Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

Protected: Hieronymus Bosch Art Pictures collections

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

Protected: The Supercute Art Photography

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

The Nunavut Territory Of Canada Historic Collections

The Nunavut Historic Collections

created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@ 2012


1999 — This Land is “Our Land” —

The territory of Nunavut (“Our Land,” in Inuktitut) was separated from the Northwest Territories under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act (1993), which came into force in July 1993, and the Nunavut Act (1993), which came into force on 1 April 1999. Nunavut’s federal government representative is the Commissioner of Nunavut; its head of government is the Premier, and its Legislative Assembly operates by consensus rather than through political parties.


Established in 1999, Nunavut (“Our Land” in Inuktitut) is Canada’s newest territory. The Canadian Heraldic Authority and Inuit artist Andrew Qappik, developed this Coat of arms in close collaboration with the elders and leaders of Nunavut. The result is a remarkable fusion of Inuit symbolism and European heraldic tradition.

A territory ‘torn between two worlds’


Nunavut Premier Paul Okalik discusses his territory’s struggles in annual Corry lecture

Nunavut Premier Paul Okalik talked laws, values and roads in Macdonald Hall.

•The word Nunavut in Inukitut means “our land.”
•The population of Nunavut is 29,000.
•The territory’s land base is twice the size of Ontario’s.
•Every day in June, there are 24 hours of daylight in Nunavut’s most northern community. Every day in December, there are 24 hours of darkness.


A little more than four hours north of Kingston by plane, Canada’s youngest territory stretches across 20 per cent of the country’s land mass, encompassing some of the most bleak and beautiful landscape in the world.




This is Nunavut: “our land” in Inuktitut, the language of Canada’s Inuit population. 85 per cent of the territory’s inhabitants are Inuit, and their ancestors have survived in this unforgiving landscape for several thousand years


Today, it’s inhabited by a population of about 29,000 people in 26 tiny communities. There are no roads between the communities or out of the territory, and there are no ports. In the depths of winter, many areas see 24 hours of darkness, and in the summer, the sun never really sets.

Extreme conditions are only one facet of the challenges facing Nunavut. Its premier, Paul Okalik—the territory’s leader since its official inception in 1999—described the issues facing his land and his people in a speech in Macdonald Hall on Monday morning.

The soft-spoken premier visited Queen’s to deliver this year’s Corry Lecture. Established by Dr. J.A. Corry, the University’s former principal and a noted lawyer and political scientist, and jointly administered by the Faculty of Law and the department of political studies, the Corry Lecture is intended to address “some aspect of the relation of law and politics, taken up either in general and philosophic terms or some lively current Canadian issue.”

The Territory of Nunavut

The baby of Canada


The ancient history of Nunavut and of the Inuit is not a simple story of isolation and adaptation to a rough and harsh Arctic climate. It is a complex tale involving great movements of populations, marvellous achievements and encounters with strange people.

Nunavut is a territory of Canada that came into being on April 1, 1999 and is the largest of Canadas three territories. Nunavut, which means ‘our land’ is a part of Canada’s Arctic and the Inuit are the people who not only survive, but thrive and help all those who come to her icy lands. Nunavut is very much the land of the Inuit, it is their heart and soul.

The land remains mostly the same as it did 10,000 years ago when the ice age retreated and the landscape was revealed. Nunavut today, is still a pioneer life, a frontier one that calls the wildest of souls. Throughout its history Nunavut and the Arctic in general has been isolated from the rest of Canada, resulting in a very unique culture and history


Six years after its creation, Nunavut remains a “lively current Canadian issue” due to the pressing problems still facing its population. The territory continues to be plagued by high rates of suicide and unemployment and significant educational challenges, though great strides have been made in these areas since the territory became self-governing.


“To this day, we are torn between two worlds,” Okalik told a capacity crowd in a Macdonald Hall classroom. “In the last few years alone, the Inuit have moved from igloos and tents to permanent houses.” He said the changes have wreaked havoc on their traditional nomadic and family-centric culture.

Okalik described the confusion he felt growing up in the hamlet of Pangnirtung, an isolated community of 1,275 on Baffin Island. His parents had been forced to settle there by the RCMP two years before he was born, and they didn’t speak any English.

Okalik learned English from books that depicted a Canada “that didn’t look like the tundra I knew,” he said, and unfamiliar children playing games he didn’t recognize.

“And what were those big yellow buses? Didn’t they have snow machines?” he joked. “Personally, it was a confusing time for me. I didn’t understand why it was so important for me to be in school.”

The CBC reports that as a teenager, Okalik became an alcoholic who worked a variety of jobs before going to jail for stealing money, and he was deeply affected by the suicide of his brother when he was 15.


Okalik turned his life around after the birth of his daughter Shasta, according to the Edmonton Journal. He graduated with a BA from Carleton University and went on to earn a law degree from the University of Ottawa.


He returned to his homeland in time to negotiate the 1993 land claims agreement that led to the Apr. 1, 1999 creation of Nunavut, and became the first Inuit member of the Nunavut bar. Okalik had no political experience before becoming the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Iqaluit West and the territory’s first premier.


“It’s like anything, [I became a politician] because I wanted to help out, and to ensure success,” he told the Queen’s Journal after his speech.


Okalik was named premier when he was only 34 by the 19 elected MLAs. Government in Nunavut is consensus-based, with each member running independently for election in ridings across the territory, and then together selecting the premier and cabinet ministers. In 2004, Okalik was given a second term to continue the work he’d begun.

He said governing a territory spanning “two million square kilometres of water and ice” has its challenges, not the least of which is incorporating traditional Inuit culture into the system of government favoured by the rest of Canada.

To that end, they have established a council of elders to assist them in decision-making, and the assembly sits at a circular table when in session to facilitate achieving the all-important consensus.


“We have a constitutionally enshrined responsibility to consult with the Inuit birthright organization [Nunavut Tunngavik Inc.],” Okalik said. “Listening and communication are skills that have held us in good stead in the past,” and will continue to do so, he said.


Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, which translates to “Inuit traditional knowledge,” is the set of beliefs and values used to guide and shape the government of Nunavut.

“Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit continues to define our social values, and we continue to work towards making Inuit knowledge the foundation of our government,” Okalik said. “This connection to the land is at the center of our world … It allows us to flourish where others could not.”

The territory’s Inuit communities do remain closely tied to the land, but restrictive federal laws hinder their traditional self-sustaining rites of hunting and fishing, Okalik said.


“We have numerous fish in our water, but no access to them, because that’s decided in Ottawa,” Okalik said. “If we were given the opportunity to benefit from our resources, we could do quite well with a small population.”

Aside from fishing and hunting, Nunavut hopes to channel the growing industries of mining, arts, culture and tourism in order to benefit its people.

The government’s website lists the income from the traditional harvesting economy as $40 million annually and from mineral exploration activity as $150 million in 2004, a far cry from the $35 million earned in 1999. The territory’s first diamond mine is scheduled to begin production in 2006.

The government also hopes to generate revenue from Nunavut’s oil and gas reserves, from the estimated 18,000 tourists attracted each year by the territory’s natural beauty, and from the traditional Inuit art that is becoming popular all over the world.


“We have an abundance of resources and could contribute a l

Russia Historic Collections


Russia History Collections


Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012




Emperor Alexander I




Orangtuanya Paulus, anak dari Catherine yang Agung dan Maria Fyodorovna, Putri mantan Wurttemburg. Saat lahir, ia dibawa untuk dibesarkan oleh Nenek nya Catherine Agung. Alexander adalah seorang anak laki-laki, berambut pirang tampan dan cerdas. Masa kanak-kanak terganggu oleh divisons dalam keluarga. Kedua belah pihak mencoba menggunakan dia untuk tujuan mereka sendiri dan ia robek emosional antara neneknya dan ayahnya, Pewaris takhta. Ini diajarkan Alexander, sangat awal, bagaimana memanipulasi orang-orang yang mencintainya dan dia datang bunglon alami, mengubah pandangannya dan kepribadian tergantung pada siapa dia bersama pada saat itu.

Dia dibimbing langsung oleh filsuf republik Swiss, La Harpe, yang secara pribadi dipilih oleh Catherine untuk cetakan Alexander pribadi dan memberinya pendidikan yang luas. Sang Ratu tidak takut memiliki pendidikan Tsar masa depan di tangan seorang republikan, karena ia tahu kekuatan otokrasi dan kesadaran politik terbelakang dari Rusia pada saat itu. Catherine diharapkan bahwa pendidikan liberal akan membantu Alexander untuk memerintah dengan bijak untuk kepentingan negara. Di bawah bimbingan La Harpe Alexander seorang ahli budaya Eropa, sejarah dan kepala sekolah politik – sang pangeran muda menjadi seorang idealis dalam tradisi Pencerahan – namun, fokus La Harpe pada teoritis, kepala sekolah abstrak meninggalkan Alexander tanpa kekuatan karakter dan memutuskan untuk menjadi pemimpin benar-benar efektif.

Alexander adalah 17 pada 1793 ketika ia menikah dengan Elizabeth indah Baden, seorang putri cantik yang hanya empat belas tahun. Mereka sangat bahagia bersama di tahun-tahun pertama pernikahan mereka. Elizabeth dipandang Alexander sebagai tampan ‘pangeran menawan’ dan dia mencintainya sebagai balasannya. Sebagai hadiah pernikahan, Catherine memberikan Alexander Istana Alexander, menunjukkan preferensi dia untuk cucunya lebih putranya, Paul, dengan memberikan Alexander pengadilan lebih besar dari ayahnya. Hal ini semakin meracuni suasana dalam keluarga.

Catherine meninggal pada tanggal 6 November 1796 dan anaknya Paulus diasumsikan tahta. Dia segera melakukan sejumlah undang-undang baru untuk merusak aspek-aspek pemerintahan ibunya dia tidak setuju dengan. Tindakan Paulus pergi terlalu jauh, ia marah negara dan khususnya kaum bangsawan. Plot aristokrat yang menetas terhadap kehidupan Paulus. Dengan persetujuan diam-diam dari Alexander, Tsar dibunuh di Castle Mikhailovski di St Petersburg pada malam tanggal 11 Maret 1801.

Alexander dinobatkan Tsar untuk menggantikan ayahnya. Ibunya, Maria, menolak untuk berbicara kepada anaknya untuk waktu yang lama, dia tidak pernah sepenuhnya memaafkan dia karena keterlibatannya dalam pembunuhan ayahnya. Dalam tahun pertamanya di tahta Rusia, Alexander berusaha memerintah dengan cara yang tercerahkan. Negara itu sangat gembira dengan prospek masa pemerintahan Alexander; ada harapan besar bagi masa depan Rusia dan antisipasi dari bentuk yang lebih liberal dari pemerintah dan kebebasan meningkat. Beberapa pergi sejauh untuk berharap untuk mengakhiri lembaga perbudakan, yang melemahkan bangsa energi itu. Pada awalnya Tsar tidak sedikit untuk mencegah aspirasi. Perlahan-lahan, untuk sejumlah alasan, Alexander berpaling dari mimpi masa kecilnya dan kepala sekolah. Semakin ia merasa lebih mudah untuk mendapatkan hasil dengan menggunakan kekuatan otokrasi. Setelah ia mulai menggunakan kekuasaan otokratis, yang dikelola melalui pria yang disajikan di kehendaknya, itu rusak dia. Semakin lama ia menggunakan metode memerintah Rusia, semakin sulit ia Bagan baginya untuk kembali ke prinsip-prinsip pemerintahan yang baik dan peran raja yang telah dipelajarinya di masa mudanya.

Perang dengan Napoleon, yang melanda Rusia mengambil ratusan ribu nyawa dan menghancurkan beberapa kota Kekaisaran terbaik, mengambil itu sendiri, pulsa pribadi tentang Alexander. Dia terganggu oleh hilangnya nyawa dan perang itu sendiri, yang dia melihat sebagai pertempuran tidak hanya antara negara, tetapi juga peperangan rohani antara kekuatan baik dan jahat. Setelah banyak pertempuran dan kemunduran, kemenangan Sekutu atas Napoleon dinobatkan oleh entri kemenangan para jenderal triumpant ke Paris. Alexander berkuda di kepala mereka. Dia adalah puncak dari pemerintahannya. Alih-alih beristirahat pada kemenangan dan menikmati status pahlawan ia menikmati seluruh Eropa, Alexander adalah lebih dan lebih bermasalah spiritual. Sementara di Eropa Barat dengan Tentara Rusia ia dicari dan berada di bawah pengaruh dari penasihat spiritual dari luar negeri. Dia bermain-main dengan beberapa konsep dan ide, akhirnya membuang mereka untuk iman Orthodox dari negerinya sendiri. Tahun terakhir-Nya dipenuhi dengan obsesi dengan Tuhan dan Kristen. Pada akhir pemerintahannya ia meninggalkan nyonya Polandia nya 13 tahun, Maria Naryshkina, dan kembali ke istrinya, Elizabeth, yang telah menderita dari perselingkuhan dan kelalaian selama bertahun-tahun. Dia orang yang bermasalah dan rusak. Satu jatuh dia dan Elizabeth pergi ke bagian selatan Rusia. Di sana, pada 19 November 1825 di kota Taganrog, itu diklaim telah memalsukan kematiannya sendiri, menghilang menjadi seorang biarawan bernama Kuzmich, berkeliaran di hutan Siberia beberapa tahun setelahnya. Pemerintah Soviet mengipasi api dari rumor ini ketika mengumumkan peti mati telah dibuka pada tahun 1920-an dan ditemukan menjadi kosong.



Nicholas II

Tsar terakhir Rusia

Nicholas II adalah Tsar terakhir yang memerintah atas Rusia. Istana Alexander adalah tempat kelahirannya, tempat ibunya disampaikan dia di Kamar Tidur mewah Biru nya di keenam bulan Mei tahun 1868. Menakutkan, ini kebetulan menjadi hari raya Ortodoks Ayub St Penderita, yang tampaknya meramalkan uji tak berujung yang akan mengganggu kehidupan tragis Nicholas. Kecil “Nicky”, karena dia dipanggil, adalah produk dari, menakjubkan mungil berambut cokelat, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – sebelumnya Dagmar, Putri Denmark – Alexandrovich dan ayah, raksasa mengintimidasi, Alexander Romanov.

Alexander III adalah orang yang mengesankan, yang mendominasi orang lain dengan ukuran dan kuat secara pribadi. Sepanjang abad ke-19 pria Romanov memiliki reputasi untuk menjadi besar dan megah. Sayangnya, Nicholas ambil setelah ibunya. Dia adalah tentang 5’6 “tinggi dan Romanov-nya paman semua tampak menjulang di atasnya Ia mencoba untuk mengimbangi tinggi badannya dengan bekerja dengan bobot dan peralatan olahraga.. Tidak peduli apa yang dia lakukan untuk membangun ukuran tubuhnya dia masih tetap sedikit dan liat di fisik Kakinya. pendek, tapi ini kurang jelas ketika dia menunggang kuda. Nicholas tampak paling anggun ketika dipasang. Kebanyakan orang yang bertemu Tsar mengomentari mata birunya yang menakjubkan Denmark, yang menurut pendapat sebagian adalah baik untuk nya jiwa. Dia selalu mengenakan rambut cokelatnya berpisah di sebelah kiri dan tumbuh jenggot tebal diisi dengan highlight emas ketika ia masih muda. Ini tinggal bersamanya sepanjang hidupnya dan menjadi fitur tanda tangannya, bersama dengan kebiasaan gugup ia menyikat gigi kumisnya dengan punggung tangannya. Dari ayahnya ia mewarisi hidung pesek, yang tidak disukai karena mengingatkannya pada Paulus I, yang ia menganggap paling jelek dari nenek moyangnya.

Nicholas memiliki pendidikan yang sangat baik dan mungkin adalah raja terbaik Eropa terpelajar pada masanya. Orang tuanya di mana cukup lihai untuk melihat tantangan menghadapi Tsar 20th Century akan cukup berbeda daripada masa lalu dan mencoba mempersiapkan dirinya untuk tanggung jawab masa depannya. Ancaman yang sangat nyata dari terorisme menutupiku Keluarga Kekaisaran terus-menerus. Setelah bom meledak mobil kereta mereka, dan hanya bahu kuat Alexander disimpan atap dari menghancurkan seluruh keluarga. Sebuah barisan yang kuat dari polisi rahasia dan penjaga militer melindungi mereka, tapi ini berarti Nicholas tumbuh di isolasi dari keluarganya. Ini menahannya dan ia terlambat jatuh tempo. Dia tidak pernah mendapatkan rasa percaya diri dan kemandirian. Kurangnya teman dari luar kaum bangsawan Eropa kehilangan Nicholas dari kepentingan memahami cara subyek masa depannya tinggal. Dalam hal ini ia tidak berbeda dari kebanyakan rekan-rekan kerajaannya. Tapi Nicholas juga sengaja terputus dari pemikiran liberal dan ide-ide oleh orang tuanya. Karena ia hampir tidak memiliki kontak dengan komunitas tumbuh Rusia intelektual dan artistik dia mengembangkan ide-ide sempit kehormatan, pelayanan dan tradisi yang akan membahayakan kemampuannya untuk memerintah Rusia di masa mendatang.

Sementara pewaris tahta, sebagai Tsarevich, Nicholas mencapai pangkat Kolonel Pengawal Kehidupan. Dia mencintai militer dan selalu menganggap dirinya seorang tentara. Karakter dan kebiasaan sosial sangat dipengaruhi oleh pengalamannya sebagai perwira muda dan ia membuat banyak persahabatan terpanjang nya abadi antara petugas saudaranya. Ini di mana tahun-tahun paling berbahagia, ketika ia hampir bebas perawatan dan khawatir tentang masa depan. Ayahnya masih relatif muda dan Nicholas bisa berharap beberapa tahun untuk mengisi peran petugas, gagah aristokrat sebelum ia dipanggil untuk melayani negaranya dalam sebuah peran yang lebih serius. Para Tsarevich memeluk kebebasan relatif dari kehidupan tentara dengan penuh semangat. Dia bisa minum dan melakukan seperti yang paling hedonistik petugas sesama. Hidup penuh dengan makan malam resimen, konser, tarian dan wanita cantik. Ia selama ini waktu dia bertemu dengan seorang penari muda dari Ballet Imperial bernama Mathilde Kschessinka, yang menjadi yang pertama, teman gadis nyata. Itu bukan hubungan serius. Keduanya tahu itu tidak bisa pergi ke mana saja dan selain itu, Nicholas sudah memberikan hatinya kepada yang muda bermata sedih dan ditarik bernama Jerman putri Alix dari Hesse. Banyak pikir itu tidak cocok. Alix tidak dianggap memiliki ciri-ciri kepribadian yang tepat dan agresivitas keluar dicari dalam seorang Rusia Ratu-to-be. Nicholas tidak bisa dibujuk untuk mempertimbangkan pengantin selain Alix, dan pasangan mana secara resmi terlibat dalam 1893. Pada musim gugur, 1894, ayah Nicholas mengembangkan kondisi nefritis serius yang menjadi semakin buruk. Dokter Alexander menyarankan perjalanan ke iklim lembut Krimea. Penyembuh terkenal John dari Kronstadt dipanggil ke samping tempat tidur Tsar meninggal di pelukan istrinya di Lividia berusia 47 dari nefritis.

Nicholas merasa belum siap untuk memerintah. Dia tahu tugas berat memerintah Rusia lebih besar dari pengalaman dan kemampuan. Namun ia percaya, bahkan dengan semua kekurangan dan keraguan diri, bahwa Allah telah memilih takdirnya. Kaisar baru mengambil sumpah penobatannya sangat serius dan melihat urapan sebagai Tsar sebagai pengalaman spiritual. Setelah mahkota itu ditempatkan di kepalanya Nicholas akan mencari dukungan dan bimbingan pertama dalam dirinya sendiri dan kemudian kepada Allah, yang telah memberinya beban ini. Cepat menyadari ia dikelilingi oleh kekejian dan kepentingan pribadi para birokrat dan penjilat, Nicholas menyimpulkan bahwa di bumi ia bisa percaya beberapa orang. Diganggu dan disesatkan oleh keluarganya ia semakin berpaling kepada istrinya untuk dukungan. Nicholas menjadi sinis dan tidak percaya sifat manusia. Kesepian dan isolasi akan jauh dalam hidup.

Di atas segalanya, Nicholas dicintai Rusia pertama dan kemudian keluarganya. Dia berpikir nasib kedua adalah tak terpisahkan. Tidak ada yang tahu kekurangan dari Dinasti Romanov lebih baik dari dia namun dia merasa monarki adalah satu-satunya kekuatan mencegah Rusia dari semakin hancur lebur. Nicholas cukup cerdas untuk menyadari mungkin pembunuhannya cukup tinggi. Keputusan Alexandra untuk menikah dengannya dan berbagi masa depan tidak pasti itu adalah sebuah komitmen dia selalu dihargai.

Nicholas adalah orang yang sangat religius dan umumnya soliter, yang mencintai persahabatan setia anjing nya ke perusahaan menteri negara. Berburu di perkebunan itu adalah hobi favorit, di mana ia bisa menghindari politik kisruh St Petersburg dan urusan mengganggu menterinya. Daripada tinggal di Istana Musim Dingin di pusat kota, Nicholas memilih untuk tinggal di pedesaan terdekat. Istana Alexander menjadi rumah utama dan Peterhof mundur pantai nya. Di istananya, Tsar bekerja sendirian di mejanya. Menolak untuk memiliki sekretaris, ia melakukan bisnis sendiri, dibantu oleh pembantu-d-kampnya, pejabat Pengadilan dan pelayan pribadi-Nya. Nicholas adalah seorang pekerja keras dan rajin tentang bisnis negara, meskipun prestasinya mana sangat dibatasi oleh kecenderungannya untuk fokus pada detail daripada gambaran besar. Dia tidak yakin pendapat sendiri tentang hal dan merasa meminta nasihat menjadi tanda kelemahan atau keraguan. Oleh karena itu ia mencoba untuk mengikuti sendiri ‘naluri’ yang dibatasi oleh pengalaman dan asuhan yang sempit.

Nicholas menyukai musik, terutama Wagner. Tristan dan Isolde adalah miliknya dan sepotong favorit Aleksandra tentang musik. Ketika ia bisa menemukan waktu, menulis ke teman atau membaca adalah hiburan favorit setelah menghabiskan waktu dengan keluarganya. Nicholas sangat pribadi dan dibenci disentuh oleh orang asing, meskipun ia tidak angkuh. Orang menyayangi dia sangat ramah dan baik hati di alam.

Meskipun dipuji karena kualitas mengagumkan pribadinya, sebagai otokrat Nicholas mutlak telah dianggap gagal. Dia merasa tidak mungkin untuk mendamaikan pandangan sendiri yang ketat dari apa yang benar dan salah bagi Rusia dengan tanggung jawab seorang raja modern untuk berkompromi pandangan sendiri untuk kebaikan bangsa.

Bukan orang bodoh, tapi ragu-ragu untuk menarik kesimpulan sendiri, Nicholas terombang-ambing isu-isu penting. Kurang cerdas politik dan naluri, dia jarang yakin bagaimana untuk menangani urusan negara. Hal ini membuatnya tampil sebagai lemah dan bertentangan dengan menterinya. Mereka merasa sulit untuk membaca pikiran sejati dan merasa sulit untuk mengikuti kepemimpinannya. Meski telah sangat argumen oleh orang lain, keputusan politik Nicholas tidak didominasi oleh istrinya, Aleksandra. Dia memutuskan sendiri dan fakta bahwa mereka setuju pada poin begitu banyak hanya menunjukkan kedekatan naluri politik mereka tentang Rusia.

Pada akhirnya, dalam beberapa minggu sebelum revolusi, Nicholas benar-benar rusak dengan tanggung jawabnya dan masalah keluarga. Kesehatannya buruk tetapi ia melakukan yang terbaik untuk menyembunyikan kelelahan dan rasa sakit fisik (tanda-tanda lebih lanjut dari kelemahan sendiri untuk Nicholas) dari orang lain. Yang tiba-tiba turun tahta-Nya adalah tanda lebih lanjut dari seorang pria yang tidak pasti dan bermasalah.

– Alexander III

oleh Scott Malsom

Dianggap benar otokrat terakhir Rusia, Alexander III adalah teladan dari apa yang Tsar Rusia seharusnya. Kuat, tangguh, keras patriotik, dan pada 6 ‘4 “menjulang tinggi di atas rekan senegaranya Dia adalah perwujudan dari beruang Rusia dongeng.. Dia berkuasa pada titik kritis dalam sejarah Rusia Imperial. Revolusi Industri akhirnya datang ke Rusia dan kapitalisme telah mengakar Investasi asing di dalam negeri adalah di semua waktu tinggi.. Bapa-Nya, Alexander II adalah beberapa jam setelah pemberian negara konstitusi pertama. pewaris Ironisnya, Alexander III tidak dilahirkan ke tahta Rusia.

Lahir di St Petersburg pada 26 Februari 1845 (gaya lama), dia adalah anak kedua dari Alexander II, “Tsar Pembebas” yang membebaskan budak. Kakaknya dan pewaris takhta, Nicholas, meninggal pada 1865. The Grand Duke muda sangat dipengaruhi oleh guru nya Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev yang ditanamkan ke dalam dirinya fundamental konservatif otokrasi, Ortodoks dan nasionalisme yang diperlukan untuk memerintah Kekaisaran Rusia. Pobedonostsev percaya bahwa semua oposisi terhadap pemerintah akan tanpa ampun menghancurkan ide-ide liberal dan dilihat sebagai konstitusi dan kebebasan pers sebagai ancaman terhadap negara. Itu juga Pobedonostsev yang mengajarkan Alexander III sebagai anti-Semit dan melihat komunitas Yahudi Kekaisaran sebagai “Kristus Killers”.

Dengan kematian saudaranya, Alexander mewarisi lebih dari sekedar judul Tsarevich. Sementara di ranjang kematiannya, saudaranya Nicholas bersikeras bahwa dia juga mengambil fiancÚe nya. Pada Oktober 1866 Alexander menikah dengan Putri Dagmar Denmark. Setelah konversi ke Ortodoks, dia mengambil nama Marie Fedorovna. Bersama-sama, Alexander III dan Ratu Marie memiliki lima anak. Anak pertama mereka, Nicholas, lahir pada 1868 dan akan menjadi Tsar terakhir dari Rusia. Anak kedua mereka, George, lahir pada tahun 1871 diikuti oleh Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) dan Olga (1882). George meninggal pada 27 TB pada 1899. Michael kadang-kadang dianggap ‘Tsar untuk sehari’, seperti Nicholas turun tahta menguntungkannya pada tahun 1917 sebelum ia juga meninggalkan tahta. Kaum Bolshevik membunuh Michael enam hari sebelum Nicholas dan keluarganya pada bulan Juli 1918. Xenia dan Olga berhasil kabur Rusia bersama dengan ibu mereka selama Revolusi.

Pemerintahan Alexander III dimulai pada tragedi. Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1881, menjelang penandatanganan dalam konstitusi pertama hukum Rusia, dua pembunuh melemparkan bom di kereta Tsar di St Petersburg. Alexander II terluka parah dan meninggal tak lama setelahnya. Harapan Rusia untuk sebuah konstitusi juga meninggal hari itu. Seseorang tidak dapat reaksi kesalahan Alexander mati ayahnya. Ayahnya, Pembebas Tsar, telah membebaskan budak, mendahului Proklamasi Emansipasi Lincoln dengan dua tahun. Kita hanya bisa membayangkan kemarahan dia, istrinya dan anak-anak merasa saat mereka menyaksikan Tsar berdarah dan mati di St Petersburg istana. Acara ini akan memperkuat nada reaksioner dari 13 tahun pemerintahannya.

Sebagai hasil dari pembunuhan itu, Alexander III tidak akan mempertimbangkan pemberian konstitusi. Ia memperketat sensor pers dan mengirimkan ribuan revolusioner ke Siberia. Dalam Manifesto Aksesi, ia menyatakan keinginannya untuk memiliki “iman penuh pada keadilan dan kekuatan otokrasi” bahwa ia telah dipercayakan. Setiap proposal liberal dalam pemerintah dengan cepat dipecat. Alexander bertekad untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis sebagai Allah yang diberikan benar. Pemerintahannya sering disebut sebagai Zaman Reformasi Counter.

Untuk banyak orang Barat ia muncul mentah dan tidak terlalu cerdas. Ratu Victoria berkomentar bahwa ia menganggapnya sebagai “berdaulat yang ia tidak memandang sebagai gentlemen”. Memang, ia tidak dididik atau dipersiapkan di masa mudanya untuk menjadi Kaisar. Tapi apa dia kekurangan dalam gaya ia lebih dari dibuat dalam keyakinannya posisinya, cintanya untuk negaranya, dan pemahaman tentang pentingnya ia bisa bermain dalam membentuk masa depan negaranya. Ia memiliki semacam kuat akan memerintah sebagai Kekaisaran Rusia sebagai otokrat absolut, ke titik di mana Kekaisaran stabil dan makmur, sehingga memungkinkan kapitalisme untuk mulai berakar. Selama pemerintahannya otokrasi stabil dan perbedaan pendapat dipaksa bawah tanah. Dia bekerja untuk memperkuat dan memodernisasi angkatan bersenjata Rusia sementara menghindari konflik bersenjata dan meningkatkan posisi Rusia sebagai kekuatan dunia.

Untuk kreditnya, sebagai seorang suami dan ayah ia sangat sukses. Ia juga baik dengan anak-anak dan sangat menyayanginya pada putri-putrinya. Dia berpakaian sederhana dan akan memakai pakaiannya sampai mereka usang. Kesederhanaan juga terbukti dalam pilihannya dari tempat tinggal. Meskipun ia tinggal di Istana Gachina besar, dia memilih untuk tinggal di daerah hamba direnovasi. Dia dikenal sebagai “Tsar Petani”, dan karena ukuran tubuhnya selalu dipandang sebagai lebih besar dari kehidupan. Dia mencintai kesederhanaan kehidupan Rusia dan memiliki sedikit rasa untuk apa pun barat.

Pada bulan Oktober 1888 Imperial kereta tergelincir sementara Tsar dan keluarganya sedang makan di gerbong makan. Tidak ada yang terluka parah, tetapi Alexander kuat III mengangkat atap mobil dari reruntuhan sehingga keluarga bisa melarikan diri. Itu tidak diketahui pada saat itu, tapi Tsar menderita memar parah pada ginjalnya yang akan berkontribusi pada kematiannya 6 tahun kemudian.

Pada awal 1894 Alexander III adalah 49 tahun. Ia percaya bahwa ia, melarang pembunuhan, bertahun-tahun tersisa untuk pemerintahannya. Dengan berjalannya tahun, kesehatannya memburuk pada tingkat yang mengkhawatirkan. Para dokter terbaik waktu dipanggil untuk membantu, tapi tidak mampu menyimpan Kaisar sekarat. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar dari semua Rusia, meninggal karena Nefritis pada 20 Oktober 1894 (OS) di istana musim panas di Livadia di Crimea. Dia dimakamkan di St Petrus & Paulus Katedral di St Petersburg, Tsar terakhir begitu. Dia meninggalkan warisan yang tidak lengkap, karyanya belum selesai, dan pewaris tidak siap untuk memerintah.

Sejarah cenderung melihat Alexander III sebagai lalim kasar. Prestasi satu-satunya adalah untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis nya dengan mengorbankan kelas pekerja dan kaum tani. Untuk kredit, ia stabil pemerintah Rusia dan dipelihara perdamaian dengan tetangganya Eropa dan Asia. Sejarah diberkati dengan tabir sempurna. Alexander III, bagaimanapun, tidak memiliki kemewahan tersebut. Dia tidak tahu bahwa penyebab ia dirawat dan sarana di mana ia memperoleh mereka akan menyebabkan kehancuran akhirnya cara hidup dan pemerintah dia dihargai begitu dalam. Membatalkan Nya konstitusi yang direncanakan ditetapkan menjadi peristiwa gerak yang akhirnya akan membawa Rusia ke jurang kehancuran. Tsar ketidakmampuan atau keengganan untuk mempersiapkan putranya Nicholas pada usia dini untuk memerintah sebagai otokrat absolut diperburuk peristiwa masa depan yang akan menyapu atas Empire. Akhirnya, Alexander adalah putus asa keluar dari sentuhan dengan realitas muncul dari Rusia industri modern. Pemerintahan yang otokratis didirikan pada suatu waktu dalam sejarah Rusia ketika negara itu buta huruf, tidak berpendidikan, dan menyerang dari kekuatan asing di semua sisi. Waktu itu tidak lebih. Pada saat pemerintah Rusia harus mulai menyesuaikan diri dengan realitas perubahan abad 19, Alexander bukan menempel dan diperkuat otokrasi. Ini kegagalan terbesarnya. Dia adalah seorang ayah dan suami yang setia. Tidak ada keraguan bahwa ia mencintai negaranya dan sangat berharap untuk menjawab kepada Tuhan seperti ketika akuntabilitas sebagai Tsar. Sejarah telah membuat keputusannya. Haruskah kita pernah berpretensi tahu


Emperor Alexander I




His parents were Paul, son of Catherine the Great and Maria Fyodorovna, the former Princess of Wurttemburg. At his birth he was taken to be raised by his Grandmother Catherine the Great. Alexander was a blond, handsome and intelligent boy. His childhood was troubled by the divisons in the family. Both sides tried to use him for their own purposes and he was torn emotionally between his grandmother and his father, the Heir to the throne. This taught Alexander, very early on, how to manipulate those who loved him and he came a natural chameleon, changing his views and personality depending on who he was with at the time.

He was tutored by the Swiss republican philosopher, La Harpe, who was personally chosen by Catherine to mold Alexander’s personally and give him a broad education. The Empress had no fear of having a future Tsar’s education in the hands of a republican, for she knew the strength of the autocracy and the underdeveloped political awareness of Russia at the time. Catherine expected that a liberal education would help Alexander to reign wisely for the benefit of the country. Under La Harpe’s tutelage Alexander was well versed in European culture, history and political principals – the young prince became an idealist in the tradition of the Enlightenment – however, La Harpe’s focus on theoretical, abstract principals left Alexander without the strength of character and resolve to be a truly effective leader.

Alexander was 17 in 1793 when he married the lovely Elizabeth of Baden, a pretty princess who was only fourteen years old. They were very happy together in the first years of their marriage. Elizabeth looked upon Alexander as her handsome ‘prince charming’ and he loved her in return. As a wedding present, Catherine gave Alexander the Alexander Palace, showing her preference for his grandson over her son, Paul, by granting Alexander a larger court than his father’s. This further poisoned the atmosphere in the family.

Catherine died on November 6, 1796 and her son Paul assumed the throne. He quickly instituted a number of new laws to undermine those aspects of his mother’s reign he disagreed with. Paul’s actions went much too far, he infuriated the country and especially the nobility. Aristocratic plots were hatched against Paul’s life. With the tacit approval of Alexander, the Tsar was murdered at the Mikhailovski Castle in St. Petersburg during the night of March 11, 1801.

Alexander was crowned Tsar to succeed his father. His mother, Maria, refused to speak to her son for a long while, she never entirely forgave him for his complicity in his father’s murder. In his first years on the Russian throne, Alexander tried to rule in an enlightened way. The country was very excited at the prospects of Alexander’s reign; there were great hopes for the future of Russia and an anticipation of a more liberal form of government and increased freedom. Some went so far as to hope for an end to the institution of serfdom, which sapped the nation of it’s energy. At first the Tsar did little to discourage these aspirations. Slowly, for a number of reasons, Alexander turned away from his childhood dreams and principals. Increasingly he found it easier to get results by using the power of autocracy. Once he began using autocratic power, administered through men who served at his will, it corrupted him. The longer he used this method of ruling Russia, the more difficult he bagan for him to return to the principals of good government and the role of the monarch he had learned in his youth.

The war with Napoleon, which ravaged Russia taking hundreds of thousands of lives and destroyed some of the Empire’s finest cities, took it’s own, personal toll on Alexander. He was troubled by the loss of life and the war itself, which he saw as a not only a battle between nations, but also a spiritual battle between the forces of good and evil. After many battles and setbacks, the victory of the Allies over Napoleon was crowned by a triumphal entry of the triumpant generals into Paris. Alexander rode at their head. He was the apogee of his reign. Instead of resting on his laurels and enjoying the hero status he enjoyed across Europe, Alexander was more and more troubled spiritually. While in western Europe with the Russian Army he sought out and came under the influence of spiritual advisors from foreign countries. He toyed with some of their concepts and ideas, eventually discarding them for the Orthodox faith of his own country. His last years were filled with an obsession with God and Christianity. At the end of his reign he left his Polish mistress of 13 years, Maria Naryshkina, and returned to his wife, Elizabeth, who had suffered from his infidelity and neglect for years. He was a troubled and broken man. One fall he and Elizabeth travelled to the south of Russia. There, on November 19, 1825 in the town of Taganrog, it is claimed to have faked his own death, disappearing to become a monk named Kuzmich, wandering the forests of Siberia for years afterward. The Soviet Government fanned the flames of these rumours when it announced his coffin had been opened in the 1920’s and was found to be empty.

Nicholas II

The Last Tsar of Russia


Nicholas II was the last Tsar to reign over the Russia. The Alexander Palace was the site of his birth, where his mother delivered him in her plush Blue Bedroom on the sixth of May in 1868. Ominously, this chanced to be the Orthodox feast day of St. Job the Sufferer, which seemed to foretell the endless trials that would plague Nicholas’ tragic life. Little “Nicky”, as he was called, was the product of a stunning, petite brunette, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – formerly Dagmar, Princess of Denmark – and a giant, intimidating father, Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov.

Alexander III was an impressive man, who dominated others by his size and powerful personally. Throughout the 19th century Romanov men had the reputation for being big and imposing. Unfortunately, Nicholas took after his mother. He was about 5’6″ tall and his Romanov uncles all seemed to tower over him. He tried to compensate for his height by working out with weights and athletic equipment. No matter what he did to build up his size he still remained slight and wiry in physique. His legs were short, but this was less apparent when he was on horseback. Nicholas looked the most regal when mounted. Most people who meet the Tsar commented on his stunning Danish blue eyes, which some thought were the well to his soul. He always wore his brown hair parted on the left and grew a thick beard filled with golden highlights when he was a young man. It stayed with him throughout his life and became his signature feature, along with the nervous habit he had of brushing his moustache up with the back of his hand. From his father he inherited a pug nose, which he disliked as it reminded him of Paul I, who he considered the ugliest of his ancestors.

Nicholas had an excellent education and was perhaps the best educated European monarch of his time. His parents where astute enough to see the challenges of facing a 20th Century Tsar would be quite different than those of the past and tried to prepare him for his future responsibilities. The very real threat of terrorism loomed over the Imperial Family constantly. Once a bomb blew apart their train car, and only Alexander’s powerful shoulders kept the roof from crushing the entire family. A powerful cordon of secret police and military guards protected them, but this meant Nicholas grew up in the isolation of his family. This held him back and he was late in maturing. He never gained a sense of confidence and self reliance. The lack of friends from outside the clan of European royalty deprived Nicholas of the benefit of understanding the way his future subjects lived. In this he was no different than most of his royal peers. But Nicholas was also purposely cut off from liberal thought and ideas by his parents. Since he had almost no contact with Russia’s growing intellectual and artistic community he developed narrow ideas of honor, service and tradition which would harm his ability to govern Russia in the future.

While heir to the throne, as Tsarevich, Nicholas achieved the rank of Colonel in the Life Guards. He loved the military and always considered himself an army man. His character and social habits were strongly influenced by his years as a young officer and he made many of his longest lasting friendships among his brother officers. These where his happiest years, when he was almost free of care and worry about the future. His father was still relatively young and Nicholas could expect a few years to fill the role of a dashing, aristocratic officer before he was called to serve his country in an more serious role. The Tsarevich embraced the relative freedom of army life with gusto. He could drink and carry on like the most hedonistic of his fellow officers. Life was full of regimental dinners, concerts, dances and beautiful women. It was during this time he met a young dancer from the Imperial Ballet named Mathilde Kschessinka, who became his first, real girl friend. It wasn’t a serious relationship. Both of them knew it couldn’t go anywhere and besides, Nicholas had already given his heart to a young, sad eyed and withdrawn German princess named Alix of Hesse. Many thought it was not a good match. Alix wasn’t thought to have the right personality traits and outgoing aggressiveness sought in a Russian Empress-to-be. Nicholas could not be persuaded to consider any other bride than Alix, and the couple where formally engaged in 1893. In fall, 1894, Nicholas’ father developed a serious nephritis condition which became progressively worse. Alexander’s doctors advised a trip to the gentle climate of the Crimea. The famous healer John of Kronstadt was summoned to the Tsar’s bedside died in the arms of his wife at Lividia aged 47 from nephritis.

Nicholas felt he was not ready to rule. He knew the weighty task of ruling Russia was greater than his experience and abilities. Yet he believed, even with all his inadequacies and self-doubt, that God had chosen his destiny. The new Emperor took his coronation oath very seriously and saw anointing as Tsar as spiritual experience. After the crown was placed on his head Nicholas would look for support and guidance first within himself and then to God, who had given him this burden. Quickly realising he was surrounded by deceit and the self-interest of bureaucrats and sycophants, Nicholas concluded that on earth he could trust few people. Bullied and misled by his relatives he increasingly turned to his wife for support. Nicholas became cynical and mistrustful of human nature. Loneliness and isolation would be his lot in life.

Above all else, Nicholas loved Russia first and then his family. He thought the fate of the two was inseparable. No one knew the shortcomings of the Romanov Dynasty better than he and yet he felt the monarchy was the only force preventing Russia from coming apart at the seams. Nicholas was intelligent enough to realise the probably of his assassination was quite high. Alexandra’s decision to marry him and share his uncertain future was a commitment he always appreciated.

Nicholas was a deeply religious and generally solitary person, who loved the faithful companionship of his dogs to the company of state ministers. Hunting on his estates was a favorite pastime, where he could avoid the tumultuous politics of St. Petersburg and the pestering affairs of his ministers. Rather than living in the Winter Palace at the center of the city, Nicholas chose to live in the countryside nearby. The Alexander Palace became his primary home and Peterhof his seaside retreat. In his palace, the Tsar worked alone at his desk. Refusing to have a secretary, he conducted business on his own, assisted by his aide-d-camp, officials of the Court and his valets. Nicholas was a hard worker and diligent about state business, although his accomplishments where severely limited by his tendency to focus on detail rather than the big picture. He was uncertain of his own opinions on things and felt asking for advice to be a sign of weakness or hesitancy. Therefore he tried to follow his own ‘instincts’ which were limited by his experience and narrow upbringing.

Nicholas loved music, particularly Wagner. Tristan and Isolde was his and Aleksandra’s favorite piece of music. When he could find time, writing to friends or reading were favorite pastimes after spending time with his family. Nicholas was intensely private and abhorred being touched by strangers, though he wasn’t standoffish. People fond him extremely affable and kindly in nature.

Though lauded for his admirable personal qualities, as an absolute autocrat Nicholas has been deemed a failure. He found it impossible to reconcile his own strict views of what was right and wrong for Russia with the responsibility of a modern monarch to compromise his own views for the good of the nation.

Not an unintelligent man, but hesitant to draw his own conclusions, Nicholas vacillated on important issues. Lacking political savvy and instinct, he was seldom sure how to handle the affairs of state. This made him come across as weak and contradictory to his ministers. They found it difficult to read his true thoughts and found it hard to follow his leadership. Although it has been strongly argued by others, Nicholas’ political decisions were not dominated by his wife, Aleksandra. He made up his own mind and the fact that they agreed on so many points only indicates the closeness of their political instincts concerning Russia.

In the end, in the weeks before the revolution, Nicholas was completely broken by his responsibilities and family problems. His health was bad but he did his best to conceal his exhaustion and physical pain (further signs of his own weakness to Nicholas) from others. The suddenness of his abdication was a further sign of an uncertain and troubled man.


– Alexander III

by Scott Malsom


Considered Russia’s last true autocrat, Alexander III was the epitome of what a Russian Tsar was supposed to be. Forceful, formidable, fiercely patriotic, and at 6′ 4″ towered over his fellow countrymen. He was the embodiment of the fabled Russian bear. He came to power at a critical point in Imperial Russian history. The Industrial Revolution had finally come to Russia and capitalism was taking root. Foreign investment within the country was at an all time high. His Father, Alexander II was within hours of granting the country its first constitution. Ironically, Alexander III was not born heir to the Russian throne.

Born in St Petersburg on February 26, 1845 (old style), he was the second son of Alexander II, the “Tsar Liberator” who had freed the serfs. His older brother and heir to the throne, Nicholas, died in 1865. The young Grand Duke was greatly influenced by his tutor Constantine Petrovich Pobedonostsev who instilled into him conservative fundamentals of autocracy, Orthodoxy and nationalism that were required to govern the Russian Empire. Pobedonostsev believed that all opposition to the government be ruthlessly crushed and viewed liberal ideas as constitutions and free press as a threat to the state. It was also Pobedonostsev that taught Alexander III to be anti-Semitic and view the Jewish community of the Empire as “Christ Killers”.

With the death of his brother, Alexander inherited more than just the title of Tsarevich. While on his deathbed, his brother Nicholas insisted that he also take his fiancÚe. In October 1866 Alexander married the Danish Princess Dagmar. After her conversion to Orthodoxy, she took the name of Marie Fedorovna. Together, Alexander III and Empress Marie had five children. Their first child, Nicholas, was born in 1868 and would be the last Tsar of Russia. Their second child, George, was born in 1871 followed by Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) and Olga (1882). George died at 27 of tuberculosis in 1899. Michael is sometimes considered ‘Tsar for a day’, as Nicholas abdicated in his favor in 1917 before he, too, renounced the throne. The Bolsheviks murdered Michael six days before Nicholas and his family in July 1918. Xenia and Olga were able to escape Russia along with their mother during the Revolution.

The reign of Alexander III began in tragedy. On March 1, 1881, on the eve of the signing into law Russia’s first constitution, two assassins threw bombs at the Tsar’s carriage in St. Petersburg. Alexander II was mortally wounded and died shortly thereafter. Russia’s hopes for a constitution also died that day. One cannot fault Alexander’s reaction to his father’s death. His father, the Tsar Liberator, had freed the serfs, predating Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation by two years. One can only imagine the rage he, his wife and children felt as they watched the Tsar bleed and die in a St Petersburg palace. This event would solidify the reactionary tone of his 13-year reign.

As a result of the assassination, Alexander III would not consider granting the constitution. He tightened censorship of the press and sent thousands of revolutionaries to Siberia. In his Accession Manifesto, he declared his intention to have “full faith in the justice and strength of the autocracy” that he had been entrusted with. Any liberal proposals in government were quickly dismissed. Alexander was determined to strengthen autocratic rule as a God given right. His reign is often referred to as the Age of Counter Reform.

To many westerners he appeared crude and not overly intelligent. Queen Victoria commented that she thought him as “a sovereign whom she does not look upon as a gentlemen”. Indeed, he was not educated or prepared in his youth to be Emperor. But what he lacked in style he more than made up for in his conviction of his position, his love for his country, and an understanding of the importance he could play in shaping his country’s future. He possessed such a strong will as to rule the Russian Empire as absolute autocrat, to the point where the Empire stabilized and prospered, thus allowing capitalism to begin to take root. During his reign the autocracy stabilized and dissent was forced underground. He worked to strengthen and modernize Russia’s armed forces while avoiding armed conflict and improve Russia’s standing as a world power.

To his credit, as a husband and a father he was greatly successful. He was also good with kids and doted upon his daughters. He dressed simply and would wear his clothes until they were threadbare. His simplicity was also evident in his choice of living quarters. Though he lived in the large Gachina Palace, he chose to live in the renovated servants area. He was known as “The Peasants Tsar”, and because of his size was always viewed as larger than life. He loved the simplicity of Russian life and had little taste for anything western.

In October 1888 the Imperial train derailed while the Tsar and his family were eating in the dining car. No one was seriously hurt, but the strong Alexander III lifted the roof of the car from the wreckage so that his family could escape. It was not known at the time, but the Tsar had suffered a severe bruise to his kidney that would contribute to his death 6 years later.

At the beginning of 1894 Alexander III was 49 years old. It was believed that he had, barring assassination, many years left to his reign. As the year progressed, his health deteriorated at an alarming rate. The best doctors of the time were called to help, but none were able to save the dying Emperor. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar of all the Russia’s, died of Nephritis on October 20, 1894 (OS) at the summer palace at Livadia in the Crimea. He was buried in the St. Peter & Paul Cathedral in St Petersburg, the last Tsar be so. He left behind an incomplete legacy, his work unfinished, and an heir unprepared to rule.

History tends to view Alexander III as a brutish despot. His only accomplishment being to strengthen his autocratic rule at the expense of the working class and peasantry. To his credit he stabilized the Russian government and maintained peace with his European and Asian neighbors. History is blessed with perfect hindsight. Alexander III, however, had no such luxury. He had no idea that the causes he cared for and the means at which he obtained them would cause the eventual destruction of the way of life and government he cherished so deeply. His canceling of the planned constitution set into motion events that would eventually take Russia to the brink of annihilation. The Tsar’s inability or unwillingness to prepare his son Nicholas at an early age to rule as absolute autocrat further exacerbated the future events that would sweep over his Empire. Finally, Alexander was hopelessly out of touch with the emerging realities of a modern industrialized Russia. Autocratic rule was established at a time in Russian history when the nation was illiterate, uneducated, and attacked from foreign powers on all sides. That time was no more. At a time when the Russian government should have begun adjusting itself to the changing realities of the 19th Century, Alexander instead clung to and strengthened the autocracy. This is his greatest failure. He was a loving father and devoted husband. There is no doubt that he loved his country and fully expected to answer to God as to his accountability as Tsar. History has made its judgement. Should we ever presume to know

The Icon of our Lady of the Sign – Znamenskaya

In Russia the icon of Our Lady of the Sign is called “Znamenskaya”.  The icon shows Mary, the Mother of God with her arms outstretched in an attitude of prayer.  This position of prayer is called Orans and the image of the Mother of God in this position is sometimes called the “Oranta”.  In her breast is a circular medallion with the Christ child blessing the world.  The icon originated in Byzantium and was considered a talisman of the Imperial throne there and in Russia.

The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe SeloLeft: The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe Selo.

This icon is closely associated with Tsarskoe Selo and the Romanov family.  One of the earliest churches in the town was dedicated to this icon and it is located very close to the Catherine Palace.  The church had a huge, silver-covered ikon of this ikon that was a popular place for prayer.  Alexandra and her daughters would come here frequently to ask for the intercessionary prayers of the Virgin and light candles before the icon.

The icon was brought to the Alexander Palace for special services, frequently when the Tsarevich was sick.

After the revolution, just prior to the exile of the Romanovs to Siberia where they were eventually murdered, the icon was carried in procession from the church and throughout the halls of the palace.  As Countess Sophia Buxhoeveden writes in the Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Feodorovna writes:

At Makarov’s order, packing was begun very discreetly, so as not to suggest to the soldiers that there was any idea of departure. As August 12th was the Grand Duke Alexei’s thirteenth birthday, a Te Deum was sung before the ikon of “Our Lady of Znamenie,” which was specially brought to the Palace. Prayers for the success of the journey were added to the usual ones. The Emperor and Empress took leave of all the servants who were not going with them, and thanked them for their faithful service. The Empress sorted out her dresses, and sent parcels of them to humble friends and Polish refugees, who were living at Tsarskoe Selo. The departure was fixed for the night of August 13th, but owing to some mistake on the part of the authorities it was delayed for hours. There were not enough men to move the luggage, which was to be taken at the last moment, and in the meantime the soldiers had got wind of the departure, and held meetings in all the barracks to discuss whether or not it should be allowed. The Emperor and Empress waited patiently for many hours till they were told they could leave. No one knew yet where they were being taken, and they only heard their actual destination when they were in the train.

Another account follows from Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo by Count Paul Beckendorff (the difference in dates is due to the Russian Calendar which was behind the calendar used in the West):

On the 30th of July, the birthday of the Tsarevich, we went to Mass, and at 2 o’clock in the afternoon a holy ikon, which was greatly venerated, was brought from the Church of Our Lady of the Sign (A feast of purely Russian origin.), which is next to the Lyceum. It was brought in procession and the clergy of this church were admitted to the Palace and to the Chapel. The Te Deum was sung and prayers were said asking God for a prosperous journey for their Majesties, their children and all those who accompanied them. The scene was moving. The ceremony was as poignant as could be: all were in tears. The soldiers themselves seemed touched, and approached the holy ikon to kiss it. They followed the procession as far as the balcony, and saw it disappear through the Park. It was as if the past were taking leave, never to come back. The memory of this ceremony will always remain in my mind, and I cannot think of it without profound emotion. In the course of the day we all went, as usual, to the kitchen-garden, and groups were taken.

Alexandra had a special icon of the Znamenskaya which she placed in her private bedroom chapel.  This icon always traveled with her and the Empress took it with her into exile in Siberia.  It was found in Yekaterinberg stripped of it’s jeweled cover (if anyone knows what became of ths ikon I would like to know!).  The grandduchesses had identical copies of the ikon in Siberia, which were also found by the Whites after the Bolsheviks withdrew from Yekaterinburg.

Copies of the ikon hung in many of the rooms of the Alexander Palace and in the rooms of Marie and Anastasia’s hospital in the Feodorovski Village (Gorodok).  These versions wore distinctive white cowls.

Here are three icons of the Znamenskaya:

Our Lady of the Sign from Alexandra's Bedroom

Above: This ikon was on the wall behind the Imperial bed.  It hung at the top on the right-hand side near the entrance to Alexandra’s small chapel.  It was presented to the Imperial family around 1910.  This ikon shows “Our Lady of the Sign” in the center, surrounded by images of the Imperial family’s heavenly protectors.  The ornate silver setting is by the Moscow firm of Olovianishnikov.  This icon stayed in the Empress’s bedroom until 1941.  After the war it was sent to the central depot in the Alexander Palace, where all of the returning treasures of Tsarskoe Selo and Pavlovsk were stored.  In 1956 many of the treasures of the Alexander Palace were divided up and sent to other museums.  This icon went to the Hermitage, where it is today.

Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign

Above:  This was one of the last icons given to Alexandra before the revolution. This icon hung in the Imperial bedroom ad It was presented to the Tsaritsa on December 11, 1916 during the fateful visit of the Empress and her daughters to Novgorod.  This was just a few days before the murder of Rasputin.  This visit is described by Anna Vyrubova in Memories of the Russian Court:

In the last days of 1916 the Empress with Olga, Tatiana, and General Racine paid a brief visit to Novgorod to inspect military hospitals and to pray in the monastery and church of Sofivsky Sobor, one of the oldest churches in Russia. Her visit was opposed, quite senselessly, by St. Petersburg society, which accused her of going for some bad purpose, God knows what. But at Novgorod the people poured out in throngs to greet her with peals of bells, music, and cheers. Before leaving the city the Empress paid a visit to a very old woman who had spent forty helpless years in bed, still wearing the heavy chains of penitence which as a pilgrim she had, almost a lifetime before, assumed. As her Majesty entered the old woman’s cell a feeble voice uttered these words: “Here comes the martyred Empress, Alexandra Feodorovna.” What could this aged and bedridden recluse have known or guessed of events which were to come?

Below: The ikon of our Lady of the Sign below was reproduced in books and prints.  This image was printed in the last years of the dynasty.  It shows a very sentimentalized version of the icon, encrusted in gold, with a jeweled veil.  This is a loose replica of the celebrated icon in the Tsarskoe Church.

Our Lady of the Sign icon

Protected: Admiral Zheng Ho historic collections

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

Tan Ka Kee the founder Of Xianmen University historic Collections


Tan Ka Kee

Historic Collections


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA






Remembering Tan Kah Kee


FOUR years ago, the son of Tan Kah Kee

e gave a speech at an event in Beijing that commemorated the 130th anniversary of the late philanthropist’s birth.

“My father didn’t leave behind much fortune for us, but what we inherited is his intellectual assets – which is even more valuable to all of us,” said Tan Yuan Ji, then 89.

The businessman, whose descendants have settled in Singapore and other parts of the world, recalled that his father was very strict with his children and educated them to be prudent in money matters.


Tan Kah Kee (second from left) inspecting the construction site of Xiamen University.

According to Yuan Ji, his father led by example and was thrifty in what he ate, wore and used. He expected his children to do the same.

But, when it came to education, the late Kah Kee was extremely lavish.

Throughout his eventful life, Kah Kee channelled all his energy and the money he earned from his overseas businesses – in rubber, a pineapple plantation and manufacturing – back to society.

He founded and funded Jimei University and Xiamen University in his hometown of Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, and other schools such as the Singapore Chinese High School and Tao Nan School, also in Singapore.

When he died in 1961, he donated his remaining savings of three million yuan to education.


The selflessness exemplified by the late Tan Kah Kee is embraced and highly regarded by students of Jimei University and Xiamen University as well as the people of Xiamen. Tan’s statue is placed at the main entrance of Jimei University to commemmorate the great philanthropist.

“He visited the Jimei school to examine its construction every day. He was very frugal. He set aside only 15 yuan from his monthly pension of 300 yuan for our food allowance. Each of the children only received 0.15 yuan for pocket money,” Yuan Ji recalled.

The rest of his father’s money, he said, was donated to education.

Born to a humble family of merchants in Jimei Village, Xiamen, in 1874, Kah Kee started school at the age of nine.

At 17, he moved to Singapore to help in his father’s wholesale rice business.

Kah Kee later set up his own pineapple production business and paid off his father’s business debts.

His business expanded to rice and saw milling, manufacturing and a sugar refinery. By 1925, he owned over 15,000 acres of rubber plantation and employed more than 30,000 people in his various businesses.

With a fortune of a million taels of gold, he was hailed as one of the greatest rubber magnates in Singapore and Malaya.

In the wake of the world financial crisis in the 20s and 30s, his businesses suffered and he declared bankruptcy in 1934. But by then, he had already amassed a fortune that enabled him to support a cause close to his heart – education.

A staunch believer that sound education can bring prosperity to a nation, he established his first family school in Jimei at the age of 21. In 1912, he returned to the new Republic of China from Singapore and opened Jimei Primary School the subsequent year.

In an interview with The Star, Xiamen University General Alumni Association editor Huang Zhongshi said, “He had a great vision. He first set up a primary school and later a teacher training college because he wanted to produce adequate teachers for the education system.”

After setting up the teacher training college, Kah Kee expanded the Jimei school village to include a high school, a kindergarten and institutes in agriculture, navigation, commerce, forestry and marine studies as well as other facilities.

These schools and institutes, which still exist today, were fully funded by Kah Kee. Students were invited to class to study for free to encourage them to pursue knowledge, Huang said.

In 1996, Jimei University was formed to bring together all the institutes and faculties. Today, the university has an enrolment of more than 20,000 full-time students.

Founder of universities

Kah Kee travelled between Singapore, Malaya and China to prepare for the setting up of the second university. He spent a million yuan to establish Xiamen University in 1921.

According to university records, it was even bigger in size than the Jimei school village and became one of the most famous overseas Chinese higher learning institutions in the region at that time.

Many of the university’s alumni came from South-East Asia, especially Malaya, Singapore and Indonesia.


Xiamen University General Alumni Association editor Huang Zongshi: ‘He (Tan Kah Kee) had a great vision.’

The philanthropist, who was also a well-respected overseas Chinese leader, hired the best team possible to run the university and educate the students. Among the famed Chinese and Singaporean literary figures and writers who served the university at that time were Lu Xun, Lim Boon Keng and Lin Yutang.

“Why did these academicians come to Xiamen University from Beijing?” Huang said. “This was because the remuneration paid to them was lucrative and the university did not owe them salaries.

“The management paid them on time every month. Lu Xun earned 400 silver dollars while the principal only got 500 silver dollars for coming to the university.”

The late Kah Kee’s selfless contribution to education has made him a respectable icon at the universities and in Xiamen.

Xiamen University post-graduate student He Jinxing said he was attracted by the beauty of the campus at first but he was even more amazed after learning about the tremendous sacrifice of the philanthropist.

“What we have now is the labour of Mr Tan. He established this beautiful university in 1921 and his spirit has made a deep impact on everyone at Xiamen University,” he said.

Jimei University student Lin Danping said: “I didn’t know about Mr Tan when I first came to the university. Only after a visit to Mr Tan’s former residence (in Xiamen) did I get to know about him. It was a turbulent period in the 1910s but he still put his money in education – this was a class act.”


The beautiful Jimei High School, inspired by architectural characteristics designed by its founder Tan Kah Kee, is still standing in the Jimei school village in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China.

Kah Kee’s influence is seen not only in his selflessness but also in the architecture of both Jimei and Xiamen universities. The unique red-and-white brick walls of the building clusters, hostels and other facilities were designed by the philanthropist himself.

Many overseas Chinese and alumni, like the late Lee Kong Chian (Kah Kee’s son-in-law and founder of Lee Rubber Company in Johor), have followed in his footsteps by donating money for the expansion of the universities.

His final years

Kah Kee’s love for his motherland and his support for its revolution movement was never a secret. He backed Sun Yat-Sen financially in the latter’s uprising to overthrow the Qing Dynasty which ended 267 years of rule in 1911.

During the Japanese Occupation, Kah Kee fled to Java where he wrote a book entitled A Memoir of an Overseas Chinese while Xiamen University was relocated to Changting in western Fujian to escape destruction.

After the retreat of the Japanese in 1945, Kah Kee was given a hero’s welcome on his return to Singapore. At a ceremony in Chongqing, China, to celebrate his return, the late Chairman Mao Zedong had inscribed a scroll about Kah Kee which read “Banner of Overseas Chinese, Glory of the Nation”.

In 1950, he returned to settle in Xiamen where he devoted his life to the reconstruction of China under the Communist Party’s rule. He served in the Returning Overseas Chinese League, Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.

He then set up the Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen in 1956 to allow the younger generation to learn about the life of overseas Chinese.

In 1961, he died of cancer in Beijing and, after a state funeral, his body was transported back to Jimei where it was buried at the Ao Yuan Garden.

All in all, the philanthropist contributed an estimated 150 million yuan towards education both in China and abroad.


The mausoleum of the late Chinese philanthropist Tan Kah Kee at Jimei town in Xiamen, China.

Hong Yonghong, who co-wrote New Biography of Tan Kah Kee with the philanthropist’s nephew Tan Keong Choon, said: “If you take a look at his whole life, whether it was how he did his business, treated people, set up schools, denounced the Japanese Occupation and had a hand in the formation of New China, I cannot find any weakness in him.”

Hong said many people may have made donations towards education but the late Tan Kah Kee is perhaps the only person to give all his fortune towards this cause.

Leaders of Jimei and Xiamen universities and the people of Xiamen, he said, embrace the institutions’ respective mottos: “Sincerity and Fortitude” and “Strive for Excellence” (which Kah Kee personally penned) as well as the philanthropist’s noble spirit.

Xiamen University student Han Jian said: “In his mind, he had a clear philosophy of life that only education can make the nation prosperous.”

Echoing Han’s views, another student Che Hongtu said: “I think Mr Tan Kah Kee was a very charismatic personality. Having a person like him do such an important thing like setting up Xiamen University is indeed very respectable.”

At the 130th anniversary commemoration event, the delegation of 45 members of Kah Kee’s family was given a warm welcome when they visited the universities and Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen.

“We know that all this warm welcome was because of the great reputation of Tan Kah Kee,” his grandson Dib Jin said in a speech at the museum.

“The contribution of our grandfather remains unreachable but, as his descendants, we have no excuse not to do our part to continue his legacy.”

Xiamen University’s former vice-chancellor Lim Boon Keng best described the philanthropist in the university’s magazine of 1929: “He is a quiet and honest person who works hard for education. He doesn’t like people to sing praises about what he has done.

“All his factories in Singapore and Johor and the hundreds of acres of rubber estate were set up for nothing but to pay the operational costs of the university.”

Such was the ever generous and philanthropic Tan Kah Kee – a legend who will be remembered forever.



Tan Kah Kee’s timeline

1874 – Born in Jimei, Xiamen, Fujiang Province, China, to businessman Tan Kee Peck.

1890 – Received a letter from his father to help in the latter’s wholesale rice business in Singapore.

1893 – Returned to Jimei to marry Zhang Shi.

1898 – Returned to Jimei because of his mother’s death.

1910 – Joined the league for Chinese revolution, assumed capacity as assistant head of Singapore’s Chinese Chamber of Commerce and raised 50,000 yuan from overseas Chinese born in Fujian, for education.


1912 – Returned to Jimei to set up Jimei Primary School.

1919 – Returned to his hometown to establish Xiamen University.

1921 – Xiamen University opened.

1924 – Established Nanyang Siang Pau (Malaysia’s major Chinese-medium newspaper) in Singapore.

1926 – Faced financial crisis but he continued to pump in funds for Xiamen University and Jimei schools as well other schools in Singapore.

1941 – Led an association comprising overseas Chinese to fight against the Japanese Occupation.

1942 – Fled to Java to escape from Japanese attacks, and wrote Memoir of an Overseas Chinese, and Housing and Hygiene.

1945 – Returned to Singapore after the exile in Java.

1947 – Established Jiyou Bank in Hong Kong to ensure the institutions set up by overseas Chinese would be financially self-reliant.

1949 – Welcomed back to China by Chinese Government and served in the national Chinese People’s Political Consultative Committee.

1950 – Visited Singapore and Malaya for the last time before settling in his hometown Jimei.

1959 – Set up Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen.

1961 – Died of cancer in Beijing. His body was buried in Ao Yuan Garden in Jimei.

Brief History

Brief History

Nan Chiau Primary School is one of six schools run by the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. It was formerly the primary section of Nan Chiau High School. Established in March 1947, it is always progressing with the time, continuously undergoing self-renewal in line with the needs of the nation and making positive contributions to the educational development of Singapore. .


Initiated by Mr Tan Kah Kee, Mr Lee Kong Chian donated a plot of land at Kim Yan Road as the school site for the building of Nan Chiau Teachers’ Training School.



Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan converted the Nan Chiau Teachers’ Training School to Nan Chiau Girls’ High School including an ancillary primary school. Nan Chiau Girls’ High School was founded.



Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan invested $2 million in rebuilding the school. The secondary school moved to temporary premises at Guillemard Road while the primary school remained at the original site.



Nan Chiau Primary School is one of six schools run by the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. It was formerly the primary section of Nan Chiau High School. Established in March 1947, it is always progressing with the time, continuously undergoing self-renewal in line with the needs of the nation and making positive contributions to the educational development of Singapore. .



The school began functioning as a full school, with the primary section and the secondary section sharing the same premises.



The school adopted English as its main medium of instruction.



With its first intake of male pupils, the school became co-educational and was renamed Nan Chiau High School.


Relocated to Sengkang New Town in December 2000, Nan Chiau High School and
Nan Chiau Primary School operated as two schools in January 2001.


Nan Chiau Primary School was officially opened by RAdm Teo Chee Hean, Minister for Education on 8 March 2003.


The school was selected to join BackPack.NET, a collaborative initiative by MOE, Microsoft and iDA.


The school was awarded the LEAD IT School status.
The school was also the Prototype School for Curriculum Innovation under the TLLM (Teach Less Learn More) initiative.


The school achieved the Best School (National) Thinking Culture Award (TCA).
The school received the Programme for School-Based Excellence (PSE) in ICT Award.
The school received the Singapore Innovation Class (I-Class) Award.


Nan Chiau Primary School and the Learning Sciences Lab/National Institute of Education jointly set up the Centre for Educational Research and Application in ICT (CERA).
The school was selected to join BackPack.LIVE, a collaborative initiative by MOE and Microsoft.


The school was appointed the North Zone (NZ) Centre of Excellence (CoE) for ICT.
The school received the Singapore Innovation Class (I-Class) Award for the second time.




Mr. Tan Kah Kee (1874-1961), a renowned Overseas Chinese entrepreneur, social reformer, philanthropist, and educationist in modern history, was an outstanding representative of his peers fighting for nation’s prosperity and revitalization. With deep love for his motherland he generously donated to schools and made remarkable contribution to Chinese nation’s revival.

Mr. Tan Kah Kee departed for Singapore in his youth time to work for his father’s shop, and expanded his business by developing rubber industry and shipping, making himself a successful and outstanding entrepreneur. Mr. Tan had never forgotten his motherland and hometown. He financed a series of world famous schools and universities, such as Jimei Schools, and Xiamen University. In Sino-Japanese War which broke out in 1937, Mr. Tan united mass Chinese people in Singapore and organized many relief funds under his name. He also organized a large number of overseas Chinese back to China to support in Anti-Japanese War. His love for his country and his national integrity are worth admiring by Chinese people forever. Chairman Mao Tse-tung praised Mr. Tan Kah Kee as “flag of overseas Chinese and flame of Chinese nation”. Premier Zhou Enlai spoke highly of Mr. Tan Kah Kee that “he had tried his utmost for national victory and made boundless painstaking efforts for unification in Anti-Japanese War; His heart is to stay untainted in spite of rumors and slanders, and he is never to be subdued by force.”



Tan Kah Kee


Tan Kah Kee



October 21, 1874(1874-10-21)
Tong’an County, Fujian province


August 12, 1961(1961-08-12)



Known for

Philanthropic work


Teo Po Ke


Tan Ai Li (daughter)


Tan Kee Peck (father)


Tan Keng Hian (younger brother)
Lee Kong Chian (son-in-law)

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Tan.

Tan Kah Kee (simplified Chinese: 陈嘉; traditional Chinese: 陳嘉庚; pinyin: Chén Jiāgēng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tân Kah-kiⁿ) (October 21, 1874 – August 12, 1961) was a prominent businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People’s Republic of China. [edit] Biography

Early years

Tan was born in Jimei, Tong’an county, Fujian province, China (present-day Jimei District in Xiamen City), and went to Singapore in 1890, when he was 16 years old, to work for his father’s rice store. After his father’s business collapsed in 1903, Tan started his own business and built an empire from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to rice trading. His business was at its prime from 1912–1914, where he was known as “Henry Ford of the Malaya community, both in Malaya and his native Fujian province.

Establishment of education institutions

Tan was one of the 110 founding members of Tao Nan School. He set up the Jimei Schools (now Jimei University) in 1913. In 1919, he set up The Chinese High School, now named Hwa Chong Institution in Singapore. While in 1921, he set up the Xiamen University and financially supported it until the Government of the Republic of China took it over in 1937.


In 1920, he married his daughter Tan Ai Li to Lee Kong Chian, who worked under him and who later became a famous Singaporean philanthropist and businessman.

World War Two

Tan was one of the prominent ethnic Chinese Malayans to financially support Chinese efforts in the Second Sino-Japanese War which broke out in 1937 and organized many relief funds under his name. He was also a participant in the Legislative Yuan of the Nationalist Government under Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing. After the Japanese invaded and occupied Malaya and Singapore during the Battle of Malaya and the Battle of Singapore, these contributors were defined as “undesirables” and were subjected to systematic extermination in the Sook Ching Massacre, although Tan survived. Tan strongly rejected proposals to attempt to negotiate with the Japanese, regarding any such attempts as characteristic of a hanjian (traitor of the Chinese), and petitioned the pessimistic Wang Jingwei to dissuade him from any such activities. Tan also exercised considerable effort against the then-governor of Fujian province, Chen Yi, for perceived maladministration.[1]


Tan was the de facto leader of the Singaporean Chinese community, serving as chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped organise the Hokkien clan association. However, he lost this role when the Chinese Civil War divided the Singaporean Chinese community into Communist Party of China (CPC) and Kuomintang sympathizers. Tan was a CPC supporter as he was disillusioned with the corruption within the Nationalists.[citation needed] After the Communist victory in China, Tan tried to return to Singapore in 1950, but was denied entry by British colonial authority which was concerned about communist influence in Singapore and Malaya. He then moved permanently to China and served in numerous positions within the CPC. He died in 1961 in Beijing and was given a state funeral by the People’s Republic of China. In Singapore, the Tan Kah Kee Scholarship Fund, which later became the Tan Kah Kee Foundation, was established in memory of this philanthropy.

Later years

In 1943, while taking refuge in Java from the Japanese, Tan began writing his memoirs, The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the Southern Ocean (simplified Chinese: 侨回忆录; traditional Chinese: 南僑回憶錄; pinyin: Nánqíao Húiyìlù). This work became a valuable resource of the history of overseas Chinese.

Image gallery

Statue of Tan Kah Kee in front of his memorial hall in Xiamen University

A statue of Tan Kah Kee in front of the clock tower of Hwa Chong Institution



Tan Kah Kee —”Henry Ford of Asia”
(not the “Chicken guy” of Tan Kah Kee Fried Chicken, but the great “Rubber Magnate!” & founder of Xiamen University)
From ” Xiamen University–Strength of the Nation” .by Dr. Bill Brown & Robin Feifei– almost 400 pages, bilingual Chinese/English parallel, B&W and color photos, drawings, maps.


A Double Portion of Tan’s Spirit
Innovative education is of course nothing new at XMU. Our university has been pioneering all elements of modern education ever since it was founded in 1921 by the “Henry Ford of Asia,” Mr. Tan Kah Kee. This famous Overseas Chinese patriot gave an estimated USD 100 million to educa-tion, thanks his business acumen and frugal lifestyle. But Mr. Tan left us much more than mere money.

As I teach in Organizational Behavior, organizations’ personalities often reflect those of their founders, and XMU is certainly no exception. XMU’s 85 years of success show it has inherited a double portion of Mr. Tan’s spirit and vision for a better China, a better Asia, and a better humanity.

Our university’s founder, Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng, 1874-1961), gave an estimated 100 million USD to education over his lifetime but he was born into a humble family of merchants in the village of Jimei, on the mainland across from Xiamen Island. Tan worked the fields and the fishnets until he started school at the age of nine, and in the fall of 1890 he moved to Singapore to help in his father’s rice shop. His father’s business went under in 1904, but the savvy son pulled together enough capital to buy 500 acres of forested land in Singapore and started a pineapple plantation.

The Rubber Magnate Tan rapidly expanded into rice milling, manu-facturing, sawmills, real estate, and ocean transport, but it was rubber that really stretched his fortune. He set aside a few acres of his pineapple planta-tion and eventually had 10,000 acres of rubber trees. His expansion from rubber planting to rubber manufacturing helped create the rubber industry and made him one of the four great Rubber Barons.
By the mid 1920s, the Rubber Magnate’s Singapore-based empire em-ployed over 30,000 people, had 150 offices on 5 continents, and did business with 48 countries. But prices plummeted after 1926 and rubber never quite bounced back. Even worse, after Mr. Tan protested Japan’s brutal “Jinan Massacre” (May 3rd, 1928), his factory was burned to the ground. Yet even as he
struggled through the Great Depression he continued to finance Jimei School, Xiamen University, and Chinese and English schools in Singapore—a feat he managed in part because of his frugality.

The Frugal Philanthropist Rich philanthropists generally give but a fraction of their wealth while alive, but leave behind large foundations since the only thing they can take with them when they die is their reputation. But Mr. Tan quite literally gave like a prince while living like a pauper, subsisting on little more than rice porridge and potatoes, and using the same umbrella and battered suitcases for decades. Other rich Chinese of his day built luxurious villas on nearby Gulangyu Islet, but Mr. Tan contented himself with a sim-pler home in his native Jimei. As he wrote to a relative, his hometown still had great needs and “I cannot put myself before the community.”

The Japanese destroyed Tan’s home in 1938, and when the Chinese government offered to rebuilt it after Liberation, Tan insisted that war-damaged school buildings be rebuilt first. His home was finally renovated in 1955 and he lived there from 1958 until 1960, when he moved to Beijing. Tan’s house was restored to its original design in 1980 and is now a museum and meeting place for the Jimei School Committee. I think the most moving exhibits are the battered suitcases, umbrellas and worn-out shoes that the “pauper millionaire” used for decades.

Mr. Tan’s Vision for China Mr. Tan was a social and political reformer from youth. He supported Sun Yat-sen, and at one point accounted for about 1/3 of the Kuomintang’s finances (a feat he no doubt regretted when Chiang Kai Shek absconded to Taiwan with his money and everyone else’s). But Tan’s greatest hope for China was in modern education.

In 1894, at age 21, Tan began a family school in Jimei. In 1912, during the first year of the new Republic of China, Tan returned to China and on January 27, 1913 opened the Jimei Primary School. Between 1920 and 1926 he opened a school a year until Jimei School Village had 11 schools, includ-ing a middle school and schools in agriculture, commerce, forestry, navigation, etc. In addition, Jimei School Village’s education promotion department donated to more than 70 middle schools and primary schools throughout Fujian province.
Back to top

Supporting Education Abroad Tan also began or funded at least seven schools in Singapore, including Tao Nan (1907), Ai Tong (1912), Chung Fook Girls School (1915), Chung Poon (1915), the Singapore Chi-nese High School (1918), Nanyang Normal School (1941) and Nan Chaio Girls High School (1947). . His largesse was not limited to Chinese schools. He gave $30,000 to the Anglo-Chinese School in 1919 and in 1941 gave $10,000 to Raffles College, which later merged with the Medical College and eventually became the University of Singapore.

Xiamen University—Apple of Tan’s Eye In early November, 1920, Mr. Tan offered one million Yuan to start Xiamen University, which began with the Normal and Commerce Departments, and later expanded to five Colleges and 17 departments in Literature, Science, Law, Commerce and Education. Xiamen University captured the imagination of Chinese and foreigners alike. In the 1920s, Paul Hutchinson wrote,

“This school [Xiamen University] is entirely a Chinese institution, with no foreign teachers and no foreign connections, and right out in a small Chinese village. The course of study is being made very practical… When we think of the future days, it is one of the most encouraging things to be seen in the whole of China.”

Mr. Tan emphasized quality education. He sent students abroad, hired teachers from other areas, purchased the latest equipment, and emphasized sports. By the spring of 1937, his financial fortunes had so suffered that he allowed the government to take over Xiamen University, but he continued to subsidize it. Tan wrote to the minister of education that he had had “a fine start and a poor finish,” and would “live in perpetual regret.” [If only he could see XMU today!]
Back to top
XMU Retreats to Changting That same year, Xiamen University relocated to Changting in West Fujian to escape destruction by the Japanese, who had occupied Xiamen. [Read more in the next chapter, “Sa Bendong”]. The Japanese surrendered in August, 1945, and on October 21, 500 mass organizations in Singapore welcomed Tan’s return from a decade of exile in Java. A large meeting in Chongqing on November 18, 1945, celebrated Mr. Tan’s safety, and Chairman Mao inscribed a scroll about Tan which read, “Banner of Overseas Chinese, Glory of the Nation.”

XMU returned to Xiamen after Japan’s defeat and the new president and eminent biologist, Dr. Wang Deyao, immediately set out rebuilding and ex-panding the campus. Tan’s vision and money and Wang’s leadership paid off. XMU was designated a key national university in 1962 and has been mushrooming ever since.

On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao invited Mr. Tan to Tiananmen to participate in the ceremony of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Tan settled down in his homeland in 1950 and devoted the rest of his life and fortune to its reconstruction.
Back to top
Tan’s Final Years During his last years Mr. Tan served in many posts, including Chairman of Returning Overseas Chinese League, Member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, and Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC. He was also responsible for innovations like China’s first sea-spanning bridge (the award-winning Xiamen-Jimei bridge), the Jimei Dragon Boat Pool, which has hosted numerous domestic and international aquatic events, and Jimei’s 15 storey Nanyuan Building, which has a navigational light on the roof to guide fishermen safely home.

Mr. Tan died of cancer in 1961, and after a State Funeral in Beijing, a special train transported his body to his hometown of Jimei. Tan left behind three million Yuan in banks, but the man who gave like a prince and lived like a pauper evidently expected his descendants to do the same—or make their own fortune. He left no money to his family, but gave half a million to Jimei School Foundation, half a million to construct Beijing’s Overseas Chinese Museum, and over two million Yuan for education.

Tan’s International Legacy Altogether, Mr. Tan gave an estimated 100 million USD towards education, both in China and abroad, and the Tan Kah Kee Foundation has been awarding a Postgraduate Scholarship since 1983. In 1986, Nobel Prize Laureate Prof. C.N. Yang set up the Tan Kah Kee Inventors’ Award, and in 1992, Prof Yang and two other Nobel Prize Laureates, Prof Samuel C.C. Ting and Prof Li Yuan Tseh, together with Prof Changlin Tien, former Vice-chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, and Prof Wang Gungwu, former President of Hong Kong University, set up the Tan Kah Kee International Society Foundation to the advancement of education and culture in the spirit of Tan Kah Kee.

In 1991, Singapore’s president, Dr. Wee Kim Wee, launched the University Endowment Fund in honor of Mr. Tan, and set a goal of raising 1$ billion for education. On 11 March, 1990, the International Asteroid Center of China named Asteroid 2963 “Tan Kah Kee Star.” The naming ceremony was held at Xiamen University.
Lastly, the School of Chemistry in my home state’s University of California, Berkeley, has a “Tan Kah Kee Hall.” I hope more and more foreigners and Chinese alike will come to understand, and emulate, Tan Kah Kee’s spirit of sacrificial giving.
Fujian Province, China



Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports.

In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.




The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.

Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.

Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

A pineapple cannery in 1915.

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.

Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.


The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.



Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..

In Singapore and Malaya, local born Chinese were called Peranakans because they adopted local Malay customs and blended it with their Hokkien heritage. A small subset of Peranakans are equivalent to the Mestizos because of mixed Hokkien-Malay parentage. Most Peranakans, like my family, were just local born Hokkiens.

This local born community developed a unique culture and cuisine that blended the best from both cultures. They spoke a distinct language based essentially on Malay but laced liberally with Hokkien vernicular.

The Linguistic Influence of Hokkien in other languages

Apparently, words of Hokkien origin have entered the vocabulary of not just Malay but English and Tagalog.

1. Satin. From the ancient port of Zaytun, now called Chuanchew in Fujian.

2. Tea. YES! This is actually a Hokkien word which is teh.

3. Junk. The Chinese ship. The Hokkien word for it is “jun”, which was kinda brutally mangled as “junk” by non-Min speakers grasping for a word to describe the odd looking sailing vessel.




Zhangzhou (Tiongchew) – southern tip of Fujian, China.


Temple grounds of Quanzhou (Chuanchew), Fujian, China



As prominent businessmen, Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian not only assumed positions of social authority, they also used their influence to build institutions and networks both locally and abroad, from the huay kuan to institutions of higher learning, that would further their respective causes.



Rallying the People


A key figure in the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, Ee Hoe Hean Club and various business associations, Tan Kah Kee encouraged these organisations to modernise, just as China needed to modernise. He often called for greater unity among the different Chinese dialect groups, and took the lead in rallying the Chinese in Southeast Asia to support China’s war effort against the Japanese.

Tan believed that for China to be strong, the different dialect groups or bang needed to work together. Even though his Hokkien community outnumbered the others and enjoyed more influence in the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, he felt that all Chamber members should be treated equally. He said, “The Chamber of Commerce is an organisation to rally all Singapore businessmen, and there seems to be no necessity to draw a line between their bang affiliation.”

Tan could not convince the Chamber to adopt a more democratic approach during his lifetime, but his ability to rally others to his causes helped him to build the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan into a body that solidly supported education and promoted social development. Similarly, he encouraged Chinese towkays from other dialect groups to join the Ee Hoe Hean Club, a businessmen’s social club dominated by the Hokkien. With Tan as its chairman from 1923, the Club became a platform for raising political awareness of the Japanese invasion of China and the headquarters for Tan’s various Relief Fund efforts.





Supporting the Motherland


Despite the many years he spent in Singapore, Tan Kah Kee had a strong attachment to China. Besides building schools, he was instrumental in leading the Singapore Chinese community to support many relief efforts for China from the late 1920s. In 1938, Tan was elected to chair the South Seas China Relief Fund Union, which gathered not only financial resources but also sent volunteer drivers and mechanics to transport military and medical supplies on the Burma Road to China.

Tan’s early anti-Japanese war efforts were launched after the 1928 Jinan Incident, when Japanese and Chinese military clashes led to many civilian casualties. Believing that the Overseas Chinese had a responsibility to support their homeland when it was under threat, Tan led the Shandong Relief effort, which raised $1 million (Chinese currency) within a month.

Tan went on to lead other relief fund efforts, culminating in the Singapore China Relief Fund Committee and South Seas China Relief Fund Union. Under his able leadership, the latter consolidated the efforts of Chinese communities across Southeast Asia and contributed a total of about $5,500 million (Chinese currency) to the Chinese war effort between 1937 and 1942. Tan was greatly respected by the Chinese political leadership; during a 1940 mission to China, he met Chiang Kai Shek, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and other key members of the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party.






Rebuilding After the War


When Lee Kong Chian returned to Singapore after the Second World War, he was quickly tapped by the colonial government as an advisor on restoring the business sector, then as a member of the Advisory Council. Although he enjoyed the confidence of the British, Lee spoke out against policies that he felt did not serve the people’s interests. These included attempts by the government to reduce financial support for Chinese schools, and a draft Federation of Malaya Constitution which discriminated against the Chinese in Malaya.

Lee believed in the value of social service and raising the standard of living, as the forces of nationalism and decolonisation were transforming Singapore and Malaya. He pleaded, “Wise men in Southeast Asia should pray for gradualism. They should put their faith in slow change. … [Change is] coming but let’s keep it from being too violent.”

To improve social conditions, Lee led community initiatives to help those who were affected by disaster, most memorably in response to the Geylang fire in 1953 and the Bukit Ho Swee fire in 1961. He made personal donations, as well as visited the disaster sites to talk to victims and help with relief work. Besides helping in times of crisis, Lee funded social organisations like hospitals sports facilities and childcare centres.

Lee also contributed to institutions such as the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan and Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry – in particular, by donating to the construction of their buildings. These became important meeting places for members of Singapore’s Chinese business community, which played a key role in shifting Singapore’s post-war economy towards industrialisation.

 The exhibition, The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian, is on at the Sutera Mall  until July 19.




Building Institutions That Last


Lee Kong Chian continued to give tirelessly to social causes in the 1950s and early 1960s, in both public and private capacities. He was appointed Chairman of the Council of Social Service (today known as the National Council of Social Service) and also established the Lee Foundation to further the charitable causes that he supported. He is fondly remembered for having been the first to suggest to the colonial government to set up a free public library, and later contributed to the building of the first National Library at Stamford Road.

Education was always close to Lee’s heart, and by stipulating that library services be provided free to the public, his donation put knowledge and learning resources into the hands of a young population. He gave generously to the University of Malaya (today’s National University of Singapore) and was a key donor towards the founding of Nanyang University. To spur others to give as well, he promised to contribute 10% of the total funds raised by the public effort. This approach helped to promote the importance of a shared social responsibility for good causes.

Lee recognised the need to extend help beyond what he alone could do. By setting up the Lee Foundation, he created a system that would continue what he had started. It would provide consistent support to cultural, educational, charitable and public organisations, regardless of race or religion, through good and bad times –all in the same spirit of generosity that he exemplified.




Tan Kah Kee

(Chen Jiageng, 1874-1961)

Originally from the village of Jimei, 16 miles from Xiamen in Fujian Province, China, Tan Kah Kee arrived in Singapore at age 16 (1890) to begin his career in his father’s rice store. That business collapsed in 1903, but Tan Kah Kee went on to build an industrial empire ranging from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to — rice trading. The years 1912 – 1914 were the best for his enterprises when he amassed a huge fortune. He came to be known as the “Henry Ford of Malaya.”

Originally from the village of Jimei, 16 miles from Xiamen in Fujian Province, China, Tan Kah Kee arrived in Singapore at age 16 (1890) to begin his career in his father’s rice store. That business collapsed in 1903, but Tan Kah Kee went on to build an industrial empire ranging from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to — rice trading. The years 1912 – 1914 were the best for his enterprises when he amassed a huge fortune. He came to be known as the “Henry Ford of Malaya.”

He spent his fortune not on himself or his family, but on education, for education, not business, was his abiding concern. He founded and financed several schools and other educational institutions in his native Jimei as well as in Singapore. In 1921 he set up Xiamen University where Lim Boon Keng was first Vice-chancellor, and maintained it for 16 years even during his financially difficult years, before the Chinese government took it over in 1937. Among the schools he founded in Singapore are Singapore Chinese High, Daonan, Aitong, Chongfu, Huachiao and Nanyang Girls’ High. Besides Chinese schools he also made contributions to Anglo-Chinese School and Raffles College. He was also active in campaigning for educational and social reforms in the 1920’s and 1930’s.

Tan Kah Kee was held in high regard as community leader. He was twice chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped reorganize the Hokkien Huay Kuan (Hokkien clan association). In 1923 when he was general manager of the Ee Hoe Hean (Yihexuan) Club, the so-called Millionaires’ Club of Singapore, he launched the Chinese newspaper, Nanyang Siang Pau (Nanyang Shangbao). In the years of China’s struggle against the Japanese invasion he provided leadership in organizing the various Relief Funds. His role as community spokesman, however, ended after World War II when the Singapore Chinese community was split into the pro-Communist and pro-Kuomintang camps. Tan Kah Kee’s sympathies lay with the Communists when he saw the corruption of the Kuomintang at the time. He returned to China in 1950, where he held various posts under the Communist government. He died in Beijing in 1961, and was accorded a state funeral.

Tan Kah Kee began writing his memoirs, Nanqiao huiyilu [The memoirs of an overseas Chinese of the South Seas], in 1943 while taking refuge in Java from the Japanese. From his memoirs one could see that he placed more importance on his involvement in education, social reform and politics than on his business undertakings, and the work is a most valuable source for the history of the Chinese community of that time. It was first published in Singapore in 1946 by Tan Kah Kee himself and has since gone through several reprints.

Tan Kah Kee became an overseas Chinese hero and legend not merely because of his phenomenal success in business, but chiefly because of what he did for the community, in Singapore and in China. His success derived not only from his enormous energy and drive, his sharp and analytical mind, his shrewdness and courage to take risks, but also from his firm belief in giving to others. He was an example and inspiration to the younger talents he helped nurture. Among these were Lee Kong Chian and Tan Lark Sye.

He is still an inspiration today. In 1986 the Nobel Laureate Prof C.N. Yang set up the Tan Kah Kee Young Inventors’ Award, and in 1992 three Nobel Laureates, Prof C.N. Yang, Prof Samuel C.C. Ting and Prof Li Yuan Tseh together with Prof Chang-lin Tien, former Vice-chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, and Prof Wang Gungwu, former President of Hong Kong University initiated the Foundation of the Tan Kah Kee International Society whose aim is to promote education and culture for the advancement of mankind in accordance with the Tan Kah Kee spirit.


Tan Kah Kee, The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the South Seas  (in Chinese). Taiyuan: Shanxi Guji chuban she,1996.

He Shuilin, Ed.
Biographies of Singapore Chinese historical personalities (in Chinese). Singapore: Singapore Educational Publications Pte Ltd.,1995

The Memoirs of Tan Kah Kee. Ed.&Tr. AHC Ward et al. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1994

Yong Chin Fatt.
Tan Kah Kee: The Making of an Overseas Chinese Legend. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Chen Bisheng and Chen Yiming,
A Chronological Biography of Tan Kah Kee (in Chinese). Fuzhou, 1986.

Tan Kah Kee International Society.
A Brief Introduction to Tan Kah Kee (in Chinese) accessed on 31 March 2001

A tale of two Chinese legends


TAN Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian are probably two of the most well-known names among the Chinese community.


The Lee Pineapple Co Ltd in Singapore was one of the many companies under the Lee Kong Chian empire.

The duo were not only enterprising businessmen but philanthropists who built schools and universities.

Tan was born in the Fujian Province, China, in 1874. He emigrated to Singapore at the age of 16. He was hailed as the “Henry Ford of Malaya”, having built a vast empire that included real estate, rubber and the rice trade.

He also established the Tan Kah Kee Foundation and set up several schools and a university throughout Malaya, China and Singapore.

He penned The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the Southern Ocean, which became a valuable resource on the history of overseas Chinese. Tan died in 1961.

His son-in-law Lee Kong Chian, who was born in 1893, also became one of the wealthiest men in Southeast Asia between the 1950s and 1960s.

He set up the Lee Foundation in Singapore in 1952, and in Malaya eight years later. He was also the man behind the Lee Pineapple Co Ltd in Singapore and Lee Pineapple Sdn Bhd in Skudai, Johor.

Lee died in 1967 but his legacy continues with his three sons and three daughters.

For the younger generation who would like to learn more about Tan and Lee, an exhibition entitled “The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian”, will be held at Sutera Mall in Johor Baru from June 20 to July 19.

Spokesman for the organising committee, Goh Lak Jin, said the event aims to capture the spirit of philanthropy and entrepreneurship of these pioneers and serve as an inspiration to youngsters.

The exhibition will be divided into four galleries. Gallery 1 will document the duo’s achievements as entrepreneurs.

Gallery 2 will feature them as promoters of education and Gallery 3 will showcase their lives as community leaders. Gallery 4 will highlight their legacy.

The public, especially students, are encouraged to attend the event which will include the screening of a documentary, old photographs and books on the two men sourced from China, Singapore and Malaysia.

There will also be a host of activities such as quizzes, dance and cultural performances by students of various schools, a calligraphy competition and a book fair.

The advisors of the exhibition are history researchers Jane Wee, Wendy Zoulu, Han Tan Juan and Lim Guan Hock.

Among the joint organisers are the Hokkien Huay Kuan Johor Baru, Federation of Johor Baru Tionghua and South Johor Chinese Press Club






Tan Kah Kee was one of the most prominent ethnic chinese Malayans to financially support chinese efforts in the Second Sino-Japanese war which broke out in 1937 and organised many relief funds under his name. Tan Kah Kee also exercised considerable effort against the then-governor of the Fujian province, Chen Yi, for perceived maladministration.

Tan Kah Kee was also the de facto leader of the Singapore Chinese Community, serving as chairman for the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped organise the Hokkien clan association. However he lost this role when the Chinese Civil War divided the Singaporean Chinese Community into Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Kuomintang sympathizers. Tan Kah Kee was a CCP supporter as he was disillusioned with the corruption within the Nationalists.

After the Communist Victory in China, he tried to return to Singapore in 1950 but was denied entry by British colonial authority which was concerned about the Communist influence in Singapore and Malaya.


Tan Kah Kee was born in Jimei, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, and went to Singapore in 1890, when he was 16 years old, to work for his father’s rice store. After his father’s business collapsed in 1903, Tan started his own business and built an empire from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to rice trading. His business was at its prime from 1912-1914, where he was known as “Henry Ford of Malaya“.

With the profit he made from his business empire, Mr Tan Kah Kee contributed greatly to the community, bothe in Malaya and his native Fujian Province. He was one of the 110 founding membersof Tao Nan School. He set up the Jimei schools, which is now known as the Jimei university, in 1913.In 1919, he set up The Chinese High School, now named Hwa Chong Institution in Singapore.While in 1921, he set up the Xiamen University and financially supported it until the Government of the Republic of China took it over in 1937. In 1920, he married his daughter Tan Ai Li to Lee Kong Chian, who worked under him and who later became a famous Singaporean philanthropist and businessman.



Founded in 1919 by Mr Tan Kah Kee, The Chinese High School was established to cater to the needs of overseas Chinese primary school leavers in South-east Asia.

Today, it is one of the finest educational institutions for high-achievers and the gifted in the region.  Its reputation as a premier school is based not only on the academic excellence of the students but also their determination to excel in all other areas like leadership, sports and games, co-curricular activities, science research, and service to the community.

The Chinese High School has been a school of choice amongst the best and the brightest.  Every year it attracts the top 3% of the national PSLE cohort and the top 1% that forms the Gifted Education Programme.

This is not confined to only the high achieving students from Singapore but also those from countries like Malaysia and China.  With the merger in 2005, The Chinese High School now forms the High School Section of Hwa Chong Institution.

Hwa Chong Junior College is Singapore’s first government-aided junior college (JC) to be established in 1974.  More than 3 decades later, the College remains committed to offering students an unrivalled holistic education.

In 2004, Hwa Chong became the nation’s first JC to turn independent.  The College was ranked 1st for the last 4 years of the Junior College Ranking Exercise, based on the university point system.




The lush green surroundings evokes a sense of tranquility. The sound of rustling bamboo swaying with the wind. The occasional tunes of chirping birds can be heard from the trees. A sense of calm prevails. But 66 years ago at this same place, the feelings felt by those who trudged up this same path to the building were vey much different. The building was the Ford Motor Factory located at Upper Bukit Timah Road. The feelings of those present were that of the victors and the vanquished. The historical event was the signing of the surrender papers which took place on 15th Feb 1942 during World War II. The British surrendered to to the Japanese invading forces which led to a three and a half years of Japanese occupation of Singapore, once known to be the “Gibraltar of the East”, an impregnable fortress.





Tan Kah Kee: the Founding Father of Xiamen University

Xiamen University was founded in 1921, the first university in China to be established by an Overseas Chinese leader. Mr. Tan Kah-Kee was the pioneer of private education in China, spending his entire fortune in support of education in his native country. Tan Kah-Kee is an inspirational figure in China’s history of education, and was described by Mao Zedong as a “Standard-bearer of the Overseas Chinese and Glory of the Nation”. He was the first President of the China Overseas Chinese League, and outstanding Overseas Chinese leader, a great patriot, and an eminent entrepreneur, educator and social activist.

Standard-bearer of the Overseas Chinese and Glory of the Nation

Tan Kah-Kee was born on October 21st, 1874 in Jimei, in what was then Tong’an County in Fujian Province—currently Jimei District of Xiamen. He was born into an Overseas Chinese family, and was sent to a private school at the age of 7, to be educated in the traditional Chinese manner. He left China for Singapore at the age of 17 to work in his father’s business. He took over the company in 1904, but eventually it failed. In 1916, he started his own business in rubber planting and processing. By 1925, Tan Kah-Kee had become famous as an entrepreneur, known as one of the four founders of the “Malaya Rubber Kingdom” in Singapore.

Tan Kah-Kee was a real patriot, and considered the revitalisation of the Chinese nation a responsibility. He met Sun Yat-sen and, one year later, joined the United League. After the liberation of Fujian in the1911 Revolution, Tan was chosen to be leader of the Fujian Public Security Committee, to raise money for Sun’s revolution. He became the Chairman of the South Seas China Relief Fund Union following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 — the incident thought of as the start of the Anti-Japanese War — and in 1939, he sent Wang Jingwei a telegram accusing him in harsh terms of betraying his motherland — Wang Jingwei was originally a close associate of Sun Yat-Sen, but in 1939 was negotiating a settlement with the Japanese, which led in 1940, to his setting up an independent government in Shanghai in opposition to Chiang Kai-Shek. In March 1940, Tan Kah-Kee led a team of Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia to visit major war zones and Chongqing and Yan’an. He had become disillusioned with the corruption within Kuomintang and the dictatorship of Chiang Kai-shek, and became a firm supporter of the Communist Party as the force to save the people and the nation from chaos. He was the leader of the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-invasion Union when the Japanese invaded Malaya, and even though his life was in danger and he was forced to leave Singapore and seek refuge in Java, he never vacillated in sacrificing his own interests to the noble cause of the liberation of China.

When the Anti-Japanese War ended in 1945, he returned to Singapore to a warm welcome from every group within the Singaporean community. At the invitation of Chairman Mao, he attended the first National People’s Consultative Conference and the founding ceremony of New China in 1949, and in February 1952, returned to China permanently. Tan Kah-Kee held numerous positions within the Communist Party of China, including Member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, Deputy-Chairman of the National People’s Political Consultative Conference. In his later years, he continued to visit cities all over China, in order to understand the primary concerns in life of the common people, and devoted himself to the establishment of the Chinese socialist society. He was also a pre-eminent factor in bringing the Overseas Chinese together to support the development of their hometowns and the nation as a whole. His final wish, even as he lay on his sick-bed was the unification of China. He died in Beijing on August 12th, 1961 at the age of 87, and was given a state funeral. His coffin was sent to his hometown of Jimei, where it is buried in the Turtle Garden.

Devoting his all to education

Even though he spent much of his life in Singapore, Tan Kah-Kee always retained the deepest love for his motherland. As an alien in a foreign land who had suffered indifference and discrimination, he felt the greatest sympathy for the suffering of the people of China as a result of domestic unrest and foreign invasion. He was an honest and successful businessman, and feeling his responsibilities as a Chinese, he resolved to use his wealth to support education in China as a way of helping the nation’s development. In 1913, Tan founded the Jimei Primary School, followed by the endowment of Jimei High School, Jimei Normal College, Jimei Fishery School, Jimei Navigation College, Jimei Business School and the School of Agriculture, which came to be known collectively as the “Jimei Schools”.

In due course, Tan Kah-Kee realised that there was not a single university, neither public nor private, within Fujian Province — a province with a rather large population — with a consequent shortage of professional expertise in both education and other fields. He also realised that there was no possibility of a government-funded university being set up in the province at the time, so, in 1921, he drew on his personal fortune to found Xiamen University. Initially, he saw to every detail himself: the selection of the President; the construction of the necessary buildings; and the recruitment of the academic staff; and, of course, the site for the university — with its back to the hills and its face to the sea, the University is widely acknowledged to have perhaps the most beautiful campus of any university in China. His aim was the development of talented people from both home and abroad, to which end he set up five schools in the University, teaching a total of 17 majors: the School of Liberal Arts, the School of Science, The School of Law, The School of Economics and the School of Education.

Tan Kah-Kee’s educational philanthropy in Singapore was equally impressive. He founded a number of schools of various kinds, and his endowments created an extensive, open education system known by his name. In spite of the fact that his business was running into difficulties as a result of an economic recession, he still managed to raise money in every possible way so as to maintain the continued operation of his schools. This commitment extended as far as turning down flat, in 1932, a generous offer from an overseas consortium which would have saved his business, simply because there was a precondition of withdrawing his support for Xiamen University and Jimei School Village. By spring 1937, he could no longer keep it up, having spent every penny of his fortune on supporting Xiamen University, so the Government of the Republic of China took over the university. Even after it became a public-funded university, he still followed its development closely. He returned to China to visit the university in 1940, after it had been forced to move to Changting because of the war, which the university survived in a manner that earned it the honorary title “Strength of the South”. Following his permanent return to Jimei in 1952, Tan Kah-Kee continued his efforts to raise funds for the expansion of the university.

But Tan Kah-Kee was not merely dedicated to educational philanthropy; he was a far-sighted, extraordinary visionary. He was a firm advocate of the overall development of the students, physically, intellectually and morally; he stressed the importance of vocational education and teacher training; and he laid emphasis on the decisive role in education of the university leadership and its academic staff. Tan Kah-Kee also promoted social development actively; he founded the museum in the Turtle Garden and it was he who proposed the establishment of the Xiamen Overseas Chinese Museum.

According to incomplete figures, Tan Kah Kee’s spent a total of 13.21 billion RMB between 1904 and 1931, including 8.37 billion directly on education itself, and 3.8 billion on interest charges related to his educational funding, in all 92% of his total outgoings. In contrast, his monthly living expenses amounted to less than 1,000 RMB. He said, “My earnings should be spent on public causes, not on personal affairs.” His generosity inspired many Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia to follow his lead in supporting education. The figures show that, between 1915 and 1948, Overseas Chinese of Fujian Province origin set up 48 high schools in various regions of the Province, proof positive of Tan Kah-Kee’s influence on education in China.
The Tan Kah-Kee spirit: “Pursue Excellence, Strive for Perfection”

On establishing Xiamen University in 1921, Tan Kah-Kee gave it the motto: “Pursue Excellence, Strive for Perfection”.
“Pursue Excellence” refers to the conscious, unceasing effort to improve oneself. The expression first appears in the Book of Changes: “As Heaven maintains its vigour through movement, so the gentleman should pursue self-improvement unremittingly.” Tao Kan, the Governor of Jing Zhou during the Jin Dynasty made it his motto, and through his dedication became an powerful, outstanding military figure, whose fame spread wide. His stories of untiringly pursued self-improvement were even recorded This appears in the Book of Rites compiled towards the end of the Tang Dynasty, where it says, “Tao Gan, throughout his life was diligent and pursued self-improvement unremittingly”.

“Strive for Perfection” concerns the persistent effort to pursue ultimate perfection. It refers to the Daxue — “Great Learning” chapter of the Book of Rites: “The way of great learning consists in manifesting one’s shining virtue, in loving the people, in only stopping on achieving perfection.” Zhu Xi, a renowned Song Dynasty scholar explained the term “qin-min” as meaning “xin-min”, or “renovating the people” rather than “loving the people”, emphasising the role of education in fostering people’s inner good qualities. Zhu Xi also laid stress on “persistence” and “perfection” in “only stopping on achieving perfection”. Tan Kah-Kee’s aim in basing the university on ancient wisdom was to inspire the students and staff of the University to maintain a constant pursuit towards the grand goal of perfection and excellence which is the essence of education.

Xiamen University has now become a comprehensive university offering programmes and courses in a wide range of disciplines. It is the only high-level national key research university in any of China’s six Special Economic Zones which comes under the state key “211” and “985” projects. Its location in Xiamen facing the ocean on the southeast coast of China gives Xiamen University the unique geographical advantages of close proximity to Taiwan and easy access to Southeast Asia and the outside world.
The sayings of Tan Kah-Kee: words of wisdom and truth
“Education is the foundation of a nation, supporting education is the responsibility of every citizen.”

“For me, education is the ultimate way to save the nation. Though it may not bring immediate success, it will at least preserve the nation’s culture and spirit for future revival.”

“The wealth and well-being of a nation lies in its citizens, whose development depends on education.”

“A person can contribute the public cause within his ability at any time. If you choose to wait until you are wealthy, you will never be a philanthropist.”

“In spite of constant difficulties and frustrations, I am fully determined to donate the fortune I have earned to education and the service of the people.”

“In simple words, the goals of the University are, on the one hand to pursue scientific development through research, and on the other to promote social progress so that China can become one of the strong nations of this Earth.”

“A student should always make the prosperity of his nation and the well-being of his fellow citizens his first priority.”

“I would rather shut down my business than close the university.”



While Tan Kah Kee was not very wealthy when he arrived in Singapore and Lee Kong Chian came from a humble background, the two men built up transnational business empires through hard work and keen business sense. This made them influential millionaires and laid the financial foundation for their generous philanthropy.



Getting into the business [ View Details ]
When Tan Kah Kee came to Singapore in 1890, he was a 17-year-old young man, venturing for the first time from his birthplace of Jimei village in Tong´an county, Fujian. He joined his father´s Singapore rice mill as an apprentice and soon worked his way up to becoming the company´s manager and treasurer.At this time, Singapore was a port-city booming with business opportunities. Tan´s father did well enough in business that he also had a sago mill, pineapple cannery and property investments. But he fell heavily into debt and the business folded in 1904. Tan was left with $7,000 capital, and he was now on his own.[


Pineapple Prince, Rubber Tycoon


Striking out on his own, Tan Kah Kee followed in his father´s footsteps to set up a pineapple cannery. It soon flourished and enabled him to expand into other profitable industries, such as rice and rubber; in fact, Tan became one of the successful pioneers of the rubber industry.

Pineapple canning proved to be so successful because of the great worldwide demand for it. At the turn of the 20th century, Singapore supplied about three-quarters of the world´s canned pineapples, making it a good launchpad for Tan´s new business empire. Similarly, rubber was in high demand because cars and the supply of electricity were then the newest technologies being introduced around the world. Rubber was essential for making car tyres and electrical insulation.




Many Enterprises, One Vision [
In less than ten years, Tan´s business expanded to include eight pineapple canneries in Singapore and Johor. Tan also bought and sold rubber plantations at a healthy profit. By the mid-1920s, his business employed over 30,000 people, with 150 offices on five continents, and did business with 48 countries.Tan had many other business interests, such as shipping and banking. But this diversification could not protect him entirely from the shockwaves of the Great Depression. He also faced fierce competition from Japanese manufacturers and rival rubber traders. His business empire declined with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, and by 1934 it had folded entirely. Nevertheless, Tan continued to be an energetic and widely respected community leader.[ Close ]




A Humble Beginning [ View Details ]
When Lee Kong Chian began working in Singapore in 1912, his ambition was to become an engineer. But in 1915 he joined a trading company, and in the course of work he met Tan Kah Kee. Impressed by the capable young man who was proficient in English and Chinese, Tan offered him a job – and so started Lee on an extraordinary career in business.Unlike Tan, Lee came from a humble background. Often holding two jobs at once to earn enough income, he was at times a teacher, a translator and even worked as a municipal surveyor while taking a civil engineering correspondence course.[ Close ]


The Meeting of the two men [ View Details ]
Lee was bilingual, having studied in both English- and Chinese-medium schools in Singapore, as well as furthering his education in China. This was a rare skill at the time and although Tan wanted to expand his business with American and European clients, none of his staff were fluent in English. Then he met Lee. Subsequently, or so the story goes, Tan and Lee met again at a hawker stall when it was raining. Lee loaned Tan his umbrella and when he went to collect it, Tan showed him some English documents from an American client. Lee not only understood the documents, he went on to successfully secure the deal – the first of many international deals he would handle for Tan. Gradually, Tan also gave him more financial and managerial responsibilities in the business.[ Close ]


An Astute Businessman and Banker [ View Details ]
From managing Tan Kah Kee´s business interests, Lee Kong Chian gradually built up capital and influence, and initiated entrepreneurial efforts of his own. He established Lee Rubber and took a different path from Tan´s business, investing in rubber trading while Tan shifted towards manufacturing. Hence Lee Rubber did not hold much rubber stock and weathered the Great Depression better than Tan´s company. Lee also anticipated that the rubber market would bounce back from the Depression and strategically invested in rubber stockpiles and plantations that later turned multi-million dollar profits. Lee also made the most of new opportunities. In banking, he benefited from some of Tan´s shares in the Chinese Commercial Bank, while acquiring more on his own. Lee also suggested merging the bank with two other Chinese banks to form OCBC Bank, which eventually grew to become one of the largest banks in Singapore and Malaya. As its chairman (1937–1964, except for the Japanese Occupation years), Lee steered it through many difficult periods.[ Close ]




Building the Lee Group [ View Details ]
Like Tan Kah Kee, Lee Kong Chian held many other business interests that helped his business to grow in many directions at once. Sometimes he took advantage of renting or buying property from Tan Kah Kee and other businessmen; at other times he accurately anticipated and tapped into lucrative new markets.World War Two dealt a serious blow to Lee´s businesses. Lee was in the United States when war broke out in Malaya, and he returned only after it ended. Although his rubber and pineapple holdings were in disarray, he did not write them off but began to rebuild the business with the aid of bank loans and other funds. By the 1950s, Lee Rubber was back on its feet and it made tremendous profits when rubber demand spiked during the Korean War. This propelled the growth of the Lee Group from the 1960s into a conglomerate with investments in many diverse industries, not to mention holdings in other major Singapore companies.[ Close ]


Family Ties [ View Details ]
The close relationship between Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian was sealed when Lee won the hand of Tan’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920. This was typical of the time, when Chinese towkays might marry their children to employees or family members of business associates, to strengthen kinship and business ties. Lee and Ai Lay went on to have six children. 



Xiamen covers a relatively small administrative region yet has three highly regarded universities and other educational institutions, many of which are historically linked to overseas Chinese philanthropists who sent money back for their construction. The photo above shows Jimei School Village which was founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee who made his fortune through rubber plantations and manufacturing businesses.


He also donated millions of dollars to establish Xiamen University (above) and what would later become Jimei University (below) which both have particularly beautiful campuses well worth a visit just to stroll around and enjoy the old traditional buildings and a tranquil lakes. Interestingly the buildings use a  unique blend of Western and Chinese architecture with red brick walls and glazed tiles on more traditionally shaped roofs.


Such was his contribution to education in Xiamen that a museum was recently opened (below) to chronicle his life’ work and there are many statues of him dotted around the city. There’s quite a lot of content translated in English but possibly a bit much for a short visit. The beautiful garden is the main attraction.


One thing which struck me was how impeccably clean Xiamen is in comparison to most Chinese cities that are often more than a bit grimy around the edges. Apparently the city was recently voted China’s cleanest and one can imagine that student life here is pretty nice, something which I always appreciated and miss from my time studying in Durham (UK).






In memory of two great men

The exhibition, ‘The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian’, pays tribute to the two late tycoons famous for not only their wealth but also their generosity of spirit, writes SIM BAK HENG


A pineapple cannery in 1915.


The exhibition, The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian, is on at the Sutera Mall until July 19.

Lee Kong Chian tied the knot with Tan Kah Kee’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920.

FOR many Johoreans and Singaporeans, the names Tan Kah Kee (1874-1961) and Lee Kong Chian (1893-1967) are synonymous with entrepreneurship and philanthrophy.

They were among the Chinese immigrants who made their way up through hard work, and later contributed to society by donating to charity and establishing foundations for education.

Their success stories have inspired many Malaysians and Singaporeans for over a century, as they built their business empires and used their wealth not only for personal enjoyment but for the betterment of society.

Tan left the Fujian province of China for Singapore in 1890 when he was 16. He started off by working in his father’s rice mill.

However, Tan’s father, who also owned a sago mill, pineapple cannery and property investment company, fell into debt and the business folded in 1904.

With $7,000 in hand, Tan followed in his father’s footsteps to set up a pineapple cannery. The business flourished and he ventured into other industries such as rice and rubber.

In less than 10 years, he owned eight canneries in Singapore and Johor. He also made money through the buying and selling of rubber plantations.

By the 1920s, there were 30,000 staff in his business conglomerate spreading across 48 countries in five continents.

During World War 1, Tan ventured into rubber-processing to be less dependent on the fluctuating prices of raw rubber.

Later, he set up Nanyang Siang Pau to promote education as well as to advertise the products made by his factories.

He also ventured into shipping and banking.

Tan’s diversification, however, did not spare him from the effects of the Great Depression. He also faced fierce competitions from Japanese manufacturers and rubber traders.

His empire diminished in 1929, and by 1934, it had collapsed.

Despite his downfall, Tan continued to be respected and admired by the community.

Tan is remembered for saying: “There is no shame in justifiable failure. There is shame only in the fear of failure.”

Lee, meanwhile, arrived in Singapore in 1903 at the age of 10. He began working in 1912, hoping to become an engineer.

But fate had something completely different in store for him.

Lee joined a trading company in 1915 and met Tan in the course of his work.

Impressed by Lee’s fluency in Chinese and English, Tan offered him a job — which proved to be the start of Lee’s foray into the business world.

Lee sealed many international deals for Tan, which prompted the latter to entrust him with more responsibilities.

From managing Tan’s business, Lee slowly built up capital and gained influence, and soon started his own businesses.

These businesses exist till today — established brands such as Lee Rubber, Lee Pineapple and Lee Biscuits are part of his empire.

He was known as Southeast Asia’s rubber and pineapple king during the interwar years. He also played a role in the setting up of the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation in 1932.

The close relationship between Tan and Lee was sealed when Lee married Tan’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920.

With their vast fortunes, Tan and Lee were able to lend financial aid to many social, cultural and educational institutions.

Both believed in the old Chinese saying: “The benefit you get from society should be used to benefit society in return.”

Both were fervent supporters of education, in particular a modern education curriculum that would prepare young people for the demands of an industrialised society.

Lee set up the Lee Foundation to carry on the legacy he had built. The Tan Kah Kee Foundation was set up after the death of Tan to continue contributing to charity, promoting the spirit of entrepreneurship and supporting education.

Jimei School Village, China’s only school village founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee

: Tan Kah Kee   Ao Yuan   Jimei School Village


Jimei School Village






Jimei is a small town on the other side of the bank facing north Xiamen Island, 17 kilometers (about 11 miles) from the Xiamen city center. With Gaoji Causeway and Xingji Causeway meeting there, Jimei becomes the sole gateway into Xiamen. Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng) (1874-1961), a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted himself to the educational causes in China. Nowadays, Jimei is one of the four most popular tourist sites of Xiamen City, especially for its academic atmosphere as well as pretty natural and social sights.

Mr. Tan Kah Kee founded various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School, Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarten, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School. Equipped with Science Hall, a library and a hospital, these schools brought the town the name “Jimei School Village” which is renowned both at home and abroad.

Jimei School Village, founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee in 1913, is the only one in China. It occupies an area of over 10 hectares (about 25 acres) on a variety of various levels and schools ranging from primary to higher education and from traditional to vocational schools. The magnificent scale of this project has no equal elsewhere in China.

Jimei University was formed by the amalgamation of five former colleges and it is now Xiamen City’s major center of education and culture and has been given the general designation of Jimei School Village. The buildings of Jimei School Village are a combination of eastern and western styles, facing the beautiful seashore, and they are attractive places for visitors. Recently, Jimei School Village has been selected as a protected cultural relic of the nation together with another spot in Jimei, Ao Yuan.

Ao Yuan (鳌园Turtle Garden)

Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden), lying on the southeastern seashore of Jimei, was built in four years from 1950 by Mr. Tan Kah Kee. The Jimei Liberation Monument of 18 meters height (about 59 feet) and the tomb of Mr. Tan are sited in Ao Yuan. There is a corridor extending from the entrance to the garden. The side walls of the corridor are inscribed with groups of carvings. In addition, various kinds of stone inscriptions can be found all over the garden. The foundation of the monument is surrounded by gray jade carvings and relief sculptures polished with great care, embodying a concentrated reflection of exquisite workmanship and a unique style of south Fujian stone carving art.

Compared to the gorgeous structures in Jimei, a two-storey building appears simple and plain, this is the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. Mr. Tan had made many contributions to the educational undertakings; the schools he set up number more than 100, however, his lifestyle was always frugal and simple. To the west of Mr Tan’s residence is a display charting his life story.

Guilai Tang is to the south of the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. It was built for the wish of Mr. Tan. He wished to provide a place for the overseas Chinese to get together when they returned to their homeland. Guilai Tang was finished one year after Mr. Tan passed away. It occupies an area of more then 4,000 square meters (about 4,784 square yards) and the main body is in a traditional palace style. In front of Guilai Tang, there is Guilai Yuan constructed in 1983, and a bronze statue of Tan Kah Kee stands in the garden.

In addition to the spots mentioned above, Jiageng Park (Kah Kee Park), Dragon Boat Pond, Yanping Gulei, Crocodile Garden, etc. are also appealing to visitors.


Tan Kah Kee Memorial Place

Jimen is a small town on the other side of the bank facing north Xiamen Island, 17 kilometers (about 11 miles) from the Xiamen city center. With Gaoji Causeway and Xingji Causeway meeting there, Jimen becomes the sole gateway into Xiamen. Ji Men is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng) (1874-1961), a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted himself to the educational causes in China. Nowadays, Jimen is one of the four most popular tourist sites of Xiamen City, especially for its academic atmosphere as well as pretty natural and social sights.



Mr. Tan Kah Kee started various schools in the town, including Ji Men Normal School, Ji Men Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Ji Men Kindergarten, Ji Men Primary School and Ji Men Middle School. Equipped with Science Hall, a library and a hospital, these schools brought the town the name “Ji Men School Village” which is renowned at home and abroad.


Jimen Study Village, founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee in 1913, is the only one in China. It occupies an area of over 10 hectares (about 25 acres) on a variety of various levels and schools ranging from primary to higher education and from traditional to vocational schools. The magnificent scale of this project has no equal elsewhere in China.


Jimen University was formed by the amalgamation of five former colleges and it is now Xiamen City’s major center of education and culture and has been given the general designation of Jimen Study Village. The buildings of Jimen Study Village are a combination of eastern and western styles, facing the beautiful seashore, and they are attractive places for visitors. Recently, Jimen Study Village has been selected as a protected cultural relic of the nation together with another spot in Jimen, Ao Yuan.



Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden)


Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden), lying on the southeastern seashore of Jimen, was built in four years from 1950 by Mr. Tan Kah Kee. The Jimen Liberation Monument of 18 meters height (about 59 feet) and the tomb of Mr. Tan are sited in Ao Yuan. There is a corridor extending from the entrance to the garden. The side walls of the corridor are inscribed with groups of carvings. In addition, various kinds of stone inscriptions can be found all over the garden. The foundation of the monument is surrounded by gray jade carvings and relief sculptures polished with great care, embodying a concentrated reflection of exquisite workmanship and a unique style of south Fujian stone carving art.


Compared to the gorgeous structures in Jimen, a two-storey building appears simple and plain, this is the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. Mr. Tan had made many contributions to the educational undertakings; the schools he set up number more than 100, however, his lifestyle was always frugal and simple. To the west of Mr Tan’s residence is a display charting his life story.




Guilai Tang is to the south of the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. It was built for the wish of Mr. Tan. He wished to provide a place for the overseas Chinese to get together when they returned to their homeland. Guilai Tang was finished one year after Mr. Tan passed away. It occupies an area of more than 4,000 square meters (about 4,784 square yards) and the main body is in a traditional palace style. In front of Guilai Tang, there is Guilai Yuan constructed in 1983, and a bronze statue of Tan Kah Kee stands in the garden.


In addition to the spots mentioned above, Jiageng Park, Dragon Boat Pond, Yanping Gulei, Crocodile Garden, etc. are also appealing to visitors.


Tan Kah Kee — legendary philanthropist

» The grounds of the memorial museum


Tan Kah Kee Memorial Museum


The end @ copyright 2012-02-29


 exist but only FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

The Manchuria Historic Collections(Koleksi Sejarah Manchuria)

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
this the part of E-Book In CD_ROM The china Historic collections for Premium Member Only



Manchuria adalah nama sejarah tertentu ke wilayah geografis yang luas di timur laut Asia. Wilayah ini adalah tanah air tradisional dari

 Xianbei (鲜卑 / 鲜卑, Cyrillic: сяньби)

, Khitan (契丹, Cyrillic: кидани),

 dan Jurchen (女真, Cyrillic: чжурчжэни),

yang membangun dinasti beberapa di China utara. Wilayah ini juga merupakan rumah dari Manchu, setelah yang bernama Manchuria

Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei (鮮卑/鲜卑, Cyrillic: сяньби), Khitan(契丹, Cyrillic: кидани), and Jurchen (女真, Cyrillic:чжурчжэни), who built several dynasties in northern China. The region is also the home of the Manchus, after whom Manchuria is named.

Wilayah historis secara kontemporer  dibagi antara Republik Rakyat Cina (bagian dari Timur Laut Cina) dan Federasi Rusia (bagian dari Timur Jauh Rusia). Batas-batas yang tepat dari wilayah tersebut tidak didefinisikan dengan baik. Untuk menghindari ambiguitas, Manchuria batin kadang-kadang dibedakan dari Manchuria Luar.

Manchuria batin sesuai kasar ke bagian China, termasuk Heilongjiang, Liaoning Jilinand) dan bagian dari Mongolia Dalam timur laut. Juga kadang-kadang dimasukkan ke dalam bahasa Cina Manchuria adalah wilayah Jehol provinsi Hebei.
Manchuria Luar atau “Manchuria Rusia” adalah wilayah dari Amur dan Ussuririvers ke Pegunungan Stanovoy dan Laut Jepang, termasuk Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk Krai selatan, Oblast Otonom Yahudi dan Oblast Amur. Ini yang diserahkan ke Rusia oleh Qing Cina dalam Perjanjian Aigun (1858). Sakhalin Oblast juga umumnya termasuk dalam peta Cina sebagai bagian dari Manchuria Luar, meskipun tidak disebutkan secara eksplisit dalam Perjanjian Nerchinsk.


Asal nama

Manchuria adalah terjemahan dari Manchu kata Manju (bahasa Cina: Mǎnzhōu). Menurut Records Manchu Veritable, nama Manju pada awalnya diberikan oleh dinasti pendiri Bukūri legendaris Yongšon ke negara ia mendirikan ketika ia bersatu tiga klan berperang dari Odoli, di lokasi ofDunhua kota modern di provinsi Jilin. Nama ini digunakan dalam dokumen Cina sampai awal abad 20, ketika Manchuria diubah menjadi tiga provinsi oleh Qinggovernment akhir

The historical region is contemporarily divided between the People’s Republic of China(part of Northeast China) and the Russian Federation (part of the Russian Far East). The exact boundaries of the region aren’t well-defined. To avoid ambiguities, Inner Manchuria is sometimes distinguished from Outer Manchuria.

Origin of the name

Manchuria is a translation of the Manchu word Manju (Chinese languageMǎnzhōu). According to the Manchu Veritable Records, the name Manju was originally given by the legendary dynastic founder Bukūri Yongšon to the country he established when he united the three warring clans of Odoli, at the location of the modern city ofDunhua in Jilin province. This name was used in Chinese documents until the early 20th century, when Manchuria was converted into three provinces by the late Qinggovernment.

Sejak saat itu, “Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut” (东三省) secara resmi digunakan oleh pemerintah Qing di Cina untuk merujuk ke wilayah ini, dan jabatan Raja Muda Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut (东三省 总督) didirikan untuk memimpin provinsi-provinsi . Setelah revolusi 1911, yang mengakibatkan runtuhnya Dinasti Manchu Qing didirikan, nama wilayah di mana Manchu berasal dikenal sebagai Timur Laut dalam dokumen resmi di Republik yang baru didirikan Cina, selain “Tiga timur Laut Provinsi

Since then, the “Three Northeast Provinces” (東三省) was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces (東三省總督) was established to take charge of these provinces. After the 1911 revolution, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing Dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as the Northeast in official documents in the newly-founded Republic of China, in addition to the “Three Northeast Provinces”.

Tingkat Timur Laut Cina

Dalam bahasa Cina saat ini, seorang warga dari “Timur Laut”, atau Timur Laut Cina, adalah “Northeasterner” (Dong-bei-Ren). “Para Timur Laut” adalah istilah yang mengekspresikan seluruh kawasan, meliputi sejarah, budaya, tradisi, dialek, masakan dan sebagainya, serta “Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut” (东三省 atau 东北 三省), yang menggantikan konsep “Manchuria” di awal abad 20. Meskipun secara geografis juga terletak di bagian timur laut Cina, provinsi lain seperti Hebei tidak dianggap sebagai bagian dari “Timur Laut”. Setelah Perang Sino-Jepang Kedua, Republik Rakyat Cina telah menolak pengakuan nama Mǎnzhōu (“Manchuria”), hanya menggunakan “Timur Laut” untuk wilayah untuk menghindari mengakui warisan kekaisaran Jepang di daerah tersebut; judul Manchuria masih sering dikaitkan di Cina dengan negara boneka Manchukuo Jepang

Salah satu peta Eropa paling awal menggunakan “Manchuria” panjang (Mandchouria) (Yohanes Tallis, 1851). Sebelumnya, “Tartar Cina” istilah telah umum diterapkan di Barat ke Manchuria dan Mongolia.

Extent of Northeast China

In current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of “the Northeast”, or Northeast China, is a “Northeasterner” (Dōng-běi-rén). “The Northeast” is a term that expresses the entire region, encompassing its history, culture, traditions, dialects, cuisines and so forth, as well as the “Three Northeast Provinces” (東三省 or 東北三省), which replaced the concept of “Manchuria” in the early 20th century. Though geographically also located in the northeastern part of China, other provinces such as Hebei are not considered to be a part of “the Northeast”. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, the People’s Republic of China has refused recognition of the name Mǎnzhōu (“Manchuria”), only using “the Northeast” for the region to avoid acknowledging the Japanese imperial legacy in the area; the title of Manchuria is still often associated in China with the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo

One of the earliest European maps using the term “Manchuria” (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term “Chinese Tartary” had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia.

Salah satu peta Eropa paling awal menggunakan “Manchuria” panjang (Mandchouria) (Yohanes Tallis, 1851). Sebelumnya, “Tartar Cina” istilah telah umum diterapkan di Barat ke Manchuria dan Mongolia.


Manchuria dihuni oleh lebih dari 100 juta orang, 90 persen diantaranya adalah keturunan Tionghoa yang beremigrasi ke Manchuria antara 1880 dan 1930. Para Manchu adalah orang-orang asli dari Manchuria dan membuat sekitar 5 persen dari populasi saat ini. Sejumlah besar kelompok minoritas, seperti Korea dan Mongol, telah dimasukkan ke dalam budaya Cina melalui perkawinan dan pendidikan negara. Mereka mematuhi cara dan adat istiadat Cina dan hidup karena kebanyakan Cina lainnya.

Geografi dan iklim
Manchuria terdiri terutama dari sisi utara Cina berbentuk corong Utara Kraton, area besar batuan digarap dan overlaidPrecambrian. Cina Utara Kraton merupakan benua independen sebelum periode Trias, dan dikenal telah menjadi bagian utara tanah di dunia selama Karbon. Pegunungan Khingan di barat adalah pegunungan Jura yang dibentuk oleh tabrakan dari Cina Utara Kraton dengan Kraton Siberia, yang menandai tahap akhir pembentukan Pangaea thesupercontinent.

Meskipun tidak ada bagian dari Manchuria glaciated selama Kuarter, geologi permukaan sebagian besar bagian bawah dataran dan lebih subur di wilayah ini terdiri dari lapisan yang sangat dalam dari loess, yang telah dibentuk oleh gerakan angin kelahiran dari debu dan sampai partikel terbentuk di bagian glaciated Himalaya, Kunlun Shan dan Tien Shan, serta Gurun Gobi dan gurun. Tanah yang sebagian besar Mollisols subur dan Fluvents, kecuali di bagian yang lebih pegunungan di mana mereka kurang berkembang Orthents, serta ujung utara di mana permafrost terjadi dan Orthels mendominasi.

Iklim Manchuria memiliki kontras musiman ekstrim, mulai dari lembab, panas hampir tropis di musim panas untuk berangin, dingin kering, Kutub Utara di musim dingin. Hal ini terjadi karena posisi Manchuria berada di batas antara benua Eurasia yang besar daratan dan Pasifik Samudera besar menyebabkan pembalikan lengkap angin musiman.

Di musim panas, saat tanah sedang memanas lebih cepat dari laut, bentuk tekanan rendah di Asia dan hangat, selatan lembab untuk southeasterlywinds membawa berat, hujan bergemuruh, menghasilkan curah hujan tahunan berkisar antara 400 mm (16 inci), atau kurang di barat , untuk lebih dari 1150 mm (45 inci) di Pegunungan Changbai. Suhu di musim panas sangat hangat panas, dengan Juli rata-rata maksimum berkisar antara 31 ° C (88 ° F) di selatan sampai 24 ° C (75 ° F) di ujung utara. Kecuali di ujung utara dekat Sungai Amur, kelembaban tinggi menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan utama saat ini tahun.

Di musim dingin, namun Tinggi Siberia yang luas menyebabkan sangat dingin, angin utara ke barat laut yang membawa suhu serendah -5 ° C (23 ° F) di ujung selatan dan -30 ° C (-22 ° F) di utara, di mana zona permafrost terputus mencapai northernHeilongjiang. Namun, karena angin dari Siberia yang sangat kering, salju jatuh hanya pada beberapa hari setiap musim dingin dan tidak pernah berat. Hal ini menjelaskan mengapa, sedangkan garis lintang yang sesuai dari Amerika Utara sepenuhnya glaciated selama periode glasial dari Kuarter, Manchuria, meskipun lebih dingin, selalu tetap terlalu kering untuk gletser bentuk – sebuah keadaan ditingkatkan dengan angin barat lebih kuat dari permukaan lapisan es di Eropa.


Manchuria is populated by over 100 million people, 90 percent of which are descendants of Chinese who emigrated to Manchuria between 1880 and 1930. The Manchus were the original people of Manchuria and make up about 5 percent of the current populace. Significant numbers of minority groups, such as Koreans and Mongols, have been incorporated into Chinese culture via intermarriage and state education. They adhere to Chinese ways and customs and live as most other Chinese.

Geography and climate

Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Craton, a large area of tilled and overlaidPrecambrian rocks. The North China Craton was an independent continent prior to the Triassic period, and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a Jurassic mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of thesupercontinent Pangaea.

Although no part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of the region consists of very deep layers of loess, which have been formed by the wind-born movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the HimalayasKunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts. Soils are mostly fertile Mollisols and Fluvents, except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed Orthents, as well as the extreme north where permafrost occurs and Orthels dominate.

The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This occurs because the position of Manchuria is on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal.

In the summer, when the land heats up faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterlywinds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm (16 in.), or less in the west, to over 1150 mm (45 in.) in the Changbai Mountains. Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July average maxima ranging from 31°C (88°F) in the south to 24°C (75°F) in the extreme north. Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year.

In the winter, however, the vast Siberian High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as −5°C (23°F) in the extreme south and −30°C (−22°F) in the north, where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northernHeilongjiang. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter and it is never heavy. This explains why, whereas corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary, Manchuria, though even colder, always remained too dry to form glaciers – a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe.

Awal sejarah

citra Nurhaci

Manchuria adalah tanah air suku-suku nomaden, termasuk Manchu, Ulchs dan Hezhen (juga dikenal sebagai Goldi dan Nanai). Berbagai kelompok etnis dan kerajaan masing-masing, termasuk Korea, Sushen, Donghu, Xianbei, Wuhuan, Mohe, Khitan dan Jurchenshave naik ke kekuasaan di Manchuria. Pada berbagai waktu dalam periode ini, Dinasti Han, Cao Dinasti Wei, Dinasti Jin Barat, Dinasti Tang dan beberapa kerajaan kecil lainnya dari Cina menduduki bagian-bagian penting dari Manchuria.

File:Nurhaci image.JPG

Kaisar Huang Taiji dari Dinasti Qing

November 1612 – 31 Desember 1650), juga dikenal sebagai Hosoi Mergen Cin Wang, Rui Prince, adalah putra 14 Nurhaci dan seorang pangeran dari Dinasti Qing.

 Kangxi Kaisar di akhir tahun 60an

Berbagai kerajaan Korea, seperti Gojoseon, Buyo, Goguryeoand Balhae juga didirikan di beberapa bagian daerah ini.

Manchuria bawah Liao dan Jin
Orang-orang Manchu (Manchu: Manju; disederhanakan Cina: 满族; tradisional Cina: 满族; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolia: Манж, Rusia: Маньчжуры) adalah peoplewho Tungusic berasal dari Manchuria (sekarang bagian timur laut Cina) dan salah satu dari 56 kelompok etnis Republik Rakyat Cina. Selama mereka naik pada abad ke 17, dengan bantuan theming pemberontak dinasti (seperti Wu Sangui umum), mereka berkuasa di Cina dan mendirikan Dinasti Qing, yang memerintah Cina sampai Revolusi Xinhai tahun 1911, yang mendirikan pemerintahan republik di tempatnya.

Para etnis Manchu sebagian besar telah berasimilasi dengan orang Cina Han. Bahasa Manchu hampir punah, sekarang hanya berbicara di antara sejumlah kecil orang tua di daerah pedesaan terpencil di timur laut Cina dan beberapa sarjana, ada sekitar sepuluh ribu penutur Sibe (Xibo), dialek berbicara Manchu di wilayah Xinjiang . Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, bagaimanapun, telah terjadi kebangkitan kepentingan dalam budaya Manchu antara kedua etnis Manchu dan Han. Jumlah hari ini Cina dengan beberapa keturunan Manchu cukup besar dengan 10.680.000 anggota (di Cina), Manchu adalah kelompok etnis ke-3 terbesar di China setelah Han dan adopsi Zhuang.The kebijakan menguntungkan terhadap etnis minoritas (seperti preferensial masuk universitas, kesempatan kerja pemerintah dan pengecualian dari kebijakan satu anak) telah mendorong beberapa orang dengan Han campuran dan keturunan Manchu untuk kembali mengidentifikasi diri mereka sebagai Manchu.

Dengan Dinasti Song ke selatan, orang-orang Khitan Barat Manchuria, yang mungkin berbicara bahasa terkait dengan bahasa Mongolic, menciptakan Kekaisaran Liao di wilayah tersebut, yang kemudian mengontrol bagian-bagian yang berdekatan dari Cina Utara juga.

Sebuah patung kayu Bodhisattva, Dinasti Jin, Museum Shanghai.

Pada abad 12 awal Jurchen Tungusic orang (nenek moyang orang-orang Manchu kemudian) awalnya tinggal di hutan di perbatasan timur Kekaisaran Laio, dan merupakan anak sungai Liao, menggulingkan Liao dan membentuk Dinasti Jin (1115-1234) , yang kemudian mengontrol bagian Utara Cina dan Mongolia.

Potret Kaisar Qianlong di Gaun Pengadilan, oleh seniman pengadilan anonim. Hanging gulir, warna pada sutra. ThePalace Museum di Beijing.

Sebagian besar Khitan yang masih hidup bisa jadi telah berasimilasi ke dalam sebagian besar orang Cina Han dan penduduk Jurchen, atau pindah ke Asia Tengah, namun diperkirakan bahwa orang Daur, masih tinggal di utara Manchuria, juga keturunan Khitans.

Sebuah abad ke-12 Jurchen batu kura-kura di Ussuriysk hari ini

Jin pertama modal, Shangjing, yang terletak di Sungai Ashi tidak jauh dari Harbin modern, pada awalnya tidak lebih dari kota tenda, tapi di 1124 Jin kedua kaisar Wuqimaistarting sebuah proyek konstruksi besar, memiliki arsitek Cina utamanya, Lu Yanlun , membangun sebuah kota baru di situs ini, meniru, dalam skala lebih kecil, Song Utara modal Bianjing (Kaifeng). Ketika Bianjing jatuh ke pasukan Jin di 1127, ribuan aristokrat Lagu ditangkap (termasuk dua kaisar Song), akademisi, perajin dan penghibur, bersama dengan harta ibukota Song, semua dibawa ke Shangjing (Ibukota Atas) oleh pemenang .

 Foto Cina Janda Kaisar

Meskipun Jurchen penguasa Wanyan Liang, didorong oleh aspirasi untuk menjadi penguasa seluruh Cina, memindahkan ibukota Jin dari Shangjing untuk Yanjing (sekarang Beijing) in1153, dan memiliki istana Shangjing hancur pada tahun 1157, kota ini kembali tingkat signifikansi bawah Wanyan Liang penggantinya, Kaisar Shizong, yang menikmati mengunjungi daerah untuk berhubungan dengan akar Jurchen.

Pada 1234, Dinasti Jin jatuh ke tangan Mongol.

Aspek kebiasaan dan tradisi Manchu dapat dilihat dalam masakan lokal, bahasa dan adat istiadat di Manchuria saat ini serta kota-kota di wilayah itu. Setelah jatuhnya Dinasti Ming, Manchu juga mengadopsi banyak budaya Han dan tradisi.

Mereka secara tradisional melingkar rambut mereka dalam jumbai yang tinggi di atas kepala mereka dan mengenakan anting-anting, gaun panjang dan sepatu bordir. Para wanita dengan status sosial lebih tinggi mengenakan sutra dan pakaian satin sementara pakaian katun dipakai oleh perempuan dari status sosial lebih rendah. Varian dari kostum tersebut (termasuk qi pao dan ma gua, Mandarin gaun) masih populer di seluruh Cina. Pakaian pria itu sekali terdiri dari jaket pendek dan disesuaikan? Lebih gaun panjang dengan sabuk di pinggang untuk memfasilitasi berkuda dan berburu.

Manchu tradisional tempat tinggal yang terdiri dari tiga perempat. Di tengah-tengah rumah itu dapur sementara sayap yang terdapat asrama dan ruang tamu. Tradisi unik Manchu tidak memungkinkan orang untuk mati di Nahan () di sebelah barat atau utara. Percaya bahwa pintu dibuat untuk jiwa-jiwa yang hidup, orang Manchu diperbolehkan mayat untuk dibawa keluar hanya melalui jendela dan pemakaman tanah adalah praktek umum.

Bahasa Manchu adalah anggota dari kelompok bahasa Tungusic, sendiri merupakan anggota dari keluarga bahasa Altai diusulkan.

Kisah tentang Dukun Nisan adalah bagian penting dari cerita rakyat Manchu.

Dilaporkan oleh ahli anthropologi Amerika Weston La Barre yang Manchu ibu digunakan untuk menunjukkan kasih sayang untuk anak-anak mereka dengan melakukan fellatio pada bayi laki-laki mereka, menempatkan penis di mulut dan merangsang itu, karena itu tidak dianggap sebagai tindakan seksual, sementara Manchu dianggap publik berciuman dengan jijik, yang dianggap seksual. Mereka juga dilaporkan untuk membelai organ seksual anak-anak mereka, menggelitik orang-orang dari anak perempuan mereka.

Gadis Manchu dilaporkan untuk mandiri dan sama dengan saudara laki-laki, yang memiliki hak lebih dari perempuan Cina. Wanita Manchu dikatakan menjadi agresif dan mudah tersinggung, Mongol dan Cina Bannermen menikah dengan mereka dilaporkan takut dari mereka, mengeluh kepada Kaisar, yang mengizinkan mereka untuk memprotes keras kepada istri mereka daripada bersembunyi.


Early history

File:Nurhaci image.JPG

image of Nurhaci

Manchuria was the homeland of several nomadic tribes, including the ManchuUlchs and Hezhen (also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the KoreansSushen,DonghuXianbeiWuhuanMoheKhitan and Jurchenshave risen to power in Manchuria. At various times in this time period, Han DynastyCao Wei Dynasty, Western Jin DynastyTang Dynasty and some other minor kingdoms of China occupied significant parts of Manchuria.

File:Emperor Huang Taiji.jpg

Emperor Huang Taiji of the Qing Dynasty

File:Dorgon, the Prince Rui (17th century).jpg

November 1612 – 31 December 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang, the Prince Rui, was Nurhaci‘s 14th son and a prince of the Qing Dynasty.

File:Old Kangxi.jpg

 Kangxi Emperor in late 60s

Various Korean kingdoms, such as GojoseonBuyeoGoguryeoand Balhae were also established in parts of this area.

Manchuria under the Liao and Jin

The Manchu people (ManchuManjui gisun.svg Manjusimplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese:滿族; pinyinMǎnzúMongolian: Манж, Russian: Маньчжуры) are a Tungusic peoplewho originated in Manchuria (today’s northeastern China) and one of the 56 ethnic groups of People’s Republic of China. During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of theMing dynasty rebels (such as general Wu Sangui), they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which established a republican government in its place.

The Manchu ethnicity has largely been assimilated with the Han Chinese. The Manchu language is almost extinct, now spoken only among a small number of elderly people in remote rural areas of northeastern China and a few scholars; there are around ten thousand speakers of Sibe (Xibo), a Manchu dialect spoken in the  region of Xinjiang. In recent years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in Manchu culture among both ethnic Manchus and Han. The number of Chinese today with some Manchu ancestry is quite large—with 10.68 million members (in China), Manchu is the 3rd largest ethnic group in China after the Han and the Zhuang.The adoption of favorable policies towards ethnic minorities (such as preferential university admission, government employment opportunities and exemption from the one child policy) has encouraged some people with mixed Han and Manchu ancestry to re-identify themselves as Manchu.

With the Song Dynasty to the south, the Khitan people of Western Manchuria, who probably spoke a language related to the Mongolic languages, created the Liao Empire in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern China as well.

File:Wood Bodhisattva 2.jpg

A wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin DynastyShanghai Museum.

In the early 12th century the Tungusic Jurchen people (the ancestors of the later Manchu people) originally lived in the forests in the eastern borderlands of the Laio Empire, and were Liao’s tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), which went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia.

File:Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg

Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress, by anonymous court artists. Hanging scroll, colour on silk. ThePalace MuseumBeijing.

Most of the surviving Khitan either assimilated into the bulk of the Han Chinese and Jurchen population, or moved to Central Asia; however, it is thought that the Daur people, still living in northern Manchuria, are also descendants of the Khitans.


A 12th century Jurchen stone tortoise in today’s Ussuriysk

The first Jin capital, Shangjing, located on the Ashi River not far from modern Harbin, was originally not much more than the city of tents, but in 1124 the second Jin emperor Wuqimaistarting a major construction project, having his Chinese chief architect, Lu Yanlun, build a new city at this site, emulating, on a smaller scale, the Northern Song capital Bianjing (Kaifeng). When Bianjing fell to Jin troops in 1127, thousands of captured Song aristocrats (including the two Song emperors), scholars, craftsmen and entertainers, along with the treasures of the Song capital, were all taken to Shangjing (the Upper Capital) by the winners.


 Photograph of China’s Empress Dowager

Although the Jurchen ruler Wanyan Liang, spurred on by his aspirations to become the ruler of all China, moved the Jin capital from Shangjing to Yanjing (now Beijing) in1153, and had the Shangjing palaces destroyed in 1157, the city regained a degree of significance under Wanyan Liang’s successor, Emperor Shizong, who enjoyed visiting the region to get in touch with his Jurchen roots.

In 1234, the Jin Dynasty fell to the Mongols.

Aspek kebiasaan dan tradisi Manchu dapat dilihat dalam masakan lokal, bahasa dan adat istiadat di Manchuria saat ini serta kota-kota di wilayah itu. Setelah jatuhnya Dinasti Ming, Manchu juga mengadopsi banyak budaya Han dan tradisi.

Mereka secara tradisional melingkar rambut mereka dalam jumbai yang tinggi di atas kepala mereka dan mengenakan anting-anting, gaun panjang dan sepatu bordir. Para wanita dengan status sosial lebih tinggi mengenakan sutra dan pakaian satin sementara pakaian katun dipakai oleh perempuan dari status sosial lebih rendah. Varian dari kostum tersebut (termasuk qi pao dan ma gua, Mandarin gaun) masih populer di seluruh Cina. Pakaian pria itu sekali terdiri dari jaket pendek dan disesuaikan? Lebih gaun panjang dengan sabuk di pinggang untuk memfasilitasi berkuda dan berburu.

Manchu tradisional tempat tinggal yang terdiri dari tiga perempat. Di tengah-tengah rumah itu dapur sementara sayap yang terdapat asrama dan ruang tamu. Tradisi unik Manchu tidak memungkinkan orang untuk mati di Nahan () di sebelah barat atau utara. Percaya bahwa pintu dibuat untuk jiwa-jiwa yang hidup, orang Manchu diperbolehkan mayat untuk dibawa keluar hanya melalui jendela dan pemakaman tanah adalah praktek umum.

Bahasa Manchu adalah anggota dari kelompok bahasa Tungusic, sendiri merupakan anggota dari keluarga bahasa Altai diusulkan.

Kisah tentang Dukun Nisan adalah bagian penting dari cerita rakyat Manchu.

Dilaporkan oleh ahli anthropologi Amerika Weston La Barre yang Manchu ibu digunakan untuk menunjukkan kasih sayang untuk anak-anak mereka dengan melakukan fellatio pada bayi laki-laki mereka, menempatkan penis di mulut dan merangsang itu, karena itu tidak dianggap sebagai tindakan seksual, sementara Manchu dianggap publik berciuman dengan jijik, yang dianggap seksual. Mereka juga dilaporkan untuk membelai organ seksual anak-anak mereka, menggelitik orang-orang dari anak perempuan mereka.

Gadis Manchu dilaporkan untuk mandiri dan sama dengan saudara laki-laki, yang memiliki hak lebih dari perempuan Cina. Wanita Manchu dikatakan menjadi agresif dan mudah tersinggung, Mongol dan Cina Bannermen menikah dengan mereka dilaporkan takut dari mereka, mengeluh kepada Kaisar, yang mengizinkan mereka untuk memprotes keras kepada istri mereka daripada bersembunyi.

Manchuria di bawah Kekaisaran Mongolia
Pada 1211, setelah penaklukan Barat Xia, Jenghis Khan mengerahkan tentara untuk menaklukkan Dinasti Jin. Jebe umum dan Qasar saudara diperintahkan untuk mengurangi kota Jurchen di Manchuria. Mereka berhasil menghancurkan benteng Jin sana. Para Khitans bawah Yelü Liuge menyatakan kesetiaan mereka kepada Genghis Khan dan mendirikan negara nominal otonom di Manchuria di 1213. Namun, pasukan Jin mengirimkan sebuah ekspedisi penghukuman terhadap mereka. Jebe pergi ke sana lagi dan Mongol mendorong keluar Jins.

Sebuah berburu burung Tartar dengan senapannya, abad ke-15, tinta dan warna pada sutra

Sang jenderal Jin, Puxian Wannu, memberontak melawan Dinasti Jin dan mendirikan Dazhen (大 眞) kerajaan di Dongjing (Liaoyang) tahun 1215. Dia menganggap judul Tianwang (天王 menyala. Raja Surgawi) dan nama Tiantai era (天 泰). Puxian Wannu bersekutu dengan urutan Mongolsin untuk mengamankan posisinya. Namun, ia memberontak pada 1222 setelah itu dan melarikan diri ke sebuah pulau sementara tentara Mongol menyerbu Liaoxi, Liaodong dan Khorazm. Sebagai akibat dari perselisihan internal di antara Khitans, mereka gagal untuk menerima aturan Yelü Liuge dan memberontak terhadap Kekaisaran Mongol. Takut tekanan Mongol, mereka melarikan diri ke Goryeo Khitans tanpa izin. Tetapi mereka dikalahkan oleh aliansi Mongol-Korea. Genghis Khan (1206-1227) memberi saudara-kabupaten Cina Muqali di Manchuria.

Sebuah gambaran dari tiga bangsa di theSiberia. Orang Manchu di tengah adalah pakaian dalam pakaian tradisional dan soncoho.

Putra Khan Agung Ogedei Guyuk hancur Puxian Wannu itu dinasti di 1233, menenangkan selatan Manchuria. Beberapa waktu setelah 1234 Ogedei juga ditundukkan Tatar Air di bagian utara wilayah ini dan mulai menerima elang, harem dan bulu sebagai perpajakan. Bangsa Mongol menekan Air Tatar-pemberontakan tahun 1237. Di Manchuria dan Siberia, bangsa Mongol digunakan relay dogsled untuk ubi mereka. Ibu kota Karakorum langsung dikontrol Manchuria sampai 1260-an itu.

Sebuah penggambaran dua prajurit Jurchen dan kuda mereka.

Kubilai Khan Agung berganti nama kerajaannya “Great Yuan” di 1271, bukan judul-lama “Ikh Mongol ULS”. Di bawah Dinasti Yuan (1271-1368), Manchuria dibagi menjadi Liaoyang dan Zhendong kabupaten. Keturunan Jenghis Khan saudara asBelgutei tersebut dan Qasar memerintah daerah di bawah para Khan Agung. Bangsa Mongol bersemangat mengadopsi artileri baru dan teknologi. Awal meriam terkenal di dunia, tanggal 1282, ditemukan di Manchuria Mongol-diadakan.

Setelah pengusiran orang Mongol dari China, klan Jurchen tetap setia pada Mongol Khagan Toghan Temur. Pada 1375, Nahacu, seorang pejabat Mongol Yuan Utara di Liaoyang provinsi menginvasi Liaodong dengan tujuan untuk memulihkan bangsa Mongol berkuasa. Meskipun ia terus memegang selatan Manchuria, Nahacu akhirnya menyerah kepada Dinasti Ming tahun 1387. Untuk melindungi wilayah perbatasan utara Ming memutuskan untuk “menenangkan” para Jurchens untuk menangani masalah dengan sisa-sisa Yuan di sepanjang perbatasan utara. Ming memperkuat kontrol hanya di bawah Kaisar Yongle (1402-1424).

Manchuria pada masa Dinasti Ming
Kekaisaran Ming menguasai Liaoning pada 1371, hanya tiga tahun setelah pengusiran bangsa Mongol dari Beijing. Selama masa pemerintahan Kaisar Yongle di abad 15 awal, berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk memperluas kekuasaannya di seluruh Manchuria Cina keseluruhan. Armada sungai besar dibangun di Kota Jilin, dan berlayar beberapa kali antara 1409 dan ca. 1432, diperintahkan oleh Yishiha kasim menuruni Sungari dan Amur sampai ke mulut Amur, mendapatkan kepala suku dari suku-suku lokal untuk bersumpah setia kepada penguasa Ming.

Segera setelah kematian Kaisar Yongle kebijakan perluasan Ming digantikan dengan yang dari penghematan di selatan Manchuria (Liaodong). Sekitar 1442, sebuah dinding pertahanan dibangun untuk membela perbatasan barat laut Liaodong dari kemungkinan ancaman dari Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan. Dalam 1467-68 tembok itu diperluas untuk melindungi wilayah itu dari timur laut juga, terhadap serangan fromJianzhou Jurchens. Meskipun hampir sama dengan Tembok Besar China, ini “Liaodong Wall” adalah desain sederhana. Sementara batu dan ubin digunakan di beberapa bagian, sebagian besar tembok itu sebenarnya hanya sebuah tanggul tanah dengan parit di kedua sisi.

Seorang pria Jurchen berburu dari kudanya, dari abad ke-15 dan tinta warna pada lukisan sutra.

Mulai tahun 1580-an, sebuah Jianzhou Jurchens kepala suku Nurhaci (1558-1626), awalnya berbasis di Hurha lembah Sungai timur laut dari Ming Liaodong Wall, mulai menyatukan suku-suku Jurchen daerah. Selama beberapa dekade berikutnya, Jurchen (kemudian disebut Manchu), mengambil kontrol atas sebagian besar Manchuria, kota-kota di Liaodong Ming jatuh ke Jurchen satu demi satu. Pada 1616, Nurhaci menyatakan diri sebagai khan, dan mendirikan Dinasti Jin Kemudian (yang penerusnya namanya pada 1636 untuk Dinasti Qing).

Manchuria dalam Dinasti Qing
Lihat juga: Rusia-Manchu konflik perbatasan
Pada tahun 1644, Manchu mengambil Beijing, menumbangkan Dinasti Ming dan segera membentuk pemerintahan Dinasti Qing (1644-1912) seluruh Cina.

Di sebelah selatan, daerah ini dipisahkan dari China yang tepat oleh Palisade Willow Dalam, parit dan tanggul ditanami willowsintended untuk membatasi pergerakan orang Cina Han ke Manchuria pada masa Dinasti Qing, karena daerah itu terlarang bagi Han sampai Qing mulai menjajah daerah itu dengan mereka di kemudian hari dalam pemerintahan dinasti ini. Gerakan orang Tionghoa Han ke Manchuria disebut Chuang Guandong. Daerah Manchu masih dipisahkan dari zaman modern Mongolia Dalam oleh Palisade Willow Luar, yang terus Manchu dan Mongol di daerah terpisah.

Kehilangan “Manchuria Luar”
Artikel utama: Aneksasi Amur
Di sebelah utara, berbatasan dengan Rusia Siberia yang ditetapkan oleh Perjanjian Nerchinsk (1689) sebagai berjalan di sepanjang daerah aliran sungai dari Pegunungan theStanovoy. Selatan Pegunungan Stanovoy, cekungan dari Amur dan anak sungainya milik Kekaisaran Qing. Utara Pegunungan Stanovoy, Lembah Uda dan Siberia milik Kekaisaran Rusia. Pada 1858, Kekaisaran Qing melemahnya dipaksa menyerahkan Manchuria utara Amur untuk Rusia di bawah Perjanjian Aigun, namun subyek Qing diizinkan untuk terus tinggal, di bawah kekuasaan Qing, di daerah kecil di sisi sekarang-Rusia sungai, yang dikenal sebagai Enam puluh Empat Desa Timur Sungai Heilongjiang.

Pada tahun 1860, pada Traktat Peking, Rusia berhasil memperoleh sepotong besar selanjutnya dari Manchuria, sebelah timur Sungai Ussuri.

Akibatnya, Manchuria dibagi menjadi setengah Rusia dikenal sebagai “Manchuria Luar”, dan setengah Cina yang tersisa dikenal sebagai “Manchuria batin”. Dalam literatur modern, “Manchuria” biasanya mengacu pada batin (Cina) Manchuria. (Bdk. Dalam dan Mongolia Luar). Sebagai akibat dari Traktat Aigun dan Peking, Cina kehilangan akses ke Laut Jepang.

Empat puluh tahun kemudian, selama Pemberontakan Boxer, tentara Rusia tewas sepuluh ribu Cina (Manchu, Han Cina dan orang Daur) tinggal di Blagoveshchensk dan Enam puluh Empat Desa Timur Sungai.

Rusia dan Jepang perambahan
Lihat juga: Cina Timur dan Selatan Kereta Api Manchuria Kereta Api
Pada abad ke-19, Manchu aturan telah menjadi semakin sinicized dan, bersama dengan perbatasan lain dari Kekaisaran Qing asMongolia tersebut dan Tibet, datang di bawah pengaruh kekuatan Eropa seperti Inggris yang menggigit di Tibet, Prancis pada Hainan andGermany di Shandong. Sementara itu Kekaisaran Rusia dirambah Turkestan dan Outer Mongolia, setelah mencaplok Manchuria Luar.

Gambar korban Wabah Manchuria di 1910-1911

Manchuria batin juga datang di bawah pengaruh Rusia yang kuat dengan pembangunan theChinese Timur Railway melalui Harbin ke Vladivostok. Beberapa petani Korea miskin pindah ke sana. Dalam Chuang Guandong banyak Han petani, sebagian besar dari Shandong peninsulamoved sana.

Jepang diganti pengaruh Rusia di bagian selatan Manchuria batin sebagai hasil dari theRusso-Jepang di 1904-1905. Sebagian besar cabang selatan Kereta Api Timur Cina (bagian dari Changchun ke Port Arthur (Jepang: Ryojun)) dipindahkan dari Rusia ke Jepang, dan menjadi Manchuria Selatan Kereta Api. Dalam rangkaian peristiwa sejarah, Jiandao (di wilayah yang berbatasan dengan Korea), diserahkan kepada Dinasti Qing sebagai kompensasi atas Manchuria Selatan Kereta Api.

Antara kedua perang dunia (WW1/WW2), Manchuria menjadi medan pertempuran politik dan militer. Pengaruh Jepang ke Manchuria Luar diperpanjang setelah theRussian Revolusi 1917, tapi Manchuria Luar telah kembali ke kontrol oleh Soviet 1925. Jepang mengambil keuntungan dari gangguan setelah Revolusi Rusia untuk menduduki Manchuria Luar, tetapi keberhasilan Soviet dan tekanan ekonomi Amerika memaksa mundurnya Jepang.

Pada 1920-an Harbin dibanjiri 100.000 sampai 200.000 emigran putih Rusia melarikan diri dari Rusia. Harbin memegang Russianpopulation terbesar di luar negara bagian Rusia (lihat Harbin Rusia).

Manchuria (dan masih) merupakan daerah penting bagi mineral yang kaya dan cadangan batu bara, dan tanah yang sangat cocok untuk kedelai dan barleyproduction. Untuk pra-Perang Dunia II Jepang, Manchuria adalah sumber penting bahan baku. Tanpa Manchuria pendudukan, Jepang mungkin tidak bisa dilakukan rencana mereka untuk penaklukan atas Asia Tenggara atau mengambil risiko untuk menyerang Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1941.

Jepang invasi dan Manchukuo
Artikel utama: invasi Jepang ke Manchuria dan Manchukuo

Sekitar waktu Perang Dunia I, Zhang Zuolin membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang panglima perang yang kuat dengan pengaruh atas sebagian besar Manchuria. Ia cenderung untuk menjaga nya tentara Manchu di bawah kekuasaannya dan untuk menjaga Manchuria bebas dari pengaruh asing. Orang Jepang mencoba membunuhnya pada tahun 1916 dengan melemparkan bom di bawah kereta, tapi gagal. Orang Jepang akhirnya berhasil pada tanggal 2 Juni, 1928 ketika sebuah bom yang ditanam meledak di bawah tujuh gerbong kereta nya beberapa mil dari stasiun Mukden.

Setelah Insiden Mukden pada tahun 1931 dan invasi Jepang berikutnya dari Manchuria, Inner Manchuria diproklamasikan sebagai negara merdeka, Manchukuo. Manchu terakhir kaisar, Puyi, kemudian ditempatkan di atas takhta untuk memimpin sebuah pemerintahan boneka Jepang di Falun Huang Wei, lebih dikenal sebagai “Istana Boneka Kaisar”. Manchuria batin demikian terlepas dari China oleh Jepang untuk menciptakan zona penyangga untuk mempertahankan Jepang dari Strategi Rusia Southing dan, dengan investasi Jepang dan sumber daya alam yang kaya, menjadi dominasi industri. Namun, di bawah kontrol Jepang Manchuria adalah salah satu daerah yang paling brutal dijalankan di dunia, dengan kampanye sistematis teror dan intimidasi terhadap penduduk Rusia dan Cina lokal termasuk penangkapan, kerusuhan terorganisir dan bentuk-bentuk penaklukan. Orang Jepang juga memulai kampanye emigrasi ke Manchukuo, yang Japanesepopulation ada meningkat dari 240.000 pada tahun 1931 untuk 837.000 di 1939 (orang Jepang punya rencana untuk mendatangkan 5 juta pemukim Jepang ke Manchukuo). Ratusan petani Manchu diusir dan peternakan mereka diberikan kepada keluarga imigran Jepang. Manchukuo digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyerang sisa Cina, suatu tindakan yang sangat mahal ke Jepang dalam hal kerusakan pria, integritas materiil dan politik.

Pada akhir 1930-an, Manchuria adalah tempat masalah dengan Jepang, bentrok dua kali dengan Uni Soviet. Ini bentrokan – di Danau Khasan pada tahun 1938 dan pada Khalkhin Gol satu tahun kemudian – mengakibatkan korban Jepang. Uni Soviet memenangkan dua pertempuran dan perjanjian damai ditandatangani. Namun, kerusuhan daerah alami.



Aspects of Manchu customs and traditions can be seen in local cuisines, language and customs in today’s Manchuria as well as cities in that region. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Manchus also adopted many Han customs and traditions.

They traditionally coiled their hair in high tufts on top of their heads and wore earrings, long gowns and embroidered shoes. The women with higher social standing wore silk and satin clothing while cotton clothing was worn by women of lower social standing. Variants of such costumes (including qi pao and ma guaMandarin dress) are still popular all over China. The man’s clothing once consisted of a short and adjusted ?jacket over a long gown with a belt at the waist to facilitate horse-riding and hunting.

The traditional Manchu dwellings were made up of three quarters. In the center of the house was the kitchen while the wings contained the dormitory and the living room. The unique Manchu tradition did not allow people to die on nahan (Nahan1.png) to the west or north. Believing that doors were made for living souls, the Manchus allowed dead bodies to be taken out only through windows and ground burial was the general practice.

The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic language group, itself a member of the proposed Altaic language family.

The Tale of the Nisan Shaman is an important piece of Manchu folklore.

It was reported by American anthropologist Weston La Barre that Manchu mothers used to show affection for their children by performing fellatio on their male babies, placing its penis in their mouths and stimulating it, since it was not considered a sexual act, while the Manchu regarded public kissing with revulsion, which was considered sexual. They were also reported to caress their children’s sexual organs, tickling those of their daughters.

Manchu girls were reported to be independent and equal to male siblings, having more rights than Chinese girls. Manchu women were said to be aggressive and irritable, Mongol and Chinese Bannermen married to them were reported to be scared of them, complaining to the Emperor, who permitted them to protest out loud to their wives rather than hide.

Manchuria under the Mongol Empire

In 1211, after the conquest of Western XiaGenghis Khan mobilized an army to conquer the Jin Dynasty. His general Jebe and brother Qasar were ordered to reduce the Jurchen cities in Manchuria. They successfully destroyed the Jin forts there. The Khitans under Yelü Liuge declared their allegiance to Genghis Khan and established nominally autonomous state in Manchuria in 1213. However, the Jin forces dispatched a punitive expedition against them. Jebe went there again and the Mongols pushed out the Jins.

File:Tartar huntsman.JPG

A Tartar hunting birds with his musket, 15th century, ink and color on silk

The Jin general, Puxian Wannu, rebelled against the Jin Dynasty and founded the Dazhen (大眞) kingdom in Dongjing (Liaoyang) in 1215. He assumed the title Tianwang (天王 lit. Heavenly King) and the era name Tiantai (天泰). Puxian Wannu allied with the Mongolsin order to secure his position. However, he revolted in 1222 after that and fled to an island while the Mongol army invaded Liaoxi, Liaodong and Khorazm. As a result of an internal strife among the Khitans, they failed to accept Yelü Liuge’s rule and revolted against the Mongol Empire. Fearing of the Mongol pressure, those Khitans fled to Goryeo without permission. But they were defeated by the Mongol-Korean allianceGenghis Khan (1206–1227) gave his brothers and Muqali Chinese districts in Manchuria.

File:Samoyede,Manchu and Evenki.jpg

A depiction of three peoples of theSiberia. The Manchu man in the middle is dress in traditional clothes and soncoho.

The Great Khan Ogedei‘s son Guyuk crushed Puxian Wannu’s dynasty in 1233, pacifying southern Manchuria. Some time after 1234 Ogedei also subdued the Water Tatars in northern part of the region and began to receive falconsharems and furs as taxation. The Mongols suppressed the Water Tatar-rebellion in 1237. In Manchuria and Siberia, the Mongols used dogsled relays for their yam. The capital city Karakorum directly controlled Manchuria until the 1260s.

File:Jurchen warriors.jpg

A depiction of two Jurchen warriors and their horses.

The Great Khan Kublai renamed his empire “Great Yuan” in 1271, instead of the old title-”Ikh Mongol Uls”. Under the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), Manchuria was divided into Liaoyang and Zhendong districts. Descendants of Genghis Khan’s brothers such asBelgutei and Qasar ruled the area under the Great Khans. The Mongols eagerly adopted new artillery and technologies. The world’s earliest known cannon, dated 1282, was found in Mongol-held Manchuria.

After the expulsion of the Mongols from China, the Jurchen clans remained loyal to the Mongol Khagan Toghan Temur. In 1375, Nahacu, a Mongol official of the Northern Yuan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Nahacu finally surrendered to the Ming Dynasty in 1387. In order to protect the northern border areas the Ming decided to “pacify” the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border. The Ming solidified control only under Yongle Emperor (1402–1424).

Manchuria during the Ming Dynasty

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. During the reign of the Yongle Emperor in the early 15th century, efforts were made to expand Chinese control throughout entire Manchuria. Mighty river fleets were built in Jilin City, and sailed several times between 1409 and ca. 1432, commanded by the eunuch Yishiha down the Sungari and the Amur all the way to the mouth of the Amur, getting the chieftains of the local tribes to swear allegiance to the Ming rulers.

Soon after the death of the Yongle Emperor the expansion policy of the Ming was replaced with that of retrenchment in southern Manchuria (Liaodong). Around 1442, a defence wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of Liaodong from a possible threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan. In 1467-68 the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks fromJianzhou Jurchens. Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this “Liaodong Wall” was of a simpler design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earthen dike with moats on both sides.

File:A Tartar Huntsmen on His Horse.jpg

A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th century ink and color painting on silk.

Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchens chieftain Nurhaci (1558–1626), originally based in the Hurha River valley northeast of the Ming Liaodong Wall, started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen (later to be called Manchu), took control over most of Manchuria, the cities of the Ming Liaodong falling to the Jurchen one after another. In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself a khan, and founded the Later Jin Dynasty (which his successors renamed in 1636 to Qing Dynasty).

Manchuria within the Qing Dynasty

In 1644, the Manchus took Beijing, overthrowing the Ming Dynasty and soon established the Qing Dynasty rule (1644–1912) over all of China.

To the south, the region was separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willowsintended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria during the Qing Dynasty, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the Qing started colonising the area with them later on in the dynasty’s rule. This movement of the Han Chinese to Manchuria is called Chuang Guandong. The Manchu area was still separated from modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate.

Loss of “Outer Manchuria”

Main article: Amur Annexation

To the north, the boundary with Russian Siberia was fixed by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) as running along the watershed of theStanovoy Mountains. South of the Stanovoy Mountains, the basin of the Amur and its tributaries belonged to the Qing Empire. North of the Stanovoy Mountains, the Uda Valley and Siberia belonged to the Russian Empire. In 1858, a weakening Qing Empire was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun; however, Qing subjects were allowed to continue to reside, under the Qing authority, in a small region on the now-Russian side of the river, known as the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River.

In 1860, at the Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River.

As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as “Outer Manchuria”, and a remaining Chinese half known as “Inner Manchuria”. In modern literature, “Manchuria” usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria. (cf. Inner and Outer Mongolia). As a result of the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, China lost access to the Sea of Japan.

Forty years later, during the Boxer Rebellion, Russian soldiers killed ten-thousand Chinese (Manchu, Han Chinese and Daur people) living in Blagoveshchensk and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River.

Russian and Japanese encroachment

By the 19th century, Manchu rule had become increasingly sinicized and, along with other borderlands of the Qing Empire such asMongolia and Tibet, came under the influence of European powers such as Britain which nibbled at Tibet, France at Hainan andGermany at Shandong. Meanwhile the Russian Empire encroached upon Turkestan and Outer Mongolia, having annexed Outer Manchuria.

File:Picture of Manchurian Plague victims in 1910 -1911.jpg

Picture of Manchurian Plague victims in 1910-1911

Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of theChinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. Some poor Korean farmers moved there. In Chuang Guandong many Han farmers, mostly from Shandong peninsulamoved there.

Japan replaced Russian influence in the southern half of Inner Manchuria as a result of theRusso-Japanese War in 1904–1905. Most of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway (the section from Changchun to Port Arthur (Japanese: Ryojun)) was transferred from Russia to Japan, and became the South Manchurian Railway. In this series of historical events, Jiandao (in the region bordering Korea), was handed over to Qing Dynasty as a compensation for the South Manchurian Railway.

Between both world wars (WW1/WW2), Manchuria became a political and military battleground. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of theRussian Revolution of 1917, but Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Japan took advantage of the disorder following the Russian Revolution to occupy Outer Manchuria, but Soviet successes and American economic pressure forced Japanese withdrawal.

In the 1920s Harbin was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian white émigrés fleeing from Russia. Harbin held the largest Russianpopulation outside of the state of Russia (see Harbin Russians).

Manchuria was (and still is) an important region for its rich mineral and coal reserves, and its soil is perfect for soy and barleyproduction. For pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor on the 7th of December, 1941.

Jepang invasi dan Manchukuo
Artikel utama: invasi Jepang ke Manchuria dan Manchukuo

IJA troops enter Mukden.jpg
Sekitar waktu Perang Dunia I, Zhang Zuolin membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang panglima perang yang kuat dengan pengaruh atas sebagian besar Manchuria. Ia cenderung untuk menjaga nya tentara Manchu di bawah kekuasaannya dan untuk menjaga Manchuria bebas dari pengaruh asing. Orang Jepang mencoba membunuhnya pada tahun 1916 dengan melemparkan bom di bawah kereta, tapi gagal. Orang Jepang akhirnya berhasil pada tanggal 2 Juni, 1928 ketika sebuah bom yang ditanam meledak di bawah tujuh gerbong kereta nya beberapa mil dari stasiun Mukden.

Setelah Insiden Mukden pada tahun 1931 dan invasi Jepang berikutnya dari Manchuria, Inner Manchuria diproklamasikan sebagai negara merdeka, Manchukuo. Manchu terakhir kaisar, Puyi, kemudian ditempatkan di atas takhta untuk memimpin sebuah pemerintahan boneka Jepang di Falun Huang Wei, lebih dikenal sebagai “Istana Boneka Kaisar”. Manchuria batin demikian terlepas dari China oleh Jepang untuk menciptakan zona penyangga untuk mempertahankan Jepang dari Strategi Rusia Southing dan, dengan investasi Jepang dan sumber daya alam yang kaya, menjadi dominasi industri. Namun, di bawah kontrol Jepang Manchuria adalah salah satu daerah yang paling brutal dijalankan di dunia, dengan kampanye sistematis teror dan intimidasi terhadap penduduk Rusia dan Cina lokal termasuk penangkapan, kerusuhan terorganisir dan bentuk-bentuk penaklukan. Orang Jepang juga memulai kampanye emigrasi ke Manchukuo, yang Japanesepopulation ada meningkat dari 240.000 pada tahun 1931 untuk 837.000 di 1939 (orang Jepang punya rencana untuk mendatangkan 5 juta pemukim Jepang ke Manchukuo). Ratusan petani Manchu diusir dan peternakan mereka diberikan kepada keluarga imigran Jepang. Manchukuo digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyerang sisa Cina, suatu tindakan yang sangat mahal ke Jepang dalam hal kerusakan pria, integritas materiil dan politik.

Pada akhir 1930-an, Manchuria adalah tempat masalah dengan Jepang, bentrok dua kali dengan Uni Soviet. Ini bentrokan – di Danau Khasan pada tahun 1938 dan pada Khalkhin Gol satu tahun kemudian – mengakibatkan korban Jepang. Uni Soviet memenangkan dua pertempuran dan perjanjian damai ditandatangani. Namun, kerusuhan daerah alami.

Setelah Perang Dunia II
Setelah bom atom Hiroshima, Jepang pada tahun 1945, Uni Soviet menginvasi daerah Manchuria Luar Soviet sebagai bagian dari deklarasi perang melawan Jepang. Dari 1945 hingga 1948, batin Manchuria adalah daerah basis untuk Tentara Pembebasan Rakyat China dalam Perang Saudara Cina. Dengan dorongan Uni Soviet, Manchuria digunakan sebagai tempat pementasan selama Perang Saudara Cina untuk Partai Komunis Cina, yang menang tahun 1949.

Soviet tentara di Harbin

Selama Perang Korea tahun 1950, 300.000 prajurit dari Tentara Pembebasan Rakyat Cina menyeberangi perbatasan Sino-Korea dari Manchuria untuk menahan pasukan PBB yang dipimpin oleh Amerika Serikat dari Korea Utara.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Pada tahun 1960, perbatasan Manchuria dengan Uni Soviet menjadi tempat ketegangan paling serius antara andChina Uni Soviet. Perjanjian dari 1858, dan 1860 yang menyerahkan wilayah utara Amur, adalah ambigu, yang tentu saja sungai itu batas. Ambiguitas ini menyebabkan sengketa atas status politik beberapa pulau. Hal ini menyebabkan konflik bersenjata pada tahun 1969, yang disebut konflik perbatasan Sino-Soviet.

Sebuah kolom bermotor di muka Jepang ke Jehol 1933 Courtesy of Peter H)

Dengan berakhirnya Perang Dingin, masalah batas telah dibahas melalui perundingan. Pada tahun 2004, Rusia setuju untuk mengalihkan Pulau Yinlong dan satu setengah dari Pulau Heixiazi ke Cina, mengakhiri sengketa perbatasan abadi. Kedua pulau yang ditemukan pada pertemuan theAmur dan Sungai Ussuri, dan yang sampai saat itu dikelola oleh Rusia dan diklaim oleh Cina. Acara ini dimaksudkan untuk menumbuhkan perasaan rekonsiliasi dan kerjasama antara kedua negara oleh para pemimpin mereka, tetapi juga telah menimbulkan derajat yang berbeda dari perbedaan pendapat di kedua sisi. Rusia, terutama petani Cossack dari Khabarovsk, yang akan kehilangan ploughlands mereka di pulau-pulau, tidak senang tentang hilangnya nyata dari wilayah. Sementara itu, beberapa orang Cina telah mengkritik perjanjian sebagai pengakuan resmi legitimasi penguasaan Rusia atas Manchuria Luar, yang diserahkan oleh Dinasti Qing kepada Kekaisaran Rusia di bawah serangkaian Perjanjian yang tidak merata, yang termasuk Perjanjian Aigun pada tahun 1858 dan Konvensi Peking pada tahun 1860, untuk bertukar penggunaan eksklusif sumber daya yang kaya minyak Rusia. Pengalihan ini dilakukan pada tanggal 14 Oktober 2008.

Infanteri selama muka Jepang ke Jehol 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

Kejahatan perang di Manchukuo
Kejahatan perang di Manchukuo itu dilakukan selama pemerintahan Kekaisaran Jepang di timur laut Cina, baik secara langsung, atau melalui negara itspuppet Manchukuo, 1.931-1.945. Berbagai kejahatan perang telah diduga, namun telah mendapat perhatian sejarah relatif sedikit.

Opium poppy panen di utara Manchukuo

Hukum dasar
Meskipun Kekaisaran Jepang tidak menandatangani Konvensi Jenewa, yang telah memberikan definisi standar kejahatan perang sejak 1864, kejahatan yang dilakukan termasuk dalam aspek lain dari hukum internasional dan Jepang. Sebagai contoh, banyak kejahatan yang diduga dilakukan oleh aparat Jepang melanggar hukum militer Jepang, dan tidak tunduk pada pengadilan militer, sebagaimana diwajibkan oleh yang law.Japan juga melanggar perjanjian internasional ditandatangani, termasuk ketentuan-ketentuan Perjanjian Versailles seperti larangan penggunaan ofchemical senjata, dan Konvensi Den Haag (1899 dan 1907), yang melindungi tawanan perang (POW).

Jepang infanteri dalam seragam musim dingin di Manchuria 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

Pemerintah Jepang juga menandatangani Kellog-Briand Pact (1929), sehingga rendering tindakan dalam 1937-45 dikenakan tuduhan kejahatan terhadap perdamaian, tuduhan yang diperkenalkan pada Ujian Tokyo untuk menuntut “Kelas A” penjahat perang. “Kelas B” penjahat perang adalah mereka terbukti bersalah melakukan kejahatan perang per se, dan “Kelas C” penjahat perang adalah mereka bersalah atas kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan. Pemerintah Jepang juga menerima ketentuan yang ditetapkan oleh Deklarasi Potsdam (1945) setelah akhir perang. Deklarasi ini disinggung, dalam Pasal 10, untuk dua jenis kejahatan perang: satu merupakan pelanggaran terhadap hukum internasional, seperti penyalahgunaan tahanan perang, yang lain itu menghalangi “democratictendencies kalangan rakyat Jepang” dan kebebasan sipil di Jepang.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Di Jepang, istilah “kejahatan perang Jepang” umumnya hanya mengacu pada kasus diadili oleh Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh, juga dikenal sebagai Ujian Tokyo, setelah berakhirnya Perang Pasifik. Namun, pengadilan tidak mengadili kejahatan perang yang melibatkan tuduhan pertengahan perwira junior atau personil lebih. Mereka yang diatur secara tersendiri dalam uji diadakan di Cina dan di Unionafter Soviet Jepang menyerah.

Jepang lapis baja mobil di Manchuria 1931

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Sejarawan revisionis telah diperebutkan bahwa kejahatan tersebut terjadi. Sayap kanan kelompok nasionalis di Jepang memberhentikan beberapa tuduhan kejahatan perang sebagai kebohongan, atau anti-Jepang propaganda, dibuat atau sedang dilakukan oleh Republik Rakyat Cina untuk membenarkan ofManchuria pendudukannya, dan menempatkan Jepang modern dalam cahaya yang negatif untuk yang modern politik dan kebijakan luar negeri tujuan.


Japanese invasion and Manchukuo

IJA troops enter Mukden.jpg

Around the time of World War IZhang Zuolin established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. He was inclined to keep his Manchu army under his control and to keep Manchuria free of foreign influence. The Japanese tried to kill him in 1916 by throwing a bomb under his carriage, but failed. The Japanese finally succeeded on June 2, 1928, when a planted bomb exploded under his seven-carriage train a few miles from Mukden station.

Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Inner Manchuria was proclaimed as an independent state, Manchukuo. The last Manchu emperor, Puyi, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese puppet government in the Wei Huang Gong, better known as “Puppet Emperor’s Palace”. Inner Manchuria was thus detached from China by Japan to create a buffer zone to defend Japan from Russia’s Southing Strategy and, with Japanese investment and rich natural resources, became an industrial domination. However, under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation. The Japanese also began a campaign of emigration to Manchukuo; the Japanesepopulation there rose from 240,000 in 1931 to 837,000 in 1939 (the Japanese had a plan to bring in 5 million Japanese settlers into Manchukuo). Hundreds of Manchu farmers were evicted and their farms given to Japanese immigrant families. Manchukuo was used as a base to invade the rest of China, an action that was very costly to Japan in terms of the damage to men, matériel and political integrity.

At the end of the 1930s, Manchuria was a trouble spot with Japan, clashing twice with the Soviet Union. These clashes – at Lake Khasan in 1938 and at Khalkhin Gol one year later – resulted in many Japanese casualties. The Soviet Union won these two battles and a peace agreement was signed. However, the regional unrest endured.

After World War II

After the atomic bombing of HiroshimaJapan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Inner Manchuria was a base area for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, which emerged victorious in 1949.

File:Red Army in Harbin.png

Soviet soldiers in Harbin

During the Korean War of the 1950s, 300,000 soldiers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army crossed the Sino-Korean border from Manchuria to repulse UN forces led by the United States from North Korea.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

In the 1960s, Manchuria’s border with the Soviet Union became the site of the most serious tension between the Soviet Union andChina. The treaties of 1858 and 1860, which ceded territory north of the Amur, were ambiguous as to which course of the river was the boundary. This ambiguity led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict.

A motorized column in the Japanese advance into Jehol 1933 Courtesy of Peter H)

With the end of the Cold War, this boundary issue was discussed through negotiations. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to China, ending an enduring border dispute. Both islands are found at the confluence of theAmur and Ussuri Rivers, and were until then administered by Russia and claimed by China. The event was meant to foster feelings of reconciliation and cooperation between the two countries by their leaders, but it has also provoked different degrees of dissent on both sides. Russians, especially Cossack farmers of Khabarovsk, who would lose their ploughlands on the islands, were unhappy about the apparent loss of territory. Meanwhile, some Chinese have criticised the treaty as an official acknowledgement of the legitimacy of Russian rule over Outer Manchuria, which was ceded by the Qing Dynasty to Imperial Russia under a series of Unequal Treaties, which included the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Convention of Peking in 1860, in order to exchange exclusive usage of Russia’s rich oil resources. The transfer was carried out on October 14, 2008.

Infantry during the Japanese advance into Jehol 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H) 

War crimes in Manchukuo

War crimes in Manchukuo were committed during the rule of the Empire of Japan in northeast China, either directly, or through itspuppet state of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. Various war crimes have been alleged, but have received comparatively little historical attention.

File:Manchukuo-poppy harvest.jpg

Opium poppy harvest in northern Manchukuo

Legal basis

Although the Empire of Japan did not sign the Geneva Conventions, which have provided the standard definition of war crimes since 1864, the crimes committed fall under other aspects of international and Japanese law. For example, many of the alleged crimes committed by Japanese personnel broke Japanese military law, and were not subject to court martial, as required by that law.Japan also violated signed international agreements, including provisions of the Treaty of Versailles such as a ban on the use ofchemical weapons, and the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), which protect prisoners of war (POWs).

Japanese infantry in winter uniforms in Manchuria 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

The Japanese government also signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1929), thereby rendering its actions in 1937-45 liable to charges of crimes against peace, a charge that was introduced at the Tokyo Trials to prosecute “Class A” war criminals. “Class B” war criminals were those found guilty of war crimes per se, and “Class C” war criminals were those guilty of crimes against humanity. The Japanese government also accepted the terms set by the Potsdam Declaration (1945) after the end of the war. The declaration alluded, in Article 10, to two kinds of war crime: one was the violation of international laws, such as the abuse of prisoners of war; the other was obstructing “democratictendencies among the Japanese people” and civil liberties within Japan.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

In Japan, the term “Japanese war crimes” generally only refers to cases tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, also known as the Tokyo Trials, following the end of the Pacific War. However, the tribunal did not prosecute war crimes allegations involving mid-ranking officers or more junior personnel. Those were dealt with separately in trials held in China and in the Soviet Unionafter the surrender of Japan.

Japanese armored cars in Manchuria 1931 

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Revisionist historians have contested that such crimes occurred. Right-wing nationalist groups in Japan dismiss some of the alleged war crimes as lies, or anti-Japanese propaganda, made or being made by the People’s Republic of China to justify its occupation ofManchuria, and to place modern Japan in a negative light for modern political and foreign policy purposes.


Human experimentation

Unit 731

Unit 731 (731 部隊 Nana-san-ichi butai?);simplified Chinese: 731部队 was a covertbiological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel.

Unit 731 was the code name (tsūshōgō) of an Imperial Japanese Army unit officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of theKwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部, Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu). It was initially set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan to developweapons of mass destruction for potential use against Chinese, and possibly Sovietforces.

Unit 731

Unit 731 was based in HarbinHeilongjiang province in Japanese-occupied China.
Location Pingfang
Coordinates 45.6°N 126.633333°ECoordinates45.6°N 126.633333°E
Date 1935–1945
Attack type Human experimentation.
Biological/chemical warfare.
Weapon(s) Diseases
Death(s) ~580,000 camp inmates.
(95% Chinese and Korean;
5% South East Asians and Pacific Islanders)
~200,000 Chinese military and civilians.
Perpetrator(s) General Shirō Ishii
Lt. General Masaji Kitano
Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army


Shiro Ishii, commander of Unit 731

Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China).

More than 10,000 people from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai—were subjects of the experimentation conducted by Unit 731.

More than 95% of the victims who died in the camp based in Pingfang were Chinese and Korean, including both civilian and military. The remaining 5% were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of the prisoners of warfrom the Allies of World War II.

According to the 2002 International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare, the number of people killed by the Imperial Japanese Army germ warfare and human experiments is around 580,000. According to other sources, the use of biological weapons researched in Unit 731′s bioweapons and chemical weapons programs resulted in possibly as many as 200,000 deaths of military personnel and civilians in China.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Unit 731 was the headquarters of many subsidiary units used by the Japanese to research biological warfare; other units included Unit 516 (Qiqihar), Unit 543 (Hailar), Unit 773 (Songo unit),Unit 100 (Changchun), Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing), Unit 1855 (Beijing), Unit 8604 (Guangzhou), Unit 200(Manchuria) and Unit 9420 (Singapore).

Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in post-war politics, academia, business, and medicine. Some were arrested by Soviet forces and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; others surrendered to the American Forces.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that “additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as ‘War Crimes’ evidence.”[7] The deal was concluded in 1948.


In 1932, General Shirō Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō), chief medical officer of the Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. Ishii organized a secret research group, the “Tōgō Unit”, for the conduct of various chemical and biological investigations in Manchuria.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km (62 mi) south ofHarbin on the South Manchurian Railway. A jailbreak in autumn 1934 and later explosion (believed to be an attack) in 1935 led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress. He received the authorization to move to Pingfang, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility.

(Courtesy of Samuel A) 

In 1936, Hirohito authorized, by imperial decree, the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department. It was divided at the same time into the “Ishii Unit” and “Wakamatsu Unit” with a base inHsinking. From August 1940, all these units were known collectively as the “Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部)” or “Unit 731″ (満州第731部隊) for short.


The test subjects were selected to give a wide cross section of the population and included common criminals, captured bandits and anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, and also people rounded up by the Kempetai for alleged “suspicious activities”. They included infants, the elderly, and pregnant women.A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as “logs” (丸太 maruta?). This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill.


Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia. Vivisections were performed on prisoners after infecting them with various diseases. Scientists performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was feared that the decomposition process would affect the results. The infected and vivisected prisoners included men, women, children, and infants.

Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study blood loss. Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners’ limbs were frozen and amputated, while others had limbs frozen then thawed to study the effects of the resultant untreated gangrene and rotting.

Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines. Parts of the brainlungsliver, etc. were removed from some prisoners.

In 2007, Doctor Ken Yuasa testified to the Japan Times that, “I was afraid during my first vivisection, but the second time around, it was much easier. By the third time, I was willing to do it.” He believes at least 1,000 people, including surgeons, were involved in vivisections over mainland China.

Weapons testing

Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombschemical weapons, and explosivebombs.

Germ warfare attacks

Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, then studied.Prisoners were infested with fleas in order to acquire large quantities of disease-carrying fleas for the purposes of studying the viability of germ warfare

Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera,anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around 400,000 Chinese civilians. Tularemia was tested on Chinese civilians.

Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644, Unit 100, et cetera) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Plague-infested fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, coastal Ningbo in 1940, and ChangdeHunan Province, in 1941. This military aerial spraying killed thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics.

Other experiments

Prisoners were subjected to other torturous experiments such as being hung upside down to see how long it would take for them to choke to death, having air injected into their arteries to determine the time until the onset of embolism, and having horse urine injected into their kidneys.

Other incidents include being deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death, being placed into high-pressure chambers until death, having experiments performed upon prisoners to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival, being placed into centrifuges and spun until dead, having animal blood injected and the effects studied, being exposed to lethal doses of x-rays, having various chemical weapons tested on prisoners inside gas chambers, being injected with sea water to determine if it could be a substitute for saline and being buried alive.

Biological warfare

Japanese scientists performed tests on prisoners with plaguecholerasmallpoxbotulism, and other diseases.[21] This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread the bubonic plague.[22] Some of these bombs were designed with ceramic (porcelain) shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.

These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, and other areas withanthrax, plague-carrier fleas, typhoiddysenterycholera, and other deadly pathogens. During biological bomb experiments, scientists dressed in protective suits would examine the dying victims. Infected food supplies and clothing were dropped by airplane into areas of China not occupied by Japanese forces. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given out to unsuspecting victims and children, and the results examined.

Known Unit members


Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions:

  • Division 1: Research on bubonic plaguecholeraanthraxtyphoid and tuberculosis using live human subjects. For this purpose, a prison was constructed to contain around three to four hundred people.
  • Division 2: Research for biological weapons used in the field, in particular the production of devices to spread germs and parasites.
  • Division 3: Production of shells containing biological agents. Stationed in Harbin.
  • Division 4: Production of other miscellaneous agents.
  • Division 5: Training of personnel.
  • Divisions 6–8: Equipment, medical and administrative units.



One of the buildings is open to visitors

The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings. The design of the facilities made them hard to destroy by bombing. The complex contained various factories. It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in several days.

Some of Unit 731′s satellite facilities are in use by various Chinese industrial concerns. A portion has been preserved and is open to visitors as a War Crimes Museum.

Tons of biological weapons (and some chemicals) were stored in various places in northeastern China throughout the war. The Japanese attempted to destroy evidence of the facilities after disbanding. Twenty-nine people were hospitalized in August 2003 after a construction crew in Heilongjiang inadvertently dug up chemical shells that had been buried deep in the soil more than 50 years before.

Anda testing site

This site was an open air testing area about 120 km (75 mi) from the Pingfang facility.

Hsinking (Changchun) HQ

Headquarters of “Wakamatsu Unit” (Unit 100), under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu. This facility dedicated itself to both the study of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, veterinary biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against the Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Peking (Peiping) HQ

This HQ served as the headquarters of Unit 1855. It was also an experimental branch unit based at TsinanShantungPandemic diseases were extensively studied at this facility.

Nanking HQ

This section was the headquarters of the “Tama Unit” (Unit Ei 1644) and conducted extensive joint projects and operations with Unit 731.

Kwangtung (Canton) HQ

The headquarters of the “Nami Unit” (Unit 8604). This installation conducted human experimentation in food and water deprivation as well as water-borne typhus. In addition, this facility served as the main rat-farm for the medical units to provide them with bubonic plague vectors for experiments.

Syonan (Singapore) HQ

Formed in 1942, by Ryoichi NaitoUnit 9420 had approximately 1,000 personnel based at the Raffles Medical University. The unit was commanded by Major General Kitagawa Masataka and supported by the Japanese Southern Army Headquarters.

There were two main sub units: the “Kono Unit”, which specialized in malaria, and “Umeoka Unit”, which dealt with the plague. In addition to disease experiments, this facility served as one of the main rat catching and processing centers. Evidence points toward this facility supplying a medical sub-unit operating in Thailand, with diseases for unknown operations and or experiments.

Hiroshima HQ

A top secret factory in Ōkunoshima produced chemical weapons for the Japanese military and medical units. Starting with mustard gas production in 1928, the factory moved on to such poisons as Lewisite, and Cyanogen. During the 1930s, as the war in China grew worse, the island the factory sat on was removed from most maps to strengthen secrecy and security.Manchuria HQ (Unit 200)

This unit was associated directly with Unit 731, and worked mainly in plague research.

Manchuria HQ (Unit 571)

This section, with unknown headquarters, was another unit that worked directly and extensively with Unit 731.


A medical school and research facility belonging to Unit 731 operated in Shinjuku, Tokyo during World War II. In 2006, Toyo Ishii—a nurse who worked at the school during the war—revealed that she had helped bury bodies and pieces of bodies on the school’s grounds shortly after Japan’s surrender in 1945. In response, in February 2011 the Ministry of Health began to excavate the site.

China has requested DNA samples from any human remains discovered at the site. The Japanese government—which has never officially acknowledged the existence of Unit 731—has rejected the request.

Special Mobile Teams

Special units led by Shirō Ishii’s elder brother and only staffed with members from Ishii’s home town operated separately from the regular medical organizations as roving researchers and trouble shooters.

Special Operations units

Units with special and unknown assignments in Manchuria and the Asian mainland. It has been suggested that nuclear weaponsresearch was conducted in Manchuria toward the end of the war by this branch.

Disbanding and the end of World War II


Information sign at the site today.

Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific conflict since May 1944, but his attempts were repeatedly foiled by poor planning and Allied intervention.

With the Russian invasion of Manchukuo and Mengjiang in August 1945, the unit had to abandon their work in haste. The members and their families fled to Japan.

Ishii ordered every member of the group “to take the secret to the grave”, threatening to find them if they failed, and prohibiting any of them from going into public work back in Japan. Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in the event that the remaining personnel were captured.

Skeleton crews of Ishii’s Japanese troops blew the compound up in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but most were so well constructed that they survived somewhat intact as a testimony to what had happened there.

After Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupation. MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological warfare. American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including reading and censoring their mail. The U.S. believed that the research data was valuable. The U.S. did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons.

The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with “poisonous serums” on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was instigated by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. The Japanese defense counselor argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was likely aware of Unit 731′s activities. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental.

Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in theKhabarovsk War Crime Trials. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes including germ warfare was General Otozo Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria.

Although most victims of unit 731 were Chinese, other victims were American POWs, British, Russian and other nationalities.[29]The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949.

A lengthy partial transcript of the trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by a Moscow foreign languages press, including an English language edition: Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950). (French language: Documents relatifs au procès des anciens Militaires de l’Armée Japonaise accusés d’avoir préparé et employé l’Arme Bactériologique / Japanese language: 細菌戦用兵器ノ準備及ビ使用ノ廉デ起訴サレタ元日本軍軍人ノ事件ニ関スル公判書類 / Chinese language: 前日本陸軍軍人因準備和使用細菌武器被控案審判材料)

This book remains an invaluable resource for historians on the organization and activities of the Japanese biological warfare “death factory” lab-prisons. The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, who had been one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials.

After World War II, the Soviet Union built a biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk using documentation captured from Unit 731 in Manchuria.

The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 atrocities and germ warfare experiments received sentences from the Khabarovsk court ranging from two to 25 years in a Siberian labor camp.

Some former members of Unit 731 became part of the Japanese medical establishment. Dr. Masaji Kitano led Japan’s largestpharmaceutical company, the Green Cross. Others headed U.S.-backed medical schools or worked for the Japanese health ministry.Shirō Ishii moved to Maryland to work on bio-weapons research.

Chemical and biological weapons

According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Emperor Hirohito authorized the use of chemical weapons in China.Furthermore, “tens of thousands, and perhaps as many 200,000, Chinese died of bubonic plaguecholeraanthrax and other diseases…”, resulting from the use of biological warfare. Although there is no record of chemical or biological weapons in Manchukuo itself, these weapons of mass destruction were partly researched, produced, and stockpiled in Manchukuo by the Kwangtung Army.

Forced labor

The Japanese military’s use of forced labor also caused many deaths. According to a joint study of historians Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyochi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized for forced labor in Manchukuo under the supervision of the Kōa-in.

Forced laborers were often assigned work in dangerous conditions without adequate safety precautions. The world’s deadliest mine disaster, at Benxihu Colliery, occurred in Manchukuo.

Human rights violations

  • Arrest of civilians without due cause by the local Manchukuo police or Japanese authorities.
  • Torture of prisoners in regular penal or military jails.
  • Disappearances and Extrajudicial execution of political opponents
  • Preferential civil rights for Japanese subjects over other nationalities.
  • Forced land appropriations either with or without legal orders in favour of Japanese citizens or private and government companies.
  • Use of criminal gangs for robbery and intimidation of political opposition

Drug trafficking

In 2007, an article by Reiji Yoshida in the Japan Times argued that the Japanese investments in Manchukuo were partly financed byselling drugs. According to the article, a document claimed to have been found by Yoshida directly implicated the Kōa-in in providing funds to drug dealers in China for the benefit of the puppet governments of Manchukuo, Nanjing and Mongolia.  This document corroborates evidence analyzed earlier by the Tokyo tribunal which stated that

Japan’s real purpose in engaging drug traffic was far more sinister than even the debauchery of Chinese people. Japan, having signed and ratified the opium conventions, was bound not to engage in drug traffic, but she found in the alleged but false independence of Manchukuo a convenient opportunity to carry on a worldwide drug traffic and cast the guilt upon that puppet state (…) In 1937, it was pointed out in the League of Nations that 90% of all illicit white drugs in the world were of Japanese origin…

War crimes trials

Khabarovsk War Crime Trial

In late 1949, numerous members of the former Kwantung Army who had been captured in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria were convicted in connection with the activities of Unit 731, and related units for their connections with crimes against humanity and the use of chemical and biological weapons.

Tokyo Trials

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convicted a number of high Japanese officials in connection with the invasion of Manchuriaestablishment of Manchukuo and with conspiracy to wage aggressive war against China. Those convicted to death with strong connections to Manchukuo included senior officers in the Kwantung Army Hideki TōjōAkira MutoSeishirō Itagaki and Kenji Doihara.

the end @copyright 2012

This a part of The china Historic Collections exist in CD-ROM for premium Member only