventual democracy.[111] The Hatoyama government which spent 2.82 billion yen in 2008, has promised more Japanese foreign aid to encourage Burma to release Aung San Suu Kyi in time for the elections; and to continue moving towards democracy and the rule of law.[111][112]

In a personal letter to Suu Kyi, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown cautioned the Burmese government of the potential consequences of rigging elections as “condemning Burma to more years of diplomatic isolation and economic stagnation”.[113]

The Burmese government has been granting Suu Kyi varying degrees of freedom throughout late 2009, in response to international pressure. She has met with many heads of state, and opened a dialog with the Minister of Labor Aung Kyi (not to be confused with Aung San Suu Kyi).[114]

Suu Kyi was allowed to meet with senior members of her NLD party at the State House,[115] however these meeting took place under close supervision.

[edit] 2010 release

Aung San Suu Kyi addresses crowds at the NLD headquarters shortly after her release.

Aung San Suu Kyi meets with US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton in Yangon (1 December 2011)

On the evening of 13 November 2010, Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest.[116] This was the date her detention had been set to expire according to a court ruling in August 2009[117] and came six days after a widely criticized general election. She appeared in front of a crowd of her supporters, who rushed to her house in Rangoon when nearby barricades were removed by the security forces. The Nobel Peace Prize laureate had been detained for 15 of the past 21 years.[118] The government newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported the release positively,[119] saying she had been granted a pardon after serving her sentence “in good conduct”.[120] The New York Times suggested that the military government may have released Suu Kyi because it felt it was in a confident position to control her supporters after the election.[119] The role that Aung San Suu Kyi will play in the future of democracy in Burma remains a subject of much debate.

Her son Kim Aris was granted a visa in November 2010 to see his mother, Aung San Suu Kyi, shortly after her release, for the first time in 10 years.[121] He visited again in 5 July 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Bagan, her first trip outside Yangon since 2003.[122] Her son visited again in 8 August 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Pegu, her second trip.[123]

Discussions were held between Suu Kyi and the Burmese government during 2011, which led to a number of official gestures to meet her demands. In October, around a tenth of Burma’s political prisoners were freed in an amnesty and trade unions were legalised.[124][125]

In November 2011, following a meeting of its leaders, the NLD announced its intention to re-register as a political party in order contend 48 by-elections necessitated by the promotion of parliamentarians to ministerial rank.[126] Following the decision, Suu Kyi held a telephone conference with U.S. President Barack Obama, in which it was agreed that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton would make a visit to Burma, a move received with caution by Burma’s ally China.[127] On 1 December 2011, Suu Kyi met with Hillary Clinton at the residence of the top-ranking US diplomat in Yangon.[128] Suu Kyi also held an hour long interview for a class of 3000 students at Virginia Tech via Skype on 5 December 2011. During the interview, Suu Kyi answered questions from students, sharing her wisdom in her fight for democracy.[129]

On 21 December 2011, Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra met Suu Kyi in Yangoon, becoming Suu Kyi’s first-ever meeting with the leader of a foreign country after her release from house arrest.[130]

On 5 January 2012, British Foreign Minister William Hague met Aung San Suu Kyi and his Burmese counterpart. This represented a significant visit for Suu Kyi and Burma. Suu Kyi studied in the UK and maintains many ties there, whilst Britain is Burma’s largest bilateral donor.

[edit] 2012 by-elections

In December 2011, there was speculation that Suu Kyi would run in the 2012 national by-elections to fill vacant seats.[131] On 18 January 2012, Suu Kyi formally registered to contest a Pyithu Hluttaw (lower house) seat in the Kawhmu Township constituency in special parliamentary elections to be held on 1 April 2012.[132][133] The seat was previously held by Soe Tint, who vacated it after being appointed Construction Deputy Minister, in the 2010 election.[134] She is running against Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Soe Min, a retired army physician and native of Twante Township.[135]

On 3 March 2012, at a large campaign rally in Mandalay, Suu Kyi unexpectedly left after 15 minutes, because of exhaustion and airsickness.[136]

In an official campaign speech broadcast on Burmese state television’s MRTV on 14 March 2012, Suu Kyi publicly campaigned for reform of the 2008 Constitution, removal of restrictive laws, more adequate protections for people’s democratic rights, and establishment of an independent judiciary.[137] The speech was leaked online a day before it was broadcast.[138] A paragraph in the speech, focusing on the Tatmadaw‘s repression by means of law, was censored by authorities.[139]

Suu Kyi has also called for international media to monitor the upcoming by-elections, while publicly pointing out irregularities in official voter lists, which include deceased individuals and exclude other eligible voters in the contested constituencies.[140][141] On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying “Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can even say they are increasing.”[142]

When asked whether she would assume a ministerial post if given the opportunity, she said the following:[143]

I can tell you one thing – that under the present constitution, if you become a member of the government you have to vacate your seat in the national assembly. And I am not working so hard to get into parliament simply to vacate my seat.

On 26 March 2012, Suu Kyi suspended her nationwide campaign tour early, after a campaign rally in Myeik (Mergui), a coastal town in the south, citing health problems due to exhaustion and hot weather.[144]

On 1 April 2012, the NLD announced that Suu Kyi had “easily” won the vote for a seat in Parliament, though the official counting had not yet finished.[145]

[edit] International support

May 2009 demonstration for Aung San Suu Kyi in Rome, Italy

The 2009 celebration of Aung San Suu Kyi’s birthday in Dublin, Ireland

Aung San Suu Kyi has received vocal support from Western nations in Europe,[146] Australia[146] and North[147] and South America, as well as India,[3] Israel,[148] Japan[149] the Philippines and South Korea.[150] In December 2007, the US House of Representatives voted unanimously 400–0 to award Aung San Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold Medal; the Senate concurred on 25 April 2008.[151] On 6 May 2008, President George Bush signed legislation awarding Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold Medal.[152] She is the first recipient in American history to receive the prize while imprisoned. More recently, there has been growing criticism of her detention by Burma’s neighbours in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, particularly from Indonesia,[153] Thailand,[154] the Philippines[155][156] and Singapore.[157] At one point Malaysia warned Burma that it faced expulsion from ASEAN as a result of the detention of Suu Kyi.[158] Other nations including South Africa,[159] Bangladesh[160] and the Maldives[161] have also called for her release. The United Nations has urged the country to move towards inclusive national reconciliation, the restoration of democracy, and full respect for human rights.[162] In December 2008, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the human rights situation in Burma and calling for Suu Kyi’s release—80 countries voting for the resolution, 25 against and 45 abstentions.[163] Other nations, such as China and Russia, are less critical of the regime and prefer to cooperate only on economic matters.[164] Indonesia has urged China to push Burma for reforms.[165] However, Samak Sundaravej, former Prime Minister of Thailand, criticised the amount of support for Suu Kyi, saying that “Europe uses Aung San Suu Kyi as a tool. If it’s not related to Aung San Suu Kyi, you can have deeper discussions with Myanmar.”[166]

Aung San Suu Kyi greeting supporters from Bago State in 2011.

Vietnam, however, does not support calls by other ASEAN member states for Myanmar to free Aung San Suu Kyi, state media reported Friday, 14 August 2009.[167] The state-run Việt Nam News said Vietnam had no criticism of Myanmar’s decision 11 August 2009 to place Suu Kyi under house arrest for the next 18 months, effectively barring her from elections scheduled for 2010. “It is our view that the Aung San Suu Kyi trial is an internal affair of Myanmar”, Vietnamese government spokesman Le Dung stated on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In contrast with other ASEAN member states, Dung said Vietnam has always supported Myanmar and hopes it will continue to implement the “roadmap to democracy” outlined by its government.[168]

[edit] Nobel Peace Prize

Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The decision of the Nobel Committee mentions:[169]

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar (Burma) for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights….Suu Kyi’s struggle is one of the most extraordinary examples of civil courage in Asia in recent decades. She has become an important symbol in the struggle against oppression……In awarding the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to honour this woman for her unflagging efforts and to show its support for the many people throughout the world who are striving to attain democracy, human rights and ethnic conciliation by peaceful means.
—Oslo, 14 October 1991

Nobel Peace Prize winners (Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the Dalai Lama, Shirin Ebadi, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Mairead Corrigan, Rigoberta Menchú, Prof. Elie Wiesel, U.S. President Barack Obama, Betty Williams, Jody Williams and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter) called for the rulers of Burma to release Suu Kyi in order to “create the necessary conditions for a genuine dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and all concerned parties and ethnic groups in order to achieve an inclusive national reconciliation with the direct support of the United Nations.”[54] Some of the money she received as part of the award helps fund London-based charity Prospect Burma, which provides higher education grants to Burmese students.[170]

[edit] Organizations

  • Freedom Now, a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit organization, was retained in 2006 by a member of her family to help secure Aung San Suu Kyi’s release from house arrest. The organization secured several opinions from the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention that her detention was in violation of international law; engaged in political advocacy such as spearheading a letter from 112 former Presidents and Prime Ministers to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urging him to go to Burma to seek her release, which he did six weeks later; and published numerous opeds and spoke widely to the media about her ongoing detention. Its representation of her ended when she was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010.[171]
  • Aung San Suu Kyi has been an honorary board member of International IDEA and ARTICLE 19 since her detention, and has received support from these organisations.
  • The Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université catholique de Louvain, both located in Belgium, have granted her the title of Doctor Honoris Causa.[172]
  • In 2003, the Freedom Forum recognized Suu Kyi’s efforts to promote democracy peacefully with the Al Neuharth Free Spirit of the Year Award, in which she was presented over satellite because she was under house arrest. She was awarded one million dollars.[173]
  • In June of each year, the U.S. Campaign for Burma organizes hundreds of “Arrest Yourself” house parties around the world in support of Aung San Suu Kyi. At these parties, the organizers keep themselves under house arrest for 24 hours, invite their friends, and learn more about Burma and Aung San Suu Kyi.[174]
  • The Freedom Campaign, a joint effort between the Human Rights Action Center and US Campaign for Burma, looks to raise worldwide attention to the struggles of Aung San Suu Kyi and the people of Burma.
  • The Burma Campaign UK is a UK based NGO (Non Governmental Organisation) that aims to raise awareness of Burma’s struggles and follow the guidelines established by the NLD and Aung San Suu Kyi.
  • St. Hugh’s College, Oxford, where she studied, had a Burmese theme for their annual ball in support of her in 2006.[175]
  • Aung San Suu Kyi is the official patron of The Rafto Human Rights House in Bergen, Norway. She received the Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize in 1990.
  • She was made an honorary free person of the City of Dublin, Ireland in November 1999, although a space had been left on the roll of signatures to symbolize her continued detention.
  • In November 2005 the human rights group Equality Now proposed Aung Sun Suu Kyi as a potential candidate, among other qualifying women, for the position of U.N. Secretary General.[176] In the proposed list of qualified women Suu Kyi is recognised by Equality Now as the Prime Minister-Elect of Burma.[2]
  • The UN’ special envoy to Myanmar, Ibrahim Gambari, met Aung San Suu Kyi on 10 March 2008 before wrapping up his trip to the military-ruled country.[177]
  • Aung San Suu Kyi is an honorary member of The Elders, a group of eminent global leaders brought together by Nelson Mandela.[178] Her ongoing detention means that she is unable to take an active role in the group, so The Elders place an empty chair for her at their meetings.[179] The Elders have consistently called for the release of all political prisoners in Burma.[180]
  • In 2008, Burma’s devoted human rights leader and Nobel Peace Prize, was welcomed as Club of Madrid Honorary Member.
  • In 2011 Aung San Suu Kyi is the Guest Director of the 45th Brighton Festival
  • In June 2011, the BBC announced that Aung San Suu Kyi was to deliver the 2011 Reith Lectures. The BBC covertly recorded two lectures with Aung San Suu Kyi in Burma, which were then smuggled out of the country and brought back to London.[181] The lectures were broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and the BBC World Service on 28 June 2011 and 5 July 2011.
  • In November 2011, Suu Kyi received Francois Zimeray, France’s Ambassador for Human Rights.

[edit] Books

[edit] Authored

[edit] Edited

  • Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson. Edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi. (1979). Vikas Publishing house, New Delhi.

[edit] Awards

[edit] Popular media

  • She was portrayed by Adelle Lutz in John Boorman‘s 1995 motion picture Beyond Rangoon, which takes place during the 8888 Uprising.
  • Jazz saxophonist Wayne Shorter composed in her honor the piece “Aung San Suu Kyi”, which appeared on 1+1 (1997), a duet album with pianist Herbie Hancock.
  • In a list compiled by New Statesman in 2006, she was voted as number one among the “50 Heroes of Our Time”.[208]
  • The 2000 song “Walk On” by U2 is about her, according to Bono.[209] Suu Kyi was regularly mentioned as the song was played during 2001’s Elevation Tour. During the 2009 leg of the 360° Tour, the band invited fans to wear masks of Suu Kyi’s face (printable from their website) during the song “Walk On”.[210]
  • The Lady Of Burma, a play written by Richard Shannon and staged in the London Old Vic, dealt with the life of Aung San Suu Kyi and received rave reviews in the UK press, including The Independent.[211]
  • She was voted as number 34 among “The World’s 50 Most Influential Figures 2010” by the British magazine New Statesman.[212]
  • “Unplayed Piano” by Damien Rice was released in Ireland on 17 June 2005 and in the UK on 20 June 2005 to coincide with Aung San Suu Kyi’s 60th birthday. The song was written for Suu Kyi following a visit by Damien to Burma in July 2004. Proceeds from the sale of the single go to the Burma Campaign UK. Rice and Hannigan recorded a charity song, campaigning for her release, called “Unplayed Piano”, which they performed at the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize Concert in Oslo.
  • Actress Michelle Yeoh portrays Aung San Suu Kyi in the 2011 film The Lady, directed by Luc Besson.
  • A 2m x 2m portrait of her was painted for the 54th Venice Biennale by Gavin Rain, working with the Burma Campaign UK in an attempt to highlight her current plight. The painting was also on display at the Italian premier of the 2011 film The Lady in Rome in October 2011, attended by both Yeoh and Besson.[213]

THE END @ COPYRIGHT 2012

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THE RARE COIN IN USA

THE BEST TEN COINS IN USA

Flowing Hair Dollar

1794

 

Rank 01

Rank 01 - 1794 Flowing Hair Dollar - $7,850,000

Contursi specimen 1794 Flowing Hair silver dollar has been sold for $7,850,000, setting a new record as the worlds most valuable rare coin.

Graded PCGS Specimen-66, it is the finest known 1794 dollar and believed by several prominent experts to be the first silver dollar ever struck by the United States Mint.

It was sold by Steven L. Contursi, President of Rare Coin Wholesalers of Irvine, California, to the nonprofit Cardinal Collection Educational Foundation (CCEF) in Sunnyvale, California. Collector and numismatic researcher Martin Logies represented the foundation of which he is a director and its numismatic curator. The private sale was brokered by Greg Roberts, President and Chief Executive Officer of Spectrum Group International of Irvine, California.

Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle

1933

 

Rank 02

Rank 02 - 1933 Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle - $7,590,020

The 1933 Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle is the rarest coin in United States History. This original $20 coin was sold at an auction for over $7 million dollars. Today less then 12 of these coins are known to exist. During the Great Depression all gold coins were recalled for melting including the Double Eagles. Only twelve of the coins did not make it back to the mint and were thought to be smuggled out by the employees working there. Today, most of the dozen coins have not been recovered or found and are still out there lost and forgotten.

Some of the Double Eagles Escaped the Melt Down:  Two of the 1933 specimens were given by the Mint to the U.S. National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institute. These were the only two legal specimens to ever become part of a coin collection; however, by 1952, the Secret Service had confiscated 8 more 1933 Double Eagles!  How did they leave the Mint  Why weren’t they melted down

We may never know for certain how these coins left the Mint, but there is a general consensus among scholars that a Mint cashier by the name of George McCann exchanged about 20 1933’s doomed for destruction and replaced them with earlier dated Double Eagles. This way, the accounting books would balance and nobody would realize that anything was amiss. What we do know for sure is that a Philadelphia area jeweler by the name of Israel Switt came into possession of at least 19 of the coins.

Israel Switt sold at least 9 of the 1933 Double Eagles privately to collectors, one of which found its way into the collection of King Farouk of Egypt. When the Secret Service discovered that these coins had surfaced, they confiscated them all because they were considered to be stolen property of the U.S. Mint. However, King Farouk had legally exported his coin before the theft was discovered, and the Secret Service was unable to recover his specimen through diplomatic channels.

Class I Silver Dollar

1804

 

Rank 03

Rank 03 - 1804 Class I Silver Dollar - $4,140,000

This 1804 silver dollar is another one of the rarest and most expensive coins in the United States? History. On August 30th, 1999 this coin sold for $4.14 million dollars at an auction. There are only eight 1804 silver dollars left in the entire world and are all worth well over one million dollars. The few people that own these one of a kind coins, are dedicated collectors who are proud to own a piece of U.S. history.

Class I Specimens

 

 

U.S. Mint Specimen

Retained for the US Mint collection; transferred to the Smithsonian Institution as a part of the National Coin Collection

 

 

Cohen – ANA Specimen

Stolen in 1967 from Willis DuPont; recovered in 1993. Currently displayed at the American Numismatic Association Museum in Colorado Springs

 

Mickley – Reed Hawn Specimen

Obtained by Joseph J. Mickley. Sold at auction for $3,725,000 byHeritage Auction Galleries, May, 2008, as part of the Queller Family Collection

 

Parmelee – Byron Reed Specimen

Once owned by Byron Reed; now in the custody of the Durham Western Heritage Museum of Omaha. ICG

 

Dexter Specimen

 

Watters-Childs Specimen

Believed to have come from the Sultan of Muscat’s proof set. Graded PCGS Proof-68.

 

King of Siam Specimen

Part of the King of Siam Proof Set; “Brilliant Gem Proof” Graded PCGS PR-67.

History

In 1804, United States Mint records indicate that 19,750 silver dollars were struck. However, in keeping with common Mint practice at the time, these were all minted from old but still-usable dies dated 1803, and are indistinguishable from the coins produced the previous year. Silver dollars dated 1804 did not appear until 1834, when the U.S. Department of State was creating sets of coins to present as gifts to certain rulers in Asia in exchange for trade advantages. The U.S. Government ordered the Mint to produce “two specimens of each kind now in use, whether of gold, silver or copper”. Since the silver dollar was still in use, but had last been recorded as produced in 1804, Mint employees struck several dollars with an 1804 date. Due to the cost-cutting measures of the US Mint in its early history and the reuse of 1803 dies, this act led to confusion.

The first 1804 silver dollars minted in 1834 were presented as gifts to Rama III, King of Siam and Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman. The other five were dispersed under unknown circumstances after Ambassador Edmund Roberts died en route during the voyage. One was retained in the US Mint Coin Collection. In 1842, numismatists first learned of the 1804 dollar through a book displaying an illustration of the 1804 dollar from the Mint Cabinet. These silver dollars are known among numismatists as ?original? or Class I 1804 dollars. Eight of these coins are known to exist. One currently resides in the Smithsonian Institution, one is in the American Numismatic Association museum, and the other six are in private collections.

Popular legend states that the rare coin given by King Rama IV of Siam to Anna Leonowens, as seen in the story of Anna and the King of Siam? and the movie The King and I, was indeed the same 1804 silver dollar produced in 1834 as a gift to Siam. This coin was kept in Anna is family for several generations, until in the 1950sit was sold by a pair of  British ladies claiming to be Anna is descendants. This coin was displayed as part of the King of Siam collection at the Smithsonian Institution in 1983, where it was given the name the King of Coins. It was purchased by an anonymous collector in 2001, who purchased the entire set of coins from the King of Siam collection for over $4 million.

Class I Silver Dollar from Queller is Collection – King of American Coins

1804

 

Rank 04

Rank 04 - 1804 Class I Silver Dollar from Queller is Collection - King of American Coins - $3,737,500

The King of American Coins

The Mickley-Hawn-Queller 1804 Silver Dollar Class I Original, PR62 NGC

It is currently not the most expensive American coin-merely the most famous

The 1804 silver dollar has long been renowned as the King of American Coins. Well before such latter-day rarities as the 1913 Liberty nickels, the 1894-S Barber dimes, or the 1907 Ultra High Relief double eagles, the 1804 silver dollars were acknowledged as the most famous U.S. coins, yardsticks by which great American numismatic collections were measured.

Acquisition of an 1804 silver dollar-especially an Original or Class I example-bestows immediate numismatic immortality upon its possessor. The Class I Originals were legitimately struck in proof format at the U.S. Mint, apparently intended for presentation to foreign dignitaries. Some, however, soon found their way into commercial and collector channels. Their long and illustrious pedigrees have names tying them to foreign royalty, exotic destinations, captains of industry, and the luminaries of U.S. numismatics: the King of Siam, the Sultan of Muscat, Joseph J. Mickley, Matthew Stickney, Louis Eliasberg, John Work Garrett, Col. E.H.R. Green, Lorin G. Parmelee.

Liberty Head Nickel

1913

 

Rank 05

Rank 05 - 1913 Liberty Head Nickel - Eliasberg Specimen - $3,737,500

This 1913 Century Liberty Head Nickel also has a gigantic price tag. In a recent auction someone bought this coin for over 3 million dollars. These nickels are so rare because only 5 of the 1913 edition were made and introduced to public. Today all five of the nickels are in the hands of hardcore collectors and are a very interesting piece of history. Good luck getting your hands on one of these valuable babies.

 

NGC Proof-64. Previously graded PCGS Proof-64. The Olsen Specimen. This is probably the most publicized of all 1913 Liberty Head Nickels. It is the only example ever handled by B. Max Mehl, for whom the 1913 nickel was central to his lifelong advertising campaign. The Olsen Specimen has been widely featured in print and on television

 

The Walton Specimen. George O. Walton died as a result of a car accident on March 9, 1962. His 1913 Liberty was declared a fake. Walton’s heirs kept the coin, still in its custom-made holder, for many years, bringing it out again in 2003 in response to a reward offered by Bowers and Merena Galleries. The coin was examined by numismatic experts, pronounced genuine, and presented with much fanfare at the August 2003 American Numismatic Association convention where it was reunited with the four other specimens

 

The Norweb Specimen. The Norweb 1913 Liberty Head Nickel is now a showpiece in the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution. Earlier, it belonged to the colorful King Farouk of Egypt.

 

NGC Proof-55. The McDermott Specimen.

The Indian Head (Buffalo) nickel was introduced in February of 1913, replacing the Liberty Head design. These were the first official strikes of nickels in 1913; the Mint’s official records do not record any Liberty Head nickels produced that year. Liberty Head nickels dated 1913 first came to the attention of the numismatic community in 1920. All five were in the possession of Samuel Brown, a numismatist who attended the American Numismatic Association’s annual convention and displayed the coins there.

In January 1924, Samuel Brown sold all five 1913 Liberty Head nickels. The intact lot passed through the hands of several other coin dealers before finally being purchased by Colonel E.H.R. Green (son of the infamous miser Hetty Green). Green kept them in his collection until his death in 1936. His estate was then auctioned off, and all five of the 1913 Liberty Head nickels were purchased by two dealers, Eric P. Newman and B.G. Johnson. The dealers broke up the set for the first time.

The Eliasberg specimen is the finest known 1913 Liberty Head nickel. Of the five 1913 Liberty Head nickels, two have proof surfaces, and the other three were produced with standard striking techniques. The finest of the coins has been graded Proof-66 by various professional grading services, including PCGS and NGC.

Brasher Doubloon EB on Breast

1787

 

Rank 06

Rank 06 - 1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Breast - $2,990,000

Unique 1787 Brasher Doubloon, EB on Breast, Garrett Specimen

America’s First Gold Coin Struck

Pronounced by Numismatic experts as America is most famous and significant coin, this unique doubloon is also widely accepted as the very first gold coin struck by the United States of America. One of only seven examples known, this specimen is unique in that the EB counterstamp (initials of silversmith Ephraim Brasher, who made the coin) is on the shield over the eagles breast. The other six examples carry the EB stamp on the eagles wing.

A coin of unparalleled historic importance, this precious rarity has been a classic since the earliest days of coin collecting in the United States.

Ultra High Relief $20 (Double Eagle)

1907

 

Rank 07

Rank 07 - 1907 Ultra High Relief $20 (Double Eagle) - $2,990,000

The Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle g

old coin features a full length image of Miss Liberty walking forward, as if she is ready to step out of the coin. She holds aloft in her right hand a torch of enlightenment and her left hand presents an olive branch symbolic of peace. To the lower left, nearly concealed by her flowing gown, the dome of the U.S. Capitol Building is visible. The reverse is dominated by a majestic eagle in flight, bathed in sunlight. The inscriptions UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and TWENTY DOLLARS are arranged in two concentric arcs located above the eagle.

The first trial samples of the Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle were struck in early 1907 and were characterized by their extremely high relief. These patterns were quite stunning in beauty and detail, but required nine hits on the coining press to achieve the desired effect. Of the two dozen or so double eagles struck during the experimentation phase, all but one of them displayed on the edge the Latin motto E PLURIBUS UNUM (translation: Out of Many, One). Every coin of this trial set carried the date in Roman numerals, MCMVII, to remind observers of the artists classical inspiration, and have sold at auction for as high as $3 million.

Among American coin collectors, the Saint-Gaudens ultra (or extremely) high relief double eagle coin may be the most recognized coin ever produced. There are other great rarities of outstanding reputation, but no other combines the beauty, rarity and the story of collaboration between President Theodore Roosevelt and Augustus Saint-Gaudens as this coin does, commented Rohan.

Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing

1787

 

Rank 08

Rank 08 - 1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing - $2,415,000

Struck in 1787, the gold doubloons by Ephraim Brasher are among the rarest and most desirable of all United States coins.

Brasher was also responsible for a unique Half Doubloon, he was involved with the New York Excelsior Coppers, the Nova Eboracs, and his hallmark appears on a number of foreign gold coins that circulated during his tenure in business.

The following six coins all have the EB hallmark punched over the eagle’s wing:

1. National Numismatic Collection specimen (pictured above)

2. Yale University specimen

 

3. Walter Perschke specimen

4. The Garrett Specimen

5. American Numismatic Society specimen

 

New York gold doubloon pattern (1787) by Ephraim Brasher with EB countermark. The obverse (heads) depicts the sun rising over three mountains beyond an ocean and bears the legend NOVA EBORACA COLUMBIA EXCELSIOR. Nova Eboraca Columbia is Latin for New York in America” and excelsior means ever upward.” The reverse depicts a heraldic eagle and bears the legend “UNUM E PLURIBUS.

Reverse Legend: * UNUM * E * PLURIBUS */ 1787 Reverse Type: Within circular wreath, heraldic eagle displayed facing, head l., with shield of union on breast, holding olive spray in r. talon and arrows in l.; to l. and r. of eagle’s head, 13 stars displayed 7 on l. and 6 on r.

Obverse Legend: * NOVA * EBORACA * COLUMBIA */ EXCELSIOR; below waterlines, BRASHER Obverse Type: Within beaded inner circle, radiant sun rising atop mountain, with sea in foreground.

6. The Dupont specimen

1787 Half Doubloon Brasher (Regular Strike)

 

1787 $15 Brasher, Wing Punch (Regular Strike)

 

Class III Silver Dollar

1804

 

Rank 09

1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing -Yale University Specimen

Heritage Auction Galleries Central States Numismatic Society Convention Platinum Night Auction on Thursday, April 30, 2009 sold the Adams-Carter specimen of the Class III AU 58 PCGS 1804 silver dollar for $2.3 million dollars (including buyers premium).

The Class III specimens were produced sometime between 1858 and 1860, also made by Theodore Eckfeldt. Although similar to the Class I coins, there are differences. There are seven known Class III specimens, which can be distinguished from Class I pieces by their reverse design, lettered edge found on Class I, and weak design. The die from which the Class III specimens were made was seized by Mint Director James Ross Snowden in 1860, but by this time several were in collectors hands.

Rolled Edge Eagl

1907

 

Rank 10

1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing - American Numismatic Society specimen

An NGC-certified 1907 Rolled Edge Eagle sold for $2.185 million during Heritage Auction is Platinum Night offerings at the FUN 2011 Convention in Tampa, Fla. The 1907 $10 Satin PR 67 with Periods Rolled Edge was one of five gold coins in the sale that belonged to Mint Director Frank A. Leach.

 

Flowing Hair Dollar

1794

Rank 01 - 1794 Flowing Hair Dollar - $7,850,000

Rank 01Contursi specimen 1794 Flowing Hair silver dollar has been sold for $7,850,000, setting a new record as the worlds most valuable rare coin.Graded PCGS Specimen-66, it is the finest known 1794 dollar and believed by several prominent experts to be the first silver dollar ever struck by the United States Mint.It was sold by Steven L. Contursi, President of Rare Coin Wholesalers of Irvine, California, to the nonprofit Cardinal Collection Educational Foundation (CCEF) in Sunnyvale, California. Collector and numismatic researcher Martin Logies represented the foundation of which he is a director and its numismatic curator. The private sale was brokered by Greg Roberts, President and Chief Executive Officer of Spectrum Group International of Irvine, California.

 

Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle

1933

Rank 02 - 1933 Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle - $7,590,020

Rank 02The 1933 Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle is the rarest coin in United States History. This original $20 coin was sold at an auction for over $7 million dollars. Today less then 12 of these coins are known to exist. During the Great Depression all gold coins were recalled for melting including the Double Eagles. Only twelve of the coins did not make it back to the mint and were thought to be smuggled out by the employees working there. Today, most of the dozen coins have not been recovered or found and are still out there lost and forgotten.Some of the Double Eagles Escaped the Melt Down:  Two of the 1933 specimens were given by the Mint to the U.S. National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institute. These were the only two legal specimens to ever become part of a coin collection; however, by 1952, the Secret Service had confiscated 8 more 1933 Double Eagles!  How did they leave the Mint  Why weren’t they melted downWe may never know for certain how these coins left the Mint, but there is a general consensus among scholars that a Mint cashier by the name of George McCann exchanged about 20 1933’s doomed for destruction and replaced them with earlier dated Double Eagles. This way, the accounting books would balance and nobody would realize that anything was amiss. What we do know for sure is that a Philadelphia area jeweler by the name of Israel Switt came into possession of at least 19 of the coins.

Israel Switt sold at least 9 of the 1933 Double Eagles privately to collectors, one of which found its way into the collection of King Farouk of Egypt. When the Secret Service discovered that these coins had surfaced, they confiscated them all because they were considered to be stolen property of the U.S. Mint. However, King Farouk had legally exported his coin before the theft was discovered, and the Secret Service was unable to recover his specimen through diplomatic channels.

Class I Silver Dollar

1804

Rank 03 - 1804 Class I Silver Dollar - $4,140,000

Rank 03This 1804 silver dollar is another one of the rarest and most expensive coins in the United States? History. On August 30th, 1999 this coin sold for $4.14 million dollars at an auction. There are only eight 1804 silver dollars left in the entire world and are all worth well over one million dollars. The few people that own these one of a kind coins, are dedicated collectors who are proud to own a piece of U.S. history.Class I Specimens

  1804 Class I Silver Dollar   U.S. Mint SpecimenU.S. Mint SpecimenRetained for the US Mint collection; transferred to the Smithsonian Institution as a part of the National Coin Collection  
1804 Class I Silver Dollar  Cohen - ANA SpecimenCohen – ANA SpecimenStolen in 1967 from Willis DuPont; recovered in 1993. Currently displayed at the American Numismatic Association Museum in Colorado Springs1804 Class I Silver Dollar  Mickley - Reed Hawn Specimen Mickley – Reed Hawn SpecimenObtained by Joseph J. Mickley. Sold at auction for $3,725,000 byHeritage Auction Galleries, May, 2008, as part of the Queller Family Collection

1804 Class I Silver Dollar Parmelee - Byron Reed SpecimenParmelee – Byron Reed Specimen

Once owned by Byron Reed; now in the custody of the Durham Western Heritage Museum of Omaha. ICG

1804 Class I Silver Dollar  Dexter SpecimenDexter Specimen 1804 Class I Silver Dollar  Watters-Childs SpecimenWatters-Childs SpecimenBelieved to have come from the Sultan of Muscat’s proof set. Graded PCGS Proof-68. 1804 Class I Silver Dollar  King of Siam SpecimenKing of Siam SpecimenPart of the King of Siam Proof Set; “Brilliant Gem Proof” Graded PCGS PR-67.

History

In 1804, United States Mint records indicate that 19,750 silver dollars were struck. However, in keeping with common Mint practice at the time, these were all minted from old but still-usable dies dated 1803, and are indistinguishable from the coins produced the previous year. Silver dollars dated 1804 did not appear until 1834, when the U.S. Department of State was creating sets of coins to present as gifts to certain rulers in Asia in exchange for trade advantages. The U.S. Government ordered the Mint to produce “two specimens of each kind now in use, whether of gold, silver or copper”. Since the silver dollar was still in use, but had last been recorded as produced in 1804, Mint employees struck several dollars with an 1804 date. Due to the cost-cutting measures of the US Mint in its early history and the reuse of 1803 dies, this act led to confusion.

The first 1804 silver dollars minted in 1834 were presented as gifts to Rama III, King of Siam and Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman. The other five were dispersed under unknown circumstances after Ambassador Edmund Roberts died en route during the voyage. One was retained in the US Mint Coin Collection. In 1842, numismatists first learned of the 1804 dollar through a book displaying an illustration of the 1804 dollar from the Mint Cabinet. These silver dollars are known among numismatists as ?original? or Class I 1804 dollars. Eight of these coins are known to exist. One currently resides in the Smithsonian Institution, one is in the American Numismatic Association museum, and the other six are in private collections.

Popular legend states that the rare coin given by King Rama IV of Siam to Anna Leonowens, as seen in the story of Anna and the King of Siam? and the movie The King and I, was indeed the same 1804 silver dollar produced in 1834 as a gift to Siam. This coin was kept in Anna is family for several generations, until in the 1950sit was sold by a pair of  British ladies claiming to be Anna is descendants. This coin was displayed as part of the King of Siam collection at the Smithsonian Institution in 1983, where it was given the name the King of Coins. It was purchased by an anonymous collector in 2001, who purchased the entire set of coins from the King of Siam collection for over $4 million.

Class I Silver Dollar from Queller is Collection – King of American Coins

1804

Rank 04 - 1804 Class I Silver Dollar from Queller is Collection - King of American Coins - $3,737,500

Rank 04The King of American CoinsThe Mickley-Hawn-Queller 1804 Silver Dollar Class I Original, PR62 NGCIt is currently not the most expensive American coin-merely the most famous

The 1804 silver dollar has long been renowned as the King of American Coins. Well before such latter-day rarities as the 1913 Liberty nickels, the 1894-S Barber dimes, or the 1907 Ultra High Relief double eagles, the 1804 silver dollars were acknowledged as the most famous U.S. coins, yardsticks by which great American numismatic collections were measured.

Acquisition of an 1804 silver dollar-especially an Original or Class I example-bestows immediate numismatic immortality upon its possessor. The Class I Originals were legitimately struck in proof format at the U.S. Mint, apparently intended for presentation to foreign dignitaries. Some, however, soon found their way into commercial and collector channels. Their long and illustrious pedigrees have names tying them to foreign royalty, exotic destinations, captains of industry, and the luminaries of U.S. numismatics: the King of Siam, the Sultan of Muscat, Joseph J. Mickley, Matthew Stickney, Louis Eliasberg, John Work Garrett, Col. E.H.R. Green, Lorin G. Parmelee.

Liberty Head Nickel

1913

Rank 05 - 1913 Liberty Head Nickel - Eliasberg Specimen - $3,737,500

Rank 05This 1913 Century Liberty Head Nickel also has a gigantic price tag. In a recent auction someone bought this coin for over 3 million dollars. These nickels are so rare because only 5 of the 1913 edition were made and introduced to public. Today all five of the nickels are in the hands of hardcore collectors and are a very interesting piece of history. Good luck getting your hands on one of these valuable babies.1913 Liberty Head Nickel - Olsen SpecimenNGC Proof-64. Previously graded PCGS Proof-64. The Olsen Specimen. This is probably the most publicized of all 1913 Liberty Head Nickels. It is the only example ever handled by B. Max Mehl, for whom the 1913 nickel was central to his lifelong advertising campaign. The Olsen Specimen has been widely featured in print and on television

1913 Liberty Head Nickel - Walton Specimen

The Walton Specimen. George O. Walton died as a result of a car accident on March 9, 1962. His 1913 Liberty was declared a fake. Walton’s heirs kept the coin, still in its custom-made holder, for many years, bringing it out again in 2003 in response to a reward offered by Bowers and Merena Galleries. The coin was examined by numismatic experts, pronounced genuine, and presented with much fanfare at the August 2003 American Numismatic Association convention where it was reunited with the four other specimens

1913 Liberty Head Nickel - Norweb Specimen

The Norweb Specimen. The Norweb 1913 Liberty Head Nickel is now a showpiece in the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution. Earlier, it belonged to the colorful King Farouk of Egypt.

1913 Liberty Head Nickel - McDermott Specimen

NGC Proof-55. The McDermott Specimen.

The Indian Head (Buffalo) nickel was introduced in February of 1913, replacing the Liberty Head design. These were the first official strikes of nickels in 1913; the Mint’s official records do not record any Liberty Head nickels produced that year. Liberty Head nickels dated 1913 first came to the attention of the numismatic community in 1920. All five were in the possession of Samuel Brown, a numismatist who attended the American Numismatic Association’s annual convention and displayed the coins there.

In January 1924, Samuel Brown sold all five 1913 Liberty Head nickels. The intact lot passed through the hands of several other coin dealers before finally being purchased by Colonel E.H.R. Green (son of the infamous miser Hetty Green). Green kept them in his collection until his death in 1936. His estate was then auctioned off, and all five of the 1913 Liberty Head nickels were purchased by two dealers, Eric P. Newman and B.G. Johnson. The dealers broke up the set for the first time.

The Eliasberg specimen is the finest known 1913 Liberty Head nickel. Of the five 1913 Liberty Head nickels, two have proof surfaces, and the other three were produced with standard striking techniques. The finest of the coins has been graded Proof-66 by various professional grading services, including PCGS and NGC.

Brasher Doubloon EB on Breast

1787

Rank 06 - 1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Breast - $2,990,000

Rank 06Unique 1787 Brasher Doubloon, EB on Breast, Garrett SpecimenAmerica’s First Gold Coin StruckPronounced by Numismatic experts as America is most famous and significant coin, this unique doubloon is also widely accepted as the very first gold coin struck by the United States of America. One of only seven examples known, this specimen is unique in that the EB counterstamp (initials of silversmith Ephraim Brasher, who made the coin) is on the shield over the eagles breast. The other six examples carry the EB stamp on the eagles wing.

A coin of unparalleled historic importance, this precious rarity has been a classic since the earliest days of coin collecting in the United States.

Ultra High Relief $20 (Double Eagle)

1907

Rank 07 - 1907 Ultra High Relief $20 (Double Eagle) - $2,990,000

Rank 07The Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle gold coin features a full length image of Miss Liberty walking forward, as if she is ready to step out of the coin. She holds aloft in her right hand a torch of enlightenment and her left hand presents an olive branch symbolic of peace. To the lower left, nearly concealed by her flowing gown, the dome of the U.S. Capitol Building is visible. The reverse is dominated by a majestic eagle in flight, bathed in sunlight. The inscriptions UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and TWENTY DOLLARS are arranged in two concentric arcs located above the eagle. The first trial samples of the Saint-Gaudens Double Eagle were struck in early 1907 and were characterized by their extremely high relief. These patterns were quite stunning in beauty and detail, but required nine hits on the coining press to achieve the desired effect. Of the two dozen or so double eagles struck during the experimentation phase, all but one of them displayed on the edge the Latin motto E PLURIBUS UNUM (translation: Out of Many, One). Every coin of this trial set carried the date in Roman numerals, MCMVII, to remind observers of the artists classical inspiration, and have sold at auction for as high as $3 million.Among American coin collectors, the Saint-Gaudens ultra (or extremely) high relief double eagle coin may be the most recognized coin ever produced. There are other great rarities of outstanding reputation, but no other combines the beauty, rarity and the story of collaboration between President Theodore Roosevelt and Augustus Saint-Gaudens as this coin does, commented Rohan.

Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing

1787

Rank 08 - 1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing - $2,415,000

Rank 08Struck in 1787, the gold doubloons by Ephraim Brasher are among the rarest and most desirable of all United States coins.Brasher was also responsible for a unique Half Doubloon, he was involved with the New York Excelsior Coppers, the Nova Eboracs, and his hallmark appears on a number of foreign gold coins that circulated during his tenure in business.The following six coins all have the EB hallmark punched over the eagle’s wing:

1. National Numismatic Collection specimen (pictured above)

2. Yale University specimen

1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing -Yale University Specimen

3. Walter Perschke specimen

4. The Garrett Specimen

5. American Numismatic Society specimen

1787 Brasher Doubloon EB on Wing - American Numismatic Society specimen

New York gold doubloon pattern (1787) by Ephraim Brasher with EB countermark. The obverse (heads) depicts the sun rising over three mountains beyond an ocean and bears the legend NOVA EBORACA COLUMBIA EXCELSIOR. Nova Eboraca Columbia is Latin for New York in America” and excelsior means ever upward.” The reverse depicts a heraldic eagle and bears the legend “UNUM E PLURIBUS.

Reverse Legend: * UNUM * E * PLURIBUS */ 1787 Reverse Type: Within circular wreath, heraldic eagle displayed facing, head l., with shield of union on breast, holding olive spray in r. talon and arrows in l.; to l. and r. of eagle’s head, 13 stars displayed 7 on l. and 6 on r.

Obverse Legend: * NOVA * EBORACA * COLUMBIA */ EXCELSIOR; below waterlines, BRASHER Obverse Type: Within beaded inner circle, radiant sun rising atop mountain, with sea in foreground.

6. The Dupont specimen

1787 Half Doubloon Brasher (Regular Strike)

1787 Half Doubloon Brasher (Regular Strike

1787 $15 Brasher, Wing Punch (Regular Strike)

1787 $15 Brasher, Wing Punch (Regular Strike)

Class III Silver Dollar

1804

Rank 09 - 1804 Class III Silver Dollar - $2,300,000

Rank 09Heritage Auction Galleries Central States Numismatic Society Convention Platinum Night Auction on Thursday, April 30, 2009 sold the Adams-Carter specimen of the Class III AU 58 PCGS 1804 silver dollar for $2.3 million dollars (including buyers premium).The Class III specimens were produced sometime between 1858 and 1860, also made by Theodore Eckfeldt. Although similar to the Class I coins, there are differences. There are seven known Class III specimens, which can be distinguished from Class I pieces by their reverse design, lettered edge found on Class I, and weak design. The die from which the Class III specimens were made was seized by Mint Director James Ross Snowden in 1860, but by this time several were in collectors hands.

Rolled Edge Eagl

1907

Rank 10 - 1907 Rolled Edge Eagl - $2,185,000

Rank 10

An NGC-certified 1907 Rolled Edge Eagle sold for $2.185 million during Heritage Auction is Platinum Night offerings at the FUN 2011 Convention in Tampa, Fla. The 1907 $10 Satin PR 67 with Periods Rolled Edge was one of five gold coins in the sale that belonged to Mint Director Frank A. Leach.

Pencinta Cerita silat Harus Membaca CD Sejarah CERSIL Ini

Ini adalah Contoh info Sejarah cerita silat dalam CD-ROM, CD yang lengkap dengan illustrasi tersedia tetapi Hanya Untuk anggota Premium

Silahkan mendaftar liwat Comment.

Sejarah buku silat

 

Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Peng Tjoan Thian Lie Atau Bidadari Dari Sungai Es N2011

 


Peng Tjoan Thian Lie atau bidadari dari sungai es.
Situturkan oleh

Boe Beng Tjoe
Lengkap dan tamat.
Jumlah buku 10
Kondisi sampul ada yang hilang.
Penerbit : P.T. Mekar Djaja Djakarta

 

San Hoa Lie Hiap

Tidak Lengkap, hanya ada jilid 1,2,…. 4,5,6,7,8
Belum tamat, masih bersambung
7 buku
Cerita San Hoa Lie Hiap atau Pendekar Wanita Penjebar Bunga ini adalah

sambungan dari : Peng Tjong Hiap Eng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ini sebuah iklan tentang buku Hong Kiauw Lie Tan. disebutkan bahwa Boe Tjek Tian adalah Hongte wanita genit kenes yang membunuhi keturunannya Sie Djin Koei.


Lengkap dan Tamat
Tebal 246 halaman
Jumlah buku : 3
Jilid 1+2, Jilid 3+4, dan Jilid 5+6
Harga Rp 120.000,-

Hong Kiauw Lie Tan ditulis oleh

 Monsieur Kekasih,

sebuah nama samaran dari

Kwee Khay Kee.

Hong Kiauw Lie Tan merupakan cerita serial Sie Djin Koei. Tokohnya bernama Boe Tjek Tian seorang Hongte wanita. Seorang hongte wanita yang genit dan kenes membunuh keluarga anaknya Sie Djin Koei. Seorang Kroonprins Lie Tan bertemu djodo gaib dengan bidadari Hong Kiauw.

 





Lengkap dan Tamat
Jumlah buku : 10

Sinopsis

Sungai es di puncak gunung laksana Thianho yang nyungsang,
Dengarlah kepingan es mengalir dengan bersuara perlahan sekali,
Ibarat suara tetabuhan yang dipentil dengan jeriji si gadis jelita,

Si nona tanya pada sang pengembara:
Berapa gunung es lagi yang harus kau daki?
Berapa topan lagi harus kau lewati?
Pengembara!
Sang elang di atas padang rumput pun tak dapat terbang terus-terusan,
Tapi kau jalan, jalan terus, jalan terus,
Sampai tahun apa, bulan apa, barulah kalian mau turun dari kuda?

Nona, terima kasih atas kebaikanmu,
Tapi kami tak dapat menjawab pertanyaanmu,
Apakah kau pernah melihat bunga di padang pasir?
Apakah kau pernah melihat gunung es menjadi lumer?
Kau belum pernah lihat? Belum pernah!
Maka itu, kami pengembara,
Juga tak akan berhenti jalan selama-lamanya.

Itulah suara nyanyian, diseling dengan klenengan kuda, yang pada suatu hari dapat didengar di padang rumput perbatasan Tibet. Nyanyian itu keluar dari mulutnya pengembara yang sedang lewat di padang rumput tersebut. Pegunungan Himalaya yang berentet-rentet, puncak-puncak gunung yang tertutup es dan menjulang tinggi sehingga menembus awan seperti juga sedang mendengari nyanyian itu yang menyedihkan hati.

Dan tanpa diketahui oleh sang penyanyi, satu pemuda bangsa Han turut pasang kupingnya. Air mata berlinang di kedua matanya. Ia menghela napas panjang dan berkata seorang diri: “Aku dan kalian tak ada bedanya. Kalian mengembara ke ujung langit, aku pun tak tahu kapan bisa dapat pulang ke kampung kelahiranku.”

Pemuda itu she Tan, bernama Thian Oe, kelahiran Souwtjiu, daerah Kanglam. Ayahnya, Tan Teng Kie, dahulu pegang pangkat di kota raja, tapi lantaran ia berani ajukan pengaduan yang menyerang Ho Kun, satu menteri busuk yang sangat disayang oleh Kaizar Kian Liong, ia dikirim ke Tibet (Seetjong) sebagai Amban 1) (Soanwiesoe) pada sekte Sakya. Sedari waktu itu sampai sekarang, delapan tahun sudah lewat. Waktu datang di Tibet, Thian Oe masih anak-anak berusia sepuluh tahun, sekarang ia sudah jadi pemuda 18 tahun.

Berada jauh di tempat orang, hatinya Thian Oe sangat rindukan kampung halamannya, terutama lantaran ayahnya hampir saban hari ceritakan keindahannya Kanglam yang permai.

Jumlahnya pengembara itu ada belasan orang, antaranya terdapat orang Tibet, Uighur dan dua orang Han. Rupanya mereka bertemu di tengah jalan dan lalu membentuk satu rombongan penjual suara yang berkelana ke sana-sini. Kedua matanya Thian Oe yang mengikuti mereka mendadak terpaku kepada satu gadis dari suku Tsang yang memakai pakaian serba putih. Berjalan di antara kawan-kawannya, gadis itu adalah laksana burung ho di antara kawanan ayam. Lain orang menyanyi, ia sendiri tutup mulut rapat-rapat, sedang kedua matanya yang bersinar terang mengawasi langit dan awan tanpa berkesip. Duduk di atas sela, ia seperti juga tidak dengar suara kawan-kawannya, seperti sedang memikir sesuatu. Kalau bukan biji matanya masih bergerak-gerak, Thian Oe bisa salah mata dan menduga ia sebagai patung di atas kuda.

Selagi mengimplang seperti orang kehilangan semangat, tiba-tiba terdengar suara burung gagak di tengah udara. Thian Oe dongak dan mendadak dengar suara menjepratnya tali gendewa dan sebatang anak panah, yang dilepaskan oleh salah satu orang Han, menyambar ke arah ia. Dari mendesingnya sang anak panah yang menusuk telinga, ia tahu bahwa orang yang melepaskan mempunyai tenaga dalam yang sangat kuat.

Bidadari Sungai Es
Kisah ini merupakan lanjutan dari “ Peng Pok Han Kong Kiam (Pedang Inti Es)”. Cerita ini sebenarnya merupakan kisah pembuka dari “Perjodohan Busur Kemala” dimana di cerita ini dikisahkan awal munculnya Kim Sie Ie, dan mengapa ia dipanggil sebagai Tok Ciu Hong Kay (Pengemis Kusta Tangan Beracun) . Peng Tjoan thian Lie yang adalah anak dari Koei Hoa Seng dan seorang Putri Kerajaan Nepal yang berdiam di Istana Es yang dikarenakan istananya hancur akhirnya memutuskan untuk berpetualang di rimba Persilatan.

Pertemuannya dengan Tong Keng Thian yg adalah anak dari Tong Siauw Lan CiangBunjin partai Thian San Pay dan Kim Sie Ie membuat terjadinya cinta segitiga yang akhirnya dimenangkan oleh Tong Keng Thian. Para Pengawal Kerajaan (Busu) di Nepal yg selalu memohon Koei Peng Go sang Bidadari dari Sungai Es itu untuk menjadi Raja di Nepal, membuatnya kadang2 harus bentrok.

Beberapa tokoh sakti dari kisah “3 Dara Pendekar” dan “7 Pendekar Pedang dari Thian San” akan muncul. Cerita ini sebaiknya dibaca sebelum kita membaca kisah “Perjodohan Busur Kemala” yang merupakan salah satu karya Liang Ie Shen yg terbaik

Label: Boe Beng Tjoe

 

 

Sebilah Pedang Mustika




Lengkap dan Tamat
3 buku Tamat
Cerita Sebilah Pedang Mustika ini adalah cerita pendahuluan dari cerita :Antara Kasih dan Dendam Hati (Peng Tjong Hiap Eng), dan Pendekar Wanita Penyebar Bunga (San Hoa Lie Hiap
)

 

Peng Tjong Hiap Eng N2011

Peng Tjong Hiap Eng atau Dua Musuh Turunan
Dituturkan oleh : O.K.T
Penerbit Keng Po – Djakarta
Jumlah buku : 11
Kondisi : sampul ada yang rusak / hilang

 

Pendekar Dari Lembah Agam


Pengarang : Suparto Brata
Jumlah buku : 6 TAMAT

Sepasang Golok Mustika


Ditjeritakan Oleh : Boe Beng Tjoe
Satu Buku Tamat
Tebal : 84 halaman
Harga Rp 20.000,-

Lengkap Dan Tamat

Giok Siauw Gin Kiam










Jumlah :11 jilid
Jumlah halaman sampai tamat: 970 halaman
Tebal setiap buku : 80 halaman
Dituturkan oleh : Hong San Khek
Penerbit : P>T> Mekar Djaja – Jakarta

Kisah Pembunuh Naga – Boe Kie

SOLD


Boe Kie – Kisah Pembunuh Naga, judul aselinya adalah To Liong To (Kisah Golok Pembunuh Naga/ atau Kisah Membunuh Naga)
Karya Ching Yung
Penerbit : Tunas Tanjak – U.P. Sastra Kumala (San Agency – Pasar Baru – Jakarta)
Jumlah jilid : 80 (Tamat)
Tebal : 48 halaman

Kondisi : Lengkap dan mulus (Seperti Baru).

Penghuni Rimba Gerantang


Penulis : T Hidayat
Penerbit : Cinta Media
Ukuran : 12 x 18 cm
Hal: 128 Hal
Kondisi : Buku bekas (baik)

Terdampar Di Pulau Asing


Penulis : T Hidayat
Penerbit : Cinta Media
Ukuran : 12 x 18 cm
Hal: 128 Hal
Kondisi : Buku bekas (baik)

Label: Pendekar Naga Putih

Tersesat Di Lembah Kematian


Penulis : T Hidayat
Penerbit : Cinta Media
Ukuran : 12 x 18 cm
Hal: 128 Hal
Kondisi : Buku bekas (baik)

Tiga Iblis Gunung Tandur


Penulis : T Hidayat
Penerbit : Cinta Media
Ukuran : 12 x 18 cm
Hal: 128 Hal
Kondisi : Buku bekas (baik)

 

Buku Silat Antik Boe Beng Tjoe Kisah Membunuh Naga Bag II


Barang antik ini sejumlah buku cerita silat terjemahan Boe Beng Tjoe berjudul Kisah Membunuh Naga Bag II. Tidak lengkap dan belum tamat.
Hanya ada 7 buku.
Penerbit : P.T. Mekar Djaja – Djakarta

Buku Cerita Silat Antik Kisah Membunuh Naga Boe Boeng Tjoe





Barang antik ini sejumlah buku cerita silat terjemahan Boe Beng Tjoe berjudul Kisah Membunuh Naga. Tidak lengkap
Jumlah buku : 11 buku (Seharusnya 22 buku)
jadi kurang 11 buku, yaitu jilid : 1,2,5,6,7,8,9,10,16,21,22

Seri ini adalah bagian pertama dari Kisah Membunuh Naga.
Masih harus dilanjutkan dengan Bagian Keduanya.

 

Buku Djadoel Antik Cerita Silat Gan KL Pendekar Negeri Tayli







Barang djadoel antik ini sejumlah buku cerita silat, karya Gan KL, berjudul : Pendekar-Pendekar Negeri Tayli.
Penerbit : Pustaka Silat – Jawa Tengah 1961
Percetakan : Semarang
Jumlah buku : 36 buku (seharusnya : 43 buku).
Kondisi : Tidak Lebgkap, kurang 7 buku yaitu jilid : 12,13,14,16,18,19 dan 42

Sebuah Gelang Pusaka Phoa Tjhoan Ki


Barang djadoel antik ini sebuah buku cerita silat berjudul Sebuah Gelang Pusaka Phoa Tjhoan Ki. Satu buku tamat. Diceritakan oleh H.K.K.
Tebal : 137 halaman

Buku Cerita Silat Djadoel Antik Si Kembar Handaka








Barang djadoel antik ini 8 jilid buku belum tamat dan tidak lengkap. Judul bukunya : Si Kembar Handaka. Karya : Wijaja. Penerbit : CV. Muria, Jogja – 1967. Ukuran buku : 14,5 x 11 cm, tebal setiap buku : 80 halaman
ES80

Buku Djadoel Antik Kho Ping Hoo Djaka Wulung




Barang djadoel antik ini sebuah buku cerita silat asli Indonesia karya Kho Ping Hoo. Judulnya Djaka Wulung Ksatria Gunung Lawu.

 

Gunung Lawu adalah gunung tempat Kho Ping Hoo menulis karya-karyanya menjelang akhir hidupnya. Ditulis di Tasikmalaya 3 Oktober 1962, dan diterbitkan di Solo, oleh CV Gema tahun 1965.
Jumlah buku 3, kondisi baik sekali.
Lengkap dan tamat.
ES30

Buku Silat Antik Widi Widayat Baru Kuping Setan Kober







Buku cerita silat antik karya Widi Widayat berjudul Baru Kuping Setan Kober.
Jumlah buku 7 Lengkap dan tamat
Kondisi baik
E140

 

Buku Cerita Silat Djadoel Antik Guntur Geni Dan Tjambuk Kilat






Barang djadoel antik ini sebuah buku cerita silat berjudul Guntur Geni Dan Tjambuk Kilat. Karya Widi Widayat
Jumlah buku : 5, lengkap dan tamat
E120

 

Hauw Gie Tjoen





Hauw Gie Tjoen adalah cerita Pembalesan sakit hati dari satoe
Djago Pedang Wasiat pada moesoeh dan pemboenoeh ajahnja. Pembasmian kedjahatan, pertempoeran heibat antara Silat dan Sinar !
Penerbit : Boekhandel Sunrise Batavia.
Pengarang : Miss Chun Ching
Ditoetoerken oleh : Huang


Cersil Antik Karya S Djatilaksana : Nagasiluman Sawerwulung


Buku cerita silat antik ini terbit tahun 60 an, dikarang oleh seorang tionghoa bernama Sie Djak Liong. Nama bekennya adalah SD Liong. Ia seorang penterjemah cerita silat kondang dari Jawa Tengah (Semarang ?), dan paman dari pelukis/komikus dari Solo (Surakarta) yang bernama Yanes. Bukunya menarik karena enak dibaca dan mengasyikkan.
Jumlah buku : 11 (Lengkap dan tamat)

Pendekar Rajawali sakti : Darah Pendekar dan Macan Gunung Sumbing

  1. Pengarang : Teguh Supriantono
    Penerbit : Cinta Media
    Ukuran : 12 x 18 cm
    Tebal : 128 halaman


Judul : Musuh Berbadju Besi
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Tahun : 1966
Tebal : 104 hal

 



Judul : Malin Bungsu
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Tahun : 1965
Tebal : 96 hal dan 100 hal (tamat)
Kondisi : Sampul telah rapuh, halaman dalam agak kotor.

 


Judul : Gadis Pulau
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Tahun : 1966
Tebal : 95 halaman
Kondisi : Baik

 


Judul : Benteng Si Lengah
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Tahun : 1965
Tebal : 100 halaman
Kondisi : Baik, hanya sampul depan bagian bawah sobek

 


Judul : Orang Gayo
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Tahun : 1966
Tebal : 95 halaman

 

 

Judul : Kapal Naga Hitam
Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Penerbit : Analisa CV
Kondisi : Cukup baik

 


Pengarang : Darmo Ario
Jumlah buku : 1
Tebal halaman : 100 halaman
Penerbit : Analisa CV 1966


Buku cerita silat antik Boe Hiap nomor 507 – 513 ini berjudul Gin Yan Tjoe. Ditulis oleh Tjan Khim Hiap. Gambar-gambar oleh Bong Tiong Hiap. Dicetak oleh percetakan Soekapoera Tasikmalaya. Cerita ini dimulai bulan Mei 1957 hingga bulan Juli 1957, seluruhnya berjumlah 7 jilid dan masih bersambung.


Buku cerita silat ini serial Boe Hiap, terbitan dari Tasikmalaya pada bulan Desember 1967. Judulnya Go Bie Siang Sioe. Jilid kedua terbit pada bulan Januari 1958. Demikianlah setiap bulan terbit tiga buku hingga tamat pada bulan Maret 1958, jumlah buku seluruhnya : 8 buku.


Ukuran buku : 18 x 12 cm
Tebal : 128 hal
Pengarang : Aji Saka
Penerbit : Cintamedia

 


Ukuran buku : 18 x 12 cm
Tebal : 128 hal
Pengarang : Aji Saka
Penerbit : Cintamedia

Daftar Buku Seri Dewa Arak Yang Masih Ada
Cinta Sang Pendekar
Kemelut Rimba Hijau
Kelelawar Beracun
Pedang Bintang
Perjalanan Menantang Maut
Runtuhnya Sebuah Kerajaan
Setan Mabuk
Teror Macan Putih
Tiga Macan Lembah Neraka


Pengarang : Aji Saka
Ukuran buku : 12 x 18 cm
Jumlah Halaman : 128
Kondisi : Buku bekas baik
Harga : Rp 6.000,- belum termasuk ongkos kirim

Sudah Dipesan

Diposkan oleh Teguh di 10:03 0 komentar Link ke posting ini

Label: Dewa Arak


Pengarang : Aji Saka
Penerbit : Cinta Media
Jumlah Hal : 128
Ukuran Buku : 12 x 18


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung


Tak ada Pengarang dan Penerbit buku ini.
Tebal : 102 Halaman

Label: Dewa Linglung

Seri : Dewa Linglung
Dewi Mutiara Hijau
Iblis Gila Pembangkit Arwah
Begal Dari Gunung Kidul
Gilanya Iblis Merapi
Jeratan Ilmu Iblis
Kupu-kupu Lembah Madu
Lukisan Berdarah
Prahara Pulau Naga Jelita



Jumlah Halaman : 104
Ukuran buku : 12 x 18

 


Barang djadoel antik ini sebuah buku cerita silat berjudul Sebuah Gelang Pusaka Phoa Tjhoan Ki. Satu buku tamat. Diceritakan oleh H.K.K.

 

Kiam Hiap Monthly Magazine Tasikmalaya
No. 36 : Hoei Hiong Kee
Penerbit : Kiam Hiap BCOK & Co Tasikmalaya (Jaava)
Ukuran : 17 x 10,5 cm
Tebal : 139 halaman.
Buku ini kumpulan dari 5 Judul tulisan yaitu :
Hoei Hiong Kee : 88 halaman
Auwyang Tong : 6 halaman
Tay Beng Kie Hiap : 22 halaman
Tjoan San Houw : 7 halaman
Loen Gie : 16 halaman

 

Judul : Rasta
Karya : Harnaeni Hamdan HS
Penerbit : Anaalisa CV
Tahun : 1965
Tebal : 92 halaman
Kondisi : Kurang baik, karena sampul rapuh

 

Judul : Pendekar Gunung Wilis
Karya : Harnaeni Hamdan HS
Penerbit : Semar Djaja Djakarta
Tahun : –
Tebal : 132 halaman
Kondisi : kurang baik karena ada gigitan serangga pada halaman awal buku ini


Bende Mataram adalah buku cerita silat karya Herman Pratikto yang sudah djadoel dan antik. Buku ini terbit sekitar tahun 60 an.

 

Tidak lengkap, kurang jilid 5,6,7 dan 25 Saya pun belum tahu apakah setelah jilid 26 masih ada lanjutannya ?
Hanya ada jilid : 1,2,3,4 + 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24, dan 26
Jumlah buku : 22 buku











Jumlah :11 jilid
Jumlah halaman sampai tamat: 970 halaman
Tebal setiap buku : 80 halaman
Dituturkan oleh : Hong San Khek
Penerbit : P>T> Mekar Djaja – Jakarta

 

 

 

Senjum Puteri Mongol by kwee hian liong

 

 


Buku cerita silat antik Tjit Tjoat Kiam.
Dituturkan oleh : Kwee Oen Keng
Penerbit Toto Buku Sunrise Djakarta
Jumlah buku : 4


Jumlah Jilid : 2 buku tamat.


Ukuran : 16,5 x 12 cm
Penulis : Kwee Swie Tiat
Penerbit : Tjerdas Tangkas Djakarta
Tebal : 118 halaman



Satu Buku Tamat
Bahagian ke satu dan kedua.
Tebal : 120 halaman
Gubahan Liong djwan Liem
Diterbitkan oleh : Toko Buku Ho Kim Yoe Semarang


Buku cerita silat sntik Persekutuan Satria Utama.
Penulis : Liong Pei Yen
Penerbit : Gaja Naja Djakarta
Jumlah buku : 6 Tamat dan Lengkap


Saduran : Liong Tje, Karya : Chin Yung
Jilid : 1,2,3,4 (Bersambung)


Judul : Tiga Larangan
Karya : Min Resmana
Penerbit : Analisa CV Djakarta
Tahun : 1965
Tebal : 101 halaman

 

Ini sebuah iklan tentang buku Hong Kiauw Lie Tan. disebutkan bahwa Boe Tjek Tian adalah Hongte wanita genit kenes yang membunuhi keturunannya Sie Djin Koei.

Lengkap dan Tamat
Tebal 246 halaman
Jumlah buku : 3
Jilid 1+2, Jilid 3+4, dan Jilid 5+6

Hong Kiauw Lie Tan ditulis oleh Monsieur Kekasih, sebuah nama samaran dari Kwee Khay Kee. Hong Kiauw Lie Tan merupakan cerita serial Sie Djin Koei. Tokohnya bernama Boe Tjek Tian seorang Hongte wanita. Seorang hongte wanita yang genit dan kenes membunuh keluarga anaknya Sie Djin Koei. Seorang Kroonprins Lie Tan bertemu djodo gaib dengan bidadari Hong Kiauw.

Lengkap dan Tamat

Tidak Lengkap, kurang jilid 1
Hanya ada jilid 2,3,4,5,6,7,8

 

Sebuah iklan tentang buku Wakang, yang menerangkan bahwa isi buku ini adalah cerita permulaan Sie Djin Koei Tjeng Tang. Wakang adalah cerita yang amat spaneng dan diceritakan dengan bebas, bergelora, berjiwa dan berisi.

Tidak Lengkap, kurang jilid 6
Hanya ada jilid 1,2,3,4,5 7

Penulis buku Wakang adalah Monsieur Kekasih, sebuah nama samaran dari Kwee Khay Kee.

Tidak Lengkap, kurang jilid 5 dan 6
Hanya ada jilid 1,2,3,4.
Penerbit : Badan Penerbitan “SUNRISE” Jakarta


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm


Pengarang : Mario Gembala
Tebal buku : 120 halaman
Ukuran : 17,3 cm x 12 cm

 

 


Buku cerita silat antik ini terbit tahun 60 an, dikarang oleh seorang tionghoa bernama Sie Djak Liong. Nama bekennya adalah SD Liong. Ia seorang penterjemah cerita silat kondang dari Jawa Tengah (Semarang ?), dan paman dari pelukis/komikus dari Solo (Surakarta) yang bernama Yanes. Bukunya menarik karena enak dibaca dan mengasyikkan.
Jumlah buku : 11 (Lengkap dan tamat)



Tidak Lengkap hanya ada jilid 1 dan 3

Ouw Bin Hiap Kek by ta wang djin

 


Hanya ada jilid : 14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21

Label: Tjan ID


Hanya ada jilid : 1,2,3,6,8,9

Daftar Judul Buku Wiro Sableng
Ario Bledeg : Petir di Mahameru
Asmara darah Tua gila
Aksara Ratu Bernyawa
Api Cinta Sang Pendekar

Bola-bola Iblis
Badai di Parang Tritis
Bahala Jubah Kencono Geni

Bajingan Dari Susukan
Bulan Sabit di Bukit Patah
Bayi Titisan
4 Brewok dari Gua Sanggreng –
Bendera Darah
Badai Fitnah Latanah Silam

Cinta Orang-orang Gagah

Dendam Manusia Paku
Dendam Orang-orang Sakti –
Dewi Siluman Bukit Tunggul
Delapan Sabda Dewa
Dendam Dalam Titisan
Delapan Pocong Menari
Dewi Lembah Bangkai
Delapan Sukma Merah
Dua Nyawa Kembar
Dendam di Puncak Singgalang
Dewi Kaki Tunggal

Empat Mayat Aneh
5 Iblis dari Nanking

Geger di Pangandaran

Hantu Tangan Empat
Hari-hari Terkutuk

Jaka Pesolek Penangkap Petir

Kutunggu di Pintu Neraka
Kutukan Sang Badik
Ki Ageng Tunggul Akhirat
Kamandaka si Murid Murtad

Muka Tanah Liat

Gondoruwo Patah Hati

Guci Setan

Hantu Bara Kaliatus
Hantu Jatilandak
Hantu Santet Laknat
Hantu Muka Dua
Hantu Selaksa Angin
Hancurnya Istana Darah

Jagal Iblis Makam Setan

Kutukan Empu Bharata
Kepala Iblis Nyi Gandasuri
Kiamat di Pangandaran
Ki Ageng Tunggul Keparat
Kembali ke Tanah Jawa

113 Lorong Kematian
Lembah Akhirat – Terjual
Liang Lahat Gajah Mungkur

Memburu Si Penjagal Mayat
Mayat Persembahan
Mayat Hidup Gunung Klabat
Malaikat Maut Berambut Salju
Muslihat Para Iblis
Misteri Pedang Naga Suci 212
Makam Ketiga
Makam Tanpa Nisan
Meraga Sukma
Melati Tujuh Racun
Muslihat Cinta Iblis

Nyawa Kedua
Neraka Krakatau
Neraka Lembah Tengkorak

Pernikahan Dengan Mayat
Pedang Naga Suci
Peri Angsa Putih
Pendekar Pedang Akhirat
Penculik Mayat Hutan Roban
Panglima Buronan

Rahasia Perkawinan Wiro
Rahasia Bayi Tergantung
Raja Sesat Penyebar Racun
Rahasia Cinta Tua Gila
Rahasia Mawar Beracun
Roh dalam Keraton
Rahasia Kincir Hantu
Roh Jemputan

Sepasang Manusia Bonsai
Selir Pamungkas
Singa Gurun Bromo
Sesajen Atap Langit
Sepasang Arwah Bisu
Si Cantik Dalam Guci
Setan Dari Luar Jagat

Topeng Buat Wiro Sableng
Tiga Setan Darah dan Cambuk Api Angin
Tiga Makam Setan
Tua Gila dari Andalas
Tabir Delapan Mayat
Telaga Emas Berdarah

Utusan Dari Akhirat

Wasiat Malaikat
Wasiat Dewa
Wasiat Sang Ratu

Betina Penghisap Darah –
Guna-guna Tombak Api –
Malam Jahanam di Mataram
Purnama Berdarah –
Srigala Iblis –

 

Vintage kho lay yen

1933

Buku antik Tjerita Silat no. 5 bulan Juni 1933 ini memuat cerita sbb :
– Feuilleton Tay Beng Kie Hiap oleh Kwo Lay Yen
– Feuilleton Siao Lim Lie Hiap oleh Hoh Hoh Sianseng

Buku antik Tjerita Silat no. 4 bulan Mei 1933.
Mulai nomor ini buku Tjerita Silat diperbaiki sampulnya, lebih licin dan gambar lebih bagus. Isi sudah ditambah jadi 150 halaman, judul-judulnya adalah :
– Goeroe Dan Moeried oleh Boe Soet Kee
– Feuilleton Tay Beng Kie Hiap oleh Kwo Lay Yen

Buku Tjerita Silat no. 3 ini diterbitkan bulan April 1933, sudah cukup antik ?
Buku Tjerita Silat ini beralamat di Andirweg 12 Bandoeng.

Hampir seluruh isinya ditulis oleh Kwo Lay Yen, seorang pandai pada waktu itu, lulusan luar negeri yang menguasai beberapa bahasa asing. Semula Kwo Lay Yen bekerja di majalah Sin Po, tapi kemudian keluar dan menerbitkan serial Goedang Tjerita bekerja sama dengan percetakan Minerva Bandung. Entah karena apa, percetakan ini bangkrut, sehingga langganannya yang sudah terlanjur banyak jadi terbengkalai. Melihat hal ini Kwo Lay Yen segera bekerja sama dengan percetakan lain untuk menerbitkan serial Tjerita Silat.
Dalam buku nomor 3 ini dimuat cerita berjudul :
– Pauw Soe Po dari Kang Iem oleh Ban Liong Djin.
– Feuilleton Tay Beng Kie Hiap oleh Kwo Lay Yen,
– Feuilleton Siauw Lim Lie Hiap oleh Hoh Hoh Sianseng

Jumlah halaman ditambah menjadi : 150 halaman.

Bagian Katiga Jilid Ka anam dan Ka toedjoe
Ukuran : 16 x 10 cm
tebal Jilid 6 : 40 halaman
Tebal Jilid 7 : 80 halaman
Tersalin Oleh : Tong TH Fuctriorider Magelang
diterbitken Oleh Boekhandel & Drukkerij Tan Thian Soe Batavia 1924

Buku silat sntik Rahasia Pusaka Hampa.
Pengarang : Tse Yung
Penerbit : UP Militan Djakarta

Belum tamat, masih bersambung

Barang djadoel antik ini 8 jilid buku belum tamat dan tidak lengkap. Judul bukunya : Si Kembar Handaka. Karya : Wijaja. Penerbit : CV. Muria, Jogja – 1967. Ukuran buku : 14,5 x 11 cm, tebal setiap buku : 80 halaman

 

Daftar

 PENULIS CERITA SILAT

1     Boe Beng Tjoe

2     Kwee Khay Kee.

3       Liang Ie Shen

4       Hoan kiem Kie Theng

5       OKT  (Oey Kim Tiang

6       T Hidayat

7       Suparto Brata

8       Ching Yung

9       Hong San Khek

10  Kho ping ho

Gunung Lawu adalah gunung tempat Kho Ping Hoo menulis karya-karyanya menjelang akhir hidupnya.

Ditulis di Tasikmalaya 3 Oktober 1962

11  Gan KL

Widi Widayat Wijaja.

12  H.K.K.

13  Miss Chun Ching

14  Huang

15  Sie Djak Liong.(S Djakalasana)

16  Teguh Supriantoro

17  Darmo Ario

18  Boe Hiap

19  Aji saka

 

20 Dewa linglung

21  HGT WL

22 H.K.K.

23 Hoei Hiong Kee :

24  Auwyang Tong :

25 Tay Beng Kie Hiap

26 Tjoan San Houw

27 Loen Gie

28 Karya : Harnaeni Hamdan HS

29 Herman pratikno

30 Hong san khek

31 Kwee hian liong

32 Kwee Oen Keng

33  Kwee soey tiat

34 Liong djwan Liem

35 Liong Pei Yen

36 Liong The

37 Min Resmana

38 oleh Monsieur Kekasih, sebuah nama samaran dari Kwee Khay Kee.

39 Mario Gembala

40 Sie Djak Liong. S Djatilaksana

41 So tat kie

42 Ta wang djin

43 Tjan ID

44 Kwo Lay Yen

45 Tong TH

46 Tse Yung

47 Wijaja

48  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biography

Kwo Lay Yen

 

, seorang pandai pada waktu itu, lulusan luar negeri yang menguasai beberapa bahasa asing. Semula Kwo Lay Yen bekerja di majalah Sin Po, tapi kemudian keluar dan menerbitkan serial Goedang Tjerita bekerja sama dengan percetakan Minerva Bandung. Entah karena apa, percetakan ini bangkrut, sehingga langganannya yang sudah terlanjur banyak jadi terbengkalai. Melihat hal ini Kwo Lay Yen segera bekerja sama dengan percetakan lain untuk menerbitkan serial Tjerita Silat

 

 

Kho ping Ho(Asmaraman)

 

Asmaraman Kho [ Kho Ping Ho ] – Pengarang Yang Paling Produktif

Budaya-Tionghoa.Net | Asmaraman Sukowati Kho atau Kho Ping Ho [1926-1994] alias Xu Pinghe adalah penulis cerita silat yang sangat populer di Indonesia. Penggemarnya berasal dari beragam latar belakang , lintas generasi dan lintas etnis. Dengan gaya tulisan yang sederhana , mudah dimengerti bertaburan kata mutiara dan kepiawaian Kho dalam membangun rasa penasaran pembacanya dengan gusar meneruskan membaca hingga titik koma terakhir untuk membunuh rasa penasaran.

Penulis yang sangat produktif juga sukses secara finansial. Dengan 400 judul cerita dengan latar belakang Tiongkok dan 50 kisah dari latar belakang kultur Jawa , Kho mendapat penghasilan setara dengan 20 gaji pegawai negri pada masanya.[1] Karya Kho Ping Hoo adalah karya original bukan karya terjemahan karena beliau tidak bisa berbahasa Tionghoa. Dia adalah pengarang asli atau original tidak seperti karya terjemahan seperti OKT , Boe Beng Tjoe , Gan KL , Gan KH dan sebagainya.

 

Walau demikian karya Kho sudah terlanjur dianggap sebagai “Cerita Silat Cina” karena hampir sebagian besar karya Kho berlatar belakang Sejarah Tiongkok. Karena keterbatasan pengetahuan akan bahasa , sejarah dan kondisi geografis Tiongkok , Kho gagal mengulang sukses Karl May dalam serial Winnetou-nya yang lebih presisi walaupun Karl May belum pernah mengunjungi tempat yang menjadi latar bagi kisahnya. Karya Kho juga mengandung kesalahan geografis yang fatal saat menyebutkan satu tokoh dalam kisahnya pergi dari kota satu ke kota yang lain hanya dalam sekian jam. Padahal kenyataannya dua kota yang dikisahkan itu terpisah ribuan lie jauhnya sehingga tidak mungkin ditempuh dalam beberapa jam saja.[2] Berbeda dengan karya Jin Yong dan Liang Yusheng yang karyanya banyak diterjemahkan dimana latar belakang kisahnya berdasarkan nama-nama tempat yang benar ada dan kondisi iklim yang sama dengan cerita. Jadi , biarpun fiktif , karya Jin Yong memiliki latar belakang sejarah , budaya , tempat , geografis yang lebih presisi. [3][4]

Biar bagaimanapun kekurangan dari karya-karya Kho , Gan Kok Liong memuji Kho Ping Hoo sebagai berikut :

Ia lebih hebat dari saya . Ia tidak bisa membaca aksara Tionghoa, tetapi imajinasi dan bakat menulisnya luar biasa. Ceritanya asli dan khas dan sangat sulit ditandingi. Ide-idenya besar , nafas ceritanya panjang. Ia seperti tidak kehabisan bahan. Latar yang ia bangun dan ciptakan pun kuat.[5]

Kho Pinghoo lahir pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1926 di Sragen Jawa Tengah. Sebagai peranakan Tionghoa yang terhitung miskin dan hidup di kota kecil , ia hanya menyelesaikan pendidikan kelas 1 HIS [Hollandsche Inlandsche School] . Minatnya membaca yang tinggi didorong keinginan mengungkapkan gagasan membuat Kho mulai menulis. Karya pertamanya berupa cerita pendek yang dimuat di majalah terbesar pada saat itu , Star Weekly.

Karya paling populer Kho Ping Hoo adalah serial “Bu Kek Sian Su” dan serial “Pedang Kayu Harum”. Selain itu Kho Ping Hoo juga melahirkan karya dengan latar belakang kebudayaan Jawa seperti  “Darah Mengalir di Borobudur” yang sempat diangkat menjadi sandiwara radio sebagai tandingan dari “Saur Sepuh” dan “Tutur Tinular”

Referensi :

1. 100 Tokoh Yang Mengubah Indonesia , 2005 , Penerbit Narasi

2. Arsip Budaya Tionghua no 45829

3. Arsip Budaya Tionghua no 45826

4. Arsip Budaya Tionghua no 38014

5. Aulia Muhammad , “Bayang Baur Sejarah” , 2003

SUMBER :

http://web.budaya-tionghoa.net/tokoh-a-diaspora/tokoh-tionghoa/1066-asmaraman-kho-kho-ping-ho-pengarang-yang-paling-produktif

Selasa, 23 Agustus 2011 – 20:50

 


Widi Widayat

 

Widi Widayat

 

 lahir di Imogiri pada tanggal 10 Mei 1928. Ia bisa menulis roman, cerita silat dan sandiwara radio.

 

 

 

Herman pratikno

 

Pengarang buku Bende Mataram ini bernama Herman Pratikto lahir di Blora pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1929. Ia termasuk pendiri harian Minggu padi dan Harian Nasional, dan mengasuh ruang seni dan budaya disana.

Walaupun ia menempuh pendidikan di Fakultas Hukum salah satu Perguruan Tinggi di Yogyakarta, akan tetapi Herman lebih banyak berkarya dibidang tulis menulis, mendalang wayang kulit, mencipta lagu jawa, melukis, dan siaran radio untuk acara seni dan budaya.

 

Zaidin Wahab, Penulis Cerita Silat Betawi Tutup Usia

JAKARTA (Pos Kota) – Innalillahi wainna ilaihirojiun. Wartawan senior H. Zaidin Wahab,78, meninggal dunia di RS. Husada, Jakarta, pada Selasa, 23 Agustus 2011, pukul 15.00 WIB.

Jenazah almarhum disemayamkan di rumah duka di Jalan Sirsak No.16, Utan Kayu, Jakarta Timur, dan akan dimakamkan hari ini, Rabu (24/8) di TPU Karet Bivak, Jakarta Selatan, pukul 10.00 WIB.

Kang Iding, begitu biasa beliau disapa, sejak beberapa bulan lalu menderita stroke dan sempat koma hingga dirawat di RS. Husada, Jakarta.

Zaidin Wahab pernah menjabat sebagai Redaktur Pelaksana Harian Terbit, juga pernah bergabung di Harian Api Pantjasila. Semasa hidupnya, selain aktif sebagai wartawan, almarhum juga dikenal sebagai penulis cerita-cerita silat Betawi, di antaranya Si Jampang yang dimuat secara bersambung di harian Pos Kota.

PENGHARGAAN SENI

Beberapa karyanya yang lain di antaranya Djampang Mentjari Naga Hitam (1968), Perawan Buta (1972), dan Maron Si Muka Codet. Pada tahun 2011, H.Zaidin Wahab mendapatkan penghargaan seni dari Dinas Kebudayaan DKI Jakarta.

Cerita Djampang Mentjari Naga Hitam pernah diangkat ke film layar lebar pada tahun 1968, yang disutradarai oleh Lilik Sudjio, dan dibintangi oleh Soekarno M. Noer sebagai Djampang, WD Mochtar sebagai Bendot, Awaludin (Babah Peng Ho/Naga Hitam). (anggara/b)

Liang Ie Shen, penulis Cerita Silat Seri Thiansan meninggal 22 Jan 2009

 

Pelopor cerita silat modern Liang Yusheng telah meninggal di Sydney, Australia – tempat dimana dia tinggal sejak tahun 1980an.

Berita duka ini diterbitkan oleh koran Sing Tao edisi Australia Senin lalu. Kesehatannya menurun sejak menderita kanker saluran air kencing di tahun 2004
Lanjut….



Oey An Siok adalah kerabat dekat OKT (Oey Kim Tiang), bahkan ia menggunakan salah satu nama samaran OKT, Boe Beng Tjoe dalam karya-karya terjemahannya. Bersama OKT ia menghasilkan Sin Tjioe Eng Hiap (Binasanya Satu Kaisar), dan Sin Tiauw Hiap Lu, sedang terjemahan yang dikerjakannya sendiri adalah San Hoa Lie Hiap, Peng Tjoan Thian Lie (Bidadari dari Sungai Es), Swat San Hoei Ho (Si Rase Terbang dari Pengunungan Salju), dan Ie Thian To Liong (Kisah Membunuh Naga).
Lahir pada tahun 1915 di Tangerang, ia memperoleh pendidikan di THHK dan kemudian Overseas Chinese Institute, keduanya di Jakarta. Ia memulai karirnya di Keng Po dan sewaktu Keng Po ditutup, melanjutkannya di Harian Pos Indonesia dan Mingguan Djaja, sebelum kemudian membantu Rumah Sakit Husada di Jakarta juga. Jabatan terakhirnya di sana adalah Direktur Administrasi.
(dikutip dari cover belakang “Bidadari Sungai Es”)

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Label: Penulis Cerita Silat


Gan Kok Liang yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Gan KL adalah salah satu sastrawan, selain Oey Kim Tiang alias OKT, yang memperkenalkan cerita-cerita silat Tiongkok di Indonesia. Telah dibawanya ke bumi Indonesia karya-karya tiga pengarang silat Tiongkok terkenal: Jin Yong, Gu Long, dan Liang Yusheng.

Gan KL merupakan anak pertama dari delapan bersaudara, putra dari Gan Swie Pie dan Phoa Leng Keng. Ia lahir di Xiamen, China, 14 Agustus 1928 silam dan dibawa orangtuanya ke Indonesia pada tahun 1938 saat tentara Jepang menguasi Xiamen. Mereka mendarat di Surabaya dan kemudian menetap di Kutoarjo, Jawa Tengah. Sekitar tahun 1948 Jepang menguasai Kutoarjo dan keluarga Gan KL pun kembali harus mengungsi dan mereka akhirnya menetap di Semarang.

Tahun 1958, Gan KL mengirimkan karya sadurannya yang pertama berjudul Pendekar Padang Rumput (Sai Wai Qi Xia Chuan) buah karya Liang Yusheng, yang berkisah tentang perjuangan suku minoritas di Sin Kiang melawan kaum penjajah, ke harian Sin Po. Kisah sadurannya itu rupanya digemari banyak orang, sehingga Gan KL memutuskan untuk meninggalkan pekerjaannya saat itu sebagai auditor akuntansi PT Oei Tiong Ham Concern untuk bekerja sepenuhnya menulis cerita silat. Tahun 1961 Gan KL mulai menerbitkan karyanya sendiri dan mengedarkannya ke toko-toko buku, selain menerbitkannya di surat kabar.

Gan KL berhenti menerjemahkan cerita silat tahun 1986 seiring dengan menyurutnya minat pembaca cerita silat. Ia beralih profesi terjun ke bidang hukum dan membuka kantor konsultan hukum yang memberi jasa pengurusan naturalisasi warga negara asing menjadi warga negara Indonesia.

Gan KL yang memiliki hobi membaca dan menyanyi ini dikaruniai lima orang anak dari pernikahannya dengan Tan Bie Nio.

Karya penerjemah yang meninggal pada 28 November 2003 itu mencapai lebih dari 50 judul dan hampir semua ceritanya panjang. Karyanya yang akan dikenang terus antara lain adalah Tiga Dara Pendekar (Jianghu Sannuxia) karya Liang Yushen, Rahasia Putri Harum (Suqian Wenshou Lu) dan Hina Kelana (Xiao’ao Jianghu) karya Jin Yong, dan Pendekar Binal (Juedai Shuangjiao) (1980) karya Gu Long.

Daftar Saduran Gan KL:

Pendekar Rajawali Sakti (Sin Tiauw Hiap Lu/The Return Of The Condor Heroes)
Golok Pembunuh Naga (To Liong To/Heavenly Sword And Dragon Sabre)
Pahlawan Padang Rumput (Cauw Guan Eng Hiong)
Thian San Thjit Kiam (Tujuh Pendekar Dari Thian-san)
Tiga Dara Pendekar (Kang Ouw Sam Li Hiap)
Pedang Di Sungai Es (Peng Ho Swi Kiam)
Geger Dunia Persilatan (Hong Lui Cin Kiu Cin)
Pendekar Jembel (Hiat Kut Tan Sin)
Kelana Buana
Durjana Dan Ksatria
Medali Wasiat (Hiap Kek Heng)
Hina Kelana (Siauw Go Kang Ouw)
Pedang Hati Suci (Soh Sim Kiam)
Pendekar Negeri Taylie (Thian Liong Pat Pou/Demi Gods And Semi Devils)
Pendekar Latah
Pendekar Sejati
Rahasia Peti Wasiat
Amanat Marga
Misteri Kapal Layar Pancawarna
Pendekar Baja
Renjana Pendekar
Imbauan Pendekar

Serial Pendekar Binal
1. Pendekar Binal
2. Bakti Pendekar Binal
3. Bahagia Pendekar Binal
Pendekar Harum
4. Mayat Kesurupan Roh
5. Legenda Kelelawar

Pendekar Budiman

Serial Pendekar Empat Alis

1. Pendekar Empat Alis
2. Si Bandit Ahli Bordir
3. Duel Antara Dua Jago Pedang
4. Rumah Judi Pancing Perak
5. Keajaiban Negeri Es
6. Perkampungan Hantu
7. Duel Di Butong
8. Manusia Yang Bisa Menghilang
9. Sang Ratu Tawon
10. Senyuman Dewa Pedang

Manusia Aneh Dari Alas Pegunungan (Hong San Koay Khek)
Si Pedang Kilat
Thian Ge Ciat Kiam
Pedang Darah Dan Bunga Iblis
Golok Yanci Pedang Pelangi
Jago Terpendam Di Tanah Asing
Pendekar Satu Jurus
Pengemis Berbisa
Rahasia 180 Patung Mas
Tiga Mutiara Mestika (Sam Po Tju)
Pahala Dan Murka
Balada Kaum Kelana
Kemelut Di Ujun Ruyung Emas
Pedang Kiri Pedang Kanan
Pendekar Kembar
Hikmah Pedang Hijau
Pendekar Lugu (Si Kangkung)
Tiga Pedang Tujuh Ruyung

Dari : cersilanda.com

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Label: Penulis Cerita Silat

 

Foto Tjan ID


Foto Thio Tiong Gie


DIA adalah satu dari empat warga negara Indonesia yang namanya tercatat dalam Ensiklopedi Chinese Overseas bidang Kesenian dan Kebudayaan terbitan Pemerintah China. Sebagai penyadur cerita silat Tiongkok, dia disebut-sebut sebagai yang terbesar setelah mendiang Oey Kim Tiang (OKT). Kini, lelaki kelahiran Semarang, 2 Juli 1949 itu menjadi satu-satunya penyadur generasi lama yang tersisa. Dialah Tjan Ing Djioe, yang lebih dikenal pembaca dengan nama pena Tjan ID.

Tjan, sapaan Tjan Ing Djioe, penyadur yang sangat produktif. Karyanya lebih dari 100 judul, dengan jumlah jilid mencapai ribuan. Buku-buku yang ia terjemahkan karya penulis populer dari Negeri Tirai Bambu. Namun Tjan paling banyak menyadur tulisan Khu Lung (Gu Lung).

Kini, di usianya yang merambat senja, Tjan masih terus berkarya mengalihbahasakan teks-teks cerita berbahasa China ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Saban hari dia bisa menghabiskan 12 jam waktunya di ruang kerja. Apa nggak lelah Pak Tjan? ”Ah nggak, kan sudah biasa,” jawab warga Tambak Mas Timur No 20-21 Tanah Mas Semarang ini, sambil menggelengkan kepala.

Ya, bersikutat dengan teks, kamus, dan komputer, sudah menjadi rutinitas harian Tjan. Aktivitas itu dia lakukan selepas bangun tidur, sekitar pukul 03.00 hingga larut malam.

Tjan beristirahat hanya untuk mandi, makan, dan membantu usaha katering istrinya. Kondisi ini belum seberapa dibanding ritme kerjanya di masa muda. Saat itu, Tjan biasa bekerja nonstop selama 19 jam.

Apa yang membuat dia bekerja sedemikian keras? Jawaban dari pertanyaan ini berkelindan dalam kisah hidup Tjan. Tjan lahir dari keluarga berkecukupan. Ayahnya, Tjan Han Siong seorang pengusaha rotan, sedangkan ibunya Lie Lie Sian, berprofesi sebagai guru. Tjan kecil beroleh pendidikan dasar di sekolah berbahasa China, yakni SD Chung Hoa Kung Sie dan SD Yu Te. Selepas itu dia melanjutkan ke sekolah berpengantar Bahasa Indonesia: SMP dan SMA Theresiana. Penguasaan terhadap dua bahasa inilah yang melempangkan jalan Tjan ke dunia penerjemahan.

Suatu ketika, saat kuliah di Jurusan Publisistik Undip, dia mendapat tugas membuat karangan. Karena tidak terlampau cakap menulis, Tjan memilih membuat karya terjemahan. Kebetulan ia sejak kecil gemar membaca cerita silat Tiongkok. Maka ia pun menyadur bagian awal karya Bai Hong Tujuh Pusaka Rimba Persilatan. Hasil ketikan asli karya itu diserahkan kepada dosen, sedangkan kopian karbonnya— tanpa sepengetahuan Tjan— diserahkan oleh sang ayah kepada pemilik toko buku Sutawijaya di Jalan Mataram, Semarang.

”Oleh The Tjie To, sang pemilik toko, karya terjemahan saya ditawarkan kepada sebuah penerbit di Jakarta. Entah kenapa, penerbit itu tertarik dengan karya yang masih bersifat coba-coba itu. Jadilah pada 1969, jilid perdana Tujuh Pusaka Rimba Persilatan diterbitkan.”

Tak Asal-asalan

Setelah karya pertama, penerbit meminta Tjan meneruskan kelanjutannya hingga jilid 28 tamat. Tiap jilid Tjan dibayar Rp 1.750. Pada saat hampir bersamaan, bisnis rotan Tjan Han Siong gulung tikar dan terjerat utang. Dalam keterpurukan, keluarga itu menggantungkan diri pada honor Tjan. Didesak kebutuhan, dia kian giat bekerja. Bahkan suami Suryani Erawati (55) itu juga menyuplai terjemahan kepada para senior, seperti Gan Kok Liang (Gan KL) dan Sie Djiak Liong (SD Liong). Tjan rela, karya sadurannya diterbitkan atas nama mereka.

”Habis bagaimana lagi, saya butuh banyak uang. Selain makan dan biaya sekolah adik-adik, honor saya juga untuk membayar bunga bank. Karena bekerja tak kenal waktu, kuliah saya jadi berantakan.”

Meski mengejar setoran, bukan berarti Tjan bekerja asal-asalan. Karya ayah dari Elwin A Setiawan (34) dan Stevanus Kundarto (30) itu bahkan diminati banyak pembaca, utamanya dari kalangan muda. Konon, itu karena gaya bahasa Tjan yang berbeda dari penyadur cerita silat generasi sebelumnya. Jika penyadur dan penulis senior, seperti OKT, SD Liong, Gan KL, dan Gan KH cenderung memakai Bahasa Melayu Pasar, ia menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia baku.

Dari sekian banyak hasil saduran Tjan, beberapa meledak di pasaran, yakni Pendekar Patung Emas karya Qin Hong (1970), Rahasia Kunci Wasiat karya Wolong Shen (1971), serta Serial Bara Maharani (1975) dan Pendekar Riang (1979), keduanya karya Khu Lung.

Tahun 1980-an, Tjan menyisihkan penghasilannya untuk bisnis peternakan ayam. Di luar dugaan, ikhtiar coba-coba itu berkembang pesat. Tjan pun mulai meninggalkan aktivitas kepenulisannya. Namun hal itu tak berlangsung selamanya. Pada 2002, bisnis Tjan bangkrut. Dia pun kembali menggeluti aktivitas penerjemahan cerita silat dari Negeri China.

Namun zaman telah berubah. Penikmat cerita silat Tiongkok tak lagi sebanyak era 1970-1980-an. Patah arangkah Tjan? Tidak. Dia tetap berkarya dengan penuh semangat. Justru dari situlah kesadaran akan pentingnya sastra peranakan tumbuh. Cerita silat, kata Tjan, perlu dilestarikan. Sebab selain menghibur, kisah-kisah yang terkandung di dalamnya memuat banyak ajaran kebajikan, seperti kepahlawanan, patriotisme, penghormatan kepada orang tua, serta kesetiakawanan.

Inilah yang membuat Tjan merasa perlu menyiapkan generasi pengganti. Sejak tahun 2000-an, ia membina 12 anak muda yang berminat menjadi penyadur cerita silat. Mereka anggota Masyarakat Tjerita Silat (M Tjersil) yang selama ini berinteraksi melalui milis di internet.
”Ikhtiar ini tidak sia-sia. Kini, tiga dari mereka telah berhasil menerbitkan buku. Semoga yang lain segera menyusul,” katanya.

Dalang Wayang Potehi

Jika Tjan Ing Djioe sukses melakukan regenerasi, tidak demikian dengan Thio Tiong Gie. Puluhan tahun melestarikan wayang potehi, ia hanya memproduksi seorang penerus. Dia tak lain Oei Tjiang Hwat, asistennya sendiri. Padahal Tiong Gie tak kurang-kurang melakukan inovasi. Dia menggunakan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai pengganti bahasa aslinya: China. Dia juga tak menabukan masuknya anasir budaya lain. Lelaki 76 tahun yang mukim di Kampung Pesantren, Kelurahan Purwodinatan, Semarang itu kerap memunculkan tembang-tembang campursari dalam pementasan. Namun apa lacur, pertunjukan Tiong Gie tetap minim apresiasi. ”Mencari penonton saja susah, apalagi anak muda yang mau belajar ndalang,” keluh Thio Tiong Gie.

Beda dari dulu, pentas wayang potehi saat ini cenderung dilakukan untuk klangenan. Dari ruang-ruang semacam itulah Tiong Gie dapat bertahan. Lantaran dalang potehi semakin langka, dia tak punya banyak saingan. Tiong Gie pun tak sulit-sulit amat mendapat tanggapan. Selain Semarang, dia acap diundang ke luar kota, seperti Tegal, Solo, Purwokerto, Mojokerto, Surabaya, dan Jakarta.

Dirunut ke belakang, persuaan Tiong Gie dengan wayang potehi bukan ikhwal yang disengaja. Alkisah, saat berusia sembilan tahun, rumah orang tuanya di Demak dirampok. Jatuh miskin, dia sekeluarga hijrah ke Semarang. Suatu hari Tiong Gie yang telah putus sekolah tertarik buku cerita berbahasa Hokkian yang dia baca. Beberapa waktu kemudian, dia bertemu Oey Sing Tay, tukang cakap wayang potehi.

Oey Sing Tay menyarankan Tiong Gie menjadi dalang.
Pada usia 25 tahun, dia nekat manggung untuk kali pertama di Cianjur, Jawa Barat. Nekat, karena tak pernah latihan sebelumnya. Sukses manggung perdana, Tiong Gie melanjutkan ke pentas-pentas keliling di berbagai kota di Pulau Jawa.
Peristiwa 1965 membuat wayang potehi dan kesenian bernuansa Tionghoa lain tidak boleh dimainkan secara terbuka. Tiong Gie pun terpaksa menghentikan kegiatannya. Untuk hidup, suami mendiang Hoo Sian Nio itu membuka usaha bengkel las.

Perubahan politik pada 1998 membuka jalan kebebasan bagi Tiong Gie. Pada 1999, untuk kali pertama setelah tiga dasawarsa vakum, dia kembali mendalang di Taman Ismail Marzuki Jakarta. Penghapusan Inpres No 14 Tahun 1967 oleh Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid pada 2000, membuat Tiong Gie makin leluasa.

Namun, zaman telah berubah. Lepas dari belenggu rezim, wayang potehi tak berdaya menghadapi gempuran ragam kesenian modern. Menyerahkah Thio Tiong Gie? Tidak. ”Sampai mati saya akan terus mendalang,” tandasnya.(Rukardi-62)

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Label: Penulis Cerita Silat


Inilah lima pendekar penerjemah cerita silat di tanah air. Dari generasi pertama yang mulai menerjemahkan pada 1920- an hingga yang tetap bertahan hingga kini. Tiga dari mereka sudah tiada, dua lainnya tak lagi muda.

Kwo Lay Yen Generasi Pertama Penerjemah Kwo Lay Yen atau Tan Tek Ho lebih dikenal memiliki beberapa nama samaran: Kwo Lay Yen (Si Mahir), Bong Kok No (Budak Tanpa Negara) dan Hoh Hoh Sianseng (Tuan Harmoni).

Ia lahir di Bandung pada 1894. Tek Ho menempuh pendidikan dasar di Bandung dan Batavia, kemudian melanjutkan ke Nanking (Nanjing). Kembali ke Indonesia ia menjadi wartawan Sin Po. Pada 1920-an menjadi Redaksi Kepala (Hoofd-redacteur) untuk Sin Po Oost-Java Editie.

Sesudah Oost-Java Editie ditutup, ia kembali ke Bandung dan sepenuhnya menjadi penerjemah cerita silat. Karya terjemahannya yang membuat dia terkenal adalah Riwajat Djago Silat karya Siang Khay Yan (Xiang Kairan) dan Tai Beng Kie Hiap karya Sie Leng Hong (Xi Lingfeng).

Ia mengepalai berkala Goedang Tjerita (Bandung, 1929) yang kemudian diambil alih sepenuhnya dan diganti namanya menjadi Tjerita Silat pada 1932. Ketika Jepang masuk, ia ditahan di Sukamiskin, kemudian di Cimahi dan baru bebas ketika Jepang jatuh.

Salah satu terjemahan Kwo Lay Yen terbaik adalah Tjoe Bo Kim So karya The Tjeng In (Zheng Zhengyin) yang dimuat di Goedang Tjerita sejak 1948. Ia meninggal di Bandung pada 1949.

Ia menguasai aktif bahasabahasa Belanda, Cina, Inggris dan Melayu. Karena pengalamannya sebagai wartawan, maka hasil terjemahannya mengalir dengan lancar dan lebih ketat mengikuti kaidah Bahasa Indonesia daripada Melayu (Rendah).

Hanya saja penguasaannya atas dialek Hokkian sangat kurang. Ini tampak dari nama samaran yang digunakannya lebih banyak menggunakan ejaan nasional daripada Hokkian.

Selama hidupnya ia telah menerjemahkan lebih dari 50 judul cerita silat dan selusin novel Eropa. Oey Kim Tiang Menerjemahkan ke Melayu Betawi Oey Kim Tiang atau lebih dikenal dengan OKT adalah penerjemah cerita silat terbesar.

Ia telah mengerjakan lebih dari 100 judul cerita silat dan cerita klasik Cina selama 1923-1990. Ia lahir di Tangerang pada Februari 1903 dan meninggal pada 1995. Orangtuanya mandor kebun kelapa yang selalu berpindah-pindah tempat.

Ia dititipkan di keluarga ibunya dan mendapatkan pendidikan dasarnya di Tangerang. Di sana ia bersahabat dengan salah satu pengajarnya, Ong Kim Tiat. Kim Tiat pula yang membawanya ke Batavia untuk bekerja di bidang jurnalistik.

Setelah beberapa bulan bekerja di koran Perniagaan, ia kemudian pindah ke koran Keng Po yang baru saja berdiri pada Juli 1923. Di koran ini, OKT melanjutkan penerjemahan cerita sejarah klasik. Sejak itu ia menjadi penerjemah penuh seumur hidupnya.

Ketika cerita silat mengalami ledakan di akhir 1920-an, nama OKT semakin berkibar. Ia menangani cerita silat bersambung di setidaknya tiga harian. Ia sangat setia pada Keng Po yang membesarkannya dan bertahan di sana sampai koran itu mati pada 1958.

Walaupun tak menguasai bahasa Indonesia dengan baik, tapi OKT justru menguasai bahasa Melaju Betawi. Penguasaan ini pernah dipuji oleh para sastrawan, seperti Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana dan Ajip Rosidi. Kehatihatian membuat ia sangat setia menerjemahkan cerita silat.

Bersama saudaranya, Oey An Siok, dengan nama Boe Beng Tjoe, ia meninggalkan monumen Trilogi Rajawali Kim Yong (Jin Yong) jang telah menguasai emosi jutaan orang pembaca di seluruh dunia. Gan Kok Liang Lincah dan Enak Dibaca Gan Kok Liang atau lebih dikenal dengan nama Gan KL mengikuti ayahnya datang ke pulau Jawa pada 1928 ketika berumur 10 tahun.

Jadi ia benar- benar menguasai dialek Hokkian vernacular, seperti tercermin dalam karya-karyanya. Ia tinggal di Purworejo dan menghabiskan masa remajanya di sana. Pada 1948, agresi militer Belanda telah membumi hanguskan tempat tinggalnya. Keluarga Gan KL pun pindah ke Semarang.

Di Semarang ia mencoba berbagai macam pekerjaan. Ia mendapat kedudukan baik di satu perusahaan milik orang Belanda. Hanya saja ketika terjadi nasionalisasi, ia harus mencari pegangan lain. Pekerjaan penerjemahan menjadi sandaran barunya. Terjemahannya yang lincah dan enak dibaca diterima di harian Sin Po yang sedang mencari pengisi cerita silat bersambung baru.

Ia juga mengisi untuk koran Pantjawarna. Di sinilah ia terpengaruh oleh Nio Joe Lan yang menyarankan penulisan nama-nama Cina dalam ejaan modern Bahasa Indonesia. Ini berbeda dengan kubu Keng Po yang mempertahankan penulisan berdasarkan standar van ophuijsen.

Karya penerjemah yang meninggal pada 2003 itu mencapai lebih dari 50 judul dan hampir semua ceritanya panjang. Karyanya yang akan dikenang terus antara lain adalah Tiga Dara Pendekar (Jianghu Sannuxia) karya Liang Yushen, Rahasia Putri Harum (Suqian wenshou lu) dan Hina Kelana (Xiao’ao Jianghu) karya Jin Yong, dan Pendekar Binal (Juedai shuangjiao) (1980) karya Gu Long.

Gan Kok Hwie Santai dan Berapi-api Berbeda dengan kakaknya, Gan Kok Hwie atau Gan KH lebih terlihat sebagai pribadi yang santai dan penuh canda. Memulai karier sebagai penerjemah karena menuruti jejak Gan KL, sang kakak, ia telah menerjemahkan tidak kurang dari 30 judul cerita silat sampai saat ini.

Gan KH saat ini tinggal di Semarang dan sehari harinya sangat aktif dalam kegiatan kelenteng di Tay Kak Sie Semarang. Ia masih sangat berapiapi ketika berbicara tentang zaman kejayaan cerita silat dulu. Ia masih mengingat satu per satu karya yang pernah diterjemahkannya. Para penggemar cersil akan selalu mengenang Gan KH sebagai salah satu penerjemah terbaik cerita-cerita karya Khu Lung atau Gu Long.

Di antaranya adalah serial Pendekar Harum dan saga Salju Merah. Pada 2005 ini Gan KH kembali menerjemahkan dan buku yang paling akhir terbit adalah masih dari salah satu karya Khu Lung yang diberi judul Pukulan si Kuda Binal. Gan KH berjanji akan terus menerjemahkan demi untuk mempopulerkan kembali cerita silat seperti di zaman jayanya dulu.

Tjan Ing Djoe Spesial Karya Khu Lung Tjan Ing Djoe atau lebih dikenal dengan Tjan ID adalah OKT. Dari jumlah buku yang pernah disadur atau diterjemahkan dari bahasa aslinya, Tjan ID menerjemahkan tidak kurang dari 93 judul yang setara dengan hampir 2.188 jilid cerita silat. Lahir pada 1949, Tjan mulai menerjemahkan cerita silat di usia 19 saat kuliah di Universitas Diponegoro Semarang.

Pada awal karier penulisannya Tjan banyak dibantu oleh OKT yang juga mengajarinya teknik menerjemahkan dari bahasa Cina. Tjan ID juga seorang yang unik. Tak seperti para penerjemah lainnya, walau produktif, Tjan tidak pernah memakai kertas karbon ketika mengetik untuk naskah terjemahannya. Akibatnya ketika gelora penerjemahan cerita silat kembali muncul, Tjan ID harus kehilangan sebagian besar naskah karyanya yang hilang atau habis dimakan rayap.

Sekitar 20 karya Khu Lung telah diterjemahkannya sekaligus membawanya sebagai penerjemah spesialis karya Khu Lung. Ia terkenal sebagai penerjemah yang sangat setia pada naskah aslinya. Golok Kemala Hijau pada 1974 diakui sebagai karya terjemahannya yang pertama. Karya terjemahan cerita silat terakhirnya baru saja diluncurkan Oktober ini atas kerja sama dengan Masyarakat Tjersil, berjudul Bunga Pedang, Embun Hujan, Kanglam, masih terjemahan dari karya Khu Lung.

Saat ini Tjan ID tinggal di Semarang. Sembari menerjemahkan, ia sibuk beternak ayam.

HIANG PHEK TAUWTOO |RIEZ SIAUW BIN YOE HOEN DOKUMEN PRIBADI

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Label: Penulis Cerita Silat

Kamis, 04 Februari 2010


O.K.T. (Oey Kim Tiang) adalah penterjemah cerita silat yang paling produktif di Indonesia sampai sekarang. Ia lahir dalam keluarga peranakan Cina yang telah enam generasi tinggal dikota Tangerang. Lahir tahun 1903, di kota ini pula ia meninggal tahun 1995. Mewariskan lebih dari seratus karya terjemahan yang dihasilkan selama ia berkarya lebih dari 60 tahun.
Ajip Rosidi memuji penggunaan bahasanya yang sangat lentur dan hidup dalam menceritakan (menuturkan) kembali kisah-kisah penuh aksi ini, meskipun kadang tidak menganut kaidah baku bahasa Indonesia. Pengabdiannya kepada kegiatan penterjemahan adalah total, ketelitian dan kerja kerasnya menjadi jaminanbagi para penggemar cerita silat.
Hasil terjemahannya sangat setia kepada naskah aslinya, semua detail sampai sajak-sajak yang sulit diterjemahkan pun tidak ada yang dilewati. Namun gayanya pribadi tetap mencuat melalui penguasaannya atas bahasa Melayoe Rendah atau Melayoe Pasar dengan pengkayaan kosakata dialek Hokkioan dalam istilah-istilah tertentu sangat kuat. Semua ini menggumpal dalam gaya bahasa yang amat khas, sekaligus sangat hidup dalam benak para pembacanya.

Oey Kim Tiang atau O.K.T adalah penterjemah cerita silat yang sangat produktif, beliau lahir dalam keluarga peranakan Cina generasi ke enam di Tangerang. Tahun kelahirannya 1903, dan di kota Tangerang pula beliau wafat dalam usia 92 tahun. Karena lanjut usia dan sering sakit, pada 1980-an, Oey sudah jarang menulis. la meninggal 8 Maret 1995. la pernah bersekolah Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan setempat sampai tingkat SLTP.

Penerjemah terkenal sebelum perang, Ong KimTiat, adalah gurunya. Sebenarnya sejak sebelum Perang, Oey Kim Tiang sudah mulai menerjemahkan cersil dan novel-novel detektif. Selama hidupnya, almarhum telah menterjemahkan lebih dari 100 karya terjemahan dari dialek Hokkian ke dalam bahasa Melayoe Pasar atau Melayoe Rendah.

Dalam menterjemahkan, O.K.T menjaga konsistensinya dalam mempertahankan kosa kata Hokkian dalam istilah-istilah tertentu sangat kuat.

Penggunaan bahasa dalam cerita silat terjemahan tersebut bahasanya sangat lentur dan hidup dalam menuturkan (menceritakan) kisah-kisah yang penuh aksi, dan pembaca dibawa dalam imajinasinya, sehingga seolah-olah pembacanya mengalami sendiri kejadian lepas kejadian dalam kisah silat tersebut. Meskipun Oey cuma berpendidikan setingkat SLTP di Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan dan tidak melanjutkan lagi, tetapi dasar bahasa Tionghoanya tidak lemah. Di antara penerjemah cersil Tionghoa peranakan, Oey satu-satunya penerjemah syair dalam cersil ke dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Kalau diperhatikan, O.K.T seringkali tidak menganut kaidah bahasa Indonesia, tetapi justru hal tersebutlah yang membuat pembaca mengalami pengayaan dan menambah wawasan dalam pengenalan kosakata dari bahasa Sunda dan Jawa. Terjemahannya berusaha mempertahankan makna syair aslinya. Akan tetapi, demi irama sajaknya, ia kadang-kadang memakai cara terjemahan tidak lazim. Misalnya ia mener-jemahkan “San Qiu” menjadi “di musim TJioe”, yang sebenarnya, “di musim gugur” atau “di musim rontok”. Demi mempertahankan irama sajaknya, ia menerjemahkan “Changjiang” menjadi “sungai Tiang Kang”, yang sesungguhnya, “sungai Yang Tse” yang lebih dikenal orang. Meskipun demikian, Oey telah membuang banyak waktu untuk mengerjakan terjemahan syair-syair dalam karyanya.

Di samping menerjemahkan karya-karya Liang Yusheng dan Jin Yong, Oey juga menerjemahkan cersil Ti Feng dan Wang Du Lu. la berpendapat, karya-karya Wang Du Lu sebaik karya Jin Yong. Ketika bekerja di Keng Po, Oey meneijemahkan lima buah karya Wang Du Lu (yaitu Po Kiam Kim Tje, Kiam Kie Tjoe Kong, Go Houw Tjhong Liong, Tiat Kie Gin Pan dan Ho HengKoen Loen) dan dimuat secara bersambung di suratkabar tersebut , Setelah tamat cersil-cersil itu segera diterbitkan dalam bentuk buku saku.

Bersama saudaranya, Oey An Siok, dengan nama Boe Beng Tjoe, ia meninggalkan monumen Trilogi Rajawali Kim Yong (Jin Yong) jang telah menguasai emosi jutaan orang pembaca di seluruh dunia.

the end @ copyright 2012

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