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The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Historic Collections

 

 

THE LAST  PRINCESS DEOKHYE OF KOREA

HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

Copyright@2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD_ROM,THE COMPLETE INFO EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

THE HISTORY OF LAST KOREA ‘S EMPEROR

1852

Emperor Gojong


Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th
Emperor
Gojong

l:1852-1919
r2:1897-1907
    27th
Emperor
Sunjong
l:1874-1926
r:1907-1910
    Prince
Geon
       
      Wanchinwang     Prince
Wu
       
      Euichinwang     Yi Bang
       
            Yi Chang
       
            Yi Ju
       
            Yi Gon
       
            Yi Gwang
       
            Yi Hyun     30th
Yi Won
           
            Yi Gap     Yi Sangwoo
           
            Yi Seuk (Hwangson)
       
            Yi Hwan
       
            Yi Jung
       
     
   
      28th
Eumin taeja
    29th
Yi Gu (1931)
       

War, Chosun was finally free and no longer was a vassal state of China.

the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

For the first time since the Goryeo dynasty’s subjugation to the Mongols, Korea was able to take titles reserved for China and its Emperor. Thus, to usher a new era, King Gojong assumed the title “Emperor” and changed the name of Chosun to the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

 He attempted to put Korea on par with the imperial Western nations and Japan, and introduced reforms by opening port and bringing in both Westerners and the Japanese. Unfortunately, it was too little, too late.

The Japanese, with their aspirations to have a foothold on the Asian mainland, interfered in internal Korean politics and forced Emperor Gojong to abdicted  After the defeat to  the Qing dynasty in the First Sino-Japanese

 

Emperor Gojong – Enjoying Spring

 a poem by Emperor Gojong (高宗光武帝, 고종광무제, r. 1863-1907, 1852-1919), the second to last monarch of the last dynasty.

賞春 상춘Enjoying Spring

花間看蝶舞 화간간접무
柳上聽鶯聲 유상청앵성
群生皆自樂 군생개자락
最是愛民情 최시애민정

flower-between-to see-butterfly-to dance
willows-above-hear-nightingale-sound
group-life-all-by themselves-joy
first-to be-love-people-condition

Between the flowers, I spotted a butterfly dancing.
Above the willows, I hearken the nightingale’s singing.
All sorts of life are all together by themselves enjoyable.
The first of these is to esteem the conditions of [Our country’s] people.

Characters:

  • 蝶 (접, jeop) – butterfly (나비).
  • 鶯 (앵, aeng) – nightingale (앵무새).
 
 

1853

Stimulated by these events, Japan proceeded to modernize after having been forced to open its ports by Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy in 1853-54. Korea, however, remained dormant, having closed itself to all outside contacts in the early eighteenth century.

1863

 

 Late Joseon period

 

Heungseon Daewongun

After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo led a renaissance of the Joseon dynasty. King Sukjong and his son King Yeongjo tried to solve the problems caused by faction politics. Tangpyeong’s policy was to effectively freeze the parties’ disputes.

Yeongjo’s grandson, King Jeongjo enacted various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing Kyujanggak, a royal library in order to improve the cultural and political position of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to run the nation. King Jeongjo also spearheaded bold social initiatives, opening government positions to those who would previously have been barred because of their social status. King Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars, who supported his regal power. King Jeongjo’s reign also saw the further growth and development of Joseon’s popular culture.

In 1863

King Gojong took the throne. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid 1860s the Regent was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the

French Campaign against Korea, 1866.

The early years of his rule also witnessed a large effort to restore the largely dilapidated

 Gyeongbok Palace,

the seat of royal authority. During

 Heungseon Daewongun‘s reign,

factional politics and power wielded by the Andong Kim clan completely disappeared.

 In 1871,

 U.S. and Korean forces clashed in a U.S. attempt at “gunboat diplomacy” following on

 the General Sherman incident of 1866.

In 1873,

 King Gojong announced his assumption of royal rule. With the subsequent retirement of Heungseon Daewongun,

the future Queen Min (later called Empress Myeongseong)

gained complete control over her court, placing her family in high court positions.

1885

Decline

 

Empress Myeongseong.

 

 

Japanese  Minister of War Yamagata Aritomo       Japanese Emperor Meiji      Japanese Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi

Few people outside of Japan realized the extraordinary military progress that Japan had made . The Japanese had no doubts about this and the weakness of China. While professing to seek peace with China over Korea to bring reform and modernization for Korea, the Japanese minister in Seoul,  had instructions that he was to use any pretext to begin a war .

After the Meiji restoration of 1868, a parliament was established, but it nor the emperor wielded real power, that was done by the Genro ( (元老) imperial advisors, an oligarchy of  seven elder statesmen, who collectively  made the most important decisions. Itō Hirobumi  and  Yamagata Aritomo, were the most prominent of the seven. Yamagata Aritomo, who became field marshal and was war minister during the Sino-Japanese War, was heavily influenced by the success of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and is considered the father of Japanese militarism .Another member of the Genro,Itō Hirobumi  was Prime Minister during the war. With Yamagata’s instigation and encouragement of ultra-nationalistic secret societies such as the Genyosha ( 玄洋社 Black Ocean Society ), Japan pressed for war .There was also strong public feeling in Japan for action in Korea. It is not clear if Emperor Meiji supported the war .

 

The Guangxu Emperor r.1875-1908     Empress Dowager Cixi  (1838-1908)       Li Hongzhang  (Li Hung-chang)

 

The defacto ruler of China after the death of the Xianfeng Emperor in 1861 was Empress Dowager Cixi .Cixi was extremely conservative and refused reform of the political system.Efforts were made through the Self-Strengthening Movement of 1861-1895 to improve the China’s military and economic position, but the country was racked by massive internal rebellions such as the Taiping, Nien and Muslim rebellions.

 

 

Corrupt officials filled some shells with sand instead of gunpowder

from The Sino-Japanese War 1962

 

Corruption, incompetent officials and tariff restrictions among other problems kept China from modernizing as fast as Meiji Japan did. The Chinese plan if war broke out was to call for a levy of 20,000 men from each Chinese province, send an army to march overland to Seoul and reenforce the troops  already  stationed near Seoul by sea  and drive the Japanese out of Korea .

 

 

Most Europeans expected China to defeat Japan, since the Chinese navy looked stronger on paper cartoon from Punch 1894

.The Sino-Japanese War would come to symbolize the degeneration and enfeeblement of the Qing Dynasty and demonstrate how successful modernization had been in Japan since the Meiji Restoration as compared with the Self-Strengthening Movement in China. The principal results were a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan and a fatal blow to the Qing Dynasty and the Chinese classical tradition. These trends would result later in the 1911 Revolution

The Korean Situation

 

Seoul 1890s

Korea had been a tributary state of  the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty China .China and Japan had last clashed in Korea during the Imjin War (1592-98), when Ming and Korean forces drove out the Japanese . The Koreans modeled their institutions on the Chinese Confucian model and were heavily influenced by Chinese culture .Since 1637, Korea had cut-off contact with most of the world with the exception of China. After the opening of Japan and the modernization of the Meiji Restoration of 1868 , China began to advise Korea to establish relations  the West to counter the growing strength of Japan .Japan pressed Korea to open up and was rebuffed.By the 1880s, court power struggles were no longer a domestic issue and took on international aspects .

 

A factory in Meiji-era Japan. Japan was able to modernize much faster than China

As a newly emergent country, Japan turned its attention towards Korea. It was vital for Japan, in order to protect its own interests and security, to either annex Korea before it fell prey (or was annexed) to another power or to insure its effective independence by opening its resources and reforming its administration. As one Japanese statesman put it, Korea was “an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan”. Japan felt that another power having a military presence on the Korean peninsula would have been detrimental to Japanese national security, and so Japan resolved to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty over Korea. Moreover, Japan realized that Korea’s coal and iron ore deposits would benefit Japan’s increasingly-expanding industrial base.

In 1875, a Japanese surveying ship, accompanied by gunboats, where fired upon by forts in Kanghwa Bay. The Japanese returned fire and destroyed the Korean forts and used it as an excuse to force Korea to open up. The Chinese, eager to avoid a clash with Japan, instructed Korea to enter into negotiations. In 1876 the Japanese-Korean Treaty of Kanghwa was signed which recognized Korea as an independent country and the opening of three ports . China did not protest its loss of suzerainty .However, in 1882 , Korea issued a statement declaring her position as a dependency of China .

 

King Kojong and his son, Sunjong in 1890

In 1874,

King Kojong began his rule and his wife, Queen Min,

gained increasing power, which she used to support reform and use Japanese officers to train a new Korean  army .

In 1882

 a Japanese military instructor arrived to train Korean soldiers in modern methods .

The Korean Daewongun (Prince of the Court) Prince Gung,

 who rejected modernization, used the discontent of the dismissed soldiers and a food shortage to incite them to attack the palace and the Japanese legation in 1882 .Queen Min barely escaped and seven Japanese officers were killed along with 300 pro-reform Koreans .

The Chinese sent Admiral Ding Ju-chang

with six gunboats and two transports of troops to investigate the situation who took steps to avoid Japanese punitive action by having the Daewongun arrested and an indemnity of $550,000 to be paid to Japan.Japan was allowed to station troops at its legation .Queen Min returned, who was now strongly opposed to the Japanese .

Kim Ok-kyun and the Kapshin coup

 

Kim Ok-kyun

After the insurrection of 1882,

Li Hung-zhang took steps to strengthen China’s position in Korea with a commercial treaty, loans and six Chinese battalions to maintain order and check Japanese aggression .Tension mounted between pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese forces. In 1884, China was involved in a war with France and withdrew three battalions. the pro-Japanese faction took this opportunity to launch a coup, known as the Kapshin coup ( 갑신정변) and captured the king.

One of the major Korean leaders of the coup was Kim Ok-kyun ( Gim Ok-gyun 김옥균 ), a Choson official who sought to reform and modernize Korea .During his national civil service, Kim found many others who agreed with him, and they formed the Dongnidang, or “Independence Party.” He became involved in the Shirhak (Practical Learning) movement which advocated government reform, industrialization, and other reforms to improve Korea. In the early 1880s he went to Japan to report to Kong Kojong on the rapid moderization of Japan and if it had plans to invade Korea .Kim discovered that the Japanese did not feel strong enough go to war with Qing China, but that it would in the future .Kim wanted to  Korea to implement Western learning so it could become independent and would not be taken over by Japan, which he foresaw . He agreed to support the Japanese planned coup and  planned with his reformist group,the  Gaehwapa faction, to assassinate conservative political leaders during the choas of the coup. After the coup, a pro-Japanese government was sworn in,dominated by the Gaehwapa faction, independence from China was proclaimed and a new Japanese fiance minister was appointed .

 

The Japanese had been too heavy handed however, and many reformers and pro-Japanese switched to the conservative, pro-Chinese faction .A force of 5,000 Korean and Chinese soldiers under Yuan Shikai fell on the palace The Chinese broke through the palace gates, and the Japanese detonated a mine which killed 90 Chinese soldiers .However, there were too many against the Japanese and pro-Japanese forces, and a company of 140 Japanese soldiers and the Japanese minister fought their way to Chemulpo ( Inchon). With the conservatives victorious, the remaining pro-Japanese and progressives were rounded up and executed , along with their families .Kim Ok-kyun also fled to Japan and later to Shanghai. There he was assinated by a  assassin , possible sent by Yuan Shi-kai on March 28, 1894 .The Japanese government took this as a direct affront.

An envoy, Ito Hirobumi, was sent to confer with Li Hung-chang, where they reached the Sino-Japanese Tientsin Convention on April 18, 1885. Ito felt that Japan was not yet modernized enough for a war with China .This stipulated that both China and Japan would withdraw their troops from Korea in four months, neither side would train Korean troops and that each would notify the other before dispatching troops to Korea .This in effect made Korea a co-protectorate of China and Japan . Yuan Shi-kai, as Chinese pro-consul was very powerful in Korea at this time.and basically ran the Korean government. He dismissed all pro-Japanese advisors, prohibited inland trade with Russia and the sale of rice to Japan, which had in part caused the food shortage before . This greatly angered the Japanese, who granted asylum to progressives who were wanted by the Korean government .There was great anger in the Korean countryside over the abuses of the Yangban ruling class over high taxes, buying land cheap or stealing it, forcing farmers into debt bondage and xenophobia against foreign intrusion in Korea. The Japanese secret society, began to secretly aid a group fighting these injustices, the Tonghaks, hoping Japan could profit from an unstable situation in Korea .

The Tonghak Rebellion

 

Tonghak founder Ch’oe Che-u

 

In the 1860s, an indigenous religion, Tonghak (동학, 東學,Eastern Learning, for more details on the Tonghaks )   which combined  such aspects as the meditation of Buddhism, ethics of Confucianism, primal nature of Shamanism, Taoism cultivation of energy and the personal God of Catholicism to oppose ‘Western Learning’ (Catholicism)  arose from the indignation of the lower classes of  yangban (ruling aristocratic class) oppression and foreign influence in Korea, especially Christian missionaries and Japanese imports .

It was not only a religious movement but a social movement as well and concerned with the peasantry and the improvement of their conditions and reform of the corrupt government. The idea of the dignity and equality of all men was to influence future democratic movements.

 

 

Increased taxes that forced many Korean farmers to sell their land, forced labor

and other abuses caused many farmers to throw their lot in with the Tonghaks

 

The Korean government banned the movement and had its founder Ch’oe Che-u, executed by decapitation in 1864  and the movement was forced to go underground .The Tonghaks, were aided by the Japanese Genyosha secret society, to organize a mass movement with large protests and stage a rebellion .A Korean army sent to attack the Tonghaks was defeated at Gobu in southwest Korea on January 11, 1894 and the Korean court, fearing a Tonghak invasion of Seoul, asked for Chinese aid

 

 

Chinese troops in Korea

 

The initial success of the revolt led a panic court to seek help from  China .In early June a Chinese force of 2,800 was dispatched from Chefoo ( Yingtan) to Asan under general Yuan Shikai, a port outside of Seoul, where they camped Yuan Shi-kaigave  promises of pardon to the rebels who submitted, and dreadful threats to those who resisted, Korea was mentioned as a tributary state of China, was loudly commented on in the Japanese press, and aroused great indignation. The arrival of the Chinese forces caused the Tonghaks to call off their attack on Seoul after the Korean government arranged a truce . The Tonghak leader, Chon Pong-chun regarded this as an opportunity to archive his objectives without further recourse to warfare. In consequence hostilities came to an end, on condition that an end also be put to government misrule.  .The Japanese considered this action to be a violation of the Convention, and sent their own expeditionary force of 8,000 troops to Korea. to its legation in Seoul ad the surrounding area .

 

 

Landing of Japanese troops on June 12, 1894

The Japanese force subsequently seized the emperor, occupied the Royal Palace in Seoul on June, 8 1894, and replaced the existing government with the members from the pro-Japanese faction. The Japanese Government considered the Tonghak movement not an accidental occurrence, but the inevitable consequence of the persisting misgovernment of the country, and argued that the rebellion could not be suppressed, nor its recurrence prevented, unless radical reforms were carried out in Korea. Japan proposed that reforms should be instituted, and asked China to assist her in enforcing them. China refused to join in such measures, not deeming them necessary, and not wishing to interfere in the internal affairs of the peninsula. Topknots were banned, and Japanese soldiers with scissors manned the city gates, cutting topknots off .The King was forced to declare Korea’s independence from China at the Altar of the Spirits of the Land .The Japanese demanded concessions which gave them a monopoly on industry and trade .

 

 

 

Tonghak leader Chon Pong-chun ( Jeon Bong-jun ), who was betrayed and arrested in 1894 and later executed

 

In October, the Tonghak again took up their arms and began to move northward, with the avowed intent of expelling the pro-Japanese government. But they were defeated in fighting at Kongju against government troops reinforced by a Japanese army contingent, and they met defeat again at T’aein, at the decisive Battle of Ugeumchi. The Japanese had cannons and other modern weapons, whereas the Korean peasants were armed only with bow and arrows, spears, swords, and some flintlock muskets.

 

Reform Attempts

The unsuccessful 1884 coup d’etat brought frustration to the reform efforts, but the need for reform was still keenly felt byt he populace and some leaders of the government as well.  The disintegration of the traditional social order was accelerated by the peasant struggle.  Such developments led Korea to implement institutional reform.

The conservative government had been compelled to accept the administrative reform proposals submitted by the Tonghak rebels at the time of the cease-fire in Chonju in 1894.  This peasant struggle was utilized by the Japanese army for its aggressive purposes.  Then, in the course of the Sino-Japanese War, Japan forced Korea to carry out reform by armed threat, while expelling the China-oriented conservative politicians from the government.  The peace treaty ending the Sino-Japanese War was concluded on April 17, 1895, at Shimonoseki, Japan.  China’s influence waned, and the Korean government was forcibly integrated into Japan’s design of imperialistic aggression.

On July 27, 1894, a Supreme Council for Military and State Administration was established to function as the nation’s highest executive and legislative organ.  On July 29, it passed a 23-article reform plan, but this was not by any means autonomous, as it was accompanied by the aggressive intent of Japan.  The reform movement was led mainly by politicians heavily Japan-oriented, but the Taewon-gun fought Japanese aggression by inciting Tonghak followers to engage in anti-Japanese activities.

The Supreme Council passed no less than 208 reform measures.  These included the use of the founding of the Choson Dynasty as a basis for the calendar; disciplinary action against corrupt officials; the liberalization of commercial activities; the establishment of a new currency system on the silver standard; unity in financial administration under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance; the standardization of weights and measures; cash payment of all taxes; the establishment of a military system on the basis of universal conscription; the reform of the local government system; the protection of civil life and property; the enactment of civil and criminal codes; the employment of competent persons at government offices; and the provision of opportunities for talented young men to pursue advanced studies abroad to acquire modern knowledge and techniques.

Intensified Japanese Agression

Japanese aggression in Korean was “a matter of life or death,” as was earlier expressed by Hayashi Tadashi, a one-time Japanese minister to London.  As Japanese aggression intensified, the Min clique collaborated with Russian Minister Karl Waeber to force Kim Hong-jip to reorganize his cabinet, and pro-Russian figures such as Yi Pom-jin were given cabinet posts.

The government, reorganizing the military structure in April 1895, hired Japanese officer as instructors.  They trained about 800 Korea officers and men who were then assigned to the royal palace as guards under training.  It was under these circumstances of questionable palace security that militant Japanese Minister Miura Goro and other Japanese decided to assassinate Queen Min, the leading figure in the Min clique, as she was again making secret overtures to China and Russia.  Taking advantage of the trainee-guards and those who opposed the Min family, Japanese troops, crushing resistance put up by the royal bodyguards, intruded into Kyongbokkung palace at dawn on October 8.

Storming into the Ok’oru pavilion, the Japanese found and killed Queen Min, and burned her body with kerosene.  The foreign missions were outraged by this atrocity.  The Japanese government hurriedly repatriated those who had taken part in the action and detained them briefly at Hiroshima Prison as a subterfuge.  Their trial, to borrow the worlds of a Japanese historian Yamabe Kentaro, was “a deliberate miscarriage of justice, designed to protect the culprits.”

Despite the Japanese brutality, the European powers, in their apprehension over Russia’s southward expansion, welcomed the overt Japanese aggression as a counter to the Russian threat.  Germany saw the continued presence of the Japanese army as indispensable, while other powers maintained that a demand for its withdrawal would only produce more trouble.  Great Britain believed the entrustment of Korea to Japan was a proper measure to check the Russian advance.  The American government instructed its minister not to make any statement unfavorable to Japan.

 

 

 

 

 

Informed of the assassination of Queen Min

 

by a mob of Japanese intruders,

the nation was gripped with indignation.  Confucian scholars mobilized volunteers to fight against the Japanese. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Min of Korea

 

By her death 1895, Queen Min of Korea,

also known as Empress Myeongseong,

had spent years cleverly doing her best to limit Japanese influence in colonial Korea. Seen as a threat to the expansion of the Japanese empire, more than 50 agents attacked Queen Min, assassinating her in brutal fashion. While dozens of men were charged with her death, after international outcry, none were found guilty. In the aftermath, Queen Min became a rallying cry for Koreans fighting for freedom. To this day, her death is still used by some factions to encourage anti-Japanese sentiment.

 

 

 

 

In 1895,

Queen Min was assassinated by the plot of Japanese and Taewon’gun.

Cause:

Japanese were struggling against Queen Min’s faction to take over the royal court. Also, Queen Min had a bad relationship with her father-in law, Taewon’gun.

Result:

The two member in the diplomatic community who witnessed the her death was outraged. The Russian minister, Alexander de Speyer, quieted the disapproval by escorting the King, Kojong, from his palace. He was held as a hostage under the control of Russian legation. As a result, Russia was able to establish a relationship with the Korean government. Work cited: – Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. 3 ed. Oxford: Westview Press, 2007. Print. Image: http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02korean.html

Russian Picture ‘Shows State Funeral of Empress Myeongseong’

A picture apparently capturing the state funeral of Empress Myeongseong on Nov. 22, 1897 is being stored in the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography in St. Petersburg. Museum officials currently visiting Korea to sign a cultural exchange agreement with the National Folk Museum of Korea showed pictures of Korea-related artifacts on Tuesday.

The picture was taken by Russian journalist Sergey Syromyatnikov in the streets overlooking Gwanghwamun. It is titled “market streets,” but Denis Samsonov, a researcher at the Peter the Great Museum, said the picture was thought to have been taken during the funeral ceremony as there are many people wearing white top hats shown in the picture. The only state funeral that took place in 1897 was that of Empress Myeongseong, or Queen Min, two years and two months after her assassination by the Japanese.

 

A picture apparently showing the state funeral of Empress Myeongseong on Nov. 22, 1897,

taken by a Russian journalist Sergey Syromyatnikov /Courtesy of National Folk Museum of Korea

 

“Very few pictures of the funeral of Empress Myeongseong have survived,” said Prof. Han Young-woo of Ewha Womans University. “The picture seems to show crowds walking up to Gwanghwamun when the empress’ coffin was carried toward Dongdaemun from Deoksu Palace.”

 

 

 

Funeral Procession for Empress Myeongseong

1895

 

 

 

 

 

 

This photograph is presumed to be the state funeral of Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong)

, which took place in Sejongno on November 22, 1897,

and is the first photo I can find of a funeral processsion taking place in the Gwanghwamun – Taepyeongno corridor (Taepyeongno itself wouldn’t really exist until the early 1910s, as I’ve pointed out here).

 

 

 

The next large-scale funeral procession would come a year later – but it would not be a state funeral.

During the second half of 1898,

the Independence Club tried to push King Gojong to create a parliament and share power – some thing he wasn’t very keen on doing. During this time, the Independence Club organized protests and sit-ins in front of the Daehanmun gate of Deoksu Palace – across from what is now Seoul Plaza. To counter this, the King had thugs (in this case, members of the peddler’s guild) hired to attack the demonstrators, who defended themselves by hiring stone throwers, and thus a precedent of violent political demonstrations was set. One of the organizers of the protests was Yi Seung-man, better known as Syngman Rhee, South Korea’s future first president. When the King gave in to protesters demands (after certain foreign consulates made clear they would be displeased if the protesters were fired upon), the protesters celebrated. According to this book,

On December 1,

they decided to celebrate their victory and display their power by holding a funeral procession for a supporter, Kim Deok-gu, who had been killed the previous week in a skirmish against the peddlers. “Tens of thousands” of people joined in the procession and lined the streets to watch the funeral train move from the center of the city, Jongno, to the funeral site at the outskirts of the city wall and then to the burial site. Even though the victim was a mere cobbler, most likely one who weaved straw shoes commonly worn at this time, the funeral rivaled that of any royalty in grandeur and scale.

Gojong would go back on his word and most of the people involved with the Independence Club – including Syngman Rhee – would be thrown in prison.

 

Treaty of Shimonoseki was a treaty that was signed between Japan and China. It was an unequal treaty, which China signed unwillingly. The whole treaty was a disadvantage to China. China was required to pay Japan 360 million yen, open several more ports, give Japan the Liaodong Peninsula, the Prescadores Islands, the Island of Taiwan, and had to recognize Korea’s independence. Cause: This treaty was caused by the “undeclared war” of Japan. King Kojong, unable to press down the Tonghak rebels (they demanded a stop to exports of rice in Japan), called for help in China. By previous agreements, China informed Japan that they will be sending troops to Korea. Hearing this, Japan immediately sent their own force at Inchon destroyed the chinese fleet off Asan Bay. Japan drove our the Chinese forces from Korea, capturing the Liaodong Peninsula and the island of Taiwan. Falling back against the war Japan, and with its fleet destroyed, China had no choice but to sign the treaty with Ito Hirobumi. Effect: Due to this treaty, China had a severe loss, and with an agreement to recognize Korea’s independence, Japan now had uncontested suzerainty over Korea.

The Treaty of Kanghwa is a treaty signed between Korea and Japan. It opened up Korea to Japan, and to the world. Despite Taewon-gun’s reinforced isolation policy, Korea was forced to sign this treaty. Japan used the same techniques as Commodore Perry in achieving the Treaty of Kanghwa; they displayed superior naval power. With no other choices, Korea signed this treaty, opening up two ports to Japan, just like Japan did to Commodore Perry. Cause: The Treaty of Kanghwa was mainly caused by Japan’s greed. Japan intended to establish a working diplomatic relationship with Korea. They wanted supplies of additional food and market for Japan, in order to have better support of their new industries. To achieve this goal, Japan needed Korea. Effect: The Treaty of Kanghwa was an unequal treaty, and this made Korea’s economy fall. With the Japanese buying enormous quantities of rice and other goods, the price rose to beyond what the Koreans could afford to pay. The Treaty of Kanghwa also resulted Korea opening up to other foreign nations. Watching Japan’s success in the Treaty of Kanghwa, other colonial powers started making their own treaties with Korea.

United Stated Korean Expedition, also known in Korea as the Sinmiyangyo, was when the angry United States ordered the U.S Asiatic fleet to attack Korea’s Kanghwa Island in 1871. U.S. Asiatic Fleet was a part of the United States Navy that were residing in China. They sent five warships to Korea with Admiral John Rogers on the lead. They succeeded in capturing the island, but because they only had five warships to fight against the constant resistance of Korea, Admiral John Roger started lacking in strength. He soon failed to hold his power over the island and had to withdraw. Cause: This incident was caused by the Koreans attacking a U.S merchant vessel- Sherman. All men aboard on the vessel were killed. Due to Taewon-gun, Korea was putting forward an isolation policy in the 19th century. This policy blocked off all interactions with foreign countries, except China, Korea’s ancient supporter. They thought that the world would just let Korea pass by, if they kept themselves isolated. However, during this period, US, seeking to trade with Korea, sailed the Daedong River, up to the city of Pyongyang, violating Korea’s isolation policy. Thus, causing Korea to attack the U.S. vessel, better known as the Sherman incident. Effect: With the withdrawal of Admiral Jonh Roger, Taewon-gun thought that their isolation policy was working. This made Korea reinforce its policy of isolation. The U.S. Asiatic Fleet also unintentionally gave opportunity for Japan to “open up” Korea from its isolation policy. Japan tried to act as a intermediary between Korea and U.S. over the Sherman incident. However, because Korea reinforced its isolation policy, they failed.

Taewon-gun was Korea’s conservative regent. He was the father of the last King Kojong. Korea was under a big internal and external struggle during the period of Taewon-gun’s ascendancy. It was the period also known as the “Dark Age Period”. With Western forces acting greatly in Asia, and with corrupt officals (yangban), locals in Korea were suffering. There were lots of internal conflicts and many protests. Knowing the situation, after ascendance, Taewon-gun aimed to strengthen the central government and weaken the power of yangban to make up for the minds of the locals. Cause: King Kojong’s coronation is what lead to Taewon-gun’s ascendancy. The King before King Kojong -King Cheoljong- didn’t have any sons to pass his throne onto. It was a policy in Korea to pass the throne onto the first nephew if the present king didn’t have a heir. King Kojong was King Cheoljong’s second nephew however, with Taewon-gun’s persuasion, the throne was passed onto the twelve-year old Kojong. As Kojong’s father, Taewon-gun was the main person who ran and controlled the country, leading to his ascendancy. Effect: Taewon-gun’s ascendancy greatly affected Korea. He achieved his goals in strengthening the central government, weakening the power of yangban and regaining the minds of the locals. He modernized Korea’s army and also put forward the isolation policy, and blocked off all interaction request from foreign countries except China. This maintained the Korean culture, however it slowed down Korea from developing.

 

 

 

The Kim Hong-jip cabinet,

spurred greatly by the incident, expedited reform.  It adopted the solar calendar, established primary schools in Hanyang, introduced smallpox vaccinations, started modern postal service, and reorganized the military system, with the Royal Army Guards stationed in Hanyang and other detachments in the provinces.  During this reform, the Japanese  forced the cabinet to issue a decree banning topknots.  Citizens wearing topknots were arrested on the streets or at their homes, and were forced to cut them off.   Ch’oe Ik-hyon defying the decree, was arrested and imprisoned, but he did not yield.  With these attempts, the Japanese tried to wipe out Korean heritage, only to stimulate the armed resistance of the Korean volunteer “righteous armies.”

Spontaneous “righteous troops” protesting the ban on topknots spread all over the country.  The Royal Guards of Hanyang were dispatched to suppress them.  The resultant weakening of palace security was seen by Russia as an opportunity to extend its influence.  From a Russian warship lying at anchor off Inch’on, 100 sailors were summoned, ostensibly to protect the Russian legation.  Shortly afterward, they were reinforced by an additional contingent of 120 sailors.  Ex-minister Waeber, remaining in Seoul, plotted to persuade King Kojong to take refuge at the Russian legation.  Home Minister Yu Kil-chun, meanwhile, conferred with Japanese Minister Komura Jutaro concerning countermeasures that might be taken against Russia.  At dawn on February 11, 1896, King Kojong and the Crown Prince went to the Russian legation to escape the Japanese menace, and were protected by guards provided by other legations as well.  Japanese Minister Komura called on Russian Minister Speyer at the Russian legation and requested that the King return to the royal palace, but King Kojong refused, knowing that he had chosen the lesser of two evils.

At the same time the Korean government, following a proposal made by the Russian minister, appointed Russians as consultants for military training and financial administration.  In May, a Korean delegation led by Min Yong-hwan and Yun Ch’i-ho concluded a treated in Russia with Foreign Minister Lobanoff, agreeing to the following:  Russia would protect the Korean monarch and, if necessary, would send additional troops to Korea; the consultants in question would be subject to the guidance of the Russian minister; the two governments would enter into a loan agreement when deemed necessary in view of Korea’s economic conditions; and the Russian government would be authorized to connect its telegraph lines with the Korean telegraph network.  With the Korean King in custody, Russia lost no time in implementing the aggressive provisions of the treaty.

During the King’s stay at the Russian legation, Korea’s foreign relations were aimed at protecting the royal family from the atmosphere of terror created in the royal palace by Japanese violence.  This overriding concern was conducive to reliance on Russia despite its aggressive policy.

The United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and Japan competed for concessions.  From its Russian refugee, the Korean government granted unconditional concessions without the usual stipulations as to the terms of lease or conditions of taxes.  Korea was deprived of its properties by the world powers through such concessions.

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Awakening of the People

So Chae-p’il (Philip Jaisohn) processed in 1884 from asylum in Japan to America and studied medicine.  On his return to Korea in 1896, he resumed leadership of the nation’s modern reform program.  Appointed a consultant to the Privy Council, So was able to broaden his contacts with prominent government leaders.  Obtaining a donation of 5,000 Won from Home Minister Yu Kil-chun, he inaugurated the newspaper Tongnip Shinmun (The Independent) on April 7, 1896.  Published in pure Han-gul (the Korean script) and in English, the journal was well received by the public.

Aimed at conveying both domestic and foreign news to the  Korean people, the newspaper argued both for and against government policies in an impartial manner.  It called for the nation’s all-out effort to strengthen its autonomy and promote the public good.  It reflected the needs of the time when the Korea government was being shaken to its foundations by the aggressive policies of Japan and Russia.  So demanded that the government give top priority to the promotion of civil rights and that it safeguard national sovereignty by combatting the growth of foreign influence.  The publisher also did his utmost to introduce to his readers modern science and the ideology of the Western world.  The Tongnip Shinmun grew rapidly, from an initial circulation of 300 to 3,000.  In his tireless efforts to enlighten the masses.  So also availed himself of every opportunity to address the people on the streets on current topics.  His newspaper awakened the citizenry to the urgent needs of the day: eliminating corruption, expanding education, solidifying national sovereignty and promoting civil rights.

The Independence Club, which So helped to found, was formally activated in July 1896, with Minister of War An Kyong-su as president and Foreign Minister Yi Wan-yong as chairman.  Prominent government and civic personages who had led the country in modern reform and in the struggle for independence were counted among its members, as well as a number of important government leaders.  The Crown Prince, as a token of cooperation, made a donation of 1,000 Won to the club, thereby arousing great interest among people throughout the country.

So Chae-p’il did his best to awaken the public to the needs of modernization.  He asserted that the following steps were vital to national development: mass education, road construction, commerce promoting national wealth, women’s education, the promotion of Han-gul for mass education, currency in domestic transactions, wide circulation of both domestic and foreign newspapers, exploitation of mining resources and the establishment of a congress.

Voicing his strong opposition to the government’s delegation of its financial and military authority to Russia since Febuary 1897, So made a protest to the government concerning Russia’s demand for the concession of Choryongdo (present Yongdo) island off Pusan, and for the establishment of a Korean-Russian Bank. Speaking at a mass rally in the heart of Hanyang, So asked the government to dismiss the Russian military and financial consultants.  Syngman Rhee and other speakers who took the rostrum at the same rally also drew enthusiastic applause from the audience by pointing out the absurdity of entrusting the financial and military authority of Korea to another country.

The Independence Club frequently presented to the government opinions concerning the reform of domestic administration and did not hesitate to register opposition.  Its demands for the dismissal of ranking government officials guilty of irregularities and fraud were put in effect.  Through “outside” sources, the club also conducted an investigation of the government’s concession of rights in lumbering, mining and railway construction, and filed a protest with the government to correct abuses.  The government thereupon imprisoned leading members of the club and by imperial edict ordered its dissolution, an oppressive action that stifled the club’s movement for civil rights and national sovereignty.  The club, albeit short-lived, bequeathed its spirit of independence to subsequent national movements.

The people were united in condemning  the King’s flight to a foreign legation and the continuous granting of economic concessions to foreigners and their outrage coalesced in the Independence Club’s campaign.  As a result, Kojong moved out of the Russian legation to Kyong-un-gung (today’s Toksugung) palace in February 1897, and changed his reign name to Kwangmu (Martial Brilliance) in August.  He proclaimed to the nation and the world the establishment of an independent “Taehan (Great Han) Empire” in October, after which he was called by the title “Emperor.”  This was a significant victory for the pressure of Korean public opinion.

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Russia-Japan Rivalry

On the condition that Japan tacitly consent to Russia’s 25-year lease of Port Arthur as a naval base and Dalian as a commercial port, Russia agreed not to hamper Japanese commercial and industrial activities in Korea.  Such was the substance of the Russo-Japanese Treaty III, concluded on April 25, 1899, between Japanese Foreign Minister Nishi and Russia’s Minister to Japan, Rosen.  Russia thereby gave Japan a free hand for its aggressive operations in Korea.

As an anti-foreign movement erupted in Manchuria in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion, Russian threw a huge army of 180,000 troops into the area on the pretext of guarding its railways.  Three-fourths of the Manchurian territory came under occupation by the Russians, where they watched for an opportunity to invade Korea.

Precisely such a proposal to invade was made to the Russian government in 1903 by the manager of a Russian lumber company operating on the Amnokkang river, a company owned by the imperial Russian foundation.  Russian Minister Pavloff proposed that Russia establish a sphere of influence south of the river and reject any interference by other powers in Manchuria.  Accordingly, Russia assembled its fleet in Port Arthur and deployed ground forces in Fenghuang-ch’eng and along the Amnokkang river.  In August 1903, Russia occupied Yong-amp’o and hastily constructed military facilities, including fortresses, barracks and communication lines.

Through the Anglo-Japanese treaty of alliance in 1902, Japan, with the cooperation of Great Britain, obtained international recognition for its aggressive policy toward Korea. This treaty provided that in return for British support, Japan would assume the burden of checking the Russian southward advance in the Far East. Japan agreed to recognize the Russia occupation of Manchuria, on condition that Russia recognize its activities in Korea.

Russia and Japan stood face to face, each attempting to occupy both sides of the Amnokkang river as a preliminary step toward the occupation of both Korea and Manchuria. On February 8, 1904, Japan opened fire on the Russian fleets off Inch’oon and Port Arthur, thereby touching off the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905).

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Colonial Consolidation

At the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War, Korea proclaimed its neutrality to the world. Nevertheless, Japan sent troops into Hanyang in large numbers and, on February 23, 1904, forced the Korean government to sign the Korea-Japan Protocol. This unilaterally exacted Korean concessions necessary for Japan’s execution of the war. Japan stationed six and a half battalions in Korea, which laid military railways, seized Korean telegraphic and telephone networks by occupying the Central Telecommunications Office, and pre-empted land for military use. In September, Japan proclaimed military control over the whole territory of Korea, decreeing the death penalty for any Korean national caught trespassing on the military railway communications line.

By a revision of the military rule of January 6, 1905, Japan suppressed any anti-Japanese movement through assembly, associations, or the press, proclaiming on July 3 that those violating the military rule would be dealt with under Japanese law. In the first Korea-Japan Agreement concluded on August 22, 1904, it was stipulated that a financial consultant would be appointed from among the Japanese and a diplomatic consultant from among nationals of third powers recommended by the Japanese government. This provision was obviously designed to deprive Korea of its national rights.

The agreement was reinforced by the “Principles Concerning Facilities in Korea” concluded late in May 1904, which granted extensive privileges to Japan. These included the stationing of troops in Korea even after the Russo-Japanese War, expropriation of land for military use, supervision of Korea’s diplomacy and financial administration, seizure of Korea’s transportation and communications facilities, and exploitation of concessions in agriculture, forestry, mining and fisheries.

Japan sent as diplomatic consultant an ex-official of its foreign office, an American named Stevens, and as financial consultant, Megata Tanetaro, an official of its Ministry of Finance. The latter assumed full authority over Korea’s financial administration, and by a currency reform, brought the Korean currency under the Japanese monetary system, devaluating it by from one-fifth to one half in order to plunder Korean properties. Japanese officials further penetrated the Korean government to work in the Ministry of War, the Police, and the Ministry of Education, and in the Royal Household as consultants, thereby undermining the government’s authority.

During the war with Russia, Japan and Great Britain revised the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance on August 12, 1905, and Japan obtained British consent to colonize Korea under the guise of protection. In the secret Taft-Katsura agreement, Japan and the United States recognized Japan’s prerogatives in Korea. At the Portsmouth Peace Conference, which was concluded in September 1905, Japan requested that “Korea be placed at Japan’s free disposal” in accordance with the second Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance and the U.S.-Japanese agreement.

The United States, Great Britain and Russia at last gave international acquiescence to Japanese aggression in Korea. Recognizing that Japan possessed superior political, military and economic interests in Korea, the U.S. president rejected Emperor Kojong’s personal letter on the illegitimacy of the Korea-Japan Treaty presented through the efforts of missionary-diplomat Homer B. Hulbert.

Immediately after the Portsmouth Treaty went into effect, Japan sent Ito Hirobumi to Korea and forced the Korean government to conclude the second Korea-Japan Treaty. By that time Hanyang had already been invaded by a Japanese cavalry unit, an artillery battalion and a military police unit. On November 17, Ito pressed the Korean government to sign the draft treaty designed to isolate the Korean government by severing its foreign relations completely. Diplomacy was then taken from Korean control and placed under the control of the Japanese Foreign Office. The treaty also established the Office of the Resident-General in Korea to enforce colonial

 

Detail: The treaty was made between Japan and Korea in 1905. In the treaty, Japan took away Korea’s diplomatic sovereignty by stating Korea as Japanese protectorate. The treaty was signed in Seoul, but the treaty was signed for the advantage of Japan because Korean delegates were threatened by the Japanese military force in the Korean Imperial palace and dispersed Japanese troops in Korea. Korea was forced to sign a treaty that was written by Ito Hirobumi. The agreement stated that Korea was o be regulated by the Japanese and gave them the right to control all the ports in Korea to monitor on all the trades. Cause: Japan’s triumph in the Russo-Japanese War led to the Taft-Katsura Agreement, which stated that United States would step back from the relationship between Japan and Korea. United States agreed to give Korea away to Japan. Result: – Korea was strictly under the control of Japan and lost their independent stance as a nation. The treaty soon led to the complete annexation of Korea in 1910

Deokhye, Princess of Korea

 

 

The Last Princess 

Princess Doek Hye (덕혜옹주 德惠翁主)

 was a long forgotten princess of Yi dynasty Korea, annexed by Japan in 1910. She was the last daughter of the last ruling Yi dynasty Korean king Kojong, by a concubine, Lady Yang.

All of a sudden she is the protagonist of a historical bestseller–Biyoung Kwon, Princess Doek Hye, Dasan Books, 2009 (권비영, 덕혜옹주, 다산책방, 2009)–which supposedly displaced Haruki Murakami’s 1Q84 from the top spot when it was published on Dec. 14 of last year, the first piece of fiction ever written on the late Princess. What had happened? 

As a matter of fact there was scant information on this personage till recently. A Japanese writer Yasuko Honma published in Japan a critical biography of the princess, concentrating on her relationship with her Japanese husband So Takeyuki–Yasuko Honma, Doek Hye, Last Princess of Yi Dynasty Chosun, 1999 (本馬恭子『徳恵姫―李氏朝鮮最後の王女』1999年葦書房).

As this book was apparently a flop,

garnering scant attention in Japan, it was translated into Korean in the hopes of acceptance by a more sympathetic audience–Yasuko Honma, Princess Doek Hye, 2008 (혼마 야스코, 덕혜옹주,(번역출간 도서출판 역사공간, 2008).

But what took off was not the critical biography, but the novel of the same title in the ensuing year. The book, by an author who was barely known to the public two months prior to the novel launch, is now the biggest publication sensation in Korea as it broke the streak of 1Q84, which had persisted as No. 1 on the bestseller list for 19 straight weeks. Even top-rated Korean novelists find it increasingly hard to sell more than 10,000 copies midst the growing public apathy for new titles; Princess Doek Hye has sold over half a million.

In an interview with the local press Kwon is said to have noted: I feel great but at the same time a little bit puzzled, at the strong reaction to her novel which depicts the life of the long forgotten,–and the forgettable, considering the callous disregard with which Koreans I’m sure regarded the last traditional Yi dynasty royalty who truckled under Japan–Princess Deok Hye (1912-1989). Living in Ulsan, South Kyongsang Province Kwon debuted in 1995 with the short story collection Winter Fables in 2006, which went largely unnoticed in literary circles. Perhaps the fact that it is the 100th anniversary of the day of national shame has something to do with it. Or perhaps Korea has become affluent enough for her people to afford some such nostalgic sentimentality for past royalty. For the first time too, Japan is officially acknowledging Korea’s (specific) suffering, the forcible nature of the annexation of 1910 and that it took place against the will of the Korean people–according to recent new

It was three years ago that Kwon decided to write a novel about the princess. I was instantly drawn to her when I saw her photo when she was young, Kwon is quoted to have said. I wanted to bring back her life that`s ignored and sidelined. However, Kwon immediately realized that there are few, if any, Korean documents about this minor princess, an appendage of history. There were some historical TV documentaries and passing references to her covering the colonial era retrospectively. But one Japanese book detailed the life of the ill-fated princess, written by Yasuko Honma, a researcher of Japanese women`s history; Kwon eagerly took hold of it as a basic reference for her novel.

In fact author Homma Yasuko of the critical biography accuses novelist Kwon Biyoung of plagiarism. Honma who comes from the same island, Daemado (對馬島), as the Japanese husband of the princess, Baron So Takeyuki宗 武志, did what she considers proprietary research on the relationship of the princess with this scion of the rulers of the island–nettlesome source of pirates who had been ravaging the Korean coastline since the Koryo dynasty and throughout the Yi dynasty. I gathered from descriptions of the book in the Japanese internet that Honma’s grandfather was the principal of the highschool that Baron So attended. She herself had seen glimpses of the man during her youth and harbors perhaps a biased favorable opinion of him. What she claims from the analysis of poems that this Baron So wrote, a man of literary pretensions, was that he was especially loving and sympathetic to the princess and the daughter they bore.

But Doek Hye is a historical figure, and a Korean princess to boot. Just because she wrote a biography, Homma does not have a copyright on the person of Doek Hye. The fact that the critical biography was apparently a dud, and that the novel was so highly successful implies that the latter has creative value addition which distinguishes it from the book on which it depended for factual information. But it is precisely in the nature of fiction to borrow from everywhere, save that it is rendered in a literary style that whets the imagination of the readers. It is highly likely that Honma’s charge is designed to boost the sale of her own book, even if her accusation of plagiarism could not cut the muster in a court of law. 

The youngest daughter of King Kojong–tiny girl to the far right in the picture–, Princess Deokhye was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul . Her father doted on her so much that he established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her and girls of her age from other noble families. In 1919, she was taken to Japan and like her brothers, attended the Gakushuin . She was suddenly beset with mental illness in 1903; her physician diagnosed it as precocious dementia but she seemed to have recovered by the following year.

The Taisho Empress herself was the matchmaker when Doek Hye was forced to marry Baron So Takeyuki in May, 1931. She gave birth to a daughter the following year but it failed to ameliorate her unhappy marriage and deepening loneliness in Japan. Her life took another tragic plunge when this daughter committed suicide by drowning. Finally divorcing her Japanese husband in 1953 she returned to Korea at the invitation of the government in 1962. There was no hero’s welcome to her return to the homeland after 37 years of neglect and isolation, as the Korean public hardly paid any attention to this feeble vestige of long defunct royalty. She led a solitary life in Changdeok Palace, until her low-profile death in 1989.

I have never had any sympathy for the effete dysfunctional Yi dynasty yangbans who sold out to the Japs. I personally knew a scion of the royal guard captain of King Kojong, a pathetic man thoroughly seeped in inferiority complex. But I am enormously intrigued by the concept of plagiarism. I am a fervent proponent of retranslation, to right the wrongs committed by earlier inept Korean American translators who have preemptively botched the works of top Korean writers in days past. They are responsible for the disdain with which the Korean diaspora generally regard Korean literature. But it would be impossible to eschew the charge of plagiarism, for the Midas touch of superior syntax and diction is hard to sell to the dunderpates at large.

 
 
 
Princess Deokhye
Spouse Count Sō Takeyuki
Issue
Countess Sō Masae
Father Gojong of Korea
Mother Lady Bongnyeong
Born 25 May 1912(1912-05-25)
Changdeok Palace, Seoul
Died 21 April 1989(1989-04-21) (aged 76)
Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, Republic of Korea
Burial Hongryureung, Namyangju, Republic of Korea
Deokhye, Princess of Korea
Hangul 덕혜옹주
Hanja 德惠翁主
Revised Romanization Deokhye Ongju
McCune–Reischauer Tŏkhye Ongju

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain).

In 1925, she was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. She was described as silent and isolative. Upon the news of her mother’s death in 1929, she isolated herself in her rooms and was eventually given permission to visit Korea temporarily to attend her mother’s funeral in 1930. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun‘s house in Tokyo. During this period, she often forgot to eat and drink. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), {1923-1985} a Japanese nobleman. The marriage had in fact been decided in 1930; her brother had protested against it, and it had been postphoned because of her condition, but when she recovered, she was immediately given instructions that the marriage was to take place. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. In 1933, Deokhye was again afflicted with mental illness, and after this, she spent many years in various mental clinics. She finally divorced her husband in 1953. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning in 1955. After this, her condition deteriorated.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, and forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876, opening three ports to trade and granting the Japanese extraterritoriality. Port Hamilton was occupied by the British Navy in 1885.

Many Koreans despised Japanese and foreign influences over their land and the corrupt oppressive rule of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1894, the Donghak Peasant Revolution saw farmers rise up in a mass rebellion, with peasant leader Jeon Bong-jun defeating the forces of local ruler Jo Byong-gap at the battle of Go-bu on January 11, 1894; after the battle, Jo’s properties were handed out to the peasants. By May, the peasant army had reached Jeonju, and the Joseon government asked the Qing Dynasty government for assistance in ending the revolt. The Qing sent 3,000 troops and the rebels negotiated a truce, but the Japanese considered the Qing presence a threat and sent in 8,000 troops of their own, seizing the Royal Palace in Seoul and installing a pro-Japanese government on 8 June 1894. This soon escalated into the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) between Japan and Qing China, fought largely in Korea.

Empress Myeongseong[19] had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong (referred to as “Queen Min”[19]) was assassinated by Japanese agents.[20][20] The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro, orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents along with the Hullyeondae Army[20] entered the Royal Palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese control,[20] and Empress Myeongseong was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace.

The Qing acknowledged defeat in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (17 April 1895), which officially guaranteed Korea’s independence from China. It was a step toward Japan gaining regional hegemony in Korea.

1897

The Joseon court, pressured by encroachment from larger powers, felt the need to reinforce national integrity and declared the Korean Empire in 1897. Emperor Gojong assumed the title of Emperor in order to assert Korea’s independence. In addition, other foreign powers were sought for military technology, especially Russia, to fend off the Japanese.

 

Wongudan, Seoul

 

 An altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven

reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897

Wongudan, Seoul A 1925 photo of Wongudan, an altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven. King Seongjong of the Goryeo Dynasty was the first to perform the rite, designed to ensure a bountiful harvest, in the tenth century. The practice was discontinued by later Goryeo kings, revived briefly in the mid fifteenth century by Sejo of the Joseon Dynasty, then reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897. Much of the altar complex was destroyed during the Japanese occupation, and the gate and fountain seen here were also subsequently removed, leaving only the three-storey Hwangungu pagoda remaining

1897

 Technically, 1897 marks the end of the Joseon period, as the official name of the empire was changed; however the Joseon Dynasty would still reign, albeit perturbed by Japan and Russia.

 

In 1863, Prince Yi Ha-ung, better known as the Taewon-gun or Prince Regent, put into effect a series of sweeping reforms encompassing national finance and government administration in order to strengthen the royal authority.  He strongly opposed the increasing infiltration of foreign commercial interests into the country.  In the spring of 1866, the government ordered the rigorous persecution of Catholics.  Aroused by this measure, the French fleet sailed up the Han-gang river and hostilities broke out on Kanghwado island.

Economic and social developments drove the majority of yangban to bankruptcy, while the peasants and merchants were eager to throw off the traditional social constraints.  As these trends developed, the government devised measures to suppress them.  Another impetus to social dynamism was the increase in offspring of the yangban and mothers of lower origin.

Although the emancipation of bondsmen resulted in an increase in the number of taxable people, the exploitation of farmers by the ruling class caused the state’s tax revenues to decline

 

III.1870-1900

A Korean street, late 1800′s. A Korean street, late 1800s

1875

The Japanese were the first foreign power in recent history to succeed in penetrating Korea’s isolation. After a warlike Japanese provocation against Korea in 1875 (when China failed to come to Korea’s aid), the Japanese forced an unequal treaty on Korea in February 1876. The treaty gave Japanese nationals extraterritorial rights and opened up three Korean ports to Japanese trade. In retaliation, China sought to counter Japan by extending Korea’s external relations and playing off one Western power against another. Accordingly, Korea signed treaties with the United States, Britain, Italy, Russia, and other countries were signed within the decade after the one with Japan.

Internally, the Korean court split into rival pro-Chinese, pro-Japanese, and pro-Russian factions, the latter two having more reformist and modernizing orientations. In 1895 the Japanese minister to Korea masterminded the assassination of the Korean queen, who with her clan had opposed reform-oriented, Japanese-supported leaders. The Korean king, however, rejected not only Japan but also the various reform measures and turned for support to one of Japan’s adversaries–Russia. The king fled to the Russian legation in Seoul to avoid possible Japanese plots against him and conducted the nation’s business from there. The Japanese blunder had served the Russians well.

In the meantime, under the leadership of So Chae-p’il, who had exiled himself to the United States after participating in an unsuccessful palace coup in 1884, a massive campaign was launched to advocate Korean independence from foreign influence and controls. As well as supporting Korean independence, So also advocated reform in Korea’s politics and customs in line with Western practices. Upon his return to Korea in 1896, So published Tongnip simmun (The Independent), the first newspaper to use the han’gul writing system and the vernacular language, which attracted an ever-growing audience (see The Korean Language, ch. 2). He also organized the Independence Club to introduce Korea’s elite to Western ideas and practices. Under his impetus and the influence of education provided by Protestant mission schools, hundreds of young men held mass meetings on the streets and plazas demanding democratic reforms and an end to Russian and Japanese domination. But the conservative forces proved to be too deeply entrenched for the progressive reformers who trashed the paper’s offices. The reformers, including Syngman Rhee, then a student leader, were jailed. So was compelled to return to the United States in 1898, and under one pretext or another the government suppressed both the reform movement and its newspaper.

The revolt of 1894-95, known as the Tonghak Rebellion, had international repercussions. Like the Taiping rebels in China thirty years earlier, the Tonghak(see Glossary) participants were fired by religious fervor as well as by indignation about the corrupt and oppressive government. The rebellion spread from the southwest to the central region of the peninsula, menacing Seoul. The Korean court apparently felt unable to cope with the rebels and invited China to send troops to quell the rebellion. This move gave Japan a pretext to dispatch troops to Korea. The two countries soon engaged in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), which accelerated the demise of the Qing Dynasty in China.

The victorious Japanese established their hegemony over Korea via the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and dictated to the Korean government a wide-ranging series of measures to prevent further domestic disturbances. In response, the government promulgated various reforms, including the abolition of class distinctions, the liberation of slaves, the abolition of the ritualistic civil service examination system, and the adoption of a new tax system.

Russian influence had been on the rise in East Asia, in direct conflict with the Japanese desire for expansion. In alliance with France and Germany, Russia had just forced Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula to China (which Japan had seized during the First Sino-Japanese War) and then promptly leased the territory from China. The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896 also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

The Last Empress a historical drama about

Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) , who was assassinated by the Japanese

new information suggest by my friend Yeoung fron turkish site:

 

Princess Deokhye / 덕혜옹주
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Prenses Deokhye(25 Mayıs 1912 – 21 Nisan 1989) Kore’nin son prensesidir.

25 Mayıs 1912’de Seoul’de Changdeok Sarayı’nda doğdu. Hükümdar Gwangmu ile cariyesi Lady Bongnyeong’un en genç çocuklarıydı. Adı, 1917’de İmparatorluk Ailesi kaydına resmi olarak işlendi. Babası hükümdar Gwangmu onu çokça severdi, onun için Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Salonu’na Deoksu Saray Anaokulu’nu kurdurttu. Onun yaşındaki asil ailelerin kızları bu anaokuluna gitti.1919’da saray nazırı Kim Hwangjin’in yeğeni Kim Jang-han ile gizlice nişanlandırıldı ve eğitimine devam etmesi bahanesiyle Japonya’ya götürüldü. Erkek kardeşleri gibi Gakushuin’e girdi (Gakushuin, Kraliyet Üniversitesi olarak da bilinen eski bir Japon üniversitesidir). 1930 yılının baharında, ruhsal bir bozukluğun baş göstermesi üzerine (uyurgezerlik olarak ortaya çıktı) Kral Lee’nin sarayından erkek kardeşi Veliaht Eun’ın Tokyo’daki evine taşındı. Doktoru erken bunama teşhisi koydu ama ilerleyen yıllarda durumu düzelmiş olarak göründü.

Mayıs 1931’de İmparatoriçe Teimei’nin çöpçatanlığıyla Japonya İmparatoru Taishō’nın arkadaşı, asilzade bir Japon olan Kont Sō Takeyuki(武志) ile evlendi. 14 Ağustos 1932’de kızı Masae’yi (正惠) doğurdu. Mutsuz bir evliliğe katlanırken, buna intihar eden kızını kaybetmenin acısı da eklendi. Bu olaydan sonra durumu kötüleşti ve 1953’de eşinden boşandı.

Kore hükümetinin davetiyle 26 Ocak 1962’de Kore’ye geri döndü.21 Nisan 1989’da Changdeok Sarayı, Sugang Salonu’nda hayatını kaybetti, Namyangju’daki Hongryureung’a defnedildi.

[Resim: princessdeokhye2.jpg] [Resim: princessdeokhye3.jpg]

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain) and was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun’s house in Tokyo. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), a Japanese nobleman. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning. After this, her condition deteriorated, and she finally divorced her husband in 1953.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

By the 1880s, court power struggles were no longer a domestic issue and took on international aspects .As a newly emergent country, Japan turned its attention towards Korea. It was vital for Japan, in order to protect its own interests and security, to either annex Korea before it fell prey (or was annexed) to another power or to insure its effective independence by opening its resources and reforming its administration. As one Japanese statesman put it, Korea was “an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan”. Japan felt that another power having a military presence on the Korean peninsula would have been detrimental to Japanese national security, and so Japan resolved to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty over Korea. Moreover, Japan realized that Korea’s coal and iron ore deposits would benefit Japan’s increasingly-expanding industrial base.

In 1874, King Kojong began his rule and his wife, Queen Min, gained increasing power, which she used to support reform and use Japanese officers to train a new Korean  army .In 8882 a Japanese military instructor arrived to train Korean soldiers in modern methods .The Korean Daewongun (Prince of the Court) Prince Gung, who rejected modernization, used the discontent of the dismissed soldiers and a food shortage to incite them to attack the palace and the Japanese legation in 1882 .Queen Min barely escaped and seven Japanese officers were killed along with 300 pro-reform Koreans .The Chinese sent Admiral Ding Ju-chang twith six gunboats and two transports of troops to investigate the situation who took steps to avoid Japanese punitive action by having the Daewongun arrested and an indemnity of $550,000 to be paid to Japan.Japan was allowed to station troops at its legation .Queen Min returned, who was now strongly opposed to the Japanese .

 

After the insurrection of 1882, Li Hung-chang took steps to strengthen China’s position in Korea with a commercial treaty, loans and six Chinese battalions to maintain order and check Japanese aggression .Tension mounted between pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese forces. In 1884, China was involved in a war with France and withdrew three battalions. the pro-Japanese faction took this opportunity to launch a coup and captured the king. A pro-Japanese government was sworn in, independence from China was proclaimed and a new Japanese fiance minister was appointed .

The Japanese had been too heavy handed however, and many reformers and pro-Japanese switched to the conservative, pro-Chinese faction .A force of 5,000 Korean and Chinese soldiers under Yuan Shikai fell on the palace The chinese broke through the palace gates, and the Japanese detonated a mine which killed 90 Chinese soldiers .However, there were too many against the Japanese and pro-Japanese forces, and a company of 140 Japanese soldiers and the Japanese minister fought their way to Chemulpo ( Inchon). With the conservatives victorious, the remaing pro-Japanese and progressives were rounded up and executed , along with their families .

An envoy, Ito Hirobumi, was sent to confer with Li Hung-chang, where they reached the Sino-Japanese Tientsin Convention on April 18, 1885. Ito felt that Japan was not yet modernized enough for a war with China .This stipulated that both China and Japan would withdraw their troops from Korea in four months, neither side would train Korean troops and that each would notify the other before dispatching troops to Korea .This in effect made Korea a co-protectorate of China and Japan . Yuan Shi-kai, as chinese pro-consul was very powerful in Korea at this time.and basically ran the Korean government. He dismissed all pro-Japanese advisors, prohibited inland trade with Russia and the sale of rice to Japan, which had in part caused the food shortage before . This greatly angered the Japanese, who granted asylum to progressives who were wanted by the Korean government .There was great anger in the Korean countryside over the abuses of the Yangban ruling class over high taxes, buying land cheap or stealing it, forcing farmers into debt bondage and xenophobia against foreign intrusion in Korea. The Japanese secret society, began to secretly aid a group fighting these injustices, the Tonghaks, hoping Japan could profit from an unstable situation in Korea .

Waning of the Dynasty

uniforms in the late Choson Dynasty

Aside from perceived threats from the West, Korea also faced serious internal problems during the last century of the Choson Dynasty. The 1800s saw increasing corruption and inefficiency in government. The kings were weaklings and policies were made by powerful families or factions of high-ranking individuals at court. Cul­tural and artistic expression flourished, but the country was stunted politically and economically, poorly developed militarily, and naive in in­ternational relations. Voices of dissent were re­pressed and because of yangban oppression of the lower classes, dissatisfaction continued to ferment and sometimes boiled over. An effort, termed the Kabo Revolution, by upper-class pro-Japanese activists in 1884 to bring about drastic changes in government and institute re­forms (similar to those of the Meiji Restoration in Japan a few years earlier) also failed.

In the 1860s, the indigenous religion, Tong­hak(“Eastern learning”), ( more details on the Tonghaks )had been formulated. Combining elements from Buddhism, Confu­cianism, shamanism, and other sources, it es­poused the equality and dignity of all peoples, equal opportunity, national self-sufficiency, and independence from foreign influence. Tonghak followers in 1894 protested against social conditions and the growing dominance of Japanese merchants in the Korean market. They engaged in violent clashes with the Korean army, prompting both China and Japan to send in troops to help suppress the demonstrations. As China and Japan were at this time vying for influence over the Korean Peninsula, the Tong­hak Rebellion brought relations between the two giants to a head and helped spark the Sino­Japanese War (1894-95).

 

The Korean government banned the movement and had its founder Ch’oe Che-u, executed by decapitation in 1864  and the movement was forced to go underground .The Tonghaks, were aided by the Japanese Genyosha secret society, to organize a mass movement with large protests and stage a rebellion .A Korean army sent to attack the Tonghaks was defeated at Gobu in southwest Korea on January 11, 1894 and the Korean court, fearing a Tonghak invasion of Seoul, asked for Chinese aid.

 

The initial success of the revolt led a panic court to seek help from  China .In early June a Chinese force of 2,800 was dispatched from Chefoo ( Yingtan) to Asan under general Yuan Shikai, a port outside of Seoul, where they camped.The arrival of the Chinese forces caused the Tonghaks to call off their attack on Seoul after the Korean government arranged a truce . The Tonghak leader, Chon Pong-chun regarded this as an opportunity to archive his objectives without further recourse to warfare. In consequence hostilities came to an end, on condition that an end also be put to government misrule.  .The Japanese considered this action to be a violation of the Convention, and sent their own expeditionary force of 8,000 troops to Korea. to its legation in Seoul ad the surrounding area .

The Daewongun (Taewongun) (1821-1898) was the father of Kojong and was the de facto ruler of Korea as the regent of the young king till his death in 1898. As an old school Confucianist he promoted isolationism and persecution of Korean Catholics, leading to the French attack of Ganghwa Island in 1866 after the execution of a French priest. In 1882 he was abducted by the Qing General in China, Yuan Shihkai and taken to China. He returned 4 years later.

Partially fought on Korean soil, this was the first modern war engaged in by foreign powers on the peninsula. Japan won, dramatically ending Chinese influence there. Japan subsequently demanded that Korea make sweeping changes in its policies to benefit Japanese interests. Because of its loss in the war, China ceded Taiwan and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan and was forced to recognize Korea as a fully independent nation, ending its centuries-long domination of the peninsula.

 1882

Gamgok Parish Church

From Anseong, we (i.e., Andy Jackson and I) got on a bus to Janghowon in nearby Icheon-si. And from Janghowon, we walked across the river to its sister city, Gamgok-myeon, Eumseong-gun in lovely Chungcheongbuk-do.

Gamgok-myeon is home to one of Korea’s oldest—and certainly one of its most beautiful—Catholic churches, Gamgok Parish Church, or more precisely, Gamgok Maegoe Virgin Mary Catholic Cathedral (maegoe is the Sino-Korean word for the Rosary, so I guess the proper way to translate the name of the church—the English name of the official site not withstanding—would be Gamgok Our Lady of the Rosary Church).

Gamgok Parish Church sits atop a hill overlooking the town of Gamgok like a sentinel. The land where the church is now used to be the owned by Min Eung-sik, a second cousin of Empress Myeongseong and a major late Joseon-era conservative. During the Mutiny of 1882, when old-guard military units rebelled against the government’s military modernization plans, Min offered the empress sanctuary at his palatial home. After Empress Myeongseong’s assassination in 1895, Min was arrested and brought to Seoul. His home was occupied by loyalist militias, which made it a target of the Japanese Army, which proceeded to burn it down.

The upside to this was that when French priest Father Camillus Bouillon of the Paris Foreign Missions Society came around looking for a place to build a church, he could buy the land for a song.  Or a Gregorian chant, as the case may be.

It’s said that when Bouillon first saw the massive house (presumably before the Japanese torched it) and the hillside on which it rested, he prayed that if the Virgin Mary were to give him the house and hill, he would become her humble servant, and she would be the patron saint of the church. Well, as it would turn out, the Blessed Virgin Mary held up her end of the bargain (and even got the Imperial Japanese Army to foot the cleanup bill), so Bouillon kept his, establishing a church in May 1896 and dedicating it to the Virgin Mary.

The current Gothic-style church—a miniature version of Myeongdong Cathedral—was built in 1930 (by Chinese laborers), and was designed by French priest Father Pierre Chizallet.

I’ll say this—Bouillon couldn’t have chosen a better spot to put a church. The place gives off a very happy, loving vibe. The church itself is absolutely beautiful—a red-and-black brick Gothic structure of the kind loved by French missionaries in Korea. It’s the surroundings, however, that make it what it is—how it looks out over the surrounding countryside, the beautiful trees that surround it, how you can feel the spring breeze. It’s just a very peaceful place.

1888

Yi Munsun Chip (1241).

missionary who arrived in Korea in 1888 and spent the next forty years there. A prodigious scholar, Gale translated many of Korea’s literary classics into English and wrote numerous books on Korean history, literature, and culture. Gale helped the Library procure a number of Korean classics, including rare books from the estate of the Korean scholar Kim To-hui

1890


Figure 2 Stacking chest, wood covered with red lacquer, inlaid with mother-of- pearl. Choson dynasty, 1890-1910

1894

1894. before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)”

 

1893 –

 ”The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” plots Waywoda Rock far outside of Korean territory

 
Dec. 24th edition of Japan’s San-in Chuo Shimpo(山陰中央新報) (cache)reported that the new evidence which debunks pro-Korean’s distorted claim was found, again.”The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” was made by Hydorographic Office of Japan(日本水路部), basing on the British Navy’s seachart, in 1893 originally, just a year before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)” was published. The map plots Waywoda rock near Okushiri island of Japan’s Hokkaido and it also shows the trace Japanese Navy did fathomed to survey around the area, but labelled as “non-existant” just like British “China Sea Directory” reported. The location is exactly the place 1894 “Choson Seaway” reported and it is clearly far outside of Korean territory at a glance.Pro-Korean scholars like Prof. Hori Kazuo(1987) wrongfully claimed as follows and pro-Korean scholars have been blindlessly following his unrealistic claim even up until now. 

“しかし、海図は地理的な認識を示すだけなので、海図中の島の所属については、その解説書たる水路誌を重視しなければならない。”(p105)
———————————————-
“However, marine charts usually show geographical features and do not specify sovereign rights to islands in them. As for sovereign rights to islands, therefore, one has to consult a guide to sea routes, an expounder of a chart.(p105)”
“そして他方、日本海軍の『朝鮮水路誌』一八九四年版と九十九年版には、鬱陵島と並んでリアンコールト列岩が載せられている。つまり十九世紀末に、日本海軍の水路部当局が竹島=独島を朝鮮領だと認識していたことは、疑いのないところである。”(p106)
———————————————–
“Moreover, the 1894 and 1897 editions of the Chosen suiroshi (Korea’s Sealanes) by the Japanese Navy show Liancourt Rocks/Tokdo,26) along with Ullungdo. There is no doubt the Japanese naval hydrographic anthorities were aware Takeshima/Tokdo belonged to Korea around the end of the 19th century.”

First of all, waterway magazines are just “guide to sea routes” and they don’t represent the “sovereign rights to islands”. They are written for the safety of the voyages as well as seachart. In fact, Liancourt Rocks was listed along with Matsushima(Ulleungdo) and Waywoda rock as “dangerous rocks in the Sea of Japan(左ニ記載スルモノヲ除ク外日本海内絶エテ暗岩危礁ナシ)” for the safe voyages in 1894 “Choson Seaway”. And Waywoda Rock was reported as situated in lat. 42°16′N., long.137°18′E. , way up north from Korean territorial limit in the first place. Pro-Korean always wrongfully refer to this book as one of the evidences Japanese considered Takeshima as Korean territory only because it was listed in the section “East Coast of Choson” of “Choson Seaway.”, ignoring Waywoda rock, which is clearly outside of Korean territory, was also listed in the same section.

Moreover, the preface of this waterway magazine clearly depicts eastern limit of Korean territory is 130º 35′ E.longitude, under the name of the Kimotsuki Kaneyuki (肝付兼行),a director of Hydrography Department. From this fact, we can see that Kimotsuki clearly recognized that Takeshima/Dokdo was outside of Korean territory when Nakai met him in 1904.

Lastly, Eastern Strait(東水道) of Choson Strait, between Tsushima and Iki(壱岐) of Nagasaki, Japan was also listed in the previous chapter(Chapter 3). You cannot claim that the strait between Tsushima and Iki also belong to Korea only because it is listed in the “Choson Seaway”. It also proves that Liancourt Rocks in this waterway magazines were not for territorial issue, but only for the safety of voyages.

It is funny to see that the Prof. Hori’s old unreliable thesis based on out-of-date resources, written more than 20 years ago, is still keep followed by Korean scholars and made them look stupid worldwidely.

1893 北洲及北東諸島_11893 北洲及北東諸島_221893 北洲及北東諸島_41893 北洲及北東諸島_5

 
Post

 1896

The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896

also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

1897

Queen Min

 

Funeral of Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) in 1895 Seoul. She had been assassinated by Japanese due to her pro-Russian stance.Korea was declared a protectorate in 1905 and annexed in 1910. In 1910 name of the city of Seoul was changed to Keijo (Japanese Korean Hanseong).

 After the Chinese loss to the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War, the Korean government was forced to declare their independence from the Chinese and no longer being a tributary state King Kojong (Gojong) declared Korea to be the Korean Empire. Many in the Korean court such as Qin Minsought Russian help in thrawrting the growing power of the Japanese. Russia , England and France had recently forced Japan to abandon the Liaodong Peninsula which it had won in the recent war with China.

 

1953 newsreel on Changgyeonggung

 

The  Japanese, wishing to end this meddling sent a new ambassador to Korea, Miura Goro with orders to arrange the assassination of Queen Min which was done on Oct 8, 1895 at Gyeongbokgung. This is known as the Eulmi Incident. After the assassination King Kojong and Crown Prince Sunjong fled to the Russian Legation on Feb 11, 1896

After the murder of Queen Min in 1895, King Kojong and his heir fled to the Russ­ian legation. Emerging about one year later, the king proclaimed himself emperor. The country’s name was changed to Taehan Cheguk, or “Great Han Empire,” symbolically equalizing the status of Korea, China, and Japan. It was an empty honor, however, as Kojong was nearly powerless in the face of foreign imposition; Korea found herself the pawn of foreign governments which had little concern for the people of the peninsula.

  

coins started to be minted from modern presses in 1888, such as this silver 5 Yang (兩liang also known as a tael)

대한제국 (大韓帝國)   Greater Korean Empire   1897-1910

1901

The earliest known footage of Korea from 1901.

1904-1905

 

1904-1907

In a complicated series of maneuvers and counter-maneuvers, Japan pushed back the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in 1905. With the conclusion of the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth, the way was open for Japan to take control of Korea. After the signing of the Protectorate Treaty in 1905, Korea became a protectorate of Japan.

1909

Itō Hirobumi was the first Resident-General of Korea, although he was assassinated by Korean independence activist An Jung-geun in 1909 at the train station at Harbin.

 

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

1910

In 1910,

although many Koreans opposed the annexation, the Japanese Empire annexed Korea by force

The Japanese Administration of Korea 

Did Japan ruin the economy of Korea during the Japanese Administration? Koreans say that Japan did, and that they even stole all the rice and left people starving. However, there is a lot of evidence to say that was not the case.

The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Art Photography

 

THE LAST PRINCESS DEOKHYE OF KOREA

ART PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

Copyright@2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD_ROM,THE COMPLETE INFO EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

THE  LAST KOREA ‘S EMPEROR

1852

Emperor Gojong


Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, King Gojong,

moved into the palace in 1897,

where he proclaimed the Great Korean Empire in an effort to assert the nation’s independence from China, Japan, and Russia. However, rather than actually strengthening the nation’s military, Emperor Gojong (1852-1919) would instead spend much of his time and energy renovating and expanding this palace.

He resided here until abdication to his son, Emperor Sunjong, in 1907, when the palace was renamed Doeksugung. When the Japanese occupation began in 1910, Emperor Gojong was placed under house arrest in Doeksugung, where he eventually died in 1919.

Emperor Gwangmu

We go back four generations because the demise of Korea’s royal family arguably starts in 1907. While Korea officially disappeared in 1910, in practicality Korea lost is sovereignty in 1905, when the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905 was entered into. Under the treaty, Korea became Japan’s “protectorate,” and lost the ability to conduct its own foreign affairs. A governor from Japan was sent to Korea to conduct Korea’s foreign affairs instead. It goes without saying that the treaty was not entered into in a fair manner — dozens of armed Japanese soldiers were staring down the emperor and the officials when the treaty was signed.

 
Emperor Gwangmu

Emperor Gwangmu (also known as Gojong) of Korea could plainly see where this was going. Although the 1905 Treaty stripped his ability to conduct foreign affairs, the emperor sent secret envoys to 17 major powers, including United Kingdom, France and Germany, to protest the forcible signing of the 1905 Treaty. The highlight of this effort was in 1907, when three Korean envoys were sent to the Second International Peace Convention at the Hague. Although Japan froze out the envoys from attending the convention, Yi Wi-Jong, one of the three envoys, managed to give a speech imploring for help in a separate conference. (The speech fell on deaf ears.)

The three secret envoys to the Hague: 
Yi Sang-Seol, Yi Joon, Yi Wi-Jong

Although the emperor’s efforts did not create any result, Imperial Japan did not take kindly to Emperor Gwangmu’s extracurricular activity, and demanded that he abdicate his throne. The emperor acquiesced, giving way to his son, Emperor Yunghui (also known as Soonjong) — who would become the last emperor of Korean Empire.  Former Emperor Gwangmu died in 1919. Although this is not certain, there are ample indications that he was poisoned.

More after the jump.

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Second Generation:  Emperor Yunghui, King Euichin, King Yeongchin, Princess Deokhye

Emperor Gwangmu had 13 children, but only four survived into adulthood — three sons and a daughter. And they were survivors in the truest sense. Even as the empire was in precipitous decline, the palace intrigue did not stop. Emperor Gwangmu’s oldest son, born from his third wife, is rumored to have been poisoned by Empress Myeongseong, the emperor’s main wife. The second son, born from Empress Myeongseong, died young. The Emperor’s father may have poisoned him. The crown prince — the third son who would become Emperor Yunghui– was also poisoned in his youth, but barely survived. It was rumored that because of the lingering effects of the poisoning, the crown prince did not have full mental capacity.

 
The last royal family. From the left: King Euichin, Emperor Yunghui, 
King Yeongchin, Emperor Gwangmu, with Princess Deokhye in front

In 1910, Emperor Yunghui signed over his empire to Imperial Japan, ending the 600-year dynasty headed by his family. Emperor Yunghui was demoted to a king, subordinate to the Japanese emperor. Korea’s royal family as a whole became Japanese nobility. The policy of Imperial Japan toward Korea’s royal family was clear: the royal family will be either assimilated or killed. The first to go was the Emperor Gwangmu, as described above. Emperor Yunghui did not last much longer — he died in 1926, at age 53.

Perhaps the most interesting figure in this drama is Yi Gang (also known as King Euichin,) second surviving son of Gwangmu. Yi Gang studied in Roanoke College in Virginia and was an officer of Korean imperial military when his older brother signed over the empire. Yi Gang silently assisted Korea’s independence movement, signing petitions and sending funds to support Korean independence fighters and schools. He attempted to flee Korea and join the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested in the process and lost his nobility status. Since then, he evaded Imperial Japan’s surveillance by engaging in profuse boozing and whoring while continuing to support the independence movement. During the course of his independence movement, he expressed that he would abdicate his royal status and submit to the rule of the democratic government. He led a quiet life after the independence, and died in 1955 at age 79.

Emperor Yunghui died without a son, and King Euichin was not favored by the Japanese because of his involvement in Korea’s independence movement. Therefore, Gwangmu’s youngest surviving son, King Yeongchin, succeeded the throne. Yi Eun, also known as King Yeongchin, was born in 1897. At age ten, he was taken to Japan to “study” under the patronage of the Japanese governor of Korea — essentially being held as a hostage. As the contemporary Japanese nobility did, Yi Eun was forced to attend the military academy. He became an officer of the Japanese military, and was forced to married Nashimotonomiya Masako, a member of the Japanese royal family. He became the king of Korea after his father died in 1926, but only visited Korea briefly to accept the crown. He became a general of the Japanese army in 1938. He would see the end of World War II in Japan.

 
Young Yi Eun with his Japanese “patron,”
Governor-General Ito Hirobumi
 
After the war, Yi Eun lost his nobility status, which pushed his family into dire poverty. He would scrape by with the financial help from the very few remaining Korean royalists. His wife also had to work, notwithstanding her royal family status. He attempted to return to Korea, but was rebuffed — that he served in the Japanese military and married a Japanese royal family did not play well with the newly established Korean government. He suffered a stroke in 1961 in Hawaii while visiting his son; he was allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lived in the Changdeok Palace with his aunt. He passed away in 1970.
 
It is a cruel irony of history that the only person who came out of this drama with a shred of dignity was Yi Eun’s wife, Masako. After returning to Korea in 1963, she changed her name to a Korean-style name Yi Bang-Ja and focused her energy on charity work, establishing schools for children with disabilities despite living off the meager government pension. She received numerous medals and awards for her volunteer work. She passed away in 1989.

Princess Deokhye, Gwangmu’s youngest daughter who was born in 1912, is probably the most tragic figure. She was forcibly moved to Japan and attended a university, where she developed schizophrenia. In 1931, she married a Japanese nobleman in an arranged marriage, and had a daughter. She survived the war, but lost her only daughter in the process. She was abandoned by her husband in 1953 as her schizophrenia worsened. For the next nine years, she would go from mental hospital to mental hospital in Japan. Korean government heard about her in 1962. and President Park Chung-Hee passed the law providing for pension for the former royal family in response. Princess Deokhye returned to Korea, and lived in Changdeok Palace until 1989 when she passed away.

Third and Fourth Generations: Yi Gu and King Euichin’s 21 Children

Yi Eun and Masako had two sons, but the older son died at less than one year old. The last official crown prince of Korean royal family is Yi Gu, born in 1931. He had spent his entire life in Japan, and he worked as a clerk for a company in Tokyo after World War II. In 1953, he moved abroad to study in MIT, and met his future wife — a white American woman named Julia Murlock. Yi Gu married Murlock in 1959 in New York, and he worked for the architectural company of I.M. Pei.

He was also allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lectured architecture in universities. But he could not adjust to the life in Korea. Although Korea was no longer a monarchy, the Jeonju Yi (Lee) lineage society took (and still takes) its royal family line very, very seriously. Yi Gu received pressure as a crown prince within his family, and that he married a white woman who could not get pregnant only intensified the pressure. Yi Gu separated from Murlock in 1977, and returned to Japan in 1979. He would visit Korea from time to time, but refused to settle down in Korea. He died alone in 2005 in a hotel in Tokyo; apparently Yi Gu favored the hotel because it overlooked his old birthplace. He was buried in a royal garb; his funeral was attended by the prime minister of Korea (equivalent to American vice president) and 1,000 people.

 
Yi Gu’s funeral

This means that the only surviving royal family in Korea are the descendants of King Euichin, the rebel prince. Remarkably, he had 12 sons and 9 daughters from 13 different women — as far as we know. Fate was not kind to them either. For example, Yi Geon, the oldest son of King Euichin, became a naturalized Japanese citizen in 1947 and severed his ties with Korea completely. Reportedly, before he naturalized, he brought all of his (step-)brothers and sisters together and asked them all to forget about the fact that they belong to the royal family. He died in 1991. Yi Wu, the second son, died in Hiroshima as the officer of the Japanese military when the city was hit by the nuclear bomb. The rest scattered into Korea and America, and led more or less unremarkable lives. Out of the 21 children of King Euichin, ten (four sons, six daughters) are still alive. They live in Korea, New York, Los Angeles and San Jose. After Yi Gu passed away, the Jeonju Yi lineage society established the son of King Euichin’s ninth son to be the crown prince — a man named Yi Sang-Hyup, 50 years old.

*                *               *
 
What do contemporary Koreans think about the royal family? Yi Gu’s death in 2005 served as a reminder to Korean people that Korea in fact had a royal family. This acted as a catalyst for the royal family fad in Korea. In a survey conducted in 2006, 54.4% was in favor of “restoring the royal family,” although no one in Korea is quite sure what that means. In a survey conducted in 2010, the number dropped significantly to 40.4% in favor, but still outpaced the 23.4% against. But it would be wise not to put too much stock in those numbers, because the restoration of the royal family is a pipe dream as of now. The numbers will likely change dramatically when people start thinking about the concrete details — for example, will the royal family have any kind of political power? Will they take back any part of their formerly vast property around the nation?

Junghwajeon, the throne hall of Deoksugung Palace. The building burned during the great fire of 1904, and was completely rebuilt in 1906.

        .    
 
  The royal throne inside Junghwajeon. Behind the throne is a screen painting that features five mountain peaks, the sun, and the moon. The painting reinforces the idea that the king is central to the connections between the heaven and the earth and creating a balanced universe. Gilt dragons in the roof above the throne in Junghwajeon. Screens on the windows of Junghwajeon. The back side of Junghwajeon. Junmyeongdang on the left and Jeukjodang on the right. Junmyeongdang was used as a kindergarten for Princess Deokhye (1912-1989). Both buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1904 and rebuilt by Emperor Gojong.
  Seogeodang was the only two story building in Doeksugung Palace until the construction of Seokjojeon. The original Seogeodang building was used as the residence of King Seonjo (1552-1608, reigned 1567-1608) for 16 years following the Japanese invasion of 1592. It is one of the least decorated building in any Korean royal palace, and was intentionally kept that way to remind the kings of the sacrifices suffered by King Seonjo. Deokhongjeon was used as a reception hall for guests of the royal household. Like many other buildings, it burned in 1904 and was only rebuilt in 1911. A gate in one of the interior walls inside Deoksugung Palace. Details on ceiling tiles and support beams above a gate inside the palace. A gnarled old tree.
  Chimneys that vent the underfloor ondol house heating systems in the palace buildings. Hamnyeongjeon, the building where Emperor Gojong lived until his death in 1919. Unlike most traditional Korean buildings, Hamnyeongjeon was L-shaped. Like most of the other palace buildings, it was burned in the 1904 fire and rebuilt soon after. Seokjojeon is a large, three-story stone building built in a western style by Emperor Gojong and used to receive foreign envoys. Construction on the building began in 1900 and was completed in 1909. Following liberation from the Japanese in 1945, Seokjojeon was used by the US-USSR Joint Commission before the country’s partition into two separate governments. The building was later was used to house both the National Museum and then the Royal Museum before they were moved to other locations. Today, it houses government records offices and is not open to the public.     These are the remnants of Borugak Jagyeongnu, one of the world’s oldest water clocks. Water flowed from basin to basin in such a precise way as to be able to strike a bell on the hour. It was built in 1434 during the reign of King Sejong (1397-1450, reigned 1418-1450), and was fine-tuned in 1536 during the reign of King Jungjong (1488-1544, reigned 1506-1544). The water clock was used at night, when sundials were not available.
 
  This large bell was originally in the Heungcheonsa Temple in Seoul, one of the temples favored by Joseon Dynasty royalty, and was used in Buddhist religious ceremonies. The bell was cast in 1462.
  The Singijeon carriage is the world’s oldest multi-rocket launcher for which original schematics remain intact. Each tube in the carriage could launch a rocket, and all the rockets were launched at the same time. The first Singijeon was made by Choe Museon in 1377, who independently invented gunpowder from indigenous materials after being frustrated by efforts of the Chinese to keep it a secret.
  At noon, the palace has a changing of the guards ceremony at Daehanmun Gate. Ceremonial palace guards just inside Daehanmun, the main gate into Doeksugung Palace. The weapons these guards are carrying are probably not very dangerous. A traditional martial band is marching across the wide sidewalk in front of the gate. Across the street is Seoul Plaza, and in the background are some of the modern office buildings of downtown Seoul.
  The band, marching by a Dunkin’ Donuts store.
     

HISTORY 

Joseon’s Modernization

  • Korea’s First Electic Lamp

Korea’s first electric lamp was lighted in the Geoncheonggung, Gyeongbokgung palace in 1887[18].

Korea's first electric lamp by Edison Electric Light Company (Mar., 1887)
Korea’s first electric lamp by Edison Electric Light Company (Mar., 1887)
  • Newspapers
A newspaper advertisement for Rohan Bank (Mar., 15th, 1898. The Independent)
A newspaper advertisement for Rohan Bank (Mar., 15th, 1898. The Independent)

Joseon people

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Prince Yi Woo (1912-1945) Princess Deokhye
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Life of Joseon’s Last Princess Revisited  This year marks the 100th anniversary of Japan’s annexation of Korea. Countless innocent victims and heroic fighters who suffered Japanese colonial atrocities are remembered on this occasion, and so is the ill-fated royal family of the Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910).King Yeongchin (Crown Prince Uimin), the seventh son of King Gojong, was taken to Japan on the pretext of studying at the age of 11, and obligatorily married Princess Nashimotonomiya Masako. He was only able to return to Korea long after the liberation and only when he was in his later years.Princess Deokhye (1912-1989), the last princess of the Joseon Kingdom, was also one of the fateful royal heirs but forgotten in the people’s memory.Her tragic and untold life story comes into the spotlight in the new novel “Princess Deokhye” written by Kwon Bi-young.

The rising author was inspired to write about her sad fate after she visited Tsushima Island where the last princess married Count So Takeyuki, the heir to the So clan whose ancestors had ruled the island for a long time.

The story begins with a scene in which Bok-sun, the princess’ court lady, assisted by some Korean independent activists, helped Deokhye escape from a Japanese mental hospital to Korea.

Deokhye was born in 1912 in Changdeok Palace in Seoul as the youngest daughter of King Gojong and his concubine. She was particularly beloved by her father who was in his 60s when she was born.

He established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Hall in order to protect her from being sent to Japan like her brothers.

To save her from the Japanese scheme to sever the line of royal heirs, King Gojong had his daughter secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwang-jin, a court chamberlain.

But the powerless king suddenly and suspiciously died and she was taken to Japan with the excuse of continuing her studies.

In Japan, the young princess suffered ostracism from the Japanese nobility and even involuntarily married Count So Takeyuki who was by no means powerful or influential.

The marriage demonstrates that Korean royalty fell to the same level as the local Japanese aristocracy and the Japanization of the ex-royalty under close supervision, as the colonial government was afraid that the Joseon royal family could become a focus for the independent movement.

Takeyuki was nice and gentle to her but she didn’t open her heart as her mental health was seriously hurt by the solitude, and the homesickness for her homeland.

Takeyuki was an author of numerous poems dedicated to his Korean wife and their daughter and a gifted and popular teacher.

Despite his efforts to make a good marriage, she finally developed a mental illness and was diagnosed with “precocious dementia.” But amid this, she gave birth to a daughter who was named Masae, or Jeonghye in Korean, in 1932.

Deokhye dreamed of bringing her daughter back to Korea and raising her as Korean not Japanese. But as the daughter grew up, she suffered from an identity crisis ― being half Korean and half Japanese and harbored anger against her mother.

In 1945, finally the liberation came and Japan’s imperial ambitions were shattered. But Jeonghye’s agony and trauma gripped Deokhye whose obsession with her daughter grew stronger.

Her husband sent her to a “mental hospital” and her daughter went missing after leaving a note hinting she committed suicide. After an unhappy marriage, her grief exploded with the death of her only daughter. Then, her condition deteriorated, and she finally divorced her husband in 1953.

While trapped in the hospital for 15 years, Deokhye became a miserable, forgotten woman nobody cared about or recognized. But her childhood fiance, Jang-han, went to save her with help of her lady-in-waiting, Bok-sun.

At last, 37 years after leaving Korea, she returned home at the invitation of the Korean government in 1962. She cried when she arrived in her motherland, and despite her unstable mental condition, she accurately remembered court manners.

The princess lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace and died in Sugang Hall on April 21, 1989, also in the palace. 

the story about Deokhye once I knew her. I couldn’t stop thinking about the princess who was born to a royal clan but couldn’t live a noble life and was forgotten in history,” the author says in her book.

Kwon said that there is only one book about the princess that was translated from Japanese into Korean.

“Readers can find the princess who struggled not to lose her royal identity and her nation and endured all the repression and humiliation but didn’t lose her dignity as the last princess of Joseon. Deokhye’s last words, ‘I missed my motherland even while I was in my country,’ say everything,” the author said.

“She was too smart and harbored a forbidden longing for her motherland as the princess of the country. Now she is a forgotten woman and even her nation had neglected her while she suffered in the cold hospital room. Who remembers her name?” she said.

The writer adds dramatic elements to some characters around the princess while keeping a balance between fiction and historical facts.

The novel seems to be more tear-jerking because she actually lived such a miserable life longing for her country.

The book has topped the best-selling list for four consecutive weeks in major bookstores, pushing “1Q84”by Haruki Murakami, which had been on the top of the list for 19 consecutive weeks, to the third spot.

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  Reliving Korea’s Last Royalty at Nakseonjae

Long off limits to the public, Changdeokgung Palace’s recently opened gem sheds light onto end of a dynastyPhotographs by Ryu Seunghoo Changdeokgung, which was built in 1405 as a secondary palace to the east of Gyeongbokgung (Palace), is renowned for its attractive dissymmetrical architecture and Secret Garden, one of the most enchanting settings in Seoul. To add to its allure, the doors of Nakseonjae, a compound within the royal palace, were opened to the public for the first time just over a month ago.Nakseonjae (Mansion of Joy and Goodness) was first constructed in 1847 by order of King Heonjong, the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) for his fourteen-year-old concubine Kim Gyeongbin. At the time, King Heonjong, who died at twenty-two in 1849, was married to his second wife, Queen Hon. Apparently he was not infatuated with her, since Nakseonjae was built for the concubine Kim.
 

 
The elegantly stark buildings of Nakseonjae, Seokbokheon and Sugangjae are arranged from west to east, and long servants’ quarters acts as a wall, collectively forming the Nakseonjae area. Silent echoes and historical remains are the only remaining links between modern progressive Korea and the impressive Joseon Dynasty. Legend-laden, they introduce visitors to prominent royal personalities whose lives were filled with romance, tragedy and nostalgia. Seokbokhyeon was built as the residence for Kim Gyeongbin with the hope that she would bear offspring for King Heonjong. “Seokbok” conveys that if the queen rules her home upright, the heavens will bestow her with a crown prince filled with filial piety. The residence was therefore situated between King Heonjong’s bedchamber, Nakseonjae, and his grandmother’s bedchamber, Sugangjae, so that Kim could wait on the king with his mother at a close distance so as to fulfill her duty well.Seokbokhyeon’s wooden railings feature calabash carvings symbolizing offspring’s prosperity. Ironically, the only child King Heonjong had was by another concubine, Kim Suk-ui. This daughter died in her early years.
 

 
Nakseonjae continued to be used by the later queens of the Joseon Dynasty. Queen Yun, wife of Sunjong, the last king of the Joseon Dynasty, lived in Seokbokhyeon until her death in 1966. Edward B. Adams describes Queen Yun as “intellectual and poised” in Palaces of Seoul: Yi Dynasty Palaces in Korea’s Capital City. As future queen, she took only twenty days to learn about court protocol and the feminine art of how to woo a king. The story of the heroic hardships she bore during the Korean War and the lonely battle she fought with Korea’s 1947 government to keep Nakseonjae when the monarchy was abolished portrays her brave and courageous spirit. Unlike Nakseonjae and Seokbokhyeon, Sugangjae is adorned in various colors. “Sugang” means conferring bliss from longevity and welfare upon the people. The celebratory writing for the completion of the framework of Sugangjae is full of good wishes for Queen Sunwon, the grandmother of King Heonjeong, who administered state affairs from behind the curtain. The rear gate of this residence features a striking grape design depicting these longings for prosperousness.Princess Deokhye, the youngest daughter of King Gojang, the 26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, also resided at Sugangjae. She was taken away to Japan in 1925 at the age of twelve, and forced to marry a Japanese aristocrat in 1928.

In 1962

Princess Deokhye was given permission to return to Korea. After suffering from depression, she found peace at Nakseonjae, where she spent her remaining years until 1989.

In her autobiography, “The World is One,” Princess Lee Bang-ja (Masako) relates how, as a Japanese princess, she woke up one morning to read in the papers that she was to marry the last crown prince of Korea, Prince Lee Eun, younger half-brother of King Sunjong. Prince Lee’s greatest desire was to return to his homeland and in 1963 he settled in at Nakseonjae with his family.

Tragically, Prince Lee’s return to Korea was too late. He was an invalid and spent the next seven years in hospital. A few hours before his death on May 1, 1970 the Crown Prince was taken to Nakseonjae. At the age of eighty-two, Princess Bang-ja was still promoting vocational education among the physically handicapped of her adopted country. She passed away in 1989 at Nakseonjae, the building last used in Chandeokgung.

In the garden to the rear of Nakseonjae, the pavilions Chwiunjeong and Sangnyangjeong, and the annex Hanjeongdang are arranged in harmony with the topography. Terraced flowerbeds stabilize the environment and the spaces between the terraces and buildings are filled with stone pots, oddly shaped stones and chimneys. Many books were discovered in 1969 at Nakseonjae’s northern quarters, behind Sangnyangjeong. This place is presumably where the residents were allowed to read books and draw paintings, which were kept here.

According to Kim Jin-suk, guide and English interpreter, “Nakseonjae evokes unique feelings that can’t be compared to the rest of Changdeokgung.” The plainness and delicateness of the wood-and-paper rooms and the numerous patterns on the wall tiles and door frames speak of an era when goodness was the moral code. “I love the royal history,” Kim adds. “It’s fascinating, yet sad at the same time.”

The drama behind the walls of Nakseonjae has not come to a halt. We are now able to breathe and relive it again

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Photo of Yi Hong, one of last imperial family member that lives in Seoul as actress & model.Source: http://kurapa.com/content-a2038_%EA%B3%B5%EC%A3%BC 

Quote:
현재 생존해 계시는 우리나라의 마지막 공주로 알려진
“이홍 공주님”
프로필
1.공주마마의 존함: 이홍 공주마마. (마지막황태자 이석전하의 따님이자 공주)2. 생년월일: 1980년 5월 14일 출생. 올해 28살, 스물여덟 소녀. 3. 한국황실의 지위: 대한민국의 공주.4. 결혼유무: 미혼5. 직업: 영화배우, CF모델6. 학력: 정신여고 – 한성대 산업디자인과 – 이화여대 국어국문학과 2005년 졸업.

7. 가족관계: 14남 1녀중 장녀.

8. 공주마마의 부친: 마지막 황태자 이석전하(정실부인1명 첩 5명)

9. 공주마마의 모후: 마지막 황태자비 독고정희님(1940년생 68세)

10. 공주마마의 출생지: 대한민국 서울

11. 태어나신 곳: 창덕궁 낙선재에서 출생(2004년 25살때까지 창덕궁 낙선재에서 기거하심)

12. 공주마마의 본적: 서울특별시 경복궁.

13. 공주마마의 증조할아버지: 고종황제 (1852~1919)

14. 공주마마의 증조할머니: 명성황후 (1851~1895)

15. 공주마마의 큰할아버지: 순종황제 (1874~1926)

16. 공주마마의 큰할머니: 순정효황후 (1894~1994)

17. 공주마마의 작은할아버지: 영친왕 전하 (1897~1980)

18. 공주마마의 작은할머니: 이방자 여사 (1901~1989)

19. 공주마마의 친할아버지: 의친왕 전하 (1877~1995)

*공주마마의 첫째남동생: 마지막황태손 이종훈 (1981년생 27세)
*공주마마의 둘째남동생: 이지민왕자 (1983년생 25세)
*공주마마의 셋째남동생: 이민우왕자 (1984년생 24세)
*공주마마의 넷째남동생: 이용훈왕자 (1986년생 22세)
*공주마마의 다섯째남동생: 이영훈왕자 (1987년생 21세)
*공주마마의 여섯째남동생: 이장훈왕자 (1989년생 19세)
*공주마마의 일곱째남동생: 이 민왕자 (1991년생 17세)
*공주마마의 여덟째남동생: 이 희왕자 (1993년생 15세)
*공주마마의 아홉째남동생: 이 용왕자 (1994년생 14세)
*공주마마의 열번째남동생: 이 영왕자 (1995년생 13세)
*공주마마의 열한번째남동생: 이 정왕자 (1996년생 12세)
*공주마마의 열두번째 남동생: 이 기왕자 (1998년생 10세)
*공주마마의 열세번째 남동생: 이 준왕자 (1999년생 9세)
*공주마마의 열네번째 남동생: 이 진왕자 (2000년생 8세)

With her father Yi Seok
 

 


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“Let He Who Is Without Sin Cast The First Stone”

Korea under Japanese rule (1910-1945)

 


   
Seoul 1938 (in Color), and Korea 1899
korean-nobleman.jpg daughter-min.jpg korean-boy-birthday-dress.jpg
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Pictures by Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956)

! These works by Elizabeth Keith are under public domain in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) because its term of copyright has expired there.
Quoted from wikipedia:
According to Articles 39 to 44 of the Copyright Act of the Republic of Korea, under the jurisdiction of the Government of the Republic of Korea all copyrighted works enter the public domain 50 years after the death of the creator (there being multiple creators, the creator who dies last) or 50 years after publication when made public in the name of an organization.

Late Joseon Princess Deokhye’s life revealed

 

She was born royal,
 victimized by history and died in solitude ― having lost her country and sanity.The life story of Deokhye (1912 – 1989)
, the last princess of the Joseon Dynasty, is a tragedy that reflects the wretched fate of Korea’s last monarchy. More than 20 years after her death, her life, once written out of history, is making a comeback in different forms and ways.On Thursday, the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage published a book chronicling about 50 pieces of clothing and personal belongings worn by the Princess, along with 150 other Korean costumes from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The pieces are currently owned by Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Tokyo, Japan.The pieces and artifacts include royal infant hanbok garments, a dressing stand, many pairs of silver spoons, a gilded fortune pocket and a pair of high heel shoes.It was Kim Young-sook, a traditional costume scholar, who first identified that the pieces once belonged to Deokhye when she visited the Japanese museum in 1982 as part of her personal research. “I recognized the pieces among piles of other collected costumes from all over the world; the museum staff had no idea where the pieces were from,” Kim told The Korea Herald. “It was amazingly fascinating and touching to see the royal infant clothes that the Princess wore as a child. I knew right away they were hers ― they even matched with her photos,” the 83-year-old scholar said.Though Kim had presented her findings at an academic forum in the 1980s ― while informing the Japanese museum of the same ― not many paid attention. After keeping her research strictly personal for more than 25 years, Kim finally asked the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea for support a few years ago, formally reporting to them about the princess and her items at Bunka Gakuen. The report on Deokhye’s clothes and belongings is the result of a two-year joint collaboration between Kim and the government. 
Young Deokhye, the last Princess of the Joseon Dynasty, poses in a Kimono. She was forced to leave Joseon for Japan at age 12.                                                          

the life of Najin

and the expansion of oppression of the Koreans

at the same time. Christianity was growing popular in Korea, so Najin was able to go to one of the mission schools and received an education that was rare in her time. She avoided an early marriage, upon which her father had decided without her permission, by finding a place in the royal palace

as a companion to Princess Deokhye

and by continuing her education at the same time. The princess had a melancholy personality and Najin brightened up her coddled and sheltered life. Deokhye’s brother, Crown Prince Yi Eun (Euimin) had been sent to Japan when he was only 10 years old, allegedly for his studies.

According to Donald Keene in The Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World 1952-1912,

“Although he never was so described, the prince served as a hostage [for Japan], as the Korean Emperor realized.”

Princess Deokhye was also sent to Japan against her wishes to marry a Japanese, after the Korean emperor died mysteriously.

File:Princess dukhye and takeyuki so, 1931.JPG

A ceremonial top (dangui) worn by Princess Deokhye as a child and recently discovered at the Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan /Courtesy of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage
A ceremonial top (dangui) worn by Princess Deokhye as a child and recently discovered at the Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan /Courtesy of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage

After the princess left the palace, Najin returned home .

At this point the oppression towards the Koreans was heightened when imprisonment and taxes were increased and the Korean newspapers were stopped. All Korean citizens had to speak Japanese.

By 1943,

 the Japanese military government sent hundreds of thousands of Koreans to Japan as army recruits or as laborers in mines and companies, plus thousands of young women were taken to the growing to war front in Asia to follow the troops as “comfort women.” As historian Andrew C Nahm relates, “Korea changed much during this period, but Korean nationalism did not diminish and the desire to be free from Japanese colonialism persisted.”

 Dasan Books

“I appreciate their help very much,” Kim said. “It wouldn’t have been possible with my limited budget and resources. The work has been very meaningful.”Park Dae-nam,
 senior researcher of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, said the belongings of the Princess are believed to have been donated by her half-brother, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, and his wife Crown Princess Yi Bangja. “It is expected that the royal couple was suffering financially,” Park told The Korea Herald. “They even donated their own royal pieces of clothing to Tokyo National Museum.”

Princess Deokhye’s infant hanbok jeogori (bottom) and dressing stand are currently owned by Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan.
Apart from the published report,
 Kim Young-sook has been preparing a non-fiction book of her own, assembling all of her personal, extensive research on Princess Deokhye. The book will include poems and songs that the Princess wrote while she was attending school in Tokyo, which Kim obtained during her long research stay in Japan. “Princess Deokhye was extremely talented in writing ― she was a very smart student,” Kim told The Korea Herald. “Most of her pieces were about her home country and the royal palace, and how much she missed them,” she added.Last year, “Princess Deokhye,” 

  The inside of Seokjojeon can be seen above left, with Crown Prince Yeongchin, Sunjong, Gojong, Eombi (one of Gojong’s wives) and Princess Deokhye, seated from left to right. Provided by Myongji University-LG Yeonam Library
 the first piece of fiction ever written on the late Princess, was published on Dec. 14.
 The historical novel has been doing extremely well, selling over 500,000 copies in the past eight months. It was ranked as the top bestseller in every recognized bookstore back in January.
 
 “The research part was very difficult because there were almost zero resources available,” Kwon Bi-young, the author of the book, told The Korea Herald. “I’m glad that more information about the Princess is being released. At the same time, though, I am still saddened by the life that Deokhye had to live.”Princess Deokhye was born in 1912,
two years after Joseon was annexed by Japan. Adored and doted on by her father, Emperor Gojong, the youngest daughter of the royal family attended a kindergarten at Deoksu Palace, established exclusively for her. At age 12, however, only six years after Gojong’s death, Deokhye was taken to Japan and went to school in Tokyo. There, she suffered from bullying and cultural differences.At age 19,
 she was forced to marry Japanese Count So Takeyuki. While suffering from mental illness and an unhappy marriage, she gave birth to her daughter, Masae, in 1932. The princess’ life took another tragic turn when her daughter went missing, and her health condition worsened. She was sent to a mental hospital, and finally divorced her husband in 1953.She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Park Chung-hee government in 1962.
 
Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung
Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung Palace
Nakseonjae was the residence of Princess Deokhye and Yi Bang-ja, queen of King Yeong until she passed away in 1989
 
 
 Deokhye led an isolated life in Nakseon Hall,
Changdeok Palace, till her low-profile death in 1989

Princess dukhye and takeyuki so, 1931.JPG

 

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Coronation of Korea’s new empress leads to royal family controversy

[IHT] 입력 2006.10.22 20:23 / 수정 2006.10.23 20:09

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▶ Yi Hae-won, who was recently restored as the new empress of Korea. By Choi Jae-young

The crowning of Korea’s “new empress” on Sept. 29 was presented by her backers as a means to unite royal descendants spread across the country and “speak as one voice.” What it did instead was to set family members against each other as they dispute not only the line of descent but also the legitimacy of the private organization that named Yi Hae-won as empress of South Korea.
Meeting Ms. Yi was itself quite an exercise. The day of the meeting, a spokesman from the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk (the Empire of Korea) postponed the interview for two hours, at a venue the JoongAng Daily was asked not to reveal “for reasons of security,” and the reporter had to wait another two hours until the empress arrived. The 88-year-old is only about 1.3 meters tall (4 foot, 3 inches) and a little stooped, but the small woman in a jade green hanbok looked composed and tenacious.
Once Ms. Yi arrived and settled herself for the interview, organization spokesman Lee Seong-joo asked the reporter and a handful of men who accompanied her to bow to her four times, bending from the waist to make almost a right angle. “That’s the right way to greet an empress in the royal custom,” he said. The other men in the room all claimed to be of the Lee clan, as was the first emperor of the Joseon dynasty. (Yi and Lee are different spellings of the same family name.) The men stayed throughout the short interview, interrupting and answering questions addressed to Ms. Yi, as did the spokesman.
“I am legitimate, no matter who says what,” the empress declared, referring to opposition to her claim, particularly from the Jeonju Lee Royal Family Members Foundation.

▶ Yi Won, front, and Yi Seok, back, at the funeral of Yi Ku on July 24, 2005. By Choi Jae-young

She said is the oldest surviving child of Prince Uichin (1877-1955), the fifth son of Emperor Gojong (1852-1919). Official records show that Prince Uichin fathered 12 sons and nine daughters.
“I was born to the approved wife of Prince Uichin,” Ms. Yi continued, “I will restore the imperial culture.”
The 10th of those sons, Ms. Yi’s younger brother Yi Seok, thinks his sister was persuaded to take the title by a group of Lee family members because of her difficult life.
After Korea’s liberation from Japan, the new government nationalized the royal fortune and ousted the family from its palaces. Ms. Yi raised three sons and a daughter by herself after her husband was kidnapped and taken to the North during the Korean War. She said she doesn’t know if her husband is still alive, and her daughter died at the age of 47. Two of her sons live in the United States, where she also lived for 10 years until 2002. Since then, Ms. Yi, who spent her first 15 years in a palace, has lived in a 13.2-square-meter (142 square-foot) room in Hanam, Gyeonggi province, with her second son.

▶ Empress Yi Hae-won’s wedding at 19 to Lee Seung-gyu. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

“I don’t mind if my sister [Yi Hae-won] takes the empress seat or not,” Yi Seok said. “However, the family members in direct line didn’t approve such a ceremony. I was invited to the coronation, but I didn’t attend because I didn’t know who [the association members are].”
What he does mind, and what aroused some controversy in Korean society, is the way Ms. Yi was named empress. There was no prior public discussion on the status of an empire or the imperial family within Korea, although an August poll by Realmeter, a research company, did ask what Koreans thought about having a symbolic royal family. Of the 460 Koreans aged 19 or older who were polled, just under 55 percent supported the idea.
“There should have first been enough discussion to get public approval,” said Yi Seok. “When I give lectures on the history of the Korean royal family, I see a lot of people who miss the empire.” He added, “I plan to collect signatures from people and if more than 1 million want to restore the empire, even though it’s just symbolic, I will present that list to the president and ask him to restore the imperial culture and allow some descendants to live in Gyeongbok or Changdeok palaces.”
Members of the Jeonju Lee Royal Family Members Foundation said the family had already selected who should succeed the late Yi Ku, the last direct heir to the throne and the son of Crown Prince Yeongchin, the seventh son of Emperor Gojong.
“[Having an empress] doesn’t make any sense at all,” said Lee Jeong-jae, an official of the foundation, with obvious anger. “When Yi Ku passed away in July of last year, we selected Yi Won as his successor,” he said. Yi Won is a son of Yi Chung-gil, the surviving ninth son of Prince Uichin. “Such [a restoration] ceremony will only confuse the Korean people,” added Lee Yong-kyu, the vice chairman of the foundation. “Korea is not a constitutional monarchy, the royal descendant’s role is limited to that of an officiating priest and his ruling role was removed a long time ago,” he said. In Confucian custom, a woman cannot lead a ritual to honor ancestors.

 
 

“The direct descendants of the empire had a family meeting right after the news that Yi Ku passed away, and decided to have Yi Won entered in the family register of Yi Ku as a son,” said the vice chairman. “We just followed their decision.”
That family meeting is in itself controversial. The vice chairman said that both Ms. Yi and her younger brother, as imperial family members, attended the meeting. Yi Seok and Yi Hae-won, however, told the JoongAng Daily that not only were they not at the meeting, they were not even aware of it. “Adopting a son after death doesn’t make any sense,” Yi Seok said angrily by phone.
“I heard that Crown Princess Yi Bang-ja [the wife of Crown Prince Yeongchin] wrote a will before she died, and in it she named me as first successor,” he added. He said Kim Sang-ryeol, who was close to the Crown Princess, is in possession of that will. Mr. Kim, however, refused to confirm what the will contained, but said he plans to reveal its contents to the public someday.
Added to all the infighting, the legitimacy of those calling themselves the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk is unclear. Although its members say that they are close relatives of the royal family, they are not listed in the direct imperial family records.
The association is now preparing a residence and office for Ms. Yi in a building near Seoul Station, using two floors with a total area of about 396 square meters. The spokesman said that the building owner is also a member of the organization, and supports the Empire of Korea.
“We’re not asking the government to financially support us. We’ll raise funds from supporters of the royal family,” Mr. Lee said. “But as the empress is old, we don’t have much time to restore the royal tradition and legitimacy, which will contribute to the development of Korea’s history and culture,” he added.
The last words the empress spoke during the interview only added to the questions one might have about the association. “They treat me like a puppet,” she said as she took her leave.

 

The root of the current family feud goes back to the time of Emperor Gojong, who was deprived of diplomatic power in 1905 by Japan before it colonized Korea in 1910. Emperor Gojong had nine sons and four daughters, but only four lived long enough to marry: Emperor Sunjong, Prince Uichin, Crown Prince Yeongchin and Princess Deokhye. Prince Uichin as the second-eldest son, was next in line, but as he participated in Korea’s independence movement, the Japanese government forced Emperor Sunjong, who had no children, to leave the title to Prince Yeongchin.
Hirobumi Ito, the resident general during the Joseon dynasty, took the crown prince to Japan at the age of 11 to be educated there, where he was married to Masako Nashimotonomiya, better known as Crown Princess Yi Bang-ja, who was a member of Japan’s royal family. The crown princess, who was a candidate to become Japan’s empress, recalled in her autobiography that she was chosen as Prince Yeongchin’s wife in an attempt to end the Joseon royal line, as Japanese doctors had diagnosed her as infertile. However, she gave birth to two sons, Jin and Ku. Jin died at the age of eight months, leaving Ku, as the only surviving son of the last crown prince, in the main line of descent.
Yi Ku, who graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and married an American Julia Mullock, had no children. He died last year in a hotel room in Japan, leaving no clear successor.

Art Photography

VINTAGE ART PHOTOGRAPHY

 

Eight of Prince Uichin’s children , his first wife, Kim Deok-soo, center front, and two court ladies behind her. Second from the right is Yi Hae-won. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

Prince Uichin. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

MODERN FILM SCENE ART PHOTOGRAPHY

 

the end@copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012

comment

Hi,I’d like to introduce a great site where the blogger, Dr Iwan suwandy’s collection. He was a medical doctor and is a traveller now having much interest in Korean Culture with deep inspiration. I believe you also may help him to collect more good information from your blog or through your powerful knowledge. And he may also let you know more about what’s not known about. Let me give you his blog site address down here. – Dr Iwan suwandy’s collection-
https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/12/23/the-korea-historic-collections-part-one-choson-1800-1900/#comment-1206Many Thanks! Seen around your blog and infos!– Tim
 

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2 Responses to The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Art Photography

  1. Kim says:

    Dear All,
    Nice to have you Tim here at the collection of the Last Princess’ at Dr. Iwan’s blog and also I’m thankful to Mr. Perkasa for letting me specially know about what I’ve been searching for.
    Yes, Deokhye is the precious of the Last Imperial Highness and beyond our great symbol of Kingdom of Josun Dynasty. So I respect her and let others all know the name of “Deokhye” as well as I read the book and the music… I hope all know the princess through this Dr. Iwan’s blog in his language all over the world, too. Thank you Iwan! As my interest and to have a good opportunities of sharing one of my favorite song of the “Tears of Rose (눈물꽃) by Jinsul Huh, a Korean Singer”  here, too. The site is particularly introduced in English language and may help all other country-people to understand what the lyric and song really mean.
    Additionally, I find the other person’s good blog-site on everything culturally and traditionally Korean which preferably contains facts about Deokhye Onju (the Last Princess) at
    http://celadonia.com/CelaBlogger/index.html#Princess This site is in a way looking similar in structure to yours that is very powerful and full of knowledge on our nation. I’ll keep letting others know your site and attach others on yours as well.
    Please mention the 2 sites and hopefully upload the visual material, if you don’t mind. Sound and Visual goes very effective together for sharing what we’re bearing at heart with all the world!
    – Kim
    Ps: For the Music Video generated by someone that named himself Kim, I’m another Kim for we have the same many family names in Korea. This is also the fact we’re all family loving our culture!

    • HALLO kIM,THANKS FOR VISI MY BLOG,AND ALSO YOUR INFORMATIONS,this info also will upload to my another blog
      HHTP://WWW.dRIWANCYBERMUSEUM.WORDPRESS.COM,PLEASE TO LOOK AT THAT SITE.
      SINCERELY,
      Dr Iwan suwandy

       

During the period of Japanese Administration,

there were great increases in population, unprecendented in Korean history. This is not consistent with a people that are starving, because the population should decrease in that case.

Not only are the Korean claims dubious, but it seems that they benefitted in many ways from the Japanese Administration. Lets take a look at picutures of Korea before and during the Japanese Administration.

slaves
This was the true state of Koreans in the Choson Era.

medicine
Before the Japanese introduced medicine in Korea, Koreans would cure Malaria by writing their names on their feet.

medicine2
Pre-Japanese era Korean medicine. This childs parents are trying to cure this childs disease by throwing away this straw doll. Various diseases could be ‘cured’ by this ‘method’. The average Korea lifespan at this time was around 24 years old. Thanks to Japanese investment in medicine and nutrition in Korea, the lifespan went up to nearly 50 years old by the end of WW2

k
The center of Seoul, Namdemun, Circa 1880. Thatched buildings and shops.

edo
Compare that with 1850′s Tokyo. Korea was a basket case.

k
The common people of the Choson Era lived in a state of slavery, if not in name then in practice. Picture is of Namdemun.

bare breasted woman
Typical Korean Woman of the pre-annexation period. It was common for women to walk around bare breasted in Korea at the time, as in Africa.

Hooker
It is common in Korea to claim that prostitution did not exist in Korea before the Japanese came, but here is a picture of one anyway.

Che Yonhi
Koreans say that they were simply slaves during the Japanese administration, and werent even allowed to have Korean names. I wonder then how they explain the existence of dancer Che Yonhi, who not only became wealthy and famous, but kept her Korean name. Surely if the Japanese wanted to force Koreans to have Japanese names, they would have started with Korean role models? This is a picture of her in a hotel cafe in Seoul.

department
A department store in Seoul for Korean consumers. Picture 1937.

namdaemun
Koreans boldly claim that Japan destroyed many Korean cultural monuments that were in truth destroyed by Korean neglect. The above is a before and after photo of Namdaemun. Is this what Koreans mean by Korea being ‘ruined’ by the Japanese?

Industry
Massive Japanese investment created industry where there was none. The raised living standards and provided housing. The landlords and oppressors of common people lost their legal right to lord it over others.

Hydro
The worlds largest Hydroelectric generator (at the time) was built in Korea by the Japanese, at the expense of the Japanese. This contributed much to Korea’s development.

Pyongyang
This was Pyongyang under Japanese rule.

Pyongyang2
Pyongyang again.

Really, one could go on and on about this. I would conjecture that this kind of information is nowhere to be found in Korean textbooks, based on my conversations with Koreans. Could Korean anti Japanism be mostly founded upon Koreans vain belief in their ‘Great History’

Refrences

Research Articles and Chapters

“Chosŏn hugi ŭi mukwa chedo wa Han’guk ŭi kŭndaesŏng” (The Late Chosŏn Military Examination System and Korean Modernity). In Korean. Han’guk munhwa (Korean Culture) 51 (September 2010): 299–319.

“Saeroun kajoksa ŭi ch’ugu: kŭndae Han’guk ŭi chokpo p’yŏnch’an kwa chungin ch’ŭng ŭi panŭng” [A search for a new family history: genealogy compilation and the reactions of chungin stratum in modern Korea]. In Korean. Trans. Yi Kanghan. Yŏksa munje yŏn’gu (Critical Studies on Modern Korean History) 20 (October 2008): 139–167.

“Imagined Connections in Early Modern Korea, 1600–1894: Representations of Northern Elite Miryang Pak Lineages in Genealogies.” Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 21.1 (June 2008): 1–27.

“Status and ‘Defunct’ Offices in Early Modern Korea: The Case of Five Guards Generals (Owijang), 1864–1910.” Journal of Social History 41.3 (Spring 2008): 737–757.

“War and Peace in Premodern Korea: Institutional and Ideological Dimensions.” In The Military and
South Korean Society, edited by Young-Key Kim-Renaud, R. Richard Grinker, and Kirk W. Larsen, pp. 1–13. The Sigur Center Asia Papers Vol. 26. Washington DC: Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University, 2006.

“Local Elites, Descent, and Status Consciousness in Nineteenth-Century Korea: Some Observations on the County Notable Listings in the Chosŏn Hwanyŏ Sŭngnam.” In Han’guksa e issŏsŏ chibang kwa chungang [The periphery and the center in Korean history], edited by Chŏng Tuhŭi and Edward J. Shultz, pp. 205–225. Seoul: Sogang University Press, 2003.

“Military Examinations in Sixteenth-Century Korea: Political Upheaval, Social Change, and Security Crisis.” Journal of Asian History 35.1 (2001): 1–57.

“Military Examinations in Late Chosŏn, 1700–1863: Elite Substratification and Non-Elite Accommodation.” Korean Studies 25.1 (2001): 1–50.

“Chosŏn ch’ogi mukwa ch’ulsin ŭi sahoejŏk chiwi: T’aejong-Sŏngjong nyŏn’gan ŭi kŭpcheja rŭl chungsim ŭro” [The social status of early Chosŏn military examination graduates: passers from the reign of T’aejong through that of Sŏngjong]. In Korean. Yŏksa wa hyŏnsil (Quarterly Review of Korean History) 39 (March 2001): 100–126.

“Military Examination Graduates in Early Chosŏn: Their Social Status in the Fifteenth Century.” The Review of Korean Studies 3.1 (July 2000): 123–156.

Between Dreams and Reality: The Military Examination in Late Chosŏn Korea, 1600–1894
 
 

As previously mentioned, Rhee Syngman (李承晩, 이승만/리승만, 1875-1965) was the other South Korean president who wrote Classical Chinese poetry. He was of the Jeonju Yi Clan, the same family clan as the old royal family of the Chosun dynasty. His pen name was U’nam (雩南, 우남). After receiving his education in the US, Rhee Syngman became active in the Korean independence movement and served in the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai. As president, he was vigorously anti-Communist and went after the leftist political dissidents. He was also a bit mad with the lust for power and changed the election procedures in his favor. He also had members of the old royal family under house arrest, fearing their popularity. After his fourth re-election, the people started demonstrating and Rhee Syngman was exiled to Hawaii, where he passed away in 1965. The following is a poem, he presumably wrote during wartime, based on the title.

戰時春 전시춘

A War Time Spring

半島山河漲陣烟 반도산하장진연
胡旗洋帆翳春天 호기양범예춘천
彷徨盡是無家客 방황진시무각객
漂泊誰非辟穀仙 표박수비벽곡선
成市遺墟如古壁 성시유허여고벽
山川燒地起新田 산천요지기신전
東風不待干戈息 동풍불대간과식
細草遍生敗壘邊 세초편생패루변

On the mountains and rivers of the peninsula, military camps are full of smoke.
Barbarian [1] banners and Western sails conceal the Spring sky.
Wandering and lost are these exhausted travelers without homes.
Among the drifting and roaming, who is not as if living off of little sustenance [2]?
[Where] markets were open, the remaining ruins are are like old  walls.
In the mountains and streams, lands are being burn to arise [again] as new rice paddies.
The eastern winds do not tarry for resting pikes and shields [3].
On the sides of the defeated forts, small grass have [started to] grow about it.

Notes:

  1. 胡 (호, ho) – refers to the Chinese here. This is the same character that was used referred to the Manchurian Qing Dynasty.
  2. 辟穀 (벽곡, byeokgok) – refers to abstaining (辟, 벽) from grains (穀, 곡).
  3. That is, soldiers.

Characters:

  • 漲 (장, jang) – to be full of water (물이 넘치다); to be much (많은 모양).
  • 翳 (예, ye) – to conceal or cover (가리다).
  • 彷徨 (방황, banghwang) – to be lost or roaming.
  • 墟 (허, heo) – ruins or to be in ruins.
  • 壘 (루, ru) – small military encampment or fort.
Source:
 
 

 

 The last imperial family 

 

This photo, taken about 1915 (actually a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea) shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Ui (Ui chinwang 의친왕), the 6th son of Gojong; Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Joseon; Prince Yeong (Yeong chinwang 영친왕), the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Queen Yoon (Yoon daebi), Queen Consort of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Prince Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye (Deokhye ongju 덕혜옹주), Gojong’s last child.

After the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, the Princes and Princesses of the Imperial Family were forced to leave for Japan to be re-educated and married. The Heir to the Throne, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, married Princess Yi Bang-ja née Nashimoto, and had two sons, Princes Yi Jin and Yi Gu. His elder brother, Imperial Prince Ui had twelve sons and nine daughters from various wives and concubines.

The Crown Prince lost his status in Japan at the end of World War II and returned to Korea in 1963 after an invitation by the Republican Government. He suffered a stroke as his plane landed in Seoul and was rushed to a hospital. He never recovered and died in 1970. His brother, Imperial Prince Ui died in 1955 and the Korean people officially considered this to be the end of the Royal line.[citation needed]

Presently Prince Yi Seok is one of two pretenders[citation needed] to the abolished throne of Korea (the monarchy was abolished in 1910 by Japan and following Japan’s defeat in World War II, North Korea has been organized as a communist regime and South Korea has been organized as a republic). Prince Yi Seok is a son of Prince Gang of Korea, a fifth son of Gojong of Korea and currently a professor of history lecturing at Jeonju University in the Republic of Korea.

Furthermore, many descendants live throughout the United States, Canada and Brazil, having settled elsewhere, outside of Korea.

Today, many tombs of the descendants still exist on top of the mountain in Yangju. According to the pedigree written on the tombstone, it is believed that these descendants are from the great king of Joseon, Seongjeong (The 9th ruler of Joseon Dynasty). It was discovered that this mountain belongs to the member of the royal family named Yi Won (Born in 1958). More details of current descendants of the House of Yi.

 The imperial family

 
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2011
 

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Princess Deokhyea art photography galery

Princess Deokhye / 덕혜옹주
[Resim: princessdeokhye1.png] 

vintage

 

film scene

 

20 Responses to The Korea Historic Collections Part Three Choson 1800-1900

  1. Nice site – will stop by more often.

  2. If you are going to use my material, please cite. Also, Choi Kyuha and Rhee Syngman are not from the 1800-1900 period.

    • thanks for visit my web blog and the corrections,the articles were not finish and edited ,I want to thanks for your info,
      I kinow that Choi kyuha and sygman rhee not from 1800-1900.,but I will editing soon

       

  3. johan reinhard | January 25, 2012 at 7:31 am | Reply | Edit

    You’re keeping a large amount of information on Chosen Dynasty.
    Chosen is much more preferable to Josun to me, because it sounds like God-chosen, a beautiful country. I’m much interested in the Last Princess Deok Hye and hope you’re keeping it more about her. Thank you.

  4. Is it a korean song? Surfing websites, I found the uploaded one and the voice so clear and lovely. Thank you.

  5. Deokhye the last princess has been composed for music in her birth country Korea. It’s getting famous…

    You’ll listen to it at the address.

  6. I’m glad to find you helped with uploading a korean song and that the famous music was made and donated only for the Last Princess Deokhye Onju who has a history for all Koreans to remember and not to forget as long as we’re living as Koreans. But the reason why the Last Princess and the books as well as the song are all getting well-known in two different countries of Korea and Japan is that she was born as the Josun Princess and had to spend most of her life in Japan by force.
    Good and conscious Japanese currently begin to reinterprete the Last Princess as the one who was suffering only from the political reason under the Japanese millitarism against the Last Dynasty of Josun. And today, the Deokhye Onju revived through such memories by discovering past histories, books (2 books – one was written by Korean novelist and the other one was Japanse author, respectively) and the song “Tears of Rose (English title)” by a singersong writer.

    * Korean NGO site :
    http://cafe426.daum.net/_c21_/bbs_search_read?grpid=57CR&fldid=IPrt&contentval=0001Rzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz

    * Japanese Blog site :
    http://papercascade206.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2012-01-24

    With Thanks!

    Young Tae Kim

    • Hi,I’d like to introduce a great site where the blogger, Dr Iwan suwandy’s collection. He was a medical doctor and is a traveller now having much interest in Korean Culture with deep inspiration. I believe you also may help him to collect more good information from your blog or through your powerful knowledge. And he may also let you know more about what’s not known about. Let me give you his blog site address down here.- Dr Iwan suwandy’s collection-
      http://Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/12/23/the-korea-historic-collections-part-one-choson-1800-1900/#comment-1206Many Thanks! Seen around your blog and infos!- Tim

      hallo Young Tae Kim
      thanks for visit my blog and informations
      sincerely
      Dr Iwan suwandy

      • Young Tae Kim | January 31, 2012 at 2:06 pm | | Edit

        As of my final comment here with thanks to Dr. Iwan Suwandy, I’m collecting everything about Deokhye the Last Imperial Highness and found one more Turkish fan site toward the Last Princess.

        I’m informing of the address here.

        http://www.korea-fans.com/forum/princess-deokhye-%09-the-last-princess-of-korea-t-32245.html

        Sincerely yours,
        – Kim

        Ps.> Can I let others know and quote your site as one of great source of adressing Korean History and the Dynasty? And specially about Deokhye the Imeprial? If permitted, I’ll be glad.

         

      • Dear Young Tae Kim,
        thanks for your informations,I will look the site you suggest and new info will upload to my blog,
        I am very happy if you let others known my site,I am still want to know you from north or south korea or another country,I am still need more info for my blog especially about the stamps ,co9in and postal history collections related to the history.
        I am waiting for your new info,thanks very much
        sincerely
        Dr Iwan Suwandy

         

  7. Seorang teman mengatakan kepada saya alamat blog… Musiknya sangat bagus!!!

  8. Terima kasih, Iwan.
    OK, Terima kasih! Saya ingin berbagi video musik dan gambar lain dengan teman-teman saya. Memiliki hari yang baik!
    – Perkasa

    • terima kasih kembali,Dik Perkasa,dari pada main game lebih bagus tambah pengetahuan dan wawasan lihat dan baca info dari Driwancybermuseum,silahkan klik
      hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
      salam dari
      dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

       

  9. Hello,
    I’m uploading a drama here which was about the days of Josun and has the beautiful background music of Tears of Rose (눈물꽃-허진설)… You can enjoy the drama shortly and may understand how their life was. Moreover, please listen to the same music which I could find and listen to through your blog. I know her indirectly and also like to study something Korean. My korean friend told me about this site. Everything is neat and nice!!!
    Terima kasih!

    —> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2l7FQLfwBg

    ps> please upload the drama if you like it.

    – Perkasa

Protected: The Ireland Historic Collections

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

The Insteresting story from Vintage Book(KIsah menarik dari Buku antik)

The Interesting Antiquarian

 Dairy Book  Collections

(Kisah Menarik tempo Dulu)

Edited by
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

PREFACE


Untuk mengenal dunia masa yang lalu sebagai informasi awal menempuh masa mendatang, anda perlu mengetahui kisah tentang situasi dunia yang lalu.

Untuk itu saya telah mengumpulkan berbagai kisah yang menarik berdasarkan catatan harian  dari Euro,Africa,Timur Tengah,Asia,Australia,Latin amerika. Kisah ini dibagi dalm beberapa kategori yaitu

1.Kisah Eksplorasi

2.Kisah Perang

3.Kisah Dari Tiap benua

4.Kisah dari Abad ke-limabelas sampai delapan belas.

Kisah ini akan menjadi bahan baca yang menarik saat anda sedang menempul perjalanan yang jauh,atau saat tidak ada pekerjaan,saat lagi istirahat dipinggir pantai atau di pegunungan yang indah,meneman anda sebelum tidur dan sebagainya.

Semoga anda merasa senang membaca buku elektronik ini, simpan dengan mengkopi di I-Pod atau Book-pad anda sebagai penganti main games.

Jakarta februari 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Preface
To know the world of the past as the future taking the initial information, you need to know the story of the last world situations.

For that I have collected many interesting stories based on the diaries of the Euro, Africa, Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin America. The story is divided into several categories namely preformance

1. Exploration

2.War

3. From Each continent

4. the fifteenth  to eighteen.century

This story will be interesting reading material while you’re on the  long journey, or when there is no work, while again break off the coast or in the mountains are beautiful, will be your friend  before bed and so on.

Hope you feel glad to read this electronic book, save it by copying the I-Pod or a Book-pad you as a substitute for playing games.

Jakarta February 2012

Dr. Iwan suwandy, MHA

 

ANTIQUARIAN DAIRY

PART ONE

EXPLORATION

BAGIAN SATU

EKSPLORASI

Perlombaan ke Kutub Selatan
Seratus tahun yang lalu hari ini, Roald Amundsen Norwegia dan empat orang lain dalam timnya adalah penjelajah pertama yang mencapai Kutub Selatan. Sebuah partai Inggris yang dipimpin oleh Robert Falcon Scott, yang telah melakukan upaya, sebelumnya, namun tidak berhasil mencapai Kutub, tidak jauh di belakang, dan tiba sebulan kemudian. Namun, sedangkan pihak Norwegia kembali ke rumah, pihak Scott semua meninggal karena kedinginan dan kelaparan. Buku harian Scott dari ekspedisi terakhir adalah pertama kali diterbitkan pada tahun 1913, namun buku harian Amundsen baru saja baru ini telah diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris untuk pertama kalinya.

Amundsen lahir pada tahun 1872 dari sebuah keluarga pemilik kapal Norwegia dan kapten di Borge, 80km atau lebih selatan Oslo. Awalnya, ia memilih untuk belajar kedokteran atas desakan ibunya, meskipun menyerah pada usia 21 saat dia meninggal. Setelah lama terinspirasi oleh Norwegia Fridtjof besar explorer Nansen (lihat kayu apung Siberia tidak bisa berbohong), dia menjual buku-buku medis dan mengambil pekerjaan sebagai pelaut biasa. Dengan 1895, ia telah mendapatkan surat sebagai pasangan, dan oleh 1900 lisensi master-nya. Pengalaman pertama daerah kutub datang akhir 1890-an pada sebuah ekspedisi Belgia dengan Adrien de Gerlache.

Pada tahun 1903, Amundsen memimpin ekspedisi pertama yang berhasil melintasi Bacaan barat laut Kanada antara Samudra Atlantik dan Pasifik, meskipun tim harus selama-musim dingin tiga kali sebelum kembali ke rumah pada tahun 1906. Secara signifikan, selama waktu ini, Amundsen belajar berbagai keterampilan dari orang Eskimo asli, seperti penggunaan kereta luncur anjing dan memakai kulit binatang.

Amundsen direncanakan di samping pergi ke Kutub Utara, namun pada sidang tahun 1909 yang lain sudah mengklaim bahwa hadiah, ia diam-diam memutuskan untuk menata kembali ekspedisi yang akan datang itu – untuk Antartica. Mempekerjakan Fram tersebut, kapal yang sama digunakan oleh Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen dan timnya tiba di Teluk Paus pada Januari 1911, dan membuat base camp. Lima dari mereka berangkat pada 20 Oktober ski menggunakan, empat kereta luncur, 52 anjing, dan kulit binatang mempekerjakan, bukan wol berat, untuk pakaian. Kurang dari dua bulan kemudian, mereka adalah yang pertama mencapai Kutub Selatan Geografis. Scott, sementara itu, dengan empat rekan mencapai Kutub lima minggu kemudian, dan kecewa telah kehilangan perlombaan. Semua lima dari mereka meninggal dalam perjalanan pulang. Jadi tragis nasib mereka, memang, bahwa cerita mereka telah menjadi jauh lebih terkenal itu Amundsen

Setelah usaha di Antartika, Amundsen mengembangkan bisnis pengiriman sukses, dan berangkat pada usaha lainnya menggunakan kapal baru, Maud. Sebuah ekspedisi, mulai tahun 1918, di mana ia direncanakan untuk membekukan Maud di tutup es di kutub dan pergeseran menuju Kutub Utara (seperti Nansen telah dilakukan dengan Fram) terbukti bermasalah, mahal dan akhirnya gagal.

Selanjutnya, Amundsen berfokus pada perjalanan udara untuk mencapai Kutub. Setelah usaha yang menjanjikan dengan menggunakan kapal terbang, dia, dan 15 orang lainnya (termasuk penerbangan Umberto Nobile insinyur Italia), berhasil terbang pesawat yang dari Spitsbergen ke Alaska dalam dua hari, melintasi Kutub, pada Mei 1926. Namun, tahun-tahun terakhir kehidupan Amundsen yang sakit hati oleh sengketa atas kredit untuk penerbangan. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1928 sementara pada sebuah misi untuk menyelamatkan Nobile yang telah jatuh sebuah pesawat kembali dari Kutub Utara.

Wikipedia dan situs web Museum Fram memiliki informasi lebih biografis. Dan The International Journal of Sejarah ilmiah telah briefing pada klaim bahwa Amundsen dan rekannya Wisting Oscar tidak hanya pertama ke Kutub Selatan, tetapi juga ke Kutub Utara.

Buku harian Scott dari naas ekspedisi diterbitkan (oleh Smith, Penatua & Co) sedini tahun 1913, dalam volume pertama Ekspedisi terakhir Scott. Ini tersedia secara bebas di Internet Archive. Namun, tidak sampai tahun lalu (2010) bahwa buku harian Amundsen ekspedisi Kutub Selatan adalah yang diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris, berkat Roland Huntford. Menurut Continuum penerbit, Huntford adalah ‘otoritas terkemuka di dunia pada ekspedisi kutub dan protagonis mereka. Bukunya – Race for Kutub Selatan: Ekspedisi Diaries The Scott dan Amundsen – berisi entri buku harian Amundsen bersama orang-orang dari Scott, dan juga Olav Bjaaland, salah satu rekan Amundsen.

“Pemotongan melalui hiruk-pikuk kontroversi peristiwa di jantung cerita, ‘Continuum berkata,’ Huntford menjalin narasi dari protagonis ‘rekening nasib mereka sendiri. Apa yang muncul adalah pemahaman baru tentang apa yang sebenarnya terjadi pada es dan account definitif Race ke Kutub Selatan. “

Berikut adalah masukan dari kedua Amundsen dan Scott buku harian tentang kedatangan mereka di Kutub Selatan. Satu per Amundsen diambil dari buku Huntford, sementara Scott entri diambil dari publikasi 1913. Perlu dicatat, meskipun, bahwa situs web British Library telah tersedia, sejak tahun lalu, foto-foto asli buku harian Scott 1911 Antartika.

Karena kesalahan, kalender Amundsen tidak dimasukkan kembali ketika Fram yang melintasi International Date Line, dan ketika kesalahan ditemukan Amundsen memutuskan akan terlalu sulit untuk merevisi semua buku harian dan entri log, sehingga ia terus tanggal kalender yang salah akan – maka ia benar-benar tiba di Kutub pada tanggal 14, meskipun buku hariannya tanggal itu tanggal 15. Håkon VII Raja Norwegia pada saat itu.

14 Desember 1911, Roald Amundsen
“Kamis 15 Decbr.
Jadi kami tiba, dan mampu menaikkan bendera kami di Kutub Selatan geografis – Vidda Raja Håkon VII. Syukur kepada Allah! Waktu itu 03:00 ketika hal ini terjadi. Cuaca adalah dari jenis terbaik ketika kami berangkat pagi ini, tetapi pada 10:00, itu mendung dan menyembunyikan matahari. Segar angin dari SE. Ski ini telah sebagian baik, sebagian buruk. Dataran – Raja H VII Vidda – memiliki tampilan yang sama – cukup falt dan tanpa apa yang disebut sastrugi. Matahari muncul kembali pada sore hari, dan sekarang kami banyak pergi keluar dan mengambil pengamatan tengah malam. Tentu kita tidak tepat pada titik yang disebut 90 °, tetapi setelah semua pengamatan kami yang sangat baik dan perhitungan mati kita harus sangat dekat. Kami tiba di sini dengan tiga kereta luncur dan 17 anjing. HH menempatkan satu turun hanya setelah kedatangan. ‘Hlege’ itu aus. Besok kami akan keluar dalam tiga arah ke wilayah lingkaran putaran Kutub. Kami telah makan perayaan kita – sepotong kecil daging segel masing-masing. Kami pergi dari sini besok lusa dengan dua kereta luncur. Kereta luncur ketiga akan pergi dari sini. Demikian juga kita akan meninggalkan tenda tiga laki-laki kecil (Ronne) dengan bendera Norwegia dan panji ditandai Fram. ‘

16 Januari 1912, Scott
‘[. . .] Setengah jam kemudian dia mendeteksi sebuah titik hitam di depan. Segera kami tahu bahwa ini tidak bisa menjadi fitur salju alami. Kami berbaris di, menemukan bahwa itu adalah bendera hitam diikat ke pembawa godam, dekat sisa-sisa kamp, ​​kereta luncur ski trek dan trek pergi dan datang dan jejak kaki anjing yang jelas ‘- banyak anjing. Ini mengatakan kepada kami seluruh cerita. Norwegia telah mendahuluinya kami dan pertama di Kutub. Ini adalah kekecewaan yang mengerikan, dan saya sangat menyesal untuk panions com-setia. Banyak pikiran datang dan banyak diskusi yang telah kita miliki. Untuk besok kita harus berbaris ke Kutub dan kemudian mempercepat rumah dengan segenap kecepatan yang bisa kita kompas. Semua impian hari harus pergi, itu akan kembali melelahkan. [. . .] “

17 Januari 1912, Scott
“Camp 69. T. -22 ° pada mulai. Malam – 21 °. KUTUB itu. Ya, tetapi dalam keadaan yang sangat berbeda dari yang diharapkan. Kami memiliki hari yang mengerikan – menambah kekecewaan kami angin kepala 4 sampai 5, dengan suhu -22 °, dan sahabat bekerja di dengan kaki dan tangan dingin.

Kami berangkat pukul 7.30, tidak satupun dari kita memiliki banyak tidur setelah shock penemuan kami. Kami mengikuti trek kereta luncur Norwegia beberapa cara; sejauh yang kita buat di luar sana hanya dua orang. Pada sekitar tiga mil kami melewati dua tugu kecil. Kemudian mendung cuaca, dan trek yang semakin melayang dan jelas akan terlalu jauh ke barat, kami memutuskan untuk membuat langsung Kutub menurut perhitungan kita. Pada 12.30 Evans memiliki tangan dingin seperti kami berkemah untuk makan siang – yang sangat baik Kami telah berbaris 7,4 mil ‘akhir minggu satu.’. Lat. terlihat memberikan 89 ° ‘S3 37 “. Kami mulai keluar dan melakukan 6 1 / 2 mil karena selatan. Untuk malam sedikit Bowers adalah meletakkan dirinya keluar untuk mendapatkan pemandangan yang mengerikan dalam keadaan sulit, angin bertiup kencang, T. -21 °, dan ada yang lembab penasaran, merasa dingin di udara yang menggigil satu untuk tulang dalam waktu singkat . Kami telah turun lagi, saya pikir, tetapi ada terlihat menjadi naik di depan, jika tidak ada sangat sedikit yang berbeda dari monoton mengerikan hari terakhir. Tuhan Mahabesar! ini adalah tempat yang mengerikan dan mengerikan cukup bagi kita untuk memiliki bekerja keras untuk itu tanpa imbalan prioritas. Yah, itu adalah sesuatu yang telah sampai di sini, dan angin dapat menjadi teman kita untuk besok. Kami memiliki hoosh Polar lemak meskipun kami kecewa, dan merasa nyaman di dalam – menambahkan sebuah tongkat kecil cokelat dan rasa aneh dari rokok yang dibawa oleh Wilson. Sekarang untuk home run dan perjuangan putus asa. Saya heran jika kita bisa melakukannya. “

One hundred years ago today, the Norwegian Roald Amundsen and four others in his team were the first explorers to reach the South Pole. A British party led by Robert Falcon Scott, who had made a previous, but unsuccessful, attempt to reach the Pole, was not far behind, and arrived a month later. However, whereas the Norwegian party returned home, Scott’s party all died from cold and hunger. Scott’s diary of his last expedition was first published in 1913, but Amundsen’s diary has only just recently been published in English for the first time.

Amundsen was born in 1872 to a family of Norwegian shipowners and captains in Borge, 80km or so south of Oslo. Initially, he chose to study medicine at the urging of his mother, though gave up at the age of 21 when she died. Having long been inspired by the great Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen (see Siberian driftwood cannot lie), he sold his medical books and took work as ordinary seaman. By 1895, he had obtained his papers as mate, and by 1900 his master’s license. His first experience of the polar regions came in the late 1890s on a Belgian expedition with Adrien de Gerlache.

In 1903, Amundsen led the first expedition to successfully traverse Canada’s Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, though the team had to over-winter three times before returning home in 1906. Significantly, during this time, Amundsen learned various skills from the native Eskimos, such as the use of sledge dogs and the wearing of animal skins.

Amundsen planned next to go to the North Pole, but on hearing in 1909 that others had already claimed that prize, he secretly decided to reorganise his forthcoming expedition – to Antartica. Employing the Fram, the same vessel used by Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen and his team arrived at the Bay of Whales in January 1911, and made a base camp. Five of them set off on 20 October using skis, four sledges, 52 dogs, and employing animal skins, rather than heavy wool, for clothing. Less than two months later, they were the first to reach the Geographic South Pole. Scott, meanwhile, with four colleagues reached the Pole five weeks later, and were bitterly disappointed to have lost the race. All five of them died on the return journey. So tragic was their fate, indeed, that their story has become far more famous that Amundsen’s

After his venture in Antartica, Amundsen developed a successful shipping business, and set out on more ventures using a new vessel, Maud. An expedition, starting in 1918, during which he planed to freeze the Maud in the polar ice cap and drift towards the North Pole (as Nansen had done with the Fram) proved troublesome, costly and ultimately unsuccessful.

Subsequently, Amundsen focused on air travel to reach the Pole. After a promising effort using flying boats, he, and 15 others (including the Italian aeronautical engineer Umberto Nobile), succeeded in flying an airship from Spitsbergen to Alaska in two days, crossing the Pole, in May 1926. However, the last years of Amundsen’s life were embittered by disputes over credit for the flight. He died in 1928 while on a mission to rescue Nobile who had crashed an airship returning from the North Pole.

Wikipedia and the Fram Museum website have more biographical information. And The International Journal of Scientific History has a briefing on the claim that Amundsen and his colleague Oscar Wisting were not only first to the South Pole, but also to the North Pole.

Scott’s diary of his ill-fated expedition was published (by Smith, Elder & Co) as early as 1913, in the first volume of Scott’s Last Expedition. This is freely available at Internet Archive. However, it was not until last year (2010) that Amundsen’s diary of his South Pole expedition was published in English, thanks to Roland Huntford. According to the publisher Continuum, Huntford is ‘the world’s foremost authority on the polar expeditions and their protagonists’. His book – Race for the South Pole: The Expedition Diaries of Scott and Amundsen – contains Amundsen’s diary entries alongside those of Scott, and also Olav Bjaaland, one of Amundsen’s colleagues.

‘Cutting through the welter of controversy to the events at the heart of the story,’ Continuum says, ‘Huntford weaves the narrative from the protagonists’ accounts of their own fate. What emerges is a whole new understanding of what really happened on the ice and the definitive account of the Race for the South Pole.’

Here are entries from both Amundsen’s and Scott’s diaries concerning their arrivals at the South Pole. The one by Amundsen is taken from Huntford’s book, while the Scott entries are taken from the 1913 publication. It is worth noting, though, that the British Library website has made available, since last year, photographs of Scott’s original 1911 Antarctic diary.

By mistake, Amundsen’s calender was not put back when the Fram crossed the International Date Line, and when the mistake was discovered Amundsen decided it would be too difficult to revise all the diary and log entries, and so he kept the wrong calendar dates going – hence he actually arrived at the Pole on the 14th, even though his diary dates it the 15th. Håkon VII was King of Norway at the time.

14 December 1911, Roald Amundsen
‘Thursday 15 Decbr.
So we arrived, and were able to raise our flag at the geographical South Pole – King Håkon VII’s Vidda. Thanks be to God! The time was 3pm when this happened. The weather was of the best kind when we set off this morning, but at 10am, it clouded over and hid the sun. Fresh breeze from the SE. The skiing has been partly good, partly bad. The plain – King H VII’s Vidda – has had the same appearance – quite falt and without what one might call sastrugi. The sun reappeared in the afternoon, and now we much go out and take a midnight observation. Naturally we are not exactly at the point called 90°, but after all our excellent observations and dead reckoning we must be very close. We arrived here with three sledges and 17 dogs. HH put one down just after arrival. ‘Hlege’ was worn out. Tomorrow we will go out in three directions to circle the area round the Pole. We have had our celebratory meal – a little piece of seal meat each. We leave here the day after tomorrow with two sledges. The third sledge will be left here. Likewise we will leave a little three man tent (Rønne) with the Norwegian flag and a pennant marked Fram.’

16 January 1912, Scott
‘[. . .] Half an hour later he detected a black speck ahead. Soon we knew that this could not be a natural snow feature. We marched on, found that it was a black flag tied to a sledge bearer; near by the remains of a camp; sledge tracks and ski tracks going and coming and the clear trace of dogs’ paws – many dogs. This told us the whole story. The Norwegians have forestalled us and are first at the Pole. It is a terrible disappointment, and I am very sorry for my loyal com- panions. Many thoughts come and much discussion have we had. To-morrow we must march on to the Pole and then hasten home with all the speed we can compass. All the day dreams must go; it will be a wearisome return. [. . .]’

17 January 1912, Scott
‘Camp 69. T. -22° at start. Night – 21°. The POLE. Yes, but under very different circumstances from those expected. We have had a horrible day – add to our disappointment a head wind 4 to 5, with a temperature -22°, and companions labouring on with cold feet and hands.

We started at 7.30, none of us having slept much after the shock of our discovery. We followed the Norwegian sledge tracks for some way; as far as we make out there are only two men. In about three miles we passed two small cairns. Then the weather overcast, and the tracks being increasingly drifted up and obviously going too far to the west, we decided to make straight for the Pole according to our calculations. At 12.30 Evans had such cold hands we camped for lunch – an excellent ‘week-end one.’ We had marched 7.4 miles. Lat. sight gave 89° S3’ 37”. We started out and did 6 1/2 miles due south. To-night little Bowers is laying himself out to get sights in terrible difficult circumstances; the wind is blowing hard, T. -21°, and there is that curious damp, cold feeling in the air which chills one to the bone in no time. We have been descending again, I think, but there looks to be a rise ahead; otherwise there is very little that is different from the awful monotony of past days. Great God! this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority. Well, it is something to have got here, and the wind may be our friend to-morrow. We have had a fat Polar hoosh in spite of our chagrin, and feel comfortable inside – added a small stick of chocolate and the queer taste of a cigarette brought by Wilson. Now for the run home and a desperate struggle. I wonder if we can do it.’

Pearl Harbour buku harian
Hari ini menandai ulang tahun ke-60 dari serangan Jepang di Pearl Harbour yang membawa Amerika Serikat ke Perang Dunia Kedua. Sebuah ekstrak beberapa harian merekam acara tersedia secara online. East Carolina University memiliki salah satu koleksi terbaik dari sumber daya digital pada Pearl Harbour, editor Journal Sungai Skagit telah tersedia masuknya buku harian ayahnya, dan Brandon University telah halaman web menghormati salah satu dari profesor nya, yang adalah seorang mahasiswa di Hawaii pada hari naas itu. Pada tingkat politik, Sekretaris Perang Amerika Serikat pada saat buku harian, dan masukan dari ini telah digunakan untuk mendukung gagasan bahwa pemerintah AS dan Inggris mengetahui serangan sebelumnya, tetapi membiarkan hal itu terjadi sehingga untuk menarik Amerika Serikat dalam perang.

Pangkalan militer Amerika di Pearl Harbour di Hawaii diserang oleh Jepang pada pagi tanggal 7 Desember 1941. Tujuan Jepang adalah untuk menjaga Armada Pasifik AS dari campur dengan tindakan sendiri terhadap wilayah-wilayah luar negeri dari beberapa negara Eropa di Asia Tenggara. Beberapa 353 pejuang Jepang, pembom dan pesawat torpedo, diluncurkan dari enam kapal induk, menyebabkan kerusakan besar: 2.402 orang Amerika tewas dan 1.282 terluka; empat US perang tenggelam, dan empat lainnya rusak (enam dari delapan, bagaimanapun, dibesarkan dan / atau diperbaiki untuk layanan lebih lanjut); kapal lainnya, termasuk kapal penjelajah dan perusak, juga rusak; dan 188 pesawat hancur. Sebaliknya, kerugian Jepang, di personil dan perangkat keras, yang sangat ringan.

Agresi Jepang mengejutkan rakyat Amerika, yang sampai sekarang telah pro dan isolasi terhadap keterlibatan Amerika dalam perang di Eropa, dan itu dipimpin langsung – pada hari berikutnya – untuk sebuah deklarasi AS perang terhadap Jepang. Dukungan klandestin dari Inggris berubah menjadi aliansi yang aktif, dan dalam tiga hari lagi, Jerman dan Italia telah menyatakan perang terhadap Amerika Serikat dan sebaliknya. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut lihat Wikipedia atau BBC.

East Carolina University Joyner Perpustakaan memiliki pameran online memperingati 60 tahun serangan. Ini menyediakan akses ke sejumlah besar sumber daya digital, termasuk teks-teks resmi dan pribadi, biografi, dan gambar. Namun, ada sangat sedikit teks buku harian sebenarnya. Salah satunya ditulis oleh Robert Hailey di USS Indianapolis, dan lainnya oleh Louis P. Davis, Jr di USS Reid. Tidak ada informasi biografis tentang pelaut baik. Meskipun buku harian Davis ekstrak kadang-kadang membaca seolah-olah itu ditulis sementara tindakan itu terjadi, foto-foto halaman buku harian, di situs pameran, menunjukkan entri ditulis semua pada satu waktu.

Robert Hailey harian
7 Desember 1941
‘G.Q. [Umum Quarters] pada 0538 – bor rutin! Sesaat sebelum 0800 tidak ada. 1 Higgins perahu ditempatkan di atas samping setelah kami berlabuh tak jauh dari Johnson Apakah. Sebelum kapal lain bisa diletakkan di sisi atau trys dibuat kiriman diterima bahwa ID [Pearl Harbor] Apakah telah dibom oleh pesawat Jepang. Semua rencana untuk mendarat di Johnson Apakah. ditinggalkan. Kapal dan pesawat mengangkat kapal – tidak ada bahan bakar untuk 5 DMS bersama kami – saja ditetapkan untuk intersepsi kekuatan musuh selatan Hawaii – kekuatan-kekuatan ini melanjutkan dari selatan, terakhir dilaporkan di dekat Palmyra – 8 kapal besar dan satu sub Jap tenggelam oleh pesawat dari ID . – Dua operator yang terlibat di luar P.H. beberapa mil – Hickam – Ford Island – perumahan dekat Honolulu Pali dibom. – G.Q. sekitar tengah hari karena apa yang tampaknya menjadi sub – alarm palsu tetapi tidak bor. Perang telah dinyatakan – sekarang ada jauh lebih diperlukan dari kita semua.

Sore – berita, siaran berita dan “obat bius kabar angin” telah membuat hari yang sibuk. Divisi menempatkan secara perang penuh – semua peralatan kelebihan disimpan di bawah ini. Kami telah mengubah beberapa kali pertemuan – terutama dalam upaya untuk mencegat operator melarikan diri. P.H. tampaknya telah menderita parah, Hickam rusak parah – 350 orang tewas dalam sebuah barak dibom, minyak tank di ID Oklahoma terbakar terkena bom, adalah terbakar – tidak ada kata pada kerusakan-rumor lainnya juga rusak Honolulu.

Manila pasti dibom – Bangun & Guam pasti. Kondisi II sepanjang hari & malam – Semua orang senang tapi dengan hanya satu pikiran – senang untuk mendapatkan hal-hal berlangsung dan memiliki ketidakpastian. Tidak ada yang bisa memahami bagaimana serangan ini dieksekusi dan Jepang sudah begitu dekat – mengapa operator tidak tenggelam juga tidak dimengerti.

Antisipasi dengan apa yang kita kesempatan mungkin menghadapi kemudian dan mendapatkan mendera pada mereka-itu akan menjadi sensasi yang menyenangkan setelah aktivitas hari ini. ‘

Louis P. Davis, Jr ‘s diary
7 Desember 1941
‘Apakah damai reminicing di tempat tidur semalam. Apakah berkunjung ke pesta dengan Wilhmots di klub Field Officer Hickam. Beberapa jam alarm terdengar kata 0800 jadi saya menduga bahwa mereka harus mengujinya. Mendengar jeritan dari jalan “Davis, kita sedang attackd” Aku melompat berlari ke pintu ruang bersama. Saat aku naik pesawat Jepang berperut di atas Ford Pulau jelas menunjukkan matahari terbit di sayap itu. Dibuat direktur dalam tidak datar untuk mendapatkan menembak baterai. Saya perwira senior yang meriam kapal dan hanya satu yang tahu bagaimana bekerja direktur. Aku punya senapan mesin terjadi sekitar 0803. Sialan kunci pada majalah.

Apakah neraka yang waktu mendapatkan 5 “menembak. Tentang 0820 Aku punya mereka siap dengan amunisi. Selama waktu saya mendapatkan amunisi untuk 5 “baterai aku melihat Utah terbalik terbelakang dari kami. Kami DD kedua di Harbor untuk membuka dengan senapan mesin, pertama dengan 5 “Arizona terbakar keras. Kembali rusak. Raleigh adalah torpedo terbelakang dari kita cepat mendapatkan daftar yang buruk ke pelabuhan. Semua DDS menembak sekarang. Ini adalah bagian terpanas dari pelabuhan. Pesawat yang menyerang barat kita. “Semua senjata fw’d melatih 45″ “Api ketika mendengar” senapan mesin Fw’d menembak terus. Beberapa Mesin peluru memantul melihat sisi off dari direktur dan tiang. Satu 6 “dari kepala saya sekelompok sekitar kaki jauhnya. Senang ini adalah hari keberuntungan saya.

Gun # 2 adalah menembak. Mesin senjata menghantam pesawat meledak api dan crash di bukit mati di depan kapal. Tidak ada yang terluka belum. Pelabuhan fw’d senapan mesin terbakar “Api sampai meledak” Johny sudah siap untuk mendapatkan berlangsung. Pesawat hanya terhubung dengan 5 “shell atas Curtiss. Tidak ada yang tersisa dari dirinya. 2 serangan awal harus hanya sekitar 0845. Tuhan itu dingin saja terhadap kurus troa [celana] Pesawat akan datang “Berikan padanya Semua senjata fw’d” Tally dua untuk kita hari ini; berharap dia kentang goreng di neraka mabuk tercepat yang pernah saya menyingkirkan dalam hidup saya. Yesus kita membutuhkan air dan semuanya dimatikan. Perbandingan menidurkan sekarang. Sekitar sepuluh pesawat ditembak jatuh selama kunjungan terakhir mereka dekat DDS. Kapal ini yakin bisa menembak.

Tinggi ketinggian bomber. Tidak ada daya direktur! Mesin telah diamankan Whitney tidak dapat pasokan cukup untuk 5 kapal. Tidak bisa mendekati mereka dengan kontrol lokal “Hentikan menembak” Keajaiban whats terjadi selama perang pada baris? Semua DDS di sini lebih aman. Cassen dan Downes, setengah lainnya divisi jam terbakar marah. Monaghan hanya tenggelam sub di pelabuhan. Pakaian saya sampai di sini. Harus 0945 California dan West Virginia yang tenggelam. Sub hanya torpedo Nevada. Dia membakar fw’d. Bertanya-tanya bagaimana Joe Taussig ini? Apakah begitu marah saya menangis. Pertama kali dalam beberapa tahun. Sialan laksamana dan jenderal bodoh. Mengunci semua hal baik yang kita amunisi amunisi senapan mesin kemarin berikat 200 rds 5 “dikeluarkan tidak ada korban 10.000 RDS 50 Cal. dikeluarkan satu senjata dibakar. “Potong semua kunci majalah.” Sialan hal yang baik tidak ada operator dan crusiers yang masuk

Hanya Helena slighlty rusak dan Raleigh Curtiss terkena bom belakang. Oklahoma hanya terbalik. Miskin S.O.B. ‘s

Kapten dan sisanya petugas kembali.

“Mr Sampai Davis tunggal. “1005 berlangsung” laporan Davis Bapak kepada petugas eksekutif “menangis Exec saya keluar untuk memotong kunci dari majalah. Kata saya bertindak terlalu cepat harus menunggu dan mencerminkan bodoh Terkutuk pertama duduk di rumah pada pantat gemuk kemudian keluar dan memberitahu kita semua basah dan memberi kita neraka bagi cara kita berjuang pertempuran. Ted mengatakan ia bergerak terlalu takut keluar. Berharap dia mendapatkan satu dalam usus Jadi hal yang besar akan tumpah seluruh dek.

“Mr Kapten Davis mengatakan kapal yang jelas untuk tindakan “Am lapar sekali. Tidak sarapan. Dilemparkan atas semua kayu dan kanvas, semua peralatan dek kelebihan dan di bawah. “Davis melapor kepada petugas Eksekutif” “Apa yang kaulakukan Anda bodoh”

“Kapten kapal perintah yang jelas untuk Sir tindakan.”

Berharap dia kentang goreng di neraka. Mereka pemboman Honolulu. Bisa melihat mereka dari kapal. Kami membentuk sampai menyerang 77 kapal perusak dan Detroit semua yang tersisa kekuatan pertempuran. Lulus Nevada di saluran pembakaran marah “aman dari kondisi menonton mengatur GQ tiga satu” Istirahat pada 1500 terakhir. Dari semua pengecut bodoh yang exec adalah yang terburuk. Ford akhirnya. Apakah lebih baik pertengahan tidur. Apa 5 hari kapal perang tenggelam 2 kapal penjelajah hit Agala Setengah tenggelam dari divisi kami tenggelam. Semua karena orang mencoba untuk anak-anak sendiri. ”

***

Victor Andrew Bourasaw adalah pelaut lain di Pearl Harbour pada hari penuh peristiwa. Dia lahir di Festus, Missouri, pada 1901, namun meninggalkan rumah di awal remaja untuk menambang boron dengan tangan di sungai Mississippi. Pada tahun 1922, ia bergabung dengan Angkatan Laut AS, dan, pada 1941, adalah seorang perwira kepala kecil pada perusak, USS Ramsay. Catatan harian berikut dapat ditemukan di situs web Sungai Skagit Journal diedit oleh putra Victor, Noel V Bourasaw.

7 Desember 1941
“Pagi ini pada beberapa menit sebelum Jepang mulai delapan serangan udara di Pearl Harbor dan Lapangan Hickam. Utah dan Raleigh ditabrak oleh torpedo yang diluncurkan oleh pesawat pembom torpedo dan menyelam. Bom dari semua jenis – pembakar, bahan peledak dan pecahan peluru tinggi – dijatuhkan. Hanggar-hanggar di Ford Island dan Hickam Lapangan yang dibakar dan semua staf pesawat membumi. Juga tangki minyak banyak yang dibakar, pembakaran selama dua hari dan malam.

Tentang 0815 kapal selam ditemukan dalam dari pelabuhan menuju belakang Medusa dan Curtis (dua tender perusak). Sebuah sarang perusak itu bersama dari Medusa, dan semuanya mengambil gambar panci di [sub itu] menara komando. Satu 3-inci kulit terkena busur dan merobeknya. Dia kemudian terendam dan muncul lagi. Para Monaghan, DD-354, telah mulai berlangsung dan membuat baginya, serudukan dan membiarkan pergi dua tuduhan mendalam. Sorakan perkasa naik dari awak kapal sekitar. Tentu saja dia tidak pernah muncul kembali sejak. Sayangnya Monaghan busur berlari ke pantai di Pulau Ford dan dia harus kembali kecepatan mesin penuh dan, pada saat itu, mengalami kesulitan mundur.

Awak Ramsay bertindak seperti veteran di bawah api. Setiap orang dengan rating terendah mengerjakan tugasnya dan melakukannya dengan baik. Bangga menjadi anggota kru seperti ini.

Para pesawat musuh, setelah menjatuhkan bom-bom mereka, kini giliran pemberondongan. Mereka yakin adalah tembakan gelandangan. Kami memberondong lima kali dan hanya memiliki satu lubang peluru untuk menunjukkan di kapal, melalui kereta api di dek terbang.

Itu mengerikan harus melalui bahwa air tertutup minyak di jalan keluar, melihat rekan-rekan kami berjuang di dalamnya dan tidak bisa membantu mereka. Kami melemparkan pelampung hidup dengan yang kita melihat bahwa salah satu yang dibutuhkan.

Kami menemukan kapal selam di luar menunggu. Kami menjatuhkan tuduhan mendalam seperti yang dilakukan para perusak lainnya. Pihak berwenang Angkatan Laut yakin bahwa kami punya empat kapal selam. Kapal selam jelas sedang menunggu kapal perang untuk keluar tapi tentu saja mereka tidak pernah melakukannya. Itu akan menjadi bunuh diri. Kami telah mendengar bahwa Virginia Barat dan Oklahoma rusak. Kita bisa melihat daftar Virginia Barat jauh saat kami meninggalkan pelabuhan. Semua pagi ini para perusak itu pelacakan sibuk turun selam, berdebar mereka dengan biaya kedalaman. Semua ini perusak pagi sibuk melacak bawah selam, berdebar mereka dengan biaya kedalaman.

Sore 7 Desember: Dua pukul, biaya kedalaman menjatuhkan. Kita harus mendapatkan beberapa karena ada biasanya gelembung dan minyak. 1430, tidak ada kata namun dari Tugas, Force One yang pergi untuk terlibat musuh. Masih menjatuhkan kaleng abu [biaya mendalam]. Sekarang dalam Kondisi Tiga pada 1500. Dua serangan udara cahaya pada Pearl pelabuhan antara tahun 2000 dan 2100. Sangat sedikit tidur malam ini awak. ”

***

Pada saat serangan Pearl Harbour, Robert W Brockway berusia 18 tahun dan seorang mahasiswa di University of Hawaii. Ayahnya berada di Army Air Corps, yang melayani di kru tanah, dan keluarga tinggal di tempat di Lapangan Hickam, di mana Robert diidentifikasi dengan tentara dari usia dini. Setelah dievakuasi, dia pergi ke Washington, DC untuk melanjutkan studinya. Ia menjabat sebagai menteri gereja sampai 1959, dan sebagai guru sesudahnya, pertama di Coventry Technical College di Inggris, kemudian di Universitas Southwestern Louisiana. Dari 1965, ia mengajar di Brandon University di Kanada, sebagai seorang profesor agama. Dia meninggal pada tahun 2001. Brandon Universitas memiliki website yang luas dalam memori Brockway, termasuk ekstrak dari buku harian Pearl Harbour nya (foto dan transkripsi).

7 Desember 1941
“Seperti yang saya tulis hari ini dari rumah Mr O ‘Sullivan yang sangat ramah menerima kami, kami telah mengalami serangan Jepang. Pagi ini pukul 8.00 pagi aku dibangunkan oleh booming keras. Percaya mereka untuk manuver aku membayar sedikit mengindahkan. Pada pergi ke luar, aku melihat stukas menyelam dan berputar-putar, tapi tetap tidak menghiraukan, sampai aku melihat Rising Sun di ujung sayap. Dengan maka hanggar depo berada di api dan bensin menyala. Kami pergi ke Burkes dan kemudian kembali ke rumah [?] – Semua orang mengatakan bahwa perang di. Kami kemudian mendapat Haltermanns di mobil kami dan Mr Willy dan aku bergegas Aiea ketinggian. Kami melihat pembawa dibakar ke tepi air. Fren [teman?] Di Hickam [Hickam Lapangan]. Kami menunggu di sana dan kemudian kembali. Sebagian besar pesawat kami telah dihancurkan. Kekuatan armada kami lumpuh. Radio baru saja diucapkan darurat militer. Pasukan kami seharusnya berurusan dengan duduk dalam [cepat terkoordinasi]. ‘

8 Desember 1941
“Seperti fajar datang setelah lelah lama menghabiskan nite cemas menunggu pembom Jepang yang tidak pernah datang, kami mendapat kertas yang menyatakan bahwa beberapa rekan-rekan dari Hickam 340 tewas. Salah satunya mungkin Tony Mariaschella sejak dia di 42d tersebut. Setelah menghabiskan uneventfully pagi Ibu, saya, Nyonya Haltermann dan Mr Wiley pergi ke lapangan [Hickam] dan mendapat sisa barang-barang kami. Inggris yang di dalamnya juga. Sebuah penerjun payung terserah kembali ke sini suatu tempat dan mereka tidak bisa menemukannya. Hickam Lapangan tampak memukul tapi tidak hancur. Rumah Purdin adalah memusnahkan keluar. Jadi beberapa teman ‘. ‘Auers semua kacau dalam. Mungkin kita tidak akan pernah pergi ke sana lagi. Pop di rumah sakit [ia berada di sana dengan keluhan tidak ditentukan pada saat serangan]. Pres. Roosevelt mendeklarasikan perang melawan Jepang hari ini. Di bawah hukum militer Habeas Corpus ditangguhkan. ‘

***

Akhirnya, perlu dicatat bahwa Menlu AS untuk Perang pada saat itu, Henry L Stimson, buku harian, dan bahwa ekstrak tertentu dari buku harian ini (lihat paragraf di bawah) telah digunakan berulang kali selama bertahun-tahun oleh mereka yang percaya ada persekongkolan – Pearl Harbour muka-pengetahuan teori konspirasi – yang melibatkan pejabat tinggi di AS dan Inggris yang mengetahui serangan itu di muka dan mungkin telah membiarkan hal itu terjadi sehingga memaksa Amerika dalam perang.

25 November 1941
“Kemudian pada jam 12 kami pergi ke Gedung Putih, di mana kami sampai hampir setengah dua. Pada pertemuan itu Hull, Knox, Marshall, Stark dan saya sendiri. Ada Presiden. . . membawa seluruhnya hubungan dengan Jepang. Dia dibesarkan acara bahwa kami mungkin akan diserang mungkin Senin depan, untuk Jepang terkenal untuk membuat sebuah serangan tanpa peringatan, dan pertanyaannya adalah apa yang harus kita lakukan. Pertanyaannya adalah berapa banyak kita harus manuver mereka ke posisi menembak tembakan pertama tanpa membiarkan terlalu banyak bahaya untuk diri kita sendiri. ”

Setelah serangan itu, Stimson menulis dalam buku hariannya: “Ketika pertama datang berita bahwa Jepang telah menyerang kita perasaan pertama saya lega bahwa. . . krisis telah datang dalam cara yang akan mempersatukan semua orang kita. Hal ini terus saya merasa dominan meskipun berita bencana yang cepat berkembang “(ini banyak dikutip sebagai tanggal 7 Desember 1941, tapi rasa kutipan tampaknya jauh kemudian, dan tanpa akses ke buku harian itu sendiri,. Saya tidak dapat memeriksa tanggal.)

Untuk lebih lanjut tentang topik ini, lihat Institut untuk artikel Tinjauan Sejarah oleh Charles dan David Irving Lutton, dan Srdja Trifkovic di Jaringan Teman Patriot Amerika. Irving, khususnya, memiliki banyak mengatakan tentang buku harian Stimson, mengklaim ada bukti untuk pasca-Pearl Harbour dan penghapusan revisi. Wikipedia, bagaimanapun, memiliki tampilan rinci dan baik direferensikan pada fakta.

Hun terbang di atas Hythe
Viking, bagian dari grup Penguin, baru saja menerbitkan catatan harian Rodney Foster, yang bertugas di Garda Depan selama Perang Dunia Kedua. Ia bangkit untuk menjadi besar dalam organisasi, tetapi mengundurkan diri beberapa bulan kemudian. Jurnal tersebut sangat jarang karena personel Garda Depan dilarang dari buku harian tetap. Namun, bertentangan dengan publisitas Penguin bahwa ini adalah buku harian Garda Depan pertama yang pernah ditemukan, saya percaya ada setidaknya satu lainnya.

Rodney Foster lahir di India pada tahun 1882 dalam keluarga tentara Inggris. Ia dididik di Inggris, dan kemudian memasuki Akademi Militer Kerajaan di Sandhurst pada tahun 1900. Tahun berikutnya ia ditugaskan di Angkatan Darat Inggris dan dikirim ke India, di mana ia menjabat untuk waktu di Perbatasan Utara-barat. Pada 1906, ia bergabung dengan Survei India dan bekerja sebagai surveyor dan kartografer.

Foster kembali sebentar ke Inggris pada tahun 1910 untuk menikah Phyllis Blaxland, seorang teman dari salah satu saudara perempuannya, dan mereka memiliki satu putri, Daphne. Meskipun ia bergabung dengan Angkatan Darat India selama Perang Dunia Pertama, naik ke pangkat letnan kolonel, dia tinggal dengan Survei India sampai pensiun pada tahun 1932, kembali di Inggris, untuk Saltwood, dekat Hythe di pantai Kent. Pada 1940 ia terdaftar dalam Home Guard, menjadi besar di tahun 1942 dengan 560 orang di bawah komandonya, meskipun ia mengundurkan diri beberapa bulan kemudian, frustrasi dengan organisasi di sekelilingnya. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1962.

Rincian ini sedikit biografi dapat ditemukan dalam pengantar Ronnie Scott dengan sebuah buku baru dari Viking – The Real ‘Dad Tentara’ – The Diaries Perang Letkol. Rodney Foster. Buku harian yang ditemukan, Viking mengatakan, dalam lelang, dan kemudian disunting oleh Ronnie Scott. Juga dalam pendahuluan, Scott mengatakan: ‘buku harian Rodney menawarkan wawasan yang sangat berharga ke Home Front selama Perang Dunia Kedua. Tidak hanya mereka detil kehidupan di Pojok Hellfire [hamparan Selat Inggris di daerah Dover dibom oleh Jerman], mereka jelas menggambarkan awal dan pengembangan Home Guard dari sudut pandang petugas melayani – sesuatu yang , sampai sekarang, belum pernah datang ke cahaya. Home Guard personil, terutama yang melayani di daerah yang paling rentan terhadap invasi, dilarang dari buku harian menjaga, dalam hal informasi di dalamnya bisa berguna atau nilai untuk penyerang. Jadi itu semua lebih luar biasa bahwa seperti sosok pendirian seperti Rodney harus mematahkan peraturan dengan cara ini. ‘

Viking membuat bermain besar link dengan Angkatan Darat Dad, sebuah TV BBC komedi seri yang pernah populer siaran pertama pada tahun 1968. Angkatan Darat Dad dari judul adalah Home kikuk Garda peleton, yang terletak di sebuah kota fiksi di pantai selatan Inggris (yaitu suatu tempat di sekitar Home Guard Foster). Menurut Viking: ‘Menulis dari balai desa, lumbung ditinggalkan, gereja-gereja dan petugas darurat’ messes, [Foster] catatan dengan kecerdasan yang unik dan kebijaksanaan rincian kehidupan keluarga sehari-hari selama perang: rutinitas domestik mantap oleh peringatan serangan udara, kejenakaan dari tentara yang ditempatkan di dekatnya mengambil setiap kesempatan untuk memperbaiki nasib mereka, kekuatan yang tenang dari sebuah komunitas kecil dihadapkan dengan kesulitan besar kemanusiaan ‘Nya’ dan bersinar perawatan melalui ‘, Viking menambahkan,’ bukti bangga. dengan semangat yang menentang Nazi dan memenangkan perang. ”

Buku harian Foster memang dokumen substansial dan catatan, dan buku Viking yang indah diproduksi dengan banyak ilustrasi oleh Foster sendiri, serta beberapa foto-foto yang relevan. Namun, Penguin mempromosikan buku ini sebagai ‘buku harian Home Guard pertama yang pernah ditemukan’. Bahkan lebih jauh untuk mengatakan bahwa ini ‘fakta’ telah diverifikasi oleh Imperial War Museum. Tapi apakah itu sebuah ‘fakta’? Sebuah buku harian yang disimpan oleh Charles Graves, seorang wartawan dan petugas Rumah Guard, selama perang itu diterbitkan sebagai Off Record oleh Hutchinson pada tahun 1942. Tidak banyak informasi tentang ini di internet, tapi lihat AbeBooks dan googlebooks.

Berikut adalah beberapa ekstrak dari The Diaries Perang Letkol. Rodney Foster.

5 November 1940
‘Frost di pagi hari dan hari yang cerah baik. Hun datang, melewati Folkestone, kembali kemudian dengan pejuang kita pada mereka. Di 10:30 setelah ledakan tembak aku melihat salah satu drop kita dari langit seperti daun yang jatuh kemudian pulih sendiri dan terhuyung ke Lympne. Jam 11:30 tiga Hun menyelam di dua dari lebih Pedlinge dan menjatuhkan bom. Dua jatuh di pegunungan, dan satu menghantam perempat Intendans dari Sekolah Small Arms. Hit berikutnya dan menghancurkan barikade sisi Jembatan Nelson di atas kanal, percikan kecil di dekat rumah-rumah dengan lumpur hitam kanal, dan yang terakhir jatuh pada Rumah Sakit Hill, Sandgate, membunuh tentara yg mengerjakan bangunan dari bagian di Jalan Hillcrest. Tak lama setelah itu, hujan turun. Dalam perjalanan saya sampai ke gunung penjaga aku melihat pemberondongan dari pantai Prancis di pembalasan atas penembakan Dover. Ini turun dalam ember saat aku meninggalkan pos dan aku basah kuyup. Jalan Hillcrest penuh truk, beberapa dukungan ke dalam ‘Choppings, dan ada kegiatan besar sepanjang malam mempersiapkan untuk memindahkan pistol besar. Jika pistol berjalan kita harus dapat kembali ke rumah. Hal ini tidak menyenangkan harus pergi sejauh ini di malam hari dan tidur di sebuah rumah dingin. ”

9 November 1940
‘Sebuah selatan-barat yang kuat angin kencang. Di pagi hari Kapten Fuller mengantarku ke Saltwood dan aku berjalan di seluruh desa mendistribusikan greatcoats. Sekitar 1 sore, dua Hun terbang di atas Hythe dan jatuh (beberapa mengatakan sepuluh) bom di Cheriton. Divisi di London hari ini dan meninggalkan sebuah Divisi baru yang masuk Jalan-jalan di mana-mana penuh dengan tentara dan truk dan bus dan ada pom-pom [AA senjata] keluar pada rentang, dalam jatah kita dan dalam Sandling menjaga terhadap menyelam-bomber. Alarm 18:00-10:30. Aku lagi basah kuyup pemasangan penjaga. Neville Chamberlain meninggal hari ini. ‘

7 Mei 1942
“Aku sudah keluar dari tempat tidur hanya setelah 6 pagi ketika sebuah pesawat meraung di atas atap rumah kami dan ada dua ledakan ke barat. Aku melihat seekor lalat hitam berhidung Hun atas kepalaku. Bagian lain terbang ke utara. Lalu aku melihat sepertiga dari Seabrook Road dan melihat bom meninggalkan rak nya. Ini jatuh di lapangan kriket Hythe. Bom pertama memotong Sandling Park House di setengah, dua lainnya jatuh di pohon. Sirene terdengar setelah itu semua berakhir! Orang Hun tidak melakukan memacu mesin. Aku begitu tertarik saya lupa memberitahu keluarga saya untuk pergi ke tempat yang aman. ”

Postscript (30 November): Penguin telah menanggapi poin saya tentang diary Foster tidak menjadi buku harian Depan Pengawal pertama seperti dengan menyalurkan informasi dari Shaun Sewell, yang dikreditkan dengan menemukan buku harian itu. Sewell mengatakan: ‘[Buku harian Graves] diterbitkan pada tahun 1942 dan hampir tidak bisa menjadi buku harian yang mencakup seluruh perang! Saya menduga [itu] bukan hari ke account hari dalam kehidupan Depan Guard, mungkin koleksi entri untuk propaganda perang. Saya pikir kertas yang dijatah dalam perang sehingga publikasi mungkin telah disensor dan sangat terbatas. ”

Israel Joan of Arc
Hannah Senesh mungkin telah 90 tahun hari ini, telah ia tinggal melewati usia 23 ketika ia dihukum karena pengkhianatan dan dieksekusi oleh regu tembak Jerman. Meskipun seorang Yahudi Hungaria yang telah beremigrasi ke Palestina, ia kembali ke Eropa untuk ambil bagian dalam rencana militer yang berbahaya untuk menyelamatkan orang Yahudi dari Hongaria. Dia membuat catatan harian yang ditulis indah dari usia 13 sampai hari kematiannya, dan, sampai hari ini, banyak dibaca di Israel, di mana dia adalah pahlawan nasional.

Hannah Szenes, sering-Inggris untuk Senesh, lahir di Budapest pada tanggal 17 Juli 1921, putri dari dramawan Bela Senesh (yang meninggal ketika Hannah sekitar enam) dan istrinya Katherine. Dia menulis drama untuk produksi sekolah, dan mengembangkan bakat yang cukup untuk puisi. Dia menghadiri sekolah tinggi Protestan yang diterima orang Yahudi, di mana salah satu gurunya adalah Kepala Rabbi Budapest, seorang Zionis bersemangat. Sebagai hasil dari pengaruhnya, ia bergabung dengan sebuah kelompok pemuda Zionis, dan kemudian pindah untuk belajar di sebuah sekolah pertanian di Palestina.

Pada tahun 1942, bagaimanapun, dengan perang berkecamuk, Senesh sangat ingin untuk kembali ke Eropa dan membantu rekan-rekan Yahudi. Dia bergabung dengan sekelompok penerjun payung relawan yang merupakan bagian dari rencana militer untuk menyelamatkan orang-orang Yahudi yang tersisa di Balkan dan Hungaria. Mereka mendarat di Yugoslavia, dan, dengan bantuan dari kelompok partisan, menyeberangi perbatasan Hungaria. Ada, bagaimanapun, ia ditangkap oleh Jerman, dipenjara, dan disiksa. Dia dihukum karena pengkhianatan, dan dieksekusi oleh regu tembak pada bulan November 1944 – di hanya 23 tahun. Informasi biografis lebih lanjut tersedia dari Wikipedia, Perempuan dalam situs Yudaisme dan Hannah Senesh Legacy Foundation.

Senesh mulai menulis buku harian berusia 13, dan terus, kadang-kadang sebentar-sebentar, sampai hari kematiannya. Buku hariannya pertama kali diterbitkan dalam bahasa Ibrani pada tahun 1946, ini, dan sajak-sajaknya, masih banyak dibaca saat ini di Israel, di mana dia adalah sesuatu dari pahlawan nasional (dan telah disebut Israel Joan of Arc). Buku harian pertama kali diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris oleh Vallentine Mitchell pada tahun 1971, tapi sejak muncul di edisi lainnya dan bahasa. Pada tahun 2007, Lampu Yahudi diterbitkan Hannah Senesh: Hidup-Nya dan Diary, Edisi Lengkap Pertama, seperti yang diedit oleh Roberta Grossman. Beberapa edisi ini tersedia secara bebas untuk membaca di googlebooks.

Berikut adalah beberapa ekstrak.

7 September 1934
“Pagi ini kami mengunjungi makam Ayah. Betapa menyedihkan bahwa kita harus menjadi berkenalan dengan kuburan sehingga di awal kehidupan. Tapi aku merasa bahwa bahkan dari luar makam Ayah membantu kita, jika dengan cara lain daripada dengan namanya. Saya tidak berpikir dia bisa meninggalkan kita warisan yang lebih besar. ‘

4 Oktober 1935
“Mengerikan! Kemarin perang pecah antara Italia dan Abyssinia. Hampir semua orang takut akan campur tangan Inggris dan bahwa sebagai akibatnya akan ada perang di Eropa. Hanya berpikir tentang hal itu adalah mengerikan. Koran-koran sudah daftar mati. Saya tidak bisa memahami orang, seberapa cepat mereka lupa. Apakah mereka tidak tahu bahwa seluruh dunia masih mengerang dari kutuk Perang Dunia terakhir? Mengapa pembunuhan ini? Mengapa harus pemuda dikorbankan pada perancah berdarah ketika itu bisa memberikan begitu banyak yang baik dan indah kepada dunia jika hanya bisa diizinkan untuk menginjak jalan damai?

Sekarang tidak ada yang tersisa untuk dilakukan tetapi berdoa agar perang ini akan tetap menjadi satu lokal, dan berakhir secepat mungkin. Saya tidak bisa memahami Mussolini yang ingin mendapatkan koloni untuk Italia, tapi, setelah semua, Inggris harus puas dengan memiliki sepertiga dunia – mereka tidak membutuhkan semua itu. Dikatakan, bagaimanapun, bahwa mereka takut kehilangan rute mereka ke India. Sesungguhnya, politik adalah hal yang paling jelek di dunia.

Tapi untuk membicarakan hal-hal yang lebih spesifik. Salah satu teman Gyuri yang [Gyuri – kakaknya] adalah pacaran saya. Dia cukup berani untuk bertanya apakah saya akan pergi berjalan dengannya Minggu depan. Aku bilang aku akan, jika Gyuri ikut. Jika semuanya dia mengatakan saya adalah benar, maka saya merasa sangat menyesal untuk dia, ternyata dia tidak memiliki kehidupan keluarga yang layak. Ada sesuatu yang salah di sana, itu sudah pasti. ”

18 Juni 1936
‘. . . Ketika saya mulai menyimpan buku harian saya memutuskan saya akan menulis hanya tentang hal-hal indah dan serius, dan dalam keadaan terus-menerus tentang anak laki-laki, anak perempuan kebanyakan. Tapi tampaknya seolah-olah itu tidak mungkin untuk mengecualikan anak laki-laki dari kehidupan seorang gadis lima belas tahun, dan demi akurasi Saya harus mencatat perkembangan dari materi G..

Dia tidak puas dengan jawaban tersebut, tapi dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah buku yang saya pinjam dari dia. . . foto dirinya ditandatangani “Dengan Cinta Selamanya, G.” Saya tidak mengatakan sepatah kata pun tentang gambar. Sejak itu, setiap kali aku melihat dia (cukup sering) dia mandi saya dengan pujian, yang saya coba untuk menyikat. . . ”

14 Juni 1941
“Minggu ini saya berangkat ke Mesir. Saya seorang prajurit. Mengenai situasi pendaftaran saya, dan perasaan saya sehubungan dengan itu, dan dengan semua yang mengarah ke hal itu, saya tidak ingin menulis. Saya ingin percaya bahwa apa yang telah kulakukan, dan akan dilakukan, benar. Waktu akan memberitahu sisanya. ”

 
Mandi di Albert
Hari ini menandai peringatan ke-30 kematian Robert Lindsay Mackay, seorang tentara infantri di Perang Dunia Pertama, hadir di pertempuran Somme terkenal dan Ypres. Sementara dalam aksi, ia berhasil menyimpan catatan harian dekat kegiatan, dan ini, meskipun tidak dipublikasikan di media cetak, telah dibuat tersedia secara online oleh salah satu cucu-cucunya. Dari catatan khusus adalah entri tentang ‘MUD’ dan mengunjungi kota bernama Albert (di daerah Somme) untuk mandi.

Mackay lahir tahun 1896 di Glasgow dan belajar di universitas di sana. Selama perang, dia bertugas dengan resimen infanteri, Argyll & Sutherland 11 Highlanders, memegang tulisan Officer Signalling, Ajudan Asisten, dan Pejabat Peleton, akhirnya mencapai pangkat Letnan. Dia berjuang dalam Pertarungan itu, Somme Ypres dan Arras, dan dianugerahi Salib Militer dan Bar.

Setelah perang, Mackay dilatih sebagai dokter. Ia menikah Margaret McLellan, dan mereka memiliki empat anak. Pada tahun 1941, ia bergabung dengan tentara dan, dengan unit bedah saraf, telah diposting ke Timur Tengah. Sebelum akhir perang, ia juga diposting ke Normandia dan Utara Norwegia, untuk mengobati Rusia yang jatuh sakit saat tahanan Jerman. Ia pensiun pada tahun 1961, dan meninggal pada tanggal 2 Juli 1981. Informasi biografis lebih lanjut tersedia di situs Universitas Glasgow dan beberapa halaman web Mackay pohon keluarga.

Mackay hanya menulis buku harian selama Perang Dunia Pertama, dan kemudian bahkan tidak yakin mengapa dia melakukan itu. Pada tahun 1972 ia menulis catatan berikut kepada anak-anaknya: “Saya tidak cukup jelas mengapa saya menulis buku harian ini, hari demi hari, catatan berkelahi periode agresif. Aku tidak punya ambisi sastra atau militer. Orang tua saya tidak membacanya. Mungkin itu adalah untuk memberikan semacam alibi terus menerus, untuk mengingatkan saya di mana aku telah pergi, mungkin sebuah peringatan yang menarik jika saya gagal kembali. Seperti kue dari wajan panas, itu ditulis sebagai peristiwa terjadi, atau segera sesudahnya, dalam empat berlapis kulit cokelat kecil notebook, dan ketika perang berakhir ini berada dalam keadaan tidak berlangsung lama karena mereka kotor dan kotor, dan, di mana ditulis dengan pensil, tulisan itu memudar. Jadi, pada tahun 1919, saya menyalin isinya, langsung melepaskan, tanpa mengedit, menjadi dua besar buku-buku catatan, dan menghancurkan empat anak kecil. ”

Teks telah dibuat tersedia secara online oleh salah satu cucu Mackay, Bob Mackay, di Firstworldwar.com, dan pada halaman web sendiri. Berikut adalah beberapa entri.

12 September 1916
“Memerintahkan sampai dengan 11. Layanan Batalyon Argylls – salah satu yang paling saya dari semua ingin pergi. Kereta akan berangkat pukul 2 siang Kiri tepat pada 16:30, yang tidak buruk untuk kereta Prancis. Mencapai Albert di Front Somme sekitar 06:30 pada tanggal 13. – Jarak dari beberapa 70 – 80 mil dalam 28 jam – tidak buruk terjadi untuk kereta Prancis baik! Albert adalah di mana pertempuran terjadi mulai sekarang, jadi saya berharap untuk melihat sesuatu yang layak. Dilaporkan ke Ruang Rincian Tertib dari 11. Bn. yang mendengar hari berikutnya bahwa kami akan datang. Pergi bersama ke taman setelah teh untuk melihat formulir kami terbaru frightfulness tentang yang misterius hang, yaitu tangki. Mereka tidak digunakan melawan musuh belum.

WAR

Today marks the 60th anniversary of the attack by Japan on Pearl Harbour that brought the United States into the Second World War. A few diary extracts recording the event are available online. East Carolina University has one of the best collection of digital resources on Pearl Harbour; the editor of Skagit River Journal has made available the diary entry of his father; and Brandon University has web pages honouring one of its professors, who was a student in Hawaii on the fateful day. At the political level, the US Secretary of War at the time kept a diary, and entries from this have been used to support the idea that the US and British governments knew of the attack in advance but let it happen so as to draw the US into the war.

The American military base at Pearl Harbour on Hawaii was attacked by Japan during the morning of 7 December 1941. Japan’s aim was to keep the US Pacific Fleet from interfering with its own actions against the overseas territories of several European nations in Southeast Asia. Some 353 Japanese fighters, bombers and torpedo planes, launched from six aircraft carriers, caused huge damage: 2,402 Americans were killed and 1,282 wounded; four US battleships were sunk, and four others damaged (six of these eight, however, were raised and/or repaired for further service); other vessels, including cruisers and destroyers, were also damaged; and 188 aircraft were destroyed. By contrast, Japanese losses, in personnel and hardware, were very light.

The Japanese aggression shocked the American people, which hitherto had been pro isolation and against American involvement in the European war, and it led directly – on the following day – to a US declaration of war on Japan. Clandestine support of the UK turned into active alliance, and within three further days, Germany and Italy had declared war on the US and vice versa. For more information see Wikipedia or the BBC.

East Carolina University’s Joyner Library has an online exhibition commemorating the 60th anniversary of the attack. It provides access to a large number of digital resources, including official and personal texts, biographies, and pictures. However, there are very few actual diary texts. One was written by Robert Hailey on USS Indianapolis; and another by Louis P. Davis, Jr. on USS Reid. There is no biographical information about either sailor. Although Davis’s diary extract sometimes reads as though it was written while the action was happening, the photographs of the diary pages, on the exhibition website, suggest the entry was written all at one time.

Robert Hailey’s diary
7 December 1941
‘G.Q. [General Quarters] at 0538 – routine drill! Shortly before 0800 no. 1 Higgins boat was placed over the side after we had anchored just off Johnson Is. Before other boats could be placed over the side or any trys made dispatches were received that P.H. [Pearl Harbor] Had been bombed by Japanese planes. All plans for landing on Johnson Is. were abandoned. Boats and planes hoisted aboard – no fuel to the 5 DMS with us – course set for interception of enemy forces south of Hawaii – these forces proceeding from the south, last reported near Palmyra – 8 large ships and one Jap sub sunk by planes off PH. – two carriers engaged just outside P.H. several miles – Hickam – Ford Island – residential Honolulu near the Pali bombed. – G.Q. about noon because of what appeared to be a sub – false alarm but not a drill. War has been declared – now there is to be much required from us all.

Afternoon – dispatches, newscasts and “scuttlebutt dope” has kept the day a busy one. Division put on a full wartime basis – all excess gear stowed below. We have changed rendezvous several times – mostly in an effort to intercept the fleeing carriers. P.H. seems to have suffered severely, Hickam damaged badly – 350 men killed in a bombed barracks, oil tanks at P.H. afire Oklahoma hit by bomb, is afire – no word on other damage-rumors Honolulu also damaged.

Manilla definately bombed – Wake & Guam uncertain. Condition II throughout day & tonight – Everyone excited but with only one thought – glad to get things underway and have uncertainty over. No one can understand how this attack was executed and the Japs gotten so close – why carriers not sunk is also not understandable.

Anticipate with what the chance that we may encounter then and get a whack at them- it would be an enjoyable sensation after today’s activity.’

Louis P. Davis, Jr.’s diary
7 December 1941
‘Was peacefully reminicing in my bunk about last night. Had been to a party with the Wilhmots at the Hickam Field Officer’s club. Several alarm sounded the clock said 0800 so I surmised that they must be testing it. Heard a yell from passageway “Mr Davis, we are being attackd” I jumped up ran to the door of the Wardroom. As I went up a Japanese plane bellied up over Ford Island clearly showing the rising sun on it’s wings. Made the director in nothing flat to get battery firing. I am senior gunnery officer aboard and only one who knows how to work the director. I got the machine guns going about 0803. God damn locks on magazine.

Had a hell of a time getting 5” firing. About 0820 I got them ready with ammunition. During time I was getting ammunition for 5” battery I saw Utah capsize astern of us. We are second DD in Harbor to open up with machine guns, first with 5” Arizona is burning fiercely. Her back is broken. Raleigh is torpedoed astern of us Quickly gets bad list to port. All DDs are firing now. This is hottest part of harbor. Plane is attacking our west. “All guns fw’d train 45” “Fire when hearing” Fw’d machine guns are firing steadily. Several Machine seen bullets ricochet off sides of director and mast. One 6” from my head a bunch about a foot away. Glad this is my lucky day.

Gun #2 is firing. Machines guns hit planes burst into flame and crashes on hill dead ahead of ship. No one hurt yet. Port fw’d machine gun burning up “Fire until it blows up” Johny is getting ready to get underway. Plane just connected with 5” shell over Curtiss. Nothing left of him. 2nd attacks starting must be only about 0845. God it’s cold only have on skinny troa [trousers] Plane coming over “Give to him All guns fw’d” Tally two for us today; hope he fries in hell Quickest hangover I ever got rid of in my life. Jesus we need water and everything is shut off. Comparitive lull now. About ten planes shot down during their last visit near the DDs. These ships can sure shoot.

High altitude bomber. No power for director! Engines have been secured Whitney cannot supply enough for 5 ships. Cannot get near them with local control “Cease firing” Wonder whats happening over on battleship row? All DDs out here are safer. Cassen and Downes, other half of hour division burning furiously. Monaghan just sunk sub in harbor. My clothes got here. Must be 0945 California and West Virginia are sinking. Sub just torpedoed Nevada. She is burning fw’d. Wonder how Joe Taussig is? Am so mad am crying. First time in years. Damn dumb admirals and generals. Locking up all the ammunition Good thing we belted machine guns ammo yesterday 200 rds 5” expended no casualties 10,000 rds 50 Cal. expended one gun burned up. “Cut off all magazine locks.” God damn good thing no carriers and crusiers are in.

Only Helena is slighlty damaged and Raleigh Curtiss hit by bomb aft. Oklahoma just capsized. Poor S.O.B.’s

Captain and rest of officers returned.

“Mr. Davis single up.” 1005 under way “Mr Davis report to executive officer” Exec bawled me out for cutting locks off magazines. Says I act too quickly should wait and reflect first Goddamn fool sits home on his fat ass then comes out and tells we are all wet and gives us hell for the way we fought the battle. Ted says he was too scared move coming out. Hope he gets one in the gut So the big thing will spill all over the deck.

“Mr. Davis Captain says clear ship for action” Am hungry as hell. No breakfast. Thrown over all wood and canvas, all excess gear topside and below. “Mr Davis report to Executive officer” “What the hell are you doin you fool”

“Captain’s orders clear ship for action sir.”

Hope he fries in hell. They are bombing Honolulu. Can see them from ship. We are forming up to attack 77 destroyers and Detroit all that’s left of battle force. Passed Nevada in channel burning furiously “secure from GQ set condition three watch one” Rest at last its 1500. Of all the stupid cowards are exec is the worst. Ford at last. Have mid better get some sleep. What a day 5 battleships sunk 2 cruisers hit Agala sunk Half of our division sunk. All because people try to kid themselves.’

***

Victor Andrew Bourasaw was another sailor at Pearl Harbour on the eventful day. He was born in Festus, Missouri, in 1901, but left home in his early teens to mine boron by hand on the Mississippi river. In 1922, he joined the US Navy, and, in 1941, was a chief petty officer on the destroyer, USS Ramsay. The following diary entry can be found on the Skagit River Journal website edited by Victor’s son, Noel V Bourasaw.

7 December 1941
‘This morning at a few minutes before eight the Japanese began an air raid on Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field. The Utah and the Raleigh was hit by torpedoes launched by torpedo planes and dive bombers. Bombs of all kind – incendiary, shrapnel and high explosives – were dropped. The hangars on Ford Island and Hickam Field were set afire and all the grounded planes staffed. Also numerous oil tanks were set afire, burning for two days and nights.

About 0815 a submarine was discovered inside of the harbor astern of the Medusa and the Curtis (two destroyer tenders). A nest of destroyers were alongside of the Medusa, and all were taking pot shots at [the sub’s] conning tower. One 3-inch shell hit her bow and tore it off. She then submerged and reappeared again. The Monaghan, DD-354, had got under way and made for her, ramming her and letting go two depth charges. A mighty cheer went up from the crews of the ships around. Of course she has never reappeared since. Unfortunately the Monaghan ran her bow onto the beach on Ford Island and she had to back her engines full speed and, at that, had difficulty backing off.

The Ramsay crew acted like veterans under fire. Each man to the lowest rating did his duty and did it well. Am proud to be a member of a crew like this.

The enemy aircraft, having dropped their bombs, now turn to strafing. They sure are bum shots. We were strafed five times and have only one bullet hole to show on the ship, through the rail on the flying deck.

It was terrible to have to go through that oil-covered water on the way out, seeing our shipmates struggling in it and not being able to help them. We threw life buoys to the ones we saw that needed one.

We found submarines in wait outside. We dropped depth charges as did the other destroyers. The navy authorities are sure that we got four subs. The subs evidently were waiting for the battleships to come out but of course they never did. It would have been suicide. We have heard that the West Virginia and the Oklahoma were damaged. We could see the West Virginia listing considerably as we were leaving port. All this morning the destroyers were busy tracking down subs, pounding them with depth charges. All this morning destroyers are busy tracking down subs, pounding them with depth charges.

Afternoon 7 Dec: Two o’clock, dropping depth charges. We must be getting some for there are usually bubbles and oil. 1430, no word yet from Task Force One, who went to engage the enemy. Still dropping ash cans [depth charges]. Are now in Condition Three at 1500. Two light air attacks on Pearl harbor between 2000 and 2100. Very little sleep for the crew tonight.’

***

At the time of the Pearl Harbour raid, Robert W Brockway was 18 years old and a freshman at the University of Hawaii. His father was in the Army Air Corps, serving on a ground crew, and the family lived in quarters at Hickam Field, where Robert identified with the soldiers from an early age. After being evacuated, he went to Washington, D.C. to continue his studies. He served as a church minister until 1959, and as a teacher thereafter, first at Coventry Technical College in England, then at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. From 1965, he taught at Brandon University in Canada, as a professor of religion. He died in 2001. Brandon University has an extensive website in memory of Brockway, including extracts from his Pearl Harbour diary (photographs and transcriptions).

7 December 1941
‘As I write today from the home of Mr. O’ Sullivan who very kindly took us in, we have experienced a Japanese raid. This morning at 8:00 a.m. I was awakened by loud booming. Believing them to be maneuvers I paid little heed. On going outside, I saw stukas diving and circling, but still paid no heed, until I saw the Rising Sun on wing tips. By then the depot hangars were in flame and gasoline blazed. We went to Burkes [?] and then returned home – everyone telling me that war was on. We then got the Haltermanns in our car and Mr. Willy and I hurried up Aiea heights. We saw a carrier burned to the water edge. Fren [friends?] at Hickam [Hickam Field]. We waited there and then returned. Most of our planes had been destroyed. Our fleet force crippled. The radio had just pronounced martial law. Our forces are supposed to be dealing with the sit[uation].’

8 December 1941
‘As the dawn came after a long weary nite spent anxiously waiting for Japanese bombers which never came, we got the paper stating that some 340 fellows from Hickam were killed. One of them was probably Tony Mariaschella since he was in the 42d. After a morning spent uneventfully Mother, I, Mrs Haltermann and Mr. Wiley went to the field [Hickam] and got the remainder of our stuff. The British are in it too. A parachutist is up back here somewhere and they couldn’t find him. Hickam Field looked hit but not shattered. Purdin’s house is gutted out. So are several friends’. Auers’ all messed up inside. Probably we will never go there again. Pop is in the hospital [he was there with an unspecified complaint at the time of the raid]. Pres. Roosevelt declared war against Japan today. Under martial law Habeus Corpus is suspended.’

***

Finally, it’s worth noting that the US Secretary for War at the time, Henry L Stimson, kept a diary, and that certain extracts from this diary (see paragraph below) have been employed repeatedly over the years by those who believe there was a conspiracy – the Pearl Harbour advance-knowledge conspiracy theory – involving high officials in the US and UK who knew of the attack in advance and may have let it happen so as to force America into the war.

25 November 1941
‘Then at 12 o’clock we went to the White House, where we were until nearly half past one. At the meeting were Hull, Knox, Marshall, Stark and myself. There the President . . . brought up entirely the relations with the Japanese. He brought up the event that we were likely to be attacked perhaps next Monday, for the Japanese are notorious for making an attack without warning, and the question was what should we do. The question was how much we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.’

After the attack, Stimson wrote in his diary: ‘When the news first came that Japan had attacked us my first feeling was of relief that . . . a crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people. This continued to be my dominant feeling in spite of the news of catastrophes which quickly developed.’ (This is widely quoted as being dated 7 December 1941, but the sense of the quote seems much later, and without access to the diary itself, I cannot check the date.)

For more on this topic see Institute for Historical Review articles by Charles Lutton and David Irving; and Srdja Trifkovic on the American Patriot Friends Network. Irving, in particular, has a lot to say about Stimson’s diary, claiming there is evidence for post-Pearl Harbour deletions and revisions. Wikipedia, however, has a detailed and well-referenced look at the facts.

Viking, part of the Penguin group, has just published the diaries of Rodney Foster, who served in the Home Guard during the Second World War. He rose to become a major within the organisation but resigned a few months later. Such journals are very rare since Home Guard personnel were forbidden from keeping diaries. However, contrary to Penguin’s publicity that this is the first Home Guard diary ever discovered, I believe there is at least one other.

Rodney Foster was born in India in 1882 into a British army family. He was educated in England, and then entered the Royal Military College at Sandhurst in 1900. The following year he was commissioned in the British Army and was sent to India, where he served for a time on the North-west Frontier. In 1906, he joined the Survey of India and worked as a surveyor and cartographer.

Foster returned briefly to England in 1910 to marry Phyllis Blaxland, a friend of one of his sisters, and they had one daughter, Daphne. Although he rejoined the Indian Army during the First World War, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he stayed with the Survey of India until retiring in 1932, back in England, to Saltwood, near Hythe on the Kent coastline. In 1940 he enrolled in the Home Guard, becoming a major in 1942 with 560 men under his command, though he resigned a few months later, frustrated with the organisation around him. He died in 1962.

These few biographical details can be found in Ronnie Scott’s introduction to a new book from VikingThe Real ‘Dad’s Army’ – The War Diaries of Lt.Col. Rodney Foster. The diaries were discovered, Viking says, in an auction, and were then edited by Ronnie Scott. Also in the introduction, Scott says: ‘Rodney’s diaries offer an invaluable insight into the Home Front during the Second World War. Not only do they detail life on Hellfire Corner [a stretch of the English Channel in the Dover area heavily bombed by the Germans], they clearly depict the inception and development of the Home Guard from the point of view of a serving officer – something that, until now, had never come to light. Home Guard personnel, especially those serving in the areas most vulnerable to invasion, were forbidden from keeping diaries, in case the information in them could be of use or value to the invader. So it is all the more remarkable that such an establishment figure as Rodney should break the regulations in this way.’

Viking makes great play of the link with Dad’s Army, an ever popular BBC TV comedy series first broadcast in 1968. The Dad’s Army of the title was a bumbling Home Guard platoon, located in a fictional town on the south coast of England (i.e. somewhere in the vicinity of Foster’s Home Guard). According to Viking: ‘Writing from the village hall, abandoned barns, churches and makeshift officers’ messes, [Foster] records with a unique wit and wisdom the everyday details of family life during the war: the domestic routine dogged by air raid warnings, the antics of soldiers stationed nearby taking every chance to improve their lot, the quiet strength of a small community faced with great adversity.’ His ‘humanity and care shine through’, Viking adds, ‘proud testament to the spirit that defied the Nazis and won the war.’

Foster’s diary is indeed a substantial document and record, and the Viking book is beautifully produced with lots of illustrations by Foster himself, as well as some relevant photographs. However, Penguin is promoting the book as ‘the first Home Guard diary ever discovered’. It even goes so far as to say that this ‘fact’ has been verified by the Imperial War Museum. But is it a ‘fact’? A diary kept by Charles Graves, a journalist and Home Guard officer, during the war was published as Off the Record by Hutchinson in 1942. There is not much information about this on the internet, but see Abebooks and Googlebooks.

Here are several extracts from The War Diaries of Lt.Col. Rodney Foster.

5 November 1940
‘Frost in the morning and a fine sunny day. Huns came, passing over Folkestone, returning later with our fighters on them. At 10:30 am after a burst of firing I saw one of ours drop from the sky like a falling leaf then recover itself and stagger off to Lympne. At 11:30 am three Huns dived on the two from over Pedlinge and dropped bombs. Two fell on the Ranges, and one hit the quarters of the Quartermaster of the Small Arms School. The next hit and demolished the barricaded side of Nelson’s Bridge over the canal, spattering the small houses nearby with black canal mud, and the last fell on Hospital Hill, Sandgate, killing a Sapper from the section in Hillcrest Road. Shortly after, the rain came down. On my way up to mount the guard I saw the strafing of the French coast in retaliation for the shelling of Dover. It came down in buckets as I left the post and I was wet through. Hillcrest Road was full of lorries, some backing into the Choppings’, and there was great activity all night preparing to move the big gun. If the gun goes we ought to be able to return home. It is not pleasant having to go so far at night and sleep in a cold house.’

9 November 1940
‘A strong south-westerly gale. In morning Captain Fuller drove me up to Saltwood and I walked all over the village distributing greatcoats. About 1 o’clock, two Huns flew over Hythe and dropped (some say ten) bombs on Cheriton. The London Division leaves today and a new Division comes in. The roads everywhere were full of troops and lorries and buses and there were pom-poms [AA guns] out on the ranges, in our allotments and in Sandling guarding against dive-bombers. Alarm 6 pm to 10:30 pm. I again got soaked mounting the guard. Neville Chamberlain died today.’

7 May 1942
‘I was out of bed just after 6 am when a plane roared over our roof and there were two explosions to the west. I saw a black snub-nosed Hun fly over my head. Another flew part to the north. Then I saw a third over Seabrook Road and saw a bomb leave its rack. This fell on the Hythe cricket pitch. The first bomb cut Sandling Park House in half, the other two fell in trees. The siren sounded after it was all over! The Huns did no machine gunning. I was so interested I forgot to tell my family to go to safety.’

 

Postscript (30 November): Penguin has responded to my point about Foster’s diary not being the first such Home Guard diary by passing on information from Shaun Sewell, who is credited with finding the diary. Sewell says: ‘[The Graves diary] was published in 1942 and can hardly be a diary covering the entire war! I’m guessing [it] is not a day to day account of Home Guard life, perhaps a collection of entries for wartime propaganda. I think that paper was rationed in the war so publications might have been censored and very limited.’

Hannah Senesh might have been 90 years old today, had she lived past the age of 23 when she was convicted of treason and executed by a German firing squad. Although a Hungarian Jew that had emigrated to Palestine, she returned to Europe to take part in a dangerous military plan to rescue Jews from Hungary. She kept a beautifully-written diary from the age of 13 until the day of her death, and, to this day, it is widely read in Israel, where she is a national heroine.

Hannah Szenes, often anglicised to Senesh, was born in Budapest on 17 July 1921, the daughter of playwright Bela Senesh (who died when Hannah was about six) and his wife Katherine. She wrote plays for school productions, and developed a considerable talent for poetry. She attended a Protestant high school which accepted Jews, where one of her teachers was the Chief Rabbi of Budapest, an ardent Zionist. As a result of his influence, she joined a Zionist youth group, and then moved to study at an agricultural school in Palestine.

In 1942, however, with the war raging, Senesh was anxious to return to Europe and help her fellow Jews. She joined a group of volunteer parachutists who were part of a military plan to rescue remaining Jews in the Balkans and Hungary. They landed in Yugoslavia, and, with the aid of a partisan group, crossed the Hungarian border. There, however, she was captured by the Germans, imprisoned, and tortured. She was convicted of treason, and executed by a firing squad in November 1944 – at just 23 years of age. Further biographical information is available from Wikipedia, the Women in Judaism website and the Hannah Senesh Legacy Foundation.

Senesh started writing a diary aged 13, and continued, sometimes intermittently, until the day of her death. Her diary was first published in Hebrew in 1946; this, and her poems, are still widely read today in Israel, where she is something of a national heroine (and has been called Israel’s Joan of Arc). The diary was first translated and published in English by Vallentine Mitchell in 1971, but has since appeared in other editions and languages. In 2007, Jewish Lights published Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary, the First Complete Edition, as edited by Roberta Grossman. Some of this edition is freely available to read at Googlebooks.

Here are a few extracts.

7 September 1934
‘This morning we visited Daddy’s grave. How sad that we had to become acquainted with the cemetery so early in life. But I feel that even from beyond the grave Daddy is helping us, if in no other way than with his name. I don’t think he could have left us a greater legacy.’

4 October 1935
‘Horrible! Yesterday war broke out between Italy and Abyssinia. Almost everyone is frightened the British will intervene and that as a result there will be war in Europe. Just thinking about it is terrible. The papers are already listing the dead. I can’t understand people; how quickly they forget. Don’t they know that the whole world is still groaning from the curse of the last World War? Why this killing? Why must youth be sacrificed on a bloody scaffold when it could give so much that is good and beautiful to the world if it could just be allowed to tread peaceful roads?

Now there is nothing left to do but pray that this war will remain a local one, and end as quickly as possible. I can’t understand Mussolini wanting to acquire colonies for Italy, but, after all, the British ought to be satisfied with owning a third of the world – they don’t need all of it. It is said, however, that they are frightened of losing their route to India. Truly, politics is the ugliest thing in the world.

But to talk of more specific things. One of Gyuri’s friends [Gyuri – her brother] is courting me. He was bold enough to ask whether I would go walking with him next Sunday. I said I would, if Gyuri went along. If everything he told me is true, then I feel very sorry for him; evidently he doesn’t have a decent family life. There is something wrong there, that’s for sure.’

18 June 1936
‘. . . When I began keeping a diary I decided I would write only about beautiful and serious things, and under no circumstances constantly about boys, as most girls do. But it looks as if it’s not possible to exclude boys from the life of a fifteen-year-old girl, and for the sake of accuracy I must record the development of the G. matter.

He was not satisfied with my aforementioned answer, but put into a book I borrowed from him . . . a picture of himself autographed “With Love Forever, G.” I didn’t say a word about the picture. Ever since, whenever I see him (quite often) he showers me with compliments, which I try to brush off. . .’

14 June 1941
‘This week I leave for Egypt. I’m a soldier. Concerning the circumstances of my enlistment, and my feelings in connection with it, and with all that led up to it, I don’t want to write. I want to believe that what I’ve done, and will do, are right. Time will tell the rest.’

 

Today marks the 30th anniversary of the death of Robert Lindsay Mackay, an infantry soldier in the First World War, present at the famous battles of the Somme and Ypres. While in action, he managed to keep a near daily diary of his activities, and this, though not published in print, has been made available online by one of his grandchildren. Of particular note are entries about ‘MUD’ and visiting the town called Albert (in the Somme region) for a bath.

Mackay was born in 1896 in Glasgow and studied at the university there. During the war, he served with an infantry regiment, the 11th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders, holding the posts of Signalling Officer, Assistant Adjutant, and Platoon Officer, eventually achieving the rank of Lieutenant. He fought in the Battles of the Somme, Ypres and Arras, and was awarded a Military Cross and Bar.

After the war, Mackay trained as a doctor. He married Margaret McLellan, and they had four children. In 1941, he rejoined the army and, with a neurosurgical unit, was posted to the Middle East. Before the end of the war, he was also posted to Normandy and Northern Norway, to treat Russians who had fallen sick while prisoners of the Germans. He retired in 1961, and died on 2 July 1981. Further biographical information is available on the University of Glasgow website and some Mackay family tree web pages.

Mackay only kept a diary during the First World War, and later on wasn’t even sure why he had done that. In 1972 he wrote the following note to his children: ‘I am not quite clear why I wrote this diary, day by day, a scrappy record of a scrappy period. I had no literary or military ambitions. My parents did not read it. Perhaps it was to provide a kind of continuous alibi, to remind me where I had been, perhaps an interesting memorial if I failed to return. Like cakes off a hot griddle, it was written as events occurred, or immediately thereafter, in four little brown leather-covered notebooks, and when the war ended these were in no state to last long for they were soiled and grubby, and, where written in pencil, the writing was fading. So, in 1919, I copied their contents, straight off, without editing, into two larger note-books, and destroyed the four little ones.’

The text has been made available online by one of Mackay’s grandchildren, Bob Mackay, at Firstworldwar.com, and on his own web pages. Here are a few entries.

12 September 1916
‘Ordered up to the 11th. Service Battalion Argylls – the one to which I most of all wanted to go. Train due to leave at 2 p.m. Left punctually at 4.30 p.m., which is not bad for a French train. Reached Albert on the Somme Front about 6.30 p.m. on the 13th. – a distance of some 70 – 80 miles in 28 hours – not bad going for a French train either! Albert is where the battle now going on began, so I hope to see something decent. Reported to the Details Orderly Room of the 11th. Bn. who heard next day that we were coming. Went along to a park after tea to see our latest form of frightfulness about which mystery hangs, namely, the tanks. They have not been used against the enemy yet. Heyworth (who joined with me) and I then went along to the Divisional Reinforcement Camp at Mericourt.’

14 September 1916
‘Loafed around.’

15 October 1916
‘Had a bath.’

16-17 October 1916
‘16th, 17th, and so on till the end – MUD, MUD, MUD!’

18 October 1916
‘Our ‘rest’ is now finished – when did it begin? Left Lozenge Wood, for Martinpuich.’

18 October 1916
‘Rotten ration party to take up to the Royal Scots. Bed 3 a.m. Half a bed is better than no bed at all!’

20 October 1916
‘Round the companies. The C.O. (MacNeil of Oban) got a mouldy haggis, which he ate all by himself. It came in a parcel labelled ‘CAKE’. He had kept it for three weeks!’

21 October 1916
‘Canadians on our left attack the ‘Quadrilateral’ and village of Pys. Partial success. Bombardment all night.’ Back to Martinpuich from the line. Frost came on us suddenly and played the mischief with the mens’ feet. Had to send a number to hospital.’

24 October 1916
‘Relieved by 7/8th. K.O.S.B. Back to Lozenge Wood. Roads heavy on way back. Got stuck in the mud.’

30 October 1916
‘Still at Bécourt, ‘X 27’ district, as bleak and as barren a place as the Western Hebrides. It is said that grass once grew here!’

31 October 1916
‘Front line again.’

2 November 1916
‘Chased by snipers. Relieved by 5th. Bn. Gloucesters, of 48th. Division.’

3 November 1916
‘Left Bécourt Dell for Albert and a bath.’

4 November 1916
‘Albert is knocked about in the most up-to-date fashion, in accordance with the most advanced ideas. There is not a pane of unbroken glass in the place. Every house, if not entirely demolished or with a gable or two missing, has a few holes in the roof, which help the ventilation and also assist materially in the disposal of surplus rain. Ye Gods! It is a funny life!

Albert Cathedral has been very badly smashed but the tower still remains with the figure of the Virgin and Child held out at right angles to it at the top and threatening to fall at any moment on the heads of countless people who pass below. It is commonly said that the War will not end until the Virgin falls. As the French don’t want it to fall (preferring to keep it as a monument of the Huns’ occupation of the place), what can we do?’

 

 

Goose Lane Editions, a Canadian publishing company founded in 1954 and said to be one of the country’s most exciting showcases of home-grown literary talent, has, in the last couple of years, published several intriguing diaries. Those of Tappan Adney record his wonderings in the New Brunswick wilderness, in particular with exquisite details of birds, birchbark canoes and a caribou hunt; while the diary of Robert Wyse describes, in all too gruesome detail, what life was like in a Japanese prisoner of war camp.

Adney was born in Ohio in 1868, but moved to New York as a teenager where he worked in a law office by day, while attending art classes by night. In 1887, he first went to Canada, with his sister, to stay for a few weeks with friends, the Sharp family, in Upper Woodstock, New Brunswick. However, having taken to the outdoor life there, he stayed on for nearly two years.

In 1897, Adney went back to Canada, this time to the west, lured to the Klondike Gold Rush as a special correspondent for
Harper’s Weekly. He married Minnie Bell Sharp in 1899; and, in 1900, Harper published Adney’s photos and text in The Klondike Stampede. That same year, he returned to the north to record the gold rush in Nome, Alaska.

During the war, Adney joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and constructed scale models of fortifications for training purposes. In 1917, he became a Canadian citizen; and, after the war, he became widely known for his knowledge of decorative historical heraldry and the 3D shields he created for the Canadian provinces. He put forward a design for a Canadian national flag which won a competition but was not adopted; and he built more than 150 models of native canoes, now housed in Mariner’s Museum, Newport, Virginia.

As Adney grew older, Yukon News says, his behaviour and demeanour became more eccentric, to the point where he was seen shambling around Woodstock like a hobo. He died in 1950 in his tiny forest bungalow surrounded by notes, drawings and models. Further biographical information is available from Wikipedia, Michael Gates’s article in Yukon News, and Jim Wheaton’s web page.

As a young man, amazed by all he saw in Canada, Adney began filling notebooks with his diary jottings and other observations. He recorded, for example, the details of snowshoes, and birchbark canoes, and the native names for birds and animals. He also chronicled a caribou hunt on snowshoes in winter conditions, decades before woodland caribou became extinct in eastern Canada. Some of his notes were published, for the first time, last September by Goose Lane Editions, a New Brunswick-based publishing company, under the title The Travel Journals of Tappan Adney: 1887-1890.

Goose Lane Editions, established more than 50 years ago, describes itself as ‘a small, lively company’ and ‘Canada’s oldest independent publisher’ which ‘successfully combines a regional heart with a national profile to introduce readers to work by the best established and emerging authors.’

The Travel Journals of Tappan Adney: 1887-1890 was edited by C Ted Behne, another builder of model birchbark canoes and an Adney enthusiast. According to Goose Lane, the book is the first published version of Adney’s earliest two journals, though he would write three more before his last in 1896. Though beautifully produced and full of reproductions of Adney’s original sketches and early photographs, there are relatively few in-the-moment diary entries – the bulk of the text being more retrospective recordings of his journeys, observations and thoughts. Here, though, are a few dated entries from early on in the book.

4 July 1887
‘An excursion of the Natural History Society [from New York City] to Manawagonish Island in the Bay of Fundy off Saint John. Thirty of us went along in two small yachts. Manawagonish Island [is] a rocky island covered with dense, stunted spruce and a small clearing where some sheep were browsing. Dense fog swept in, enveloping all things with reeking, dripping moisture, shutting out all things but the tinkle of a sheep bell, the murmuring of the waves on the beach, and the voices of a few hardy birds. Strong, clear, like a flute in the hands of a master, the Hermit thrush – a pathos that is known to no other bird. There is no song of more pure beauty, and one must come here or listen in the early morn in some far New Brunswick wilderness, to hear this, the most beautiful of bird music. I found the nest, containing four blue-green eggs, on the ground, among the cool, damp mosses and luxuriant ferns. The fog was so thick we could hardly find our way back to the harbor.

5 July 1887
‘An early walk with Mr. Chamberlain and noted three new species of birds. It was marvelous to me how Chamberlain could identify from a single note that [which] would have escaped me altogether.’

6 July 1887
‘Mr. Chamberlain was to give a lecture before the Society and wanted some fresh birds, so I went out back of the city and found myself in wild woods. I poked about in a dense cedar swamp. The usual fog came in. I lost my bearings and walked in a circle until I remembered that the wind was probably constant. Then I took a course by the wind and got out. Thankfully, I got a crow for the lecture.’

8 July 1887
‘Took passage aboard a small side[-]wheel steamer, the David Weston for Fredericton up the river. Next morning, arrived at the capit[a]l. . . I sketched the curious wood boats, two-masted schooners with tremendous sheer forward, loaded on deck with deals so that the hull[s] of the boats were actually submerged, all but the high nose of the bow. They came down wing-and-wing under a northwest breeze. Going back, it is said they make better time than the steamer. Here at Fredericton were the booms with their enormous quantities of logs from up river.

There was a tall bank of sawdust several miles below the city, and I went there and found hundreds of Bank swallows nesting in the face of the heap, which was as hard and firm as a bank of sand. I got several sets of eggs.’

 

* * *

Another recent Goose Lane diary volume concerns Robert Wyse. He was born in 1900, in Newcastle, New Brunswick, into a prosperous family, one of six children. The family soon moved to Moncton, 100 miles or so south, but also in New Brunswick. Robert was too young to serve in the early years of First World War, but managed to sign up for the RAF in 1918 – though he did not see any action. Twenty years later, he left New Brunswick, partly to escape an unhappy marriage (from which he had one son, Robert) and travelled to England where he joined the RAF, and trained as a gunner. After a year, he switched to work as a flight controller; and then, with Squadron 232, he found himself in the Far East.

Following a mis-handled Allied campaign on Sumatra, and a retreat to Java, Wyse, along with many tens of thousands of Allied troops, was captured by Japanese forces. He spent over three years a prisoner of war before being liberated in the late summer of 1945. Thereafter, he was hospitalised before returning home in late 1946. He divorced his first wife, and married Laura Teakles with whom he had a daughter, Ruth. However, his health never fully recovered, and he died in 1967.

Although prisoners of war were forbidden to keep diaries, Wyse did write a journal during his incarceration, hiding it in a bamboo pole beside his bed, for over two years. When the practice became too dangerous, he buried his notes (just as others did, including the more famous diarist in the same camp, Laurens van der Post). After the war, he managed to arrange for his notes to be returned to Canada where he and Laura’s sister transcribed them to a typescript. The original notes no longer exist, but Jonathan F Vance, professor of history at the University of Western Ontario, edited the typscript (deleting passages added after the war) for publication by Goose Lane as Bamboo Cage – The P.O.W. Diary of Flight Lieutenant Robert Wyse, 19421943.

This is, in fact, the 13th volume in a series of Goose Lane books for the New Brunswick Military Heritage Series. Initiated in 2000 by the Military and Strategic Studies Program of the University of New Brunswick, its purpose is to inform the public of ‘the remarkable military heritage of the province, and to stimulate further research, education and publication in the field’.

Here are a few extracts from Bamboo Cage.

1 September 1942
‘Hurried in to lorries at 10 a.m. and departed shortly after, no waiting around with the Japanese. Lovely drive through thickly populated country to Soerabaja, the largest sea port in Java. Our prison here is a former race course and fair grounds, thick concrete walls, sentry boxes at the four corners, and guards perpetually patrolling through the atap huts. Every Nippon guard seen even at a great distance must be saluted or bowed to, and one must stand rigidly at attention until they are out of sight. Another search of our meagre possessions on arrival, very thorough and much more of our stuff taken. Saw a small British flag being stamped on. About 1,000 British troops here already, about 3,000 Dutch, some Australian, American, and all other nationalities represented. Managed to get some bed space on some bamboo raised up from the ground, most of the troops on the ground here, but it is the dry season.’

2 September 1942
‘Practically no outside labour here. The camp is horribly dusty and dirty but fortunately there are a few showers. The bog holes are a seething mass of microbe life. Wing Commander Cave’s party went to Batavia in March and they are here now, many officers and men that I knew. P/O Shutes … offers 5 guilders for my lighter. Woodford advises me to keep it for a better price.’

3 September 1942
‘Getting used to it but this is pretty hard living. Food even worse than at Malang and not so good for a Westerner. Small piece [of] bread in the morning with a cup of tea, bread very heavy and soggy. Lunch, boiled rice. It is generally too well cooked, naturally with no sugar, salt, or milk. Supper, steamed rice, a small ladle of stew (so called), no fat, no sugar. With a cup of tea, no accessories. That’s all there is, there ain’t no more. At the canteen you can buy cigarettes only – understand they used to sell tea and coffee.’

4 September 1942
‘At noon today informed of another move, don’t know where but think old English to be sorted out and confined together. Trying to sell my lighter at any price, sorry I didn’t take the five guilders, am stone broke. The Nippons had allowed us to keep some of our English iron rations. Now the C.O. is giving us each a share. I had a share in a can of apples, a small spoonful, a half a can of bully beef and an eighth of a tin of potatoes – that, with my noontime ration, à la Dai Nippon, made one good bellyful. . .

There is damn-all charity between the British prisoners of war. Never in all my life have I seen such examples of selfishness. There was a riot over a case of corned beef, several boys injured. [Just] a spirit of ‘the hell with you, jack, I am looking after myself.’ Officers and men alike sit in front of others and fairly gloat over food that they have been able to purchase. When the capitulation came, huge impresses were handed out to officers for disbursement and the common good, [but] large sums of it remain in their own pockets and those of their friends. Tonight I sold a pair of socks, a gift, which I do not need, for 2; also a half cupful of petrol for 1. Our atap huts present a lively spectacle tonight as the Dutch come from all over to buy up the few remaining possessions of the English. I don’t know who wins. Our lads need the money for food, they certainly don’t need many clothes in this climate, but we have been at great pains to issue them with shirts and shorts to cover their nakedness, and the minute they get a new shirt off they go to see how many guilders they can get, guilders of course representing food.’

William Dyott, a soldier who served all over the world for the British army and faithfully kept a diary, was born exactly a quarter of a millennium ago today. He’s not well remembered – does not even have a Wikipedia entry for the moment! – but the published diary is available online and provides some extraordinary colourful descriptions of his experiences abroad, such as when he was sent to the West Indies to deal with a revolt by slaves.

Dyott was born in Staffordshire on 17 April 1761 into a well-off family, and was schooled privately before attending a military college near London. He joined the army in 1781, and served in Ireland, Nova Scotia (where he became friends with Prince William, later William IV), West Indies (to help quell a negro uprising influenced by French revolutionists) and Egypt. He rose rapidly through the ranks, becoming a lieutenant-colonel in 1795, a major-general in 1808, and a lieutenant-general in 1813, although by then he was no longer on active service. During his service he also travelled to Spain and The Netherlands, where he took part in the disastrous Walcheren Expedition.

For a short while, in 1804, Dyott took up duties as an aide-de-campe to George III, accompanying members of the royal family to the theatre, and playing cards with the queen and her daughters. He married Eleanor Thompson in 1806, and they had two sons and a daughter. However, she eloped with another man in 1814. A year earlier, he had inherited the family estates near Lichfield, and thenceforward became much concerned with agricultural policies. He was a local Justice of the Peace, and a neighbour/friend of Robert Peel. He died in 1847. There is a short biography of Dyott at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (which requires a log in). Otherwise, though, more details are available online in the introduction to his diary.

From the age of 20 until the year before he died, Dyott kept a diary filling 16 volumes. This was edited by Reginald W Jeffery and published in two volumes by Archibald Constable in 1907 as Dyott’s Diary, 1781-1845: a selection from the journal of William Dyott, sometime general in the British army and aide-de-camp to His Majesty King George III. The full texts are available at Internet Archive.

Here are two extracts from Dyott’s time in the West Indies.

16 March 1796
‘Employed in burying the dead, and sending away the wounded by sea to St George’s. I never beheld such a sight as Post Royal Hill, etc. The number of dead bodies and the smell was dreadful. The side of the hill on which the enemy endeavoured to make their retreat was extremely steep and thickly covered with wood, and the only method of discovering the killed was from the smell. It was near a fortnight after the action that many bodies were found. Nine days after the post was taken a mulatto man was discovered in the woods that had been wounded in three places two shots through his thigh. The only thing he had tasted was water, but to the astonishment of everybody he recovered.

The negroes and people of colour can certainly suffer and endure far greater torture than white people. I have seen two or three instances of this kind that astonished me. One in particular at Hooks Bay. Two negroes were taken prisoners the day we got possession of the post, and in order to secure them they were forced into a sort of arched place something like what I have seen under steps made use of to tie up a dog. There was just room for the poor devils to creep in on their hands and knees and to lie down. After they had got in, two soldiers of the 29th regiment put the muzzles of their firelocks to the doorplace and fired at them. I ran to see what the firing was, but before I got to the place they had fired a second round. On reaching the spot I made a negro draw out these miserable victims of enraged brutality. One of them was mangled in a horrid manner. The other was shot through the hip, the body, and one thigh, and notwithstanding all, he was able to sit up and to answer a number of questions that were asked him respecting the enemy. The poor wretch held his hand on the wound in his thigh, as if that only was the place he suffered from. The thigh bone must have been shattered to pieces, as his leg and foot were turned under him. The miserable being was not suffered to continue long in his wretchedness, as one of his own colour came up and blew his brains out sans ceremonie. This account does no credit to the discipline of the army. I own I was most completely ashamed of the whole proceeding, and said all I could to the General of the necessity of making an example to put a stop to these acts of wanton cruelty, being certain that nothing leads to anarchy and confusion in an army so soon as suffering a soldier in any instance to trespass the bounds of strict regularity, or to permit him to be guilty of an act of cruelty or injustice.

During the night of the 26th the enemy set fire to their works on Pilot Hill and evacuated the post. This post was situated about two miles from Post Royal on the coast. There was a most unfortunate accident happened in Hooks Bay on the 26th. The Ponsburne East Indiaman, that had brought part of the reinforcement from Barbadoes, drove from her anchors and went to pieces in a very short time. All the hands were saved, but every article of stores, ammunition, etc., was lost. It was an awful sight seeing the power of the element dashing to atoms in the space of two hours so stately a production of man’s art. This with the loss of a schooner drove on shore made it necessary to retain the post at Madam Hooks longer than was intended to my very great annoy, as a great quantity of provisions, etc. etc., were drifted on shore, which it was thought proper to destroy to prevent it falling into the enemy’s hands.’

14 May 1796
‘A vessel with Spanish colours came close in with the land, as if she intended going into Hooks Bay. On the supposition of her having a reinforcement for the brigands on board from the island of Trinidad, a party was sent to oppose their landing, but the vessel did not run into the bay. My tent was, I believe, infested with every species of reptile the island produces: a scorpion, lizard, tarantula, land-crab, and centipede had been caught by my black boy, and the mice were innumerable. I was prevented bathing in consequence of what is called in the West Indies the prickly heat. It is an eruption that breaks out all over the body, and from the violent itching and prickly sensation it has got the above appellation. All new-comers to the West Indies are subject to it, and when it is out it is considered as a sign of health. Bathing, I was told, was liable to drive it in. Nothing can equal the extreme unpleasant sensation, and people sometimes scratch themselves to that degree as to occasion sores. About this time our part of the army was suffering in a most shameful manner for the want of numerable articles in which it stood much in need. Neither wine or medicine for the sick, and not a comfort of any one kind for the good duty soldier; salt pork, without either peas or rice, for a considerable time, and for three days nothing but hard, dry, bad biscuit for the whole army, officers and men. Two days without (the soldiers’ grand comfort) grog.’

 

 

Soldier, politician and spymaster, Sir William Brereton – perhaps best remembered for besieging Chester during the Civil War – died 350 years ago today. As a youngish man, he travelled abroad, and kept detailed and interesting notes of his journeys, sometimes of local military tactics.

Brereton was born at Handforth, Cheshire, but lost his father when only six. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and then, when 23, was created a baron by Charles I. A year later he was elected MP for Cheshire but relinquished his seat so as to travel – to Holland, Scotland and Ireland. He married twice, once to Susannah who died in 1637, leaving two sons and two daughters, and once to Cicely, who also bore him two daughters (according to the
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography). A staunch Puritan he advocated major reform of the Anglican church.

Brereton was re-elected to Parliament in 1640, and opposed the King on policies in many areas. After the outbreak of civil war in 1642, he was appointed a major-general of Parliament’s forces. He is recorded to have had particular skills in the areas of espionage and siege warfare. His greatest triumph is said to be the siege and capture of Chester, which took over one year to complete.

Brereton was one of very few leaders allowed to retain his military command and his seat in Parliament after the Self-Denying Ordinance. With the war over, Brereton was rewarded with Eccleshall Castle and the tenancy of Croydon Palace, the former home of the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1652. He died on 7 April 1661, according to Wikipedia, and further biographical information is also available from the British Civil Wars website

During his travels, Brereton kept journals, and these were edited by Edward Hawkins and published by the Chetham Society in 1844 under the title, Travels in Holland, the United Provinces, England, Scotland and Ireland, 1634–1635. Parts of the diary were republished in North Country Diaries by the Surtees Society in 1915. Both volumes are freely available at Internet Archive.

It is said that Brereton learned warfaring tactics abroad, in Holland, and there is some evidence of this in his diary, such as when he notes: ‘Mr Goodier told me of a strange deliverance of this town besieged, wherein the famine and pestilence raging, the town not being able to hold out any longer, the country was drowned by drawing up their sluices and cutting the banks, and the night following the wall in one place, convenient for the enemies to enter, fell down and broke down (a great breach); the noise whereof and the sudden eruption of the water took such impression of fear, and occasioned the apprehension of some further danger by some further design; whereupon they broke up their siege, and left the town. For this strange preservation a solemn day of thanksgiving kept yearly in this city.’

Here is Brereton’s first diary entry in 1634 (taken from the 1844 volume), and this is followed by a long entry in 1635 (taken directly from University College Cork website which has the Irish parts of the journal online).

17 May 1634.
‘We departed from London by water; we came to Gravesend about eight of the clock In the evening; we came in a light-horseman [small boat]; took water about three clock in afternoon. A dainty cherry orchard of Captain Lord’s, planted three years ago, near unto Thames, not forty roods distant. The stocks one yard and a half high; prosper well; but I conceive the top will in a short time be disproportionable to the stock. Very many of the trees bear. It is three acres of ground; planted four hundred and forty-odd trees. An old cherry orchard near adjoining nothing well set: this year the cherries sold for £20: it is but an acre of ground: the grass reserved and excepted. A proper ship came from Middleborough on Saturday at noon, 17 May.

Stiff N.W. wind all Sunday; turned E. on 19 Monday morn. Passed by Gravesend on Monday about four. Captain Boare went from Gravesend on 15 May; went to Rotterdam; returned thither 20. Another ship came in twenty-four hours from Brill to Gravesend.

A delicate kiln to burn chalk lime; it is the Duke of Lenox, near Gravesend, upon the river side; it is made of brick, narrow at bottom, round, and wider at top; it is emptied always at the bottom; they hook out so much as is cold, until they pull out fire, and then cease. It is supplied with fire and chalk at top; one basket of sea-coals proportioned to eight of chalk; the fire extinguisheth not from one end of the year to the other. When it is kindled, fire is put to the bottom: it is sold for a groat, one hoop burnt. The pit is in the side of an hill, which is thirty yards high; one of the workmen fell (with whom I conferred) from top to bottom, not slain, but bruised and still sore. An horse stuck by the fore-legs, and held and cried out like a child, and stuck until he was helped up by men.’

21 July 1635
‘We went home about eight hour, and came to Ballihack, a poor little village on this side the passage over the river of Waterford, which here is the broadest passage said to be in Ireland, and a most rough, troubled passage when the wind is anything high. Here last day the boat, wherein my Lord of Kildare came over, was in danger to be run under water by carrying too much sail, and running foul upon the passage boat. Down this river come all the shipping for Waterford. Here we saw the Ninth Whelp lying at anchor, to guard the fleet which now is ready to go hence to Bristoll fair. Sir Beverley Newcombe is captain of her, and is now at Waterford. They say there are about fifty sail to go to St. James fair at Bristoll. The Irish here use a very presumptuous proverb and speech touching this passage. They always say they must be at Bristoll fair, they must have a wind to Bristoll fair, and indeed it is observed they never fail of a wind to Bristoll fair; yea, though the fair be begun, and the wind still averse, yet still do they retain their confident presumption of a wind. It is most safe here to hire a boat to pass over in, not with horses, which is rowed over with four oars. I paid for the hire of it 2s. This is a full mile over. The passage boat which carries your horses will not carry at one time more than two or three horses. Here is far better coming into the boat and landing than at Port Patricke, but less and worse boats. On Munster side is good lodging and accommodation.

This day we passed over the land of a gentleman whose name is [. . .]. He died about seven days ago of a gangrene; his fingers and hands, toes and feet, rotted off, joint by joint. He was but a young man, of above 1,000£ per annum, and married an old woman, a crabbed piece of flesh, who cheated him with a 1,000£ she brought him, for which he was arrested within three days after his marriage.

We came to Waterford about three hour, and baited at the King’s Head, at Mr Wardes, a good house, and a very complete gentleman-like host. This town is reputed one of the richest towns in Ireland. It stands upon a river (called Watterford River), which maintaineth a sufficiently deep and safe channel even to the very quay, which, indeed, is not only the best and most convenient quay which I found in Ireland, but it is as good a quay as I have known either in England or observed in all my travels. A ship of three hundred may come close to these quays. This quay is made all along the river side without the walls, and divers fair and convenient buttresses made about twenty yards long, which go towards the channel. I saw the river at a spring tide flow even with the top of this quay, and yet near the quay a ship of three hundred ton full loaden may float at a low water. Upon this river stand divers forts and castles which command it. At the mouth of the river is there a fort called Duncannon, wherein lieth my Lord Esmond’s company, consisting of fifty good, expert soldiers. Here is also a company of fifty soldiers, which are under the command of Sir George Flowre, an ancient knight. These are disposed of in the fort, which is placed without the gate towards Caricke, a pretty little hold, which stands on high and commands the town. There stands upon this river the Carick twelve mile, hence, and Clonmell about eight mile thence; hither (as I have heard) the river flows. There is, seated upon this river also Golden Bridge, and there is a passage by water from Cullen [?] and Limbrecke. This is no barred, but a most bold haven, in the mouth whereof is placed an eminent tower, a sea mark, to be discerned at a great distance; yet this river runs so crooked as without a W. or N.W. Hence went a great fleet to Bristoll fair, who stayed long here waiting for a wind.

This city is governed by a mayor, bailiffs, and twelve aldermen. Herein are seven churches; there have been many more. One of these, Christ Church, a cathedral; St. Patrick’s, Holy Ghost, St. Stephen’s, St. John – but none of these are in good repair, not the cathedral, nor indeed are there any churches almost to be found in good repair. Most of the inhabitants Irish, not above forty English, and not one of these Irish goes to church. This town trades much with England, France, and Spain, and that which gives much encouragement hereunto is the goodness of the haven.

This town double-walled, and the walls maintained in good repair. Here we saw women in a most impudent manner treading clothes with their feet; these were naked to the middle almost, for so high were their clothes tucked up about them. Here the women of better rank and quality wear long, high laced caps, turned up round about; these are mighty high; of this sort I gave William Dale money to buy me one. Here is a good, handsome market-place, and a most convenient prison that I ever saw for the women apart, and this is a great distance from the men’s prison. Herein dwells a judicious apothecary, who hath been bred at Antwerpe, and is a traveller; his name is (as I take it) Mr Jarvis Billiard, by whose directions and good advice I found much good, and through God’s mercy recovered from my sickness. After I had dined here, I went about four or five hour towards Caricke, where I stayed at a ferry about a mile from Waterford a whole hour for the boat, wherein we and our six horses were carried over together.

Hence to Caricke is accounted nine miles, good large ones, but very fair way, and very ready to find. We came to Caricke about nine hour. We lodged at the sign of the Three Cuts at Mr Croummer’s, where is a good neat woman. Here my disease increasing, I wanted good accommodation.

Here is my Lord of Ormond’s house, daintily seated on the river bank, which flows even to the walls of his house, which I went to see, and found in the outer court three or four hay-stacks, not far from the stable-door; this court is paved. There are also two other courts; the one a quadrangle. The house was built at twice. If his land were improved and well planted, it would yield him great revenue; for it is said he hath thirty-two manors and manor-houses, and eighteen abbeys. This town of Carick is seated upon the bank of a fine, pleasant, navigable river, but it is a most poor place, and the houses many quite ruinated, others much decayed; here is no trade at all. This hath been a town of strength and defence; it is walled about, and with as strong a wall, and that to walk upon, as is West Chester; the church in no good repair; nor any of the churches in this country, which argues their general disaffection unto religion. Here in this town is the poorest tavern I ever saw – a little low, thatched Irish house, not to be compared unto Jane Kelsall’s of the Green at Handforth. ‘Twixt Waterford and this town are many spacious sheep-pastures, and very fair large sheep as most in England; the greatest part of the land hereabouts is converted unto this use.’

Albania’s Greatest Friend: Aubrey Herbert and the Making of Modern Albania is being published today (at least according to Amazon’s website) by I B Tauris, a leading publisher of non-fiction books on history, politics and international relations. The book is based on the diaries and papers of Aubrey Herbert, a young aristocrat – said to be the inspiration for Sandy Arbuthnut, the fictional hero created by John Buchan – who travelled extensively to Albania before the First World War, and did much to help it become an independent nation. Some of Herbert’s First World War diaries are freely available online.

Herbert was born at Highclere, near Newbury, Berkshire, in 1880. He was the second son of the 4th Earl of Carnarvon, a landowner, British cabinet minister and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. After being schooled at Eton and studying history at Balliol College, Oxford, he became an (unpaid) honorary attaché in the diplomatic service, firstly in Tokyo and then in Constantinople. Subsequently, he travelled extensively, mostly in the Turkish provinces, learning to speak half a dozen languages. In particular he became a passionate advocate of Albanian independence, visiting the country many times.

In 1910, Herbert married Mary Vesey, daughter of Viscount de Vesci, and they would have four children, the youngest of whom married Eveyln Waugh. In 1911, Herbert became a Conservative Member of Parliament for the Yeovil Division of Somerset, a constituency which he held till his death. With the outbreak of the First World War, Herbert, despite poor eyesight, obtained a commission in the Irish Guards. He was wounded and taken prisoner in France, but escaped. Subsequently, he worked for military intelligence, involved in the Gallipoli Campaign, among others, and in negotiations with the Turks. In the last months of the war he was head of the English Mission attached to the Italian Army in Albania, and held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.

Herbert was twice offered, unofficially, the throne of Albania, once before the war when he declined, and once after, when circumstances conspired against him. However, his efforts are considered to have helped Albania become an independent nation in 1913, and to its becoming a member of the League of Nations in 1920. He died young, from blood poisoning after a dental operation in 1923. Further biographical information is available at Wikipedia and a website about Exmoor National Park. It is widely assumed, says Wikipedia, that Herbert was the inspiration for the character Sandy Arbuthnot, a hero in several John Buchan novels.

While abroad, Herbert was an inveterate diary keeper, and some of his diary material has recently been collated and edited by Bejtullah Destani and Jason Tomes for Albania’s Greatest Friend: Aubrey Herbert and the Making of Modern Albania: Diaries and Papers 1904-1923. The book – which according to Amazon is due out today – is being published by I B Tauris.

Here is Tauris’s publicity for the book: ‘Impeccably aristocratic and eccentric in a uniquely English tradition, Aubrey Herbert was at first sight an incongruous champion of Albanian nationalism, to say the least. Tall, slender and slightly stooped, with a moustache and heavily lidded eyes, Herbert wore a monocle and had white patches in his hair caused by an attack of alopoecia in 1911. Within England – let alone abroad – he cut a colourful figure.

But Herbert was also an acclaimed linguist, intrepid traveller and an outspoken and independent thinker, who became enthralled by the Balkans on his first visit to the region in 1904 as honorary attache at the British Embassy in Constantinople. From that time until his death in 1923, he was indefatigable in campaigning for the Albanian cause. He returned frequently to the country and gained respect as an expert on the region, even being honoured with repeated requests that he assume the Albanian throne. Albania’s Greatest Friend charts Herbert’s involvement with Albania over the course of his life, in his own words, through his own extensive diaries and letters.

It paints an authoritative portrait not just of a remarkable Englishman but also sheds fresh light on the wider Albanian national movement and a fascinating period in European history.’

As early as 1919, though, Herbert had published Mons, Anzac & Kut (Hutchinson & Co) based on, and quoting from, his diaries, with an introduction by Desmond MacCarthy, a literary critic working for the New Statesman. The full text of this book is available online at the Great War Primary Documents Archive.

Here is Herbert’s own preface:

‘Journals, in the eyes of their author, usually require an introduction of some kind, which, often, may be conveniently forgotten. The reader is invited to turn to this one if, after persevering through the pages of the diary, he wishes to learn the reason of the abrupt changes and chances of war that befell the writer. They are explained by the fact that his eyesight did not allow him to pass the necessary medical tests. He was able, through some slight skill, to evade these obstacles in the first stage of the war; later, when England had settled down to routine, they defeated him, as far as the Western Front was concerned. He was fortunately compensated for this disadvantage by a certain knowledge of the East, that sent him in various capacities to different fronts, often at critical times. It was as an Interpreter that the writer went to France. After a brief imprisonment, it was as an Intelligence Officer that he went to Egypt, the Dardanelles and Mesopotamia.

The first diary was dictated in hospital from memory and rough notes made on the Retreat from Mons. For the writing of the second diary, idle hours were provided in the Dardanelles between times of furious action. The third diary, which deals with the fall of Kut, was written on the Fly boats of the River Tigris. [. . .]

This diary claims to be no more than a record of great and small events, a chronicle of events within certain limited horizons – a retreat, a siege and an attack. Writing was often hurried and difficult, and the diary was sometimes neglected for a period. If inaccuracies occur, the writer offers sincere apologies.’

And here are a few diary extracts, culled from the text in Mons, Anzac & Kut.

23 April 1915
‘I have just seen the most wonderful procession of ships I shall ever see. In the afternoon we left for the outer harbour. The wind was blowing; there was foam upon the sea and the air of the island was sparkling. With the band playing and flags flying, we steamed past the rest of the fleet. Cheers went from one end of the harbour to the other. Spring and summer met. Everybody felt it more than anything that had gone before.

After we had passed the fleet, the pageant of the fleet passed us. First the Queen Elizabeth, immense, beautiful lines, long, like a snake, straight as an arrow. This time there was silence. It was grim and very beautiful. We would rather have had the music and the cheers . . . This morning instructions were given to the officers and landing arrangements made. We leave at 1.30 to-night. The Australians are to land first. This they should do to-night. Then we land. . . Naval guns will have to cover our advance, and the men are to warned that the naval fire is very accurate. They will need some reassuring if the fire is just over their heads. The 29th land at Helles, the French in Asia near Troy. This is curious, as they can’t support us or we them. the Naval Division goes north and makes a demonstration . . . The general opinion is that very many boats must be sunk from the shore. Having got ashore, we go on to a rendezvous. We have no native guides. . . The politicians are very unpopular.’

25 April 1915
‘I got up at 6.30. Thoms, who shared my cabin, had been up earlier. There was a continuous roll of thunder from the south. Opposite to us the land rose steeply in cliffs and hills covered with the usual Mediterranean vegetation. The crackle of rifles sounded and ceased in turns. . . Orders were given to us to start at 8.30 a.m. . . The tows were punctual. . . We were ordered to take practically nothing but rations. I gave my sleeping-bag to Kyriakidis, the old Greek interpreter whom I had snatched from the Arcadia, and took my British warm and my Burberry. . . The tow was unpleasantly open to look at; there was naturally no shelter of any kind. We all packed in, and were towed across the shining sea towards the land fight. . . We could see some still figures lying on the beach to our left, one or two in front. Some bullets splashed round.

As we were all jumping into the sea to flounder ashore, I heard cries from the sergeant at the back of the tow. He said to me: “These two men refuse to go ashore.” I turned and saw Kristo Keresteji and Yanni of Ayo Strati with mesmerized eyes looking at plops tha the bullets made in the water, and with their minds evidently fixed on the Greek equivalent of “Home, Sweet Home.” They were, however, pushed in, and we all scrambled on to that unholy land. The word was then, I thought rather unnecessarily, passed that we were under fire.’

26 April 1915
‘At 5 o’clock yesterday our artillery began to land. It’s a very rough country; the Mediterranean macchia everywhere, and steep, winding valleys. We slept on a ledge a few feet above the beech . . . Firing went on all night. In the morning it was very cold, and we were all soaked. The Navy, it appeared, had landed us in the wrong place. This made the Army extremely angry, though as things turned out it was the one bright spot. Had we landed anywhere else, we should have been wiped out.’

28 April 1915
‘I got up at 4 a.m. this morning, after a fine, quiet night, and examined a Greek deserter from the Turkish Army. He said many would desert if they did not fear for their lives. The New Zealanders spare their prisoners.

Last night, while he was talking to me, Colonel C. was hit by a bit of shell on his hat. He stood quite still while a man might count three, wondering if he was hurt. He then stooped down and picked it up. At 8 p.m. last night there was furious shelling in the gully. Many men and mules hit. General Godley was in the Signalling Office, on the telephone, fairly under cover. I was outside with Pinwell, and got grazed, just avoiding the last burst. Their range is better. Before this they have been bursting the shrapnel too high. It was after 4 p.m. Their range improved so much. My dugout was shot through five minutes before I went there. So was Shaw’s . . .’

11 a.m. All firing except from Helles has ceased. Things look better. The most the men can do is to hang on. General Godley has been very fine. The men know it.

4.30 p.m. Turks suddenly reported to have mounted huge howitzer on our left flank, two or three miles away. We rushed all the ammunition off the beach, men working like ants, complete silence and furious work. We were absolutely enfiladed, and they could have pounded us, mules and machinery, to pulp, or driven us into the gully and up the hill, cutting us off from our water and at the same time attacking us with shrapnel. The ships came up and fired on the new gun, and proved either that it was a dummy or had moved, or had been knocked out. It was a cold, wet night.’

 

 

 

 

One of Britain’s early diarists, Walter Powell, was born 430 years ago this day. He appears to have been a reasonably successful businessman, acting as a steward for the Earl of Worcester, among other occupations. Though his diary – which covers half a century – is little more than a list of events, these are often surprisingly interesting, as when Powell records, during the Civil War, ‘Trowps deuouring my hay’.

Walter Powell was born on born 25 March 1581, into a Welsh family that claimed to be of Norman origin. He married Margaret Evans in 1604, and initially they lived in Llanarth but then moved to Llantilio in 1611. Powell worked as a steward for the Earl of Worcester, and for some other estates. He also leased a mill, it seems, for at least two decades.

Powell died in 1655 (or 1656 according to the modern dating system), and is remembered largely because he left behind a diary. This was edited by Joseph Bradney and published by John Wright, Bristol, in 1907 as The Diary of Walter Powell of Llantilio, Crossenny in the County of Monmouth, Gentleman, 1603-1654. It is largely made up of single line entries recording events, but does provide information on his family, farming and estate work, and makes brief references to the effects of the Civil War. The full text is available at Internet Archive.

In his introduction Bradney says: ‘It might be wished that [Powell] had said more about the Civil Wars, and, in particular, the siege of Raglan. On the 25th of May, 1646, a few days before the siege began, he was committed to prison in Raglan Castle for an offence he does not name. The siege began on the 3rd of June, and on the 8th of June, on account of his age, he was allowed by Lord Worcester to depart, the besiegers also permitting him to go home. . . During his absence his house in Penrhos had been plundered by the Parliamentary forces. Safe at home again he settled down to business as though no disturbances were taking place in the kingdom, his diary containing the usual notes as to lending money, collecting rents, and attending sessions.’

Bradney also makes this comment: ‘It is worthy of note that his daughter Anne, who was bom at the vicarage 23 May, 1611, married her husband John Watkins 11 June, 1621, she being therefore only slightly over 10 years of age. Her husband was baptized 2 June, 1609, so that he was but a trifle over 12 years old, both younge as the Diarist observes.’

Here are a few verbatim entries from Powell’s diary, from 1611, being exactly four centuries ago, and from 1645-1646, during the Civil War.

1611
‘I removed from lanarth to the viccarage of lantilio gressenny to dwell 27 Apr.
and I had a graunt from mr Sterrell of the ffarme for 21 yeares 13 Maij.
My father fell sicke 5 Junij, & died 19 Junij
Sould the house & lands late Rosser d’d wayth to Wm Sr Hughe for 1ooli ijs 23 Jan’ij.
John Evans & my sister his wief came to liue togeather as man & wief 24 Jan’ij.’

1612
‘this was the greatest yeare of ffruite that eu’ i saw. I made 50 hogsheades of sider of the tieth of both p’ishes.’

1645
‘4 Apr’, Prince Rupert at Bergeveny
6 Apr’, received the sacram’t at lanarth
5 May, mr John Powell’s testam’t
15 May, Jo: Charles & Jane Wms maried.
24 May, Moore Jones was buried, Conisbye’s trowps deuouring my hay meadowes.
3 July, King Charles at Raglan & 10 July at Cardiff
18 July, the affray wth Grossem’t men for Stedda’s
19 July, I brought present to the kinge at Raglan
21 Julij, Howell Jones wief died & my children removed to lanvapley
2 Aug:, tieth demised to Rich: tho: d’d, & Phe’ d’d John.
1 Sept’, Rendevous at Perlleny, I was not there
2 sept’, siedge at hereff’ removed after 6 weekes
7 sept’. The king at Raglan againe
10 sept’, Bristow taken by the p’liam’t lost by Prince Rupert.
24 sept’, Edward John James Watkin died
2 octobr’, leeches vsed p’ Bray to me, & Chepstow was taken p’ p’hament.
13 & 14 octobr’, Washington at Bergeveny
20 octob’, my sonne Richard went to Bristow & 8 die was imprisoned at langely coming back.
24, my daughter margaret brought to bedd of her first sonne.
3 Novemb’, m’ris Bray at my house.
7 Novemb’, I myself removed to lyve in Penrose.
9 Novembr’, my daughter Blaunch died.
12 Novemb’, Elenor James widow buried
23 Novemb’, John Evans & An Young hurt at tregare
27, the p’liamt army at my house, Collonell Morgan coming from Gloucester towards Bergeveny.
12 decembr’, my wief removed to Penros to dwell.
18 decemb’, hereff’ taken p’ p’lam’t by Coll: Morgan.
19 decemb’, Valentine Jones lewis prison’ to Raglan.
17 Jan’ij, Tho: lewis my man’s father slayne.
16 m’cij, at Vske w’th maghen
14 m’cij, Collonell Charles P’ger2 at lanvapley to burne my hay.
19 m’che, I payd 28s at Raglan p’ muskett
23 m’cij, m’ris Nelson’s oxen plundered.
26 m’cij, hay burnt at lantilio by the souldiers of Monmoth.’

1646.
‘29 M’cij, I & my wief rec’ sacram’t at lanarth
1 Apr’, Tho: & Besse my serv’ts maried.
18, my sonne Richard abused at Grossemount by Bissley & Tho: Chr’; do’r Bray died.
10 May, Lucas hurt by Tho: James Jo: Howell.
17 May, I received the sacram’t at lanarth.
25 May, I was comitted prison’ at Raglan to the marshall of the Garison, where I remayned close till 8 Junij p’xo.
29 May, my house was plundered at Penros by the p’liament forces.
3 Junij, the siedge at Raglan began. Raglan yealded vpp 19 Augusti p’xo.
8 Junij, I was suffered to come out throughe the leaguer.
9 et 10 Julij, Wm loup at my house, & he allowed contribuc’on & quartering to Andr’ lewis & his sone.
sould black horse to Rich: Band 5li
21 Julij, at Vske contra g’ll’m p’ le taxac’ons
30 Julij, Goodrich castle taken for ye p’liamt
6 Aug., Gen’all ffayrfax came to the leaguer.
19 Aug:, Raglan Castle yealded vpp.
21 sept’, Charles came from Bristow to my house.
24 Sept’, I was at Sadlebow hill.’

 

 

It is 1942, and wounded are pouring into Palestine because the hospitals in Cairo are overflowing. The Countess of Ranfurly, whose husband is a prisoner of war in Italy, is helping at a Jerusalem hospital, being taught to shoot, and scribbling in her diary whenever possible. But she is also enjoying society. She confides in her diary, for example, how, dining with the Duke of Gloucester, she suggests the rubber shortage is worse for women than for men, and then, embarrassingly, is obliged to explain her point – ‘I said it may become difficult to obtain elastic girdles and that bras are very dependent on elastic, but I dodged mentioning needs further south.’ Weeks later corsets arrive in the post from India, from the Duke; and the Countess then tells her diary about how she fretted over the wording of a thank you telegram. The colourful Countess died ten years ago today.

Hermione Llewellyn was born in 1913, and brought up on her grandfather’s estate in Baglan, Wales, by apparently dysfunctional parents: her father was a gambler and her mother a manic depressive. They separated when Hermione was still a teenager. Her elder brother, whom she adored, was killed in an air crash. After studying secretarial skills, she went to Australia in 1937, and became the personal assistant to the Governor of New South Wales. There she met Daniel Knox, 6th Earl of Ranfurly.

Back in Britain, the couple met again and married in 1939. When her husband was called up for service in the army, Hermione broke the rules by travelling out to the Egypt to be with him; although, once there, she found if difficult to find work. She was expelled from the country, but returned secretly, only to suffer when her husband went missing. Nevertheless, she remained in the Middle East (becoming a favourite among the rich, royal and famous passing through); and Ranfurly’s cook/butler, a man named Whitaker, stayed with her. After three years in an Italian prison, Ranfurly eventually escaped and the couple were reunited. With the war over, Ranfurly worked in insurance, until Winston Churchill appointed him in 1953 to be Governor of Bahamas.

Horrified by the lack of education resources on the island, Hermione asked friends to send unwanted books. Thus, she was able to launch the Ranfurly Library Service in Nassau. The couple returned to Ranfurly’s Buckinghamshire estate in the late 1950s, where Ranfurly took up farming, and Hermione helped develop Book Aid International. By 1994, the charity had sent an estimated 15 million books to over 70 countries. She died on 11 February 2001. The Daily Telegraph’s obituary and Wikipedia have more biographical information, and the Bahamas Information Service reported, a few years later, that the couple’s only daughter, Lady Caroline Simmonds, had presented a new consignment of books to the Minister of Education.

For much of her life, starting aged only 5, Hermione kept a diary. On returning from the Bahamas, the writer Peter Fleming helped secure her a contract for publication of some extracts. However, she changed her mind about the project, and it was only much later, after the death of her husband in 1988, that she began again to edit the letters and diaries, partly with the help of her friend and neighbour Lord Carrington. Heinemann published them in 1994 – To War with Whitaker – The Wartime Diaries of the Countess of Ranfurly 1939-1945 – to much acclaim. The Daily Telegraph said the book was one of the ‘most delightful memoirs of recent times’.

In her introduction, the Countess says, ‘Since I was about five years old I have kept a diary. Though I am now eighty, most of these have survived my many adventures and travels and sometimes I glance at them to remember with laughter. . . My diaries, written mostly at night and always in haste, in nurseries, school rooms, cars, boats, aeroplanes and sometimes in loos, expose how we all arrive, helpless, innocent and ignorant; and then, as we step gingerly into the jungle, show how afraid, selfish, show-off and silly we often are. Mine also prove how lucky I have always been. Most of the creatures in my jungle have been extra special.’

Here are a few extracts from To War with Whitaker.

26 May 1942
‘Jerusalem: We had an official dinner for HRH Duke of Gloucester who is staying with us. He is visiting troops all over the Middle East and next month he is going to India. His itinerary is enough to give anyone a stroke. At dinner there was a discussion about the rubber shortage and, stupidly, I chipped in and said I thought this news was worse for the women than for men. HRH fixed me with an amused look and demanded that I explain exactly what I meant. I said it may become difficult to obtain elastic girdles and that bras are very dependent on elastic, but I dodged mentioning needs further south.’

26 June 1942
‘Wounded are pouring into Palestine because the hospitals in Egypt are overflowing. Each day between one and five I go down to a hospital in Jerusalem to help in the wards. I have no training so I do all the odd jobs such as washing soldiers, making beds and emptying things. Today I washed four heads which were full of sand. I am learning a lot about pain and courage and getting used to smells and sights. The soldiers make fun of everything and, even in the long ward where the serious cases are, no one ever grumbles. I cannot describe the courage of these men. Only when they ask me to help them to write home do I glimpse their real misery: some of them are so afraid their families will not want them back now they are changed. They call me ‘Sugar’.’

12 July 1942
‘While we were talking several people joined us and soon an argument began as to whether we can hold the Germans in Egypt and what will happen if we don’t. There was talk of evacuation which I still find rather a sore subject. ‘Lord Byron said women and cows should never run,’ I said. A little man who was standing nearby turned round – he had a red, rather belligerent face: ‘And what use would you be?’ he asked. Robin came to my rescue: She would fight with the rest of us,’ he said. ‘Can you shoot? the stranger asked me. I shook my head – I was beginning to feel foolish. Red Face glared: ‘Well,’ he said, ‘I like that bit about Lord Byron. I’ll teach you to shoot. Be at the police station on the Jaffa Road at six tomorrow.’ He stumped off before I could ask his name.’

13 July 1942
‘This evening I went straight from the hospital to the police station on the Jaffa Road. Red Face was waiting for me in a bare Arab room. I asked his name. ‘Call me Abercrombie,’ he said, ‘it’s as good as any other. Now sit down,’ he continued, ‘I shall tell you all I know. I was taught in America by “G” men and I am a bloody fine shot. Make the gun part of your arm. . . He showed me how to hold it easily in my hand, how to cock it and recock it without moving anything but my fingers and wrist. ‘Never pull the trigger,’ he said. ‘Your gun is like an orange in the palm of your hand. You must squeeze that orange.’ . . .

He took me over to the range. It was dark inside and after the stark Palestinian sun I could not see. ‘There are six dummy men in here,’ he said, ‘stay where you are and use your eyes. Kill them.’ He was unsparing. I shot with my right hand, with my left hand, and with both hands. I hated the noise and blinked my eyes. My wrist wobbled; my mind wobbled. He made me go on. Sometimes I shot in the dark. Sometimes he turned on the light. He bawled. I shot. ‘One, two. One, two. Now left. Now right. Now both together. Squeeze that orange. Keep your eyes open.’ Sweating and shy I plugged on, standing close-to and then far from his life-size dummies. After an hour he told me to return at the same time tomorrow.’

16 July 1942
‘A magnificent parcel, covered in tape and seals, arrived for me from India. Inside were two pairs of old-fashioned corsets with bones and laces. They were sent by HRH The Duke of Gloucester. Nick and I had an argument as to how one should thank one of the Royal Family for a present of corsets. Whichever way we put it looked disrespectful. Finally, we sent a telegram saying: ‘Reinforcements received. Positions now held. Most grateful thanks.’ ’

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Copyright@Dr Iwan suwnady 2012

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