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Florence Nightingale Historic collections

Florence Nightingale

Historic Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

 

 

Introduction

 

Florence Nightingal

e’s London

 

A wartime letter from nursing heroine Florence Nightingale to a soldier’s grieving sister has been publicly unveiled for the first time.

In the poignant note, Miss Nightingale – known as the Lady with the Lamp – informs Crimean soldier Gunner Evans’ sister of the ‘sad certainty’ of his death.

‘I have never had so painful and unsatisfactory a letter to write,’ the message reads.

Biography

Florence Nightingale

 
 
 
Florence Nightingale
Born 12 May 1820(1820-05-12)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 August 1910(1910-08-13) (aged 90)
Park Lane, London, United Kingdom
Known for Pioneering modern nursing
 
Profession Nurse and Statistician
Institutions Selimiye Barracks, Scutari
Specialism Hospital hygiene and sanitation
Signature

Florence Nightingale OM, RRC (play /ˈflɒrəns ˈntɨŋɡl/; historically [ˈflɒɾəns]; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed “The Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night. An Anglican, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse.

Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King’s College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.

[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life

Embley Park, now a school, was one of the family homes of William Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence’s older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.

Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances (“Fanny”) Nightingale née Smith (1789–1880). William’s mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny’s father (Florence’s maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith. (For family trees, see here.)

Inspired by what she took as a call from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women. Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing.

Florence Nightingale, circa 1858

In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War. Herbert was on his honeymoon; he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert and his wife were instrumental in facilitating Nightingale’s nursing work in the Crimea, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert’s death from Bright’s Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him.

Nightingale also much later had strong relations with Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.

Nightingale continued her travels (now with Charles and Selina Bracebridge) as far as Greece and Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote

“I don’t think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this.” And, considering the temple: “Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering… not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man.”

At Thebes she wrote of being “called to God” while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): “God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation.”[2] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein in Germany, where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc. was her first published work;[3] she also received four months of medical training at the institute which formed the basis for her later care.

On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[4] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £40,000/US$65,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.

[edit] Crimean War

A print of the jewel awarded to Nightingale by Queen Victoria, for her services to the soldiers in the war

A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava

A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an 1856 lithograph

Florence Nightingale’s most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[5] were sent (under the authorisation of Sidney Herbert) to the Ottoman Empire, about 295 nautical miles (546 km; 339 mi) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based.

Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul). She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no equipment to process food for the patients.

After Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution to the poor condition of the facilities, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital, which could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. The result was Renkioi Hospital, a civilian facility which under the management of Dr Edmund Alexander Parkes had a death rate less than 1/10th that of Scutari.[6]

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. The 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, but the second edition in 2001 did not. However, death rates did not drop: they began to rise. The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region. During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds. Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital’s defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.[7] Death rates were sharply reduced. During the war she did not recognise hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.[8]

Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.

[edit] The Lady with the Lamp

During the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname “The Lady with the Lamp”, deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times:

She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow’s face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.[9]

“Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari”, a portrait by Jerry Barrett

The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s 1857 poem “Santa Filomena”:[10]

Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

[edit] Later career

While she was in the Crimea, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses. There was an outpouring of generous donations. Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in the Ottoman Empire, detailing the health conditions, physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland). It may be assumed[citation needed] she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment.

By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital on 9 July 1860. (It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King’s College London.) The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home.

Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. Nightingale wrote “Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have – distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have”.[11]

Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form. In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: “The book was the first of its kind ever to be written. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing”.[12]

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army.

As Mark Bostridge has recently demonstrated, one of Nightingale’s signal achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system in England and Ireland from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were no longer being cared for by other, able-bodied paupers, but by properly trained nursing staff. This innovation may be said to herald the establishment of the National Health Service in Britain, forty years after Nightingale’s death.

It is commonly stated that Nightingale “went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection”. Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[13] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as “contagionism” which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, to kill germs. Nightingale’s work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War. The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission.

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, “America’s first trained nurse”, and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan.

By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary’s Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day.

From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[14] An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.[8] There is, however, no documentary evidence to support this theory which remains, therefore, largely supposition. Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis, the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world.

[edit] Relationships

Although much of Nightingale’s work improved the lot of women everywhere, she had little respect for women in general.[15] She criticized early women’s rights activists for decrying an alleged lack of careers for women at the same time that lucrative medical positions, under the supervision of Nightingale and others, went perpetually unfilled.[16] She preferred the friendship of powerful men, insisting they had done more than women to help her attain her goals, writing, “I have never found one woman who has altered her life by one iota for me or my opinions.”[17] She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example “a man of action” and “a man of business”.[18]

She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women. Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.[19] Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.[20]

In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale’s life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in the time of Victorian sexual morality.[21]

The grave of Florence Nightingale in the churchyard of St. Margaret’s Church, East Wellow.

[edit] Death

On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street,[22] Park Lane.[23] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[24][25] She left a large body of work, including several hundred notes which were previously unpublished.[26]

[edit] Contributions

[edit] Statistics and sanitary reform

Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East” by Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father. Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[27] Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data.[28]

Indeed, Nightingale is described as “a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics”, and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram,[29] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram, in order to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a “coxcomb”, but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports.

In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation. Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. “After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000”.[29]

In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.

[edit] Literature and the women’s movement

Nightingale’s achievements are all the more impressive when they are considered against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England. Her father, William Edward Nightingale, was an extremely wealthy landowner, and the family moved in the highest circles of English society. In those days, women of Nightingale’s class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. Nightingale was fortunate. Her father believed women should be educated, and he personally taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history and – most unusual of all for women of the time – writing and mathematics.[30]

But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism. During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth. This was an 829 page, three-volume work, which Nightingale had printed privately in 1860, but which until recently was never published in its entirety.[31] An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[32] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.[33] The best known of these essays, called Cassandra, was previously published by Ray Strachey in 1928. Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women’s movement. Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth.

Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother’s and older sister’s lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra‘s. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale’s writing “a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf.”[34]

[edit] Theology

Despite being named as a Unitarian in many older sources, Nightingale’s own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative, and she remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views.[35] Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale’s work of theology, her own theodicy, which develops her heterodox ideas. Nightingale questioned the goodness of a God who would condemn souls to hell, showing sympathy for the idea of universal reconciliation.[36][37]

[edit] Legacy and memory

Young Florence Nightingale

[edit] Nursing

The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach. This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.[38]

Florence Nightingale’s lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.

The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King’s College London. The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year.

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[39] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale’s death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale’s birth). NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health. So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries.

During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[40]

The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[41] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale’s contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name “Bedside Florence” to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.[42]

In 1912 the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service.

[edit] Hospitals

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi in Gayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.[43]

An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The suggested new name will be either Nightingale Community Hospital or Florence Nightingale Community Hospital. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the “Nightingale Quarter”.[44]

[edit] Museums and monuments

A vertical rectangular stained glass window with nine panels, each holding one or more human figures

Florence Nightingale stained glass window, originally at the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary Chapel and now removed to St Peter’s Church, Derby and rededicated October 9th 2010

Statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, London

Florence Nightingale Statue, London Road, Derby

Florence Nightingale exhibit at Malvern Museum 2010

A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the London Road Community Hospital formerly known as the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, one in St. Peter’s Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[45] The Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby.

A remarkable stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary chapel in the late 1950s. When the chapel was later demolished the window was removed, stored and replaced in the new replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. In October 2010, £6,000 was raised by friends of the window and St Peters Church to reposition the window in St Peters Church, Derby. The remarkable work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Florence Nightingale herself. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010.[46]

The Florence Nightingale Museum at St Thomas’ Hospital in London reopened in May 2010 in time for the centenary of Nightingale’s death. Another museum devoted to her is at her sister’s family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust.

2010 marked the centenary of Nightingale’s death, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit,[47] with a school poster competition to promote some events.[48]

In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now a museum,[49] and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.[50]

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself, in May 1855, she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot.

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[51]

“To Florence Nightingale, whose work near this Cemetery a century ago relieved much human suffering and laid the foundations for the nursing profession.”

[edit] Audio

Florence Nightingale’s voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive. The recording is in aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund, and says:

“When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. God bless my dear old comrades of Balaclava and bring them safe to shore. Florence Nightingale.”[52]

The recording is available online.[53]

[edit] Theatre

The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his “The Lady with the Lamp”, premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey‘s biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[54] It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond‘s surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria.

In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled “The Voyage of the Lass”. The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities’ icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines. The play tells the story of Nightingale’s early life and her struggles during the Crimean War. “The Voyage of the Lass” was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts.

[edit] Television

Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary – the BBC’s 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4’s 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea and Simon Schama’s A History of Britain she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole’s efforts. In 1985 a TV biopic “Florence Nightingale”, starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced.

[edit] Film

In 1912 a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale was produced. In 1915 another biographical silent film titled Florence Nightingale was produced starring Elisabeth Risdon. In 1936 a biographical film titled White Angel was produced, starring Kay Francis as Nightingale. A 1951 a second biographical film titled The Lady With the Lamp was produced starring Anna Neagle.

[edit] Banknotes

Florence Nightingale’s image appeared on the reverse of Series D £10 banknotes issued by the Bank of England from 1975 until 1994. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital in the Crimea, holding her lamp.[55]

[edit] Photography

Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of her, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May 1858, was discovered in 2006 and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. A black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale’s London home in South Street, Park Lane, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[56]

[edit] Biographies

The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in 1855. In 1911 Edward Cook was authorised by Nightingale’s executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in 1913. Lytton Strachey based much of his chapter on Nightingale in Eminent Victorians on Cook, and Cecil Woodham-Smith relied heavily on Cook’s Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In 2008 Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon,and from archival documents from about 200 archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (2001 to date).

[edit] Fiction

Nightingale is a major supporting character in the Enola Holmes detective novel, The Case of the Cryptic Crinoline, where a coded message in a crinoline she once gave to Enola’s landlady in the Crimean War gets her kidnapped. In this novel, Nightingale is depicted as a firm feminist who malingers as an invalid in order to focus on her political and medical work without the distractions of expected feminine behaviour of the day. This facade, as well as her advanced age and social respect, enables her to bluntly explain to Enola’s brother, Sherlock Holmes, why his sister is determined to defy her brothers’ wish for her to conform at a boarding school.

[edit] Florence Nightingale syndrome

Florence Nightingale syndrome is a term used to describe a situation where a caregiver, typically a doctor or nurse, develops an emotional attachment to a vulnerable patient in his or her care. This attachment may progress into a sexual attraction.[57]

[edit] Other

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August.

Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A “Nightingale” aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 platform.[58] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[59]

In 1982 Sentara Healthcare inaugurated its medical helicopter service, officially named “Nightingale”.[60]

[edit] See also

Nightingale circa 1854

[edit] Works

[edit] Sources

[edit] References

  1. ^ Florence Nightingale’s birthplace with photo of commemorative plaque
  2. ^ Edward Chaney, “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York, 2006), 39-74.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  4. ^ History of Harley Street at Harley Street Guide (commercial website)
  5. ^ Gill, CJ; Gill, GC; Gillian C. Gill (Jun 2005). “Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1799–1805. doi:10.1086/430380. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15909269
  6. ^Report on Medical Care“. British National Archives (WO 33/1 ff.119, 124, 146–7). Dated 1855-02-23.
  7. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1999-08). Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. ISBN 0866885595. http://books.google.com/?id=dRpgFsQ7nqkC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=sanitary+commissioner+Scutari. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel by Hugh Small (Constable 1998)
  9. ^ Cited in Cook, E. T. The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.
  10. ^ “”The Atlantic Monthly”; November 1857; “Santa Filomena,” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ; Volume 1, No. 1; pages 22-23″. Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/nov1857/filomena.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  11. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Preface”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Glasgow & London: Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0-216-89974-5
  12. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Introduction by Joan Quixley”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0397550073
  13. ^ Florence Nightingale, the Woman and her Legend, by Mark Bostridge (Viking 2008)
  14. ^ Bostridge (2008)
  15. ^ In an 1861 letter, Nightingale wrote “Women have no sympathy. […] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. … They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information.”.
  16. ^ In the same 1861 letter she wrote, “It makes me mad, the Women’s Rights talk about ‘the want of a field’ for them — when I would gladly give $500 a year for a Woman secretary. And two English Lady superintendents have told me the same thing. And we can’t get one…”
  17. ^ Cook, Sir Edward Tyas (1914). The Life of Florence Nightingale: 1862-1910. http://books.google.com/?id=totpAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=They+scream+out+at+you+for+sympathy+all+day+long#v=onepage&q=iota&f=false
  18. ^ Stark, Myra. “Florence Nightingale’s Cassandra”. The Feminist Press, 1979, p.17.
  19. ^ “Institute of Our Lady of Mercy, Great Britain”. Ourladyofmercy.org.uk. 2009-12-08. http://www.ourladyofmercy.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  20. ^ Cannadine, David. “Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters.” The New Republic. 203.7 (13 August 1990): 38-42.
  21. ^ Dossey, Barbara Montgomery. Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Reformer. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  22. ^ Plaque #6 on Open Plaques.
  23. ^ “Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety”. The New York Times. 1910-08-15. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0512.html. Retrieved 2007-07-21. “Florence Nightingale, the famous nurse of the Crimean war, and the only woman who ever received the Order of Merit, died yesterday afternoon at her London home. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position, and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. A week ago she was quite sick, but then improved, and on Friday was cheerful. During that night alarming symptoms developed, and she gradually sank until 2 o’clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came.” 
  24. ^ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/joe_grave.jpg
  25. ^ “Florence Nightingale: The Grave at East Wellow”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/wellow.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  26. ^ Kelly, Heather (1998). Florence Nightingale’s autobiographical notes: A critical edition of BL Add. 45844 (England) (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  27. ^ Lewi, Paul J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm
  28. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (March). “Florence Nightingale”. Scientific American 250 (3): 128–137. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0384-128. PMID 6367033.  (alternative pagination depending on country of sale: 98-107. Bibliography on p.114) online article – see documents link at left
  29. ^ a b Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.107.
  30. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.98
  31. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1994). Michael D. Calabria & Janet A. Macrae. ed. Suggestions for Thought: Selections and Commentaries. ISBN 0-8122-1501-X. http://books.google.com/?id=CHcm-2Zm5DQC&dq=%22suggestions+for+thought%22&printsec=frontcover&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  32. ^ McDonald, Lynn, ed. (2008). Florence Nightingale’s Suggestions for Thought. Collected Works of Florence Nighingale. Volume 11. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-088920-465-2. http://books.google.com/?id=Mle5Sjixa0cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=McDonald++%22suggestions+for+thought%22&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010.  Privately printed by Nightingale in 1860.
  33. ^ Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. http://www.wlupress.wlu.ca/Series/CWFN.shtml. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  34. ^ Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. “Florence Nightingale.” The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. 836-837.
  35. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale: extending nursing p11 Nightingale’s rare references to Unitarianism are mildly negative, and while her religious views were heterodox, she remained in the Church of England throughout her life. Her biblical annotations, private journal notes and translations of the mystics give quite a different impression of her beliefs, and these do have a bearing on her work with nurses, and not only at Edinburgh, but neither [Cecil Woodham-]Smith nor his followers consulted their sources.”
  36. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale’s theology: essays, letters and journal notes 2002 p18 “Certainly the worst man would hardly torture his enemy, if he could, forever. Unless God has a scheme that every man is to be saved forever, it is hard to say in what He is not worse than man. For all good men would save others if they could”
  37. ^ [influence on Clara Barton] Russell E. Miller The larger hope: the first century of the Universalist Church in 1979 Clara Barton – “Although not formally a Universalist by church membership, she had come of a Universalist family, was sympathetic to the tenets of the denomination, and has always been claimed by it.124 Known as “the Florence Nightingale of our war”
  38. ^ Neeb, Kathy. Mental Health Nursing. 3rd. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2006.
  39. ^ “Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign”. Nightingaledeclaration.net. http://www.nightingaledeclaration.net/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  40. ^ “Country Joe McDonald’s Tribute to Florence Nightingale”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  41. ^ “Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – The Rome Campus”. .unicatt.it. http://www3.unicatt.it/pls/unicatt/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=9396&id_lingua=4. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  42. ^ Cacace, Filippo et. al. “The impact of innovation in medical and nursing training: a Hospital Information System for Students accessible through mobile devices”
  43. ^ Group Florence Nightingale
  44. ^ “Hospital name campaign will honour Florence”. Derby Express. 18 August 2011. 
  45. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Derby Guide. http://www.derby-guide.co.uk/florence_nightingale.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  46. ^ http://www.stpetersderby.org.uk/DRI_window.html
  47. ^ “Malvern Museum’s Nightingale Exhibit March – October 2010”. http://www.malvernmuseum.co.uk/index.php/events2010.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  48. ^ “Chase pupil wins poster competition”. Malvern Gazette (Newsquest Media Group). 21 June 2010. http://www.malverngazette.co.uk/news/8230148.Chase_pupil_wins_poster_competition/. Retrieved 12 July 2010 
  49. ^ “The Florence Nightingale Museum (Istanbul)”. Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 15 September 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/turkey/738278/The-Florence-Nightingale-Museum.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  50. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk. http://www.florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk/tower.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  51. ^ “Commonwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha Cemetery” (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_haidar.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  52. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. British Library. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/voiceshist/flonight/index.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
    “”In aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund” – catalogue entry”. British Library. http://searchbeta.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?doc=BLLSA6928292. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  53. ^ “Florence Nightingale voice”. archive.org. http://www.archive.org/details/FlorenceNightingaleVoice. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  54. ^ Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale – The Woman and Her Legend
  55. ^ “Withdrawn banknotes reference guide”. Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  56. ^ “Rare Nightingale photo sold off”. BBC News. 19 November 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7737130.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  57. ^ Nurse Link Loyala University
  58. ^ Air Mobility Command Museum: “C-9 Nightingale”.
  59. ^ Air Force Link: “Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement”.
  60. ^ Sentara Healthcare: Nightingale Regional Air Ambulance Service

[edit] Further reading

  • Bostridge, Mark (2008). Florence Nightingale. The Woman and Her Legend. Viking (2008); Penguin (2009). US title Florence Nightingale. The Making of an Icon. Farrar Straus (2008).
  • Chaney, Edward (2006). “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado. (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York,, 39-74.
  • Davey, Cyril J. (1958). Lady with a Lamp. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 9780718826413
  • Gill, Gillian (2004). Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale. Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345451873
  • Nelson, Sioban and Anne Marie Rafferty, eds. Notes on Nightingale: The Influence and Legacy of a Nursing Icon (Cornell University Press; 2010) 184 pages. Essays on Nightingale’s work in the Crimea and Britain’s colonies, her links to the evolving science of statistics, and debates over her legacy and historical reputation and persona.
  • Rees, Joan. Women on the Nile: Writings of Harriet Martineau, Florence Nightingale, and Amelia Edwards. Rubicon Press: 1995, 2008
  • Rehmeyer, Julia (2008-11-26). “Florence Nightingale: The Passionate Statistician”. Science News. http://www.sciencenews.org/index/generic/activity/view/id/38937/title/Florence_Nightingale_The_passionate_statistician. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  • Richards, Linda (2006). America’s First Trained Nurse: My Life as a Nurse in America, Great Britain and Japan 1872-1911. Diggory Press. ISBN 9781846850684
  • Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Pub. Co., Inc.. ISBN 0848646045.  – available online at http://www.bartleby.com/189/201.html

 the end@copyright 2012

this only sample,the comp-lete collections exist in CD-ROM but only for ptemium member.

KENANGAN INDAH MASA SEKOLAH

KENANGAN INDAH MASA SEKOLAH

DI SMA DON BOSKO PADANG

DISUSUN OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

alumnus DB 1963

Copyright@2012

Kata Pengantar

Tanpa terasa hari berjalan sangat cepat,tahun depan sudah lima puluh tahun saya menyelesaikan pendidikan di SMA Don Bosko  Padang Sumatera Barat.

Kemarin abtu saya menemukan sebuah Dokumen yang berhubungan dengan alumnus SMA Don Bosko senior saya dan pernah menjadi guru saya berupa Piagam Ucapan terima Kasih  Atas Kerja sama dengan Bank BNI 1946 Pusat yang ditanda tangani atas nama Dirut Pimpinan Devisi Pemasaran dan Pengembangan Usaha BNI 46,Drs Raflus Rax.

Sejak tamat sekolah SMA DB,saya belum pernah bertemu lagi dengan beliau,saat pertemuan alumni DB di Sport Klup Kepala Gading Permai tahun 2011,saya tak sempat bertemu karena beliau hadir lebih siang,saat itu saya terpaksa harus cepat meninggalkan pertemuan setelah bertemu dengan Dra Susiana de Bud untuk memperoleh buku kenangan DB yang disusunnya (tulisan saya ada didalamnya).

Kisah yang Indah di SMA DB jadi teringat lagi,saat akan meninggalkan SMA saya mengarang dan mementaskan kisah singkat di SMA Don Bosko,kisahnya sebagai berikut, seorang bapak yang sudah tua dan sakit-sakitan bekas pemain piano ,tinggal disamping rumah dokter di Kecamatan Solok Sumatera Barat dan sering berobat dengan dokter  tersebut.

Suatu senja Sang Bapak(yang diperankan Drs Ralus Rax,saat itu guru DB) bermain Pianan diiringi lagi ENGKAU HANYA BAYANGAN, tiba-tiba ia melihat bayangan gambar bekas pacarnya seorang penyanyi(diperankan oleh teman saya putri toko mas Haji Manan Pasar Jawa Padang),untuk menampilkan bayangan tersebut Frater Servaas memanfaatkan proyektor dengan slide film positif , pacarnya yang cantik yang ia selalu ingat dan tak pernah bertemu lagi setelah pengungsiaan kepedlaman SUMBAR saat perang kemederkaan Class Pertama tahun 1947 Padang Diduduki belanda.

Tiba-tiba cahaya yang semula reduh ,menjadi terang terlihatlah ex pacar si Bapak muncul sehingga Ia ketakutan disangka Hantu.

Rupanyan Ex Pacar si bapak mencari Dokter tetanganya yang lagi tidak ada dirumah dan bertanya kepada tetangannya si Bapak,sang maestro Pianis yang dulunya adalah pengiringnya bernyayi lagu

 ENGKAU HANYA BAYANGAN.

Sungguh senang hatinya si bapak,dan sang pacar bercerita bahwa ia sudah menikah dan memiliki seorang Putri(diperankan oleh adik kelas saya Ii Lily Madjil) dan suaminya sudah meninggal,ia berkunjung ke Kecamatan tersebut dalam rangka menemui calon mantunya dokter tetangga si bapak(diperankan oleh saya sendiri)

Kisah ini menjadi lebih tragis lagi ternyata sang dokter adalah putra sang Pacar yang ghilang saat pengungsiaan saat perang kemerdekaan tersebut.

Kisahnya jahi berakhir dengan indah,happy end bertemunya sahabat dan keluarga,tetapi sekaligus perpisahan dua sejoli yang hampir menikah karena rupanya mereka saudara kandung.

Setelah lima puluh tahun kenangan manis masa di SMA DB jadi teringat lagi, khusus kepada Bapak drs Raflus Rax dan Ibu Lli Madjid(saat ini isteri Prof.DR Jose Rosma,SPD ,bila membaca ini harap menambahkan kometarnya tentang sandiwara tersebut,dan kenangan lainnya.

Kakak saya Dr Edhie Johan(Gho Bian Hoat) juga alumnus SMA DB tahun 1990 berkesempatan berkunjung kienegeri belanda dan bertemu dengan Frater srevaas dan Nicander di Tilburg ,inilah pertemuan terakhir dengan beliau sebelem meninggalnya kedua frater tercinta tersebut.

Proyek ini sya buat tanpa sponsor,demi untuk kenangan kita semua alumnus SMA Don Bosko Padang,karena buku kenagan sudah banyak dibuat,dan tentunya tak banyak yang menyimpannya,untuk melestarikannya saya sudah menulis di blog ini

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

tulisan yang berjudul

Frater Sevaas Indolaku

Silahkan dicari di Serch pada pojok kanan atas blog ini

nama lain Frater servaas  adalah A.J.M De Bear,alamarhumj juga guru ayah saya di MULO Padang,dan kakak serta adik saya,kami empat orang bersaudara seluruhnya di SMA Don Bosko Padang,kendatipun demikian dua putra sya sekolah di SMA Kanisius Jakarta dan SMA Don Bosko II Pulo Mas Jakarta,karena kami pindah ke Jakarta tahun 1989,dan saya terakhir bertugas di DOKKES MABES POLRI,pensiun tahun 2000 dan sampai saat ini tetapi tinggal di Pondok gading Kecamatan Kelapa Gading,sejak tahun 2010 mwbangun web blog berisi informasi yang bersejarah,sudah 170.000 pengunjungnnya.

SAYA HARAPKAN PERAN SERTA SELURUH ALUMNUS SMA DON BOSKO PADANG UNTUK MENULIS PENGALAMANNYA YANG INDAH DAN MENARIK SELAMA SEKOLAH DI SMA DON BOSKO PADANG DI COMMENT DIBAWAH INI.

Saya juga berusaha mengumpulkna info tentang SMA DB liwat Eksplorasi Google yang anda dpat baca dibawah ini. Salam dari Saya Teman anda alumnus DB 1963

Dulu ambo banamo

Gho Bian Goan

Kiniko Banamo

KOMBES POL (p) Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

PURNAWIRAWAN POLRI

Jakarta Pebruari 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

bapa pendiri sma don bosco

(DON BOSCO HIGHSCHOOL PADANG FOUNDING FATHER)

FRATER SERVASS de BEER

A.J.M. de beer

Bossche Encyclopedie | Straten

R.M. Barten – A.J.M. de Beer – H.A.J. van Laarhoven – L.M. Sloots – J.G.F. Verhoeven: 1943 (Pastoor Duhamelplein 2): A.J.M. de Beer (pastoor) 1948

Frater-Frater terakhir yang meninggalkan kota Padang pada akhir tahun 1976 adalah lima orang Frater tersebut. Sejak itu tak ada seorang pun Frater yang bertugas di Padang, dengan kata lain seluruh personil sekolah yang melaksanakan karya pendidikan di sekolah-sekolah Frater adalah orang awam biasa.
 
the latestes info of Frater servaas central ordo at Tilberg
 

 © L.A.W.V.VIA-VIA

© L.A.W.V.VIA-VIA

 guru SMA Don Bosko PertamaPak Saelan Sofyanto

Lie Tek An 

INFO TERAKHIR

proyek dari sma don bosco padang

SMA Don Bosco

Jalan Khairil Anwar, Padang, Indonesia

 
 

 
Fauzi: Jangan Rusak Pohon Pelindung

Padang Ekspres  Berita Lainnya  Kamis, 05/01/2012 – 12:32 WIB  (e)  322 klik

Fauzi: Jangan Rusak Pohon Pelindung

Wali Kota Padang, Fauzi Bahar mengingatkan masyarakat agar tak menebang dan merusak semua pohon pelindung di kawasan Padang. Selain itu, Wako memerintahkan Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan (DKP) sigap memotong dahan-dahan pohon jalan agar tidak membahayakan masyarakat.

 
Saat meninjau pohon-pohon pelindung di Taman Melati dan kawasan SMA Don Bosco Padang. Di Taman Melati, ada dahan pohon yang mati sehingga membahayakan masyarakat.

 
Fauzi mengancam menindak masyarakat perusak pohon pelindung. “Jangan pernah membakar sampah di pangkal pohon. Itu akan mebuat pohon mati. Sudah ada aturannya yang merusak pohon pelindung akan di hukum,” imbuhnya.

 
Fauzi mengajak masyarakat melakukan gerakan kebersihan secara kontinu di lingkungan masing-masing.
Seperti memangkas rumput yang tinggi, membenahi taman-taman, membersihkan riol atau selokan dan menciptakan lingkungan yang sehat. Hal itu akan membantu Padang menuju Go Green.

 
Kepala DKP Padang, Wedistar menjelaskan, rata-rata umur pohon pelindung mencapai 30 tahun. Jika umurnya masih 10 tahun tapi batangnya, terutama pangkal pohon rapuh, akan dilakukan penyisipan.

 
Selain penyisipan, dilakukan pemangkasan dahan pohon yang tua dan membahayakan masyarakat atau fasilitas umum. “Jika ada masyarakat menemukan pohon yang membahayakan langsung lapor ke DKP. Jangan dipotong sendiri karena bisa dikenakan hukuman,” imbuhnya.

 
Pengamat lingkungan dari Unand, Syahbuddin menjelaskan, salah satu fungsi pohon pelindung adalah menjaga kualitas udara. Keberadaan pohon pelindung ini bukan saja menjadi tanggung jawab pemerintah. Masyarakat umum harus ikut menjaga agar pohon ini tetap hidup karena yang merasakannya, masyarakat itu sendiri.

Tiga siswa SMA Don Bosco Padang berani mencat tubuh mereka demi menyemangati tim putri SMA Don Bosco versus SMAN 1 Padang saat laga DBL di GOR Prayoga, kemarin 16 Februari 2012. (SY RIDWAN/PADEK)

Tentang Penyerahan Hadiah Pemenang dan Kegiatan Wisata Sastra ke Malaysia

 
Panitia Lomba Cipta Puisi Padang 2011 dalam hal ini Ikatan Alumni Don Bosco (IADB) Padang mengucapkan selamat kepada para pemenang Lomba Cipta Puisi Padang Tingkat Nasional yang telah diumumkan hasilnya pada tanggal 15 Oktober 2011 lalu.

 
Berkaitan dengan Penyerahan Hadiah dan keberangkatan pemenang utama (Juara 1, 2 dan 3) ke Malaysia, bersama ini perlu kami sampaikan beberapa hal sebagai berikut:
 
1.      Penyerahan hadiah akan dilakukan pada Hari Sabtu 29 Oktober 2011 dalam suatu acara di aula Don Bosco Padang. Acara dimulai pukul 10.00 WIB. Penerima hadiah diharapkan sudah berada di lokasi acara 15 menit sebelum acara dimulai.
 
2.      Panitia akan menyurati pemenang via email terkait penyerahan hadiah dan keberangkatan ke Malaysia.
 
3.      Khusus bagi pemenang 1, 2, dan 3 yang akan diberangkatkan ke Malaysia, diharapkan segera mengurus pasport selekasnya. Fotocopy pasport dikirim ke panitia lewat email: padangkotaku@ymail.com dan di acc ke: sastriyunizarti@yahoo.com dan aan_mm@yahoo.com paling lambat tanggal 10 November 2011.
 
4.      Kunjungan ke Malaysia dilakukan pada tanggal 2-5 Desember 2011 (sebelumnya dijadwalkan pada bulan November namun atas permintaan sastrawan Malaysia kegiatan diundur hingga awal Desember).
 
5.      Panitia menanggung biaya tiket pesawat Padang-Malaysia (PP) serta akomodasi selama kegiatan di Malaysia, kecuali kebutuhan pribadi yang tidak terdaftar dalam rencana panitia. Khusus bagi pemenang yang berdomisili di luar Sumatera Barat, biaya tiket hanya ditanggung dari ibukota negara (Jakarta). Transportasi dari daerah asal peserta ke Jakarta  ditanggung pribadi pihak bersangkutan.
 
6.      Kunjungan Wisata Sastra ke Malaysia, diantaranya: silaturahim dengan sastrawan negara Malaysia, mengunjungi museum sastra, silaturahim ke organisasi penulis Malaysia dan Penulis Malaka, juga ke KBRI di Malaysia.
 
Demikian informasi ini kami sampaikan untuk dapat dimaklumi.
 
Padang, 18 Oktober 2011
 
PANITIA PENYELENGGARA
IKATAN ALUMNI DON BOSCO (IADB) PADANG
 
Penanggung Jawab:
 
1. Dadang Gozali (Ketua Harian IADB)
2. Veridiana Somanto (Sekum IADB)
 
Ketua Panitia:
Sastri Yunizarti Bakry (Wakil Ketua IADB)
 
Sekretaris Panitia:
Nita Indrawati (Pemred Buletin Rancak IADB)

Photos

Juara Bertahan Tumbang

Padang Ekspres • Minggu, 12/02/2012 12:19 WIB • (zl/fresti) • 347 klik

SUSUL POINT: Center SMA Don Bosco, Raka Rajuna Jerry (15) dihadang oleh pemain S

Kejutan terjadi di laga perdana Honda DBL 2012 West Sumatera Series, Sabtu (11/2). Juara bertahan, SMA Don Bosco Padang tumbang oleh pendatang baru, SMAN 2 Sijunjung, 41-38. Sementara di tim putri, SMAN 3 Padang berhasil menumbangkan SMA Xaverius, 26-6.
Honda DBL 2012 West Sumatera Series. Tepat pukul 14.30, Masany Audry, General Manager PT DBL Indonesia resmi membuka Honda DBL West Sumatera Series dengan pertandingan perdana antara SMA Xaverius melawan SMAN 3 Padang.
Meski belum masuk laga final, namun pertandingan pada pembukaan Honda DBL 2012 Wets Sumatera Series, Sabtu (11/2) sudah serasa babak final. Don Bosco vs SMAN 2 Sijunjung tampil ngotot sejak awal pertandingan. Ini terlihat dari susulan angka dari kedua tim. Meski sempat tertinggal di awal pertandingan, SMAN 2 Sijunjung terus ngotot ingin menjadi pemenang. Puncaknya, di kuarter terakhir, skor kedua tim ini sama yaitu 21-21.
Waktu tambahan yang diberikan panitia, juga masih belum mangkus. Susul-susulan angka terus terjadi di menit-menit waktu tambahan. Akhirnya, waktu tambahan itu juga diakhiri dengan skor berimbang, 36. Waktu tambahan berikutnya, waktu mendebarkan. Suporter saling sorak.
Di detik-detik terakhir waktu tambahan kedua, SMAN Don Bosco sempat mengungguli SMAN 2 Sijunjung. Namun, di lima detik terakhir, SMAN 2 Sijunjung menuntaskan ambisinya dengan melesakkan tembakan three point.
Pelatih SMAN 2 Sijunjung, Jondry Paldi mengaku bersyukur timnya bisa melalui ujian di laga perdana dengan baik, walau masih ada instruksi yang masih miss di lapangan. Namun itulah, nantinya yang akan dibenahi pada laga selanjutnya.
“Pada kuarter pertama, tim kami memang banyak mendapat tekanan supporter. Tapi untuk pemain tidak terlalu menghiraukannya. Jadi untuk ke depannya, kami perlu membenahi defense yang selama ini masih kerap kedodoran,” ungkapnya.
Sedangkan pelatih SMA DB Padang, Rafi Chandra mengakui kekuatan pihak lawannya. Pada pertandingan tadi (kemarin, red) memang terlihat defend SMAN 2 Sijunjung sangat tangguh dan sulit untuk diterobos.
Tapi dia juga tidak menyalahkan anak-anaknya. “Setidaknya permainan tadi telah membuat penonton terhibur. Tapi kami bertekad tahun depan kami yang jadi juaranya,” sebut Rafi Chandra.
Pembukaan Honda DBL 2012 Wets Sumatera Series sendiri dibuka Masany Audry, General Manager PT DBL Indonesia, pukul 14.30 WIB. GOR Prayoga sesak dibanjiri ribuan penonton. Pesta pembukaan juga disemarakkan dengan penampilan Marching Band Semen Padang. Tak hanya pertandingan basket, acara juga dimeriahkan dengan dance competition, games. (zl/fresti)

SMA Don Bosco Padang memenangkan Dance Competition Honda DBL 2011. DB mengalahkan pesaing kuatnya, yaitu SMAKPA, SMAN 1 Padang, SMAN 2 Payakumbuh, dan SMAN 3 Padang. (foto: Deni)

Festival Jepang di SMA Don Bosco Padang juga menghadirkan stand komik-komik Jepang untuk dijual. (Foto: Fajri Surya Putra)

 

KENANGAN TEMPO DULU

FRATER SERVAAS PENDIRI SMP FRATER(SEBELUMNYA MULO FRATER)

SEJARAH SINGKAT BERDIRINYA
SMP FRATER PADANG

   
Secara letterlijk ( harfiah ) kata “Frater” ( bahasa Latin Frater yang ada hubungannya dengan Brother dalam bahasa Inggris, atau Broeder dalam bahasa Belanda) berarti “Saudara”. Secara khusus “Frater” adalah suatu bentuk/cara hidup bersama dengan semangat persaudaraan sebagai biarawan (seperti halnya Suster) yang ingin mengabdi kepada Tuhan dengan cara khusus. Mereka mempersembahkan hidup mereka hanya untuk Tuhan dan bergabung dalam suatu Konggregasi yang bernama Konggregasi Frater yang berlindung kepada Maria Bunda yang Berbelas kasih yang didirikan oleh Mgr. Zwijsen. Nama aslinya : “Congregatie van de Fraters van Onze Lieve Vrouw, Moeder van Barmhartigheid”. Pusatnya di Tilburg (negeri Belanda). (Catatan: Mgr. Zwijsen adalah seorang Uskup yang juga mendirikan Konggregasi Suster-Suster Belas Kasihan, yang sekarang bertugas antara lain di Padang ini yaitu di biara St. Leo Jln. Gereja No. 24; jadi sekolah-sekolah Frater dan sekolah Suster adalah bersaudara karena diasuh oleh saudara sekandung yaitu para Frater dan para Suster itu yang berasal dari “Bapak” yang sama). Sebagaimana biarawan/biarawati lainnya, mereka mengucapkan tiga kaul: kemiskinan, ketaatan, dan kemurnian (tidak kawin). Mereka tinggal bersama di biara, dan dalam semangat cinta kasih, bersama-sama menyelenggarakan kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari. Tujuannya agar bisa saling tolong – menolong dalam hidup ini dan bersama-sama menyelenggarakan suatu karya pelayanan sebagai pengabdian kepada Tuhan.
 
” Pre Natal”
Tahun 1923: Indonesia masih berada dalam zaman penjajahan Belanda. Karena itu sejak dulu Pemerintah Belanda menamakan Indonesia dengan “Nederlands Indie”. Tanggat 24 April tahun itu 5 orang Frater dari Tilburg itu, yakni Fr. Paulus Jacobs, Fr. Severinus Aarts, Fr. Hermenigildus Fromm, Fr. Theodatus van Oers dan Fr. Claudius Kok dengan diantar oleh Frater Superior (Pemimpin) mereka, berangkat meninggalkan tanah kelahiran mereka dengan tujuan Padang.
 
Dalam perjalanan itu mereka singgah di negeri Perancis untuk berziarah ke Lourdes, memohon perto¬longan Bunda Maria. Singkat kata mereka tiba di Padang tgl. 21 Mei 1923. Tanggal 1 Juli tahun itu juga mereka membuka Europese School (sekolah dasar khusus untuk anak-anak Eropa) dan memperluas HCS (Hollands Chinese School) yakni sekolah dasar untuk anak-anak Tionghoa. Karena mutunya yang bagus maka kedua sekolah itupun segera mendapat hak Subsidi dari Pemerintah waktu itu: Europese School pada bulan Desember 1923 dan HCS pada 1 Juli 1924. Nama kedua sekolah ini perlu disebut di sini karena kedua sekolah inilah yang akan menyumbangkan murid-muridnya untuk sekolah menengah yang akan segera didirikan juga. Pembangunan gedung untuk sekolah menengah itu masih sedang berjalan, ketika Frater M. Nicander (alias Johannes Franciscus Josephus de Brouwer) datang di Padang pada bulan Nopember 1927.
 
” Lahir dan Masa Mudanya “

Frater Nicander de Brouwer
Kepala Sekolah Pertama
1928 – 1931

Sekolah menengah itu sendiri dibuka pada tanggal 1 Juli 1928 dan Frater M. Nicander menjabat sebagai Kepala Sekolah yang pertama. Nama sekolah itu adalah FRATERS MULO (MULO adalah singkatan dari Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs yang berarti Pendidikan Dasar yang lebih diperluas). Semua gurunya adalah Frater-Frater dari Belanda ini termasuk Fr. Rufinus Chambon (yang sudah datang pada tgl. 28
Agustus 1924 tetapi sebelumnya mengajar dulu di sekolah dasar untuk anak-anak Eropa) dan Fr. Silvester van Casteren yang tiba di Padang pada bulan Juni 1929. Tahun 1930 Fr. Servaas De Beer pun datang menyusul. Memang nama-nama para Frater yang disebut-sebut di sini hanyalah yang ada kaitannya dengan sekolah menengah. Sebenarnya masih ada banyak nama Frater-Frater yang lain: ada yang mengajar di Europese School dan ada pula yang mengajar di Hollands Chinese School. Tanggal 22 Mei 1931 Fraters MULO yang baru berusia 3 tahun itu ditimpa duka: Kepala Sekolahnya yakni Fr. M. Nicander de Brouwer meninggal karena tenggelam waktu berenang. Sebagai penggantinya ditunjuklah Fr. Silvester van Casteren untuk menjadi Kepala Sekolah yang baru.

Fr. Silvester Van Casteren
Kepala Sekolah Ke- 2
1931 – 1942

Tenaga pengajar yang berkurang di MULO itu mendapat pengganti 1 orang awam biasa (bukan Frater) yakni tuan H. Chapel. Para Frater muda itu ternyata penuh semangat dan idealisme. Mereka melihat suatu kesulitan yang dialami oleh murid-murid baik sekolah dasar maupun sekolah menengah waktu itu: tempat tinggal mereka umumnya jauh dari sekolah sehingga timbullah ide untuk menyelenggarakan
suatu pengangkutan (bus sekolah) dan ide itu menjadi kenyataan pada tahun 1928 itu juga yang melayani kurang lebih 250 orang murid, termasuk pelajar-pelajar Fraters MULO. Perjalanan pendidikan berjalan lancar dan mulus pada tahun – tahun pertama kehadiran para Frater itu di bumi Padang tercinta ini. Bahkan mereka sempat mendirikan organisasi untuk orang-orang muda yaitu KJB (Katholieke Jongens Bond) dan CKB ( Chinese Katholieke Bond ) sebagai wahana pendidikan luar sekolah, mendirikan Katholieke Padvinders (Pandu Katolik ), memberikan kursus-kursus mengetik, mengembangkan Koor dan mendirikan Orkes Simphonie di Fraters Mulo, menggiatkan Olahraga dsb. Pokoknya masa itu merupakan masa kejayaan bagi karya para Frater itu.

 
“Bayang-Bayang Gelap” 

Perang adalah sesuatu yang sangat ditakuti oleh semua orang: Dia menghancurkan segala yang dibangun dengan susah payah. Jerih payah selama bertahun-tahun bisa lenyap dalam seketika. Bayang¬-bayang itu mulai menyelinap dalam angan-angan para Frater itu, karena di Eropa udara perang sudah mulai terasa sejak tahun 1939. Jerman bahkan sudah menduduki Belanda dalam bulan Mei tahun 1940. Demikianlah tanggal 31 Desember 1941 Jepang membombardir Pearl Harbour, maka sejak itu resmilah Perang Dunia II dimulai. Dalam sekejap saja gaung perang yang kejam itu telah meluas ke Seantero penjuru dunia. Jepang yang sangat ambisius untuk menguasai seluruh Asia Timur segera melalap negara tetangga-tetangganya. Satu persatu dicaplok, kekayaannya dirampas, penduduknya diperas, barang siapa berani melawan akan habis ditebas !

 
“Badai Perang”
Keganasan perang yang dikhawatirkan pun segera menjadi kenyataan. Padang tak terkecuali. Tanggal 17 Maret 1942 laskar pertama (Jepang) memasuki kota itu. Tanggal 7 April 1942 semua orang bangsa Europa diinternir. Lelaki di penjarakan, wanita dan anak-anak ditahan di sekolah-sekolah Misi. Dengan sendirinya semua kegiatan sekolah terhenti, dengan kata lain sekolah ditutup. Masa depan sekolah¬-sekolah Frater menjadi lebih gelap lagi setelah pada tanggal 17 Oktober 1943 semua tahanan dipindahkan ke Bangkinang (265 km dari Padang). Tanda tanya besar yang sempat menyelinap dalam benak para siswa sekolah asuhan para Frater itu : Akankah mereka kembali ? Berapa lama kami harus menunggu ? Dua orang Frater dan seorang Pastor bahkan meninggal di kamp Bangkinang itu (yaitu Frater Claudius Kok pada tanggal 3 Januari 1945 karena sakit paru-paru, dan Frater Hermenigildus Fromm pada tanggal 22 April 1945 karena sakit TBC menyusul rekannya senasib yaitu Pastor Pijnenburg). Bukan hanya itu : pada bulan April 1945 dalam kurun waktu 30 hari saja telah jatuh 60 korban lagi. Seakan-akan tamatlah riwayat sekolah-sekolah Frater yang mereka rintis dengan susah payah itu. Namun, jika benih yang para Frater tanamkan itu adalah benih kebaikan, (apalagi ditambah dengan telah gugurnya beberapa orang Frater sebagai syuhada) maka yang tumbuh adalah buah kebaikan juga. Maka (tentu juga berkat doa para Frater itu), pada tanggal 22 Juni 1945 ada berita gembira dari Residen, bahwa perang telah berakhir dan Jepang menyerah ! Walaupun kebebasan penuh baru mereka reguk sebulan kemudian waktu mereka meninggalkan Bangkinang kembali ke Padang pada tanggal 23 September 1945. Jumlah anggota rombongan pertama ada 25 orang termasuk wanita dan anak-anak. Termasuk di dalamnya: Fr. Paulus, Fr. Silvester, Fr. Anycetus, Fr. Avitus, Fr. Sevaas dan Fr. Ernestus. Tetapi mereka belum bisa menempati rumah Frater yang mereka tinggalkan, karena masih diduduki tentara Jepang. Buat sementara mereka ditempatkan di rumah sekitar rumah sakit militer, dan bertugas sebagai perawat korban perang. Ke-6 Frater lainnya menyusul datang pada bulan September yaitu: Fr. Angelo, Fr. Liberatus, Fr. Severinus, Fr. Domitianus, Fr. Monulf dan Fr. Gonzaga. Para Frater yang baru datang ini menemukan biara mereka dalam keadaan yang menyedihkan dan tak dapat dipakai sama sekali. Sebenarnya para Frater telah siap untuk memulai lagi karya pendidikan mereka tetapi terpaksa dibatalkan lagi karena dilarang oleh komando militer Inggris. Maka para Frater pun meninggalkan Padang untuk menjalani cuti pemulihan kesehatan. Antara Mei 1946 sampai Nopember 1947 tak ada seorang Frater pun di Padang.
 
 
 

“Kelahiran yang Kedua”

 

Fr. M. Servaas de Beer
Kepala Sekolah ke- 3
1948 – 1949

Fr. M. Erich Versantvoort
Kepala Sekolah Ke- 4
1949 – 1976

Baru pada Akhir Nopember 1947 kembalilah: Fr. Servaas, Fr. Ernestus, Fr. Sylvester, dan Fr. Angelo. Segera mereka buka 5 kelas sekolah peralihan yang disebut Herstel school, yaitu sekolah dengan kenaikan kelas sekali setengah tahun, sedang kelas I sekolah biasa. Bahasa pengantar masih Bahasa Belanda.
Dalam beberapa bulan saja sekolah tersebut berkembang menjadi 9 kelas. Tenaga gurunya 4 orang Frater ditambah 4 wanita yang sudah berkeluarga dan Meneer Hein Lim Keng Soei. Awal tahun pelajaran 1948 sekolah dasar memakai bahasa Indonesia dan sekolah menengah dimulai kembali dengan 1 (satu) kelas dibawah pimpinan Fr. Servaas.
Mulai saat itu nama sekolah diubah dari Fraters MULO menjadi SMP Frater. Fr. Ranulfo datang pada bulan Nopember 1948 dan Fr. Erich pada bulan Agustus 1949. Sebagian ruang kelas waktu itu masih diduduki oleh tentara Belanda. Tenaga Frater yang ada pada saat itu tidak cukup untuk menghadapi perkembangan di masa depan. Maka datanglah lagi tenaga tambahan baru yaitu : Fr. M. Gonzaga, Fr.M. Reinoldus dan Fr. M. Nicander. Tahun 1954 Fr. Servaas mendirikan SMA Don Bosco yang langsung beliau pimpin.

Tahun 1951 ada pergeseran penting di bidang pelayanan pastoral Gereja di Keuskupan Padang yaitu dengan datangnya para imam Xaverian mengantikan imam-imam Kapusin yang pindah ke Sumatera Utara. Beberapa di antara mereka yang pernah mengajar di SMP Frater adalah Pastor G. Cocconcelli SX dan Pastor Michelle Galli SX.

 
“Menatap Masa Depan”
Konggregasi Frater menyadari, bahwa mereka pun mesti mempersiapkan tenaga-tenaga baru untuk melanjutkan karya yang sudah dimulai ini. Maka pendidikan calon Frater pun diusahakan. Pada tahun 60-an usaha ini telah mulai membuahkan hasil. Yang pertama-tama datang di Padang adalah Fr. Fransiskus Simbolon pada tahun 1961, kemudian Fr. Martinus Waoma I. pada tahun 1964, selanjutnya Fr. Gerardus Hutapea pada tahun 1964 serta Fr. Gerardus Manurung pada tahun 1966; tetapi tak seorangpun dari keempat Frater itu yang ditempatkan di SMP Frater.
Sementara itu di Europa terjadi semacam perubahan drastis yang tidak menguntungkan di bidang mentalitas/ keagamaan. Hal ini tentu saja membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan panggilan, sehingga Frater-Frater yang pindah atau meninggal tak dapat diganti: tahun 1953 Fr. Gonzaga meninggal; tahun 1958 Fr. Ranulfo pindah ke Medan; tahun 1960 Fr. Avitus pindah ke Balige; tahun 1962 Fr. Angelo meninggal; tahun 1963 Fr. M. Reinoldus berangkat (kembali) ke Belanda. Walaupun tenaga Frater ditambah lagi tahun 1971 dengan 2 orang tenaga baru yaitu Fr. Johan van Roosmalen untuk SMA Don Bosco dan Fr. Andre de Veer untuk SMP Frater, namun kejayaan masa lalu di mana “Fraterhuis” pernah dihuni oleh 25 orang Frater sulit diharapkan untuk terulang kembali. Kemungkinan ini telah diantisipasi oleh para Frater, sehingga sejak lama Frater telah mulai mengambil tenaga-tenaga awam untuk berkarya bersama Frater-Frater ini dalam rangka kaderisasi dan persiapan penyerahan tongkat estafet.
Untuk menjaga agar sekolah-sekolah jangan sampai jalan sendiri-sendiri tanpa koordinasi, Keuskupan Padang mengambil langkah penting yaitu mendirikan suatu yayasan pendidikan Katolik yang akan bertanggung jawab mengkoordinasikan seluruh gerak dan usaha pendidikan di Keuskupan Padang ini, yaitu Yayasan Prayoga. Hal itu terjadi pada tahun 1962. Dengan hadirnya Yayasan ini maka “nasib” sekolah-sekolah yang ada menjadi lebih terjamin. Bahkan Yayasan ini berhasil mendirikan beberapa Sekolah baru.
 
“Berita Buruk” 
Pada saat “berita buruk” datang pada tahun 1976 tenaga Frater yang tinggal adalah 5 orang : Fr. Servaas de Beer, Fr. Nicander de Kok, Fr. Erich Versantvoort, Fr. Johan van Roosmalen dan Fr. Andre de Veer. “Berita Buruk” yang dimaksudkan ini ialah datangnya suatu keputusan dari Pimpinan Pusat Konggregasi Frater bahwa berhubung dengan sangat terbatasnya tenaga Frater, maka beberapa pelayanan-¬pelayanan terpaksa harus ditinggalkan l diserahkan, termasuk karya pendidikan di Padang. Maka sungguh pun dengan berat hati, para Frater yang sudah mengikatkan diri pada kaul ketaatan itu mau tidak mau harus mematuhi keputusan itu. Frater-Frater terakhir yang meninggalkan kota Padang pada akhir tahun 1976 adalah lima orang Frater tersebut. Sejak itu tak ada seorang pun Frater yang bertugas di Padang, dengan kata lain seluruh personil sekolah yang melaksanakan karya pendidikan di sekolah-sekolah Frater adalah orang awam biasa.
 
“Era Baru” 
Bp. Antonius Sudjana
Kepala Sekolah ke-5 & 8
1977-1987
1994 – 1996

Bp. Faoziduhu Mendrova
Kepala Sekolah ke-6
1978-1987

Maka masa sesudah 1976 adalah merupakan era baru bagi sekolah – sekolah Katolik di Padang khususnya sekolah-sekolah yang selama ini dipimpin oleh para Frater. Pimpinan SMP Frater diserahkan dari tangan Frater Erich kepada Bp. Antonius Sudjana pada bulan Desember 1976. Dialah awam pertama yang menjadi Kepala SMP Frater.
Menjadi tugas Yayasan beserta para penerus Frater itulah untuk meneruskan dan mengembangkan sekolah, dengan tidak meninggalkan ciri-ciri khusus yang dituntut dari sekolah Katolik, sebagaimana telah ditunjukkan oleh para Frater, pendahulu mereka: kejujuran, suka kerja keras, memandang sesama sebagai saudara. Ini merupakan pekerjaan yang tidak mudah, mengingat guru-guru maupun pimpinan sekolah adalah tenaga-tenaga awam non-biarawan yang relatif lebih membutuhkan bimbingan dari Yayasan dibandingkan tenaga-tenaga dari kalangan Frater yang adalah biarawan-biarawan dengan keunggulan-keunggulannya baik dipandang dari segi integritas, moral maupun mental spiritual dan sosial psikologis. Pertukaran pimpinan dari biarawan kepada non-biarawan membawa perubahan suasana yang cukup terasa.
Ada semacam nilai plus pada zaman Frater yang sekarang tidak begitu nampak lagi. Kaderisasi calon pimpinan belum mendapat porsi yang cukup pada saat pergantian pimpinan harus terjadi. Sebagai penyesuaian dengan peraturan Pemerintah yang berlaku pada saat itu, maka pada tahun 1978 Pengurus Yayasan mengangkat Bp. F. Mendrova menjadi Kepala Sekolah Extern, sedang Bp. A. Sudjana menjadi Kepala Sekolah Intern.
Jadi SMP Frater saat itu dipimpin oleh dua orang Kepala Sekolah. Duet jabatan Pimpinan Sekolah ini berlangsung sampai akhir Desember 1987. Selanjutnya mulai 1-1-1988 s/d 31-7-1994 sekolah ini dipimpin oleh Bp. H. Walidi. Bp. A. Sudjana kembali lagi memimpin SMP Frater dari 1-8-1994 s/d 31-7-1996.
 
“Perkembangan Era Pasca Frater”

Bp. Heriberfus Walidi
Kapala Sekolah ke-7
1988-1994

Bp. Drs. B. Suhardjono
Kepala Sekolah ke-9
1996 – 1998

Bersamaan dengan berangkatnya para Frater itu, terjadi pula perkembangan baru yaitu berupa kian menyusutnya subsidi Pemerintah, baik di segi tenaga maupun dana, yang bukan tak mungkin pada suatu ketika akan hilang sama sekali. Sementara itu harus diakui bahwa sekolah-sekolah Negeri maju dengan sangat pesatnya baik di bidang sarana, kualitas tenaga pendidik maupun siswa-siswinya, manajemennya, dan lain-lainnya, yang didukung dengan dana yang semakin besar; sehingga merupakan suatu alternatif pilihan yang semakin kuat bagi tamatan-tamatan sekolah dasar. Sekarang ini dirasakan bahwa baik kuantitas maupun kualitas masukan calon-calon siswa berangsur turun karena tamatan SD pun mengalami masalah yang sama secara drastis. Kalau dulu sekolah ini terpaksa menolak calon murid karena lokal penuh, maka sekarang yang diterima hanya pas, sehingga tak perlu ada seleksi. Padahal masyarakat tetap menuntut sekolah ini menghasilkan kualitas lulusan yang prima seperti dulu-dulu. Maka solusinya ialah dari para guru dituntut kerja keras, keuletan dan kreatifitas yang lebih dari sebelumnya.
Bp. Drs. B. Suhardjono
Kepala Sekolah ke-10
1998– 2000
 

GURUKU ,IDOLAKU DAN PANUTANKU :” ALM.FRATER SERVAAS TERCINTA”

ALMARHUM FRATER SERVAAS ADALAH SUPERHEROKU.

DISUSUN OLEH Dr IWAN S. BERDASARKAN PENGALAMAN&KOLEKSI PRIBADI TERKAIT FRATER SERVAAS SEBAGAI KENANG-KENANGAN ATAS JASANYA KEPADA PENDIDIKAN DIINDONESIA

*ill c-001

 Cyber e-book edisi pribadi khusus Untuk keluarega Besar alumni dan                                                                           ex Guru,  serta murid SMA Don Bosco Padang

JAKARTA @Hak Cipta Dr IWAN S 2010

*ill c-oo1 Frater Servaas dirumah Dr IWAN S di Padang tahun 1964

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KATA PENGANTAR

SAYA TULIS BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI SEBAGAI KENANG-KENANG DAN RASA HORMA SERTA TERIMA KASIH KEPADA GURU,IDOLA DAN PANUTAN SAYA ALMARHUM FRATER SERVAAS , YANG NAMA ASLINYA A.J.M de BEER, SEORANG PUTRA BELANDA  YANG MEMBAKTIKAN HAMPIR SELURUH HIDUPNYA DI KOTA PADANG GUNA MENINGKATKAN KECERDASAN BANGSA DAN MEMBERIKAN CONTOH BEKTI YANG LUAR BIASA, SEHINGGA MANTAN GURU DAN PANUTAN SAYA TELAH MEMPENGARUHI ARAH HIDUP SAYA SECARA PRIBADI.

KELUARGA BESAR SAYA, MULAI PAPA  DJOHAN UTAMA(G.T.BO) NAMA SEKOLAH JOHN GHO,KAKAK SAYA Dr EDHIE DJOHAN UTAMA SpMK(G.B.HOAT)*ILL  p-001 2009 dengan mama saya anna TGL

*ill-P-001 2009

,ELINA  WIDYONO(G.S.KIM),SAYA SENDIRI DrIWAN SUWANDY,MHA (G.B.GOAN)*ILL p-002 telihat juga dibelakang Oom Fons the ayahnya  almumni DB Dr Anton Tedja, dan adik ibu saya tante lines

*ill p-002 saya dan kakak G.S.Kim 1962

 DAN ADIK SAYA Dr ERLITA LIANNY(G.S.LIAN) ADALAH MURID FRATER SERVAAS.

FRATER SERVAAS SELAIN GURU JUGA SAHABAT DEKAT AYAH SAYA, DAN SAYA SENDIRI SECARA PRIBADI, TANPA FRATER SERVAAS KELUARGA BESAR GHO TIDAK AKAN BERHASIL MENEMPUH KEHIDUPAN SEPERTI SAAT INI, SELURUH SEPUPU SAYA YANG JUMLAH SANGAT BANYAK  JUGA MURID FRATER SERVAAS SEPERTI Dr ANTON TEJA DENGAN DUA SAUDARANYA , Ir ANDRIE FIRGO, DAN LIMA SAUDARANYA, GHO SOEI ING DENGAN DELAPAN SAUDARANYA, Dra JENNY UTAMA DENGAN TIGA SAUDARANYA, GHO SOEI GIN DENGAN DELAPAN SAUDARANYA, JUGA ISTERI SAYA LILY WIJAYA AMdPK,SKM,MM(O.S.LIE) DENGAN SELURUH SAUDARANYA Ir ADIWIJAYA(O.H.TIANG),Dra OEI SOAN TJIOK, Ir ASWIN WIJAYA TERMASUK SELURUH SUADAR SEPUPUNYA MULAI DARI ORANG TUANYA PIET PHOA SERTA ANAK-ANAKNYA DAN MANTUNYA ANTARA LAIN LIE TEK IN ADIKKNYA LIE TEK AN DAN ISTERINYA Dra MAK SENG KIOE, DAN AMSIH BANYAK LAGI BILA DIURUT DAPAT EMEMNUHI HAMPIR LIMA HALAMAN BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI.

FRATER SERVAAS SEBAGAI SAHABAT DAN TEMAN SEPROFESI FRATER SERVAAS DIBIDANG PERCETAKAN SEHINGGA BILA ADA MESIN BARU YANG DIIMPOR DARI GERMAN ,FRATER SERVAAS MEMBANTU AYAH SAYA UNTUK MEMASANG DAN MERAWAT MESIN CETAK SEPERTI HEIDELBERG SERTA MERAWATNYA BILA ADA KERUSAKAN, KARENA HUBUNAGN ITU SAYA  MENGETAHUI BANYAK KEHIDUPAN PRIBADI FRATER SERVAAS, SELAIN ITU JUGA FRATER SERVAAS SAYA SAYA MASIH SEKOLAH BANYAK MEMBERIKAN TELADAN DNA INFORMASI YANG  MEMBUAT SAYA DAPAT HIDUP SEPERTI SAAT INI, ANAK-ANAK SAYA  HANYA SAMPAI SMP FRATER KARENA IKUT SYA PINDAH KEJAKARTA KARENA MELANJUTKAN PENDIDIKAN S2 DAN PINDAK KEJAKARTA TAHUN 1989 KARENA PINDAH TUGAS, OLEH KARENA ITU SAYA TULIS BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI UNTUK KEDUA PUTRA SAYA YANG SATU SMA DI KANISIUS DAN MELANJUTKAN STUDI DI ITB ALBERT SUWANDY,ST DAN PUTRA BUNGSU ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY ,ST SMA DI SMA DONBOSCO DUA PULO MAS DAN MEPEROLEH PBUD(pmdk)  STUDI TANPA TESTING DAN PEMBAYARAN UANG MUKA DI UGM DI FAK.TEHNIK MESIN UGM JOGJA AGAR MEREKA MENGETAHUI JASA FRATER SERVAAS YANG SANGAT BERPENGARUH TERHADAP JALAN HIDUP MEREKA.

BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI DITULIS SELURUHNYA DALAM HURUF BESAR AGAR ALUMNI DAN EX GURU YANG BERHUBUNGAN LANGSUNG DENGAN FRATER SERVAAS SUDAH MULAI TUA RENTA DENGAN MATANYA TENTUNYA SANGAT SULIT MEMBACA TULISAN DENGAN HURUF NORMAL BIASA,SEPERTI PAK SOFJANTO CS,DAN ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PERTAMA ANGKATAN 1955-1956 SEPERTI LIE GOAN SENG EX KETUA ISDB.KIE BAN, Dr TIONG KIM, Drs.SJARIF ALI MSc EX KETUA ISDB DENGAN NYONYA DARI JEPANG,Dr TIONG lIANG, SAHABAT KAKAK SAYA LIE OEN KIAT SAAT INI DI USA PENGUSAHA SPBU , KELUARGA ALMARHUM GHAN KENG SAN DI CANADA DAN MASIH BANYAK LAGI.

SAYA HARAP BAGI KELUARGA BESAR ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PADANG YANG MEMILIKI KOLEKSI , YANG  BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN GURU KITA FRATER SERVAAS HARAP BERKENAN MENGIRIMKAN PHOTO YANG BERSANGUTAN KE FACEBOOK SAYA Iwan Suwandy ,AGAR DAPAT SAYA ADD  DI BLOG INTERNET iwansuwandy.wordpress.com, SEBELUMNYA BANYAK TERIMA KASIH.

SAYA MENYADARI BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI TIDAK SEMPURNA DAN MASIH BANYAK KEKURANGAN DAN KESALAHAN TATA BAHASA DAN SEBAGAINYA, SEHINGGA DENGAN SANGAT SENANG MENERIMA KRITIK,SARAN DAN TAMBAHAN INFORMASI LIWAT COMMENT ATAU FACEBOOK SAYA AGAR DAPAT DIKOREKSI DAN DILENGKAPKAN SESEMPURNA MUNGKIN.PRAKARSA IKATAN ALUMNI DB MEMBUAT BUKU KENANGAN FRATER SERVAAS DIEDIT OLEH SIAN DE BUD SERTA KOMENTARNYA TERHADAP TULSIANINI

SAYA MENGHATURKAN SALUT TERHADAP KATANYA TULISAN INI MENGALIR BEGITU SAJA,YAH ITULAH SUARA HATI SAYA , IA TELAH MENGHUBUNGGI SAYA ,DAN SAYA TELAH MEMBERIKAN BEBERAPA KESAN SERTA MENYARANKAN IA MELIHAT  BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI UNTUK DAPAT MEMPEROLEH TAMBAHAN INFORMASI,BEBERAPA INFO SECARA SINGKAT UNTUK SELANJUTNYA DAPAT MELIHAT DI BLOG SAYA,

FRATER SERVAAS DALAM MEMBANGUN CITRA BANGSA INDONESIA DIBIDANG PENDIUDKAN ,SAYA MENGUSULKAN AGAR GUBERNUR SUMATERA BARAT MENGANUGERAHKAN BELIAU BINTANG JASA PAHLAWAN PENDIIKAN BAIK DARI DAERAH MAUPUN PUSAT ATAS  USULAN DAERAH, MALAH SAYA USULAKAN ALMARHUN DIANUGERAHKAN AWARD -PENGHARGAAN DARI GRAMEDIA KARENA AUYONG PENGKUN (P.K.OYONG) ADALAH MURID BELIAU DAN  ALMARMUH P.K.OYONG PERNAH BELAJAR DAN BEKERJA PADA SURAT KABAR KONG PO(SIANR0 BERBAHSA BELANDA YANG DICETAK DIPERCETAKAN VOLHARDING,YANG LOKASINYA DI GEDUNG SANTU YUSUF PONDOK PADANG YANG DIPIMPIN OLEH FRATER SERVAAS. SAYA HARAP DENGAN USULAN DAERAH DAN PT.GRAMEDIA PIMPINAN YAKOB OETAMA,SAHAT BAIK PAMAN SYA ALMARHUM Drs ANTON RAHMAT ABDISA  SEHINGGA MENTERI PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL RI. BERKENAN MENGUSULAN AGAR FRATER SERVAAS DIANUGERAHKAN BINTAN PAHLAWA  PEDINDIKAN RI KARENA JASA BELIAU DAN FRATER SERVAAS PERNAH MENJADI WARGA NEGARA RI HAMPIR SELURUH HIDUPNYA,HANYA KARENA USUR KEMBALI KE NEGERI BELANDAN DAN KEMBALI MENJADI WARGA NEGARA BELANDA.

TERAKHIR SAYA MENGUCAPKAN TERIMA KASIH KEPADA SEGALA PIHAK YANG TELAH MENDUKUNG DAN MEMBANTU SAYA SEHINGGA BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI DAPAT. TERWUJUD, DAN MOHON MAAF DAN BERSABAR KARENA SAYA TERPAKSA MENGINSTALL INFO DAN INFORMASI SECARA TAHAP-BERTAHAP KARENA SAYA KERJAKAN SENDIRI TANPA ADA YANG MEMBANTU,MAKLUM KONDISI SAYA SUDAH MULAI RENTA.

SALAM DARI PENULIS

 

Dr IWAN S.

angkatan DB 9

Senin, Desember 31, 2007

Jurni ketemu temen SMA Don Bosco Padang

 
Tangled Lights
Foto-foto ini aku masukkan ke Blogger kita supaya terekam semua aktivitas DB-9 menjelang akhir tahun 2007. Foto berasal dari kiriman bos Dyat melalui milis DB-9.
Jurni, Min, dan Jun difasilitasi Bos Dyat ke Bandung anjangsana ke rumah Adiwarti yang baru baralek baru-baru ini…….
Di foto itu mereka sedang santap siang rupanya bersama pak Suhardi suami Adek. Aku ga ikutan acara ini, karena ado pula acara baralek bosku (dulu) di Jogya dan Solo. Present
Juzarni Nazar, Rosminiar Roestam, Jurni Djalil, Adiwarti, Pak Suhardi dan Khairul (anaknya Min) Heart GlassesPersahabatan itu memang indah

Senin, Desember 17, 2007

 



Reuni Akbar 2008 – 50 Tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang – Juli 2008 Apr 12, ’08 9:44 PM
for everyone
Start:      Jul 1, ’08 10:00p
End:      Jul 31, ’08
Location:      Padang

MyHotComments.com
MyHotComments

Johanes Julinar nama lahirnya Lie Tiong Sui, alumni 1976, adalah Ketua Reuni Akbar 2008, kakaknya Syahrial Lincoln (Lie Tiong San), alumni 1967.Waktu di Padang tinggal di Kampung Nias, dekat rumah si Gapuk (Hong Lian).
Kita perlu memberikan dukungan untuk menyukseskan Reuni Akbar Juli yad. Angkatan 1976 sebagai penyelenggara, namun semua alumni perlu partisipasi, Karena alumni DB milik kita bersama.
Berita dari Shian

ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PADANG

Bersilaturrahmi untuk Kontribusi Almamater

Selasa, 05/07/2011 12:01 WIB

klik untuk melihat foto

 

padangmedia.com – YOGYAKARTA – Kalau biasanya setiap kegiatan reuni dilaksanakan di lokasi sekolah itu berada untuk bernostalgia, tetapi SMA Don Bosco Padang memilih melakukan kegiatan alumni di Yogyakarta.

“Kita bukannya mengabaikan Padang sebagai lokasi sekolah kita, tetapi kegiatan ini kita lakukan untuk bersilaturrahmi lebih merekat kebersamaan antara alumni khususnya angkatan kita dengan keluarga masing-masing. Jadi kita gelar liburan bersama. Kebetulan ada sejumlah alumni yang berdomisili di Yogyakarta,” ungkap Iswandi Said, Alumni tahun 80 SMA Don Bosco Padang, kepada padangmedia.com, Senin (4/7)

Menurut Wandi, kegiatan yang dilakukan secara rutin dalam kurun lima tahun belakangan memang dilaksanakan berpindah-pindah. Saat peringatan 50 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang beberapa tahun lalu, mereka ikut bereuni di Padang, kemudian di Jakarta dan tahun ini di Yogyakarta. Yang terpenting dalam hal ini adalah kebersamaan. “Karena di sekolah dulu, kami sangat merasakan nilai kebersamaan yang ditanamkan kepala sekolah dan lingkungan. Meski sekolah Katolik, waktu itu kita tidak melihat perbedaan baik dari sisis agama, suku, bangsa ataupun status sosial dan pangkat. Disana benar-benar beragam, tetapi kebersamaan sangat kental,” ucap ketua angkatan 77 ini.

Kegiatan alumni angkatan ini ditaambahkannya bukan sekedar bertemu-temu teman lama, tetapi juga melakukan penggalangan dana untuk diberikan sebagai kontribusi pada sekolah. Kadang dengan setengah memaksa, pengurus menodong anggota untuk menambah kas kelompok.

“Ada juga teman-teman yang memberikan sumbangan khusus yang kita manfaatkan untuk sekolah. Minggu lalu kita baru saja memberikan sumbanagn 11 set komputer untuk sekolah, satunya untuk sekretariat Alumni,” jelas Wandi. Sebelumnya, angkatan ini juga ikut memberikan dukungan ketika gempa melanda Padang tahun 2009 lalu.

Jika dinilai dalam jumlah, tambahnya, masih belum seberapa dibanding sumbangan alumni yang lebih senior dan sudah mapan . Tetapi yang penting kepedulian alumni terhadap perkembangan sekolah. Begitu juga dengan kegiatan reunian, bukan hanya sekedar berlibur bersama, tetapi juga disisipkan acara ceramah atau pencerahan. “Pada malam terakhir kita mengundang seorang pakar untuk memberikan pencerahan. Materinya kita yang pilih. Topik dalam pertemuan kali ini tentang bagaimana mengendalikan emosi , kesabaran dan selalu berpikir positif. Bagaimanapun, kalau umur sudah semakin bertambah, emosi suka kurang terkendali,” paparnya lagi.

Untuk mendatang, rencananya, alumni secara berkala akan melakukan kegiatan berbagi pengalaman dengan siswa-siswa untuk memberikan motivasi. Jadwalnya disesuaikan dengan anak-anak menjelang akhir tahun ajaran.

Kegiatan yang digelar dari tanggal 1 – 4 Juli itu diikuti oleh sekitar 40 orang alumni angkatan 77 dari berbagai kelas yang ada di berbagai daerah seperti Padang, Pekanbaru, Batam, Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, dan Balikpapan. (nit)

alumni DB 9

Tji Kiong, Moh Room, Sornaly Edy & Su Fang....semakin makmur aja mereka ber-empat ini

Tji Kiong, Moh Room, Sornaly Edy & Su Fang….semakin makmur aja mereka ber-empat ini

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Elvi....gue Eryck Cuan, elu jangan sampaikan kesiapapun ya...bahwa gue sudah lama memendam rasa suka ama elu sejak SMA...(plong deh hati gue)

Elvi….gue Eryck Cuan, elu jangan sampaikan kesiapapun ya…bahwa gue sudah lama memendam rasa suka ama elu sejak SMA…(plong deh hati gue)

Anyone can see this photo

 

Kim2, Hailiwan, Sarnelly, Susanti, Siok Li & Chandra......sstt...ke 4 cewek ini dulunya pernah merebut hati ke 2 pria dibelakang itu, namun tak satupun berhasil !

Kim2, Hailiwan, Sarnelly, Susanti, Siok Li & Chandra……sstt…ke 4 cewek ini dulunya pernah merebut hati ke 2 pria dibelakang itu, namun tak satupun berhasil !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

......., Eng Suan, Minah, Teressia Wong, Netty Azari Mellywati, Astrida, Siuli Ramli & Henny Cu Ung

……., Eng Suan, Minah, Teressia Wong, Netty Azari Mellywati, Astrida, Siuli Ramli & Henny Cu Ung

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Parlin...parlin...semakin tua, elu semakin laku aja dimata Ce Ce Su Fang, Ce Ce Henny & Ce Ce Astrida

Parlin…parlin…semakin tua, elu semakin laku aja dimata Ce Ce Su Fang, Ce Ce Henny & Ce Ce Astrida

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Senyum mu palsu Liang....elu enak aja tinggalin gue !

Senyum mu palsu Liang….elu enak aja tinggalin gue !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sarnelly, jangan pelototin gue seperti itu dong....cepatan isi buku tamu....

Sarnelly, jangan pelototin gue seperti itu dong….cepatan isi buku tamu….

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Suasana Reuni para Ibu Ibu Arisan.....lihat tuh si Engeline...nggakak gitu...

Suasana Reuni para Ibu Ibu Arisan…..lihat tuh si Engeline…nggakak gitu…

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Reuni mantan penghuni ABT : Susanti & Sarnelly

Reuni mantan penghuni ABT : Susanti & Sarnelly

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sarnelly....dulu disebut Fang Bulek, sekarang Fang apa ya...?

Sarnelly….dulu disebut Fang Bulek, sekarang Fang apa ya…?

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Lamo tak basuo, sekali basuo ado di kandang kudo..he..he..

Lamo tak basuo, sekali basuo ado di kandang kudo..he..he..

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Backdrop Acara Reuni 20 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang angk 87

Backdrop Acara Reuni 20 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang angk 87

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sepasang kekasih yang tidak pernah jadi kekasih

Sepasang kekasih yang tidak pernah jadi kekasih

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Yenny Agustin & Bony Putra : Pasangan yg paling cute

Yenny Agustin & Bony Putra : Pasangan yg paling cute

 

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Tiaaannn & Yanthie Zainal : Pasangan kelas "Berat" !

Tiaaannn & Yanthie Zainal : Pasangan kelas “Berat” !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Gue tidak berubah...dari dulu s/d sekarang tetap kurus

Gue tidak berubah…dari dulu s/d sekarang tetap kurus

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Kiong....ingat istri & anak anak dirumah ya..

Kiong….ingat istri & anak anak dirumah ya..

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Ernie Monas, Astrida, Tak Kong & Cong Cik...lagi di Aula DB

Ernie Monas, Astrida, Tak Kong & Cong Cik…lagi di Aula DB

ALUMNI DB  TRAVELLING

Thursday, May 31, 2007
Toronto n China town…
 

Left…Toronto town…one is biggest town in Canada…taken from The CN Towel…
 
Right…is China Town nya Canada…dimana= China Town pasti sama ya gambarannya..kyk di Singapur juga ada tuh dinding nya gt…( Kiaw sekeluarga tuh dgn hasil karyanya dgn Monthy…hehe 2 cewek manis pemberian Tuhan ).
Good luck selalu deh teman=…enjoy ur life ya…
 
For Suan n Giok Bie…tks for your sharing pictures ya…ketemu lgi tahun depan siapa tau kalian make another trip lagi…khabar khabari ya…( heheh kyk di TV aja…).
Kalian bisa kasih comment tuh, di shouted box…
 
Last but not least…these are the last part of Canada Trip…
 
 
Resume…
Canada is really beautifull country…i have seen from my Canadian friends…many fantastic places..like another famous..is The Frozen River..which always freeze for the whole year…
n also so many Salmon Fish overthere..
 
So Canada is the best choice also for visiting….for who like travelling…
 
Jadi mari rame= nabung yooooookkkk….
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:35 AM   0 comments
 
 
another pictures…
 

These are another ….
 
Wah…keren & kompak juga action kamu n Way ..ya Bie.. kayak pemain sky beneran deh…sayang ketauan boong nya..krn ngak pake sky shoes nya..alias papan seluncurnya hahah
 
Suan dgn anggun nya…( Anggun = Anggota Ragunan loh heheh )..
 
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:30 AM   0 comments
 
 
Tulip Flower n Toronto Town
 


These are another….

 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:27 AM   0 comments
 
 
Thousand Island..n Monthy’s House
 

Wow…really fabulous view…
Thousand Island…
 
Mungkin dari sini nama cream salad Thousand Island kali ya ..heheh
 
Right…is Monthy and Kiaw’s house…wah rumahnya gede n cantik bok…( ternyata orang gedongan juga ya kawan kita tuh disana ..gile loe…)boleh numpang lagi ngak Kiaw..kalo kita datang nanti..heheh
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 10:55 AM   0 comments
 
 
Emerald Lake n Niagara US
 

Bie…wah foto kalian yg disini keren buanget loh…boleh tuh di gedein..gantung di dinding..buat nakut=in maling hahah…canda oi…, tapi aku serius keren buanget…latar belakang ama org nya matching deh…
 
Right…is..Niagara US…near/close to the main road..
 
posted by rosni @ 10:50 AM   0 comments
 
 
Niagara Duet…
 

Left..is connection bridge ..between US n Canada.. with Bie n Suan ‘s picture….( wah disini kalian kayak Aliens biru deh…)
 
Right…Niagara duet…left…Niagara US…n right Niaraga Canada…
 
posted by rosni @ 10:41 AM   0 comments
 
 
Whistler n Butchart Garden
 

Left is…Whistler…is the place for playing sky..
Right…Butchart Garden..near to the Niagara location…so nice..i luv it…muuuuuccchhh
 
posted by rosni @ 10:13 AM   0 comments
 
 
Lake Louise n Suan picture
 

This is..katanya…Louise Lake view…
Wah kalo aku kesana…bisa= ngak ingat pulang loh…enak tuh u camping…ampe beku…heheh
 
and Right..is Susanti Gozali ..nan cantik …e..ngomong= dia ini dulunya ex model n singer loh di Don Bosco …
 
Suan…apa km ngak nyanyi pula di Louis Lake itu…? biar salju nya mencair…heheh
Waduh cantik sekali ya..man teman…aku pengen deh kesana…
 
posted by rosni @ 10:01 AM   0 comments
 
 
Giok Bie n Way,Kiaw n Monty , Suan …
 


Here they are the lucky persons..who can do/have trip to Canada…( aku aja belum oi…abis duitnya belum kering heheh ).

 
Left…Monthy ( Kiaw’s husby ), Way (Giok Bie’s husby ) n Suan…background ..is Toronto town..
 
Aawas..jangan nyemplung pula kalian di Niagara itu ..( ntar kalian pikir sama pula ama Air Terjun 7 tingkat yg di Bungus Padang tuh heheh ).
 
posted by rosni @ 9:48 AM   0 comments
 
 
My friends trip to Canada
 

I just got some best pictures from my old friends…( ex SMA Don Bosco )…who travelling to Canada .
They the lucky persons are Giok Bie n Way ( husby )..n Suan…to visit Kiaw n Monty fam.who are (also ex Don Bosco )..already stay at Toronto- Canada.
So these are some of the best view of them…jangan ngences ya…
Bagi kita yg belum punya duit…ya udah deh ..liat foto= ini aja dulu…

Wah tool ” add image ” nya lagi bermasalah nih…ya udah satu gmbr ini aja dulu ya…
Kata mereka ..bhw ternyata Air Terjun Niagara itu ada 2 biji, satu di belahan negara Amerika..dan satu lg di belahan negara Canada…jadi perbatasan ke 2 negara adalah di Air terjun Niagara ini…
Nah yg ini adalah foto nya Air Terjun Niagara miliknya Canada..lebh bagus..krn bentuk nya lengkung kayak Tapak Kuda gicu loh…

Ayok…kumpulin duit seribu sehr u kesana yok…( kapan perginya ya kalo seribu sehari hahah ).

 
posted by rosni @ 9:06 AM   0 comments
 
Monday, May 28, 2007
Pinguin n Rock Coast
 

To get the Nicest Rock Coast overview…we rent the helicopter…
So really fantastic…even the view…n the felling ..to fly over above it…
 
We also can see the small n big pinguin…,but we must wait..at the beach…till sun set/down..n the Pinguins will come slowly..n slowly..
But many of us..couldn’t stand longer to wait…cause the weather at the beach so cool…escply..the evening…
 
The way back from the ocean beach..sometime we can meet some of the small Pinguins…wow..so cute…i would like to catch them…n bring them home for Pet….but not allow..yet
 
posted by rosni @ 4:16 PM   0 comments
 
 
Nov 2003 – visited to Australia
 

Almost forgotten….4 years ago…we visited Australia.. me ,Brian n papi.
 
The Rock Coast is really fantastic…really unforgotten beach..nothing compare…
Many Indonesian students overthere…
But i dont like the weather…almost same like Indonesia..sun shine..so bright…uhhh..i really dont like…burning my skin…
 
posted by rosni @ 4:08 PM   0 comments
 
 
Michi ‘s Graduation
 

Below…Michi’s graduation…at Economic from Bandung.
Above… Sister fam at Valley Resto…Bandung…the famous resto in Bandung ..nowadays.
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:41 PM   0 comments
 
 
Kota Bunga at Jakarta Puncak
 

These are nice pictures at Kota Bunga n Cibubur …with my son ..n sister family…couple years ago
 
Middle ..Ricky,Michi n Vincen.
Above …me, Michi n sister n sister in law…
Below…with sister famly..

 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:32 PM   0 comments
 
 
Bangkok memories
 


These are some memories at Bangkok couple years ago…

 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:15 PM   0 comments
 
 
My AIG LIFE group
 

 

This is my currently profession.. is AIG LIFE …almost 8 years..running this job..
I got many experience n advantage …
Yulie in the midlle with the white blous is….our boss at Pekanbaru Angency.

Right…is my name card..with our Agentcy Prestige…

 
posted by rosni @ 2:36 PM   0 comments
 
 
My former bisniss
 

These were my former bisniss at Pekanbaru…
Running own bisniss..give us special experience..that u cant get from the school..
But nowadays…running lady’s bisnis…like salon n butik..n ect..not give much profit..
 
I also have joint partner ..another salon at Pekanbaru .
Since i moved to Jakarta..so all of my former bisnis ..closed already..
Below…Mira n Nini ..are my best friends at Pku..also my brother Cin..who running this Children Butik.
 
Above….my joint parnert…Yulie n Vina ..at Celullar Phone…
I have no pictures for our saloon…
 
 
posted by rosni @ 2:05 PM   0 comments
 
 
Albert n Papi at German..
 

 

Left …is Albert almost 13 years ago…when he was in the college at German…

He looks like a Korean Movie star heheh
Daddy still slim..n handsome…
Backgorund picture is Rhein River…the famous river at German….

 
posted by rosni @ 1:54 PM   0 comments
 
 
Highest Mountain n Graduation
 

Left…was…the dangerous n so proud experienced for us…We were from The REMAPALA DON BOSCO on 1983...can survive to climb The Highest Mountain at Sumatera …we call The Kerinci Volcano Mountain…its about 4500 m..high…
 
Right also…the best n really valued time in my life…My Accountant Academy Graduation..from Andalas University…at my home town…Padang.
Beside me ..is my Lovely Mom..n only one beloved sister…
Thanks mom n dad..to let me grow into beautifull n mature woman…
Tks for everything that you have given to me…till now…God also blessing u..both my parents…
For my dad who past away couple years ago..always pray for u night n day…so u will be sit n be son of our Father Lord in Heaven…sure that ,cause u were really lovely n good father for us.n also as human being..nobody can replace n compare u….bye dad..
 
posted by rosni @ 1:07 PM   0 comments
 
 
Padang n Sukabumi’s view
 

Finally this week i will move to new aprt ..but still same tower…
 
So i found my old pictures…some have good memory for me…so i ll share now..
Above…is at Sukabumi…so nice n so friendly …cause we can climb till at the top of the Small Niagara at Indonesia ( hahah ).Left n right below…are the view of the Ocean at Sikuai Padang town…my hometown.
So we can see..Indonesia also has many fantastic places…n view…
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 12:20 PM   0 comments
 
Tuesday, May 22, 2007
Her pet…at Bandung
 

Right …her partner collection..her pet…
Left ..Herlina’s pets in Batam
 
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 1:53 PM   0 comments
 
 
Visited Bandung ..
 

Couple months ago..me n Herlina visited her business partner in Bandung.
Her friend brought us to her villa in Kota Bunga – Bandung…
 
Left…her husband Bonsai collections…….so many, so..cute n prestigious..plant…
Right…Herlina n background view..from the 2 nd floor villa..
 
 
posted by rosni @ 1:04 PM   0 comments
 
 
View..- Canada n San Fr.
 

dear…u see how ..so nice n amazing our world..
 
 
Left…..view at Canada..one of the place that i still not yet visite…
 
Right…view of Golden Bridge at San Fransisco…
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 12:53 PM   0 comments
 
 
View at Europe
 

 

These are the best..

 
posted by rosni @ 12:47 PM   0 comments
 
 
View around the world
 

Friends…no idea to share now…so just showing ..the nicest view that i have ever seen…these pictures at South Africa…
 
Ok…nice to see..the greates creation by our Lord..tks Lord for our life…
 
Left…created by Lord…
Right…home made by people at Lost City Hotel in South Africa..

komentar

 

 

the end@copyright 2012

 

Kumpulan Kisah Tempo Dulu Tentang Kebiasaan Jelek Para Pria

Perilaku Jelek & Kitab Kotor : Samuel Pepys


Meskipun sulit untuk membayangkan di era internet, buku kotor adalah penemuan yang relatif baru. Dalam London 1660-an dari penulis buku harian / pemerintah administrator Samuel Pepys, (itu Samuel ke kiri, dilukis oleh John Hayls di 1666), mereka masih menemukan sangat banyak hal yang baru. Yang ia menemukan secara tidak sengaja pada penjual buku setempat adalah dalam bahasa Prancis. L’escholle des Filles (“Sekolah Wanita Muda”) ditulis dalam apa yang menjadi format kotor-buku klasik: seorang wanita, tua berpengalaman menjelaskan Kehidupan, Cinta, & Pria untuk seorang pemula muda, dan melakukannya dengan eksplisit, titillating bahasa. Kau tahu, Playboy Advisor.

Ketika Samuel pertama membaca  buku itu, ia berpikir dari judul yang mungkin menjadi bacaan bagi isterinya untuk  belajar  bahasa Perancis . Sekilas balik halaman, namun dengan cepat berubah pikiran. Tapi mari kita Samuel menjelaskan, dalam tiga kutipan dari Buku Harian terkenal:

13 Januari 1668: “…. saya berhenti di penjual buku Martin, di mana saya melihat buku Perancis yang saya berpikir untuk memiliki untuk istri saya untuk menerjemahkan, yang disebut L’escholle des Filles, tetapi ketika saya datang untuk melihat ke dalamnya , itu adalah buku, paling mesum cabul yang pernah saya lihat, lebih buruk dari Puttana Errante [sebuah buku terkenal 16 c erotis Italia..] -. sehingga saya malu membaca di dalamnya “

8 Februari 1668: Dari situ pergi ke Strand ke penjual buku saya, dan ada tinggal satu jam dan membeli buku itu, menganggur nakal, L’escholle des Filles, yang saya telah membeli di dataran mengikat (menghindari pembelian lebih baik terikat) karena Saya menyelesaikan, begitu aku telah membacanya, membakarnya, sehingga tidak dapat berdiri dalam daftar buku-buku saya, juga di antara mereka, aib mereka jika harus ditemukan.

9 Februari 1668: Hari Tuhan. Up, dan di kamar saya semua pagi hari dan di kantor, melakukan bisnis dan juga membaca sedikit dari L’des escholle Filles, yang merupakan buku cabul perkasa, tetapi belum tidak salah bagi seorang pria mabuk sekali untuk membaca lebih untuk menginformasikan dirinya dalam kejahatan dunia …. [sore itu] saya ke kamar saya, dimana saya membaca de L’escholle Filles buku cabul, tapi apa saya tidak salah Maha membaca demi informasi [ini berikutnya adalah Sam singkatan sendiri, tetapi Anda dapat mengetahui maksudnya tanpa kesulitan terlalu banyak] tapi itu tusukan hazer butir saya berdiri selama itu, dan una vez untuk melepaskan energi negatif, dan setelah saya melakukan [itu] buku, saya membakarnya, bahwa mungkin tidak berada di antara buku-buku saya untuk malu saya, dan sebagainya pada malam hari untuk makan malam dan kemudian tidur.

Sejarawan modern mengatakan bahwa ini adalah referensi awal untuk sebuah buku erotis dalam bahasa Inggris. Oh, Samuel. . . .

Berperilaku Buruk: Boswell mendapat bertepuk

Meskipun pemotongan kejam saya, ini masih lebih lama dari pos biasa. Tapi sulit untuk mendapatkan gambaran penuh sebaliknya. Untuk versi lengkap, pergi sini dan gulir ke bawah.

Selasa 18 Januari 1763
Hari ini aku mulai merasa alarm tidak akuntabel kejahatan tak terduga: sedikit panas di anggota tubuh saya suci untuk Cupid, sangat mirip gejala distemper bahwa dengan yang Venus, ketika salib, membawanya ke kepalanya untuk wabah votaries nya. Tapi kemudian saya jalankan tidak ada risiko. Saya pernah bergabung dengan tidak ada wanita tapi Louisa, dan yakin dia tidak bisa memiliki hal semacam itu. . .

Kamis 20 Januari
Aku membuka kasus sedih saya untuk Douglas, yang pada memeriksa bagian, menyatakan saya mendapat infeksi dan jelas bahwa wanita yang memberikannya saya tidak bisa tidak tahu itu. .
Saya kemudian pergi ke Louisa. Dengan alamat yang sangat baik aku melanjutkan wawancara ini, sama seperti gambar berikut, saya percaya, akan membuat muncul. . . . .

Boswell. Madam, saya tidak memiliki hubungan dengan wanita mana pun tetapi Anda dua bulan. Saya dengan dokter bedah saya pagi ini, yang menyatakan saya telah mendapat infeksi yang kuat, dan bahwa dia dari siapa Aku sudah tidak bisa tahu tentang itu. Madam, hal seperti itu dalam hal ini lebih buruk dari dari seorang wanita kota, sebagai darinya Anda mungkin mengharapkannya. Anda telah menggunakan saya sangat sakit. . . .

LOUISA. Pak, Aku akan mengaku kepada anda bahwa sekitar tiga tahun lalu saya sangat buruk. Tapi untuk lima belas bulan saya telah cukup baik. Saya menghimbau ALLAH SWT bahwa saya berbicara benar, dan untuk enam bulan saya harus melakukan dengan siapapun kecuali diri Anda sendiri.

Boswell. Tapi dengan GD, Madam, saya telah dengan tidak ada tetapi Anda, dan di sini saya sangat buruk.

LOUISA. Nah, Pak, dengan sumpah khidmat yang sama saya memprotes bahwa saya tahu tentang itu.

Boswell. Madam, saya ingin banyak untuk percaya. Tapi saya sendiri saya tidak bisa percaya pada kesempatan ini keajaiban.

LOUISA. Pak, saya tidak bisa mengatakan lebih banyak untuk Anda. Tapi Anda akan meninggalkan saya dalam penderitaan terbesar. Aku akan kehilangan harga diri Anda. Aku akan terluka menurut pendapat semua orang, dan dalam keadaan saya.

Boswell (untuk dirinya). Apa iblis apakah menolak cinta bingung maksud dengan disakiti dalam keadaan dia? Ini adalah licik grossest. Tapi aku tidak akan memperhatikan hal itu. – Madam, untuk pendapat semua orang, Anda tidak perlu takut. Aku akan bercanda dan mengatakan bahwa saya tidak pernah membanggakan wanita nikmat. Tapi aku memberikan kata-kata saya kehormatan bahwa Anda tidak akan ditemukan.

LOUISA. Sir, ini menjadi lebih murah hati dari yang saya bisa harapkan.

Selama percakapan ini saya benar-benar berperilaku dengan ketenangan jantan dan martabat sopan yang tidak bisa gagal untuk menginspirasi kekaguman, dan ia tampak pucat seperti abu dan bergetar dan tersendat. . . . Saya benar-benar bingung pada perilakunya. Ada hampir tidak kemungkinan bahwa dia bisa menjadi bersalah atas kejahatan pengenaan mengerikan. Namun asseverations positifnya benar-benar terkejut saya. Dia kemungkinan besar pelacur dissembling paling sempurna.

Dari Boswell London Journal, 1762-1763
Oleh James Boswell

 
Pria Berperilaku Buruk: Scrope Davies


“Ketika istilah Prapaskah dari 1808 di Cambridge mulai, Byron tidak bisa kembali karena utang-utangnya. Scrope [Davies] memilih untuk tidak melakukannya dan kedua sahabat terjun ke kehidupan disipasi di London. Dalam hal Byron itu terutama . melacur dan perjudian; dalam perjudian Scrope dan minum Dalam karyanya “Pikiran Terpisah ‘Byron ingat salah satu prestasi Scropes lebih penting:

Suatu malam, Scrope Davies di sebuah rumah game … menjadi mabuk seperti biasanya adalah pada jam Tengah Malam, dan kehilangan uang, berada di mengabulkan doa sia-sia oleh teman-temannya, satu derajat kurang mabuk dari dirinya, untuk datang atau pulang. Dalam keputusasaan, dia ditinggalkan untuk dirinya, dan setan-setan dari kotak dadu.

Hari berikutnya, yang dikunjungi, sekitar dua jam dengan beberapa teman saja bangkit dengan sakit kepala parah dan kantong kosong (yang telah meninggalkan dia kalah di empat atau lima pagi), dia ditemukan dalam tidur nyenyak, tanpa  topi malam , dan tidak terlalu dibebani dengan tempat tidur-cloathes: a Chamber-pot berdiri di samping ranjang-sisinya, penuh-penuh – Catatan Bank! won semua, Tuhan tahu bagaimana, dan penuh sesak, Scrope tahu tidak di mana, tetapi ada mereka, semua catatan yang sah baik, dan untuk jumlah beberapa ribu pound “.

T.A.J. Burnett, The Rise & Fall of a Dandy Kabupaten: Kehidupan dan Times of Scrope Berdmore Davies

 

Pria Berperilaku Buruk: Sir Charles Sedley


Buku saya yang terbaru telah ditetapkan dalam Restorasi Inggris, pada masa pemerintahan Raja Charles II (1660-1685). Ini adalah waktu yang sangat baik untuk tuan-tuan yang sangat buruk, ketika hampir setiap kelebihan dapat dijelaskan jika memiliki judul, atau setidaknya berteman dengan Raja.

Sir Charles Sedley (1639-1701) adalah seorang kaya yang memiliki koneksi baronet yang menulis drama jenaka dan puisi, bermain tenis dengan Raja, mencoba-coba diplomasi, dan akhirnya menjadi seorang politikus terhormat di House of Commons.

Dia tampak tidak berbahaya cukup, kiri, tapi tahun 1663, ia terkenal karena sering menjadi “retoris mabuk”, dan juga untuk salah satu contoh sangat buruk dari yang buruk-boy-dom, jadi memalukan bahwa Samuel Johnson masih sputtering di atasnya abad kemudian :

Sir Charles Sedley, [Tuhan Buckhurst], dan Sir Thomas Ogle, mabuk di COCK [a kedai terkenal] di Jalan Busur, dengan Covent Garden, dan pergi ke balkon memperkenalkan  diri kepada rakyat bawah dalam postur yang sangat tidak senonoh. Akhirnya, karena mereka tumbuh lebih hangat, Sedley berdiri sebagainya telanjang, dan mengkuliahi rakyat dalam bahasa profan tersebut, sehingga  pemuka umum terbangun marah ; kerumunan mencoba untuk memaksa membuka pintu, dan yang jijik, melaju  dengan lemparan batu, dan pecah jendela rumah. Untuk pelanggaran ini, [tiga pria] yang didakwa, dan Sedley didenda £ 500 …. Sedley dipekerjakan [temannya Harry] Killigrew untuk mendapatkan pengampunan dari Raja, tetapi (menandai persahabatan keji!) Mereka meminta denda bagi dirinya dan dituntut ke jumlah uang yg kecil sekali lalu.

Untuk jujur jauh lebih menceritakan ini frat-rumah bergaya shenanigans, lihat entri buku harian Samuel Pepys ini – gulir ke bawah ke penjelasan pertama, dan berpegang pada cangkir kopi Anda.

original article

Though it’s hard to imagine in the internet age, dirty books are a relatively new invention. In the 1660s London of diarist/government administrator Samuel Pepys, (that’s Samuel to the left, painted by John Hayls in 1666), they’re still very much a novelty. The one he finds by accident in his local bookseller is in French. L’escholle des Filles (“The School for Young Women”) is written in what becomes a classic dirty-book format: an older, experienced woman explains Life, Love, & Men to a young newbie, and does it in explicit, titillating language. You know, Playboy Advisor.

When Samuel first comes across the book, he thinks from the title that it might be an edifying read for his French-speaking wife. A glance through the pages, however, quickly changes his mind. But let’s have Samuel explain, in three excerpt from his famous Diary:

January 13, 1668: “….stopped at Martin’s my bookseller, where I saw the French book which I did think to have had for my wife to translate, called L’escholle des Filles, but when I came to look into it, it is the most bawdy, lewd book that ever I saw, rather worse than Puttana Errante [an infamous 16th. c. Italian erotic book] – so that I was ashamed of reading in it.”

February 8, 1668: Thence away to the Strand to my bookseller’s, and there stayed an hour and bought that idle, roguish book, L’escholle des Filles, which I have bought in plain binding (avoiding the buying of it better bound) because I resolve, as soon as I have read it, to burn it, that it may not stand in the list of my books, nor among them, to disgrace them if it should be found.

February 9, 1668: Lord’s Day. Up, and at my chamber all the morning and in the office, doing business and also reading a little of L’escholle des Filles, which is a mighty lewd book, but yet not amiss for a sober man once to read over to inform himself in the villainy of the world….[later that afternoon] I to my chamber, where I did read through L’escholle de Filles a lewd book, but what doth me no wrong to read for information sake [this next is Sam’s own shorthand, but you can figure out his meaning without too much difficulty] but it did hazer my prick para stand all the while, and una vez to decharge; and after I had done [the book], I burned it, that it might not be among my books to my shame; and so at night to supper and then to bed.

Modern historians say that this is the earliest reference to an erotic book in the English language. Oh, Samuel. . . .

Behaving Badly: Boswell gets the clap
Despite my ruthless cutting, this is still longer than my usual post. But it’s hard to get the full picture otherwise. For the complete version, go here and scroll down.

Tuesday 18 January 1763
I this day began to feel an unaccountable alarm of unexpected evil: a little heat in the members of my body sacred to Cupid, very like a symptom of that distemper with which Venus, when cross, takes it into her head to plague her votaries. But then I had run no risks. I had been with no woman but Louisa, and sure she could not have such a thing . . .

Thursday 20 January
I opened my sad case to Douglas, who upon examining the parts, declared I had got an evident infection and that the woman who gave it me could not but know of it . . . .

I then went to Louisa. With excellent address did I carry on this interview, as the following scene, I trust, will make appear. . . . .

BOSWELL. Madam, I have had no connection with any woman but you these two months. I was with my surgeon this morning, who declared I had got a strong infection, and that she from whom I had it could not be ignorant of it. Madam, such a thing in this case is worse than from a woman of the town, as from her you may expect it. You have used me very ill . . . .

LOUISA. Sir, I will confess to you that about three years ago I was very bad. But for these fifteen months I have been quite well. I appeal to GOD Almighty that I am speaking true; and for these six months I have had to do with no man but yourself.

BOSWELL. But by G-D, Madam, I have been with none but you, and here am I very bad.

LOUISA. Well, Sir, by the same solemn oath I protest that I was ignorant of it.

BOSWELL. Madam, I wish much to believe you. But I own I cannot upon this occasion believe a miracle.

LOUISA. Sir, I cannot say more to you. But you will leave me in the greatest misery. I shall lose your esteem. I shall be hurt in the opinion of everybody, and in my circumstances.

BOSWELL (to himself). What the devil does the confounded jilt mean by being hurt in her circumstances? This is the grossest cunning. But I won’t take notice of that at all. — Madam, as to the opinion of everybody, you need not be afraid. I was going to joke and say that I never boast of a lady’s favours. But I give you my word of honour that you shall not be discovered.

LOUISA. Sir, this is being more generous than I could expect.

During all this conversation I really behaved with a manly composure and polite dignity that could not fail to inspire an awe, and she was pale as ashes and trembled and faltered . . . . I was really confounded at her behaviour. There is scarcely a possibility that she could be innocent of the crime of horrid imposition. And yet her positive asseverations really stunned me. She is in all probability a most consummate dissembling whore.

From Boswell’s London Journal, 1762-1763
By James Boswell

 

“When the Lent term of 1808 at Cambridge began, Byron was unable to return by reason of his debts. Scrope [Davies] chose not to do so and the two friends plunged into a life of dissipation in London. In Byron’s case it was chiefly whoring and gambling; in Scrope’s gambling and drinking. In his ‘Detached Thoughts’ Byron recalled one of Scropes more noteworthy achievements:

One night, Scrope Davies at a gaming house…being tipsy as he usually was at the Midnight hour, and having lost monies, was in vain intreated by his friends, one degree less intoxicated than himself, to come or go home. In despair, he was left to himself, and to the demons of the dice-box. Next day, being visited, about two of the Clock by some friends just risen with a severe headache and empty pockets (who had left him losing at four or five in the morning), he was found in a sound sleep, without a night-cap, and not particularly encumbered with bed-cloathes: a Chamber-pot stood by his bed-side, brim-full of–Bank Notes! all won, God knows how, and crammed, Scrope knew not where; but there they were, all good legitimate notes, and to the amount of some thousand pounds.”

T.A.J. Burnett, The Rise & Fall of a Regency Dandy: The Life and Times of Scrope Berdmore Davies

 

My most recent books have been set in Restoration England, during the reign of King Charles II (1660-1685.) This was a very good time for very bad gentlemen, when just about any excess could be explained away if one had a title, or at least was friends with the King.

Sir Charles Sedley (1639-1701) was a wealthy, well-connected baronet who wrote witty plays and poetry, played tennis with the King, dabbled in diplomacy, and eventually became a respectable politician in the House of Commons. He looks innocuous enough, left, but in 1663, he was best known for often being “rhetorically drunk”, and also for one particularly bad example of bad-boy-dom, so scandalous that Samuel Johnson was still sputtering over it a century later:

Sir Charles Sedley, [Lord Buckhurst], and Sir Thomas Ogle, got drunk at the Cock [a notorious tavern] in Bow Street, by Covent Garden, and going into the balcony exposed themselves to the populace below in very indecent postures. At last, as they grew warmer, Sedley stood forth naked, and harangued the populace in such profane language, that the publick indignation was awakened; the crowd attempted to force the door, and being repulsed, drove at the performers with stones, and broke the windows of the house.  For this misdemeanour, [the three gentlemen] were indicted, and Sedley was fined five hundred pounds….Sedley employed [his friend Harry] Killigrew to procure a remission from the King, but (mark the friendship of the dissolute!) they begged the fine for themselves, and exacted it to the last groat.

For a far more frank telling of these frat-house-style shenanigans, see Samuel Pepys’s diary entry – scroll down to the first annotation, and hold on to your coffee cup.

the end ,more story exist but only for premium member,please subscribed via comment.

The Mexico Historic Collections

The Mexico Historic Collections

1800-1900

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATIONS,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT.

 Introduction

rthe history of Mexico

pre 1800

The Spanish Conquest

    Mesoamerica on the Eve of the Conquest

The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The Spanish crown extended the Reconquista effort, completed in Spain in 1492, to non-Catholic people in new territories. In 1502 on the coast of present day Colombia, near the Gulf of Urabá, Spanish explorers led by Vasco Núñez de Balboa explored and conquered the area near the Atrato River. The conquest was of the Chibchan speaking nations, mainly the Muisca and Tairona indigenous people that lived here. The Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509—abandoned within the year, and in 1510 the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement in America, Santa María la Antigua del Darién.[11]

Hernán Cortés y Moctezuma meet

There is a difference in the ‘Spanish conquest of Mexico’ between the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. The former is conquest of the campaign, led by Hernán Cortés from 1519–21 and his Tlaxcala and other ‘indigenous peoples’ allied against the Mexica/Aztec empire. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán is the much longer campaign, from 1551–1697, against the Maya peoples of the Maya civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula of present day Mexico and northern Central America. The day Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz, April 22, 1519, marks the beginning of 300 years of Spanish hegemony over the region.

The Aftermath

Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs, and the Tlaxcalteca

Tenochtitlan had been almost totally destroyed by fire and cannon shots. Those Aztecs who survived were forbidden to live in the city and the surrounding isles, and they went to live in Tlatelolco.

Cortés imprisoned the royal families of the valley. To prevent another revolt, he personally tortured and killed Cuauhtémoc, the last Aztec Emperor; Coanacoch, the King of Texcoco, and Tetlepanquetzal, King of Tlacopan.

The Spanish had no intentions of turning over Tenochtitlan to the Tlaxcalteca. While Tlaxcalteca troops continued to help the Spaniards, and Tlaxcala received better treatment than other indigenous nations, the Spanish eventually disowned the treaty. Forty years after the conquest, the Tlaxcalteca had to pay the same tribute as any other indigenous community.

  • Political. Apparently, Cortes favored maintaining the political structure of the Aztecs, subject to relatively minor changes.
  • Religious. Cortes immediately banned human sacrifice throughout the conquered empire. Evangelization began in the mid-1520s and continued in the 1530s. Many of the evangelists learned the native languages and recorded aspects of native culture, providing a principal source for our knowledge about them. By 1560, more than 800 clergy were working to convert Indians in New Spain.

    “The Torture of Cuauhtémoc”, a 19th century painting by Leandro Izaguirre.

    By 1580, the number grew to 1,500 in 1580 and by 1650, to 3,000.

  • Economics … .

 Analysis of the Defeat

Military Tactics. The Alliance’s use of ambush during indigenous ceremonies allowed the Spanish to avoid fighting the best Aztec warriors in direct armed battle, such as during The Feast of Huitzilopochtli.

Smallpox and its Toll. Smallpox (Variola major and Variola minor) began to spread in Mesoamerica immediately after the arrival of Europeans. The indigenous peoples, who had no immunity to it, eventually died in the hundreds of thousands. A third of all the natives of the Valley of Mexico succumbed to it within six months of the arrival of the Spanish.

The Colonial Period (1521-1810)

Main article: Colonial Mexico

The capture of Tenochtitlan marked the beginning of a 300-year-long colonial period, during which Mexico was known as “New Spain“.

Period of the Conquest (1521–1650)

New Spain in 1803.

Contrary to a widespread misconception, Spain did not conquer all of the Aztec Empire when Cortes took Tenochtitlan. It required another two centuries to complete the conquest: rebellions broke out within the old Empire and wars continued with other native peoples.

After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it took decades of sporadic warfare to subdue the rest of Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce was the Chichimeca War (1576–1606) in the north.

A statue of a Chichimeca Warrior in the city of Queretaro

Economics. The Council of Indies and the mendicant establishments, which arose in Mesoamerica as early as 1524, labored to generate capital for the crown of Spain and convert the Indian populations to Catholicism. During this period and the following Colonial periods the sponsorship of mendicant friars and a process of religious syncretism combined the Pre-Hispanic cultures with Spanish socio-religious tradition. The resulting hodgepodge of culture was a pluriethnic State that relied on the “repartimiento“, a system of peasant “Republic of Indians” labor that carried out any necessary work. Thus, the existing feudal system of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican culture was replaced by the encomienda feudal-style system of Spain, probably adapted to the pre-Hispanic tradition. This in turn was finally replaced by a debt-based inscription of labor that led to widespread revitalization movements and prompted the revolution that ended colonial New Spain.

Evolution of the Race. During the three centuries of colonial rule, less than 700,000 Spaniards, most of them men, settled in Mexico. The settlers intermarried with indigenous women, fathering the mixed race (mestizo) descendents who today constitute the majority of Mexico’s population.

The Colonial Period (1650–1810)

A representation of a Mestizo, in a Pintura de Castas from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period. The painting’s caption states “Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo”.

During this period, Mexico was part of the much larger Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included Cuba, Puerto Rico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, the southwestern United States, and the Philippines. Spain during the 16th Century focused its energies on areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations, since these areas could provide the settlers with a disciplined labor force and a population to catechize. Territories populated by nomadic peoples were harder to conquer, and though the Spanish did explore a good part of North America, seeking the fabled “El Dorado”, they made no concerted effort to settle the northern desert regions in what is now the United States until the 17th Century.

Colonial law was in many ways destructive. No administrative office was open to any Mexican native, even those of pure Spanish blood. From an economic point of view, New Spain was administered principally for the benefit of Spain. For instance, the cultivation of grapes and olives, which grew particularly well in certain areas of the country, was banned out of fear that the harvest would compete with Spain’s. Only two ports, morever, were open to foreign trade—Vera Cruz on the Atlantic and Acapulco on the Pacific. In fact, foreigners had to obtain a special permit from the Royal government to enter Mexico, and few Mexicans were permitted to travel abroad. Education was discouraged, and few books were available.

 

Santa Anna

19th Century Mexico (1807–1910)
  • Map from 1829 showing Mexico and Guatemala.

  • Map of Mexico, 1847.

 

 

 

c.1785. Campeche – Guatemala . Front / Franca Canobas + Stline. Dated as per time that postmaster Canobas was in charge

£100

 

 

c.1800-1806. Mexico – Guatemala . 2 interesting usages E fronts / officials, one with 33 reales arrival Guatemala charge numeral (unique) (I).

£100

 

 

1802 (10 Oct). Veracruz – Spain. EL. / Nueva España / GRS / Arrival crown “V” (alencia). Endorsed. Navio St º Domingo. Very rare complete letter. VF (I).

£100

 

1804 (2 Aug)

. EARLIEST KNOWN LETTER TO USA . Campeche – Philadelphia / USA . EL. Full text. Red Baltimore cds + ship “Minerva”. In 1802, the Minerva, a ship owned by Crowninshield and Nathaniel West, was the first Salem vessel to circumnavigate the globe.

Only recorded letter to USA during colonial Mexico . According to 1799 ship date, the captain collected 2 cents USA + inland rate Baltimore – 12 1/2c. = 14 1/2c. Outstanding historical exhibition rarity. (I). During colonial times, mail to foreign countries was forbidden. See extended article in chapter. Mexican Maritime mail Encyclopedia by Heath – Schimmer + illustration on page 17.

£2.000

 

ship minerva

 

 

Mexican Independence and the 19th Century

(1807-1910)

 
c.1808. Mexico city – Nueva Guatemala. Front / Franco Mexico / mns “V(iva) F(ernando) 7º” (xxx/RR). Superb rarity of the rare “Viva Fernando VII” slogan on mail to Guatemala (I).

£100

   

 

 

 

c.1808. DF – Madrid . E. Dated by correspondence information double line FRANCO / MEXICO + “X” indicating no maritime charge (the recipient was a Royal officer). Exceptionally rare seldom seen in Mexican Maritime mail (mostly only from Peru ) (I).

£125

 

 

 

 

 

1809 (20 March). Campeche – Canary Isl. Via Veracruz . EL full text double line slanted NUEVA ESPAÑA (xx) + mns 7r. Return trip of America would sail via Cadiz , while on going from Spain was all transited in The Canary Isl. VF. Scarce town maritime origin, specially since it is full text letter (I).

£120

 

 

 

1809 (20 July). Veracruz – Spain. EL full text mns “Navio de Su Majestad San Leandro” + “Nueva / España” in grey ink + air rs 7. XF Scarce complete maritime letter (I).

£10

 

 

1809 (17 Nov). Veracruz – Cadiz / Spain. EL full text black washy NUEVA / ESPAÑA + fragata Concepcion + red 7rs. Arrival XF (I).

£7

 

 

1814 (15 May). Veracruz / Spain . EL full text mns “Fragata Oriente” (Military ship) + double red line “NUEVA / ESPAÑA (x/xx) straight letters type. Mns 7rs charge. Scarce complete letter (I).

£30

 

 

1815 (25 Nov). Veracruz – Spain. EL full text. Red dots boxed NUEVA / ESPAÑA + 7 rs mns. Fragata Christina / 2ª via. VF (I).

£60

 

 

c.1816. Yucatan / Merida – Madrid . Maritime letter front double line “PROVINCIA / DE YUCATAN ” + 7rs + dissinfection slit. V scarce mark in all forms (I).

£40

 

1819 (25 Sept). Veracruz – UK (7 Feb 20). EL fwded in Havana by Grey Fernandez and Bocker. Arrival cds. Mns. Charge on front. Displays great. Outstanding early colonial mail to UK (I).

£250

 

 

1819 (c.Nov,

as per text). An early British mail ship sailing. A 4-page letter (first two pages missing) sent to Mr Vetch in London (possibly a Company Secretary) describing problems and conditions for miners at the British-owned mines at Vila Grande and Mineral del Monte ( Pachuca district), ending on a hopeful note. There is no indication of any forwarding agent or of the ship on which the letter was carried, but it did receive a “Franco Veracruz ” cancel (in red) (VC7-6) in use between 1821 and 1831. It received the backstamp FPO JU 20 1828 on arrival on London , with in manuscript 9/- to pay (this was four times the basic rate for correspondence from Mexico . This letter would have been carried on the Tyrian packet, leaving Vera Cruz on 30 April 1828, and arriving in Falmouth on 18 June.

£50

 

c.1820 (correspondence date). Veracruz – Madrid. E. Double red “Franco en /Veracruz” (xxx) + Fragata Constitucion Spanish Gunboat named after 1812 Cadiz Liberal declaration. VF mark in maritime usage (I

£60

 

 After Independence (1821-1846)

 Empire or Republic?

Further information: First Mexican Republic

Political Developments in the South and North

1822 (4 April).

 Fort  of SAN JUAN DE ULLOA – Spain . Via Habana. EL dated Veracruz, but at this time being the only remaining colonial outpost San Juan, carried by ship Aquiles, INDIAS denoting Cuban transit + 7 reales arrival Spanish boat arrival. Dissinfection slits. VF and rarity cover, only one other complete letter and a front recorded from this last post. (I).

£350-500

 

c.1822.

Villa de Albarado – Spain. E boxed town (xxx) + mns “Correo Voluntario / o 1er Barco” + 7 rs arrival charge. At this time Veracruz was under siege from Fort San Juan de Ulloa. Rarity maritime town usage illustrated MMM page 22 (I).

£350-500

 

1823 (4 Nov).

Mexico – USA – UK .

Earliest US forwarded mail from Mexico EL with text from an Italian firm in Mexico City to London, carried by an unknown sailing ship, without markings (possibly by a passenger on board) to New York, where the forwarding agents, Bayard & Cº sent it on to the hanker, Frederick Huth, in London. Docketed arrival date 22 Jan 1824 ie 79 days or about 3 1/2 months en route. Possibly the earliest known letter after Mexican independence to have been sent from Mexico City to the USA . Le Roy Bayard & Cº were forwarding agents in New York between 1822 and 1825 (Rowe, 1973 edition, section 121). The letter left Vera Cruz just a month after the installation of Guadalupe Victoria, Mexico´s first President, in October 1823. According to the British Consul there, 123 small American vessels came to Vera Cruz in 1823, mostly bringing British goods originally imported into the USA . One of these vessels would have carried letters out of the mail on the return journey to the US .

£200

 

 

 

1825 (23 July).

MexicoDF -UK(8 Dec, 1825)

 FIRST OUTGOING MAIL AFTER LEGATION ESTABLISHMENT. VIA British Consular Agency, which pad just opened at spring 1825. EL carried by the “Jasper” sailed Vera Cruz August 1825 withFalmoutharrival on 8 Dec (ie 3 months route) (III

£400

 

 

1826 (3 Sept).

Guatemala – France . The COLONIAL OAXACA – DF – VERACRUZ postal route. E. Stline “Guatemala”, mns “Por Veracruz ” postal endorsement with Colonies / Bordeaux . Latest known date of this extraordinary route, which was the one during Colonial times, during which about 10-12 covers are recorded, one other post independence known showing this route, which we sold several years ago. The British Belize route opened  inmediately after. Superb example that shows exceptionally well. (VI).

£1.400

 

1827 (13 Nov).

S. Luis Potosi – Portugal. EL fwded via UK / Falmouth via Thomas Rogers (fwding agent on front). Extraordinary rare early transatlantic destination, earliest to Portugal by 39 years. (Other being a Maximilian period cover) also Porsmouth ship letter “on front” and Falmouth packet cds depart on reverse (Feb 13/28) (III).

£300

 

The federalists asked Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna to overthrow Bustamante; he did, declaring General Manuel Gómez Pedraza (who won the electoral vote in 1828) as president. Elections were held, and Santa Anna took office in 1832.

Constantly changing political beliefs, as president (he served as president 11 times),[12] in 1834, Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southeastern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. Both areas sought independence from the central government. Negotiations and the presence of Santa Anna’s army brought Yucatán to recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna’s army turned to the northern rebellion. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos on 2 March 1836, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. At the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, Texan militias defeated the Mexican army and captured General Santa Anna.

In 1845,

 the U.S. Congress ratified Texas’ petition for statehood.

 Central America

Central America, which at the time of Independence was still part of the Viceroyalty, broke away freely and in a pacific way from Mexico during 1822 and 1823 and formed the short-lived United Provinces of Central America.

The northern states grew increasingly isolated, economically and politically, due to prolonged Comanche raids and attacks. New Mexico in particular had been gravitating toward Comancheria. In the 1820s, when the United States began to exert influence over the region, New Mexico had already begun to question its loyalty to Mexico. By the time of the Mexican-American War, the Comanches had raided and pillaged large portions of northern Mexico, resulting in sustained impoverishment, political fragmentation, and general frustration at the inability—or unwillingness—of the Mexican government to discipline the Comanches.[13]

Texas

A sprawling complex of buildings with low walls sits in a shallow valley overlooked by rolling hills.

The Fall of the Alamo, painted by Theodore Gentilz in 1844, depicts the Alamo complex from the south. The Low Barracks, the chapel, and the wooden palisade connecting them are in the foreground.

Soon after achieving independence, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its northern territories, awarded extensive land grants in Coahuila y Tejas to thousands of families from the United States, on condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens. The Mexican government also forbade the importation of slaves. These conditions were largely ignored. A key factor in the decision to allow Americans in was the belief that they would a) protect northern Mexico from Comanche attacks and b) buffer the northern states against U.S. westward expansion. The policy failed on both counts: the Americans tended to settle far from the Comanche raiding zones and used the Mexican government’s failure to suppress the raids as a pretext for declaring independence.[13]

The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was a military conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas.

The painting “Surrender of Santa Anna” by William Huddle shows the Mexican president and general surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston

The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836. However, a war at sea between Mexico and Texas would continue into the 1840s. Animosity between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas, as well as many Texas residents of Mexican ancestry, began with the Siete Leyes of 1835, when Mexican President and General Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the federal Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed the more centralizing 1835 constitution in its place.

War began in Texas on October 2, 1835, with the Battle of Gonzales. Early Texian Army successes at La Bahia and San Antonio were soon met with crushing defeat at the same locations a few months later. The war ended at the Battle of San Jacinto where General Sam Houston led the Texian Army to victory over a portion of the Mexican Army under Santa Anna, who was captured shortly after the battle. The conclusion of the war resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836.

[edit] The Terms of Surrender

The war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which stipulated that a) Mexico must sell its northern territories to the United States for US $15 million; b) the United States would protect the property rights of Mexicans living in the ceded territories; and c) the United States would assume $3.25 million in debt owed by Mexico to U.S. citizens.

[edit] Analysis of the Defeat

American occupation of Mexico City

The Mexican-American War was independent Mexico’s first encounter with a large, well-organized and -equipped army. After having won two wars against Spain and, France, Mexico was overwhelmed by the number of European countries that wanted to colonize the American continent

The primary reason for Mexico’s defeat was its problematic internal situation, which led to a lack of unity and organization for a successful defense.

[edit] The Gadsen Purchase

The United States had not realized when it was negotiating the Treaty of Hidalgo that a much easier railroad route to California lay slightly south of the Gila River, which the treaty designated part of the border between the two countries. In 1853, President Santa Anna sold off the Gadsden Strip to the US for $5 million. This loss of still more territory provoked considerable outrage among the Mexican populace, but Santa Anna claimed that he needed money to rebuild the army from the war. In the end, he squandered most of it. The Southern Pacific Railroad, the second transcontinental railroad to California, was built through this purchased land in 1881.

[edit] The Struggle for Liberal Reform (1855-1872)

Main article: La Reforma

La Reforma was a period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms and the transformation of Mexico into a nation state. A new generation of political figures came to power who were shocked at the ease by which Mexico had lost to the United States in 1848. Notable liberal politicians in the reform period include Benito Juárez, Juan Álvarez, Ignacio Comonfort, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, Melchor Ocampo, José María Iglesias and Santos Degollado. The Reforma is usually considered to have begun with the overthrowing and removal of Antonio López de Santa Anna in the Revolution of Ayutla in 1855. There is less consensus about the ending point of the Reforma. Common dates are 1861, after the liberal victory in the Reform War, 1867, after the republican victory of the French intervention in Mexico and 1876 after the Rebellion of Tuxtepec in which Porfirio Díaz overthrew president Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada.

[edit] Santa Anna and Benito Juarez

In 1855, the Liberal Party overthrew Santa Anna during the Revolution of Ayutla. The moderate Liberal Ignacio Comonfort became president. The Moderados tried to find a middle ground between the nation’s liberals and conservatives.

[edit] The 1857 Constitution

During Comonfort’s presidency, the Constitution of 1857 was drafted creating the Second Federal Republic of Mexico. The new constitution retained most of the Roman Catholic Church‘s Colonial-era privileges and revenues. Up to this point, the Church controlled most education in Mexico in addition to large tracts of land and also sent considerable sums of money back to Rome. The 1857 constitution granted religious freedom, stating only that the Catholic Church was the favored faith. Such reforms were unacceptable to the leadership of the clergy and the conservatives. Comonfort and members of his administration were excommunicated, and a revolt broke out.

[edit] The War of Reform

The revolt led to the War of Reform (December 1857 to January 1861), which grew increasingly bloody as it progressed and polarized the nation’s politics. Many Moderates, convinced that the Catholic Church’s political power had to be curbed, came over to the side of the Liberals. For some time, the Liberals and Conservatives simultaneously administered separate governments, the Conservatives from Mexico City and the Liberals from Veracruz. The war ended with a Liberal victory, and liberal President Benito Juárez moved his administration to Mexico City.

[edit] French Intervention and the Second Mexican Empire (1861-1867)

Portrait of Maximilian I of Mexico, by Franz Xaver Winterhalter

In the 1860s, the country was again invaded, this time by France, which installed the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy, conservative elements of the upper class, and some indigenous communities. Although the French suffered an initial defeat (the Battle of Puebla–now commemorated as the Cinco de Mayo holiday), they eventually defeated the Mexican army and set Maximilian on the throne.

The Mexican-French monarchy set up administration in Mexico City, governing from the National Palace. Maximilian’s consort was Empress Carlota of Mexico. The Imperial couple chose as their home Chapultepec Castle.

The Imperial couple noticed how the people of Mexico (and especially the Indians) were treated, and wanted to ensure their human rights. They were interested in a Mexico for the Mexicans, and did not share the views of Napoleon III, who was interested in exploiting the rich mines in the northwest of the country.

Benito Juárez, President of Mexico (1861–1863 and 1867–1872)

Maximilian was a liberal: he favored the establishment of a limited monarchy, one that would share its powers with a democratically elected congress. This was too liberal to please Mexico’s Conservatives, while the liberals refused to accept a monarch, leaving Maximilian with few enthusiastic allies within Mexico. President Benito Juárez kept the federal government functioning during the French intervention that put Maximilian in power.

After taking power, Maximilian also received a letter from Rome requesting full restoration of church privileges in Mexico, but he declared that the Mexican people and not outsiders would decide this.

Meanwhile, the Mexican expedition was unpopular with the French public as it was both expensive and seemed to produce little if any value for France. Finally in the spring of 1865, with the Civil War over, the United States demanded the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico, which the latter quietly complied with.

In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army and ever decreasing support from Napoleon III, Maximilian was captured and executed by Juárez’s soldiers. From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872.

 

1831 (2 Aug). DF – UK . EL full text carried via Tampico packet “Spey” dep 25 Aug 31, mail offloaded at New Orleans 3 Sept 31. Fred Frey & Cº for a faster transatlantic trip / ship letter Liverpool / London 14 Oct 1831 / 1sh 7d due. Exceptional routing (Westpex 88 U$ 250) (III).

£100

 

1831 (6 Nov). Soto La Marina – UK. EL. Red FRANCO EN / LA MARINA. Rated at 3/2d postage due by Messrs Huth the bankers, as addressees. On the reverse, the Liverpool Ship letter marking, and in red, the London receiving mark, 30 January 1832, showing three months in route. This letter would have been carried on the packet sailing ship “Calypso” which left Vera Cruz on 30 November 1831, arriving at Falmouth on 18 January. 1842. Superb exhibition item.

£200

 

1832 (11 Jan) ( Tepic ) – San Blas – Tampico – Falmouth – Glasgow . E fwded twice at San Blas and Tampico with green ” MEXICO ” ornamental Falmouth green pmk of the packet. Probably cancel by the “Lapwing”. Extraordinary document. Illustrated MMM color plate 1 (III).

£350

 

1832 (18 Feb).MEXICO-USA- BRITISH MAIL.Mexico City-UK. Letter cover from William de Drusina in Mexico City to the banker Frederick Huth in London, docketed 18 Jan and to be sent via Philadelphia, showing the forwarder in mss as Hagerdorn, Leupold & Cº, dated 10 March, and on the reverse a crowed circle “Ship Letter, London” dated 23 April 1832 and Unpaid oval mark in red 2A Noon 2 with the same date. This is aLondonmark (British Postmarks, Fig 29, Alcock andHollandnº 154), and a large 8 on the front suggest that there was 8d to pay. The letter cover was 95 days en route. The “Ship Letter London” mark appears on p 230 of Alcock & Holland´s “British Postmarks, 1960 and is Fig898 in their 1935 handbook. An exceptional routing seen at this early period only

 

1832 (5 Sept). FRENCH MAILS. Mexico City – France / Bordeaux (8 Feb 1833). EL full text. Prepaid “Franco hasta el Puerto” (in red) to Veracruz – Postage not specified transported per paquebot du Mexique Balguerie et fils “Le Jean-Pierre” the ship sailed to Marseille due to a cholera epidemic in Bordeaux. The letter was dissinfected “Purifee a Marseille” and sent overland to Bordeaux . “Taxes de voie de mer” (seamail charges) 15 decimes per 7,5 gram total postage due changed from 42 to 71 decimes. French cancels (in black) boxed ” Bordeaux paq reg” and ” pays d´outremer”. Exhibition rarity. Illustrated and studied at MMM page 100 (VI).

£280

 

 

 

 

 

1836 (1 July). DF -Netherlands. Letter fromMexico CitytoAmsterdam, marked Per BM Packet Reindeer viaFalmouth. On the reverse theLondonreceipt marking 19 Aug 1836, and theAmsterdamreceipt marking 21 Aug together with a Dutch inscription “Engeland… (indecipherable), all in red. The sum of 8/8d (in ms) postage due was charged inLondon, and a further 179 inAmsterdam. The letter was 7 1/2 weeks in transit. The Reindeer sailed from Vera Cruz on 3 July and arrived inFalmouthon 17 Aug 1836. Scarce early destruction + British Conection (III

 

1837 (18 Aug). Rancho Santa Rita / near Matamoros – USA. EL. With full contains posted at “PUERTO DE / MATAMOROS” (xxx/RRR) + Franco endorsed on reverse “per Goleta COMANCHA” / Captain Breda PP. Via NO Oct 2 + ship (both blue). Historical text reads: the letter reports the hardships of ranching: “…the comanches and other indian tribes are hostile and make it impossible to harvest … the preparations of the Mexican armee to attack Texas are not completed due to lack of horses, artillery and ammunition … hostilities can not be expected before spring …” illustrated MMM page 137 (VIII

£250

 

1837 (29 Aug). DF – UK. EL. Drusina & G.J. Martinez Mexico City 29 Aug 1837. Gold finch packet left Vera Cruz on 1 Sept 1837 and arrived on 5 Nov. Postmarked Mexico City 30 Aug – per Goldfinch packet received London 7 nov 1837 – postage £ 2.1.0. Staggering transportation payment for a Mexican British mail system payment, the highest we are aware. (Schimmer 87 U$ 1,200!) (III).

 

1838 (10 Aug). Zacatecas – FRANCE. FIRST FRENCH – MEXICAN WAR / PASTRY WAR (named after its origin for a local French citizen dispute). Letter contains fascinating historical account. Very few letters survived of this period. French consul in Zacatecas / fwded by A. Montluc + British packet STAR dep 2 Sept 38 Tampico / Falmouth 10ct. Illustrated MMM page 45 with extensive article (III).

 

1840 (14 Feb). Double letter sheet from the firm of James Chabot inTampicoto the bankers, Rothschild & Sons, inLondon. This was carried by the British gun brig “Reindeer” serving as a mail carrier for the British post office packet station in England at Falmouth. The letter is dated by the sender as 16 Feb 1840, two years before the establishment of a British postal agency at the Consulate inTampico. It bears a red star control mark, which is known as an inspector´s mark, imposed by the GPO in London on the arrival and departure of some overseas mail after checking that the ratings had been correct. The letter itself was forwarded by A.Montluc, a French merchant who acted as principal forwarding agent inTampicoat the time. The manuscript 2/3 represents the collect charge imposed by the GPO inLondonon arrival. On the back of the cover is the GPO receipt mark dated 17 April 1840, showing that the letter was en route for a total of 61 days

 

1840 (7 Sept). Zacatecas – France / Le Havre. EL. Carried. By British packet and docketed as received on 4 Dec. The route used “pr Packet” (in red mss on the front) was by the sailing packet “Skylark” from Tampico to Cove in Ireland, “COVE SHIPLETTER” marking with Cove cds of 28 Nov on arrival, together with a 1/6d seamail charge differing from the standard 2/3d rate. InLondonthe letter received the square arrival mark in red date 5nº29 40, similar to Alcock and Holland´s Fig 445, and was then cancelled in red in bothCalaisandParis3 Dec, with the Havre cancel the following day. 27 decimes postage due to pay, 57 days en route. Most unusual routing (III).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1841 (24 July). Colotlan ( Guadalajara ) – France. EL / FRANCO en COLOTLAN / (xxx) with another letter enclosed, marked “Via Vera Cruz” and carried by an unknown French ship with a “PD” marking in red to Diehoud “near Argenzac Department” in the Correze. No rate mark. The letter was given an “Outremer Pauillac” (ie Bordeaux ) cancel dated “9 October”, and backstamped with the transit markings of Bordeaux , Beaulieu, Tulle. Three months in transit. XF item (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1843 (8 March). British MAIL with DOUBLE FORWARDING AGENTS. A letter cover to London from Uhde & Pini in Mazatlan on the Pacific coast, dated 8 March 1843, and apparently carried out of the mail across the country to Mexico City , where it was forwarded to Vera Cruz on 23 March by the agents Sengstack & Schütte. On arrival, it was cancelled “Franqueado Vera Cruz” by the Mexican post office (very faint) and forwarded again via the British Consulate (cds “Vera Cruz 29 March”) by the agent Brunner & Büsing, marked “per Royal Mail Steam Packet”. On arrival in London , it received the datemerk “11 May 1843” in red; the standard rate of 2/3d for a single letter was marked and paid by the addressee, Messrs Huth. 54 days en route. This example of a double, or possibly triple, forwarding agent involved, is illustrated on page 371 of “Mexican Maritime Mail”. Illustrated MMM page 371 with extensive chapter search. RMSP Thames departed Veracruz 27 March 1843. Displays excellent (III).

 

 

1844 (17 July). Mazatlan – UK . Forwarding agents via British Mail. E endorsed Sengstock Schütte / Mexico DF 22 Aug 1844 / fwded / to Brünner & Büssing at the Mexican P.O. in Veracruz , were posted and handed to Veracruz BPO. Per RMSP Severn, departed Veracruz 1 Sept 1844. Scarce double forwading + double post office (Mexican + British). Displays well opened. Signed Schimmer (III).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War With the United States of America (1846-1853)

Main article: Mexican-American War

The Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution. American forces invaded and conquered New Mexico, California, and parts of what is currently northern Mexico; meanwhile, the American Navy conducted a blockade, and took several garrisons on the Pacific coast of Mexico—largely what is now California, but also farther south. Another American army captured Mexico City, which forced Mexico to agree to the sale of its northern territories to the U.S. American territorial expansion to the Pacific coast was the goal of President James K. Polk, the leader of the Democratic Party.[14] However, the war was highly controversial in the U.S., with the Whig Party and anti-slavery elements strongly opposed. Heavy American casualties and high monetary cost were also criticized. The major consequence of the war was the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $18 million. In addition, the United States forgave debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as its national border, and the loss of Texas. Meanwhile gold was discovered in California, which immediately became an international magnet for the California Gold Rush.

 Santa Anna, Again

Santa Anna was Mexico’s leader during the conflict with Texas. Santa Anna was in and out of power again during the Mexican-American War. After Texas joined the Union in 1846, the U.S. government sent troops to Texas to secure the territory, subsequently ignoring Mexico’s demands for withdrawal. Mexico saw this as intervention in its internal affairs.

[edit] The Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

The Brown Bess the Mexican army’s basic weapon during the Mexican-American War

In response to a Mexican attack on Fort Texas (subsequently renamed Fort Brown), the U.S. Congress declared war on May 13, 1846; Mexico followed suit on 23 May. Thus began the Mexican–American War, which took place in two phases: the western (aimed at securing California) and Central Mexico (aimed at capturing Mexico City) campaigns. The California campaign was brief and involved mostly skirmishes: the main Mexican resistance came from the Californios, and no side fielded more than 700 men in any fighting. The United States completed its occupation of California by January 1847.

The Mexico City Campaign

The amphibious assault on Veracruz

 

1846 (27 June)

. Colotlan – France. EL. With departure Mexico P.O. “FRANCO / COLOTLAN” (xxx/RR) + 4. ViaVeracruz- Habana carried by Spanish Boat / Habana 26 AGO 46 where handed to British P.O. /Havana(2 Sept) for transatlantic crossing viaUKowards. Extraordinary (IV

 

In March 1847,

 U.S. President James K. Polk sent an army of 12,000 volunteer and regular soldiers under General Winfield Scott to the port of Veracruz. The 70 ships of the invading forces arrived at the city on 7 March and began a naval bombombardment. After landing his men, horses, and supplies, Scott began the Siege of Veracruz. The city (at that time still walled) was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3,400 men. Veracruz replied as best it could with artillery to the bombardment from land and sea, but the city walls were reduced. After 12 days, the Mexicans surrendered. By far the greatest number of casualties on the U.S. side was due to yellow fever, which significantly reduced the number of active American troops.[citation needed]

Scott marched west with 8,500 men, while Santa Anna entrenched with artillery and 12,000 troops on the main road halfway to Mexico City (the Battle of Cerro Gordo Cerro ). Santa Anna’s guns were trained on the road, but Scott sent 2,600 mounted dragoons ahead, and Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them, revealing their positions. Armed with this vital information, Scott ordered his troops to trek through the rough terrain to the north, setting up his artillery on the high ground and flanking Santa Anna. Although aware of the positions of U.S. troops, the Mexican army was unprepared for the ensuing onslaught and was routed.

A painting of the American assault on the Chapultapec castle.

Scott pushed on to Puebla, Mexico’s second largest city, which capitulated without resistance on 1 May—the citizens were hostile to Santa Anna. After the Battle of Chapultepec (13 September 1847), Mexico City was occupied; Scott became its military governor. Many other parts of Mexico were also occupied.

Some Mexican units fought with distinction. One of the justly commemorated units was a group of six young Military College cadets (now considered Mexican national heroes). These cadets fought to the death defending their college during the Battle of Chapultepec. Another group revered by Mexicans was the Batallón de San Patricio, a unit composed of hundreds of mostly Irish-born American deserters who fought under Mexican command until the overwhelming defeat at the Battle of Churubusco (20 August 1847). Most of the San Patricios were killed; many of those taken prisoner were court-martialled as traitors and executed at Chapultepec.

1848 (28 July). Mexico City – USA / New Orleans . Via Veracruz . Not back stamped. EL. Full text written on a sheet of REVENUE PAPER “Sello tercero – CUATRO REALES” for the year 1846-7. Text reports about condition in Mexico City and the senders intention to claim land along the Rio Grande (in English), very interesting as it happens during US Mexican war.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848 (16 Oct). BRITISH + FRENCH Maritime mail Exchange / MAIL toItaly. This wrapper, sent by a British packet ship on October 16, 1848 from Vera Cruz at the standard seamail rate of 2/3d to a forwarding agent in London, Heath, Furse & Cº (see cachet on reverse) was to be forwarded to an Italian addressee, “Don Andres Pracaida”  at “Carrara”. On arrival inLondon, it received the GPO mark “NL 23 no2 1848” and on the front theLondoncds showing “Paid 23 Nov, 1848” and on the front theLondoncds showing “Paid 23 Nov, 1848”. Heath, Furse crossed out their name and address, and after apparently paying £ 1.3.0 to the GPO (see notation in red) presumably to cover the postal cost to Italy, put the letter back into the London mail where it received the striking “Returned from” marking against the “Paid cds Originally marked “par France” (in the left hand bottom corner). Sent from London via Boulagne (with the standard French cancel for British mail dated “24 Nov”) it was given, in red, the scarce “PF” in oval (see Hafinger “Monographie der Franzoesischen Briefmarke” Val.I, p20) strike signifying “Port Payé jusqu” ala Frontiereand on crossing the frontier into Savoy also had a 10 decimes postage due to France superimposed in manuscript. At that point it was given an Italian marking “Via di Pt Beauvoisin” and on arriving inLuccareceived on the reverse the town cancel dated “1 Dec 1848”. Thereafter there are no markings, but the mss inscription “Iconosciuto” on the reverse suggests that the letter was never delivered. The letter was at least 76 days in transit. The nº 30 at the top right hand corner is probably a letter file number placed on it by the forwarding agent inLondonat the same time as the payment for forwarding was noted in red. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 18 October 1848. Veracruz BPO reverse. Exceptional postal history item (III) + (VI

 

 

 

 

1848 (12 Dec). Tequache / Yucatan – USA / NO. EL. With text oval FRANCO / MERIDA . With “ship / 6 cents” (xx). Addressed to the French Consul. VF. Rare maritime origin area. Illustrated MMM page 214 (VIII).

 

1848 (12 Dec). Tequache / Yucatan – USA / NO. EL. With text oval FRANCO / MERIDA . With “ship / 6 cents” (xx). Addressed to the French Consul. VF. Rare maritime origin area. Illustrated MMM page 214 (VIII).

 

 

 

1849 (1 Aug). Veracruz – USA. EL. Veracruz paid crown circle (xxx). ViaMobile/ Ala. Red cds + “ship / 12” oval mark. RMSPtrentdepVeracruz16 Aug 49. Lovely condition item +USAdestination for the crown circle (very scarce) EX Everett Earl. lllustrated MMM page 53 (VIII

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1849 (27 Sept). MEXICO BRITISH CONSULAR LEGATION postal cachet to USA . DF – USA . EL. Docketed “27 September” and bearing “Mexico City” cancel in red, the circular seal mark of the British Consulate in Mexico City”, and the “Crown in Circle” “Paid at Vera Cruz” cancel of the British consular postal agency there, together with the Consulates cds dated “Oct 17 1849” and impression of the British “extraordinario” courier, Rafael Veraza, from Mexico City to Vera Cruz, and thence by the RMSP packet ship to Mobile on its inward run from England via Vera Cruz. In Mobile, it received the post office handstamp in blue dated “28 October” and “Ship” before being sent on to Philadelphia, arriving there on 16 Nov, ie 50 days en route. The letter was rated at 1/-, in mns on the front, by way of British sea charges, with 10 cents to pay in blue as the US rate. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 18 Oct 1849. ONLY USAGE of British Consular cachet to US that we´ve been seen (VIII).

 

 

 

1849 (27 Nov). Tampico – USA. British TAMPICO crown circle in red. EL. Sta.Anna Tamaulipas Mexican postal mark, red BPO Tampico + British charge to USA. Per RMSP ” Clyde ” departed 17 Jan. Superb condition. Ex – Everell Earl (1981 – 1,000 U$). Illustrated MMM page 53-50 (VIII).

 

1849 (14 Dec). Mexico DF – UK. EL. Via Acapulco (13 Jan 1850). “Test” letter to try a new mail route via Acapulco and Panama . During 1848-9. Traffic strips in the American Pacific Coast increased enormously due to the Gold rush of California . This letter tried to benefit of that. Extraordinary. Proper charges / Panama + British. Illustrated MMM page 241. (III).

 

1849 816 Dec). USA – BRITISH MAIL. Veracruz – UK. Via ALABAMA. E. Carried out of the mail and posted by forwarder J. Bell & Cº at mobile, Alabama 24 Dec (oval blue mark) – Via Halifax to London. 5 cents US Inland, 16 cents packet and 3 cents British inland charges = 24 cents 1/- collected from recipient. Exceptional routing the only we´ve seen having such a conecting point on transatlantic mail. Arrives London 22 Jan 50. Illustrated MMM page 56.

 

 

 

 

1850 

The political aftermath of the war raised the slavery issue in the U.S., leading to intense debates that pointed to civil war;

the Compromise of 1850 provided a brief respite.

 

1851 (8 March).

 Queretaro – USA. EL. Full text.FranklinB. Walton, MD 8 MArch 1851 -Queretaro”3″ (reales) “Franco” – inland rate prepaid (all in red) ship rate of 1851: unpaid ship under3,000 miles7 cents. Scarce combination of Mexican + US postal administration

 

1851 (22 March).

Acapulco – USA / Mass. EL. Written on board US steamer ” Oregon ” via Panama . California gold rush time period 40 cts paid in full. Illustrated MMM page 244 (VIII).

 

1852 (2 Jan).

Tepic – USA / NY. Albany . Envelope red “Franqueado / en Tepia” (xxx) + “4” charge on reverse. Via N.O. + ship 7. (1851 ship rate for less than 2,000 miles 2 cents + Inland 5 cents). Via Veracruz. VF. Illustrated MMM page 243 (VIII).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1852 (9 Jan).

 Puebla – Cadiz (1 Feb). Via Veracruz – Habana. Spanish mail ship “5” reales blue Habana + 7 rs red Spain modified from a 5 rs (to include Cuban charge) EL full contains. V interesting (II).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1852 (2 Sept)

. Guadalajara – FRANCE. EL full text “Franqueado / Guadalajara” cds Mexico post administration to Veracruz BPO / 4rs internal prepayment. Via British mail + red “Art 13” box. Unusual systems combinations. VF + a rarity out of this early maritime mail.

 

1852 (29 Sept).

Veracruz – Tampico . EL. With the cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz, this letter, which was first cancelled at the Mexican post office there and then given the British “Crown in Circle” “Paid at Vera Cruz” cancel was carried by the RMSP steamer “Dee” to Tampico, which sailed that day. 1/ – shown as paid by the sender. An excellent strike and appealing cover (IV).

 

c.1852. Acapulco (?)

 – Veracruz. E. With mns endorsement “Por vapor” Turbide de Orleans el 11 de Mayo, stline ACAPULCO (xxx/RR) + “3”. The route is obscure, but in John Heath´s opinion this cover was posted by a ship captain atAcapulcoforVeracruz. Xtraord. rare preph postmark + postal history ite (XI

 

1853 (11 Aug).

 Puerto de Mazatlan to France. EL. Por el paquete Ingles. With a fullMazatlancancel in red + FRANCO in wreath, the letter was apparently charged “6” (reales) to reach theportofVera Cruzwhich may have been paid there. Backstamped with the cds of the British postal agency at the Consulate in Vera Cruz dated “4 September”, a London transit receiving mark in red, a Paris cancel dated “4 October” and a Bordeaux cancel of 9 October, this letter was apparently redirected to an address at Valence, with the postage due increased from 34 decimes to 42. Two months en route. Excellent. (IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1853 (25 Oct).

MEXICAN MAIL AND INLAND COMPANY. DF -Pueblacolor beautiful embossed illustrated paddle steamer envelope front / carried by Mexican postal administration. Addressed to James C.Curran c/o A.Blumenknow the only postally used cover recorded of this line. One of the greatest classic Mexican maritime rarities. Illustrated MMM color plate 5 (VIII

£500

 

 

1854 (23rd March).

 Zacatecas -FRANCEPANAMABPO ROUTING DISRUPTION. Rarity for its routing from BPO atEast Mexican Coast,Panama/Veracruz. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 4 April 1854. EL with Zacatecas cancel Yag-Bash Z5-7 (used only in 1854) and marked as 4 reales paid, to be sent “Por el Vapor de Vera Cruz” with the backstamped cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz dated 4 April, and in red “Panama Transit” followed by the Loncon transit mark dated 29 Apr and the Anglo – French Calais exchange cancel of 30 April, being then delivered via Paris on 2 May Panama transit. 21 decimes to pay in postage due. The interesting and most unusual mark suggest that as the letter was likely to miss the regular British packet boat which was due to leave Tampico for Southampton on 30 March, it was taken instead to the port of Mazatlan on the Pacific coast and then shipped to Panama, taken across the isthmus by rail to the port of Chagres where a British packet could have brought it up to Vera Cruz just in time to catch the RMSP “Teviot” which departed on 4 April. The total journey time on this section of the route would have been 12 days, and it is known that British firms using Gulf ports at the time did in fact contemplate using the route in transit viaPanama(see p 240 of Mexican Maritime Mail), althought not in general successfully. This may have been an exception; and it is interesting to note that for some reason on arriving in Calais, the letter was not given the usual Anglo-French GB accountancy tray marking, but only the mns 21 d

ecimes to pay by way of postage due arrival

 

1854 (21 May).

USA Steamer Antilope / off SAN DIEGO / California – NY. Carried by Mexican West Coast steamer. “PAID / STD” + oval “PAID / CITY / 24 JT Exp Post”. Via Adam Express. Envelope with full contains mentioning S. Diego and SF Excellent transcontinental crossing + A E Cº (VIII).

 

1854 (22 July).

 Zacatecas – France. EL oval illustr FRANCO / ZACATECAS. Via Veracruz BPO. Censored by RMSP ” Solent ” dep 4 Aug 54. Red “Colonies / Art 13” + charges. Excellent usage. (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1854. Fresnillo – FRANCE . Entire from Fresnillo in the State of Zacatecas (Yag/Bash 57 and 57A) addressed to Señor Domingo Sescosse at Lanasoro (Pont Majours) near Bayonne , Lower Pyrenees, France, and dated 19 July 1854. Inscribed “Francia”, “por Vera Cruz”, “En el paquete Ing(les)” and por Bayonne, and on the reverse flap a 4 reales domestic postage due rate marking, it received the cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz on 4 Aug 1854, the London marking 29 Aug 1854, the Angl Amb Calais marking (very faint under FRANCO), the red boxed “Colonies & Art 13” at Calais, and cancels at Paris, Ustariz (twice), Salies de Bearn (twice), and Bayonne on 30 Aug, 1st and 2nd September, and 3 Sept respectively, with in manuscript 15 decimes to be paid by addressee as postage due. The letter was 45 + days in transit. Scarce combination of mail systems. Per RMSP “Solent” departed Vera Cruz 4 Aug 1854.

 

 

 

 

1854 (24 Nov). Mineral dela Luz/ Gjto – France. E. With double ring pmk “MINERAL DELA LUZ/ FRANCO” (xxx/RRR), discovery copy, with Yag – Bash GN45, recorded but not illustrated, “7” via BPO Veracruz. Per RMSP “Treviot” departedVeracruz5 Dec 54. Exceptional transatlantic diff post office pmks comb cover

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.1854. Front of a cover to the Cashier of the New Orleans Canal Company, eith reverse flap showing a strike “Attakapakas Packet – J.J. Labartine Rio Grande” handstamp in red ie transferred at Rio Grande from Mexico with, in red, oval “Paid F.A.Dentzel” – Agent P.O. – New Orleans. A maritime cover only in the sense that the letter crossed the Rio Grande (VIII).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855 (22 June). Zacatecas – France. EL / FRANCO EN ZACATECAS / double line + 6. Via BPO Veracruz, per RMSP “Wye” dep 5 July 55 / Colonies Artº 13 accontancy marky. VF (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855 (20 Oct). Aguascalientes – France . EL. Boxed dated town name + Franco (both xxx). Via BPO Veracruz / 3 Nov 55 / RMSP Solent . 43 days transit VF transatlantic. Town mpk usage (IV).

 

1856 (19 Feb). Puebla – USA. EL full text Puebla ds + Franco boxes red NO cds + steamship 10. 2 reales for domestic prepayment shown on reverse. Displays well opened. Scarce overseas combination of diff postal administrations. VF

 

1856 (23 May). La Luz / Gjto – France. E. Double ring “FRANCO EN LA LUZ ” / mns date + Colonies Artº 18 (xxx/RR) the scarce type for use only during 1856. Carried via Veracruz / BPO / 4 june 56 by RMSP “Type”. Exceptional good condition (IV).

 

 

1856 (2 July).MexicoCity -FRANCE-GERMANY.EL. British Consular Postal AgencyVeracruz2 July 1856 instruction: “per Royal mail steam packet” London Transit 1 Au 56 -Calaisexchange office accountancy tray “Colonies Art. 18” 15 decimes postage due assessed. Per RMSP “Conway” departed Vera Cruz 5 July 1856. Addressed had moved, the letter was forwarded to the Hamburg Thurn & Taxis post office 4/8/1856. 222 Pfennig (Hamburgcurrency 1 mark= 192 Pfennig) postage due. A very scarce combination usage of Veracruz BPO with red Colonies Art 18. Illustrated MMM page 298

 

 

1857 (2 Feb). DF – Veracruz . EXTRAORDINARIO mail with DOS REALES. Docketed Julio F. Uhink Mexico City 2 Feb 1857. Instruction P.Extraordinario. EL full text fkd 25 1856 issue. It is assumed that all mail transported by the British Courier Service paid double postage. Single letters to Vera Cruz should have been charged with 4 – not 2 reales. The letter was delivered in Veracruz 3 Feb confirming the use of the courier service. Apparently the only known example.

 

1857 (27 April). Colima – DF. EL. Fkd 2rs 1856 issue. As per Karl Schimmer quoted a letter of great postal history importance text “The steamers of the PMSS Cº propose touching the port of Manzanillo once a month, both on their voyage from Panama and San Francisco…” “You may therefore expect on or about the 23rd of each month the steamer fromPanamabound to this port and on or about the 25th of each month, the steamer thence forPanama”. “We will presume this arrangement will be most desirable to you, as it will prevent your treasures for either place remaining long in Manzanillo…”. K. Schimmer 1992 U$ 1,200). Illustrated MMM page 246 with 3 pages of extensive article dedicated (VIII

 

1858 (2 Aug). DF – France. E. Fkd 1856 2rs deep green, name + cds via BPO Veracruz / RMSP “Solent” / 4 Aug 58. VF 2rs. 1st issue overseas scarce usage as single franking (IV

 

1859 (27 July). Hermosillo – Guaymas. E fkd 1856 1rl yellow vertical strip of three, Hermosillo district name + double line “Franco en / Hermocillo” cancel cover. Scarce district + rare low value multiple on cover. F-VF.

 

1859 (19 Oct). EXTRAORDINARIO del 19 Oct 59. DF – USA / New Orleans . The special courier mail. Letter front fkd 1856 issue 4rs green + 8 reales lilac horiz pair all large margins, tied cds. New Orleans cds + STEAMSHIP circular cachet. High manuscript 40 cts (US) for US arrival charge. Ex Michael Hart. Mepsi Cert (+ 9178). Outstanding Mexican maritime item. Illustrated MMM page 63 (VIII).

 

1860 (13 March).Hermosillo- Guaymas. EL full text fkd 1856 single 2 rs intense green,Hermosillodistrict name + double strightline cancel. XF

 

1860 (5 May). Hermosillo – Guaymas. EL fkd 1856 2rs green (x2) Hermosillo district name, “Franco en / Hermocillo” tied cancels. Most aesthetic appealing i

 

1860 (23 Nov). DF – Veracruz . SERVICIO EXTRAORDINARIO / BRITISH COURIER SERVICE DF – VERACRUZ – DF. Docketed DF 1 Sept 60. Double normal postage 6rs E. Fkd 2rs + 4 rs 1856, distr name, cds. Endorsed “por el extraordinario del paquete ingles”. 6rs scarce rate for extraordinario (normally 4 or 8rs) (IV).

 

1860 (28 Dec). Mexico City – Germany . 28 Dec 1860. Letter from Watermeyer Kaufman in Mexico City to Limbach, near Chemnitz in Germany, via Vera Cruz, where it would have been carried by RMS “Clyde” leaving on 30 Dec for Havana, with onward carriage by an unknown ship to New Orleans (date cancel, 11 Jan), with 30 cents to pay. The Vera Cruz cancel is  postdated 31 Dec. In New Orleans it was forwarded by “Reichard & Cº”, (an unrecorded forwarding agent, with mns in red) marked on 10 Jan by first steamer (17 days previous to short term Louisiana Independence days). On arrival in New York (“New York Br Pkt, with cancel dated 16 Jan) it was carried to England on the maiden voyage of the Cunard ship S>S>Australasian (Known from blue pencil marking). On being carried onward to Germany , it received a dated backstamp ” Aachen ” (?29,1) and “Ausgabe” (ie delivery) marking placed over a “Sieglar” cancel.

 

1862 (12 Feb). DF -Puebla. EL full text fkd 1861 8rs black / pink, no district name, good margins, tied cds (Yv 11B as complete stamp on cover 3,500 euros). Most scarce single fkg on commercial small envelope

 

1862 (27 Dec). DF – France. EL. Fkd 1861 2rs name / grill cancel + Franco Mexico oval. Via BPO / Veracruz / RMSP Conway / 1 Jan 63 + British exchange pmks. Also cancelling French “8” mark. VF scarce overseas usage (IV).

 

c.1862-3. BAJA CALIFORNIA – USA / S. Francisco. Official mail. Stampless. E. / Superior Court of 1st Instance of theBaja Californiaterritory to the Mexican consul in SF. US “Collect” blue box 4cts / modified of 6. One of 4 recorded marks, earliest postmark ofMexicorarest postal district area (VIII). Red oval “Estafeta de / Baja California” (xx/RRRR

 

1863 (15 Jan). Hermocillo – Guaymas Crespo. Postal archive E fkd 1861 8rs black / pink. Cuadrisect, uncancelled but correct date and genuine as all this correspondence. VF.

 

1863 (11 June). Puebla – Veracruz. Por Extraordinario + sello negro. Smashing E docketed inside + mns “3rs” on reverse to show higher rate for this service. Cancel Schatzkes / Schimmer 155-50/3, used atPueblain 1861. Outstanding usage of this service with sello negro provisional

 

1863 (16 July). DF – FRANCE. Envelope fkd 1861 8rs green horiz pair, good margins, grill cancels, blue octagonal French Consular + mns postal charges. Carried by F. Packet “FLORIDE” / 16 July 63. Via St Nazaire. Ex – Dreyfuss collection (VI).

 

1863 (12 Sept). DF – VERACRUZ. Por EXTRAORDINARIO del PAQUETE FRANCES. E fkd 1861 4rs red / yellow, huge margins, name + cds. Important cover which exposures some of the controversy of the “EXTRAORDINARIO” special double rate courierMexico-Veracruz, which suppously was to cover British packet conection. Also exceptional with this stamp, one other recorded as per collector notes. Illustrated MMM pag 63 (VI

 

1863 (26 Oct).Tampico-France. EL. Discussing the French occupation ofMexico Cityand the effect on trade due to a French ban on exports. By way of the Tampico post office, this letter was passed to the British postal agency there and given a cds (in red) of 2 October before being sent pr RMS (steamer) on the packet ship “Trent” which left on 28 October. Together with the London receiving mark, the letter was given the standard Anglo-French GB accountancy mark at Calais on 30 Nov, with 16 decimes postage due to pay. Scarce diff mail systems combination

 

1863 (30 Oct). An extraordinary E. of the FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY ARMY. Red “CORS EXP. MEXIQUE V. ANGL / 30 OCT 63” (red cds on front (xx) applied by the quarter of a French Army unit in the Caribbean . Posted at the British Consular Post Office Cartagena 2 Nov 63 on reverse trip as unpaid letter reaching London 30 Nov and the British exchange office the same day. Delivered in Paris 1 Dec (V).

 

c.1864-67. Envelope from “Estafeta de Baja California” oval red pmk (xxx/RRRR), ie Cabo San Lucas, to San Francisco, in red, marked “Paid” in ms. This area was not under French control, so was not supplied with stamps. YB SS 41A and 41AB (the “25” is part damaged). One of 4 recorded covers with this rare postmark. A Mexican classic rarity. Illustrated MMM.

 

1864 (24 Feb). FRENCH ARMY INTERVENTION / EXTRAORDINARIO Br. SERVICE / Orizava – Veracruz . Exceptional entire telegraph letter full text addressed to the British acting consul in Veracruz with original Telegraph Orizaba / Mexico / Veracruz . The consul to use the EXTRAORDINARIO special service of the British Packet to forward the mail for Mr Walsh man and the Minister of France. Cover carried by Diligencias Generales / Orizava (stage coach mark). Outstanding exhibition historical letter, both for the French Army Occupation and the extraordinario British Packet service, proving the usage of this service by the French Army. The importance of the British Courier Veraza of the extraordinario British Packet Service is documented in the Telegraph forwarded by stage coach service from Orizava to the British Consul in Veracruz . It has to be assumed the telegraph lines between Mexico City and Orizava were interrupted due to Guerrilla activities against the French Army. Veraza was obviously trust worthy to carry the French diplomatic mail and correspondence of the French Comander-in-Chief. See illustrated article in MMM page 65 (IV-VI).

 

1864 (9 March). Morelia – Acambarco. E fkd 1861. 4rs black / yellow vertically bisected, border margin + district name, tied cross pen cancel. VF.

 

1864 (April). DF – France. Env fkd 1861 1 real black / green vertical strip of three, name / cds. Via BPO / Veracruz / 2 May 54 – RMSP Conway via Tampico – St Thomas. Anglo French charges + exchange marks. A fine very scarce multiple overseas usage (IV).

 

1864 (26 April).Puebla-Spain. EL. Fkd 1861 2rs, dish name + stline town date cancel. Via BPO Veracruz / RMSP Conway via Tampico – St Thomas – London. Spanish red “4rs” arrival charge. Mns. “Por el extraordinario del paquete ingles” / British organized courier service Mexico City to Veracruz, handed in transit Puebla). Excellent appealing overseas usage

 

1864 (May). Tuspan – France. E. Oval “Correos / Franco / Tuspan” marked “Por el paquete Ingles” and cancelled by the rare Schatzkes / Schimmer 580 “Sello Negro” (“Correos Franco Tuxpan”) a small port a few miles south of Tampico. For exceptional reasons, probably due to the French naval occupation of Tampico at the time being cut off by land from Mexico City, or would appear that the packet ship RMS “Clyde” either on its way up to Tampico from Vera Cruz on 28 May 1864, or on its way back on 30 May, must have put in to Tuxpan to collect mail from the interior. With the London arrival mark in red (on the back) dated 28 June, and the usual “GB 1F 60c” Calais exchange office tray on the same day, the cover was cancelled in Paris the following day and arrived at Bordeaux on the next day, 30 June. The reason for the use of the “Sello Negro” at Tuxpan was presumably because the consignment 61-1864 of Eagle stamps from Mexico City intended for Huejutla (of which Tuxpan was a sub-office) had to bypass that town as it was then in Republican hands, and would not have reached Tuxpan by the end of May, leaving Mexico City only on 25 May.

 

1864 (14 June). DF – France. Envelope fkd 4rs Eagle name only, FIRST PERIOD, cds + blue consular cachet + MEXIQUE / LOUSIANE on front. Charged 24 decimes arrival for 3 weight units of 7,5 grams . Illustrated MMM page 123 (VI)

 

1864 (18 June). Tuspan – France. MEXICO – CUBA – ST THOMAS – UK – FRANCE. EL. / oval “Correos / Franco / TUXPAN” (xxx) + “FRANCO” oval of Habana / Spanish Cuba. On reverse St Thomas BPO (29 July 64). Via London . Franco / British exchange marks. Mail description at US civil war period via Habana. Text refers to Maximilian arrival (in French) “which gives us all who do not live by Revolution great confidence in the restoration of peace”. Exceptional transit routing (IV).

 

1864 (26 Oct).Mazatlan- Guaymas. Sello negro + maritime. West Coast Maritime ship link. Letter cover docketed as sent on 26 October 1864, but with a datedMazatlancancel dated 23 Nov and the merchant´s cachet of Echenique Pena inMazatlanof the same date, before the letter was sent coastwise by boat to Guaymas, where it was received on 29 Nov. A faint1 inred on the cover front suggest that this was the maritime rate, instead of the normal 2 reales payable for such a journey. XF appearance

 

1864 (11 Dec). Orizava -USA(21 Jan 65). DISRUPTED VIA SPANISH CUBA DURING US CIVIL WAR + BPO Crowned paid circle. EL. Full text oval cancel of the Vera Cruz post offic, and a very late usage of the British Vice Consulate´s “Crowned Circle” “Paid at Veracruz” together with the postal agency´s cds 1 Jan 64 (!). A British seamail charge of 1/-, in red crayon, was imposed, followed by “Franco” in oval used as a transit marking by the British postal agency in Havana, and then a US NY steamship 10 marking for postage due of 10 cents due on arrival, on the front. This letter was probably carried by an RMSP ship from Vera Cruz toHavana, and then, to judge from the typical squiggle in blue crayon on the front, by a ship of the short-lived Mexico-American Line, absorbed in 1867 by the Alexander Line, toNew York. It is an example of the use of the British packet service between Mexico and Cuba, by agreement with US Post Office, to carry mail for the US during the American Civil War period from 1863 to 1866 (see pp 159/160 of “Mexican Maritime Mail”). The 2 marking on the front is probably the rate imposed by the Orizava post office, in the absence of stamps, for the inland postage due for a slightly heavier than standard rate for a letter (with an enclosure) to Vera Cruz. RMSP “Solent” left Veracruz 1 Jan 65 arriving Habana 5 Jan

 

1865 (11 March). DF -Spain. EL fkd Eagle 4rs fourth period district name, 45-1865 (1,000 stamps sent) via unscheduled French steamer. Spanish 4 reales collected. VF item (VI

 

1865 (16 March). Güichapa – Durango. E fkd. SECOND PERIOD 2rs eagles district name, 156-1864, tied “Franqueado en /San Juandel Rio” + mns date (100 sent). Lovely usage

 

1865 (8 Sept). Pilar -Durango. E fkd FOURTH PERIOD 2 rs eagle,Durangoname, 22-65 + 93-65 (800 sent) tied superb double boxed “FRANCO / GAVILANES” + mns date. Gorgeous appealing item

 

1865 (23 Sept). 23 September 1865. An “official” letter dated 23 September from Mexico City to France , with the front and back cachet of the Ministry for Economy, Trade, Industry and Colonisation, addressed apparently to a private individual at Preulin par Livry, Moselle . Anglo – French Exchange Office in Calais , and the boxed “GB 1 Fr 60c” dated 30 October, and dated backstamps of Paris , Nantua, Strasbourg , and Nivelles “8” decimes postage due. Carried by the RMSP “Eider” which left Vera Cruz for St Thomas on 2 October. Exceptionally appealing.

 

1865 (12 Oct). DF – France. Envelope fkd 4rs Eagle fourth period district name + 157-1865, cds + French Consular cachet + proper transits. On reverse Veracruz octagonal paquebot / nº2 / packet ” FRANCE ” Holcombe cert (VI).

 

1865 (9 Nov). MEXICO – CUBA  – USA – FRANCE. Laguna Terminos – France. Via Habana fwding agent. US CIVIL WAR derouted via Cuba mail period, Merdi Olea y Cordova / Havana green cachet reverse, over “NY French Packet / Dec 8” (xx/RR). Very scarce transit mark + red octagonal “ETAT UNIS / Pq Fr” for transatlantic crossing. Charges VF + scarce transit marks

 

1866 (2 Jan). A cover originating from Tampico (see letter heading inside) carried out of the mails to Vera Cruz by the Spanish (Compania Transatlantica Español” ship “Barcelona”, where the forwarding agent H.D´Oleire y Cia affixed a 2 reales Eagle 196-1865 stamp and sent it on to Guanajuato. Only one other maritime mail cover is known carried by the Spanish line between Mexican ports (see “Mexican Maritime Mail” p.28) (III).

 

1866 (27 Jan). Tampico – Veracruz . EL. fkd Eagle 2 rs Tampico name, 200-1865, cds via BPO / red 1sh British Consulate had no stamps available at that time. Carried by RMSP Elder left Tampico 30 Jan, arrising the following day (incorrectly docketed as ship arrived 29 Jan. Posted the same day at The Mexican Post Office. Fine and scarce usage (III).

 

1866 (28 Jan).Mexico City-Russia, via forwarding agent atSt Petersburg. Merchants handstamp “Leffmann y GutheilMexico1095″ unpaid per British mail steamer – 1/3d dueMexicotoLondon”ausEnglandperAachen3/3/B Franco” “72” (silbergroschen)(in magenta).No StPetersburgreceiving postmark. RMSP “Eider” left Vera Cruz on 1 Feb forSt Thomas. Addressed to the famous discoverer of troy Heinrich Schliemann. Very rare destination maill. During Maximilian French Intervention, Rusia andMexicohad diplomatic exchanged ambassador relations

 

1866 (13 March). FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. Ban A. Mexico – ALVARADO Port. A local fkd envelope 20 cts blue cds with stamp used twice (Postal frand). Addressed to a French navy officer on board of French cruisier  ” La Tempete “. Item carried by Mexican regular mail as per “FRANCO / MEXICO ” cds alongside. Signed Calves. Extraordinary rare usage / MAR 14 (VI).

 

Benito Juarez and the Restoration of the Republic (1867-1872)

In 1867, the republic was restored and Juárez reelected; he continued to implement his reforms.

1867 (7 June). Leon – France . SELLO NEGRO / PROVISIONAL. Stampless env “Leon / Franco” (xxx) + “2” on reverse. Carried via Texas / Brownsville at the time of Maximilian execution and expell of remaining foreign presence. Mns due 15c as unpaid US to France onwards via NY as unpaid US mail + British transatlantic crossing. Outstanding overseas sello negro usage and a unique route due to historic circumstances (VIII).

 

1867 (28 Oct). Puebla – France. Sello Negro provisional. EL. Full text “Franco” cancel and by “Packet Anglais”. Carried by the RMSP “Danube” which left Vera Cruz on 2 Nov 1867 and arrived atSt Thomason 12 Nov where it would have been transshipped toEngland; there are no postal agency markings from Vera Cruz, which is unusual. With aLondontransit marking in red, the letter received the Anglo-French rate marking GB 1F60c on 5 Dec, aPariscancel the same day and aBordeauxcancel the following day. 10 centimes postage due. Very rare maritime sello negro usage.

 

1867 (14 Dec). Veracruz – France . E. Fkd Trance 40 cent (x3 strip + single, anchor cancels). Avoidance of the Mexican Post Office Veracruz . Veracruz / Pq nº2 on reverse + French Consulate Postal Agency the same day the packet Fr. Nº2 ” France ” sailed from Veracruz 14 Dec 67, did not stop at St. Thomas due to an epidemic. Reached St. Nazaire 14 Jan 1868. 1 franc 60 cents paid to destination (VI).

 

1867. Guadalajara – Atoyac. E fkd 1rl green + 2rs pink imperf. provisional. Some reinforcement edge but a useful scarce item.

 

1868 (5 June). Cover docketed inside 5 June 1868, addressed to Cadiz from Tampico (where the French postal agency had closed), and sent to Vera Cruz carried out of the mails by a Line F ship (Salles) without markings. Given by the French Consulate in Vera Cruz an “anchor” lozenge cancel on a French 80 centime laureate Napoleon stamp on 13 June (Salles p. 177 last sentence), a “Port of Call” cachet de ligne “Vera Cruz Paq. Fr B. No.2” marking (Salles Pt. IV p.95 I.437) with a 400 rarity value and a boxed “PP” (Partial Payment) in red, the cover arrived in Bordeaux (see backstamp) on 9 July. On being sent on to Cadiz (See backstamp on 14 July), it received a “4R”eales postage due to pay. From September 1866, mail handled by the French Consulates postal agencies no longer bore the name of the ship carrier. The 7 1/2 in mns at top left could represent a standard weight postage due of 7,5 grams (see p 299 of Mexican Maritime Mail).

 

1869 (22 Feb). Guanajuato – St THOMAS – FRANCE . E. Docketed Guanajuato 22 Feb 1869 – received Paris 30 March. Carried out of the mail and posted at St Thomas 14 March – by British Service via London 29 March to the ambulatory exchange office Calais the same day accountancy tray “1F60c” – French postage due 10 decimes. Carried by RMSP “Tyne” leaving Vera Cruz on 3 MArch 1869 for St Thomas . Most unusual route and origin on St Thomas BPO.

 

1869 (29 June). Mexico City – Spain / Vitoria . EL full text franked with a perforated 50c 1-69 Mexico City of the 1868 issue and dated “29 June 1869” inside at the letterhead. The cover bears a double rate of postage for the route from Mexico City to Vera Cruz, possibly because it was carried by the British Legation´s “Foreign Extraordinario” courier. The cover has no markings from the British postal agency in Vera Cruz so would probably have been put directly on board the British packet steamer leaving on 3 July by the Vera Cruz postmaster. Backstamped with the London arrival mark “30 July” “69”, the cover arrived in Spain two days later, and was given the Victoria cancel “2 Aug 69” with 4 r(eales) postage due to pay, a remarkably quick delivery. There is no sign of any British maritime charge, presumably because the GPO´s instruction in 1863 to put mail for Spain in the bag without charge still applied. RMSP “Tamar” left Vera Cruz on 3 July 1869 for St Thomas . VF cover (III).

 

1869. Mexico City – Germany. E fkd 1869 50c perf Mexico name, 1-69, cds. Inland postage prepaid per instruction “Via New York” – transit marking ” New York direct Jul 26″ Hamburg receiving marking on reverse. S.S.Alemania of the “Hapag” line sailed from New York 20 July 1869 and arrived at Hamburg 3 Aug 1869. Postage due 7 Groschen (blue crayon) (VII).

 

1869 (27 July).Tampico-FRANCE. Via British mail. Sello negro.Tampico27 July 1869 (Schatzakes 1581) – “Via Southampton” toLe Havreon reverse side transit cancelsLondon30 Aug – Paris 30 Aout.Le Havrereceiving postmark 31 Aout – 4 Franc postage due. Carried by RMSP “Tyne” leavingTampicoon 29 July 1869 via Vera Cruz forSt Thomas

 

1870 (April). Mexico City – Spain / Guadalajara / Torija. Envelope fkd 1868-72 25c blue / San Luis Potosi / 5-70, used in DF / cds. Carried by SPANISH MAIL Habana – Cadiz (3 May 1870 cds on reverse) very scarce at this period of Spain insurrection. 8 reales postage due at arrival. Addressed to a remote area in ancestral Castilla (II).

 

1870 (2 Sept). Veracruz – Puebla (3 Sept). Extraordinario Service of the British packet (?) EL full text fkd 1868 50c imperf no period and 25c imperf with period, Veracruz name, 2-70, Veracruz cds with endorsement “extraordinario”. M Rogers sale (1999). Letter makes reference to the Franco-Prussian War: “At the hour of this letter Paris must be under siege by 400,000 Germans, and the French Republic has been recognized by Switzerland , Spain and the Unites States . Napoleon has surrendered to the King of Prussia in order to save himself from insults and the Empress and her child have fled in time to England . VF (III).

 In 1871,

BENITO JUAREZ was elected a second time,

much to the dismay of his opponents within the Liberal party, who considered reelection to be somewhat undemocratic. Juárez died one year later and was succeeded by Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Part of Juarez’s reforms included fully secularizing the country. The Catholic Church was barred from owning property aside from houses of worship and monasteries, and education and marriage were put in the hands of the state. 

1871 (27 Jan).

Elgin – Mexico . Registered fkd en (half part flap reverse gone fkd 4d + 1sh (x3), registered Edinburgh + London . Arrival charge. 7 reales + fwded via Erdhard Watson at Veracruz . Most scarce high rate pre UPU registered incoming into Mexico item.

 

1871 (27 Aug).

 Tampico – Veracruz . Combination mixed franking cover EL franked SG 43 4d Plate 12 tied by “c63” British postal agency cancel with the cds dated “27 Aug 1871”, together with a 12c 39-71 for the domestic Mexican rate cancelled by the Mexican post office, and merchant´s cachet “D. Camacho” in blue. This letter would have been carried to Vera Cruz by the RMSP Corsica which left Tampico on 29 Aug, arriving in Vera Cruz the following day. VF (III).

 

1872 (13 Feb).

 Puebla – France. E. Fkd 1868 25c x2, Puebla name 4-72, cds. Indicating carriage from there to Vera Cruz, addressed “Paquete Francais”, posted on 17 Feb on the Vera Cruz French steamship, and sent finally to Miranda. Department of Gers, with the Gers receipt cancel on the reverse, dated 17 March 1872, 12 decimes due, as shown in manuscript on the front (VI).

 

1872 (June).

 DF -UK. Official m ail /Mexico- DIRECCION GENERAL DE CORREOS / recorded but unseen before. Stampless env carried Mexican mail toVeracruzwhere by French pqbt red ds 18-June-72 “Nouveau Monde” sailed to St Nazaire (16 July)London(17 July). Anglo French “GB/2F20” exchange Convention + 1sh arrival. Excellent appeal. Ex-Wolfers (1983) (VI

 

1872 (June).

DF – UK . Official m ail / Mexico – DIRECCION GENERAL DE CORREOS / recorded but unseen before. Stampless env carried Mexican mail to Veracruz where by French pqbt red ds 18-June-72 “Nouveau Monde” sailed to St Nazaire (16 July) London (17 July). Anglo French “GB/2F20” exchange Convention + 1sh arrival. Excellent appeal. Ex-Wolfers (1983) (VI).

 

1872 (3 Oct).

Mexico City – USA / NY. E fkd 1872 50c yellow perforated, district name + 1-72, cds + NY Steamship cds alongside. Carried by US ship. Scarce perf stamp on Maritime mail. Fine.

 

1873 (8 March).

Acapulco – S. Francisco / USA. EL. Backstamped “Carried 20 March” with a 25c 2-72 stamp to cover the domestic rate (filing crease). This received the San Francisco cancel of March 19, with 3 cents postage due to pay, and the striking “Steam Acapulco” which was normally used only to cancel US embossed stamps on such envelopes (VII).

 

1873 (28 April).

Tlacotalpam – FRANCE. Via British Mail. EL full text. franked with a pair of 12 centavos imperforate, 1872-4 issue name, 50-73. Tlacotalpam cds. “28 Apr 1873” and on the front the “GB1F60c” box tray of the Calais Exchange Office dated “29 May”. On the reverse, theLondontransit marking “28 May” in red and theBordeauxarrival marking cancels of 28 and 29 May. 12 decimes postage. Fine cover (III

 

1874.

 Hormiguera mining (ANTS mining)

, Triunfo / BAJA Cal. – USA / JF. Wells Fargo & Cº. Express from La Paz , BC . Via Steamer 29 Aug 74 env with orange WF Express tren illustrated / La Paz , BC label applied on reverse. Effective 1 July 1863 ship letters for delivery within the USA were charged with double local rate plus 2 cents for the Captain. According to Jack Greenberg THE ONLY RECORDED LA PAZ BC WELLS FARGO LABEL. Great rarity. Illustrated MMM page 283 (VIII).

 

1874 (13 Jan).

Liverpool -MEXICO/ Guanajuato. Wrapper fkd 1d + “1”/2 real Mexican tax due for printed matters applied atVeracruz. Very scarce pmk

 

1874 (20 Enero).

 Campeche – Cuba. Fkd env 10c + 50c. 5-74 district name APPLIED WHILE STAMP ALREADY IN COVER, cds, boxed red “NOT PAID”. Carried by “City of Mexico” / Prepayment to the Caribbe was mandatory. Letter ended as DLO / NY. Excellent usage (V

 

1875 (Feb).

Acapulco-USA/ CA – S Fcº. 10c green stat env, distric name, oval blue cds. Mexican inland prepaid, 3 cents US seamail charges + SF / Advertised + DLD. VF scarce town usage + maritime (VIII

 

1875.

DF – Switzerland (21 Apr 75). Via NY – BELGIUM / OSTENDE. Fkd env 25c blue 1-73, cds. “NY / British transit 7 Apr” (xxx/R) + 7 cents due transit + stline VIA OSTENDE. A lovely transited item before Berna Convention in Excellent condition (VIII).

 

1875 (17 May)

.Veracruz-Italy. E. Fkd 10c black 1874, 50-75 via St Nazaire. The French paquet “Ville de Brest” nº4 sailed 15 Mai 1875 fromVeracruz. Boxed “F*56” represents the Franco-Italian exchange agreement of 1869.Francereceived 10 decimes credit.Italycharged 1 lire postage due. A lovely combination of stamps, marks and cancels cover illustrated MMM page 309 (VI

 

1875 (30 July)

.Acapulco- Tepia. E fkd 10c + 25c.Acapulconame / 2-74, blue ds. Carried via West Coast Pacific local steamer / Via San Blas. Ex – Strauss, Schimmer. VF

 

1875 (18 Oct).

COMBINATION FRANKING MEXICO – FRANCE . Veracruz – Cuba . EL. 10c black Veracruz name 50-75 oval blue ds + France 15c oriz STRIP OF FOUR. French Consular cachet, pp + “3” arrival Spanish Cuban charge. Carried French paquet “Ville de Bordeaux / 19 Oct 75”. Extraordinary combination usage of the scarce 15c. On reverse ligne B / 19 Oct 75 + arrival cds. Signed E Aguirre / Mexico . Great rarity. Illustrated MMM page 118 (VI).

 

1875 (22 Oct).

Silao / Guanajuato – FRANCE – ARGENTINA . Env fkd 25c distr name / 52-75 + PORTE DE MAR, originally intended to pay French routing via New York against sender´s instruction “paquete Frances” Porte de Mar postage would have been unnecessary, since American contract ships were not reimbursed. Addressee had moved to Argentina , but the letter was not forwarded without prepayment of postage. The Porte de Mar stamp was partially torn off before the forwarding address was added. Exceptional postal history item. Ex – Schimmer (VI + VIII) illustrated MMM page 314.

  The Porfiriato (1876-1911)

 Order, Progress, and Dictatorship

Porfirio Díaz, President of Mexico, (1876-1911)

In 1876, Lerdo was reelected, defeating Porfirio Díaz. Díaz rebelled against the government with the proclamation of the Plan de Tuxtepec, in which he opposed reelection, in 1876. Díaz managed to overthrow Lerdo, who fled the country, and was named president.

Díaz became the new president. Thus began a period of more than 30 years (1876–1911) during which Díaz was Mexico’s strong man. This period of relative prosperity and peace is known as the Porfiriato. During this period, the country’s infrastructure improved greatly, thanks to increased foreign investment and a strong, stable central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought many improvements, including the development of a national health service, better communications network, investment in infrastructure, and development of a national educational system. Under Díaz, the population increased to 16 million and life expectancy reached 60 years. Illiteracy diminished greatly, approaching levels of France and Italy. However, the period was also characterized by social inequality and discontent among the working classes.

1903. Slogan on the banner reads: “The Constitution has died” (La Constitución ha muerto).

Foreign capital helped build Mexico into an industrial and mining power, but the wealth did not trickle down to the masses who remained in abject poverty. Much of the nation’s infrastructure was owned by foreigners, and Britain once contemplated running its navy off of Mexican oil. By 1900, it was obvious to all concerned that Mexico was an economic satellite of the United States and little more than a source of raw materials for the great powers.

Slavery had been abolished in 1824, 1835, and 1857, but in the 1880s it was estimated that thousands (especially in the south of the country) were still held in bondage. Some farmers were paid laborers, but most were little more than serfs on great estates. Disease and starvation were commonplace on the plantations, and working conditions little better in the cities. All attempts at unionization were quickly suppressed, and injured workers were frequently thrown out into the street to die. Those too old and/or incapacitated to work were reduced to beggary. Periodic protests were suppressed with force.

[edit] The Mexican Revolution (1910-1929)

[edit] First Phase: The Constitution of 1917 (1910-1921)

[edit] The Election of 1910

In 1910, the 80-year-old Díaz decided to hold an election for another term; he thought he had long since eliminated any serious opposition. However, Francisco I. Madero, an academic from a rich family, decided to run against him and quickly gathered popular support, despite his arrest and imprisonment by Díaz.

Indians with Madero’s army

Leaders of the 1910 revolt pose for a photo after the First Battle of Juárez. Present are José María Pino Suárez, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco I. Madero (and his father), Pascual Orozco, Pancho Villa, Gustavo Madero, Raul Madero, Abraham González, and Giuseppe Garibaldi Jr.

When the official election results were announced, it was declared that Díaz had won reelection almost unanimously, with Madero receiving only a few hundred votes in the entire country. This fraud by the Porfiriato was too blatant for the public to swallow, and riots broke out. On November 20, 1910, Madero prepared a document known as the Plan de San Luis Potosí, in which he called the Mexican people to take up weapons and fight against the Díaz government. Madero managed to flee prison, escaping to San Antonio, Texas, where he began preparations for the overthrow of Díaz—an action today regarded as the start of the Mexican Revolution.

Diaz attempted to use the army to suppress the revolts, but most of the ranking generals were old men close to his own age and they did not act swiftly or with sufficient energy to stem the chaos.

Revolutionary force—led by, among others, Emiliano Zapata in the South, Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco in the North, and Venustiano Carranza–defeated the Federal Army, and Díaz resigned in 1911 for the “sake of the peace of the nation.” He went into exile in France, where he died in 1915 at the age of 85.

[edit] Violent Disagreements (1911–1920)

Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Villa is sitting in the presidential throne in the Palacio Nacional at the left.

The revolutionary leaders had many different objectives; revolutionary figures varied from liberals such as Madero to radicals such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. As a consequence, it proved impossible to reach agreement on how to organize the government that emerged from the triumphant first phase of the revolution. This standoff over political principles lead quickly to a struggle for control of the government, a violent conflict that lasted more than 20 years. Although this period is usually referred to as part of the Mexican Revolution, it might also be termed a civil war. Presidents Francisco I. Madero (1913), Venustiano Carranza (1920), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) all were assassinated during this period.

Victoriano Huerta

Following the resignation of Díaz and a brief reactionary intercourse, Madero was elected president in 1911, only to be ousted and killed in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta, one of Diaz’ generals. This coup had the support of the U.S. ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson, but not that of U.S. President-elect Woodrow Wilson. Huerta’s brutality soon lost him domestic support, and the Wilson Administration actively opposed his regime, for example by the naval bombardment of Veracruz.

In 1915, Huerta was overthrown by Venustiano Carranza, a former revolutionary general. Carranza promulgated a new constitution on February 5, 1917. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 still governs Mexico.

President Carranza in La Cañada, Querétaro, January 22, 1916.

On 19 January 1917, telegram (Zimmermann Telegram) was forwarded from Germany to Mexico proposing military action should the United States declare war against Germany. The offer included material aid to Mexico to assist in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War, specifically the American states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Carranza consulted with his generals about this, and was told there was no realistic possibility of retaking Mexico’s former territories. The nation could not rely on Europe (then engulfed in World War I) for military aid, and the United States was the only major armaments manufacturer in the Western Hemisphere. There was also the difficulties of subduing and assimilating the Anglo population of the Southwest.

Carranza formally declined Zimmermann‘s proposals on 14 April, by which time the United States had declared war on Germany.

Carranza was assassinated in 1919 during an internal feud among his former supporters over who would replace him as president.

[edit] Obregon and Liberalization (1921–1926)

Mexican civilians revolt against the Federal Government.

In 1920, Álvaro Obregón, one of Carranza’s allies who had plotted against him, became president. His government managed to accommodate all elements of Mexican society except the most reactionary clergy and landlords; as a result, he was able to successfully catalyze social liberalization, particularly in curbing the role of the Catholic Church, improving education, and taking steps toward instituting women’s civil rights.

While the Mexican Revolution may have subsided after 1920, armed struggle continued. The most widespread conflict was the fight between those favoring separation of Church and State and those favoring supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. This fight developed into an armed uprising by supporters of the Church–“la Guerra Cristera.”

It is estimated that between 1910 and 1921, 900,000 people died.

[edit] Second Phase: The Cristero War (1926-1929)

Main article: Cristero War

The Cristero War of 1926 to 1929 was an uprising and counter-revolution against the Mexican government of the time, set off by religious persecution of Christians, especially Roman Catholics,[15] and specifically the strict enforcement of the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and the expansion of further anti-clerical laws. After a period of peaceful resistance, a number of skirmishes took place in 1926. The formal rebellions began on January 2, 1927,[16] with the rebels calling themselves Cristeros because they felt they were fighting for Christ himself. Just as the Cristeros began to hold their own against the federal forces, the rebellion was ended by diplomatic means, brokered by the US Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow.

Secular/Religious

Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in Jalisco

In 1926, an armed conflict in the form of a popular uprising broke out against the anti-Catholic\anti-clerical Mexican government, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Discontent over the provisions had been simmering for years. The conflict is known as the Cristero War. A number of articles of the 1917 Constitution were at issue: a) Article 5 (outlawing monastic religious orders); b) Article 24 (forbidding public worship outside of church buildings); and c) Article 27 (restricting religious organizations’ rights to own property). Finally, Article 130 took away basic civil rights of the clergy: priests and religious leaders were prevented from wearing their habits, were denied the right to vote, and were not permitted to comment on public affairs in the press.

The Cristero War was eventually resolved diplomatically, largely with the help of the U.S. Ambassador, Dwight Whitney Morrow. The conflict claimed 90,000 lives: 56,882 on the federal side, 30,000 Cristeros, and civilians and Cristeros killed in anticlerical raids after the war’s end. As promised in the diplomatic resolution, the laws considered offensive by the Cristeros remained on the books, but the federal government made no organized attempt to enforce them. Nonetheless, persecution of Catholic priests continued in several localities, fueled by local officials’ interpretation of the law.[17]

1876 (18 July). COMBINATION FRANKINGMEXICO-FRANCE.Veracruz-Spain. Fragment of a circular mailed 18 July 1876 fromVeracruzno complete “Circular” (printed matter) of the period is recorded. Mexico 5c “50  76” “Veracruz” cancel “Franco Veracruz” and France 15 cent tied by “1 Mexique 1” and “Veracruz paq Fr B nº4” paquebot “St. Naz

 

1876. Mexico City – MARTINIQUE / Fort France / Caribbean Isl. Env fkd 25c blue 1-76, distr name. Addressed to the French Agencie General transatlantique / factor 1st class apparently missinterpreted as France , crossed out, ended DLO. Unique destination (IX).

 

1876 (12 Jan). COMBINATION FRANKINGMEXICO-FRANCE.Veracruz-Spain/Cadiz. EL. FkdMexico10c blackVeracruzname, 50-76, cds +France25 cts blue (x8, strip of 4 + 2 pairs) anchor cancels. French consular cachet. Arrival 1 peseta 20 centimos blue charge collected as mail coming from non Berna convention. Carried by Ville de St Nazaire, sailedVeracruz18 Jan 76. Dropped anchored St Nazaire 13 Feb 76.Santander/ Spain French maritime sea mail return entry 15 Feb 76. Outstanding exhibition maritime item. 25c stamp is a rarity used fromMexico, being this the largest usage of this stamp in all Americas French Post Offices. Illustrated MMM color plate 4 (VI

 

1876 (24 Jan). Laguna de Terminos to Agde, France 28/II. Via USA to the exchange office Calais “Etats-Unis V. Angl. Amb Cal C” 27 Fevr 76 3x 35 = FR 1,05 postage due assessed, but since the addressee, a member of the French brig “Henriette” could not be found, the letter was returned to the Mexican deadletter office (entry #395). XF (VIII).

 

1876. Tampico – FRANCE. Via USA  / New Orleans – NY. Env fkd 10c. Tampico, 40 – 76, ds. VF appealing item (VIII).

 

1876 (29 March). Puebla – FRANCE . EL with mns instruction “via inglesa”. With a 25 centavos stamp to pay for the cost of postage to Vera Cruz, the letter was probably carried to New Orleans by one of the Alexander line´s contract ships, receiving the New Orleans transit marking dated 12 April, and the standard “SHIP” in blue for maritime mail, and a 35 cents charge against the French forwarding agent. By rail to New York (transit mark dated 18 April) it would appear to have been carried by a French ship to France (see blue octagonal dated 29 April), being delivered against postage due of 1 Fr 05 centimes. ” Brest 2″, “Etats unis”, paq Fr, MMM, p 388, fig 22. Very fine cover in excellent condition (VI).

 

1876 (May).Puebla-BAHAMAS, British Caribbe. Env fkd 25c blue,Pueblaname, 34-76, blue oval ds. Insufficiently fkd, ended DLO rate as American packet. Exceptional pre UPU destination.

 

1876. DF – FRANCE – and return to Mexico . Double transatlantic crossing via USA , before Berna convention. Fkd env with multitud of transits / endorsements. Carried ontwards by American contract steamer to New Orleans . British transatlantic crossing and all backwards. Great postal history item (VIII).

 

1876 (29 May). DF – USA. EL. Via Habana. With the large blue cachet of the Mexican Consulate inHavana, the letter carries the blue squiggle typical of mail carried on its circular journey between Mexican and US ports by the Alexander Line. TheNew Yorkcds showing 5 cents postage due is dated 13 June ie 15 days in transit. VF (VIII

 

1877. Porte de Mar Mixed fkd usage, 1874 5c + 10c (2)Lagos+ 10c blue cds, applied on same side of cover. Lovely exhibition item. Ex – Schimmer

 

1877 (22 Feb). Zacatecas – France. Printed matter fkd single 5c brown, Zacatecas distr name, 51-76, red oval ds + Porte de Mar 2c, Zacatecas name, also tied red oval ds, display superb opened. According to regulations, this to pay Maritime transit. Via British steamer T + 15 decimes French due. The only recorded PRINTED MATTER PORTE DE MAR usage. Outstanding pre UPU Mexican party. Ex – Heiman (1961), Ameripex 86 (U$ 2,000!). Illustrated MMM page 365 (IX).

 

1877 (18 May). Mexico City – USA / NY. MEXICO – FRANCE COMBINATION franking. Envelope fkd Mexico 25c blue, district name, 1-77, tied cds + Mexico Porte de Mar 25c on reverse for the maritime postage as per 1st rate regulation (traces of contemporany cancels, never supp to be cancelled) and France Sage 30c horiz pair not Mexican French consular cachet + “T” / due 10 cts at arrival in NY. On reverse ligne B / Paq fr nº4 of the French Caribbean conections. Exceptional combination usage. French stamps paid the Interamerican Caribbean part of voyage as Mexico was not yet part of The Berna Convention at this time as a third com. Mail carried by a member to another of the signed founders. Superb French and Mexico maritime item. Extensive studied by Karl Schimmer in his Porte de Mar original publication which formed part of his original collection (IX).

 

1877 (18 May). Veracruz – France . FRANCE 75 cents Sage issue single franking usage from Mexico . Envelope, cancelled French consular cachet, also alongside, carried mns “per Ville Bordeaux”. On reverse “Ligne B/ paq Fr B-nº4”. Sailed Veracruz . 18 May 55. Nazaire 12 June. Declared insufficient and 12 decimes p due were assesed at arrival. Extraordinary single franking usage, the only we have been in all American French Post Offices before UPU (VI).

 

1877 (July). DF – Switzerland . Env fkd 25c blue, 1-77, dow name cds + Porte de Mar 10c. On reverse, full margins, tied by red London cds transit. Displays great open. The cover tax + 1,10 Swiss cents as maritime payment to third countries was not accepted. Exceptional good condition. Illustrated MMM pg 364 (IX).

 

1877 (17 Sept). DF – Germany . Env fkd 25c, name, 1-75, carried French pqbt via St Nazaire. Via Paris / Estranger 17 Oct blue cds. 80c French claim transit fee for mail transported from NON 1,10 mark postage due. Berna Convention countries by Signing parties to other members (very scarce pmk). On reverse mns anotation “present from John Heath (1996) to K.Schimmer”. Exceptional (VI).

 

1877 (24 Dec). COMBINATION FRANKING MEXICO – FRANCE . EL fkd 10c black, 50-77 + Veracruz name, cds + France 40c orange horiz pair, consular cachet. Carried by “Ville de Paris” French packet, sailed 24 Dec 77. Arrival “3” charge. Signed Calves + Aguirre. Fine and rare comb (VI).

 

1878.Tampico-France. E fkd 10c black, name district, 1478, oval blue ds. ViaNew Orleans/ T-35 centimes applied by theUSexchange office / 1f05 p due collected. XF. Lovely item + routing signed Schimmer

 

1878 (31 March). Veracruz – France. EL. Fkd 10c + 50c / 378 + distr name, cds, “T” + 3,30 French charge = 2sh 6d. Postage due Fr. 5,10 = 4sh. Via England to France – without “Porte de Mar” accouning. Veracruz 1 April 1878 with instruction “Via Southampton” to Bordeaux local rate 60 centavos (Weight between 1 1/4 and 1 1/2 ounces). “Porte de Mar” charges paid directly by the Veracruz postmaster to the postal agent of the British Consulate Veracruz. Exceptional high franking. Illustrated MMM page 363. Signed J. Bash and Schimmer (IX

 

1878 (31 March). Veracruz – France. EL. Fkd 10c + 50c / 378 + distr name, cds, “T” + 3,30 French charge = 2sh 6d. Postage due Fr. 5,10 = 4sh. Via England to France – without “Porte de Mar” accouning. Veracruz 1 April 1878 with instruction “Via Southampton” to Bordeaux local rate 60 centavos (Weight between 1 1/4 and 1 1/2 ounces). “Porte de Mar” charges paid directly by the Veracruz postmaster to the postal agent of the British Consulate Veracruz. Exceptional high franking. Illustrated MMM page 363. Signed J. Bash and Schimmer (IX).

 

1879 (12 Jan). Veracruz – FRANCE. EL. Fkd 10c orange 378 + district name + cds + ANGLETERRE red entry cds, with 5c Porte de Mar horiz pair, Veracruz illustr name (not necessary as per regulations, but ramdonly applied), tied by diff cancellation traces + wax seal. Carried by Royal British Steam Packet. As per F. Schimmer Porte de Mar census, the only recorded with district name Veracruz Porte de Mar cover. One stamp part torn for arrival, but complete. Exceptional item. Illustrated MMM page 366. Signed K.Schimmer (IX).

 

1879 (7 April). Mexico City to Frankfurt, Germany formula card (HG 21) bearing a 2 centavos “Foreign mail” Juarez stamp without overprint (Sc 124a) tied by a red rhomboid of dots showing a Vera Cruz cds and a “Franco Mexico” cds transit cancel. Very scarce / addressed to the French Consul (IX).

 

1979 (30 July). DF – Spain / Barcelona. E. Fkd 5c orange foreign issue, tied blue dots, cork + Porte de Mar 10c on reverse, tied red date cancel. Via England / British mail. Signed Karl Schimmer and maritimed in his record of Do Mar issue as one of five in existence. Mandatory prepayment to foreign destinations with P. Mar became obsolete at the introduction of the foreign issue (IX).

 

1880 (18 Aug). Veracruz – Germany. Tied formula card (vert filing crease not affecting stamp), fkd 2c Suarez foreign issue, 379, cds, French Octagonal “Pq Fr nº1 / Veracruz”. Via St Nazaire / “Ville de Brest”. Germany HAMBURG / date box Poeseldorf (13 Sept) alongside (V

 

1880. Noria – USA. Envelope. Posted at Noria (de los Azuna) (sin 36/1) “AGENCIA DEL CORREO DE NORIA” – No “Foreign mail” stamps available 5c stamp – overprint “Mazatlan” “2779” applied at Mazatlan special “Foreign mail” cancel and “Correos Mazatlan 22 Set 1880” (in magenta) via San Francisco. New York 4 Nov and Port Byron 5 Nov. Lovely cover and a rarity. Signed Schimmer (VIII).

 

1880 (9 Nov). Oaxaca – France / Paris. Env fkd and a 10 centavos Juarez foreign issue, Oaxaca name, 2379 with the French octagonal maritime marking “Vera Cruz B Paq Fr nº2” in red dated 20 Nov 1880. Cover marked “Por Vapeur Francais”!. Scarce maritime usage in this issue from this district. F-VF (VI).

 

1880 (9 Nov). Oaxaca – France / Paris. Env fkd and a 10 centavos Juarez foreign issue, Oaxaca name, 2379 with the French octagonal maritime marking “Vera Cruz B Paq Fr nº2” in red dated 20 Nov 1880. Cover marked “Por Vapeur Francais”!. Scarce maritime usage in this issue from this district. F-VF (VI

 

1881 (11 April)- SL Potosi – Austria. Rose salmon formula card, 2c 1779 “Franco en S.L. Potosi 11 Abril” (in red!) ./. Wien receiving postmark (without date). Ex – Rudy Groth. VF (VI

 

1881 (30 Sept). Chihuahua – USA / NY. Env fkd 1c + 2c (x2) foreign issue, distr name, 3981, tied dots corks. On reverse handstamp “J.Burns Mine de Camuchin Batupilas”. XF. Arrival ds (IX).

 

c.1882. Gral. Bravo / Monterrey – Matamoros. Triple print Hidalgo embossed stationery env, 2582 + district name, oval name town cancel. VF + Scarce usage

 

1882 (21 May). DF – FRANCE. Env fkd 2c + 10c foreign issue, 5183 consignt name district, both cancelled “T” mark / tied + red French pqbt. “Por Barcelonette”. Signed Schimmer. VF. Scarce stamps + cancel (IX).

 

1882 (17 July). DF – Cuba (13 June) (Month error). AN EARLY UPU rate COVER usage. Envelope bearing two 6 centavos “Small Numerals” stamps sent from Mexico City to Havana, Cuba, and cancelled “Union Postal Universal Mexico” in an oval dated “17 July 1882”. In his article in Mexicana on p32 of the January 1990 issue, Richard Daffner stated that though these supplemental stamps, intended solely for maritime mail, should have issued on 1 July 1882, the earliest known copy dates from August of that year. This example is evidently the first known, and predates Daffner´s comment. It is thus the first Mexican stamp known of this denomination to have covered both the inland and maritime rate, as required by the universal Postal Union of 1878. The envelope is marked “Isla de Cuba” and “Vapor Mendes Nunes” a steamship not hitherto recorded as a mail carrier, but may have belonged to the Compania Transatlantica (antes A Lopez y Cia) Barcelona, which had a contract with the Spanish Government in 1881 to carry mail between Havana and Mexican ports, (pp 29/30 of “Mexican maritime Mail”).

 

1882 (30 Oct). DF – Italy. Reg fkd env foreign issues mixed combination 6c numeral with 18c brown, both 5482, tied by a dotted handstamp, together with a circular “Union Postal” cancel dated 30 October 1882, and various transit markings. According to “Mexican Maritime Mail”, p.351, the 6 centavos “small numerals” only carry the 83 date overprint, whereas this copy is overprinted 6282, registered letters are described there as “very scarce”. Lovely exhibition item (IX).

 

1883 (17 Aug). Guaymas – USA / JF. Wells Fargo & Cº stat env with aditional 2c x3 foreign issue, no district name, consignment number 483, oval red ds. VF and scarce. Ex-Sothebys 82 (VIII).

 

1883 (9 Oct). DF – FRANCE. Env fkd 6c lilac numeral foreign issue horiz strip of 4, d name, 5483, tied “8 / buzones Mexico” + “PARIS / ETRANGER” blue cds. Via NY. Signed Schimmer. Lovely multiple usage + rare cancel (IX).

 

1884 (6 April). Sinoquipa. Huepac / Sonora – FRANCE, fwded to Italy. Envelope fkd 6c numeral foreign issue horiz pair 483, no name, oval violet cachet + alongside mns dated, also tied blue “PARIS / Etranger” cds. Via Nogales(railway) to NY. On reverse “Munroe & Cº/ PARIS” blue oval dated fwding agent cachet. Lovely item (IX

 

1884 (5 May). Muzquis / Sonora State – Switzerland. Late 1874 issue usage accepted for FOREIGN MAIL. Env fkd 4c orange (x3), tied Villa de Muzquis + oval “Franco / en Muzquis 5 – May – 84”. Via NY. Outstanding exhibition maritime rarity. Illustrated MMM color plate / (VIII

 

1886 (28 Dec). Monterrey – FRANCE. Registr fkd env incl 10c large numeral (x2) oval ds. Via Laredo, NY, Paris (9 Jan 87). Arrival red “Paris / chargements” cds on front + Special boxed CERTIFICACION A MONTERREY (xx). VF + scarce (X

 

1887 (1 June). La Paz , Baja California – Mexico City (9 July). 10c lilac. Wells Fargo stat env used from BAJA. Routed via Guaymas – Benton – El Paso – Texas. Superb internationaly transited Mexican internal item, as at this time mail was most conveniently routed so and accepted. Ex – Everett Earl. Exceptional rarity (VIII).

 

1887 (2 Nov). DF – Switzerland. Registered fkd env 20c Medalion + 10c large numeral perf 5, vert lilac, tied blue oval ds + labels. Very fine scarce MIXED ISSUES COMBINATION + maritime usage (X).

 

1887 (16 Nov). Registered letter cover from Mazatlan on the Pacific coast to Modena, Italy, franked by four 10 centavos black-lilac numeral stamps of the 1886 issue perf 5, vertical lines with cork cancels “Certificacion a Mazatlan el 16 Nov 1887, Nogales, Arizona”, below the oval “Mazatlan” cancel in red. There is also a “United States of America New York Exchange” numbered label affixed over the stamps. Backstamped “New York 12,2,1887 Regy Div”, with a dated circle above, and a “Modano-Torino 13 D C 87” (ie 13 Dec 1887) receipt marking there. VF scarce overseas item (X).

 

1888 (20 July).Veracruz-UK. Registr multifkd env. 3c Medalion + 1, 2, 4 and 10 horiz lines, large numeral issue. 3 diff reg labels + sent via Eagle. Pass,Texas, NY.Londonarrival (16 Aug) colorful COMBINATION of diff issues (X

 

1889 (8 Dic). Out of mail to Cuba – Posted in Habana to Germany. Registr Servicio Postal Mexicano stat env 5c with 10c + 20c. Cuba Spanish stamps. Proper transits NY (12 Dec) and Braunchweig (28 Dec). Lovely usage exceptionally rare (X).

 

1890 (1 Nov). DF – Austria. Official Foreign office registered env fkd 12c Medalion vertical pair + 6c large numeral. Via NY + 2 red wax Correos Mexico seals on reveal. Scarce value stamps combination issues (X).

 

1891 (29 April). Rio Verde / SLP – Germany. 10c SNM regsitered stat env + 10c large numeral adtl with distintive Double Entry PRINT. Fine and appealing

 

1891 (11 June). Merida / Yucatan – FRANCE (1 July) – TUNIS. Serv Postal Mex. 5c stat front only, sent registr with adtl 5 diff large numeral stamps, fwded “R” in circle positioned around. Via Progreso + French Railroad Franco British Calais (X).

 

1891. Guanajuato – NY – Chicago. Express Wells Fargo 5c stat env used overseas + USA 2cts added and cancelled in transit / NY truly exceptional and VF (X).

 

1892. Palizada / Campeche – NY / USA. Registered 10c SNM stat env + 5c adtl, “grill PALIZADA” cachet (xxx/R) + registr box alongside superb

 

1894. Zacatecas – ARGENTINA . Wells Fargo 20c / ovptd 30c stationery envelope. Registered AR + 2 adtl. Via NY. Outstanding rarity. According to Schimmer, the only W. Fargo stat cover to South America with AR service (VIII).

 

1894 (21 Aug). Durango – Germany . Registr 1c green large complete wrapper + 1c + 10c adtls. Via Piedras Negras + 2 reg labels incl NY transit – Laredo . Exceptionally fine and rare (X).

 

1894 (20 Oct). Guaymas – USA / CAL. Wells Fargo stat env 5c, stline “GUAYMAS MEX” (railway cancels?) on reverse messenger hand stamp. The letter probably carried by WF service only, nor Mex or US Postal Service (VIII).

 

1902. MEXICO – PANAMA – WELLS FARGO. Coatzacoalcos – Puerto Mexico – Colon – Panama. WF stat env late issue (much scarcer used) taxed 12 1/2c with Colombia 10c / violet Colon cds POSTAGE DUE applied at arrival. Mns via NY. Exceptional combination stat, illustrated on MMM encyclopedia page 290 and extensively studied. Great exhibition item. Ex – David Warman (VIII).

 

1916. Barrilito issue. Selection of 17 diff overprinted ESSAY in diff colors, full O.G. Light hinge. Exceedingly rare

the end @ copyright 2012

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tips stamps investmen(investasi Prangko)

 Tips Investasi:

prangko Kolombia 1919-20 pos  udara

 (C1-10)

Pada tahun 1919 dan ’20, Kolombia mengeluarkan prangko pos udara pertama, sebelas pertama (C1, C2-10) sangat langka. C1, yang 200 diterbitkan, dimaksudkan untuk penerbangan eksperimental dari Baranquilla ke Puerto Kolombia. 160 digunakan, dan banyak dari perangko yang tetap rusak. C2-10, yang dihasilkan oleh Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aérea, dimasukkan Art Deco gaya desain yang menggambarkan motif penerbangan berbagai, dan hanya 100 dari masing-masing perangko dikeluarkan.

Tak satu pun dari perangko tampaknya murah, sebagai katalog paling antara

$ 2.750 – $ 5.500 dan -.. Dengan pengecualian C7 ($ 10.000 -. Untuk tidak digunakan). Pembelian salah satu prangko harus dilakukan tergantung pada expertization. Meskipun priciness jelas mereka, mereka semua terlalu undervalued, terutama mengingat prospek pertumbuhan di pasar cap Amerika Latin pada umumnya, dan di Kolombia pada khususnya. Mereka masing-masing setidaknya sebagai langka seperti yang tertera AS Inverted Jenny, tetapi mungkin bisa didapat untuk 1% atau kurang dari harga.

Sebuah bangsa dari 45 juta orang, Kolombia telah diganggu oleh dekade konflik bersenjata internal yang serius, perdagangan narkoba, korupsi, dan ketidakadilan pendapatan kotor, namun tetap disiksa sampai pertumbuhan PDB tahunan rata-rata mengesankan 5,5% selama 5 tahun terakhir. Selain itu, sampai kegagalan keuangan global menurunkan target pertumbuhan GDP menjadi 3% pada tahun 2009, sudah mantap percepatan, dari 2% pada tahun 2003 menjadi 8% pada tahun 2008. Baru-baru ini, pemerintah, bersenjata lengkap oleh AS, telah menerapkan kebijakan ganda menggabungkan tekanan militer dengan negosiasi untuk mengatasi berbagai faksi gerilya di dalam negeri. Hal ini tampaknya telah bekerja untuk beberapa hal, seperti jumlah pemberontak telah dibelah dua, dan jumlah pembunuhan dan penculikan berkurang drastis. Sementara beberapa berpendapat bahwa pemerintah Kolombia masih benar-benar korup, dan telah melanggar hak asasi manusia dan didukung pasukan pembunuh paramiliter untuk mencapai perdamaian relatif, mungkin bahwa ini adalah par untuk kursus, mengingat sejarah bangsa. Tantangan utama yang dihadapi negara akan bahwa dari berbagi lebih banyak kekayaan dengan mayoritas penduduk sehingga dapat mengembangkan lebih merupakan kelas menengah dan pusat politik. Jika tidak, akan berpindah ke kekacauan yang tidak stabil.

In 1919 and ’20, Colombia issued its first airmail stamps, the first eleven of which (C1, C2-10) are extremely scarce. C1, of which 200 were issued, was intended for an experimental flight from Baranquilla to Puerto Colombia. 160 were used, and many of the stamps which remain are defective. C2-10, produced by the Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aerea, incorporated Art Deco-style designs illustrating various flight motifs, and only 100 of each of these stamps was issued.


None of these stamps seems inexpensive, as most catalog between

$2,750.- and $5,500.- with the exception of C7 ($ 10,000.- for unused). Purchase of any of these stamps should be made conditional on expertization. Despite their apparent priciness, they are all grossly undervalued, especially given the prospects for growth in the Latin American stamp market in general, and Colombia’s in particular. They are each at least as rare as the U.S. Inverted Jenny stamp, but may be had for 1% or less of its price.

 

A nation of 45 million people, Colombia has been plagued by decades of serious internal armed conflict, drug trafficking, corruption, and gross inequities of income, but has nevertheless racked up impressive annual GDP growth averaging 5.5% over the last 5 years. Moreover, until the global financial fiasco cut its GDP growth to 3% in 2009, it had been steadily accelerating, from 2% in 2003 to 8% in 2008. Recently, the government, armed to the teeth by the U.S., has applied a dual policy of combining military pressure with negotiations to cope with the various guerrilla factions within the country. This seems to have worked to some extent, as the number of insurgents has been halved, and the number of homicides and kidnappings drastically reduced. While some argue that the Colombian government is still utterly corrupt, and has violated human rights and supported paramilitary death squads in order to achieve relative peace, it may be that this is par for the course, given the nation’s history. The main challenge that the country faces will be that of sharing more of the wealth with the majority of the population so as to develop more of a middle class and political center. Otherwise, it will devolve into an unstable mess.

 Tips  Investasi  prangko  Lebanon 1956 PBB 10th Anniversary (Scott # C221-22, C222Note)


Pada Januari 1956, Libanon mengeluarkan serangkaian perangko dan lembaran suvenir memperingati HUT ke-10 Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (Scott # C221-22, C222Note). Hanya 15.000 set dan 4.000 lembar souvenir diterbitkan. Scott ’10 menghargai mereka yang tidak terpakai pada $ 11,75 dan $ 90,00, masing-masing. Keduanya menarik, dan tidak jelas yang merupakan tawar-menawar yang lebih baik, karena ada kemungkinan bahwa proporsi yang jauh lebih besar dari set yang digunakan sebagai ongkos kirim dan dibuang daripada yang lembaran suvenir.

Perangko Lebanon populer di kalangan kolektor Koloni Timur Tengah dan Perancis. Selain itu, sebagai topikal PBB, masalah ini memiliki daya tarik seluruh dunia, yang seharusnya meningkat dengan PBB secara bertahap memperoleh kredibilitas sebagai lembaga yang efektif untuk menangani masalah global.

Lebanon, negara sebesar 4,2 juta orang, memiliki pertumbuhan PDB diabaikan selama 5 tahun terakhir akibat perang Hizbullah dengan Israel, dominasi Suriah, dan perselisihan internal. Namun demikian, saya yakin bahwa pada akhirnya akan kembali ke kemakmuran sebagai berbagai faksi di kawasan ini belajar bagaimana bergaul, dan kembali Beirut untuk keunggulan mantan sebagai “Paris dari Timur Tengah.”

  Tips Investasi: prangko St Pierre dan Miquelon 1885-86 Biaya tambahan (Scott # 1 –

Para Kolektivitas Wilayah St Pierre dan Miquelon, sisa hanya kekaisaran kolonial mantan Perancis di Amerika Utara, terdiri dari dua kelompok kecil dari pulau-pulau di lepas pantai Newfoundland. Dari perspektif investasi filateli, ada hal yang menarik karena perangko nya yang populer di Kanada dan di kalangan kolektor Koloni Perancis – baik pasar berkembang. Perangko scarcest St Pierre dan Miquelon ada dalam dua kelompok luas: biaya tambahan abad 19 dan overprints, dan 1941-42 “Perancis Libre” overprints.

Seperti semua overprints, beberapa prangko telah dipalsukan pada satu waktu atau lainnya, jadi saya sarankan bahwa stampselectors fokus hanya pada mereka yang patut mendapatkan expertized.

Perangko pertama dari koloni itu biaya tambahan primitif. Saya telah terdaftar yang lebih baik, bersama dengan jumlah pencetakan mereka (bila diketahui) dan Nilai Scott Katalog ’10 untuk digunakan, di bawah ini:

– 1885 05C di Vermilion 40c pada jerami (Scott # 1; 4.000, $ 140 -.)

– 1885 05C pada 35c Black pada kuning (Scott # 4; 1.500, $ 140 -.)

– 1885 05C pada 75c Carmine pada mawar (Scott # 5; 1.800, $ 375 -.)

– 1885 25c pada 1fr Hijau Perunggu pada jerami, biaya tambahan ketik ‘c’ (Scott # 7; 340; $ 13.000 -.)

– 1885 25c pada 1fr Hijau Perunggu pada jerami; biaya tambahan ketik ‘d’ (Scott # 8; 300; $ 2.500 -.)

– 1885 5c pada 2c Brown pada penggemar (Scott # 9; sangat jarang, $ 6.500 -.)

– 1885 5c pada Claret 4c pada lavender (Scott # 10; 900, $ 500 -.)

– 5c 1886 Hitam (Scott # 12; Langka; $ 1.350 -.)

– 1886 10c Hitam (Scott # 13; Langka; $ 1.450 -.)

– 1886 15c Hitam (Scott # 14; Langka, $ 1.300 -.)

– 1891 15c 35c di Black pada jeruk, biaya tambahan ketik ‘e’ (Scott # 16; 850;. 675 $ -)

– 1891 15c 35c di Black pada jeruk, biaya tambahan tipe ‘f’ (Scott # 17; 850, $ 2.000 -.)

– 1891 15c pada Red 40c di atas jerami, biaya tambahan ketik ‘e’ (Scott # 18; 5.000, $ 110 -.)

Beberapa lebih baik masalah abad ke-19 lainnya, dan “Perancis Libre” overprints, akan dibahas dalam artikel mendatang.

 
 
 
 
 

In January of 1956, Lebanon issued a set of stamps and a souvenir sheet commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the United Nations (Scott #C221-22, C222Note). Only 15,000 sets and 4,000 souvenir sheets were issued. Scott ’10 values them unused at $ 11.75 and $ 90.00, respectively. Both are attractive, and it is unclear which represents the better bargain, because it is likely that a far greater proportion of the sets were used as postage and discarded than were the souvenir sheets.


Stamps of Lebanon are popular among collectors of the Mideast and French Colonies. Furthermore, as a UN Topical, this issue has worldwide appeal, which should increase as the UN gradually gains credibility as an effective institution for dealing with global problems.

Lebanon, a nation of 4.2 million people, has had negligible GDP growth over the last 5 years due to Hezbollah’s war with Israel, Syrian domination, and internal strife. Nevertheless, I am confident that it will eventually return to prosperity as the various factions within the region learn how to get along, and Beirut returns to its former preeminence as the “Paris of the Middle East.”

 Stamp Investment Tip: St. Pierre and Miquelon 1885-86 Surcharges (Scott #1-

The Territorial Collectivity of St. Pierre and Miquelon, the only remnant of the former French colonial empire in North America, is comprised of two small groups of islands off the coast of Newfoundland. From a philatelic investment perspective, it is of interest because its stamps are popular in Canada and among collectors of French Colonies – both growing markets. The scarcest stamps of St. Pierre and Miquelon exist within two broad groups: the 19th century surcharges and overprints, and the 1941-42 “France Libre” overprints.

 

As with all overprints, some of these stamps have been faked at one time or another, so I recommend that stampselectors focus only on those which are worth getting expertized.

 

The first stamps of the colony were primitive surcharges. I’ve listed the better ones, along with their printing quantities (when known) and Scott ’10 Catalog Values for unused, below:

 

– 1885 05c on 40c Vermilion on straw (Scott #1; 4,000; $ 140.- )

– 1885 05c on 35c Black on yellow (Scott #4; 1,500; $ 140.-)

– 1885 05c on 75c Carmine on rose (Scott #5; 1,800; $ 375.-)

– 1885 25c on 1fr Bronze Green on straw, surcharge type ‘c’ (Scott #7; 340; $ 13,000.-)

– 1885 25c on 1fr Bronze Green on straw; surcharge type ‘d’ (Scott #8; 300; $ 2,500.-)

– 1885 5c on 2c Brown on buff (Scott #9; extremely rare; $ 6,500.-)

– 1885 5c on 4c Claret on lavender (Scott #10; 900; $ 500.-)

– 1886 5c Black (Scott #12; Rare; $ 1,350.-)

– 1886 10c Black (Scott #13; Rare; $ 1,450.-)

– 1886 15c Black (Scott #14; Rare; $ 1,300.-)

– 1891 15c on 35c Black on orange, surcharge type ‘e’ (Scott #16; 850; $ 675.-)

– 1891 15c on 35c Black on orange, surcharge type ‘f’ (Scott #17; 850; $ 2,000.-)

– 1891 15c on 40c Red on straw, surcharge type ‘e’ (Scott #18; 5,000; $ 110.-)

 

Some of the other better 19th century issues, and the “France Libre” overprints, will be dealt with in future articles.

 

Before Australia issued its first stamps as a self-governing dominion in 1913, it was divided into six British colonies, each of which issued their own stamps. In 1900, Queensland issued a set of two semi-postals (Scott #B1-2) to aid disabled Queensland volunteers and dependants of those volunteers who lost their lives fighting in the Boer War. Only 6,500 of #B1 and 4,020 of #B2 were issued, and Scott ’10 prices them unused at $ 200.-and $ 525.-, respectively.

 

I favor all better stamps of Australia and Australian States, and believe that those issues which are the most undervalued, based upon their scarcity, will tend to increase the most over time.

 

Australia is a prosperous nation of 22 million people and a diverse economy, with thriving service, agricultural, and mining sectors. Annual GDP growth has average 3.6% over the past 15 years. Recently, there has been considerable growth in mining and petroleum extraction, in part due to increased exports to the resource-hungry Chinese market. It is likely that Australia’s stamp collecting population will grow significantly as the nation ages. The percentage of Australians over 60 is projected to rise from 16% in 2000 to 24.8% in 2025, and 28.2% in 2050.

 

When purchasing these stamps, note that the centering of this issue is often mediocre. Try to select examples which are centered Fine or better.

 

In 1921, the Netherlands, and its main colony, the Netherlands Indies, both issued Marine Insurance Stamps (Scott #GY1-7, in both cases). These stamps were used to pay for a very unusual type of insured mail. Letters bearing the stamps were placed in safes mounted on the decks of ships en route between Netherlands and Netherlands East Indies. The safes were buoyant and were equipped with flares and bells. In the event that the ship sank, the safe would float off and the flares and bells would activate, hopefully leading to the recovery of the safe and its contents. Only 5,216 of the Netherlands set were issued, and 4,127 of the Netherlands Indies set, and Scott ’10 prices them unused at $ 605.- ($1,500.- for NH) and $ 186.90, respectively.

 

Both sets should do well, although the Netherlands Indies set is “sexier,” as it may potentially appeal to a dual market in both the Netherlands and Indonesia. With about 16.6 million people, the Netherlands is the 16th largest economy in the world, and its annual GDP growth has averaged about 2.5% over the last 5 years. Indonesia is a developing, though still poor, country of 230 million people, with an annual GDP growth rate hovering around 5%-6%. Like most emerging market nations, it faces challenges which will have to be addressed, including corruption and major inequities in the distribution of income.

 

Furthermore, global aging trends in both countries should bolster the population of serious stamp collectors in both countries in the coming decades. The Netherlands’ population of citizens age 60+ is projected to rise from 18.3% in 2000 to 32.8% in 2050, while Indonesia’s 60+ age group is expected to almost triple, from 7.6% to 22.3%.

From 1909 to late 1911 China occupied Tibet and the Dalai Lama and his Government fled to India. For approximately two years, five Chinese Post Offices operated in Central Tibet and a Chinese Post Office at Chambo (Eastern Tibet) was open in 1913 and 1914.

Initially, the post office used regular stamps of Imperial China, but in 1911 a set of eleven stamps (surcharged in three languages) was introduced for Tibet (Scott #1-11). The set is very scarce and almost never sold complete. As the purchase of any overprinted stamp entails the risk of buying a fake, I recommend purchase of only those stamps in the set (including the two rare varieties) which are costly enough to justify obtaining expertization. I’ve listed these, along with printing quantities (when known) and Scott ’10 Catalog Values for unused, below:

-1911 3p on 1c Ocher, inverted surcharge (Scott #1a; Very Rare; Scott ’10 CV= $ 3,500.-)
-1911 3a on 16c Olive Green, large “S” in “Annas” (Scott #6a; Rare; Scott ’10 CV= $1,250.-)
-1911 12a on 50c Yellow Green (Scott #9; 12,000; Scott ’10 CV= $ 175.- )
-1911 1r on $1 Red and Pale Rose (Scott #10; 4,800; Scott ’10 CV = $ 475.- )
-1911 2r on $2 Red and Yellow (Scott #11; 3,704; Scott ’10 CV= $ 900.- )

The dispute between China and Tibet over the matter of Tibet’s sovereignty has been ongoing for centuries, and it was following the issuance of these stamps that Tibet regained some of its autonomy and began issuing its own stamps in 1912.

I am confident that the Offices in Tibet stamps will do very well over time, mostly due to continued growth in demand for stamps of China. Interest in Tibet and its stamps may also help to push them higher.

Those readers who are on Facebook are welcome to join the “StampSelectors” group. To find it, simply enter “StampSelectors” in Facebook’s search box, and then click on the search symbol ( a magnifying glass) to the right of the box. The group will focus upon philatelic investing, the stamp market, and practical matters regarding buying and selling stamps. It will also offer the opportunity to comment upon this blog, get under the author’s skin, and suggest future stamp investment tips.

In 1934-35, Mexico issued a rather unremarkable set of three stamps reprising the Coat of Arms/Biplane design of 1929-34 (Scott #C62-64). The set would be of little interest to investors, were it not for a color error, the 20c Slate (Scott #C62a), of which only 180 were issued. The normal 20c Olive Green (Scott #C62), is extremely common (Scott 2010 as unused = 35c), but Scott ’10 values the error at $ 500.- (both unused and used).

Taking into account the risks of mistaking a gray shade of the common olive green stamp for the slate error, or of purchasing a chemically induced color changeling, this stamp should be purchased conditional on obtaining expertization, optimally from M.E.P.S.I..

Given that caveat, however, the error is grossly undervalued, but will not remain so. It is priced at about 1/1,000th the value of an Inverted Jenny (U.S. Sc. #C3a), but is about half as rare (assuming that all of the 180 error stamps issued still exist). As the Inverted Jenny is one of the most famous errors in the world, however, perhaps this is not a fair comparison. The 20c Slate Color Error had a slightly lower printing than the U.S. 1893 4c Columbian Blue Color Error (Scott #233a), yet cats. at about 1/40th of the Columbian’s value. To give some perspective on this, imagine a fantastical worst-case scenario, in which all 180 of C62a were to come on the market at once. They would probably be purchased for somewhat less than their full Scott value of
$ 90,000 ($ 500.- X 180) – less than a minor Mexican drug cartel makes on a slow day. The ludicrously low current valuation for this rarity is unsustainable.

With a population of about 109 million, Mexico has experienced consistent annual GDP growth of between 3 and 5%. It has a diverse and developing economy, but modernization remains a slow and uneven process, and current challenges include addressing income inequality and corruption, upgrading the infrastructure, and reforming tax and labor laws. Stamps of Mexico are popular among collectors in the U.S. as well as in Mexico, and those who wish to learn more about Mexican stamps should consider joining the Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International (M.E.P.S.I.). MEPSI provides many useful services for collectors of Mexico, including expertizing Mexican stamps.

Romania issued three semi-postal sets honoring the Boy Scouts from 1934-36, all of which are worth accumulating. Worldwide membership of the Boy Scouts is estimated at 25 million, and Scouting topicals are extremely popular internationally. Wikipedia has an excellent article on Scouting Memorabilia Collecting, for those interested in the subject.

The three sets, issued in modest quantities, are an excellent way to play the growth of both Romania’s economy and interest in Scouting Topicals. I’ve listed them, along with their quantities issued and Scott ’10 Catalog Values forunused, below:

-1934 Boy Scout Mamaii Jamboree (Scott #B44-49; 50,000; $ 40.00)

-1935 5th Anniv. of Accession of King Carol I-Boy Scouts (Scott #B50-54; 50,000; $ 26.50)

– 1936 Brasov Boy Scout Jamboree (Scott #B63-65; 60,000; $ 28.50 )

A nation of 22 million people with a GDP per capita of $ 12,285.- (about 46% of the EU average), Romania is considered an upper-middle income country. Romania’s main exports are clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgical products, raw materials, cars, military equipment, software, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products. GDP growth has been high, averaging about 7% over the last five years.

complete info exist.but only for premium member and also info of rare stamps e-book in CD-ROM which also for premium member only,subscribed via comment

the end

Are Your Stamps collections Original Or Fake

BEWARE TO FAKE STAMPS

COMPARE THE FAKE AND THE ORIGINAL STAMPS

PLEASE BE PATIENT THE ORIGINAL STAMPS WILL UPLOAD ONE BY ONE

CREATED BVY Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Letter

FFE #7

Il Grande Raid Aero Franco – Italiano: Bologna-Venice-Rimini-Bologna, 17-18 September 1911

On February 19, 1911, Umberto Cagno took off from the beach in front of the Excelsior Hotel on the Lido in his Farman II airplane, and made six brief flights, in spite of the fog. (ACTV, please note.)  On March 3, better weather encouraged him to fly, for the first time ever, over Venice.

A few months later, on September 19, 1911, the first airmail flight in Italy departed from Bologna and landed on the Lido. That is to say, Venice.

1x1.trans Wings over Venice
The symbol of an airplane just above the word “Lido” marks the location of Nicelli airport.

Geography is destiny, as Napoleon observed, and Venice’s position was obviously as valuable to air transport as it had been for centuries to shipping.  At that time, the Lido was largely uninhabited, making it the ideal place to establish an airport.The first was built in 1915, a military base on the northernmost part of the Lido, which was active during World War I.  

Then, in 1935, with some major variations, it became the Aeroporto Nicelli, and air became yet another way, in the march of progress, to get to Venice. Flights on Ala Littoria and Transadriatica connected the famously watery city to points scattered around Europe. Even to Baku, if you happened to be going that way.

Nicelli immediately became the scene of extremely glamorous arrivals, as movie stars deplaned on the grassy runway to attend the Venice Film Festival. This continued until 1960, when Marco Polo airport opened on the mainland.

1x1.trans Wings over VeniceAs shown on the map displayed in the airport, Venice remained at the center of things into yet another century.

So far I may have made it sound as if all these things were accomplished by an occult hand. But of course many hands were involved, among which none were more important than those of  the late Lt. Col. Umberto Klinger.

Klinger, a native Venetian, was already a celebrity by the time he created the Officine Aeronavali at Nicelli, a large workshop dedicated to repairing and maintaining airplanes.

1x1.trans Wings over VeniceA glimpse of Klinger on the cover of a book written by his daughter.

He had begun as a highly decorated pilot in World War II, with more than 5,000 hours of flight to his credit, 600 of which were in combat, earning 5 silver Medals of Military Valor.  He also served as Chief of Staff of the Special Air Services of the Italian Air Force, not only organizing the activities of squadrons of Savoia-Marchetti S.75s (troop transports or bombers), but also flying them himself, often at night, over enemy territory.  After the war, he served as president of one of the first passenger airlines in Italy (Ala Littoria), and four other companies. Far from being a mere figurehead, Klinger raised Nicelli to the level of the second airport in Italy.

1x1.trans Wings over Venice

So much for the history lecture.  Now we have to move into the darkened halls of humanity, where to do justice to even the bare outlines of the story of Umberto Klinger you’d need to resort to dramatic opera.Verdi! thou should’st be living at this hour, but you’re not; to the people who knew him, though, the name of Klinger creates its own music. Especially those who remember his last day.

Lino, for example.

Lino went to work for the Aeronavali as an apprentice mechanic at Nicelli in 1954, at the age of 16.  He often saw “Comandante Klinger,” and even spoke with him on various occasions. Right up to today, Lino pronounces his name with reverence and regret.  This wasn’t unusual — Klinger was by all accounts a powerfully charismatic man admired for his courage, respected for his skill, but with a special gift for inspiring real love.

1x1.trans Wings over Venice
In 1925, Transadriatica was one of the first passenger airlines in Italy; its first route connected Rome and Venice. This poster promotes the link between Venice and Vienna.

The Aeronavali flourished, with hundreds of employees working on aircraft of all sorts, from the Italian Presidential plane to cargo and passenger planes of many different companies.  When Marco Polo airport opened on the mainland in 1960, the Aeronavali moved to the mainland with it.

Then politics began to set in.  The broad outlines of what is undoubtedly a hideously complicated story are that certain elements in Rome, wanting to gain control of the company in order to place it under state, rather than private, administration, began to create financial problems for Klinger. The Aeronavali kept working, but payments from the Ministry of Defense were mysteriously not coming through.  And the unions, manipulated by the aforementioned political factions, began to stir up discontent.

Lino remembers the increasingly intense meetings of the workers and the unions.  He remembers Klinger pleading with them to be patient as he struggled to reopen the financial flow. But the unions rejected any compromises on pay or contracts, however temporary they might be, compelling the workers to resist. They ultimately even went on strike for 72 hours. Celebrity or no, the man — who had looked after his employees with no less solicitude than he had cared for his pilots — was running out of fuel.

1x1.trans Wings over Venice
The Aeronavali worked on any sort of aircraft — Dakotas, Constellations, and the Savoia-Marchetti S.75, a 30-passenger plane also used as a bomber in World War II. These were Klinger’s specialty, comprising virtually all of the squadrons he commanded of the Special Air Services.

During these harrowing days, Klinger was heard to say more than once that what was needed to resolve this impasse was “something really big.”  He ultimately thought of something that qualified.

Early in the morning of January 21, 1971, he went by himself to the old hangar at Nicelli, by that time virtually abandoned. And he took a cord. A few hours later, when the guardian made his rounds, he discovered the body of Comandante Klinger. He had hanged himself.

Lino remembers the gathering at work that morning, when they were all given the news.  There was utter silence, he recalls, though if stricken consciences could make an audible noise there would have been plenty of that.

The first time I heard this story, I thought his was the despairing last act of a man who had run out of hope. Now I am convinced that Klinger’s suicide was a voluntary self-immolation in order to save the company — not unlike the Russian officers after the fall of Communism who, left unpaid, finally killed themselves so their widows would get their pensions.

And Klinger turned out to have won his gamble. Almost immediately, the overdue funds began to pour in.

1x1.trans Wings over VeniceThe hangar, seen across the runway from the terminal.

The funeral, in the church of San Nicolo’ next to the airport, was attended by a huge number of mourners; many had to stand outside. Did any union officers come to pay their last respects?  ”Sure,” Lino said.  ”They were at the head of the line.”

Courage in combat — it isn’t needed only in the skies.  Nor does it only involve things that explode, though they can still be fatal. Umberto Klinger deserves another medal, one which doesn’t seem yet to have been created.

1x1.trans Wings over VeniceKlinger, the way his employees remember him — in mufti, smiling.

Postscript: It’s very easy to visit the airport.  At the central vaporetto stop on the Lido at Piazzale Santa Maria Elisabetta, take the “A” bus marked for “San Nicolo’ – Ple. Rava’.”  (If the weather’s nice, you can just stroll along the lagoon embankment for about half an hour.)  Get off at the last stop, in front of the church and walk a few minutes across the grass and up the driveway.

The terminal has been spiffed to a modern version of its former glory, with a cool retro-design restaurant, “Niceli.”  Have lunch, or just a coffee or drink on the terrace.  If you come toward the early evening in the summer, bring lots of mosquito repellent

India State Fake stamps dicussion

Image

(sorry only short info,the complete exist but only for premium member)

Charkhari

No idear if they are naughty or just plain ugly

The one in the bottom right corner is from Jammu & Kashmir.

Forgery on the left; genuine on the right. The one on the right is on a thinner, yellower paper. The image is also smaller than the forgery. I base my conclusion on the shapes of some of the letters — the “S” in POSTAGE, the “B” in BUNDELKHAND, etc. Your comments would be appreciated.

left is one of the forgeries – the right is genuine. Some other suggestive points are the thicker outer frame and more regular printing in the forgery.

Barwani SG 33A, Setting I

could get: it has perforations, gum (trust me), was letterpress printed from plates and can be plated, shows a portrait of the Ruler (as a very young man, sans all that terribly 1970s facial hair) and is printed in green for the postcard rate.

And if you’re very good, Young Peter, I’ll show you a nice triangular stamp with fishies on it from Bhopal (all quite OK and according to Hoyle, Doug

Faridkot causes an undue amount of weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth.

To clear the decks, here are examples of the two genuine types, with an example of the genuine type of cancellation as well:

SG N5 – the 1 Folus value mint and used, and

SG N6 – the 1 Paisa value

Once upon a time, Gibbons listed a second type of the 1 Paisa:

These days, it’s been relegated to a footnote, noting that it wasn’t issued during the life of the State PO (although Gibbons still quote a price for it). It’s up to the individual collector to decide if they want to regard this as legitimate.

(I find that the easiest way to distinguish this type from the fully legitimate ones is to compare the lettering at the top of the central circle.)

In 1885, Faridkot joined the Postal Convention with British India, meaning it gave up the issue of its own stamps, and used British Indian stamps overprinted FARIDKOT. It appears that the State authorities, however, had grown rather pleasantly accustomed to the agreeable income stream from selling their stamps, and saw no reason in the Postal Convention to stop. Never mind that these ‘new’ stamps weren’t valid for postage: crazy collectors were willing to spend good money on them. Indeed, in order to provide better value for money, the Faridkot authorities decided to move from handstamping the stamps individually onto large sheets of paper to printing them properly by lithography, and adding perforations. And all for no extra charge! What a bargain! No wonder they’re amongst the commonest subjects of queries about the Uglies.

Member Bob Stanley knows all about these, so when it came to Faridkot’s turn, I naturally went to him for help on the post-1885 issues. The notes that follow are all based on Bob’s work, and I think, show just why the Uglies can so take hold of the imagination.

Picking a Faridkot reprint is basically very simple: if it bears a family resemblance to the genuine types above, but it isn’t handstamped in that rather attractive deep blue, it’s a reprint (or forgery). But wait! Faridkot being a classic Ugly, there’s more …

First, the 1 Folus values. There is a handstamped type similar to the genuine stamp, of uncertain status: it may be an early forgery, or it may be an unrecorded second die. (Remember that the genuine types were all handstamped from a single die, so genuine stamps must all be identical – allowing for the vagaries of the production process )

We then come to the straightforward reprints, made by the Faridkot authorities after the State PO was closed, to satisfy collector demand. There were two types of the reprints:

As you can see, the Faridkot authorities evidently felt that collectors were paying good money, and deserved something better than imperforate handstamped stamps for their money, so the reprints were lithographed and perforated. And rather than stick to that dull old blue, they were also made available in a range of colours. All sooo much more interesting!

Now, it requires a bit of a leap of the imagination to see why anyone would forge a cheap reprint, but …

 

The 1 Paisa type followed a similar pattern, although without the complication of a second type of reprint.

The design has been tidied up for the litho printing, and again, this stamp is available in all sorts of colours, perf or imperf.

Once again, the 1 Paisa has also been forged:

There is also a perfectly genuine Revenue stamp in a very similar design

which was never intended for postal use.

Lastly, there’s the Half Anna type, which Gibbons refer to in a footnote. It appears it was prepared for use before 1885, but was never actually issued. This didn’t stop the State authorities from selling it, and then reprinting it and selling the reprints. (And to be fair, why should it have? If collectors were willing to pay for them … And are they that much worse than some of the things foisted on collectors by modern postal administrations?) Here is the original, handstamped in typical blue type:

The reprint – again, in tidied up form for lithography

And these reprints have been forged, too:

So that’s Faridkot. I must admit, when Bob first told me he was interested in this stuff, I was inclined to arch the questioning eyebrow and curl the disdainful lip a bit – but having seen, the variety and complexity of these things, I’m converted. (But don’t worry, Bob: I’m not planning to move in on them myself )

 

Hyderabad has its own complications, but like Faridkot, they’re no real problem once you know what to look for.

The first issue was reprinted in 1880, perf 12½, rather than 11½ for the originals. Gibbons says the reprints come in ‘the colour of the issue, and also in fancy colours’. The shade of the reprint is much lighter than the original, and the only ‘fancy colour’ I’ve seen is blue – but then, I haven’t been looking hard

SG 1 at left – reprint at right

Some of the reprints may have actually been used for postage, and it appears that others were used as fiscals. Here is an example of a reprint with what just conceivably might almost be a postal cancellation, and a blue reprint used, apparently, fiscally:

The second issue, SG 2-3, was reprinted in the same way, with the same perf and colour differences. Here are the genuine stamps at left and the reprints at right:

And here is a rather unsatisfactory effort at faking a cancellation on a reprint, and an imitation of the first Service overprint on another reprint:

 

The 1871-1909 set, SG 4-19d, shouldn’t present any problems, though do watch out for optimistic measurements of some of the rather poor and fluffy perforations

Plate proofs of the set, and of essays in a similar design, turn up regularly at auction. They’re only worth a couple of dollars each, but make an attractive display. They aren’t usually centre punched like this pair of the ½ Anna, SG 13

This set does, though, contribute one of my favourite forgeries:

This seems to be imitating SG 14, but it was apparently lithoed instead of recess printed, the colour is all wrong, and the cancellation is nothing like a genuine Hyderabad cancellation. Why would you bother for a stamp that can be bought in bundles of a hundred used for very little? The ways of the forger are truly inscrutable.

The various missing dot etc varieties in this set should of course be carefully scrutinised under magnification for signs of, shall we say?, interference.

With the later POSTAGE (SG 22-34), POST & RECEIPT (SG35-40) and pictorial (SG 41-48) sets, beware of plate proofs masquerading as imperfs. The test is very simple: the issued stamps are on watermarked paper, the plate proofs aren’t. Bought for what they are, the plate proofs are fine, of course. Here is a plate proof block of the ¼ Anna, SG 41

I referred to the early handstamped Service overprints earlier. As there are multiple types, and they’re handstamped, I wouldn’t dream of buying one without a recent clear BPA certificate.

 

Having official reprints of Faridkot and Hyderabad is an improvement over fakes and forgeries. Things are looking up for my uglies collection.

Having official reprints of Faridkot and Hyderabad is an improvement over fakes and forgeries. Things are looking up for my uglies collection.

Idar.

I’ve seen photocopier fakes of the second set, SG 3-6, which shouldn’t fool anyone. This what a genuine printing looks like:

SG 5 (from Row 1/1 in the sheet of 4)

However, there are much, much more dangerous fakes out there. From the appearance of some of them, I suspect that they were made from the original plates, in a deteriorated state, as was the case in Barwani. The legality of the ownership/use of the plates needn’t concern us here: the point is that these are reprints in philatelic terms. Here are some examples:

As SG 3a

As SG 4a, and

in a colour that was never used by Idar. These 2 Anna plates seem to be in much better shape than those for the lower values, but I’ve never seen a genuine 2 Anna value with the damage to the left frame lines that can be seen in R1/1 and R2/1.

The diagnostic feature of all of these is that they’re printed on an unmeshed paper, with a clearly mottled appearance when held to the light. The genuine stamps were printed on a wove paper with a clear mesh visible when held to the light.

there seems to have been a small, second printing of at least some of this set, with the plates now in a somewhat worn state, on an inferior quality wove, but which still shows a clear mesh. Here is an example:

SG 5a

As an aside, this printing was probably the source of the yellow-green shade of the ¼ Anna which Gibbons lists as SG 3b. Here are (genuine) examples of SG 3 and SG 3a:

Beware also of forged cancellations on these stamps. The usual form of cancellation was a violet/purple circular or occasionally oval rubber stamp, often with the date written in in the centre in manuscript. Here is a suspiciously clear example; they were usually more blurred and worn:

The only other warning I’d issue about Idar is on the postal-fiscals. Obviously, beware of cleaned fiscal usages. These stamps are quite common fiscally used, and wouldn’t be hard to clean.

 

Indore is rather more straightforward.

The main thing to be wary of is the handstamps, SG 3 and 4, which have been forged. These are the genuine types:

There is also a fiscal which bears some resemblance to these, and is sometimes innocently offered as SG 3 or 4:

Numbers of plate proofs exist for the Perkins, Bacon printings. Gibbons mentions the imperf plate proofs of SG 16-32 in a footnote. The story is complicated, but for present purposes, don’t be fooled into paying fancy prices for them as imperf copies of the issued stamps. Here is an example of the 12 Anna, in the issued colour:

Gibbons doesn’t mention the imperf plate proofs of SG 9-14, perhaps because, as in this case, the colours are sufficiently different from the issued stamps as not to cause problems:

Speaking of imperfs, I hope none of you will be taken in by something like this:

passing itself of as a single of this

SG 39a

Of course, the single might actually be a legitimate survivor of the original sheet – but we’ll never know since it is just a single.

One more cautionary note: the last high values, SG 42 and 43, are quite common mint – and rarities used (£14 and £13 respectively mint, and £180 and £250 used in 2010). Approach any used copies with the greatest caution!

 

The only common forgeries of Jaipur seem to be of the Jail Press printings of 1911. If you had nothing to compare one with, a forgery might look quite convincing. However,

Forgery at left, genuine SG 17 at right

Ignore shades and the design details for this issue – they aren’t a reliable guide – but focus on the depth of the impression of the genuine type. Remember, these stamps were letterpress printed (in the Jaipur Jail). Here are the forged and genuine ½ Anna and 1 Anna:

 

The basic stamps are 10p items. These are, to the best of my knowledge, the genuine types:

SG 70 and

SG 80

This is the locally overprinted SERVICE stamp of 1936

SG O31

And here are the two expensive late surcharges:

SG O33 – There seem to be rather a lot of these around. Either Gibbons has overvalued them, or a new source of supply has appeared …

SG O34

And a final warning: be very careful indeed of used high values of Jaipur which are rated more highly than mint. These regularly turn up on eBay with faked cancellations. In particular, be wary of any offered by creativityplus, creativityplus4, The Stamp Shop or Sunil Suri.

Jammu & Kashmir is rightfully considered the Himalayas of Indian States collecting: peaks that all aspire to, but few conquer. It’s appropriate, then, that the dodgy Jammu & Kashmir items are just as taxing.

The first issues, the Circulars, are the toughest. They have just about everything: forgeries, reprints and items of uncertain status.

By far the commonest of the forgeries are the so-called Missing Dies. They got their name from the misapprehension of early collectors that these stamps had been printed from rare ‘missing’ dies, because they were included in supplies from official sources sent from Jammu & Kashmir. It’s now thought that they were imitations, prepared by State Post Office officials, inserted into the official supplies to cover for genuine stamps abstracted and sold either to genuine users or collectors. The papers and inks used are very similar to those of the genuine stamps, and the quality of the impressions tends to be similar too.

Fortunately, the Missing Dies are quite easy to pick. Here is the Missing Die ½ Anna (at left) and the genuine type of the ½ Anna at right:

Note that, in the Missing Die, the semi-circle in the central circle touches the circle, while it doesn’t in the genuine type, and the letter looking somewhat like a ‘3’ at 12 o’clock touches the letter next to it in the Missing Die, while it doesn’t in the genuine type.

Here are the Missing Die and genuine type 1 Anna:

The best test here is that the upright in the central (value) circle points directly to the ‘3’-like letter above in the Missing Die, but between the ‘3’-like letter and the next letter in the genuine type.

The test for the Missing Die 4 Anna is similar: the line in the genuine type points between the letters, but to a letter in the Missing Dies:

 

There are other forgeries of the Circulars, of course. Most are of more recent origin, although there is one extremely rare early set of forgeries – count yourself very lucky if you have the bad luck to stumble on them.

Here is an example of the photocopier forger’s efforts:

As usual, the basic design is very close to the original – it’s just everything else that’s completely wrong: the colour, the paper and the appearance, which is completely flat, unlike the watercolour originals at least, which usually show lumps of ink.

Here are a few more even sillier attempts:

With all these forgeries, a comparison with the originals will immediately show up the forgery.

Another give-away for forgeries is the cancellation. Genuine cancellations are black, magenta or red seals, usually so uncleaned and over-inked that they appear as coloured blobs. None of these cancellations was ever used on a legitimate Circular:

 

The Circulars were also reprinted, and along with the Missing Die forgeries, are the most likely to turn up to trouble the collector. Being reprints, the design is correct, and detecting many of them is something of a black art. (If I’m selling it’s an original; if you’re selling it’s a reprint.) However, there are a couple of points to bear in mind that will help:
– Stamps on wove paper can be dismissed as reprints. (There is one exception to this: an extremely rare ½ Anna in red oil colour on a thick yellowish wove. A copy on cover sold for £2352 in 2004. Enough said!)
– Traditional wisdom has it that no reprints were made on laid paper. This may not be completely correct (the jury’s still out), but a stamp of the correct design on laid paper is likely to be OK if the colour is also correct.
– Apparently, no reprints were made in blue.
– Multiples of the originals are uncommon to rare. Multiples are much more likely to be reprints.

The difficulty arises with the reprints on native paper. The ‘native’ paper used was a traditional local product, hand-made in the State prison. By its nature, it varied in quality and thickness from batch to batch. The reprints were usually on better quality native paper: thinner, smoother and more glossy than that of the originals. The reprints also were usually more clearly printed. The examples of the genuine types I showed at the beginning of this discussion of Jammu & Kashmir are all reprints, because the print quality is so much better than that of the originals. However, as the stamps were individually handstamped, with probably small batches of ink prepared for each printing, on batches of paper which could vary from sheet to sheet within a batch … As I said, picking the reprints is only done on the second full moon in November in a leap year, after undergoing elaborate purification ceremonies.

Here is a pair of the original SG 14, next to a probable reprint:

Shades are not a reliable guide to the reprints, but the general appearance is. You may also just be able to detect the difference in the roughness of the surface of the paper between the two examples.

Finally … there are the ‘equivocals’. At the end of the life of the Circulars, around 1877, the printers engaged in a series of experiments on the Circulars and the contemporary stamps for Jammu Province (known as the Old Rectangulars). This involved trials on unusual colours, inks and papers. Some of these experiments were certainly sold and used for postage in the normal way, although they’re mostly rare. Others are of uncertain status, and haven’t achieved the respectability of catalogue listing. Here are some examples, on European laid paper:

Most of these things are fairly uncommon as well. Good luck if one turns up for little or nothing – think twice before paying a fancy price for one.

Reverting to Jammu & Kashmir for just a moment, I was motivated a moment ago to scan and post elsewhere this sheet of SG 126, the ½ Anna red. It shows the genuine types, and the imitation perforations. (And for any real desperates out there, the state of the plate can be determined from the number and position of the screws/rivets. There are several states of this ½ Anna plate.)

 

 

 

There are more forgeries of the Kashmir Old Rectangulars than you could shake a stick at. Some examples from my collection (acquired accidentally: I haven’t tried to make a systematic study of these, or of the fakes etc of any of the other Indian States for that matter):

First, the ¼ Anna:

All nothing like the genuine stamp:

which I’ve selected, not because it gives a perfect impression of the design, but because it’s a typical example of the general appearance of the stamp. As you can see, it just feels quite unlike any of the pretenders. It also has to be remembered that the ¼ Anna was printed from a plate of five subjects, each subject cut individually. There are small design differences between each genuine stamp, but none so gross as in these forgeries.

 

the 1 Anna is another matter:

This appears to be an earlier forgery, probably of Indian origin, while this appears to be more modern, and a close relative of the ¼ Annas above:

These are the genuine item. Once again, note that the appearance is quite different:

And please, no snide jests about the fakes being better than the genuine

the 4 Anna seems to have been heavily targeted:

Completely wrong colour

Wrong colour again

Right colour, but childish attempt to copy the design

Better, but the fake postmark can’t conceal the reality

And here is the genuine common shade:

 

a couple of similar attempts at the 8 Anna:

Wrong colour, and

Right colour, although lacking beads around the frame, and could have been tricky if the impression matched the genuine item:

The 4 and 8 Annas were printed from single dies, so genuine stamps must match the examples above, and the reprints.

 

there are the reprints …

They come in all sorts of wrong colours, in oil colours and printer’s ink, on the smoother, better quality native paper, on wove paper and even European laid paper. Difficulty would only arise with a reprint in the correct colour, in watercolour, on native paper – and I don’t recall seeing one. (Though they may be lurking, undetected, amongst my otherwise legitimate issues.)

Here are some examples of the ¼ Anna, perhaps the most heavily reprinted value:

The first has the right sort of appearance, though it’s probably in oil colour; the second is in the right colour – grey – but on wove paper and apparently in printer’s ink.

And here is a ¼ Anna in a ridiculous colour, with a British Indian Srinagar postmark for 1891, presumably applied by favour. (Jammu & Kashmir stamps do regularly occur with legitimate British Indian cancellations, from mail that passed out of or into the State.)

I don’t have any ½ Anna reprints, and I don’t know if they exist, but here are some 1 Annas, in the general family of shades found on the legitimate stamps:

And here is an example of a reprint sheet. Note the pencil notations in the margin:

The 2 Anna was also reprinted:

 

after being so rudely interrupted by work, back to the real and earnest world of the Jammu & Kashmir New Rectangulars. (This is the name given to the unified series of stamps for both halves of the State, issued from 1878 until close of play in 1894.)

Being Jammu & Kashmir, the New Rectangulars are also plagued by forgeries and doubtful items. It’s rather difficult to specify particular design differences for these stamps, as each position on the plates of 8, 15 or 20 was engraved separately by hand. I’ll show some examples of what to look out for in the lower values, and a sheet (of eight) of the genuine 8 Annas, as forgeries of the 8 Anna are likely to inflict most pain on the beginner.

A common source of confusion, and of dashed hopes, is the imitation perforations drawn around the lower and high values. This is a genuine copy of the ¼ Anna, SG 165, showing the imitation perforations:

The imitation perforations are often the first and best indication that all is not well with a Jammu & Kashmir New Rectangular. Here is one type of forgery of the ¼ Anna, with obviously wrong ‘perforations:

and here’s what appears to be a companion 8 Anna:

 

Gibbons refer to forgeries in which the margins are filled in in colour. These seem to be (relatively) quite common; they are the most common forgeries of the New Rectangulars in my collection, anyway. Here are some examples:

The 1 Anna:

The 2 Anna:

Probably the 4 Anna

and the 8 Anna, in red:

and in the later blue:

Note that these usually seem to come with the later 3-ring type cancellations. Most of the ‘used’ forgeries of the New Rectangulars I’ve seen have this type of cancel. Why, I don’t know – unless it’s to add to the air of authenticity. Used New Rectangulars are rarely worth much of a premium over unused.

And here, as promised, is a genuine sheet of the 8 Anna red for comparison:

Gibbons also refer to a postal forgery of the ½ Anna, but with all the various forgeries around, it’s hard to know which it is.

 

The photocopier forger has, naturally, had a go at the New Rectangulars too, but the results are pathetic, even by his (or her) standards:

Not content with the postage stamps, he’s also attacked the Telegraph stamps:

You can easily see the really crappy paper he’s used here – stuff even the old Uglies would have hesitated to print on. Once you’ve seen a genuine New Rectangular, you could never mistake one of these for the real thing.

There are some much more convincing-looking forgeries, probably modern, around as well. Here is a block of the 2 Anna red-orange family, which had me worried (I didn’t like the ’embossed’ appearance) until I compared it with the real thing, and found it was about a millimeter too tall:

Shade is never a reliable guide with the New Rectangulars, because the printers weren’t overly fussy about colour matching. Paper isn’t much of a guide, either, because quite a range of papers was used for the genuine types as well. (I’ve even found a seemingly genuine example of the 1/8 Anna on what looks like a native laid paper, which isn’t recorded.) General appearance is the best guide. If that still fails to give a definite answer, the only solution may be a comparison with a genuine sheet. I have sheets of most of the values, and I’ll be glad to post them here if anyone needs them.

Finally, it wouldn’t be Jammu & Kashmir without a dubious item. Gibbons illustrates a Type 19:

This is found in various colours, most often red, and on all the papers used for the legitimate stamps, as well as native laid paper (said to be quite scarce). It was contemporary with the legitimate stamps, is not uncommon, and looks to have been engraved by whoever did the 4 and 8 Anna plates. However, it’s never been seen legitimately used. Examples in red on wove paper are quite easy to find – other colours and papers are scarcer.

Before leaving Jammu & Kashmir, a word on covers. I’ve avoided discussing faked covers here because, by their nature, they tend to be one-off productions. However, there are quite a few of one particular variety of faked Jammu & Kashmir cover around. Someone evidently turned up a hoard of genuine covers sent from Maharajganj Town, in Jammu, mostly to Amritsar, after the Jammu & Kashmir PO closed in 1894, using British Indian stamps or postal stationery covers. These have had genuine Jammu & Kashmir stamps (usually 1 Anna green) added, which have then been tied by dumb bar cancellations. The give-away with all these covers is that they’re dated from well after the State Post Office ceased operating. They turn up on eBay every now and then: worth a dollar or two as curios perhaps, but nothing more.

 

As the last of the Uglies to come on board, probably in 1942, Jasdan missed out on the Classic era of forgeries. However, their modern descendants are around. I have several items I think are forgeries, but that need more work on: the list in Gibbons isn’t exhaustive. Still, treat any combination of perforation and shade which doesn’t match one in the Gibbons listing with great caution. (And also beware of overly optimistic attributions. SG 1 really is a very rare stamp!)

Here is a genuine SG 5, the Jasdan stamp you’re most likely to run across:

The photocopier forger has, of course, done Jasdan as well, but I don’t have any specimens of his work to show. From what you’ve seen of it so far, it shouldn’t be hard to pick his attempts at Jasdan.

The other thing to be wary of in Jasdan is forged cancellations. This is what a genuine cancellation should look like, in a general way:

Jasdan did not use steel CDSs!

 

Little Jhalawar has been thoroughly attacked, too. I don’t have any specimens of the photocopier forger’s work, but there are some other forgeries out there that, once again, might trick someone who’d never seen the genuine article.

Here is a rather weird attempt at SG 1, with a genuine SG 1 at right:

And quite a good SG 2, unless you’d seen the genuine item at right

Note the completely different demeanour: the printing of the genuine stamps is always patchy, with that typical worn appearance.

Finally, forged cancellations also exist. The genuine cancellations look more or less like the one on the right, although they’re not always as clear. They never look anything like the one on the left, though

The stamp with the forged cancellation is also a forgery itself, of course, and not a very good one at that.

 

Jind in the Feudatory State* period is fairly typical: some forgeries, and a spread of rather dubious stuff.

*I’d rather not get into an argument here about the use of ‘Feudatory’. Let’s just accept it in order to distinguish this period from the later Convention State period

First, the forgeries. I have these examples:

Dr. Fiorenzo Longhi

8 pages article in English and in Italian. Two forged letters/cards are compared with genuine ones.

FFE #7

Franked Newspapers in the Serbian Principality 1866-1880

Class: Aero

Dr. Vekizar M. Kardosch

10 pages article in English and in German. A very interesting article that opposes another article in FFE No. 5, 2002 in which two rare newspapers were regarded forged on a very doubtfull basis as to the author.The author defends previous oppinions of the rare newspapers as genuine.

 
 

Detail

FFE #7

The ZP3 forged overprint

Class: TR

Dieter Leder

14 pages article in German and in English. The article confirms with many interesting close-up photos a forgery of partial double overprint.

 

Stamp

The Carlista Forgeries wrongly called re-impressions

Class: TR

Eduardo Escalada

6 pages article in English and Spanish illustrating characteristica of the forgeries.

 

Letter

Militant Tactics

A letter damaged by suffragette actionA letter damaged by suffragette action

Members of the WSPU, including the Pankhursts, smashed post office windows, poured acid in pillar boxes, set fire to post boxes and put pepper in letters addressed to anti-suffrage MPs.

The suffragettes Daisy Solomon and Elspeth McClellan even posted themselves to Prime Minister Asquith, with demands for the vote written across them like human letters.

Fe:MAIL, Suffragettes and the Post includes a fascinating selection of postcards, stamps and audio accounts from those who took part in some of the most daring postal dramas as well as the world’s first suffrage stamp, the prison diary of a suffragette charged with smashing post office windows, newspaper cuttings and the world’s earliest known suffrage postcard

Manipulations

Class: PH

Heinz Erwin Jungjohan

2 pages article in English and German, demonstrating how a demaged letter got restored. Illustrated before and after restoration.

 

Stamps

FFE #7

Illegal and Forged stamps – two faces of the same scourge

Class: TR

Albertino de Figueiredo

6 pages in English and Spanish about the fight against illegal issues.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

Forgery og the Dornstetten (O.A. FREUDENSTADT) postmark

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

2 pages article reporting about new finds of forged postmarks on covers from inflation period appearing on flea markets in Germany.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Relationship among art, science and philately

Class: TR

Ernst M. Cohn

9 pages article in English and German. About using postal history as a tool for detecting forgeries.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Forgeries or manipulations of Strubel bisects

Class: TR

Erhard Keller

5 pages article in English and German. 5 interesting cases are demonstrated.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

Queensland archival strikes – not what they appear

Class: TR

Bernie Beston

3 pages article in English.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Austrian Mail in Hungary – unusual frankings with Austria’s 5th issue.

Class: TR

Istvan Glatz

8 pages article with description of 5 GENUINE covers from same correspondence, all sent to New York.

 

Stamps

the original stamp

“Sunday-print”, “Ferrarity” og reprint.

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

2 pages article about Iceland 25 Aur with black I GILDI overprint. This stamp has got overprinted after all other values were printed as “Sunday-prints”. The original typography was used for overprint but compiled different from the 6 settings used in the correct period.

 

Letter

Danish West Indies

 
1874-78 Scott 7 4c brown & dull blue “Numerals”
Normal frame: pay attention to the arabesques in the left upper corner

Quick History
The U.S. bought these Islands for 25 million dollars from Denmark in 1917, becoming the U.S. Virgin Islands. But prior, these islands (St. Thomas, St. John, Santa Cruz) in the West Indies east of Puerto Rico were a Danish Colony. The population was 27,000 in 1911, and the Capital was Charlotte Amalie.

There were British post offices in the DWI from 1849-1879 with cancelled stamps from Great Britain known: all really too expensive for BB collector consideration. The Danish issues proper began in 1856. Since letter writers from the DWI never numbered more than in the hundreds, genuine used copies are generally more expensive than mint copies.

1874-79 Scott 6e 3c blue & carmine “Numerals”
Inverted Frame: compare arabesques to normal frame

Big Blue Picture
Big Blue ’97, on two pages, has 37 stamp spaces ( 31 regular, 6 postage due). The 2011 Scott Classic Specialized catalogue has 66 major number descriptions. Coverage by BB is 56%.

Nice selection by Big Blue, and I found NO additional stamps ( cutoff $5) to suggest for the Big Blue collector. That of course means the price of DWI stamps are dear. There are 25 stamps between $1+-$10. There are 12 stamps over $10+; 5 of them at or over $25. None however climb into the “most expensive” list.

Comments…
A) The 1873-79 Numeral issue is quite complex. There are many minor numbers for normal frame/inverted frame,color variations, and paper thickness. It would behoove the BB collector to be able to identify and separate the normal frame and inverted frame varieties. I include image examples in this blog of both varieties.

Also, there is an “orphan” issue of  “1873 types”, 1896-01 Scott 16-20, for which Big Blue does not provide space. Several of the stamps (1c,3c,4c,) are less expensive than Big Blue’s designated choices for the 1873-79 issue. There are perforation, color, and normal/inverted frame differences between the issues as outlined in the checklist, as well as Scott.

B) The “1902 surcharge on Numeral stamps issue” was apparently needed as the DWI used up the 2c and 8c values, and had to surcharge some 3c and 10c stamps. BB only gives room for one half of the varieties.
The 2c on 3c stamp with the “c” type surcharge is illustrated, leaving out the “d” type surcharge. Then the 8c on 10c with the “d” type surcharge is illustrated, leaving out the “c” type surcharge. Since they are rather expensive stamps ($10+-$20+), if one has the non chosen type surcharge available, putting it in anyway ( with the proper notation) is pragmatic.

C) Single color 1c, 2c,5c, & 8c “Coat of Arms” stamps in the correct color for the denomination were issued  1900-03 to satisfy the UPU requirements.

D) The stamps themselves are wonderfully engraved and/or typographed, while the postage dues are lithographed. The classic art of stamp making and design was very much alive in Denmark.

Additionals….
None

1905 Scott 35 40b red & gray Typographed 
King Christian IX

Big Blue Checklist
1873-79 Numerals ( Perf 14X13 1/2)
Scott 5: (illust) (1c green & brown red) ($20+)
Scott 6 or 6e*: 3c blue and carmine ($20+ or $10+)
Scott 7: 4c brown & dull blue ($10+)
Scott 8: 5c green & gray ($20+)
Scott 10: 10c blue & brown ($20+)
Note: minor numbers for color variations, normal frame/inverted frame, paper: see Scott for details.
*Note: 6e is inverted frame type.
Note: 1896-1901 Scott 16-20 “Type of 1873” has Perf 13. They also have somewhat different color combination, may have inverted frames, and sometimes are less expensive ( Scott 16 1c($10+), 17 3c($10+), 18 4c ($10+), ). BB excludes them by Date.

1900-03 “Coat of Arms”
21($2+),29($5+),
Two blank spaces: suggest 22($10+) & 30 ($20+)

1902 surcharge on Numeral stamps
24* ($10+) (illust: “c” surcharge)
28* ($10+) (illust. “d’ surcharge)
*Note: 24 illust excludes 27($10+), a “d” surcharge
*Note: 28 illust excludes 25($20+), a “c” surcharge

1905 King Christian IX
31,32,33,34,($2+-$5+)
Blank space: suggest 35($5+)

1908 King Frederik VIII
43,44,45($2+),46*(20+),47,49($5+),50($5+), ($1+ eN)
*Note: 46 is 20b green & blue
eN= except noted

1915-17  Christian X
51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,($2+)

Postage Due
1902 Royal Cipher “Christian 9 Rex”
J1,J2,J3,($2+-$10+)

1905-13 Numeral of value
J6,J7,J8,($2+-$5+)

1908 Scott 50 50b yellow & brown 
Frederik VIII
Frame Typographed, Center Engraved

Kinds of Blue
The ’97,’69,’47 & ’41 editions are all the same in content.

1915 Scott 54 20b green & blue 
Christian X

Big Blue Bottom Line
Big Blue has a very nice selection indeed of the DWI issues.  Be aware of the learning curve for the 1873-79 Numerals.

Note: Map appears to be in the public domain.

Not forged – but?

Class: TR

Hans Ehlern Jessen

3 pages article in English. The article reports analysis of a cover bearing a 14 Cents stamp from The Danish Westindies. Forged or manipulated?

 

Letter

Forgeries of the Argentinean Forerunner Postmarks

Class: TR

Dr. Mario D. Kurchan

3 pages article in English and in Spanish. Five covers and two letter cuts are analyzed in the article – forgeries produced from unfranked without cancels. Rubber cancels reproduced from the Knietschel catalogue issued 1958 are applied on the items.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

The papers and the different colours found in Jean de Sperati’s production of the first two issues of Newfoundland

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

11 pages article in english and in french. A scientific analysis of colour and paper used for the forgeries of Sperati.

 

Stamps

FFE #7

Portuguese Navigators

Class: TR

Pedro Marcal Vaz Pereira

A problem i Portuguese philately. 4 pages article in english. Proofs made by the stamp designer Martins Barata (Sr.) were a private print not made for the actual process of manufacturing the stamps.

 

Genuine stamp

FFE #7

Issues for the XI International Railway Congress og Spain for the year 1930 and forgeries of it

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

10 pages article in english and spanish. Article with many excellent illustrations comparing genuine and forgeries of the Issue.

 

Letter

FFE #7

New Carlisle Cover Analysis

Class: TR

Vincent Graves Greene, Philatelic Research Foundation

3 pages article in englich with illustrations of two covers including newresearch of a Carlisle cover.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Faked covers from Sicily 1859-60

Class: TR

Francesco Lombardo

8 pages article in english and italian. The author demonstrates how postal historical knowledge discloses faked covers.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

Fakes and forgeries of Australian Italy (Lombardo-Veneto) 1850-1866

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel

5 pages article in english and german. Illustrations demonstrates genuine and faked postmarks and a forgery of 10 Cents, a 12-block with four St. Andrews crosses.

 

Stamps

FFE #7

Doubtful and bogus items from Bolivia, Carpatho-Ukraine, Hungary, Latvia and USSR

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

4 pages article in english. The author gives an interesting background for various doubtful overprint issues, e.g. Hungary, Michel Nos. 598-611. Latvia, Michel Nos. 282,283,286,290 & 291 with red star overprint with initials, USSR Michel Nos. 675,679, 682 & 685 with “error” overprints.

 

Stamps

FFE #7

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

11 pages article in english, describing e.g. a faked cover with 90rs Bull’s Eye with forged cancel “ITABAPOANA”, a 90rs Bull’s Eye block of four with ink cancel and with small defects – the block appeared later as unused (ink removed) and with repaird defects.

 

Spain

FFE #7

The Last Postal Forgery, which appeared in Spain, based on a design by Joan Miró, dedicated to his friend Picasso

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarro Payá

5 pages article in english and in spanish. The article describes how the determinate the postal forgery.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

Expert

Class: Other

Jean-Francois Brun

The 25 elements that significates an expert. English and french.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Himalayan Phantasies

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

6 pages article with description and excellent illustrations of 5 covers with forged cancels. By the end of the article is a modern forgery shown, a block of 10 of the 1960 1 Rupee, Birthday of King Mahendra, Official stamp with HANDPAINTED OVERPRINT.

 

Letter

FFE #7

Forgeries of the Moscow City Post Stationery Entire

Class: TR

Zbigniew Mikulski

6 pages article in english. The article illustrates genuine as well as forged stationeries with many excellent photos.

 

Stamp

FFE #7

A. Ronald Butler

Class: TR

The Diadem Fivepence

3 pages article in english describing forgeries of imperfs, “Specimen” overprints as well as Spiro and Panelli forgeries.

 

Letter

FFE #7

 

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

Forgeries on Colombian pre-philatelic covers. 16 pages article in english and spanish. Describing the forgeries of “NEIVA” and “BUCARAMANGA” wiht many illustrations.

 

Mystery of Brazilian Parahyba provisional

FFE #8

Mystery of Brazilian Parahyba provisional

Class: Aero

Wolfgang Maassen

Taking off from an aggravating change in the renowned MICHEL Zeppelin and airmail catalogue 2002, which discontinued the listing of Brazil’s famous “Parahyba provisional”, the author, W. Maassen, traces the early history of this provisional, so important in aerophilately. By analysis of existing literature he documents its sources back to the year 1932 and discusses in this first part of a study the typical circumstances and conditions in Brazil in the early 1930’s, by way of which he refutes objections previously raised by I. Lukanc and recently repeated by D. Leder to question the authenticity of the Parahyba provisional. keywords: airmail, aerophilately, provisional, overprint, Zeppelin, Parahyba, Brazil

 

Faked postage due and registration usage of the Chinese imerial 3rd issue postcards

FFE #8

Faked postage due and registration usage of the Chinese imerial 3rd issue postcards

Class: PST

Yu-An Chen

The 3rd issues of Chinese Imperial Postcards are always hot items to the Chinese Postal Card collectors. Among the 3rd issues, the Postal Due and Registration usage are very rare and quite expensive, that made these items become the targets of forgers. The content of this article is to reveal the tricks of these forgers. Hope collectors would pay more attention and keep away from those forgeries. Key words: Forgeries of the Chinese Imperial Postcards

 

New forgeries of Colombian prephilatelic postal markings

FFE #8

New forgeries of Colombian prephilatelic postal markings

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

The article shows and explains a new type of Colombian Forgeries of pre-philatelic letters. Original entires without any postal markings from the Spanish Royal Mail period of 1775 to 1820 are marked with handpainted Bogus / Fantasy Colonial postal markings not recorded before. The enlargements of the details show clearly this “work of art” of the unknown forger.

 

Swan of duckling in Belgian philately

FFE #8

Swan of duckling in Belgian philately

Class: TR

Morten Johan Linstrup

The real date of issue for 5(+5) c Small Medallion (COB129) is shown to be, most likely, 6 October 1914, i.e. not 3 Oct 1914. (b) A seemingly non-philatelic use of 10(+10) c Small Medallion (COB130), imperforate left, is shown. (c) A cover with a forged 10(+10) c Mérode monument used – probably inadvertently – to harm the Post is shown. It is claimed that postal use of such forgeries is an overlooked particular in Belgian postal history. It is further speculated that such objects may be the earliest case to be found of forgeries to harm philatelists actually being used to harm the Post. Key Words: Belgium, Red Cross, Mérode monument, Mérode forgery, postal use of forgery

 

FIP and philatelic expertising

FFE #8

FIP and philatelic expertising

Class: Other

Tay Peng Hian

The FIP Expert Team was in action since 1990, to check for any forged items in FIP exhibitions. This article tells how the Expert Team functions, and the effect of their actions that have created more awareness of the exhibitors in buying. Key words: Detection of forged philatelic items at FIP exhibitions.

 

Iceland 1924, 10 Kr./1 Kr. Provisional with double overprint, facit catalouge no 123V.

FFE #8

Iceland 1924, 10 Kr./1 Kr. Provisional with double overprint, facit catalouge no 123V.

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

The only known Kr. 10/1 Kr. Provisional from Iceland is a FORGERY. The article illustrates why.

 

42 Penny black block

FFE #8

42 Penny black block

Class: TR

A.I.E.P

The AIEP board, refering to the news announced by Mr Paolo Vaccari and widely diffused by the Press, about discovering of a block 42 Penny Black.

 

SuperB on-peice forgeries

FFE #8

SuperB on-peice forgeries

Class: Other

Heikki Reinkainen

The article ‘Superb on piece forgeries’ deals with forgeries consisting of usually two or more stamps of various colours on piece or clipping instead of full cover forgeries found in growing quantities in the marketplace.

 

Questionable items of Bulgaria, Romania and Russia

FFE #8

Questionable items of Bulgaria, Romania and Russia

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Four separate sections to the article, covering Bulgaria and the Russian area.

 

Clandestine "Ceres" stamps from Portugal

FFE #8

Clandestine “Ceres” stamps from Portugal

Class: PH

J. Miranda da Mota

The article aims at examining thoroughly the characteristics and description of the perforated clandestine Ceres stamps from Portugal. Aspects about the genuine portuguese Ceres issues are referred to frame the subject. A special attention to the characteristics and particularities of the clandestine stamps perforation have been done in order to identifie it in comparison to the genuine ones, both with the 15×14 and with the 12×11 1/2 perforation. The article finish with a list of the clandestine Ceres stamps: face value, colour, perforation, type of gravure (with or without retouch), paper, and the correspondent issue of the genuine ones.

 

I accuse of Fraud Belgian Rural postmen between 1849 and 1860

FFE #8

I accuse of Fraud Belgian Rural postmen between 1849 and 1860

Class: PH

Leo De Clercq

” The Belgian rural postman developped a difficult to intercept system of fraud. Collected letters to distribute during the same rural round must been taxed with a minimum of 10 centimes. The received taxes of such letters are to be inscribed on the way bill. It is impossible to prove today if that is didden correctly. On the other hand, from the first years of the use of stamps: 1849-1860, I discovered rural franked letters from wich the mint stamp was taken off. In the place of them have been placed used stamps. To dissimulate the fraud these stamps have been spoiled with ink by the rural postmen . When I found in one rural archive fifteen such letters, in all the country have been thousands of them.” Key Words: Belgium – Medaillons, Fraud by rural postmen, Belgium – Rural post

 

A wake up call for Australian philately

FFE #8

A wake up call for Australian philately

Class: PH

Bernie Beston

The faking of Official perforation on Postal Stationery of the Australian States and the Commonwealth of Australia, especially Newspaper wrappers. Key Words: Perfins; Newspaper wrappers; Australian States; Commonwealth of Australia.

 

Forgerires to decieve the Canadian post office

FFE #8

Forgerires to decieve the Canadian post office

Class: PH

Richard Gratton

As in most countries, in Canada there exist numerous forgeries to deceive the post. They are sought after by specialist collectors and enthusiasts for fakes and postal frauds. Since I have been often approached by the Security Service of the Canadian Post and by the Royal Canadian Mountain Police ( RCMP ) as an expert consultant in their enquiries about certain forgeries, I think it will be of interest if I share some information with the readers of Fakes Forgeries Experts (FFE) and my colleagues in the International Association of Experts in Philately (A.I.E.P.) This article list all Canadian forgeries know to defraud the Canadian postal system. Key Words: CANADIAN POSTAL FORGERIES, POSTAL FRAUDS

 

The �Brighton� Forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir

FFE #8

The “Brighton” Forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The so-called ‘Brighton’ forgeries were produced between 1902 and 1907 by Harold Treherne. The forgeries were made by photographically transferring the design of the originals to a zinc printing plate. The Brighton forger imitated numerous stamps of the Indian States, and British Colonies, but his earliest and most famous forgeries are those of Jammu and Kashmir. The author tells the story of these imitations and adds a very detailed check list of the numerous Brighton forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir.

 

New dangerous forgeries and Czech philately

FFE #8

New dangerous forgeries and Czech philately

Class: TR

Frantisek Benes

The article introduces new dangerous forgeries of Czechoslovak as well as foreign stamps that appeared on the Czechoslovak market after 1989, very often in connection with the import of stamps from abroad to the Czech lands. The article discusses repaired stamps from the U.S. collections, as well as various stamps printed in the 1970s from misused original stocks or plates. However, its main theme is the recent discovery of dangerous forgeries of overprints on the stamps of Czechoslovakia, Germany, Wrtenberg, Danzig and Saare, Zara, Elsass and Vilnius. The forgeries of the 1932 German stamp with the overprint flaw 12 + 3 Rdf are also discussed. Many of the forgeries have certificates of genuineness from both former Czech and foreign experts. The article is supplemented by a brief history of stamp collecting and organized philately in the Czech lands since the 1870s, and comments on a changing profile of Czech stamp market. Key Words: Czech philately – Forgeries of stamps – Overprints – Czechoslovak stamps – German stamps

 

Fakes of the Swiss telegraph stamps

FFE #8

Fakes of the Swiss telegraph stamps

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel

Faked cancellations on Swiss Telegraph stamps exist due to the fact that huge remainders of mint sheets were sold in 1887 and cancelled after their validity period (Dec 31, 1886) partly using the original cancelling devices. Thanks to the carefully kept records of dates and condition upon receipt when these were returned to the PTT in Berne, in most cases we can prove if the Swiss Telegraph stamps were cancelled during their validity period or not. If this was done fraudulently afterwards, we have to call them fakes even if the Telegraph stamps are original and the cancellation done with the same canceller as used during the validity period. Genuine and faked ones with the same cancellation are illustrated in order to teach the reader how to detect the fakes. Key Words: Swiss Telegraph stamps Remainders Faked cancellations Albert Auberson PTT Records “Stempelkontrolle”

 

This is a dangerous forgery of the special cancellation used on the Allahabad to Naini Junction flight on the 18th February 1911. It is backstamped Allahabad 18 FE 11 and Bombay Fort 20 FE 11, both forgeries. The genuine Allahabad cancellation of this period has a series of breaks in the outer rings. This is a doctored half anna postal stationary envelope which never went through any post-flown or otherwise.

FFE #8

Allahabad – Naini flight 1911 forged post mark of world´s first official airmail

Class: Aero

Pradip Jain

A special Postmark was applied on the historical world’s first official airmail flight on 18th Feb. 1911 from Allahabad to Naini. The forgery of this famous Postmark also exist.

 

Fakes and forgeries of Slovenia 15 and 20 kronen

FFE #8

Fakes and forgeries of Slovenia 15 and 20 kronen

Class: TR

Per Friis Mortensen

Description of the “Padevet forgeries” and the “Sunday printings”.

 

Review of the "Degron-kun Covers". French/Japanese combination covers

FFE #8

Review of the “Degron-kun Covers”. French/Japanese combination covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Definition and description covers with mixed frankings

 

On the expertising of Postage Stamps. Advice for collectors with historical review on forgeries and experts

FFE #8

On the expertising of Postage Stamps. Advice for collectors with historical review on forgeries and experts

Class: TR

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Ferchenbauer

Description of various types of forgeries, improvements etc. Methods of expertising, signing, identification of false stamps and description of quality. English and German text.

 

 Falsification of the so-called "St. Gottard Post Card"

FFE #8

Falsification of the so-called “St. Gottard Post Card”

Class: TR

Georges Schild

The history about the faked Jubilee post card, printed by Sachs and Homberger, Zurich and sold by Pieper, Berlin.

 

The "300 LIEPAJA 300" special postmark also forged

FFE #8

The “300 LIEPAJA 300” special postmark also forged

Class: TR

Harry von Hoffman

The “300 LIEPAJA 300” special postmark also forged.

 

Great Britain King George VI letterpress postal stationery impressions

FFE #8

Great Britain King George VI letterpress postal stationery impressions

Class: Other

Alan Huggins

Illustrates and describes the philatelically produved Great Britain, King George VI letterpress stamped to order postal stationery dies struck on various colured paper which are often offered as proofs.

 

Notes on the "Green Post" of 1921

FFE #8

Notes on the “Green Post” of 1921

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

More frequently on the philatelic market, especially in Internet, counterfeits of the stamps of Ghetto Litzmannstadt (Lodz) appear. Some of these fabrications, also on entires, are described. One should be warned of purchasing. The history of the so-called insurrection-fieldpost, Green Post, Upper Silesia 1920 is discussed critically and the handling of the theme in catalogues. Last a pr ocedure for expertizing of non-official issues will be introduced.

 

Typical "Album Weeds"

FFE #1

Fakes Forgeries Experts

Class: TR

A. Ronald Butler

A brief outline of FFE taxonomy, with examples: A faked stamp is a genuine stamp that has been altered with a view to enhancing its philatelic value. A forged stamp is a fraudulent imitation of a genuine stamp, overprint, surcharge or postal obliteration. The term “Expert” may apply to individuals as well as committees.

 

Stamp with cuts

FFE #1

Wondrous transformations

Class: TR

Albert Louis and Karl Albert Louis

Thirty-four illustrated and annotated examples (22 Great Britain, 12 Netherlands) of manipulations of rare classic material. Evidence is mainly gathered by comparative study of auction catalogues, old and new. Even unique and beautiful items are demonstrably “improved”. Various types of manipulations are shown.

 

Letter from Ostroleka

FFE #1

Postal fraud in tsarist Russia

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski

Classic Russia and Poland (no.1). Thirty-one illustrated examples of postal fraud, including triple use of a stamp. With historical and geographical context notes. Fraudulent re-use (removed ink cancellation, etc), 18 examples. Plus postal forgeries, 13 examples with different types and places of production and use of early 20th century forgeries of 7 k. and 70 kopeck, and 3.50 rubles.

 

Miscarried cancellation of a sheet

FFE #1

A rare stamp that should not be in existence

Class: TR

Emil Rellstab

PRO AERO 1938, 75 rappen, un-used ! – The cover article explains the background of the issue and how, rarely and only by mistake, a few copies of this stamp escaped cancellation. A forgery of the overprint is also described and shown.

 

10d undated

FFE #1

Mutton dressed as lamb

Class: TR

Alain Huggins

A warning for GB embossed stamps 1847-1854 imitated by manipulation of telegraph forms and stamped to order postal stationery imprinted with similar dies. A particular note of skepticism concerning the ‘die 5’ of 10d, which may be non-existent. Even certificated copies could all be cut from postal stationery.

 

Type 2

FFE #1

Forgeries of the second issue of Tibet

Class: TR

Wolfgang C. Hellrigl

Description and illustration of forged 4 tangka blue and 8 tangka red issue of 1914 (or perhaps 1920) in sheets of six. Nine different types appearing 1957-1992 (and a total of 39 distinct clichés). – By far, the classic Tibetan issue least plagued by forgeries !

 

Typographic forgeries

FFE #1

Recent Hong Kong forgeries

Class: TR

Andrew M. T. Cheung

1891 “Jubilee” overprint; mint Q. Victoria 4c; inverted watermarks; Q. Victoria 18c Wm. Crown CC; 1948 $10 silver wedding; 1990’s “mystery” missing yellows; SPECIMENs; THREE on 5c on 18c postcard; QE Annigoni $10 glazed paper w. PVA gum; treaty port postmarks; modern postmarks – even FDC’s.

 

Illustration from Otto Hornung

FFE #1

I got caught more than once

Class: TR

Otto Hornung

Personal experiences with repaired “1914 Sultans” of Turkey. A warning that probably manipulated covers are the main problems in Turkish philately. Since postal rates were little known, for long fakers had rich opportunity to “improve” covers by adding interesting stamps. Today, one must be wary of such covers.

 

Photo credits: Francese Graus

FFE #1

Forgeries and literature in the electronic era

Class: TR

Charles J. Peterson

An argument and a call for FIP and/or AIEP to establish a centralised web page with information on forgeries. With illustrations and examples from the commendable Spanish [Barcelona] “Graus-web”, to be found [01/2006] at http://graus.com/pral.asp

 

Corrected design

FFE #1

New Zealand 1996 “Teddy Bear” health stamps

Class: TR

Colin G. Capill

Story of how the 40c health stamp 1996 was recalled (and replaced) three weeks before issue because the original design depicted an illegal position of a child seat in a car. A few stamps with the erroneous design were inadvertantly sold. The status of the miniature sheet with the incorrect design, however, is “not officially issued” as it was never sold “over the counter”.

 

Advertisement of Hamilton's Continental Balloon Post

FFE #1

We need postal history expertisers

Class: TR

Ernst M. Cohn

A philosophically inclined article emphasizing challenges of postal history expertising. Subtitles: The improved cover – The bogus cover – The genuine cover – Expertizing covers – Conclusions. – Statement that experts too often fail to recognize grey (as opposed to back and white) situations where it is right to say “No opinion”, or “Yes, but…”.

 

The "T", (front)

FFE #1

Postage due handstamps of Malta – fakes

Class: TR

Anthony Fenech

Description and illustration of forged ½d and 7d postage due handstamps. Genuine use of those denominations is still unknown, but faked letters from the ‘Matteo Tabone e figli’ correspondence have surfaced with forged ½d and 7d postage due handstamps.

 

Illustration from Andrew Cronin

FFE #1

Russian varieties are not always what they seem

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Description and illustration of how double perforated and partially imperforate (“fantail”) stamps from Russia/USSR have arisen. A warning that systematic “improvement” of fantails has taken place to produce all imperforate stamps with margins, typically by cutting away the partial three-sided perforation. Very few USSR stamps genuinely exist completely imperforate.

 

Exhibited cover Pacific 97

FFE #1

Forged cancellations used on cover Dutch East Indies, made by R. E. P. Maier, found in the PTT Museum, The Hague, Netherlands

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

Description and illustration of forged “prephilatelic” JAVA GENERAL POST OFFICE BATAVIA DOL=LORS STY=VERS and JAVA POST OFFICE SAMARANG DOL=LORS STY=VERS cancellations deriving from R. E. P. Maier (tried and convicted in 1963).

 

Area of Penny Black

FFE #1

1 May 1840 – The story of an investigation

Class: TR

Patrick C. Pearson

Story of how the 1 May 1840 lettersheet from the Smith correspondence was examined in 1997 by philatelic and forensic experts and finally declared authentic by the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London in the face of two previous submissions (1978 and 1992) having yielded the opposite result. P. Holcombe and BPA already believed it to be genuine in 1992.

 

Original

FFE #1

Belgique – Falsification de marque postales

Class: TR

Leo De Clercq

Arched AFFR INSUFF handstamps on classic Belgian covers. Forged and genuine examples.

 

Christiania 6/7-1888

FFE #1

The only forgery I detected myself

Class: TR

Paul H. Jensen

A faked overprint on the rare 1888 Norwegian 3/5 öre postal stationery reply paid (“double”) postcard (believed to have a genuine circulation of only 50 cards printed). The forgery is believed to be old and a copy has been found in collections in each of Belgium and Germany.

 

Comparison of forged  stamp

FFE #1

“Gronchi Rosa”

Class: TR

Giorgio Colla Asinelli

A dangerous forgery of the L. 205 “Gronchi Rosa” from 1961.

 

Graph of a fake dating ca 1940-1965

FFE #1

How are the philatelic experts organised in the FIP member federations?

Class: TR

Paolo Vollmeier

Results of a questionnaire. Summary of ten questions answered by 56 national philatelic federations.

 

Graph of a fake dating ca 1940-1965

FFE #1

New methods to identify fakes

Class: TR

Paolo Vollmeier

Mass spectrographic examination as applied to handstamps, forged and genuine, on prephilatelic letters from Italy, notably Venezia. With 22 illustrations.

 

Company stamp of Francois Fournier

FFE #1

The Fournier Collection at the Museum of Communication in Berne

Class: TR

Jean-Claude Lavanchy

Who was Francois Fournier? – Was he a counterfeiter, or not? – What do we know about his company’s history? – With nine illustrations and some transcriptions of letters (in French).

 

Siam: 1 Att on 2 Atts, 1889

FFE #1

FIAP expert teams working at Asian international stamp exhibitions 1996-1997

Class: TR

Tay Peng Hian

Findings from TAIPEI ’96 and HONG KONG ’97. With nine illustrations and further recommendations.

 

Litzmannstadt/Lodz Ghetto Fabrications

FFE #9

The Litzmannstadt/Lodz ghetto fabrications

Class: PH

Heinz-Erwin Jungjohann

In a short presentation some fabrications of the Litzmannstadt/Lodz ghetto-post are described. These are in circulation at the moment, but the article warns against purchasing.

 

The Philatelic Manipulations of Viktor Indra

FFE #9

The philatelic manipulations of Viktor Indra

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

The late Viktor Indra was a Czech postal historian, who had an interest in receiving self-addressed and franked envelopes and postcards from out-of-the-way countries and territories in the period from the 1930s until well into the 1980s. The article shows examples of the mail he received from the Tuvan Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic and from the Carpatho-Ukraine in the transition period of 1944-1945, when that former Czech province was being liberated by the Soviet Army in World War II. He thus received extremely interesting postal history usages from both Tuva and the Carpatho-Ukraine and it is greatly to be regretted that Mr. Indra had a most unfortunate tendency to “improve upon” the envelopes and postcards he received, by later adding or modifying registration labels and cachets, as well as inserting addresses on mail that never went through the Post. The information set out in the article by Andrew Cronin FRPSL, TM, will help postal historians to separate out the items, which had been manipulated by Mr. Indra

 

Fouraustrian military postal letters dated 1866, all to good to be true

FFE #9

Four Austrian military postal letters dated 1866, all to good to be true

Class: PH

Lorenzo Carra

The Author, narrates one of his early acquisitions, which didn’t convince him totally even then, and proceeds to tell about later experiences with some letters, supposedly written during the Italian 3°War of Indipendence 1866, from the Austian Military Post, a question on which the Author deals thoroughly in his esteemed publication, “1866 La Liberazione del Veneto.” Certain letters, stamped “K.K FELD POST EXPOS N.4”, have resulted in being false. L.C. documents and motivates his considerations regarding the various methods of counterfeiting. Due to this experience, which has taught the Author much, fearing that more of these false letters made in the 40,s or50,s should come onto the market,he has forwarned collectors that at certain prices things can be, too good to be true!

 

The scientific microscope for fighting forgeries in philately

FFE #9

The scientific microscope for fighting forgeries in philately

Class: Other

Prof. Dr. U.E. Klein

Scientific light- and UV-microscopes with magnification more than 400 times are new tools for examining the highly varying micro-composition and pigment-microstructures of printer’s dyes on stamps and dye mixtures of post markers. Illumination coming from the back side of the objects and transversing the paper is the secret. Examining the structures and not functional behaviour of printer’s dyes is the aim of this technique. Examples of newly discriminated excellent forgeries are given. Keywords: Transmission microscopy, Overprint forgeries, Microstructure of printer’s dyes

 

Detecting fakes by checking the postal rate

FFE #9

Detecting fakes by checking the postal rate

Class: TR

James Van der Linden

The overview concerns the basic information on conservation and artifact restoration of philatelic items to restore the cover to the state it was in when sent, and how far can one go i.e. what is legitimate as against improvements for gain of money. Furthermore is mentioned the list of possibilities of restoration, some tolerated, some bordering on forgeries. The conclusion deals with other forms of protection e.g. sunshine damage in exhibition rooms, and supplementary added inscriptions on the covers. Key words: Paper conservation – artifact restoration – original state of covers.

 

The counterfeits of the first hellenic olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906

FFE #9

The counterfeits of the first Hellenic Olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906

Class: TR

Michalis E. Tsironis

Presentation on the counterfeits of the Hellenic Olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906. Specific importance and research on the 1906 issue, especially on the ΣΤΑΔΙΟΝ (ON ~ 1.2 mm) and ΣΤΑΔΙΟ Ν (ON ~ 2.2 mm) postmarks. Keywords: 1906, Olympic Games, Counterfeits, Forgeries

 

Postage dues and fakes

FFE #9

Postage dues and fakes

Class: PH

Michèle Chauvet

A lot of forgeries can be identified if philatelists have a little knwoledge about postal history. About a french postage due stamp, one caracteristic example: from a very ordinary letter somebody has made a wonderful, but impossible one. Keys words : French Postage due – forgery

 

Some brazilian fakes and forgeries

FFE #9

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

The article deals with fakes with Swedish cancellation marls and the use of Normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes. During more than 30 years, I have served as an expert-member of the Philatelic Expert-committee in Sweden. The committee works on a mandate from the board of the Swedish Philatelic Federation. As an expert, I have documented manipulations and false use of Swedish postal cancels. In this article, I will publish some of the results from this documentation Keywords: Normal-cancellation 59, Normal-cancellation 60, Normal-cancellation 61, Normal-cancellation 59G

 

Fakes with swedish cancellation marks & the use of normal swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes

FFE #9

Fakes with Swedish cancellation marks & the use of normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

The article deals with fakes with Swedish cancellation marls and the use of Normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes. During more than 30 years, I have served as an expert-member of the Philatelic Expert-committee in Sweden. The committee works on a mandate from the board of the Swedish Philatelic Federation. As an expert, I have documented manipulations and false use of Swedish postal cancels. In this article, I will publish some of the results from this documentation. Keywords: Normal-cancellation 59, Normal-cancellation 60, Normal-cancellation 61, Normal-cancellation 59G

 

New studies of oneglia/panelli engaved forgeries

FFE #9

New studies of Oneglia/Panelli engraved forgeries

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Panelli’s finishing touches on Oneglia’s engraved forgeries can sometimes be detected by the perforations, cancellations, surcharges and even gum. Panelli apparently acquired a fairly large portion of the Oneglia stock in an unfinished state, but lacked Oneglia’s tools for finishing the forgeries. New and different ones were used. In a few cases the perforation can be used to identify lithographed forgeries as having been made by Oneglia. Key words: Oneglia and Panelli Revisited

 

A cover that started a career in expertizing

FFE #9

A cover that started a career in expertizing

Class: PH

Robert P. Odenweller

A cover from the Burrus sale of 43 years ago was combined with a stamp from the same sale by a Parisian dealer and offered for sale only a few years later by a different dealer in London. Anomalies in rate and cancellations raised suspicions that proved it fake. The analysis involved led to an interest in the whole process of expertizing, which has continued to this day. Key words: New Zealand via Marseilles David Feldman

 

Circumstantial evidence can help authenticate one-of-a-kind items

FFE #9

Circumstantial evidence can help authenticate one-of-a-kind items

Class: PH

Fred F. Gregory

Unique items present difficult challenges for expert examiners asked to determine authenticity. This article explores how circumstantial evidence can be used to confirm findings based on physical evidence to arrive at a confident decision. A unique local cover sent in 1864 from one island to another in Hawaii was authenticated using other examples from the same correspondence, examples of handwriting, postal practices gleaned from the examination of other covers and physical evidence consistent with authenticity. Keywords: Hawaii; Honolulu; Bishop; Gulick; postmarks

 

The desirable authenticity of manufacture

FFE #9

The desirable authenticity of manufacture

Class: TR

Morten Johan Linstrup

Philatelists tend to scorn and avoid manufactured items. This article purpose to show that there may be a real place in philately for certain such objects. Two cases are presented. Firstly, in traditional philately, a manufactured – but clearly genuine – setting may lend credibility to a difficult stamp, the authenticity of which may otherwise be tricky to ascertain (Figure 1). Secondly, within postal history, a manufactured context may even be needed (sic) to properly tell right from wrong when observance of postal regulations was lax.

 

Expertizing the 15th example of the sutherland stamp

FFE #9

Expertizing the 15th example of the Sutherland stamp

Class: TR

Dr. Kauzuyuki Inoue MD

What are Sutherland Stamps? “Sutherland” is a name of a Yokohama-based company carrying mail and passengers with stage coach service between Yokohama and Tokyo in 1871, just before the inauguration of the Japanese Governmental Postal System. The company issued two kinds of local stamps: 1/2 Boo and 1 Boo. This time, the 15th example of Sutherland stamp was discovered and sold in an auction in November 2003. It was submitted to the Philatelic Museum for expertizing prior to the Auction, and our Expert Committee reached the conclusion that the stamp is genuine and it was recognized as the 15th example of the Sutherland stamp or the 8th example of the 1/2 Boo stamp. We introduce optical analysis by computer for our expertizing procedure. Key words: James Wilson Sutherland, Sutherland & Company, Philatelic Museum Expert Committee, Japan Philatelic Society Foundation scanner

 

An attractive use of british postal stationery in Beyrout?

FFE #9

An attractive use of British postal stationery in Beyrout?

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

The article provides a warning to collectors to double-check cancellations to ensure they are consistent with use of both adhesive stamps and postal stationery. In the case illustrated replacement stamp has been added to British registration envelope used in Beirut.

 

1948 Israel's first coins 3 mils perforated 10X10 fakes

FFE #9

1948 Israel’s first coins 3 mils perforated 10X10 fakes

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

1948 Israel’s First Coins – 3 mils perforated 10×10 Fakes: The article gives details about the printing and the sale of the #1 – 3 mils perforated 10×10. 540 tabbed stamps were issues of which only appx. 100 assumed to have survived, making it one of Israel’s rarest stamp. The vast majority of the stamps offered on the market are Fakes. Shown are all the known types of the Fakes.

 

Conservation, preservation and restoration. C P R. In philately how far?

FFE #9

Conservation, preservation and restoration. C P R. In philately how far?

Class: TR

John C West

A postal stationery post card issued in 1901 which since that time has been affixed to a page in an official collection. The illustration shows the browning effect of the high acidic level in the post card and its transfer to an adjoining page. The British Library, Philatelic Collections: The Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection.

 

How to look after your collection - A basic guide

FFE #9

How to look after your collection – a basic guide

Class: TR

David R Beech

The article treats forgeries, created by adding or replacing stamps on covers, to make them more attractive i.e. more expensive. The replacements of defected or inexpensive stamps or adding’s to upgrade stampless covers, are illustrated. The range of the shown, commented forgeries starts with Belgium with further examples of Germany and the United States. The given advice concerns a profound knowledge of the use and sense of transit markings, routes and rates of the area of specialisation. Key words: faked covers by adding’s or replacements.

 

Large hermes heads: Counterfeits of the so-called mixed frankings or combination covers

FFE #9

Large Hermes heads: Counterfeits of the so-called mixed frankings or combination covers

Class: PH

Wolfgang Bauer & Michael Tseriotis

Combination Covers are those with stamps of two or more countries and so fare not common at all. Greece was the only country in Europe using normal Large Hermes Head stamps as postage dues – other countries mark only the open amount on the coverfront. A lot of fakes were produced since long time to please the other collectors and the own pocket. Because of the complicated rates and regulations fakes were mostly accepted as correct! In this postal historian research is at the first time shown which Combination Covers are correct and why and which are faked or produced.

 

Forgeries to deceive the canadian post office part 2

FFE #9

Forgeries to deceive the canadian post office part 2

Class: Other

Richard Gratton

This is the second part of an article started with FFE #8 on postal forgeries to defraud the Canadian Post Office. All know forgeries are described and technical information is given to permit the reader to understand the basic differences between the genuine stamps and forgeries. Two recent forgeries are described and show how extremely competent forgers can reproduce almost exactly self adhesive postage stamp (including fluorescent tagging). Key words: Postal forgeries

 

The Helsingør letter with NK 1,3 and 5 is manipulated

FFE #9

The Helsingør letter with NK 1,3 and 5 is manipulated

Class: TR

Finn Aune

“Combination cover with Norway no.1 and Oscar was manipulated. The cover, which represent the quite common 15 sk postage to Denmark, was regarded as unique because of the combined franking with Norway no.1 together with other stamps. Despite the fact that the cover has been well known for decades and has been shown as highlights in exhibition collections, it has now been discovered to be a fake. It is the expert of Norwegian philately, Finn Aune, who through thorough investigation has detected and proved that the Norway no.1 had never belonged to the cover at all. It is very rare that long time recognized showpieces of this kind later proves itself to be manipulated. At this moment there is only known one genuine combination cover with Norway no.1 (together 8 sk Oscar) and one piece (together with 4 sk Oscar).”

 

Engraved Forgeries � Identifying the forger

FFE #4

Engraved Forgeries – Identifying the forger

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Engraving has been used less frequently than other means for producing forgeries. Most forgers have not made engraved forgeries of the same stamps, and it is possible, but not always, to identify individual forgers. The article reviews forgers including Jeffryes, Oneglia, Wada Kotaro, Gebrüder Senf, Cividini, and Winter, and their work. The piece concludes with notes on the forgeries of octagonal issues of Ceylon by Jeffryes and Oneglia.

 

New South Wales. The twopence 'EMU' postal forgery

FFE #4

New South Wales. The twopence ‘EMU’ postal forgery

Class: TR

A. Ronald Butler R.D.P.

A forgery recognised first as a variety in 1897, and despite its shortcomings, listed unpriced as a perforation variety by Stanley Gibbons for almost fifty years. Unlike the genuine two penny Emu, the forgery is lithographed and printed on unwatermarked paper. It is scarcer, but not rare, and it is worth 1000 times more than the genuine stamp. The writer reviews the genuine stamps and then examines the forgery. Means of identification are shown, and the perpetrator considered. No unused examples are recorded, and all bear genuine postmarks between March and May 1895. Based on a study of 25 examples, all are likely to have originated from post offices in Sydney. These are listed.

 

The forgeries of the classic stamps of Hungary

FFE #4

The forgeries of the classic stamps of Hungary

Class: PH

Gábor Visnyovski

Hungary used stamps designed and produced in Austria when they were first used in the Dual Monarchy. In 1871 stamps were issued valid only in Hungary, first printed in litho, and later in the same year, in recess. The same design, printed in letterpress was used for postal stationery, but a small issue of envelopes was printed in litho, and these were in use for a few months. The author considers forged handstamps on pre-stamp material, forged Tokay roulettes and bisects, and Hungarian cancellations on the 1867 issue. The characteristics of litho and recess printing are discussed, and forgeries in litho, distinguished by the regularity of their perforations, and made from postal stationery are examined. The forged 2 Kreutzer litho made from postal stationery is referred to and distinguished from the genuine. There is a recommended literature list.

 

Novelties from the forgery workshop

FFE #4

Novelties from the forgery workshop

Class: PH

Rolf-Dieter Jaretsky R.D.P.

Fakes made from original material with additions are dangerous; the military post of the Second World War is no exception. The author inspected two items at an auction before inspecting the rest of a large consignment of military mail at an auction. Suspecting that 50% was doubtful, he bought the entire consignment with a right to return it if false, and submitted it to Hanfried Müller, an expert who declared all items to be fakes. These included winter parcels, airmail express cards, Danzig post and service marks, and airmail authorisation stamps. Items showed postmarks sharing the same date, and similar characteristics, from different units, and examples of the faking process are shown.

 

The manipulation of Czechoslovak Siberian legion material

FFE #4

The manipulation of Czechoslovak Siberian legion material

Class: PH

Andrew Cronin

In 1919 three stamps inscribed VOJENSKÁ POŠTA were produced for the Czechoslovak Siberian legion, in denominations of 25 and 50 kopecs and 1 rouble. They were unnecessary since military mail passed free. The circumstances of mail produced by the legion are described. Since some cards carried no markings, they were later improved with genuine cachets and stamps, and also complete fabrications were made. Additional stamps and surcharges were also made at the time. The author records the range of abuse and malpractice in a comprehensive article, and examines the actions of Captain Antonín Novotný and J. Rössler-Oàovský. Addresses appearing on manipulated material are shown.

 

Three unusual covers

FFE #4

Three unusual covers

Class: TR

Herbert H Moll

Coincidence can give rise to suspicion. Three Peruvian covers are described. Two have serially adjacent certificate numbers, one from 1858 is thought to have a suspect postmark, another from 1873 may be good, and a third has the same postmark as the second, but from 1872. The problem is that all have identical handwriting although there is fifteen years between the first and the last.

 

Norway local post forgeries

FFE #4

Norway local post forgeries

Class: PH

Björn A Schöyen

Local posts flourished in Norway until 1888 when the Norwegian Post Office was granted a monopoly. The last local post closed in 1913. In Norway there was a collector and self appointed expert with superb material, a high reputation, and a great deal of knowledge. At the end of 1990 three Norwegian philatelists discussed the increasing number of previously unknown local postal history items. An obviously manipulated item was discovered, the police were involved, an investigation took place, a trial ensued, followed by a large fine and a confiscated collection. Over 100 faked handstamps are known, and an example of a manipulated item is dissected. Be wary of high priced local post items, and disregard certificates issued by H. Aarbogh.

 

Ægean islands 1912-1922: an overview and brief survey of forged overprints

FFE #4

Ægean islands 1912-1922: an overview and brief survey of forged overprints

Class: TR

Giorgio Migliavacca

Libia, Rodi, Simi, Cos, Stampalia, Calimno, Caso, Lipso, Patmos, Piscopi, Nsiros, Scarpanto, Leros and Karki. Overprints on Italian stamps (2c, 5c, 10c, 15c, 25c, 40c, and 50c) were made for Libya, and for the Dodecanese Islands in 1912. Discounted pricing in the Dodecanese is discussed, as is the production and high quality of the overprints. To meet philatelic demand large quantities were produced, and following strong demand further overprinting took place with no reduction in quality. The issue of the stamps, subsequent overprints and the actions of the Italian post office are examined. Forgeries date from the late 1920s to the 1950s, and since the material is generally inexpensive, it appears they were intended for the packet market. Extensive illustration and exposition follows covering twenty pages.

 

A miracle: Wenden No I �on cover�

FFE #4

A miracle: Wenden No I “on cover”

Class: PH

Harry v Hofman BPP FRPSL

From 1862, and not Wenden number 1. This stamp inscribed WENDEN’sche KREIS-BRIEF POST in blue and white was a trial. Essay, proofs or other trials have been seen in black on pink. A cover was offered to an auction house with the supposed “Essay”, postmarked Wenden and Riga. Close examination reveals the date to be 1875. The errors made by the forger are listed, and the “Essay” shown to be from a coloured label commemorating the 100th anniversary of Wenden stamps. Item withdrawn.

 

The forged �Nationen� covers

FFE #4

The forged “Nationen” covers

Class: PH

Egil H Thomassen R.D.P.

Norwegian airmail covers bearing the red handstamp BEFORDRET pr. NATIONENS FLYVEPOST Kr-sand – Kr-a 19-21 JUNI 1920 were flown from Kristiansand to Kristiania and are found postmarked 19th-21st June 1920. Others marked BEFORDRET pr. NATIONENS FLYVEPOST Kr-a – Kr- sand 19-21 JUNI 1920 are found mainly in violet, with a few in red. In 1941 the auctioneer of OslofilatelistKlubb became suspicious of a cover handed in for sale. Examining five covers revealed four forgeries and the trail led to an individual who was prosecuted and found not guilty of acting illegally for monetary gain. It is not certain how many such covers were produced and the writer details how the forgeries can be identified.

 

Forgery (marked with faux) and falsification of the Europa-Cept-Andorra (Spanish) Mi.No. 71, issue year 1972

FFE #4

Forgery (marked with faux) and falsification of the Europa-Cept-Andorra (Spanish) Mi.No. 71, issue year 1972

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Andorra issued a EUROPA-CEPT stamp in 1972. Following speculation the price rose and forgeries were produced. The forgeries are line perforated, and printed in offset litho, contrary to genuine stamps. FDC marked FAUX have had this removed and are offered on the philatelic market. The article describes the distinctions between genuine and forged items.

 

Forged postmark on the Saar miniature sheets 1 and 2 of 1948

FFE #4

Forged postmark on the Saar miniature sheets 1 and 2 of 1948

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

A wide margin between prices of mint and genuinely cancelled examples of the Flood Disaster Relief Fund miniature sheets from 1948 encourage the forger. The article demonstrates simple tests which distinguish between forged and genuine examples.

 

Indonesia � are all inverted and double overprints indicated in catalogues genuine?

FFE #4

Indonesia – are all inverted and double overprints indicated in catalogues genuine?

Class: TR

Giel J. Bessels, Peter F.A. van de Loo

The Netherlands expert committee was asked to examine overprints from the republican Indonesian period from 1945-49 on the 10 cent stamp of the Dutch East Indies bearing the crowned head of Queen Wilhelmina. The two types of this stamp are described as are the overprints on the same stamp during the Japanese occupation from 1942-45. Double and inverted overprints appeared in 1983. In 1998 examples were submitted to the Dutch expert committee who concluded that they were forgeries. More have been discovered since, and the details of the forgeries and their distinction from genuine stamps are set out.

 

Expertising Postal History

FFE #4

Expertising Postal History

Class: PH

Edric Charles Druce

In considering expert groups advising juries at World and FIAP exhibitions the writer asks questions about items of postal history. Does it look right, is the stamp genuine and is the rate right are three important questions. Four covers are considered in this context, Jeffryes’ forged Sydney views, an eight pence Laureate which is genuine but doesn’t belong, and analysis of a certificate follow. The writer is disturbed where certificates of genuineness are issued to genuine items for the wrong reasons and with the wrong postal history conclusions. Two items from Australia to the United Kingdom are considered in this context.

 

Provenance is a guarantee of authenticity. True or False?

FFE #4

Provenance is a guarantee of authenticity. True or False?

Class: PH

Charles J.G. Verge, FRPSC

Inclusion in great collections of the past does not guarantee that an item is genuine. A double weight cover with two genuine six pence stamps (Scott and SG #2) sent from Canada to New York in 1851 was expertised in 1997 and 1998, and one of the stamps was certificated as not belonging. It had been in a series of star collections. A second item described as posted on 2nd February 1855 with twelve six pence (Scott #5), and in three “great” collections, is shown to be from 1858. The writer urges collectors to have a questioning mind, and to seek expertising before an expert team requests it.

 

The small queens of Canada � examples of good and bad

FFE #4

The small queens of Canada – examples of good and bad

Class: PH

Charles J.G. Verge, FRPSC

Examples of bisected and imperforate Small Queen issues of Canada are shown. The bisected two cents from 1886 was unauthorised, but is good. The imperforate 2 cents used in 1897, might be right, but isn’t. Certificates are required for all unusual usages for this issue.

 

Sicily 1859-60. A fake cover and four genuine ones

FFE #4

Sicily 1859-60. A fake cover and four genuine ones

Class: PH

Francesco Lombardo, AISP MRPSL

A Ferdinand II cover from Sicily to Florence is shown with a five Grana vermilion stamp. The canceller, the postmark, the rate and the ink are all wrong. There was no ship on the date in question, and there should have been postage due. The cover is discussed and four genuine items are illustrated and explained .

 

Postmarks. Genuine, false, or both?

FFE #4

Postmarks. Genuine, false, or both?

Class: TR

Erwin Steinbrüchel

With reference to Switzerland, but acknowledging that his conclusions must be true for other countries, the author considers postmarks. He distinguishes between postmarks which served a genuine postal purpose, and “postmarks” printed on stamps for philatelic purposes. The latter may be contemporary or backdated, and different ink may be used. Forged and faked postmarks are addressed including those made by ink jet printer or photocopier. Extensive description and illustration, accompanied by discussion of the characteristics of printed postmarks is supplemented by proposals on pricing items cancelled for purposes which were not postal.

 

New fakes on the Italian market

FFE #4

New fakes on the Italian market

Class: TR

Georgio Colla Asinelli

Dangerously deceptive forgeries of Italian stamps are illustrated. These include the 20 Centesimi green wedding issue of the Kingdom of Italy, and others, which are described. The technique of the forger involves bleaching low values in the same size and perforation, and printing on the resulting blank paper. The writer refers to forgeries of French stamps emanating from the same print shop.

 

About the double overprints of Poland � Michel 131 DD

FFE #4

About the double overprints of Poland – Michel 131 DD

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

The methodology for the 1919 overprinting of Mi. 99, the 7½ Pfennig Germania stamp, with new values and Poczta Polska in Posen to produce Mi. 130, 131 and 132 is described. The consequential double overprints are explained. The types and plating the stamps is described, and Mi. 131DD is divided into two types.

 

Genuine � but what?

FFE #4

Genuine – but what?

Class: PH

Ernst M. Cohn

The writer distinguishes expertising stamps from expertising postal history. In the latter case two otherwise identical covers may in fact be quite different. With reference to mail carried by smuggler, mail cart, balloon, and by diplomat from Paris in the siege of 1870, and by courier from Budapest to Aachen or air and submarine from the USA to Germany in the First World War, the postal history of a series of covers is revealed. Expertising covers, in the sense of extracting their true postal history, demands broad knowledge, art and science. Experts like these deserve the highest philatelic esteem.

 

The �Chameleon� cover

FFE #4

The ‘Chameleon’ cover

Class: PH

Peter Meyer

Three Brazilian covers with 90 Réis Bulls Eye and PARANAGUÁ cancels are described. The first is from 1973 sold as genuine but described by an expert subsequently as a creation to deceive collectors. A second, which may be the same, was sold in the same year. In 1988 a third appeared, and on expertising was described as a fake. In 1991 the same cover came into the hands of the author. The first and the last are in fact the same cover with later additions. Both are illustrated, and the deception and errors described.

 

FFE #4

‘In dubio pro reo’ in expert certification?

Class: Other

Felix Winterstein CPhH

Contrary to the principles of Roman Law which determines that where there is doubt favour the accused, in expertising the opposite must be the norm, which is that doubt goes against the accused. The author casts doubt on expert judgements which in their neglect of care and prudence fail to protect the purchaser and shift the burden of proof from the expert to the collector.

 

Alterations by R.E.P. Maier to pre-adhesive letters of the Netherlands

FFE #4

Alterations by R.E.P. Maier to pre-adhesive letters of the Netherlands

Class: PH

H.W. van der Vlist

The article lists and illustrates the fakes, forgeries, “improvements” and manipulations of Raul Eduard Philip Maier who was tried in the Netherland in 1963. These affect many items from the Dutch East Indies. Maier’s stolen and embezzled letters are found in collections throughout the world.

 

Identifying genuine Buenos Aires �barquitos� � The surest way

FFE #4

Identifying genuine Buenos Aires “barquitos” – The surest way

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan

The Buenos Aries “barquitos” or little ships are extensively forged. The stamps can be plated and an entire plate reconstruction of the 2 Pesos is illustrated. Photographic reproductions exist; therefore paper and size are two other tests to be used. These are explained and illustrated.

 

The first Zeppelin-mail forgery

FFE #4

The first Zeppelin-mail forgery

Class: PH

Dieter Leder

The story that the first mail carried by Zeppelin was on the four hour fourth flight of LZ 3 on 25th September 1907 when mail was dropped over Romanshorn in Switzerland is shown not to be true. The flight details are reported and the improbability of a mail drop explained. The postcard sent to the USA by the mechanic Laburda and marked “This card was found in a field at Romanshorn2 is shown to be an ordinary postcard, probably posted at the harbour Friedrichshafen in Germany, on 27th September, and that the manuscript addition making it the first Zeppelin mail, is a forgery. Rate, postmark, and language are the key elements in disclosing the forgery, together with historical context.

 

FFE #5

Fakes, forgeries and youth philately

Class: Other

Michael Madesker R.D.P., FRPSL, FRPSC

The F.I.P. Commission on Youth Philately has an internal expertising committee for Youth exhibits. The article warns that forgeries in Youth exhibits are mostly augmentations, such as improved postmarks, heightened colours and the addition of addresses to previously unaddressed material. Of greatest concern is the use of undesirable issues, and the commission advocates the use of catalogues to avoid these. Wrongdoers in the lowest age group are unlikely to be punished, rather they are educated. The other age groups are subject to the same sanctions as seniors.

 

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps

FFE #5

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps

Class: TR

Varro E. Tyler † A.I.E.P.

Kamigata, a Japanese dealer in the 1890s and 1900s forged Asian stamps for sale to tourists. Some were deceptive. He also forged non-Asian stamps. At first it was believed that these were imported and resold by him. In 1954, in a publication limited to 18 copies, and bearing 20 actual examples, it was demonstrated that these were his own productions. The author was sent a copy in 1986. Some are cancelled with partial circular cancels bearing the letters IMITATION. Most designs are crude. The article lists examples seen from 27 countries, and asks for readers to provide further information.

 

Mulready facsimiles

FFE #5

Mulready facsimiles

Class: PST

Alan Huggins R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

The author describes Mulready facsimiles produced by six publishers. All are illustrated, and are easily distinguished as forgeries since all lack the Dickinson security threads. However facsimiles by Brinkman have been seen exhibited as originals; hence the article and illustrations.

 

20 MR 76 Forgeries of the city post of Istanbul

FFE #5

20 MR 76 Forgeries of the city post of Istanbul

Class: PH

Otto Hornung R.D.P.

Beware the date 20 MR 76 on covers of the Istanbul City Post. With an eminent background in Turkish philately, the author began his collection of the Istanbul City Post which ran from 1870 to 1884. One cover described was dated on arrival, 30th September 1868 or 69. There was no city post at this time, and the City Post hand stamp was dated 20 MR 76. At Corinphila and ISFILA in 2001 two more covers with the same date were seen. These are not new forgeries, and the covers were genuine before the forger “improved” them. One other manipulated cover is described and all are illustrated.

 

Forged registered letters Liepäja � Ventspils, 1945

FFE #5

Forged registered letters Liepäja – Ventspils, 1945

Class: PH

Harry v Hofman FRPSL, A.I.E.P. Wilhelm van Loo BPP

Simultaneously at many auctions in 2000, registered covers from 1945 in Latvia appeared. These were franked with overprinted Courland stamps together with Reichspost, particularly commemorative, stamps. Given the state of the war and the “Courland Encirclement”, these are unbelievable, but they also have attributes which allow them to be shown as forgeries. These include identical handwriting in addresses, incorrect and anachronistic address forms, and incorrect frankings. Auction houses in Sweden, Germany, and Switzerland indicate that these are all from the same source in Berlin.

 

Modern techniques help everyone

FFE #5

Modern techniques help everyone

Class: Other

Dieter Leder

On the use of computers in expertising. With a computer a scanner and graphics software overprints on Finnish ZEPPELIN 1930 are compared. The methodology is described in which one overprint is overlaid on a known genuine overprint in a step by step guide.

 

Large Hermes heads of Greece: 1861 Paris print final proofs sold as issued stamp

FFE #5

Large Hermes heads of Greece: 1861 Paris print final proofs sold as issued stamp

Class: TR

Michael Tseriotis A.I.E.P.

The large Hermes heads of Greece were engraved in Paris by Albert Barre. A perfectionist, he made a large number of final proofs which are hard to distinguish from the issued stamps where both have no gum. The only guarantee of an issued stamp from the 1861 Paris printing is that it has gum. Over many years gum has been added to proofs by dealers and swindlers to allow them to sell them as issued stamps with full gum. Some with smooth and thin gum are easy to detect. Others are very dangerous. Degrees of rarity are described for each value. There are few single examples with false cancellation. Multiples larger than a pair are rare. A 20 lepta block of four offered with a first day cancellation in Greece was determined by comparison to be the same as an unpostmarked item described as a final proof in Switzerland in 1992. At almost the same time another, falsely cancelled block of the 10 lepta was offered in Athens. The source was the same and is under observation. Great care is to be taken in buying used 1 lepton stamps in singles or in multiples.

 

New German postal forgeries part 1

FFE #5

New German postal forgeries part 1

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen BPP, Wilhelm van Loo BPP

There have been forgeries designed to defraud the German post office for many years. The situation was bad in the 1990s. Offset printings of current stamps had flooded the market prior to September 2001. The author considers the situation unlikely to improve. Five stamps are examined and illustrated: Mi. 1756; Mi.1939; Mi.1935; Mi. 2013; and Mi. 2026.

 

Serbia 1866/80. Franked newspapers, genuine and fake

FFE #5

Serbia 1866/80. Franked newspapers, genuine and fake

Class: PH

Jovan Velickovic A.I.E.P

Serbia newspaper stamps from 1866/9 and 1869/80 used on whole newspapers or complete fronts are rare. Six examples recorded over twenty years are considered, four of which are forgeries. The rates and usage are described, and the degrees of rarity are discussed, as is the reason for this situation which include the ephemeral nature of newspapers and the exigencies of war. The “Bosanski Vjesnik” from 13th August 1866 is described and illustrated, and considered to be a forgery. Misuse of genuine cancellers is known between 1890 and 1930, and the canceller used here may be an example. The “Seljak” newspaper advertisement is described as it meets all of the tests for genuineness: the item is from the right time; the rate is correct; the address is correct; the printing of the stamp is from the correct time; a missing piece of paper from the edge of a fold is found on the reverse of the stamp. The “Srpske Novine” dated 20th January 1873 is addressed to a non-existent bank, and false, while another copy dated 23rd December 1873 is correct. The “Radnik” of 31st March 1872 was a ‘star’ item, but in the opinion of the author, notwithstanding certificates, is false. The canceller is from the wrong period, and the stamps are not tied. Another copy of the same newspaper from 3rd March 1872 is known but has not been examined by the writer, despite a request for a colour copy. Finally a “Srpske Novine” dated 26th November 187? has stamps which are not tied and not from the right time. The author believes that a bundle of “Radnik” newspapers were found and have been used to create forgeries.

 

Tampering

FFE #5

Tampering

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarra Payá A.I.E.P.

Manipulated copies of the Spanish 1865 12 Cuartos imperforate with inverted frame, and the unissued imperforate 4 Cuartos pale blue are considered. Sperati bleached the centre of the 12 Cuartos and reprinted it inverted. The first subject of the article was produced in a similar way and its distinctive characteristics are described. The origin of the 4 Cuartos is explained, and single stamps are described, both genuine, in pale blue (Type I), and with perforations cut off, in darker blue (Type II). A cover bearing the darker blue, type II stamp, lifted, replaced with clipped perforations, but genuine postmark is illustrated. The colour and type are wrong, and there is a gap around the stamp between the edge and the canceller where the perforations were removed.

 

First issue of Kingdom of Saudi Arabian stamp (proclamation of Amir Saud)

FFE #5

First issue of Kingdom of Saudi Arabian stamp (proclamation of Amir Saud)

Class: TR

Mohammed K. Safdar

The characteristics of genuine and forged examples of the 1934 Proclamation of Emir Saud as Heir Apparent of Saudi Arabia, are listed in tabular form. All are illustrated.

 

Suriname: Princess Wilhelmina forgeries

FFE #5

Suriname: Princess Wilhelmina forgeries

Class: TR

Richard Wheatley FRPSL

International cooperation leads to a mystery being solved. The writer purchased six Surinam used Princess Wilhelmina stamps, correctly described as forgeries, and allegedly produced by a chocolate manufacturer for advertising purposes in the 1920s. The printing process differs from the original and the perforation is not the same. Research demonstrated these to have been produced in Lausanne by a French forger and that the number of forgeries in circulation probably equalled the number of genuine stamps. The literature mentioned no postmark. These were cancelled and the canceller was reconstructed and reproduced in The Netherlands Philatelist. Three other cancels were revealed in correspondence from the USA, Scotland and The Netherlands, but no chocolate manufacturer.

 

Argentina 1862 issue, 15c. without accent on the U of Republica

FFE #5

Argentina 1862 issue, 15c. without accent on the U of Republica

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P

The two types of the 1862 Argentina “small shield” issue are described. In position 51 of the 15 centavos the U in Republica appears without an accent. 375 sheets were printed, and estimated 90% have been lost, leaving this is one of the rarest Argentinean stamps and thus a target for forgers. The Sperati forgeries are shown with one other, and the tell tale signs of the genuine stamp are reproduced from the Kneitschel catalogue.

 

Forgeries of handwritten indications on old letters

FFE #5

Forgeries of handwritten indications on old letters

Class: PH

Paolo Vollmeier R.D.P.,A.I.E.P.

Modern additions to early letters are illustrated, the writer regrets that genuine letters have forged additions, such as the Cross of St Andrew and the Gallows, to make them more interesting to postal historians.

 

San Marino � An altered cover and a �phantasy� cover

FFE #5

San Marino – An altered cover and a “phantasy” cover

Class: TR

Vito Salierno

In the early days of postal history covers were manipulated by the removal of unsightly stamps and the addition of interesting values to make three and four colour covers leading to incorrect rates. Two are considered here. One from 19th November 1862 from San Marino to Venice is shown in its original and manipulated state. The other was probably produced by a German dealer Otto Bickel. It bears three Italian, six San Marino, and a Sardinian stamp. The stamps complied with no known rate, the Sardinian stamp was invalidated on 31st December 1863, but the cover arrived in Saltzburg despite being a philatelic fantasy.

 

Faked entires from Venezuela 1859-1872

FFE #5

Faked entires from Venezuela 1859-1872

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel A.I.E.P.

Six manipulated items which have been offered for sale, and sold, as genuine are described. The first a 2 Reales bisect with a false postmark, the second with an additional r Reales stamp, the third with an incorrect franking including an added bisect and added “handstamps”, and the fourth with an impossible postmark. This example, the fifth and the sixth are addressed to “Gaden and Klipsch”, Bordeaux. This archive is the source of many items with added adhesives, and great care is essential. The fifth item has a forged canceller distinguished by incorrect lettering and the last has added adhesives, genuinely postmarked, but not on this cover. The author warns that most mixed frankings are dangerous, that most mixed franking HAPAG covers with Venezuelan stamps are manipulated, and should be treated with caution, even when offered with certificates. Expert knowledge, and reference material are required if the collector is to judge the material and its certification correctly.

 

The ten most important Canadian fakes for the last 30 years

FFE #5

The ten most important Canadian fakes for the last 30 years

Class: TR

Richard Gratton FRPSC, AEP, A.I.P.A., AQEP

Ten modern fakes of Canadian stamps with missing colours or perforations from 1971to 1992 are illustrated and described. The information is summarised in a table together with numbers of genuine and forged examples known to the author since 1988. Article in French.

 

Faked postmark on Michel DR No 429 with railway postmark

FFE #5

Faked postmark on Michel DR No 429 with railway postmark

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Following reports of forgeries of Mi. 429 and 434, a check on examples known to a collector revealed a forged LEIPZIP-HAMBURG BAHNPOST canceller for Z. – – 84 8.2.30. The writer warns that it must be suspected that this canceller is in private hands, and that further fakes are likely.

 

Forgery of the 1948 West Berlin Michel Nos 62 and 63

FFE #5

Forgery of the 1948 West Berlin Michel Nos 62 and 63

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Forged examples of these stamps are described and their characteristics listed in a table. The forged examples are the 20 and 30 pfennig values. The writer suspects that the 10 pfennig value may appear as a forgery since these set purchased contained a genuine and two forged stamps. Perforations differ as does the appearance under UV light.

 

Faroe Islands 1941

FFE #5

Faroe Islands 1941

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A genuine 10 øre Franco Betalt cover to Thorhavn was expertised by the writer. Following its sale in two auction houses, it was consigned by Arne Damkjær for sale in Switzerland. A further FRANCO BETALT mark with manuscript 30 and registration labels had been added. At the request of the writer it was re-expertised, signed FALSCH, and removed from the auction. The cover is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

 

Greenland 1921

FFE #5

Greenland 1921

Class: PH

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A parcel card with 10 øre Pakke-Porto stamp belonging to a German collector was sold at auction to Arne Damkjær. The 10 øre stamp was removed and four stamps of the 1905 issue were added and cancelled with a forged postmark. It was wrongly issued with an expert certificate and consigned for sale in Switzerland. At the request of the writer it was re-expertised, signed FALSCH, and removed from the auction. The card is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

 

Denmark/Greenland 1937

FFE #5

Denmark/Greenland 1937

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A parcel card bearing a 40 øre caravelle stamp was sold as part of a collection in Germany in the early 1990s. After purchase by Arne Damkjær 3 copies of the 20 øre Pakke-Porto stamps were added, date and weight were changed and the manipulated item submitted for expertising to the writer, who issued a certificate in 1996. In 1907 Eric Wowern issued a certificate indicating that the card might be a fake. After being unsold at several auctions it was offered in Switzerland and the writer offered to re-expertise the item. Further examination revealed the deception and it was expertised as a fake, and removed from the auction. The card is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

 

The riddle of the Cavalla surcharges of 1913

FFE #5

The riddle of the Cavalla surcharges of 1913

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin FRPSL, TM, A.I.E.P.

Bulgarian stamps were surcharged with Greek values by hand in Cavalla following the Second Balkan war of 1913. The background to the issue is explained and the “dramatis personae” listed. The literature of 1919-20, and later, is referred to, and two conflicting versions of events relating to the production of these stamps are revealed. The article considers these two versions using the evidence of the material, and reaches conclusions which are set out. The conclusions are that there are genuine covers and cards which went through the post to their destination. Desirable and rare. There are surcharges of the Toccos second printing on pieces or official Bulgarian postal envelopes “cancelled with the connivance of postal officials in Cavalla”. Of doubtful philatelic value. There are forged surcharges on pieces or official Bulgarian postal envelopes with forged cancellations. Philatelically valueless.

 

The engraved forgeries of Ceylon revisited

FFE #5

The engraved forgeries of Ceylon revisited

Class: TR

Chris Harman, Patrick Pearson R.D.P., Carl Walske

An article in FFE 4 (pp6-8) sought to identify the makers of forgeries of the Ceylon octagonal stamps. The present article notes that all forgeries of the Ceylon octagonals previously illustrated are by George Kirke Jeffryes, whose activities are described. Forgeries by Jeffryes and Erasmo Oneglia of Turin are considered and described in detail with reference to archive material at the Royal Philatelic Society of London. The research is summarised and listed for material known to have originated with both of the forgers. References to earlier publications and research are included as footnotes.

 

�Mythical� falsification of frankings

FFE #5

“Mythical” falsification of frankings

Class: PH

Emil Rellstab A.I.E.P.

Expert opinions demand that the distance travelled and the weight of a letter are verified, and that the period of use of the stamp is known. Two examples demonstrate this. “Zürich 4” was valid only within urban Zürich. Mail to destinations outside this area cost 6 Rappen. A folded letter with a single “Zürich 4” addressed to Kloten is clearly wrong, but has an expert history going back 50 years. It was not until 1989 that it was shown to be a forgery. A cover from Niederglatt to Zürich with a bisected and single 5 Rappen stamp was sent on 24th April 1855. From 1st January 1852 the rate was 10 Rappen, and no fractional rate values existed after this date. The cover was withdrawn from circulation at the beginning of 2000.

 

Some Italian States fakes and forgeries

FFE #5

Some Italian States fakes and forgeries

Class: PH

Paolo Vaccari

Seven covers from Italian states are described. Each has been illustrated in Vaccari Magazie, and each has been manipulated in some way by the removal, replacement or addition of stamps, by “improvements” in postmarks or paper or by the addition of forged postmarks. Covers are shown and described in full from The Duchy of Modena, The Provisional Government of Parma, The Papal States and The Provisional Government of the Romagne. Illustrations are shown in each case before and after manipulation.

 

Liberia � Forgeries of SG 328-31

FFE #5

Liberia – Forgeries of SG 328-31

Class: TR

Luciano Varaschini

2 Cent and 5 Cent Liberian stamps were locally overprinted 1 Cent and 2 Cents respectively in 1916. There is speculation as to why this was necessary, and this is discussed. There were eleven types of surcharge with the eleventh being the most rare, and it has thus attracted the attention of forgers. The characteristics of the forgeries are described, and it is noted that all cancelled to order (CTO) examples are forgeries, since this cancellation was made in London, and only mint stamps were sent to Liberia. Most forgeries are CTO, but are still a threat to collectors due to the many types of CTO used on Liberian stamps.

 

The counterfeit of the E.T/ÓÌÕÔÍÇ overprint

FFE #5

The counterfeit of the E.T/ÓÌÕÔÍÇ overprint

Class: TR

Michalis E Tsirónis

In May 1919 Greek forces occupied Smyrna. For a brief period Greek stamps were overprinted. Following approval for the overprint on 13th June, it was rescinded on 14th June resulting in a very short period of use, and small number of stamps in total. The overprints are described in technical terms and genuine copies are compared with the forgeries both in text and detailed illustration. A bibliography is provided.

 

Pre-adhesive fakes

FFE #5

Pre-adhesive fakes

Class: PH

Edoardo P. Ohnmeiss ASPOT

With greater interest by postal historians in the pre-stamp period, the writer proposes that this period is divided between the period of manuscript markings, namely the Precursory period, and the use of handstamps, namely the Pre-adhesive period. Examples from the latter period, the handstamps of the Napoleonic postal departments in Italy are presented. These were in use for many years after the occupation had ceased. Rarity of some handstamps from the Napoleonic period has caused forgers to change dates on material used after 1814. These can be demonstrated under UV light or from internal evidence of contents. Nine covers with false DÉBOURSÉ handstamps have been identified, and identification of these is discussed. The use of historical and postal analysis of DÉBOURSÉ handstamps is explained, and significant differences in size between the genuine and false marks are pointed out.

 

The 80 days of Zara. Zara � a report on the period and its history

FFE #5

The 80 days of Zara. Zara – a report on the period and its history

Class: TR

Emil E. Ludin A.I.E.P.

The complex origins of the overprints on Italian stamps in Zara (Zadar) from September to December 1943 are explained. This closely written explanation examines the various stories that have grown up around the 90 day issue, and demonstrates the truth or otherwise of these stories. The wartime history of the town, its evacuation, and subsequent rôle in the war are chronicled. The setting used for the overprint was broken up under supervision after the printing process was complete. This makes expertising easier since reprints and different settings do not exist. From November and December 1943 significant quantities of fakes were circulating, particularly in the USA. Identification of the forgeries is explained, both through observation of letter shapes, and through the use of UV light, as is their certification. The diagonal overprint ZARA is reported to be a fantasy.

 

Imperial Russia: forgeries of coat of arms stamps with inverted centre

FFE #5

Imperial Russia: forgeries of coat of arms stamps with inverted centre

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski A.I.E.P., Ortwin Greis A.I.E.P..

Many Imperial Russian inverted coat of arms stamps are very rare, there are forgeries and fakes, and preliminary expertisation is essential before purchase. Cut out and inverted centres are easily detectable using magnification, preferably by microscope. Forgers now use advanced techniques including cleaning off and reprinting the centre. Nine examples from a reference collection were found to be false, and the characteristics of these forgeries are described in detail. Collectors are warned about the unscrupulous use of words such as “essay, rarity, proof and unique item”. These printing forgeries from the East for collectors in the West are supplemented by others using cut out techniques to be described in a later article.

 

Australia the story of SG 0126a

FFE #5

Australia the story of SG 0126a

Class: TR

Krysztof Ceremuga A.I.E.P

Australian stamps were overprinted “OS” during 1931-33 for official use. In 1999 a five pence orange brown overprinted stamp was found on small multiple watermarked paper rather than C of A watermark. After catalogue listing by Gibbons and Scott, a fanfare in the press, and special display at Australia 99, the author’s certificate states that the stamp is forged. The article demonstrates how his opinion is reached. The overprint in this position on genuine stamps is described; the colour of the ink, the postmark, and the fact that the postmark is under the overprint demonstrate that the stamp is a primitive forgery.

 

Australia the story of SG 0126a

FFE #5

Australia the story of SG 0126a

Class: TR

Krysztof Ceremuga A.I.E.P

Australian stamps were overprinted “OS” during 1931-33 for official use. In 1999 a five pence orange brown overprinted stamp was found on small multiple watermarked paper rather than C of A watermark. After catalogue listing by Gibbons and Scott, a fanfare in the press, and special display at Australia 99, the author’s certificate states that the stamp is forged. The article demonstrates how his opinion is reached. The overprint in this position on genuine stamps is described; the colour of the ink, the postmark, and the fact that the postmark is under the overprint demonstrate that the stamp is a primitive forgery.

 

SCADTA under the magnifying glass

FFE #5

SCADTA under the magnifying glass

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

SCADTA stamps have always been of interest and there are many forgeries, some of them before 1940, others from 1979-90. Renewed recent interest, and high prices have provoked a new wave of forgeries, especially those bearing the provision “R” hand stamps. The writer has examined 80 such covers and considers only 10% to be genuine. The article lists, explains and illustrates in twelve pages examples of these forgeries.

 

FFE #6

Wondrous Transformations (continued from FFE No.1)

Class: TR

Karl-Albert Louis FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

An extensive article demonstrating the manipulation of Great Britain stamps 1840-1882 showing through photographic evidence, the original and ‘improved’ material. Sixty-seven illustrations. Follows on from previous article in FFE #1 in which thirty-four illustrated and annotated examples (22 GB, 12 NL) of manipulations of rare classic material. Evidence is mainly gathered by comparative study of auction catalogues, old and new. Even unique and beautiful items are demonstrably “improved”. Various types of manipulations are shown.

 

FFE #6

From the Baltic – Even small cattle make manure

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

A fieldpost letter dated 27th March 1943 sent to Königsburg is described and shown to be a forgery, as is a postcard sent to the same address. The distinction between forged and genuine German fieldpost marks is illustrated. Note that other similar items are to be found.

 

FFE #6

Egyptian postage due covers of 1898

Class: PH

Peter A.S. Smith FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

Genuine postage due covers from the Egyptian element of the Anglo-Egyptian 1898 campaign to the Sudan are rare. Fake covers were produced mainly by Victor Nahman and these regularly appear in dealers’ lists and at auction. These well made forgeries datestamped Halfa, Merowi, Arbara and Darmali are described and demonstrated by comparison with genuine postmarks.

 

FFE #6

Perspectives on expertisers

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

The history of expertising and the case for precision and change are developed in an extensive article which i.a. considers expertising in classical philately in comparison with the demands of expertising in postal history. There is a case for honest doubt to be recorded on certificates, for experts to be confined to their areas of specialism, for museums to be more willing to accept their material being judged, and for collectors to be more aware of the limitations of expert opinion. However, and expert expertiser is part of the philatelic elite.

 

FFE #6

Comment on Ernst Cohn’s observations on the BPP in his article “Perspectives on expertisers”

Class: Other

Dr. Hans-Karl Penning, President BPP

The President of the BPP defends the rules of the organisation in respect of the comments made by Ernst Cohn.

 

FFE #6

A note for your attention

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua A.I.E.P.

Stamps and postal history items from Spain a e illustrated and explained in their original and subsequently manipulated states. These include perforated stamps of the 1865 issue, and letters from Avila, Galicia Puebla, to Cuba, from Fernando Po, to Cebu and from Manila during the classical period.

 

FFE #6

Identifying forged type

Class: Other

Roy A. Dehn

An exposition on the naming of parts and the structure of typefaces.

 

FFE #6

The French 40 c. postage due

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

On the Sperati forgeries of the French 40 c postage due of September 1871.

 

FFE #6

A rather clever fake cover

Class: PH

David MacDonnell A.I.E.P.

In praise of Eliot Perry, a pioneer in the logical approach to expertising with particular reference to a cover bearing Scott # 160 and # 153, from Salem Massachusetts to Zanzibar in 1873 or later.

 

FFE #6

Forgery of Bolivian postage stamps

Class: TR

Eugenio von Boeck

The postal forgery of Bolivian stamps in 1894 is recalled and the modern postal forgery of the 15 Boliviano UPAEP, the 2 Boliviano Ceramica Cochabamba, and 6 Boliviano Cristo de la Concordia are reported.

 

FFE #6

New German Postal forgeries part II

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen FRPSL, AEP, Wilhelm van Loo BPP

A second postal forgery of the 110 Pf Schloss Bellevue, a third of the 100 Pf Marlene Dietrich, the 1200 year anniversary of the Bishopric of Paderborn (10th June 1999), the International Year of Senior Citizens (Mi. 2027), Europa 2000 (Mi. 2213), and the 50th Anniversary of the Frauenhofer Society (Mi. 2038), are reported and the challenge facing the German post office reviewed.

 

FFE #6

The Canary Islands without number

Class: TR

José Llach A.I.E.P.

Forgeries of stamps overprinted to commemorate the visit of General Franco to the Canary Islands in October 1950. Insist on a certificate for this stamp Mi. 9871; Edifil 1083.

 

FFE #6

The 1906 forst Worldwide Olympic postmarks ΑΚΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ (Acropolis), ΖΑΠΠΕΙΟΝ (Zappeion), ΣΤΑΔΙΟΝ (Satdion) and their counterfeits

Class: PH

Michalis E. Tsironis

1906, the 10th anniversary of the first modern Olympic games in Athens, saw the second issue of commemorative Olympic postage stamps, and its first commemorative postmarks. The postmarks, their usage and forgeries are illustrated and described by comparison with genuine marks. A comprehensive bibliography and list of collections concludes the piece.

 

FFE #6

The acceptable face of conservation of philatelic material

Class: Other

Patrick Pearson R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

The stabilisation of a local letter sheet fro Ceylon is described as an acceptable form of conservation in contrast to an enhanced 1st May 1840 Penny Black cover illustrated in FFE #1. Precise instructions must be given to conservators to avoid damage.

 

FFE #6

“Special X-ray techniques for examining stamps and covers”

Class: Other

Edward M. Liston A.I.E.P.

The use of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence and transmission are described in determining paper, pigment and repairs with references to other publications on the subject.

 

FFE #6

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps by Varro E. Tyler

Class: TR

Richard Wheatley FRPSL

Illustration and discussion of the Japanese Kamigata forgeries of Suez Canal stamps including a forged cover and cancellations.

 

FFE #6

Forged Hungarian pre-stamp covers

Class: PH

Dénes Czirók MRPSL

Production of forged Hungarian pre-stamp covers emanates from a number of forgery workshops. BARANYAVÁR, P.CSEKLÉSZ, CSONGRÁD, SZOLNOK, ÉRSEKÚVÁR, PÁPA, GYŐR, KÖRMÖTZBÁNYA, NEUDORF, ÁCS, VIZSOLY, and Th. SAMBOKRET are marks found on several hundred covers now distributed around the world. Check your collection.

 

FFE #6

Alpenvorland Adria

Class: TR

David B. Ganse

The background to the 1945 Alpenvorland – Adria stamps, and that of those issued for Provinz Laibach is related. The disputes over, and judgements on the Alpenvorland – Adria issue are revisited at length, and the question of whether these are fakes, forgeries or bogus is addressed. The author concludes that they must have been produced from official resources, and are in fact an unissued set from the closing days of the Second World War.

 

FFE #6

A plea for the consideration of small values

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann A.I.E.P.

An extended request for further information on issue dates, first usage and perforation varieties from the Polish inflation period. MI. numbers 171, 172, 173, 180, 181, 182, 183 and 184 are referred to. Usage before reported issue date is a question also in relation to the Upper Silesia plebiscite overprints. Collectors of Poland are urged to examine their collections and to report anomalies.

 

FFE #6

Spectroscopic examinations of stamps’ colours for age assessment and authentication

Class: Other

Robert Neunteufel

The use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (EDF in determining the status of black handstamps from the 18th and 19th centuries is discussed. The composition of inks historically and in more modern times is set out, and the results from a series of 32 covers judged by philatelists and this technology are reported. The former could make no determination on four covers while the latter produced a result in all cases, with three ‘genuine’ philatelic judgements found false, and one forged judgement found to be genuine. This technology has applications also in judging stamps.

 

FFE #6

An interesting

Class: PST

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P.

5 c postal stationery, April 1876 – February 1877 is shown unused, with a forged cancellation, and faked.

 

FFE #6

The myth of the 5 c surcharge in the Paraguay 1 Real rose of 1878

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P.

The 1878 one Real rose of Paraguay surcharged with 5 (cents) in blue is a forgery. The rectangular canceller with date ending in 7 8 is shown to be false.

 

FFE #6

Identification of covers with Sinkiang provisional airmail stamps – formation of the Northwest airline and the issuance and use of Sinkiang provisional airmail stamps.

Class: Aero

David Lu FRPSL A.I.E.P.

The history, usage, postage rates and flights of the 1932-33 provisional Sinkiang airmail stamps (SG 83-86; Scott C1-4) is presented. All cancellers are illustrated since comparison with genuine stamps is the best evidence of forgery. Dates of flights are tabulated, rates and addresses are listed, and many western and Chinese style covers are reviewed with their provenance, and the reasons for judging them false are given. An extensive bibliography and auction catalogue list completes the article.

 

FFE #2

Restoration

Class: Other

A. Ronald Butler

The author discusses acceptable restoration of fine art and unacceptable repair of philatelic material. While a collector may consider repairing a damaged, but exceptional item, the decision may have been taken for him already by a previous owner. In this context an unadopted essay by William Bell for the 1857 “Emblems” issue for the Colony of Victoria is discussed. Restored items appropriately labelled may be included in exhibitions, but if not declared, their inclusion must down grade the exhibit.

 

FFE #2

Forgeries and Fakes

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

In distinguishing between genuine and forged stamps different printing techniques must be understood – letterpress, recess or gravure, and litho. Forgeries printed by methods other than the original, and those made in the same way as the original are considered. Faking by addition of false overprints or postmarks is discussed in this context, as is faking by removal, as in the addition of perforations. Finally faking by chemical transformation is included. In French, and the English text is a synopsis while captions to the illustrations are not translated.

 

FFE #2

The stamp is genuine; the obliteration is not

Class: TR

Pierre Guinaud

Forged or faked postmarks ao Swiss sitting Helvetias are the subject of this extensive piece set in the context of the sale of these stamps by the Swiss post office from 1st July 1887. The writer considers the addition of postmarks to this stock, both genuine but antedated and forged. Postal clerks colluded in this, and the known fakes with dates are listed and illustrated, followed by forged Fournier postmarks through to modern marks made by photocopying machines.

 

FFE #2

Dangerous overprint forgeries on the postage stamps of Yugoslavia from recent years

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

Postage stamps were surcharged in Yugoslavia during the inflation and hyperinflation period ending in January 1994. The sale of bulk stamps by the post office, for example in 1990, allowed large quantities to come into the hands of forgers. Mi. 2142, 1985; Mi. 2363, 1989; Mi. 2557, 1992; are illustrated. More than 40 phantom issues were created for collectors after 1991, and small volume issues of Republika Srpska and the Serbian Republic of Krajina were also forged. Beware of forgeries and falsifications on UN and other official mail from 1992-1996.

 

FFE #2

Modern techniques help the expert team of the Dutch federation

Class: Other

Pieter F.A. van de Loo

Technical equipment used in the Netherlands is shown. This involves the use of a ‘KRONTRON’ frame grabber camera, stereo microscope with a revolving ‘table’ (platen), cold light unit and printer. By overlaying images of forged and genuine items such as postmarks and overprints, forgeries can be identified.

 

FFE #2

New methods to identify fakes II

Class: Other

Pavel Pittermann, Miroslav Musil

The use of EDF-XRF (X-ray fluorescence) was shown in FFE1. The writer considers the use of infra-red and ultra-violet light with spectral analysis in covers from 1873, 1816 and 1835. Its limitations are demonstrated in the case of the Czech 50/50h DOPLATIT overprint of 1927 (SG D280a). The system is cheaper but the mich more expensive ED-XRF system is required in some cases.

 

FFE #2

The metamorphosis of the cross

Class: PH

Gérard Desarnaud

An 1877 letter with the ‘Sage’ type 30 c cancelled JAFFA with a Jerusalem cross is illustrated, as is the much less desirable state of this extremely improved piece. Offered in auction, it was withdrawn, only to be offered by another auction house later.

 

FFE #2

Faked, forged and falsified space mail

Class: PH

Walter Michael Hopferwieser

Space mail is mail sent to and from the space stations ‘Mir’ and ‘Salyut 6’, and to and from Star City near Moscow or the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and other space locations. The characteristics of such mail are discussed and forgeries considered. This extensive article consists primarily of Russian material, but the US moon landing of 1969 (Apollo 11) items from Apollo 14 and controversial mail from Apollo 15 are included. The translation of the German word ‘bord’ into English ‘board’ should be replaced in the readers mind by ‘ship’.

 

FFE #2

The cebicitas to France

Class: PH

Michèle Chauvet

Markings on mail sent from Buenos Aries to France via England are discussed. Since it was cheaper to hand mail directly into the British post office in Buenos Aries, such mail franked to this port of departure is very uncommon. However, except for the local franking, the postal marks on internally, franked and unfranked mail are usually identical. Such a letter is considered and its faking unmasked partly by considering the plausibility of its transatlantic transit time.

 

FFE #2

Fakes and forgeries of the Swedish printing error 20/tretio

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The origin of the Swedish 20/TRETIO error of 1879 is explained. The distinctive features of the Fournier forgery is illustrated as are subsequent forgeries including one on cover postmarked MAJORNA 18.6.1880. A bibliography is included.

 

FFE #2

Nicolas Frères

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

Bisected and quadrisected French stamps on covers from Nicholas Fréres during 1870-72 are illustrated, usually cancelled with numeral 1139 and with CORNIMONT postmarks. Despite being judged to be genuine, and being illustrated in specialist works, all are fakes, despite some having expert certification.

 

FFE #2

Equipment for experts in the House of Philately of the Association of German Philatelists at Bonn

Class: Other

Wilhelm van Loo

The work of the House of Philately in Bonn is explained including its use of the Zeiss Stereomicroscope SV11 with a cold light source, video camera and monitor.

 

FFE #2

Fibre optic illumination, a practical aid for examiners

Class: Other

Christoph Hertsch

The use of a fibre-optic cold light source with colour filters is described.

 

FFE #2

Postage stamp auctioneers and experts

Class: Other

Volker Parten

The origin of expertising by auction houses up to the First World War, its development between the wars, and later is explained, as is the development of the general and specialised expert. An auction trade without the use of experts is no longer imaginable.

 

FFE #2

A Little “Legalese”

Class: Other

Rolf P. Salinger

Legal remedies available to collectors in the United States where a seller fails to make good a buyer’s loss in forgeries and manipulated items. Breach of warranty, disclaimers, the statute of limitations, evidence and expert advice are considered. Compensation, recovery of costs, and compromise conclude the piece.

 

FFE #2

Faking, partial or total

Class: PH

Vincent Pothion

A 1 Fr. 05 c cover from Saigon to Bordeaux from August 1868 is examined. The tariff is incorrect, and the cancellation is faked. A further cover with ‘ARMEE DE LA MOSELLE’ uses the wrong kind of paper and a photocopier to deceive.

 

FFE #2

Mauritius – Forgery of the 1861 9d brown embossed envelope

Class: PST

Alan Huggins

The differences between forged and genuine 1861 9d brown embossed postal stationery envelope are illustrated and set out in tabular form.

 

FFE #2

1948 doar ivri issue – “Popular” forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

On 16th May 1948 the ‘Doar Ivri’ stamp was issued in Israel. Imperforate values, values with tabs, sheetlets and a forged First Day Cover are shown.

 

FFE #2

Guetemala beware of “Cosmetics” to classic covers

Class: PH

Cécile Gruson

Early Guatemalan covers are scarce. Repair of damaged material is explained with reference to the transformation of a 2 Real cover of 27th January 1879 sent to California. It is shown from Harmer’s in 1969, and transformed, at Corinphila in 1984.

 

FFE #2

The first postal forgery circulated in Cuba

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarro Payá

The history of the introduction of stamps in Puerto Rico and Cuba is explained. The earliest forgery recorded is from 1858 and its identification is explained. A further previously unrecorded unique postal forgery is described.

 

FFE #2

Limits to expertising

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

What are the limits to bona fide expertising? This question is addressed by reference to standard comparisons with reference material, divergence of opinion, philatelic acceptance of material, and the complications of postal history. Specific items presented are the USA 1847 ‘Knapp shift’; the Belfort balloon mail of December 1870; 1870 smuggled mail from Metz; the ‘Union’ and ‘Armée de Bretagne’ balloon letters of 1870;p and mail carried from the siege of Paris by diplomatic pouch. Expertising is a developing art and science, requiring specialism, training, and facts, and it does have limitations.

 

FFE #2

Short notes about Argentine forerunners forged handstamps and some Uruguay stamps and maritime covers

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

Elements marking stampless lettersheets with forged postmarks are described and illustrated. The British post office in Montivideo (C28) is considered.

 

FFE #2

“VII Congress Universal Postal Union”. 1920 issue

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

The history of this Spanish issue and its forgeries, manipulations and fantasies are explained with extensive illustration.

 

FFE #2

BDPH seminar on forgeries

Class: Other

Reinhard Schmidt

The Association of German Philatelists seminar of November 1998 is summarised. This include the protection of collectors, a model contract for stamp swapping clubs and for purchase, the recognition of forgeries, and the use of technology in identifying fakes.

 

FFE #2

Faked frankings with Zürich Cantonal and transitional issues

Class: PH

Emil Rellstab

The Canton of Zurich issued its first stamps in 1843, and in 1875 a collector in the city was able to acquire many stamps of these early issues from an archive. They were used to create entires with Zurich 4 and 6. Modern techniques reveal these to be fakes, despite previous classification as genuine.

 

FFE #2

The war of the Pacific. The “Edwar Walker Forgeries”

Class: PH

Jörg Maier

Covers from Chile, from the Pacific War of 1879-1884 addressed to ‘Edward Walker’ in Lima are demonstrated to be forgeries.

 

FFE #2

The Bohne sale

Class: Other

Claes Arnup

The Werner Bohne reference collection of forgeries was brought to the market by Postiljonen, the Swedish auction house. Claes Arnrup describes the circumstances, and the sale.

 

FFE #2

Misuse of (old) marking devices

Class: PH

John Lievsay

The author comments on the use of old cancellers and marking devices to create forgeries. He suggests that these should be donated to expert services or postal museums. A Philadelphia piece of 29th August 1861 with additional forged handstamps is illustrated and described in support of this proposition.

 

FFE #2

The Connell stamp

Class: TR

Vincent Graves Green Philatelic Research Foundation

The unissued Connell stamp of New Brunswick was sent for expertising and the importance of philatelic literature in this case is presented.

 

FFE #2

An Obock fake

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

An entire fabrication from Obock dated 25th February 1892 sent to Lyons is described. Other similar items from other colonies may be on the market.

 

FFE #2

Czechoslovakian stamps and their forgeries 1918-1939

Class: TR

Jan Karásek

A book by Jan Karásek describing all forgeries of Czech stamps from 1919-1939 has been published to critical acclaim.

 

FFE #2

French-Argentine postal history “letter”

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

A ‘Barquito’ cover from Buenos Aires dated 12th November 1858 is described with the stamp and its canceller shown to be a forgery.

 

FFE #3

The stamps of the Suez Canal Co.: Genuine and forged

Class: TR

Peter A.S. Smith FRPSL

Four stamps issued by the Suez Canal Company in 1868 were valid only for 40 days prior to suppression of the postal service on 15th August, and the opening of government post offices on the following day. These are one of the most extensively forged stamps in the world. The types, cancellations and forgeries are described. Only 21 genuine covers are known. There were never any reprints, and the distinguishing marks for genuine and forges stamps areillustrated.

 

FFE #3

Wenden letters which are nothing like

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

An obvously forged letter from 1912 bearing a Wenden 1863 parcel stamp is illustrated and described. When offered at auction it was described as RRR.

 

FFE #3

Beware the forged scout machine postmark

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

Forged machine postmarks from Latvia’s 1934 scout camp are known. The forgery is described and six points of difference from the genuine cancellation are listed.

 

FFE #3

The Liepaja bisect

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

The 10 Kopek dragonslayer stamp was bisected for use at Liepaja in Latvia in 1920. Seven postmarks were franked in this way, of which three are in collections. Five points of difference in a forged postmark are described.

 

FFE #3

Modern methods of expertisation III

Class: Other

Max Hertsch RDP

While expertisation requires experience and knowledge of the material, technical advances have enhanced this. Scanning technology and quartz light have helped. The writer describes the use of carbon 14 beta particle radiation in identifying repairs and improvements.

 

FFE #3

Argentine stamps: the Rivadavia imperforate 15C.; 1864

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan

The identifying characteristics of genuine and forged stamps of this issue are described and illustrated.

 

FFE #3

Philatelic forgery

Class: Other

Richard J. Weiss

Similarities between identifying fakes in art and philately are noted. Technological advances have provided instruments such as the Raman and infrared microprobes. The Raman probe has become portable and inexpensive and can extract information from pigmentation, gum, paper, overprints, cancellation and manipulation. DNA marks can be placed on art objects making them impossible to reproduce.

 

FFE #3

ROMANIA: forgeries of the Bull’s Head issues of the principality of Moravia

Class: PH

Fritz Heimbüchler

A cover bearing a 27 Parale black on pale rose paper postmarked BAKEU 20/10 has been shown to be a forgery for 25 years, but it still reappears in auction catalogues. Another 108 Parales cover cancelled GALATZ 23/3 is shown also to be faked. Reprints from 1891 made under circumstances as yet unknown are the source of these stamps which are illustrated and described.

 

FFE #3

Like the heads of Medusa

Class: TR

Pierre Guinaud

The forged rectangular VEVEY canceller was wrongly illustrated in FFE #2. Its distinguishing features are listed and illustrated as it is becoming ubiquitous.

 

FFE #3

Forgeries or manipulation of Strubel bisects

Class: TR

Erhard Keller

Bisected sitting Helvetia stamps, often ‘on piece’ are divided into three groups which are considered, illustrated and described in turn. The use of genuine stamps with genuine cancellations, genuine stamps and cancellations with additional hand drawn cancellations, and cancellation forgeries on unused stamps is shown.

 

FFE #3

When someone uses a razor blade, things become dangerous!

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Forgeries of the 700th anniversary of St Mary’s Church Lübeck can be identified with the use of a watermark detector, perforation gauge and UV lamp. Those from Peter Winter, with FAUX in the lower left front margin have the word removed with a razor blade. These are tabulated and illustrated.

 

FFE #3

Postmark forgery, “Königsee”, on block 10 Deutsches Reich

Class: PH

Jürgen Straub

The circular insert from the machine canceller KÖNIGSEE of 1933 is in private hands and is used for forged cancellations. This is demonstrated through examination of genuine marks and a forged item dated 28 5 37.

 

FFE #3

Falsification of a stamp of the Federal Republic of Germany: Mi No 1628 F

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

The 100 Pf 225th anniversary of the jewellery and watch industry (Mi. 1628) of 10th September 1992 is listed with the dark brown colour, Deutsche Bundpost, missing. This is easily faked and is known as such, with expert certificate.

 

FFE #3

Falsifications on Bolivia stamps

Class: TR

Eugenio von Boeck Parada

Forged overprints and forged stamps of Bolivia from 1925 to 1946 are illustrated, listed and described. These are predominantly overprinted airmail issues with false overprints and cancellations.

 

FFE #3

Fraudulent use of bisected stamps in the Holy Land

Class: TR

Geo. H. Muentz

Fraudulent and genuine bisected stamps from the Turkish, French, Austrian and British post offices in Palestine are illustrated and described, as are items from the interim period in 1948 and from the State of Israel.

 

FFE #3

Expertising at the Philatelic Foundation, New York

Class: Other

John E. Lievesay

The work of the Philatelic Foundation of New York, its history and reference collection is considered.

 

FFE #3

The extent of facelifting performed on a cover – a price factor?

Class: PH

Mag. Klaus Schöpfer

In 1996 a cover from Trieste to Manila (10th August 1857) was correctly described and sold at auction for DM 5700. The filing crease, wrinkled 9 Kreutzer stamp, damaged 2 Kreutzer stamp, and missing 2 Kreutzer stamp were “cured” and the cover offered for sale at auction in 1998. Described as “a cover and destination rarity of the first order, presumably unique”, it sold for DM 15000. The author urges registration of defective covers.

 

FFE #3

Knowledge of history – an important expertizing tool

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski

The history of the Boy Scout mail of Warsaw during the rising of 1944 is related. In south Warsaw, blank souvenir cards were created with censor cachets and special handstamps. ‘Rarities’ were created later by the addition of fictional addresses and messages. Knowledge of history allows the forgeries to be identified since senders in streets over run by German soldiers could not have sent cards. The history of the 1919 ‘Heinze’ forgeries of Poznan overprints is explained and illustrated with both genuine and forged items.

 

FFE #3

Expert-teams at FIP-exhibitions CHINA 99

Class: Other

N/A

Photographs of the expert team and equipment at China 99.

 

FFE #3

Modern French postal forgeries made in the period 1990-1998, compared with genuine stamps

Class: TR

H.W. van der Vlist

Genuine stamps and postal forgeries created between 1990 and 1998 are described, illustrated in great detail and comprehensively listed in an extensive piece of research. The first was made for the ‘amusement of collectors’, but like all of the others was subsequently used to defraud the postal service.

 

FFE #3

The Arthur Salm Foundation

Class: Other

Bernard A. Henning R.D.P.

The five reports so far published by the Arthur Salm Foundation are listed. These include tests of paper and hinges, lists of non-existent stamp issuing entities, and the chemistry of US pressure sensitive stamps. These are available from the Foundation.

 

FFE #3

Discovering fakes, forgeries, and bogus postal history

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

Defining fake as genuine, but altered, forgery as counterfeit or imitation, and labels made to look like stamps, and markings made to look like cancellations as bogus, the article considers a range of philatelic items. These include pieces from the French Commune of 1871, World War One Zeppelin flights, the siege of Paris 1870-71, British propaganda forgeries of World War Two (The Himmler heads), and stamps and covers from the Sultanate of Wituland and the nearby Malakote area.

 

FFE #3

ECUADOR A forgery “authenticated” by the Post Office

Class: TR

Jean-Pierre Mangin

In 1958 the Ecuador post office issued an airmail stamp to mark the Guayaquil philatelic exhibition. The 1866 four Reales illustrated thereon is in fact a forgery! The differences between the genuine and forged stamp are considered.

 

FFE #3

Scientific detection of philatelic forgeries

Class: Other

Mercer Bristow

The history of the American Philatelic Society expertising service is told, and its technical resources described. This include the CS-16 CrimeScope, a light source used for testing luminescence which excels in showing cleaned cancellations, altered postmarks of counterfeit overprints. 300 volumes of genuine reference material are held for comparison purposes. The APS has seen a significant increase in forgeries produced by laser printers.

 

FFE #3

Letters to Karoline letters of Norwegian missionaries

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

A stamped Norwegian missionary cover addressed to Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, was sent to the author for expertisation. Comparison with a letter sold previously, especially the paper and handwriting, shows it to be a forgery copied from an original bearing a genuine unused stamp. Look out for it in a sale catalogue or exhibition. It was offered for sale with two expert certificates by a German auction house.

 

FFE #3

Certificates at F.I.P. exhibitions

Class: Other

F. Burton Sellers R.D.P.

FIP rules for indicating the presence of an expert certificate for items in exhibitions. (e) in bold.

 

FFE #3

A simple new method to identify fakes – U.F.M.

Class: Other

Chang Min

There are ten million collectors in the People’s Republic of China. Prices have risen, and significant numbers of forgeries have appeared. The use of ultra-violet fluorescence in identifying forgeries is discussed and illustrated.

 

FFE #3

Forged and faked 20th century philatelic material of Australia & related areas

Class: TR

Krzystof (Chris) Ceremuga

Relatively few Australian stamps have been faked or forged, but increasing numbers are appearing on the market. This is a problem since collectors and dealers in Australia seldom get items expertised. The £2.00 Kangaroo, OS official overprints, Perfins, specimens, BCOP overprints, varieties, errors and first day covers are considered in an extensive piece. The article concludes with the 1960 Papua New Guinea postal charges overprints, the 1995 bird of paradise surcharges, the 1914-15 GRI overprints, and the overprinted 1916 George V stamps of Nauru.

 

FFE #10

The “Forero” Reprints of 25 January 1923

Class: Aero

Dieter Bortfeldt

The article is about the definition and identification of the unauthorized REPRINTS or Forgeries of the SCADTA Provisional surcharges by C.FORERO of 25 January 1923. 1.) The GENUINE Provisional Surcharges were only used at the end of 1921 and ALL SCADTA stamps of the first issue were demonetized on 1 March 1922. 2.) The GENUINE surcharges were applied by a RUBBER handstamp from a toy printing set – the Forero Reprints / Forgeries by means of a metal cliché. 3.) The FORERO Reprints – Forgeries are only found cancelled by a red datestamp of 25 January 1923 of Barranquilla. 4.) In addition to normal surcharges he produced 11 varieties or ERRORS and a large quantity of Mint stamps – there are more FORERO stamps known than GENUINE stamps of 1921. 5.) These Reprints – Forgeries are of much lesser value than the Genuine stamps of 1921 and the catalogues should be adjusted to that reason.

 

FFE #10

The Forgeries of Poonch

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The brief philatelic history of the Indian State of Poonch is detailed and the characteristics of the forgeries of the 1880-88 issues are examined, both as a whole issue, and then by each value in turn. Forged cancellations are also separately considered. The earlier forgeries were probably made during the late 1880s or 90s while there are more recent imitations which are also shown. The forgery of the 1876 issue is considerably later and its key features are listed. There appear to be no forgeries of the 1877 and 1879 stamps, as yet.

 

FFE #10

The Riel Essay

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

The history of the Riel rebellions of 1869 and 1885 in Manitoba is briefly told and the ‘Riel Essays’ known in red, green and black are considered, both in particular in respect to an individual stamp attached to a newspaper submitted to the author for an opinion, and in general to the issue as a whole. The stamp provided for expertisation is accepted as genuine while it is shown that the newspaper to which it was attached does not belong. The origin of the issue is considered with the balance of probability pointing to a philatelic source in the 1890s rather than to the ‘Postmaster General’ Bannatyne. The author asks readers for further information on this rare and contentious woodcut essay.

 

FFE #10

The Riddle of the “Forty Saints” in Northern Epirus/Southern Albania

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

The Forty Saints are Greek islands which came to philatelic prominence during the Balkan wars of 1912-13. The history of the official and bogus issues valid in the port of Aioi Saranta is retold with particular reference to the three cancellers used there at the time. All three cancellers appear genuinely to have been issued by the Greek authorities. Type II shows only genuine usage, but type I is used on the ‘dubious’ skull and crossbones issue and type III on the Argyrokastro issues. Despite a patina of respectability arising over time, the se usages remain dubious.

 

FFE #10

The Faked Swedish “Steinberg Covers”

Class: TR

Helena Obermülle-Wilén

More than 200 covers bearing classic Swedish material came to the market in Malmö in the early 1970s from a German named Steinberg. All are false. The majority are still on the market and the author has examined perhaps 120 of these covers. Cancellations and other postmarks are painted on, and are entirely false. Arrival marks are generally genuine, but altered. Using examples , the general characteristics of these covers are shown.

 

FFE #10

Some Brazilian Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

Nine Brazilian ‘bulls eye’ covers are illustrated and described. All are false. Fraudulent additions of stamps and postmarks are described.

 

FFE #10

The Investigation of the Grinnel “Missionaries”

Class: TR

Patrick Pearson

There has been more written since 2004 on the subject of the Grinnell Hawaiian missionary stamps than in the entire previous history of the controversy. The author sets out the methodology of the investigation into these stamps by the expert committee of the Royal Philatelic Society of London in reaching its conclusion that the stamps are forgeries.

 

FFE #10

Are Your Stamps Genuine?

Class: TR

Iwan Feddersen

A SENSATIONAL INVENTION CAN REVEAL FORGERIES. Computer vision is competing with the eye A new patented Danish invention based on Multispectral imaging (MSI) has been implemented in unique instrument called VideometerLab. The instrument uses up to 20 different wavelengths from 370 nm to 1050 nm. (1 billion nanometers = 1 meter). In the near infrared wavelengths 780 nm to 1050 nm the light will go through the printing on the stamp and penetrate the surface to reveal structures that are not visible to the human eye under normal circumstances. The acquired image is made out of pixels with a dimension of 50 micrometer (1 million micrometer = 1 meter). Thus subtle details may be seen.

 

FFE #10

Colonial Pre-philately of the Viceroyalty of Peru

Class: PH

Jesùs Sitjà Prats

When we studied the set up dates of the post offices in the Viceroyalty of Peru (1769-1824), we realized that some letters from “Cristobal Francisco Rodriguez, General Manager of Temporalidades of Lima” file, had impossible dates; this means the letter date was previous that the establishment of the post office. We followed studying this file and found that some letters from different places have the same calligraphy, this means, wrote for the same person. After that, we compared the inks of strikes of these letters (the ones of writing ink) with the ink of documents of these post offices in the same dates, kept in Seville Archive, they do not match. We also compare the size of the strikes with genuine ones, we found slightly differences. At the end we realized the Cristobal Francisco Rodriguez, General Manager of Temporalidades of Lima” file was manipulated.

 

FFE #10

The Inward Combination Covers to Japan and Their Authenticity

Class: PH

jun Ichi Matsumoto

The postal matters to and from foreign countries were treated by the Foreign Post Offices located at Yokohama, etc. The origin of these Post Offices was the Consular Packet Agenciy operated for the benefit of foreign residents in Japan. When the addressee was residing at Yokohama or at other treaty ports, they could receive mail directly from the Foreign Post Office. But, when the mail was addressed to someone residing far from Yokohama, the letter had to be transported by the Japanese domestic postal service. Thence occurs the necessity of mixed franking or combination covers bearing the postage stamps of two different postal bodies which were varied for each individual postal section. Today, we know the existence of Inward Combination Covers; Franco – Japanese, Anglo – Japanese and U.S. – Japanese. They are scarce in number, only 19 in total. This rarity attracts special attention of philatelists and the market price becomes inevitably expensive. This situation arouses doubtful sentiment against these incoming combination covers. But when scientifically and logically examined, the above-related 19 examples are judged all authentic.

 

FFE #10

Expertised, but still not right

Class: TR

Michael Jäschke-Lantelme

With the help of a well known stamp, Michel #1.I on a German Post Office in China cover, the article shows which methods can be employed today as proof of forgery. Not everyone will be pleased that these latest test methods can unmask many well known “rarities” as fakes or forgeries, but it shows how important the use of such methods is when carrying out tests using the latest technical advances.

 

FFE #10

Mystery of the Brazilian Parahyba Provisional

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen

The articles presents new results of the historical research about the circumstances of the origin of the Brazilian Parahyba Provisional issue from May 1930. The author, Wolfgang Maassen, makes clear that the famous Parahyba provisional does not owe its existence to any philatelic influence. And for the first time he presents a complete listing of all known provisionals.

 

FFE #10

On Repaired Numerical Oval Bar Obliterations

Class: TR

J. Miranda da Mota

The article shows the different types of numerical oval bar obliterations in Portugal, known as characteristics of the second postal reform, the time context of usage of these postal marks in the correspondence and some repaired numerical oval bar obliterations in comparison with unrepaired marks of the same post office. It’s made evident the macroscopic characteristics of the authentic black ink used to apply obliterations and the black ink used to repair these obliterations. It’s also pointed out the computer part, as additional diagnostic way, to determine the quantitative composition of colours, both in RGB and CMYK.

 

FFE #10

Principality of Montenegro, Overprint Forgeries

Class: TR

Dr. Jovan Velickovic

Montenegro celebrated two events with commemorative stamps, 400 years of printing in Montenegro (1893) , so called Прослава Штампарије, and its first Constitution, Устав, in 1905. For both events current stamps were overprinted locally in Cetinje. Primitive overprint settings , black and red overprints and basic stamps resulting from four printings, 1880, 1890, 1893 and 1894, produced an abundance of genuine varieties among which forged overprints can hardly be identified. Four forged overprints were established, from minute details of some letters. For the 1905 issue current stamps were taken , all uniform, however the overprinting plates of 100 contained five different types. Several types of detected forged overprints mostly appear on stamps with double and inverted overprints, one genuine the second fake, or on overprint “essays”.

 

FFE #10

From the Robson Lowe Reference Collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

A Nova Scotia cover and a Mexico wrapper originating from the Burrus collection is presented and discussed. Both were once believed genuine, but subsequently found to be manipulated. For the Mexican wrapper a rare stamp was consumed to produce a fake.

 

FFE #10

How to Discern Flown Covers from not Flown Covers

Class: TR

Igor Rodin

The article is concerned with five space flights where the Soviet operated jointly with another country: Hungary (1980), Vietnam (1980), Cuba (1980), France (1982), and India (1984). For each flight it is indicated which postmarks were only used on-board the vessel – so indicating a flown cover – and which postmarks were also used for ground mail. The article is extensively illustrated.

 

FFE #10

Postal Deception in Imperial Austria 1850-1863/64

Class: TR

Dr. ulrich Ferchenbauer

This extensively illustrated article discusses, by example, items without, or with no certain evidence of, fraudulent intent: (1) Underpaid letters, (2) Use of stamps in wrong currency, (3) Use of already invalid stamps, (4) Use of foreign stamps, (5) Mistaken use of newspaper stamps for letter postage, (6) Use of revenue stamps for postage, (7) Bisects and trisects. – Also items with obviously fraudulent intent: (1) Heavy to extremely heavy cut into items, (2) Use of previously used stamps, (3) Use of joined together or incomplete stamps, (4) Use of newspaper stamps as postage stamps, (5) Use of St. Andrews Cross as postage stamp, (6) Postal forgeries.

 

FFE #10

Comments on the Rise and Fall of a Printed Piece of Paper

Class: TR

Heinz ErwinJungjohann

The article describes the unfortunate case of certain exhibition covers from the 1934 philatelic exhibition in Katowice. The covers had printed on them, in various colours, natural sized illustrations of contemporary Polish stamps. Subsequently cut-outs from such covers have surfaced as essays, proofs, etc. – at times even supplied with a certificate from a misled expert!

 

FFE #10

A Beautiful Letter from Riga, but…

Class: TR

Harry von Hoffmann

The article describes a WW2 ‘Feldpost’-letter, which was just too nice to be genuine. E.g. it was not possible for civilians to post mail from a field post office – plus six other important details.

 

FFE #10

Opinions on Tolerable Restorarion. Views on the Prof. John West Paper

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

The article discusses a possible conflict between collector’s aesthetics and exhibition rules on one hand and the needs of philatelic science and postal history documentation on the other. By authoritative and convincing examples from Schleswig-Holstein’ian philately concern is expressed that misguided aesthetics should not lead to exclusion, devaluation and eventually the likely destruction of important philatelic objects, – e.g. entires where the fine aesthetics of the stamps are contrasted by a lamentable condition of the covers.

 

FFE #10

Producer Of Forgeries Of The Early Japanese Postage Stamps

Class: TR

Mamoru Sawa

This article concerns forgeries of early Japanese stamps from the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban issues. The article presents a thorough examination of two of the top producers of forgeries, Wada Kotaro, top maker of forgeries in the Meiji Era, and Maeda Kihei, founder of the Kamigata-ya shop. The world renown Wada Kotaro produced, marketed and distributed forgeries of early Japanese postage stamps, as did the Kamigata-ya shop. Among other things, the Kamigata-ya dealt in forgeries of the Koban 45 sen stamps, and some Cherry Blossom stamps.

 

FFE #11

Balancing Probabilities

Class: TR

Christopher King

A previously unlisted postmark from Aarhus in Denmark is shown on a folded letter from the Three Years War of 1848-1851. In the absence of other evidence, the author considers how this might be authenticated by context, history, other material from the same war, the writer and the recipient.

 

FFE #11

Oneglia’s fac-similés for the province of Canada

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Erasmo Oneglia, a Torino printer, produced many engraved forgeries between 1897 and 1907. Those for the Province of Canada, being Scott numbers 1-20 are considered in detail with a technical description and large colour illustrations. Paper, printing technique, cancellations and rarity are considered, with current sale prices for each example. A table lists each facsimile with design, colour, paper, rarity and original cost in 1907, together with notes on the genuine stamps.

 

FFE #11

Madame Joseph and her forged cancellations

Class: TR

Brian Cartwright

The museum of the Royal Philatelic Society London includes a collection of postmarking implements acquired in 1993. 438 of these are postmarking devices in wood, copper, zinc, lead and rubber, together with other related materials dated from 1852 to 1967. The majority are from the 1885 to 1935. The history of these implements is recounted, including their use by Madame Joseph and other dealers to postmark stamps. Sheets bearing 120 postmarks (illustrated), including examples of those held by the RPSL, have been discovered in the Stanley Gibbons Reference collection, and these are considered together. Identification of the marks, their use on stamps with errors and varieties, substituted and suppressed dates are covered. The author advises care in purchasing stamps which are catalogued more highly used than mint.

 

FFE #11

Belgium, Forgeries of the Five Francs Leopold II 1878

Class: TR

James Van der Linden

The five francs Leopold II is the most forged Belgian stamp with 17 different forgeries listed. Usage of the genuine stamp is described, as are the 17 key points in distinguishing it, which are illustrated. The five most dangerous forgeries are illustrated and described in detail.

 

FFE #11

Holy Land and Israel Fakes and Forgeries – Examples from 1860-1948

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

The complex postal history of the Holy Land is sketched out and examples of forgeries are illustrated and described. These include forged postmarks and covers with examples from the Austrian Post, the French Post Jaffa 3768 and 5089 postmarks, the Turkish Post boxed Acre postmark, British Palestine 1918 overprint, Egyptian Expeditionary Force Jerusalem postmark, the Dead Sea postmark of 1941, the OVER LAND MAIL Haifa-Baghdad cachet, a 1948 transition period Ma’abarot registered cover, the 1948 1st coins issue including essays, first day cover and imperforate varieties, the 1948 provisional postage dues, the 1948 Israel first festivals and the use of the tête-bêche stamps on first day cover.

 

FFE #11

Great Britain Definitive Forgeries 1993-2004

Class: TR

Gavin Fryer

Forgeries of the Machin definitive 24p chestnut (10 September 1991), the 1989 second class blue in booklet panes, and 1997 gold first class adhesives are considered and illustrated. It is believed that first and second class self adhesive stamps are being produced in China in large quantities.

 

FFE #11

The Rare Rotary Press 2¢ Black Harding Stamp with Gauge 11 Perforations

Class: TR

Ken Lawrence

A unique strip of three rotary press 2 cents black Warren G Harding memorial stamps, perforation 11, was sold by Matthew Bennett Auctioneers in the United States for US$150,000 plus commission on 20 October 2007 after a protracted expertisation. The article gives an historical background to the stamp and its production, followed by a very detailed technical account of the lengthy expert examination. Expert opinion was divided and the owner finally identified the stamps as originating on the rotary press by matching plate flaws from the original plate proofs at the National Postal Museum. The resulting certificate from Philatelic Foundation noted that the stamps had been lightly cleaned. The new owner and auction house dispute this, and further expert opinion is to be sought.

 

FFE #11

From the Robson Lowe Reference Collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Two covers are illustrated, one from France with 20 centimes black Ceres from 6 January 1849, the other a 1847-48 large eagle 5 centimes from Geneva. Both have certificates from experts who were well thought of in their day, both are forgeries. The author urges humility on expertisers.

 

FFE #11

An Oneglia or Sperati New Zealand Forgery?

Class: TR

Robin Gwynne

The writer notes that there are few dangerous forgeries of New Zealand stamps where manipulation is a greater threat. The article considers a 1878 two shillings first side face design produced photographically from a genuine stamp on genuine NZ and star watermarked paper originating probably from a bleached out two penny stamp. It has a forged cancellation with the letters TU in a vertical barred oval. The question is, who produced it? Probably not Sperati, but perhaps Oneglia, although it is not listed in the ‘Catalogue des Imitations’. Can anyone help?

 

FFE #11

Some Brazilian Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

Four Brazilian covers and a number of individual stamps are illustrated, considered and described as fakes or forgeries. These include: a vertical strip of three 280 réis in red on a cover from Bahia to Marseilles – dated 12 July 1866, a folded letter from Rio de Janeiro to Bordeaux with a horizontal pair of 60 réis in black – arriving 4 November 1862, a folded letter from Rio de Janeiro to Bordeaux with a vertical strip of three 60 réis in black – arriving 18 January 1863, and a cover from Pernambuco to Le Havre with a 260 réis D. Pedro II. All were originally unstamped and the stamps have been added later. The reasons for these conclusions are explained. The individual stamps bear postmarks from IGUASSÚ, CACHOEIRA, C.G. da PARAHYBA DO NORTE 21 1 1847, SAO SEBASTIÃO DA PARAHYBA, CORREIO GERAL DA CORTE – 8 18EM62 11 – BRAZIL, RIO CLARO, and MAILED AT SEA – S.S. COLOMBIA – COLOMBIAN LINE. None of these stamps was ever on a cover, all are genuine and all of the postmarks are frauds.

 

FFE #11

A reappraisal of the status and usage on the surcharged Queen Victorian Postal Stationery – part one – The 1879 Provisional Postcards of Ceylon

Class: TR

Alan Huggins and Kurt E. Kimmel

The background and philatelic history of these 8 cents and 12 cents surcharges in 1879 on postal stationery cards is considered, beginning in 1881 when they were first reported. The authors have reviewed the early literature from 1881-1897 and consider all examples recorded to date, with a inventory of HG (Higgins and Gage) 2, 8c/2c with “Naples/Marseilles/or/Southampton” and HG3 12c/2c with “Via Brindisi”. Eleven used cards are illustrated and described as are four unused cards. These are cards with “Ceylan” incorporated in the surcharge. The existence of cards as early as 1892 with “CEYLAN” or “CEYLON” in the overprint is also considered with five such cards illustrated together with three others with differing overprints. Their history in the literature is discussed and the description of these variously as varieties, errors and essays is considered. In commenting on these cards it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion since the rationale for their production is unclear and the attribution of essay status needs to be treated with great caution.

 

FFE #11

Philatelic Conservation – Restoration

Class: TR

David R Beech

The article continues Carl-Aage Møller’s piece on acceptable conservation and restoration within philately. He considers the differences between conservation, restoration and improvement emphasising that the prime motivation is what is good for the item in question with all other considerations being secondary. It is suggested that a certificate in the future might include an opinion as to genuineness, a record of provenance, a record of treatments used in conservation, photographs, and records of scientific analysis.

 

FFE #11

Qatar – The Political Officer’s Datestamp

Class: TR

Greg Todd

The usage and forgery of the rare date stamp “OFFICE OF THE POLITICAL OFFICER – QATAR” is chronicled. Two cancelled by favour items are illustrated, two genuine covers and one forgery are shown, with the latter being explained.

 

FFE #11

The ‘Jammu Seal Provisional’, An Emergency Issue or a Postal Forgery

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The use of the provisional Jammu hand struck seal in red cancelled with an identical seal in black is considered by some experts and catalogues as genuine, while others have doubts. Fourteen copies are known on 13 covers and these are listed in a table, together with the three items known on piece. The philatelic history of this issue is set out beginning with David Masson in 1900, Sefi and Mortimer in their handbook of 1937, Dawson and Smythe of the same year, and others more recently. Doubts were raised in 1981, and more technically in 1983. A mixed franking is illustrated and explained, and a possible provisional described. In conclusion the author balances the argument between a postal fraud and genuine usage, leaning towards a theoretical support for the former.

 

FFE #11

The Stamps of the Special Detachment of the Belorussian National Republic

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Unlisted by Michel, the background to these stamps is reviewed including their printing by the Latvian State Printing offices in a million copies of each except for the 10 Kopek value which numbered 750,000. The origin, printing, postcards, the only day of usage, and forgeries for the packet trade are considered together with unauthorised postmarks. The author wonders why they were used only for a single day.

 

FFE #11

Railway Post Gulbene – Valka 1924?

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann

A superficially attractive, but clearly faked postcard is shown from Latvia. The postmark on the stamp is not aligned with that on the card, it is over franked, and two postmarks are added together to make a non-existent route.

 

FFE #11

The Swedish Faked Landstorm Covers

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The article reports and illustrates forgeries made by Gunnar Fellenius who was convicted of forgery in 1987 and who had been producing forgeries since the late 1970s. After the trial he continued to make forgeries until his death in 2001. From the beginning of 1980 he used the Landstorm stamps of 1916 and 1918 added to a correspondence between Thyra Gradin and her fiancée Gösta Drakenberg. He also bought the typewriter of Sven Åkerstedt, a well known philatelist and expert, who died in 1977, and used this to make long winded expert certificates. Other covers are signed by Strandell, the most famous philatelist in Sweden who died in 1963. Covers and stamps are illustrated and explained.

 

FFE #11

Some New Aspects of Studies on “Degron-Kun Covers” or Franco-Japanese Mixed Franked Covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Following on from an earlier article in FFE8, the author reviews the evidence for the “special” nature of the postal arrangements between Japan and the wider world through the French postmaster M. Degron, at the French Post Office in Yokohama. The author concludes that this was a simple process of ordinary mail with Japanese postage prepaying the carriage to Yokohama and French postage prepaying the onward conveyance. The writer believes that these “Mr Degron Covers” are not the subject of official sanction for military personnel only but that the service was available to the general public. A domestic letter to Sweden is cited as an example demonstrating this. This system operated for five years from 1873-1878, 83 covers are known, six “Degron-Kun” handstamps are recorded which are illustrated together with statistical tables and covers.

 

FFE #11

Papal States – Faked and Problematic Postal-History Covers

Class: TR

Thomas Mathà

In considering covers from the Papal States knowledge of methods of noting rates on covers, and the postal conventions, routes and rates is essential. Forgers were often clumsy and simply added stamps to covers which an understanding of the postal history unmasks. Nineteen forged covers are illustrated and explained in detail.

 

FFE #11

A Sophisticated Forgery

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

Forged cancellations on material from the early liberation period in Poland are compromised. Collectors should have a detailed knowledge of the state of individual cancellers over time especially LUBLIN 1 r.

 

FFE #11

Austria: Allied Censorship 1945-1953 – Misuse of a Soviet Censor Stamp 1946

Class: TR

Helmut Seebald

Offered items of post war mail censored in Wiener Neustadt with an oval handstamp, the author noted that the items were earlier than they ought to be. The seller, a former post office worker had found the handstamp in the 1960s, and had taken it home. The handstamp is now in the possession of the author. Examples of the genuine mark are shown as is its use 35 years later, and a recent imprint from 2007. Genuine and misused items are illustrated. The article further considers Allied and Soviet censorship in Vienna especially the use of an oval handstamp OESTERREICHISCHE ZENSURSTELL W.N. and the same with W.N. removed. It concludes with six points of advice on how to decide whether a censored item is genuine or a fake.

 

FFE #11

Romania: 150 Year Anniversary of the Bulls Heads of Moldavia

Class: TR

Fritz Heimbüchler

The history of the Bulls Heads is told and the number of stamps known of each of the values is recorded. A forgery of the 27 Parale is demonstrated, the 1891 reprints in original colours is discussed as is the need for up to date certificates. The article follows on from an earlier piece in FFE3. The Importance of Historical Geography in the Expertisation of Postal History Charles J. G. Verge FRPSC, FRPSL In the author’s opinion historical, economic, political and geographical context are import factors in philatelic expertising. Two covers from Nova Scotia with bisected two cent stamps are considered, both not properly tied to the cover and one lacking a backstamp. Without researching the history of the post offices and their date of operation, together with the use of contemporary maps, allows the destinations to be identified. Consideration is also given to the use and changing shape of cork cancellers. Both covers have been given certificates of authenticity by the Greene Foundation.

 

FFE #11

Three Ways

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

The writer divides expertising into three periods; the nineteenth century for the most part graphic design was sufficient to distinguish forged from genuine; the early part of the twentieth century when distinguishing between printing methods became essential; and between the wars when printing became more sophisticated with lithographic reproductions by Sperati and Paul. Nowadays with specialist auction catalogues in colour, with specialised studies of rates and issues, more material than ever is available to the forger, faker and repairer. While it is still necessary to study older printing techniques for printing classic stamps, it is necessary also to be familiar with the modern techniques used to forge them.

 

FFE #11

The Importance of Historical Geography in the Expertisation of Postal History

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

In the author’s opinion historical, economic, political and geographical context are import factors in philatelic expertising. Two covers from Nova Scotia with bisected two cent stamps are considered, both not properly tied to the cover and one lacking a backstamp. Without researching the history of the post offices and their date of operation, together with the use of contemporary maps, allows the destinations to be identified. Consideration is also given to the use and changing shape of cork cancellers. Both covers have been given certificates of authenticity by the Greene Foundation.

 

FFE #11

The Perkins-Bacon “Proofs” of the 1906 Olympic Issue of Greece: A Clarification

Class: TR

Michalis E. Tsironis

The question of the timing of the delivery of the 1906 proofs is addressed, especially if they predated or post-dated the delivery of the actual stamps. Are these proofs or reprints? See also FFE9.

 

FFE #11

Colombia: The “AR” Provisionals of 1902-03

Class: TR

Dieter Bortfeldt and Alan D. Anyon

Colombian stamps overprinted AR are offered on the Internet with high prices. The authors give the historical background to these stamps which are listed in detail in the Temprano catalogue and mentioned in Scott and Yvert. Stamps used on documents are scarce, and the writers conclude that only types used on documents serve to identify genuine AR stamps. Four such are illustrated. Using overlays derived from copies on forms it is possible to determine that only one type is genuine, and this is also known forged. Genuine, forged and bogus items are illustrated. All AR SCADTA and telegraph stamps are bogus. All mint stamps must be considered doubtful.

 

FFE #11

An Incoming Small Dragon Postcard: A Chinese Forgery

Class: TR

Michael Ho

The article concerns a French postcard sent to Naumburg in Germany, and redirected to Shanghai, China. On receipt in Shanghai a three Candarins stamp was affixed, cancelled with a customs canceller, marked “T” and handstamped “To Pay” in red. With reference to genuine material the customs cancellation is shown to be forged, and the stamp deliberately added.

 

Fig 2

FFE #12

Guard against forged covers

Class: TR

Li Shuguang

Philatelists should learn how forgers try to trick them, based on stamps from The People’s Republic of China, the author describes how forgers fabricate, graft, alter and plagiarise to trap collectors. Knowledge of the historical and philatelic record can detect many forgeries of military covers, but today’s forgers are getting cleverer, and philatelists need to study literature on forgeries in order to stay ahead. Beware of covers made by using illustrations from magazines and catalogues used to synthesize forged items.

 

Fig 2

FFE #12

From the Robson Lowe reference collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Adrian Albert Jürgens was a South African collector who late in life improved many covers with forged cancellations and bisected postage stamps. The article illustrates three such covers.

 

Fig 20 Unflown V12 / V13 card

FFE #12

Friedrich Schmiedl Rocket mail

Class: TR

Walter Hopferwieser

The author describes rocket mail sent by Friedrich Schmiedel illustrating 24 items initiated by him. The text describes how forgeries may be distinguished from genuine items.

 

Fig 1

FFE #12

Forged Norwegian Covers

Class: TR

Hans J. Enger

Two previously unknown forgeries of Norwegian covers from the 1860s are illustrated, one to France with incorrect postage and stamps which do not belong, and the other with redrawn cancels.

 

Fig 21

FFE #12

Serbia, 1869/1880, The Prince Milan issue, Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Dr. Jovan Velickovic

Forged stamps from this issue are known for all values. The article describes forged perforations, complete forgeries, fake and fantasy cancellations and faked covers, and usages on newspaper are illustrated and described.

 

Fig 3

FFE #12

A new forgery of the Swedish printing error 20/TRETIO

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller-Wilén

Fournier forged stamps showing the 20/tretio error of 19 December 1879 exist. In 2008 a new forgery appeared which is more dangerous and is illustrated here.

 

Fig 16A

FFE #12

Forged and bogus postal markings of Mongolia

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

Forgeries for stamps and covers from Mongolia before 1939 are omnipresent. There are forged cancellations and bogus markings. The article presents an overview of these both illustrated and described in detail.

 

Fig 4

FFE #12

Iceland 5 Aurar oval issue: black prints – not a fake but new discovery

Class: TR

Orla Nielsen & Ebbe Eldrup

The five aurar black prints of Iceland are illustrated and discussed. The authors suggest that the Facit catalogue adds to the description of the Berne reprints from 1904 that black prints exist of the five aurar on thick and thin paper without watermark. The authors conclude that black prints without the split EAST frame are proofs for the Berne reprints probably produced during the reprinting in 1904.

 

Fig 2A

FFE #12

The expert committee of the RPS and the changing face of forgeries

Class: TR

Patrick Pearson

Patrick Pearson, Chairman of the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London, describes the work and working practices of the Committee together with its forensic equipment.

 

Fig 9

FFE #12

The bogus surcharges of the island of Castellorizo

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Turkish stamps surcharged during the period March-September 1913 are reviewed and covers, stamps and pieces are illustrated. The conclusion sums up the available data by suggesting that the catalogues which ignore these surcharges are thoroughly justified.

 

Fig 2

FFE #12

“Degron-kun covers” or Franco-Japanese mixed franked covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Information provided on the Degron-kun covers in FFE 11 is updated in this article together with illustrations of the seven hand stamps, three covers and an update of previous statistics covering 91 known items, broken down into types, colours, years and senders.

 

Fig 5

FFE #12

Implications of impossible

Class: TR

Morten J. Lintrup

The author examines Belgium’s 1915 Red Cross semi-postals printed by Waterlow Bros. and Leighton Ltd., often referred to as the Albert I large medallion series. The issue is described and ‘impossible’ items discussed together with recommendations for additions to the COB/OCB official catalogue listing of Belgium’s World War I Red Cross issues.

 

Fig 9

FFE #12

Expertizing “Muraokuri” sheet of Japan

Class: TR

Kazuyuki Inoue

The Muraokuri courier system was introduced on Shiakoko Island in 1584. Between 1 June 1872 and 15 November 1874 local stamps were issued by the Kochi prefectural government, also called Muraokuri. In 1917 an article appeared with photographs of three Muraokuri stamps. In 1941 a photograph in red showing 18 stamps appeared in “The Yubin Kitte”. The article refers to the appearance of the original of this sheet in 2003 and its subsequent expertising. This sheet is identical with that published in 1941 and will aid the plating of these stamps in future.

 

FFE #12

Can Plastic Films Damage My Stamps?

Class: TR

Ib Krarup, comments by John West

The author, formerly production manager for a plastics company, reviews the use of PVC hard film pockets for long-term storage of stamps. The chemical attributes are discussed, and advises against all uses of PVC for long-term storage of stamps. Polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, polystyrene, glassine and cellophane are discussed with reference to an article in Philatelie, a German magazine, as is an article by Professor John West.

 

Fig 6

FFE #12

Hollands track-boat markings a conundrum solved

Class: TR

Kees Adema

The hand stamps for the carriage of mail from Amsterdam to The Hague and Rotterdam for the postilion and track boat service are illustrated and described. A definite forgery of the 2S Schuyt marking is described and the two types of this mark are discussed. Using x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF) is explained in examining letters from 1693 and 1695 with the conclusion that the marks and paper were genuine. The 3S hand stamps applied only in Amsterdam are illustrated. Further investigation of the ink using Raman spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the previous results were wrong since the ink contained an artificial blackening agent rather than 17th century pigments.

 

Fig 2c

FFE #12

Colombia – 3rd issue of 1861 notes on forgeries

Class: TR

Dieter Bortfeldt

Forgeries of the third issue of Columbia of 1861 are reviewed. Forgeries by Sperati, Fournier, Senf and Schroeder are considered and illustrated together with their characteristic features.

 

FFE #12

An guideline for the expert group at work af FIP world stamp exhibitians

Class: TR

Tay Peng Hian & Lim Sa Bee

An operational guideline for the use by expert groups at FIP and continental exhibitions is described together with advice on procedures, forms and other paperwork together with a four-day timetable for the process.

 

September 17

FFE #12

Covers from South Bulgaria – a rare variety of Balkan postal history

Class: TR

Thomas Hitzler

A brief history of the south Bulgarian ′Lions′ overprints together with illustrations of faked and genuine covers is given. Genuine covers and postcards correctly used, cancellations by favour on genuine overprints and genuine cancellations by favour on faked Lions overprints are explained and illustrated together with faked cancellation on both genuine and faked Lions overprints. Finally, the manipulation of a genuine cover is shown. The postal history is described up until the end of September 1885.

 

Fig 3

FFE #12

A lucky reunion – and how patience pays off

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

A cover bearing a pair of Holstein No. 1 sent to Christiansfeld in Schleswig and lacking a stamp is shown. The discovery of the missing stamp and its positioning on the only cover known sent to the Duchy of Schleswig is described. A remarkable reunion of a very rare cover expertised by Carl Aage Møller.

 

Fig 12

FFE #12

The Misuse of the Datestamp Bauschowitz a.d. Eger/Bohusovice n.OHRI, Ub: g

Class: TR

Hans-Hermann Paetow

Forged examples resulting from the misuse of the date stamp Bauschowitz a.d. Eger/Bohusovice n.Ohri, Ub: g are reviewed and illustrated together with the eleven registered strikes. The letter ‘g’ cancellor was in private hands between April-May 1945 and possibly 1947 resulting in a very large number of forged items.

 

Fig 5

FFE #12

Fake 1932 Paraguayan Chaco war covers

Class: TR

Roberto C. Eaton K.

Faked covers from the Paraguayan-Chaco War from 1932 are illustrated and described and any use of postmarks from the Paraguayan Posta Militair prior to 1933 is a fake.

 

FFE #12

Not only holes

Class: TR

Wista

The use of perforation by Wista involving differently shaped security holes in conjunction with standard perforations is described.

 

Fig 5

FFE #12

A reappraisal of the status and usage on the surcharged queen Victorian postal stationery of Ceylon – Part Two – The 1885 local 10 cent surcharges

Class: TR

Alan Huggins & Kurt E. Kimmel

Alan Huggins and Kurt Kimmel continue the reappraisal of surcharged Queen Victoria postal stationery of Ceylon began in FFE 11. Bogus and philatelic items are illustrated and described together with the history of the known items. A useful bibliography supplements the piece.

 

Fig 1

FFE #12

Forged Swedish stamps 2004-2008

Class: TR

Ingvar Larsson

A large-scale fraud of Swedish post stamps involving ten issues between 2004 and 2008 are described and illustrated. The genuine and false stamps are compared, and the size and distribution of the fraud are estimated.

 

FFE #13

A forged cancel attributed to Spiro

Class: TR

Hans J. A. Vinkenborg

A reconstruction of a fantasy canceller is presented, of which only fractions are to be found on individual stamps – but on such a variety of different stamps that it is clearly the work of a forger. Without conclusive evidence, it is argued that Spiro is the most likely culprit.

 

FFE #13

Forged Faroe Islands #1 on 1919 postcard to Denmark

Class: TR

Geoffrey Noer

Even a certificate from a recognised expert is not a 100% guarantee. Experts do have bad days, and forgers excel at times. But the truth may still prevail, as was the case with an unusual #1 postcard with VESTMANHAVN cancellation.

 

FFE #13

Great Britain – Postal stationery fakes

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

An alert to the fact that postal stationery material is available and “authentic” – also to forgers who can use it as a foundation upon which to construct more unusual and seemingly attractive items by adding more stamps and cancellations. With two examples.

 

FFE #13

The last letter dispatched from the French post office of Yokohama, and its hapless trips

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

A thorough and imaginative trace of what must – by deduction – be the last of a series of letters with French postage stamps mailed from Japan. With 9 stations on its 1880 way from Japan to France – and back to the unhappy sender in Japan!

 

FFE #13

The engraved forgeries of Sicily

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Classic Sicilian stamps – Bomba heads – are as popular with forgers as with collectors. Seven different types of engraved forgeries are illustrated and discussed.

 

FFE #13

Forgeries in Maximaphily

Class: TR

Jos Wolff

By four examples – from Latvia, Belgium, Luxembourg and Italy – it is demonstrated that forgeries are also an issue within maximaphilately, some are more obvious than others and can be identified with just the right combination of scepticism and awareness.

 

FFE #13

The Prosser fantasies

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

The story of the Prosser fantasies within Canadian philately is told. The quality and nature of these works of art make them all the more dangerous to collectors, since they are really made by a qualified artist just to develop his professional skills, not to defraud collectors!

 

FFE #13

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

With much detail and many elaborate arguments, thirteen examples are presented of fakes and forgeries within classic Brazilian philately – even some with misguided certificates.

 

FFE #13

The Great Britain 1883 high values on blued paper – A story of forgery and deceit

Class: TR

Trevor I. Harris

Just what the title says! – With special emphasis on forgeries, their background and their appearance.

 

FFE #13

Issues of the independence of Portugal 1926-1928

Class: TR

Pedro Vaz Pereira

The interesting story behind these early Portuguese commemoratives and their speculative character is laid out. A warning is signalled for forged “proofs”, which appeared in the market 1955, then disappeared but resurfaced in 1989.

 

FFE #13

About the Homonnay cancellations shown in FEPAPOST 94

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

A presentation of pre-philatelic Hungarian HOMONNAY cancellations – and their fakes.

 

FFE #13

Forgeries of Norwegian first day covers – The “1975-forgeries”

Class: TR

Peer-Christian Ånensen

An interesting story and a tabular listing of forgeries found of modern material not often attracting the attention of forgers. But Norway is different, and the details are found here, including suspicious if not totally conclusive evidence such as how stamps are positioned and cancellations are placed on FDCs.

 

FFE #13

A somewhat early, or very late, Kurland letter

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann

A nice-looking eBay offering of a rare WW2 cover is figuratively torn to pieces by a subject matter expert.

 

FFE #13

The Perkins Bacon 3 pence on fourpence stamp

Class: TR

Anthony D. Presgrave

The article, though dealing with all of the rare 3 Pence on Four Pence stamp (from South Australia), is primarily aimed at settling once and for all the status of the O. S. overprints. It will not be popular with collectors who possess examples of these O. S. stamps…

 

FFE #13

Designs, Proofs, Essays

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

A thorough and well argued piece about the pitfalls of this increasingly popular subject – with many examples from within French philately.

 

FFE #13

The faker who shot himself in the foot

Class: TR

Robin Gwynn

An entertaining exposition of a faker who manipulated a VICTORIA LAND overprint to simulate a variety – and in doing so he overlooked and ruined a rare plate flaw in the original stamp, which was twice as rare as the would-be overprint error!

 

FFE #13

Cancellation manipulations

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

Cancellation manipulations found on modern Scandinavian stamps – with many examples.

 

FFE #13

Elementary analysis of the Richardson inks

Class: TR

Robert P. Odenweller

An example of X-ray fluorescence assisted expert work on the subject of New Zealand Chalon Heads. The work is experimental and results are not totally conclusive.

 

FFE #13

Great Britain postal stationery – A W. H. Smith & Son advertising collar mystery

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

The true mystery of an exotic British stationery cut (two examples seen), which must be a reproduction, yet without any possible significant financial gain attached.

 

FFE #13

Philippines: The emission 5 & 10 cuartos 1858-1862

Class: TR

Eduardo Escalada-Goicoechea

NB! Correction for the article: The figure text for figure 6 says it is a forgery. THIS IS NOT CORRECT – it is genuine. The figure with the wrong figure text is shown here.

The article content is just as the title says. It is a story well told and with first rate illustrations.

 

FFE #13

Great Britain medicine tax – Forgeries of the engraved issues

Class: TR

Chris Harman

An unusual story about revenue seals and contemporary falsification of them – primarily executed outside the British realm to signal British origin and official approval of products without risking the heavy penalty imposed within Britain for such falsification.

 

FFE #13

Misuse of genuine cancels – Examples from previous Yugoslavia

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

(I) A forged cover with the “Listopad” stamp, only valid 29 November 1918, is presented.
(II) The story of forged 1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics FDCs, and similar faked modern items, is given.
(III) Serbian telegram forms 1941-44 franked with provisionals are analyzed and shown to be faked.

 

FFE #13

Ecuador: The Seebeck 1894 reprinted card

Class: TR

Bernie Beston

Type B of the stationery card in question – widely regarded as a fabrication to defraud collectors – is shown to exist genuinely used and is thus rehabilitated!

 

FFE #13

Most seductive double frankings

Class: TR

Michèle Chauvet

By numerous examples – all concerning France and a second country – it is shown that such attractive objects as covers with stamps from two countries are particularly prone to be the “artistic” work of scrupulous forgers, and may even come with certificates from misled “experts”.

 

FFE #13

The Lowden forgery – The full story told for the first time

Class: TR

Trevor I. Harris

The entertaining crime story behind a particular forgery, of which only the few copies that played an active part in the ensuing court case are still in existence today.

 

FFE #13

The forgeries of general Balbos 1933 flight from Newfoundland

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Full explanation and illustrations pertaining to all four types of this rare provisional and their most prevalent falsifications.

 

FFE #13

The “Un Pranc” error

Class: TR

Raymond Goebel

A detailed explanation and some wonderful illustrations of this most attractive and rare overprint error from Luxembourg, of which – perhaps surprisingly – less than a dozen are estimated to exist today.

 

FFE #13

Modern stamp forgeries of Great Britain

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

Detailed information on false Machin stamps, denominations 24p, 2nd, and 1st.

 

FFE #13

Mixed frankings Belgium & France

Class: TR

Jan Huys

A warning about early covers from France to Belgium with stamps from both countries, of which at least one does not belong on the cover. At least three are supposed to exist, and at least one has been offered for sale at several occasions in recent years.

 

FFE #13

The first “forgers”: Philip Spiro, Hamburg

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen

The interesting story of one of the notorious classic wholesale reproducers of early stamps, and a description of the philatelic dilemmas associated with early falsification of stamps.

 

FFE #13

A great Heligoland cover is lost for the future

Class: TR

Lars Peter Svendsen

A great collection was dissolved and a well-known item long regarded by all as a gem stone of Heligoland philately proved to be something else.

 

FFE #13

Fight against fakes and forgeries on internet sales

Class: TR

Andrew M. T. Cheung

A story from Hong Kong about how dispersion of fakes and forgeries through internet sales are combated there. With many concrete examples, both new and old, and richly illustrated.

 

FFE #13

New aspects of identifying the Slovenian 15 and 20 kronen forgeries

Class: TR

Per Friis Mortensen

Story of an attempt to use 1200 dpi scanning and subsequent RGB colour separation to identify genuine and forged examples of two Slovenian stamps. Unfortunately, in this case the method did not prove to be a feasible means of doing so.

 

 

Class: TR

 

FFE #14

A new forger?

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

New very dangerous French forgeries of first issues with a very sharp warning for possible future discoveries of classis issues from other countries from the same forger. A very thorough investigation and report.

 

FFE #14

A newly appeared “Degron- Kun” cover of type 3

Class: PH

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Another piece in the always ongoing puzzle of our expert´s study of these very rare Franco-Japanese mixed covers.

 

FFE #14

Eagles, first postage stamps of the French colonial empire

Class: TR

Michèle Chauvet

An excellent description of the first general issue for the French colonies. Besides explaining differences between genuine and forged stamps our expert also shows a lot of faked postmarks on genuine as well as on forged stamps.

 

FFE #14

Great Britain postal reform of 1870 – 71

Class: PH

Gavin Fryer

A very detailed report about the postal reform, facilitating especially more heavy mail, in combination with the issue of a ½ d. stamp.

 

FFE #14

A most spectacular reunion

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

Three unique Danish philatelic crown jewels are proven to have belonged together. Our expert tells the history of them and the story about how they were put together to become one of the greatest rarities in Danish philately.

 

FFE #14

The forgeries of the High Values of the Papal States’ first issue

Class: TR

Thomas Mathà

An advanced study of the forgeries of these two attractive stamps, which were all made to defraud collectors. No postal forgeries exist.

 

FFE #14

A wonderful fantasy/forgery

Class: PST

Stephen D. Schumann

An exciting trip around the world for this postcard from the Netherlands was just a dream.

 

FFE #14

Notes on forgeries of the SCADTA provisional issues of 1921 – 1923

Class: Aero

Dieter Bortfeldt & Santiago Cruz A.

Showing an array of forgeries of this popular issue. Forged stamps as well as forged surcharge and /or cancellations on genuine as well as forged stamps.

 

FFE #14

Holy land fakes and forgeries – new examples 1896 – 1938

Class: PH

Yacov Tsachor & Zvi Aloni

A selection faked and manipulated covers and postal stationery, mostly with faked postmarks, but also one with faked perfins.

 

FFE #14

The three values of Bull’s Eyes on a cover (Meyer’s cover)

Class: PH

Paulo Comelli

Our expert is tracing this fantastic cover back in time and share with us a lot of interesting anecdotes and stories about historical sales as well as about the owners. Also about the famous Swedish-American collector colonel Lagerlöf who through his donations made the Swedish Postal Museum exceptional. – He is however is explained in spite of rumours not to have owned this remarkable cover.

 

FFE #14

Serbia, the 1866/69 Prince Michael issues, forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

A very detailed study of the first issue of Serbia including the newspaper stamps. Identifying genuine stamps and describing various fakes including cancellations and bisects.

 

FFE #14

New Canadian postal Counterfeits

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

This article is a follow up on the articles published in FFE number 8 and 9.These articles included a summary of all Canadian postal forgeries known to date. We will see that year 2010 has been a big year in Canada for postal forgeries with a total of eleven new forgeries!

 

FFE #14

3 skilling yellow of Sweden

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

Another examination of this very famous stamp. Especially interesting as it starts from scratch and our expert works his way through all possibilities and hypothesis. Therefore also very interesting as a study of basic as well as advanced philatelic expert work.

 

FFE #14

Colorimetric analysis of an enhanced cancel on a Mauritius1d stamp

Class: TR

Thomas Lera

The Smithsonian National Postal Museum (NPM) recently obtained a VSC6000 (video spectral comparator) for philatelic research. This article shows how it can be used to examine a postmark.

 

FFE #14

The expert opinion on ‘ONE’- surcharge definitive stamps of Daehan Empire

Class: TR

Yoon-Hong Kahn

A very advanced report by the Korean Philatelic Society´s Expert Committee about the examination of 6 items with the “one”-surcharge. It includes a detailed inventory of the manufacturing and delivery/sale of these stamps.

 

FFE #14

Canada’s Lunar new year of the Pig Fakes

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Believe it or not – also less than 5 year old stamps are faked to defraud collectors. Interesting story about faked modern varieties from Canada 2007 and earlier.

 

FFE #14

The Robert Clarkson bequest – the plates used for the forgeries of George Kirke Jeffryes and the Cullum street gang

Class: TR

Christopher G. Harman

Interesting inventory of the plates used by the infamous forgers Benjamin, Sarpy & Jeffryes for production of forgeries from English colonies and some south American countries.

 

FFE #14

False Icelandic postmark from Reykjavik

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

Faked postmarks have been discovered on many different semi-modern issues from Iceland.

 

FFE #14

An extension to “A note for your attention”

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

Spanish falsifications. A continuation of the article in FFE # 6, May 2003 with more forgeries and manipulated covers with the earliest Spanish issues including some from former colonies.

 

FFE #14

The FILA-VIEW (Prototype)

Class: Other

Dieter Bortfeldt

Our expert is showing and giving some details about this equipment, which can be very helpful in expert work.

 

FFE #14

The settings of the Amiri Overprint

Class: TR

Hany Salam

Showing in details the setting of these scarce Egyptian overprints with descriptions as well as pictures of some complete sheets.

 

FFE #14

Manipulated Covers: A warning flag for experts

Class: PH

Robert P. Odenweller

An interesting documentation of pieces and covers from New Zealand with lifted stamps. All well explained with information and knowledge that could be used for pieces from any country.

 

FFE #14

Belgian comics 1908-1915

Class: PH

Morten J. Lintrup

A relaxed and interesting description of a few peculiar items from this period.

 

FFE #14

The first Yuri Gagarin flight official post mark

Class: Astro

Igor Rodin

Already now many faked cancellations exist on covers from this historic flight in 1961 with the first man in space.

 

FFE #14

Postal counterfeits of the 2c U.S. first bureau issue of 1894-1902. A guide to identification

Class: TR

John M. Hotchner

A detailed description of these counterfeits, which are the earliest U.S. postal forgeries.

 

FFE #14

“Martinsyde” manuscript overprint on the 3¢ Newfoundland Caribou stamp April 12, 1919

Class: Aero

J. Edward Nixon & Charles J. G.Verge

A comprehensive report about this fascinating \”stamp issue\”. Also showing how things could be done during this historical epoch of pioneer flying and how much research it takes nowadays to sort out the corn of gold from the sand.

 

FFE #14

A forged Swedish saw-toothed cancellation stamp

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

Our expert is describing a fake of this unusually designed postmark

the end@copyright 2012