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The Riouw archiphelago History collections

THIS TH4E SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUMMMEMBER

The Riau Archiphelago

Postal History and Related Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition E-Book In CD Rom Edition

Copyright@2012

 

 

Forward

Until this day not many Indonesian scholar made study of the Riouw Archiphelago,especially the Postal History.

I am starting to collected the postal history of Riouw Arciphelago almost 50 years and the basic RIOUW overprint stamps which issued during 1960-11970  co0mplete,also the postmark from all area near complete.

The ealiest postmark during Colonial time very difficult ot founf,I have the earliest RIOUW postmark date  17.3.1901,

After made stuidy ,Ihave found more informations , many early Riauw archiphelaho manuscript bought by Malaysian beacaus emany related with the Malay kingdom in that country.

I  understand that this study still lack many 9nformations,that is why I hope corrections and added info from the scholar and another reader.

Jakarta March 2012

Dr Iwan suandy,MHA

 

SHORT HISTORY

Riau Islands Province

Riau Islands Province
Provinsi Kepulauan Riau

—  Province  —

Seal

Motto: Berpancang Amanah Bersauh Marwah (Malay)
(With trust as foundation, and dignity as the anchor)

 

Location of Riau Islands in Indonesia

Coordinates: 0°54′N 104°27′E / 0.9°N 104.45°E / 0.9; 104.45Coordinates: 0°54′N 104°27′E / 0.9°N 104.45°E / 0.9; 104.45

Country

Indonesia

Capital

Tanjung Pinang

Government

• Governor

H.M.Sani

Area

• Total

8,201.72 km2 (3,166.70 sq mi)

Population (2010)[1]

• Total

1,685,698

• Density

210/km2 (530/sq mi)

Demographics

• Ethnic groups

Malays (35,6%), Javanese (22,2%), Chinese (9,3%), Minangkabau (9,3%), Batak (8,1%), Buginese (2,2%), Banjarese (0,7%) [2]

• Religion

Islam (79.34%), Protestantism (11.17%), Buddhist (6.65%), Roman Catholicism (2.28%), Confucianism (0.2%), Hinduism (0.09%)

• Languages

Malay , Chinese , English

Time zone

WIT (UTC+07)

Website

www.kepriprov.go.id

 

Riau Islands Province (Indonesian: Provinsi Kepulauan Riau (Kepri or Kepulauan Riau) is a province of Indonesia, consisting of the Riau Archipelago, the Tudjuh Archipelago, and the Lingga Islands.

Originally part of the Riau Province, the Riau Islands were split off as a separate province in July 2004, with Tanjung Pinang as its capital, located at south of Bintan island.

 

 

Geography

 

, from the scope of history, cannot be separated from its main regency that is Riau islands.

 Based on the decree of delegation of the Republic of Indonesia, the province of central Sumatra on may 18, 1956 joined the republic of Indonesia, and Riau island were given the status as level II autonomy region which is led by a regent as head of the region who supervised 4 (four) districts, that are:

  • Tanjung Pinang District, which covered sub district of South Bintan (incoming East Bintan, Galang, West Tanjung Pinang and East Tanjung Pinang now).
  • Karimun District which covered sub district of Karimun, Kundur and Moro.
  • Lingga District which covered sub district of Lingga, Singkep and Senayang.

Tujuh Island District which covered sub district of Jemaja, Siantan, Midai, Serasan, Tambelan, West Bunguran and East Bunguran The islands of the Tudjuh Archipelago, located between mainland Malaysia and Borneo, were attached to the new province, although they were not geographically part of the Riau Archipelago. The major island groups are the Riau Archipelago south of Singapore,

the Lingga Islands

 

extending southward of the Riau Arch., parallel the Sumatran Coast, and

The Tudjuh Archipelago.

 

Batam has a majority of the province’s population

.

Other populated major islands include Bintan

 

and

 

Karimun.

 

 

also Galang island

Sizewise, however, the sparsely populated

 

 

Natuna Islands are larger. There are around 3,200 islands in the province.

Since Batam is part of a booming special economic region, it has experienced high population growth rates. The province’s population is at 1,685,698 as of 2010,[1] with more than 2/3 of the population under 30.[3]

(I also found the postallynused cover during Dai Nippon Occupation from

 Kijang Island Riau in 1944

and also the money order fragment with riu overprint stamps from

Tanjung Batu riau in 1958

 

Language

The official language of the Riau Islands is Riau. The Riau Islands are considered the birthplace of the modern Malay language. It is the official standard for Malay, as agreed upon by Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei

 

 
 

ARMED FORCES

 

Army

Police

 

 

 

 

Today Riau is controlled by TNI

Kodam I/Bukit Barisan

 

 

 

 

 

 

History

From Srivijayan times until the 16th century,

Riau Arciphelago during srivijaya

. Candi Muara Takus can be reached in 118 kilometers from Pekanbaru. It was built by red bricks and sand.

The temple is believed to have built at around the 9th century AD when the power of the Sriwijaya Empire was at its peak.

Head on Riau Archipelago with Tanjung Pinang on Bintan Island as the capital city, there is Natuna Archipelago. It is a part of the vast province, which embrace all of the islands off the Riau mainland.

.

 

Riau was a natural part of greater Malay kingdoms or sultanates,

 

 in the heart of what is often called the Malay World, which stretches from eastern Sumatra to Borneo.

 

The Malay-related Orang Laut tribes

 

 inhabited the islands and formed the backbone of most Malay kingdoms from Srivijaya,

 

Sultan Malacca

Si Kitol dan Sultan Melaka ….

. Si Kitol adalah rakyat yang membelot dan memainkan peranan kepada kehancuran Melaka. Si Kitol lah yang berperanan  menabur fitnah dan memecah belahkan orang melayu mengakibatkan kemusnahan kerajaan Melaka yang dulunya terkenal di seluruh pelosok dunia..

 

dalam hal kejatuhan Melaka, bukan Si Kitol saja yang jadi penyebabnya. Sultan Melaka yang pada masa itu sangat lemah dan buta mata hati juga terlebih dahulu patut disalahkan. Kezaliman raja dan pengabaian terhadap rakyat oleh raja itu terlebih dahulu patut dikecam. Baginda tidak tahu menilai yang mana intan yang mana kaca . Raja yang tidak mempercayai kejujuran bendaharanya dengan mudah menerima fitnah tanpa mau terlebih dahulu untuk menyelidiki asal muasalnya   adalah raja yang tiada keadilan. Raja itu juga  tidak teliti apabila menggantikan pembesar-pembesar yang baik di Melaka dengan mereka yang rendah moral  dan menyalah gunakan kuasa  menjadi pembantu baginda adalah penyebab  kemusnahan baginda sendiri.

Bayangkan Raja Melaka langsung tidak peka pada perubahan di Melaka. Baginda terpengarug  dengan kemewahan dunia dan banyak beristirahat  di istana. Sedangkan di kalangan rakyat Melaka pengamalan Islam mereka semakin lama semakin pudar. Rusuh, fitnah, dendam, permusuhan dan pecah belah semakin menular di kalangan rakyatnya…..suara rakyat yang menentang  kezaliman baginda langsung tidak diindahkan kerena tenggelam dalam nafsu ‘rajanya’.

Akhirnya bila Melaka di ambang kemusnahan barulah baginda Raja sadar bahawa Si Kitol dan Raja Mendeliar telah mendorongnya melakukan banyak kezaliman. Orang yang baik, beriman, jujur dan taat setia seperti bendahara Tun Mutahir telah menjadi mangsa baginda. Baginda mula mengeluh mengatakan sepatutnya baginda teliti dan selidiki dahulu sesuatu perkara sebelum menetapkan  keputusan darinya. Ketika baginda menangis kesal di atas dosa-dosanya, sudah tidak apa lagi yang boleh baginda ubah. Nasi bukan sahaja menjadi bubur, tetapi turut basi dan tiada dapat dimanfaatkan lagi. Baginda hilang takhta dan kerajaannya. Kedua-duanya sekali.

 

. Sultan Mahmud Shah mengharapkan masa dapat diundur ke belakang agar baginda dapat menebus semula dosa-dosanya. Tapi apa yang berlaku baginda tetap terpaksa belayar ke Kampar melintasi selat Melaka dengan linangan airmata . “ Selamat tinggal Melaka. Negeri yang dulunya makmur kini terjajah akibat kesilapan seorang sultan” kata sultan Mahmud Shah.

 

 

.

 

 to the Sultanate of Johor

for the control of trade routes going through the straits.

 

Sultan Mahmud Shah of Malacca

Johor was founded in the early 16th century by the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah,

 

Sultan Abu Bakar

 the last Sultan of Melaka when the capital was captured by the Portuguese. At its peak, the Johor empire stretched to the Riau Archipelago.

 In the 18th century,

 the Bugis of Celebes

 

`

The Bugis are the most populous of four ethnic groups of southern Sulawesi, the island east of Borneo known during colonial times as Celebes. Late converts to Islam, the Bugis dominated maritime trade in the East Indies and were considered pirates by the invading Dutch. Wars with their colonial adversaries and later efforts by Indonesia’s government to encourage settlement in less populated parts of the country encouraged waves of Bugis migrations, and the Bugis diaspora can be found as far away as here and Malaysia.

Like other immigrant communities, the Bugis were resented for their economic success and failure to assimilate, and have been at the center of ethnic conflicts in Borneo, Timor and Maluku, forcing many to return to Sulawesi.

 

 

and the Minangkabaus of Sumatra

 

controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau empire, but

 in the early 19th century,

Malay and Bugis rivalry dominated the scene. Even today, Johor, and Riau lie on the strategic sea route passing from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean, through the Straits of Malacca.
 
In 1819,

Stamford Raffles capitalised on their inter-faction rivalry to acquire Singapore for the British.
As a result, the Johor-Riau empire was broken into mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis.

 In 1886,

 

 

 Temenggong Abu Bakar elevated himself to Sultan. He was succeeded by his son,

 

 Sultan Ibrahim.

 

 

In 1914,

 

the British Adviser Campbell to administer Johor

 

until the Japanese Occupation in 1945. In 1957, Johor joined the federation of Malaya.

Read more info

Campbell served as its state’s General Adviser until his death in June 1918, and between June 1918 until December 1920, five General Advisers were appointed in succession, each of whom only took office for a few months. As the colonial government lacked a decisiveness in the state administration, Sultan Ibrahim attempted to extend his influence in the state administration. Hayes Marriot was appointed as the state’s new General Adviser in December 1920 and reorganised the state administration.[25]

Sultan Ibrahim took on the role of a ceremonial monarch from the 1920s onwards, and his duties were largely limited to gracing various opening ceremonies around the state. He occasionally expressed his views on the state administration and economic developments whenever he had grievances, which the British colonial government often took into account as a result of his political influence in the state.[26] He began to take time off to travel abroad from 1928, after he began to suffer from chronic gout and myocardial degeneration.[27] London was one destination which he often visited, and frequented the Colonial Office whenever he had grievances with the state administration.[28] As a result of his frequent complaints of maladministration of state affairs by the local British government, Sultan Ibrahim’s relations with each General Adviser became strained.[fn 1] Sir Cecil Clementi, who served as the Governor of the Straits Settlements as well as the High Commissioner of the Malay States from 1930 to 1934, remarked in December 1932 that Sultan Ibrahim was too independent in state affairs and proposed to the Sultan that he should approach Clementi in future under the capacity of the High Commissioner instead of the Straits Governor. Clementi’s proposals apparently angered the Sultan, who boycotted the Durbar in February 1934.[28]

 

 

Sultan Ibrahim was a close friend of Frank Buck and often assisted Buck in his animal collecting endeavors.

Early Malay nationalism took root in Johor during the 1920s as a Malay aristocrat, Onn Jaafar, whom the Sultan had treated him as an adopted son, became a journalist and wrote articles on the welfare of the Malays. Some of Onn’s articles were critical of Sultan Ibrahim’s policies, which led to a strained personal relations with the Sultan. In particular, Sultan Ibrahim expelled Onn from Johor after he published an article in the Sunday Mirror, a Singapore-based English tabloid and criticised the Sultan’s poor treatment of the Johor Military Forces personnel and the welfare of the Orang Asli. Onn became very popular after he continued to cover issues on Malay grievances, and Sultan Ibrahim invited Onn to return to Johor in 1936.[30] Sultan Ibrahim became an active patron of the state’s forestry department around 1930, and encouraged the state forestry department to designate some of the remaining virgin forests in the state as nature reserves, as Johor witnessed a reduction in timber supplies due to extensive logging in the past. Nature reserves covered about 15 per cent of the state’s land area by 1934, mainly in the northern regions of the state.[31]

Sultan Ibrahim’s relations with Clementi’s successor,

 

 Sir Shenton Thomas did not fare well as

 

 

 

Thomas attempted to form a centralised Malayan Union by bringing Johore and other Unfederated Malay States under the direct charge of the Straits Governor.[32]

 

 

As the Second World War broke out in 1939, Thomas introduced

 

the Pan-Malayan war tax scheme to fund for Britain’s war efforts. Sultan Ibrahim’s rejected proposals, and made a £250,000 cash gift to George VI of the United Kingdom on his 44th birthday in 1939 during his trip to Europe in 1939.[33] From 1934 to 1940 the Sultan’s name was associated with that of the cabaret dancer Lydia Cecilia Hill,[34] who was buried in 1940 at Eddington, Kent.[35]

They shaped the history of the state but, sadly, their names are forgotten.
These noted Johoreans are no longer mentioned on our school history books. In fact, I don’t remember reading about them when I was in school.
I was doing research on Bongkok Tanjung Puteri for last week’s column when I came across some names. I found that we did not lack strong, educated and wise advisers deeply rooted with nationalist pride.
One name was, in fact, mentioned by Sultan of Johor Sultan Iskandar at the launching of the Iskandar Development Region in November last year.
In his speech, His Majesty had asked that we do not forget Datuk Seri Amar DiRaja Abdul Rahman Andak. He had questioned why the project was named after him and not Abdul Rahman, who he said was the man who fought against the British administration in the 1900s.

Datuk Seri Amar DiRaya Abdul Rahman Andak fought against the British administration in the 1900s.

Born in 1850, Abdul Rahman was Johor’s first state secretary. He was among the first who had used Jawi as the official script in government letters.
Abdul Rahman received education in England in 1871 while accompanying a nephew of the then Sultan of Johor. He returned to Johor in 1878.
He successfully rose in ranks in the Johor civil service. He was the assistant state secretary when he was a member of the delegation, headed by the late Sultan Sir Abu Bakar, who visited the Queen in 1885, to the signing of the peace treaty with England.
Under the treaty, the British recognised Johor as an independent state and able to rule itself. The then Sultan of Johor accepted a British officer as a consultant, not an adviser.
Unlike other states in the Malay Peninsula, where the Sultan must listen to the adviser, the Sultan of Johor could ignore the consultant.
The flag of Johor was also flown higher than the British flag, to symbolise that the State of Johor took precedence.
Abdul Rahman also single-handedly created a milestone in the history of Malaya when he drafted the Johor Constitution, the first of its kind among Malay states. It came into effect on April 14, 1894.
Through the constitution, Johor became the first Malay state to adopt the constitutional monarchy system. It also became the first state to create the menteri besar position.
The Johor Constitution then became the fundamental point of reference for other state constitutions.
It played a major role for the Malays during their op position against the formation of the Malayan Union, which would see sultans of the Malay states losing their power as rulers.
Due to the success of the protest and to protect the sovereignty of their states, rulers began using the Johor Constitution as a model for their own constitutions.
Abdul Rahman was also responsible for putting in place a structured civil service system, which is still being practiced till today.
The British, however, considered Abdul Rahman an ob stacle to Johor-British relations. In 1905, Abdul Rahman had criticised the Johor Advisory Council, which led to the resignation of its members.
The British, in particular Sir John Anderson, Governor of the Straits Settlements, instigated the then Sultan to “retire” Abdul Rahman. He went into a self-imposed exile in England in 1914 with an annual pension of 1,000 pounds.
A British officer named DC Campbell filled Abdul Rah man’s position and it marked the beginning of British direct influence in the Johor government.
Abdul Rahman passed away on Sept 10, 1930, and was buried at the Muslim cemetery in Woking, London. He had married Gustel Reis and they had three boys named Henry, Mansour and Walter.
When I told a colleague in London to track down Abdul Rahman’s family, she informed me that she had just been asked about him by another friend who had seen a tomb with that name at the cemetery.
I am hopeful that we would all one day be able to read more about Abdul Rahman and his family on these pages.

LASTING LEGACY: Jalan Abdul Rahman Andak in Johor Baru

 

Japanese Occupation (1941-1945)

Sultan Ibrahim became a personal friend of

 

 

Tokugawa Yoshichika

during the 1920s. Tokugawa was a scion of the Tokugawa clan, and his ancestors were military leaders (Shogun in Japanese) which ruled Japan from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

Read more info

 

The Japanese Occupation of the Malay Peninsula

 

Japanese Governor Marquis Tokugawa Yoshichika inspecting an army honour guard at the Istana (Palace), Klang, 1942.

The Japanese moved swiftly and harshly to re-establish law and order in the Malay Peninsula. The pre-existing British administrative machinery was kept largely intact, while the Malay Rulers retained a reduced role. Life was extremely difficult; the population faced a daily struggle for survival. Racial tensions were created by Japanese policies

 

 

 

When the Japanese invaded Malaya, Tokugawa accompanied

 

 General Yamashita Tomoyuki‘s troops

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 and was warmly received by Sultan Ibrahim when they reached Johor Bahru at the end of January 1942. Yamashita and his officers then stationed themselves at the Sultan’s residence, Istana Bukit Serene and the state secretariat building, Sultan Ibrahim Building to plan for the invasion of Singapore.[36]

The Japanese established a military government in February, shortly after they settled down in Malaya. Tokugawa was appointed as its political adviser at the recommendation of Sultan Ibrahim. Relations between the military government and the monarchy were initially coordial throughout the Japanese occupation years, and Tokugawa briefly envisioned a plan for a united Malay Sultanate over the Malay Peninsula (including Pattani) with Sultan Ibrahim as its figurehead. However, as the Japanese began to experience economic difficulties and military defeats in the Pacific War from 1943 onwards, these plans were dropped and the military government channelled its efforts towards state agriculture. The Japanese continued the British policy of appointing a state adviser in Johor, and Sultan Ibrahim spent most of his time in his leisure activities.[37]

Sultan Ibrahim, on his part, became resentful of the Japanese military government during the later part of the occupation years. The Japanese gave orders to the Malay Sultans to contribute an annual stipend of $10,000 to support the Japanese war efforts, and public speeches which the rulers made were drafted by the prpoaganda department.[38] In particular, Sultan Ibrahim was once publicly rebuked for leaning on his walking stick before Japanese officers and humiliating him in the process.[39] Shortly before the Japanese surrendered in 1945, Sultan Ibrahim was expelled from his residence at

 

 Istana Bukit Serene

and was forced to reside at

 

 Istana Pasir Pelangi, the crown prince’s palace.[40]

Note: the Riau Archipelago comprises three main islands – Batam , Bintan and Bulan. Batam is just 20 kilometres from Sing apore and 415 km2 in size.

 

 

 

 Sultanate of Johor or Johor-Riau, based on Bintan island

 

The word Johor is taken from the Arabic word, ‘Jauhar’, which literally means ‘Precious Stones’. The name illustrates the influence of the early Arab traders who traded spices in Johor. The multifaceted culture and ethnic mix evident in Johor today can be traced back through the centuries when it was fought over by the Malays, Portuguese, Chinese, Dutch and British sometimes on grounds of religion but more often because of trade.

With the Portuguese capture of Malacca in 1511, the Malay kingdom re-established itself in Johor. The history of Johor from the late 1500s to the late 1600s is characterized by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In 1641 Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In 1819,

 the Johor -Riau Empire was broken into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began.

In 1855,

 

A postcard showing the palace which was built by Temenggong Abu Bakar in Johor Bahru, on the shore of the Tebrau strait, after he had moved the capital of the state of Johor from Singapore to Johor Bahru

British mediation and the new sultanate in Johor

The Johor sultans of the 16th and 17th centuries were direct descendants of the Melaka dynasty. However, this lineage came to an end

in 1699

 

with the assassination of Sultan Mahmud,

 

who had no heirs. He was succeeded by

 the Bendahara (prime minister), and the capital was moved to Riau-Lingga. Thus it was one of his descendants, Sultan Abdul Rahman, who was ruling the Johor-Riau-Lingga sultanate when the British established a free port in Singapore in 1819. Subsequently, British mediation, which favoured the Temenggongs, largely determined the lineage of the new sultanate of Johor

under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore

 

and

 

 Sultan Ali of Johor, the control over the State was formally ceded

to Dato’ Temenggong Daing Ibrahim,

 

 

with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor’s present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son,

 

Dato’ Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1866, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor(1864 – 1895) was the one who gave Johor its own constitution and developed its efficient administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. Due to these achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title “Father of Modern Johor”.

The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor’s initial economic base.

 

Chinese workers in a gambier and pepper plantation in Singapore, circa 1900

The Kangchu system was put in place.

The Kangchu system was a socio-economic system of organization and administration developed by Chinese agricultural settlers in Johor[fn 1] during the 19th century. The settlers organized themselves into informal associations (similar to the Kongsi organizations found in other Chinese communities), and chose a leader from among themselves. In Chinese, “Kangchu” (Chinese: 港主, Pinyin: Gáng Zhǔ, Teochew: Kaang6 Zhu8) literally means ‘lord of the river’, and was the title given to the Chinese headmen of these river settlements.[1][fn 2] The “Kangchu” leaders are also called “Kapitan“.

The term “Kangchu” became widely used during the 19th century, as Chinese immigrants began to settle in and around Johor state and set up gambier and pepper[fn 3] plantations. The social and economic welfare of the early Chinese settlers came under the charge of local Chinese leaders, who were responsible for running these agricultural plantations, which were situated along the river banks.[4]

The Kangchu system traces its origins from the 18th century when Chinese coolies settled in Penang and Riau and set up gambier and pepper plantations there. The sovereign rulers of Johor, Temenggong Ibrahim and his successor, Sultan Abu Bakar, took up the Kangchu system during the first half of the 19th century to provide a more organised form of administration as Chinese immigrants began to settle in the state in great numbers and developed the state’s agricultural economy. Variants of the Kangchu system also thrived in other parts of the Malay Archipelago, where gambier and pepper were extensively cultivated and where there were significant Chinese populations. The Kangchu and coolies who worked in the gambier and pepper plantations were mainly of Teochew origin, and were generally first- or second-generation Chinese immigrants.[5] In 1917, the British colonial government in Johor implemented an act which abolished the Kangchu system in the state, and the value for gambier declined during the early 20th century.[6]

 History

Early years

The origins of the Kangchu system dates back to the mid-18th century, when early Chinese settlers in Penang[7] experimented in cash crop plantations with various types of crops, including pepper, gambier, betelnut and clove. The plantations were later abandoned by the late 18th-century, as Penang experienced wars from Buginese seafarers that resulted in many gambier plantations being destroyed; contributing to the decline in plantations was the growing popularity of the spice trade that reaped much greater profits.[8] At the beginning of the 19th century, these Chinese settlers began to look south to Malacca and Singapore, where gambier and pepper plantations had also been established.

In the late 1820s, Chinese settlers from Singapore also began to look towards Johor for gambier and pepper cultivation at the encouragement of Temenggong Abdul Rahman and his successor, Daing Ibrahim.[9] As more Chinese settlers established gambier and pepper plantations in Johor during the 1840s, Temenggong Ibrahim formed a bureaucracy made up of Malay officials to oversee administrative affairs upon the Kangchu.[10] He began issuing official permits, known as Surat Sungai (transliterated as “river documents”) in Malay, to the Kangchu (leaders of the settlers) which permitted them to establish these plantations along the river banks. In turn, the Kangchu were required to pay taxes from the profits generated by the gambier and pepper farms and the Surat Sungai, which had to be renewed after a specified period of time.[4]

[Mid to late-19th century

The first gambier and pepper plantations appeared in Southern Johor, notably Skudai. Lau Lib Keng, a Chinese settler based in Skudai, was the first person to receive a Surat Sungai, whereby the river banks of Skudai were leased to Lau for the cultivation of gambier and pepper.[11] More Chinese settlers came to Johor from the 1850s onwards, and forested areas in Southern Johor such as Tebrau, Plentong and Stulang were cleared for the cultivation of gambier and pepper.[12] By the time Temenggong Ibrahim’s son, Abu Bakar took office from his father in 1862, at least 37 Surat Sungai have been issued to various Kangchu, all of whom were collectively responsible for the operations of the 1,200 gambier and pepper farms in the state.[13] Most of these Chinese leaders were also members of secret societies, and communal warfare often broke out in Singapore between different dialect groups as a result of conflicting economic interests. From the late 1850s onwards, the Kangchu began to exert political influence in the state affairs by establishing close ties with Temenggong Abu Bakar. In 1865, Abu Bakar granted official recognition to the Teochew-dominated Johor branch of the Ngee Heng Kongsi after a Kangchu, Tan Kee Soon, raised a small army to subdue Sultan Ali’s forces, from whom Abu Bakar was facing considerable dissent but was unable to raise an organised army.[12] Abu Bakar nevertheless called for the Ngee Heng Kongsi to accept Chinese settlers of other dialect groups to prevent possible communal warfare as a result of conflicting economic interests.[12]

 

 

Chinese junks sailing in the Straits of Johor in 1879

The crop produce from these plantations were generally exported to other countries from Singapore with the assistance of Chinese merchants based in that city. From the 1860s onwards, many of these Kangchu chalked up debts and began to sell their property rights to these merchants or to larger business magnates (Kongsi in Teochew) based in Singapore,[1] who were known to the locals as Tuan Sungai (literally Masters of the River). The Kangchu then were often hired as supervisors or managers by the merchants to keep watch on the day-to-day operations of the gambier and pepper plantations. Temenggong Abu Bakar began to issue contract-style letters of recognition to these Kangchu; the letters were known by their Malay name Surat Tauliah.[14]

As the gambier and pepper plantations expanded in the 1870s, the more established Kangchu were entrusted with larger blocks of farms and made contracts with Chinese merchants from Singapore. The profits generated from harvests of these plantations formed the bulk of Johor’s economy,[1] and financed the development of Johor’s infrastructure. Abu Bakar’s relationship with the Chinese leaders was excellent, and he appointed many of them to political positions in the state. Of particular note, Abu Bakar appointed two Chinese leaders to the Johor State Council: a Kangchu from Chaozhou, Tan Hiok Nee, and a contractor from Taishan, Wong Ah Fook, who also owned gambier and pepper farms in Mersing in the 1880s.[15] As the land along the river banks in Southern Johor was already taken by the earlier waves of Chinese settlers, newer Chinese settlers began migrating northwards in the 1870s and established new gambier and pepper plantations further north; new plantations were established in Yong Peng, Batu Pahat, Benut, Endau and Kota Tinggi.[16] In particular, Abu Bakar actively encouraged Chinese settlers to establish plantations in Muar, shortly after the British Colonial Government ruled in favour of Abu Bakar over Tengku Alam Shah (Sultan Ali’s eldest son) and his family, and granted Abu Bakar control of Muar.[17]

Decline

At the end of the 19th century, Johor’s economy began to diversify from gambier and pepper plantations to other agricultural crops. Starting with coffee in 1881,[18] crops such as tapioca, tea, pineapple and rubber were introduced into the state. Coffee and tapioca was quickly abandoned in the 1890s when the value of these crops experienced a drop, while rubber was introduced and quickly established a strong foothold in Johor, as the world demand for rubber increased greatly around 1910.[19] Prices for gambier plunged between 1905 and 1906, and many Kangchu abandoned gambier in favour of rubber.[20] Further decline in the number of gambier and pepper plantations was fuelled by the colonial government’s suppression of traditional farming methods employed by the Kangchu for planting gambier and pepper; these method led to soil exhaustion and a depletion of forests which was used as firewood in small factories.[21] A few years before the Kangchu system was abolished, exports for both gambier and pepper plunged by a further 60% between 1912 and 1917.[22]

The British had long frowned upon the Kangchu because of their links with secret societies in Singapore as well as their indulgence in social vices such as gambling and opium smoking, activities which the British had been actively suppressing in Singapore and the Federated Malay States. As early as 1890, the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Cecil Clementi Smith had lobbied Abu Bakar to adopt the Societies Ordinance and ban the Ngee Heng Kongsi, but was promptly turned down.[23] Shortly after the British appointed an adviser to Johor, the British began attributing the high crime rates in the state to Chinese settlers loyal to the Kangchu. In 1915, the Johor state government, now effectively under the control of the British Colonial Government, passed the Societies Enactment which prompted the dissolution of the Ngee Heng Kongsi the following year.[24] The Kangchu system was officially abolished December 1917 in an enactment passed by the Johor state government, which was by then effectively administered by the British colonial government.[18]

Role of the Kangchu

The Temenggong of Johor (later Sultan of Johor) conferred upon the Kangchu with a large degree of administrative autonomy within the plot of land which each was granted.[25] These included the right to collect taxes on behalf for the Temenggong, as well as for the welfare needs among the Chinese coolies living within the plot of land. The Kangchu generally granted tax exemption for the basic consumption by workers within the settlement.[4] Some coolies took on new jobs such as shopkeepers and traders to serve the needs of other coolies within the settlement, and the Kangchu granted tax exemptions to these shopkeepers and traders on the sale of pork, opium and alcohol as well.[26] The Kangchu reserved a portion of the land for the construction of a settlement for the coolies, from which small towns were formed and became the administrative centre of the Kangchu. These administrative centres were generally established within the coolie settlements located at the foot of the river, and were known as Kangkar (literally “Foot of the river”, Chinese: 港脚, Pinyin: Gáng Jiǎo, Teochew: Kaang6 Caar8).[27][fn 4]

The Kangchu acted as the middleman in the bulk purchase of the settlement’s commodities through suppliers based in Singapore. In particular, opium was highly popular among the coolies, although frowned upon by the British who took strong measures to suppress its distribution. The Kangchu formed illegal opium syndicates which had links to Chinese leaders from Singapore and other Malay states in the north, particularly Selangor.[15] British contempt for the Kangchu was also fuelled by the coolies’ preference for gambling and prostitution, both of which were seen as social vices by the British colonial government.[4] The Kangchu maintained friendly relations with the Temenggong (later Sultan), and worked closely with the Ngee Heng Kongsi in administrative matters. In particular, the state government attempted to forge close relations with the Kangchu by the appointment of a Malay official who was conversant in Teochew and literate in Chinese characters, Mohamed Salleh bin Perang, as the liaison officer between the Temenggong and the Kangchu.[12] Several years later, in the early 1870s, the state government worked closely with the Ngee Heng Kongsi to draft the Kanun Kangchu which had legal clauses that defined the powers of the Kangchu in Johor. The Kanun Kangchu contained 81 clauses in total, and was implemented in 1873.[29]

Variants outside Johor

[edit] Singapore

 

 

Chinese coolies at the river base of Jurong River in 1860. The gambier and pepper plantation is in the picture background.

Chinese settlers began migrating from the Riau Islands to Singapore in the 19th century shortly before the founding of Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819. The native Malays joined the Chinese in growing gambier, although they cultivated it for subsistence rather than for commercial purposes.[30] The number of gambier and pepper farms expanded greatly between 1819 and 1840, fuelled by the increasing demand for gambier by Chinese traders from China as well as pepper by European traders.[31] As land nearer to the town in the south was quickly used up in the 1820s, the Kangchu began to establish farms near the northern parts of Singapore, particularly stretches of land across the Straits of Johor from Jurong, to the west of Punggol in the northeast.[32] By 1851, there were about 800 gambier and pepper farms which covered 75% of Singapore’s land surface, of which 24,220 acres (98.0 km2) was dedicated to gambier while 2,614 was dedicated to pepper.[fn 5]

In the 1850s and 1860s, many Kangchu abandoned their plantations in Singapore as gambier produce declined due to over farming of the soil, and began to establish new gambier and pepper plantations in neighbouring Johor.[33] Nevertheless, many of these Kangchu settled down as merchants in Singapore and managed the gambier and pepper farms by proxy, mainly through the liaison body of the Ngee Heng Kongsi which had members in Singapore and Johor. Some of these merchants purchased the property rights of gambier and pepper farms from the Kangchu in Johor, who would then assume managerial tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the plantation and the settlement.[34][fn 6]

Unlike its counterpart in Johor, the Ngee Heng Kongsi (also called “Ghi Hin Kongsi” in Hokkien) was recognised as an illegal society in Singapore and its activities were actively suppressed by the colonial government.[36] Factionalism appeared within the Ngee Heng Kongsi in Singapore by the 1850s, as business leaders from various dialect groups were unable to agree upon key issues. In particular, relations between the Teochews and Hokkiens were hostile, partly because some Hokkien merchants competed with the Teochew merchants in the gambier and pepper trade, most of whom had established their bases in the Boat Quay area along the Singapore River.[37]

The existence of the Kangchu was not recognised by the British colonial government, even though they exercised a similar degree of autonomy as their counterparts in Johor.[4] Nevertheless, the Kangchu in Singapore had easy access to forested land in Singapore compared to their counterparts in Johor, as the British colonial government adopted a laissez-faire attitude to the Kangchu and imposed very little regulation on their agricultural activities.[28] However, the British were wary of the fact that many Kangchu in Singapore were members of the Ngee Heng Kongsi, which was illegal in Singapore and enjoyed monopoly rights over the regional opium trade. The British appointed a Chinese official among the Kangchu to oversee the social and economic affairs of the gambier and pepper plantations in Singapore and to act as the intermediary.[38]

Riau Islands

The first gambier and pepper plantations appeared in the Riau Islands in the 1730s

 

,[39] after the Buginese warrior and

 

second Yamtuan Muda of Riau, Daing Chelak,

 brought Chinese coolies from Malaya to Riau for the purpose of gambier cultivation, which was then widely used for medication among the locals.

 Another exodus of Chinese migrated to Riau in 1740

 

following unrest which erupted in Batavia, during which many Chinese were massacred.

Read more info

 

 

Since the foundation of Batavia, the Chinese have settled in and around the city. At first, they were used for building Batavia and the cultivation of the surrounding areas.

Very soon a lot of Chinese tradesmen entered the country, which eventually resulted in the dependency of the VOC on these tradesmen for trade with China. In fact, the prosperity of the VOC depended on Inter-Asian trade, so in fact they were mostly dependent on the Chinese tradesmen from Batavia who naturally had the best trade contacts. Both parties needed each other, so peace and order was required.

However, the Dutch in Batavia started to get more and more annoyed by the privileges the Chinese had; they were a bit jealous. The Chinese were virtually equal to the Dutch on the level of status and this was an important deal for the Dutch, who felt superior to the Chinese. Just the Dutch and the Chinese paid taxes and this made a lot of people angry…

One of the branches that were mainly under control by the Chinese was, for instance, the growth of sugar in the Ommelanden of Batavia. The bigger part of the work was done by large amounts of Chinese koelies, who were hired by Chinese entrepreneurs. This resulted in an enormous growth of the Chinese population in the area reigned by the VOC in and around Batavia. Right before 1740 approximately half of the population in and around Batavia was Chinese.

Even around 1690 they tried to limit the immigration from China. The koelies were legally excluded from everything. They can be compared to our ‘illegal aliens’ of this time. So, for the Chinese traders it became more and more favourable to hire koelies: it was not possible to earn taxes for illegal Chinese. A well known vicious circle that is still applicable! This way it was possible for an extensive army of completely illegal, exploited Chinese labourers to rise in the Ommelanden. They were so afraid of being handed over to the Dutch authorities, that they did not even make demands to improve their situation of living. Moreover, the Dutch (as corrupt as they were) simply participated in these practises up to the level of the Governor-General: this way everybody had cheap labourers and so an economical balance developed between the Dutch, the Chinese and the koelies.
And this went terribly wrong….

From 1720 on the sugar market slowly collapsed. The European markets became satisfied; moreover the competition from Brazil (which was cheaper) became bigger. Dozens of Chinese sugar tradesmen went bankrupt and with them the koelies. This way great unemployment arose and this almost automatically led to revengeful gangs of koelies who, without money or food, saw no other way out. Evidently nothing was done by Batavia to lessen the problems because that way their own corrupt practises would be discovered.

In July 1740 it was announced that all koelies from the Ommelanden would be transferred to the Dutch stations on Ceylon (Galle). The rumour that during the transfer the koelies would be thrown overboard was quickly born. True or not: the exploited Chines revolted. Large killing and plundering gangs roamed through the Ommelanden and they even tried to attack Batavia.

In the night of 8 October the run on Batavia could barely be rejected. Nobody dared to go in the Ommelanden anymore! That is when the rumour started that the Chinese in Batavia wanted to cooperate with the Chinese in the Ommelanden.

On 9 October, the houses of over 5000 Chinese living within the walls of Batavia were searched. This went completely out of hand: for three days in a row every Chinese was murdered. Even already captured Chinese and Chinese that were registered in ‘hospitals’ were killed. Even the government gave out a reward for every decapitated head… Order was reinstated after a few days by that same government. From that moment on the Chinese were allowed to live only in special districts. In Batavia that would be the Glodok district, where a lot of Chinese still live.

Very soon after the massacres they started searching the accountable : : for the first time the highest authorities from Batavia had to account for their actions at the Heeren XVII in Amsterdam! One of the responsible authorities Governor-General Valckenier died while he was taken into temporary arrest. Another responsible authority, the next Governor-General van Imhoff died in 1750.

And then the cover up came again.

It is estimated that 5,000 – 10,000 victims fell in three days. A preacher in Batavia even made it look like the massacre was carried out with Gods help… But even then there were people who protested and so the Heeren XVII were forced to take action.

In 1902 (during the pacification of Aceh!) even a pamphlet appeared: “The murder of 10,000 harmless Chinese was never punished. One of the most important people responsible, Governor-General Valckenier, died in prison and the Heeren XVII declared the trial that was run against him” abolished by death”.The case would be forever covered up.”

 

Chinese settlement in Riau continued into the 18th century, the majority of them coming from the Chaoshan area in Guangdong province, along with a sizeable minority from the southern parts of Fujian province.[40]

Gambier and pepper farming were mainly confined to the Bintan (formerly spelled as Bentan) and Galang Islands.[41] Similar to the Kangchu system in Johor, gambier and pepper plantations were established on grants of land by the Yamtuan Muda of Riau, who would issue land permits (Surat Sungai) to the Kangchu who would direct the operations of the plantation and workers within the settlement.[2] In the early and middle 19th century, many Chinese settlers and merchants from Riau relocated their businesses to Singapore, and established trading links between Riau and Singapore.[30] These settlers and merchants still maintained trading links with Riau, as the Kangchu from Riau often shipped their produce to Singapore for free trade to evade taxes imposed by the Dutch colonial government.[42] Like Singapore, competition for the gambier and pepper trade between the Teochews and Hokkiens in Riau led to communal tensions and sporadic violence in Riau during the 1840s and 1850s.[37] In the early 20th century, the Chinese abandoned gambier and pepper plantations in favour of other agricultural practices, as the worldwide prices for gambier experienced a drastic drop in value and many pepper plants fell prey to a disease plaguing the archipelago.[43]

.[45]

Legacy

The Kangchu system facilitated the growth of the gambier and pepper plantations and developed Johor’s and Singapore’s economies in the 19th century. The development of Johor’s inland towns were attributed to the efforts by the various Kangchu, who were responsible for drawing the settlement plan for the coolies living within the plantation they were working on, from which new towns were formed.[47] The Chinese immigrant population in Johor and Singapore grew in size during this period; Riau also experienced a similar growth during the 18th century. As a result of mass immigration by the Chinese into Johor, the Chinese quickly outnumbered the Malays in the state, although many Chinese coolies relocated to Singapore or other parts of Malaya as the gambier and pepper industry declined in the 20th century.[fn 7] Several towns and other places in Johor and Singapore, built upon sites of former gambier and pepper plantations, are named after former features of the Kangchu system, and are largely populated by ethnic Chinese.[50]

The Teochew dialect became the lingua franca among the Chinese in many parts of Johor and Riau, as the majority of the Chinese from these areas were of Teochew origin, many of whom were descended from the Chinese coolies who had worked in the gambier and pepper plantations.[51] The Teochews form the second-largest dialect group among Chinese Singaporeans, and many families can trace their family ancestry to immigrants who were Kangchu or coolies in these plantations

 Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar’s successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1914. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. During the Second World War Johor Bahru was the last city in Malay Peninsula to fall under Japanese occupation. In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

 

,

 

and were for long considered the center of Malay culture.[4]

 

 

SHORT HISTORY OF TANJUNGPINANG

 

 
 
 

Tanjungpinang has famed from long ago. Because it strategic position in Bintan Island as center of Malay culture and residing in commerce stripe. Tanjungpinang history can’t be apart from Johor – Riau Malay Kingdom history.
Name of Tanjungpinang based from a cape which grow by palm tree. The palm tree is a guideline to seaman who will be step into Bintan river, which in it there are center of Bintan Kingdom in Bukit Batu.

 

Existence of Tanjungpinang is progressively recognized on Johor Kingdom, in Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah governance. He command Laksemana Tun Abdul Jamil to opened a new commerce area in Sungai Carang, Bintan Island. Sungai Carang become a crowded commerce area which latest known as “RIAU”. Tanjungpinang have important role as buffer area and gateway to “RIAU”.

 

Governmental expertise during the period, made Riau become big commerce area, and even compete with Malaka which is mastered by Portuguese and finally mastered by VOC.Governmental expertise during the period, made Riau become big commerce area, and even compete with Malaka which is mastered by Portuguese and finally mastered by VOC.
In a few story tale, merchant which at first will trade to Malaka then turn to Riau, and even Malaka people buy rice and cloth to Riau because Riau represent peaceful commerce area that have competitive price with Malaka.
Beside as commerce center, Riau is known as capital of Riau-Johor Kingdom. Several times the capital was moved from Johor to Riau and also on the contrary. Kingdom of Johor-Riau have wide region which covered Indragiri and some area in Sumatra peninsula, and also Johor, Pahang and Trengganu in Malaysia peninsula.

 

Existence of Tanjungpinang is progressively reckoned even Riau war on 1728 until 1784 between Riau and Dutch in period of Raja Haji, the fourth vice roys of Riau-Johor Kingdom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The war that happened during 2 year, tired of his top on 6th of January 1784 with victory on Riau-Johor Kingdom side, marked with

 

destruction of Dutch Commando ship “Malaka’s Wal Faren”

 

 

and insist on Dutch to step back from Riau territorial to Malaka.
After some month of the event,

 

Raja Haji

and Riau troops attack Dutch base in Malaka, but in the war in Malaka, Riau was defeated and Raja Haji as Comando has passed away.
Tanjungpinang also known as

 

Dutch residency with David Rudhe was the first resident. The Placement of Dutch residency is related to domination of Riau by the Dutch. And Tanjungpinang become Dutch military base in Malaca Strait.

 

The decline of Riau-Johor Kingdom

was progressively reality since London treaty in 1828, between Dutch and United Kingdom.

The treaty represent about division of power region, where Riau-Lingga regions is under Dutch authority and Johor-Pahang and some of Malay peninsula regions under United Kingdom authority. The treaty caused dissension in Riau-Johor Kingdom, and afterward the kingdom recognize as Riau-Lingga Kingdom. And Singapore when at the time was under Dutch authority is convert to change with Bengkulu when at the time was under United kingdom authority.

 
Since Dutch hold the power to Riau-Lingga Kingdom region, and its interference in governance, it made the decline in Riau-lingga Kingdom. Till this top happened on 1911, the Riau-Lingga Kingdom Sultanes was discharged by Dutch resident. But Sultane at the time didn’t want to sign the dismissal letter and leave Riau-Lingga Kingdom to Singapore. Since that time Dutch abolished Riau-Lingga Kingdom and it’s the end of Riau-Lingga Kingdom. And Tanjungpinang remain as Dutch Residency.
Tanjungpinang also have became center of Japan region governance in Riau Archipelago. And later return again holded by Dutch, until 1945. Indonesian Independance in 1945 terminating of Dutch authority in Riau Archipelago. And In 1949 Dutch transfer of sovereignty of Riau Archipelago to Indonesia Government.
 
Tanjungpinang became the capital of Riau region based on law No.5 in 1948. and besed on Law no.19 in 1957 Tanjunginang became the capital of Riau Province, but in 1960, the capital of Riau province was shifted to Pekanbaru, and Tanjungpinang became to capital of Riau archipelago regency.
In 18 October 1983, based on governmental regulation no.31. Tanjungpinang specified as administrative town. And based on law no.5 in 2001, Tanjungpinang became autonomous City. And now, Tanjungpinang has became the capital or Riau Island Province.

 

The territory of Siak on the east coast used to be part of the Sultanate of Malacca (1400-1511)

 

 

Sandwiched between the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor, Melaka is by comparison a small state with an area of only 1,651 square kilometers on the Western Peninsular of Malaysia. The states is divided into three districts, Melaka Tengah or Central Melaka, the District of Alor Gajah to the north and the District of Jasin to the south. However, almost all the interesting and historical sites are located in Central Melaka and mostly in the town area.

 

 

According to the legend, Malacca was founded in 1396 by Prince Parameswara from a dying ancient kingdom of Srivijaya. Parameswara came to Temasik (Singapore), killed the ruler who paid tribute to Siam (today’s Thailand) and reigned there for five years until the Siamese drove him out. Parameswara was out hunting one day and while resting under a tree, one of his dogs cornered a mouse-deer and in defense, the mouse-deer kicked the dog smartly on its nose. Amazed by the bravery of the mouse-deer’s and he believed what he saw as a good omen, he decided to build his empire on that sacred land and named it after the tree he was resting under, which was the Melaka Tree (Phylianthus emblica).

 

Originally a Hindu, Parameswara convert to Islam and took the name Sultan Iskandar Shah. Inevitably, Islam became the official religion. At that time, Malacca was nothing more than a small village beside a river, but under his rule, the kingdom flourished and its influence spread to the neighbouring countries of Sumatra and Indonesia.

 

 

In the past the city was geographically positioned along East-West trading route, at the busiest and narrowest point of Straits of Malacca. It was a major port along the spice-route, and its harbor bristled with the sails and masts of Chinese junks and spice-loaded vessels from all over world. Also was traded: silk and porcelain from China; textiles from Gujarat and Coromandel in India; camphor from Borneo; sandalwood from Timor; nutmeg, mace, and cloves from the Moluccas, gold and pepper from Sumatra; and tin from western Malaysia. The strong wind was always blowing from the right position for the sailors and Malacca was a safe place to be, when the sailors came ashore.  No wonder that they took this city for provision. Malacca became important for all who wanted to rule the Strait of Malacca. And…that Strait was so important for the spice-route. That’s why Malacca had since 1400 so much occupiers and could grow to a world wide trade center.

 

 

The state experienced a unique culmination of cultural and historical influences from Malay Sultanate (1400-1511), Portuguese colonial (1511-1641), Dutch colonial (1641-1795), English colonial (1795-1942, 1945-1957) and Japanese occupancy (1942-1945).

 

Under Alfonso de Albuquerque, Malacca was conquered by the Portuguese in 1511. The Portuguese came to the East to capture the spice trade. The Portuguese failed to maintain the glory and prosperity of Malacca because of restrictive policies, competition and wars. The Portuguese ruled Malacca from 1511 to 1641. On the incline of the hill  (St. Paul’s Hill) they built a  fort: “A Famosa”. Later this was extended, so that the hill was surrounded by the wall of the fort. Inside these walls were two palaces, a castle, a meeting room for the Portuguese Council and there were five churches. Unfortunately, the only thing that’s left is the “Porta de Santiago”, a gate without a wall that leaded to the fort.

 

Drawing shows A Famosa or Porta de Santiago built by the Portuguese

 

After a siege of 7 months the conquered the fort in 1641. At that time Malacca wasn’t so rich and prosperous anymore. After the conquest, the Dutch could start rebuilding the fort and occupied it largely as a military base, using its strategic location to control the Straits of Malacca. Where the Portuguese had concentrated on the construction of fortification and churches, the Dutch on the other hand planned Malacca well, built comfortable brick houses (along Heeren Street and Jonker Street), protestant churches and large administrative buildings such as the Stadthuys.

 

and in its succession of the Sultanate of Johor (1511-1721).

After the fall of Melaka in 1511,

 

the Riau islands became the center of political power of the mighty

.

But history changed the fate of Riau as a political, cultural or economic center when European powers struggled to control the regional trade routes and took advantage of political weaknesses within the sultanate. Singapore island, that had been for centuries part of the same greater Malay kingdoms and sultanates, and under direct control of the Sultan of Johor, came under control of the British.

The creation of a European-controlled territory in the heart of the Johor-Riau natural boundaries broke the sultanate into two parts, destroying the cultural and political unity that had existed for centuries. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 consolidated this separation, with the British controlling all territories north of the Singapore strait and the Dutch controlling territories from Riau to Java.

 

 

The independent Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura (1725-1946) expanded, making smaller states un the northeastern coast of Sumatra (Langkat, Deli, Serdang, Asahan, Tanah Putih) recognize her suzerainty. At its climax it bordered on the Sultanate on Aceh in the North, while Pelalawan and Indragiri (to the Sultanate of Riau) in the South separated it from the Sultanate of Jambi. Siak accepted the protectorate of the Dutch East Indies in 1858 and was terminated in 1945

 

The Stadhuys showing Christ Church in the middle, 1807

In 1795,

when the Netherlands was captured by French Revolutionary armies, Melaka was handed over to the British by the Dutch to avoid its capture by the French. Although the British returned the city to the Dutch in 1808, it was soon given back to the British once again in a trade for Bencoleen in Sumatra.

 

From 1826,

 the English East India Company in Calcutta ruled the city until 1867, when the Straits Settlements ( Melaka, Penang and Singapore ) became a British Crown colony. The British continued their control until the Second World War and the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945.

Following the defeat of the Japanese, the British resumed their control until 31st. August 1957, when anti-colonial sentiment culminated in a proclamation of independence by His Highness Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, Malaysia’s first Prime Minister

It is written the history that in glory of

Riau Lingga kingdom

 

when it took over the famous Johor kingdom, most parts of Riau islands territory were in the authority of kingdom of Riau Lingga. It is mentioned that the glorious time of Riau can be depicted by the incoming flow of international commerce since there were so many foreign traders lived in Bandar Riau. Furthermore, it was explained also about the prosperity of this Riau territory, especially at the time his young majesty King Ali held the power. Riau had experienced rapid development. Such historical meanings had implicated the economic situation in this territory nowadays.

 
The Regalia
 

Of the Regalia two have been preserved: a keris and a ritual fan:

 

 

 

Keris

From Riau Lingga, 19th century

(Museum Nasional Jakarta, inv. no. E28)

 

 

Jogan (Ritual Fan)

H.: 54,8 cm. From Riau Lingga, 19th century

(Museum Nasional Jakarta, inv. no. E13)

 The keris demonstrates the close link between the Riau Lingga Sultanate and the Bugis princes and follows closely Bugis models.The Fan is part of the pusaka of the Sultan. Its “leaf or mountain shape evokes the symbolism of the kayon or gunungan of the wayang drama. [….] The Malay text is written in Arabic characters and states that the kings of Melayu (the name of a kingdom that was situated in present Riau) are descended from Iskandar Zulkarnaen (Alexander the Great † 323 B.C.), who descended from Bukit Siguntang (a hill in the western part of Palembang, 27 m.).” [i][2] 
Sultans of Riau Lingga (Residing on Lingga) [ii][3]
 

Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan Besar of

Lingga, Riau and its Dependencies

Abdul Rahman I

1811-1832

Muhammad II

1832-1835

Mahmud IV

1835-1857

Sulaiman II

1857-1883

Abdul Rahman II

1883-1911

The flag of the sultan himself, his pennon and two-pointed gonfanon were all white:

 

 

 

Apart from the keris and the fan no royal emblem is known from the 19th century sultans of Riau Lingga. A picture of the last sultan shows him with a headdress decorated with a crescent and five-pointed star from which a lily-shaped ornament rises. The crescent and star symbolizes “Head of State” as the crescent is the islamic emblem of state, and a star the emblem of a (muslim) ruler. Generally the crescent and star is thought to be the symbol of Islam.

 

Sultan Abdul Rahman II of Riau Lingga (1883-1911)

The crescent-and-star appears in white on a red flag ascribed to the state of Riau-Lingga.[iii][4] This may have been the flag of the last years of the existence of the state or the flag of a movement for the autonomy of Riau.

 

The flag of the royal boat was divided per pale white and green, in the first a green cross saltire:

 

The male members of the royal family had a yellow flag.

The flag of the chief commander or Pangeran Laksamana was white with a red bordure at the mast, the upper- and the lower side:

 

 

His pennon was red his gonfanon triangular white with a red bordure.

 

Viceroys of Riau Lingga (Residing in Riau)
 The Vice-Regal house of Riau claims descent from the rulers of Luwu, on Celebes. Leaders of the powerful Bugis maritime and military community, they came into prominence during the rise to power of Sultan ‘Abdu’l-Jalil Rahmat Shah. He is better known to history as Raja Kecil, the putative posthumous child of last Malacca Sultan of Johor, Sultan Mahmud II. He ruled over Johor from 1718 until 1722 when, allying themselves with his rivals, the Bugis princes captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. He took refuge to Siak and the Bugis restored the Bendahara dynasty. The settlement of the debt of honour to the Bugis included a joint system of government of the Bugis conquerors and the descendants of Bendahara Dynasty until 1787. The Bugis leaders received the titles of Yang di-Pertuan Muda (deputy ruler or Viceroy) and Raja Tua (principal prince), enjoying the second and third highest offices in the realm. Although the latter title and office fell into disuse, the Viceroyalty prevailed until the merging of sovereignty of the two Royal dynasties in 1899.The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca).

Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau

‘Ala ud-din Ri’ayat

1722-1728

Chelak

1728-1745

Kamboja

1745-1777

Haji

1777-1784

‘Ali I

1784-1805

Ja’afar

1805-1831

‘Abdu’l

1831-1844

‘Ali II

1844-1857

‘Abdu’llah

1857-1858

Muhammad Yusuf

1858-1899

 
The Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader, Daeng Kamboja, made Lingga his base and, from October 1756 till July 1757, besieged Dutch Malacca. In February 1757, help arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to abandon the siege.In 1784 – to restore Dutch supremacy in the Strait of Malacca, and to prevent English occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and, on 29 October 1784, the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore’s independence, and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). In the Malay Peninsula, Johore, Selangor, Perak, Trengganu and Pahang became Dutch territories. For the time being the VOC was truly dominant in the Straits. 
The Bugis of Selangor and Rembau conquered parts of Malacca in January 1784. To reconquer Malacca an expedition to Selangor and Riau was conducted by Jacob Pieter van Braam of the Amsterdam Admiralty, who commanded a fleet of six ships of the line of 60 cannon each and two frigates of 40 cannon each. He arrived in Batavia on 9 March 1784 and on 29 May he landed on the beach of Malacca. The ensueing battle ended with a victory of Van Braam and the death of Haji the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau.  On 14 July he set sail to Selangor and, with the help of the Sultan of Siak (Yahya Abdul Jalil Mazaffar Shah 1781-’97), conquered the ruler of Selangor, Ibrahim (1778-1826). On 23 October negotiations were openend with the successor of Raja Haji, Raja Ali. When these negotiations had no satisfying results Van Braam attacked on 29 October. Raja Ali fled and by treaty of November of the same year the Bugis were forbidden to return. [iv][5]The flags of the Bugis forces captured by Van Braam were sent to Holland and were exposed in the Hall in The Hague. There 27 of them, captured at the battles of Tulu Cattapang, Selangor and Marseh were drawn by Engel Hoogerheyden. This drawing, with the legend ‘VEROVERDE VLAGGEN TE TOELOE CATAPANG DOOR HET ESQUADER VAN DEN COMMANDEUR VAN BRAAM 1784’ is in the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum in Amsterdam. Amongst them was the banner of Raja Haji and the flag of Raja Ibrahim of Selangor. Some of these flags are in the collection of the Legermuseum in Delft.[v][6] 

 

Chart of the flags captured by Van Braam in 1784

Coll. Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. nr S.0585 (04).

 In the head of the chart are the white and red ensigns of the Admiralty of Amsterdam squadrons of the Dutch fleet. The other flags are from the Bugis navy.The flags, which are depicted reversed (that is that the mast-ends have to be on the right instead of the left) are of three or four categories. The first two flags are triangular with a text in arab script. These may be the flags of the raja’s themselves. Ten other flags show the dhu’l fakr or Sword of Islam. These may have been the flags of the admirals, emirs or commanders of the Bugis squadrons. Thirteen flags are plain or decorated simply. These may have been the flags of the rear-admirals or captains of Bugis ships. A fourth category is the 1 Í 5 oblong flag. This may have been the flag of the commander of the fleet.
 

 

 

Two banners, probably from the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Selangor and the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau. The inscriptions in arab lettering are not yet deciphered but may give a clue to who were their owners.

 Whatever the banners of Raja Haji or Raja ‘Ali may have been, the banner of Raja Ja’afar was quite different. It was probably granted in 1813 when green and yellow flags were also granted by Raffles to the Mangkunegoro and the Paku Alam on Java. Another possibility is that the flag was granted in 1818 when a contract between the Dutch Government and the Sultan of Riau Lingga was concluded.The flag of the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau was yellow with a green bordure at the mast-end and the upper- and lower side:

 

His pennon was divided horizontally of green and yellow and his gonfanon with two points the same as his flag.

 

The flag of the vice-royal boat was green with a white cross saltire:

 

 

 

 

 

Seal of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Riau IX

Raja Abdullah Ibni Raja Jaafar Ibni Raja Haji Fisabilillah

The legend of the seal reads: “Al Watik Baladun Al Aziz Al Ghaffar Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar 1273-Hijri” (1857 AD). And on the circumference: ONDERKONING VAN RIOUW (Viceroy of Riau)

Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden

The Singkep tin Matschapy 1889

Koelies graven de ertsgrondlaag af in de groeve Ajer Poetih Singkep Tin Maatschappij Riouw

 

Op Singkep was sedert 1889 de Singkep Tin Maatschappij werkzaam. Deze onderneming besloot in 1933 tot algehele overdracht van het bedrijf aan de Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouwmaatschappij Billiton, een in 1924 aangegane joint venture van het Gouvernement en de Billiton Mij. Ook op het kleine Singkep vond technologische vernieuwing plaats met de, op de foto afgebeelde, hydraulische ontginning als resultaat. Wel moest de ertsgrondlaag nog door koelies worden afgegraven. (P. Boomgaard, 2001). Koelies graven de ertsgrondlaag af in de groeve Ajer Poetih, Singkep Tin Maatschappij, Riouw

 

Resident Riouw Visit Sultan of linga riouw

 

Sambu Island during DEI

 

The Dutch office  in sambu Island

In the back of above picture

 

Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden

 

 

 

 

 Under Dutch direct rule the emblems of the Kingdom of the Netherlandswere valid in the residence.After Japanese occupation but also after the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the Dutch Government tried to restore Dutch Rule in the Indies as well as on Sumatera. For that reason some troops of the Royal Dutch Indies Army (KNIL) were stationed on Sumatera. Most succesful were the KNIL-troops in Medan, Padang and Palembang. In Riau the VIII Infantry Battalion KNIL was stationed. The arms of this Battalion were:Arms:Vert, a sword per pale Argent, its hilt Or, charged with a vulture Sable, keeping a garland of branches of olive in his claws proper, and in base the cypher VIII Sable.The arms were adopted by resolution Clg 7492/GS/35 of 11 November 1946 and became obsolte after the dissolution of the KNIL on 20 July 1950.

 

Provinsi Riau
 On 15 April 1948 Riau became a part of the Province of MiddleSumatra  with the name of Karesidenan Riau. With the extinguishing of Sumatera Tenga in 1957 the Karesidenan Riau was upgrated into a province. For this province an emblem was adopted:Arms:Vert, a keris per pale charged with a Bugis sailing vessel in full sail on waves of the sea, surrounded by a garland of rice and cotton, in base the name RIAU in red lettering; and a chain of 90 shackles Or in orle.ð See illustration in the head of this essay. [vi][7] 
     

 

Karimun regency in the beginning was a small town with the name of Tanjung Balai Karimun and with its status as a sub district town with the area of only 275 sq km. Tanjung Balai Karimun, from the scope of history, cannot be separated from its main regency that is Riau islands.

1956

 

Based on the decree of delegation of the Republic of Indonesia, the province of central Sumatra on may 18, 1956 joined the republic of Indonesia, and Riau island were given the status as level II autonomy rnegion  which is led by a regent as head of the region who supervised 4 (four) districts, that are:
* Tanjung Pinang District, which covered sub district of South Bintan (incoming East Bintan, Galang, West Tanjung Pinang and East Tanjung Pinang now).
* Karimun District which covered sub district of Karimun, Kundur and Moro.
* Lingga District which covered sub district of Lingga, Singkep and Senayang.
* Tujuh Island District which covered sub district of Jemaja, Siantan, Midai, Serasan, Tambelan, West Bunguran and East Bunguran.

1964

Karimun district, later were abolished based on the decree of governor, head of the level I region of Riau dated August 9, 1964 no. Up/247/5/1965.

1966

Based on such stipulation, as of January 1, 1966,

all administrative territory of the district in the Riau Islands regency was abolished. Along with the spirit of regional autonomy,

1999

Along with the spirit of regional autonomy, then on October 12 law no. 53, 1999 was stipulated which stated that Karimun regency together with kundur and moro regency were merged to one regency with the name of Karimun regency, with position at the same level with other regencies in Indonesia.         

 

 

 

After the European powers withdrew from the region, the new independent governments had to reorganize and find balance after inheriting 100 years of colonial boundaries. Before finding their current status, the territories of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Borneo struggled and even came into military conflict against each other, and the Riau islands once again found themselves in the middle of a regional struggle.

The strong cultural unity of the region with Riau in the heart of this region never returned, and the line drawn by the British in 1819 remained, dividing the area into three new countries in 1965: Singapore, the Malaysian federation in the north, and Indonesia in the south.

Some level of unity returned in the Riau region for the first time after 150 years, with the creation of the Sijori Growth Triangle in 1989. But while bringing back some economical wealth to Riau, the Sijori Growth Triangle somewhat further broke the cultural unity within the islands. With Batam island receiving most of the industrial investments and dramatically developing into a regional industrial center, it attracted hundreds of thousands of non-Malay Indonesian migrants, changing forever the demographic balance in the archipelago.

Today the name of Riau merely refers to this administrative region of Indonesia, a free trade zone heavily supported by Indonesian, Singaporean and international investments.

There have been various attempts at both independence and autonomy for this part of Indonesia since the founding of Indonesia in 1945.[5]

Administrative division

This province is divided into 5 regencies:

and 2 cities:

References

  1. ^ a b Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
  2. ^ Kepulauan Riau, Keberagaman Identitas dalam Kesatuan Kultur. http://epaper.kompas.com.+February 6.
  3. ^ BPS: Jumlah Penduduk Provinsi Kepulauan Riau Menurut
  4. ^ The Riau Islands and economic cooperation in the Singapore Indonesian border zone Karen Peachey, Martin Perry, Carl Grundy-Warr, Clive H Schofield, University of Durham. International Boundaries Research Unit, illustrated, IBRU, 1997, ISBN 1897643276, 9781897643273, pg. 6-10
  5. ^ paper on the Riau Independence movemen

 

 

Karimun

is one of the most important islands in Riau Archipelago, due to its thriving economy and proximity to Singapore. Tanjung Balai Karimun is a medium-sized town, with a large Chinese community and shops selling a large variety of imported items. The town is linked by both sea and air.

 

 Terkulai resortand Soreh resot

 

are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.

 

Terkulai and Soreh are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.

 

 

 

Karimun

is one of the most important islands in Riau Archipelago, due to its thriving economy and proximity to Singapore. Tanjung Balai Karimun is a medium-sized town, with a large Chinese community and shops selling a large variety of imported items. The town is linked by both sea and air. Terkulai and Soreh are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.

Karimun regency in the beginning was a small town with the name of Tanjung Balai Karimun and with its status as a sub district town with the area of only 275 sq km. Tanjung Balai Karimun

  • .

Karimun district, later were abolished based on the decree of governor, head of the level I region of Riau dated August 9, 1964 no. Up/247/5/1965. Based on such stipulation, as of January 1, 1966, all administrative territory of the district in the Riau Islands regency was abolished. It is written the history that in glory of Riau Lingga kingdom when it took over the famous Johor kingdom, most parts of Riau islands territory were in the authority of kingdom of Riau Lingga. It is mentioned that the glorious time of Riau can be depicted by the incoming flow of international commerce since there were so many foreign traders lived in Bandar Riau. Furthermore, it was explained also about the prosperity of this Riau territory, especially at the time his young majesty King Ali held the power. Riau had experienced rapid development. Such historical meanings had implicated the economic situation in this territory nowadays.

then on October 12 law no. 53, 1999 was stipulated which stated that Karimun regency together with kundur and moro regency were merged to one regency with the name of Karimun regency, with position at the same level with other regencies in Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAREMPA ISLAND

 

 

 

Siantan Tarempa [Flickr]

20 tahun lamanya tidak melihat kampung halaman ditanah kelahiran, 20 tahun lamanya tidak mengunjungi sanak saudaran ditanah kelahiran. Akhirnya liburan kemaren saya mendapatkan kesempatan untuk mengunjungi tanah kelahiran saya yang telah lama saya tinggalkan. Tarempa … itulah nama sebuah tempat dimana saya dilahirkan lebih kurang 24 tahun yang lalu, saya hijrah ke Tanjung Pinang saat usia saya masih 4 tahun, kemudian sebelum menginjakkan kaki ke bangku sekolah dasar saya sempat pulang sebentar… tapi hanya transit untuk mengunjungi kampung halaman ibu saya di

Midai.

 

Semenjak saat itu saya tidak pernah pulang lagi untung menjenguk sanak saudara disana.

Sebelumnya mungkin kita pernah mendengan dengan sebutan Pulau Tujuh, gugusan kepulauan yang berada di Kepulauan Riau. Nah… salah satu dari kepulauan itu adalah Kepulauan Anambas yang terkenal dengan beberapa daerah seperti Siantan a.k.a Tarema, Jemaja a.k.a Letung dan Payaklaman a.k.a Matak. Klo mau saya jelaskan satu persatu gugusan pulau tujuh ini … mungkin hingga thesis saya selesai, belum tentu saya akan dapat merampungkan cerita tentang Ke-tujuh kepulauan itu. Saya hanya akan membahas tiga daerah dari kepulauan Anambas ini saja, Tarempa, Letung dan Matak. Baiklah … cerita ini akan saya ceritakan melalui perjalanan saya sehari-hari disana. Dimulai ketika proses keberangkatan hingga akhirnya saya harus pulang lagi ke Tanjung Pinang.

Perjalanan menuju Tarempa dapat ditempuh dengan 2 cara. Cara yang pertama adalah menggunakan transportasi laut. Kapal Pelni yang berangkat setiap 2 minggu sekali dapat kita gunakan. Alternatif kapal lainnya adalah Kapal Perintis yang memiliki 2 rute, sehingga waktu keberangkatannya tidak tetap. Perjalanan menggunakan kapal biasanya memakan waktu selama 18-20 jam. Cara yang kedua tentunya menggunakan transportasi udara, dengan menaiki pesawat dari Tanjung Pinang atau Batam. Pesawat dari Tanjung Pinang hanya menuju bandar udara Natuna sedangkan pesawat dari Batam dapat menuju bandar udara Natuna dan Matak. Mo lewat jalan darat? …. jangan pernah berharap yah

Liburan kemaren kebetulan saya menggunakan kapal Pelni yang berangkat dari pelabuhan Kijang menuju Tarempa. Rute dari kapal pelni ini dapat menempuh seluruh perjalanan di pulau tujuh. Setelah 15 jam perjalanan kapal memasuki perairan Jemaja Letung, disini kapan tidak dapat berlabuh dipelabuhan. Kapal pelni ini hanya berlabuh jangkar dilaut, penumpang yang akan turun diharuskan menaiki kapal motor kecil alias pompong. Tepat 3 jam setelah berangkat dari Letung, kapal pelni berlabuh di pelabuhan Tarempa. Kebetulan sampe sana pukul 23.00 wib, jadi sampe rumah langsung K.O.

 

Tarempa from Mountain [Flickr]

Kepulangan saya kekampung halaman ini bertepatan dengan acara sukuran dalam rangka terbentuknya Kabupaten Kepulauan Anambas. Dahulunya daerah ini hanyalah sebuah kecamatan dibawah kabupaten Natuna. Pembentukan kabupaten baru ini disambut gembira oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat disana, sehingga diadakanlah acara sukuran. Nantinya akan saya cerita lebih lanjut tentang syukuran KKA ini.

Kehidupan masyarakat didaerah ini dimulai pada pagi hari, ada juga kegiatan dimalam hari tetapi tidak terlalu ramai. Hal tersebut dikarenakan sebagian besar penduduk bermata pencarian nelayan. Setelah sholat subuh saya pun keluar rumah untuk menghirup udara pagi yang segar, setelah menoleh kiri dan kanan, ternyata didepan rumah ada pasar ikan. Pasar ikan ini sangat ramai dipagi hari, karena hampir seluruh warga datang untuk membeli hasil tangkapan para nelayan yang masih fresh.

 

Perahu nelayan yang sedang parkir [Flickr]

Mungkin orang-orang disana pada bingung … nih anak pagi2 udah bawa kamera dan yang difoto malah pasar dan tukang ikan . Saya sempat dibilang wartawan … hehe , maklum orang-orang mungkin sudah tidak mengenali saya lagi. Hari ini misi yang harus dijalankan adalah mengunjungi seluruh rumah sanak saudara saya. Boleh dibilang, keluarga saya adalah keluarga besar. Ayah saya memiliki 9 saudara dan ibu saya 11 bersaudara. So, saya memiliki banyak paman dan bibi. Belum lagi saudara dari kakek dan nenek saya, alias saudara-saudara sepupu saya. Klo boleh dibilang, mau kemana aja di Tarempa ini masih ada hubungan saudara. Karena banyaknya saudara-saudara saya, saya sudah hampir tidak ingat kepada mereka semua. Hanya yang beberapa saja yang masih saya kenal. Mungkin inilah nasib dari seorang anak rantau yang jauh dari keluarga. Setiap ada acara kumpul-kumpul keluarga besar saya tidak dapat mengikutinya. Begitu juga dengan pernikahan sepupu saya pada waktu bulan Juli lalu

 

 

Midai island

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

GALANG ISLAND COLLECTIONS

 

1950

DURING RIS

DEI NICA Dutch  SMELT 5 CENT POSTAL STATIONER POSTALLY USED FROM GREAHAM ESTATATE p.k.GALANG  CDAS TANDJOENG PINANG 1.8.50 TO  Dactyloscopy Beaureu  DPV&AVROS Medan about the information about A MAN WHO EVER WORK AT THE GEAHAM ESTAT

“We have to advise that this man was discharged from this estate on 29th April 1948 ,for using riffle bullete for shooting wild pig” from manager of graham estate.

 

UNHCR VIETNAM REFUGEE GALANG CAMP COLLECTIONS

 

Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum:”The Vietnam Refugee Pulau galang Camp After Vietnam War 1980″(koleksi camp refugee Vietnam pulau galang)

Posted on March 28, 2011 by iwansuwandy

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

 

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

Please Enter

 

DVWC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam War  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Vietnam War Document

and

Postal History

1969-1975

Also

Post Vietnam War

1976-1980

THE VIETNAM

AFTER VIETNAM WAR 1980

_____________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

e.  VIETNAMSE BOAT’s PEOPLES -1980.

 

 

 

How to travel to Vietnam refugee Galang Island Camp

Galang Island : the Vietnamese Safe Haven

//

Get There

To reach this island, take a ferry to any of the Batam’s six ferry terminals. Batam’s Hang Nadim airport serves domestic flights from many cities in Indonesia. See: To get there for Batam island. The Vietnam refugee camp is located in Sijantung village on Galang Island some 50 kilometers from Batam Center.

The Galang Island where the vietnam refugee camp were built

 

The Map Of Galang island vietnam refugee
camp

 

The Picture at Vietnam Refugee Camp at Galang Island,:

1.Front Gate

2.The house of refugee

 

3.The Church of vietnam refugee

 

4.The Maria Cave

 

5.The Ex Boat of the vietnam refugee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image Gallery

 

_____________________________________

1) no info

1.January until march not yet info

2..April

In this month, Indonesia Police Mobile Brigade Kompi-06 West sumatra Padang Panjang have joined the “Halilintar”operation at Pulau Galang in order to keep the stabilty situation during the Vietnamese Refugees processing the island near Riau Island and Singapore, live temporary at the  refugee Camp “ Vietnam Refugee Galang Island Camp”.look at the order to the police by te command chief  staf  of halilintar operation below(given by the man to me)

3.Since June and July 1979, many Vietnamese refiugee, thousands with small boats flee from Vietnam, they were called “Boat People” many died in the sea due to Boat crash due to many mans in small boat.

As a humanity , Indonesia  give an Island of Galang where the processing by United nation were made.look at the Vietnamese Refugee Galang Island Camp picture below:

Vietnam Refugee Camp, Galang Island

  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  

3) no info

 

4)April 1980

 

(1)The Operation of Indonesia Armed Forces (Police were in Armed Forces that this time) were  called “HALILINTAR OPERATIONS”  , from  the Mobile Brigade-man I have found Postal History, document and memorabilia :

(a)Document

April.12th 1980

Order from the Command of Halilintar operations, The Chief Staff Navy General(laksmana Pertama) TNI(Indonesia National Army) Kunto Wibisono with  the “Panglima”(Chief) of Halilintar Operation  Command(Komando Operasi Halilintar) issued at Tanjung Pinang Riou 12 April 1980.(D)

the order

 

the list of the policeman tasforce at Galang Island Vietnam refugee camp

 

The hansigned of comander in chief Brigade Mobile Padang Panjang Leutenan Fadjar Prihantoro(now He Inspektuer General Police ,the chief Of Aceh Police Departemen,read the recent info about him,he at right

 

BANDA ACEH, 4/1 – KAPOLDA ACEH BARU. Kapolda Aceh yang baru, Irjen Pol Iskandar Hasan (kanan) melakukan salam komando dengan Kapolda Aceh lama, Irjen Pol Fajar Prihantoro (kiri) usai upacara lepas sambut di Mapolda Aceh, Banda Aceh, Selasa (4/1). Irjen Pol. Fajar Prihantoro yang bertugas selama delapan bulan di Aceh itu akan menempati posisi Kabarharkam di Mabes Polri. FOTO ANTARA/Ampelsa/ss/pd/11

 

 

hallo general Fadjar are still remember me,greating and salute from Dr Iwan suwandy)

 

Bp Hadjar prihantoro profile now as the chief of Aceh Police departement

 

(b) Postal History

(2.1)Military cover from the Command of halilintar Operation to the command of Mobile Brigade Police Second Leutenant fajar Prihantoro, this cover sent via courier.(PH)

cover one

 

cover two

(2.2) Official Military Covers send via courier, from Komando(command) Satuan Pengaman (stability unit) and Perawatan (care) Pengungsi (Refu-gee) Vietnam Pulau(Island) Galang to WA(deputy) Dan (Commandant) Ki (Compi) 0-6 SB(Moblie Brigade west sumatra) at Tanjung Pinang. With the sign of the Deputy H.Prihantoro when he have given this cover to me.(D)

Money Order To Vietnamese Pulau galang Refugee

Inconu Vietnamese Pulau galang refugee postally used cover

The Postal History 1979

 

5)-9) no info

10) October 1979

(1) October 4th 1979

(a)Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang emblemed cover send postally CDS Tandjung Pinang 4.10.79 rate 60 Rupiah  to  his wife Padang Pandjang west sumatra .(PH)

 

 

 

 

(b) Return to sender registered covers I have send to the Police Pos Command of Vietnamese Pulau galang, with  Sial Sdh berangkat (They have departured)

 

 

 

(c)Official letter sheet Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang (M)

(d)The Sticker of Vietnamese Refugee Pulau galang.

 

 

 

11) November 1980

No info

12) December 1980

(1)     December,8th.1980

The  civil homemade cover send with Military stamps 1976-1980 ,  2×12 (?) from Tinh Ha Son Binh to Than Pho Ho chi Minh.

 

FINISH-FINISH- CONGRATULATION- VIETNAM UNITY- VIVA REPUBLIC SOCIALIST VIETNAM. bonus

1. The wedding double happiness dragon  cover

 

and

the picture of brideman

 

2. Postally used Vietnam Aerograme

 

3.19.5.1990  hundred years anniversary postal stationer of Ho Chi Minh

 

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

The Japan Leader Historic Collections

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER. AND YOU CAN ASKED THE INFORMATIONOF YOUR JAPAN LEADER S IDOL. PLEASE EJOY TO LOOK SOME SAMPLE BELOW.

Japanese Leader

 U-Y

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

This is the sample of E-BOOK in CD-ROM,The complete CD exist but only for premium member

 

 

THE BASIC PICTURES

  1.  

 

THE BIOGRAPHY

 

Uchimura Kanzo(1861-1930)

Uchimura Kanzō

Uchimura Kanzō

Uchimura Kanzō in 1918

Born

March 26, 1861(1861-03-26)
Tokyo, Japan[1]

Died

March 28, 1930(1930-03-28) (aged 69)
Tokyo, Japan

Nationality

Japan

Occupation

Writer, Christian evangelist

In this Japanese name, the family name is “Uchimura”.

Uchimura Kanzō (内村 鑑三?, March 26, 1861 – March 28, 1930) was a Japanese author, Christian evangelist, and the founder of the Nonchurch Movement (Mukyōkai) of Christianity in the Meiji and Taishō period Japan.  Early life

Uchimura was born in Edo, and exhibited a talent for languages from a very early age; he started to study the English language at the age of 11. In 1877, he gained admission to the Sapporo Agricultural College (present-day Hokkaido University), where English was the main language of instruction.

Prior to Uchimura’s arrival, William S. Clark, a graduate of Amherst College, had spent the year assisting the Japanese government in establishing the college. While his primary role was to teach agricultural technology, Clark was a committed lay Christian missionary who introduced his students to the Christian faith through Bible classes. All of his students converted and signed the “Covenant of Believers in Jesus”, committing themselves to continue studying the Bible and to do their best to live moral lives. Clark returned to the United States after one year, but Uchimura felt his influence through the small Covenant group that was left behind. Under considerable pressure from his senpai (先輩, a term for senior peers), Uchimura signed the Covenant during his first year at the College at the age of 16 and went on to receive baptism from a Methodist missionary in 1878.

Dissatisfaction with the mission church, however, led Uchimura and his Japanese supporters to establish an independent church in Sapporo. This experiment turned out to be a precursor to what is now called the Nonchurch Movement. Through Clark’s teaching and example, this small group believed that they could practice and live an authentic life of faith without depending on an institution or clergy.

Overseas career

 

 

Tombstone of Uchimura Kanzō. It is inscribed “I for Japan, Japan for the World, The World for Christ, And All for God.”

Uchimura departed for the United States following a brief and unhappy first marriage in 1884. He was first befriended by Wister Morris and his wife, a Quaker couple, who helped him find employment shortly after his arrival in Pennsylvania. The Quaker faith and pacifism made a lasting impression upon Uchimura. He and his Sapporo friend Nitobe Inazō were influential in the establishment of the Friends School in Tokyo as a result of his sojourning in the Philadelphia area.

Following eight months of stressful work at a mental hospital in Elwyn, Pennsylvania, Uchimura resigned and traveled through New England, entering Amherst College in September 1885. Julius Hawley Seelye, the president of Amherst College, became his spiritual mentor, and encouraged him to attend the Hartford Theological Seminary. After completing his second bachelor’s degree (B.Sc.) in general science at Amherst, he enrolled in Hartford Seminary, but quit after only one semester, disappointed by theological education. He returned to Japan in 1888.

Japanese religious leader

 

 

Nakada Juzi, Uchimura Kanzō, Kimura Seimatu

After his return to Japan, Uchimura worked as a teacher, but was fired or forced to resign in several instances over his uncompromising position toward authorities or foreign missionary bodies that controlled the schools. The most famous such incident was his refusal to bow deeply to

 the portrait of Emperor Meiji

 and the Imperial Rescript on Education in the formal ceremony held at the First Higher School (then preparatory division to the Tokyo Imperial University).

read more about imperial rescript on Soldier and sailor bwlow

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

Daily formal reading of the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, at the IJA Engineering College, 1939

The Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors (軍人勅諭, Gunjin Chokuyu?) was issued by Emperor Meiji of Japan on 4 January 1882.

It was the most important document in the development of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy.

[edit] Details

The Rescript was intended to be the official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan’s prewar national ideology. All military personnel were required to memorize the 2700 kanji document by heart.

The initial draft was written by Nishi Amane, an Army Ministry bureaucrat and scholar of western philosophy. It was extensively edited by Inoue Kowashi.

The Rescript was presented to Army Minister Yamagata Aritomo directly by Emperor Meiji in person in a special ceremony held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. This unprecedented action was meant to symbolize the personal bond between the Emperor and the military, making the military in effect, the Emperor’s personal army. Coming shortly after the Satsuma Rebellion, the Rescript stressed absolute personal loyalty of each individual member of the military to the Emperor. The Rescript also cautioned to military personnel to avoid involvement with political parties or politics in general, and to avoid being influenced by current opinions in the newspapers, reflecting Yamagata’s distrust of politicians in particular and democracy in general. The Rescript also advises military personnel to be frugal in their personal habits (reflecting back to the samurai tradition), and respectful and benevolent to civilians (reflecting on European traditions of chivalry). However, a clause that the military was subordinate to civilian authority did not make it into the final draft.

The Rescript also contains a number of Confucian themes including “proper respect to superiors,” and also draws upon Buddhist influences in that “The soldier and the sailor should make simplicity their aim.”

A famous precept in the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors states that “duty is heavier than a mountain; death is lighter than a feather.”

 

 Realizing that his religious beliefs were incompatible with a teaching career, he turned to writing, becoming senior columnist for the popular newspaper, Yorozu Chōhō. Uchimura’s fame as a popular writer became solid as he launched a series of sharp criticism against industrialist Ichibei Furukawa over one of modern Japan’s first industrial pollution cases involving

 Furukawa’s Ashio Copper Mine.

 read more about this mine history below

Introduction

Welcome to Ashio!! In Ashio,visitors are amazed by its natural beauty and long history.
Do you know the Ashio copper mine? Once, it was the biggest copper mine in Japan.In the early Meiji Era (1868~1912), the town took a lead in Japanese modern industry.There are a lot of industrial heritages here. Surely, Ashio is the cradle of Japanese modern industry and a good place to learn about industrial heritages and enveironmental problems.Here many people pay attention to the natural environment destroyed by smoke damage from the refineries.
This guide book is made in order to introduce “Ashio”. It is a town like a museum, so you can enjoy it wherever you visit.
I ‘d like you to use this book not only as a guide but also as a study material.
“ASHIO-no-SHIKI ”(Four Seasons in Ashio) is a song loved by people living in Ashio. The melody is used as the time signal at noon.

ASHIO-no-SHIKI(Four Seasons in Ashio)

1. Shunseisenri Mizukiyoku Kasumitomago Sakurabana Imatakenawano Wataraseya

2. NatsuKoshinnno Takinooto Midorishitataru Manzanni Kumokurenaino Yuhikage

3. Susukiononoku Yamanomine Datsuryutono Kagekuroku Tsukityutenni Akihukashi

4. Nantaioroshi Hukiarete Hakugaigaino Bizentate Horobasyaisogu Kurenomachi

 

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Origin of the Name “ASHIO”

There are two stories about the origin of the name “ASHIO”.
One is the “rat story”. According to the story , the kanji for Ashio was written “足緒”.
Long ago, there was a priest called “SHODO-SHONIN”. When he stayed in the mountain of Nikko, he saw a rat with grains of millet and rice.He was so surprised to see the rat in the heart of such a mountain, so he tied a string to the rat’s foot, and followed it. At last, he found houses at the foot of a mountain.
“SHODO-SHONIN”named this place“ASHI(meaning one’s foot)O(meaning string)”. After that, his pupils were said to come to this place. they trained and built temples there.
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Another opinipn relates to Ashio’s topographic view. The high point of a mountain range is called “O(meaning tail written“尾”in kanji). So many people think the name “Ashio”came from its topographic condition. It is an interesting fact that there are other areas near Ashio which use the kanji “尾”also.HOSOO is eritten“細尾”in kanji and KASOO is written “粕尾”in kanji.
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History of Ashio

Ashio was a silent mountain village begore copper was found. In 1610, two farmers were said to find copper in Mt.Bizentate. The Ashio Copper Mine then started under the direct administration of the Tokugawa Shogunate.The Ashio Copper Mine enjoyed remarkable prosperity, and was referred to as “Ashio,the Town of 1,000 House ”. Not only was the copper used in Japan,
but also it was sent to foreign countries. It was used to make the roofs for the “Toshogu Shrine”, the “Edo Castle”and the “Kaneiji Temple in Ueno”and so on. In addition to this, the copper was used to make money called “Kaneitsuho(‘Ashijisen’)”
In 1877, Mr.Ichibe’e Furukawa began management of the Ashio copper mine. He used new machines and skills. As a result of this, the mine was electrified and modernized, and the amount of copper output increased. In 1916, the population of Ashio reached 38,428. Ashio was the largest town next to Utsunomiya(about58,000) in Tochigi prefecture.
However, people dug copper without sufficient planning during World WarⅡ;they couldn’t produce as much copper as they thought.
At last, the Ashio copper mine was closed in February in 1973, closing the chapter to about 400 years of history.
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Minerals Mined Ashio

In the Ashio Copper Mine, more than 40 minerals were found.The most general ore is Chalcopyrite(“ODOKO” in Japanese). It is a compound of copper, iron and sulfur. “ODOKO” consisits of about 34,5 percent copper.
There are two different museums near the “The Ashio Dozan Kanko” and the “Furukawa Kakemizu Club” where one can see many mineral samples.
Please come to see those valuable materials !

Minerals Mined in Ashio
*Chalcopyrite *Bornite
*Chalcocite *Galena
*Cuprite *Malachite
*Bismuthinite *Pyrite
*Rock crystal etc

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The mineral museum near the Ashio Dozan Kanko

 

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Mr.Ichibe’e Furukawa

Mr.Ichibe’e Furukawa’s original name was Kimura Minosuke. He was born on March 16th, 1832 in Tokyo as the second son. His family ran a Tofu store, But it fell into hard time leaving them poor off. Because of these hardships, Ichibe’e seemed to value money. When he was six years old, his mother passed away.To help his family, he sold tofu by blowing a bugle. After that, he went to his uncle’s house in Morioka. There, he changed his name from Minosuke to Kosuke.Later he was adopted into a family acquaintance of his uncle, the Furukawa’s, and he changed his name from Kosuke to Ichibe’e.
In those days, thousands of people gave up digging for copper from the Ashio copper mine. However, Ichibe’e thought he could get much copper there because it was a very famous copper mine in Japan.
In 1877, he bought the Ashio copper mine and started to dig. All his efforts were rewarded ; he found a big bed of ore in 1884. which led the way to the mine’s quick development and its place as a leader of Japan’s modernization.

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Remains of the Kodaki Mine

Environmental Problems the Ashio Copper Mine

In Ashio, the production of copper totaled more than 40 percent of Japan’s total copper output.The Ashio Mines made a great contribution to the development of Japanese industry. On the other hand, it was said to be “the root of environmental pollution” as the place where pollution problems happened first in Japan. One of the notorious matters was sulfurous acid gas emitted by the smelter’s chimneys. It affected all people living in Ashio. The smoke damage continued from the middle of Meiji period to about the 30th year of the SHowa period(1955). It damaged plants, and soon there were no trees left on the mountain. Because of this, the mountains were called “HAGEYAMA” (which means “bald mountain”)
Recently, many organizations including national, perfectural and private sectors, and the NPO group “Growing Greenery in Ashio” are working to restore greenery on Ashio’s mountains. It is drawing attention from all over Japan, creating opportunities to think about environmental problems. There are many efforts now to revive Ashio from its “root of environmental pollution” past to a place rich in nature once again.
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The state of the “Matsuki”valley

 

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Labor Problems and the Sickness “Yoroke”

As the copper mines developed more and more, laborers gathered in Ashio. Tsuruzo Nagaoka and Sukematsu Minami established a labor union here. In 1907, they organized a big riot to demand for higher wages and the improvement of labor conditions, 24 items in all.
After that, four more riots broke out. Also, the Second Annual May Day was carried out in Ashio in 1921. It was the first May Day held in a copper mine. After World War 2, a new labor union was formed and many labor movements active.

Another problem was “YOROKE”, an incurable disease. People working in copper mines became ill after breathing in dust for many years. Laborers demanded measures against the disease . It look many years for it to be recognized as a worker’s accident and the nation guaranteed laborer’s livelihood.

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Laborers met their leaders at the Tsudo Station

The War Memorial for Chinese Martyrs

This tower is near the “Kajika-so” Hotel in the Ginzandaira area. During World War2, many Koreans and Chinese were abducted and forced to work at the Ashio copper mines. About 250 people were taken to the Ashio copper mines. 109 of them died in the mines. It is said that many people died because of malnutrition.
The tower was built on 30th July in 1973 to comfort their spirits and pledge never to wage war after China and Japan issued a joint statement on the recovery of diplomatic relations in 1972.

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The site of the “Koaryo” dormitory

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The War Memorial for Chinese Martyrs

 

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Company Houses and Life

In the heyday of the Ashio copper mine, there were many company houses like “Honzan”, “Uenotaira” and “Kodaki” and so on. The roots were made of zinc, and people used communal water-works,rest rooms, and bath rooms. Also, water rates,electric charges, and house repairs were free. Near the company houses, there was a park, a tennis court, a pool,and so on. In addition to this, they used “KARAMI” as a fireproof wall. “KARAMI” is a blac brick used to prevent the spreading of fires.
“Sanyokai” co-ops were also a characteristic of Ashio. They were located near the company houses, so people could buy daily necessities. Some of them are still used today.

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Tsudo Company Kouses

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The Fireproof Wall

 

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The Ashio Smelter

The Ashio smelter was built as the “Naori Bridge Sub Factory”in 1884. To keep up with the increasing smelting operations, a Bessemer rotary kiln was introduced in 1893; however, the amount of sulfuric acid gas inceased.

At the Ashio smelter, many systems were improved in order to remove the gas. In1956, with the flash-smelting system technology imported from Finland’s Outokumpu Company, a method to remove smoke and other by-products of sulfuric acid gas was completed. It was the first time in Japan for the emission of sulfuric acid gas to be stopped. these smelting techniques developed in Japan and around the world continue to help eliminate pollutions from copper factories even today.
In 1973, the Ashio copper mine was closed. After that, the smelter began to refine imported minerals. The Ashio line was abolished in 1989, forcing the Ashio Smelter to stop operation since it was no longer able to transport copper by freight cars.

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The storage tanks of sulfuric acid

 

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Cultural Assets of Ashio

Ashio is abundant in cultural assets.
*The Cultural Assets of Ashio
1:The remains of the Governor’s office
2:The remains of one of Japan’s first Hydro-Erectric Stations
3:The monument of Mt.Koshin
4:The Honzan mine entrance
5:The Kodaki mine entrance
6:The Furukawa bridge
7:The remains of the “Chusenza”
8:The Honzan MIne Copper Shrine Alter
*Others
1:The rope way tunnels
2:The Watarase Bridge
3The Furukawa Kakemizu Club
4:The remains of the Horse-Cart Railroad
5:”The Tower for the Unfortunate” in Matsuki village

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Shinto Shrines, Temples and Churches

Although Ashio is a small town, there are many old Shinto shrines and temples.
The Iwasaku Shinto Shrine, built in 808, is a village shrine in the Tojimo area which was used as a mountain entrance.
In 1889, a Copper Mine Shrine was built at the highest point in Honzen to worship God to protect the mines. Another Copper
mine Shrine which is now located near the Dozan Kanko Museum, was built in 1920. these shrines are also called Mountain Shrines. Every spring they held a joint festival which was said to be the best festival in the Kanko Area.That spring festival now become the”Ashio Festival”
The temples of Ashio include the Ryuzoji Temple, the Hozenji Temple, the Sennenji Temple and so on. At the Ryuzoji Temple,there is the Tower for the Unfortunate, built for the ancestors of the Matsuki Village which was evacuated due to damages by smoke pollutions. Also at the Ryuzoiji Temple there are graves for many miners who dedicated their lives to the Mines. In the Hozoji Temple, there is a wooden statue of the god “HASHIRIDAIKOKU” which was engraved by Shodo Shonin.
In addition to these temples and shrines, there is also a church built by the effort of a Copper mine Owner from England who built churches near copper mines all over the world.

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Tsudo Mine Shrine

 

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The Watarase Bridge

There are two bridges in parallel which cross the Watarase River in the Watarase area. The bridge upstream is the new bridge, and the bridge downstream is the original bridge. In the beginning, the original bridge was made by steel; it was changed to concrete in 1935. This bridge was badly damaged; so, new bridge was built upstream. The structure of the old bridge was so valuable due to its unique construction that it is now being preserved.
Around the bridge, there are many cherry trees which bloom in spring to delight many onlookers.

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The Original Watarase Bridge

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The Cherry Tree in the Watarase Park

Kodaki Area and the Monument of Kodaki Village

The Kodaki mine opened in 1885, and the area arounded became known as The Kodaki. Kodaki area spans from the national highway to the Ginzandaira area.
The Kodaki Copper Mine was closed in 1954; it had fallen into ruins. Now, there are remains of the mine entrance, company houses, hospitals, school and so on; one could visualize their previous existence.
Also here, one can see the conditions of the Chinese and Koreans who were forced to work inthe mines during WWⅡ.
After the mines closed, the people left the Kodaki Village. Later they erected a monument in the middle of the old town in rememblance of the past.

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Monument of the Kodaki Village

 

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Furukawa Kakemizu Club

The Furukawa Kakemizu Club was built in about 1899, but the designer isn’t clear, it is said however, that there is much influence from England’s Josiah Conder. This building is a max of Western and Japanese styles.
The Furukawa Miming Company used it as a guest house for customers to stay and as a place to have meetings. In the building, there is a billiards table, the first one made in Japan, and a piano made in Germany in 1924.
Near the main building, there are two smaller museums-a mineral museum and a telephone museum. The telephone was invented by Mr.Bell in 1876, and the next year it was imported into Japan. After that, the Furukawa Company introduced telephones to the mines in 1886. It is a surprising fact that one enterprise introduced telephones only 10 years after its invention. It was the first introduction of telephones to private businesses. In Ashio, these telephones were called “the Copper Mine Telephones” , and were located at the city office and the train stations.
《Facilities referense》
Open: Saturdays, Sundays, Public Holidays 10:00-15:00
Closed: December through March
Consecutive holidays from the end of April to Golden Week
Charge: Adult 300yen
Junior High School Students and under 200yen
Phone: Daily 0288-93-3255 Holidays 0288-93-2015
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Ashio History Museum

The Ashio History Museum was opened by “the Ashio GAKUGEIIN Association” on April in 2005. GAKU means ” happily”(“楽”in kanji) GEI means “to welcome customer” (“迎”in kanji) .
Although people know about pollution problems in the Ashio Copper Mine, few good points are known. However through various inverstigations and studies, members found that the Ashio Copper Mine contributed towards Japanese modern industry. They started volunteer activities to talk its proud history and to give guides about valuable industrial heritages in Ashio.
In the museum, there are valuable pictures one can see only in Ashio.

《Facilities reference》
Open : April through December (except Monday)10:00-16:00
Closed : Nonember through March
Charge : (one day ticket)Adult 300yen,
Junior High School Students under 200yen
Address : 2825 Matsubara, Ashio-machi, Nikko, Tochigi 321-1523
Phone : 0288-93-0189

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Ashio Dozan Kanko Mine Tunnels

Over the course of 400years, miners dug 1,234 kilometers to get ocpper. (the distance is about from Tokyo to Hakata). The depth also reached about that of Tokyo Bay.
Dozan Kanko is a Copper Mine Museum which has been created throughout 400years of history. Within the tunnels, one can view the history of the Ashio Copper Mine from the Edo Period(1610-1867) through the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa Eras. Mannequins and mine trains are displayed to demonstrate how the mine worked. You can study the history and system of the Ashio Copper Mine here.
In addition to this, there is “Chusenza” outside. One can see the process of how to make coins from copper. Also, one can look at tools used in the Ashio copper mines and materials in that museum.

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It takes customers to the Mine Tunnel by tram / Welcome to the “Ashio Dozan Kanko”

Uchimura’s career as a journalist was cut short as well, largely due to his pacifist views and vocal opposition against the Russo-Japanese War in his newspaper columns, which came into conflict with the paper’s official editorial views. He started publishing and selling his own monthly magazine, Tokyo Zasshi (Tokyo Journal) and later Seisho no Kenkyu (Biblical Study), and supported himself by addressing weekly audiences of 500–1000 people in downtown Tokyo in lectures on the Bible. His followers came to share Uchimura’s attitude that an organized church was actually a hindrance to the Christian faith, and Christian sacraments, such as baptism and communion, are not essential to salvation. Uchimura named his Christian position as “Mukyokai” or Nonchurch Movement. Uchimura’s movement attracted many students in Tokyo who later became influential figures in academia, industry, and literature. His “prophetic” views on religion, science, politics, and social issues became influential beyond his small group of followers.

His writings in English include: Japan and the Japanese (1894) and How I became a Christian (1895), and reflect his struggle to develop a Japanese form of Christianity. In his lifetime, Uchimura became famous overseas. His major English-language works were translated into numerous languages. After his death, however, Uchimura’s reputation grew more, as his followers produced an enormous amount of literature.

 References

  • Caldarola, Carlo, Christianity, The Japanese Way (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1979).
  • Howes, John F., Japan’s Modern Prophet: Uchimura Kanzo, 1861–1930 (UBC Press; New Edition, 2006), ISBN 0774811463.
  • Atsuhiro Asano, “Uchimura and the Bible in Japan,” in Michael Lieb, Emma Mason and Jonathan Roberts (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible (Oxford, OUP, 2011), 323-339.

 

 

Ugaki Kazushige (1868-1956)

 

Ugaki, Kazushige
(1868-1956)

 

  • Photo no.1 : Shinpen Zatsuwa
  • b&w ; 12.5×9.0 cm

 

  • Photo no.2 : Hamaguchi Naikaku
  • b&w ; 11.3×8.2 cm
Military officer and statesman. Born in Okayama. Although he had been a substitute teacher at an elementary school, he came to Tokyo wanting to become a military man. He graduated from the Military Academy and the Army War College. Ugaki became the Vice War Minister in 1923. In 1924, he was appointed War Minister in the Kiyoura cabinet, and held that post through the first Wakatsuki cabinet and the first and second Kato cabinets. While in the post, he succeeded in reducing arms in 1925. He was re-elected as War Minister in the Hamaguchi cabinet in 1929, but resigned from the post for his involvement in the March Incident in 1931. Ugaki then made a fresh start as Governor-General of Korea. He was requested to form a cabinet in 1937, but gave up the idea because of opposition from the army. In 1938, he was installed as Foreign Minister and Minister of Colonial Department in the first Konoe cabinet. He made efforts to establish peace against China. In 1953, he was elected as a member of the House of Councilors.

 

Title:

Kazushige Ugaki

Caption:

Kazushige Ugaki (1868-1956) japanese general,governor general of Korea, c. 1920. (Photo by APIC/Getty Images)

Date created:

01 Jan 1920

 

 

Umeda Unpin (1815-1859)

 

Japanese hangin scroll by Umeda Unpin

 

 

 

 

 

Born in Obama, Fukui, the son of a samurai of the Obama Clan. He entered the clan-built school, Junzokan, where he learned kimongaku. He also studied in Kyoto and Edo. At age 26 or 27, he adopted his grandfather’s real family name of Umeda. Later he opened his own private school, Konanjuku, in Otsu and became the chief lecturer of Bonanken in Kyoto. He sent a memorandum concerning naval defenses to the clan, but it incurred the displeasure of the lord Tadayoshi Sakai and he was expelled from the clan in 1852. After the arrival of the black ships of Commodore Perry, he became a central figure in sonno joi group (supporters of the doctrine of revering the emperor and expelling the barbarians) and tried to prevent the signing of the United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, gain support for Yoshinobu Hitotsubashi and exclude tairo (chief minister) Naosuke Ii. When the Ansei Purge began, he was captured and died from illness while being examined

 

UNIDENTIFIED LEADER

 

Uchara Yusaku(1856-1933)

No info

 

Uemura Masahisa(858-1925)

No info

 THE END @COPYRIGHT 2O012

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I have just found a biggest collections of old newspaper and magazine with very interesting info and illustration.

I have compile and save in digital CD-ROM.

I hope if somenone interersting with this amizing collections in CD-ROM ,please contact me via comment

Jakarta march 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Please lookthe several sample below.

 

Anarcoefemèrides de l’1 de desembre

Esdeveniments

– Surt La Cuña: L’1 de desembre de 1898 surt a Sabadell (Vallès Occidental, Catalunya) el primer número de la publicació sindicalista anarquista La Cuña. Periódico mensual órgano de los obreros carpinteros. Surt The Wedge: L’1, 1898, desembre surt Sabadell (Vallès Occidental, Catalonia) the first issue of the anarchist union publicació The Wedge. Monthly newspaper organ of the workers carpenters. Subtítol tard month carries the “defender of the newspaper industry workers of Woodworking in Spain» i the Redacció canvià of llocs (Tarragona, Barcelona, Badalona, Sant Marti Provençals, Reus i Saragossa) on radiqués Segons Committee of the Federation d ‘Develop Obrers whip the Ram d’Espanya. Els Porta Lemes: “Work. Solidarity. Federation “i” Union is strength. “Faces that will be a monthly publicació, irregular força Sorti so i pulled two thousand exemplars uns. Manuel Trobem Alvedro articles, Argiluga, J. Ballbé, Bartrina Thomas, J. Betsellà, R. Blanco, José Borrás, Calvo, Angel Capdevila, R. Moreno Castilla, José Chueca, Eladio Díez, José Dopico, Miguel Feliu, Forta-Mondo, Argilaga Jose Garcia, Jose Garcia Garcia, Eduardo G. Gilimón, F. Grace Belenguer, Fulgencio Lopez, Anselmo Lorenzo, Lords Marcial, Juan López Martí, J. Monfort, Joaquin Navarro, T. Osácar, Paradell, R. of Pasanis, Antoni Paraire Pellicer, M. Pascual, F. Pi and Arsuega, J. Prats, Acracio Progress, Baldomero Remolins Cors, J. Soronellas Artigas, J. Thous Puey, Jose Vela, J. Vinardell, etc. In sortiren 138 numbers, l’1, l’Ultim febrer, 1913

 

the end @ copyrigh

Surt Le Naturien: L’1 de març de 1898 surt a París (França) el primer número del periòdic mensual Le Naturien. Revendiquant l’indépendance absolue par le retour à la nature (et non à l’état primitif). L’administrador en va ser Honoré Bigot i el gerent Gustave Mayence, i els principals col·laboradors Émile Gravelle i Henri Zisly, a més de J. Barian, Beaulieu, Honoré Bigot, H. de la Blanchere, Fouques, Alfred Marne, J. Moris, Spirus-Gay, entre d’altres. El periòdic tenia distribució a Bordeux, Dijon, La Havre, Llemotges, Marsella, Montpeller, Roubaix, Saint-Nazaire, Toló i Tours. Només en sortiren quatre números, l’últim de l’1 de juny, ja que es va fusionar amb La Nouvelle Humanité.

***

Fàbrica ocupada a Torí (1920)

– Ocupació de fàbriques: L’1 de març de 1920 a Milà (Llombardia, Itàlia),

t 2012

The India Legend On Art Work collections

The Legend Of Nale Damayanti

Damayanti with Swan

Nala was the ruler of Nishada. Nala pined for Damayanti the daughter of the King of Vidarbh, with Nala fell in love with her without seeing her.He spent long hours in the garden of his palace dreaming about her. A group of swans lived in the lakes in the garden. They daily observed the despondent king wasting his time. One day the leader of the swans approached the king and asked him what the matter was. The king informed the swan that he was in love with Damayanti but was unable to press his suit. He did not even know if Damayanti was in love with someone else. Custom prevented him from going to Vidarbh himself and this was too delicate a mission to entrust to someone else. “If you think fit I can deliver your message,” said the swan. Nala lighted up. At last there was an end to his immediate problems. And there could be no more romantic way to woo a maiden. That night the swan left for Vidarbh. This painting shows the Swan conveying Nala’s love to Damayanti.

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

 

 

Shakuntala with her sakhis.

Shakuntala was born of the sage Vishwamitra and the Apsara Menaka. Menaka had come at the behest of the King of the Gods, Indra, to distract the great sage Vishwamitra from his deep meditations. She succeeded, and bore a child by him. Menaka left the newborn Shakuntala in the forest. It was here that the new born child was found by Kanva Rishi surrounded by birds. He thus named her Shakuntala. Kanva Rishi took the child to his ashram, which was known as “Kanva Ashram” on the banks of the Malini River which rises in the Shivalik hills of Himalayas. Shakuntala is with her friends Priyamvada and Anasuya. This is where Shakuntala grew up, to become a lovely maiden and lived a happy life among friends, under the loving care of Gautami and Kanva, and loving the flowers and trees and animals of the forests and her playmates in the ashram. Acrylic on Silk, 24″/36″, Teakwood Frame.

 

 

 

Damayanti with Swan.

Nala was the ruler of Nishada. Nala pined for Damayanti the daughter of the King of Vidarbh, with Nala fell in love with her without seeing her.He spent long hours in the garden of his palace dreaming about her. A group of swans lived in the lakes in the garden. They daily observed the despondent king wasting his time. One day the leader of the swans approached the king and asked him what the matter was. The king informed the swan that he was in love with Damayanti but was unable to press his suit. He did not even know if Damayanti was in love with someone else. Custom prevented him from going to Vidarbh himself and this was too delicate a mission to entrust to someone else. “If you think fit I can deliver your message,” said the swan. Nala lighted up. And there could be no more romantic way to woo a maiden. That night the swan left for Vidarbh. This painting shows the Swan conveying Nala’s love to Damayanti. Acrylic on Silk, 24″/30″, Teakwood Frame.

 

 

 

 Kadambari.

Kadambari is the central character of a romantic novel in the Sanskrit language, which B?nabhatta wrote in the seventh century. The king of a race of demigods had a daughter named Kadambari. The story is about Kadambari and her friend Mahasweta, and their lovers

The Nala-Damayanti Katha in Vyasa’s Mahabharata

 
 
 
 Those who have kept track of Writers Workshop’s effort at serving up theMahabharata in small doses to the extremely busy twenty-first century reader through the remarkable Kathaseries will be pleased to know that the latest addition, the eighth, the Nala-Damayanti Katha, is now available. Like the earlier books it is a reproduction of the Nala-Damayanti episode in the Vana Parva of Prof. P.Lal’s magnum opus, the shloka-by-shloka transcreation of theMahabharata. And, as with the earlier books, the two very compelling features of this work are the exquisite transcreation of Prof. P.Lal in free-flowing English verse and the splendid introduction by Dr. Prema Nandakumar. The Nala-Damayanti episode is a curious tale in many ways. It is the entire Kuru-Pandava story in miniature with Nala, the king of the Nishadhas, playing the Pandavas. He is a great king, very fond like Yudhishthira of playing dice and, like him, not too good at it. He wins Damayanti in the svayamvaracongregation as the Pandavas do Draupadi. The description of the two ladies, the ‘lovely-waisted Damayanti’ and the ‘slim-waisted Draupadi’ is almost the same: Damayanti achieved world-wide fame‘for her incandescent beauty, grace,
virtue and excellence’
She was faultless-featured;
‘with her ornaments she dazzled
like lightening in the sky.
A lady of impossible beauty!
Like large-eyed Sri-Lakshmi!
None among the gods or yakshas
could equal her.
None among humans or others
Ever possessed such beauty:
She soothed the eyes,
She was lovelier than a goddess.’
 (III.53.10-14, Nala-Damayanti Katha)And, ‘auspicious, eye-ravishing, large-black-eyed Panchali rose from the yajna altar,Dark-skinned Panchali
Lotus-eyed lady,wavy-haired Panchali,
Hair like dark blue clouds,
Shining coppery carved nails,
Soft eye-lashes,
Swelling breasts
Shapely thighs.
A girl like goddess
born to humans. 
‘There was none on earth
to match her loveliness.
Gods, anti-gods, and yakshas
yearned for such celestial beauty.’ 
(169:45-47, Adi Parva, Mahabharata)

Both were equally beautiful except that Draupadi was ‘dark-sinned’ and Damayanti was perhaps very fair because interestingly, she has been compared to lightening twice, one in this passage and again at the time of her entry into the city of Subahu ‘ ‘you dazzle like lightening in the midst of clouds’. 

Then the dice game. Both Nala and Yudhishthira play the game and lose everything. Why do they play the game? Why indeed do they feel honor-bound and compelled to play? And that too when, being well-educated, they are surely aware of scriptural injunctions against gambling. The Aksha Sukta a rare secular sukta of the Rigveda condemns the game of dice,

Akshairma divyah krishimit krishasva vitte ramasya vahumanyamanah
Tatra gavah kitaba tatra jaya tanme vi chashte Savitayamarshah
‘ (10:34:13) 
(‘Play not with dice, but cultivate thy cornfield; Rejoice in thy goods and fame gained from cultivation, deeming them abundant. From there you will get thy cows and thy wife, O gambler. This counsel Savita gives me.’)

In spite of such injunctions they resort to some na’ve argument of compulsion of honor, and play. Yudhishthira ignored the fact that there could be no honor in deeds not sanctioned by the Vedas. He knew that it was wrong to play dice yet he says, ‘If he challenges me, I will accept the challenge. I have firmly vowed this.’ And then he says, ‘Like flashing flames blinding the eyes, fate blinds clear thinking.’ Again, before the second dice game he says, ‘The old monarch commands me to play dice again. I know it means my doom. But I cannot refuse.’ Once more, the question of the Kshatriya honor. On this Vaishampayana comments, ‘When doom is imminent, thinking gets blurred.’ (Sabha Parva). This then was Yudhishthira’s compulsion’ if challenged it was his vow never to refuse. 

But what were Nala’s compulsions? Nothing much really. When Pushkara ‘insistently kept inviting him to a dice-game, the maha-minded raja could not refuse.’ So, ‘obsessed, he could think only of the dice-game’ and ‘Damayanti saw the fulsomely-famed, noble-minded king obsessed with gambling, and seemingly bereft of his reason.’ He too, like Yudhishthira, lost all and went on exile to the forest. In Yudhishthira’s case there was some justification, though fairly vague, that he was one of the chief protagonists of the power struggle of the time and he had to contend with a very strong opposition. He might have considered the dice game to be an acceptable alternative and might have thought of taking this shortcut to success, like most gamblers. Militarily he had no chance as all the kings conquered by him during the Rajasuya sacrifice were on the side of the Kauravas, as he himself admits in the Vana Parva during a conversation with Draupadi and Bhima. He must have had, at that time, supreme confidence in his own dice-playing abilities. But Nala was not under any such duress. There was no power-struggle, no political necessity ‘Pushkara was not a claimant to the throne’and peace and prosperity reigned everywhere. It was just a gambler’s urge that made Nala play. But in Nala’s case there was also supernatural intervention. Three deadly factors combined against him: an evil god (Kali) possessed him, an evil time (Kali yuga) and the worst throw of dice (the four yugas are named after the four throws of dice, Krita, Trita, Dvitaand Kali of which Krita is the best throw and Kali the worst). No such power was operating on Yudhishthira; he played of his own volition. However, both committed political hara-kiri on the dice-board. 

Dice were usually made of vibhitaka nuts. In the Virata Parva Yudhishthira carries “black and red dice made of gold inset with sapphires and beautiful ivory pawns of blue, yellow, red and white by hue.” In the Nala-Pushkara game, “Kali transformed himself into the principal dice to be cast at the game.” In the Yudhishthira-Shakuni game, Vyasa merely speaks of Shakuni, a supremely skilled player and Dvapara-incarnate, cheating in the dice-throw.

There is an interesting point about the dices used in the game of the two kings. Even though Kali had earlier asked his friend Dvapara to enter the dice, during the actual game ‘Kali transformed himself into the principal dice to be cast at the game.’ So the dice here was cleverly doctored. A similar charge of doctoring the dice in the Yudhishthira game too has been raised by Parashuram, the well-known satirist of Bengali literature, in his story, ‘The Third Dice-game’ (translated into English by Dr. Pradip Bhattacharya) – Shakuni hid a beetle inside his dice. So, in whichever way one threw the dice it would always fall the right-side up due to the obstinate beetle inside which ‘being of extremely intractable nature could not be overturned or turned on its side.’ The concept of doctored or enchanted dice made of the bones of Shakuni’s father is a later vernacular addition. However, cutting out all the frills of Kali and the beetle, there is no doubt that both Nala and Yudhishthira were cast against much stronger adversaries and were soundly thrashed. The only thing that can be said for Nala, if that is any consolation, is that he was a much better player than Yudhishthira since he could continue playing for months whereas Yudhishthira lasted not even a day’ and he played twice in that single day. 

The Nala story reflects most of the important events of the Pandava story in some way or the other. The Draupadi-vastraharana episode is considered to be an interpolation by some. If so, Vyasa would not have written about the birds flying away with Nala’s cloth, his cutting Damayanti’s cloth in two with the magically appearing sword and disappearing, leaving her wearing just half of it. The similarity between the two stories indicates that both are integral to the original, though some details may have been interpolated.

Both the kings went to the forest thereafter with their wives. Like the thirteenth year of the Pandavas, Nala spent the last period of his exile incognito in the court of Rituparna as his charioteer. Like Yudhishthira he also obtained the Aksha-hridaya, expert knowledge of the game of dice. Damayanti too spent some time with the princess of Chedi, Sunanda, in the kingdom of Subahu as Sairindhri, just as Draupadi spent the last year of exile with Sudeshna, the Virata queen, disguised as Sairindhri. Both of them put up the same terms as conditions of their service. Prema Nandakumar has very perceptively pointed out in her introduction that this story ‘also gave insights to the Pandavas and Draupadi when they wished to disguise themselves and live in an alien land for one whole year.’ Yudhishthira became Kanka, a companion to the king who would play dice with him (in which he had already become an expert like Nala by learning Aksha-hridaya from sage Brihadashva); Bhima became Ballabha, the cook (an expert chef like Nala who got his expertise in cooking from Yama-Dharma during the svayamvara congregation); Arjuna became Brihannala, transforming himself into a transvestite using the curse of Urvashi just as Nala’s appearance was changed by Karkotaka’s bite; Nakula became Granthika, the expert in horses like Nala; and Sahadeva took the name, Arishtanemi, the keeper of cattle, the sole exception who did not take a pointer from the story of Nala. Nandakumar gives a reason: ‘The youngest brother, wise, intelligent and an unequal devotee of Krishna, it was natural for him to become the guardian of the cow.’ However, there is no evidence of Sahadeva’s unequalled Krishan-bhakti in Vyasa. The remark is based on Villi’s Tamil version of the epic where Sahadeva is so depicted.

Brihadashva was a wise old seer. He had seen the world. Not for nothing he chose this tale to console Yudhishthira in an effort to draw him out of his massive self-pity. This story, while it provided some succor to Yudhishthira, was also an indictment. Yudhishthira, in his blind headlong plunge into self-destruction, not only staked himself and his brothers but also Draupadi. Was this shameful act in consonance with his much vaunted idea of Kshatriya ‘honor’? Nandakumar writes, ‘Not all tomes expounding the significance of the term ‘honor-bound’ can wipe away their shame of considering one’s wife as disposable chattel!’ Even if we accept Yudhishthira’s argument of Kshatriya– dharma, his action of staking Draupadi can never be a part of that dharma. It merely exposes the extent to which he had fallen at that moment of madness, the depths of his frightening and compulsive addiction. Nala, on the other hand, knew his limits. When he heard Pushkara say, ‘How about staking Damayanti?’ his heart broke. He looked painfully at Pushkara, took off all his ornaments and left silently, wearing a single piece of cloth, with Damayanti. And in that moment of silence, Brihadashva placed the Dharmaraja squarely in the dock in utter condemnation. He showed him that even a king of Nishadhas, a tribal king, can rise above a Kshatriya king who is none other than the son of Dharma. 

But then the story does not exculpate Nala completely. He too on his part has failed Damayanti. He left her to fend for herself in the wilderness on the flimsy ground,

‘if I leave her she will probably go to her parents’
If she remains with me 
she will suffer more;
if I leave her, it is possible
she will find some happiness’

He never paused to think that even if Damayanti decided to go to her parents, how she was going to find her way through this perilous forest infested with wild creatures and men of evil temperament. It was surely a childish and irresponsible decision which ultimately caused Damayanti untold misery. And in the final moment of truth, Nala too falls prey to the folly of Yudhishthira: he stakes Damayanti in the final game of dice with Pushkara. Granted that by this time he was the master of the Aksha-hridaya and he knew that he would never lose, but it was a principle that was compromised by that deed. The knowledge of Aksha-hridaya gave him supreme confidence, in fact, it made him vain, but it also clouded his sense of values. Even if you are one hundred per cent sure, you do not use your wife as stake in gambling. If Brihadashva was trying to pass a message of this kind indirectly to Yudhishthira to begin with, he failed by narrating this last game of dice in which Nala was guilty of the same offence as Yudhishthira. Well, every cloud has a silver lining. Perhaps it was due to this part of the story that we do not see another command performance by Yudhishthira in the Mahabharata on the dice board, even though, like Nala, he too at that time was armed with the Aksha-hridaya and had every reason to feel confident enough to take on Shakuni. Perhaps that was the objective of that wise man, Brihadashva: Yudhishthira must learn about the pitfalls that arrogance of learning holds. We have seen that Yudhishthira did learn his lesson well.

In fact, the entire Vana Parva contains the progress of Yudhishthira’s education. He had two big problems. He had to be first helped to get over his gigantic self-pity. Secondly, he had to be trained to become a king ‘ a kind of advanced course in administration that included acquiring administrative skills and power in the form of weaponry and political alliances. At the time of the dice game, he was young, inexperienced and had no political ally except Krishna and the Panchalas. The kings they defeated during the Rajasuya yajna, were naturally not friendly. His was a new kingdom, yet to find its political and diplomatic feet and all the alliances were with the established Hastinapur kingdom which was inimical to him. At this juncture he was exiled before he could organize himself politically. In addition to this predicament, he fell into a bitter depression and wallowed in self-pity, a luxury that he could ill-afford. So the benevolent forces more or less combined together and got busy in reconstructing Yudhishthira. Shiva, Indra and other gods gave Arjuna many weapons. The sages, the seers, conducted a severe regimen of education, one after the other. Vyasa came and gave him the Pratismriti spell. Shaunaka, Dhaumya, Markandeya, Baka, Brihadashva and Lomasha continued his education through a series of kathas and didactic discourses. Ajagara-Nahusha had a fruitful didactic discussion with him. He learnt about environmental balance through the deer who appeared in his dream. And finally, as an end-of-course examination, he had the famous encounter with the Baka-Yaksha-Dharma. With this encounter in the last chapter of Vana Parva, Yudhishthira’s education was complete. 

The problem of his self-indulgence was also handled in the process. First, Shaunaka advises him how to handle grief, fear and greed. He was the one who advised him on Nishkama Karma, much before Krishna recited the Gita to Arjuna. Apparently, he was not convinced. He seemed to be fairly desperate when confronted by Draupadi and Bhima. So, when Brihadashva came the first question he asked was, ‘Is there any raja on earth more miserable than me? Have you heard of one, seen one? I can think of none.’ Brihadashva’s was swift in administering a rather severe reprimand, ‘There was a raja on this earth who suffered more than you’In the forest, O raja, Nala had neither servants nor chariots; he had no brother and no friends to console him. But you have heroic brothers, equal to gods, and the best of Brahmins, equal to Brahma. You should not be sad.’ Then he launched into the narration of the Nala-Damayanti tale. Whether the story had any effect on him or not is not clear, but one thing is absolutely clear ‘ it made no dent in his impregnable self-pity. We find him carrying this burden till almost the end of Vana Parva and asking Markandeya after the Jayadratha episode, ‘Is there anyone in the world as unfortunate as I am? Have you heard of such a man? Have you seen one?’ Markandeya said Rama was such a king and began the narration of the Ramayana. After completing the story, he said, ‘This was how’Rama’endured such agonizing exile’O foe-tormentor, why do you grieve? You have supporters who can vanquish the thunder-wielder-Indra and the Maruts’Rama without such help, killed the ten-necked rakshasa of tremendous valor and rescued Vaidehi Sita. Rama’s only allies were black-faced bears and beast-like tree-men’do not grieve’mahatmas like you must never despair.’ After this tale, we find a dent in Yudhishthira’s self-pity and see him looking around and becoming conscious about the problems of others, especially of his wife. So he asks Markandeya, ‘Maha-muni, I am not sorry (?) for myself’I feel sorry for Draupadi’Have you ever heard of a woman as maha-fortune-favored and husband-devoted as Draupadi? Have you seen one?’ So, this brings forth the story of Savitri-Satyavan from Markandeya. With Nala too the same thing happened. He too wallowed in self-pity during exile for deserting Damayanti, reciting a shloka every evening lamenting her fate. He too acquired power in the form of Aksha-hridaya from King Rituparna with which he would be able to handle Pushkara. 

The Nala-Damayanti tale is a romantic story ‘ the story of immortal love between a love-struck husband and his wife, steadfast in her love for her husband. They fall in love when they had not even seen each other through the intervention of the divine postman, the golden swan. Thereafter it continues unswervingly through a myriad trials and tribulations till it reaches a happy conclusion. There is certain softness in the treatment of the character of Damayanti which sets her apart from Draupadi. She gives an impression of being like a creeper that is entirely and unconditionally dependant on the Nala-tree. She has a different, a stronger facet but, first and foremost, she is the beloved of Nala and is head over heels in love with Nala. She never complains when Nala deserts her except once during her helpless wanderings in the wilderness and is always worried about his well-being because she believes that a man is the happiest when he is with his wife, ‘What medicine is there for misery more healing than a wife?’ she asks Nala. In the most heart-rending scene in the forest, which is very unlike Vyasa, she runs from tree to tree and asks them about her Nala. It reminds one of Rama doing the same thing after Sita’s abduction. This kind of treatment of a female character persuaded Sri Aurobindo to comment that Nala-Damayanti is the creation of a young Vyasa when he was still under Valmiki’s influence. In the core Mahabharata, Vyasa is the stern and high epic poet. Perhaps that is why we do not see another instance of possession after Nala’s by Kali except when king Kalmashpada is possessed by a demon sent by Vishvamitra.

But then, Damayanti after all is a Vyasan character. It cannot be all milk and honey. The spark of fire, the strength of the obelisk must be there somewhere, lying dormant. She is intelligent and fearless. That strength peeps through the veneer of soft romance time and again. The first time we see this strength is when Nala meets her for the first time, not on his own behalf but on behalf of the gods. Nala tries to persuade her to choose a god as he is scared for his life. But Damayanti puts her foot down and says, ‘I would like all the gods to come with you to mysvayamvara. Nishada king, at that time I will choose you for my husband. O maha-muscled one, I do not see anything wrong in this.’ End of conversation. A princess has decided to exercise her rights as a bride going to svayamvara even against the opinion of her beloved whom she has met for the first time. She handles the gods who presented themselves like Nala in the assembly very cleverly and with ‘lan, throwing the ball into their court: ‘And she decided finally to seek help from the gods themselves’ saying, ‘The gods were the ones who settled that he be my husband. That is the truth; therefore, O gods, point him out to me.’ This capacity of thinking on her feet, shows her to be an intelligent and creative woman with an extraordinary personality. A strong woman who would refuse even gods for her beloved even though he has established himself to be slightly wanting in matters of love and intelligence. Later, when she saw that Nala was losing badly in the dice-game, once again she gave proof of her foresight and decision-making by deciding to send the children to her father’s place. By burning the Vyadha in the forest for making lewd advances, she made it clear that she was not one to be trifled with. Her conditions of service placed before the Rajmata at Chedi displayed her self-respect, personality and strength of character. Her proactive nature comes out very strongly when we see her sending out messengers to search for Nala, playing the ruse of the second svayamvara as a means of bringing Nala to her, in establishing his identity and meeting him in person when he did not look at all like the Nala she knew. Through all this, Nala did nothing except to sigh and lament. I think in his eagerness in portraying Damayanti in brilliant light, Vyasa painted Nala as more daft than necessary. 

But Damayanti, though strong, cannot be compared fairly with Draupadi. It is a matter of scale. If Damayanti is an unswerving bright lamp, Draupadi is a conflagration, proud flames rising from the sacrificial altar. From the time she, born of fire, appears in the epic she blazes through the rest of the story as the cause celebre of the destruction of the Kaurava clan. Damayanti is the heroine of a small tale, the product of a young and romantic mind but Draupadi is an epic heroine, conceived by a matured mind that is honed by experience and refined by the fire of ascesis, described by Sri Aurobindo as ‘the pale and marble rishi, the austere philosopher, the great statesman, the strong and stern poet of war and empire’ Damayanti’s tragic moments are underlined deliberately whereas Draupadi’s moments of pathos, her softer moments, are overwhelmed by her tremendous personality, her pride, passion and unforgiving temper.

This is perhaps the reason that persuaded Sri Aurobindo, who, unlike many, was convinced that ‘These poems (Nala and Savittrie) are very Vyasa’, to write, ‘Here we have the very morning of Vyasa’s genius, when he was young and ardent, perhaps still under the immediate influence of Valmekie (one of the most pathetic touches in the Nala is borrowed straight out of the Ramayana {Sri Aurobindo is probably referring to the scene where Damayanti, like Rama, is asking the trees the whereabouts of Nala}: at any rate without ceasing to be finely restrained to give some rein to his fancy. The Nala therefore has the delicate & unusual romantic grace of a romantic and severe classic who has permitted himself to go-a-maying in the field of romance. There is a remote charm of restraint in the midst of abandon, of vigilance in the play of fancy which is passing sweet and strange.’ 

Therefore being young and ‘with Valmekie’s mighty stanzas in his mind’ he created a fairy tale ambience in the Nala story with people having lots of magical powers thrown in. So, we have golden swans talking in a human voice, talking birds fleeing with clothes, a sword appearing from nowhere with which Nala would cut the cloth, burning of the hunter, Karkotaka Naga changing his size at will, hermitage appearing and disappearing, Nala’s magical powers over nature as a result of the gods’ boons, Rituparna’s ability to count leaves, etc. A lot of shape-shifting is also going on, like, the gods take on Nala’s form, Karkotaka becomes small and large, Nala, a handsome man, becomes ugly with Karkotaka’s bite and regains his original form later, Kali becomes the dice, etc. In the main tale of the Mahabharata, obviously a much later work, we see much restraint in Vyasa; here he has become the stern and high poet of the epic. He still loves the wonderful and the strange, but the touches of wonder and strangeness here are fleeting, ‘gone as soon as glimpsed’. So this weakness, coming down from the younger days still exists but severely ‘bitted and reined in.’ In any case, a romantic tale, severely influenced by Valmiki, ornamented with Valmikian frills and infested with fairy tales and magic, does surprise us. 

Prof. Lal has captured the typical Nala-Damayanti ambience, most unusual for a Vyasan creation, admirably in his transcreation of the tale in free-flowing English verse, his hall-mark. But that is only expected. The text therefore does not require any comment, neither do the readers need any encouraging nudge from a review. One has to merely catch hold of a copy, sit back and enjoy some brilliant poetry describing one lovely story from Indian mythology without getting hindered by any intellectual road-block. To quote one remarkable passage, Damayanti imploring the gods,

‘And, trembling with fear, in pranjali, said:
‘The words of the swans
made me choose the prince of the Nishadhas
as my husband.
In speech and in thought,
I am devoted to him.
That is the truth; therefore, O gods,
point him out to me.
The gods were the ones who settled
that he be my husband.
That is the truth; therefore, O gods, 
point him out to me.
I have already commenced 
my total dedication to Nala. 
That is the truth; therefore, O gods,
point him out to me.’

There are of course some minor mistakes that have crept in. Like, why at one place, he keeps referring to Nala as Varshneya is not very clear. Nala’s father is Virasena and Varshneya is the name of Nala’s charioteer. It must be an oversight. 

Besides Prof. Lal’s transcreation which, according to Dr. Prema Nandakumar, is in ‘bracing, easy-to-read, delightful English of our century’s Vyasa,’ the other asset of the book is the excellent introduction by her. She has described the tale, nicely bringing out the commonalities between the stories of Nala and Yudhishthira and also discussing how the Nala story is an indictment of Yudhishthira. She goes on to discuss some of the major Sanskrit, Malayalam, Tamil, Telegu and English versions of the Nala legend (Sriharsha’sNaishadhacharitam, (also known as Naiadhiyacarita, or Naiadha,) Kshemeswara’sNaishadhananda, Trivikram Bhatta’s Nala Champu, Unnayi Warrier’s Nalacharitram, Nallan Chakravarthy Sadagopacharya’s Bhaimi Svayamvaram, Ramaraja Bhushana’sHarishchandra-Nalopakhyanam, Ativeera Rama Pandyan’s Naidadham, Pugazhendi’sNalavenpa, Sri Aurobindo’s The Tale of Nala and K.R. Srinivasa iyenger’s Sati Sapthakam) and a very informative discussion on why Nala was one of the very few persons for whom Vyasa has used the epithet, punyashloka. In the process we get a glimpse of how these legends get enmeshed in the psyche of our society. The introduction is not only pleasant-reading but extremely enriching. However, it is not understood why she has translated ‘Kali’ as shani, Saturn, in the beginning of the essay. We find this Kali-Shani equation in the later parts of the essay too. In a personal communication she has explained, ‘I had this doubt, but could get no clarification. Hence I have given some details about the Tirunallaru temple where Saturn is worshipped, equated with Kali and the pond there is supposed to have cleared Nala of Kali-dosha.’

While talking of vernacular versions of the legend, I must mention that as in South India, the Nala-Damayanti story is quite popular in Bengal too. It is a part of the folk consciousness and there are many versions of the story based on which yatras are performed even today in rural Bengal. But I was quite surprised to find that there is no composition by any major litterateur of Bengal on this subject. If such a composition exists it has escaped my attention. Only Dinesh Chandra Sen, the famous historian of Bengali literature, mentions a few works: Loknath Datta’s Naishadh (1768 AD) describing the story of Nala, Ramayana and Indradyumna in 1440 verses, Sri Majhi Kait’s Naishadh (1147 BS) and Madhusudan Napit’s Nala-Damayanti(1809 AD) in 2124 verses (Dinesh Chandra Sen, Bangabhasha O Sahitya, Gurudas Chattopadhyaya & Sons, Kolkata, 7th ed. (first edition 1896)). It is interesting to note that Abul Faizi wrote a Persian version of the story at the instance of Akbar, the great, entitled Kisseh-ishq-i-Nal va Daman.

 

 

 

 

 

 Pundarika and Chandrapida. This painting shows Kadambari playing the Sitar. Vegetable Dyes on Silk, 24″/30″, Teakwood Frame.

 

 

livin sculpture and princess


watercolor 10×11″

Ottanthullal- a dance of kerala


13.5×14 watercolor on febriyano

Kathiruppu (Sold)


Watercolor

തോണി


A Fishing methode.Watercolor

Kathiruppu


Watercolor 12×14″

In a village


Watercolor 10×11″ handmade

Parampil


Water color 10×11″

Chungam Alappuzha


Watercolor.Handmade.Old work

waiting for krishna-water-acrylic

My New Painting-Acrylic


Rajasringaram

Yekshimol(witch-lusty)


Water color

 

 

 

 

 

Sita and the golden deer.

The demon Mareecha took the form of a golden deer and attracted Sita’s attention and drew away Rama and Laxmana from her side. This allows Ravana, the King of Lanka to kidnap Sita, disguising himself as a brahmana mendicant while her husband was away fetching the magnificent golden deer. Acrylic on Silk. 24″/36″, Teakwood frame.

 

 

 

Lady at a ball game

This sensuous painting of Raja Ravi Varma shows a lady playing with a ball while her sari unravels. This painting is naughty, bold, and graceful at the same time. This paintings uses acrylic on silk, which is mounted on a tussar silk fabric in typical Orissan design.

 

 

 

 

 

Damayanti with Swan

Nala was the ruler of Nishada. Nala pined for Damayanti the daughter of the King of Vidarbh, with Nala fell in love with her without seeing her.He spent long hours in the garden of his palace dreaming about her. A group of swans lived in the lakes in the garden. They daily observed the despondent king wasting his time. One day the leader of the swans approached the king and asked him what the matter was. The king informed the swan that he was in love with Damayanti but was unable to press his suit. He did not even know if Damayanti was in love with someone else. Custom prevented him from going to Vidarbh himself and this was too delicate a mission to entrust to someone else. “If you think fit I can deliver your message,” said the swan. Nala lighted up. At last there was an end to his immediate problems. And there could be no more romantic way to woo a maiden. That night the swan left for Vidarbh. This painting shows the Swan conveying Nala’s love to Damayanti.

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

 

 

 

 

 

Lord Rama meeting Sita

This painting is based on the theme from the Indian epic Ramayana. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. When Sita was of marriageable age, her father King Janaka decided to have a “Swayamvara” which included a contest. The king was in possession of an immensely heavy bow, presented to him by the god Shiva; whoever could wield the bow could marry Sita. The sage Vishwamitra attends the Swayamvara with Rama and Lakshmana. Only Rama could wield the bow and breaks it. Marriages are arranged between Rama and Sita as well as other sons of Dasharatha and daughters and nieces of Janaka.  This painting portrays the memorable scene where Rama, the King of Ayodhya sees Sita, his consort for the first time before the Swayamvara in a garden.

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

 

 

 

 

 

Taradevi

This painting is of Taradevi, which is another name of Goddess Saraswati.  In this painting, Goddess Saraswati is playing the Veena on a boat.

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

 

 

 

 

 

Mohini on a Swing

Mohini , is the name of the only female avatar of the god Vishnu. She is portrayed as a femme fatale, an enchantress, who maddens lovers, sometimes leading them to their doom. Mohini is introduced into Hindu mythology in the narrative epic of the Mahabharata. Here, she appears as a form of Vishnu, acquires the pot of Amrita (an elixir of immortality) from thieving asuras (demons), and gives it back to the Devas (demi-gods), helping them retain their immortality. The earliest reference to a Mohini-type goddess appears in the Samudra manthan or Churning of the Oceans. The Amrita, or nectar of immortality, is produced by the churning of the Ocean of Milk. The Devas and the Asuras fight over its possession. The Asuras contrive to keep the Amrita for themselves, angering the Devas. Vishnu, wise to their plan, assumes the form of an “enchanting damsel”. Mohini uses her allure to trick the Asuras into giving her the Amrita, and then distributes it amongst the Devas.

Acrylic on Silk

 

 

 

 

 

Shakuntala

The legend of the exquisitely beautiful Shakuntala and the mighty king Dushyant is a thrilling love story from the epic Mahabharata, which the great ancient poet Kalidasa retold in his immortal play Abhijnanashakuntalam. While on a hunting trip, King Dushyant of the Puru dynasty meets the hermit-girl Shakuntala. They fall in love with each other. In this painting Shakuntala is Looking for Dushyanta. Shakuntala spent much time dreaming of her new husband and was often distracted by her daydreams. Ravi Varma, depicts Shakuntala, a prominent character of Mahabaratha, pretending to remove a thorn from her foot, while actually looking for her husband/lover, Dushyantha, while her friends call her bluff.

Acrylic on Silk

 

 

 

 

 

Dancing Apsaras

Acrylic on Wood

In another effort at fusion and adaptation, the painter has decorated a wooden screen which is used as a partition. This large work features four women dancers from the temple who are preparing for the festival of the Lord. At the centre is featured the temple with an ornate elephant. The dancers are full and buxom and the poses are adapted from the sandstone statues of apsaras sculpted in the Orissa style. One of the dancers are shown applying ‘alta’ on her feet while others are applying make-up or practicing dance.

 

 

 

Tribal Figures

Acrylic on Silk

In another effort at fusion and adaptation, the painter has decorated a silk lampshade with figures in the style of Saora tribal art. The figures are colourful and have no facial features. They feature men, women and children.

 

Saora Tribal Paintings are basically paintings made in the inner walls of their mud huts which are called ittlans. These paintings are done with the aims of preservation of good harvests, avoiding bad luck and disease and honoring the dead and the valiant. The tribals’ occupation being mainly agriculture, they tend to depict lots of natural vistas in their paintings – farming, fields and landscape form important categories of painting. However, items of the modern world, like the plane, chairs, desks, etc have also started featuring in their works. The entire process includes a prolonged procedure of invocation of the spirits in order to make their hopes and wishes work.

 

Dasa-Avatara  Panel (Ten Incarnation of Vishnu)

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

As per Hindu Mythology, Lord Vishnu is supposed to undertake ten incarnations to restore order and peace in the world, and the primacy of good over evil. Nine of the incarnations are already manifest or completed, with one to come at the end of the present “Yuga” which is the Kali Yuga (Kalki Avatar). In Patachitra tradition, in Kalki avatar Vishnu rides a horse and has a sword in hand. It is interesting to note that Lord Buddha is counted as some branches of Hindu mythology (especially the Orissa School) as an incarnation of Vishnu. This may indicate the influence of Buddhism over this part of India. This panel uses vegetable dyes on silk and is one of the painter’s first pieces and is 15 years old. Some observe that coincidentally, the sequence of the avatars match the order of evolution of life on earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dancing Apsaras

Acrylic on Wood

In another effort at fusion and adaptation, the painter has decorated a wooden screen which is used as a partition. This large work features four women dancers from the temple who are preparing for the festival of the Lord. At the centre is featured the temple with an ornate elephant. The dancers are full and buxom and the poses are adapted from the sandstone statues of apsaras sculpted in the Orissa style. One of the dancers are shown applying ‘alta’ on her feet while others are applying make-up or practicing dance.

 

 

 

Tribal Figures

Acrylic on Silk

In another effort at fusion and adaptation, the painter has decorated a silk lampshade with figures in the style of Saora tribal art. The figures are colourful and have no facial features. They feature men, women and children.

 

Saora Tribal Paintings are basically paintings made in the inner walls of their mud huts which are called ittlans. These paintings are done with the aims of preservation of good harvests, avoiding bad luck and disease and honoring the dead and the valiant. The tribals’ occupation being mainly agriculture, they tend to depict lots of natural vistas in their paintings – farming, fields and landscape form important categories of painting. However, items of the modern world, like the plane, chairs, desks, etc have also started featuring in their works. The entire process includes a prolonged procedure of invocation of the spirits in order to make their hopes and wishes work.

 

Page 5 of 12

Dasa-Avatara  Panel (Ten Incarnation of Vishnu)

Vegetable Dyes on Silk

As per Hindu Mythology, Lord Vishnu is supposed to undertake ten incarnations to restore order and peace in the world, and the primacy of good over evil. Nine of the incarnations are already manifest or completed, with one to come at the end of the present “Yuga” which is the Kali Yuga (Kalki Avatar). In Patachitra tradition, in Kalki avatar Vishnu rides a horse and has a sword in hand. It is interesting to note that Lord Buddha is counted as some branches of Hindu mythology (especially the Orissa School) as an incarnation of Vishnu. This may indicate the influence of Buddhism over this part of India. This panel uses vegetable dyes on silk and is one of the painter’s first pieces and is 15 years old. Some observe that coincidentally, the sequence of the avatars match the order of evolution of life on earth.

 “Young Krishna and friends stealing butter”

Acrylic on Silk

Lord Krishna, the son of Devaki and Vasudev, was brought up by Nandadev, a Yadav chieftain and his wife Yasodha in idyllic Vrundavan. He had a really joyful childhood, playing with his cowherd friends and getting into all kinds of mischief. One of his favourite past-times was stealing butter. This painting shows lord Krishna and his friends forming a human pyramid to reach pots of butter hung high and out of reach of the children.

 

 Pair of paintings depicting Krishna with Gopis 

 

Acrylic on Silk

This painting is part of a pair of paintings featuring Krishna in the company of Gopikas. The painter has used coloured silk cloth as the background instead of the natural silk colour, which is more commonly used. The colours used compliment the background and give the paintings a unique lustre.

“Kandarpa Hathi” or “Woman-elephant”

Acrylic on Silk

Kandarpa is another name for Kamadev, the Hindu God of Love. Themes in pata-chitras that have erotic overtones include the kandarpa ratha (Cupid-car) and the nari ashva (woman-horse) and ‘kandarpa hathi (women-elephant). In this painting, a group of gopi (cowherd) maidens form themselves into an elephant on which Krishna and his sweetheart Radha ride together. The intricate positions and level of detail make this a very interesting painting to view

 

“Young Krishna and friends stealing butter”

Acrylic on Silk

Lord Krishna, the son of Devaki and Vasudev, was brought up by Nandadev, a Yadav chieftain and his wife Yasodha in idyllic Vrundavan. He had a really joyful childhood, playing with his cowherd friends and getting into all kinds of mischief. One of his favourite past-times was stealing butter. This painting shows lord Krishna and his friends forming a human pyramid to reach pots of butter hung high and out of reach of the children.

 

 Pair of paintings depicting Krishna with Gopis 

 

Acrylic on Silk

This painting is part of a pair of paintings featuring Krishna in the company of Gopikas. The painter has used coloured silk cloth as the background instead of the natural silk colour, which is more commonly used. The colours used compliment the background and give the paintings a unique lustre.

“Kandarpa Hathi” or “Woman-elephant”

Acrylic on Silk

Kandarpa is another name for Kamadev, the Hindu God of Love. Themes in pata-chitras that have erotic overtones include the kandarpa ratha (Cupid-car) and the nari ashva (woman-horse) and ‘kandarpa hathi (women-elephant). In this painting, a group of gopi (cowherd) maidens form themselves into an elephant on which Krishna and his sweetheart Radha ride together. The intricate positions and level of detail make this a very interesting painting to view

Dasa-Avatara (Ten Incarnations of Vishnu)

Acrylic on Silk

 

This painting features Lord Vishnu as in Ananta Sayana form – reclining on Snake Ananta in a state of inactivity and bliss surrounded by his ten avatars including the one to come- Kalki. As per Hindu Mythology, Lord Vishnu is supposed to undertake ten incarnations to restore order and peace in the world, and the primacy of good over evil. Nine of the incarnations are already manifest or completed, with one to come at the end of the present “Yuga” which is the Kali Yuga. It is interesting to note that Lord Buddha is counted as some branches of Hindu mythology (especially the Orissa School) as an incarnation of Vishnu. This may indicate the influence of Buddhism over this part of India.

He realized that Krishna was the Supreme Lord, the master of everything. The creatures in the river also pay their respects to Krishna.

 

Ras-Lila

Acrylic on Silk

This painting portrays Ras-Lila, which is the dance of love that Krishna enjoyed the with the gopis, many of whom are expansions of his own internal energies. The supreme gopi known as Radha is the object of Krishna’s highest devotion. This beautiful dance would occur in the autumn season at night under a full moon when Lord Krishna would captivate the young gopis with the extraordinary music of his flute. Even today, we have villagers in India taking part in Raslila and depicting various stories of Radha and Krishna through dance, music and drama.

 

“Dancing Horses”

Acrylic on Silk

 

Horses have always been an essential part of patachitra paintings. However, the theme of dancing horses is a part of a recent effort by some artists to introduce a different element to this form. This painting shows horses in various poses representing joy and happiness. An effort has been made to convey freedom and motion in the painting. The decorative detail in the painting also adds to the effect.

 

The defeat of Kaliya

Acrylic on Silk

This painting shows the defeat of Kaliya the snake by young Krishna. This episode is the first time during the avatar that Krishna reveals his superhuman strengths. As the story goes, due to the giant snake Kaliya’s poison, trees and grass near the bank of the Yamuna had all dried up. Lord Krishna jumped into the poisonous lake and Kaliya, the serpent grabbed Krishna with His mighty coils and held him in his coils for two hours. Krishna then freed himself and then started to dance on the hoods of Kaliya. Gradually, Kaliya was reduced to struggling for his very life. Kaliya then began to vomit blood instead of poison; he was completely fatigued. His whole body appeared to be broken by the kicks of the Lord. Within his mind, however, he finally began to understand that Krishna was the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and he began to surrender unto Him.

 

Krishna with Gopis

Acrylic on Silk

This painting is part of a pair of paintings featuring Krishna in the company of Gopikas. The painter has used coloured silk cloth as the background instead of the natural silk colour, which is more commonly used. The colours used compliment the background and give the paintings a unique lustre.

the end

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