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Profile Penguasa Wanita Abad Ke 17 (1600-1669)

 

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Koleksi Profile Penguasa Wanita Abad ke 17 (1600-1669)

Pengantar

Apakah anda sudah pernah melihat Profile Penguasa Wanita Abad Ke 17 (1600-1669), bila belum perlu untuk menambah semangat anda sebagai seorang wanita agar jangan mau tinggal dirumah saja ,ayo para kaum wanita Indonesia tingkatkan kemampuan dan peran anda dan nama-nama wanita yang perkasa ini dapat dijadikan acuan untuk nama putri anda.

Jakarta, Mei 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

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  1601-10 Maria Putri-Abbess von Sachsen-Weimar Quedlinburg (Jerman)


 adalah putri dari Duke Johann Wilhelm dan Pfalzgräfin Rhein bei Dorothea Susanna (1571-1610).

    1602-11 Putri-Abbess Elisabeth I de Salm dari Remiremont, Dame Saint Pierre dan Metz (Prancis)
Mengundurkan diri untuk mendukung Catherine de Lorraine dan ia  menerima pensiun besar. Dia adalah putri dari Friedrich I de Salm, Rheingraf Wild-und di Dhaun et Neufville-sur-Moselle, Prancis cabang keluarga, dan Franziska zu Salm. Sekitar 1605 produksi tembaga di tambang di Thillot mencapai maksimum.(ca. 1577-1611).
 

 1604-1621 Felicitas Putri-Abbess II von Eberstein dari Herford (Jerman)

Countess tampaknya telah Abbess dari Gerresheim sampai 1585, dan pada tahun 1603 dia disebut sebagai Koadjutorin dari Herford. 1609 Perang Suksesi untuk wilayah Jülich-Berg-Kleve-Ravensberg yang berlangsung hingga 1647 dan meletakkan strain besar pada bab ini.

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  Ca. 1604-1623 Marguerite Putri-Abbess VI de Haynin dari Nivelles, Temporaire Dame dan Spirituelle dari Nivelles (Belgia)


Mengambil alih sebagai kepala  dan penguasa kota dari Anne-Marguerite van Namur, yang meninggal 1604.

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  1605-14 Putri-Abbess Elisabeth IX van Berge-s’Heerenberg dari Essen, Lady dari Breisig, Huckard dan Rellinghausen (Jerman)

Pemilihannya untuk jabatan kepala biara berlangsung di bawah kondisi yang meragukan. Pada saat itu, Bab hanya terdiri dari tiga Ladies Protestan dari Bab ini, dan menurut peraturan kepala biara itu harus dipilih antara ketiga. Namun Uskup Agung Köln memberikan dispensasi sehingga dia bisa terpilih. Dia Katolik Katolik dan memperkenalkan kembali pada Bab ini. Dia adalah putri dari Count s’Heerenberg Willem van Berg-dan Maria van Oranje-Nassau, dan tinggal (1581-1616).

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  Eva von Uhrhausen dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)


Negara Bagian ini ditempatkan langsung di bawah raja sebagai negara-negara lain di Jerman dan itu diberi perlindungan kerajaan dan, kekebalan di 1002. Pada tahun 1494 yang Fürstäbtissin diberikan kursi di College of Swabia pejabat gereja yang memiliki hak suara bersama di Bench Gerejawi di Dewan Para Pangeran dari Diet Romawi Suci Diet dan pada tahun 1521 dia disebut-sebut sebagai Imperial petinggi agama dalam inventarisasi Reichsstände – wilayah Kerajaan.

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  1610-17 Putri-Abbess Dorothea von Sachsen dari Quedlinburg (Jerman)


1615 ia mulai mencetak koin sendiri. Putri Kurfürst Kristen saya von Sachsen dan Margravine Sophia von Brandenburg, dan hidup (1591-1617)..

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  1610-1640 Margaretha Putri-Abbess IV von Khünburg dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei


Keluarganya berasal dari Kroasia dan pindah ke Austria pada abad ke-15 dan diberi judul Countly, diselenggarakan kantor tinggi di tentara atau di gereja. Dia adalah seorang promotor besar bab ini.

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  Memerintah 1611-1629 Abbess Jenderal Ana de Jesus de Austria Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)

Alam putri Dona Maria de Mendoza dan Don Juan de Austria, Pangeran Spanyol dan Tentara Leader. Dia juga terkenal karena keterlibatan langsung di sebuah konspirasi dari raja dugaan Sebastian dari Portugal. Dalam dokumen ia bernama “Dilectae dalam Christo Filiae Anne ab Austria Abbatissae Monasterii Monialium de Las Huelgas propre et extramuros Civitatis Burgensis Nullius Dioecesis, Ordinis Cisterciensis”

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  1611-1625 Dorothea Putri-Abbess Auguste von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel dari Gandersheim (Jerman)


Mantan Koadjutor. Dia harus melarikan diri untuk tentara Tilly yang sedang dalam perjalanan ke Wolfenbüttel. Putri Braunschweig Wolfenbüttel von Julius-dan Dorothea von Sachsen. Meninggal karena wabah. sister nya lebih tua, Sophia-Hedwig, memerintah mas kawin di Pommern dari 1677 dan Elisabeth adalah Kontra-Abbess dari Gandersheim tinggal 1578-82.She (1577-1625).
 

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1618-1645 Dorothea Putri-Abbess Sophia zu Sachsen dari Quedlinburg (Jerman)


Tiga Puluh Tahun Perang mencapai kota pada tahun 1622 dan empat tahun kemudian kota ini terkena wabah. Dalam Neustadt 2,374 orang meninggal dalam waktu enam bulan. 1632 Wilhelm von Weimar melewati Quedlinburg dan tahun berikutnya kota ini diduduki oleh – dan dipaksa untuk mengakomodasi – Imperial dan pasukan Swedia, yang juga menjarah kota dan memaksa warga untuk memasok mereka dengan uang dan barang. 1636 kota ini terkena epidemi wabah lain. Resimen dari kolonel Bleicke Swedia menduduki kota 1639-41 saat pertempuran pecah antara kolonel bersih kekaisaran dan Count Johann Ludwig dari Rhine. 1642 Königsmark Umum di Quedlinburg. Duchess Sophia Dorothea-putri dari Duke Friedrich Wilhelm dan Sophia Duchess von Württemberg, dan hidup (1587-1645).

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  Memerintah 1624-1638 Abbess Jehanne II de Lorraine dari Jouarre (Perancis)

Juga dikenal sebagai Jeanne, ia memulai reformasi monastik menyapu di Abbey dan dibangkitkan dari Crypt sisa-sisa St Ebregisile dan pendiri Abbey di hadapan Ratu Marie de Medici dan mengalihkan mereka ke reliquaries yang sekarang di Gereja Paroki. Mereka dibawa keluar untuk prosesi, pada Whit Selasa dan kadang-kadang selama bencana publik. Jehanne de Lorraine menghancurkan gereja biara tua dan dibangun kembali itu bagus sekali. Dia adalah putri Henri I de Guise, Duc de Guise, Prince de Joinville, (1550-1588), yang dibunuh untuk menjadi Protestan, dan Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633). Dia tinggal (1586-1638).

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  1636-63 Maria Putri-Abbess Scholastica Erberhard dari Heggbach (Jerman)

Terpilih Abbess oleh wanita dari bab dalam pengasingan di Feldbach di Thurgau, di mana mereka telah melarikan diri untuk Swedia. Tapi mereka segera kembali dan melanjutkan hidup mereka di wilayah itu. 1644 ia menulis kepada Kaisar Ferdinand III menuntut moratorium terhadap kreditur, hal ini diberikan dan kedalaman dibatalkan, tetapi masih tetap keuangan terbatas dan waktu bertahun-tahun untuk membangun kembali biara.

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  Memerintah 1637-1670 Abbess Jeanne-Baptiste de Bourbon dari Abbey Royal Fontevraud (Perancis)


Pada usia 10 ia memasuki Biara Chelles dan Louise de Bourbon-Lavedan menunjuknya sebagai coadjutrice pada usia 16, tetapi dia tidak mengambil alih posisi sampai dia 25. Dia memerintah dengan mutlak “souverainty” dan ketergantungan langsung di atas Paus di Roma memungkinkannya untuk bertindak secara otonom dari gereja di Perancis. Pada 1641 ia memperoleh surat kerajaan mengkonfirmasikan reformasi dan akhirnya quashing klaim dari para biarawan, yang berusaha untuk mengorganisir diri secara independen dari otoritas kepala biara itu. Tahun berikutnya Aturan disetujui oleh Siktus IV telah dicetak di Paris, tapi di 1658, Kongregasi Ritus kategoris mengutuk bahwa dia otoritas sendiri, wajib para biarawan dan biarawati ketaatan dia mengucapkan kantor, mengatakan misa, dan mengamati ritus dan upacara yang tidak pernah sanksi atau disetujui oleh Roma. Dia adalah putri raja melegitimasi Henri IV dan Charlotte des Essarts, dan kakak penuh dia; Marie Henriette de Bourbon (1609-1629) adalah Abbess dari Chelles. Dia tinggal (1608-1670).

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  1640-57 Putri-Abbess Maria Johanna von Kollonitsch dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei


Keluarganya berasal dari Kroasia dan pindah ke Austria pada abad ke-15 dan diberi judul Countly, diselenggarakan kantor tinggi di tentara atau di gereja. Dia adalah seorang promotor besar bab ini dan itu seni, yang masih terkenal.

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  1641-86 Putri-Abbess Isabella d’Henrietta Aspremont-Lynden dari Munsterbilzen, Dame dari Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye dan Kleine-Spouwen (Belgia)
menerima kepausan mengeluarkan karena dia berada di bawah 30 jika terpilih di tengah protes dari lawan-nya, Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. Bab ini telah selamat dari Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun, tapi menjelang akhir itu diduduki oleh pasukan pengangguran dari Duke Karl dari Lorraine pada tahun 1656. Setelah kematian adiknya, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden tahun 1665, ia diberi nama wali untuk 16 orang anaknya bersama-sama dengan Pangeran-Uskup Frans Egon von Furstenberg dari Liege, adik-adik iparnya, Elisabeth von Furstenberg- Heiligenberg. County dapat diturunkan baik pada pria dan di garis perempuan. Pada 1671 pasukan Raja Louis XIV dari Perancis melewati wilayah ini, membuat hidup wanita sulit dan meninggalkan beberapa bab. Dechaness yang tinggal di Liège 1677-1679, tetapi setelah ia kembali lama diperdebatkan dihidupkan kembali.

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1641-86 Putri-Abbess Isabella d’Henrietta Aspremont-Lynden dari Munsterbilzen, Dame dari Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye dan Kleine-Spouwen (Belgia)
menerima kepausan mengeluarkan karena dia berada di bawah 30 jika terpilih di tengah protes dari lawan-nya, Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. Bab ini telah selamat dari Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun, tapi menjelang akhir itu diduduki oleh pasukan pengangguran dari Duke Karl dari Lorraine pada tahun 1656. Setelah kematian adiknya, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden tahun 1665, ia diberi nama wali untuk 16 orang anaknya bersama-sama dengan Pangeran-Uskup Frans Egon von Furstenberg dari Liege, adik-adik iparnya, Elisabeth von Furstenberg- Heiligenberg. County dapat diturunkan baik pada pria dan di garis perempuan. Pada 1671 pasukan Raja Louis XIV dari Perancis melewati wilayah ini, membuat hidup wanita sulit dan meninggalkan beberapa bab. Dechaness yang tinggal di Liège 1677-1679, tetapi setelah ia kembali lama diperdebatkan dihidupkan kembali. Dia menggunakan judul Isabelle Henriette, oleh Grace Allah, wanita dan Abbess, Sovereign Lady, Princesse-Abbesse (gefürste Abtissine protes di tengah-tengah “dari Liège Dia. Putri dari Ernst d’Aspremont dan Anna de Gouffier, dan tinggal (1.615 -86).

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  Memerintah 1641-1644 Abbess Jenderal Francisca de Navarra y Indah dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Anggota sampingan keluarga kerajaan Navarra, yang turun dari Don Louis de Navarra, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger (w. 1372). Raja Felipe IV menegaskan hak-hak ahli-ahli Taurat dari biara untuk bertindak sebagai hakim (hakim) pada 1643.

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  1641-44 Juara III Abbess Isabelle de Héricourt dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Faumont Noordpeene, dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Diangkat sebagai Abbess oleh Raja Felipe IV dari Spanyol, yang sebagai Count of Flanders dan Artois, adalah kepala Negara Rendah Selatan, setelah istri pastur telah tidak dapat memilih sebagai pengganti Marie IV selama 6 bulan.

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  1641-1660 Abbess memerintah Maria Margarethe Schenk von Castell dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Disebutkan sebagai kepala biara wanita di 1638. Hal ini tidak diketahui apakah ia menerima penghormatan adat oleh penduduk Wald dan wilayah lainnya pada tahun 1641 atau tidak sampai 1651 karena perang lanjutan. Dia adalah putri dari Maz Hans Schenk von zu Castell Gattburg dan Eva Blarer von zu Wartensee Wartegg.

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  Sekitar 1643 Henrica Raitz Frentz Putri-Abbess von dari Burtscheid (Jerman)
Anggota pertama keluarga mulai memerintah pada tahun 1618, tetapi tidak diketahui untuk berapa lama dan kapan Henrica mengambil alih memerintah negara. Namun pada 1643 ia membangun Monnikenhof dalam Bab ini. kepala biara Selanjutnya disebutkan tahun 1649.

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  1643-1653 Abbess Nullius Girolama Indelli dari Biara Kerajaan Benedetto Saint di Conversano, Jang Temporal dan sekuler dari Conversano (Italia)
Dalam daftar alternatif Abbesses pemerintahannya berakhir 1644.

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  Memerintah 1643-1662 Abbess Anne de L’Hopital dari Montvilliers
Putri François, Count de L’Hopital dan Rosnay dan des Charlotte Essarts, yang Maitresse Henri Raja. Mungkin digantikan oleh Marguerite de Gonzague. Dia (w. 1662).

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  1644-53 Putri-Abbess Barbara aku Weglin dari Baindt (Jerman)
Sekitar 1.649 para wanita bab ini kembali kehidupan di biara setelah penjarahan selama ketiga puluh sembilan Tahun Perang.

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  Memerintah 1644-1645 Abbess Jenderal Ana María de Salinas dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Meninggal dalam tahun pertama masa pemilihan umum tiga tahun nya.

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  Memerintah 1645-1648 Abbess Jenderal Jerónima de Navarra dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Anggota garis-samping rumah mantan kerajaan Navarra.

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  1645-80 Putri-Abbess Anna Sophie von und der Saya Pfalz-Zweibrücken Birkenfeld dari Quedlinburg (Jerman)
Putri Pfalzgraf Georg Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein dan Gräfin Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde. Dia tinggal (1619-1680).

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  1645-74 Maria Putri-Abbess Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid dari Elten, Abbess dari Vreden (Jerman)
Dianggap pendiri kedua sebagai dia mulai membangun kembali bab, seorang Katolik Wilayah sebagian kecil di Jerman, sebagian di dalam Protestan Belanda. 1664 ia meminta Paus untuk konfirmasi dan perluasan hak gerejawi nya, dengan menggunakan contoh rekannya di Essen, mencatat bahwa pendahulu-nya sejak zaman kuno telah melaksanakan otoritas uskup hanya menyisakan hak untuk mengkonfirmasi pemilihan Abbess baru untuk Uskup Utrecht. The Nuntius Paus di Kölln merekomendasikan bahwa Paus dikonfirmasi kekuatannya kuasi-episkopal dan bahwa ia menunjuk Vikaris Jenderal sebagai pengganti sementara nya. Paus diberikan hak theise nya pada 1669 dan dikonfirmasi mereka pada tahun 1675. Pada tahun 1669 ia mendirikan sebuah suka dalam “Princely dan Imperial Bebas Bab Elten” dan “Tinggi Countly” untuk Vreden yang mendukung perempuan muda keluarganya baik dalam garis laki-laki dan perempuan Putri Count Friedrich Ernst zu Salm-Reifferscheid di Bedburg dan Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Kakaknya, Anna Salome, adalah kedaulatan Essen, dan tinggal hidup (1620-1674).

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  1645-1663 Catherine Abbess memerintah de Beauffremez dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Faumont Noordpeene, dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Pada pemilu nya, Sebelum, yang Chaplaine, Bendahara, wanita dari ruang makan, yang Matron dari siswa, 2 wanita dari sacritsty, 2 canonesses dan 6 wanita lain, pekerjaan yang tidak disebutkan, mengambil bagian. Dia adalah anak dari Lord d’Esnes dan Haily. Biara menjadi bagian dari Perancis 1659.

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  1646-88 Putri-Abbess Anna-Salome aku von Salm-Reiffenscheidt dari Essen, Lady dari Bresig dll (Jerman)
1640-1674 ia juga Dechantess dari Thorn dan Lady dari Bab (Stiftfrau) di Elten dan St Ursula (Köln). Dia mampu menegaskan kedaulatan pangeran terhadap kota Protestan, dan dengan demikian dijamin keberadaan lanjutan dari Damenstift (Ladies Chapter). Sejak 1661 ia menggunakan judul “Des heiligen römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin di Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen” (Putri dan Abbess Romawi Suci Realm of Essen, Lady, dll Breisig). Putri Count Ernst Friedrich von Salm-Reifferscheid di Bedburg dan Maria Leiningen Ursula zu Countess. Satu kakak, Maria Sophie, memerintah sebagai Fürstäbtissin dari Elten lain, Anna Katharina dari Thorn. Sebuah keempat, Sidonia Elisabeth, adalah Lady dari Bab ini dalam Thorn, Essen dan St Ursula sebelum menikah Hartmann Furst von und zu Liechtenstein tahun 1640, dan menjadi ibu dari 24 anak. Anna Salome tinggal (1622-1688).

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  1646-47 Anna Catharina Putri-Abbess zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt dari Thorn (Belanda)
Mengundurkan diri untuk menikah Count von Johann IV Rietberg, dan setelah kematiannya ia bupati 1660-1668 untuk putra Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-1677) yang jatuh oleh Strassburg, dan digantikan oleh saudara-saudaranya Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-1680) dan (1687-1688) dan Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), yang baik Diachons dan Domherrs dari Strassburg Katedral, dan Anna Catharina tetap menjadi penguasa wilayah virtual. Ferdinand Maximilian digantikan oleh keponakannya, Maria Ernestine Franziska. kakak Anna Catharina tua, Maria Sophie (1620-1674) adalah Abbess di Elten dan Anna lainnya Salome (1622-1688) di Elten. Mereka adalah anak-anak perempuan Altgraf Friedrich Ernst, (1583-1639) dan Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen († 1649). putri Anna Catharina, Bernhardine Sophia adalah Fürstäbtissin dari Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina tinggal (1624-1691).

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  1647-90 Putri-Abbess Anna Salomé von Manderscheid-Blankenheim dari Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler dan Molenbeerse (Belanda)
1689-91 Anna-Salome II Putri-Abbess dari Essen, Lady dari Breisig, Huckard dan Rellinghausen (Jerman)
Apakah untuk menaikkan pajak dalam azas karena perang berlangsung, dan bekerja erat bersama dengan adiknya, Clara Elisabeth, yang kedua-in-command. Pada tahun 1688 Anna-Salome terpilih Fürstäbtissin dari Essen. Dia adalah putri dari Ernst Friedrich von Manderscheid-Blankenheim dan Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. Kakaknya, Marie Sofie (1620-1674), adalah Abbess di Eltern. Anna Salomé dan hidup (1622-1691).

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  Sekitar 1648 Justina Putri-Abbess Anna Etlin Rosenfels von dari St Bab Royal Georg di Hradschin di Praha (Republik Ceko)
Ferdinand von Habsburg dari Austria-Hongaria, Kaisar Kekaisaran Romawi Suci memberi “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St Georgen königl auf dem. Schloss zu Prag” dispensasi dari pajak-perang karena situasi ekonomi bencana bab ini.

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  1648-1657 Elisabeth II Putri-Abbess d’Alençon dari Remiremont (Perancis)
Elisabeth-Marguerite d’Orléans, Mademoiselle d’Alençon berusia 2 tahun ketika ia terpilih sebagai berdaulat bab ini, dan karena itu orang tuanya, Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, Duke d’Anjou, d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d ‘Alençon, comte de Blois, Monthéry et de Limours, Baron d’Amboise, seigneur de Montargi dan Marguerite de Lorraine, memerintah untuknya. Pada 1657 Elisabeth-Marguerite meninggalkan Abbey dan menikah Duke Louis Joseph de Guise (1650-1671) dengan siapa dia punya satu anak François Joseph de Guise (1670-1675). Putri mantan-Abbess hidup (1646-1696).

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  1648-51 dan 1656-59 memerintah Abbess Jenderal Jerónima Góngora de Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Selain perannya sebagai kepala jemaat constisting dari monastaries dari Torquemada, Gradefes, Carrizo, Perales, San Andrés de Arroyo, Santa Maria de Otero, Canas y Fuencaliente, Villamayor de los Montes, Renuncio, Barria y Avia dan Vileña, dia juga Kepala paroki tergantung dari Bercial dan Lorilla.

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  1649-67 Putri-Abbess Louise Juliane von der Pfalz Elisabeth-Zweibrücken dari Herford (Jerman)
The Countess Palantine adalah putri dari Johann II, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken dan Luise Juliane von Simmeren, dan hidup (1613-1667).

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  1649-83 Putri-Abbess Maria-Elisabeth von Salis dari Obermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Anggota keluarga mulia Swiss.

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  Sekitar 1649-Abbess Putri dan Baroness von Frentz Raitz Pejabat dari Burtscheid (Jerman)
Rupanya Freiin (Baroness), yang nama tidak diketahui, terpilih, sebagai penerus Fürstäbtissin Henrica, yang disebut-sebut pada 1643, tapi tidak banyak yang lebih banyak dikenal. Yang terakhir dari keluarga (Freiherrliche) dari Raitz yg berkenaan dgn baron von Frentz untuk mengatur wilayah itu di kantor sampai 1669.

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  1649 Abbess Acquavia Antonia Nullius d’Aragona dari Biara Kerajaan Benedetto Saint di Conversano, Jang Temporal dan sekuler dari Conversano (Italia)
Tercantum dalam daftar alternatif Abbesses bab ini. Suster dari Donata Abbesses dan Mariana – semua putri Count dan Countess Caterina Acquavia d’Aragona dan Giulio Acquavia d’Aragona dari Conversano.

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  1650-65 Maria Putri-Abbess Sabina zu Solms-Lich dari Gandersheim (Jerman)
Sejak pendahulunya, Fürstäbtissin Katharina Elisabeth tidak tinggal dalam bab ini, dia harus berjanji untuk tinggal di sana untuk mendapatkan dipilih. Putri Count Ernst II zu Solms-Lich dan Countess Anna von Mansfeld, dia tinggal (1600-1665).

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  1650-69 Putri-Abbess Maria-Franziska aku von Montfort dari Buchau (Jerman)
Sebelum ia menjadi istri pastur dia mungkin Lady-in-menunggu untuk Putri Bangsawan Claudia von Tirol. Segera setelah pemilu, dia mulai membangun kembali bab dan membawa situasi ekonomi kembali ke jalur. Dia berhasil mengambil “harta dari gereja”. Ketika ia menjadi sakit parah di College of the Penghitungan Swabia berusaha untuk mempengaruhi pemilihan sucessor nya. Terdaftar di antara para Pangeran Sekuler Lingkaran Swabia tahun 1650 dan 1669 dan ia menandatangani keputusan dari Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) pada tahun 1664. Dia menggunakan gelar “Pendeta dan Illustrius Lady, Putri Abbess dari Kekaisaran Romawi Suci Buchau, Countess nee dari Montfort, dan putri Count Hugo von Montfort, Konselor dari Bavaria-Pfalz dan Imperial Council dan Kamar, dan Euphrosina Truchsess von Waldburg-Wolfegg, dan tinggal (ca. 1622-1669).

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  1651-53 dan 1656-59 memerintah Isabel Abbess-Jenderal de Leyva Osorio y dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Anggota keluarga Penghitungan Trastamara dan Marqueses dari Astorga.

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  1652-64 Putri-Abbess Maria Caecilia von Greuth dari Schänis (Swiss)
Para uskup leter tahu bahwa ia harus menggunakan Pengadilan Keuskupan dalam kasus-kasus pengadilan. Seorang kerabat miliknya, Agnes III, adalah Fürstäbtissin dari Säckingen 1621-1658. Maria Caecilia adalah putri dari Hugo von Theodorich Greuth, dari Klingenau, dan Apollonia von Altendorp.

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  1652-75 Maria Putri-Abbess Margarethe von Sigertshofen dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Anggota dari keluarga bangsawan dari wilayah di Schwaben di Jerman.

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  1653-72 Putri-Abbess Maria-Scholastica Klöcker dari Baindt (Jerman)
Sebagai Fürstäbtissin dia adalah anggota Bench dari pejabat gereja dari Swabia Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), perakitan regional dari Kreis Schwäbischer, dan sebagai Imperial petinggi agama dia mengadakan pemungutan suara di College of the pejabat gereja dari Swabia, yang 22 anggota (Abbesses dan Abbots) memiliki suara bersama dalam Dewan para Pangeran dari Diet Imperial, di mana wakil dari pejabat gereja duduk di Bench Gerejawi. Diet Regensburg tahun 1663 yang berkepanjangan itu sendiri tanpa batas ke sesi permanen dan selanjutnya disebut Diet Regensburg, atau Diet akhirat (Immerwährender Reichstag).

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  Memerintah 1653-1656 Abbess Jenderal Antonia Jacinta de Navarra y de la Cueva dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Felipe putri Duke of Navarre de la Cueva y de Salazar dan Mariana de Mendoza. Kakeknya adalah batard Pedro de Navarra, yang kakak Isabel Abbess dari 1665. Antonia Jacinta menjadi seorang biarawati di Las Huelgas dan kemudian terpilih kepala biara. Ketika ia diucapkan-nya sumpah, dia meminta Yesus sebagai hadiah pernikahan yang ia memimpin dia melalui duka dan kesulitan. Dia ditemukan baik dalam kelimpahan, menderita penyakit kecemasan dan spiritual. Dia dikatakan telah menerima stigmata. Kemudian dinyatakan terhormat – yang adalah judul dari orang yang telah secara anumerta dinyatakan terhormat – “heroik dalam kebajikan” – selama penyelidikan dan proses menuju kanonisasi sebagai orang suci. Dia tinggal (1602-1656).

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  1653-1665 Indelli Cesaria Abbess Nullius dari Biara Kerajaan Benedetto Saint di Conversano, Jang Temporal dan sekuler dari Conversano (Italia)
Dalam daftar alternatif Abbesses pemerintahan pertama berakhir 1656 dan yang kedua berlangsung 1660-1662.

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  1654-68 IV Elisabeth Putri-Abbess d’Oyenbrugge dari Nivelles, Temporaire Dame dan Spirituelle dari Nivelles (Belgia)
nama nya juga dieja d’Oyenbrughe.

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  1655-1659 Johannetta Putri-Abbess Stephana Hees von der Keppel (Jerman)
Menurut Perdamaian Westphalia, yang mengikuti Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun, wilayah gerejawi, bab dan biara harus kembali ke situasi sebelum 1624. Dan pada waktu itu biara itu Protestan tetapi dua tahun kemudian Pangeran Johann Nassau diperkenalkan kembali Catholism, dan oleh karena itu diputuskan bahwa Keppel harus menjadi bab ganda-denominasi (stift), dan jabatan Abbess harus bergantian antara Protestan dan Katolik. Oleh karena itu berhasil Johanetta Maria von Effern Protestan. Dia mengundurkan diri dari biara untuk menikah, dan digantikan oleh Protestan lain.

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  1655-92 Juara II Abbess Henriette de Guise dari Abbey Royal Jouarre (Perancis)
Juga dikenal sebagai Henriette de Lorraine, ia kemenakan Jehanne dan selama pemerintahannya, Abbey menjadi kuat, karena keistimewaan pembebasan, diperoleh dalam abad ke-13. Namun ini Abbess, terlalu yakin dari prerogatif dia, memiliki sengketa dan gugatan dengan Bossuet, uskup Meaux. The “Eagle dari Meaux”, karena ia dikenal, mengganggu keras. Henriette kalah dalam kasus tersebut dan mengundurkan diri. Namun, Bossuet bisa lembut juga sebagai surat-suratnya kepada para biarawati bersaksi. Dia menulis kepada mereka di 1695: “Allah mengasihi Jouarre”. Putri Lorraine Claude de, Duc de Chevreuse, Prince de Joinville dan Marie Aimée Rohan de, Mademoiselle de Montbazon. Kakaknya tertua itu, Anne Marie, Abbess dari Pont-aux-Dames, dan ia tinggal (1631-1693).

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  1657-1687 Ursula Putri-Abbess Scherlin dari Rottenmünster (Jerman)
wilayah itu sudah hampir ditinggalkan selama Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun dan biara itu rusak parah akibat pasukan melewati banyak yang telah membuat kamp di kota Rottweiler, biara diletakkan pada api, menjarah dll Ursula mulai membangun kembali pada 1662 dan dikelola untuk membawa wilayah itu ke dalam kondisi kerja.

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  1657-95 Maria Putri-Abbess Benedicta Schrattenbach dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei
Dalam dokumen resmi dari 1660, ia dinamakan sebagai Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Goss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach dan di Topograhy dari Kadipaten Steiermark dari 1681, entri tentang bab ini disebut “Das Hoch Adeliche Iungfraw Closter Goss.

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  1657-1660 Princesse-Abbesse Marie-Anne dari Lorraine dari Remiremont, Dame Saint Pierre dan sebagainya Metz (Prancis)
Sang putri terpilih Abbess pada usia 11, ia adalah putri dari Nicolas François, yang mengundurkan diri sebagai Kardinal pada tahun 1634 menjadi Duke of Lorraine (1634-1661), dan Claude de Lorraine (1612-1648). Dia tinggal (1648-1661).

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  1658-72 Putri-Abbess Francisca von Schauenburg dari Säckingen (Jerman)
pemerintahan nya menandai masa membangun kembali setelah devastations dari Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun. Dia adalah putri dari Hans Bernhard von Schauenburg, dari Line Luksemburg, dan Elisabeth von Schönau, dan hidup (1588-1672).

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  1658-1670 Abbess NulliusMarianna Acquavia d’Aragona dari Biara Kerajaan Benedetto Saint di Conversano, Jang Temporal dan sekuler dari Conversano (Italia)
Dalam daftar alternatif, dia terdaftar sebagai penguasa ..- 165 56 dan 1671-1672 dan 1675. Dia adalah putri dari Count dari Countess Conversano, Giulio Acquaviva d ‘Aragona, 2nd Duke di Noci dan Caterina Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 6 duchessa Di Nardo. Adiknya-di-hukum, Isabella Filomarino, adalah Bupati County 1655-1665.

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  1659-1663 Eleonora Putri-Abbess Theodora Vogtin von Elspe Keppel (Jerman)
Dia adalah seorang Protestan dan Katolik seperti pendahulunya, ia mengundurkan diri untuk masuk ke dalam pernikahan.

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  1660-1702 Princesse-Abbesse Dorothée Marie de Salm dari Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, dll Metz (Prancis)
Sang putri terpilih Coadjutrice dengan hak suksesi sebagai seorang anak, dan ketika Marie-Anne meninggal, ia terpilih Abbess. 1677 ia pindah ke chateau dari beberapa kerabat, Neuviller-sur-Moselle, 3 hari perjalanan dari Remiremont, di mana ia mengambil berjuang untuk posisinya terhadap Administratrice, Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre, wilayah ini dilanda gempa bumi di 1688. 1691 ia pergi ke Paris untuk membela kasusnya di hadapan raja dan para wanita bab mengirim Madame de Bourdonné sebagai utusan mereka. 1693 raja dikonfirmasi hak seigniorial atas kota Remiremont dan terus membagi hak dari pengadilan tinggi, menengah dan rendah dengan kota. Awalnya bernama Dorothea Maria zu Salm, ia adalah putri dari Pangeran Leopold Karl Philipp zu Salm dan Countess Anna Maria von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, ahli waris dari Anholt, yang meninggal di Remiremont pada tahun 1661, adiknya Maria Christina, adalah canoniss bab ini. Dorothée Marie tinggal (1651-1702)

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  1660-66 Bersama Administratrice Hélène d’Anglure dari Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, dll Metz (Prancis)
Sebagai Doyenne Dame dia Kedua-in-Command. Dia memprotes pemilihan Dorothée de Salm sebagai Abbess, karena dia di bawah usia 25 yang dibutuhkan pada usia pemilihan, tapi Paus dispended bagi kekuasaan, dan ia menjadi Penjabat Putri-Abbess dari Bab ini, tetapi tetap tinggal di sengketa dengan Dorothée setelah dia datang dari umur sampai kematiannya sendiri. (W. 1666).

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  1660-77 Bersama Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffreof Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, dll Metz (Prancis)
Menjabat Dame Sonière dan diselenggarakan sebagai adminsitrator bersama dengan Doyenne Dame, Hélène d’Anglure, untuk usia-bawah Putri-Abbess Dorothée de Salm. Setelah dia terpilih sebagai penerus Madame d’Anglure’s dia melanjutkan powerstruggle dengan Abbess, yang bernama adiknya, Christine, sebagai “Kedua-Command di-” pada 1702 dan itu adalah dia yang bertindak sebagai Bupati untuk Charlotte Elisabeth Gabrielle kecil Lorraine dari 11 tahun 1700 dan seterusnya, tidak Bernarde. (D. setelah 1704)

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  1660-1681 Abbess memerintah Maria Salome von Bernhausen dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Disebutkan sebagai Oberbursiererin di 1639. Pada tahun 1680 bangunan utama bab ini dibakar. Dia berhubungan dengan sejumlah besar canonisses dan putri Hans Wilhelm von Bernhausen Moos und zu Eppishausen dan Margarethe von Blarer Wartensee. Dia tinggal (1593-1681).

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  Sekitar 1661 Maria Benedicta Schwarzenbach Putri-Abbess von dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei
Dalam dokumen resmi, dia disebut sebagai Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Goss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach

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  1662-1665 dan 1677-80Reigning Abbess Jenderal Ines Mino de Mendoza y dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Sebuah relatif (mungkin adiknya), Magdalena, dipilih Señora Abadesa Las Huelgas dua kali; 1669-72 dan 1680-83.

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  1663-70 Maria Putri-Abbess Appolonia Schweizer dari Heggbach (Jerman)
Dia melanjutkan kegiatan bangunan dan pada saat yang sama dibayar kembali bagian-bagian penting dari kedalaman bab ini. Lahir di Ulm, ia tinggal (1604-1670).

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  1663-96 Putri-Abbess Franziska von Freyberg dari Gutenzell (Jerman)
Sebagai Fiefholder Swabia, ia dieksekusi Pengadilan Tinggi kanan atas Marshalate dari Swabia dari 1685.

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  1663-1685 Johanna Putri-Abbess Maria von Holdinghausen Keppel (Jerman)
Bergabung Bab tahun 1655, dan 11 tahun kemudian ia menjadi Katolik.

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  1664-77 Maria Putri-Abbess Franzisca zu Rhein dari Schänis (Swiss)
Salah satu kerabatnya, Johann Jakob zu Rhein von Morschwiller (1643-1690), adalah Domherr dan Scholasticus Uskup Pangeran Basel, di mana keluarganya sudah berpengaruh sejak abad ke-12. Berikutnya keluarganya untuk memerintah wilayah itu mulai menjabat pada 1701. Dia daugher dari Lorenz zu Rhein, dari sebuah keluarga Menteri (Pegawai Negeri Sipil Kebangsawanan), dan Maria Agnes von Rosenbach.

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  1665-78 Putri-Abbess Dorothea zu Hedwig Slesvig-Holsten-Nordburg dari Gandersheim (Jerman)
Judul lengkap-nya ahli waris ke Norwegia, Duchess of Slesvig, Holstein, Stormarn dan Ditmarsken, Countess Oldenborg dan Delmenhorst, dan dia telah Dechaness sejak 1652 dan hidup sangat bebas untuk Fürstäbtissin. Dikonversi ke Catholisism dan menikah dengan Count von Christof Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625-1696), dan Paus Innocentius XI mengirim ucapan selamat pribadi pada kesempatan pernikahan mereka. Setelah beberapa tahun ia melanjutkan perjalanan aa ke Wina, di mana dia dibayar menghormati ke Kaisar Leopold. Di Roma ia bergerak di kalangan jauh pergi sepupu mantan ratu Christina dari Swedia. Tahun 1681 ia melahirkan seorang putra, Alexander Leopold Anthon, yang sponsor ratu Christina dari Swedia, Jerman Kaisar Leopold dan kakaknya iparnya, Duke Anton Ulrich dari Braunswieg. Kembali ke Schleswig di 1682. Dia adalah putri dari Duke Friedrich dari Norborg dan kedua istrinya Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst, dan tinggal (1636-1692).

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  1665-69and 1672-77 memerintah Abbess Jenderal María Isabel de Navarra y de la Cueva dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Putri Don Pedro de Navarra batard dan gundiknya Beatriz Morales dan cucu dari Pedro II de Navarra, 3. Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión. Bibinya, Jeronima de Navarra, berhasil ayahnya pada tahun 1556 sebagai 2 Marquesa de Cortes, 7 Vizcondesa de Muruzábal de Andión. Dia menikah dua kali tetapi tidak punya anak. bibi lain adalah Antonia Jacinta, yang telah Señora Abadesa di Las Huelgas 1653-1656.

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  1666-1677 Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre dari Remiremont (Perancis)
1666-84-1704 -? Dame Doyenne
Terpilih Dame Doyenne dalam suksesi Hélène d’Anglure dan Adminsitrator dari Bab untuk usia di bawah Putri-Abbess Dorothée de Salm, dan melanjutkan perjuangan kekuasaan dengan dia, dan telah adiknya, Christine dinamakan sebagai “Kedua-in-Command” pada tahun 1700 dan itu dia yang bertindak sebagai Bupati untuk Charlotte Elisabeth Gabrielle Lorraine kecil dari 1700 dan seterusnya 11 tahun, tidak Bernarde.

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  1667-80 Putri-Abbess Elisabeth von der Pfalz III dari Herford (Jerman)
The Pfalzgräfin adalah putri dari Pemilih von der Pfalz Friederich V dan Raja Bohemia (The Winter-raja) dan Elizabeth Stuart. Dia telah melakukan kontak dekat dengan banyak filsuf dan ilmuwan hari. Pada 1661 dia terpilih Coadjutorin dari Abbess bab “reichsunmittelbaren” (Imperial Segera Wilayah) untuk wanita Mulia dan pada 1667 ia terpilih sebagai Putri-Abbess. Dia memberikan kebebasan beragama dan tempat tinggal ke sejumlah gereja-gereja Protestan, yang tidak diperbolehkan di tempat lain – antara lain Quaker. Kakaknya, Sophia von Hanover, diberi nama ahli waris kepada takhta Inggris di 1701. Elizabeth tinggal (1618-1680).

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  1668-1705 Putri-Abbess Madeleine-Thérèse de Noyelle dari Nivelles, Temporaire Dame dan Spirituelle dari Nivelles (Belgia)
Dia adalah anak kedua dari keluarga Noyelle de-untuk memerintah wilayah itu. Yang pertama, Marguerite V berada di kantornya 1561-1569.

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  Sampai 1669 Freiherrin Raitz Frentz Putri-Abbess von dari Burtscheid (Jerman)
Yang terakhir dari empat anggota keluarga yang memerintah wilayah itu dari 1618. Dan seperti itu adalah perkara ini dengan pendahulunya nama depannya tidak diketahui.

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  1669-1672 dan 1680-83Reigning Abbess Jenderal Magdalena Mino de Mendoza y dari Royal Biara Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas Burgos di (Spanyol)
Sebuah relatif (mungkin adiknya), Ines, dipilih Señora Abadesa Las Huelgas dua kali; 1662-65 dan 1677-80.

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  1669-92 Maria Putri-Abbess Theresia aku von Sulz dari Buchau, Lady dari Strassberg (Jerman)
Setelah pemilu dia adalah “dipuji” oleh penduduk Strassberg (Erbhüldigung) dan kemudian mata pelajaran yang lain “memuji” nya. Setelah inaguration, dia menekankan haknya untuk menunjuk Imam dari Bab terhadap Uskup Konstanz dan ia berusaha mencoba untuk memperkenalkan kembali perhambaan di Strassberg. Dia terdaftar di antara para Pangeran Sekuler Lingkaran Swabia tahun 1672, 1675 1690 dan 1692. Dia meninggalkan College of the Penghitungan Alam (Reichgrafen) karena pernah ada tronger attepmts untuk interfeer dalam urusan internal bab ini. Para chater tidak pernah sepenuhnya pulih dari devestations selama Perang Tiga Puluh Tahun dan telah menjual sejumlah lordships dan mengambil lones berat untuk bertahan hidup. Dia adalah putri dari Aistroam Ernst Ludwig, Count von Sulz dan Landgrave im Klettgau dan Countess Maria Elisabeth von Hohenzollern, dan hidup (1634-1692).

 
 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwnady 2011

Women In Leader(Penguasa wanita) in 17th-19th Century

 

 

CHRONOLOGICAL
LIST OF
PRINCESS ABBESSES
1600-1918

In German: Fürstäbtissin/Reichsäbtissin,
French: Abbesse Princesse/Princesse d’Empire
and Dutch: Vorstin-Abdis
and other Abbesses with territorial or
ecclesiastical powers.

Among the many principalities of The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation were a number of Ecclesiastical Territories were ruled by an Abbess with the title of Princess-Abbess (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin). The Imperial Immediacies (Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit) held a privileged feudal and political status under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord(s) and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights themselves. The territories held seats in the College of Prelates of Swabia or the Rhine, which held a joint vote in the College of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Many of the numerous other minor Convents, Abbeys and Ladies Chapters functioned as landowners, regional administrators and fiefholders and exercised the lower court right.

There were also Abbesses with Quasi-Episcopal Powers in Italy and Spain


  1600-15 Princess-Abbess Ursula Giel von Gielsberg of Säckingen (Germany)
A nun at Tämkon until she was allowed to move to Säckingen, where she was elected Princess by the Chapter consisting of 3 canonisses and 3 canons in the presence of representatives of the Bishop and the Government of Vorderöasterreich. Her brother, Gabril was Prince-Abbot of Murback 1573 and another relative, Roman Giel von Gielsberg, was Prince-Abbot of Kempten (1639-73). She was daughter of Christoph Giel von Gielsberg zu Glattburg, Diocesian Steward of Klingenau (Bischöflichen Vogts) and Barbara Muntprat von Spiegelberg and (d. 1615).

  1600-36 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Werdenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Kustorin 1597, reformed the chapter 1607 and in 1632 the canonisses escaped to Konstanz, Überlingen and Pfullendorf. She lived (1557-1638).


  1601-10 Princess-Abbess Maria von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The 31st Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Duke Johann Wilhelm and Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein Dorothea Susanna, she lived (1571-1610).

  1600-03 Reigning Abbess Barbe II de Bailleul of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord d’Eecke and Steenvoorde.

  1601-04 Princess-Abbess Anne Marguerite de Namur of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The Lady was daughter of Philippe de Namur, Seigneur de Trivieres and Jacqueline van Liedekerke. The paternal lordship was inherited by her sister, Marie (d. 1603), who was married to Jacques de la Hamayde.

  1601-04 Reigning Abbess-General María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The abbess of the Abbey held quasi-episcopal powers.

  1602-10 Princess-Abbess Regina von Schrattenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a noble family in Niederösterreich.

  1602-11 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
Resigned in favour of Catherine de Lorraine ad received a large pension. She was daughter of Friedrich I de Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf in Dhaun et Neufville-sur-Moselle, of the French branch of the family, and Franziska zu Salm. Around 1605 the copper production in the mines at Thillot reached its maximum. She lived (ca. 1577-1611).

  Until 1602 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Manderscheid
-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Eltern and Vreden (Germany)
Her sister, Elisabeth, was Fürstäbtissin of Essen (1575-78) until she abdicated in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. They were daughters of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied, Fürstäbtissin Margaretha lived (1539-1602).

  1603-20 Reigning Abbess Jacqueline de Lannoy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Hautmont.

  1604-21 Princess-Abbess Felicitas II von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)
The Countess had apparently been Abbess of Gerresheim until 1585, and in 1603 she is named as Koadjutorin of Herford. 1609 the War of Succession for the territory of Jülich-Berg-Kleve-Ravensberg which lasted until 1647 and laid great strains on the chapter.

  1602-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg-Styrum und Bronckhorst of Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst and Borghorst (Germany)
1640 Hereditary Countess of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen
In 1619 she gave the Vredener Hungertuch (Cloth of Hunger) to the city of Vreden, which depicts 11 passion-pictures and an inscription in Latin stating: “Agnes, by the Grace of God, Abbess to Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst und Borghorst, Countess von Limburg und Bronckhorst, has given this ornament in the honour of the sufferings of Christ…” In 1635 her sister’s son; Jobst-Hermann von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen, Count of Bückeburg, died unmarried. He was first succeeded by his cousin, Otto, but he died after four years, and she managed to secure the inheritance of Gemen for herself against the claims of the Holstein-Schaumburg-family, and then ceded the lordship to her nephew, Count Hermann-Otto I von Limburg-Styrum. She was daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg, and lived (1563-1645).

  1604-31 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Marck of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, she succeeded her sister, Josiana, as sovereign, and she managed to keep the principality relatively unharmed in spite of the 30th year war. Anna lived (1551-1631).

  Ca. 1604-23 Princess-Abbess Marguerite VI de Haynin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Took over as head of the chapter and ruler of the city from Anne-Marguerite van Namur, who died 1604.

  1604-08 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Villamízar Cabeza de Vac of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a family of explorers of the new world and governors in South America.

  1605-14 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IX van Berge-s’Heerenberg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Her election to the post of abbess took place under dubious circumstances. At the time, the Chapter only consisted of three protestant Ladies of the Chapter, and according to the regulations the abbess had to be elected among the three. But the Archbishop of Köln gave dispensation so that she could be elected. She was catholic and reintroduced Catholicism to the Chapter. She was daughter of Count Willem van Berg-s’Heerenberg and Maria van Oranje-Nassau, and lived (1581-1616).

  1605-10 Princess-Abbess Veronica von Freyberg of Heggbach (Germany)
1605 and 1606 heavy “Turk Taxes” were imposed on the territory, which was also hit by the plague. The right of High Court was transferred from the Chapter to the Paternal Abbey of Salem during her reign and in 1610 the nuns and other inhabitants of the convent fled for the plague to Biberach and Weitenau. She resigned because of bad health. (d. 1613)

  1605-10 Princess-Abbess Veronica von Freyberg of Heggbach (Germany)
1605 and 1606 heavy “Turk Taxes” were imposed on the territory, which was also hit by the plague. The right of High Court was transferred from the Chapter to the Paternal Abbey of Salem during her reign and in 1610 the nuns and other inhabitants of the convent fled for the plague to Biberach and Weitenau. She resigned because of bad health. (d. 1613)

  1605-16 Princess-Abbess Eva von Uhrhausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany and it was granted royal protection and, immunity in 1002. In 1494 the Fürstäbtissin was granted a seat in the College of Swabian Prelates who had a joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Diet and in 1521 she was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  Until 1605 Reigning Abbess Françoise de la Châtre of Faremoutiers (France)
Succeeded her sister, Anne, who reigned at a not known time. They were members of the family of the barons de Montfort. (d. 1605).

  1608-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Praxedis von Perckhausen of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter became an immediate realm in 833 and the abbess held the rank of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm and reigned over the canonesses in the chapter and the subjects in the territories belonging to the chapter, which held a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and on the Bavarian Landtag. In ecclesiastical affairs she was subject to the Prince Bishop of Regensburg and in secular affairs she was obliged to consult the canonesses, so she was not a absolute ruler.

  1608-11 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Leiba of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
By the favour of the king, she was invested with almost royal prerogatives, and exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages. Like Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1609-14, 1620-26 and 1629-32 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Mendoza II of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”, and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

  1610-50 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Spaur-Pflaum und Valör of Buchau (Germany)
The Baroness (Freiin) was in dispute with the bishop on Konstanz and the College of Counts, defending her own position and travelled to Vienna to discuss her affairs with the emperor, and during the Thirty Years War, she was able to keep the territory out of trouble – not the least because of the connections with her brother, Dominikus Virgil, who was Colonel in the Army of the League and Erbschenk and Governor of Tirol. 1622 Mentioned as a Prelate of the Realm (Reichsprälatin). Her sister, Maria Clara, was Princess-Abbess of Essen (1614-44) and another sister, Anna Genvra, was Abbess of Sonnenberg (1622-52). Katharina was daughter of Leo Freiherr von Spaur, Pfaum und Valör (or Valier) and Juliane Barbara, Countess Federici, and lived (1580-1650).

  1610-17 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1615 she started printing her own coins. Daughter of Kurfürst Christian I von Sachsen and Margravine Sophia von Brandenburg, and lived (1591-1617).

  1610-27 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Hörburger of Heggbach (Germany)
Former Secretary and around the time of her reign, the Abbesses of the Chapter used the title of: “Die hochwürdige Frau des hochlöblichen Reichstifts und Gotteshauses Heggabach Äbbtissin und Frau – (The high-worthy Lady of the Highly appraisable Imperial Immediate Chapter and House of God Abbess and Lady). And the Abbess was hailed as their ruler by the inhabitants the towns and villages of her territory after her election by the other nuns.

  1610-30 Princess-Abbess Anna Segesser of Gutenzell (Germany)
Succeeded Maria Segesser.

  1610-40 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV von Khünburg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter.

  1611-29 Reigning Abbess-General Ana de Jesus de Austria of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Natural daughter of Dona Maria de Mendoza and Don Juan de Austria, a Spanish Prince and Army Leader. She is well noted for her indirect involvement in a conspiration of an alleged king Sebastian of Portugal. In a document she was named “Dilectae in Christo Filiae Anne ab Austria Abbatissae Monasterii Monialium de Las Huelgas propre et extramuros Civitatis Burgensis Nullius Dioecesis, Ordinis Cisterciensis”

  1611-25 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Auguste von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Former Koadjutor. She had to flee for the army of Tilly which was on its way to Wolfenbüttel. Daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Dorothea von Sachsen. Died of the plague. Her older sisters, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and Elisabeth was Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim 1578-82.She lived (1577-1625).

  1611-37 Reigning Abbess Louise II de Bourbon-Lavedan of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Aided by the famous Capuchins, Ange de Joyeuse and Joseph du Tremblay, the Princess sought to improve the status of the monks of St-Jean de l’Habit and made various attempts to establish theological seminaries for them. Daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Vicomte de Lavedan – son of Jean II, Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne – and Jeanne Louise d’Albret.

  1612-48 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine IV de Lorraine-Vaudemont of Remiremont (France)
Coadjutrice from 1602. In 1638 the troops of Turenne occupied Remiremont for a month. The following year the Princess obtained the neutrality of Vosges (for Epinal, Remiremont, Bruyère, St Dié, Arches) for the rest of the Thirty Years War. She tried to reform the convent, but failed and also founded the Monastery of the Ladies du Saint Sacrement in Nancy, and was daughter of François II de Vaudemont, duke of Lorraine, and lived (1576-1648).

  1612-38 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Bellheim zu Baumgarden of Schänis (Switzerland)
Elected on 21 January and inagurated on 6 may. The Bishop confirmed the new statutes that had been drawn up after the fires in 1585 and 1610, and the Papal Nuntius gave his approval in 1616. The fact that all the documents, treaties and privileges were destroyed lead to more and more conflicts with the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, which were guardians of the chapter, but considered the noble chapter an alien body in the area and treated it as such.

  1612-14Abbess Nullius Donata Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Another chronology of Abbesses lists her as ruler 1637-38. Daughter of Don Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d’Aragona, 19th Count di Conversano, di San Flaviano e Castellana and created Duca di Noci in 1600, and Donna Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona, Heiress to the Duchy di Nardò.

  1614-44 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara von Spaur-Pflaum und Valör of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
From 1612 she had been Lady of the Chapter and Dechantess of Vreden, in 1616 she also became Abbess of Nottuln and 1621 of Metelen. In 1623, during the Thirty Years War, Essen received a Spanish garrison. The following year the re-catholisation-law was introduced, non-catholic books banned and the obligatory church attendance reintroduced. In 1629 the Spanish bastion fell to the Dutch, and a council dominated by protestants took over power of the City of Essen, Maria Clara fled to Köln, only to return for a short period in 1631. Her sister reigned as Princess-Abbess Katharina II of Buchau, (1610-50). Maria Clara lived (ca. 1590-1644).

  1614-34 Princess-Abbess Susanna von Bubenhofen of Lindau   (Germany)
In 1628 the Emperor employed troops in the City of Lindau after internal riots, and he tried to re-catholisise the City and to tie it closer to Austria. The head of the Catholic chapter, Fürstäbtissin Susanna, was member of an old Prussian noble family.

  1615-21 Princess-Abbess Maria Brümsi von Herblingen of Säckingen (Germany)
The City of Bad Säckingen was occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. Her cousin, Katherina Brümsi von Herblingen, was Fürstäbtissin von Schänis 1587-1612. Maria was daughter of Johann Kaspar Brümsi and Anna von Roppach.

  1616-52 Princess-Abbess Anna Maria von Salis of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of an old noble family from Graubünden in Switzerland. During her reign the church of the Chapter was redecorated in Baroque-style. 

  1617-34 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also listed as ruler in 1624-30. Sister of Donna Barbara, the Abbess from 1558.

  1618-45 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Sophia zu Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The Thirty Year War reached the city in 1622 and four years later the city is hit by the plague. In the Neustadt 2.374 people died within six months. 1632 Wilhelm von Weimar passed through Quedlinburg and the following year the city was occupied by – and forced to accommodate – Imperial and Swedish troops, who also looted the city and forced the citizen to supply them with money and goods. 1636 the city was hit by another epidemic of plague. The regiment of the Swedish colonel Bleicke occupied the city from 1639-41 when fightings broke out between the imperial colonel Laba and Count Johann Ludwig of the Rhine. 1642 General  Königsmark was in Quedlinburg. Duchess Dorothea-Sophia daughter of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm and Duchess Sophia von Württemberg, and lived (1587-1645).

  1618-25-? Princess-Abbess Anna Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first of four members of the Freiherrliche family of Raitz von Frentz to reign the state in the period until 1669. It is not known how long she reigned, but Henrica Raitz von Frentz is mentioned in 1643.

  1620-40 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bonnières of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord de Biez and Marie de Tournai.

  1621-40 Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg was Contra-Abbess 1629-31. Herford became a Free City (Reichstadt) in 1631 and this saved the territory from occupation during the first part of the 30 years war. Magdalene was daughter of Count Simon VI zur Lippe (1554-1613) and his second wife, Countess Elisabeth von Holstein-Schaumburg, and lived (1595-1640).

  1621-58 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Greuth of Säckingen (Germany)
1630 she cleared the relationship between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. And during the The Thirty Year War the chapter had to pay heavy taxes and requisitions. The chapter fled for the Swedish and French troops to Baden. Laufenburg was plundered and on top of that came the plague. 1648 she wrote to King Louis XIV of France asking for an end to the war contributions and 1652 she was the last Fürstäbtissn of the Chapter to be invited to the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). A relative, Maria Cecilia ,was Princess-Abbess of Schänis 1652-64. Agnes was daughter of Christoph von Greuth zu Jestetten and Catharina Muntprat von Spiegelberg.

  1623-30 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Schouteete van Zuylen of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of an old Belgian family of high nobility.

  1624-38 Reigning Abbess Jehanne II de Lorraine of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Jeanne, she initiated sweeping monastic reforms in the Abbey and raised from the Crypt the remains of St Ebregisile and the founders of the Abbey in presence of Queen Marie de Medicis and transferred them to the reliquaries which are now in the Parish Church. They were brought out for processions, on Whit Tuesday and sometimes during public calamities. Jehanne de Lorraine demolished the old abbey church and rebuilt it splendidly. She was daughter Henri I de Guise, Duc de Guise, Prince de Joinville, (1550-88), who was murdered for becoming a protestant, and Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633). She lived (1586-1638).

  1625-30 Princess-Abbess Juliana Rembold of Baindt (Germany)
The Abbey was founded 1227, and it’s Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire.

  1625-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Elisabeth von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Gandersheim (Germany)
Because of the ongoing wars she resided in Delmenhorst and there were numerous fights among the employees of the chapter. The city of Gandersheim was occupied several times by Tilly’s troops in 1626. Also known as Catharina Elisabeth she was daughter of Duke Anton II of Oldenburg Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Dannenberg, regent of Delmenhorst 1619-30. One sister, Sidonia, was sovereign of Herford (1640-49) before her marriage to Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck, and another, Sibylla Maria, was Dechantin of Herford until 1638.  Catharina Elisabeth lived (1603-49).

  Before 1626 and 1650-54 Princess-Abbess Maria von Effern, genant Hall of Keppel (Germany)
The Chapter had been protestant since 1572 and but as a result of the counter-reformation initiated by Johann VIII VIII von Nassau  (1623-1638), the Chapter was abolished 1626 and transferred to the Jesuits. She manages to have the Chapter restored as a double-convent with both Protestant and Catholic Ladies of the Chapter. Until it’s secularisation in 1806 the post of Abbesses alternated between the two denominations.

  1627-29 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Gräter of Heggbach (Germany)
The former Prioress, she died of the plague, and lived (1567-1629).

  Until 1627 Reigning Abbess Marie de Guise of Chelles (France)
Daughter of Claude de Guise, duc d’Aumale and Louise de Brézé, and lived (1565-1627).

  1627-29 Reigning Abbess Marie Henriette de Bourbon of Chelles (France)
Daughter of King Henri V of France and his mistress Charlotte des Essarts de la Haye, and lived (1609-29).

  1629-31 Contra-Abbess Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg  of Herford (Germany)
Elected in oppostition to the Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe, who reigned 1621-40.

  1629-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Täschler of Heggbach (Germany)
Daughter of a Mayor of Ravensburg and former nurse, gatekeeper and prioress before her election. In 1632 the ladies of the chapter fled for the Swedish troops first to Waldsee and Biberach and then further into Switzerland. 1634 she was taken hostage in Ravensburg by Swedish troops together with the Abbess of Gutenzell and the Abbots of Weissenau and Schussenried and only released against a large ransom. In 1635 the first ladies returned, but Margaretha died of the plague, after having lived (1591-1635).

  1629-33 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Maria Manrique de Lara of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Descendant of the kings of Navarra, Vicounts of Narbona, Lords of Molina and later counts of Aguilar, which held high, state office and were very influential.

  1630-54 Princess-Abbess Adrienne II de Lannoy of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Member of an old and illustrious Belgian noble family, the Lords and Dames of Lannoy etc.

  1630-44 Princess-Abbess Katharina III Rueff of Baindt (Germany)
In May 1632 the Chapter was attacked by the Swedes for the first time, and most of the nuns escaped. In the autumn of 1635 seven of the nuns died of the plague within a few weeks. And in 1643 the chapter was looted three times.

  1630-63 Princess-Abbess Barbara Thumb of Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1632 the ladies of the Chapter fled the approaching Swedes and escaped to Steiermark. As they left in 1646 they put the Chapter on fire.

  1631-32 Princess-Abbess Josina Walpurgis von Löwenstein-Rochefort of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
The Countess was only 15 when elected to the post of sovereign of the Eccleastical territory after the death of her aunt, Anna von der Marck in March. She had a secret relationship to Count Herman Frederik van den Bergh and in December she married him secretly and returned to Thorn. When her father, father, Johann Dietrich, Count von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort, heard about the wedding in 1632, he put her in the very strict Chapter of Rochefort, but after four years she escaped and was reunited with her husband. They did not have any children. She lived (1615-83).

  1632-46 Princess-Abbess Anna Eleonora von Stauffen of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1645-46 Princess-Abbess of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
She had been Dechantin or Decaness of Essen before she was elected Princess-Abbes of Thorn, and was the first to be elected sovereign of both territories. Both Chapters held a vote in the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle), and therefore held two votes in the regional assembly. She also had two votes in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The Chapter of Thorn became a member of the Imperial Diet in 1640.

  1633-36 and 1639-41 Reigning Abbess-General Catalina de Arellano y de Zúñiga of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Probably related to Felipe Ramírez de Arellano, Conde de Aguilar, who was Viceroy of Navarra 1618-20.

  1634-76 Princess-Abbess Anna Christiane Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau (Germany)
1646-47 the City of Lindau was under siege during the 30th Year War. Swedish troops tried to conquer the city, the citizen fought back. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Imperial Troops left the city and the Confessional Independence of the City was confirmed – it remained Protestant. The Catholic Fürstäbtissin Anna Christiane was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.

  1636-41 Princess-Abbess Maria Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Her election as successor of her half-sister, Magalena, took place in Liège where the 13 canonesses and 3 canons had fleed for the plauge. She accepted 21 articles set up by the ladies of the chapter to limit her powers, and the situation was still insecure because of wars and epedemics. She was daughter of Gottfried, Herr zu Üttingen, Wolmeringen, Ennery, Clervaux und Kumeringen and Elizabeth de Heu, and lived (1581-1641).


  1636-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Scholastica Erberhard of Heggbach (Germany)
Elected Abbess by the ladies of the chapter in exile in Feldbach in Thurgau, where they had fled for the Swedes. But they soon returned and continued their life in the territory. 1644 she wrote to Emperor Ferdinand III asking for a moratorium against the creditors, this was granted and the depths were cancelled, but still the finances remained limited and it took years to rebuild the convent.

  1636-39 Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena Enríquez Manrique de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The various branches of the Mandrique family held many Duchal and Countly titles.

  1636-41 Reigning Abbess Gertrud Giel von Gielsberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The whole complex was almost totally destroyed during the 30 Year War (1618-48). She was daughter of Jörg Christoph Giel von Gielsberg and Anna Katharina von Bernhausen from Swabia.

  1637-70 Reigning Abbess Jeanne-Baptiste de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
At the age of 10 she entered the Abbey of Chelles and Louise de Bourbon-Lavedan appointed her as coadjutrice at the age of 16, but she did not take over the position until she was 25. She reigned with absolute “souverainty” and her direct dependence on the Pope in Rome allowed her to act autonomously from the church in France.  In 1641 she obtained royal letters confirming the reform and finally quashing the claims of the monks, who sought to organize themselves independently of the authority of the abbess. The following year the Rule approved by Sixtus IV was printed at Paris, but in 1658, the Sacred Congregation of Rites categorically condemned that she of her own authority, obliged the monks and nuns of her obedience to recite offices, say Masses, and observe rites and ceremonies which had never been sanctioned or approved of by Rome. She was the legitimized daughter of king Henri IV and Charlotte des Essarts, and her full sister; Marie Henriette de Bourbon (1609-29) was Abbess of Chelles. She lived (1608-70).

  1638-52 Princess-Abbess Maria von Ramschwag of Schänis (Switzerland)
In her role as Kollatorin – her right to appoint the local clergy, she confirmed the earlier decisions taken about the church of Amden in 1642 and had to flee for the Sweds in 1647. She was daughter of Kasper von Ramschwag, Steward of Gutenberg and Sophia von Kippenheim, and lived (1579-1652).

  1638-44 Abbess Nullius Barbara Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
As every newly appointed Abbess of Conversano, she received public “homage” of her clergy after her appointment, – the ceremony of which was sufficiently elaborate. The clergy, in a body repaired to the abbey; at the great gate of her monastery, the Abbess, with mitre and corsier, sat enthroned under a canopy, and as each member of the clergy passed before her, he made his obeisance, and kissed her hand.

  1638-55 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de la Trémoille of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Former Coadjutrice and Abbess of another chapter. She continued the work of reform striving to revive a real “spirit of community” re-establishing, enclosure, poverty, silence, as well as morning and evening meditation in the monastery now numbering 120 religious.

  1640-49 Princess-Abbess Sedonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Sidonie, she joined the representative of the city in the protests against Brandenburg’s occupation of the City during the 30 Years War, but the troops stayed. She resigned in 1649 and married Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck (1612-27-75), whose second wife was Marie Sibylle von Nassau-Saarbrücken und Ottweiler (1628-99). Sedonia was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Danneberg, and her sister, Katherine Elisabeth, was sovereign of Gandersheim (1625-49). She lived (1611-50). 

  1640-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Johanna von Kollonitsch of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter and it’s art, which is still famous.

  1641-86 Princess-Abbess Isabella Henrietta d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
received papal dispence because she was under 30 when elected amidst protest from her opponent, the Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. The chapter had survived the Thirty Years War, but towards the end it was occupied by the unemployed troops of Duke Karl  of Lorraine in 1656. After the death of her brother, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden in 1665, she was named guardian for his 16 children together with Prince-Bishop Frans Egon von Furstenberg of Liege, the brother of her sister-in-law, Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. The county can be passed down both in the male and in the female line. In 1671 the troops of King Louis XIV of France passed through the territory, making life difficult and several ladies left the chapter. The Dechaness stayed in Liège 1677-79, but after her return the old disputed was revived. She used the title of Isabelle Henriette, by the Grace of God, lady and Abbess, Sovereign Lady, Princesse-Abbesse (gefürste Abtissine” amidst protests from Liège. She was daughter of Ernst d’Aspremont and Anna de Gouffier, and lived (1615-86).

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Beaumont y Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a sideline of royal family of Navarra, which descended from Don Louis de Navarra, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger (d. 1372). King Felipe IV confirmed the rights of the scribes of the monastery to act as magistrates (judges) in 1643.

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess Isabelle III de Héricourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Appointed as Abbess by King Felipe IV of Spain, who as Count of Flanders and Artois, was head of the Southern Low Countries, after the canoness had been unable to elect as successor to Marie IV for 6 months.

  1641-60 Reigning Abbess Maria Margarethe Schenk von Castell of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Prioress in 1638. It is not known if she received the customary homage by the inhabitants of Wald and the other territories in 1641 or not until 1651 because of the continued warfare. She was daughter of Hans Maz Schenk von Castell zu Gattburg and Eva Blarer von Wartensee zu Wartegg.

  Around 1643 Princess-Abbess Henrica Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first member of the family started her reign in 1618, but it is not known for how long and when Henrica took over the reigns of the state. But in 1643 she built the Monnikenhof in the Chapter. Next abbess is mentioned in 1649.

  1643-53 Abbess Nullius Girolama Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her reign ends 1644.

  1643-62 Reigning Abbess Anne de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers
Daughter of François, Count de L’Hôpital and Rosnay and Charlotte des Essarts, the Maitresse of King Henri. Possibly succeeded by Marguerite de Gonzague. She (d. 1662).

  1644-53 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Weglin of Baindt (Germany)
Around 1649 the ladies of the chapter resumed the life in the convent after the lootings during the Thirtieth Year War.

  1644-45 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María de Salinas of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Died within the first year of her three-year election period.

  1645-48 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a side-line of the former royal house of Navarra.

  1645-80 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie I von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Pfalzgraf Georg Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein and Gräfin Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde. She lived (1619-80).

  1645-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
Considered the second founder as she started rebuilding the chapter, a small Catholic Territory partly in Germany, partly within the Protestant Netherlands. 1664 she asked the Pope for confirmation and expansion of her ecclesiastical rights, using the example of her colleague in Essen, noting that her predecessors since ancient times had exercised episcopal authority leaving only the right to confirm the election of a new Abbess to the Bishop of Utrecht. The Papal Nuntius in Kölln recommended that the Pope confirmed her quasi-episcopal powers and that she appointed a General Vicar as her temporal substitute. The pope granted her theise rights in 1669 and confirmed them in 1675. In 1669 she founded a fond in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen, and lived lived (1620-74).

  1645-63 Reigning Abbess Catherine de Beauffremez of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
At her election, the Prior, the Chaplaine, the Treasurer, the lady of the refectory, the Matron of the novices, 2 ladies of the sacritsty, 2 canonesses and 6 other ladies, whose occupation is not mentioned, took part. She was daughter of Lord d’Esnes and Haily. The Abbey became part of France 1659.

  1646-88 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome I von Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Essen, Lady of Bresig etc. (Germany)
1640-74 she was also Dechantess of Thorn and Lady of the Chapter (Stiftfrau) in Elten and St. Ursula (Köln). She was able to assert the princely sovereignty against the protestant city, and thereby secured the continued existence of the Damenstift (Ladies Chapter). Since 1661 she used the title “Des heiligen römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen” (Princess and Abbess of the Holy Roman Realm of Essen, Lady of Breisig etc). Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich von Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. One sister, Maria Sophie, reigned as Fürstäbtissin of Elten another, Anna Katharina of Thorn. A fourth, Sidonia Elisabeth, was Lady of the Chapter in Thorn, Essen and St. Ursula before she married Hartmann Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein in 1640, and became mother of 24 children. Anna Salome lived (1622-88).

  1646-47 Princess-Abbess Anna Catharina zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Resigned in order to marry Count Johann IV von Rietberg, and after his death she was regent 1660-68 for son Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-77) who fell by Straßburg, and was succeeded by his brothers Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-80) and ( 1687-88) and Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), who were both Diachons and Domherrs of the Cathedral Straßburg, and Anna Catharina remained the virtual ruler of the territory. Ferdinand Maximilian was succeeded by his niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska. Anna Catharina’s older sister, Maria Sophie (1620-74) was Abbess in Elten and the other Anna Salome (1622-88) in Elten. They were daughters of Altgraf Ernst Friedrich, (1583-1639) and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen (†1649). Anna Catharina’s daughter, Bernhardine Sophia was Fürstäbtissin of Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina lived (1624-91).

  1647-90 Princess-Abbess Anna Salomé von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1689-91
Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome II of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Had to raise taxes in the principality because of the ongoing wars, and worked closely together with her sister, Clara Elisabeth, who was her second-in-command. In 1688 Anna-Salome was elected Fürstäbtissin of Essen. She was daughter of Ernst Friedrich von Manderscheid-Blankenheim and Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. Her sister, Marie Sofie (1620-74), was Abbess in Eltern. Anna Salomé and lived (1622-91).


  Around 1648 Princess-Abbess Justina Anna Etlin von Rosenfels of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave the “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St. Georgen auf dem königl. Schloß zu Prag” dispensation from the war-tax because of the disasterous economic situation of the chapter.

  1648-57 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II d’Alençon of Remiremont (France)
Elisabeth-Marguerite d’Orléans, Mademoiselle d’Alençon was 2 years old when she was elected as sovereign of the chapter, and therefore her parents, Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, Duke d’Anjou, d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d’Alençon, comte de Blois, Monthéry et de Limours, baron d’Amboise, seigneur de Montargi and Marguerite de Lorraine, reigned for her. In 1657 Elisabeth-Marguerite left the Abbey and married Duke Louis Joseph de Guise (1650-71) with whom she had one child François Joseph de Guise (1670-75). The former Princess-Abbess lived (1646-96).

  1648-51 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Góngora of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Apart from her role as head of the congregation constisting of the monastaries of  Torquemada, Gradefes, Carrizo, Perales, San Andrés de Arroyo, Santa Maria de Otero, Cañas y Fuencaliente, Villamayor de los Montes, Renuncio, Barría y Avia and Vileña, she was also Head of the dependent parishes of Bercial and Lorilla.

  1649-67 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Louise Juliane von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Herford (Germany)
The Countess Palantine was daughter of Johann II, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken and Luise Juliane von Simmeren, and lived (1613-67).

  1649-83 Princess-Abbess Maria-Elisabeth von Salis of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss noble family.

  Around 1649 Princess-Abbess and Steward Baroness Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
Apparently the Freiin (Baroness), whose first name is not known, was elected, as the successor of Fürstäbtissin Henrica, who was mentioned in 1643, but of whom not much more is known. The last of the baronial (Freiherrliche) family of Raitz von Frentz to govern the territory was in office until 1669.

  1649 Abbess Nullius Antonia Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in an alternative list of Abbesses of the chapter. Sister of the Abbesses Donata and Mariana – all daughters of the Count and Countess Caterina  Acquavia d’Aragona and Giulio Acquavia d’Aragona of Conversano.

  1650-65 Princess-Abbess Maria Sabina zu Solms-Lich of Gandersheim (Germany)
Since her predecessor, Fürstäbtissin Katharina Elisabeth did not reside in the chapter, she had to promise to stay there in order to get elected. Daughter of Count Ernst II zu Solms-Lich and Countess Anna von Mansfeld, she lived (1600-65).

  1650-69 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska I von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Before she became Canoness she was probably Lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Claudia von Tirol. Soon after her election she began rebuilding the chapter and bring the economic situation back on track. She managed to retrieve the “treasure of the church”. When she became seriously ill the College of the Counts of Swabia tried to influence the election of her sucessor. Listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1650 and 1669 and she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) in 1664. She used the title of “Reverend and Illustrius Lady, Princess Abbess of the Holy Roman Empire of Buchau, nee Countess of Montfort, and was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort, Councillor of the Bavarian-Palatinate and Imperial Council and Chamber, and Euphrosina Truchsess von Waldburg-Wolfegg, and lived (Ca. 1622-69).

  1651-53 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Osorio y Leyva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of the family of Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.

  1652-64 Princess-Abbess Maria Caecilia von Greuth of Schänis (Switzerland)
The bishop leter know that she had to use the Court of the Diocese in court cases. A relative of hers, Agnes III, was Fürstäbtissin of Säckingen 1621-58. Maria Caecilia was daughter of Hugo Theodorich von Greuth, of Klingenau, and Apollonia von Altendorp.

  1652-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Margarethe von Sigertshofen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a family of Lords of a territory in Schwaben in Germany.

  1653-72 Princess-Abbess Maria-Scholastica Klocker of Baindt (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was a member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis, and as Imperial Prelate she held a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The Diet of Regensburg in 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag).

  1653-56 Reigning Abbess-General Antonia Jacinta de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Duke Felipe of Navarre de la Cueva y de Salazar and Mariana de Mendoza. Her grandfather was Pedro batard de Navarra, whose sister Isabel was Abbess from 1665. Antonia Jacinta became a nun at Las Huelgas and was later elected abbess. When she pronounced her vows, she asked Jesus as a wedding gift that he led her through sorrows and adversity. She found both in abundance, suffering from illness and spiritual anxieties. She is said to have received the stigmata. Later declared venerable – which is the title of a person who has been posthumously declared venerable -“heroic in virtue” – during the investigation and process leading to canonization as a saint. She lived (1602-56).

  1653-65 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her first reign ends 1656 and the second lasted 1660-62.

  1654-68 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV d’Oyenbrugge of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Her surname was also spelled d’Oyenbrughe.

  1655-59 Princess-Abbess Johannetta Stephana von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)
According to the Westphalian Peace, which followed the Thirty Years War, the ecclesiastical territories, chapters and convents should revert to the situation prior to 1624. And at that time the convent was protestant but two years later Prince Johann of Nassau reintroduced Catholism, and therefore it was decided that Keppel should be a double-denomination chapter (stift), and the post of Abbess should alternate between Protestants and Catholics. Johanetta therefore succeeded the Protestant Maria von Effern. She resigned from the convent in order to marry, and was succeeded by another protestant.

  1655-92 Reigning Abbess Henriette II de Guise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Henriette de Lorraine, she was niece of Jehanne and during her reign, the Abbey became powerful, because of privilege of exemption, acquired in the 13th century. However this Abbess, too sure of her prerogatives, had disputes and a lawsuit with Bossuet, the bishop of Meaux. The “Eagle of Meaux”, as he was known, interfered violently. Henriette lost the case and resigned. However, Bossuet could be gentle too as his letters to the nuns testify. He wrote to them in 1695: “God loves Jouarre”. Daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse, Prince de Joinville and Marie Aimée de Rohan, Mademoiselle de Montbazon. Her oldest sister was, Anne Marie, Abbess of Pont-aux-Dames, and she lived (1631-93).

  1657-87 Princess-Abbess Ursula Scherlin of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The territory had been virtually abandoned during the Thirty Years War and the convent was severely damaged by the many passing troops that had made camp in the city of Rottweiler, the convent was put on fire, looted etc. Ursula started the rebuilding in 1662 and managed to bring the territory back in working condition.

  1657-95 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta Schrattenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document from 1660, she is named as Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach and in the Topograhy of the Duchy of Steiermark from 1681, the entry about the chapter is called “Das Hoch Adeliche Iungfraw Closter Göss.

  1657-60 Princesse-Abbesse Marie-Anne of Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
The princess was elected Abbess at the age of 11, she was daughter of Nicolas François, who resigned as Cardinal in 1634 to become Duke of Lorraine (1634-61), and Claude de Lorraine (1612-1648). She lived (1648-61).

  1658-72 Princess-Abbess Francisca von Schauenburg of Säckingen (Germany)
Her reign marked a period of rebuilding after the devastations of the Thirty Year War. She was daughter of Hans Bernhard von Schauenburg, of the Luxembourg Line, and Elisabeth von Schönau, and lived (1588-1672).

  1658-70 Abbess NulliusMarianna Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list, she is listed as ruler 165..-56 and 1671-72 and 1675. She was daughter of the Count of Countess of Conversano, Giulio Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 2nd Duke di Noci and Caterina Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 6th duchessa di Nardò. Her sister-in-law, Isabella Filomarino, was regent of the County 1655-65.

  1659-63 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Theodora Vogtin von Elspe of Keppel (Germany)
She was a Protestant and like her Catholic predecessor, she resigned in order to enter into a marriage.

  1660-1702 Princesse-Abbesse Dorothée Marie de Salm of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
The princess was elected Coadjutrice with the right of succession as a child, and when Marie-Anne died, she was elected Abbess. 1677 she moved to the chateau of some relatives, Neuviller-sur-Moselle, 3 days of travelling from Remiremont, where she took up the fight for her position against the Administratrice, Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre, The territory was hit by an earthquake in 1688. 1691 she travelled to Paris to plead her case before the king and the ladies of the chapter send Madame de Bourdonné as their envoy. 1693 the king confirmed the seigniorial rights over the town of Remiremont and continued to share the rights of high, middle and low court with the town. Originally named Dorothea Maria zu Salm, she was daughter of Prince Leopold Philipp Karl zu Salm and Countess Maria Anna von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, Heiress of Anholt, who died in Remiremont in 1661, her sister Maria Christina, was canoniss of the chapter. Dorothée Marie lived (1651-1702)

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Hélène d’Anglure of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
As Dame Doyenne she was Second-in-Command. She protested against the election of Dorothée de Salm as Abbess, since she was below the required age of 25 at the age of her election, but the Pope dispended for the rule, and she became Acting Princess-Abbess of the Chapter, but remained in dispute with Dorothée after she came of age until her own death. (d. 1666).

  1660-77 Joint Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffreof Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
Held the office of Dame Sonière and held as adminsitrator together with the Dame Doyenne, Hélène d’Anglure, for the under-age Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm. After she was elected as Madame d’Anglure’s successor she continued the powerstruggle with the Abbess, who named her sister, Christine, as  “Second-in-Command” in 1702 and it was her who acted as Regent for the minor Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle Lorraine from 1700 and 11 years onwards, not Bernarde. (d. after 1704)

  1660-81 Reigning Abbess Maria Salome von Bernhausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Oberbursiererin in 1639. In 1680 the main building of the chapter burnt down. She was related to a large number of the canonisses and was daughter of Hans Wilhelm von Bernhausen zu Eppishausen und Moos and Margarethe Blarer von Wartensee. She lived (1593-1681).

  Around 1661 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta von Schwarzenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document, she is named as Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach

  1662-65 and 1677-80Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (probably her sister), Magdalena, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1669-72 and 1680-83.

  1663-70 Princess-Abbess Maria Appolonia Schweizer of Heggbach (Germany)
She continued the building activities and at the same time paid back substantial parts of the chapter’s depths. Born in Ulm, she lived (1604-70).

  1663-96 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshalate of Swabia from 1685.

  1663-85 Princess-Abbess Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the Chapter in 1655, and 11 years later she became Catholic.

  1664-77 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
One of her relatives, Johann Jakob zu Rhein von Morschwiller (1643-90), was Domherr and Scholasticus of the Prince Bishop of Basel, where her family had been influential since the 12th century. The next of her family to reign the territory took office in 1701. She was daugher of Lorenz zu Rhein, of a Ministerial family (Civil Servant Nobility), and Maria Agnes von Rosenbach.

  1665-78 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Hedwig zu Slesvig-Holsten-Nordburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her full title was Heiress to Norway, Duchess of Slesvig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarsken, Countess of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst, and she had been Dechaness since 1652 and lived a very free life for a Fürstäbtissin. Converted to Catholisism and married Count Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625-96), and Pope Innocentius XI sent a personal congratulation on occasion of their wedding. After some years she went on a a journey to Vienna, where she paid her respect to Emperor Leopold. In Rome she moves in the circles of her far away cousin the ex-queen Christina of Sweden. In 1681 she gives birth to a son, Alexander Leopold Anthon, whose  sponsors are queen Christina of Sweden, the German Emperor Leopold and her brother-in-law, Duke Anton Ulrich of Braunswieg. Returned to Schleswig in 1682. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Norborg and his second wife Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst, and lived (1636-92).

  1665-69and 1672-77 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Don Pedro batard de Navarra and his mistress Beatriz Morales and granddaughter of Pedro II de Navarra, 3. Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión. Her aunt, Jeronima de Navarra, succeeded her father in 1556 as 2nd Marquesa de Cortes, 7th Vizcondesa de Muruzábal de Andión. She was married twice but had no children. Another aunt was Antonia Jacinta, who had been Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1653-56.

  1666-77 Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre of Remiremont (France)
1666-84-1704-? Dame Doyenne
Elected Dame Doyenne in succession Hélène d’Anglure and was Adminsitrator of the Chapter for the under-age Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm, and continued the power struggle with her, and had her sister, Christine named as “Second-in-Command” in 1700 and it was she who acted as Regent for the minor Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle Lorraine from 1700 and 11 years onwards, not Bernarde.

  1667-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von der Pfalz of Herford (Germany)
The Pfalzgräfin was daughter of Elector Friederich V von der Pfalz and King of Bohemia (The Winter-king) and Elizabeth Stuart. She was in close contact with many of the philosophers and scientists of the day. In 1661 was she elected Coadjutorin of the Abbess of the “reichsunmittelbaren” chapter (Imperial Immediate Territory) for Noble ladies and in 1667 she was elected as Princess-Abbess. She gave freedom of faith and shelter to a number of protestant churches, which were not allowed elsewhere – among others the Quaker. Her sister, Sophia von Hanover, was named Heiress to the British throne in 1701. Elizabeth lived (1618-80).

  1668-1705 Princess-Abbess Madeleine-Thérèse de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was the second of the de Noyelle-family to rule the territory. The first, Marguerite V was in office 1561-69. 

  Until 1669 Princess-Abbess Freiherrin Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The last of four members of the family who reigned the territory from 1618. And like it is the case is with her predecessor her first name is not known.

  1669-72 and 1680-83Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (probably her sister), Inés, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1662-65 and 1677-80.

  1669-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia I von Sulz of Buchau, Lady of Strassberg (Germany)
After her election she was “hailed” by the inhabitants of Strassberg (Erbhüldigung) and later her other subjects “hailed” her. After her inaguration, she stressed her right to appoint the Priest of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz and she tried to attempted to reintroduce serfdom in Strassberg. She was listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1672, 1675, 1690 and 1692. She left the College of the Counts of the Realm (Reichgrafen) because of there ever tronger attepmts to interfeer in the internal affairs of the chapter. The chater never fully recovered from the devestations during the Thirty Years War and had sell a number of lordships and take up heavy lones to survive. She was daughter of tje Aistroam Ludwig Ernst, Count von Sulz and Landgrave im Klettgau and Countess Maria Elisabeth von Hohenzollern, and lived (1634-92).

  1670-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda Östringer of Heggbach (Germany)
Continued the building and renovation works of her predecessor, but marked by illness during the whole of her short reign. She lived (1650-75).

  1670-1704 Reigning Abbess Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Marie-Madeleine-Gabrielle was the sister of the Marquise de Montespan, she is said to have translated all the works of Plato from the Latin version of Ficino. The children of the highest nobility frequented the abbey school, and her successors were entrusted with the education of the daughters of Louis XV.

  1670/71 Abbess Nullius Faustina Sforza of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses she is listed as ruler 1663-70, 1675 and 1683.

  1671-75Abbess Nullius Maria Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Member of the family that ruled Conversano and a number of other territories in Italy.

  1672-88 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Sauther of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had a vote in the College of Prelates of Swabia, which had one joint vote on the Ecclesiastical Bank in the Council of Princes in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1663 the Diet sat indefinitely and became known as the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag). From now on emperor was represented by a prince of the empire as his commissioner; a jurist was appointed as Subcommissioner; and the elector of Mainz, Archchancellor of the empire, had charge of the business of the meetings of the Diet. This assembly of representatives without legislative power disappeared when the realm collapsed under Napoleon’s attack in 1806.

  1672-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Cleopha Schenkin von Castell of Säckingen (Germany)
Had to flee for the rench troops during the Dutch Wwar in 1678. Säckingen was looted and a large part of the city burned down, including the church. Ten years later the territory was again attacked during the War of the Palatine (Pfälzischen Krieg) and she moved her residence to Etzgen. She was an able financial administrator and defended the seignorial rights of the chapter in Hornussen and Stein in Switzerland and ended disputes with the Lord of Grandmont over the rights within the Lordship of Laufenburg. Daughter of Ulrich Christoph Schenk von Castell and Maria Cleophe von Wolfurt. Various male members of her family were Prince-Bishops of Eichstätt. She lived (1639-93).

  1672-88 Reigning Abbess Catherine II de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Since the chapter was under the direct protection of the Pope, he or his personal representative was the only one who could conduct visitations to the chapter (control visits).

  1675-87 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia I Vöhlerin of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1686 she changed the common sleeping hall for the ladies of the chapter with cells for each one of them. During her reign the bad harvests returned (in 1682 and 1685), but she initiated a number of commercial activities and opened a mill and a saw. Another version of her surname was Vöhlin, and she was born Freifrau von Frickenhausen, Illertiseen und Neuburg.

  1675-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the noble family of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafen) von Muggenthal in Bavaria.

  1675-1708 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska I von Manderscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
After she had her election approved, she had her right to appoint and dismiss the clerics of the territory confirmed by the Pope, and she managed to curb the attempts by her General Vicar, who was her assistant in her exercise of her quasi episcopal authority, to become her superior. She founded convents and schools in the Catholic enclave partly on German, partly on Dutch ground. And in 1700 she issued a law which clearly divided the secular and clerical courts.

  1675-95 Abbess Nullius Guiseppina Cedrella of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Alternative reign 1679-80.

  1676-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Rosina Brümsi von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)
The Abbess of Lindau became Princess of the Empire with the title of Princess-Abbess (Reichsäbtissin to Lindau) in the 15th Century.

  1677-1701 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Schenkin von Castell of Schänis (Switzerland)
Reached a compromise with the parish of Benken in the dispute over the right to appoint the local priest (Kollaturstreit. Her Cousin, Countess Maria Cleopha, was Princess-Abbess of Säckingen (1672-93). The daughter of Johann Erhard Schenk von Castell, Chief Steward of Delsberg and Maria Elisbeth von Rotberg, she lived (1640-1701).

 

1678-81 Princess-Abbess Christine Sofie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

The princess resigned in order to marry Duke August Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1662-1731). She was daughter of Duke Rudolf August of Christiane Elisabeth, Gräfin von Barby, and lived (1654-95).

  1680-86 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III Albertina von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)
Her father, Duke Johann Georg II. von Anhalt-Dessau, had her elected as Reichsäbtissin in order to secure her an income and to influence the Herfordian part of vote in the Bank of Prelates of the Rhine. After she she resigned in order to marry Heinrich von Sachsen-Wissenfels-Barby, she brought a large number of artists and merchants with her to Barby. Of her 8 children, only Georg Albrecht reached adulthood (but had no heirs), 3 were still-born, 3 died as infants, one son at the age of 19. Her sister Johanna Charlotta was Princess-Abbess from 1729. Elisabeth Albertina lived (1665-1706). 

 

1680-83 Princess-Abbess Anna-Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt of Quedlinburg (Germany)

The Landgravine had been second in command of the Abbey-State since 1656 with the title of Pröpstin and Coadjutorin from 1678. Her sister, Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene, was married to the Catholic Count Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Neuburg and after she converted to this faith, she tried to persuade Anna-Sophia to do the same, but she remained a staunch protestant. 1658 she published the prayer book ‘treue Seelenfreund Jesus Christus’ (Faithful soulmate of Jesus Christus) with her own texts and songs. She was daughter of Landgrave Georg III von Hessen-Darmstadt, and lived (1638-83).

 

1681-93 Princess-Abbess Christine zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim  (Germany)

The princess was the 16th child of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and the second daughter of his second wife, Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. After her death, her, Marie Elisabeth, was elected as Fürstäbtissin and ruler of the Ecclesiastical territorial. Christine lived (1639-93).

  1681-1709 Reigning Abbess Maria Jakobe von Bodman of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Elected 6 April, confirmed by the Abbot of Salem at 5 August, received the customary homage by the inhabitants 25 January 1700 with participation of the Abbot, and was inagurated 29 June 1701. She rebuild the church of the chapter in baroque style. 2 of her sisters were nuns in Heiligenkreutz and Rottenmünster and her brother Johann Rupert Sigismund was Prince-Abbot of Kempten and another Prior in Hofen. She was related to several canonesses in Wald. She was daughter of Johann Siegmund von Bodman zu Wiechs und Steisslingen.

  1683-86 Reigning Abbess-General Felipa Bernada Ramírez de Arellano of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
In spiritual matters she enjoyed an unique position as she was granted rights normally only granted to the male members of the Catholic hierarchy : she had the right to preach, say mass, hear confessions, nominate parish priests, etc.

  1683-1719 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
In charge of a territory that included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. 1704 she started the modernization and rebuilding of the Church and the Abbey-buildings in Baroque style.

  1683-84 Designate Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Named as successor of Anna Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt, but Anna-Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar , who had been named Pröbstin and promished the right of succession in 1681, protested and her cousin,  Johann Georg III of Saxony,  helped Anna Dorothea von Sachsen to elected Abbess in 1684 and the Saxon Princess recived Imperial confirmation the following year. She was daughter of Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp (1616-59) and Marie Elisabeth zu Sachsen (1610-84), daughter of Elector Johann Georg I of Sachsen. She lived (1640-1713).

  1684-1704 Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1681-84 she was Provost (Pröpstin) of the Chapter. When Anna Sophie II. died in 1683, Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp was named as her successor, but Anna Dorothea von Sachsen had her relative, Elector Johann Georg III of Saxony help her be elected Abbess in 1684. She was confirmed by Emperor Leopold I. the following year. 1698 the city was occupied by troops from Brandenburg, and the Elector of Sachsen sold the guardianship for 300.000 Taler to the Electorate of Brandenburg, which made her protest to the Emperor about the fact that she had not been consulted about the sale. She was daughter of Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen-Weimar and Elisabeth zu Holstein-Sønderborg (1657-1704).

  1685-91 Princess-Abbess Agathe Juliane von Steprodt of Keppel (Germany)
Since it had been re-opened in 1650 as double-domination chapter, it had been ruled by a succession of Protestant and Catholic Abbesses. She therefore succeeded the Catholic Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen.

  Around 1685 Princess-Abbess Marie Cunégonde von Beroldingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
In 1686 she made a treaty with Louis XIV who agreed to respect the freedom of the canonesses to chose their own abbess and confirmed her title as princesse d’empire, even though the Chapter was no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire since both France-Comté and Alsace/Alsass had been incorporated into France at the time.

  1685 Abbess Nullius Gabriela Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed as ruler in the alternative list of abbesses.

  1686-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV zu Hessen-Kassel of Herford (Germany)
11th child of Wilhelm of Hessen-Kassel and Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münsterberg, and lived (1634-88).

  1686-1715 Princess-Abbess Anne Leonore d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
She had been elected Coadjutrice in 1784 and therefore automatically succeeded her aunt, Isabella Hendrika d’Aspremont-Lynden, she was an ambitious and despotic woman, and used royal symbols in her seal and engaged in disputes with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who forbade her to use the title of Princess and forbade the inhabitants in her territory to accept her as sovereign Lady. As a result she forbade them to pay taxes to the bishop and in 1713 she denied Austrian troops the right to collect supplies, and she also refused to accept the emperor’s demand that she acknowledge the bishop as her overlord. During the Nine Year War 1688-97 and the War of the Spanish Succession 1702-13 several troops passed through the territory and brought hardship to the inhabitants, but this did not stop the internal infightings that followed the election as Lambertine de Renesse as successor of her faithful supporter Maria Anna van Elderen as Dechaness. In 1702 she had the Papal Nuntius excommunicate Lambertine, but this was reverted by the Pope. She was daughter of Count Ferdinand d’Aspremont-Lynden and Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. (d. 1715).

  1686-89 and 1695-96 Reigning Abbess-General Melchora Bravo de Hoyos of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative of hers (possibly her brother), Gabriel Rodríguez Bravo de Hoyos, was Governor of Nicaragua 1689-93. Other relatives were governors of Costa Rica and Mexico and other parts of the New World in South America.

  1687-1700 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara IV Hager of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1689 the major part of the chapter fled for the passing French troops led by General Mélac. But she managed to renovate church of the chapter in baroque style, even though it led to an economical crisis in the territory. During a number of years Prioress Maria Antonia Motz lead an internal opposition against her and she was forced to resign. (d. 1715).

  1687-1725 Princess-Abbess Maria Williburg Frey of Rottenmünster (Germany)
She rebuilt the main building of the chapter.

  1688-1722 Princess-Abbess Anna IX Tanner of Baindt (Germany)
In the year she was elected as head of the ecclesiastical territory, the ladies of the chapter fled the approaching French troops and sought refuge by the Bodenzee, but returned not long after.

  1688-1728 Princess-Abbess Charlotte Sophia von Kurland of Herford (Germany)
The stewards of the City of Herford, the Electors Brandenburg, had occupied the city since 1647 and deprived it of its position of a City of the Realm, but in 1695 Elector Friederich III recognized this position for the Chapter of Herford and King Friederich I confirmed this in 1705. 1702 the Duchess send a messenger to King Karl XII of Sweden at the seige of Thorn in the Netherlands to get the money that her brother, Duke Ferdinand owed her. She was engaged in deep disputes with the other members of the Chapter and in 1703 she moved to the Chapter of Vreden, where she resided until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Jakob von Kettler, Duke of Courland and Livonia (Livland) (1640-82), and Luise Charlotte von Brandenburg (1617-76), she lived (1651-1728).

  1688-89 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska Truchsess von Walburg-Trauchburg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
She had hoped to become Princess-Abbess in 1689 but was not a candidate in the elections that Anna Salome II won over Bernhardine Sophia von Ostfriesland. Maria Franziska was Pröbstin until her death in 1693.

  1688-95 Reigning Abbess Marie-Anne d’Assigny of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of Lord Haghedoorne de Wasnes.

  1689-1720 Princess-Abbess Maria-Magdalena von Hallwyl von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)
Member of a member of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgraf), which originated in Aargau in Switzerland, but settled both in Germany and Sweden among others. 

  1689-92 and 1696-98 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 lordships and villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

  1690-1706 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Ferdinand Karl von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort and Countess Anna Maria von Fürstenberg, and lived (1653- 1706).

  1691-1726 Princess-Abbess Bernhardina Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Essen (Germany)
Reigned her ecclesiastical small state, an independent enclave within Prussia, as a very confident sovereign, who advocated a doctrinarian absolutism, and limited the influence of the Estates. She also promoted the Order of the Contregatio Baetae Mariae Virginis. She was daughter of Johann IV, Count of Ostfriesland und Rietberg and Anna Catharina von Salm-Reifferscheid. Her niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska, was Sovereign Countess vonOstfriesland and Rietberg (1690-1758). Bernhardina Sophia lived (1654-1726).

  Around 1691 Princess-Abbess Anna Mechtildis Schönwiesin von Eckstein of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Emperor Leopold von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire issued a decreee in 1691 allowing her, the “Abbtissin Bey S. Georgen auf (Vnserm) Schloß zu Prag” to rebuild a church that burned down in 1688.

  Around 1648 Princess-Abbess Justina Anna Etlin von Rosenfels of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave the “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St. Georgen auf dem königl. Schloß zu Prag” dispensation from the war-tax because of the disasterous economic situation of the chapter.

  1692-1717 Princess-Abbess Anna Elisabeth von der Hees of Keppel (Germany) 
A Catholic, she was elected as successor to the Protestant Agathe Juliane von Steprodt as head of the Chapter of Käppel that was founded around 1390. The abbess was Reichsfürstin and a one of the joint members of the Ecclesiastical Bank of the Diet of the Empire.

  1692-93 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska II Truchsess von Zeil-Wurzach of Buchau (Germany)
The daughter of Johann Jakob von Zeil-Wurzach and Johanna von Wolckenstein-Trostburg, she was elected at 14.10.1692, proclaimed at 4.11 and confirmed by the bishop at 10.11, at a time when she was already 62 years old. She had been canoness in both Buchau, Essen and Sankt Ursula in Köln, since 1648. She did not participate in the election of her predecessor Maria-Theresia I, but excused herself. In 1673 she was refused when she wanted to take over her job in Buchau – in the meantime she had also become Deaconess in Essen – because all positions had already been filled, and the difficult financial situation in the Chapter did not permit any additional office-holders. She then stayed in Essen and became Archdeacon (Pröbstin), but was denied the right to run for the post of Fürstäbtissin there in 1689 because she was not member of a Swabian noble family. She lived (1630-93).

  1692-95, 1701-04, 1707-10 and 1714-15 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Jerónima Guerrero y Contreras of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Re-elected as temporal and secular ruler of the territory 3 times.

  1692-1721 Reigning Abbess Anne Marguerite de Rohan of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Francois de Rohan, Comte de Rochefort, Prince de Soubise, Governor of Champagne, Berry and Brie and his scond wife Anne-Julie de Rohan-Chabot, Dame de Soubise, and lived (1664-1721).

  1693-1742 Princess-Abbess Maria-Theresia II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
A former Lady of the Chapel of Essen, she was a master builder, and consolidated the position of the territory. She changed the liturgy of the service in her church and defended her own ecclesiastical position and head of the clergy of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz. She was listed among the Worldly Princes and Stifts in the Swabian Circle – 1793, 1796, 1799 and also mentioned as the 12th ranking prelate. The daughter of Count Johann VIII von Montfort-Tettnang and Anna Katharina von Sulz, she lived (1663-1742).

  1693-1718 Princess-Abbess Maria Regina von Ostein of Säckingen (Germany)
In spite of the high contributions that the chapter had to pay in the succession wars of the Palentine and Spanin, she continued the rebuilding of the church that had burned down in 1678. Daughter of Johann Jakob von Ostein, Councillor of the Prince-Bishop of Basel and Anna Maria von Kippenhem, and lived (1643-1718).

  1693-1713  Princess-Abbess Henriette Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Resigned after having given birth to a child the year before, converted to the Catholic faith and became a nun in a convent in Roermond. She was daughter of Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Elisabeth Juliane von Holstein-Norburg, and lived (1669-1753).

  1693-97 Princess-Abbess Regina Recordin von Rein und Hamberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Maria Theresia von Muggenthal. 

  1695-1706 Princess-Abbess Katharina Benedicta von Stürgkhof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The only Austrian chapter with the status of an Imperial Immediacy.

  1695-99 Abbess Nullius Isabella Tommasa Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Alternative rule until 1705.

  1695-98 Reigning Abbess Marie-Françoise Adornes de Ronsele of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Ronsele.

  1697-1723 Princess-Abbess Johanna Franziska Sibylla von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Chosen as successor of Regina Recordin von Nein-Hamberg. 

  1698-1701 and 1710-11 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Temporal and secular leader of vast territories in Castilla and Léon.

  1698-1742 Reigning Abbess Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
A large number of her relatives had been bishops and abbesses of various dioceses and institutions since around 1200. Succeeded by niece, Marie-Charlotte de Béthune, and lived (1696-1742).

  1699-1711 Abbess Nullius Giacoma Palmieri of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
During her reign, the Regent of the County of Conversano was Dorotea Acquaviva d’Aragona, who administered the fief in the name of her postumously born son, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva during the years 1691-1710, after the death of her husband, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d’Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano.

  1700-12 Princess-Abbess Magdalena Sohler of Heggbach (Germany)
A forceful and energetic administrator and was engaged in various disputes with neighbouring nobles. The chapter was hit by heavy taxes during the War of the Spanish Succession and the continued passage thorough the territory of foreign troops. From around 1705 her epileptic attacks increased and she was unable to perform her duties.

  1700-11 Princesse-Abbesse Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle de Lorraine of Remiremont (France)
Her father, Duke Léopold of Lorraine, tried to impose her as Coadjutrice with the right of succession. Princess-Abbess Dorothée asked the Professors at Sorbonne for advice, but they didn’t answer before her death 2 years later, so King Louis XIV imposed Élisabeth as sovereign of the territory. She lived (1700-11).

  1701-11 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
Received the Papal Nuntius, Vincenzo Bichi in the chapter in the last year of her reign. Two other members of her family were Fürstäbtissin of the territory, the first from 1664 and the second from 1735. She was daughter of Hans Wilhelm zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Beatrix Reich von Reichenstein.

  1702-10 Administratrice Christine de Salm-Salm of Remiremont (France)
In 1684 her sister, Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm, had her named as Second-in-Command against the ancient tradition where the Doyenne was the Deputy to the Abbess, and named Secréte, the third-in-command, after the death of Anne de Malain de Lux by the Pope, but never-the-less the ladies of the chapter elected Elisabeth-Gabrielle-Françoise Rouxel de Médavy to the post, but Christina von Salm continued as her sister’s de-facto deputy, and she was Acting Princess-Abbess during the minority of Élisabeth-Charlotte. She lived (1653-?).

  1704-18 Acting Princess-Abbess Marie Aurora von Königsmarck of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Her father, General Graf Konrad Christoph von Königsmarck, fell in battle and she went with her mother, the Swedish Baroness Maria Christina von Wrangel af Lindeberg, to Sweden. After her death in 1691 she lived with her sister in Hamburg. 1696-97 she was the mistress of Elector Friedrich August II of Sachsen. Afterwards she retired to Quedlinburg where she became second-in-command as Pröpstin, but lived in Berlin, Dresden and Hamburg. 1702 she went on a diplomatic mission to the Swedish army in Narwa. After the Peace of she retired to Quedlinburg and was the Acting Sovereign as no Princess-Abbess was elected. She was in dispute with the other ladies of the chapter, Dechaness Eleonora Sophie von Schwarzenburg and her sister Maria Magdalena and various attempts to reconciliate the three failed even though the King of Prussia and the Emperor intervened. She spoke various languages, was a virtuous player of Lute and Viola da Gamba, and composed various operas, lieder and cantata. She lived (1662-1728).

  1704-07 and 1711-14 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Josefa de Lanuza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The Abbess of the chapter had the right to hold her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synod.

  1704-42 Reigning Abbess Louise-Françoise de Rochechouart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Succeeded her aunt Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart.

  1706-17 Princess-Abbess Anna Juliana Helene von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1708-17 Princess-Abbess of Elten and Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
During her reign the principality ended it’s long lasting disputes with the Republic of the Netherlands with a treaty in 1715, which defined the rights of the abbey and the Staten Generaal – the Dutch parliament. In Elten she was succeeded by Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid.

  1706-24 Princess-Abbess Marie Françoise Josephine de Berghes of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
She was daughter of Philipp Franz, Prince de Berghes, Count de Grimberghe etc, who was Governor of Hainault and later of Brussels and Marie Jacqueline de Lalaing, Baroness de Gaesbeek, and lived (1678-1724).

  1706-37 Princess-Abbess Maria Mechtildis Berchtoldof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family.

  1706-53 Princess and Abbess Marie Gertrude von Berlepsch of the Stift zu den Engeln in Prag (Chapel of Angels in Prague) in Austria-Hungary
After husband, Wilhelm Ludwig von Berlepsch (1639-76), died of the wounds he received by the siege of Philippsburg, she became responsible for her two sons, Sittich Herbold (1673-1712) and the posthumously born, Peter Philipp Josef (1676-1721). As she chose to have her second son baptised by an Evangelican priest in 1680, the Prince-Abbot of Fulda sieged her castle Eichenzell and fined her 200 gulden, but she refused to bow. The same year the Emperor took her under his protection and in 1684 she was named Hofmeisterin (Mistress of the Court) in the Court of the first wife of the Pfalzgraf Johann Wilhelm von Pfalz Neuburg, and after her death in 1689, Marie Gertrude continued in office as Oberhofmeisterin (Chief Mistress) by the first wife of the Pfalzgraf and Elector Karl Philipp nach Neuburg an der Donau. 1690 she was appointed Oberhofmeisterin of Marie Anna who married king Carlos II of Spain, and during her time in Spain, she had a decisive influence on the politics of the country and thereby also in the rest of Europe. She worked for the interests of Austria and was very influential when it came to appointment to important offices and became very rich. In 1695, the Emperor raised her and her sons to the positions of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafenstand), but in the meantime the opposition against the German influence on the Queen-Regent grew, and Marie Gertrude left Spain in 1700. She bought back the part of the Estate of Eichenzell that had been taken as security by the Abbot of Fulda in 1680, and in 1699, she bought the Lordship of the Realm of Mylendok (Reichsherrschaft), and lived her to her death. 1706 she became the first Abbess of the newly founded Ladies Chapel in Prague (englischen weltlichen Fräulein-Stift in der Neustadt Prag) and she was appointed Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstenstand). Born as Wolf von Gudenberg, she lived (1654-1723).

  1706-08 Abbess Nullius Onofria Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Elected in the presence of Bishop of Monopoli.

  1709-39 Reigning Abbess Maria Antonia Constantina Scholastika von Falkenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Built the large baroque chapter-complex in the years 1721–27. 5 of her sisters were nuns in Unterlinden in Colmer, 1 in Günterstal and 3 possibly in Alspach beiKeysersberg, her brother, Adalbert became Bishop of Csanád in Hungary, another was a cleric and the last married a former nun in Wald. She was daughter of Freiherr von Falkensten and Anna Franziska Ursula von Mercy, and lived (1666-1739).

  1710-11 and 1718-20 Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her full title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey”.

  1710-38 Princesse-Abbesse Béatrix Hiéronyme de Lorraine-Lillebonne of Remiremont (France)
Known as the “Mademoiselle de Lillebonne”, she had lived in the entourage of the Grand Dauphin at Versailles, before she was named coadjutrice in 1705-11. She was daughter of Charles IV de Lorraine and Béatrix de Cusance. She built a Hospital for the sick, poor and orphans, and  lived (1662-1738).

  1711 Abbess Nullius Giuditta Pascale of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in the alternative list of Abbesses. 1709 the ancient ceremony where the clergy paid public homage to the Abbess was modified and toned down.

  1711-13 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Rosa von Römerstal of Schänis (Switzerland)
1712 she fled from troops to Zürich into exile into the interior of Switzerland, and in the meantime Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg acted as Regent. The daughter of Johann Wilhelm von Römerstal, Chief Forester of the Bishop of Basel, and Klara Margarethe von Reinach, and the French version of her name was Marie Eve Rose de Rombeveaux.

  1712 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
As the only one to remain in the chapter when the Fürstäbtissin and the other canonisses fled from the troops from Zürich she acted as Stadholder (Statthalterin) from May to August.

  1712-42 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia II Constanza Schmid of Heggbach (Germany)
She paid off most of the heavy depths of the chapter, but the production buildings were hit by lightening and all the stock burned down to the ground. She wrote to a large number of neighbouring convents – including Gutenzell and Buchau and received plenty of donations. 1713 Emperor Karl VI of Austria confirmed the privileges of the chapter, but the following year she wrote to the Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster threatening to withdraw from the College of Prelates of the Realm (Reichsprälatenkollegium) if it would bear only financial obligations and no advantages to stay member, and she continued the disputes with the cities and other inhabitants of the territory, because of the taxes imposed by the Realm, and she feared for her position as Princess of the Realm. At the time of her reign the territory covered around 50 square kilometres and 1.718 inhabitants. She lived (1671-1742).

 

1712-13 Princess-Abbess Marie Elisabeth zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim  (Germany)

Was Regent of the Chapter of Rühn in Mecklenburg 1705-12 and held the office of Dechaness of Gandersheim before becoming its Sovereign. She was daughter of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg (1616-1665). Her oldest sister, Sophie Agnes was Regent of Rühn 1654-94, another, Christine was Princess-Abbess of of Gandersheim 1681-93 and Juliane Sibylle was also Regent of Rühn 1695-1701. She lived (1646-1713).

  1713-66 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie zu Sachsen-Meiningen of Gandersheim (Germany)
During her reign the Chapter of the Realm (Reichsabtei), experienced a revival. She had set up her permanent residence in the Stift and used her funds on expanding the church and other institutions and she was a great sponsor of arts and science and baroque culture. She also collected a large library and built a number of baroque buildings. She defended the independence of the chapter against the interventions of the duke of Braunschweig and his use of “Our Chapter” or “Princely Chapter” stressing that Gandersheim was an “ancient Imperial Free Worldly Chapter.” She was daughter of Duke Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen and his second wife Elisabeth Eleonore von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, and lived (1681-1766).

  1713-35 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach of Schänis (Switzerland)
Because of a serious mental inless a Reigning Koadjutorin was installed 1722 until she resigned from office. The Daughter of Johann Franz von Roggenbach, of a noble Austrian family living in the Diocese of Basel, and Maria Jacobe Münch von Rosenberg. She lived (1668-1736).

  1715-28 Princess-Abbess Lambertina Cécilia de Renesse d’Elderen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
After the death of her predecessor, Anna Leonora, she quickly took the reigns and was elected abbess the following year. She also used the title of Princess, but unlike earlier, the Prince-Bishop of Liège did not protest, perhaps because her brother, Maximiliaan Hendrik van Renesse, was Grand-Bailiff of the County of Loon, Head of the nobility of Liège and Secretary and Advisor of the Prince-Bishop. The internal disputes between different factions within the chapter continued in spite of the difficult financial situation. She was daughter of Georg Frederik de Renesse and Anna Margarethe von Bocholtz, and lived 1670-1728).

  1715-18 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Badarán de Oxinalde of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
She exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.

  1717-76 Princess-Abbess Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1726-76 Princess-Abbess of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
After 1718 the principality of Thorn engaged with a long lasting conflict with the Westphalian Circle. The States (Parliament) was not willing to pay fees to the Circle, during the Austrian Succession war, where Thorn paid a fee to Empress Maria-Theresia. In 1726 Franziska Christine was elected as successor to Bernhardina-Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg in Essen she mainly stayed in Essen, where she founded an orphanage – Fürstin-Fransika-Christine-Stiftung. She was daughter of Count Theodor of Pfalz-Sulzbach of the House of Wittelsbach and Maria Eleonora von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, and was also Countess of the Rhine, and lived (1696-1776).

  1717-27 Princess-Abbess Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected to succeeded her relative, Anna Juliana von Manderscheid, who was Abbess of Thorn, Elten and Vreden, and after her death another relative, Countess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid was elected Abbess in Elten.

  1717-48 Princess-Abbess Sophie Charlotte von Bottlenberg gen. Kessel of Käppel  (Germany)
A Protestant, she succeeded the Catholic Anna Elisabeth von der Hees. A successor was not elected until 1753 because of disputes between the Catholic and Protestant parties after the succession of a new “lord-protector” (Schirmherr) of the Chapter, the Catholic Fürst Wilhelm Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen.                      

  1718-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Her time in office was marked by the disputes with King Friederich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the Guardian of the Chapter, who anexed parts of her lands. Her protests to the Emperor did not have any effect, and the situation did not normalize until Friederich I came on the throne. She rebuilt and expanded the residential castle of the chapter (Stiftsschloss). She was daughter of Duke Christian Albrecht zu Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp and Princess Frederikke Amalie of Denmark, and lived (1678-1755).

  1718-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)
Reached an agreement with Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Basel about the rights to the estate of Schliengen. The reconstruction of the church was finished 1727. The daughter of Johann Franz von Liebenfels zu Worblingen and Maria Margarethe Schindelin von Unter-Reitnau, she lived (1666-1730).

  1718-47 Princess-Abbess Bernardina von Donnersberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Princess-Abbess had been a member of the Swabian Circle of the Imperial Diet since 1521.

  1718-20 Governor Ines de Osio y Mendoza of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Acted in the place of the Reigning Abbess.

  1719-65 Princess-Abbess Anna Magdalena Franziska von Dondorff of
Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
All candidates for the chapter had to undergo a comprehensive education in religion, writing, calculation, history and foreign languages. The 12 canonesses lived a religious life but did not take “Oath” as nuns, did not wear nun-habibits and lived a secular life. Only the Abbess had to be celebate, the other canonisses could marry, and the higly educated ladies were freuquent guests at the court of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis and of the highranking clerics and envoys to the Diet of the Realm in Regensburg. Her family was noble and originated from Thüringen.

  1719-34 Reigning Abbess Louise Adélaïde d’Orléans of Chelles (France)
Also the abbesse of the Val-de-Grâce, a church built under the auspices of her maternal great-grandmother, Anne of Austria, the wife of King Louis XIII. Originally titled Mademoiselle de Chartres, she became Mademoiselle d’Orléans in 1710 after her older sister married Charles, duc de Berry and was known as Madame d’Orléans 1719-34. Died from smallpox at the Convent de la Madeleine de Traisnel in Paris. Daughter of The Regent of France, Philippe II d’Orléans, duc de Chartres, heir to the House of Orléans, and Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, a legitimised natural daughter of Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. She lived (1698-1743).

  1720-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau  (Germany)
1728 the Area of the Chapter was destroyed in a fire and it was rebuild in baroque stile. Fürstäbtissin Maria Franzisca was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.

  1720-23 and 1726-29 Reigning Abbess-General of the Royal Monastery María Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Vaca of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
In a decree she wrote: “We, Doña Mará Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Baca, by the grace of Ggod and the Holy Apostolic Sea, Abbess of the Royal Monestary of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas, the of the City of Burgoes, the Cistercian Order,…., Mother and Legitimate Superior of the Hospital of the King and its compounds  and the convents, churches, erimitages and places with their trust and obidience with omnimodial jurisdiction, privativa, Quasi Episcopal, Nillius, etc…”

  1720-22  Princess-Abbess Rosina Clara Schlindlin von Hirschfeld of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Emperor Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire issued a decree confirming her election as Princely Abbess, “fürstliche Abbatißin zu St. Georg”

  Until 1720Abbess Nullius Luigia Tarsia of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano,

Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

A group of Cistercian Nuns took over the chapter which had existed as a male convent since 889 and also took over the direct papal protection. As Abbess she held semi-episcopal powers until 1806.

  1720 and 1730Abbess Nullius Daniela La Forza of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also Prioress.

  1721-38 Reigning Abbess Rosina Susanna Catharina Philippina von Venningen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The chapter was founded by Amalia Elisabeth won Mentzingen, geb. von Bettendorf, from the inheritance from her parents for Evangelical unmarried ladied from the Ritterkanton Kraichgau (Knights Canton) in Baden, and in 1725 it was granted the status it was granted “reichsfreiheit” incorporated into the Knight’s Canton of Kraichgau, but placed under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. Took over the management of the Chapter in 1718, was inagurated as Abbess in 1721 and got the status of “reigning abbess” or princess-abbess 4 years later.

  1721-33 Reigning Abbess Charlotte Armande de Rohan of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded aunt, Anne Marguerite de Rohan. Daughter of Hercule Meriadec, Duc de Rohan-Rohan, Prince de Soubise et de Maubuisson, etc, Governor of Champagne and Brie and his first wife, Anne Genevieve de Levis-Ventadour, and lived (1696-1733).

  1722-? Princess-Abbess Isidora Constantia Raudnitzkin von Brzesnitz of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Mentioned as “fürstlichen Abbatißin” in a contemporary decree.

  1722-35 Reigning Coadjutorix Maria Anna Eleonore Reichlin von Meldegg of Schänis (Switzerland)
Elected Koadjutorin with right of succession in 1722 because of the meltan illness of Fürstäbtissin Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach, who had been in office since 1713. She managed to get the confirmation of the new statutes by the Bishop and the Papal Nuntius Domenico Passionei in 1732. She concluded an agreement with the community of Schänis about the maintainance of the church. After a stroke in March 1735 she died in January the following year, before Maria Clara Salomé. She lived (1682-1735).

  1722-23 Princess-Abbess Anna X Haug of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had the right of a vote in the College of Prelates in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1723-51 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena von Dürrheim of Baindt (Germany)
The privilege of lower court of justice that had originally been granted in 1437 was confirmed twice during her reign; in 1734 and 1741. Magdalena’s family were lords of Dürreheim near Stuttgart, Freiberg in Schwarzwald in Bavaria and had possessions in Zürich.

  1723-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Katharina Helena von Aham auf Neuhaus of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Another version of her surname is von Aham-Neuhaus. The seat of the chapter was situated in the centre of the city of Regensburg, which was the seat of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), but the chapter had numerous possessions outside the city.

  1723-26 and 1729-32 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María Helguero y Albarado of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (possibly her sister), Clara Antonia was Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1732-35.

  1723Abbess Nullius Berardina Accolti of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana.

  1724-27 Abbess Nullius Marcellina Capulli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  1724-43 Princess-Abbess Caroline Charlotte de Berlaimont of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
She was member of a noble family originating from Northern France.

  Around 1726 Princess-Abbess Carolina Margaretha van Renesse van Elderen of Burtscheid (Germany)
The Baroness was mentioned in 1726 when she commissioned the restoration of the two towers of the Chapter Church. She was member of a Dutch noble family.

  Until 1726 Reigning Abbess Louise Charlotte Eugénie de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
One of 9 children of Jacques Louis de Beringhen, Marquis de Beringhen (1651-1723) and Marie-Madeleine Elisabeth Fare d’Aumont. One of her sisters, Anne Marie Madeleine de Beringhen, was abbess du Pré au Mans aorund 1730.

  1726-43 Reigning Abbess Olympe Félicité de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
Succeeded her sister, Louise Charlotte as head of the abbey, which enjoyed the attention of several French kings and was an important economic factor within its vast territory in Brie.

  1727-40 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Succeeded her relative Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid and was followed by Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid.

  1727 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
As abbess she was religious head and secular ruler of Conversano. The counts of Conversano and the Vicar-General (Deputy Bishop) also had some authority.

  1727-30 Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Ferdinanda Pascal was elected as her successor in November 1730 but reonuced.

  1728-54 Princess-Abbess Christine Eberhardine Friederike von Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Like her predecessors, she was in dispute with the Prince-Bishop of Liège over her right to use the title of “Princess of the Holy Roman Empire”. After a lengthily court-case, Emperor Karl VI, issued a statement in 1734 demanding that the bishop stopped putting obstacles in the way of the Princess-Abbess and let her conduct her duties as sovereign, and the Emperor later confirmed her title as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The war of the Austrian Succession 1741-48 brought further hardship and devestation. From around 1747 she stayed in Wenen and tried to secure the interests of the chapter at the Imperial Court and the Dechaness Maria Carolina Leerodt von Born was left in charge of the administration of the chapter. The ladies of the chapter protested against her prolonged absence, and after the death of her sister, Sofia, in early 1754 they even tried to depose her, but she died soon after. She was daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. She was succeeded as Princess-Abbess by sister, Sofie Johanna Friederike. Christine lived (1695-1754).

  1729-50 Princess-Abbess Johanna Charlotte von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)
Continued the disputes of her predecessor, Charlotte Sophie, with king Friederich Wilhelm I of Preusia over the continued drafts of soldiers for the ongoing wars – the City of Herford was only an Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbar) on paper, in reality it was treated like a Preusian provincial town and she tried to protect its interests. When she took office, she confirmed the tenantcies of local nobles who held the fiefs of the chapter, using the titulature, Johann Charlotta verwitwete Prinzessin in Preußen, postulierte Äbtissin des Stifts Herford. She was daughter of Johann Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau (1627-60-93) and Henriette Katherine of Nassau-Oranje, and widow of Margrave Philipp Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt (1669-1688-1711). Mother of 6 children, and in 1764 her granddaughter Friederike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise became the last reigning abbess of the territory. Johanna Charlotte lived (1682-1750).

  1730-43 Princess-Abbess Anna-Margarete von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)
Her family were Lords of Gemmingen, Bad Rappenau etc. in present day’s Baden-Württemberg.

  1730-34 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena von Hallwyl of Säckingen (Germany)
The city was under occupation by French Troops during the Polish Succession War 1733-35. She got permission from Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Bern for the canonisses to wear a special order of the chapter (Ordenszeichen). The daughter of Johann Joseph von Hallwyl, Lord of Blidegg and Zihlschacht and Maria Julia Katharina von Schönau-Oeschgen, she lived (1692-1734).

  Until 1731 Princess-Abbess Maria Augusta von Fürstenberg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
The daugher of Reichsfürst Wenzel von Fürstenberg and Maria Josepha Truchess Trauchburg Friedberg, her German title was gefürstete Äbtissin d. Benediktinerklosters zu Stankt Georg auf den Hradschin zu Prag (Sv. Jiri in Prag). It was theoldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. During the reign of Josef II the convent was abolished in 1782. Maria Augusta (d. 1731).

  1731-32 Abbess Nullius Serafina Girondi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also the Abbesses of Aguileia, Brescia, Brindisi, Fucecchio and Goleto held semi episcopal authority.

  1732-35  Princess-Abbess Aloysia von Widmann of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1732-35 Reigning Abbess-General Clara Antonia de Helguero y Albarado of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (possibly sister), Ana María, was Abbess-General 1723-26 and 1729-32.

  1733-38 Reigning Abbess Anne Therese de Rohan of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Charles III de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon, Pr de Guéméné, etc, and his second wife Charlotte Elizabeth de Cochefilet. One sister was a nun at the chapter and two of her sisters were also abbesses, Marie Anne Benigne, at Panthemont and Angelique Eleonore at Preaux and Marquette. She lived (1684-1738).

  1734-53 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Regina von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)
The territory was raided during riots in 1741, the so-called ‘Salpetererunruhen auf dem Hotzenwald’ – peasents riots – and afterwards she allowed the County of Havenstein to pay off the serfs and reached an agreement with the Town of Säckingen about the contracts of priests. The church with had been rebuild in Baroque Style in 1740, was destroyed by another fire already in 1751 and she ordered that it should be rebuild in the new Rococo style. The daughter of Heincich Christoph von Liebenfels, Lord zu Worblingen and Maria Rosa Freiin Vogt von Altensumerau und Prasberg, and lived (1700-53).

  1734-35 Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana. Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory.

  1734-89 Reigning Abbess Anne de Clermont-Chaste of Chelles (France)
Former Canoness at Saint-Cyr, Abbess of Saint Paul de Beurepaire en Vienne in 1725 and later of Chelles. A large number of her relatives were bishops, abbesses and abbots. (b. 1697-1789).

  1735-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
Her aunt, Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein, had been ruler of the territory 1701-11. The daughter of Johann Franz Ludwig zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Maria Sibylla von Roggenbach, she lived (1684-1763).

  1735-.. Princess-Abbess Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Emperor Karl 6 confirmed her election. “Carl der Sechste, Römischer Kayser”, bestätigt die neugewählte Äbtissin von St. Georg”

  1735-38 and 1741-42 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa Baradán de Oxinalde  of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative of hers, Teresa, was Señora Abadesa de Las Huelgas 1715-18.

  1737-51 Princess-Abbess Maria Antonia Überacker of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family.

  1738-73 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame de Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
1754-73 Secular Abbess of Sainte-Waudru in Mons (Belgium)
1756-73 Coadjutrix of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1757-73 Coadjutrix of Essen (Germany)
Daughter of Duke Léopold I Joseph of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d’Orléans, and moved to the Low Countries where sister-in-law, Anna-Maria was Governor-General in 1744 and her brother, Karl, continued in office after his wife’s death until 1746 and then again 1749-80. She lived in Vienna 1745-54 at the court of her sister-in-law, Maria Theresia of Austria-Hungary, who was married to her brother, Emperor Franz Stephan. She became his close advisor and very influential, from 1760 with the title of Dame instead of Demoiselle. She was present in Prague when her sister-in-law laid the foundation stone for the the Ladies Chapter at the Hradschin. In 1766 Lorraine was incorporated in France after having belonged to the Holy Roman Empire for centuries. She lived (1714-73).

  1738-40 Abbess Nullius Giuseppa Bassi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
There were also Abbesses with semi-episcopal authority in France and Spain.

  1738-70 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Sybilla von Mentzingen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
Member of an old local noble family, which held high administrative and ecclesiastical offices throughout the centuries. No successor was appointed until 1775.

  1738-92 Reigning Abbess Catherine-Henriette de Montmorin of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Doubled the Monastery buildings. One of the wings, the porch of the actual rue Montmorin and the chaplain’s residence is still the major part of the Abbey. From 1790, the lands of the Abbey were confiscated by the revolutionary Committee, the buildings were put up for sale and the expulsion order was promulgated in 1792. This event was to be the death of the Abbess. She passed away on September 27th.

  1738-43 Abbess Friederike von Wurttemberg-Neuenstadt of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)
Danish Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had decided to turn the County of Vallø, which was part of her dowry, into a Lutheran chapter for unmarried ladies of the high nobility. The abbesses had authority in the Stift and possessed jus vocandi – the right to appoint the priests in the 17 churches within its territory, and were also in charge of the secular administration. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich August von Württemberg-Neuenstadt and Sofie Esther Gräfin von Eberstein. Her seven brothers died in infancy and only her two sisters survived, and after the death of their uncle, Carl Rudolf, she took up residence at the Castle of Neuenstadt together with one of them, Eleonore Wilhelmine Charlotte (1894-1751). She lived (1699-1781)

  1738-41 and 1745-48 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel Rosa de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Several members of her family was elected to the office of Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas.


  1739-72 Reigning Abbess Maria Dioskora Maura von Thurn und Valsassina of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
A member of the Taxis-family that were divided into the lines of Counts von Thurn und Valsassina, Princess of Thurn und Taxis and the Spanish line of Tassis and held the offices of Postmaster General in the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and other territories .She lived (1702-72).

  1740-84 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska II von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected as successor of Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid as the fifth and last consecutive sovereign of that Family in the Reichstift Elten (Chapter of the Realm). 1742 she banned excessive funerals and weddings and the following year she banned private schools.

  1742-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Karolina von Königsegg-Rothenfels of Buchau, Lady of Strassberg (Germany)
She also used the name, Maria Charlotte, and was daughter of Count Carl Friedel Desiderius von Königsegg-Rothenfels and Maximiliane von Althann. One of her sisters, Anna Wilhelmine, was Abbess of Sankt Ursula in Köln. Like the election of her predecessor, it took place without the participation of the bishop of Konstanz. She lived (1707-74).

  1742-73 Princess-Abbess Maria Alydis Zech of Heggbach (Germany)
According to tradition; she swore an oath of allegiance to Pope Benedict XIV in the presence of the representative of the Paternal Abbey of Salem. Prioress Marie Anne Assam claimed that Alydis’ election had not been fair, but resigned from her post after half a year after having asked for forgiveness. She defended her rights as ruler in various – expensive – court cases against the inhabitants of the territory and neighbouring lords. After centuries of disputes with the clerical superiors, the Abbots of Salem, the last mentioned had agreed with the pope to leave the responsibility to another Abbey, much to the disdain and chock to her and the Abbesses of among others Baindt, Gutenzell, Rottenmünster and Wald, who all protested in a joint statement. Because of illness she was not present at the College of the Swabian Prelates (Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium) in 1767. The College had one collective vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were present. She lived (1713-73).

  1742-53 Reigning Abbess Louise-Claire de Montmorin de Saint-Hérem of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Member of a cadet branch of a noble family of Auvergne.

  1742-45 Reigning Abbess-General Lucía de Mioño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Head of the dependent Parishes of Bercial and Lorilla.


  1742… Reigning Abbess Marie-Charlotte de Béthune of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Elected as successor to her aunt, Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques.

  1743-57 Princess-Abbess Therese Wilhelmine von Pollheim-Winkelhausen of Lindau  (Germany)
Her family was in charge of the Lordship of Ottenschlag wich became became the center of the Low-Austrian protestantism in 16th and  17th century.

  1743-74 Princess-Abbess Ursule Antoinette van Berlo de Francdouaire of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a French-Belgian noble family.

  1743-59 Abbess Nullius Irene Margaritonte of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The ancient tradition of the clergy paying public homage to newly elected and inagurated Abbesses was abolished in 1750.

  After 1743 Reigning Abbess Marie-Anne de Béringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
At a not known time she was succceded by Claude de Durfort, a member of the family of the Dukes de Duras.

  1744-60 Administratrice Hélène de Cléron of Remiremont (France)
Dame Doyenne and Second in Command since ca. 1717 she took over the role of Acting Princess-Abbess after Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine left the territory to take up residence by her brother, Karl von Lothringen, Governor-General of the Low Countries in 1744, and was never to return to her chapter. (d. 1760).

  1747-59 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Gall of Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1753 the Chapter (Stift) came under the protection of von Kaisheim with the approval of the Abbot-General Trouvé.  During 1755-57 the renovation of the the Chapter Church in Baroque style was finished by Dominikus Zimmermann. His daughter, Alexandra, became Princess-Abbess in 1759.

  1748-82 Abbess Louise Sophie Friederike zu Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

She used the titles: Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Slesvig-Holsten, Glücksborg, Stormarn and Ditmarsken. She possed both secular and ecclesiastical authority in the whole territory of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies, though the founder, Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had secured herself the right of veto for life. Louise Sopie was daughter of Duke Philipp Ernst of Holstein-Glücksburg and his first wife Christiane of Sachsen-Eisenberg, she was succeeded by her niece, Sophie Magdalene, and lived (1709-82).


  1748-51 and  1754-56 Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Carrillo y Ocampo of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Reelected to the post of Abbess of the Abbey.


  1750-64 Princess-Abbess Hedwig Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Herford (Germany)
The Princess was Dechaness in Quedlinburg until she became Pöpstin there Quedlinburg in a personal-union 1728-64, but resided in Herford all the time. She was daughter of Duke Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp and Albertine Friederike zu Baden-Durlach. Her sister, Friederike Amalie (1708-32) was a canoness at Quedlinburg. She lived (1705- 1764).

  1750-74 Princess-Abbess Marie Béatrice Breiten de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
Also known as Maria Beatrix von Breitenlandenberg.

  1751-68 Princess-Abbess Cäcilia Seitz of Baindt (Germany)
In 1767 she was the last Abbess from the territory to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium – which send representatives to the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbess of Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were also present.

  1751-78 Princess-Abbess Maria Henrica von Poppenof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a family of Slesian Barons (Freiiherren), she was highly educated, gifted painter and promoter of arts and culture. At her seal she used the titulature: Marin Henrick Freyin v. Poppen, Äbtissin zu Göss.

  1751-54 and 1759-62 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative of hers, Angela, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1771-74.


  1753-80 Princess-Abbess Johanna Dorothea von Syberg zu Schwerte of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the chapter in 1718 and was elected as successor of the Protestant Sophie Charlotte v. Bottlenberg gen. Kessel, who had died 1748. Johanna Dorothea Helene Margarethe Katharina von Syberg, who was also known as von Syberg, Freie aus der Hees, Sümmern und Schwerte, was a Catholic and member of an old noble family with branches in Germany, Livonia and Sweden.

  1753-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Helena Francisca von Roggenbach of Säckingen (Germany)
Finished the restauration of the interior of the Chapter Church which was damamged by a fire in 1751. One of her relatives, Franz Joseph Sigismund, was Prince Bishop of Basel (1782-93). She was daughter of Johann Konrad Anton von Roggenbach, Steward of Birseck, and Maria Josepha Zint von Kenzingen.

  1753-65Reigning Abbess Marie-Louise de Timbrone de Valence of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Another version of her surname is de Thimbrune de Valence.

  1754 Princess-Abbess Sophie Johanna zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Münsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Chosen by the other Ladies of the Chapter (Stiftdamen) to suceed sister, Christine Eberhardine Friederike, they were daughters of Count Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. Sofie Johanna Friederike lived (1698-1754).

  1755-56 Princess-Abbess Maria Carolina von Leerodt von Born of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
She had been a candidate for the post of Abbess in 1728 and as Dechaness she had been in charge of the administration of the chapter in the absence of the Abbess from around 1747, but in spite of this, the representative of the Prince-Bishop of Liège tried to prevent her election and only 6 canonesses and 4 canons took part – with 5 abstns. The disputes within the chapter continued but she died after only 17 months in office, and lived (ca. 1700-56).

  1755-87 Princess-Abbess Anna Amalia von Preußen  of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Coadjutrix (Coadjutorin) of the territory 1744-55. She became a renowned musician and composer. She had an affair with Freiherr Friedrich von der Trenck, an aide-de-champ of her brother, king Friedrich the Great, who was imprisoned, later freed and spend the rest of his life travelling in Europe. After her brother’s death they met in 1786, she was blind and very ill at the time and died shortly after. She lived most of her life in Berlin and did only rarely visit her territory. She was daughter of Wilhelm I of Preussen and Princess Sophie von Hannover, and lived (1723-87).

  1755-1806 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Hornstein-Göffingen of Säckingen (Germany)
In 1785 her forceful intervention at the Imperial Court in Vienna had saved the Princely Ladies Chapter (Fürstliche Damenstift) from becoming a Worldly Ladies’ Chapter under the sovreignty of the Austrian Government and without cannons during the ecclesiastical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. She modernized the financial management and the juridical system. 1793 Johanna Caroline von Oettingen-Spielberg was appointed Administrator. During the Peace of Pressburg (Bratislava) the Austrian “Vorlande” was separated between Baden and Württemberg, and the territory of Säckingen became part of Baden. In September 1806 the convent was abolished, but she remained there until her death. Among her possessions was a carriage with room for all of the 16 noble ladies who inhabited the convent. The last Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Freiherr Franz von Hornstein und Zumarschausen and Maria Anna Sophia Karoline von Sickingen, and lived (1723-1809).

  1756-59 Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Claudia de Verrio, The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Known as “noble lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the said royal abbey, and of all the contents, churches, and hermitages of its filiations, of the villages and places under its jurisdiction, seigniory, and vassalage, in virtue of Bulls and Apostolical concessions, with plenary jurisdiction, privative, quasi-episcopal, nullius diacesis.”


  1756-71 Princess-Abbess Antonietta Regina Sofie Francisca von und zu Elz-Kempenich of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
After the death of Fürstäbtissin Maria Carolina, she won the election to the position of Princess-Abbess against the Dechaness Sophia Helena von Stadion, who remained in opposition to the new head of the territory and allied herself with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who still tried to assert his authority over the Princess-Abbess. After her election she had started rebuilding the residence of the Abbess that had been destroyed earlier. French troops passed through the territory in 1758 during the Seven Year War between France and Austria on one side and England and Preussia on the other. During the last year of her reign, she was seriously ill and had to hand over the adminsitrator to Sophia Helena. She was daughter of Karl Anton Count and Noble Lord (Graf und Edler Herr) von und zu Eltz-Kempenich, gennant Faust von Stromberg, who was created Reichsgraf and became Hereditary Marshal of Trier in 1733,  and Helene Katharina Freiin Wambolt von Umstadt, and lived (1700-71).

  1757-71 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margarethe von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)
Member of the freiherrliche family von Gemmingen, Lords of Burg Guttenberg abowe the Neckar for at least 300 years from around 1500. She lived (1711-71)

  1757-68 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Katharina von Dücker-Hasslen-Urstein-Winkel of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Freiherrliche family of von Dücker.

  1759-76 Princess-Abbess Alexandra Zimmermann of Gutenzell (Germany)
As part of her “dowry”, her father, buildingmaster Dominikus Zimmermann, had finished the renovation of the Church of the Chapter, a work that he finished in 1757. 10 years later, she was the last Abbess from Gutenzell to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium – which send representatives to the Imperial Diet. Also present were the Princess-Abbesses of Baindt and Rottenmünster. The Princess-Abbess of Heggbach was not present because she was ill. From 1768 the Fürstäbtissin exercised her right as Lady of the Court of her Office in the territory.

  1759/63Abbess Nullius Floralba Maurelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among her privileges was those of selecting and approving confessors for the laity and authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  1760-73 Administratrice Hyacinthe Céleste de Briey de Landres of Remiremont (France)
Succeeded Hélène as Dame Doyenne and Head of the Chapter for the absent Princess Abbess Anne Charlotte de Lorraine, who lived in Austria and Mons. Hyachinthe Céleste lived (1713-89).

  1762-65, 1768-71 and 1783-86 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita de Oñate of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Many members of her family were Governors in various parts of the New World (Southern America)


  1763-96 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Anastasia von Eptingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1782 she renovated the chapter and its church in Rococo style. She was daughter of the noble Konrad Anton von Eptingen and Katharina Jacobea von Ramschwag.

  1764-1802 Princess-Abbess Friedrike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise zu Brandenburg-Schwedt of Herford (Germany)
The Royal Princess of Preusia had been Koadjutorin from 1755. She was the last sovereign ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory which was incorporated into Prussia in 1802 as part of the rearrangement of the German Realm after the Napolionic wars. She remained in the Chapter until shortly before she died after years of ilness. She was daughter of Margrave Friedrich Heinrich von Preußen of Brandeburg-Schwedt and Leopoldine zu Anhalt-Dessau. Her grandmother, Johanna Charlotta von Anhalt-Dessau had been Princess-Abbess of Herford (1729-50) before her marriage. lived (1745-1808).      

  1765-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Josepha von Freudenberg of Obermünster Regensburg (Germany)
She was member of the Bench of Swabian Prelates in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag), who were able to cast a collective vote – a socalled curiate (Kuriatstimme). The same was the case for the Westphalian counts in the College of Princes (Fürstenkolleg), where only the major Princes had their own votes. The Princess-Abbesses normally voted via representatives (by proxy) as did many of the other princes.

  1765-92Reigning Abbess Julie Sophie Charlotte de Pardaillan d’Antinof the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Julie-Sophie-Gillette de Gondrin de Pardaillan d’Antin was driven from her monastery by the Revolution; her fate is unknown. Towards the end of the eighteenth century there were 230 nuns and 60 monks at Fontevrault, and at the Revolution there were still 200 nuns, but the monks were few in number and only formed a community at the mother-house. In the course of his preaching journeys through France, Robert d’Arbrissel had founded a great number of houses, and during the succeeding centuries others were given to the order. In the seventeenth century the Fontevrist priories numbered about sixty in all and were divided into the four provinces of France, Bretagne, Gascone, and Auvergne. The order never attained to any great importance outside France though there were a few houses in Spain and England. (d. 1797).

  1765-68 Reigning Abbess-General Rosalía de Chaves of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Among the many dignities and high offices held by the abbess of Las Huelgas was that of the title of Verdana of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile dating from 1189, which gave her the privilege of convoking a general chapter at Burgos each year.


  1766-77 Princess-Abbess Therese Natalie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The Princess spend most of the time at the court in Braunschweig and the chapter fell apart. She was Daughter of Ferdinand Albrecht of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette Amalie of Braunschweig-Blankenberg. Her sister was the de-facto regent Queen Juliane-Marie of Denmark (1729-72-84-96). Therese Natalie lived (1728-78).

  1766-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Noble Convent at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))
The convent had been founded by her mother, Empress Maria Theresia, in 1755. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. The Archduchess was member of a number of Imperial Academies of Art and was interested in science and music. In 1781 she resigned and moved to Klagenfurt where she lived close to the he Elizabethan Convent the rest of her life, and died in the circle of her friends, including Xaveria Gasser, the Prioress of the Chapter (Oberin des Klosters) and she willed her fortune to the nuns. She lived (1738-89).

  1767-1805/08 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Royal Chapter in Innsbruck (Austria-Hungary)
The chapter was founded by her mother, Empress Maria Theresia of Austria-Hungary with the purpose of praying for her her father  Emperor Franz I Stefan, who died the same year. The Archduchess had been hit by small-pox in 1767 and she became Abbess of the Worldly Chapter for noble ladies. She became the center of the town-life because of her extrovert personality. In 1805 she fled the Napolionic troops and three years later the convent was disolved by Bavaria. She lived (1743-1808).

  1767-70 Maria Augusta Josepha von Fürstenberg-Stühlingen of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Given the right to become canoness in Buchau from 1741 but it is not known is she acctually took up the position. 1767 Empress Maria Theresia confirmed her election “Maria Theresia, Kömische Kayserin, Wittib“ bestätigt die „nach tödtlichem Hintritt der Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg“ erfolgte Wahl der „Maria Josepha aus dem fürstlichen Hauß von Fürstenberg“ zur Aebtissin von St. Georg”. She was daughter of Joesph Wilhelm Ernst von Fürstenberg and Maria Anna von Waldstein. (d. 1770).

  1768-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda von Markdorf of Baindt (Germany)
In 1797 the convent reached its peak with 37 noble ladies, but in 1803 it was abolished. Maria Bernarda’s family had been Lords of Markdorf, by the Bodensee, since the 11th century.

  Until 1768 Reigning Abbess Françoise de Dion de Wandonne of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Wanndonne, Couplelle, Louvigny and La Viélville.

  1768-90 Reigning Abbess Marie Hosephe Camille de Coupigny d’Hénu of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The French Council of State confirmed the original provision, that the canonesses had to be of noble families from the Low Countries or Artois, who could trace back noble origin from both sides of their family for at least 4 quarters (generations). She wasaughter of the Lord of Hénu, Warlincourt and Marie Héricourt.

  1769-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Febronia Elisabeth Speth von Zwyfalten of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her family were Freiherren – Barons – in Hohenzollern, and also known as von Speth-Zwyfalten.

  1770-? Princess-Abbess Maria Electa Wrazda von Kunwald  of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Empress Maria Theresia: “Maria Theresia, Römische Kayserin, Wittib”, bestätigt die nach dem Tode der Maria Josepha von Fürstenberg erfolgte Wahl der Maria Electa Freyin Wrazda von Kunwald zur Aebtissin von St. Georg.” 

  Around 1770 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Conty d’Hargicourt of Montvilliers (France)
Unpopular and accused the sisters of misusing the revenues of the abbey. The chapter was abandoned during the French revolution in 1792.

  1771-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Agatha von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
Her family had many Prince-Bishops and other eccleastical office holders trough the times.

  1771-74 Reigning Abbess-General Angela de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Lady Abbess of Las Huelgas held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


  1772-89 Princess-Abbess Sofia Helena von Stadion-Tannhausen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
When the Countess became Dechaness in 1755, she had been Vice-Dechaness for some years. In 1756 she lost the elections for the post of Princess Abbess to Antonietta von und zu Eltz-Kempenich  and sided with the Bishop of Liège in the long lasting dispute over the position of the Princess-Abbess and territory. After Antonietta’s death, Sophia was in charge of the territory in her capacity as Dechaness. She accepted the “capitulation” of 1773 and recognized the owerlordship of Liège but kept the title of Princess and the lordship of her possessions. She stopped the internal infightings that lasted for centuries, but like her predecessors she was an authoritarian figure. The territory was marked by the ongoing wars and the economic situation very bad. After the election of Waldburg von Heidenheim in 1783, she seems to have lost some of her authority within the chapter. (d. 1789).

  1772-99 Reigning Abbess Maria Edmunda von Kolb of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as 1758 Kastnerin (bursary officer) and the related offices of Bursiererin and Oberbursiererin 1768-72. Her brother, who was a Pastr in Dietersofeh, accused her of mis-management and supression of her subects and she was put under temporary administration in 1785. She was daughter of Karl Ferdinand von Kolb and Maria Anna Karrer, and lived (1734-99).

  1773-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Kurz of Heggbach (Germany)
Elected Abbess in third round after the 7 other candidates had been defeated, and managed to manoeuvre through Joseph II of Austria’s “anti-nun” reforms of 1782 because the Abbesses were highly politically influential because of the centuries of independence (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and uninterrupted membership of the College of the Prelates of the Realm, even though she was normally represented at the meetings of the Assemblies of the Realm, Circles and College, she would always be in close contact with her envoy. In July 1790 the Emperor wrote to her asking for a military contribution and she answered in August, and the territory was hard hit by the French wars. When Joseph died two years later, a “party of gratitude” was celebrated after the election of his successor. She lived (1726-92).

  1773-75 Princesse-Abbesse Abbess Christine de Saxe of Remiremont (France)
Marie-Christine von Sachsen, Royal Princess of Poland was one of the 14 children of King Friedrich August III of Poland and became Coadjutrice in 1764 after the personal intervention of her sister’s father-in-law, king Louis XV as her sister Marie Josephe (1731-67) was the second wife of the heir to the French throne, Louis (1729-65), whose son succeeded as King Louis XVI in 1774. Another sister was Marie Kuningunde, Princess-Abbess of Essen and Thorn from 1776. Their brother, Duke Albert von Teschen, was married to Marie-Christine von Hasburg, and they were joint Governor-Generals of the Lower Netherlands. Their father had 354 known children outside marriage. She lived (1735-82).

  1773 Abbess Nullius Vincenza Martucci of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Cistercian monastery existed from before 889 and was placed under direct papal protection in 1110 and 1266 it was given to a group of Cistercian Nuns.

  1774-96 Princess-Abbess Marie Félicité Philippine van der Noot of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The Countess was the last reigning Princess-Abbess of Nivelles, which was occupied by France and afterwards incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands. She was member of the old Bruxelloise noble family whose title dates back to the beginning of the 1330s.

  1774-77, 1780-83 and 1786-89 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Chaves y Valle of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and Secular ruler of the territory.


  1775-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Felicitas von Neuenstein-Hubacker of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Freiin (Free Lady) von Neunstein was the last sovereign of the territory, which included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. Known as an able ruler, she renovated the building of the chapter 1784-99 and the state experienced a period of economic growth. 1781 a number of younger canonesses appealed to the bishop of Regensburg for better living conditions, more servants etc, but her spartan approach won the upper hand. The territory was secularized in 1803 and became part of Bavaria/Bayern in 1805. She remained an inhabitant of the Chapter for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Privy Councillor and Crown Equerry  of the Princes of Fürstenberg, Freiherr Reinhard Friederich von Neuenstein and Maria Anna Maximiliana Theresia von Frauenberg. In her death announcement she was mentioned as Honorable Lady Maria Josepha, Fürstin des heiligen Römischen Reiches, Äbtissin des adeligen Damestiftes in Obermünster. she lived (1739-1822).

  1775-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Maximiliana von Stadion of Buchau (Germany)
The Countess was the last Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory, and elected in the third round of voting with the participation of 10 Ladies of the Chapter and 2 Canons (Chorherren). Like that of her predecessor’s her election took part without the participation of the Bishop of Konstanz, and he protest but ended up inagurating her. During her reign she reached compromises with the neighbors, the Count von Hohenberg and Prince zu Turn und Taxis, about some of the lands of the territory. During the end of her reign, she was preoccupied with the financial strain caused by the Coalition Wars. In July 1802 she had to flee for the invading French forces, but later returned. Her and the other families of the Ladies of the Chapter protested against the secularization and abolision of the chapter and territory using the the argument that the territory was already secular and not ecclesiastical. In the end Turn and Taxis took over the territory, and she moved to München and lived there the rest of her life. She was daughter of Count Anton Heinrich Friedrich von Stadion zu Thannhausen und Wartenhausen, Minister of the Elector of Mainz, and Freiin Maria Anna Augusta Antonia von Sickingen-Hohenburg. Maria Maximiliana Esther lived (1736-1818).

  1775-86 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte II de Lorraine-Brionne of Remiremont (France)
Coadjutrice 1775-82 and arrived at Remiremont in 1784 and only visited the chapter a few times. She was daughter of Louis III Lorraine-Harcourt-Armagnac,  duc de Lorraine-Harcourt, comte Armagnac and his third wife Louise de Rohan. She lived (1756-86).

  1775-1802 Reigning Abbess Sophie Friederike von Holle of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The free-worldly chapter for noble ladies, were place directly under the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary liege lord, and had the right to collect taxes and tolls themselves, and held juridical rights. De facto imperial immediacy corresponded to a semi-independence with a far-reaching autonomy.

  1776-97 Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachsen of Thorn, Ladyof Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1776-1803 Princess-Abbess of Essen,
Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
After the failed weddings plans with Empress Maria-Teresia’s son, the later Joseph II of Austria, The Royal Princess of Poland and Sachsen was elected Coadjutorin of Essen and Thorn in 1775 with the right of succession, which took place the following year after the death of Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach. As Sovereign of the 2 Ecclesiastical Territories of Thorn and Essen in the Netherlands and Germany, she spend most of her time by her brother, Elector Klemens Wenzeslaus von Trier, and dominated the government here. During her reign Thorn experienced a strong economic growth, but when the war between Austria and France broke out on 1793, the ladies escaped to the other side of the Rhine. When the French had to withdraw the following year, 6 ladies returned, including Dechaness Clementine von Hessen-Rhinfels, who took the reigns and they were both busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten) – as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was the 14th and last child of the Elector of Sachsen and King of Poland and Lithauen, Friedrich August II and Maria Josepha von Habsburg. Her sister, Marie Christine, was Princess-Abbess of Remiremont from 1773. Known as Maria Cunegonda in Thorn, she lived (1749-1826).

  1776-1803 Princess-Abbess Justina von Erolzheim of Gutenzell (Germany)
She was the last sovereign ruler of the territory which was secularized and first taken over by Joseph August von Toerring-Jettenbach and then incorporated into Württemberg. The last canoness died in 1859. Justina (d. 1809).

  1776-97 Abbess Amalie Dorothea Elisabeth von der Bottlenberg gnt. Kessel of the Free Worldly Abbey of Elsey (Germany)
Until 1793 the territory did not have a vote in the Local Assembly, but that year she bought the Manor of Berchum and thereby the Chapter came in the possession of its vote in the Landtag (In German: Berchumer Landtagsstimme). The Abbess was Dame of a number of possessions in Hohenlimburg but never had any sovereignty or any other rights than a local noble landowner.

  1777-80 Reigning Abbess-General María Ana de Acedo y Torres of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa de Las Huelgas, she had the privilege to confirm Abbesses of dependent Convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


  1778-1802 Princess-Abbess Auguste Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The last Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Ruler of the Territory of the Realm. 1776 she had become Dechaness in Quedlinburg and shortly after she was also elected to the post in Gandersheim, but refused to take up the position. Two years later she accepted the post of Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim but continued to spend most of her time at the court of Braunschweig, later also Pröpstin in Quedlinburg. In 1802 she resigned her rights and the chapter accepted the sovreignty of Braunschweig, but remained it’s Abbess until her death. After her death, King Jerome of Westphalen abolished and anexed the chapter. She was daughter of  Karl I von Braunschweig (1713-35-80) and Augusta of Great Britain, and lived (1749-1810).

  1779-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Gabriela von Schaffmann of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The Freiin von  Schaffmann-Hämmerlewas the last Abbess of the Princely Chapter which was seculized by Emperor Joseph of Austria-Hungary together with all other both male and female convents within his realms. She lived (1724-1802).

  Around 1779-ca. 93 Abbess Nullius Rosalba Noja of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Another version of her surname is Noya.

  1780-1803 Princess-Abbess Marianne Antonia von Donop of Keppel   (Germany)
A Protestant, she was elected as successor to the Catholic Johanna Dorothea von Syberg. The Ecclesiastical Territory was incorporated into Nassau in 1803, but in 1808 Marquise Isabelle de Meslé (1761-1820) was appointed as Abbess by Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon I, but never inagurated. The Marquise lived in the Chapter until it was abolished in 1812. Marianne Antonia von Donop (d. 1806)

  1781-96 Princess-Abbess Friederike Caroline Josephine von Bretzenheim of Lindau (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin was illegitimate daughter of Josepha Seyfert (1748-71) and Elector Karl IV Theodor of Kurpfalz (1742-77) and Elector of Bavaria (1777-79). In 1796 she married Count Maximilian von Westerhold (d. 1854). and 1802 her brother came in possession of the territories of the Chapter after it was secularized. Friederike had a twin-sister, Eleonore Caroline, and lived (1771-1816).

  Around 1781 and 1786 Abbess Nullius Cherubina Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed as ruler in in 1689 in the alternative list of abbesses

  1782-86 Abbess Nullius Fedele Renna of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the few Abbesses in the world to hold semi-episcopal powers and ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

  1782-1810 Abbess Sophie Magdalene af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

She used the titles of Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Slesvig, Hosten, Glücksborg, Stormarn og Ditmarsken, Countess to Oldenborg og Delmenhorst. She was head of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies influenced both Church, shools, roads, bridges, inns, mills, forestry, care of the poor and sick. It was desided not to appoint new Abbesses after her death, and the Dechaness became the leader of the Chapter. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksborg and Henriette Auguste zur Lippe-Detmold. After the death of her brother, Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm of Glücksburg, Plön, Norburg and Rethwisch, his widow, Anna Karoline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, was de-facto regent of Glücksborg for many years. Sophie Magdalene lived (1746-1810).


  1784-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Waldburga Anna Truchsess von Zeil-Waldburg of Elten, Abbess of Vreden and St. Urusla in Köln (Germany)
She had been Abbess of of the Chapter of Vreden since 1764 and before that she had been canoness in Buchau 1757-64 She was elected as Abbess because of the support from Preussia, and was succeeded by candidate that was not elected in 1784, Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg. She was was daughter of Count Franz Ernst and Eleonora von Köpnigsegg-Rothensfels and lived (1730-89).

  1786-90 Princesse-Abbesse Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon-Condé of Remiremont (France)    
The Princess was the last Princess-Abbess of the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe before the revolution. She had the title of Princesse d’Empire and was ruler of a number of lordships. During the revolution she was in exile in Belgium but later returned and founded a religious institution. The was daughter of Louis Joseph de Bourbon-Condé, Prince de Condé et Duc de Bourbon and Charlotte de Rohan-Soubise (1737-1760), and lived (1758-1824).

  1787-1803 Princess-Abbess Sophie Albertine av Sverige of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The last Princess-Abbess or Reichsäbtissin of Quedlinburg, she had been elected Koadjutrix in 1767 and was one of the few to acctually reside in the territory, which at the time covered 102 square kilometers, most of the time – except for a stay in Sweden 1794-99. She found an administrational mess with no clear destinction of which authorlity lay by her and wich by the city. She reformed the educational system and became very popular. In 1801 the Imperial Diet met to reform the governing system in Germany and the number of states were reduced from around 1.500 to a few hundred. When Quedlinburg was incorporated into Prussia she changed her signature from “des kayserlich freyen weltlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Des fürstlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” and her titulature change from “die Durchlauchtigste Fürstein und Frau Sophien Albertinen, Königliche prinzessin von Schweden, der Gothen und Wenden, Erbin von Norwegen, des kayserlinchen freyen Weltlinchn Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Frau Äbtissen königliche Hoheit wie auch dem Fürstlichen Stifts Amte”. She later moved back to Sweden. The Swedish Princess was daughter of Karl XII of Sweden and Lovisa-Ulrika von Preussen, and lived (1753-1808).

  1789-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Xaveria von Königfeld of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Anna Febronia Elisabeth von Speth-Zwyfalten. 

  1789-94/99 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia II van Bentinck of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Because of the French Revolution, which also reached Liège, she did not mark her election with an “entry into her lordships”, and was not hailed by her subjects such as her predecessors. The territory was occupied by the French forces 1792-93, by Imperial Troops 1793-94 and then again by the French. Very few ladies remained in the chapter, and Maria Theresia moved to Gerresheim. The adminsitration was taken over by the Vice-Dechanesses; Beate von Freyberg, who resigned in 1795 and by the 68 year old Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg until the chapter was finally abolished. Maria Theresia was daughter of Freiherr Adrian Konstantin Ferdinand Joseph van Bentinck and Freiin Anna Franziska von Bocholtz, and lived (1739-99).

  Until 1789 Princess-Abbess Madeleine Barbe de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
Sold the chapter to her niece during the revolution, who married the Intendent of the Chapter, Keppeler, who became Prefect and Baron of the Empire. The chapter was abolished during the revolution in 1789

  Until 1789  Reigning Abbess Charlotte-Julie le Normant of Faremoutiers (France)
Also known as Madame de Maupéou. Her family were councillors of Louis XV and Louis XVI. She succeeded Françoise de Molé, who reigned at dates not known to me.

  1789-92 and 1795-98 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Oruña of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas, she was Head of the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muñó, Candasnos, Cardeñadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontiñena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.

  1789-98 Reigning Abbess Delphine Madeleine Elisabeth de Sabran-Baudinard of Chelles (France)
Daughter of Joseph-Jules-Honoré de Sabran-Baudinard and Marie-Thérèse d’Arlatan de Lauris, and lived (1734-1820).

  1790-96 Princess-Abbess Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
She was brought up in Vienna and after the death of her father in 1755, her uncle, Leopold picked her and her brothers up, and secured her the position as Canoness of Elten, and on the way they visited Dresden, Meissen, Hubertusburg, Bautzen, Naumburg (Saale) and further places. She also received a Präbende Vreden, which was tied to her family. She became Küsterin in Vreden in 1763 even though she did not take oath of office as lady of the chapter until 1765 when she was permitted not to live in the chapter. She held the same office in Elten from 1766 and the same year she became a lady of the chapter of Essen which was considered more prestigious as an Imperial Immediate Secular Chapter (kaiserlich-freiweltliches Stift) than the High Countly Secular Chapter of Vreden (hochgräflich-freiweltliche Stift Vreden) and the Princely Secular Chapter of Elten (fürstlich-freiweltliche Stift). She became Dechantin in Vreden from 1779, in Essen 1782 and in Elten in 1784, but the same year she failed to be elected Abbess, because Prussia supported Walburga Maria Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach, but she succeeded her after her death 6 year later, and also in January she was elected Abbess of Vreden. She was daughter of daughter of Altgraf Karl Anton Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg and countess Maria Franziska de Paula Eleonora Esterhazy, and lived (1731-96).

  1791-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Chapter at the  Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))
4 days after her installation with her princely ecclesiastical rank, the Archduchess conducted the coronation – assisted by bishops – of her mother, Maria Ludovica de Borbon of Spain, as Queen of Bohemia. She and her husband, Leopold, had already been crowned as Holy Roman Emperor and Empress the previous year. Maria Anna resigned in 1800, and lived (1770-1809).

  Around 1791Abbess Nullius Giuditta Terami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Kingdom of Napoli joined the first coalition in 1793, the kingdom was occupied by French troops and was declared to be abolished in 1799 and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which only lasted until June and Ferdinando I di Borbone was restored as king.

  1792-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Vogel aus Ummendorf of Heggbach (Germany)
Also known as Marianne, she was elected Abbess in the first round of voting against 5 other candidates. During her reign, the Chapter was marked by the wars with France 1790-1800, and she continued the daily routine of administering her territory with the knowledge that the French regime poised a great danger to the known world order. She secured the most valuable reliquia and send them to Switzerland. 1793 the first refugees arrived and 1796-97 the French troops laid down quarter and had to be fed. The Reichsdeputation assembled in Rastatt 1793-99 tried to prevent the inevitable and so did the College of Prelates in Ochnhausen in 1798, but when Emperor Franz II of Austria signed off the Left Bank of the Rhine to the French as part of the peace settlement, the fate of the ecclesiastical territories of Swabia was sealed and they were seculised. The nuns were allowed to stay at the chapter, which came in the possession of the Count of Waldbott-Bassenheim. But even though they were granted a pension, they lived in great poverty. 1806 the Abbey became part of the Kingdom of Württemberg, but the financial troubles continued. In 1875 Fürst von Waldburg-Wolfegg bought the building and gave it to the Franciscans in 1884, and it is still a convent today. She lived (1752-1835).

  1792-95 Reigning Abbess-General María Rascón of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.


  From 1792 Reigning Coadjutress Gabrielle de Tane of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Left with the nuns. Empty of its inhabitants, the abbey was divided into 34 lots and sold in 1793. The Church, the chapter and the cloister were destroyed, the claustral buildings were transformed into houses along roads cut across the Abbey. But out of the 58 nuns expelled a few stayed on in the village, succoured by the population. The locals carried the reliquaries, bells and statues of the Abbey to the Parish Church in order to save them from destruction. They even tried to make a request to the Committee for the Protection of the General Public in favour of the sisters. Those who came back discretely to live under the shadow the cloister were they had made profession were welcomed kindly repaying by their services and their example those who helped them. Twenty-six nuns survived in this way, waiting and watching in prayer. They bought back plots of the Abbey and kept a look-out for the eventuality of the revival of conventual life.

  1793-1801 Princess-Abbess Maria Violanta von Lerchenfeld-Premberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Countess was member of the family of Counts of The Realm of Lerchenfeld-Siessbach-Prennberg.

  1793-1806 Administrator Coadjutrix Johanna Caroline von Oettingen-Spielberg of Säckingen (Germany)

Because of the advanced age of Fürstäbtissin Maria Anna von Hornstein-Göffingen, she was elected as Koadjutorin der Äbtissin and confirmed by the Austrian government and took over the administration during the last years of the existance of the chapter. She was daughter of Anton Ernst von Oettingen-Spielberg and Maria Thereia Walpurga von Waldbrg zu Trauchburg and lived (1728).


  1794-95 Acting Head Beate von Freyberg  of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Soon after she was appointed Vice-Dechaness, she became Acting Head of the Chapter after t as Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia van Bentnick had sought refuge in Gerresheim in 1794. She resigned because she did not feal up to the task of running the task during the French occupation.

  1795-98 Acting Head Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Took over as Vice-Dechaness and de-facto Leader of the Chapter after the resignation of Beate von Freyberg as the Princess-Abbess had left the territory. She tried to steer the chapter through the hardship of the French occupation and Presided over the final Gathering of the Chapter before it was closed down. She spend the rest of her life by her family, and lived (1727-1817).

  1795-97 Acting Head Clementine Franziska von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)
As Dechaness, the Landgravine took the reigns after the French occupation, the Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachen, Princess of Poland, stayed in Essen to take care of the insterests of the chapter. In 1796 a bill was passed banning religious establishments with either female or male inhabitants. As Thorn had both canonesses and canons, they argued that the law did not include them. When a law was passed banning all religious establishments, Clementine claimed that Thorn was a secular domain, but the chapter was finally abolished in 1797. Both she and Maria Kunigunde were busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten), leaving the French only in charge of the administration of the chapter, as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was also Abbess of Van Sint Salvator Te Susteren (Süsteren) and Dechaness in Elten. Klementine Franziska Ernestina Leopoldina was daughter of Konstantin von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg and his second wife, Marie Jeannette de Bombelles, and lived (1747-1813).

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maximiliana Franziska de Paula zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten (Germany)
King Friederich Wilhelm III von Pressen incorporated the 14 square kilomeres large state with its 1.500 inhabitants in his own lands in 1802. This made it possible for protestants to live in the town, which had not been allowed before. The territory lost it’s indenpendence (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and shortly before the French occupation the Minister of State Count von Schulenburg, withdrew all special rights that belonged to the town through centuries of reign by the Abbess. The lands of the chapter was annexed by the French in 1811, but the ladies of the chapter was given a pension for life. She was daughter of Prince Siegmund zu Salm-Reifferscheid and Countess Eleonora von Walburg zu Zeil und Wurzbach, and lived (1765-1805).

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Maier of Rottenmünster (Germany)
She was the last Fürstäbtissin of the Imperial Immediate Zisterzienserinnen-Reichsabtei Rottenmünster before the ecclesiastical territory was secularized and became a part of Württemberg in 1803. She lived in the convent until her death and the last lady of the chapter left it in 1850. (d. 1826).

  1796-1810 Princess-Abbess Maria Walburga Theresia von Liebenfels-Worblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1798-1810 Reigning Lady of Worblingen and Beuren an der Aach in Hegau and Co-Lady of Liebburg (Switzerland)
As a result of the end of the old Swiss Confederation (alten Eidgenossenschaft) in 1798, the Fürstliche Reichsstift (The Princely Chapter of the Realm) lost all its feudal rights in 1803 and became part of the Canton of Sankt Gallen. It gradually had to give up its possessions outside the Canton and in 1811 the Grand Council of the canton decided to abolish the chapter. The convent house was sold, and the church of the chapter was taken over by the parish. Her bother was the last male member of the Liebenfels-Worblingen family and she inherited the Lordship of Worblingen and the Liebenfels’sche and the Worblinger Castles after his death in 1798. She was daughter of Christoph Albert zu Worblingen (Hegau) and Maria Anna Josepha Eleonora von Hornstein zu Weiterdingen, and (d. 1810). 

  1797-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franziska Susanna Clara Ferdinanda von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
The Freiin (Baroness) was the last sovereign Princess-Abbess of Lindau, as the office was vacant until 1803, when the territory became a secular county. The following year it was annexed to Austria, 1805 to Bavaria and finally in 1806 it was incorporated in Württemberg.

  1798-1801 Reigning Abbess-General Micaela de Osorio of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her family were Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.


  1799-1807 Reigning Abbess Maria Johanna Baptista von Zweyer auf Hoenbach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
She had first tried to become a member of the Chapter of Frauenalb but did not have enough funds to pay the fees. Instead she spend a “test year” in Wald and was admitted because of her “special and exceptional abilities. Mentioned as Prioriss 1773-99. The territory was secularied as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss and became part of the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, whose ruler, Prince Anton Aloys, made an agreement with the ladies of the chapter that she would recieve a sum of money for the rest of their lives, but they were not allowed to accept more canonesses into the chapter. In 1806 Hohenzollern annexed the Chapter and Office of Wald (Kloster und Amt) and the Offices of Vernhof and Ennigerloh. She was daughter of Freiherr Karl von Zweyer.

  1801-03 Princess-Abbess Maria Helene von Freien-Seiboltsdorf of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The last ruler of the state, which was secularized in 1803 and became a part of Bavaria in 1815. Her family was first named as nobles of Seyboldsdorf in 740. The family became Free Lords and Counts of the Realm and also using the name of von Freyen-Seyboldsdorf.

  1801-05 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca Montoya of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages and held her own courts.


  1801-09 Abbess Nullius Aurora Accolti Gil of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The feudal system was abolished in 1806 during the French occupation, and her quasi episcopal powers terminated and the chapter was incorporated into the diocese of Conversano. (d. 1809-).

  1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Xaveria Lohmiller of Baindt (Germany)
Shortly after she became leader of the territory, she married Caspar Oexlq and the position of Sovereign Reichsfürstin of the Ecclesiastical Territory was never filled again. In November the Count von Leyden occupied the territory, but a few months year later it was taken over by the count of Aspermont-Linden and was later incorporated into the Kingdom of Würrtemberg. Xaveria (d. 1836).

  1802-16 Reigning Abbess Auguste Elisabeth von Seckendorff of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
When the Knight’s Canton of Kraichau, the Imperial Immediate Noble Kraichgauian Chapter for Noble Ladies (Kaiserliche Reichsfreie Adeliche Kraichgauer Fräulein-Stift) was abolished in 1806, a Family Council consisting of members of the former Canton took over the administration. It still supports “Evangelical noble ladies in need”, and still exists today.

  1805-15 Reigning Abbess-General Bernarda de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Because of the French Invasion she had to abandon the Community 1812-15 as the first Abbess ever since the foundation.


  1805-11 Titular Princess-Abbess Laetitia Murat of Elten (Germany)

Also known as Princess Marie Letizia Josephine Annonciade Murat. The territory had originally been abolished in 1803 and incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Berg, but the new Grand Duke of Berg, Joachm Murat got permission by Napoleon I to name her to the position of Princess-Abbess. The chapter was abolished when he became King of Napoli in 1811. She married Guido Taddeo, Marchese Pepoli, Conte di Castiglione (1789-1852), had several children, and lived (1802-59).


  1807-51 Reigning Abbess Maria Josefa von Würz à Rudenz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The chapter wich had been part of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen since 1806 was finally incorporated into Preusssia in 1848.

  1810-60 Politcally Influential Abbess Juliane Louise Amelia of Hessen-Kassel of Itzehoe in Schleswig-Hostein (Denmark and Germany)
Because of her involvement in social charities, development of health facilities etc., she became very influential in the Northern state in Germany. Itzehoe was a Protestant Adeliches Damenstift (Noble Ladies’ Chapter). It was never an independent eccleastical territory, but it was important as a major landowner. She was daughter of Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel and Louise of Denmark, and lived (1773-1861).

  1815-18 and 1827-30 Reigning Abbess-General María Lorenza de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


  1818-21 Reigning Abbess-General María Manuela de Lizana of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Probably related to Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont (17501811). Bishop of Mexico and Vice-Roy of New Spain.


  1821-24 Reigning Abbess-General María Francisca Benita de los Ríos   of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Among the many dignities and high offices held by the abbess of Las Huelgas was that of the title of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile dating from 1189, wich gave her the privilege of convoking a general chapter at Burgos each year.


  1824-27 and  1830-33 Reigning Abbess-General María Tomasa Orense Rábago of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular ruler of vast territories in northern Spain.


  1833-36 and  1838-44 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita Rascón of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She held quasi episcopal authority of the territory.


  1834-35 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Habsburg of the Theressian Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin of Prague  (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))
She resigned as Abbess of the Royal Chapter to marry king Fernando II of Two Sicilies in 1835. In 1859 her stepson became king, but only one year later he had to resign as a result of the unification of Italy. She was daughter of Archduke Karl and Henriette von Nassau-Weilburg, the mother of two daughters and lived (1816-67).

  1835-42 Princess-Abbess Hermine von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theressian Royal and Imperial Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)
Daughter of Josef Anton von Habsburg-Lothringen and Princess Hermine von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, who died aged 20, after having given birth to Hermine and her twin brother, Stefan Viktor. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank. She dedicated here life to charity but died at the age of only 25, after having lived (1817-42).

  1836-38 and 1847-50 Reigning Abbess-General María Manuela Montoya of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 lordships and villages and held her own courts.


  1844-52 Princess-Abbess Maria Karolina von Habsburg of the Theressian Chapter for Noble Ladies at the Hradschin of Prague  (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))
As abbess the Archduchess enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. Her sister, Maria Theresia, was abbess around 1834-35. Maria Karoline married her cousin, Archduke Rainer, and became known as “Aunt Marie Rainer”, she had no children, and lived (1825-1915). 

  1844-47 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa Bonifaz Bustamante of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


  1850-53 Reigning Abbess-General María Concepción Casilda de Rozas  of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the privilege to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


  1858-61 Reigning Abbess-General María Antonia González Agüero of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey”. 


  1861-64 and 1883-84 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda Ruiz Puente  of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

During her second term in office she no longer held quasi episcopal powers, as they had been revoked in 1873 after the First Vatican Council 1769-70.


  1864-67, 1876-79 and 1884-87 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda Tagle de Quevedo of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

During her two last tenures, she did not hold quasi episcopal powers.


  1867-70 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita Rodríguez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Temporal and secular ruler of the territory which belonged to the convent.


  1870-76 and 1879-83 Reigning Abbess-General  María Pilar Ugarte of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

She was the last abbess anywhere to hold quasi episcopal powers, when her right of jurisdiction was abolished in 1873. All institutes were to be put under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which the houses were situated; this corresponds to the main point of the Concordat arranged between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon, and which was still in force. She protested against the abolision of her quasi episcopal and other ancient religious and temporal privilleges, but the Archbishop of Burgos made a judgment stating that the decision was correct.


  1875-79 Princess-Abbess Maria Christina von Habsburg-Este of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)
1885-1902 Queen Regent H.M. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo-Loreno y Habsurgo-Este of Spain 
The Archduchess was Regent of Spain and its colonies, first during the vacancy of the throne and pending the gestation of a posthumous heir – her son Alfonso XIII (1886-1931-41), who was born 6 months after the death of her husband Alfonso XII. As President of the Council of State she was in close contact with the Premier and the other ministers. Politically the period was characterized, by constant switching of terms in office by the liberal and conservative political parties. Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico were lost to USA. During her term in office, a wavering policy was used for facing the problems in Morocco during the first war of Melilla, (1893). Also, by agreement with France, the borders of the Spanish Continental Guinea were established, (1900). The regent was always highly esteemed because of her great discretion and tact and, after her son came of age, she devoted herself exclusively to family life and good charible works. She had been Princess-Abbess  of Prague  until their marriage in 1879, and lived (1859-1929).

  Until 1893 Princess-Abbess Margaretha  Sophie von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)
The Abbey was founded by Empress Maria Theresia in 1755. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. Daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (1833-96) and  Maria Annunziata of The Two Sicilies (1843-71). In 1893 she married Albrecht von Württemberg (1865-1939), mother of three sons and lived (1870-1902).

  1893-94 Princess-Abbess Karoline Immaculata von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)
The Archduchess was also known as Carolina, she was daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany (1839-92) and Maria Immacolata of The Two Sicilies (1844-99) and married to Prince August Leopold von Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1867-1922) and lived (1869-1945). 

  1894-1918 Princess-Abbess Maria Annunziata von Habsburg-Lothringen of The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague  (Austria-Hungary)
Also was known as Miana, the Archduchess was the daughter of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria and his third wife, Maria Teresa da Bragança. She acted as “first Lady” at the court of her father’s brother, Emperor Franz Joseph after his wife, Empress Elisabeth, was murdered in 1898. Her oldest brother, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was the Heir to the Throne until he was killed 1914, and her second brother’s son was emperor Karl I (1887-1916-18-2). She was unmarried and lived (1876-1961). 

the end @ copyright dr iwan suwandy 2011

Profil Penguasa Wanita DiDunia Abad Ke 14(1300-1324)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

The Dr Iwan Rare Book:

Profile Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia Abad Ke 14(1300-1324)

PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA ABAD KE 14(1300-1324)

Wanita pemimpin
dan perempuan dalam posisi lain otoritas politik
negara independen dan
mengatur diri mengecilkan badan

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  1300-1320 Viscountess Sovereign Alix II de Clermont dari Châteaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau dan Calais Saint (Prancis)
Pengganti ibu, Alix aku de Dreux. Suami pertamanya adalah Guillaume de Dampierre dari Flanders, seigneur de Tenremonde et de Richebourg – anak bungsu dari Count Guy de Dampierre dari Flanders – dan Jean kedua de Chalon, seigneur d’Arly. Pada 1320 ia mengundurkan diri gelar di mendukung putranya Jean de Dampirre-Flandres, yang digantikan oleh putri sulungnya, Marie, pada tahun 1325. Alix II (w. 1330).

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  1300-1304 Abbess memerintah Adelheid von Treidenberg II dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
The Reichsstift – Imperial Langsung Bab – telah ditempatkan langsung di bawah otoritas raja Jerman sejak 1002, dan perlindungan kerajaan, dan kekebalan dikonfirmasi occations un banyak kemudian.

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  Sekitar 1300 Nang’oma Chiefess dari Bululi (Uganda)
Putri Kabaka Kato Kintu Kakulukuku, yang mendirikan kerajaan Buganda sekitar 1300.

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  13 … Sovereign Putri Maria Keos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Menggantikan ayahnya. Dari abad ke-12 pulau itu dijajah oleh Ionians dari daratan dan menamakan pulau Keos – hari ini disebut Tzia (Kea).

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  13 …. Menteri Nayakuralu Nagamma dari Haihayas (India)
Lahir sebagai petani, tetapi naik menjadi posnya karena kemampuannya dan memungkinkan tuannya untuk mendapatkan kemenangan. Ketika salah satu raja-raja musuh menyatakan bahwa sebagai seorang perempuan ia tidak cocok untuk duduk di dewan militer dia menantang untuk duel. Dia hilang tapi akhirnya kemenangan milik sisinya.

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  1301-1304 Janda Lady Sophia Bupati van Heusden dari Horne (Belgia)
Setelah kematian suaminya Willem III (sebelum 1282-1300/01) dia mengambil alih kabupaten untuk dua anaknya Willem (1300-1301) dan Gerard I (1301-30-50).

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  1301 Countess herediter Richardis Bentheim von dari Tecklenburg (Jerman)
Ahli waris ayahnya, Otto von Bentheim V-Tecklenburg, dan menikah dengan Count Günzel VI von Schwerin.

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  1302-1329 Mahaut Countess Penguasa Artois, Dame de Conches (Belgia – Perancis)
1302-1321 Countess Janda Bupati Bourgogne
Sejak kakaknya, Philippe, dia adalah penerus ayahnya, Robert II, di bawah kekuasaan raja raja Perancis, daripada dia keponakan Robert, berdasarkan kedekatan darah. Dia adalah seorang administrator kuat dan mengalahkan pemberontakan dari para bangsawan dan terlibat dalam perselisihan mengenai suksesi dengan Robert. Setelah kematian suaminya, Othon IV Bourgogne (1248-1302), ia memerintah County. Dia digantikan oleh anak perempuannya, Jeanne II, Countess de Bourgogne sejak 1315, dan Robert mengklaim County lagi, tapi Jeanne digantikan oleh adik Mahaut’s – Jeanne III – setelah hanya satu tahun. Mahaut tinggal (1268-1329).

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  1303-17 De facto memerintah Ratu Violante Aleramo dari Tesalonika (Yunani)
1305-1306 Berdaulat Margravine dari Monferrato (Italia)
Menikah Kaisar Andronikos II Palailogos, kemudian Kaisar Konstantinopel, sebagai istri kedua di 1284 dan dikenal sebagai Yolanda, dan diberi Tesalonika sebagai mas kawinnya. Dia dalam sengketa dengan suaminya atas masa depan anak-anak mereka, sebagai anak-anaknya oleh perkawinan pertama diberi nama sebagai ahli waris. Dia ingin memiliki Kekaisaran diukir dalam kerajaan terpisah untuk masing-masing tiga anak. Mereka tumbuh lebih lanjut selain ketika suaminya menikahi putri mereka lima tahun untuk Raja Simonis Milutin dari Serbia yang berada di 50-an dan memaksa anak sulung mereka menikahi putri penasihat terdekatnya walaupun ia bangsawan rendah. Pada 1303 ia dikemas punggung dan mengambil tempat tinggal di Tesalonika, yang dianggap sebagai milik sendiri. 1309 upaya rekonsiliasi gagal dan ia meninggal di wilayah di 1317. 1305 ia mewarisi Monferrato dari saudara laki-lakinya dan tahun berikutnya ia lulus judul untuk putra keduanya, Theodore, yang menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di Italia. Dia adalah ibu dari tujuh anak.

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  Sampai 1303 Beatrice Countess Penguasa Chiaggiolo (Italia)
Menggantikan ayahnya dan menikahi Paolo Malatesta.

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  Memerintah 1303-1310 Abbess Agnès IV de Gloise dari Abbey Royal Jouarre (Perancis)
Seperti Abbess dia memiliki kewenangan yang besar di kawasan itu, mengorganisir pameran dan pasar, pengeluaran keadilan, mengangkat imam, mempunyai hak untuk arbitrase dalam distribusi tanah.

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  1304-1308 Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Bourgogne dari Tonnerre (Perancis)
Putri Mahaut de Tonnerre dan Duke Eudes de Bourgogne. Istri kedua dari Charles I dari Perancis, Count d’Anjou et du Maine, Provence et de Forcalquier dll Raja Sicilia (1265), tituler Raja Yerusalem (1267) dan Raja Napoli dan Yerusalem (1265), dia tinggal ( 1249-1308).

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  1304-1311 Countess Berdaulat Marguerite dari Touraine (Perancis)
Penerus ayahnya, Raymond VII dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami, Bernard II de Comminges, yang digantikan oleh anaknya, Jean pada 1335 dan kemudian oleh Cécile putri mereka.

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  Memerintah 1304-1314 Abbess Irmgard von II Köfering dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Köferingen adalah sebuah desa terletak di dekat Regensburg.

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  1304-1306 feodal Baroness Giovanna Chevereuse de Di del Castello di Meta Rutigliano (Italia)
Menggantikan ayahnya Anselmo, bangsawan di Rutigliano dan di Sannicandro dan hak-haknya telah disetujui oleh Carlo II d’Anjou dari Napoli.

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  1305-1306 Margravine Janda Bupati Margherita de Savoia dari Monferrato (Italia)
Telah sangat berpengaruh pada masa pemerintahan suaminya, Giovanni aku, Tuhan Ivrea dan Astri (1277-95-1305) dan bertanggung jawab pemerintah sampai-kakak iparnya, Ratu Yolanda Konstantinopel, ditransfer Margravate untuk dia anak keempat, Theodoros Palailogos. Dia (w. 1339).

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  Memerintah 1305-1318 Janda Janda Countess Lady Margaretha von Kiburg Tanah Linner (Burg bei Linn Krefeld) di Berg (Jerman)
Janda VIII Dietrich von Kleve dan mengundurkan diri Dipertuan dalam mendukung anaknya yang lebih muda, Johann, ketika dia bergabung dengan Biara Bedburg di Kleve.

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  1305-1316 Abbess Countess Mechthild Wohldenberg zu II Gandersheim (Jerman)
Anggota keluarga countly Jerman.

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  1305-17 Juara II Mathilde Abbess d’Auchy dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Juga dikenal sebagai Mahaut.

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  1306-1344 Countess Berdaulat Marguerite dari Soissons (Perancis)
Putri Hugues, ia menikah dengan Jean, seigneur de Beaumont, Valenciennes dan Conde, dan digantikan oleh Jeanne de Hainaut.

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  1306 Bupati Janda Ratu Eliška Rejčka Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
1306-1335 Lady of Königsgrätz
Elisabeth Ryksa, Richenza, Richsa atau Ryksa Elzbieta Polandia telah politik berpengaruh 1303-1305 pada masa pemerintahan suaminya, Václav II dari Bohemia, Hungaria dan Polandia, dan bupati dari bulan Agustus hingga Oktober, ketika ia menikah Rudolf III dari Austria, yang adalah raja tituler Bohemia, Hungaria dan Polandia sampai kematiannya satu tahun kemudian, namun pada kenyataannya Hungaria dan Bohemia berada di sebuah peralihan. Elzbieta menikah dengan suami ketiga, Heinrich zur Lippe di 1315 dan mereka terus sebagai pemimpin dari kaum bangsawan Bohemian terhadap Ratu Elisabeth. Setelah kematiannya pada 1329, ia mundur ke biara Sankt Aula Mariæ di Brunn. Dia adalah putri Raja Przemysl II dari Polandia dan Richeza, putri Raja Valdemar dari Denmark, dan tinggal (1288-1335).

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  1306 -… Bupati Janda Duchess Anna Czerska dari Raciborz (Ratibor) (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Przemysław dari Raciborz, dia bupati untuk Leszek putra mereka. Dia adalah putri dari Duke Konrad II Czersk dan Jadwiga, dan hidup (ca. 1270-1324)

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  1306-1316 Elisabeth Putri-Abbess II von Bussnang dari Säckingen (Jerman)
Raja Albrecht menamai dia Putri Kekaisaran pada 4 April 1307. Dia membela hak-haknya terhadap warga Laufenburg di Pengadilan Kota, dan memperbaharui hak-hak Kota Buruk Säckingen di 1316. Dia adalah anggota dari keluarga bangsawan dari Thurgau di Swiss yang memainkan peran penting di Keuskupan Konstantz.

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  1306-1326 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oiselay dari Remiremont (Perancis)
Menjabat Doyenne dan Kedua-in-Command 1288-1292 sebelum menjadi mensekresikan, sedangkan canonnis yang bertanggung jawab atas pencahayaan mengubah lampu dll – pejabat tertinggi ketiga dalam bab ini. Dan ia menerima perlindungan kepausan kadang selama masa jabatannya di kantor. Dia adalah putri dari Jean d’Oyselet, seigneur de Flagey, isu cabang tidak sah dari Penghitungan Bourgogne. Versi lain dari nama keluarganya ditemukan dalam sumber-sumber asli d’Oyselet, Oiselet atau Oizelay.

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  1306-1326 Pemimpin Militer Lady Kristen Bruce di Skotlandia (United Kingdom)
Selama Perang Kemerdekaan dan pemerintahan Edward I, Lady Bruce Castle membela Kildrummy ketika Daud Strathbogie, yang melayani kepentingan Inggris, mengepung kota itu. Ketika ia jatuh dalam pertempuran itu diserahkan kepada janda untuk membela (selama tujuh bulan) pulau benteng Lochindorb terhadap tiga ribu Skotlandia dendam. “Adalah Dia adik dari Raja Robert I dan adik-adiknya, Marjory Bruce dan Mary Bruce, juga mengambil bagian dalam pertempuran seperti yang dilakukan pendukung saudara mereka, Isobel, Countess dari Buchan.

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  1306 “Enthroner” Lady Isabel Macduff di Skotlandia (United Kingdom)
Dilaksanakan di sebelah kanan rumahnya, dan membawa sanksi penggunaan kuno untuk upacara, dengan memimpin Raja Robert the Bruce ke tempat penobatan. Saudara laki-lakinya, Duncan, Earl of Fife, adalah sekutu Inggris dan menikah dengan Maria de Monthermer, keponakan Edward I. dari Inggris. Dia kemudian ditangkap oleh Inggris dan ditempatkan di kandang pada dinding Berwick, sementara kakaknya dan istrinya ditangkap oleh Bruce dan dipenjarakan di kastil Kildrummie di Aberdeenshire, di mana Earl meninggal pada 1336. Isabel menikah dengan John Comyn, Earl dari Buchan, adalah seorang pejuang Skotlandia bersemangat. Setelah empat tahun ia diselamatkan oleh pasukan Bruce.

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  Ca. 1306-1361 Countess herediter Hedwig dari Dhaun Wildgrafschaft dan Grumbach (Jerman)
Putri Konrad IV, Wildgraf di Dhaun und Grumbach dan Hildegard von Hunolstein, dia pertama kali menikah dengan Rheingraf Johann saya vom Stein, dan kedua untuk Gerlach von Brunshorn.

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  1307 Janda Kaisar Khanum Bulugan dari Dinasti Yuan di China
Janda Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) yang memerintah (1294-1307) sebagai pengganti Setsen Khubilai Khan (Shizu) dan bertindak sebagai bupati untuk Wuzong langkah-cucunya, juga dikenal sebagai Khaishan, Hai San atau Taji. Ia dilahirkan sebagai Putri Bulukhan dari Baya’ud.

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  1307-1310 Ratu Anna Přemyslova Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
Putri Raja Václav II dan istri pertamanya Guta, dan menikah dengan Heinrich von Kärnten tahun 1306, yang bernama Deputi Bidang ayahnya. Setelah pembunuhan kakaknya, Václav III, dan mengambil alih kekuasaan oleh sepupunya Rudolf von Habsburg (anak saudara ibunya, Raja Albrecht von Habsburg Jerman) – yang menikah dengan ibu tirinya Elzbieta Ryksa dari Polandia – ia melarikan diri dengan dia suami untuk Kärnten. Setelah kematian Rudolf, Heinrich terpilih raja Bohemia – dilegitimasi oleh-hak suksesi nya. Ketika mereka mencoba untuk menikahi adiknya, Eliška untuk Otto von Berg, dia menolak dan mengambil tawaran dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia untuk bergabung oposisi terhadap Heinrich. Pada 1310 Eliška menikah Johann von Luxemburg yang menduduki Praha dan Anna dan suaminya menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di pengasingan di Kärnten. Dia tidak memiliki anak, dan hidup (1290-1313).

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  1307-1310 Pemimpin Oposisi Eliška Přemyslova di Bohemia
1310-1325 politis Berpengaruh Ratu Bohemia (Republik Ceko)
Juga dikenal sebagai Elisabeth dari Bohemia, dan setelah kematian ayahnya, Václav II dari Bohemia dan Polandia dan pembunuhan kakaknya, Václav III ia bergabung dengan bibinya, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) di Biara dari Georg Kudus di Kastil dari Praha. Dia menyadari kelemahan kakaknya iparnya Raja Heinrich, dan menerima tawaran dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia ulama untuk menikah lagi penguasa masa depan. Pada musim panas 1310 ia mengambil bagian dalam Majelis Tanah, yang terpilih pada pencalonan Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). Ia menerima tawaran itu, dan mereka menikah pada bulan September dan kembali ke Praha pada bulan Desember tahun yang sama dan digulingkan kakaknya dan saudara-di-hukum. Dia disukai garis keras terhadap oposisi dan karena tekanan suaminya dipenjara juru bicara dari kaum bangsawan Bohemia, Heinrich von Lipa (Jindřich z Lipe) yang menyebabkan perang saudara dan hampir biaya mereka mahkota dan itu tidak sampai 1318 bahwa perdamaian dipulihkan ketika suaminya mengakui posisi kaum bangsawan. Eliška bertentangan ini dan bertentangan dengan suaminya. Dia tinggal di pengasingan Bavaria sampai 1325 dan mengambil bagian dalam tindakan terakhir politiknya – penghapusan para tuan dari Dukes Slesian. Tetapi pada saat ini ia sudah hidup terpisah dari suaminya, yang merawat tugas-tugasnya di Eropa, di mana anak-anak mereka juga didistribusikan di berbagai pengadilan. tahun terakhir wanita itu dipengaruhi oleh kurangnya nya keuangan, yang membuat ia tidak mampu mempertahankan pengadilan. Juga dikenal sebagai Elizabeth, dia tinggal (1292-1330).

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  1307-1326 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oyselet dari Remiremont, Dame Saint Pierre dan Metz (Prancis)
Baik nama pendahulunya atau penggantinya dikenal.

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  1307-1317 Countess-Abbess Hedwig von IV Gernrode dan Frose (Jerman)
Dalam dokumen hanya dikenal dari pemerintahannya adalah dari 1311, dimana ia menjual salah satu kebun bab ini dalam rangka untuk melepaskan “harta gereja” yang telah diserahkan sebagai jaminan untuk lones.

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  1307-1311 Abbess memerintah Mechtild Hasenstein von dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Mengundurkan diri dari pos. Milik 2 kebun bersama-sama dengan anak-anak perempuannya Anna dan Ita, yang canonesses dalam bab tersebut.

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  1307-1313 Pretender Marguerite de Villehardouin dari Akhaya dan Morea (Yunani)
Setelah kematian adiknya, Isabelle de Villehardouin ia mengklaim azas, dan sekali lagi pada tahun 1313. Ketika terbukti tidak berhasil, ia dipindahkan hak-haknya untuk putrinya Isabelle dari Sabran, istri Ferdinand dari Majorca. putra putrinya, Yakobus Unfortunate Mallorca, adalah pangeran diproklamasikan dari Morea di 1315 di bawah Kabupaten ayahnya, yang menaklukkan kerajaan antara 1315 dan 1316 namun dikalahkan dan dieksekusi oleh dia keponakan Mathilda de Savoie dan suaminya, Louis dari Burgundi , yang digulingkan tahun yang sama oleh Raja Robert dari Napoli setelah Louis meninggal.

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  1308-1346 Sovereign Dame Catherine II de Valois dari Courtenay, Blacon dan Montargie (Prancis) dan Ratu tituler Konstantinopel
1333-1346 Berdaulat Putri Akhaya (Yunani)
Gubernur 1341-1346 Kephalliena (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Mewarisi judul Ratu tituler dari ibunya, Chatherine aku de Courtenay (1283-1308), dan terlibat dalam intrik-intrik dari pengadilan Giovanna I dari Napoli dan mungkin terlibat pembunuhan suami Giovanna’s, Andreas Hungaria. Dia menikah dengan Philippe II de Taranto, dan semua ketiga putranya menggantikannya sebagai Prince of Taranto. Robert anaknya tertua yang masih hidup dan berhasil suaminya sebagai Pangeran dari Taranto. Pada 1333 ia menerima azas Achaea oleh perjanjian dengan pamannya, Jean de Gravina. Namun anak laki-laki berusia 13 tahun dianggap terlalu muda untuk memerintah sendiri dan ibunya menjadi rekan-penguasa selama sisa hidupnya. Pada 1339 ia tiba di Achaea dan mengambil bagian aktif dalam pemerintahannya. Dia memberikan perlindungan untuk Nikephoros II Orsini dari Epirus dan mendukung dia dalam usahanya untuk menegaskan dirinya sendiri di tanah melawan Andronikos Kaisar Byzantine III Palaiologos. Kehadirannya dalam Achaea tidak lagi diperlukan pada saat Robert mencapai dewasa di 1341. Dia menjadi Gubernur Cephalonia dan menghabiskan lima tahun terakhir hidupnya dalam tanggung jawab ini. Robert berhasil sebagai Pangeran Akhaya oleh istrinya, Maria II Zaccharia di 1364. Catherine adalah ibu dari 5 anak-anak dan ayahnya Count Charles III de Valois, dan Maine Anjou dan Raja tituler Aragon dan Sisilia dan tituler Kaisar Kekaisaran Bizantium (dengan hak istrinya). Dia tinggal (1301-1346).

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  1308-1309 Countess Yolande Berdaulat de Lusignan La Marche dan Sancerrez (Prancis)
Setelah kematian dua saudara Hugues V (XIII) et Gui saya, dia mewarisi negara dan menjualnya kepada Raja Philippe dari Perancis tahun berikutnya. Pada 1314 ia memberikan county kembali ke anak ketiga, Charles.

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  1308-1347 Jutta Putri-Abbess von Kranichfeld dari Quedlinburg (Jerman)
Pada 1320 ia bertanya Duke Rudolf von Sachsen untuk memperbaharui penyewa-perjanjian demikian mengkonfirmasikan status wilayah independen nya. 1326 kota Halberstadt, Aschersleben dan Quedlinburg membuat perjanjian pertahanan bersama. Selama perkelahian antara jumlah Albrecht II. von Regenstein dan Uskup Halberstadt, hitungan menyerang Quedlinburg dan Neustadt pada 1336, namun kastilnya – Burg Gersdorfer – diduduki dan dia dipenjarakan. Setelah dua tahun, Uskup Quedlinburg mencapai kesepakatan damai di mana Penghitungan Regenstein menerima “perlindungan” dari kota. Jutta adalah putri Count Volrad VIII von Kranichfeld dan Countess Mechtild von Blankenburg, dan tinggal (ca. 1285-1347).

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  1308-1340 Elisabeth Putri-Abbess IV von Matzinger dari Frauenmünster, Dame dari Zürich (Swiss)
Wilayah Gerejawi termasuk Kota Zurich dan banyak harta Uri Schwyz.

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  Duchess 1309-12/14 Janda Bupati Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg dari Gniezno (Polandia)
1309-12 Bupati Glogau dan Sagan (Głogów i Żagań)
1312-14 Bupati Poznan (Posen)
Juga dikenal sebagai Matylda Brunszwicka, ia mengambil alih kabupaten untuk putra-putranya oleh Henryk I (III) dari Głogów: Primko, Henryk IV, Konrad, Jan dan Bolesław. Putri Duke Albrecht dari Braunschweig-Lüneburg, dia juga ibu dari empat anak perempuan Agnieszka, Katarzyna, Jadwiga dan Salomea. Dia tinggal (ca. 1276-1318).

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  1310 (April-Juni) Letnan Ratu Blanche d’Anjou dari Aragón (Spanyol)
Bupati ketika suaminya, Jaime II dari Aragon, adalah pada perang salib di Almeria. Putri Carlos II dari Napoli dan Maria Arpad dari Hungaria, dia ibu dari 10 anak, dan hidup (1280-1310).

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  1310-1313 Co-Berdaulat Putri Alix dari Oroeos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Narzotto ayahnya memerintah (1247-1264).

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  1310-1322 Co-Berdaulat Putri Maria Oroeos (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Ayahnya, Gaetano memerintah (1264-1280). Kedua Sovereign Putri adalah kerabat jauh.

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  1310-1329 Lady Sovereign Sophia Berhout dari Mechelen (Belgia)
Ahli waris ayahnya, Floris Berhout, Tuhan Mechelen atau Malines (dalam bahasa Perancis) seorang pedagang. Dia adalah gadis terkaya di Eropa dan sangat berpendidikan baik dalam urusan ekonomi dan negara. Dia menikah Reinald, Pangeran dari Gelders dan Züpten (1326-1343) dan membantunya mengelola tanah dan meningkatkan kekayaan. Dia adalah ibu dari empat anak perempuan. dan digantikan oleh tertua, Margaretha (1320-1344).

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  1310-1322 dan 1326-1334 Penguasa Dame María Díaz de Haro I dari Vizcaya (Spanyol)
Ayahnya adalah Señor 7 de Bizkaia, Lopez Díaz de Haro III, meninggal pada 1288 dan digantikan oleh adiknya, Diego López de Haro IV, yang meninggal pada tahun berikutnya. Raja Castilla kemudian merebut seigneurity tersebut. Ia digantikan oleh pamannya, Diego López de Haro II, yang menyatakan ahli waris di 1307. Pada 1322 ia mengundurkan diri demi anaknya, Juan de Haro, dan setelah kematiannya ia menjadi signora sekali lagi. Pada 1334 ia mengundurkan diri mendukung keponakannya, María Díaz de Haro II. Doña María I (w. 1342).

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  1310-37 Putri-Abbess Margaretha aku van Pietersheim dari Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler dan Molenbeersel (Belanda)
Pada 1310 Abbess Margaretha bepergian ke paus di Avignon dan memperoleh posisi kedaulatan Wilayah Gerejawi dari Thorn.

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  Memerintah 1310-1313 Abbess Elisabeth von Goritz dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Para kepala biara pertama dari Bab Königsfelden dan sekitarnya. Ini diperoleh banyak harta di Aargau, Swabia dan Alsace.

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  Memerintah 1310-1345 Hélissent Abbess I de Noyers dari Abbey Royal Jouarre (Perancis)
Tetapi Perang Seratus Tahun menghancurkan seluruh Brie dan para biarawati terpaksa melarikan diri. Biara dan Menara dibakar dan gereja sebagian jatuh ke dalam reruntuhan. Digantikan oleh keponakan, Hélissent II.

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  1311-1330 Sovereign Yolanda Countess de Dreux dari Montfort (Montfort-L’Amauri (Prancis)
Pengganti ibu, Beatrice de Montfort (1249-1311). Dia menikah dengan suami pertamanya, Alexander III dari Skotlandia, di autum dari 1285, ia meninggal Maret 1286 dan satu bulan kemudian ia melahirkan seorang putra yang masih lahir, dan karenanya Penjaga Kerajaan dipilih cucunya, Margaret, yang Pembantu dari Norwegia sebagai Ratu Skotlandia. Yolanda menikah Arthur II de Bretagne (1262-1312) pada tahun 1292 dan memiliki setidaknya 6 anak-anak dengan dia. Dia digantikan oleh anaknya, Jean II, dan hidup (1263-1330).

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  1311 Janda memerintah Duchess Jeanne de Châtillon of Athens (Yunani)
Suaminya, Gautama V de Brienne berhasil pamannya, Guy aku de la Roche sebagai Duke di 1308 – ibunya, Isabella telah meninggal 1291. Suaminya tewas dalam Pertempuran Halmyros terhadap Perusahaan Catalan. Dia mungkin telah mencoba untuk memegang Acropolis Athena melawan mereka, tapi akhirnya menyerah itu. Dia kembali dengan anaknya Gautama IV ke Prancis, meskipun pengikut-nya terus memiliki Argos dan Nauplia bawah Gauthier de Foucherolles. Pada April 1318, ia dan ayahnya mengirim permohonan kepada Republik Venesia mencari uang dan kapal untuk ksatria dan infanteri untuk Negroponte atau Nauplia. Permintaan, bagaimanapun, adalah menolak, sebagai pengikut Briennist di Yunani telah berpaling kepada Catalans dalam sementara. Tahun berikutnya Namun, Gautama dari Foucherolles masih memuji vessals di Argolid untuk tetap setia untuk dia dan anaknya. Dengan permohonan konstan Raja Napoli, Raja Perancis, dan Paus, dia terus klaim ke Athena hidup untuk anaknya sampai ia cukup umur untuk kampanye untuk hak-haknya di Laut Aegea. Pada bulan Januari 1321, Philip V dari Perancis mediasi gugatan diajukan terhadap dirinya oleh anaknya sendiri, yang menuntut untuk pembayaran utang besar beberapa ayahnya. Dia mempertahankan gelar yg berkenaan dgn duke dia sampai kematiannya. makam nya, di gereja Santo Jacobin di Troyes memiliki prasasti Duchess d’Athènes. Dia adalah putri Gaucher de Porcien, polisi dari Perancis dan (w. 1354).

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  1311-1327 Jacqueline Countess Penguasa de la Roche dari Veligosti dan Damala (Yunani)
Pewaris terakhir keluarga De la Roche yang telah memerintah Kadipaten Athena 1204-1308. Dia adalah putri dan ahli waris dari Renaud de la Roche. 1327 menikah Martino Zaccaria, Tuhan Chios, sebagai istri keduanya. Ketika ia ditangkap dan mengangkut ke Konstantinopel oleh Andronicus III Palaeologus pada 1330, ia dibiarkan bebas dengan anak-anaknya “dan semua yang bisa mereka bawa.” Dia mungkin telah menjadi ibu Bartolommeo, Margrave dari Bodonitsa, dan mungkin ibu dari Centurione Aku, Tuhan Arcadia.

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  1311-1322 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Dalle Carceri dari Bodonitza, Co-ahli waris dari Euboea (Yunani)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Albert Pallavicini, ia berhasil setengah dari marquisate dari Bodonitsa. Sementara dia menghindari mengirimkan azas ke Perusahaan Catalan, ia tidak bisa menghindari membayar upeti tahunan dari empat destriers. Dia adalah keturunan dari keluarga Lombard Verona yang telah datang ke Yunani pada Perang Salib Keempat. Dia membagi warisan dengan putrinya, Gugliema dan menikah Andrea Cornado, Baron dari Skarpanto, yang memerintah bersama-sama dengan dia. Dia adalah anak dari Gaetano Dalle Carceri dan juga ahli waris dari keenam Euboea. Suaminya meninggal tahun setelah dia dan putrinya mewarisi seluruh wilayah. (W. 1322).

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  1311-1358 Marchioness Pallavicini Guglielma Penguasa Bodonitza, Lady of Thermopylae, Co-ahli waris dari Euboea (Yunani)
Kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Wilhelmina. Suksesi dari semua para tuan Latin di Yunani telah diatur pada saat itu oleh ‘Kitab Bea Cukai Kekaisaran Rumania’ dengan mana, warisan terpecah antara janda dan anak perempuan. Ketika suami pertamanya, Bartolomeo Zaccaria meninggal pada 1334, ia menikah Niccolò Zorzi, sesuatu yang memungkinkannya untuk tetap di rumah pada Negroponte dan untuk mendamaikan klaim ke benteng Larmena dengan La Serenissima’s. Mereka terus upeti tahunan empat destriers dibuat untuk Catalans Athena. Perdamaian tidak hadir rumah mereka, namun. Venesia melanjutkan sengketa Larmena dan bahkan meminta arbitrasi juru sita Catherine II, Putri Achaea, yang souzerain hukum Euboea dan Bodonitsa. juru sita memutuskan untuk Venesia. Ini pernikahan tegang, dengan dia menuduh suaminya “pengecut dan bias terhadap Venesia Dia lebih lanjut. Percaya bahwa dia mengabaikan kepentingan anaknya oleh Bartolomeo, Marulla, demi anak sendiri la. Menyelamatkan sejumlah besar uang untuk putrinya, tetapi disimpan di sebuah bank Venesia marchioness itu akhirnya kocok ke kemarahan dengan pelaksanaan nya Manfredo relatif, memerintahkan oleh suaminya.. Sementara eksekusi itu telah hukum, ia mengaduk orang terhadap Zorzi, yang terpaksa melarikan diri untuk Negroponte dan kemudian pergi ke Venesia dan banding ke Senat, yang menuntut kembalinya dia posisinya atau melepaskan harta, yang ia memegang Dia menolak. dan juru sita Negroponte adalah perintah untuk memutuskan semua komunikasi antara Bodonitsa dan Pulau Catalans,. yang semula diminta untuk tetap berada di luar keributan, kini ditekan oleh Venice untuk campur tangan untuk penyelesaian damai, bersama dengan Juana I dari Naples, kepala Angevins, dan Humbert II, Dauphin dari Vienne, maka komandan angkatan laut paus ini gagal, uang Marulla itu disita dan Niccolò kompensasi dari dana. Dia masih menolak untuk mengizinkan masuk kembali suaminya ke pengadilan itu.. Meskipun permohonan dari Paus Clement VI, ia lebih suka mendengarkan nasihat dari Nitardus sendiri nasionalis uskup Thermopylae. Pada tahun 1354, Niccolo akhirnya meninggal dan dia segera diinstal putra tertua mereka, Francis, sebagai co-penguasa Dengan dia berkuasa. sampingnya, dia hubungan baik lagi dengan Venesia dan termasuk dalam perjanjian kemudian ditandatangani dengan Catalans. Dia meninggal pada 1358 dan digantikan oleh Francis dan yang lain dua orang putra, Giacomo dan Niccolò III, juga kemudian memerintah Marquisate tersebut. (w. 1358).

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  1311 Sovereign Baroness Margherita di Savoia dari Karytaena (Yunani)
Marguerite berhasil ibunya, Isabelle II de Villehardouin – Putri Morea dan Akhaya di Karytaena, tapi baron itu diambil alih oleh penguasa baru kerajaan tersebut.

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  1311 … Bersama Berdaulat Baroness dari Chalandritsa (Yunani)
1311 … Bersama Berdaulat Baroness dari Chalandritsa (Yunani)
Dua saudara, yang namanya telah hilang, menggantikan ayah mereka Peter Carker, dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami dari anak perempuan muda, Martin Zaccarias (1311-1345).

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  1311-1356 Baroness Berdaulat Niccola Foucherolla dari Naupila (Yunani)
Negara berada di tangan keluarga De La Roche Athena 1212-1311. Dia digantikan oleh Vonna.

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  1312-ca. 16 Janda memerintah Duchess Anastazja dari Dobrzyń (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Siemowit, ia menjadi bupati untuk anak-anaknya. Dia adalah putri dari Pangeran Lew dari Halicz (di Ukraina).

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  1312/13-53 Lady Sovereign Mathildis van Wesemaele dari Bergen op Zoom (Belanda)
Menggantikan ayahnya, Arnold. Ibunya Johanna van Loon mungkin bertindak sebagai Bupati pada tahun-tahun pertama. Mathildis menikah Albrecht van Voorne, yang meninggal 1331 dan Reinhoud van Kleef. Putrinya, Johanna van Voorne adalah Dame selama beberapa tahun sampai ia kembali mengambil alih sebagai bupati sampai dia turun tahta demi relatif jauh, Maria van Merksem van Wezemaal dan suaminya, Hendrik I van Boutersem. Mathildis (b. 1310).

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  1313 dan 1316-1331 Penguasa Putri Mathilde d’Avesnes-Hainault dari Akhaya dan Morea, Ratu Tesalonika, (Yunani) Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal (Belgia)
Juga dikenal sebagai Mahaut, ia adalah putri dari Isabelle de Villehardouin, yang telah Putri Akhaya (1289-1307) sampai dia digulingkan. Suami pertamanya, Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athena, Tuhan de Theben meninggal pada 1308 dan 1313 Philippe d’Anjou-Sisilia, Principe di Tarento, mengalihkan haknya untuk Akhaya padanya, pada kondisi ia dipindahkan mereka untuk kedua suami, Louis de Bourgogne. Dia menolak pernikahan ketiga yang diajukan oleh Philippe di Tarento, tapi dibawa ke Napoli dari Morea dengan paksa dan dipaksa untuk menikah Jean dari Sisilia, Conte di Gravina, tapi pernikahan ini dibatalkan pada 1321 untuk non-penyempurnaan. Dia terus menolak untuk mentransfer hak ke Akhaya kepada suami barunya dan mengajukan banding, tidak berhasil, ke Venesia dan keluarga Burgundy untuk bantuan. Dia dibawa ke Avignon di mana Paus Yohanes XXII memerintahkan dia untuk mematuhi tapi kemudian diakui pernikahan rahasianya dengan Hugo de La Palice. warisan wanita itu disita oleh Raja Robert d’Anjou dari Sisilia untuk melanggar kondisi kontrak perkawinan 1289 dari ibunya, yang diperlukan persetujuan raja untuk pernikahannya. Dia dipenjarakan di dell’Uovo Castell di Naples, dituduh bersekongkol dengan suaminya untuk membunuh raja, dipindahkan ke kastil Aversa di 1328. Sebelum meninggal, dia mewariskan semua hak-haknya secara lisan kepada sepupunya Jaime II Raja Mallorca tetapi dibuat tidak ada bukti. Kakaknya, Marguerite, adalah Lady dari Karytaena dari 1311. Mathilde tidak memiliki anak, dan hidup (1293-1331).

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  Sekitar 1313 Abbess Hedwiga Kuntzlau von memerintah dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Pikir Abbesses memerintah atas suatu wilayah yang cukup besar, mereka tampaknya tidak menjadi Putri Kekaisaran banyak tidak seperti Abbesses memerintah lainnya.

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  Sampai 1314 Nemanjic Janda Duchess Jelisaveta Bupati Bosnia
Setelah 1283 ia menikah dengan larangan Stjepan Kotroman (meninggal tahun 1314) dari Atas dan Bawah Bosnia. Mereka memiliki enam anak. Bupati Bosnia sampai Apr 1314, setelah itu ia melarikan diri dengan anaknya ke Dubrovnik. Putri Raja Stefan Dragutin Serbia dan Katalin dari Hungaria, dia tinggal (1270-1331).

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  1314-1327 Sovereign Countess Teresa de Entenza dari Urgell, Co-Putri Andorra (Spanyol)
1324-27 Letnan Aragón
Putri pewaris Gombaldo, Baron de Entenza, Bupati selama ilness suaminya, Alfono IV de Aragón, tetapi tidak jelas apakah ia letnan sebelumnya. Tidak ada hak istimewa resmi atau dokumen lain yang menyebut dirinya sebagai letnan dan karena suaminya tidak mampu memerintah dia bertindak lebih sebagai bupati dari letnan. Setelah kematiannya, Alfonso menikah Leonor dari Castilla (1307-1359). Teresa tinggal (1300-1327).

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  1314-1317 Lady Eleanore de Clare of Glamorgan dan Wales (United Kingdom)
Ibunya, Putri Joan dari Inggris, adalah Lady dari dua wilayah sampai 1307. Eleanore tinggal (1292-1337).

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  1314 … Sovereign Countess Guillerma dari Passava (Yunani)
Pengganti suami Nicolas de St Omer.

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  1314-1333 Abbess memerintah Euphemia von Winzer dari Niedermünster di Regensburg (Jerman)
Bab untuk wanita mulia adalah biara yang penting berkaitan erat dengan Obermünster juga terletak di Regensburg, kursi Diet Imperial.

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  1315-1330 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Chalons dari Franche-Comté dan Bourgogne (Prancis)
1329-1330 Berdaulat Countess Artois, Flanders dan Brabant (Perancis dan Belgia)
Dalam Artois, ia dikenal sebagai Jeanne II.

1315-1330 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Chalons dari Franche-Comté dan Bourgogne (Prancis)
1329-1330 Berdaulat Countess Artois, Flanders dan Brabant (Perancis dan Belgia)
Dalam Artois, ia dikenal sebagai Jeanne II. Pengganti: Robert dan menikah dengan Raja Philippe V dari Perancis, yang berhasil naik tahta pada 1316, setelah bertindak sebagai wali bagi almarhum kakaknya’s anumerta lahir putra, Jean I, yang meninggal setelah beberapa bulan. Pada 1314 ia menjadi terlibat dalam skandal mengenai berbagai ekses seksual bersama-sama dengan adiknya, Blanche dan adik ipar Marguerite (The Skandal de Tour de Nesle) dan jatuh dari kasih karunia dan internated di Castle de Dourdan, tetapi dibebaskan segera setelah di pencarian dari suaminya, yang akan kehilangan Franche-Comte yang merupakan bagian dari mas kawinnya jika mereka bercerai. Suaminya meninggal pada 1322 dan digantikan oleh adiknya sebagai Raja. Dia berhasil baik ayahnya, Otto I dari Bourgogne dan ibu, Mahaut d’Artois dan digantikan oleh anak tertua dari lima anak perempuannya, Jeanne II dan III di semua barang miliknya. Dia meninggal karena plauge, dan hidup (1294-1330).

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  1315 … Sovereign Grand Putri Maria Rurikova dari Vitebsk (Belarus)
Memerintah bersama-sama dengan Olgerd, yang Grand Prince 1316-1377 dan tetap di Lithuania dari 1345. Ia digantikan oleh Juliana Rurikova. Maria (d. 1326 belakang.).

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  Baroness 1315 Berdaulat Marguerite Villehardouin dari Akova (Yunani)
Pengganti: Marguerite de Passavas-Neuilly, dan digantikan oleh Izebel Villehardouin.

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  1315-1316 Baroness Berdaulat Izebel Villehardouin dari Akova (Yunani)
Juga dikenal sebagai Isabella, ia berhasil Marguerite Villehardouin. Akova terletak di Daerah Gortyna dari Arcadia.

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  Sampai 1315 Maria Countess Berdaulat I dari The Triarchy Pertama Euboea (Yunani)
Memerintah bersama-sama dengan suaminya, Albert Pallavicini, Marchese dari Boudonitza, yang tewas dalam pertempuran Kephissos Sungai, dekat Thebes pada tahun 1311, dan Andrea Cornaro. Nya keenam pulau Euboea, yang diselenggarakan oleh kanan istrinya, ditangkap pada 1323 dengan terlebih dahulu sepupunya Pietro istrinya Dalle Carceri.

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  1315 Countess Berdaulat Beatrice Pallavizzini The Triarchy Pertama Euboea (Yunani)
Pengganti: Maria I dan memerintah bersama dengan Jean de Maisy.

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  Ca. 1315-1327 Baroness Maria van Sovereign Voeren-Montaigue dari Ravenstein (Belanda)
Menyelenggarakan baron kecil di timur laut provinsi Belanda Brabant, di tepi kiri Maas bersama dengan Jan van Valkenburg-Cleves 1328-1356.

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  1316-17 Bupati dan Kepala Qutlug Menteri Hatun Sah Persia dan Irak
Setelah kematian suaminya, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) Il 8 Khan ia memerintah atas nama putra mereka, l-din Abu Said (1304-1317 ‘Ala al-Dunaya wa’ – 1335). Dinasti telah memerintah Persia, Irak dan Cina sejak Kubilai Khan Mongolia dan Cina menunjuk saudaranya, Halagu (1256-1265) sebagai penguasa sungai-sub. Dengan kematian Abu Sa’id dinasti Il-lkhanid di Iran hampir tiba berakhir.

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  1316 Juara Dawlat Khatun dari Luristan (Persia) (Iran)
Berhasil suaminya, Izz al-Din Muhammad, berdaulat 13 dari dinasti Bani Mongol Kurshid, yang memerintah Luristan di Persia selatan barat. Dia terbukti menjadi administrator miskin, dan karena itu dia turun tahta setelah jangka waktu pendek dalam mendukung-kakak iparnya, Izz al-Din Hassan.

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  1316-1360 Countess Sovereign Beatrix de Bourbon dari Charolais (Perancis)
Putri Jean comte de Charolais, seigneur de Saint-Just dan Jeanne d’Argiès dame et de Calku dan menikah dengan Jean aku comte d’Armagnac, yang meninggal 1373.

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  1316 Bupati Janda Ratu Clémence d’Anjou-Napoli Perancis
Ketika suaminya Louis X (1289-1314-16) meninggal dia hamil, sehingga mustahil untuk mengetahui pengganti Louis sampai saat anaknya lahir. Jika anak seorang putra, ia akan berhasil Louis sebagai raja: memiliki anak menjadi seorang putri, Louis akan digantikan oleh saudaranya Philip V. (Yohanes Jeanne I setengah-adik, sebagai perempuan, tidak bisa berhasil takhta Perancis, dia itu, bagaimanapun, mempertahankan hak dalam suksesi Navarre). Dia Bupati bersama saudara iparnya Philip selama lima bulan yang tersisa sampai kelahiran anaknya, yang ternyata laki-laki. Namun, Jean I, hanya tinggal lima hari digantikan oleh pamannya Philippe V.

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  1316-1321 Berdaulat Countess Beatrix dari Geraki-Nivelet (Greece)
Pengganti suami Jean II.

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  1317-1338 Countess Sovereign Maruella da Verona The Triarchy Kedua Euboea, Karystos dan Aegina (Yunani Pulau-Negara)
Juga dikenal sebagai Maria, ia adalah putri dari Bonifacio da Verona, Tuhan Negropont, ia menikah dengan Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count Malta dan Gozzo, Tuhan Salona dan wilayah-wilayah tertentu di Yunani. Dia (d. ca. 1338)

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  1317-1339 Lady Sovereign Margherita Orsini dari Zakinthos (Zante) (Greece)
Pewaris setengah ketuhanan tersebut. Dia menikah Guglielmo II Tocco, Gubernur Corfu 1328. Dia adalah putri dari Giovanni Orsini, Tuhan Leukas dan Count dari Kefalonia dan Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina dari Epirus. Dia (w. 1339).

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  1317-1328 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Castilla dari Limoges (Prancis)
Menikah dengan Jean I, yang adalah Duke dari Bretagne dari 1312. 1314-1317 saudaranya, Gui VII, adalah menghitung, sampai ia mengambil alih sebagai Countess. Setelah kematiannya, suaminya menghitung lagi, sampai ia berhasil 1341 oleh keponakan, Jeanne, yang telah menggantikan ayahnya (kata Gui VII) sebagai Countess Penthièvre di 1331. Isabella (w. 1328).

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  1317-1358 Mahaut Berdaulat Countess de Châtillon Saint-Pol (Prancis)
Putri Guy I de Châtillon-sur-Marne (1254-1317) dan Marie de Bretagne dan menikah dengan Charles de Valois. Dia adalah ibu dari Marie (1309-1332), Isabelle (1313-1383), Blanche (1317-1348) dan Jean (w. 1344), dan tinggal (1293-1358).

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  1317-1324 Gertrudis Countess-Abbess II von Boventhen dari Gernrode dan Frose (Jerman)
Juga dikenal sebagai Gertrud, dia mengalami perselisihan dengan para bangsawan von Hadmersleben atas gereja-gereja di Ströbeck dan Siestedt, dan dalam rangka untuk memiliki hak-haknya diakui dia harus memberikan hak pelindung di atas gereja Ammendorf sebagai suatu penyewaan. Kesulitan keuangan bab itu begitu besar, bahwa ia tidak mampu membayar “biaya pengakuan” tahunan dari berat 2 perak merek. Dia juga mengalami perselisihan dengan para Pangeran dari Anhalt atas supremasi wilayah.

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  1317-1331 Countess Abbess Sophia II von Buren dari Gandersheim (Jerman)
Warga kota Gandersheim membeli “kebebasan abadi” mereka untuk 100 Silver Mark dari bab di 1329, yang memungkinkan untuk membayar kedalaman nya oleh Paus.

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  Memerintah 1317-1332 Abbess Johanne de Rassenghem dari Bourbourg, Lady dari Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont dan Coutiches (Prancis)
Dimiliki wewenang semi-bishopal dan yurisdiksi sekuler wilayah nya.

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  Countess 1318-63/69 Margarethe von Sovereign Görtz und Tirol, Duchess of Kärnten (Austria)
Juga Putri Bohemia dan dikenal sebagai “Die Maultasch”. Menikah dengan Johan Heinrich von Böhmen von Tirol dan von Mähren dan kemudian untuk Ludwig V dari Bavaria dan Brandenburg. Setelah kematian anaknya Meinhard pada 1363, ia memberikan kepada negara-putri mertuanya, keluarga Margarethe von Habsburg di Austria. Countess Margarethe tinggal (1318-63/69).

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  Sekitar 1318 Marie d’Enghien Burgravine Ghent, Lady dari Zotteghen (Belgia)
Menikah dengan Guy de Dampierre, Tuhan de Richebourg (1286-1345) dan ibu dari Alix, ahli waris de Ricebourg (1322-1346), yang menikah dengan Jean I de Luxembourg, Tuhan de Ligny.

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  1318-28 Putri-Abbess Adelheid von Ühlingen dari Säckingen (Jerman)
Menjabat Kellerin (Yang bertanggung jawab atas ruang bawah tanah) 1316-1318. Anggota keluarga mulia dari Schaffenhausen di Swiss.

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  1318-24 memerintah-Abbess Guta von Bachenstein dari Königsfelden (Swiss)
Anggota dari sebuah keluarga bangsawan Jerman, yang penguasa berbagai wilayah kecil.

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  Duchess 1319-24/30 Janda Bupati Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter dari Södermaland (Swedia)
1319-1326 County Sheriff Halland Norra, Älvsyssel, 5 shires di Västergötland dan Värmland dan Estate Lödöse
1319-23 Bupati Norwegia
1330-50 Bupati Halland Södre
Juga dikenal sebagai Ingeborg, dia anaknya Magnus VII menyatakan raja suksesi ayahnya, Håkon V dari Norwegia, dan memerintah bersama-sama dengan dewan negara. Setelah suaminya, Duke Erik av Södermanland, Östergötland dan Gotland telah meninggal di penjara, dan saudaranya Birger telah digulingkan, ia anaknya terpilih sebagai Raja Swedia pada 1319 dengan Helvig grand-ibunya sebagai bupati di sini (dia pertama kali bupati di 1290). Pada 1321 Ketua Dewan Kabupaten mengundurkan diri dan menyerahkan Negara Seal padanya, yang dia memiliki sampai ketua baru terpilih tahun setelah. Dia Lady (Frue) dalam haknya sendiri dari Vest-Gautland, Nord-Halland dan Värmland di Swedia. Anaknya, Magnus Eriksson VII dari Norwegia adalah raja Norwegia (1318-1355), Swedia (1319-1363) dan Skåne (1332-1360). Putranya, Håkon Norwegia menikah dengan Ratu Margrethe dari Denmark, Norwegia dan Swedia. Ingeborg dijatuhkan sebagai bupati karena pemerintahan despotik nya, tapi terus sebagai wali bagi anak-adiknya Håkon dan Knut Porse di Selatan Halland Dia tinggal (1301-1360).

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  1319-1320 Margravine Janda Bupati Agnes Bayern von Brandenburg (Jerman)
Suaminya, Heinrich saya, memerintah setelah 1293 sampai 1308-1309 dan meninggal 1318. Setelah kematiannya, ia menjadi bupati untuk anak Heinrich II Anak (1319-1320), yang menggantikan sepupunya Waldemar. Pada 1322 Ludwig V dari Bavaria mewarisi Margravate tersebut.

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  132 ..- 29 Putri Sophia Berdaulat Charitena dari Cerigo (Kythera) dan Cerigollo (Pulau Negara-Yunani)
Berhasil suami.

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  1320-1354 politis Berpengaruh Ratu Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene dari Kekaisaran Bizantium (Menutupi yang sekarang Yunani dan Turki)
1348 Yang bertanggung jawab atas Administrasi dan Pertahanan Konstantinopel
1318 ia menikah dengan Jean Cantacuzene, Tuhan Kalliopolis di Thrace. Pada 1320 ia meninggalkan belakangnya di kota Didymoteichou sementara ia mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan Andronikos III Palaiologos melawan kakeknya, Andronikos II. Dia memegang ford sepanjang perang sipil seluruh yang berlangsung sampai 1238, ketika Andronikos II turun tahta. Juga bertanggung jawab atas pertahanan kota selama perang sipil melawan Anna dari Savoia atas kabupaten di atas anak bayi Anna 1341-43. Jean Kaisar memproklamirkan dan dimahkotai di 1346 oleh Patriark Yerusalem, yang telah mengambil bagian terhadap Anna dan Patriark Konstantinopel, dan tahun berikutnya patriark baru dimahkotai Jean dan Eirene. 1348 dia meninggalkan bertugas Konstantinopel sementara suaminya melanjutkan kampanye melawan Bulgaria. Enam tahun kemudian ia turun tahta dan mereka berdua bergabung dengan biara. Dia adalah cucu dari Tsar Asen Jean II dari Bulgaria dan (w. 1361-1379).

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  1320-1339 politis Ratu Berpengaruh Jadwiga Kaliska Polandia
1334-1339 Duchess Penguasa dari Stary Sacz
Mempengaruhi urusan negara pada masa pemerintahan raja suaminya Władysław I Łokietek dan putranya Kazimierz III yang Agung. putri gadis itu Elzbieta Łokietkówna, Ratu Hungaria dan Bupati Polandia dan Kunegunda, Putri Bupati Swidnica. Dia mengambil alih kabupaten di Stary Sacz saat cucunya, Konstancja z Swidnica, mengundurkan diri untuk menjadi biarawati. Jadwiga adalah putri dari Pangeran Bolesław yang taat dari Małopolska (Polandia Minor) dan Putri Hungaria Jolanta-Helena, dan tinggal (1266-1339).

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  1320-1326 Lady Sovereign Adelheid van Leuven-Gassebeek dari Breda (Belanda)
ayah Pengganti, Philips dan memerintah sebagai raja bersama-sama dengan suami, Gerad van Rasseghem. Pada 1326 Dipertuan itu diduduki oleh Duke of Brabant. Dia tinggal (ca. 1300-1336).

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  1321-1342 Ratu MBAM Wad dari Walo (Senegal)
Yang pertama dari empat Queens berturut-turut, ia diikuti oleh Ratu Fijo Wad.

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  Janda 1321/4-1325 Bupati Duchess Eufrozyna Mazowiecka dari Auschwitz (Oswiecim) (Polandia)
Setelah kematian suaminya, Duke Slesian Władysław dari Cieszyn dan Oswiecim, ia memerintah bersama-sama dengan anaknya Jan aku Scholastyk. Dia adalah putri dari Duke Bolesław II Mazowsze dan Kunegunda, dan hidup (1292-1329).

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  1322-38/39 Putri-Abbess Bertha von Pux dari Goss (Austria) Leoben bei
 
The Abbess dari Bab ini telah menjadi petinggi agama dari Alam di 1242 dan anggota bank para pejabat gereja Swabia dari Alam di Diet Imperial.
 

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  Memerintah 1322-1323 Abbess Adellint dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Hal ini tidak diketahui apakah ia identik dengan di 1313 disebutkan biarawati, Adelling Zimlich atau dengan Ädellint, yang disebutkan dalam 1355.

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  1323-1329 Janda Bupati Loretta Countess von Salm dari Sponheim-Starkenburg (Jerman)
1329 -… Dame dari Frauenberg
Diatur county saja untuk anaknya setelah kematian suami. Dia berhasil mengkonsolidasikan pemerintahan keluarga county dan menciptakan sebuah ekonomi berkembang. Setelah anaknya datang dari usia, ia mundur ke mas kawinnya, di mana dia memiliki kekuatan agung penuh. (B. 1297).

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  1323-1328 Countess Janda Bupati Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern dari Görz (Jerman)
1323-26 dan 1335-38 Bupati Treviso (Italia)
1332-1334 Kapten Jenderal Aquileia dan Administrator Friuli (Italia)
Setelah kematian suaminya yang kedua, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, ia memerintah atas nama anaknya, Johann Heinrich IV, Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). Dia adalah putri dari Duke Stephan I Nieder-Bayern dan Jutta von Schweidnitz, dan hidup (1302-1360).

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  1323-29 Bupati Margravine Janda Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk dari Meissen (Kemudian bagian dari Sachsen) (Jerman)
Memerintah 1329-1359 Janda Lady of Gotha
Ketika suaminya, Friedrich I. von Meissen (1257 -1323) meninggal, ia menjadi bupati untuk putra mereka, Friedrich II. Landgraf von
Thüringen und Markgraf Meissen von (1310-1349). Dia adalah putri dari Elisabeth von Orlamünde dan Tuhan Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, yang meninggal ketika dia masih 4 dan setelah siapa ia mewarisi istana dari Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, dan Oppurg dan tanah di daerah sekitar Schleiz, dan juga ibu dari satu putri, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), yang menikah Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk tinggal (ca. 1284-1359).

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  1323-1329 Abbess memerintah Mechtild Digisheim von dari Wald, Lady dari Kantor Wald, Vernhof dan Ennigerloh (Jerman)
Anggota keluarga bangsawan, yang dimulai sebagai pegawai negeri sipil di salah satu pengadilan Duchal Jerman (Ministerialadel).

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  1323-41 ahli waris Maria dari Duchies dari Galicia dan Lvov (Polandia)
Pada 1323 dia saudara Andrei dari Galicia dan Volynia dan Lev II Lutsk tewas, dan ia dan keponakannya, Eufemia, ahli waris dari Volynia-Lutsk, mewarisi tanah. Dia adalah putri Raja Yuriy I dari Galicia (1252-1301-08) dan istri keduanya, Eufemia dari Kujavia (d.1308), dan menikah dengan Pangeran Trojden I Masovia (wafat 1341). Kakeknya, Lev, telah raja Galicia 1269-1301 dan ia memindahkan ibukota dari Galich (Halicz) ke kota baru didirikan Lvov / Lwow (Lemberg). Dia tinggal (sebelum-1293-1341)

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  1323-49 ahli waris Eufemia dari Duchies dari Volynia dan Lutsk (Polandia)
Bersama dengan bibinya, Maria, ahli waris dari Galicia-Lvov, dia mewarisi tanah keluarga, setelah ayahnya, Lev II Lutsk, dan saudaranya, Andrei dari Galicia dan Volynia, tewas. Dia menikah dengan Lubart Gediminovich Lithuania (wafat 1384).

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  1324-1351 Sovereign Countess Johanna Rougemont Pfirt von und (Austria)
Putri Count Ulrich von III Pfirt dan Jeanne de Bourgogne, dan ahli waris lahan yang luas di Austria dan dengan demikian menambah kekayaan suaminya, Albrecht von Habsburg, Pangeran dari Pfirt, Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola dan Tirol Selatan (1330-1358). Ia menderita penyakit rematik dan lumpuh sebagian di kali, dan dia yang tersisa bertugas pemerintah pada kesempatan itu dan tetap sangat berpengaruh. Setelah 15 tahun menikah, ia melahirkan anak pertamanya pada usia 39 dan memiliki lima anak-anak lain di 1342, 1346, 1347, dan 1348 dan meninggal dua minggu setelah melahirkan yang terakhir pada usia 51. Dia tinggal (1300-1351).

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  1324/26-47 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont dari Remiremont (Perancis)
Putri Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano dan Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay, dan tinggal (ca. 1267-1347).

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  1324-1360 Abbess memerintah Ludgard II von Bicken dari Herford (Jerman)
Versi lain dari namanya Luitgard von Bickenem

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr iwan suwandy 2011
PS.SILAHKAN MELIHAT PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA LEBIH LANJUT TAHUN 1325-1350.
 
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THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr iwan suwandy 2011
PS.SILAHKAN MELIHAT PROFIL PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA LEBIH LANJUT TAHUN 1325-1350.

WOMEN IN POWER(WANITA YANG BERKUASA DIDUNIA ABAD KE 14)1300-1350

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1325-1350

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


   
 

  1300-04 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Treidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Reichsstift – Imperial Immediate Chapter – had been placed directly under the authority of the king of Germany since 1002, and its royal protection and, immunity was confirmed un many later occations.

  Around 1300 Chiefess Nang’oma of Bululi (Uganda)
Daughter of Kabaka Kato Kintu Kakulukuku, who founded the kingdom of Buganda around 1300.

  13… Sovereign Princess Maria of Keos (Greek Island-State)
Succeeded father. From the 12th Century the island was colonized by Ionians from the mainland and named the island Keos – today it is called Tzia (Kea).

  13….Minister Nayakuralu Nagamma of the Haihayas (India)
Born as a peasant, but rose to her post due to her abilities and enabled her master to gain victories. When one of the enemy kings declared that as a woman she was not fit to sit on military councils she challenged him to a duel. She lost but eventually victory belonged to her side.

  1301-04 Regent Dowager Lady Sophia van Heusden of Horne (Belgium)
After the death of her husband Willem III (before 1282-1300/01) she took over the regency for her two sons Willem (1300/01) and Gerard I (1301-30-50). 

  1301 Hereditary Countess Richardis von Bentheim of Tecklenburg (Germany)
Heir of her father, Otto V von Bentheim-Tecklenburg, and married Count Günzel VI von Schwerin.

  1302-29 Sovereign Countess Mahaut of Artois, Dame de Conches (Belgium – France)
1302-21 Regent Dowager Countess of Bourgogne 
Since her older brother, Philippe, she was the successor of her father, Robert II, under the suzerainty of the French king, rather than her nephew Robert, based upon proximity of blood. She was a forceful administrator and defeated revolts of the nobles and was engaged in disputes over the succession with Robert. After the death of her husband, Othon IV of Bourgogne (1248-1302), she governed the County. She was succeeded by her daughter, Jeanne II, Countess de Bourgogne since 1315, and Robert claimed the County again, but Jeanne was succeeded by Mahaut’s sister – Jeanne III – after only one year. Mahaut lived (1268-1329).

  1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante Aleramo of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)
Married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in dispute with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in separate principalities for each of the three sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five-year-old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the following year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven children.

  Until 1303 Sovereign Countess Beatrice of Chiaggiolo (Italy)
Succeeded father and married Paolo Malatesta.

  1303-10 Reigning Abbess Agnès IV de Gloise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
As Abbess she had great authority in the region, organising fairs and markets, dispensing justice, appointing priests, having the right to arbitrate in distribution of the lands.

  1304-08 Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Tonnerre (France)
Daughter of Mahaut de Tonnerre and Duke Eudes de Bourgogne. The second wife of Charles I of France, Count d’Anjou et du Maine, Provence et de Forcalquier etc. King of Sicilia (1265), Titular King of Jerusalem (1267) and King of Napoli and Jerusalem (1265), she lived (1249-1308).

  1304-11 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Touraine (France)
Successor of her father, Raymond VII and reigned jointly with husband, Bernard II de Comminges, who was succeeded by their son, Jean in 1335 and then by their daughter Cécile.

  1304-14 Reigning Abbess Irmgard II von Köfering of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Köferingen is a village situated close to Regensburg.

  1304-06 Feudal Baroness Giovanna de Chevereuse of Di Meta del Castello di Rutigliano (Italy)
Succeeded her father Anselmo, Seigneur di Rutigliano and di Sannicandro and her rights was approved by Carlo II d’Anjou of Napoli.

  1305-06 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita de Savoia of Monferrato (Italy)
Had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Giovanni I, Lord of Ivrea and Astri (1277-95-1305) and was in charge of the government until her sister-in-law, Empress Yolanda of Constantinople, transferred the Margravate to her fourth son, Theodoros Palailogos. She (d. 1339).

  1305-18 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margaretha von Kiburg of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg (Germany)
Widow of Dietrich VIII von Kleve and resigned the lordship in favour of her younger son, Johann, when she joined the Convent of Bedburg in Kleve.

  1305-16 Countess Abbess Mechthild II zu Wohldenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Member of a German countly family.

  1305-17 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II d’Auchy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Also known as Mahaut.

  1306-44 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Soissons (France)
Daughter of Hugues, she was married to Jean, Seigneur de Beaumont, Valenciennes and Condé, and was succeeded by Jeanne de Hainaut.

  1306 Regent Dowager Queen Eliška Rejčka of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1306-35 Lady of Königsgrätz
Elisabeth Ryksa, Richenza, Richsa or Ryksa Elżbieta of Poland had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Václav II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Mariæ in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemysl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).  

  1306-… Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Czerska of Racibórz (Ratibor) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Duke Przemysław of Racibórz, she was regent for their son Leszek. She was daughter of Duke Konrad II of Czersk and Jadwiga, and lived (ca. 1270-1324)

  1306-16 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)
King Albrecht named her Princess of the Empire on 4 April 1307. She defended her rights against the citizen of Laufenburg in the Court of the City, and renewed the rights of the City of Bad Säckingen in 1316. She was member of a family of Lords from Thurgau in Switzerland that played an important role in the diocese of Konstantz.

  1306-26 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oiselay of Remiremont  (France)
Held the office of Doyenne and was Second-in-Command 1288-92 before becoming Secrète; the canonnis in charge of the lighting of alter lights etc – the third highest-ranking officer in the chapter. And she received papal protection sometime during her term in office. She was daughter of Jean d’Oyselet, Seigneur de Flagey, the issue of an illegitimate branch of the Counts of Bourgogne. Other versions of her surname found in the original sources are d’Oyselet, Oiselet or Oizelay.

  1306-26 Military Leader Lady Christian Bruce in Scotland (United Kingdom)
During the Wars of Independence and the reign of Edward I, Lady Bruce defended Kildrummy Castle when David of Strathbogie, who served English interests, besieged it. When he fell in battle it was left to his widow to defend (for seven months) the island fortress of Lochindorb against three thousand vengeful Scots.” She was the sister of King Robert I and her sisters, Marjory Bruce and Mary Bruce, also took part in battles as did their brother’s supporter, Isobel, Countess of Buchan.

  1306 “Enthroner” Lady Isabel Macduff in Scotland (United Kingdom)
Exercised the right of her house, and brought the sanction of ancient usage to the ceremony, by leading King Robert the Bruce to the place of coronation. Her brother, Duncan, Earl of Fife, was an ally of the English and was married to Mary de Monthermer, niece of Edward I. of England. She was later captured by the English and placed in a cage on the walls of Berwick, while her brother and his wife were captured by Bruce and imprisoned in the castle of Kildrummie in Aberdeenshire, where the Earl died in 1336. Isabel was married to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, was an ardent Scottish patriot. After four years she was rescued by Bruce’s forces.

  Ca. 1306-61 Hereditary Countess Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun and Grumbach (Germany)
Daughter of Konrad IV, Wildgraf in Dhaun und Grumbach and Hildegard von Hunolstein, she was first married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein, and secondly to Gerlach von Brunshorn.

  1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China
Widow of Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilai Setsen Khan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson Wuzong, also known as Khaishan, Hai San or Taji. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya’ud. 

  1307-10 Queen Anna Přemyslova of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Daughter of King Václav II and his first wife Guta, and married to Heinrich von Kärnten in 1306, who was named the Deputy of her father. After the murder of her brother, Václav III, and the take over of power by her cousin Rudolf von Habsburg (son of her mother’s brother, King Albrecht von Habsburg of Germany) – who married her stepmother Elzbieta Ryksa of Poland – she fled with her husband to Kärnten. After Rudolf’s death, Heinrich was elected king of Bohemia – legitimized by her succession-rights. When they tried to marry her younger sister, Eliška to Otto von Berg, she refused and took the offer of the Bohemian nobility to join the opposition against Heinrich. In 1310 Eliška married Johann von Luxembourg who occupied Prague and Anna and her husband spend the rest of her life in exile in Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (1290-1313).

  1307-10 Opposition Leader Eliška Přemyslova in Bohemia
1310-25 Politically Influential Queen of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Also known as Elisabeth of Bohemia, and after the death of her father, Václav II of Bohemia and Poland and the murder of her brother, Václav III she joined her aunt, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) in the Convent of the Holy Georg at the Castle of Prague. She realized the weaknesses of her brother-in-law King Heinrich, and accepted the offer of the Bohemian nobility of clerics to marry another future ruler. In the summer 1310 she took part in the Assembly of the Land, which voted on the candidature of Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). He accepted the offer, and they married in September and returned to Prague in December the same year and deposed her sister and brother-in-law. She favoured a hard line against the opposition and because of her pressure her husband imprisoned the spokesperson of the Bohemian nobility, Heinrich von Lipá (Jindřich z Lipé) which led to civil war and almost cost them the crown and it was not until 1318 that peace was restored when her husband recognized the position of the nobility. Eliška was against this and was in opposition to her husband. She remained in Bavarian exile until 1325 and took part in her last political action – the abolition of the fiefs of the Slesian Dukes. But at this time she already lived apart from her husband, who took care of his duties in Europe, where their children were also distributed at various courts. Her last years was influenced by her lack of finances, which made her unable to maintain a court. Also known as Elizabeth, she lived (1292-1330).

  1307-26 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oyselet of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)
Neither the name of her predecessor or her successor is known.

  1307-1317 Countess-Abbess Hedwig IV von Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
In the only known document from her reign is from 1311, where she sells one of the estates of the chapter in order to release the “church treasure” that had been handed in as security for lones.

  1307-11 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Hasenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Resigned from the post. Owned 2 estates together with her daughters Anna and Ita, who was canonesses in the chapter.

  1307-13 Pretender Marguerite de Villehardouin of Achaia and Morea (Greece)
After the death of her sister, Isabelle de Villehardouin she claimed the principality, and again in 1313. When it proved unsuccessful, she transferred her rights to her daughter Isabelle of Sabran, wife of Ferdinand of Majorca. Her daughter’s son, James the Unfortunate of Mallorca, was proclaimed prince of Morea in 1315 under the regency of his father, who conquered the principality between 1315 and 1316 but was defeated and executed by her niece Mathilda de Savoie and her husband, Louis of Burgundy, who was deposed the same year by King Robert of Napoli after Louis died.

  1308-46 Sovereign Dame Catherine II de Valois of Courtenay, Blacon and Montargie (France) and Titular Empress of Constantinople
1333-46 Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Greece)
1341-46 Governor of Kephalliena (Greek Island-State)
Inherited the title of titular Empress from her mother, Chatherine I de Courtenay (1283-1308), and was involved in the intrigues of the court of Giovanna I of Napoli and probably involved the murder of Giovanna’s husband, Andreas of Hungary. She was married to Philippe II de Taranto, and all of her three sons succeeded him as Prince of Taranto. Robert was his eldest surviving son and succeeded her husband as Prince of Taranto. In 1333 he received the principality of Achaea by agreement with his uncle, Jean de Gravina. However the 13 year-old boy was deemed too young to reign alone and his mother became his co-ruler for the rest of her life. In 1339 she arrived in Achaea and took an active part in its government. She gave refuge to Nikephoros II Orsini of Epirus and supported him in his attempt to assert himself in his land against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Her presence in Achaea was no longer needed by the time Robert reached adulthood in 1341. She became Governor of Cephalonia and spent the last five years of her life in this responsibility. Robert was succeeded as Prince of Achaia by his wife, Maria II Zaccharia in 1364. Catherine was mother of 5 children and her father was Count Charles III de Valois, Anjou and Maine and titular King of Aragon and Sicily and Titular Emperor of the Byzantine Empire (by the right of his wife). She lived (1301-46).

  1308-09 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Lusignan of La Marche and Sancerrez (France)
After the death of her two brothers  Hugues V (XIII) et Gui I, she inherited the country and sold it to King Philippe of France the following year. In 1314 he gave the county back to her third son, Charles.

  1308-47 Princess-Abbess Jutta von Kranichfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)
In 1320 she asked Duke Rudolf von Sachsen to renew the tenant-agreement thereby confirming the status of her independent territory. 1326 the cities of Halberstadt, Aschersleben and Quedlinburg made an agreement of mutual defence. During the fights between count Albrecht II. von Regenstein and the Bishop of Halberstadt, the count attacked Quedlinburg and the Neustadt in 1336, but his castle – the Gersdorfer Burg – was occupied and he imprisoned. After two years the Bishops of Quedlinburg reached a peace-agreement in which the Counts of Regenstein accepted the ”protection” of the city. Jutta was daughter of Count Volrad VIII von Kranichfeld and Countess Mechtild von Blankenburg, and lived (ca. 1285-1347).

  1308-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Matzinger of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
The Ecclesiastical Territory included the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.

  1309-12/14 Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gniezno (Poland)
1309-12 Regent of Glogau and Sagan (Głogów i Żagań)
1312-14 Regent of Poznan (Posen)
Also known as Matylda Brunszwicka, she took over the regency for her sons by Henryk I (III) of Głogów: Primko, Henryk IV, Konrad, Jan and Bolesław. The daughter of Duke Albrecht of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, she was also mother of four daughters Agnieszka, Katarzyna, Jadwiga and Salomea. She lived (ca. 1276-1318). 

  1310 (April-June) Lieutenant Queen Blanche d’Anjou of Aragón (Spain)
Regent when her husband, Jaime II of Aragon, was on crusade on Almeria. The daughter of Carlos II of Napoli and Maria Arpad of Hungary, she was mother of 10 children, and lived (1280-1310).

  1310-13 Co-Sovereign Princess Alix of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)
Her father Narzotto ruled (1247-64).

  1310-22 Co-Sovereign Princess Maria of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)
Her father, Gaetano ruled (1264-80). The two Sovereign Princess were distant relatives.

  1310-29 Sovereign Lady Sophia Berhout of Mechelen (Belgium)
Heir of her father, Floris Berhout, Lord of Mechelen or Malines (in French) a tradesman. She was the richest girl in Europe and very well educated both in economic and state affairs. She married Reinald, Count of Gelders and Züpten (1326-43) and helped him administer his lands and increase his wealth. She was mother of four daughters. and was succeeded by the oldest, Margaretha (1320-44).

  1310-22 and 1326-1334 Sovereign Dame María Díaz de Haro I of Vizcaya (Spain)
Her father was the 7th Señor de Bizkaia, Lopez Díaz de Haro III, died in 1288 and was succeeded by her brother, Diego López de Haro IV, who died the following year. The king of Castilla then usurped the seigneurity. He was succeeded by her uncle, Diego López de Haro II, who proclaimed her heir in 1307. In 1322 she resigned in favour of her son, Juan de Haro, and after his death she became signora once again. In 1334 she resigned in favour of her niece, María Díaz de Haro II. Doña María I(d. 1342).

  1310-37 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I van Pietersheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeersel  (The Netherlands)
In 1310 Abbess Margaretha travelled to the pope in Avignon and obtained the position of sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Thorn.

  1310-13 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Goritz of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The first abbess of the Chapter of Königsfelden and its surroundings. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.

  1310-45 Reigning Abbess Hélissent I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
But the Hundred Years War devastated the whole of Brie and the nuns were obliged to flee. The monastery and the Tower were burnt down and the church fell partly into ruins. Succeeded by niece, Hélissent II.

  1311-30 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Dreux of Montfort (Montfort-L’Amauri (France)
Succeeded mother, Beatrice de Montfort (1249-1311). She married her first husband, Alexander III of Scotland, in the autum of 1285, he died in march 1286 and one month later she gave birth to a still-born son, and therefore the Guardians of the Kingdom selected his granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway as Queen of Scotland. Yolande married Arthur II de Bretagne (1262-1312) in 1292 and had at least 6 children by him. She was succeeded by her son, Jean II, and lived (1263-1330).

  1311 Reigning Dowager Duchess Jeanne de Châtillon of Athens (Greece)
Her husband, Gauthier V de Brienne had succeeded his uncle, Guy I de la Roche as Duke in 1308 – his mother, Isabella had died 1291. Her husband was killed in the Battle of Halmyros against the Catalan Company. She may have tried to hold the Acropolis of Athens against them, but eventually surrendered it. She returned with her son Gauthier IV to France, though her retainers continued to possess Argos and Nauplia under Gauthier de Foucherolles. In April 1318, she and her father sent a request to the Republic of Venice seeking money and ships for knights and infantry to Negroponte or Nauplia. The request, however, was refused, as the Briennist vassals in Greece had turned to the Catalans in the meanwhile. The following year however, Gauthier of Foucherolles was still commending his vessals in the Argolid to remain loyal to her and her son. By constant petition to the King of Naples, the King of France, and the Pope, she kept her claim to Athens alive for her son until he was old enough to campaign for his rights in the Aegean. In January 1321, Philip V of France mediating the suit brought against her by her own son, who was suing for the payment of some of his father’s great debt. She retained her ducal title until her death. Her tomb, in the church of Saint Jacobin in Troyes has the inscription Duchess d’Athènes. She was the daughter of Gaucher de Porcien, Constable of France and (d. 1354).

  1311-27 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline de la Roche of Veligosti and Damala (Greece)
The last heiress of the De la Roche family which had ruled the Duchy of Athens from 1204 to 1308. She was the daughter and heiress of Renaud de la Roche.  1327 married Martino Zaccaria, Lord of Chios, as his second wife. When he was captured and carted off to Constantinople by Andronicus III Palaeologus in 1330, she was allowed to go free with her children “and all they could carry.” She may have been the mother of Bartolommeo, Margrave of Bodonitsa, and was probably the mother of Centurione I, Lord of Arcadia.

  1311-22 Sovereign Marchioness Maria dalle Carceri of Bodonitza, Co-Heiress of Euboea (Greece)
Upon the death of her husband, Albert Pallavicini, she succeeded to half of the marquisate of Bodonitsa. While she avoided submitting her principality to the Catalan Company, she could not avoid paying an annual tribute of four destriers. She was descended from a Lombard family of Verona that had come to Greece on the Fourth Crusade. She split the inheritance with her daughter, Gugliema and married Andrea Cornado, Baron of Skarpanto, who ruled jointly with her. She was a daughter of Gaetano dalle Carceri and also heiress of a sixth of Euboea. Her husband died the year after her and her daughter inherited the whole territory. (d. 1322).

  1311-58 Sovereign Marchioness Guglielma Pallavicini of Bodonitza, Lady of Thermopylae, Co-Heiress of Euboea (Greece)
Sometimes refered to as Wilhelmina. The succession of all Latin fiefs in Greece was regulated at the time by the ‘Book of the Customs of the Empire of Romania’ by which, the inheritance was split between the widow and daughter. When her first husband, Bartolomeo Zaccaria died in 1334, she married Niccolò Zorzi, something that allowed her to remain in residence on Negroponte and to reconcile her claims to the castle of Larmena with La Serenissima’s. They continued the annual tribute of four destriers made to the Athenian Catalans. Peace did not attend their house, however. Venice continued the dispute over Larmena and even sought the arbitration of the bailiff of Catherine II, Princess of Achaea, the legal souzerain of Euboea and Bodonitsa. The bailiff decided for Venice. This strained the marriage, with her accusing her husband of “cowardice and bias towards Venice. She further believed that he ignored the interests of her child by Bartolomeo, Marulla, in favour of his own offspring. She had saved a large amount of money for her daughter, but deposited in a Venetian bank. The marchioness was finally whipped into a fury by the execution of her relative Manfredo, ordered by her husband. While the execution had been legal, she stirred the people against Zorzi, who was forced to flee to Negroponte and then went to Venice and appealed to the Senate, which demanded the return of him to his position or the relinquishing of his property, which she held. She refused and the bailiff of Negroponte was order to sever all communication between Bodonitsa and the island. The Catalans, who had initially been asked to stay out of the fray, were now pressed by Venice to intervene for peaceful settlement, along with Juana I of Naples, head of the Angevins, and Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne, then a papal naval commander. This failing, Marulla’s money was confiscated and Niccolò compensated from the funds. She still refused to readmit her husband to her court. Despite the pleadings of Pope Clement VI, she preferred to heed the advice of her own nationalist bishop Nitardus of Thermopylae. In 1354, Niccolò finally died and she immediately installed their eldest son, Francis, as co-ruler. With him ruling beside her, she was on good terms again with Venice and was included in the treaty subsequently signed with the Catalans. She died in 1358 and was succeeded by Francis and her other two sons, Giacomo and Niccolò III, also later ruled the Marquisate. (d. 1358).

  1311 Sovereign Baroness Margherita di Savoia of Karytaena (Greece)
Marguerite succeeded her mother, Isabelle II de Villehardouin – Princess of Morea and Achaia in Karytaena, but the barony was taken over by the new rulers of the principality.

  1311… Joint Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)
1311… Joint Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)
The two sisters, whose names have been lost, succeeded their father Peter Carker, and reigned jointly with the husband of the younger daughter, Martin Zaccarias (1311-45).

  1311-56 Sovereign Baroness Niccola Foucherolla of Naupila (Greece)
The state was in the hands of the De La Roche family of Athena 1212-1311. She was succeeded by Vonna.

  1312-ca. 16 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anastazja of Dobrzyń   (Poland)
Following the death of her husband, Duke Siemowit, she became regent for her sons. She was daughter of Prince Lew of Halicz (in Ukraine).

  1312/13-53 Sovereign Lady Mathildis van Wesemaele of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Succeeded father, Arnold. Her mother Johanna van Loon probably acted as regent in the first years. Mathildis married Albrecht van Voorne, who died 1331 and Reinhoud van Kleef. Her daughter, Johanna van Voorne was Dame for some years until she again took over as regent until she abdicated in favour of a distant relative, Maria van Merksem van Wezemaal and her husband, Hendrik I van Boutersem. Mathildis (b. 1310).

  1313 and 1316-31 Sovereign Princess Mathilde d’Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, (Greece)Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal (Belgium)
Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Isabelle de Villehardouin, who had been Princess of Achaia (1289-1307) until she was deposed. Her first husband,  Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, Lord de Theben died in 1308 and in 1313 Philippe d’Anjou-Sicily, Principe di Tarento, transferred his rights to Achaia to her, on condition she transferred them to her second husband, Louis de Bourgogne. She refused the third marriage proposed by Philippe di Tarento, but was brought to Napoli from Morea by force and compelled to marry  Jean of Sicily, Conte di Gravina, but this marriage was annulled in 1321 for non-consummation. She continued to refuse to transfer her rights to Achaia to her new husband and appealed, unsuccessfully, to Venice and the Burgundy family for help. She was taken to Avignon where Pope John XXII ordered her to obey but then avowed her secret marriage with Hugo de La Palice. Her inheritance was confiscated by King Robert d’Anjou of Sicily for breaching the condition of the 1289 marriage contract of her mother, which required the king’s approval for her marriage. She was imprisoned in the Castell dell’Uovo in Naples, accused of conspiring with her husband to murder the king, transferred to the castle of Aversa in 1328. Before dying, she bequeathed all her rights verbally to her cousin Jaime II King of Mallorca but made no testament. Her sister, Marguerite, was Lady of Karytaena from 1311. Mathilde had no children, and lived (1293-1331).

  Around 1313 Reigning Abbess Hedwiga von Kuntzlau of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Thought the Abbesses ruled over a considerable territory, they did apparently not become Princesses of the Empire unlike many of the other Reigning Abbesses.

  Until 1314 Regent Dowager Duchess Jelisaveta Nemanjic of Bosnia
After 1283 she was married to ban Stjepan Kotroman (died in 1314) of Upper and Lower Bosnia. They had six children. Regent of Bosnia until Apr 1314, after which she fled with her son to Dubrovnik. The daughter of King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia and Katalin of Hungary, she lived (1270-1331).

  1314-27 Sovereign Countess Teresa de Entenza of Urgell, Co-Princess of Andorra (Spain)
1324-27 Lieutenant of Aragón
Daughter of heir of Gombaldo, Baron de Entenza, Regent during the ilness of her husband, Alfono IV de Aragón, but it is not clear whether she was a lieutenant earlier. There is no official privilege or other document naming her as lieutenant and because her husband was incapable of ruling she acted more as regent than a lieutenant. After her death, Alfonso married Leonor of Castilla (1307-59). Teresa lived (1300-27).

  1314-17 Lady Eleanore de Clare of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
Her mother, Princess Joan of England, was Lady of the two territories until 1307. Eleanore lived (1292-1337).

  1314… Sovereign Countess Guillerma of Passava (Greece)
Succeeded husband Nicolas de St. Omer. 

  1314-33 Reigning Abbess Euphemia von Winzer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter for noble ladies was an important convent closely associated with Obermünster also situated in Regensburg, the seat of the Imperial Diet.

  1315-30 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Châlons of Franche-Comté and Bourgogne (France)
1329-30 Sovereign Countess of Artois, Flanders and Brabant (France and Belgium)
In Artois, she was known as Jeanne II. Succeeded Robert and married to King Philippe V of France, who succeeded to the throne in 1316, after having acted as regent for his late brother’s posthumously born son, Jean I, who died after a few months. In 1314 she became involved in a scandal conserning various sexual excesses together with her sister Blanche and sister-in-law Marguerite (The Scandal de Tour de Nesle) and fell from grace and internated in the Castle de Dourdan, but released soon after on the quest of her husband, who would have lost Franche-Comte which was part of her dowry if they had divorced. Her husband died in 1322 and was succeeded by his younger brother as King. She suceeded both her father, Otto I of Bourgogne and mother, Mahaut d’Artois and was succeeded by the oldest of her five daughters, Jeanne II and III in all her possessions. She died of the plauge, and lived (1294-1330).

  1315… Sovereign Grand Princess Maria Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus) 
Ruled jointly with Olgerd, who was Grand Prince 1316-77 and remained in Lithuania from 1345. He was succeeded by Juliana Rurikova. Maria (d. aft. 1326).

  1315 Sovereign Baroness Marguerite Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)
Succeeded Marguerite de Passavas-Neuilly, and succeeded by Jezebel Villehardouin.

  1315-16 Sovereign Baroness Jezebel Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)
Also known as Isabella, she succeeded Marguerite Villehardouin. Akova is situated in the Gortyna Region of Arcadia.

  Until 1315 Sovereign Countess Maria I of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)
Reigned jointly with her husbands; Albert Pallavicini, Marchese of Boudonitza, who was killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes in 1311, and Andrea Cornaro. His sixth of the island of Eubœa, which he held by right of his wife, was captured in 1323 by his wife’s first cousin Pietro dalle Carceri.

  1315 Sovereign Countess Beatrice Pallavizzini of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)
Succeeded Maria I and reigned jointly with Jean de Maisy.

  Ca. 1315-27 Sovereign Baroness Maria van Voeren-Montaigue of Ravenstein (Netherlands)
Held the small barony in the northeast of the Dutch province of Brabant, on the left bank of the Maas jointly with Jan van Valkenburg-Cleves 1328-56.

  1316-17 Regent and Principal Minister Qutlug Sah Hatun of Persia and Iraq
After the death of her husband, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammed Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) the 8th Il Khan she ruled in the name of their son, ‘Ala al-Dunaya wa ‘l-din Abu Said (1304-1317-1335). The dynasty had reigned Persia, Iraq and China since Kublai Khan of Mongolia and China appointed his brother, Halagu (1256-1265) as tributary sub-ruler. With the death of Abu Sa’id the Il-lkhanid dynasty in Iran virtually came to an end.

  1316 Reigning Dawlat Khatun of Luristan (Persia) (Iran)
Succeeded her husband, Izz al-Din Muhammad, the 13th sovereign of the Mongol Bani Kurshid dynasty, which ruled Luristan in south western Persia. She proved to be a poor administrator, and therefore she abdicated after a short period in favour of her brother-in-law, Izz al-Din Hassan.

  1316-60 Sovereign Countess Béatrix de Bourbon of Charolais (France)
Daughter of Jean comte de Charolais, Seigneur de Saint-Just and Jeanne dame d’Argiès et de Calku and married to  Jean I comte d’Armagnac, who died 1373.

  1316 Regent Dowager Queen Clémence d’Anjou-Napoli of France
When her husband Louis X (1289-1314-16) died she was pregnant, making it impossible to know Louis’s successor until the time his child was born. If the child were a son, he would succeed Louis as king: had the child been a daughter, Louis would have been succeeded by his brother Philip V. (John I’s half-sister Jeanne, as a female, could not succeed to the throne of France; she did, however, retain rights in the succession of Navarre). She was joint regent with her brother-in-law Philip for the five months remaining until the birth her child, who turned out to be male. But Jean I, only lived five days was succeeded by his uncle Philippe V.

  1316-21 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of Geraki-Nivelet (Greece)
Succeeded husband Jean II. 

  1317-38 Sovereign Countess Maruella da Verona of  The Second Triarchy of Euboea, Karystos and Aegina (Greek Island-State)
Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Bonifacio da Verona, Lord of Negropont, she was married to Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona and of certain territories on Greece. She (d. ca. 1338)

  1317-39 Sovereign Lady Margherita Orsini of Zakinthos (Zante) (Greece)
Heiress of half the lordship. She married Guglielmo II Tocco, Governor of Corfu 1328. She was daughter of Giovanni Orsini, Lord of Leukas and Count of Kefalonia and Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina of Epirus. She (d. 1339).

  1317-28 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Castilla of Limoges (France)
Married to Jean I, who was Duke of Bretagne from 1312. 1314-17 his brother, Gui VII, was count, until she took over as Countess. After her death, her husband was count again, until he was succeeded in 1341 by niece, Jeanne, who had succeeded his father (the said Gui VII) as Countess of Penthièvre in 1331. Isabella (d. 1328).

  1317-58 Sovereign Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pôl (France)
Daughter of Guy I de Châtillon-sur-Marne (1254-1317) and Marie de Bretagne and married to Charles de Valois. She was mother of Marie (1309-32), Isabelle (1313-83), Blanche (1317-48) and Jean (d. 1344), and lived (1293-1358).

  1317-24 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis II von Boventhen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Gertrud, she was in dispute with the nobles von Hadmersleben over the churches in Ströbeck and Siestedt, and in order to have her rights recognized she had to give the patron rights over the church of Ammendorf as a tenancy. The financial difficulties of the chapter was so big, that she was unable to pay the annual “recognition fee” of the weight of 2 mark silver. She was also in dispute with the Princes of Anhalt over the supremacy of the territory.

  1317-31 Countess Abbess Sophia II von Büren of Gandersheim (Germany)
The citizen of the city of Gandersheim bought their “eternal freedom” for 100 Silver Mark from the chapter in 1329, which enabled her to pay her depths by the Pope.

  1317-32 Reigning Abbess Johanne de Rassenghem of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.

  1318-63/69 Sovereign Countess Margarethe von Görtz und Tirol, Duchess of Kärnten (Austria)
Also Princess of Bohemia and known as “Die Maultasch”. Married to Johan Heinrich von Böhmen von Tirol and von Mähren and afterwards to Ludwig V of Bavaria and Brandenburg. After the death of her son Meinhard in 1363, she gave to country to her daughter-in-law, Margarethe von Habsburg’s family in Austria. Countess Margarethe lived (1318-63/69).

  Around 1318 Burgravine Marie d’Enghien of Ghent, Lady of Zotteghen (Belgium)
Married to Guy de Dampierre, Lord de Richebourg (1286-1345) and mother of Alix, Heiress de Ricebourg (1322-46), who married Jean I de Luxembourg, Lord de Ligny.

  1318-28 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Ühlingen of Säckingen (Germany)
Held the office of Kellerin (In charge of the cellar) 1316-18. Member of a noble family from Schaffenhausen in Switzerland.

  1318-24 Reigning-Abbess Guta von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Member of a German noble family, which were lords of various small territories.

  1319-24/30 Regent Dowager Duchess Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter of Södermaland (Sweden)
1319-26 County Sheriff of Norra Halland, Älvsyssel, 5 Shires in Västergötland and Värmland and the Estate of Lödöse
1319-23 Regent of Norway
1330-50 Regent of Södre Halland
Also known as Ingeborg, she had her son Magnus VII proclaimed king in succession of her father, Håkon V of Norway, and ruled together with the council of state. After her husband, Duke Erik av Södermanland, Östergötland and Gotland had died in imprisonment, and his brother Birger had been deposed, she had her son elected as King of Sweden in 1319 with her grand-mother Helvig as regent here (she had first been regent in 1290). In 1321 the Regency Council’s chairman resigned and handed over the State Seals to her, which she possessed until a new chairman was elected the year after. She was Lady (Frue) in her own right of Vest-Gautland, Nord-Halland and Värmland in Sweden. Her son, Magnus VII Eriksson of Norway was king of Norway (1318-55), Sweden (1319-63) and of Skåne (1332-60). His son, Håkon of Norway was married to Queen Margrethe of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Ingeborg was deposed as regent because of her despotic rule, but continued as regent for her younger sons Håkon and Knut Porse in Southern Halland  She lived (1301-60).

  1319-20 Regent Dowager Margravine Agnes von Bayern of Brandenburg (Germany)
Her husband, Heinrich I, reigned after 1293 until 1308/09 and died 1318. After his death, she became regent for son Heinrich II the Child (1319-20), who succeeded his cousin Waldemar. In 1322 Ludwig V of Bavaria inherited the Margravate.

  132..-29 Sovereign Princess Sophia Charitena of Cerigo (Kythera) and Cerigollo (Greece Island-State)
Succeeded husband.

  1320-54 Politically Influential Empress Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople
1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he left her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos’s rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throughout the whole civil war that lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna’s infant son from 1341-43. Jean was proclaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campaign against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).

  1320-39 Politically Influential Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland 
1334-39 Duchess Regnant of Stary Sącz
Influenced the affairs of state during the reign of her husband king Władysław I Łokietek and her son Kazimierz III the Great. Her daughters were Elżbieta Łokietkówna, Queen of Hungary and Regent of Poland and Kunegunda, Princess regent of Świdnica. She took over the regency in Stary Sacz when her granddaughter, Konstancja z Świdnica, resigned to become a nun. Jadwiga was daughter of Prince Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska (Poland Minor) and the Hungarian Princess Jolanta-Helena, and lived  (1266-1339).  

  1320-26 Sovereign Lady Adelheid van Leuven-Gassebeek of Breda (The Netherlands)
Succeeded father, Philips and reigned jointly with husband, Gerad van Rasseghem. In 1326 the lordship was occupied by the Duke of Brabant. She lived (ca. 1300-36).

  1321-42 Queen Regnant Mbam Wad of Walo (Senegal)
The first of four successive Queens, she was followed by Queen Fijo Wad.

  1321/4-1325 Regent Dowager Duchess Eufrozyna Mazowiecka of Auschwitz (Oświęcim) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław of Cieszyn and Oświęcim, she ruled jointly with her son Jan I Scholastyk. She was daughter of Duke Bolesław II of Mazowsze and Kunegunda, and lived (1292-1329).

 

1322-38/39 Princess-Abbess Bertha von Pux of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess of the Chapter had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet.


  1322-23 Reigning Abbess Adellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
It is not known if she is identical with the in 1313 mentioned nun, Adelling Zimlich or with Ädellint, who is mentioned in 1355.

  1323-29 Regent Dowager Countess Loretta von Salm of Sponheim-Starkenburg (Germany)
1329-… Dame of Frauenberg
Governed the county alone for her son after husband’s death. She managed to consolidate the family’s reign of the county and created a flourishing economy. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, where she had full regal powers.  (b. 1297).

  1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz (Germany)
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)
Following the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was reigned in the name of her son, Johann Heinrich IV, Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).

  1323-29 Regent Dowager Margravine Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk of Meissen (Later part of Sachsen) (Germany)
1329-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Gotha
When her husband, Friedrich I. von Meißen (1257 -1323) died, she became regent for their son, Friedrich II. Landgraf von
Thüringen und Markgraf von Meißen (1310-49). She was daughter of Elisabeth von Orlamünde and Lord Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, who died when she was 4 and after whom she inherited castles of Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, and Oppurg and lands in the area around Schleiz, and also mother of one daughter, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), who married Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk lived (ca. 1284-1359).

  1323-29 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Digisheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).

  1323-41 Heiress Maria of the Duchies of Galicia and Lvov (Poland)
In 1323 her brother’s Andrei of Galicia and Volynia and Lev II of Lutsk were killed, and she and her niece, Eufemia, Heiress of Volynia-Lutsk, inherited the lands. She was daughter of King Yuriy I of Galicia (1252-1301-08) and his second wife, Eufemia of Kujavia (d.1308), and was married to Prince Trojden I of Masovia (d. 1341). Her grandfather, Lev, had been king of Galicia 1269-1301 and he moved his capital from Galich (Halicz) to the newly founded city of Lvov/Lwow (Lemberg). She lived (before-1293-1341)

  1323-49 Heiress Eufemia of the Duchies of Volynia and Lutsk (Poland)
Together with her aunt Maria, Heiress of Galicia-Lvov, she inherited the lands of the family, after her father, Lev II of Lutsk, and his brother, Andrei of Galicia and Volynia, were killed. She was married to Lubart Gediminovich of Lithuania (d. 1384).

  1324-51 Sovereign Countess Johanna von Pfirt und Rougemont (Austria)
Daughter of Count Ulrich III von Pfirt and Jeanne de Bourgogne, and the heiress of vast lands in Austria and thereby added to the wealth of her husband, Albrecht von Habsburg, Count of Pfirt, Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and South Tyrol (1330-58). He suffered from rheumatics and was partly paralyzed at times, and she was left in charge of the government at those occasions and remained very influential. After 15 years of marriage, she gave birth to her first child at the age of 39 and had five other children in 1342, 1346, 1347, and 1348 and died two weeks after giving birth to the last at the age of 51. She lived (1300-51).

  1324/26-47 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont  (France)
Daughter of Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay, and lived (Ca. 1267-1347).

  1324-60 Reigning Abbess Ludgard II von Bicken of Herford (Germany)
Another version of her name is Luitgard von Bickenem

  1325 Sovereign Viscountess Marie de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun, Baroness of Mondoubleau and Dame of Nestlé and Saint Calais (France)
Succeeded father Jean de Dampierre-Flanders, whose mother, Alix II had abdicated in his favour in 1320. Marie transmitted the Viscounty in favour of her sister, Marguerite, but kept the Barony of Mondoubleau and the Seigneurity Saint Calais. She was first married to Count Robert VIII de Boulogne et d’Auvergne and secondly to Ingeler I d’Ambroise, with whom she had four children, of which the three daughters reached adulthood. (d. 1355).

  1325…. Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun,  Dame of Nestlé (France)
Succeessor of her sister Marie de Dampierre-Flanders. Married to Guillaume de Craon and mother of 7 children. Succeeded by son, Guillaume II de Craon. 

  1325-33 Countess-Abbess Jutta von Oesede of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Dechaness (Pröpstin) of the chapter from about 1299. Her last known decree was an agreement between the chapter and Bishop Albrecht II. of Halberstadt, where she managed to have the  appointments of priests that she had made during the dispute with the bishop approved.

  Until 1325 Princess-Abbess Bertha Walterin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm, and it thereby became the second Imperial Immediate – Reichsfreie – second richest Ladies Chapter in the City next to Niedermünster. The dates of the reigns of her successors are not known, but she was followed by Adelheid von Aerenbach, Katharina I von Murach and Agnes I von Wunebach, who reigned until 1374. The Abbess was both member of the Imperial Diet and Bavarian Assembly (Landtag).

  1325-36 Politically Influential Baghdad Khatun of the Ilkhanate in Persia (Iran)
Bagdad was first married to Shaykh Hasan Buzurg, founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, whom she married in 1323. Two years later, they divorced on the orders of her uncle, Abu Said, the Ilkhan, and they married in 1327, and now enjoyed a period of unprecedented power as the harem favorite, even acquiring the honorific title of Khudawandigar [sovereign]. 1331-32, she briefly fell from grace because of accusations that she had plotted the assassination of Abu Said with her former husband, but in the following year she was restored to favour.  Another blow to her authority came in 734/1333-34, when Abu Sa’id married her niece, Dilshad Khatun, and elevated the latter to the rank of principal wife. She displayed her resentment at her diminished status and when, according to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa’id died in 1335, she was accused of poisoning him and was beaten to death in her bathhouse either by order of his amirs or his successor, Arpa.

  1326-27 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella de France of England
When her brother, King Charles IV of France, seized the French possessions of her husband, Edward II in 1325, she returned to France and gathered an army to oppose her estranged husband, who was probably homosexual and neglected her in favour of his male favourites. In 1326 she landed with her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, at Suffolk with their mercenary army. King Edward’s few allies deserted him were killed, and himself was captured and abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England. She and Roger Mortimer became regents for him. After he came of age Mortimer was executed and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk where she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son’s court. After her brother King Charles IV of France’s death, Edward III claimed throne of France – and thus began what is known as the Hundred Years’ War. Isabella was mother of four children, and lived (1292-1358).

  1326-41 Reigning Rani Kotar of Kashmir (India)
After husband, Renchana’s, death, she married his successor, Uddyana Deo. Soon a Tartar chief, Arwan, made an attack on Kashmir with his hordes. Uddyana Deo fled to Tibet, but Kota Rani stirred the local patriotism of the Kashmiris by an impassioned appeal, and the people in thousands gathered under her banner and inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Tartars. Uddyana Deo came back to rule until his death in 1341. At this time began the real struggle between Islam and Hinduism. Kota Rani tried to establish herself on the throne, but was defeated by the Muslim commander-in-chief, Shahmir, who mounted the throne, and the Rani killed herself. She was the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir.

  1326-47 Queen Regnant Sariayakadevi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)
Also know as Nayakadevi, Sari Nayak Devi or Satinayakadevi, she was an infant when her father, King, Rudra Malla, died. She was brought up by her grand-mother, Padu Malladeva, with her mother acting as regent. She was later known by the the title of Dewaladeviraj and was married to King Harishchandradeva of Banaras who was poisoned in 1336 after which his brother, Gopaladeva and Prince Jagat Simha of Mithila, kept her in detention. They thus appear to have occupied Bhadgaun. The followers of Jagat Simha then killed Gopaldeva. Jagat Simha reigned for some days, but he too was imprisoned eventually. Her daughter, Rajalla Devi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, who was full claimant of the throne.

  1326-65 Regent Dowager Queen Devala Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)
When her husband, king Rudra Malla died without a male heir apparent in the throne, their infant daughter, Sariayakadevi, was declared as the heir to the throne of Thanthunim, and she became regent together with her mother-in-law, Queen Padumal Devi. Later she was also regent for her granddaughter, Rajalla Devi, who succeeded to the throne upon her mother’s death in 1347.

  1326-? Temporary Co-Regent Dowager Queen Padmalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)
In charge of the education of her granddaughter, Sariayakadevi, and was joint-regent with daughter-in-law Devala Devi, which led to some tensions.

  After 1326-80 Sultana Nur-Ilah of Kadah/Kedah and Pase/ Pasai (Indonesia)
A pair of gravestones, one written in old Javanese and one in Arabic characters, were found in the village of Minye Tujoh in Aceh with the appellation “Queen of the Faith…who has rights on Kadah and Pase.” Her father was Sultan Malikul Zahir Thani who ascended the throne in 1326.

  1326-28 and 1328-29 Acting Vicar of Pisa (Italy)
1328-47 Consors Regni of the Holy Roman Empire
1345-56 Sovereign Countess Marguerite III d’Avesnes of Hainault, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland (Belgium and The Netherlands)
In Pisa she acted as representative of her husband, Ludwig IV the Bavarian, who was Duke of Bavaria 1294-1347, German King 1314, Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf) von der Pfalz 1317-1329, Lord of Pisa 1326-29 and Emperor 1328-47. She succeeded her brother Willem IV as Countess after a battle succession with two younger sisters and was officially handed over the fief by her husband, and she swore the oath of allegiance. After her husband’s death in 1347 conflict broke out with her son Wilhelm. The dispute was settled in 1354 when she handed over Holland, Zealand and Friesland against a financial settlement and only remained ruler in Hainault. She lived (ca.1293-1356).

  1326-29 Reigning Dowager Duchess Kunegunda of Schweidnitz-Fürstenberg (Świdnica) (Poland)
Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Bernard of Świdnica, and was secondly married to of prince Rudolf of Sachsen from 1329. The daughter of Władysław I Łokietek and Jadwiga Kaliska, she lived  (1298-1331).

  1326-46 Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Schweidnitz-Schlesien-Glogau of Pommern-Wolgast, Stolp and Stralsund (Poland)
Parts of the duchy were occupied by Mecklenburg after the death of her husband, Wartislaw IV. von Pommern-Rügen. The areas of Barth, Grimmen and Loitz paid homage to Heinrich II von Mecklenburg as their ruler (hüldigung). But Doch Stralsund, Greifswald, Anklam and Demmin joined her and her and her sons: Barnim IV of Pommern-Wolgast (1325-26-65), Bogislaw IV of Pommern-Stolp (ca. 1326-26-74) and the posthumously born Wartislaw V. Pommern-Stralsund (1326-26-90). King Valdemar of Denmark and Count Graf Gerd von Holstein joined forces with the two other guardians; the Dukes of Pommern-Stettin Otto und Barnim, and in 1327 Heinrich von Mecklenburg had to flee, even though the fighting continued another year. In the peace-agreement he handed back the landscape of Rügen though some of the territory remained in his possession as a security for the settlement. She was daughter of Duke Heinrich III. von Glogau and Mechthild von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, and lived (1290-1356).

  1326-36 Regent Dowager Countess Alburgas von Bederkesa of Stotel (Germany)
Together with the Deacon Giselbert von Holstein she reigned for her sons Rudolf III. and Johannes III. after the death of her husband, Johannes II. She was the only daughter and heir of Sir Dietrich von Bederkesa, gen. Scheele, and inherited numerous estates from him. Also known as Abele van Betderkhesa, and lived (ca. 1290-around 1375).

  1326-36 Reigning  Abbess-General Maria González de Agüero of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Commissioned the copying of the Codex Las Huelgas a music manuscript or codex from c. 1300 which originated in and has remained in the Cistercian convent of Santa María La Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos, in northwestern Spain, then Castile. It was rediscovered in 1904 by two Benedictine monks. The manuscript is written on parchment, with the staves written in red ink with Franconian notation. The bulk of material is written in one hand, however as many as 12 people contributed to it, including corrections and later additions. The manuscript contains 45 monophonic pieces (20 sequences, 5 conductus, 10 Benedicamus tropes) and 141 polyphonic compositions, 1 of which doesn’t have music. Most of the music dates from the late 13th century, with some music from the first half of the 13th century (Notre dame repertory), and a few later additions from the first quarter of the 14th century.

  1326-41 Abbess Nullius Maria d'Angiò of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Marie d’Anjou was daughter of Philippe II de Taranto, Prince of Corfu, Morea, Albania, Duke of Athens and Valaccia, Vicar of the Kingdom of Sicilia and Despot of Romania, and his first wife  Thamar Komnene Dukaina, Despota of Epirus (1277-1311). After their divorce in 1309 he married Catherine II de Valois, titular Empress of Constantinople, Princess of Achaia.

  1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Agnes de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)
Together with Wilhelmina (Guillermette) she succeeded Godfrey de Charpigny. Today Vestitza is known as Aiyon and it is situated at the North coast of Peleponnessus.

  1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Guillermette de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)
Ruled jointly with sister. Abdicated in favour of Marie de Bourbon (1359-63).

  Until 1327 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Habsburg of Slesia and Breslau (Śląsk and Wrocław) (Poland)
First married to Margrave Hermann I von Brandenburg-Salzwedel (Ca. 1280-1308) and mother of two daughters by him. Secondly married to Heinrich VI von Slesia-Liegnitz (1294-1335) and mother of Eufemia Ofka of Slesia-Breslaw, who married Boleslaw II von Oppeln and became mother of Jutta von Slesia-Falkenberg. Anna of Austria lived (1218-27).

  1327-37 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Berg of Essen (Germany)
Prior to her election as sovereign of the territory, she was presented as a very well educated and cultured woman. During her reign, she engaged in quarrels with the neighbouring Duke of Jülich. She was daughter of Heinrich von Berg, Herr zu Windeck and Agnes von der Mark and related to Emperor Karl IV.

  1328-50 Queen Regnant Tribhuwanawijayatunggadewi Mahapati of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)
Also known as Bhre Kahuripan, she was daughter of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay (1293-1309), she succeeded her half-brother, king Jayanagara (1309-28), who was assassinated. She was joint regent with her mother and aunt. And from 1330 Gajah Madah became patih or chief Minister of Majapahit, and ruled as regent. She abdicated in favour of son, Rajasangsara Hayam Wuruk (b. 1334). 

  1328-50 Co-Regent Tribhuananesshwari Dewi Java Vishnuvardhanida of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)
Widow of her relative, king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay, she was mother of king Jayanagara, and joint ruler with his successor – his daughter – together with her husbands second wife (her sister), Queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Mahapati.

  1328-50 Co-Regent Gayati Raja Patni Tribu of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)
Joint ruler with both her daughter and her sister, who was also widow of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay. The kingdom was Based in eastern Java, and controlling at minimum that region and the island of Bali, some evidence suggests that it’s influence was much wider, extending throughout much of modern Indonesia and parts of Malaysia.

  1328-49 Queen Regnant Juana II Capet of Navarra and Pamplona (Spain), Countess of Angoulême, Mortain and a portion of Cotentin (Longueville)
In 1316 both her father King Philippe IV, brother Louis X the Hunchback and half-brother Jean I died. She was excluded from the succession in France, mostly because of doubts about her paternity. Her uncles, King Philip V of France (II of Navarre) and King Charles IV of France (I of Navarre), took precedence over the young girl on the Navarrese throne, even though it was inheritable by females. With regards to the French crown, several legal reasons were invoked by Philip V and later by Philip VI of France to bar her from the succession, such as proximity in kinship to Louis IX of France. Later, the Salic Law was construed as the reason.
After Charles IV of France died in 1328, she became Queen of Navarre through a treaty with the new king, Philip VI of France. She had to renounce her rights to the crown of France, and her grandmother’s estates in Brie and Champagne, which were put into the French royal domain.. In compensation, she received the counties of Angoulême and Mortain as well as a portion of Cotentin (Longueville). Later on she exchanged Angouleme for three estates in Vexin: Pontoise, Beaumont-sur-Oise, and Asnière-sur-Oise
. She signed her laws with the title: Nos, donna Johana, por la gracia de Dius reyna de Francia et de Navarra, et de Jampayne et de Bria condesa palaziana. Mother of 8 children, and succeeded by son, Carlos II, she died of the plague and lived (1312-49).

  1328, 1338, 1339-41 and 1346-47 Regent Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne of France
Her husband, king Philippe VI de Valois (1293-1328-50), appointed her regent when he fought on military campaigns, first against Louis of Flanders and later several times during the Hundred Years War. Intelligent and strong-willed, her nature and power earned both herself and her husband a bad reputation, which was accentuated by her deformity (which was considered by some to be a mark of evil), and she became known as la male royne boiteuse (“the lame male Queen”), supposedly the driving force behind her weaker husband. One chronicler described her as a danger to her enemies in court: “the lame Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne…was like a King and caused the destruction of those who opposed her will.”. She was also considered to be a scholarly woman and a bibliophile: she sent her son, John, manuscripts to read, and commanded the translation of several important contemporary works into vernacular French. She was daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and princess Agnes of France and the cousin of Countess Jeanne II of Bourgogne, who was married to King Philipee V of France. She was mother of 7 children and died of the Plague, and lived (1293-1348).

  1328-92 Sovereign Countess Blanche de France of Beaumont (France) 
Daughter of Charles IV, Count de La Marche and King of France and Navarra (1295-1328) and his third wife, Jeanne d’Évreux (1310-71). She was married to Philippe duc d’Orleans, Count de Valois et Beaumont (d. 1375), and lived (1228-92).

  1328-32 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella von Habsburg of Lorraine (Lothringen) (France)
Widow of Duke Ferri IV (Friedrich V) and regent for Rudolf or Raoul (1328-46). She (d. 1332).

  1328-30 Princess-Abbess Jonatha von Donmartin of Säckingen (Germany)
Since she had not been elected with a clear majority, she was unable to inforce her authority over the chapter and Bishpop Rudolf von Montfort of Konstantz persuaded her to resign and withdrew the rigtht of free election from the chapter and appointed Agnes von Brandis as er successor.

  1328 Reigning Abbess Katharina von Triberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Her family were lords of Triberg, but the family had died out in the male line in 1325 with the death of Burkard III, who had succeeded his uncle in 1311. He is buried in the choir of the Church of the Chapter. The Lordship of Triberg was awarded to the Lords of Hohenberg.

  1329-53 Regigning Abbess Anna I von Winberg of Buchau (Germany)
In 1347 she Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian addressed her as “My Dear Princess” in a letter, but it was not until about 100 years that the position of Princess of the Realm was confirmed for the Abbess of the Chapter. She lived (1303-53).

  1329 Reigning Abbess Benigna von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Second member of her family to rule the territory. Member of a family of knights and Lords of Barchenstein, Kupfezell and von Goggenback.

  Before 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith I of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)
Succeeded husband and succeeded by daughter, Yodith II.

  After 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith II of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)
Ascended to the throne after the death of her mother, Yodith I, and thereby became ruler of the mountainous region in northern Ethiopia.

  1330 Regent Queen Philippa de Hainault of England
Her husband Edward III appointed her regent on many occasions when he was absent on the Continent. When the Scots invaded England as far south as Durham in1346, she raised an army, winning the battle of Neville’s Cross, and taking the Scottish King David II Bruce (d.1371) prisoner. She was responsible for the introduction of weaving into England and the patron of poets and musicians. She survived the Black Death (1348) – but her daughter Joanna, en route to marry the Castilian Prince Pedro the Cruel, was struck down and died. She was daughter of Count Guillaume III de d’Avesnes of Hainault and Holland (d.1337) and Jeanne de Valois (d.1352). She had 11 children and lived (1311-69).

  1330 Regent Dowager Tsarina Theodora Palaiologina of Bulgaria
After her husband, Tsar Michael Shishman, was defeated and killed by the Serbians, under Stephen Uros III, at the battle of Velbflzhd (Kiustendil) she assumed the regency for stepson, Ivan Stepan Shishman, who died in exile in Napoli. Her husband’s ex-wife Princess Ana Nead of Serbia soon deposed her. Theodora was daughter of Micahél IX Palailogos, co-emperor of Byzantium and Rita of Armenia.

  1330-31 Regent Ex-Tsarina Ana Neda of Bulgaria 
After her brother had deposed her ex-husband, Michael III, she initially reigned in the name of her son, Czar Ivan Stephan, until she was removed herself. Her brother, Stephen Uros III, ruled Serbia and Bulgaria until 1355. Ana Neda was first engaged to Count Charles de Valois, but never married him. (d. after 1346).

  1330-47 Sovereign Countess Jeanne III de France of Artois, Flanders, Brabant, Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy (France and Belgium)
The daughter of Countess Jeanne I of Artois and Bourgogne and King Philippe V of France, she married to Eudes IV, Duc de Bourgogne, thereby uniting the two Bourgognes, which had been separated for 400 years. She was first succeeded by son, Philippe de Rouvres Bourgogne, Comte d’Artois and D’Auvergne, who succeeded his father in Rouvers and his grandmother in Franche-Comté etc. In 1361 he was succeeded by his cousin, Marguerite, daughter of Jeanne’s sister by the same name. Jeanne II lived (1291-60).

  Around 1330 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Habsburg of Königsfelden, Lady of Bözberg, Eigenamt and the City of Brugg (Switzerland)
A few years after death of her husband Andreas III of Hungary (d. 1301), she entered the Chapter in 1317 without taking the wow of a nun, and continued her political activities in favour of the Habsburgs. As advisor of Duke Albrecht of Austria and Representative of the Habsburg interests in the “Front-Austrian” lands, she acted as intermediary in the conflicts between the Habsburgs and the States of Switzerland etc. on various occasions throughout the years. She was daughter of King Albrecht of Habsburg and Elisabeth von Görtz-Tirol and lived (1281-1364).

  1330-49 Princess-Abbess Agnes I von Brandis of Säckingen (Germany)
Appointed by Bishop Rudolf of Konstantz as the chapter had lost the right of free election because of misuse of secular powers. After the roman church burned down in 1343, she initiated new Gothic Church, and the same year Queen Agnes of Hungary acted as mediator in disputes between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. During her reign a number of churches and parishes were incorporated in the chapter for financial reasons. She was the sister of Bishop Heinrich of Konstantz (1357-83) and Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau (1343-79), and daughter of Freiherr Mangold I von Brandis and COuntess Margaretha von Nellenborg.

  1331-84 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Penthièvre of Penthièvre
1334 Sovereign Countess of Goëllo and Dame de  d’Avaugour

1341-84 Sovereign Duchess of Bretagne, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame de Mayenne, de l’Aigle and de Châtelaudren (France)
First succeeded her father Guy de Bretagne, in Penthièvre, then her grandfather in Goëllo (Her mother, Jeanne d’Avaugour, had died in 1327), and finally her uncle, Jean III, in Bretagne. Married Charles de Blois, Seigneur of Châtillon-sur-Marne, who became duke by the right of his wife. She was known as Jeanne “La Boiteuse” and lived (1319-84).

  1331-ca. 36 and 1339-ca. 44 Regent Dowager Margravine Marie d’Artois of Namur (Belgium)
Widow of Jean I, she was regent for son Jean II, who went to Bohemia in order to succeed King Jean de Luxembourg as king, and therefore appointed her as regent in the Marchionate. Jean II was succeeded two of her other sons, and in 1339 by 13 year old Guilllaume I for whom she also acted as regent. 

  1331-95 Sovereign Countess Jolanta van Flanders-Cassel of Cassel, Marle, Nogent, Bourbourg, Montmirail and Allauye (Belgium)
1344-52 and 1356-59 Regent of Bar (France)
Only daughter and heir of Count Robert van Flandern-Cassel (died in 1331). First married to Heinrich IV, Count of Bar (ca. 1312-44) and in 1352 Philippe d’Évreux, Comte de Longueville (1336-63). Her son, Eduard II of Bar, lived (1344-1352). Her second son was Robert I of Bar. In 1352-56 she fought for the regency with her sister-in-law, Jeanne. She lived (1324-95).

  1331-33 Sovereign Lady and Steward Margaretha van Berthout of Mechelen (The Netherlands)
Succeeded the father of her mother Sophie de Berthout, Floris, with her father Reinald II the Black, Duke of Gelders, as Regent until the City Liège asserted its rule of the lordship, which is also known as Malines in French. Margareta’s father’s second wife was Eleonore of England, who was Guardian and Regent of Geldern (1343-44). Margareta married Count Gerhard von Jülich. 1333 she sold the Lordship and Stewardship of Mecheln to the county of Flanders. She lived (Ca. 1320-44).

  1331-57 Countess Abbess Jutta zu Schwalenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Also known as Judith, she was daughter of Heinrich II von Waldeck, Count of Schwalenberg and Elisabeth von Kleve.

  1332-33 Regent Dowager Empress Khanum Ptashali of the Yuan Dynasty of China
Leader of the Qagans, a Mongolian Dynasty that ruled most of China and surrounding territories, during the reigns of Irinjibal (Irincinbal) (1332) and Toghon Temur (1333-70). In 1368 the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuans after a period of internal revolt.

  1332-67 Hereditary Countess Agnès de Montbéliard of Montbéliard (France)
Oldest daughter of Renaud de Bourgogne comte de Montbeliard and Guillemette de Neufchâtel, she was the heir to the county after her mentally handicapped brother, Othenin. She was married to Henri de Montfaucon, who was invested with the title of Count by Emperor Ludwig IV of the Holy Roman Empire in 1339. 

  1332-60 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Auvergne and Boulogne (France)
1349-50 Regent Dowager Duchess of Bourgogne and
Rouvers 
1356-58 Regent of Franche-Comté and Artois 
Succeeded father, Guillaume XII, and first married Duke Philippe de Bourgogne, son of Countess Jeanne II and III de France of Bourgogne and Artois from 1329. Philippe was killed at the siege of Aiguillon, and after the death of his father, Eudes IV in 1349, she became regent for her son Philippe I de Rouvres (1349-61). The following year she married Jean II de Valois, Count of Guyenne etc, and King of France (1350-64). Her son married Marguerite de Flanders, who succeeded as Countess in 1384, and her daughter, also named Marguerite, inherited the titles of Countess of Bourgogne and Artois in 1361. Jeanne lived (1326-60). 

  1332-34 Duchess Regnant Konstancja z Świdnica of Stary Sącz (Poland)
1360-61/63 Duchess Regnant of Głogów
Very Politically Influential during the reign of her husband, Prince Przemko of Żagań, Ścinawa, Poznań and Głogów (Circa 1308-31), but after his death King Jan de Luxembourg of Bohemia invaded the Duchy. She lived with grandparents king Władysław I Łokietek and Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland in Krakow, until she handed over the Duchy of Stary Sącz to her grandmother and entered the convent of St. Clare and Abbes of Stary Sącz from 1350 until king Karl IV of Bohemia gave her Glogau back 10 years later. She was daughter of Duke Bernard of Świdnica and Kunegunda of Poland, former regent in the Duchy of Swidnica, and lived (Circa 1309-61/63).

  Until after 1332 Abbess Nullius Franceschina della Torre of the Monestary of Aguileia (Italy)
Held temporal and secular authority over the territory and held semi episcopal authority. She was daughter of Florimonte della Torre.

  1332-50 Reigning Abbess Hersende de Guisenes of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Granted the right to name her own confessor and chaplains. Daughter of Baudoin III, count de Guînes.

  1333-63 Countess Elizabeth de Burgh of Ulster (United Kingdom)
Inherited the title and lands after the death of her father, William de Burgh. Her husband, Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, (1347-68), was Earl of Ulster 1352-68. Their daughter, Philippa, succeeded him. 

  1333-40 Sovereign Princess Anna Melissinos of Dimitrias (Greece)
Succeeded Stephan as head of the area in southern Thessaly, beside the modern port of Volos. Pheres is the ancient town, while Dimitrias was a Medieval Principality and were a fief of the Duchy of Naxos.

  1333-40 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Eschen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Eschen is a city in the Principality of Liechtenstein.

  1334-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Joigny, Dame de Mercoeur and (France)
Daughter of Jean II. and first wife of Charles II de Valois, Comte d’Alençon (1297-1346).

  1334-48 Sovereign Dame María Díaz II de Haro of Vizcaya (Spain)
Became the “XVIII señora soberana of Biscaia” upon the abdication of her aunt María Díaz de Haro I, who had reigned since 1310. She married Infant Juan Núñez de Lara (1313-50), son of Infant Fernando de la Cerda of Castilla and Juan Núñez de Lara. King Alfonso XI of Castilla had usurped the lordship in 1333 which resulted in internal warfare. Her husband was Señor for one year after her death and was succeeded by their son, Nuño de Lara and when he died in 1355 by their daughter, Juana. Doña Maria lived (d. 1348). 

  1334-37 Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina de La Tour du Pin of Piemonte (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Filippo I di Savoia, Lord of Piemonte and titular Prince of Achaia (by the right of his first wife, Isabella I de Villehardouin, Princess of Achaia.) she was regent for their son, Giacomo, who assumed the surname di Savoia-Acaia and title of Lord of Piemonte and Titular Prince of Achaia. As regent she signed decrees with the titulature: “Nos Katelina de Vianne, principissa curatris et curatorio nomine
Iacobi de Sabaudia principis Achaye primogeniti nostri”. Catherine was daughter of Hubert I, Daupin of Vienne. (d. 1357).

  1334-44 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis III von Everstein of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Gertrud Eberstein, had held the office of Pröbstin from 1302. She was member of an ancient noble family who were in charge of the Castle of Everstein in Polle by the river of Holzminden an der Weser.

  Around 1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid I of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The Chapter of Königsfelden was founded in 1310. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.

  1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid von Balgheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).

  1334 Military Leader Countess Agnes Randolph of March and Dunbar in Scotland (United Kingdom)
Also known as Black Agnes, she was married to Patrick, fourth Earl of Dunbar and second Earl of March. In her youth she fought for the Bruce, but is better remembered for the later defence of her castle. In 1334 she successfully held her castle at Dunbar against the besieging forces of England’s Earl of Salisbury for over five months, despite the unusual number of engineers and elaborate equipment brought against her. After each assault on her fortress, her maids dusted the merlins and crenels, treating her foes and the dreadful siege as a tiresome jest. She was daughter of the great Randolf, 1st Earl of Moray and in 1346 she inherited from her brother the Earldom of Moray and the Lordships of Annandale and the Isle of Man and lived (Ca. 1300-ca.69).

  1335-39 and 1341-42 Regent Dowager Despina Anna Palaiologina Angelina Basilissa of Epiros, the County Palatine, the County of Kephalonia and the Lordships of Jannina, Bonditza and Leukas (Greece)
Poisoned her second husband, Jean II Dukas Komnenos Angelos, Despot of Epiros (1323-1335), who had murdered his brother, Nicolai II. They were sons of Jean II Orsini and Maria Komnena Dukaina of Epiros, daughter of the Despot Nikephoros Dukas. She immediately entered into negotiations with the Byzantine emperor, hoping to be allowed to reign unmolested. Instead she was replaced by an imperial governor 1342-49 and imprisoned in Constantinople. 1355 she married Ionannes Komnenos of Bulgaria, Despot of Serbia and Governor of Valona Kanina and Berat (d. 1363). She was daughter of Andronikos Palailogos Angelos, Byzantine Governor of Berat. She lived (ca. 1300-after 1357).

  1335-48 Administrator Queen Chikai Tai of Tulunad in Karnataka (India)
Ruled the region on behalf of her husband, the Hoysala king Vira Ballala III, and seems to have continued her role even after her husband’s death.

  1335-63 Reigning Lady Queen Blanka av Namur of Some estates  by the Göta River and the Castle of Lindholmen på Hisingen (Sweden) and the Province and Castle of Tønsberg (Norway)
1343-55 Regent of Parts of Norway
1553-63 Reigning Lady of the Province and Castle of Bohus and Marstrand with Älvsyssel (Sweden)
When her son, Håkon IV was named King of Norway, with her husband King Magnus of Sweden and Norway (1316-19-64-74) was named regent and appointed her to rule parts of Norway while he stayed in Sweden 1343-55. Håkon came of age in 1355 and Magnus was engaged in wars with their oldest son, Erik, who died of the plauge in 1359, his cousin Albrecht of Mecklenburg and the Swedish magnates. Even though he was most probably gay, they seemed to have a good relationship. Originally named Blanche, she was daughter of Jean de Dampierre of Namur and Countess Marie d’Artois, and lived (circa 1320-63).

  1335 Reigning Abbess Ädellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Could be identical with Adellint, mentioned in 1322.

  1336-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes de Périgod of Durazzo e Gravina (in Napoli) (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Jean I d’Anjou-Sicile Duke of Durazzo (1294-1336) she took over the regency for their oldest son Charles de Durazzo d’Anjou-Sicile, Prince d’Archaïe (1323-48). Her husband had first been married to and divorced from Mathilde Mahaut d’Avesnes of Holland and Hainault Princess d’Archaïe and through her the title passed to Agnes’ son. She was daughter of Count Hélie VII de Talleyrand de Périgord and Brunissende de Foix-Béarn.

  1336-40 Sovereign Duchess Anna of Ratibor (Racibórz) (Poland)
After the death her brother, Leszek, the king of Bohemia granted the Slesian Duchy to her and her husband, prince Mikołaj II of Opawa. She was a daughter of prince Przemysł of Racibórz and Anna, and lived (ca. 1296-ca. 1340).

  1336-51 Reigning Abbess-General María Rodríguez de Rojasof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As Abbess she was Head of the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muñó, Candasnos, Cardeñadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontiñena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.

  1337-1400 Sovereign Countess Maria of Vianden (Luxembourg)
Posthumous daughter of Henri II (1313-1337) and Marie Flandrine de Dampierre. In 1348 she married Count Simon III von Sponheim. The only of her children reach adulthood was Elisabeth von Spoinheim-Vianden (1365-1417). Elisabeth had no children and the county was inherited by the son of Maria’s aunt Adelheid, Engelbert I von Nassau-Dillenburg. Maria lived (1337-1400).

  1337, 1342 and 1380 Sultan Khadija of the Maldive Islands
Also known as Siri Raadha Abaarana and Sultana Khadeeja Rehendhi Kabaidhi Kilege, who ruled on three separate occasions, was one of the most memorable of the female leaders of the Maldive-Islands. Many people believe she came to power after murdering her young brother, and when she was overthrown by her husband in 1363, she killed him as well. In 1373, her second husband usurped her position. He suffered the same supposed fate as his predecessor. Triumphant over the dead bodies of her treacherous husbands, she ruled alone until she died in 1380. Her sister, Fatima, reigned as sultan (1379-81).

  1337 Princess-Abbess Isolde von Wied of Thorn (The Netherlands)
In 1244 the first line of counts of Wied, of Altwied died out and a part of the possessions was inherited by the Counts of Grafen von Isenburg-Braunsberg who used the title of Count of Wied from 1388.

  1337-78 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II van Heinsberg of Thorn (The Netherlands)
The first elected sovereign of the ecclesiastical territory. Numerous complaints against her reign reached the Bishop of Liège, and during an inspection he found 12 and not the stipulated 20 Ladies of the Chapter, and on top of it all, three of the inhabitants were young girls. The incomes of the territory were not used for the maintenance of the Abbey, and furthermore Margratha’s was absent very often. She was reprimanded but did not take it seriously. She was more Princess than Abbess. She was daughter of Gottfried, Lord of Heinsberg and Blankenburg and Mechtild von Looz.

  1337-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von der Mark of Essen (Germany)
Daughter of Engelbert II von der Mark and Matilda von Arenberg. Her sister, Margrethe, was Abbess of Münster.

  1338-39 Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)
Also known as Sati Beg Hatun, her title meant: “The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign”. 1319 she was married to the Amir Coban, one of the most powerful individuals in the Ilkhanid court, but when he came into conflict with her brother, Ilkhan Abu Sa’id, she was returned to the Ilkhan, and her husband executed. After her brother’s death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate. By 1336, she and her son Surgan had taken the side of the founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, Hasan Buzurg. After the latter seized control of western Persia, Surgan was made governor of Qarabag (in modern Azerbaijan), where they moved to. However, when a grandson of Coban, Hasan Kucek, defeated Hasan Buzurg in July 1338, she defected to his camp. Taking advantage of her family ties, Hasan Kucek raised her to the Ilkhanid throne in July or August of that year. Her nominal authority did not extend beyond the Chobanid domains of northwestern Persia. Hasan Buzurg, who still controlled southwestern Persia and Iraq, requested the assistance of another claimant of the Ilkhanid throne named Togha Temur. The latter invaded the Chobanid lands in early 1339. Hasan Kucek, however, promised her hand in marriage to him in exchange for an alliance. This proved, however, to be a ruse; the intent was merely to alienate Hasan Buzurg from Togha Temur. The Jalayirids withdrew their support, and Togha Temur was forced to retreat without gaining her. Meanwhile, Hasan Kucek was growing suspicious of her and her son. Realizing that she was too valuable to be removed completely, he deposed her and then forced her to marry his new candidate for the throne, Suleiman Khan.  Hasan Kucek was murdered late in 1343 and her son Surgan found himself competing for control of the Chobanid lands with the late ruler’s brother Malek Asraf and his uncle Yagi Basti. When he was defeated by Malek Asraf, he fled to his mother and stepfather. The three of them then formed an alliance, but when Hasan Buzurg decided to withdraw the support he promised, the plan fell apart, and they fled to Diyarbakr. Surgan was defeated again in 1345 by Malek Asraf and they fled to Anatolia. Coinage dating from that year appears in Hesn Kayfa in her name – the last trace of her. Surgan moved from Anatolia to Baghdad, where Hasan Buzurg eventually executed him; she may have suffered the same fate, but this is unknown. (d. sometime after 1345).

  1338-68 Reigning Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg of Strzegom
1368-92 Reigning Dowager Duchess of  Schweidnitz and Jaur (Świdnica and Jawor) (Poland)
Her husband, Duke Bolko II of Świdnica and Jawor (1309/1312-1368) granted her Strzegom in 1338 and she reigned in Świdnica and Jawor after his death. Daughter of Archduke Leopold von Habsburg. After her death, her lands were incorporated in Bohemia. (d. 1392).

  1338 Sovereign Countess Aneza d’Aunoy of Kyparissa (Greece)
Succeeded Gerard II and married Stephen the Black. The County is today known as Arcadia and situated in the southwestern Peloponnesus.

  1338-77 Lord Marshal of England Margaret of Brotherton Plantagenet of Norfolk
1338-99 Territorial Countess of Norfolk (United Kingdom)
Jointly with the Lord High Constable she headed the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry, although the Earl Marshall’s connection with heraldry came about almost accidentally. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers’ wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings. The Marshall, as eighth Officer of State, has to organise coronations and the State Opening of Parliament. Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest She was daughter of Thomas “Brotherton” and Alice de Hales. Married to John de Segrave and mother of (d. 1353) and mother of Elizabeth de Segrave (1338-75), and held the duchy jointly with her grandson, Thomas II de Mowbray (1366-97-99), the father of Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk. Margaret Plantagenet lived (ca. 1122-99).

  1339-50 Sovereign Viscountess Cécile of Touraine (France)
Daughter of Countess Marguerite. She succeeded brother, Jean, and reigned jointly with husband Jaime de Aragón, Count de Urgell, until his death in 1346. Cécile and succeeded by brother-in-law Guillaume Roger de Beaufort (1350-93), who was first succeeded by son and in 1417 by his daughter Eléonore. 

  1339-50 Sovereign Baroness Luitgard of Rechteren (The Netherlands)
Succeeded Zweder I as head of the smaller Barony, until 1523 within the Bishopric of Utrecht, then within Gelders.

  1339 Reigning Abbess Katharina die Schereberin of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Her sister Agatha and her relative Helena von Hinwill were nuns in the chapter.

  1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie of Constantinople (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)
Widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and governed for son Jean V (1332-41—47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica, which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).

  1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palaiologina of Trebizond (Turkey)
Also known as Irene Palaiologina, she was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III Palailogos and married to Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. In spite of her precipitous actions, Irene found the cares of government beyond her and appealed to her father to send her a husband from amongst the Byzantine nobles, who would rule the Empire and help fight off her mounting enemies. However Andronikos III died on June 15, 1341 before he could answer his daughter’s request, but it mattered little since she soon fell in love with her Grand Domestikos and split her court into factions by her unseemly favour of this man. The first round of the civil war began shortly after her accession. Three opposing parties had formed: first was that of herself, the family of Amytzantarants, and her Byzantine mercenaries provided courtesy of her father; second was of the opposing nobles under the Lord of Tzanich, the captain-general of the Scholarioi and a part of the imperial bodyguard loyal to the memory of their late Emperor, and the third party was that of the Grand Duke John the Eunuch of Limnia. The rebel nobles encamped themselves in the Monastery of St. Eugenios in the capital, but Grand Duke of Limnia decided to join her and helped her deal with the rebels. They bombarded the monastery, destroying it almost completely, and defeated the rebels in early July 1340. In the same time, affairs of the Empire went worse as the Turkmen attacked Trebizond and marched up to the walls of the capital itself. A first attack was repelled but the second could not be stopped by demoralized army of Irene, and the Turkmen set fire to much of Trebizond without being able to capture it. The catastrophy was exacerbated by the outbreak of an epidemic. The remaining nobles who had escaped the massacre in the Monastery of St. Eugenios, seeing that her incompetent rule would cause a catastrophy, decided to find a legitimate claimant to the throne in the person of the daughter of Alexios II, Anna Anachoutlou. They convinced her to abandon her monastic vows and acclaimed her Empress in Lazica. Irene, when she heard of the revolt, executed all of the nobles and prisoners from the St. Eugenian massacre, but it was of no avail. The Empress’s unpopularity by now was so horrible that as soon as Anna arrived at the city walls Irene was deposed on July 17, 1341. She was later sent off to Constantinople and we know nothing further of her fate. She lived (ca. 1315-41).

  1340-74 Politically Influential Queen Consort Helvig von Slesvig of Denmark
By her marriage to Valdemar IV Atterdag (1340-75), her father gave her 1/4 of Jutland as dowry, which he had, in security for lones to the Danish kings and other royals who had engaged in a long civil war. Most of the country was in the hands of the Holstein Counts, but her dowry was a contributing factor to the fact that her husband managed to win back all the territory – giving him his by-name “Day again”. Helvig must have acted as regent during her husband’s many journeys abroad, but she also seems to have ended her days in a convent. She was the mother of Margrethe I of Denmark, and died (ca. 1374). 

  1340-58 Princess-Abbess Fides von Klingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
The head of the chapter had been Princess of the Empire since 1234 and acquired many possessions in Uri Schwyz and in Zurich throughout the years.

  1340-41 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III de Gavre of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Succeeded by Elisabeth IV after about one year in office.

 

Before 1340-49 Princess-Abbess Dimudis of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Also known as Dietmut.


  1340-57 Reigning Abbess Petrissa von Weidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The present church of the chapter was built during her reign. She was apparently member of a Bavarian noble family.

  Around 1340s Legendary Princess Urduja of Tawalisi (The Philippines)
Ancient accounts say, was a 14th century woman ruler of the dynastic Kingdom of Tawalisi in Pangasinan, a vast area lying by the shores of the Lingayen Gulf and the China Sea. Pangasinan was an important kingdom then, and the sovereign was equal to the King of China. Legend has it that she was famous for leading a retinue of woman warriors who were skilled fighters and equestrians. They developed a high art of warfare to preserve their political state. The legend of Princess Urduja can be attributed to the famous story of Mohammedan traveller, Ibn Batuta of India, who was a passenger on a Chinese junk, which has just come from the port of Kakula, north of Java and Sumatra and passed by Pangasinan on the way to Canton, China in 1347.

  1341 and 1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene  of Trebizond (Turkey)
A nun, but during the unsuccessful reign of Irene Palaiologina she had been persuaded by Trapezuntine nobles to abandon her monastic vows, and seize the crown. She was proclaimed empress in Lazica and advanced on Trabzon. Wherever she went, the people joined the revolt and when she, reinforced by the troops send by the Georgian king George V, arrived at the walls of Trebizond on July 17 1341 she was admitted without resistance and acclaimed Empress, while Irene was deposed and sent off to Constantinople on a western ship. For the moment, Anna ruled unchallenged, although she was actually a puppet in the hands of the ruling nobility. At the same time the people remained discontent, and the Turkmen plundered the countryside. Niketas and Gregory, the leaders of the Scholarioi, returned to Constantinople and convinced the government to give them Michael’s young son, John, as a claimant to the throne of Trebizond. In September 1342, with the help of the Genoese, John’s small forces (5 galleys) made their way to Trebizond. Although she and her courtiers prepared to defend themselves, they were sabotaged by a popular revolt. John’s supporters took control of the city on September 4 1342 and crowned John III emperor. The Scholarioi executed many of their rivals, and she was strangled soon after her deposition. (d. 1342).

  Ca. 1341-48/49 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Voorne of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Her mother Mathildis, was Sovereign Lady 1312/13-ca. 1349 and again 1351-53. Johanna married Jan van Vakenburg, who died 1352. They had no children, and Johanna lived (ca. 1325/30-48/49).

  1341-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV de Liedekercke of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a Belgian noble, family, the Lords of Liedekercke.

  1341-45 Politically Influential Empress Kossi of Mali
Became the spearhead of the opposition to her ex-husband, Emperor Souleyman (1341-45) and launced an unsuccesful coup against him, but he managed to supress the opposition. 

  1342-47 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabetta di Carinzia of Sicilia (Italy)
Elisabeth von Kärnthen und Tyrol was also known as Isabella von Göerz, and she was regent for her son, Ludovico (1337-42-55)after the death of her husband, Pietro II. Of her other 8 children the two daughters, Costanza and Eufemia were regents respectively 1352-54 and 1355-57 for Ludovico and their brother Federico IV (1341-77). She lived (1298-1347).

  1342-87 Sovereign Countess Blanche d’Aumale (France)
Inherited the realm of her father, Jean II and reigned jointly with husband Jean II d’Harcourt until he was killed in 1355. Succeeded by son Jean IV. 

  1342-49 Reigning Abbess Isabeau II de Valois of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Great granddaughter of king Saint-Louis and daughter of Count Charles II de Valois, third son of King Philippe III France and Titular Empress Catherine I Courtenay of Constantinople (1274–1308) Her oldest half-brother, was king Philippe VI and her older sister was Titular Empress Catherine II de Valois of Constantinople. She lived (1305–1349).

  1342-43 Queen Regnant Fijo Wad of Walo (Senegal)
She succeeded Queen Mbam Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dudu Wad.

  1343-44 Queen Regnant Dudu Wad of Walo (Senegal)
Succeeded Queen Fijo Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dofo Wad.

  1343-82 Queen Regnant Giovanna I d’Angiò of Napoli and Sicilia and Sardegna, Sovereign Duchess of Pouilles and Calabre, Princess of Capua, Sovereign Countess of Provence, Forcalquier and Piémont (Italy and France)
1374-76 Princess of Achaia and Baroness of Vostitsa (Greece) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem
Also known as Joan or Johanna of Napels, Jeanne d’Anjou or Juanna. At the age of 17 she was crowned by her Grandfather, Roberto d’Anjou, and inherited a flourishing kingdom, however tormented by dynastic troubles. In 1342 Giovanna married Andrea of Hungary, who died two years later in consequence of a conspiracy, to which perhaps the Queen herself participated in. Her brother-in-law took his revenge invading Naples. In 1346 she had married her cousin Luigi d’Anjou of Taranto. Because of the invasion she flew to Avignon in Provence, in 1347 she sold the state to Pope Clemente VI who supported her as an exchange to hold back the Hungarian expansion in Italy.  After the death of her second husband, Giovanna got married with Juan of Aragon, who died very soon in consequence of an illness. Then in the same year she married a skilful captain, Otto of Braunschweig, to better defend her reign. She didn’t have any heir and this caused succession problems. Pope Urbano VI excommunicated her because she had backed up the Anti-Pope Clemente VII. Her cousin, Carlo of Durazzo of Taranto, invaded her reign also because she had appointed as her successor Louis I d’Anjou, brother of the King of France. Giovanna fell prisoner and Carlo imprisoned her in Muro Lucano, a small town in Southern Italy, and had her strangled in 1383. She lived (1343-83).

  1343-66 Heiress Maria d’Anjou of Napoli, Countess of Alba (Italy)
Posthumously born daughter of Duke Carlo de Calabria and Maria de Valois, she was designated as heir to her sister, Giovanna I. First married to Charles d’Anjou, Prince of Durazzo, who was executed, she later murdered her second husband, Robert de Baux, Count d’Avellino in 1354 and the following year she married her last husband, Philippe II. d’Anjou, Prince de Taranto. Mother of ten children, who all died young and she died giving birth to the youngest. She lived (1328-66).

  1343-47 Dowager Duchess Eleonora of England of Guelders and Zutphen (The Netherlands)
Also known as Alianora van Woodstock, she was widow of Reinald II the Black, and regent for son Reinald III the Fat, Duke of Guelders (Gelder) and count of Zutphen (1333-43-61 and 1371). After his death her two stepdaughters engaged in a power struggle. She was daughter of King Edward II and Isabella of France, and lived (1318-55).

  1343-45 Commander of the Montfort Faction Jeanne de Flanders of Bretagne (France)
Her husband, Jean de Montfort (who named himself Duke Jean IV), had taken up arms against his cousin, the reigning Duchess Jeanne de Penthièvre and her husband, Charles de Blois in 1341. When he died, she organized resistance to secure the rights of her son, Jean, who later became known as the 4th. In the siege of Hennebont, she took up arms and, dressed in armour, conducted the defence of the town, urging the women to “cut their skirts and take their safety in their own hands”. She even led a raid of knights outside the walls that successfully destroyed one of the enemy’s rear camps. Her forces captured Charles de Blois in battle. But she became insane and died in confinement, and her son grew up in England until he returned to Bretagne in 1364 and deposed his father’s cousin the following year. She was the daughter of Louis, Count of Nevers and Jeanne of Rethel and the sister of Count Louis I of Flanders, and lived (circa 1295–1374).

  1343 Reigning Abbess Adelheid Diepolt of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Member of a noble German family. 

  1344-45 Queen Regnant Dofo Wad of Walo (Senegal)
The last of four successive Queens, she followed Queen Dudu Wad on the throne.

  Ca.1344-ca.52 Sultan Regnant Mo’at Laila of Ifat (East Shoa, Ethiopian Substate)
The Muslim sultanate situated in the northeastern Shewan foothills was one of the boarder-states threatening the Ethiopian state but it was about one hundred years later.

  1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active
After Constantine IV of Armenia, who was the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she took over the regency. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter’s death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband’s death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V’s minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo’s father, Oshin’s sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.

  1344-50 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Soissons, Dame de Beaumont, Chimay, Valenciennes and Condé (France)
Daughter of Countess Marguerite and Jean, Seigneur de Beaumont. She married Louis I, Count de Blois and Dunois, Seigneur de Châtillon and Seigneur d’Avesnes, and was succeeded by son,  Guy II de Blois-Châtillon.

  1344-48 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis IV von Hessnem of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Gertrud. From the thirteenth century onwards, the community suffered from debts, poor management by its abbesses, divisions within the chapter, the poor economic conditions of the later Middle Ages, and the aggressive territorial politics of the archbishop of Magdeburg and the bishops of Halberstadt. The community gradually lost both goods and tenants.

  1344-47 Reigning Abbess Agatha Truchsessin von Messkirch of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it’s acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn Also Owned vineries in Wald Aufkirch, Goldbach, Sipplingen und Bermatingen, am Untersee auf der Insel Reichenau and in Allensbach.

  Around 1345 Joint Ruler Empress Bendjou of Mali
When the noble ladies refused to show her the customary respect since she was of common origin, her husband, Souleyman, engaged in a battle with his ex-wife, Kossi, and her relatives as a reflection of a greater struggle for political power which escalated into a minor civil war – which he won, and she was able to take her customary place as joint ruler with the emperor.

  1345-63 Sovereign Duchess Anna von Schweidnitz of Schweidnitz and Jauer (Świdnica-Jawor) (Poland)
Also known as Anna Świdnicka, she the only daughter of the Slesian Duke Henryk II of Schweidnitz (1312-26-45) and Katharina d’Anjou of Hungary (d. ca 1355) and as the wife of Emperor Karl IV (1316-78), she was Queen of Germany and Bohemia and Holy Roman Empress. As mother of the Imperial Heir, Wenzel, she was politically influential. She lived (1339-62).

  1345-59 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Arbon of Schänis (Switzerland)
Possibly the first the first to use the title of Princess of the Realm, and throughout the centuries the Abbess claimed to hold that rank even though the chater newer acctually achieved the position of an Immediate Territory (Reichsabtei). She was daughter of Heinrich von Arbon and Wilburga. Her brother, Hermann, was Abbot of Pfäfers (1330-60).

  1345-46 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I de Montpensier of Dreux and Braine (France)
Her father Pierre (1298-1331-45) was the last of three brothers to succeed each other as counts of Dreux since the death of their father, Jean II in 1309. Jeanne was succeeded by aunt, Jeanne II. She lived (1315-46).

  1345-57 Reigning Abbess Hélissent II de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded aunt, Hélissent I.

  1346-54/55 Sovereign Countess Jeanne II of Dreux and Braine (France)
The daughter of Jean II le Bon, she succeeded her niece, Jeanne I, and reigned jointly with husband Louis de Thouars (d. 1370). First succeeded by son and then by daughters Petronelle and Marguerite. Jeanne lived (1308-54/5).

  1346-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Beatrice de Bourbon of Luxembourg
Governed in the name of Venceslas, whose half-brother was Emperor Karl of The Holy Roman Empire. 

  1346 Regent Dowager Countess Marguerite de France of Flanders and Rethel 
1361-82 Sovereign Countess Palatine of Bourgogne and Countess of Franche-Comté, Artois and Salins (The low countries)
Daughter of King Philippe V of France and Jeanne I d’Artois (1329-30). She married Louis II de Nevers, Count of Flanders and Rethel, who fell in battle in 1346 and was regent for their son, Louis II de Male (1330-84), and in her own lands, she succeeded the her sister, Jeanne II (1330-47)’s great-grandson as Marguerite I in 1361. She abdicated in favour of son, but remained politically active to her death. Her son was succeeded by her daughter, Marguerite II, in 1384. Marguerite I lived (1310-82).

  1346-6.. Regent Dowager Duchess Marie de Blois of Lorraine (France)
After the death of her husband, Rudolf or Raoul, she assumed the regency for her son Johann or Jean I of Lothringen or Lorraine (1346-90).

  1346-73 Politically Influential Abbess Birgitta av Vadstena in Sweden and Europe
Despite her similar affinity to a religious life, Birgitta was married at the age of 13 to Ulf Gudmarsson for her family’s political advancement. The marriage proved to be a happy and pious union, bearing eight children and lasting nearly three decades. After her husband’s death in 1344, she was received various religious revelations, founding her own order, and using her influence in religious and political matters. 1349-50 she travelled to Rome to petition with the Pope for the recognition of her domination, and she founded a religious order here. 1371 she embarked on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with her children. In Napoli her son, Karl Ulfsson, got entangled in a relationship with Queen Giovanna I, who wanted to marry him, but he died before anything came of it. Leaving the state, she handed the advice to Giovanna, that she should do something about the moral level. Stopping in Cyprus, she also gave advice to Queen Eleonora of Aragón. After four months in Jerusalem, they returned to Rome, where she died. 1374 the pope accepted the foundation of the Vadstena Convent – with both monks and nuns lead by Birgitta’s daughter, Katharina av Vadstena.  The Holy Birgitta was declared a saint in 1391 and Katharina some years later. Birgitta lived (1303-73).

  1347-85 Queen Regnant Rajalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)
Also known as Rajalladevi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, she was the daughter of Queen Sariayakadevi, and was brought up by her grandmother, Queen-Regent Devala. She was married to King Jaysthiti Malla of Bhadgaon, who invaded Nepal and ruled as Prince Counsort 1382-95, and described himself as the husband of Rajalladevi in many of his incriptions.

  1347-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Jutta von Brandenburg of Coburg-Henneberg (Germany)
Inherited the landscapes of Coburg-Henneberg after her husband Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen’s death. Her son-in-law – the husband of her daughter, Katharina von Henneberg, then inherited the territories and they became parts of Meissen and Thüringen, of which she was regent from 1381.

  1347-53 Princess-Abbess Lutgard von Stolberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Jutta von Hadmersleben. (d. 1353).

  Until 1347 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)
Succeeded her father, Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay. She lived (ca. 1267-1312).

  1348-79 Sultan and Maha Radun Malikat Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands, Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the
twelve-thousand islands
One of three daughters of Sultan Salah ad-Din Salih Albendjaly, who was succeeded by her brother. The vizier ‘Abdallah al-Muhammad al-Hazrami married the sultan’s mother, and had him put to death. Meanwhile, Khadija had married Jamal-ud-din, who managed to take over the reigns of power for his wife. As vizier he issued orders in her name. Succeeded by sister, Myriam.

  1348-87 Sovereign Duchess Giovanna de Sicile-Duras of Durazzo (Italy)
Also known as Jeanne, she succeeded her father, Carlo di Durazzo, Duke di Durazzo, Lord of the Kingdom of Albania and Conte di Gravina, who was executed in 1348. She was married to her cousin Clarles Martel di Calabria, Louis de Navarre, Comte de Beaumont and Robert IV d’Artois, comte d’Eu, who was poisoned in 1387. The duchy was named after Durazzo in Albania, which used to be ruled by Napoli. Her mother was the former heir to the throne of Napoli, Princess Maria (1328-66) and her sister, Margherita, was married to Charles III, King of Naples and Jerusalem (1381-86) and Hungary (1385-86). She lived (1344-87).

  1348-84 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Berg and Ravensberg (Germany)
Only daughter and heir of both her parents, Otto IV von Ravensberg-Vlotho and Margrete von Berg-Windeck, Heiress of Berg (d. 1339). After the death of her mother’s brother Adolf IX, his widow, Agnes von Kleve, secured the succession for her. Margarete married Count Gerhard I von Jülich and was succeeded by her son, Wilhelm I (ca. 1848-1408). She also had two daughters, and lived (ca. 1320-84).

  1348-after 1355 Reigning Dowager Lady Banass Jelena Nemanjić Šubić of Omiš, Klis and Skradin (Croatia)
When her husband, the magnate Mladen III Šubić, prince of Bribir, died, she tried to maintain rule over his cities on behalf of her infant son but was challenged by Hungary and Venice. Her half-brother Tsar Stefan Dušan sent troops to help her garrison Klis and Skadrin against Hungary in 1355. She was the daughter of king Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia.

  1348-74 Countess-Abbess Adelheid III von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Daughter of Prince Heinrich IV von Anhalt-Bernburg and his wife Sofie. A document issued on August 5, 1352 recorded a donation of 30 Marks to the community by two of its canonesses, Agnes de Merwitz (referred to as a deaconess, decana) and Margareta de Warin (referred to as a concanonica) in order to rebuild a deserted home located close to the dormitory, which should serve as the summer dormitory.

  Around 1348 Princess-Abbess Jeanne-Madeleine de Flachslanden of Andelau (France)
The l’abbaye d’Andlau in Franche-Comté was founded by Empress Richarde, the wife of Karl III the Great, which along the years came to own many lordships in Alsace and France. The Abbess held semi episcopal powers, was named by the Emperor or the King and had the title of Princess-Abbess from 1288.

  1349-83 Queen Regnant Ilancueitl of Tecnochtitlan (Mexico)
Since her father Crown-Prince Iztahuatzin, had already died, she succeeded her grandfather, Teuhtlehauc (1337-49). She was married to Huehue Acamapichtli, “Toltec” King of Colhuacan, and succeeded by their son Acamapichtli, the first Aztec emperor (1372-91). The Aztec state based on what is now Mexico City, in the central plateau of Mexico. Originally vassals of the Tepanec in Azcapotzalco, they achieved independence in the late 1420’s, and thereafter built an extensive empire throughout the region.

 

1349-55 In Charge of the Government Dowager Empress Irene of Trebizond
1355-67 Politically Influential

After the death of her husband, Emperor Basil, a palace coup followed and his first wife, Irene Palaiologina and her supporters seized power. She was then sent her off with her two young sons to Constantinople where they could be guarded by Irene Palaiologina’s father, Andronikos III Palaiologos. Their time in exile seems to have been spent as witnesses of the palace revolutions taking place both in Trebizond and in the Byzantine Empire. When John VI Kantakuzenos won the Byzantine civil war, he overturned the weak and violent government of Michael and put her son, Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1338-90) on the throne. She seems to have struggled for power with the nobles and especially the Doranites family who unsucessfully revolted in the capital, while her son retired to the castle fortress of Tripolis for security. In 1351 she went with an expedition to Limnia with Michael Panaretos and seized the city from the lordly pretensions of Constantine Doranites. After the civil war ended, Irene seems to have played still some part in the government of Trebizond and in 1367 accompanied her son when her grandaugter Anna was married to the king of Georgia. She also was present at the baptism of her great-grandson Basil, renamed later Alexios IV of Trebizond. (d. after 1382).


 

1349-54  Princess-Abbess Katharina von Strettweg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Kärnten.


  1349-53 Reigning Abbess Théophanie de Chambon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess. A total of 36 Abbesses.

 

1349-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Hohnstein of Greifenstein in Schwarzburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Günther XXI. von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, who worked as a diplomat in the service of Emperor Ludwig IV. Mother of a son and 4 daughters. (d. 1380).


  1349-56 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Thulen of Säckingen (Germany)
A decree with her seal from 1355 has survived. Around 1350 the Lords von Schönau was appointed Grand Masters of the Chapter of City of Säckingen. Her family were Lords of Thulen and various other Lordships near Paderborn.

  1349-65 Abbess Nullius Costanza  I da Lecceof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, semi-episcopal jurisdiction in the abbatial fief of Castellana.

 

1349-75 Politically Influential Queen Leonor de Sicilia of Aragon (Spain)

Became a powerful influence at the Aragonese court, replacing Bernardo de Cabrera as King Pedro IV’s chief adviser. In 1357, faced with mounting opposition in Sicily, her brother King Federigo proposed that Athens and Neopatras be transferred to her in return for military help from her husband in Sicily, a proposal which was refused. She was the daughter of king Peter II of Sicily and Elizabeth of Carinthia and lived (1325-75).


  Late 1340s-late 1380s Politically Influential Tsarina Sarah-Theodora of Bulgaria
There are some Greek and French sources claiming her to be a daughter of a Venetian banker, but sources agree that she was Jewish, having lived with her family in the Jewish Neighbourhood in Tarnovo, and converted to Christianity in order to marry Tsar Ivan Alexander, who divorced his wife of many years, Theodora of Wallachia, who was forced to become a nun. She became renowned for her fierce support of her new religion, the Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and was one of the instigators of a church council against the Jews. She also played a significant role in the separation of the Bulgarian Empire between her firstborn son Ivan Shishman and her step-son, Ivan Stratsimir, who was crowned co-emperor by his father, who made his elder son Despot of Vidin, which he declared a separate empire after his father’s death. From now on, the relationship between the two Bulgarian Empires became cold and remained so despite the threat of the forthcoming Ottoman invasion. The date of her death is unknown, although some historians assume she died in the late 1380s. although she is widely known as Sarah or Sarah-Theodora, the name she wore before her conversion to Christianity is not mentioned in any historical source. Sarah, the name that she is known under, came from the tragedy Toward the Precipice, written by the great Bulgarian writer Ivan Vazov. Mother of at least 5 children. (d. ca. 1380s).THE END @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Rise of Majapahit ‘s War as the First part of Book :” The Majapahit Kingdom During War and Peace” (Perang Saat Berdirinya Kerajaan Majapahit)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections

                          

             Edited By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

       special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)

3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389

4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476

5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525

_______________________________________________________________

THE MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM DURING WAR AND PEACE PART ONE 1293-1309

 

THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM(TIMBULNYA KERAJAAN MAJAPAHIT)

PREFACE 

Until  this day I have never seen a book about the kingdom of Majapahit which arranged in chronological order with the relevant illustrations, such as coins, ceramics and other artifacts. As an example of a brief article below

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,[7] and some details of the history are rather abstract.[8] The main sources used by historians are: the Pararaton (‘Book of Kings’) written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[9] Pararaton is focused upon Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which some events are covered narratively.[8] There are also some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese.

The Javanese sources incorporate some poetic mythological elements, and scholars such as C. C. Berg, a Dutch nationalist, have considered that the entire historical record to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined.[10] Despite Berg’s approach, most scholars do not accept this view, as the historical record corresponds with Chinese materials that could not have had similar intention. The list of rulers and details of the state structure, show no sign of being invented.[8]

Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He visited Majapahit. Zheng He’s translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived.[11] New findings in April 2011, indicate the Majapahit capital was much larger than previously believed after some artifacts were uncovered.[12]

 History

Formation

The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar and the statue is now preserved at National Museum of Indonesia.

After defeating Melayu Kingdom[13] in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute, insulted the Mongol envoy and challenged the Khan instead. As the response, in 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.

By that time, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura’s regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When the Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[14] Yuan’s army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.

In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

According to tradition, Wijaya’s son and successor, Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was his desire on taking his own stepsisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. Approximately during Jayanegara’s reign, the Italian Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited Majapahit court in Java. In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a Bhikkhuni. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni’s auspices. Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as the Prime Minister in 1336. During his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She abdicated the throne in favour of her son, Hayam Wuruk.

Golden age

The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as “the golden age” of the archipelago.

The terracotta portrait of Gajah Mada. Collection of Trowulan Museum.

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada’s command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories and become the regional power. According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.

Next to launching naval and military expeditions, the expansion of Majapahit Empire also involved diplomacy and alliance. Hayam Wuruk decided, probably for political reasons, to take princess Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) of neighboring Sunda Kingdom as his consort.[15] The Sundanese took this proposal as an alliance agreement. In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit, to accompany and marry his daughter with Hayam Wuruk. However Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda’s submission to Majapahit overlordship. The skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit troops on Bubat square were unevitable. Despite the courageous resistance, the royal family were overwhelmed and decimated. Almost whole of the Sundanese royal party were viciously massacred.[16] Tradition mentioned that the heartbroken Princess committed suicide to defend the honour of her country.[17] The Pasunda Bubat tragedy become the main theme of Kidung Sunda, also mentioned in Pararaton, however it was never mentioned in Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary form from 14th century Majapahit’s power. Majapahit’s direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit’s claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.[18]

In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada’s death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang,[4] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renowned general was Adityawarman[citation needed], known for his conquest in Minangkabau.

The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[19] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[4] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[4]

Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.

Sampai hari ini saya belum pernah melihat buku tentang Kerajaan Majapahit yang disusun secara kronologis dengan illustrasi yang terkait seperti koin

,keramik

 , dan artefak lain . Sebagai contoh suatu artikel yang singkat dibawah ini.

Tetap masih sedikit bukti fisik terkait KerajaanMajapahit , [7] dan beberapa rincian sejarah agak abstrak [8] Sumber utama yang digunakan oleh sejarawan adalah: Pararaton (‘Kitab Raja-raja’) ditulis dalam bahasa Kawi dan Nagarakertagama dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno.. [9] Pararaton berfokus pada Ken Arok (pendiri Singhasari) tetapi mencakup beberapa fragmen cerita pendek mengenai terbentuknya Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, adalah sebuah puisi epik tua Jawa ditulis pada masa keemasan Majapahit di bawah pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk setelah beberapa peristiwa dilindungi naratif. [8] Ada juga beberapa prasasti dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno dan Cina.Sumber Jawa menggabungkan beberapa unsur mitologis puitis, dan sarjana seperti CC Berg, seorang nasionalis Belanda, telah mempertimbangkan bahwa seluruh catatan sejarah tidak akan catatan masa lalu, tetapi sebuah sarana supranatural dimana masa depan dapat ditentukan. [10 ] Meskipun pendekatan Berg, kebanyakan sarjana tidak menerima pandangan ini, sebagai catatan sejarah Cina sesuai dengan bahan yang tidak bisa memiliki niat serupa. Daftar penguasa dan rincian struktur negara, tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda yang diciptakan. [8]Laksamana Dinasti Ming Zheng He mengunjungi Majapahit. Zheng penerjemah Ma Huan Dia menulis sebuah deskripsi rinci tentang Majapahit dan di mana raja Jawa tinggal [11] Temuan baru pada bulan April 2011., Menunjukkan modal Majapahit jauh lebih besar dibandingkan sebelumnya percaya setelah beberapa artefak yang ditemukan. [12] Sejarah
PembentukanPatung Harihara, dewa gabungan Siwa dan Wisnu. Itu adalah penggambaran didewakan kamar mayat dari Kertarajasa. Awalnya berlokasi di Candi Simping, Blitar dan patung sekarang diawetkan di Museum Nasional Indonesia.Setelah mengalahkan Kerajaan Melayu [13] di Sumatra pada 1290, Singhasari menjadi kerajaan paling kuat di wilayah ini. Kubilai Khan, Khan Besar Kekaisaran Mongol dan Kaisar Mongol Dinasti Yuan, ditantang Singhasari dengan mengirim utusan menuntut upeti. Kertanegara, penguasa terakhir Singhasari, menolak untuk membayar upeti, menghina utusan Mongol dan menantang Khan sebagai gantinya. Sebagai respon, pada 1293, Kubilai Khan mengirim ekspedisi besar-besaran dari 1.000 kapal ke Jawa.Pada saat itu, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) dari Kediri, sebuah negara bawahan Singhasari, telah merebut dan membunuh Kertanegara. Setelah diampuni oleh Jayakatwang dengan bantuan dari bupati Madura’s, Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara anak-in-hukum, diberi tanah hutan Tarik. Dia kemudian membuka tanah hutan yang luas dan membangun sebuah desa baru di sana. Desa itu dinamai Majapahit, yang diambil dari nama buah yang memiliki rasa pahit di hutan yang (maja adalah nama buah dan pahit berarti pahit). Ketika tentara Mongol Yuan dikirim oleh Kubilai Khan tiba, Wijaya bersekutu dengan tentara untuk melawan Jayakatwang. Setelah Jayakatwang dihancurkan, Raden Wijaya memaksa sekutu-sekutunya untuk mundur dari Jawa dengan meluncurkan serangan mendadak tentara [14] Yuan sudah. ​​Untuk menarik dalam kebingungan ketika mereka berada di wilayah bermusuhan. Itu juga kesempatan terakhir mereka untuk menangkap angin monsun rumah, jika tidak, mereka akan harus menunggu selama enam bulan di sebuah pulau yang bermusuhan.Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14] Wijaya dirinya. Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.Menurut tradisi, putra dan penerus Wijaya, Jayanegara itu terkenal imoralitas. Salah satu tindakan berdosa sedang keinginannya pada stepsisters sendiri sebagai istri. Ia berhak Kala Gemet, atau “penjahat lemah”. Sekitar selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, para Pastor Italia Odoric dari Pordenone mengunjungi pengadilan Majapahit di Jawa. Di AD 1328, Jayanegara dibunuh oleh dokternya, Tanca. Ibu tirinya, Gayatri Rajapatni, seharusnya menggantikannya, tetapi Rajapatni pensiun dari pengadilan untuk menjadi bhikkhuni. Rajapatni menunjuk anak perempuannya, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, atau dikenal dalam nama resmi dirinya sebagai Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, sebagai ratu Majapahit di bawah naungan Rajapatni’s. Tribhuwana ditunjuk Gajah Mada sebagai Perdana Menteri di 1336. Selama pelantikannya Gajah Mada menyatakan Sumpah Palapa-nya, mengungkapkan rencananya untuk memperluas wilayah Majapahit dan membangun sebuah imperium. Selama pemerintahan Tribhuwana itu, kerajaan Majapahit berkembang jauh lebih besar dan menjadi terkenal di daerah tersebut. Tribhuwana menguasai Majapahit sampai kematian ibunya pada tahun AD 1350. Dia turun tahta takhta demi anaknya, Hayam Wuruk.Golden usia
The Bidadari anggun Majapahit, Bidadari langit emas dalam gaya Majapahit sempurna menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai “zaman keemasan” Nusantara.
Potret terakota Gajah Mada. Koleksi Museum Trowulan.Hayam Wuruk, juga disebut Rajasanagara, memerintah Majapahit di AD 1350-1389. Selama periode ini, Majapahit mencapai puncaknya dengan bantuan perdana menteri, Gajah Mada. Di bawah komando Gajah Mada’s (AD 1313-1364), Majapahit menaklukkan wilayah lebih dan menjadi kekuatan regional. Menurut kitab Nagarakertagama Pupuh (canto) XIII dan XIV disebutkan beberapa negara bagian di Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, kepulauan Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, New Guinea, dan beberapa bagian pulau Filipina sebagai wilayah Majapahit di bawah kekuasaan. Sumber disebutkan ekspansi Majapahit telah menandai semaksimal kerajaan Majapahit.Next untuk meluncurkan ekspedisi angkatan laut dan militer, perluasan Kerajaan Majapahit juga terlibat diplomasi dan aliansi. Hayam Wuruk memutuskan, mungkin untuk alasan politik, untuk mengambil putri Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) dari tetangga Kerajaan Sunda sebagai permaisuri nya [15]. Orang Sunda mengambil proposal ini sebagai perjanjian aliansi. Pada 1357 raja Sunda dan keluarga kerajaan-Nya datang ke Majapahit, untuk menemani dan menikahi putrinya dengan Hayam Wuruk. Namun Gajah Mada melihat acara ini sebagai kesempatan untuk menuntut penyerahan Sunda ke Majapahit penguasa atasan. Ini pertempuran antara keluarga kerajaan Sunda dan pasukan Majapahit di alun-alun Bubat adalah unevitable. Meskipun perlawanan berani, keluarga kerajaan kewalahan dan hancur. Hampir seluruh pihak kerajaan Sunda yang kejam dibantai. [16] Tradisi menyebutkan bahwa bunuh diri patah hati Putri berkomitmen untuk membela kehormatan negaranya [17] Tragedi Bubat Pasunda menjadi tema utama Kidung Sunda, juga disebutkan dalam Pararaton,. namun tidak pernah disebutkan dalam Nagarakretagama.The Nagarakertagama, yang ditulis pada 1365 menggambarkan pengadilan yang canggih dengan cita rasa halus dalam seni dan sastra, dan sistem yang kompleks ritual keagamaan. Penyair menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai pusat mandala raksasa yang membentang dari New Guinea dan Maluku ke Sumatra dan Semenanjung Melayu. tradisi lokal di banyak bagian Indonesia mempertahankan rekening dalam bentuk yang lebih atau kurang legendaris dari kekuasaan Majapahit abad ke-14. administrasi langsung Majapahit tidak melampaui Jawa Timur dan Bali, tapi tantangan untuk mengklaim Majapahit penguasa atasan di pulau-pulau terluar menarik tanggapan kuat. [18]Pada 1377, beberapa tahun setelah kematian Gajah Mada’s, Majapahit mengirim menghukum serangan laut terhadap pemberontakan di Palembang, [4] memberikan kontribusi ke ujung kerajaan Srivijayan. umum lainnya yang terkenal adalah Gajah Mada Adityawarman [rujukan?], yang dikenal karena penaklukannya di Minangkabau.Sifat dari kerajaan Majapahit dan luasnya adalah subjek untuk diperdebatkan. Ini mungkin memiliki pengaruh yang terbatas atau seluruhnya nosional atas beberapa negara jajahan di termasuk Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan dan Indonesia timur di mana wewenang diklaim dalam Nagarakertagama [19]. Geografis dan kendala ekonomi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari biasa otoritas terpusat, negara-negara luar yang paling mungkin telah terhubung terutama oleh hubungan perdagangan, yang mungkin sebuah monopoli kerajaan. [4] Ia juga menyatakan hubungan dengan Champa, Kamboja, Siam, Birma bagian selatan, dan Vietnam, dan bahkan mengirim misi ke Cina. [4]Walaupun penguasa Majapahit diperpanjang kekuasaan atas pulau-pulau lain dan menghancurkan kerajaan tetangga, fokus mereka tampaknya telah pengendalian dan mendapatkan bagian yang lebih besar dari perdagangan komersial yang melewati nusantara. Tentang waktu Majapahit didirikan, pedagang Muslim dan proselytizers mulai memasuki daerah tersebut

Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas saya berusaha menyusun suatu buku yang menarik secara kronologis dengan illustarsi yang langka agar lebih menarik untuk dibaca oleh generasi muda yang sudah mulai banyak yang lupa dengan Kerajaan Majaphit yang sangat populer baik didalam maupun diluar negeri.Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangnya,oleh karena itu koreksi,saran dan tambahan informasi sangat diharapkan,atas eprhatiannya saya ucapkan terima kasih.

 Jakarta Mei 2011

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 A.PROLOG

1266

year’s King of the kingdom Singosari Kertanegara have created the  inscription (discovered in 1911 in Pakis Kedu area) which contains writings in  Kawi language Pada tahun ini Raja Kertanegara dari kerajaan Singosari membuat prasasti (ditemukan tahun 1911 di Pakis daerah Kedu) yang berisi tulisan dalam bahasa kawi  1269

In 1269 the king kertanagara make seven pieces of inscriptions found in 1898 on the slopes of Mount Wilis, this inscription dating back to Kertanegara still in power at Singosari Kingdom.

Pada tahun 1269 raja kertanagara membuat 7 keping prasasti yang ditemukan tahun 1898 di lereng gunung Wilis, prasasti ini berasal dari zaman Kertanegara masih berkuasa di singosari.

.

1289

(1) Padang Roco Statue Inscription

Padang Roco Inscription

 

The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription.

The Padang Roco Inscription, in Indonesian Prasasti Padang Roco, is an inscription dated 1286 CE, discovered near the source of Batanghari river, Padangroco temple complex, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

Pagaruyung Kingdom

Main Article: Rumah Gadang

Minangkabau royal seal from
the 19th century.

Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung and Pagar Ruyung) was the seat of Minangkabau kings, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.

History

Adityawarman statue in the
National Museum of Indonesia

Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artifacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located here.Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).

An inscribed stone from
Adityawarman’s kingdom

The above information was inaccurate, because according to a report from Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole institutions’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient, published in the Jakarta newspaper Kompas, 1 June 2011, are as follows:
Adityawarman has a son named Ananggawarman, padalah according to the reading of Griffith on the inscriptions found in the District Danah Army in 1900, it Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana named Aditywarman. Ananggawarman likelihood of having another name that is Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma who is known sebayai Adityawarman father. According to experts from mingkabau Budi, Adityawarman’s mother was a Malay princess named Dara Orange with a father named Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Orange is one of the daughters of other Malays who with daughter Dara Petak Malay King submitted that time domiciled in Calendar, western Sumatra, from Singasari, east Java now. Submission melayu daughter was related to the transfer Amongphasa statue to be placed in Dhamasraya of the kingdom under King Kertanegara Singosari in Pamalayu expedition. Later, Dara Petak married to Raden Wijaya (In laws Kertanegara) and then Dara Petak Jaynegara birth who later became king of Majapahit replace Raden wijaya. Also important findings by Griffiths is the mention of the name Melayupura which has been commonly used in archaeological treasures, it turns out after re-read selbai Melayupura. One expert from West Sumatra alone, which is already 18 years Bob served in the BP3 Batusangkar say, a figure known to be King Malay Adityawarman Dhamasraya based watershed Batanghari. The county is now included in West Sumatra region Sijunjung District. According to Budi, Adityawarman who called himself as Sri Maharaja Royal was in power between the years 1347-1375, covering the area that is now called Calendar, flat land, up to Pasaman Sumabr. He added, “so far that has not been widely accepted is the fact bhwqa no direct relationship between Adityawarman with Pagaruyung kingdom which is also located in Tanah Datar. So far Adityawarman always regarded as the founder of the Kingdom Pagaruyung, whereas between Adityawarman and royal Pagaruyung no relationship. arkeologisnya yet discovered facts, at least until today, “said Budi

 
 

PRASATI PADANG ROCO

  

Prasasti Padang Roco, dalam Bahasa Indonesia Prasasti Padang Roco, adalah prasasti 1286 Masehi, ditemukan di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, kompleks candi Padangroco, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Kabupaten Dharmasraya, Sumatra Barat, Indonesia.Prasasti ini ditemukan pada tahun 1911 di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, Padangroco. prasasti ini diukir pada empat sisi dari batu berbentuk persegi panjang disajikan sebagai dasar patung Amoghapasa. Di sisi belakang patung ukiran prasasti disebut prasasti Amoghapasa dari periode kemudian di 1347 CE (NBG 1911: 129, 20e). Prasasti diukir dalam huruf Jawa kuno, menggunakan dua bahasa (bahasa Melayu Kuno dan Sansekerta) (Krom 1912, 1916, Moens 1924; dan Pitono 1966). Saat ini prasasti tersebut disimpan di Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan nomor kode inventaris D.198-6468 (dasar atau bagian prasasti) dan D.198-6469 (bagian patung)
 
.Pada Tahun 1930,Patung tersebut dipindahkan ke Kebun Binatang di Bukittinggi,lihatlah foto ibu saya dan ibu mertua Dr Ronny Handoko ahli kulit terkenal duduk dikaki patung tersebut.
kemudian patung dipindahkan ke Museum Gajag(museum pusat Jakarta),lihatlah kartu pos bergambar yang dieterbitkan Museum tersebut tahun 1940
 
bandingkan dengan foto dibawahn ini dalam posisi berbeda,saya sudah mnelihatnya,dipahanya ada tanda bekas tergeser lama, menurut ceritanya dulu saat patung ada didalam sungai,diperguankan bagian paha tersebut untuk mencuci karena bagian lain tidak kelihatan karena terbenam dalam sungai.(apakah hal ini benar,harap konfirmasi dari para ahli arkeologi Indonesia,)
 
Patung Adityawarman di
Museum Nasional Indonesia
 
Adityawarman diyakini telah mendirikan kerajaan dan memimpin wilayah Sumatera tengah antara 1347 dan 1375, kemungkinan besar mengendalikan perdagangan emas lokal. Beberapa artefak pulih dari pemerintahan Adityawarman’s termasuk jumlah batu yang mengandung prasasti, dan patung. Beberapa item ditemukan di Bukit Gombak, sebuah bukit dekat Pagaruyung modern, dan diyakini sebuah istana kerajaan yang terletak di sini.
 
Informasi diatas ternyata kurang tepat sebab berdasarkan laporan dari Prof Dr Arlo Griffith dari lembaga Ecole’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient Jakarta yang dimuat dalam surat kabar Kompas,1 juni 2011,adalah sebagai berikut:
Adityawarman memiliki anak bernama Ananggawarman, padalah menurut pembacaan Griffith pada prasasti yang ditemukan di Kabupaten danah Darat  tahun 1900, justru  Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana yang bernama Aditywarman. Ananggawarman kemungkina besar memiliki nama lain yaitu Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma yang selama ini diketahui sebayai ayah Adityawarman. Menurut Pakar dari mingkabau Budi, ibunda Adityawarman adalah seorang putri Melayu bernama Dara Jingga dengan ayah bernama Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Jingga adalah salah satu putri Melayu yang bersama putri lainya Dara Petak yang diserahkan Raja Melayu waktu itu berkedudukan di Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Sumatera barat, dari Singasari,Jawa timur sekarang. Penyerahan putri melayu itu terkait dengan pengiriman Arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja kertanegara dalam ekspedisi Pamalayu . Kelak, Dara Petak menikah dengan Raden Wijaya(Menantu Kertanegara) dan kemudian Dara Petak melahirkan Jaynegara yang kemudian menjadi raja Majapahit mengantikan Raden wijaya. Selain itu temuan penting oleh Griffiths ialah penyebutan nama Melayupura yang selama ini lazim digunakan dalam khazanah arkeologis, ternyata setelah dibaca ulang selbai Melayupura. Salah sorang pakar dari sumatera barat,yaitu Budi yang sudah 18 tahun bertugas di BP3 Batusangkar mengatakan, sosok Adityawarman diketahui menjadi Raja Melayu Dhamasraya yang berpusat di daerah aliran sungai Batanghari. Wilayah itu kini termasuk dalam kawasan Kabupaten Sijunjung Sumbar. Menurut Budi, Adityawarman yang menyebut dirinya sebagai Sri Maharaja Diraja itu berkuasa antara tahun 1347-1375, meliputi kawasan yang sekarang dinamakan Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Tanah datar, hingga Pasaman Sumabr. Ia menambahkan,”sejauh ini yang belum pernah diterima secara luas ialah fakta bhwqa tidak adanya hubungan langsung antara Adityawarman dengan kerajaan Pagaruyung yang juga berada di Kabupaten Tanah Datar. Sejauh ini Adityawarman selalu dianggap sebagai pendiri Kerajaan Pagaruyung,padahal antara Adityawarman dan kerajaan Pagaruyung tidak ada hubungannya. Belum ditemukan fakta arkeologisnya,setidaknya sampai hari ini”, kata Budi

(2)Pertulisan Kertanegara Pada patung Joko Dolok

 

 Joko Dolog Statue

 
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Arca Joko Dolog
One of the heritage which is also a place that often visit or as tourist attractions. Because of that  Indonesia that is why very importon to  write the information  about one of heritage in the center of Surabaya, precisely in Apsari Park, near Grahadi and Tunjungan Building Plaza, which is in the area Embong Trengguli Road near the school building Petra Christian Junior High 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy is a statue of Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, called the Holy Land Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG.. Maybe this is not one interesting sights for someone who didnot now history , but it can make a tour to the historian who wants to know the historical developments in Indonesia, especially Java island. From the statue’s why we included Joko Dolog as one international destination on the island of Java, Indonesia. In accordance with the topic of Java Indonesia International Destination.
Holy Land called Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG. There is an inscription on the lapiknya a poem, using the ancient Javanese characters, and the Sanskrit language. In the inscription is mentioned a place called Wurare, so called by the name prasastinya inscription Wurare. Joko Dolog  is known by locals as the “fat boy” or “fat boy”.
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Joko Dolog
Mahasobya Buddha statue is from the Cage Gajak. In 1817 moved to Surabaya by Resident de Salis. Elephant stables area was once a Kedoeng Wulan area, the area under the power of Majapahit. In the Dutch colonial period included in Surabaya residency, while the present including rural areas Bejijong, Trowulan Sub-district, Mojokerto – East Java. There are also saying that this Dolog Joko statue came from Candi Jawi notes related to the Buddha statue is missing Akshobya in the Temple. Mahasobya Buddha statue, made famous by the name of this Dolog Joko, now visited by many people who beg a blessing. But if you see lapiknya, called prasati Wurare, very interesting because it contains some historical data in the past.
 
Arca Joko Dolog
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko DologSalah satu warisan yang juga merupakan tempat yang sering dikunjungi atau sebagai tempat wisata. Karena itu perlu ditulis informasi dari  tentang salah satu warisan di pusat kota Surabaya, tepatnya di Taman Apsari, dekat Grahadi dan Gedung Tunjungan Plaza, yang berada di kawasan Jalan Embong Trengguli dekat gedung sekolah SMP Kristen Petra 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy adalah patung Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – salah satu dari Lima Dhyani Buddha, yang disebut Tanah Suci Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG .. Mungkin ini bukan merupakan salah satu pemandangan yang menarik bagi  pribadi yang tidk mengerti sejarah , tetapi bisa membuat tur ahli sejarah yang ingin mengetahui perkembangan sejarah di Indonesia, khususnya pulau Jawa. Dari patung sebabnya aku termasuk Joko Dolog sebagai salah satu tujuan internasional di pulau Jawa, Indonesia. Sesuai dengan topik Jawa Indonesia Internasional Destination.Holy Tanah disebut Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG. Ada sebuah prasasti di lapiknya puisi, menggunakan karakter Jawa kuno, dan bahasa Sansekerta. Dalam prasasti tersebut disebutkan tempat yang bernama Wurare, sehingga disebut dengan nama prasasti Wurare prasastinya. Joko Dolog ini dikenal oleh penduduk setempat sebagai “fat boy” atau “fat boy”.
 
 

1294

Pertulisan Kertarajasa Gunung Butak Mojokerto

B.THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM 

1292 Tentara Jayakatong Kediri meruntuhkan Tumapel(SingasarI)

1293

  The Mongol (Yuan) invasion of Java in 1293 crushed the Hindu Kingdom of Singhasari, which only recently in 1290 by a victory over Srivijaya had become the foremost political power in the Malay Archipelago. In 1293 the Hindu Majapahit Empire, capital Trowulan, was established; it grew to become the dominant political power in eastern and central Java. According to the Nagarakertagama much of the Malay archipelago was recognizing the suzerainty of Majapahit

1. The Tartar Army Landed At Java Beach which bring the imperial ceramic for the General

Tentara Tartar mendarat Di pantai Pulau Jawa yang membawa keramik kerajaan untuk para jendral.

(1) Prasati indonesia

Landing troops Kublai Khan begins with a poklamation  which states that the purpose of landing soldiers  that Java island  is going to punish premises avenge the insult kepad a Kertanegara Ambassador of China (China) in 1289 due to chopping (tattoos) Mengki face (Men-chi), in accordance international law , proklamation  it is around declaration stating reasons why the weapons removed from the sovereignty violated and declared war.Raden Wijaya run tactics by sending a first ministers (prime minister) of the Majapahit kingdom as his envoy to the Headquarters of the Chinese troops who landed, so Majapajit became companion in arms with the army to overthrow the kingdom of Kublai Kan Jayakatong in Kediri sehngga Tartar army gives recognition to the minister who was sent Wijaya. After the confession were traveling siasast armed conflicts to destroy the power of mid Brantas river flow with the help of foreign armed forces (tartar), and this pekrjaan successful, so after that stay clean majapahit area of ​​influence of Tartars who many times deceived anymore, so finally at the beginning of the year 1294 only there is a power that is in East Java that is Majapahit.Penyusunan powers initially took place within the borders keuasaan Jayakatong, then nexus of power anatar majapahit with Daha decided by way of rebellion took up arms. Tentaraa Pemberontakn with the help of foreigners, who then destroyed as well. There are two events that took place when tenatara Tartar landed on the shore of Java and this incident raises concerns for the study of communication between Asian countries during the 13th century.Ratification of the Majapahit Kingdom can be read in its charter, written on 11 September 1294 (Saka 1216), in which rewarded the village charter Kudadu, when read carefully:(1) The first in when before the king is still named Naraya Sanggramawijaya (2) Series bagimnda has now become king,  as descended guardian  from heaven to earth , (3) Rise of penance became King of Majapahit as mentioned in the inscription Butak: “After the King Jayakatong die face of the earth became bright kembali.Pada saka year-arja 1216nmaka Nara became Queen, and the ruling dipura majapahit, loved (the people) and above all musuhnya.Sebagai king Jaya Seri Baginda called “Queen Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. On 11 September 1294 according to the inscription Butaki, he already holds biseka (ie rajahbiseka = rose nobat be a king) and was named King with the official

Pendaratan tentara Kubilai Khan dimulai dengan suatu poklamasi yang menyatakan bahwa maksud tentara mendarat  kepulau Jawa itu ialah hendak menghukum denga membalas dendam kepad a Kertanegara  yang menghina Duta Tiongkok(Cina)  pada tahun 1289 karena mencacah(mentatto) wajah Mengki(Men-chi) ,sesuai hukuj internasional ,proklamsi ini adaalh pernyataan yang berisi sebab -sebab mengapa senjata diangkat akibat kedaulatan dilanggar dan memaklumkan perang.

Raden Wijaya menjalankan siasat dengan mengirim seorang menteri pertama(perdana Menteri) dari Kerajaan Majapahit sebagai utusannya ke Markas Besar tentara  Tiongkok yang mendarat, sehingga Majapajit menjadi teman seperjuangan dengan Tentara Kublai Kan untuk meruntuhkan kerajaan Jayakatong di Kediri sehngga tentara Tartar memberikan pengakuan kepada menteri yang diutus Wijaya. Setelah pengakuan itu berjalanlah siasast perperangan untuk menghancurkan kekuasaan dipertengahan aliran sungai Brantas dengan bantuan angkatan bersenjata asing (tartar), dan pekrjaan ini berhasil ,sehingga sesudah itu tinggal membersihkan daerah majapahit dari pengaruh Tartar yang sekian kalinya tertipu lagi, sehingga akhirnya pada permulaan tahun 1294 hanya ada satu kekuasaan yang ada di jawa Timur yaitu Majapahit.Penyusunan kekuasaan mula-mula berlangsung didalam perbatasan keuasaan Jayakatong,kemudian perhubungan anatar kekuasaan majapahit dengan DAHA diputuskan dengan jalan pemberontakan mengangkat senjata. Pemberontakn dengan bantuan tentaraa asing,yang kemudian dihancurkan pula. Ada dua peristiwa yang berlangsung ketika tenatara Tartar mendarat dipantai Jawa dan peristiwa ini menimbulkan perhatian bagi orang penelitian perhubungan antar negara asia pada abad 13.

Pengesahan Kerajaan Majapahit dapat dibaca dalam Piagam yang ditulis tanggal 11 September 1294(saka 1216) ,dalam piagam yang menghadiahkan desa Kudadu, bila dibaca secara saksama :

(1)Yang dahulu pada ketika sebelum menjadi raja masih bernama Naraya Sanggramawijaya(2) Seri bagimnda kini telah menjadi raja,sehimngga sebagai turun dari kayangan menjadi eplindung bumi,(3) Naik tobat jadi Prabu Majapahit seperti tersebut dalam prasasti Butak :” Setelah Raja Jayakatong meninggal muka bumi menjadi terang benderang kembali.Pada tahun saka 1216nmaka Nara-arja menjadi Ratu, dan berkuasa dipura majapahit,disayangi(rakyat) dan Jaya atas segala musuhnya.Sebagai raja Seri Baginda bernama “Ratu Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. Pada tanggal 11 September 1294 menurut prasasti Butaki, beliau sudah bergelar biseka(yaitu rajahbiseka=naik nobat jadi raja) dan sudah bernama prabu dengan resmi.

(2)China Source(Dokumen Tiongkok)(a) History of the Yuan Dynasty 1280-1367 book 210

Pada bulan kedua tahun 1292, kaisar mengeluarkan perintah untuk gubernur Fu-Kien, mengarahkan dia untuk mengirim Shi-pi, Ike Mase dan Kau Hsing di perintah tentara untuk menaklukkan Jawa, untuk mengumpulkan tentara dari Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang dengan jumlah 20000, untuk menunjuk Komandan Wing kanan dan salah satu Waktu, serta Empat Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, untuk mengirim seribu kapal serta melengkapi mereka dengan ketentuan selama satu tahun dan dengan empat puluh ribu batang Silver.

Kaisar lebih lanjut memberikan lencana sepuluh harimau, lencana emas dan seratus empat puluh lencana perak bersama-sama dengan sepotong seratus sutra, bordir dengan emas, untuk tujuan merit bermanfaat.

Ketika Ike Mese dan associetes temannya penonton terakhir mereka, kaisar berkata kepada mereka: “Ketika Anda tiba di Jawa Anda jelas harus menyatakan kepada tentara dan rakyat negeri itu, bahwa Pemerintah Kekaisaran telah dulunya punya hubungan  dengan Jawa oleh utusan dari kedua belah pihak dan telah selaras baik dengan itu, tetapi bahwa mereka memiliki akhir-akhir ini memnyayat (codet)  wajah utusan Imperial Me’ng Chi dan bahwa Anda telah datang untuk menghukum mereka untuk itu ”

Pada bulan kesembilan beberapa tentara dikumpulkan pada Chingyuan (nama lama Ning Po), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese pergi dengan tentara darat untuk Chuan-chou (Tjiang Tjioe), sementara Kau Hsing membawa bagasi dengan kapal. Dalam rangka 11 bulan pasukan dari tiga provinsi Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang semua berkumpul di Chuan-Chou dan pada bulan berikutnya ekspedisi menaruh ke laut. Pada bulan pertama tahun 1293 mereka tiba di pulau lan Ko’-(Billiton) dan ada dibahas rencana mereka kampanye.

Pada bulan kedua Ike Mese dan salah satu komandan bawahannya membawa dengan mereka sekretaris dan didampingi oleh tiga petugas dari Kantor Pengamanan, yang dibebankan untuk mengobati Wirth Jawa dan countrtries lain, dan oleh Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, yang memimpin 500 laki-laki dan 10 kapal, masuk terlebih dahulu untuk membawa commandands Kaisar ke negara ini. Tubuh tentara diikuti untuk Karimon (Karimon Jawa) dan dari sini ke sebuah tempat di Jawa disebut tsuh Tu–ping (Tuban) dimana Shi-pi dan Kau Hsing bertemu Ike Mese lagi dan ditentukan, bersama dengan para pemimpin lain, bahwa setengah tentara harus dikirim ke darat dan setengah lainnya proceeed pada saat yang sama di pi-ships.Shih pergi melalui laut ke mulut sungai Sugalu (Sedayu) dan dari sana ke sungai kecil Pa-tsieh (Kali Mas) . Di sisi lain Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese memimpin sisa pasukan, cavalary sedang dan infanteri, dan berbaris dari tsuh Tu-ping-darat (Tuban), salah satu Komandan Sepuluh Ribu memimpin officiers unggul vanguard.Three dikirim di kapal cepat dari Sugalu (Sedayu), dengan perintah untuk pergi dulu ke jembatan mengambang Majapahit dan kemudian bergabung kembali tentara dalam perjalanan ke sungai Pa tsueh kecil (Kali Mas).

Para petugas dari Kantor Pacifications segera melaporkan bahwa anak-dalam-hukum pangeran Jawa, yang disebut Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya) ingin membuat negaranya submit, tetapi karena ia tidak bisa meninggalkan pasukannya, orxder diberikan kepada tiga petugas untuk pergi dan membawa perdana menteri nya ch’aya Sih-la-nan-da dan empat belas orang lain, yang ingin datang dan menerima tentara Kaisar.

Pada hari 1 bulan ke-3, pasukan berkumpul di sungai Pa kecil-Tsieh (Kali Mas). Sungai ini telah di udik nya istana raja Tumapan (Tumapel) dan disxcharged dirinya ke laut yang disebut Pou-pa’n (laut Selatan Madura), adalah pintu masuk ke Jawa dan tempat yang mereka bertekad untuk melawan. Oleh menteri pertama dari kuan, Jawa Hi-ning-, tetap dalam sebuah perahu untuk melihat bagaimana peluang untuk melawan pergi, dia Ewas memanggil berulang kali, tapi tidak akan menyerah.

Para komandan tentara kerajaan (Tartar ) membuatbuat sebuah kamp dalam bentuk bulan sabit di tepi sungai dan meninggalkan feri memimpin sebuah komandan  Sepuluh Ribu, armada di sungai dan cavalary dan Infanteri di pantai kemudian maju bersama dan Hining-kuan melihat ini, meninggalkan perahu dan melarikan diri dimana semalam lebih dari seratus kapal-kapal besar, dengan kepala-setan   tertangkap.

 Diperintah agar menyusun  kekuatan yang kuat untuk menjaga muara sungai Pa-Tsieh (Klai Mas) dan Badan pasukan  tentara kemudian maju.

Utusan yang  berasal dari Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya), mengatakan bahwa Raja Kalang telah mengejarnya sejauh Majapahit dan meminta pasukan untuk rpotect dia, Ike Mese dan salah satu letnannya bergegas kepadanya, dalam rangka untuk mendorong dia dan petugas lain diikuti dengan tubuh pasukan untuk Chnag-ku, dengan tujuan untuk membantu mereka. Kau Hsing maju ke Majapahit, tapi mendengar bahwa itu tidak diketahui apakah prajurit Kalang jauh atau dekat, jadi ia kembali ke sungai tsueh Pe-(Kalia Mas), akhirnya ia mendapat informasi dari Ike Mese bahwa musuh akan tiba malam itu dan diperintahkan untuk kembali ke Majapait.

Pada hari ke-7 tentara Kalang tiba dari tiga sisi untuk menyerang Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan pada hari ke-8, pagi-pagi, Ike Mese parert memimpin pasukan untuk terlibat musuh di selatan-timur dan membunuh beberapa ratusan dari mereka, sementara sisanya lari ke mountains.Towards tengah hari musuh datang juga dari barat-Selatan, Kau Hsing bertemu mereka lagi dan menjelang malam mereka kalah.

Pada tanggal 15 tentara dibagi menjadi tiga badan, dalam rangka untuk menyerang Kalang, disepakati bahwa pada hari ke-19 mereka harus bertemu di Taha (Daha) dan memulai pertempuran di mendengar suara p’au tersebut. Terlepas dari pasukan naik sungai, Ike Mese berjalan dengan jalan eastren dan Kau Hsing mengambil westren itu, sementara Raden Wijaya dengan tentara membawa Facebook rear.On yang ke-19 mereka tiba di Taha mana pangeran dari Kalang membela diri dengan lebih kemudian seorang tentara seratus ribu. Pertempuran berlangsung dari 6 pagi sampai 14:00 dan tiga kali diperbaharui menyerang, ketika musuh dikalahkan dan flef, beberapa ribu memadati ke sungai dan tewas di sana, sedangkan lebih dari 5000 telah disembelih, Raja beristirahat   ke dalam kota, yang segera dikelilingi oleh tentara kita dan raja dipanggil untuk menyerah, pada malam hari raja yang bernama Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang) keluar dari benteng dan menawarkan penyampaian nya, atas perintah kaisar yang dikirim ke dia dan dia diberitahu untuk kembali.

Pada hari ke-2 bulan Tuahn ke Piajaya (Raden Wijaya) dikirim kembali ke kerajaan-nya dalam rangka untuk membuat persiapan untuk mengirim upeti, dua perwira dan 200 prajurit pergi dengan dia sebagai pendamping. Pada Pijaya Tuhan 19 diam-diam meninggalkan tentara kita dan menyerang mereka dengan yang eto seluruh partai cam kesedihan.

Pada hari ke  24 tentara kembali, mengambil isteri  dengan  anak-anak dan petugas Haji katang (Jayakatong), sama sekali lebih dari seratus orang, mereka membawa juga peta negara, register penduduk dan surat dalam tulisan emas disajikan oleh raja.

In the second month of the year 1292 , the emperor issued an order to governor of Fu-kien, directing him to send Shi-pi,Ike Mase and Kau Hsing in command of an army to subdue Java, to collect soldiers from Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang to the number of 20000, to appoint a Commander of the right Wing and one of the Left, as well as Four Commander of Ten Thousand, to send out a thousand ships and to equip them with provisions for a year and with forty thousand bars of Silver.

The emperor futher gave ten tiger badges,forty golden badges and a hundred silver badges together with a hundred piece of silk,embroidered with gold , for purpose of rewarding merit.

When Ike Mese and his associetes had their last audience, the emperor said to them :” When you arrive at Java you must clearly proclaim to the army and the people of that country, that the Imperial Government has formerly had intercouse with Java by envoys from both sides and has been in good harmony with it,but that they have lately cut the face of the Imperial envoy Me’ng Ch’i  and that you have come to punish them for that”

In the ninth month some troops were collected at Chingyuan (old name of Ning Po) ,Shi-pi and Ike Mese went with the soldiers overland to Chuan-chou(Tjiang Tjioe),whilst Kau Hsing brought the baggage with ships. In the course of the 11th month the troops from the three province of Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang were all assembled at Chuan-Chou and in the next month the expeditions put to the sea. In the first month of the year 1293 they arrived at the island Ko’-lan (Billiton) and there deliberated on their plan of campaign.

In the second month Ike Mese and one of his subordinate commanders taking with them their secretaries and accompanied by three officers of the Office of Pacification, who were charged to treat wirth Java and the other countrtries, and by a Commanders of Ten Thousand, who led 500 men and 10 ships , went first in order to bring the commandands of the Emperor to this country. The body of the army followed to Karimon(Karimon Java) and from here to a place on Java called Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban) where Shi-pi and Kau Hsing met Ike Mese again and determined, together with the other leaders,that half the army should be sent ashore and the other half proceeed at the same time in the ships.Shih-pi went by sea to the mouth of the river Sugalu(Sedayu) and from there to the small river Pa-tsieh(Kali Mas). On the other hand Kau Hsing and Ike Mese led the rest of the troops,being cavalary and infantry, and marched from Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban)  overland, one of the Commanders of Ten Thousand leading the vanguard.Three superior officiers were sent in fast boats from Sugalu(Sedayu) , with the order to go first to the floating bridge of Majapahit and then to rejoin the army on its way to the small river Pa-tsueh(Kali Mas) .

The officers of the Office of Pacifications soon reported that the son-in-law of the prince of Java,called Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) wished to make his country submit,but as he could not leave his army, orxder was given to three officers to go and bring his prime minister Sih-la-nan-da ch’aya and fourteen others ,who wanted to come and recieve the army of the Emperor.

On the 1st day of the 3rd month,the troops were assembled at the small river Pa-Tsieh(Kali Mas) . This river has at its upper course the palace of the king of Tumapan(Tumapel) and disxcharged itself into the sea called Pou-pa’n (the sea South of Madura),it is the entrance to Java and a place for which they were determined to fight. Accordingly the first minister of the Javanese ,Hi-ning-kuan, remained in a boat to see how the chances to the fight went, he ewas summoned repeatedly, but would not surrender.

The commanders of the Imperial army made a camp in the form of a crescent on the bank of the river and left the ferry in charge of a Commnder of Ten Thousand, the fleet in the river and the cavalary and Infantry on shore then advanced together and Hining-kuan seeing this, left his boat and fled overnight whereupon more that a hundred large ships,with devil-heads on the stem were captured.

Order was now given tp a strong force to guard the  mouth of the river Pa-Tsieh(Klai Mas)  and the body of the army then advanced.

Messengers came from Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) , telling that the King of Kalang had pursued him as far as Majapahit and asking for troops to rpotect him, Ike Mese and one of his lieutenants hastened to him, in order to encourage him and another officer followed with a body of troops to Chnag-ku, for the purpose of assisting them. Kau Hsing advanced to Majapahit, but heard that it was not known whether the soldiers of Kalang were far or near, so he went back to the river Pe-tsueh(Kalia Mas) , at last he got information from Ike Mese that the enemy would arrive that night and was ordered to again to Majapait.

On the 7th day the soldiers of Kalang arrived from three sides to attack Tuan Pijaya(Raden wijaya) and on the 8th day, early in the morning, Ike Mese led parert of the troops to engage the enemy in the south-east and killed several hundreds of them ,whilst the remainder fled to the mountains.Towards the middle of the day the enemy arrived also from the South-west,Kau Hsing met them again and towards evening they were defeated.

On the 15th the army was divided into three bodies, in order to attack Kalang, it was agreed that on the 19th day they should meet at Taha(Daha) and commence the battle on hearing the sound of the p’au. Apart of the the troops ascended the river,Ike Mese proceeded by the eastren road and Kau Hsing took the westren,whilst Raden Wijaya with his army brought up the rear.On the 19th they arrived at Taha where the prince of Kalang defended himself with more then a hundred thousand  soldier. The battle lasted from 6 AM till 2 PM and three times the attacked was renewed,when the enemy was defeated and flef, several thousand thronged  into the river and perished there,whilst more than 5000 were slain,The King retired into the inner city,which was immediately surrounded by our army and the king summoned to surrender, in the evening the king whose name was Haji Katang(Jayakatong or jayakatwang) came out of the fortress and offered his submission, on the orders of the emperor were delivered to him and he was told to go back.

On the 2nd day of the  th month Tuahn Piajaya(Raden Wijaya) was sent back to his dominions in order to make preparation for sending tribute, two officers and 200 soldiers went with him as an escort. On the 19th Tuhan Pijaya secretly left our soldier and attacked them by which the whole party cam eto a grief.

On the 24th the army went back,taking with it the children and officers of Haji Katang(Jayakatong), altogether more than a hundred persons, they brought also a map of the country, aregister of the population and a letter in golden characters presented by the king.

 (b)Account of Shi-pi.History of Yuan Dynasty book 162

Pada saat itu Jawa dilakukan pada perseteruan lama dengan negara tetangga Kalang, dan raja Jawa, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la (Kertanegara) nbeen telah dibunuh oleh para pangeran dari Kalang haji disebut katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang ), Anak-in-hukum mantan Tuan Raja Pijaya (Wijaya raden) telah menyerang Haji katang, tapi tidak bisa mengatasinya, ia telah Majapahit sehingga retiredento dan ketika ia mendengar bahwa Shi-pi dengan pasukannya telah tiba, ia mengirim utusan dengan sebuah akun sungai dan xeaports dan peta dari negara Kalang (Kediri), menawarkan submisssion dan meminta bantuan.

Shi-pi kemudian maju dengan seluruh pasukannya, menyerang tentara Kalang dan diarahkan sepenuhnya, di mana Haji katang melarikan diri kembali ke dominons nya. Kau Hsing sekarang berkata: “Meskipun Java telah menyampaikan, masih jika keputusan bertobat dan bersatu dengan Kalang, armynmight kami berada dalam posisi yang sangat sulit dan kita tidak tahu apa yang mungkin terjadi” Shi-pi kemudian membagi pasukannya menjadi tiga bagian. , himsels, Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese mendarat divisi masing-masing dan berbaris untuk menyerang Kalang. Ketika mereka tiba di kota berbenteng Daha, lebih dari seratus ribu prajurit dari Kalang datang foward untuk menahan mereka. Mereka berjuang dari pagi sampai tengah hari, ketika tentara Kalang itu dialihkan dan pensiun ke kota untuk menyelamatkan dirinya sendiri. Tentara Cina mengepung kota dan segera Haji katang datang foward untuk menawarkan pengiriman, istrinya, anak-anaknya dan petugas diambil ny para pemenang yang kemudian kembali.

Tuah n Pijaya (raden wijaya) meminta izin untuk kembali ke negaranya untuk mempersiapkan surat baru diserahkan kepada Kaisar hinese dan untuk mengambil barang berharga miliknya untuk mengirimkan mereka ke pengadilan. Shi-pi dan Ike Mese setuju untuk ini dan mengirim dua perwira dengan 200 laki-laki untuk pergi dengan him.Tuahan Pijaya membunuh dua petugas di perjalanan dan memberontak lagi, setelah itu ia penarikan diri dari keadaan yang wasreturming yhe tentara, untuk menyerang dari kedua sisi. Shi-pi berada di belakang dan terputus dari seluruh tentara, ia terpaksa berjuang jalan untuk 300 li (km) sebelum ia tiba di kapal, akhirnya ia memulai lagi dan mencapai Chuan-chou setelah suatu perjalanan 68 hari. Dari tentara yang lebih dari 3000 orang telah meninggal. perwira kaisar membuat daftar berharga, dupa, perfumeries, textureds, dll yang ia membawa dan menemukan mereka bernilai lebih dari 500.000 tail perak. Dia juga dibawa ke huruf di cgaracters emas dari negara Muli (atau Buli) dengan barang emas dan perak, badak-tanduk, gading, dan hal lainnya. Untuk lebih khusus lihat artikel tentang Kau Hsing dan di Jawa.

Pada rekening-nya telah kehilangan begitu banyak pria, kaisar memerintahkan Shi-pi untuk menerima enam belas kali  cambukan dan menyita sepertiga dari hartanya.Pada tahun 1295, ia dibesarkan lagi ke kantor dan peringatan telah disampaikan kepada Kaisar, menunjukkan bahwa Shi-pi dan gelar yang terkait telah pergi ke laut untuk jarak 25.000 li, telah memimpin pasukan ke negara-negara yang belum pernah dicapai dalam berlangsung memerintah, telah memikat seorang raja dan kagum menjadi tunduk negara-negara tetangga yang lebih kecil, dan bahwa , untuk alasan ini, rahmat harus ditampilkan untuk him.TKaisar  kemudian memulihkian  kembali barang-barangnya yang telah disita dan meningkatkan kariernya  secara bertahap ke peringkat tertinggi, sampai ia meninggal pada usia 86 tahun.

 

At that time Java carried on an old feud with the neighbouring country Kalang, and the king of Java, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la(Kertanegara) had already nbeen killed by the prince of Kalang called haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jayakatwang) , The son-in-law of the former King Tuan Pijaya(raden Wijaya)  had attacked Haji Katang, but could not overcome him, he had therefore retiredento Majapahit and when he heard that Shi-pi with his army had  arrived, he sent envoy with an account of his rivers and xeaports and a map of the country Kalang(kediri) , offering his submisssion and asking for assistance.

Shi-pi then advanced with all his forces, attacked the army of Kalang and routed it completely, on which Haji Katang fled back to his dominons. Kau Hsing now said:” Though Java has submitted, still if it repents its decision and unites with Kalang , our armynmight be in a very difficult position and we do not know what might happen”.Shi-pi therefore divided his army into three parts, himsels,Kau Hsing and Ike  Mese  each landing a division and marched to attack Kalang. When they arrived at the fortified town Daha, more than a hundred thousand soldier of Kalang came foward to withstand them. They fought from morning till noon, when the army of Kalang was routed and retired into town to save itself. The Chinese army surrounded the town and soon Haji Katang came foward to offer his submission, his wife,his children and officer were taken ny the victors who then back.

Tuan Pijaya(raden wijaya) asked permission to return to his country in order to prepare a new letter of submission  to the chinese Emperor and to take the precious articles in his possession for sending them to court. Shi-pi and Ike Mese consented to this and sent two officers with 200 men to go with him.Tuahan Pijaya killed the two officers on the way and revolted again, after which he availed himself of the circumstance that yhe army wasreturming, to attack it from both sides. Shi-pi was behind and was cut off from the rest of the army, he was obliged to fight his way for 300 li(km)  before he arrived at the ship, at last he embarked again and reached Chuan-chou after a voyage of 68 days.  Of his soldiers more than 3000 men has died. The emperor’s officers made a list of the valuable, incenses,perfumeries,textureds,etc which he brought and found them worth more than 500.000 taels of silver. He also brought to the letter in golden cgaracters from the country Muli(or Buli) with golden and silver articles,rhinoceros -horns , ivory,and other thing. For more particular see the articles on Kau Hsing and on Java.

On account of his having lost so many men, the emperor ordered Shi-pi to recieve seventeen lashes and confiscated a third of his property.In the year 1295 , he was raised again to office and a memorial was presented to the Emperor , pointing out that Shi-pi and his associated  had gone over the sea to a distance of 25.000 li , had led the army to countries which had never been reached in the lasts reigns,had captivated a king and awed into submission the neighbouring smaller countries, and that,for these reasons , mercy should be shown to him.The emepror then restored his goods which has been confiscated and reised him gradually to the highest ranks,until he died at the age of 86 years. 

(c)Account of Kau Hsing.History of the Yuan dynasty book 162

Kau Hsing styled Kung-chi was a man from Ts’ai-chou. When he returned of the fortified town Daha(Taha) , Shi-pi and Ike Mese had already allowed tuhan pijaya(raden Wijaya to go back to his country, but Kau Hsing had taken no part  in this decision, after killef Haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jaya Katwang)  and his son , he return to China.

By on imperial decree  Kau Hsing  rewarde by emperor with 50 tael of gold, he didbnot punished like Shi-pi and Ike Messse because he had taken no part in the decision to allow Tuhan Pijaya (Raden wijaya)  to go back to his own country.

Kau Hsing gaya Kung-chi adalah seorang manusia dari Ts’ai-chou. Ketika ia kembali dari kota dibenteng Daha (Taha), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese sudah mengizinkan Tuhan pijaya (raden Wijaya untuk kembali ke negaranya(keputusan keliru karena raden wijaya meniounya dan membunuh pengawal dari tentara Tartar serta menyerang pasukan Kublaikan yang menimbulkan banyak korban-Dr Iwan)) , tetapi Kau Hsing tidak  ambil bagian dalam keputusan ini, setelah  Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jaya Katwang) dan anaknya dibunuh , ia kembali ke Cina.

Oleh pada dekrit kaisar Kau Hsing dihargai oleh kaisar dengan 50 tael emas, ia tidak bicara dihukum seperti Shi-pi dan Ike Messse karena ia tidak ambil bagian dalam keputusan untuk mengizinkan Tuhan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan setelah selesai bertugas kembali ke tanah airnya .

(d) Account of Ike Mese.History of the Yuan dynasty book 131.

Ike mese was a man from the land of Uigurs.

Ike Messe and Shih-pi had allowed Tuan Pijaya(Raden Wijaya) to go back to his country after returned at the fortified towb Taha(Daha), the wrong decision which made many Kublaikan Soldier died, the empror of china punished him.It became Raden wijaya turn to pay for the srvices which the Mongol army had rendered him , as however, his opponent was dead and the force of his country broken, he did not require these services any more and sought to avoid  his obligations. He therefor pretexted that he had to go back to his capital  i n oder to prepare adequate present for teh  Emperor andthat was why he was aloowed  to depart for this propose , escorted by few Chinese troops. On his way he trew  of the mask. The Chines escort was treacherously massacred and he at once began hostilities against his former allied. By rthis time the Mongol generals had found out how difficult it was to carry on war in these parts, they did not think it advisable to begin a new struggle and taking with them the more important prisoners from Daha and whatever treasure they could collectt, they retunred to their ships and left the island after a stay of about four month,(In Indonesian information that some of the chinese soldier didnot want to beack home because thay afraid to punished by the emperor, and they landed at West Borneo, near Kupang City, at Pawan River, because we found some imperiar Yuan Ceramic here ,may be they stay there, and also teh Majapahit statue also found there  , Buddhist eathenware -gerabah there may be bring by the Majapahit sldiers and Gnenarals or prince, this fact mus be search more -Dr Iwan) 

In the year 1265 he entered the office of the night guard. In the year of 1272 he was s ent by the Emperor across the sea  as an envoy to the kingdom Pa-lo-pei, he come back in 1274 bringing with him people of this country,who carried precious articles and a letter of tribute. The emperor praised him and gave him a golden tiger badge. In the year 1275 he went again to some country and brought back a functionary who offered a famous medicine to the emperor on this occasion he got again most valuable present. In 1277 he became a vice president of the board of war,in 1261 Resident of King-hu and Champa, in 1284  he was sent as envoy to Ceylon, In 1285 after came back from Ceylon he was appointent as resident at the court of the king of Chin-nan. In 1281 he was sent to the kingdom of Mapar, next in 1292  he was appointed as the gouvernor of Chang-Chou which therte he made the army for Fukien with Ike Mese and Kau Hsing  got the command with him.

Ike mese  adalah seorang jendral Mongol yang berasal  dari tanah Uigurs.

Ike Messe dan Shih-pi telah membiarkan Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) untuk kembali ke negaranya setelah kembali di towb yang Taha diperkaya (Daha), keputusan yang salah yang membuat banyak Kublaikan Soldier meninggal, empror dari him.It cina dihukum menjadi Raden wijaya gilirannya untuk membayar srvices yang tentara Mongol telah diberikan kepadanya, seperti Namun, lawannya telah mati dan kekuatan negaranya rusak, ia tidak memerlukan layanan ini lagi dan berusaha untuk menghindari kewajibannya. Dia penyemprot pretexted bahwa ia harus kembali ke ibukota di oder untuk mempersiapkan persembahan, hal ini cukup alsan mengapa  para jendral Tartar   memberi  ia izinkan untuk berangkat , dikawal oleh pasukan Cina sedikit. Dalam perjalanan ia Trew dari topeng. Pengawalan Chines adalah setia dibantai dan ia sekaligus memulai permusuhan terhadap mantan nya bersekutu. Pada saat rthis para jenderal Mongol telah mengetahui betapa sulitnya untuk melakukan perang di daerah ini, mereka tidak berpikir itu dianjurkan untuk memulai sebuah perjuangan baru dan mengambil dengan mereka para tahanan lebih penting dari Daha dan apa saja harta mereka bisa collectt, mereka retunred untuk kapal mereka dan meninggalkan pulau itu setelah tinggal sekitar empat bulan, (Dalam informasi Indonesia yang beberapa didnot prajurit cina ingin beack Thay rumah karena takut dihukum oleh kaisar, dan mereka mendarat di Kalimantan Barat, dekat Kota Kupang , di Sungai Pawan, karena kami menemukan beberapa imperiar Yuan Keramik di sini, mungkin mereka tinggal di sana, dan juga patung Majapahit juga ditemukan di sana, Buddha eathenware-gerabah mungkin ada membawa oleh sldiers Majapahit dan Gnenarals atau pangeran, fakta ini akan mus pencarian yang lebih-Dr Iwan)

Pada tahun 1265 ia masuk kantor penjaga malam. Pada tahun 1272 ia dikirim oleh Kaisar melintasi laut sebagai utusan ke kerajaan Pa-pei-lo, dia datang kembali pada tahun 1274 membawa bersamanya rakyat negeri ini, yang membawa barang berharga dan surat upeti. Kaisar memuji dia dan memberinya lencana emas harimau. Pada tahun 1275 ia pergi lagi ke beberapa negara dan membawa kembali pejabat yang menawarkan obat terkenal untuk kaisar pada kesempatan ini dia kembali hadir paling berharga. Pada 1277 ia menjadi wakil presiden dewan perang, dalam 1261 Resident Raja-hu dan Champa, pada 1284 ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Sri Lanka, Pada 1285 setelah kembali dari Ceylon ia appointent sebagai penduduk di pelataran raja Chin-nan. Pada 1281 ia dikirim ke kerajaan Mapar, berikutnya pada tahun 1292 ia ditunjuk sebagai gouvernor Chang-Chou yang therte ia membuat tentara untuk Fukien dengan Ike Mese dan Kau Hsing mendapat perintah dengan dia.

 
 

2.Raden wjaya founded Majapahit Kingdom.

1.In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana

Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

2.At saka year 1297, within months Asjwina, on a good day when a full moon, then arrange the powers of government This is the end rakawi which made  people happy under the Majesty (Deca Wardana Prapanca). So in this paradise region tersebutlah the land (Deca)and the  King (narendra), powers that be happy (kadigwijayan) (Dr. iwan notes:the government of the People’s welfare by government sources that are true and correct in compliance with the terms of a complete political organizations, such as praised in the phrase “iti Negarakrtagama Samapta, contains the history of greatness or grandeur Majapahit state)

Pada tahun saka 1297 ,dalam bulan Asjwina,pada hari baik waktu bulan purnama penuh ,maka tamatlah rakawi mengarangkan kekuasaan pemerintah  membahagiakan rakyat dibawah sang prabu (deca wardana prapanca).Maka dalam surga ini tersebutlah anazir daerah tanah(deca) raja(narendra) ,kekuasaan yang berbahagia (kadigwijayan) (catatn Dr iwan: pelaksaaan pemerintahan atas Rakyat  yang sumber sejahtera oleh pemerintah yang benar dan betul tersebut telah memenuhi dengan  lengkaplah syarat-syarat suatu organisasi politik, seperti dipujikan dalam kalimat “iti Negarakertagama samapta ,berisi sejarah kebesaran atau kemegahan negara Majapahit)

1294

(1) Majapahit Faced Challenges

1.The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14]

Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14].

 

Rangalawe Story(Kisah Rangalawe)

(1)Pinten Ing Warsa kaduemanggalan in rat

This is the second part of the first sharp double kidung gesecheiden and the reader in a completely different environmentally moved. Wiajaya the battlefields of the Krtarajasa of the audience hall became combative and companions have become fashionable empire great. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikara and Lawe-Nagara Amanca of Tuban and Adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja was ready with its preparatory maatragelen come quantile with his troops and with all its seams to Majapahit, Wijaya took himself off in Wirasabha. On the first sitting following Wiraraja audience of the outcome of his efforts to the Emperor of China. He was just so brutal it was the two princesses of Tumapel, who were renowned for her beauty, to offer, which the Chinese had promised to Waicakha Java will come, no deer came out so nicely with Wijaya’s plans. Lawe suggested the army in two groups divide, the one group would be along the northern route go up on the highway, through Linggasana, the other along along the southern route, via Singasari, Siddhabhawana and Lawor, on the same road so, Kebo-Mundarang at the time that had followed. The two groups would meet again Barebeg then take (?). Wiraraja could unite with this plan. Wijaya entrusted Wiraraja in command of the Northern Army and asked him also oderweg messengers to send to the coast to the Chieesen upon their arrival in luicten about the situation, to Wiraraja he added the Majapahitsche mantri’s Jagawastra, Wirasanta, Sura-Sampana and Rara -Sindura. Since Rent Egen, the twins (Singhanuwuk and Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro and Parijata under command of Wijaya the Southern Army Command honor Zoo was agreed and so pass also when to Jaya-Katong message was that he Wijayas and Wiraraja attacked, he called dadelilk his native male’s meeting with them to discuss what to do stand.De King was really the case, shy and under his mantri’s deigde it a twist to come, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh the blame for everything Sagara-Winotan gave, which had provided false information about Majapahit and thereby betrayed had committed against the Koning.Winotan bleediging not let himself this pleasure and drew his sword, but the king knew them came sussen.Plotseling akuwu of Tuban make his debut and he brought the Bricht that Chineesenche Emperor, Taru-Laksana, had arrived with a great army, which has already landed a part in Dataran wqas, and it was rumored that he had come at the instigation of wijatya and Wiraraja. The troops were landed along the coast and had to blaze destroyed Tuban, whose inhabitants had fled in fear, Jaya-Katong realized that there was not postponed worden.Hij Dahasche army he divided into three sections: a Northern Front, with Mahisantaka Bowong to senapati and a Southern Front, Kebo-Mundarang with Pangelet to senapati, or they had to fight. against the Chinese. Wiraraja and Wijaya. Soon the troops marched out, unfavorable omens foretold Jaya Katong-certain defeat (VII 0.18 to 38) 

Ini adalah bagian kedua dari dua kidung yang tajam dan pembaca di lingkungan bergerak geheeel lain. Medan perang Wijaya  dari Krtarajasa dari balairung menjadi agresif dan sahabat telah menjadi kerajaan besar modis. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikara dan Lawe-Nagara Amanca Tuban dan Adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja sudah siap dengan persiapan maatragelen berasal kuantil bersama pasukannya dan dengan semua lapisan untuk Majapahit, Wijaya membawa dirinya pergi di Wirasabha. Pada penonton duduk pertama Wiraraja berikut hasil usahanya untuk Kaisar Cina. Dia begitu brutal dia telah Tumapel dua putri, yang terkenal karena kecantikannya, untuk menawarkan, yang Cina telah berjanji untuk Waicakha Java akan datang, tidak ada rusa keluar begitu baik dengan rencana Wijaya. Lawe menyarankan tentara membagi dalam dua kelompok, satu kelompok akan sepanjang jalur utara naik di jalan raya, melalui Linggasana, yang lain sepanjang sepanjang rute selatan, melalui Singasari, Siddhabhawana dan Lawor, di jalan yang sama begitu, Kebo-Mundarang pada waktu yang telah diikuti. Kedua kelompok akan bertemu lagi Barebeg kemudian mengambil (?). Wiraraja bisa bersatu dengan rencana ini. Wijaya dipercayakan Wiraraja dalam komando Angkatan Darat Utara dan menanyakan juga oderweg utusan untuk dikirim ke pantai ke Chieesen pada saat kedatangan mereka di luicten tentang situasi, untuk Wiraraja ia menambahkan Jagawastra, Wirasanta, mantri Majapahitsche’s Sura-Sampana dan Rara -Sindura. Sejak Sewa Egen, si kembar (Singhanuwuk dan Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro dan Parijata bawah komando Wijaya Angkatan Darat kehormatan Komando Selatan Zoo disepakati dan begitu lulus juga saat pesan Jaya-Katong adalah bahwa dia Wijayas dan Wiraraja menyerang, ia memanggil dadelilk pertemuan laki-laki asli-nya dengan mereka untuk membahas apa yang harus dilakukan Raja stand.De benar-benar kasus, pemalu dan di bawah deigde mantri nya itu twist untuk datang, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh menyalahkan untuk segalanya Sagara-Winotan memberi, yang telah memberikan informasi palsu tentang Majapahit dan dengan demikian mengkhianati telah melakukan terhadap bleediging Koning.Winotan tidak membiarkan dirinya kesenangan ini dan menghunus pedangnya, tetapi raja itu tahu mereka datang sussen.Plotseling akuwu Tuban membuat debutnya dan dia membawa Bricht yang Chineesenche Kaisar, Taru-Laksana, telah tiba dengan pasukan besar, yang sudah mendarat bagian dalam wqas Dataran, dan itu desas-desus bahwa dia datang atas prakarsa wijatya dan Wiraraja. Pasukan yang mendarat di sepanjang pantai dan harus nyala hancur Tuban, yang penduduknya telah melarikan diri dalam ketakutan, Jaya-Katong menyadari bahwa tidak ada tentara ditunda worden.Hij Dahasche ia dibagi menjadi tiga bagian: sebuah Front Utara, dengan Mahisantaka Bowong untuk Senapati dan Front Selatan, Kebo-Mundarang dengan Pangelet untuk Senapati, atau mereka harus berjuang. terhadap orang Cina. Wiraraja dan Wijaya. Segera pasukan berbaris keluar, pertanda kurang baik menubuatkan kekalahan Jaya Katong-tertentu (VII ,18-38)

 
and very comprehensive report giving an Strid is a habit of kidungdichter, which we will follow at least not since. gevecten of a mass hero against hero described, of which only a few our particular attention. So being told that Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya that at the time of his flight from Tumapel injured in Pandakan hat left, now back on the srijdtooneel appeared, with the village chief and his son Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. it was a waste of time for Mother Nature to Gajah-Pagon in the heart of the wilderness back to kanappen, because soon after his comeback joyeuse he was a heroic battle with many opponents afgemaaks. Having Pang was slain by nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-by-Mahisa Wagal. Sora had a very bad moment in a fight and Mundarang Drawalika together, but finally wewrd Mundarang but to flee. This all happened on the South Front, where the army Dahasche ba Mandurang’s flight was utterly defeated. Also on the Osstelijk front achieved the Allies victory after a span fiery battle between Lawe and Sagara-Winotan which Lawe his horse Anda-Wesi on Winotan’s car jumped and finally Winotan on the bank of his own car had slain him so toonend, whatever Madhureezen do konden.terwijl so too the Dahasche army was defeated and the Tropic of Wiajaya and Wiarraja were able to unite, put Kebo-Mundareang, due meanwhile back mantri and troops gathered around and had to the North Front pulled was, standing there, the Javanese and Chinese fearsome losses. When the Majapahit mantris, here’s defeated, it was worthless Chinese people on foot, and it soon began to withdraw. The Chinese leaders were patih’s Jana Pati and Taru-Janaka, are held with some Javaneb, Dahasche the attack the troops, which Katong self-Jaya participated very actively against. In the ensuing battles killed the Chineeche patih and the Javanese mantri’s, so that finally the king of Daha against the Emperor of China came to stand. The outcome of this struggle was that Jaya-Katong was seized and that the Emperor ordered him imprisoned for the time being, he wanted him to surrender and then Wiraraja time for his reward, the two princesses Tumapellsche, vragen.Ook Patih Mundarang had to be at finally give up the struggle, he fled and was chased by Sora in the gorge (or on the plain) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang asked for their lives and promised his daughter, Sora, but Sora did not doodle ham and entreated, That was In the battle geendigd Wijaya’s advantage (VII 35-111)

 
  
dan laporan yang sangat komprehensif memberikan Strid adalah kebiasaan kidungdichter, yang kita akan mengikuti paling tidak sejak. gevecten seorang pahlawan massa terhadap pahlawan dijelaskan, yang hanya beberapa perhatian khusus kami. Jadi diberitahu bahwa Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya bahwa pada saat terbang dari Tumapel terluka di topi Pandakan kiri, sekarang kembali pada srijdtooneel muncul, dengan kepala desa dan putranya Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. itu buang-buang waktu untuk Ibu Alam untuk Gajah-Pagon di jantung padang gurun kembali ke kanappen, karena segera setelah joyeuse comeback ia adalah pertempuran heroik dengan afgemaaks banyak lawan. Memiliki Pang dibunuh oleh Nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-oleh-Mahisa Wagal. Sora sempat sangat buruk dalam perkelahian dan Mundarang Drawalika bersama-sama, tapi akhirnya  melarikan diri ke Mandurang . Ini semua terjadi di Front Selatan, di mana tentara Daha benar-benar dikalahkan saat  melarikan diri   ke Mandurang . Juga pada bagian depan sekutu  mencapai kemenangan  setelah pertempuran span berapi-api antara Lawe dan Sagara-Winotan yang Lawe kudanya Andari-Wesi di kendaraan  Winotan melonjak dan akhirnya Winotan di tepi kendaraan  sendiri telah membunuh begitu toonend, apapun orang Madura melakukan  demikian juga sehingga  tentara Daha  dikalahkan dan  Wiajaya dan Wiraraja mampu bersatu, menempatkan Kebo-Mundareang, sedangkan pasukan kembali mantri dan karena berkumpul sekitar dan harus Front menarik Utara itu, berdiri di sana, kerugian yang menakutkan Jawa dan Cina. Ketika mantris Majapahit, inilah dikalahkan, itu adalah orang Tionghoa berharga dengan berjalan kaki, dan segera mulai menarik. Para pemimpin Cina patih’s Jana Pati dan Taru-Janaka, diadakan dengan beberapa Javaneb, serangan pasukan daha ,Partisipasi  perlawanan Jaya Katong sendiri  sangat aktif . Dalam pertempuran berikutnya membunuh patihTionghoa  dan mantri Jawa, sehingga akhirnya raja Daha terhadap Kaisar Cina datang untuk berdiri. Hasil dari perjuangan ini adalah bahwa Jaya-Katong ditangkap dan bahwa Kaisar memerintahkan dia dipenjarakan untuk sementara waktu, ia ingin dia untuk menyerah dan kemudian waktu Wiraraja untuk upahnya diminta  dua putri Tumapel , kendatipun  Akhirnyna Pejuang Patih Mundarang  harus  menyerah , ia melarikan diri dan dikejar oleh Sora di ngarai (atau di dataran) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang meminta kehidupan mereka dan berjanji menyerahkan putrinya Sora, namun Sora tidak setuju dengan permohonan  Itu , Dalam pertempuran geendigd keunggulan Wijaya (VII 35-111)
 
In the himself  time was around the time of the Service Master troops that were sent earlier to the Nusantara, who had been successful, and brought Grost treasures, testimonials of vanquished princes, returned home. Their leader was given the title name Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki and other mantri’s. omderscheiden who had been elevated in rank and otherwise rewarded. Of the two princesses, who came along to Majapahit, married the eldest, Jinggå-dara, with a dewa, tewrwijl the youngest-Dara Petak, the third wife of Wijaya was Wiraraja not returned back to Madura, he established itself in Tuban and given the name Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama was gehuidig ​​as monarch and his kingdom was blessed by the priests, he was a prince wereldbeheerschend, spared by the Nusantara (VII, 147-155)

 
Dalam Dirinya sendiri  saat itu sekitar waktu pasukan Pelayan Pemimpin  yang dikirim sebelumnya ke Nusantara, yang telah berhasil, dan membawa banyak harta , testimonial para pangeran kalah,  kembali ke rumah. Pemimpin mereka diberi judul nama Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki dan lainnya mantri’s. omderscheiden yang telah meningkat pada peringkat dan sebaliknya dihargai. Dari dua putri, yang datang ke Majapahit, menikah, tertua Jingga-dara, dengan dewa yang, tewrwijl para-bungsu Dara Petak, istri ketiga Wijaya Wiraraja tidak kembali ke Madura, ia mendirikan sendiri di Tuban dan diberi nama Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama adalah gehuidig ​​sebagai raja dan kerajaannya diberkati oleh imam, ia adalah seorang wereldbeheerschend pangeran, terhindar oleh Nusantara (VII, 147-155)

 

(2) RANGGA LAWE

Ing Ing Pinte’n Warsa Kadurmangallan Rat. With these words, the second part of the double kidung focus of the first separated and d elezer moved in an entirely different environment. The Wijaya of the battlefields, the Krtarajasa of the audience hall now, and the difficult struggle for dignified companions werworden great empire. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikare and Lawe-Nagara amnfica of Ruban and adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII 165-169)

Ing Ing Pinte’n Tikus Warsa Kadurmangallan. Dengan kata-kata ini, bagian kedua dari fokus kidung ganda pertama dipisahkan dan d elezer bergerak dalam suatu lingkungan yang sama sekali berbeda. The Wijaya dari medan perang, yang Krtarajasa dari balairung sekarang, dan perjuangan sulit bagi rekan yang bermartabat werworden kerajaan besar. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikare dan Lawe-Nagara amnfica dari Ruban dan adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII 165-169)

ZANG VIII

NOW IT WAS RANGGA Lawe AGAINST CASES IS NOT HE OR SORA BUT NAMBI MANGKU-Bhumi BECAME: HE FELT THAT, WHICH IS THE WAR THE MEET DESERVING HAD ALSO THE FIRST TIME FOR COATING HOOGE POSITIONS ACCOUNT HAD COME.

Convinced him that the prince did this injustice, though in other things he had shown his favor, he once went to Majapahit to audience of Tuban and had soon occasion to show his discontent. First he broke Nambi, who are now in peacetime played the great lord, but in war the Lawe had had affairs refurbishing. Then he tried to make demands for Sora, which reach a protesteerde.Ten Finally he spat on his hole and all challenged Nambi into a showdown, how, when and where Nambi wanted. Nambi was violently angry, and just today the hero of the prince prevented him Lawe to answer, as he wanted. Also Kebo-Anabrang could only with difficulty restrain his anger. Sat konig the case with the severely confused. The hofkapelaan (Brahmaraja) Lawe tried to reason and found while most mantri’s consent. Lawe but remained angry at his own bravery and bluster continued on asfgeven Nambi, when he and Sora were not there, how soon would it be done with Majapahit! When was Kebo-Anabrang himself no longer, walked off deigend on Lawe, and defied him but once his men to call and show what he could. Lawe stood up and withdrew without pamit, while on their thighs hit. He went to the bale scared, close to the Pasir-Pasiran, hung his clothes on a boomtsk and was waiting Nambi (VIII 1-41)

Lawe’s departure after the raadpleedde konig Sora omtent against the Lawe to follow the geragslijn.Maar Sora strongly advised him to make sense, because in the first place would be a precedent, and second, it would be a recognition that the other’s mantri, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang and himself, who nevertheless were able Lawe under the dune was asked what their attitude in this case was the me’esten the arches, but all admitted that he was wrong and had the cheeky gehanded.Nambi raade konig in any case not to act hastily, and Kebo-Anabrang and the others agreed with him (VIII 1941-1949)

SEKARANG TERHADAP KASUS  RANGA LAWE BUKAN DIA ATAU SORA TETAPI  YANG MENJADI  MANGKU-BHUMI ADALAH BUKAN NAMBI  : DIA YANG DIRASAKAN PANTAS MERAIH POSISI LAPISAN ATAS KARENA   IA YANG PERTAMA KALI  PERANG 

Untuk Meyakinkannya bahwa penunjukan pangeran itu  adalah tidak adil, meskipun dalam hal-hal ini yang  lainnya   telah berusaha  menyejukkan hati, ia harus segera  pergi ke Majapahit dari Tuban  untuk menunjukkan ketidakpuasan nya. NAMBI Pertama dia patah , yang sekarang di masa damai bermain tuan besar, tetapi dalam perang Lawe punya merenovasi urusan. Lalu ia mencoba untuk membuat tuntutan untuk Sora, yang mencapai protes. Akhirnya ia meludah di lubang dan  Nambi menantang ke pertarungan, bagaimana, kapan dan di mana Nambi inginkan. Nambi sangat marah , dan hanya hari ini para pangeran pahlawan mencegah dia agar tuntutan  Lawe  dijawab, seperti yang diinginkannya. Juga Kebo-Anabrang hanya bisa dengan susah payah menahan kemarahannya. Hal ini membuat Raja  sangat bingung. Kepala Vihara (Brahmaraja) Lawe mencoba untuk mecari  alasan dan ditemukan pada saat persetujuan dari kebanyakan  mantri. Lawe tapi tetap marah pada keberaniannya sendiri dan nambi  marah-marah terus  , ketika ia dan Sora itu tidak ada, bagaimana hal itu akan segera dilakukan dengan Majapahit! Kapan-Kebo Anabrang  berjalan pergi kepada Lawe, dan menantang dia tapi sekali anak buahnya untuk memanggil dan menunjukkan apa yang dia bisa. Lawe berdiri dan pergi tanpa pamit, sementara di paha mereka hit. Dia takut  pergi ke bale , dekat dengan Pasir-Pasiran, menggantungkan pakaiannya di atas gantungan dan menunggu Nambi (VIII 1-41)

keberangkatan Lawe’s setelah raadpleedde Konig omtent Sora terhadap Lawe untuk mengikuti Sora geragslijn.Maar sangat anjurnya  masuk akal, karena di tempat pertama akan menjadi preseden, dan kedua, itu akan menjadi pengakuan bahwa mantri lain, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang dan dirinya sendiri, yang tetap berada Lawe bertahan dalam gundukan itu ditanya apa sikap mereka dalam hal ini adalah me’esten lengkungan, tapi semua mengakui bahwa dia salah dan memiliki raade gehanded.Nambi cheek Raja  dalam hal apapun untuk tidak bertindak tergesa-gesa, dan Kebo-Anabrang dan yang lainnya setuju dengan dia (VIII 1941-1949)

 ZANG IX

 After the audience’s mantri remained together in the carangcang Kawat. There ontsatond after a time a nervous mood, since he was rumored that Lawe, who are still on the bale was scared, wanted to run amuck on the puri. Sora took the view that Nambi, for whom this conflict had arisen, with zigzag charge of the arrangements are agreed to moest.Nambi risking his life for the vorat and Kebo-Anabrang wanted to go there but pull . Pmandana held them back, and pointed out that it was not so desirable to seal the craton to provoke a fight. Singhacardula gave finally the best advice that Sora, Lawe’s best friend, to him was going to try to convince him peaceably away gaan.Sora went and Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya and Tanjek-Areneng have him as a guide added (IX 1-11)

Lawe was alarmed when he saw them coming Sora, he stopped everything to small store, which came oder his reach, and asked him to kill Sora, now so far had come with him. Sora is not wanted, Lawe exhorted to think of the past, the many favors that he had received the Prince and told him quietly to Tuban and returning the case to his father to leggen.Tewn Finally he succeeded Lawe so moving.

A funny interlude, a sce’ne, which would be in a banolan lakon. Parangpak that first great boasted had his heroism, thirst, the conversation between Sora and Lawe not just around the corner to watch, when Lawe him sarcatisch asked if he could sent out was to kill him, and him uitnoodigde it’s getting closer to recover, his heart sank into the shoes and thirst he did not even reply, so Tanjek_Areneng even the word for him to do

Lawe LEFT THE KRATON, ZOO GREAT THREAT THAT MANY OF THE FRIGHTENING TO HIT THE HEART AND MANY CONSIDERED THAT YOU HAVE HAD Lawe PREFER untouched, because the evil consequences were not inevitable. The alarm was beaten but kuta and troops were called on to go belegeren.Tosan Tuban, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang and Kala-Bang-Curing Lawe joined in, besides the whole Noordhoek Mbang Lor. (XI 11 – 36)

When the rumor spread themselves Tuban, Tuban LWam to the Lawe, was Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet.Al him soon he saw that his son something was wrong, and inquired about the reason there van.Toen Lawe him everything had told him more silent hij.Zijn son was dear to the king, but he had an open eye for the difficulties which now awaited Lawe, and advised him to prefer not to act recklessly and zig to abide by its obligations as a citizen, there was heavy penalty of treason in the hereafter and in the Weser births. Lawe felt that his father was right, but his pride prevented him now to back out and confront his father, the onbetemelijk for heroes was to depart, when danger loomed. it went for him for his rep [utatie that he and Sora the bravest hero of Mjapahit region was high houden.Zijn goal was not even now zig heroic deeds or rights to mitigate the prince, he just wanted to sacrifice his life in future existences the position to preserve that he had.Zijn father, who saw nutttelooze further argue, Lawe had now been further ahead but go, although he was sorry that his son hit his advice in the wind (IX, 36-54) 
Lawe cried his native male’s together: but his mantri’s pura, Garangang and Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) came from the Akuwu and the mantri’s Tuban on; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara the nghabehi, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali the kanuruhan, tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Rat, and Lang Lang-Bhuwånå. They all promise him faithfully even unto death will be, and the general desire was that the Nambi Majapahitsche troops could aanvoren, because then he would lusten.Nadat Lawe of the usual dispenser provisions (of clothes) was held, he returned to home needed to prepare to go to take the expected hostilities (IX 0.54 to 70) 
In Tambak-Beras, on the eastern bank of the river to the quantitative measures between between the forces of the Majapahit Nambi and supporters of Lawe. Tuban they had to reach the river, but could not because it just came flooding was.Zoo that Nambi who chased them with a great force majeure, overtook and attacked them there. In the battle, which follow and which the outcome had no other choice than a destruction of the followers of Laqwe, fell to the Majapahit side Medang, while the other group Siddhi and chitosan were killed, Kala Bang Muringang seriously wounded fled and thus only Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen it from all sides into a corner and with broken arms, by Jaran-wahan would be attacked, Nambi took this back and asked for their lives and offered his submission to. Jaran-wahan suggested that one Gelatik would give an opportunity to show that he sincerely believed by him to contribute his two wounded comrades Kelabang gun and go kill Muringang. Indeed Gelatik Nambi gave that command and Gelatik accepted them. He went to his two comrades, exhausted and bleeding on the stones were, leaning against a panda tree, surrounded by their troops, which were hurt When they come konigde Gelatik them, that he desire for self-preservation had undertaken them dooden.Kelabang Muringang and he thought well, gave up their swords and let themselves with perfect indolence death.Hun men fled in Tuban and swim across the river drowned many. The troops of Majapahit were, at sunset when the tide arose, without any difficulty to cross the river (IX 0.70 to 91)The next morning was to Tuban known that Lawe’ Majapahit’s  friends at Tambak-Beras (here Wosi T) are outdated and were slain, and that the enemy crossed the river was. Garangangan Tambak and went Bhaya-impart the message to Lawe, who thereupon ordered all ready to come out (IX.101-104)
 
 Versi Indonesia:

Setelah audiensi ,mantri tetap bersama di Kawat carangcang. Ada ontsatond setelah waktu suasana hati yang gelisah, karena ia adalah desas-desus bahwa Lawe, yang masih di bale takut, ingin lari mengamuk di puri. Sora mengambil pandangan bahwa Nambi, untuk siapa konflik ini telah muncul, dengan zigzag bertanggung jawab atas pengaturan yang setuju untuk moest.Nambi mempertaruhkan nyawanya untuk vorat dan Kebo-Anabrang ingin pergi ke sana tetapi menarik . Pamandana menahan mereka kembali, dan menunjukkan bahwa itu tidak begitu diinginkan untuk menutup Kraton untuk memprovokasi perkelahian. Singhacardula akhirnya memberi nasihat terbaik yang Sora, Lawe sahabat terbaik, dia akan mencoba meyakinkan dia untuk pergi damai .Sora pergi dan Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya dan Tanjek-Areneng memiliki dia sebagai panduan tambah (IX 1-11)

Lawe terkejut ketika melihat mereka datang Sora, ia berhenti di toko kecil  segalanya , yang datang perintah sesuai  jangkauannya, dan memintanya untuk membunuh Sora, sekarang jadi jauh telah datang dengan dia. Sora tidak diinginkan, Lawe mendesak untuk memikirkan masa lalu, banyak nikmat yang ia telah terima dari  Pangeran dan menyuruhnya diam-diam ke Tuban dan menyampaikan  kasus kepada ayahnya untuk dimaklumi .Akhirnya ia berhasil MENGERAKAN Lawe

Sebuah selingan lucu, sebuah sce’ne, yang akan berada dalam lakon banolan. Parangpak yang pertama yang membual telah kepahlawanan nya, haus, percakapan antara Sora dan Lawe bukan hanya sekitar hal yang  menonton, ketika Lawe   bertanya secara sakarstik , apakah ia bisa dikirim keluar untuk membunuh dia, dan dia uitnoodigde itu semakin dekat untuk memulihkan,Bahkan  dia tak menjawab karena hatinya kering dan  tenggelam dalam sepatu dan haus ,  bahkan Tanjek_Areneng  berkata padanya  ,apa yang dia harus  lakukaN.

LAWE  MENINGGALKAN   KRATON, HATINYA TAKUT ATAS  ANCAMAN BESAR DAN BANYAK DIANGGAP TERSENTUH BAHWA IA TELAH MEMILIH  , karena akibat buruk tidak terhindarkan.

 Alarm dipukuli tetapi kuta dan pasukan yang dipanggil untuk pergi Tuban .Tosan, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang dan Kala-Bang-BERGABUNG DENGAN LAWE, selain Mbang  seluruh PENJURU UTARA  Lor (XI 11. – 36)

Ketika rumor menyebar dengan sendirinya di  Tuban, sampai ke Lawe bahwa  Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet. Segera ia melihat bahwa sesuatu yang salah pada anaknya, dan bertanya tentang alasan van.Toen segalanya ada Lawe dia telah mengatakan kepadanya anak hij.Zijn lebih diam adalah sayang kepada raja, tetapi ia memiliki mata terbuka untuk kesulitan yang sekarang ditunggu Lawe, dan menyarankan dia untuk memilih untuk tidak bertindak sembarangan dan zig mematuhi nya kewajiban sebagai warga negara, ada hukuman berat pengkhianatan di akhirat dan di kelahiran Weser. Lawe merasa bahwa ayahnya benar, tapi harga dirinya dicegah dia sekarang untuk mundur dan menghadapi ayahnya, onbetemelijk untuk pahlawan adalah untuk berangkat, ketika bahaya menjulang Ia pergi. bagi dia untuk reputasinya , bahwa tujuannya ialah  ia dan Sora adalah  pahlawan paling berani di daerah Majapahit .Bahkan  tingginya  tidak seperti sekarang dengan  perbuatan heroik atau hak untuk mengurangi pangeran, ia hanya ingin mengorbankan hidupnya dalam masa keberadaannya posisi untuk mempertahankan bahwa ia had. ayahnya , yang melihat nutttelooze lebih lanjut berpendapat, Lawe kini telah lebih jauh ke depan, tetapi pergi, meskipun ia menyesal bahwa anaknya memperlakukan sarannya seperti  pukulan  angin saja (IX, 36-54)

Serunya Lawe bersama-sama   laki-laki asli : tapi mantri nya dipura, Garangang dan Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) datang dari akuwu dan mantri’s Tuban ; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara nghabehi itu, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali kanuruhan itu, Tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, Tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Tikus, dan Lang Lang-Bhuwana. Mereka semua berjanji dengan akan setia bahkan sampai mati , dan keinginan umum adalah bahwa pasukan Nambi dari Majapahit bisa aanvoren, karena dengan begitu ia akan lusten.Nadat Lawe ketentuan dispenser biasa (pakaian) diadakan, ia kembali ke rumah yang dibutuhkan untuk mempersiapkan diri untuk pergi untuk mengambil permusuhan yang diharapkan (IX,54-70)

Pada Tambak-Beras, di tepi timur sungai untuk secara kuantitatif antara antara pasukan Nambi Majapahit dan pendukung Lawe. Tuban mereka harus mencapai sungai, tapi tidak bisa karena hanya datang banjir was.Zoo bahwa Nambi yang mengejar mereka dengan force majeure besar, menyalip dan menyerang mereka di sana. Dalam pertempuran, yang mengikuti dan yang hasilnya tidak memiliki pilihan lain dari penghancuran pengikut Laqwe, jatuh ke sisi Medang Majapahit, sementara kelompok lain Siddhi dan kitosan tewas, Kala Bang Muringang luka parah melarikan diri dan dengan demikian hanya Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen dari semua pihak ke sudut dan dengan lengan yang patah, oleh Jaran-wahan akan diserang, Nambi mengambil kembali ini dan meminta kehidupan mereka dan menawarkan pengiriman ke. Jaran-wahan menyarankan bahwa satu Gelatik akan memberikan kesempatan untuk menunjukkan bahwa ia tulus dipercaya oleh dia untuk memberikan kontribusi dua sahabat terluka Kelabang pistol dan pergi membunuh Muringang. Memang Gelatik Nambi memberi perintah itu dan Gelatik menerima mereka. Dia pergi ke dua sahabat, kelelahan dan pendarahan pada batu itu, bersandar pohon panda, dikelilingi oleh pasukan mereka, yang terluka Ketika mereka datang konigde Gelatik mereka, bahwa ia keinginan untuk pemeliharaan diri telah dilakukan mereka dooden.Kelabang Muringang dan dia berpikir dengan baik, pedang mereka menyerah dan membiarkan diri mereka dengan laki-laki dooden.Hun kelambanan sempurna melarikan diri di Tuban dan berenang menyeberangi sungai tenggelam banyak. Pasukan Majapahit itu, saat matahari terbenam ketika pasang timbul, tanpa kesulitan untuk menyeberangi sungai (IX ,70-91)

Keesokan paginya adalah Tuban diketahui bahwa teman-teman  Lawe dari Majapahi berada  di Tambak-Beras (di sini Wosi T) sudah ketinggalan jaman dan dibunuh, dan bahwa musuh menyeberangi sungai itu. Garangangan Tambak dan pergi Bhaya-menyampaikan pesan ke Lawe, yang kemudian memerintahkan semua siap untuk keluar (IX.101-104)

ZANG X

Lawe HERSELF SAYING GOODBYE TO HIS TWO WIFES, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) AND TIRTHAWATI, AND FOR GOOD.

In sinoms is now told of the despair and the wails of women and of Lawe’s attempts to appease them to sterken.Mrtaraga begged him not to leave anyway, because she had that night get  a dream. They both were in her dream Lawe went into the garden to pick flowers and had picked the flowers in a kortje done. Suddenly there was a crow perched on, the kortje had fallen, the flowers were fallen  and consumed to ashes. Lawe now knew that his death was inevitable. Nevertheless he was not influenced by the dream, nor its subsequent lamentations. Finally, let the women out Lawe calm, they were reconciled to her fate and decided Lawe, he could die in the death zollegen follow. Lawe then went to toilet, and when he had finished, he took leave of his wives and ordered his son-Kuda Afijampyani, Dena rmen​​, now his father would forever be left in her love. The boy began to huit, when he saw his mother so sad, when a IFIA Tirthawati to order him to the palace of his grandfather to bring. Father, so are soothed the boy, his appearance make him the king of Majapahit, when he returned, he would bring him a little golden carriage, drawn by the Kuda Sembrani, the flying horse. So let it kindf to spawn, and Ina took him away. For the last time exchanged Lawe and women can Sirihpruim. Repeatedly he kissed heathen. Then he went away, slowly and conspicuously always looking back, decayed with compassion at the sight of his wives and burdened by love (X 0.1 to 31)

VERSI INDONESIA

Lawe SENDIRI PERIBAHASA GOODBYE ATAS DUA ISTERINYA, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) DAN TIRTHAWATI, DAN UNTUK BAIK.

Dalam sinomstropen sekarang menceritakan keputusasaan dan meraung perempuan dan upaya Lawe untuk menenangkan mereka untuk sterken.Mrtaraga memohon tidak meninggalkan pula, karena dia punya mimpi  malam. Mereka berdua dalam mimpinya Lawe pergi ke taman untuk memetik bunga dan telah memilih bunga dalam kortje dilakukan. Tiba-tiba ada burung gagak bertengger dan  kortje telah jatuh, bunga-bunga itu juga jatuh  dan dikonsumsi untuk abu. Lawe sekarang tahu bahwa kematiannya tak terhindarkan. Namun demikian ia tidak dipengaruhi oleh mimpi itu, atau keluhan berikutnya. Akhirnya, membiarkan wanita keluar tenang Lawe, mereka telah dirujuk ke nasib dan memutuskan Lawe, ia bisa mati dalam kematian zollegen ikuti. Lawe kemudian pergi ke toilet, dan ketika dia telah selesai, ia meninggalkan istri-istrinya dan memerintahkan anak-Kuda nya Afijampyani,  ​​Dena, sekarang ayahnya selamanya akan tertinggal di mencintainya. Anak itu mulai huit, ketika ia melihat ibunya begitu sedih, ketika Tirthawati IFIA untuk memesan dia ke istana kakeknya untuk membawa. Bapa, begitu juga ditenangkan anak itu, penampilannya membuat dia raja Majapahit, ketika ia kembali, ia akan membawa dia  emas kereta yang kecil , ditarik oleh Kuda Sembrani, kuda terbang. Jadi biarkan  untuk bertelur, dan Ina membawanya pergi. Untuk terakhir kalinya ditukar Lawe dan perempuan dapat Sirihpruim. Berulang kali dia mencium kafir. Kemudian ia pergi, perlahan dan mencolok selalu melihat ke belakang, dan membusuk dengan belas kasihan saat melihat istri-istrinya  dibebani oleh kasih (X ,1-31)

 

ZANG XI.

De talrijke tweegevechten, die de tekst uitvoerig vermeldt, kunnen we hier overslaan. Lawe reed vechtend over het slagveld rond zijn paard Nilambara. Toen de koning hem daar zag, week zijn toorn en werd hij neerslachtig , daar hij bedacht, welk zwaar verlies Majapahit zou lijden door Lawe’s dood; dam zou ook hem hel leven niets meer waard zijn. Niettemin gaf hij Sora verlof, op diens verzoek, om Lawe te bestrijden. Sora organiseerde den strijd aldus; Kebo Anabrang in het Oosten,Gagak Carkara in het Westen en Mayang Mekar in het Noorden. De beslissende strijd werd gestreden tusschen Lawe en K_Anabrang. Lang streden ze met elkaar. een oogenblik was het, alsof K_Anabrang het verliezen zou; zijn paard werd onder hem gedood en hij viel op den grond.Tevergeefs probeerde hij Lawe’s paard te krissen en Lawe zelf voordeel geen goed gebruik,want ze raakten toen weer een poosje van elkaar gescheiden. Voor den tweeden keer ontmoetten ze elkaar aan den oever van de rivier.K_Anabrang stond in het water en verfrischte zich na de hitte van den strijd. Zonder zich te bedenken sprong Lawe ook in het water zijn tegenstander daar te bestrijden.Eerst wist Lawe K_Anabrang onder water te duwen,maar deze kon ten slotte weer overeind komen en doodde Lawe’s paard.Lawe sprong op een rots en vocht in het water staande verder.Maar in dezen waterstrijd was K-Anabrang de meerdere en na veel moeite wist hij Lawe te dooden.Op dat oogenblik kwan Sora aanrijden,en toen hij zag, wat er gebeurd was,doodle hij op zijn beurt K_Anabrang, meegesleept door zijn toorn(XI,170-234)

 Their commander with spiritual passion and with various expressions of militancy. Lawe set them up in the battle “with gapendem crocodile jaws. ” At the moment of departure came one of Lawe’s fathers, kyayi Ge’ng Palandongan ing, another scrub trying to move him from his intention to abandon, but Lawe stuck to his decision. Soon after leaving they met the Majapahit troops, a wild fight broke out, which many dead vielen.Het climax of the battle he was fighting between Lawe, seated on his stridros Megha-Lamat, and Nambi, Nambi which conquered and put to flight werd.Toen were hunted Majapahittters defeated and chased back across the river, where many tengelam(verdronken).Lawe she would have gone Tambak Be’ras-chase, but his comrades ontrieden him because he would be in hostile territory, and moreover Not all troops Mjapahitsche hatched waren.Lawe concurred. When night fell and the fight moost provisionally discontinued (XI 0.1-67)

Told then that the next morning in Majapahit audience was. Had just Sora reported that the troops a victory had to Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), the river had gone and at that moment might Tuban already reach had when Hangsa Terik bin nine was worn and the unfavorable state of unreported . The king was angry and wanted to raise them immediately Tuban vermoesten, but Sora and Ke’bo Anabrang allowed to advise it on the ground that the troops were too tired. The king vowed that if Lawe was not slain, himself a jungle of Majapahit would maken.Daarop he sent Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag Juru_Ptakoca go  and the fleeing troops back to collect for the state to take in information and win for the enemy. With 800 men they went to Majapahit  road.Intusschen were provisions for a second campaign. With 10,000 men marched on the king himself. When they arrived on the plain Wirakrama waren.Their  reported that a large part of the Majapahit troops first expedition was still found across various villages, where they had fled, and the Tuba troops were ready to resume the struggle (XI 0.67 to 121)

The numerous duels, the text mentions in detail, we can skip. Lawe fighting rode his horse around on the battlefield Nilambara. When the king saw him, his wrath week and was depressed because he invented, which would suffer heavy losses Majapahit Lawe’s death, his dam would also no longer worth living hell. Nevertheless he gave Sora leave, at his request, to Lawe combat. Sora battle so organized, Kebo Anabrang in the East, Gagak Carkara Mayang each other in the West and in the North. The decisive battle was fought between Lawe and K_Anabrang. Long competed with each other. one moment it was as if K_Anabrang would lose, his horse was slain under him and he fell to the grond.Tevergeefs he tried Lawe Lawe’s horse daggers and benefit themselves not a good use, because a while back when they were separated. For the second time they met on the banks of the rivier.K_Anabrang stood in the water and refreshed after the heat of battle. Without thinking Lawe also jumped into the water as his opponent managed to bestrijden.Fisrt  Lawe K_Anabrang underwater to push, but it could finally come up again and killed Lawe’s paard.Lawe jumped on a rock and fluid in the water standing on . But in this water fight was the K-Anabrang more and after much effort he managed to Lawe dooden.Op that moment Sora kwan drove, and when he saw what had happened, he doodle K_Anabrang in turn, carried away by his anger (XI 0.170 to 234)

 

Versi Indonesia:

Daerah tropis komandan mereka disambut dengan gairah spiritual dan dengan berbagai ekspresi militansi. Lawe mengaturnya dalam pertempuran “dengan rahang buaya gapendem.” Pada saat keberangkatan datang salah satu bapak Lawe’s, kyayi Ge’ng ing Palandongan, gosok lain mencoba untuk memindahkan dia dari niatnya untuk meninggalkan, tetapi Lawe menempel keputusannya. Segera setelah meninggalkan mereka bertemu pasukan Majapahit, pertempuran pecah liar, yang banyak klimaks vielen.Het mati peperangan dia pertempuran antara Lawe, duduk di stridros nya Megha-Lamat, dan Nambi, Nambi yang menaklukkan dan dihukum penerbangan werd.Toen diburu Majapahittters dikalahkan dan mengejar kembali menyeberangi sungai, di mana banyak verdronken.Lawe dia akan pergi Tambak Be’ras-mengejar, tapi rekan-rekannya ontrieden dia karena dia akan berada di wilayah bermusuhan, dan terlebih lagi Tidak semua waren.Lawe pasukan Mjapahitsche menetas setuju. Ketika malam tiba dan memerangi moost dihentikan sementara (XI 0,1-67)

 Diceritakan kemudian bahwa pagi berikutnya di penonton Majapahit. Baru saja Sora melaporkan bahwa pasukan kemenangan harus Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), sungai telah pergi dan pada saat yang mungkin Tuban sudah mencapai miliki ketika Hangsa bin Terik sembilan dipakai dan keadaan yang tidak menguntungkan dari tidak dilaporkan . Raja marah dan ingin membesarkan mereka segera vermoesten Tuban, namun Sora dan Ke’bo Anabrang diizinkan untuk memberikan saran itu dengan alasan bahwa pasukan terlalu lelah. Raja Lawe bersumpah bahwa jika tidak dibunuh, dirinya sebagai hutan Majapahit akan maken.Daarop dia mengirim Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag uiy Juru_Ptakoca dan pasukan melarikan diri kembali untuk mengumpulkan bagi negara untuk menerima informasi dan menang musuh. Dengan 800 laki-laki mereka pergi ke weg.Intusschen Majapahit adalah ketentuan untuk kampanye kedua. Dengan 10.000 orang berbaris pada raja sendiri. Ketika mereka tiba di dataran Wirakrama waren.Zij melaporkan bahwa sebagian besar pasukan Majapahit ekspedisi pertama masih ditemukan di berbagai desa, di mana mereka telah melarikan diri, dan pasukan Tuban siap untuk melanjutkan perjuangan (XI,67-121)
Teks secara detail menyebutkan bahwa kita akan melalui banyak duel.  Lawe mengendarai kudanya bertempur  di medan perang Nilambara. Ketika raja melihatnya, ia  murka dan merasa tertekan karena ia ikut menciptakan Majapahit , dan Majapahit yang akan menderita kerugian besar  atas kematian  Lawe, bendungan itu akan juga tidak lagi layak hidup dalam neraka . Namun demikian ia  atas permintaan  meninggalkan Sora, untuk Lawe bertempur.
Begitu Sora mengorganisir  pertempuran , Kebo Anabrang di Timur, Gagak Carkara Mayang sama lain di Barat dan di Utara. Pertempuran yang menentukan terjadi antara Lawe dan K_Anabrang. Mereka  bersaing satu sama lain. satu saat itu seolah-olah K_Anabrang akan kehilangan, kudanya terbunuh di bawah dan dia jatuh ketanah .Tevergeefs ia mencoba belati kuda Lawe Lawe dan keuntungan sendiri bukan menggunakan baik, karena beberapa waktu lalu ketika mereka dipisahkan. Untuk kedua kalinya mereka bertemu di tepi sungai .K_Anabrang berdiri dalam air dan segar setelah panas pertempuran. Tanpa berpikir Lawe juga melompat ke dalam air sebagai lawannya berhasil bestrijden.Eerst Lawe K_Anabrang bawah air untuk mendorong, tapi akhirnya bisa datang lagi dan membunuh paard.Lawe melonjak di atas batu dan cairan dalam air berdiri Tapi dalam perang air. adalah K-Anabrang lebih dan setelah banyak usaha ia berhasil Lawe dooden.Op saat kwan Sora mengemudi, dan ketika ia melihat apa yang terjadi, ia doodle K_Anabrang pada gilirannya, pergi jauh terbawa oleh amarahnya (XI,170-234)
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BUTAK INSCRIPTION


•Mpu Prapanca have writiing in Negarakertagama book in1365 bahwa Majapahit about Majapahit from Butak Inscriptions 1294.

This inscription contains the history of how the collapse of empire and how Wijaya forming Singasari Majapahit kingdom was written in the emakai chronicle prassati 1294. This paper trays dinamakn Mount Butak charter, because it was found that name dicelah mountain, located south west of the town of Mojokerto or poor. So when the charter was written in the memories of all who suffered in the years 1292-1293 are still diinagt by sipendengar.Sebagian of the text has been copied by Dr. Brandes kedealam belands language, such as being read in the book Pararaton pages 94-100. The translation is as follows:

A. AD Year: 1294

Selamatlah! at saka tahubn 1216, in Badrapada, on five months of being down, on the day Harjang, Umanis, sjanesjcara (according to days and weeks five, six and seven) at the time Madankungan, when the stars still shining moon disebellah southeast diperumahan Rohini with the Hiang Prajapati as eplindungnya and entered the circle mandala Mahendra, when Joga Siddhi and at Weraja, protected as a protective perbulanan Jama, on the day because the named Tetila and starred in when the virgin constellations.

B. Edict PRABU

then in command of the Series went down that day the king, that is the only king who can be praised highly bersifatnkepahlawanan, king of a very noble and brave, which destroy the enemy-mus bertentara great kings, who snagat diberkatai and have the disposition, energy, kindness, smartness and a sense of responsibility, the ruler of the region Jawadiwipa, protector of all rights of good people, a derivative family which stores Sari Narasimha rights obligations of countries, son of Narasimha sebading derivatives; happy married daughter in-law because Labour and the title as king Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya Rakrian it is accepted by all three ministers of the three Katrini mahamenteri, Ino, pestle and Sirikan. Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang” ae=”meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and emnetri zSirikan> Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously in the middle of  war-center jobs meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and menteri Sirikan Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously ditenagh war-center jobs , rakrian menterui mus in the region of desolation and the bersemanagt nusnatara hard, named Aria Adikara. rakrian ministers preceded by the supreme head of all the heroes who gain the trust of friends, and have compassion for all people, named Aria Wiraraja, which presumably can dianamkan Baginda Seri Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH Edict

The command of His Majesty Maharaja is derived for the benefit of the hovel bernua Kudadu as darma area named Kle’me, a decision which stamped king Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu and in copper, that are stored by the village head Kudadu, which will define freedom Swatantra hovel continent Kudadu , therefore has dijadsikan check by Series king, together with the fields above and dibaruh, mountains and valleys, and shall cease to be part Le’me darma area, for designation Kudadu village chief, to be held down temruun until extended to the cucnya, either now or ternus again incessantly.

CAUSE ANUGRAH

As for the cause it is the behavior Kudau village headman who once gave a place to hide carefully to the Majesty the King, when he became king and still have not named Naraja sanggrawijaya, on when he was in trouble heading Kudadu. hunted by the enemy by being chased in a state like berfikut: Seri Baginda Kertanegara former Maharaja became King and meninggakan the mortal world and entered the world an immortal in sjiwabudalaya when he was attacked by a series Jayakatong king of the rings with an enemy force as a shameful thing to do and treason to friends and violate perseujuan, because the king wished XSeri undermine the bersemayan Kertanegara Tumapel.Setelah known in the state of an army bahea Series Jayakatong king had to de Jasun Wungkal, then send Sei Kertanegara Majesty Majesty (The King now) and Ardaraja against Sri Sire Jayakatong. The Ardaraja and series Majesty King-in-law both adalh Series Kertnegara king, but as became known Ardaraja is also the son of the king Jayakatong Series.

After Sri king Prabu and Ardaraja leave Tumapel and until Kedung Hug, then Sei Bagindalah the very first meeting with musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda fighting, and msusuhpun defeated and fled, with a big defeat.

After that then the army moved into the valley Seri Baginda, but there has not encountered the enemy. After that keep moving towards the West, from the valley to the bars, and the front of the king Sei meet again with some of the enemy, who withdrew without fighting back. After meliwati Trunk, lalyu Majesty came to Pulungan, the king’s army to fight anymore Series Kapulungan west and defeat the enemy, and running in a really difficult situation with the suffering losses. large. Demikinalah circumstances, when the army Seri Baginda forward again and get to Rabut nozzle, while not how long the enemy came from the west, then Sei King fought with all the power and tenataranya, the enemy fled after receiving heavy losses, and it seems as if running for ever . But in such circumstances, the state of the east Hanyiru stump melambailambaikan enemy flag, red and white flag, and when I saw the stump was then Ardaraja then holstered his gun, apply a very embarrassing and ran towards Kapulungan with malicious intent. Therefore the army musnahlah Sei king, but tetapetia Majesty the king Kertanegara series, which is why the series King lived in Rabut Carat, and after that the next go-apajeg Pamwatan northward toward the north side of Sungei.

Sei Banginda the part at that time there were about six hundred oramng. (Soul). The next day after sunrise, the enemy came following a series baginda.tentara Seri Baginda backwards to meet them and he broke away, but even so the army has been greatly reduced Seri Baginda, kiarena already there who ran to hide himself and left him, sehimngga anxiety arises without a weapon nothing. Afterwards Majesty negotiate with those who are in Him. According pedapatnya Eggplant he should go to in order to negotiate with it there akuwu., Rakrian Wuru Agraja name who was appointed by King Kertanegara Kuwu, so he was willing to assist Series Banginda gather all the people on the Northeast Terung.Semuanya agree with it, and after day night, then Sei Majesty through KUlawan anxious lest the enemy followed very much.

In KUlawan meet again with the enemy, he was chased by them, but to escape by going towards the north, so if possible will run to the Flower essence, there tetapijuga meet again with the enemy is chasing him and when it alrilah he shared with them all the existing , seceapt besarf as possible across the river moving towards north. When it multiply that sank and others were hunted by the enemy and killed with spears, and who can be helped run divorced kegelaa temapt apart. Seri Baginda who lived only a dozen people.

Seri Baginda accident is very great indeed, but when he reached the village Kududu village, the headman was received with earnest heart and feel sorry for Beals, such as providing food and beverages as well as rice, and the Seri Baginda provided a hiding place and tried to correct for king ZSeri goal is reached, so belaiau orang.apabila do not find the enemy looking for him. After that he was shown the way and diiringkan until kedaerah Apex, in order to rid themselves Sei king to the island of Madura as he wanted.

So the first time the Series was brought to the king-Kudadu in difficult circumstances, and village heads were really true force and received the king with pity Beals, and the circumstances that cause liver gratitude aksih in his soul.

Seri Baginda (now) become king, so  earth’s guardian who descended from Heaven, so therefore fitting yourmajesty  repay good and made happy the people who have done good to him.

And so on (keswatentaraan, Money Indigenous, Perwatasan Kudadu, Prohibition, Crime, Money Offering, Strengthening Keeaktian, I swear, Lost.)

 
 

 Prasasti Gunung Butak

 Prasasti gunung butak tahun 1294. Prasasti itu menuliskan pemberontakan Kediri melawan SingasariSaat itu Kediri mengibarkan bendera merah putih.


•Mpu Prapanca mencatat dalam kitab Negarakertagama pada tahun 1365 bahwa Majapahit adalah keraton merah putih.

prasasti ini berisi riwayat bagaimana runtuhnya kerajaan Singasari dan bagaimana Wijaya membentuk kerajaan Majapahit merupakan tulisan dalam prassati yang emakai tarikh 1294. Tulisan loyang ini dinamakn piagam Gunung Butak,karena ditemukan dicelah gunung yang bernama demikian,terletak disebelah selatan Mojokerto atau sebelah barat kota malang. Jadi piagam itu ditulis pada ketika kenang-kenangan terhadap segala yang dialami dalam tahun 1292-1293 masih diinagt oleh sipendengar.Sebagian dari tulisan itu telah disalin oleh DR Brandes kedealam bahasa belands, seperti yang dibaca dalam kitab Pararaton halaman 94-100. Terjemahannya adalah sebagai berikut:

A. Tahun Masehi : 1294

Selamatlah! pada tahubn saka 1216 ,pada bulan Badrapada ,pada tanggal lima bulan sedang turun,pada hari Harjang,Umanis,sjanesjcara(menurut pekan berhari lima,enam dan tujuh) pada waktu Madankungan,ketika bintang tetap bersinar disebellah tenggara diperumahan rembulan Rohini dengan sang Hiang Prajapati sebagai eplindungnya dan masuk lingkaran mandala Mahendra ,ketika Joga Siddhi dan pukul Weraja ,dilindungi Jama sebagi pelindung perbulanan ,pada hari karena bernama Tetila dan pada ketika rasi bertanda bintang perawan.

B.TITAH RPABU

maka pada hari itu turunlah titah Seri baginda,yaitu satu-satunya raja yang dapat dipujikan sangat bersifatnkepahlawanan ,raja yang sangat mulia dan berani, yang memusnahkan musuh-mush raja-raja bertentara besar,yang snagat diberkatai dan mempunyai tabiat ,tenaga,budi,kebagusan dan rasa tangung jawab,penguasa seluruh daerah Jawadiwipa,pelindung segala hak orang-orang baik,turunan keluarga narasinga yang menyimpan Sari hak-hak kewajiban negara,putera turunan yang sebading narasinga; menantu karena berbahagia beristeri puteri Kartanegara dan yang sebagai raja bergelar Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya itu diterima oleh Rakrian menteri yang bertiga yaitu mahamenteri bertiga Katrini, Ino ,alu dan Sirikan . meteri Ino,diah Pamasi, menteri zlu Diah Sinlar dan emnetri zSirikan >Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang,rakrian menterui yang membinasakan mush di daerah nusnatara dan yang bersemanagt keras,bernama Aria Adikara. didahului oleh rakrian menteri kepala tertinggi pada segala pahlawan yang mendapatkan kepercayaan berbagai teman,serta mempunyai belas kasihan kepada segala orang,bernama Aria Wiraraja,yang kiranya dapat dianamkan Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH TITAH

Adapun titah seri baginda Maharaja diturunkan untuk kepentingan teratak bernua Kudadu yang menjadi sebagai daerah darma bernama Kle’me,berupa keputusan raja yang dibubuhi cap Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu dan di tembaga, supaya disimpan oleh kepala desa Kudadu,yang akan menetapkan kebebasan Swatantra teratak benua Kudadu, oleh karena telah dijadsikan periksa oleh Seri baginda,bersama-sama dengan ladang diatas  dan dibaruh,gunung dan lembah, dan harus berhenti menjadi bagian daerah  darma Le’me, bagi peruntukan kepala desa Kudadu, yang akan dimiliki turun temruun sampai keanak-cucnya,baik kini ataupun ternus menerus tak putus-putusnya.

SEBAB ANUGRAH

Adapun yang menyebabkan itu ialah tingkah laku lurah desa Kudau yang dahulu memberi tempat bersembunyi dengan hati-hati kepada Seri Baginda Sang Prabu,ketika beliau belum menjadi raja dan masih bernama Naraja sanggrawijaya,pada ketika beliau dalam kesusahan menuju  Kudadu. diburu oleh musuh dengan dikejar-kejar dalam keadaan seperti berfikut : Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara yang dahulu menjadi Prabu dan meninggakan dunia yang fana dan memasuki dunia yang baka di sjiwabudalaya ketika diserang oleh Seri baginda Jayakatong dari gelang-gelang dengan berlaku sebagai musuh mengerjakan benda yang memalukan serta berkhianat kepada teman dan melanggar perseujuan ,karena berkeinginan meruntuhkan XSeri baginda Kertanegara yang bersemayan didalam negara Tumapel.Setelah diketahui bahea sepasukan tentara Seri baginda Jayakatong sudah sampai de Jasun Wungkal, lalu Seri Baginda Kertanegara mengirimkan Sei Baginda(Sang Prabu sekarang) dan Ardaraja melawan Sri Baginda Jayakatong. Adapun Ardaraja dan seri Baginda Sang Prabu keduanya adalh mantu Seri baginda Kertnegara,tetapi seperti diketahui orang Ardaraja adalah pula putera Seri baginda Jayakatong.

Setelah Sri baginda Prabu dan Ardaraja meninggalkan Tumapel dan sampai Kedung Peluk, maka Sei Bagindalah yang mula-mula sekali bertemu dengan musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda berkelahi,dan msusuhpun kalah dan melarikan diri , dengan menderita kekalahan besar.

Sesudah itu lalu tentara Seri Baginda bergerak ke lembah, tetapi disana tidak ditemui musuh. Setelah itu terus bergerak kearah Barat ,dari lembah menuju Batang, dan bagian depan Sei baginda bertemu lagi dengan beberapa musuh, yang menarik diri mundur tanpa berkelahi. Setelah meliwati Batang,lalyu Seri Baginda sampailah ke Pulungan, maka tentara Seri baginda bertempur lagi disebelah barat Kapulungan dan musuh menderita kekalahan , dan berlari-lari dalam keadaan susah benar dengan menderita kerugian. besar. Demikinalah keadaannya, ketika tentara Seri Baginda maju lagi dan sampai ke Rabut Curat, sedangkan tak berapa lamanya datanglah musuh dari arah barat, maka Sei Baginda berperang dengan segala tenaga dan tenataranya, musuh lari setelah mendapat kerugian besar, dan rupanya seolah-olah lari untuk selamanya.Tetapi dalam keadaan demikian,keadaan sebelah timur Hanyiru tunggul bendera musuh melambailambaikan , merah dan putih benderanya, dan ketika melihat tunggul itu maka Ardaraja lalu menyarungkan senjatanya,berlaku yang sangat memalukan dan lari kearah Kapulungan dengan maksud jahat. Oleh sebab itu maka musnahlah tentara Sei baginda, tetapi Seri Baginda tetapetia kepada seri baginda Kertanegara, itulah sebabnya maka seri Baginda tinggal di Rabut Carat , dan setelah itu selanjutnya pergi keutara menuju Pamwatan-apajeg disebelah utara diseberang sungei.

Dipihak Sei Banginda pada waktu itu masih ada kira-kira enam ratus oramng.(jiwa). Keesokan harinya setelah matahari terbit, maka musuh datang menyusul seri baginda.tentara Seri Baginda menyongsong mereka dan beliau mundur memisahkan diri,tetapi walaupun begitu tentara Seri Baginda sudah sangat berkurang, kiarena sudah ada yang lari menyembunyikan diri dan meninggalkan beliau, sehimngga timbullah kecemasan tanpa senjata apa-apa. Setelah itu Seri Baginda berunding dengan mereka yang ada pada Beliau. Menurut pedapatnya beliau harus  pergi ke Terung supaya berunding dengan Akuwu disana itu.,rakrian Wuru Agraja namanya yang diangkat menjadi Kuwu oleh Prabu Kertanegara, supaya ia bersedia membantu Seri Banginda mengumpulkan segala orang-orang disebelah Timur laut Terung.Semuanya menyetujui pendapat itu,dan setelah hari malam, maka Sei Baginda melalui KUlawan cemas kalau-kalau diikuti musuh yang sangat banyak.

Di KUlawan bertemu lagi dengan musuh, beliau dikejar oleh mereka, tetapi dapat melepaskan diri dengan pergi kearah utara,supaya apabila mungkin akan lari ke Kembang sari, tetapijuga disana bertemu lagi dengan musuh yang mengejar beliau dan ketika itu alrilah beliau bersama mereka sekalian yang ada dengannya, seceapt-cepatnya menyeberang sungai besarf menuju kearah utara. Ketika itu banyaklah yang tenggelam  dan yang lainnya diburu oleh  musuh dan dibunuh dengan tombak, dan yang dapat tertolong lari bercerai-berai kegelaa temapt. Yang tinggal hanya Seri Baginda  dengan belasan orang saja.

Kecelakaan yang menimpa Seri Baginda sungguhlah sangat hebat, tetapi ketika beliau sampai ke Kelurahan desa Kududu, maka lurah itu menerima dengan sungguh-sungguh hati dan berasa beals kasihan seperti menyediakan makanan dan minuman serta nasi, dan  kepada Seri Baginda diberikan tempat bersembunyi dan berusaha benar agar tujuan ZSeri baginda tercapai ,supaya belaiau jangan ditemukan orang.apabila musuh mencarinya. Setelah itu beliau ditunjukkan arah jalan dan diiringkan sampai kedaerah Rembang, agar Sei baginda dapat menyingkirkan diri ke pulau Madura seperti yang diinginkannya.

Demikianlah waktu dahulu Seri baginda dibawa ke-Kudadu dalam keadaan yang sukar,dan kepala desa itu berlaku sungguh-sungguh benar dan menerima raja dengan beals kasihan,dan keadaan itu menimbulkan rasa terima aksih dalam hati sanubarinya.

Sei baginda(kini) menjadi raja,jadi pelidung bumi yang turun dari Kayangan,sehingga oleh sebab itu patutlah belaiu membalas budi baik dan menyenangkan (mengirangkan) orang yang telah berbuat baik kepada beliau.

DAN SETERUSNYA (keswatentaraan,Uang Adat,Perwatasan Kudadu,Larangan,Kejahatan,Uang Persembahan,Penguatan Keeaktian,Sumpah,Hilang. )

1296.

Inscription Kertarajasa OR PENANGUNANGAN’s CHARTER 1296

FOUND THIS inscriptions DICELAH DILERENG STONE MOUNTAIN PEAK BETWEEN PENANGUNANGAN Northside GAJAGMUNGKAR WITH BE’KE’L, south MOJOKERTO, BENYAKNYA 11 pieces.

This 1296 inscription besama together with the inscription Kertarajasa 1924.1305 and others with information about the Majapahit, which among other things sebbagai follows

PRASASTI KERTARAJASA ATAU PIAGAM PENANGUNANGAN 1296

PRASATI INI DITEMUKAN DICELAH BATU DILERENG GUNUNG PENANGUNANGAN SEBELAH UTARA ANTARA PUNCAK GAJAGMUNGKAR DENGAN BE’KE’L, DISEBELAH SELATAN MOJOKERTO , BENYAKNYA 11 KEPING .

Prasasti 1296 ini besama-sama dengan prasasti Kertarajasa 1924,1305 dan lain-lainnya berisi informasi tentang Majapahit, isinya antara lain sebbagai berikut:

1.Year 1296 AD

Blessed! At saka year 1218, the month Kartika (October-November), on the day kedu moonlight, Tungle, Kaliwon, Saturday, the town brass, fixed stars are on the south, home-bulanya aArdra, divine partner, mandala, Baruna, Atiganda, Wairaja a master at buhur astrology, Kubera, because, lucky sign, the scorpion

Tahun Masehi 1296

Berbahagialah ! Pada tahun saka 1218,pada bulan Kartika (oktober-Nopember) ,pada hari kedu ketika bulan terang ,Tungle,Kaliwon,Sabtu, pekan kuningan,bintang tetap sedang disebelah selatan, rumah-bulanya aArdra,dewata mitra ,mandala,Baruna,Atiganda,pukul Wairaja yang menguasai buhur perbintangan,Kubera,karana,tanda rasi,kalajengking.

2.Lowering the Edict which Jayawardana Kertarajasa

At that time His Majesty Maharaja series decree ordering the globe reduce the power of Java correspond with the melodious name, which is the desire trees (fruiting), courage and power that no blemish fennel, which dianatara kesatriannya families and nations can be compared with the full moon surrounded by stars-the stars are not cloudy. Who became a hero in the midst of struggle, with courage to overcome the other heroes, who destroy all enemy kings of the world, such as poison sjiwa Mahadeva, which split the head of prominent people who ignored orders.

THAT CAUSE ANY ENEMY BE ENTIRELY WAN and perish, DEVELOPING HEART THAT ANY GOOD PEOPLE-GOOD, LIKE THE SUN. Which became an umbrella for the poor-poor and wise and who love the land of Java, which became rakrian minister named Abiseka Sanggrana Wijaya with the Kingdom of Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana

Yang Menurunkan Titah Kertarajasa Jayawardana

Pada waktu itulah seri Baginda Maharaja menurunkan titah yang memerintahkan buana Jawa yang kekuasaannya berpadanan dengan namanya yang merdu, yang menjadi pohon keinginan (berbuah) , keberanian dan kekuasaan yang tidak adas cacatnya, yang dianatara keluarga dan bangsa  kesatriannya dapat dibandingkan dengan bulan purnama dikelilingi bintang-bintang dilangit yang  tidak berawan. Yang menjadi pahlawan ditengah-tengah perjuangan, dengan mengatasi keberanian pahlawan-pahlawan lainnya, yang memusnakan segala raja-raja musuh dunia, seperti racun mahadewa sjiwa , yang mengeping kepala orang-orang trekemuka yang tidak mengacuhkan perintahnya.

YANG MENYEBABKAN SEGALA MUSUH MENJADI PUCAT DAN HILANG LENYAP SELURUHNYA, YANG MENGEMBANGKAN JANTUNG SEGALA ORANG BAIK-BAIK,SEPERTI SANG MATAHARI. Yang menjadi payung bagi orang papa-miskin dan bijaksana serta yang mencintai tanah Jawa, yang menjadi rakrian menteri Sanggrana Wijaya dengan bernama Abiseka Kerajaan Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana

3.Four Queens

He has four brothers in Queens. in decreasing order permassiusrinya he is assisted by four brothers. Altogether the princess Kertanegara, all the daughters of Sri him Kertanegara planted in Sjiwa-Huda. They are: Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi, Diah Dahita Nara Indera, Sri Jaya Indera goddess, Diah Prajayaparamida, King Indera Dewi Sri, Gayatri Diah.

new iformation from Prof. Dr Arlo Griffith,Ecole de Francaice D’Extreme Orient Jakarta (2011) :Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya

Empat Permaisuri

Beliau mempunyai empat bersaudara  sebagai  Permaisuri. dalam menurunkan perintah beliau dibantu oleh permassiusrinya empat bersaudara. Seluruhnya para puteri Kertanegara, yang semuanya para puteri Sri baginda Kertanegara yang ditanam ditempat Sjiwa-Huda. Mereka itu ialah : Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi,Diah Nara Indera Dahita, Sri Jaya Indera dewi , Diah Prajayaparamida, Sri Raja Indera Dewi, Diah Gayatri.

4.CROWN SON(PRINCE) Jayanegara

Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya (Kompas, 1 June 2011, testimony of Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole D’Extreme-Orient Franaise representative Jakarta)please compare the different with the Penangungan with inscription below:

He was followed by her Son of the empress, the king of Sri Parama Isjwari( this qoeen may be same with Dara Petak princess from Dhamasraya-Dr Iwan ) young cadet to have signs of a good body, the young queen as king Kertanegara Sri grandchildren, great-grandson both young queen-derived Jaya Sri Wisnuwardana which has brought strength since birth and that does not exist disability, and can be compared with a thousand rays of light the new rising sun, which has boosted the queen by the name Abiseka Daha land as Queen of the Kingdom of the Young by the name of His Majesty Jayanegara.

PUTERA MAHKOTA JAYANEGARA

Penyerahan putri Melayu terkait dengan pengiriman arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja Kertanegara. Kelak , dara petak menikah dengan Raden Wiajaya yang kemudian melahirkan Jayanegara sebagai raja Majapahit penganti Raden wiajaya(Kompas,1 juni 2011,keterangan Prof Dr Arlo Griffiths dari Ecole Franaise D’extre Orien perwakilan Jakarta)

Beliau diikuti oleh Puteranya dari permaisuri Sri Parama Isjwari (sesuai penemuan Prof.Dr Arlo, 2011, permaisuri ini sma dengan Dara Petak,putri dari Damasraya)yaitu raja muda teruna dengan memiliki tanda-tanda badan yang baik,ratu muda sebagai cucu Sri baginda Kertanegara, ratu muda cicit baik turunan Jaya-Sri Wisnuwardana yang memiliki kekuatan yang dibawanya sejak lahir dan yang tidak ada cacatnya, dan dapat dibandingkan dengan seribu sinar cahaya Matahari yang baru terbit, yang telah dikuatkan menjadi ratu tanah Daha dengan nama Abiseka Kerajaan sebagai Ratu Muda dengan nama Sri Baginda Jayanegara.

5.Kertarajasa

Maharajapun King, a knight this part to Dewaan down from heaven in the form of the king’s son with signs of a good torso. Convincing proof that it is, that he has the nature of courage, the creator of truth, gentle, good tempered, sharp-witted, friend of man, gallant officer in perjuanagn, he has thousands of followers dang good soldier, he has the wealth, particularly gold, all of it is nature which states that he is the god of Human Regulated.

and then he experienced as a protection of life, kindness of the late Sri maharajah Kertanegara, namely that her name Sanggerama wijaya insightful as Diamond manikam.

The events that he destroy the enemy in the fight is because it is caused by the late Sri Kertanegara, because he was not such a boon, a King of the Almighty and Supreme Isjwara of all other kings, not just the only controlled the island of Java, but also throughout the archipelago will not give effect anything. The reason is that he is the Queen (King) of the Kings in Java and later also King of the archipelago.

At one time Sri Kertarajasa go kedaerah wicked lie criminals who defected to the late Sri Kertanegara and Panji PatiPati inevitably miss too, after Sri Kertarajasa get there, then the evident force of nature deity Sri Baginda, mkaa msusuhpun dead scared and shocked and helpless again. Sehelia menjatukhan meraka no hair on the side of Sri Kertarajasa, musuhpun been destroyed, the soldiers were killed, captured his queen, pulled his wife and children deprived of their possessions.

The enemy was wiped out, until no trace again, destroyed to ashes, there was no difference sunguhlah his actions with deeds young Krishna who killed the King Kangsa.

Similarly, the young cadet the king’s son was picking winning preformance struggle, when he reached the point, he is crowned king, wearing royal ornaments, and sitting upon the throne of gold and jewel encrusted throne. It was then that he began to become King (king), he was assisted by his own power. All the people say, that he made himself King (king).

As he was human egala Bagis grieve by wicked wicked adalag as if the water-life, obtained because the ocean is stirred by the mountain Mandara, therefore it so happens, then people feel really glad to be his people, with joy and open the  proud heart king Maharaja sri, Shebaniah is because once covered entirely by his wicked wicked. Therefore His Majesty Maharaja remain that way, then he is like  new sun rising and develop all the flowers, which dampened by the dew of Kembang island, filled with puspa (flower) various kinds. this is how he opened the hearts of the people and it is fun of all the situation  to the  people for being of his men.

KERTARAJASA

Sri Baginda Maharajapun , seorang satria bagaian ke Dewaan turun dari surga berbentuk putra raja dengan tanda-tanda batang tubuh yang baik. Tanda bukti yang meyakinkan hal itu ialah, bahwa beliau mempunyai sifat keteguhan hati, pencipta kebenaran, lemah lembut, berwatak baik, berotak tajam, teman manusia, gagah perwira dalam perjuangan, beliau mempunyai beribu-ribu prajurit dang pengikut yang baik, beliau mempunyai kekayaan, terutama sekali emas, semuanya itu ialah sifat yang menyatakan beliau itu adalah Dewa Berbadan Manusia.

dan selanjutnya beliau mengalami  sebagai perlidungan kehidupan ,kebaikan hati almarhum Sri maharaja Kertanegara, yaitu namanya Sanggerama wijaya yang baginya dipandang berarti sebagai Intan manikam.

Peristiwa bahwa ia memusnahkan musuh dalam perjuangan adalah karena disebabkan oleh almarhum Sri kertanegara, karena bukanlah anugerah seorang seperti beliau , seorang Prabu yang Mahakuasa dan Maha Isjwara dari segala raja-raja lain, tidaklah saja yang hanya menguasai pulau Jawa, melainkan juga seluruh Nusantara tidak akan memberi akibat apa-apa. Sebabnya ialah bahwa beliau adalah Ratu(raja) dari segala Raja di pulau Jawa dan selanjutnya juga Raja Nusantara.

Pada suatu kali Sri Kertarajasa pergi kedaerah orang penjahat dusta durjana yang berkhianat kepada almarhum Sri Kertanegara dan Panji Patipati tak urung ketinggalan pula, setelah Sri Kertarajasa sampai kesana, maka terbuktilah berlakunya sifat-sifat kedewaan Sri Baginda, maka musuhpun mati ketakutan dan terkejut serta tak berdaya lagi. Meraka tak menjatuhkan sehelia rambutpun pada pihak Sri kertarajasa, musuhpun habis dimusnahkan, para prajurit tewas, ratunya ditawan,anak-isterinya ditarik dan harta bendanya dirampas.

Musuh disapu bersih, sampai tak bersisa lagi, hancur lebur menjadi abu, sunguhlah tak ada beda perbuatannya dengan perbuatan pemuda Krisna yang membunuh sang Prabu Kangsa.

Demikian pula putera raja yang muda teruna itu memetik kemenangan dalm perjuangan, Ketika ia mencapai maksudnya, maka ia dinobatkan  menjadi raja,memakai hiasan kerajaan,serta duduk diatas tahta singasana bertatahkan emas dan permata. Pada waktu itulah ia mulai menjadi Prabu(raja) ,ia dibantu oleh tenaga sendiri. Seluruh rakyat mengatakan, bahwa ia mengangkat dirinya menjadi Prabu(raja).

Adapun ia itu bagis egala manusia yang bersedih hati oleh orang jahat durjana adalag seolah-olah sang air-hidup ,didapat karena lautan diaduk dengan gunung Mandara, Oleh karena hal itu sedemikian jadinya,maka rakyat berasa bersenang hati benar menjadi anak buahnya, dengan gembira dan bangga terbulah hati sri baginda Maharaja, sebanya ialah karena dahulu hatinya tertutup seluruhnya oleh orang jahat durjana. Oleh karena itu Sri Baginda Maharaja  tetap demikian itu,maka ia adalhs eperti matahari yang baru terbit dan mengembangkan segala bunga, yang dibasahi oleh embun pemberian dipulau  Kembang, penuh dengan puspa (bunga) berbagai ragam. demikianlah caranya ia membuka hati sanubari selruh rakyat dan kleadaan itu menyenangkan(mengirangkan) rakyat karena menjadi anak buahnya.

1309

1.Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

Wijaya  Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.

Please read the next chapter :” The Glory Of Majapahit Kingdom” as the second part of The Majapahit Kingdom during War and Peace.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Chineseoverseas Nobel prize winner Gao Xingjian Book and Paintings(Buku dan Lukisan pemenang hadiah Nobel Turunan Tiongkok Perantauan di Prancis)

 

 
 
 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

FRAME ONE :The Chinese Nobel Prize writter Gao Xingjian’s Book:”Soul Mountain”the amizing book

Gao Xingjian

Gao Xingjian

Soul Mountain

Chapter One

This piece is 2,600 words or about seven printed pages long

THE OLD BUS is a city reject. After shaking in it for twelve hours on the potholed highway since early morning, you arrive in this mountain county town in the South.In the bus station, which is littered with ice-block wrappers and sugar cane scraps, you stand with your backpack and a bag and look around for a while. People are getting off the bus or walking past, men humping sacks and women carrying babies. A crowd of youths, unhampered by sacks or baskets, have their hands free. They take sunflower seeds out of their pockets, toss them one at a time into their mouths and spit out the shells. With a loud crack the kernels are expertly eaten. To be leisurely and carefree is endemic to the place. They are locals and life has made them like this, they have been here for many generations and you wouldn’t need to go looking anywhere else for them. The earliest to leave the place travelled by river in black canopy boats and overland in hired carts, or by foot if they didn’t have the money. Of course at that time there were no buses and no bus stations. Nowadays, as long as they are still able to travel, they flock back home, even from the other side of the Pacific, arriving in cars or big air-conditioned coaches. The rich, the famous and the nothing in particular all hurry back because they are getting old. After all, who doesn’t love the home of their ancestors? They don’t intend to stay so they walk around looking relaxed, talking and laughing loudly, and effusing fondness and affection for the place. When friends meet they don’t just give a nod or a handshake in the meaningless ritual of city people, but rather they shout the person’s name or thump him on the back. Hugging is also common, but not for women. By the cement trough where the buses are washed, two young women hold hands as they chat. The women here have lovely voices and you can’t help taking a second look. The one with her back to you is wearing an indigo-print headscarf. This type of scarf, and how it’s tied, dates back many generations but is seldom seen these days. You find yourself walking towards them. The scarf is knotted under her chin and the two ends point up. She has a beautiful face. Her features are delicate, so is her slim body. You pass close by them. They have been holding hands all this time, both have red coarse hands and strong fingers. Both are probably recent brides back seeing relatives and friends, or visiting parents. Here, the word xlfu means one’s own daughter-in-law and using it like rustic Northerners to refer to any young married woman will immediately incur angry abuse. On the other hand, a married woman calls her own husband laogong, yet your laogong and my laogong are both used. People here speak with a unique intonation even though they are descendants of the same legendary emperor and are of the same culture and race.
You can’t explain why you’re here. It happened that you were on a train and this person mentioned a place called Lingshan. He was sitting opposite and your cup was next to his. As the train moved, the lids on the cups clattered against one another. If the lids kept on clattering or clattered and then stopped, that would have been the end of it. However, whenever you and he were about to separate the cups, the clattering would stop, and as soon as you and he looked away the clattering would start again. He and you reached out, but again the clattering stopped. The two of you laughed at the same instant, put the cups well apart, and started a conversation. You asked him where he was going.”Lingshan””What?””Lingshan, ling meaning spirit or soul, and shanmeaning mountain.”You’d been to lots of places, visited lots of famous mountains, but had never heard of this place.Your friend opposite had closed his eyes and WAS dozing. Like anyone else, you couldn’t help being curious and naturally wanted to know which famous places you’d missed on your travels. Also, you liked doing things properly and it was annoying that there was a place you’ve never even heard of. You asked him about the location of Lingshan.

“At the source of the You River,” he said, opening his eyes.

You didn’t know this You River either, but was embarrassed about asking and gave an ambiguous nod which could have meant either “I see, thanks” or “Oh, I know the place”. This satisfied your desire for superiority, but not your curiosity. After a while you asked how to get there and the route up the mountain.

“Take the train to Wuyizhen, then go upstream by boat on the You River.”

“Whats there? Scenery? Temples? Historic sites?” you asked, trying to be casual.

“It’s all virgin wilderness.”

“Ancient forests?”

“Of course, but not just ancient forests.”

“What about Wild Men?” you said, joking.

He laughed without any sarcasm, and didn’t seem to be making fun of himself which intrigued you even more. You had to find out more about him.

“Are you an ecologist? A biologist? An anthropologist? An archaeologist?”

He shook his head each time then said, “I’m more interested in living people.”

“So you’re doing research on folk customs? You’re a sociologist? An ethnographer? An ethnologist? A journalist, perhaps? An adventurer?”

“I’m an amateur in all of these.”

The two of you started laughing.

“I’m an expert amateur in all of these!”

The laughing made you and him cheerful. He lit a cigarette and couldn’t stop talking as he told you about the wonders of Lingshan. Afterwards, at your request, he tore up his empty cigarette box and drew a map of the route up Lingshan. In the North it is already late autumn but the summer heat hasn’t completely subsided. Before sunset, it is still quite hot in the sun and sweat starts running down your back. You leave the station to have a look around. There’s nothing nearby except for the little inn across the road. It’s an old-style two-storey building with a wooden shopfront. Upstairs the floorboards creak badly but worse still is the grime on the pillow and sleeping mat. If you wanted to have a wash, you’d have to wait till it was dark to strip off and pour water over yourself in the damp and narrow courtyard. This is a stopover for the village peddlers and craftsmen.

 THE BUS TUA adalah sebuah kota menolak. Setelah gemetar di dalamnya selama dua belas jam di jalan raya berlubang-lubang sejak pagi, Anda tiba di kota ini wilayah gunung di Selatan.

Di stasiun bis, yang penuh dengan pembungkus es-blok dan skrap gula tebu, Anda berdiri dengan ransel dan tas dan melihat sekitar untuk sementara waktu. Orang-orang turun dari bus terakhir atau berjalan, laki-laki dan perempuan menjunjung karung sambil membawa bayi. Sekelompok pemuda, dihalangi oleh karung atau keranjang, memiliki tangan mereka bebas. Mereka mengambil biji bunga matahari keluar dari kantong mereka, melemparkannya  satu per satu ke dalam mulut mereka dan dimuntahkan kerang. Dengan retak keras kernel adalah ahli dimakan. Untuk menjadi santai dan riang adalah endemik untuk menempatkan. Mereka adalah penduduk setempat dan kehidupan telah membuat mereka seperti ini, mereka telah di sini selama beberapa generasi dan Anda tidak perlu pergi mencari tempat lain untuk mereka. Paling awal untuk meninggalkan tempat bepergian dengan perahu sungai di kanopi hitam dan darat di gerobak disewa, atau dengan kaki kalau mereka tidak punya uang. Tentu saja pada waktu itu tidak ada bis dan tidak ada stasiun bis. Saat ini, selama mereka masih dapat melakukan perjalanan, mereka kawanan kembali ke rumah, bahkan dari sisi lain Pasifik, tiba di mobil atau pelatih ber-AC besar. Orang kaya, yang terkenal dan tidak terburu-buru khususnya semua kembali karena mereka mulai tua. Setelah semua, yang tidak menyukai rumah nenek moyang mereka? Mereka tidak berniat untuk tinggal sehingga mereka berjalan di sekitar tampak santai, berbicara dan tertawa keras, dan curahan kecintaan dan kasih sayang untuk tempat itu. Ketika teman-teman bertemu mereka tidak hanya memberikan mengangguk atau jabat tangan dalam ritual berarti orang kota, melainkan mereka berteriak nama orang atau berdebar-debar dia di belakang. Memeluk juga umum, tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Oleh palung semen tempat bus dicuci, dua perempuan muda berpegangan tangan saat mereka bercakap-cakap(chatting). Para wanita di sini memiliki suara indah dan Anda tidak dapat membantu mengambil melihat kedua. Yang satu dengan kembali kepada Anda adalah mengenakan jilbab nila-cetak. Jenis syal, dan bagaimana hal itu diikat, tanggal kembali generasi banyak tapi jarang terlihat hari ini. Anda menemukan diri Anda berjalan ke arah mereka. syal ini rajutan di bawah dagu dan kedua ujung titik atas. Dia memiliki wajah cantik. fitur nya adalah halus, sehingga tubuh ramping. Anda melewati dekat oleh mereka. Mereka telah memegang tangan selama ini, keduanya memiliki tangan kasar merah dan jari-jari yang kuat. Keduanya mungkin pengantin baru-baru ini kembali melihat kerabat dan teman-teman, atau mengunjungi orang tua. Di sini, kata xlfu berarti satu putri-sendiri di-hukum dan menggunakannya seperti utara pedesaan untuk merujuk kepada semua wanita yang menikah muda segera akan dikenakan penyalahgunaan marah. Di sisi lain, seorang wanita yang sudah menikah panggilan Laogong suaminya sendiri, namun Laogong Anda dan Laogong saya keduanya digunakan. Orang di sini berbicara dengan intonasi yang unik meskipun mereka adalah keturunan dari kaisar legendaris yang sama dan budaya yang sama dan ras.

Anda tidak dapat menjelaskan mengapa Anda di sini. Itu terjadi bahwa Anda berada di kereta dan orang ini disebutkan tempat yang disebut Lingshan. Dia duduk berlawanan dan cangkir Anda di samping nya. Saat kereta bergerak, penutup pada cangkir berdentang terhadap satu sama lain. Jika tutup terus gemerincing atau terjatuh dan kemudian berhenti, yang seharusnya akhir itu. Namun, setiap kali Anda dan dia hendak memisahkan cangkir, derap akan berhenti, dan segera setelah Anda dan dia memalingkan muka dengan gemerincing akan mulai lagi. Dia dan Anda mengulurkan tangan, tapi sekali lagi gemerincing itu berhenti. Anda berdua tertawa pada saat yang sama, baik meletakkan cangkir terpisah, dan mulai percakapan. Anda bertanya padanya di mana ia akan pergi.

“Lingshan”

“Apa?”

“Lingshan, ling berarti roh atau jiwa, dan gunung yang berarti shan.”

Kau pernah ke banyak tempat, mengunjungi banyak gunung terkenal, tetapi belum pernah mendengar tentang tempat ini.

berlawanan Teman Anda telah menutup matanya dan WS tertidur. Seperti orang lain, Anda tidak bisa menahan rasa penasaran dan ingin tahu yang terkenal dengan tempat-tempat kau ketinggalan pada perjalanan anda. Juga, Anda suka melakukan hal-hal baik dan itu menjengkelkan bahwa ada tempat yang belum pernah dengar. Anda bertanya tentang lokasi Lingshan.

“Pada sumber Anda Sungai,” katanya, membuka matanya.

Kau tidak tahu ini Anda Sungai baik, tapi merasa malu tentang meminta dan memberikan mengangguk ambigu yang bisa berarti baik “Saya melihat, terima kasih” atau “Oh, aku tahu tempat”. Puas ini keinginan Anda untuk keunggulan, tetapi tidak rasa ingin tahu Anda. Setelah beberapa saat Anda bertanya bagaimana untuk sampai ke sana dan rute atas gunung.

“Naik kereta api ke Wuyizhen, kemudian pergi hulu dengan perahu di Sungai Anda.”

“Pemandangan apa yang ada?? Candi? Situs Bersejarah?” Anda bertanya, mencoba untuk bersikap santai.

“Ini semua padang belantara perawan.”

“Kuno hutan?”

“Tentu saja, tetapi bukan hanya kuno hutan.”

“Bagaimana Liar Pria?” Anda berkata, bercanda.

Dia tertawa tanpa sarkasme apapun, dan tampaknya tidak akan membuat olok dirinya sendiri yang tertarik Anda bahkan lebih. Anda harus mencari tahu lebih banyak tentang dia.

“Apakah Anda seorang ahli ekologi biologi A?? Antropolog An? Arkeolog An?”

Dia menggeleng setiap kali lalu berkata, “Saya lebih tertarik pada kehidupan orang.”

“Jadi kau melakukan penelitian tentang adat rakyat Kau? Sosiolog? Etnograf An? Etnolog An? Jurnalis, mungkin? Petualang An?”

“Aku seorang amatir dalam semua.”

Anda berdua mulai tertawa.

“Saya ahli amatir dalam semua ini!”

The tertawa membuat Anda dan dia ceria. Dia menyalakan rokok dan tidak dapat berhenti berbicara ketika ia memberitahu Anda tentang keajaiban Lingshan. Setelah itu, atas permintaan Anda, ia merobek kotak rokok kosong dan menggambar peta rute Facebook Lingshan. Di Utara itu sudah akhir musim gugur namun musim panas belum sepenuhnya surut. Sebelum matahari terbenam, masih cukup panas di bawah sinar matahari dan keringat mulai membasahi punggung. Anda meninggalkan stasiun untuk melihat-lihat. Tidak ada di dekatnya kecuali untuk penginapan kecil di seberang jalan. Ini sebuah bangunan dua lantai gaya lama dengan shopfront kayu. Di lantai atas papan lantai berderit buruk tapi lebih buruk masih merupakan kotoran di atas bantal dan tikar tidur. Jika Anda ingin memiliki mencuci, Anda harus menunggu sampai hari sudah gelap untuk strip off dan menuangkan air di atas diri Anda di halaman lembab dan sempit. Ini adalah persinggahan bagi pedagang asongan desa dan pengrajin.

 
 

2.Gao Xingjian’s  poem:

1.you can remember the words of the ditty:

In moonlight thick as soup , I ride out to burn incense. For Luo Dajie who burnt to death.For Dou Sanniang who died in a rage.Sanniang picked beans.but the pods were empty,she married master Ji. but master Ji was short.So she married  a crab, the crab crossed a ditch.trod on an cel.The eel complained, it complained to a monk.The monk said a prayer, a prayer to Guanyin,So Guanyin pissed,The piss hit my son,his belly hurt.So I got an exorcist to dance.The dance didn’t work.But still cost heaps of money

Anda dapat mengingat kata-kata lagu pendek ini:
Dalam cahaya bulan setebal sup, aku naik keluar untuk membakar dupa. Untuk Luo Dajie yang dibakar untuk kematian.Untuk  Dou Sanniang yang meninggal dalam sebuah rage.Sanniang mengambil kacang hijau.Tetapi polongnya kosong, Ia menikah dengan master Ji. tapi master Ji pendek.So ia menikah kepiting, kepiting menyeberangi ditch.trod pada belut cel.Mengeluh, mengeluh kepada seorang biarawan pendeta.Pendeta  mengucapkan doa, doa untuk Guanyin, Jadi Guanyin marah dan kencing, kencingnya  mengenai  anak saya.Sehingga  perutnya cedera, sehingga saya menari untuk  mengusir setan .Tarian tersebut tidak berhasil .Tetapi  masih membutuhkan biaya setumpukan uang

2.I can see the people ,hear their voices, the sound of a gong and the  beat of drum.however outside the windows is only the sound of the  mountain and the lapping of water

There are three hundreed and sixty pole loads of songs,which load do you carry on your pole?There  are thirty -six thousand books of songs,Which book do you carry in your hand?Address me as master singer for I know,The first book is the script born within us, I understand  when I hear.The amster singer is an expert.to know the principle of Earth and Heaven.I venture to ask him. In which month of which year was song born? On which day of which month was song born?

Aku bisa melihat orang-orang, mendengar suara mereka, suara gong dan irama genderang .Kendatipun diluar jendela hanya suara gunung dan memukul-mukul air
Ada tiga ratus dan beban tiang enam puluh lagu, dengan beban yang Anda melanjutkan tiang Anda? Ada tiga puluh enam ribu buku lagu, buku yang Anda bawa di tangan Anda? Alamat saya sebagai penyanyi master karena aku tahu, pertama buku adalah script lahir dalam diri kita, aku memahami ketika aku dengar.The penyanyi master adalah sebuah expert.Untuk  mengetahui prinsip Bumi dan usaha Surga.Saya  bertanya padanya. Di mana bulan yang tahun lagu ini lahir? Pada hari yang bulan apa lagu ini  lahir ?

Frame Two :

The Gao xingjian Paintings

1. Museo Wurth La Rioja hosts ‘After the Flood’ an Exhibition by Gao Xingjian

  1.  

    artwork: Gao Xingjian - Lightning, 2006 - Ink on canvas, 200 x 300 cm. - Courtesy of  Museo Wurth La Rioja 

    AGONCILLO-LA RIOJA, SPAIN – Museo Wurth La Rioja presents the exhibition ‘After the Flood’, which brings together the work by the prestigious Chinese artist Gao Xingjian (Ganzhou, China, 1940), 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature. A selection of 80 recently created artworks, including ink paintings on canvas and paper. Regarded as one of the most important Chinese writers at present, Gao Xingjian still is not well known as a painter in Spain, although he is recognized by the international art scene and his oeuvre was previously exhibited at the Reina Sofia Museum (Madrid, 2002). His work has been presented in several solo and group exhibitions in Europe, Asia and the United States, and is included in important art collections around the world

    Gao’s art emerges from an unique fusion of Oriental and Western cultures. His painting is characterized by the dominant use of traditional Chinese means –such as rice paper, Chinese ink and brushes-, but his technique reveals to be thoroughly modern. Through his comprehensive study of modern Western art, Gao has finely appreciated the importance given to the physical act of painting, the exploration on pictorial materiality, and specially, the autonomous status of painting.

    artwork: Gao Xingjian, The Auspices, 2006 192 x 200 cm. -  Ink on canvasThe exhibition After the Flood comprises large and medium-scale canvases and works on rice paper rendered in Chinese ink, carried out in 2008 and is fully representative of Gao’s style. The artworks exude a fluid technique and spontaneous overflow, with lightly brushstrokes, by means of which he explores the painterly possibilities of ink. White and black, light and shadow, achieve a great variety of tonalities, giving a sensual and poetic effect full of texture. The pictures fluctuate between figurative and abstract painting, depicting images that in a broader sense remind of landscapes and inner worlds, as well as cosmic processes inspired by the artists’ reflections on the complexity of the human existence.

    Gao Xingjian was born in 1940, in the Chinese province of Jianxi. Novelist, dramatist, theatre director, literary critic, stage director and painter, he studied French literature, worked as translator and, later, as scriptwriter at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing. The theatrical debut of the plays Signal Alarm (1982) and Bus Stop (1983) was condemned by the Chinese authorities and, in 1986, his work was definitely banned. A year later, Gao went into exile in Paris, where he has lived since then, and became French citizen in 1998. In France, he published Soul Mountain (1990), one of his most famous and acclaimed novels. Amongst other International awards, in 2000 Gao Xingjian received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was also named Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’ Honneur by the President of the Republic of France.

2.Gao Xinjian ‘s Painting :”Lonely atmospheric and melancholic beauty”

 


.

 3.Gao Xingjian Painting:”La Dispersion”

 

  Gao Xingjian, La Dispersion

TITLE:  La Dispersion
ARTIST:  Gao Xingjian
WORK DATE:  2008
CATEGORY:  Paintings
MATERIALS:  Ink on canvas
SIZE:  h: 60 x w: 81 cm / h: 23.6 x w: 31.9 in
REGION:  Chinese
STYLE:  Contemporary (ca. 1945-present)
   
GALLERY:  +34 93 487 6759    Send Email
ONLINE CATALOGUE(S):  Gao Xingjian ‘Después del diluvio’  Oct 23 – Dec 31, 2008
 
 

 

Frame Three:

The Gao Xingjian Profile During Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.

 

Gao Xingjian

The Nobel Prize in Literature

 
Gao Xingjian and His Majesty the King
Gao Xingjian receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Gao Xingjian
Gao Xingjian after receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the King at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Award Ceremony
The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000. Gao Xingjian sits in the middle of the front row.

 

Nobel Laureate in Literature Gao Xingjian at the table of
Gao Xingjian at the table of honour at the Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall, 10 December 2000.

FRAME FOUR :

The Biography of Chinese Noble Prized Literature Gao Xingjian

 
 
 
 
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Gao.
Gao Xingjian
Born January 4, 1940 (1940-01-04) (age 71)
Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China
Occupation novelist, playwright, critic, translator, screenwriter, director, painter
Citizenship China (1949-1996)
France (since 1997)
Alma mater Beijing Foreign Studies University
Period since 1982
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
2000

Gao Xingjian (Chinese: 高行健; pinyin: Gāo Xíngjiàn; Wade–Giles: Kao Hsing-chien, pronounced [kɑ́ʊ ɕǐŋtɕjɛ̂n]; born January 4, 1940) is a Chinese-born novelist, playwright, critic, and painter. An émigré to France since 1987, Gao was granted French citizenship in 1997. He is a noted translator (particularly of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco), screenwriter, stage director, and a celebrated painter.

Gao was the recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature “for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”.[1] Gao’s drama is considered to be fundamentally absurdist in nature and avant-garde in his native China. His prose works tend to be less celebrated in China but are highly regarded elsewhere in Europe and the West. He once burnt a suitcase packed with manuscripts during the Cultural Revolution to avoid persecution.[2]

Contents

 

Life

Gao’s original home town is Taizhou, Jiangsu. Born in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China, Gao has been a French citizen since 1997. In 1992 he was awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

Early years in Jiangxi and Jiangsu

Gao’s father was a clerk in the Bank of China, and his mother was a member of the Young Men’s Christian Association. His mother was once a playactress of Anti-Japanese Theatre during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Under his mother’s influence, Gao enjoyed painting, writing and theatre very much when he was a little boy. During his middle school years, he read lots of literature translated from the West, and he studied sketching, ink and wash painting, oil painting and clay sculpture under the guidance of painter Yun Zongying (simplified Chinese: 郓宗嬴; traditional Chinese: 鄆宗嬴; pinyin: Yùn Zōngyíng).

In 1950, his family moved to Nanjing, the capital city of Jiangsu Province. In 1952, Gao entered the Nanjing Number 10 Middle School (南京市 第十 中学; later renamed Jinling High School (zh:金陵中学) which was the Middle School attached to Nanjing University.

Years in Beijing and Anhui

In 1957 Gao graduated, and, following his mother’s advice, chose Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU, 北京外国语大学) instead of the Central Academy of Fine Arts (中央美术学院), although he was thought to be talented in art.

In 1962 Gao graduated from the Department of French, BFSU, and then entered the Chinese International Bookstore (中国国际书店), where he became a professional translator. During the 1970s, because of the Down to the Countryside Movement, he went to and stayed in the countryside and did farm labour in Anhui Province. He taught as a Chinese teacher in Gangkou Middle School (港口中学), Ningguo Xian (宁国县), Anhui Province for a short time. In 1975, he was allowed to go back to Beijing and became the group leader of French translation for the magazine Construction in China (《中国建设》).

In 1977 Gao worked for the Committee of Foreign Relationship, Chinese Association of Writers (中国作家协会对外联络委员会). In May 1979, he visited Paris with Chinese writers including Ba Jin (巴金), and served as a French-Chinese translator in the group. In 1980, Gao became a screenwriter and playwright for the Beijing People’s Art Theatre (北京人民艺术剧院).

Gao is known as a pioneer of absurdist drama in China, where Signal Alarm (《绝对信号》, 1982) and Bus Stop (《车站》, 1983) were produced during his term as resident playwright at the Beijing People’s Art Theatre from 1981 to 1987. Influenced by European theatrical models, it gained him a reputation as an avant-garde writer. His other plays, The Primitive (1985) and The Other Shore (《彼岸》, 1986), all openly criticised the government’s state policies.

In 1986 Gao was misdiagnosed with lung cancer, and he began a 10-month trek along the Yangtze, which resulted in his novel Soul Mountain (《灵山》). The part-memoir, part-novel, first published in Taiwan in 1989, mixes literary genres and utilizes shifting narrative voices. It has been specially cited by the Swedish Nobel committee as “one of those singular literary creations that seem impossible to compare with anything but themselves.” The book details his travels from Sichuan province to the coast, and life among Chinese minorities such as the Qiang, Miao, and Yi peoples on the fringes of Han Chinese civilization.

Years in Europe and Paris

By 1987, Gao had shifted to Bagnolet, a city adjacent to Paris, France. The political Fugitives (1989), which makes reference to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, resulted in all his works being banned from performance in China.

Works

Selected works:

Dramas and performances

  • 《绝对信号》 (Signal Alarm, 1982)
    • 1982, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1992, in Taiwan
  • 《车站》 (Bus Stop, 1983)
    • 1983, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1984, in Yugoslavia
    • 1986, in Hong Kong
    • 1988, in Britain
    • 1992, in Austria
    • 1999, in Japan
  • 《野人》 (Wild Men, “Savages”, 1985)
    • 1985, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1988, in Hamburg, Germany
    • 1990, in Hong Kong
  • 《彼岸》 (The Other Shore, 1986)
  • 《躲雨》 (Shelter the Rain)
    • 1981, in Sweden
  • 《冥城》 (Dark City)
    • 1988, in Hong Kong
  • 《声声慢变奏》 (Transition of Sheng-Sheng-Man)
    • 1989, in United States
  • 《逃亡》 (Escape)
    • 1990, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1990, in Sweden
    • 1992, in Germany, Poland
    • 1994, in France
    • 1997, in Japan, Africa
  • 《生死界》 (Death Sector / Between Life and Death)
    • 1991, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in France
    • 1994, in Sydney, Italy
    • 1996, in Poland
    • 1996, in US
  • 《山海经传》 (A Tale of Shan Hai Jing)
    • 1992, published by Hong Kong Tian & Di Book Press (香港天地图书公司)
  • 《对话与反诘》 (Dialogue & Rhetorical / Dialogue and Rebuttal)
    • 1992, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in Vienna
    • 1995, 1999, in Paris
  • 《周末四重奏》 (Weekends Quartet / Weekend Quartet)
    • 1999, published by Hong Kong New Century Press (香港新世纪出版社)
  • 《夜游神》 (Nighthawk / Nocturnal Wanderer)
    • 1999, in France
  • 《八月雪》 (Snow in August)
    • 2000, published by Taiwan Lianjing Press (台湾联经出版社)
    • 19 Dec 2002, in Taipei
  • 《高行健戏剧集》 (Collection)
  • 《高行健戏剧六种》 (Collection, 1995, published by Taiwan Dijiao Press (台湾帝教出版社))
  • 《行路难》 (Xinglunan)
  • 《喀巴拉山》 (Mountain Kebala)
  • 《独白》 (Soliloquy)

Fiction

  • 《寒夜的星辰》 (“Constellation in a Cold Night”, 1979)
  • 《有只鸽子叫红唇儿》 (“Such a Pigeon called Red Lips”, 1984) – a collection of novellas
  • 《给我老爷买鱼竿》 (Buying a Fishing Rod for My Grandfather, 1986–1990) – a short story collection
  • 《灵山》 (Soul Mountain, 1989)
  • 《一个人的圣经》 (One Man’s Bible, 1998)

Poem

While being forced to work as a peasant – a form of ‘education’ under the Cultural Revolution – in the 1970s, Gao Xingjian produced many plays, short stories, poems and critical pieces that he had eventually to burn to avoid the consequences of his dissident literature being discovered.[3] Of the work he produced subsequently, he published no collections of poetry, being known more widely for his drama, fiction and essays. However, one short poem exists that represents a distinctively modern style akin to his other writings:

天葬台
宰了 / 割了 / 烂捣碎了 / 燃一柱香 / 打一声呼哨 / 来了 / 就去了 / 来去都干干净净
Sky Burial
Cut / Scalped / Pounded into pieces / Light an incense / Blow the whistle / Come / Gone / Out and out

(13 April 1986, Beijing)[4]

Other texts

  • 《巴金在巴黎》 (Ba Jin in Paris, 1979, essay)
  • 《现代小说技巧初探》 (“A Preliminary Examination of Modern Fictional Techniques”, 1981)
  • 《谈小说观和小说技巧》 (1983)
  • 《没有主义》 (Without -isms, translated by W. Lau, D. Sauviat & M. Williams // Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia. Vols 27 & 28, 1995–96
  • 《对一种现代戏剧的追求》 (1988, published by China Drama Press) (中国戏剧出版社))
  • 《高行健·2000年文库——当代中国文库精读》 (1999, published by Hong Kong Mingpao Press) (香港明报出版社)

Paintings

Gao is a renowned painter, especially for his ink and wash painting. His exhibitions have included:

  • Le goût de l’encre, Paris, Hazan 2002
  • Return to Painting, New York, Perennial 2002
  • “无我之境·有我之境”, Singapore, 17 Nov 2005 – 7 Feb 2006
  • The End of the World, Germany, 29 Mar – 27 May 2007

Works in English

  • Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather, short stories, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2004, ISBN 0-00-717038-6
  • Soul Mountain, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2001, ISBN 0-00-711923-2
  • One Man’s Bible, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, ISBN 0-06-621132-8
  • The Other Shore, plays, trans. G. Fong, Chinese University Press, ISBN 962-201-862-9
  • The Other Side, play, trans. Jo Riley, in An Oxford Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Drama, 1997, ISBN 0-19-586880-3
  • Silhouette/Shadow: The Cinematic Art of Gao Xingjian, film/images/poetry, ed. Fiona Sze-Lorrain, Contours, Paris, ISBN 978-981-05-9207-3

Reception

Official response from mainland China

The Premier Zhu Rongji delivered a congratulatory message to Gao when interviewed by the Hong Kong newspaper East Daily (《东方日报》):

  • Q.: What’s your comment on Gao’s winning Nobel Prize ?
  • A.: I am very happy that works written in Chinese can win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Chinese characters have a history of several thousand years, and Chinese language has an infinite charm, (I) believe that there will be Chinese works winning Nobel Prizes again in the future. Although it’s a pity that the winner this time is a French citizen instead of Chinese, I still would like to send my congratulations both to the winner and the French Department of Culture. (Original words: 我很高兴用汉语写作的文学作品获诺贝尔文学奖。汉字有几千年的历史,汉语有无穷的魅力,相信今后还会有汉语或华语作品获奖。很遗憾这次获奖的是法国人不是中国人,但我还是要向获奖者和法国文化部表示祝贺。)

Comments from Chinese writers

Gao’s work has led to fierce discussion among Chinese writers, both positive and negative.

Many Chinese writers[who?] comment that Gao’s “Chinoiserie”, or translatable works, have opened a new approach for Chinese modern literature to the Swedish Academy, and that his winning the Nobel Prize in its 100th anniversary year is a happy occasion for Chinese literature.

In his article on Gao in the June 2008 issue of Muse, a now-defunct Hong Kong magazine, Leo Lee Ou-fan (李歐梵) praises the use of Chinese language in Soul Mountain: ‘Whether it works or not, it is a rich fictional language filled with vernacular speeches and elegant 文言 (classical) formulations as well as dialects, thus constituting a “heteroglossic” tapestry of sounds and rhythms that can indeed be read aloud (as Gao himself has done in his public readings).’[5]

Before 2000, a dozen Chinese writers and scholars already predicted Gao’s winning the Nobel Prize for Literature, including Hu Yaoheng (Chinese:胡耀恒) [6] Pan Jun (潘军)[7] as early as 1999. Chinese literature (characters, language, etc.) has heavily influenced East Asian literature, and Chinese language elements are widely used in several languages including Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese. In addition, with 20th-century Japanese writers having already won the Prize, many Chinese writers had predicted before 2000 that soon there would be a Literature winner with a Chinese background.

 Honors

 Trivia

  • Gao Xingjian’s Swedish translator Göran Malmqvist, is a member of the Swedish Academy and was responsible for the translation to Swedish for Nobel Prize consideration. Ten days before the award decision was made public, Gao Xingjian changed his Swedish publisher (from Forum to Atlantis), but Göran Malmqvist has denied leaking information about the award [1].
  • Gao is one of the two Nobel laureates to give an Nobel acceptance speech in Chinese so far (after Samuel C. C. Ting in 1976).
  • Gao has been the center of an artistic piece of video art. The art exhibit is entitled ‘Voom’ and was presented at the University of Iowa art museum in March 2008.

References

  1. ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000″. Nobelprize. October 7, 2010. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2000/. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  2. ^ Alex Duval Smith (2005-10-14). “A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy”. The Independent (news.independent.co.uk). http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article319509.ece. Retrieved 2008-04-26. “2000: During the Cultural Revolution, Xingjian burnt a whole suitcase full of manuscripts to avoid punishment. Sent to a re-education camp where he was brutally treated, he continued to live in China and remained a party member. Only when L’autre Rive (The Other Shore) was banned in 1987 did he leave his country of birth and apply for asylum in France” 
  3. ^ Mabel Lee, ‘Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and his Novel Soul Mountain’ in CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal, September, 2003, Accessed 14 August 2007
  4. ^ Published on the website Ba Huang’s Art Studio
  5. ^ Lee, Leo Ou-fan (6 2008). “The happy exile”. Muse Magazine (17): 93. 
  6. ^ http://culture.163.com/edit/001013/001013_42352.html
  7. ^ http://news.21cn.com/today/2006/09/14/2973393.shtml

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace Part One 1293-1309(Kerajaan Majapahit Masa Perang Dan Damai Bagian Pertama)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections

                          

             Edited By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

       special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.Madjapahit Rising(Timbul) war 1293-1309

3.Madjapahit Developing(Timbul) War 1309-1389

4.Madjapahit Declining (Menurun)War 1389-1476

5.Madjapahit Settting (Tengelam)war 1478-1525

_______________________________________________________________

THE MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM DURING WAR AND PEACE PART ONE 1293-1309

THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM(TIMBULNYA KERAJAAN MAJAPAHIT)

PREFACE 

Until  this day I have never seen a book about the kingdom of Majapahit which arranged in chronological order with the relevant illustrations, such as coins, ceramics and other artifacts. As an example of a brief article below

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,[7] and some details of the history are rather abstract.[8] The main sources used by historians are: the Pararaton (‘Book of Kings’) written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[9] Pararaton is focused upon Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which some events are covered narratively.[8] There are also some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese.

The Javanese sources incorporate some poetic mythological elements, and scholars such as C. C. Berg, a Dutch nationalist, have considered that the entire historical record to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined.[10] Despite Berg’s approach, most scholars do not accept this view, as the historical record corresponds with Chinese materials that could not have had similar intention. The list of rulers and details of the state structure, show no sign of being invented.[8]

Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He visited Majapahit. Zheng He’s translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived.[11] New findings in April 2011, indicate the Majapahit capital was much larger than previously believed after some artifacts were uncovered.[12]

 History

Formation

The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar and the statue is now preserved at National Museum of Indonesia.

After defeating Melayu Kingdom[13] in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute, insulted the Mongol envoy and challenged the Khan instead. As the response, in 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.

By that time, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura’s regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When the Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[14] Yuan’s army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.

In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

According to tradition, Wijaya’s son and successor, Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was his desire on taking his own stepsisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. Approximately during Jayanegara’s reign, the Italian Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited Majapahit court in Java. In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a Bhikkhuni. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni’s auspices. Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as the Prime Minister in 1336. During his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She abdicated the throne in favour of her son, Hayam Wuruk.

Golden age

The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as “the golden age” of the archipelago.

The terracotta portrait of Gajah Mada. Collection of Trowulan Museum.

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada’s command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories and become the regional power. According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.

Next to launching naval and military expeditions, the expansion of Majapahit Empire also involved diplomacy and alliance. Hayam Wuruk decided, probably for political reasons, to take princess Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) of neighboring Sunda Kingdom as his consort.[15] The Sundanese took this proposal as an alliance agreement. In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit, to accompany and marry his daughter with Hayam Wuruk. However Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda’s submission to Majapahit overlordship. The skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit troops on Bubat square were unevitable. Despite the courageous resistance, the royal family were overwhelmed and decimated. Almost whole of the Sundanese royal party were viciously massacred.[16] Tradition mentioned that the heartbroken Princess committed suicide to defend the honour of her country.[17] The Pasunda Bubat tragedy become the main theme of Kidung Sunda, also mentioned in Pararaton, however it was never mentioned in Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary form from 14th century Majapahit’s power. Majapahit’s direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit’s claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.[18]

In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada’s death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang,[4] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renowned general was Adityawarman[citation needed], known for his conquest in Minangkabau.

The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[19] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[4] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[4]

Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.

Sampai hari ini saya belum pernah melihat buku tentang Kerajaan Majapahit yang disusun secara kronologis dengan illustrasi yang terkait seperti koin,keramik , dan artefak lain . Sebagai contoh suatu artikel yang singkat dibawah ini.

Tetap masih sedikit bukti fisik terkait KerajaanMajapahit , [7] dan beberapa rincian sejarah agak abstrak [8] Sumber utama yang digunakan oleh sejarawan adalah: Pararaton (‘Kitab Raja-raja’) ditulis dalam bahasa Kawi dan Nagarakertagama dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno.. [9] Pararaton berfokus pada Ken Arok (pendiri Singhasari) tetapi mencakup beberapa fragmen cerita pendek mengenai terbentuknya Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, adalah sebuah puisi epik tua Jawa ditulis pada masa keemasan Majapahit di bawah pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk setelah beberapa peristiwa dilindungi naratif. [8] Ada juga beberapa prasasti dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno dan Cina.Sumber Jawa menggabungkan beberapa unsur mitologis puitis, dan sarjana seperti CC Berg, seorang nasionalis Belanda, telah mempertimbangkan bahwa seluruh catatan sejarah tidak akan catatan masa lalu, tetapi sebuah sarana supranatural dimana masa depan dapat ditentukan. [10 ] Meskipun pendekatan Berg, kebanyakan sarjana tidak menerima pandangan ini, sebagai catatan sejarah Cina sesuai dengan bahan yang tidak bisa memiliki niat serupa. Daftar penguasa dan rincian struktur negara, tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda yang diciptakan. [8]Laksamana Dinasti Ming Zheng He mengunjungi Majapahit. Zheng penerjemah Ma Huan Dia menulis sebuah deskripsi rinci tentang Majapahit dan di mana raja Jawa tinggal [11] Temuan baru pada bulan April 2011., Menunjukkan modal Majapahit jauh lebih besar dibandingkan sebelumnya percaya setelah beberapa artefak yang ditemukan. [12] Sejarah
PembentukanPatung Harihara, dewa gabungan Siwa dan Wisnu. Itu adalah penggambaran didewakan kamar mayat dari Kertarajasa. Awalnya berlokasi di Candi Simping, Blitar dan patung sekarang diawetkan di Museum Nasional Indonesia.Setelah mengalahkan Kerajaan Melayu [13] di Sumatra pada 1290, Singhasari menjadi kerajaan paling kuat di wilayah ini. Kubilai Khan, Khan Besar Kekaisaran Mongol dan Kaisar Mongol Dinasti Yuan, ditantang Singhasari dengan mengirim utusan menuntut upeti. Kertanegara, penguasa terakhir Singhasari, menolak untuk membayar upeti, menghina utusan Mongol dan menantang Khan sebagai gantinya. Sebagai respon, pada 1293, Kubilai Khan mengirim ekspedisi besar-besaran dari 1.000 kapal ke Jawa.Pada saat itu, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) dari Kediri, sebuah negara bawahan Singhasari, telah merebut dan membunuh Kertanegara. Setelah diampuni oleh Jayakatwang dengan bantuan dari bupati Madura’s, Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara anak-in-hukum, diberi tanah hutan Tarik. Dia kemudian membuka tanah hutan yang luas dan membangun sebuah desa baru di sana. Desa itu dinamai Majapahit, yang diambil dari nama buah yang memiliki rasa pahit di hutan yang (maja adalah nama buah dan pahit berarti pahit). Ketika tentara Mongol Yuan dikirim oleh Kubilai Khan tiba, Wijaya bersekutu dengan tentara untuk melawan Jayakatwang. Setelah Jayakatwang dihancurkan, Raden Wijaya memaksa sekutu-sekutunya untuk mundur dari Jawa dengan meluncurkan serangan mendadak tentara [14] Yuan sudah. ​​Untuk menarik dalam kebingungan ketika mereka berada di wilayah bermusuhan. Itu juga kesempatan terakhir mereka untuk menangkap angin monsun rumah, jika tidak, mereka akan harus menunggu selama enam bulan di sebuah pulau yang bermusuhan.Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14] Wijaya dirinya. Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.Menurut tradisi, putra dan penerus Wijaya, Jayanegara itu terkenal imoralitas. Salah satu tindakan berdosa sedang keinginannya pada stepsisters sendiri sebagai istri. Ia berhak Kala Gemet, atau “penjahat lemah”. Sekitar selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, para Pastor Italia Odoric dari Pordenone mengunjungi pengadilan Majapahit di Jawa. Di AD 1328, Jayanegara dibunuh oleh dokternya, Tanca. Ibu tirinya, Gayatri Rajapatni, seharusnya menggantikannya, tetapi Rajapatni pensiun dari pengadilan untuk menjadi bhikkhuni. Rajapatni menunjuk anak perempuannya, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, atau dikenal dalam nama resmi dirinya sebagai Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, sebagai ratu Majapahit di bawah naungan Rajapatni’s. Tribhuwana ditunjuk Gajah Mada sebagai Perdana Menteri di 1336. Selama pelantikannya Gajah Mada menyatakan Sumpah Palapa-nya, mengungkapkan rencananya untuk memperluas wilayah Majapahit dan membangun sebuah imperium. Selama pemerintahan Tribhuwana itu, kerajaan Majapahit berkembang jauh lebih besar dan menjadi terkenal di daerah tersebut. Tribhuwana menguasai Majapahit sampai kematian ibunya pada tahun AD 1350. Dia turun tahta takhta demi anaknya, Hayam Wuruk.Golden usia
The Bidadari anggun Majapahit, Bidadari langit emas dalam gaya Majapahit sempurna menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai “zaman keemasan” Nusantara.
Potret terakota Gajah Mada. Koleksi Museum Trowulan.Hayam Wuruk, juga disebut Rajasanagara, memerintah Majapahit di AD 1350-1389. Selama periode ini, Majapahit mencapai puncaknya dengan bantuan perdana menteri, Gajah Mada. Di bawah komando Gajah Mada’s (AD 1313-1364), Majapahit menaklukkan wilayah lebih dan menjadi kekuatan regional. Menurut kitab Nagarakertagama Pupuh (canto) XIII dan XIV disebutkan beberapa negara bagian di Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, kepulauan Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, New Guinea, dan beberapa bagian pulau Filipina sebagai wilayah Majapahit di bawah kekuasaan. Sumber disebutkan ekspansi Majapahit telah menandai semaksimal kerajaan Majapahit.Next untuk meluncurkan ekspedisi angkatan laut dan militer, perluasan Kerajaan Majapahit juga terlibat diplomasi dan aliansi. Hayam Wuruk memutuskan, mungkin untuk alasan politik, untuk mengambil putri Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) dari tetangga Kerajaan Sunda sebagai permaisuri nya [15]. Orang Sunda mengambil proposal ini sebagai perjanjian aliansi. Pada 1357 raja Sunda dan keluarga kerajaan-Nya datang ke Majapahit, untuk menemani dan menikahi putrinya dengan Hayam Wuruk. Namun Gajah Mada melihat acara ini sebagai kesempatan untuk menuntut penyerahan Sunda ke Majapahit penguasa atasan. Ini pertempuran antara keluarga kerajaan Sunda dan pasukan Majapahit di alun-alun Bubat adalah unevitable. Meskipun perlawanan berani, keluarga kerajaan kewalahan dan hancur. Hampir seluruh pihak kerajaan Sunda yang kejam dibantai. [16] Tradisi menyebutkan bahwa bunuh diri patah hati Putri berkomitmen untuk membela kehormatan negaranya [17] Tragedi Bubat Pasunda menjadi tema utama Kidung Sunda, juga disebutkan dalam Pararaton,. namun tidak pernah disebutkan dalam Nagarakretagama.The Nagarakertagama, yang ditulis pada 1365 menggambarkan pengadilan yang canggih dengan cita rasa halus dalam seni dan sastra, dan sistem yang kompleks ritual keagamaan. Penyair menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai pusat mandala raksasa yang membentang dari New Guinea dan Maluku ke Sumatra dan Semenanjung Melayu. tradisi lokal di banyak bagian Indonesia mempertahankan rekening dalam bentuk yang lebih atau kurang legendaris dari kekuasaan Majapahit abad ke-14. administrasi langsung Majapahit tidak melampaui Jawa Timur dan Bali, tapi tantangan untuk mengklaim Majapahit penguasa atasan di pulau-pulau terluar menarik tanggapan kuat. [18]Pada 1377, beberapa tahun setelah kematian Gajah Mada’s, Majapahit mengirim menghukum serangan laut terhadap pemberontakan di Palembang, [4] memberikan kontribusi ke ujung kerajaan Srivijayan. umum lainnya yang terkenal adalah Gajah Mada Adityawarman [rujukan?], yang dikenal karena penaklukannya di Minangkabau.Sifat dari kerajaan Majapahit dan luasnya adalah subjek untuk diperdebatkan. Ini mungkin memiliki pengaruh yang terbatas atau seluruhnya nosional atas beberapa negara jajahan di termasuk Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan dan Indonesia timur di mana wewenang diklaim dalam Nagarakertagama [19]. Geografis dan kendala ekonomi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari biasa otoritas terpusat, negara-negara luar yang paling mungkin telah terhubung terutama oleh hubungan perdagangan, yang mungkin sebuah monopoli kerajaan. [4] Ia juga menyatakan hubungan dengan Champa, Kamboja, Siam, Birma bagian selatan, dan Vietnam, dan bahkan mengirim misi ke Cina. [4]Walaupun penguasa Majapahit diperpanjang kekuasaan atas pulau-pulau lain dan menghancurkan kerajaan tetangga, fokus mereka tampaknya telah pengendalian dan mendapatkan bagian yang lebih besar dari perdagangan komersial yang melewati nusantara. Tentang waktu Majapahit didirikan, pedagang Muslim dan proselytizers mulai memasuki daerah tersebut

Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas saya berusaha menyusun suatu buku yang menarik secara kronologi dengan illustarsi yang langka agar lebih menarik untuk dibaca oleh generasi muda yang sudah mulai banyak yang lupa dengan Kerajaan Majaphit yang sangat populer baik didalam maupun diluar negeri.Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangnya,oleh karena itu koreksi,saran dan tambahan informasi sangat diharapkan,atas eprhatiannya saya ucapkan terima kasih.

 Jakarta Mei 2011

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

 

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 A.PROLOG

1266

year’s King of the kingdom Singosari Kertanegara have created the  inscription (discovered in 1911 in Pakis Kedu area) which contains writings in  Kawi language which was translated as follows:

Blessed, all glory to Shiva with respect. In 1188 saka Maga in month, on the 13th, when the moon is dark (being down) on the day (six days a week) Was on the day (five days a week) Wage, on Tuesday wuku Mahatal-week, when the star remained domiciled in South , Puspa month in housing, sheltering under the Life of the Gods, Agni mandala in a circle, according to Yoga Sobana and at Varuna, Agni being mastered perbubulan, on when named Tetila and the sign of the constellation Kumha. It was then that the decline orders His Royal Highness, the serial Lokawijaya (a victorious world) rulers of the earth and who became a mere compliment, unrivaled in terms of courage as the noble hero and can not be removed, which has “bertegak” title Kertanegara-Kingdom.

Commands that add to his happiness by His Majesty commands the support of all the kings, the place of the fall of diamond-jeweled ornament dikening the lotus flower under the soles of his feet, which ” bertegak kedewaaan” title with named  Batara Jaya Sei Vishnu Wardana.

The order was accommodated by rakrian mahamenteri Ino, rakrian mahamenteri Sirikan, rakrian mahamenteri Alu, and preached to foreshadow rakrian council for the affairs of the country namely: rakrian Patih, rakrian Demat, rakrisn Kanuruhan. The minister who is an expert in political affairs and customs by Ramapati name, and also must not be forgotten: the pamegat Tirwan, the pamegat Mandambi, the pamegat Manghari, menurt command derived with the aid of His Majesty Maharaja Jaya Batara series command, and others ”

 

Pada tahun ini Raja Kertanegara dari kerajaan Singosari membuat prasasti (ditemukan tahun 1911 di Pakis daerah Kedu) yang berisi tulisan dalam bahasa kawi yang diterjemahkan sebagai berikut:

Berbahagialah ,segala kemuliaan bagi Siwa dengan hormat. Pada tahun saka 1188 daalm bulan Maga  ,pada tanggal 13 ,ketika bulan gelap(sedang turun) pada hari (pekan enam hari) Was pada hari(pekan lima hari) Wage,pada hari selasa pekan-wuku Mahatal,ketika bintang tetap berkedudukan di Seolatan,dalam perumahan bulan Puspa, berlindung dibawah Dewata Jiwa, dalam lingkaran mandala Agni,menurut Yoga Sobana dan pukul Baruna,sedang Agni menguasai perbubulan,pada ketika bernama Tetila dan pada tanda rasi Kumha. Pada waktu itulah turunnya perintah seri maharaja, seri Lokawijaya(yang berkemenangan didunia) penguasa bumi dan yang menjadi pujian belaka, yang tak ada taranya dalam hal keberanian sebagai pahlawan yang mulia dan tak dapat disingkirkan , yang telah bertegak gelar-Kerajaan Kertanegara.

Perintah itulah yang menambah kebahagiaannya oleh perintah seri baginda yang menjadi bantuan segala raja-raja, yang tempat jatuhnya intan-permata hiasan dikening para kembang tunjung dibawah telapak kakinya, yeng bertegak gelar kedewaaan dengan bernama Batara Jaya Sei Wisnu Wardana .

Perintah itu ditampung oleh rakrian mahamenteri Ino, rakrian mahamenteri Sirikan,rakrian mahamenteri Alu , dan diberitakan kepada dewan pratanda rakrian bagi berbagai urusan negara yaitu : rakrian Patih,rakrian Demang,rakrisn Kanuruhan. Sang menteri yang ahli dalam urusan politik dan adat kebiasaan dengan nama Ramapati, dan tak boleh pula dilupakan : sang  pamegat Tirwan,sang pamegat Mandambi, sang pamegat Manghari, menurt perintah yang diturunkan seri baginda Maharaja dengan bantuan perintah seri Batara Jaya ,dan lain-lainnya”

 1269

 

In 1269 the king kertanagara make seven pieces of inscriptions found in 1898 on the slopes of Mount Wilis, this inscription dating back to Kertanegara still in power in Singosari.

a. Year 1269 AD

Selamatlah! Saka year has past, in the year 1191 Saka kartika month, day and year was the fifth time the moon rose; wa Kliwon, Thursday, langkir, utrarasda, gods, Wismajoga, Gonda, mahurta, Wairaja the master circle is Varuna, karana, Walawa, Tand a Scorpion receipt.

B. Edict Kertanegara

On the day itlah then headed the command of a happy person all the rulers of the earth, which became incarnate ZNarasinga knight with unrivaled, with decorated with lotus flowers, offered some pearls of the king as a queen, a character cape purify the hearts of those who suffer misery meritorious because preformance uphold the name biseka Kertanegara Series.

c.Katrini: Ino, Alu and Sirikan.

and the order was accommodated olrh three people (Katrin) rakrian mahamenteri namely: Rakrian minister Ino, rakrian Sirikan minister, minister rakrian Alu.

d. Rakrian para-sign

And for the rakrian paratanda for various matters, namely:

(1) Patih, vizier named Kebo Arema (20 Demat, rakrian demung Mapanji Wipaksa, (3) and (4) Rakrian Kanuruhan Mapanji Anurida, which are all headed by the Minister for a very smooth and articulate and expert in foreign policy, always tries (ichtiar) strengthen perhub8ungan friends with the kings of Madura and the archipelago with the Ramapati

e.Lima pamegat and Tirwan

Unable to dibelakangkan the pamegat Tirwan namely Acarca Daeng (Atjartja) Darma Deda, (2) Kendamuhi, namely the pamegat Kandamuhi Atjatja Smardahana Daeng, (3) Manghuri, namely the pamegat Manghuri Atjartja Smaradewa Daeng (4) Djamba: the pamegat Djamba, namely Daeng Atjartja Sjiwanata (5) Panjangjiwa, namely the pamegart Panjangjiwa Atjartja Agraja Daeng, (6) Darmajaksa sjiwa, which began darmajaksa Sjiwa, namely Daeng Atjartja Sjiwanata with Panji title Tanutatama

ISI Edict:

to run the command of Maharaja Series Logo Isjwara principal Loka, with subordinate areas including essential kedalmnya sabg Hiang Sarwadarma parhiangan all been tolerated with a taste of the glorious kingdom branded Kertanegara inscriptions relating to the Hiang Sarwadarma subordinates who once defended and maintained by the Seri Maharaja for keswatanteraan Hiang Sarwadarma it. Associated with it then the glorious banner of dharma prosecutor named Tanutama memimmpin visit to subordinate the Hiang Sarwadarma Djengala and Panjalu ground. On each occasion, the royal messenger came from jaug and near, took jewelry, clothing, salt, go kejuru, great-grandfather and kebayam, which gives the spear … .. water all year and all liability pemujaaan.

BANS

each allowed to wear a cross beam weapons, bersunting parts of lotus flowers, and to glorify the Swatnteraan the Hiang Sarwadarma says grace the Maharaja was allowed to visit areas of the hian Sarwadarna it by pamdang tanghiran, pakudur panghurung, pakris, let go, people allowed to wear ZSegala .. tuwuh one, day flower arrows Ipong, flowers cape, tapel.

DUE prohibition

Selajunjutnya if there is a violation and rape of this inscription of this noble king, then sekalain human force, both the four colors namely Brahmins, Sateria, Waisjia and Sudera or who enter four-asjrama namely Brahmatjari, Gerhasta and Biksuka, first the King and the Minister , Pingai, akurung, farm boy, as long as they memeprkosa contents of the inscription the king of glory, and neglected to maintain and protect the Swatentaraan the Hiang Sarwadarna, then as a result of eprbuatan that all the family and the relatives they will suffer the consequences of sin, sin (mahapetaka) and special sin (AtipetakaZ) that they will diperbudk by 13 gods.

WITNESS

Witnessed by the sun, moon, wind, fire, sky, earth, water, heart, lunch, dinner and also the time, darma regulations, collection and narajana jangki

Oath

Whoever violates the provision da king …… then he was a madman, he must go to hell Raurawa with segaal kerabatnya.Selama family and the creatures become, if he was transformed at the time, then he will get a form of animal fat, if he was born as a human being and he will ……. After that Could he incarnated as a man who eventually will suffer from falling into hell Supreme raurawa, sedemikianlah should be, so presumably, Hong! All happy Sjiwa.

 
 

Pada tahun 1269 raja kertanagara membuat 7 keping prasasti yang ditemukan tahun 1898 di lereng gunung Wilis, prasasti ini berasal dari zaman Kertanegara masih berkuasa di singosari.

a. Tahun masehi 1269

Selamatlah ! Tahun saka telah lampau, pada tahun saka 1191 bulan kartika, hari tanggal kelima waktu bulan sedang naik; wa kaliwon,kemis,langkir, utrarasda,dewata,Wismajoga,Gonda,mahurta,Wairaja yang menguasai lingkaran ialah Baruna,karana,Walawa , tand a resi Kalajengking.

B. Titah Kertanegara

Pada hari itlah maka titah orang yang berbahagia mengepalai segala penguasa bumi,penjelmaan ZNarasinga yang menjadi satria dengan tak ada taranya, dengan berhiaskan kembang tunjung, dipersembahkan beberapa orang raja sebagai mutiara suri, yang berwatak menyucikan tanjung hati orang-orang yang berjasa karena menderita kesengsaraan dalm menegakkan nama biseka Seri Kertanegara.

c.Katrini: Ino,Alu dan Sirikan.

dan perintah itu ditampung olrh tiga orang(katrin) rakrian mahamenteri yaitu: Rakrian menteri Ino,rakrian menteri Sirikan,rakrian menteri Alu.

d. Rakrian para-tanda

Dan untuk kepada rakrian paratanda bagi berbagai urusan yaitu:

(1) Patih,patih bernama Kebo Arema(20 Demang,rakrian Demung Mapanji Wipaksa,(3) dan (4) Rakrian Kanuruhan Mapanji Anurida,yang seluruhnya dikepalai oleh sang Menteri yang sangat lancar dan pandai berbicara dan ahli dalam politik luar negeri, selalu berusaha(ichtiar)  memperkuat perhub8ungan sahabat dengan raja-raja Madura serta Nusantara dengan Sang Ramapati

e.Lima pamegat dan Tirwan

Tak dapat dibelakangkan sang pamegat Tirwan yaitu Daeng Acarca(Atjartja) Darma deda, (2)Kendamuhi, sang pamegat Kandamuhi yaitu Daeng Atjatja Smardahana,(3)Manghuri,sang pamegat Manghuri yaitu daeng Atjartja Smaradewa(4)Djamba: sang pamegat Djamba,yaitu Daeng Atjartja Sjiwanata(5)Panjangjiwa,sang pamegart Panjangjiwa yaitu Daeng Atjartja Agraja,(6)Darmajaksa sjiwa,yang mulai darmajaksa Sjiwa,yaitu Daeng Atjartja Sjiwanata dengan gelar Panji Tanutatama

ISI TITAH:

untuk menjalankan titah Seri Maharaja berhubung dengan kebuyutan Loka Isjwara ,dengan teramsuk kedalmnya daerah bawahan sabg Hiang Sarwadarma parhiangan semuanya telah memaklumi dengan secukupnya tentang yang mulia prasasti kerajaan bercap Kertanegara yang berhubungan dengan bawahan sang hiang Sarwadarma yang dahulu dibela dan dipelihara oleh Seri Maharaja bagi keswatanteraan sang hiang Sarwadarma itu. Berhubungan dengan itu maka yang mulia darma jaksa bernama panji Tanutama  memimmpin kunjungan ke daerah bawahan sang hiang Sarwadarma ditanah Djengala dan Panjalu. Pada kesempatan itu masing-masing pesuruh kerajaan  datang dari jaug dan dekat, membawa perhiasan,pakaian,garam,pergi kejuru,buyut dan kebayam,yang memberi tombak ..air…segala kewajiban pemujaaan tahun dan sekalian.

LARANGAN

masing-masing boleh memakai senjata halang,bersunting belahan kembang tunjung, dan untuk memuliakan ke Swatnteraan sang hiang Sarwadarma demikianlah anugerah sang Maharaja tak diperbolehkan mengunjungi daerah-daerah sang hian Sarwadarna itu oleh pamdang tanghiran,pakudur panghurung,pakris,pasrah,ZSegala orang diperbolehkan memakai..tuwuh satu,hari panah kembang ipong,kembang tanjung,tapel.

AKIBAT PELARANGAN

Selajunjutnya apabila ada yang melanggar dan memperkosa ini prasasti raja yang mulia ini, maka sekalain angkatan manusia,baik warna yang empat yaitu Brahmana,Sateria,Waisjia dan Sudera ataupun yang masuk empat-asjrama yaitu Brahmatjari,Gerhasta dan Biksuka, lebih dahulu sang Prabu dan Menteri,pingai,akurung,anak tani, selama mereka memeprkosa isi prasasti raja yang mulia,dan lalai memelihara dan melindungi ke Swatentaraan sang hiang Sarwadarna, maka sebagai akibat dari eprbuatan itu segala keluarga dan kaum kerabat mereka akan menderita akibat dosa,dosa besar(mahapetaka) dan dosa istimewa(AtipetakaZ) yang mereka akan diperbudk oleh 13 dewa.

SAKSI

Disaksikan oleh Matahari,bulan,angin,api,angkasa,bumi,air,jantung,siang,malam dan juga sang waktu,peraturan darma,kumpulan jangki dan narajana

SUMPAH

da barangsiapa melanggar pemberian raja……maka dia itulah orang gila, pastilah dia masuk neraka Raurawa dengan segaal keluarga dan kaum kerabatnya.Selama mahluk dijadikan, apabila dia menjelma pada waktu itu, maka ia akan mendapat bentuk binatang yang gemuk, apabila ia lahir sebagai manusia maka ia akan……. Sesudah itu bolehkah dia menjelma sebagai manusia yang akhirnya akan menderita terjerumus kedalam neraka Maha raurawa,sedemikianlah hendaknya,begitulah kiranya,Hong! Segala bahagia Sjiwa.

1289

(1) Padang Roco Statue Inscription

Padang Roco Inscription

 

 

The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription.

The Padang Roco Inscription, in Indonesian Prasasti Padang Roco, is an inscription dated 1286 CE, discovered near the source of Batanghari river, Padangroco temple complex, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

The inscription was discovered in 1911 near the source of Batanghari river, Padangroco. The inscription was carved on four sides of rectangular shaped stone is served as the base of the Amoghapasa statue. On the back side of the statue carved inscription called Amoghapasa inscription dated from later period in 1347 CE(NBG 1911: 129, 20e). The inscriptions was carved in ancient Javanese letters, using two languages (Old Malay and Sanskrit) (Krom 1912, 1916; Moens 1924; dan Pitono 1966). Today the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta, with inventory code number D.198-6468 (the base or inscription part) and D.198-6469 (the statue part).

Contents

Origin

The inscription was dated 1208 Saka or 1286 CE, in the same period of Singhasari kingdom in Java and Melayu Kingdom Dharmasraya in Sumatra. The inscriptions tell that in the year 1208 Saka, under the order of king Kertanegara of Singhasari, a statue of Amoghapasa Lokeshvara was transported from Bhumijawa (Java) to Svarnabhumi (Sumatra) to be erected at Dharmasraya. This gift has made the people of Svarnabhumi rejoiced, especially their king Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmmadewa.

Content

The content of inscription as translated by Slamet Muljana[1]:

  1. Rejoice ! In the year Śaka 1208[2], in the month of Bādrawāda, first day of rising moon, Māwulu wāge day, Thursday, Wuku Madaṇkungan, with the king star located on southwest …
  2. …. that is the time of the statue of lord Amoghapasa Lokeśvara accompanied with all fourteen followers and also seven ratna jewel taken from bhūmi Jāwa to Swarnnabhūmi, in order to be erected at Dharmmāśraya,
  3. as the gift of Srī Wiśwarūpa Kumāra. For that purpose pāduka Srī Mahārājādhirāja Kṛtanagara Wikrama Dharmmottunggadewa has ordered Rakryān Mahā-mantri Dyah Adwayabrahma, Rakryān Dirīkan Dyah Sugatabrahma and
  4. Samagat Payānan hań Dīpankaradāsa, Rakryān Damun pu Wīra to presented lord Amoghapāśa. May this gift make all the people of bhūmi Mālayu, including its brāhmaṇa, ksatrya, waiśa, sūdra and especially the center of all āryyas; Srī Mahārāja Srīmat Tribhuwanarāja Mauliwarmmadewa.

 Adityawarman’s addition

In 1347 Adityawarman moved the statue further uphill to Rambahan site near Langsat River, the source of Batanghari river. He also added inscription inscribed on the back side of the statue, this inscription refer as Amoghapasa inscription dated 1347 CE. While the rectangular base refer as Padang Roco inscription remain in Padang Roco area.

Pagaruyung Kingdom

Main Article: Rumah Gadang

Minangkabau royal seal from
the 19th century.

Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung and Pagar Ruyung) was the seat of Minangkabau kings, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.

History

Adityawarman statue in the
National Museum of Indonesia

Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artifacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located here.

By the 16th century, the time of the next report after the reign of Adityawarman, royal power had been split into three recognized reigning kings. They were the King of the World (Raja Alam), the King of Adat (Raja Adat), and the King of Religion (Raja Ibadat). Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).

An inscribed stone from
Adityawarman’s kingdom

The first European to enter the region was Thomas Dias, a Portuguese employed by the Dutch governor of Malacca.[1] He traveled from the east coast to reach the region in 1684 and reported, probably from hearsay, that there was a palace at Pagaruyung and that visitors had to go through three gates to enter it.[2] The primary local occupations at the time were gold panning and agriculture, he reported.

Main article: Padri War

A civil war started in 1803 with the Padri fundamentalist Islamic group in conflict with the traditional syncretic grops, elite families and Pagarruyung royals. During the conflict most of the Minangkabau royal family were killed in 1815, on the orders of Tuanku Lintau.

The English controlled the west coast of Sumatra between 1795 and 1819. Stamford Raffles visited Pagarruyung in 1818, reaching it from the west coast, and by then it had been burned to the ground three times. It was rebuilt after the first two fires, but abandoned after the third and Raffles found little more than waringin trees.

The Dutch returned to Padang in May 1819. As a result of a treaty with a number of penghulu and representatives of the murdered Minangkabau royal family, Dutch forces made their first attack on a Padri village in April 1821.

Palace Replica

A building was built in 1976 to represent the original Pagaruyung palace, and open to the public as a museum and tourist attraction. It was built in the traditional Minangkabau Rumah Gadang architectural style, but had a number of atypical elements including three stories. The palace was destroyed by fire on the evening of February 27, 2007 after the roof was struck by lightning.[

 

 Prasasti Arca Padang Roco

  

Prasasti Padang Roco, dalam Bahasa Indonesia Prasasti Padang Roco, adalah prasasti 1286 Masehi, ditemukan di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, kompleks candi Padangroco, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Kabupaten Dharmasraya, Sumatra Barat, Indonesia.Prasasti ini ditemukan pada tahun 1911 di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, Padangroco. prasasti ini diukir pada empat sisi dari batu berbentuk persegi panjang disajikan sebagai dasar patung Amoghapasa. Di sisi belakang patung ukiran prasasti disebut prasasti Amoghapasa dari periode kemudian di 1347 CE (NBG 1911: 129, 20e). Prasasti diukir dalam huruf Jawa kuno, menggunakan dua bahasa (bahasa Melayu Kuno dan Sansekerta) (Krom 1912, 1916, Moens 1924; dan Pitono 1966). Saat ini prasasti tersebut disimpan di Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan nomor kode inventaris D.198-6468 (dasar atau bagian prasasti) dan D.198-6469 (bagian patung).Isi
1 Asal
2 Konten
3 Adityawarman’s penambahan
4 Referensi
 Asal
Prasasti itu bertanggal 1208 Saka atau 1286 Masehi, pada periode yang sama kerajaan Singhasari di Jawa dan Melayu Kerajaan Dharmasraya di Sumatera. Prasasti mengatakan bahwa pada tahun 1208 Saka, atas perintah raja Kertanegara dari Singhasari, patung Amoghapasa Lokeshvara diangkut dari Bhumijawa (Jawa) untuk Svarnabhumi (Sumatera) yang akan didirikan di Dharmasraya. Karunia ini telah membuat masyarakat Svarnabhumi bersukacita, terutama raja mereka Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmmadewa.Isi
Isi dari prasasti sebagaimana diterjemahkan oleh Slamet Muljana [1]:Bersukacitalah! Pada tahun Saka 1208 [2], di bulan Bādrawāda, hari pertama bulan naik, hari Māwulu upah, Kamis, Wuku Madaṇkungan, dengan bintang raja terletak di barat daya …
…. itu adalah waktu patung Amoghapasa tuan Lokesvara disertai dengan semua empat belas pengikut serta tujuh ratna permata dibawa dari DKI Bhumi ke Swarnnabhūmi, supaya didirikan di Dharmmāśraya,
sebagai karunia Sri Wiśwarūpa Kumara. Untuk itu tujuan Sri Paduka Mahārājādhirāja Kṛtanagara Wikrama Dharmmottunggadewa telah memerintahkan Rakryān Maha-mantri Dyah Adwayabrahma, Rakryān dirikan Dyah Sugatabrahma dan
Samagat Payānan han Dīpankaradāsa, Rakryān Damun pu Wira untuk disajikan tuan Amoghapāśa. Semoga karunia ini membuat semua rakyat Bhumi Malayu, termasuk, ksatrya yang Brahmana, Sudra waiśa, dan terutama pusat dari semua āryyas; Sri Maharaja Srīmat Tribhuwanarāja Mauliwarmmadewa.
 Adityawarman’s Selain
Pada 1347 Adityawarman memindahkan patung lebih lanjut menanjak ke situs Rambahan dekat Sungai Langsat, sumber sungai Batanghari. Ia juga menambahkan tulisan tertulis di sisi belakang patung, prasasti ini mengacu sebagai prasasti Amoghapasa tanggal 1347 Masehi. Sementara dasar persegi panjang lihat sebagai prasasti Padang Roco tetap di daerah Padang Roco.Pada 1347 Adityawarman memindahkan patung lebih lanjut menanjak ke situs Rambahan dekat Sungai Langsat, sumber sungai Batanghari. Ia juga menambahkan tulisan tertulis di sisi belakang patung, prasasti ini mengacu sebagai prasasti Amoghapasa tanggal 1347 Masehi. Sementara dasar persegi panjang lihat sebagai prasasti Padang Roco tetap di daerah Padang Roco.Kerajaan Pagaruyung
Artikel utama: Rumah Gadang

Kerajaan Minangkabau segel dari
abad ke-19.

Pagaruyung (juga Pagaruyung dan Pagar Ruyung) adalah kursi raja-raja Minangkabau, meskipun sedikit yang diketahui tentang hal itu. Modern Pagaruyung adalah sebuah desa di Kecamatan Tanjung Emas, Kabupaten Tanah Datar, yang terletak dekat kota Batusangkar, Indonesia.

Isi

Sejarah
Istana Replica
Catatan
Referensi
Sejarah

Adityawarman patung di
Museum Nasional Indonesia

Adityawarman diyakini telah mendirikan kerajaan dan memimpin wilayah Sumatera tengah antara 1347 dan 1375, kemungkinan besar mengendalikan perdagangan emas lokal. Beberapa artefak pulih dari pemerintahan Adityawarman’s termasuk jumlah batu yang mengandung prasasti, dan patung. Beberapa item ditemukan di Bukit Gombak, sebuah bukit dekat Pagaruyung modern, dan diyakini sebuah istana kerajaan yang terletak di sini.

Pada abad ke-16, waktu laporan berikutnya setelah masa pemerintahan Adityawarman, kekuasaan kerajaan telah dibagi menjadi tiga diakui raja memerintah. Mereka adalah Raja Dunia (Raja Alam), Raja Adat (Raja Adat), dan Raja Agama (Raja Ibadat). Secara kolektif mereka disebut raja-raja Tiga Kursi (Rajo Tigo Selo).

Sebuah batu tertulis dari
Adityawarman’s kerajaan

Orang Eropa pertama yang memasuki wilayah itu Thomas Dias, seorang Portugis yang dipekerjakan oleh gubernur Belanda Malaka. [1] Ia melakukan perjalanan dari pantai timur untuk mencapai daerah pada 1684 dan dilaporkan, mungkin dari desas-desus, bahwa ada sebuah istana di Pagaruyung dan bahwa pengunjung harus melalui tiga pintu gerbang masuk ke dalamnya. [2] pekerjaan lokal utama pada saat itu emas panning dan pertanian, dia melaporkan.

Artikel utama: Perang Padri
Sebuah perang saudara dimulai pada tahun 1803 dengan kelompok Islam fundamentalis Padri dalam konflik dengan grops sinkretis tradisional, keluarga elite dan bangsawan Pagaruyung. Selama konflik sebagian besar keluarga kerajaan Minangkabau tewas tahun 1815, atas perintah Tuanku Lintau.

Orang Inggris menguasai pantai barat Sumatera antara 1795 dan 1819. Stamford Raffles mengunjungi Pagaruyung pada tahun 1818, mencapai dari pantai barat, dan pada saat itu telah dibakar ke tanah tiga kali. Itu dibangun kembali setelah dua kebakaran pertama, tetapi ditinggalkan setelah ketiga dan Raffles menemukan sedikit lebih daripada pohon waringin.

Belanda kembali ke Padang Mei 1819. Sebagai hasil dari perjanjian dengan sejumlah penghulu dan perwakilan dari keluarga kerajaan Minangkabau dibunuh, pasukan Belanda membuat serangan pertama mereka di sebuah desa Padri pada bulan April 1821.

Istana Replica

Istana Pagaruyung,
karena dihancurkan oleh api

Sebuah bangunan dibangun pada tahun 1976 untuk mewakili istana Pagaruyung asli, dan terbuka untuk umum sebagai museum dan objek wisata. Itu dibangun dalam gaya tradisional Rumah Gadang Minangkabau arsitektur, tapi memiliki sejumlah elemen atipikal termasuk tiga cerita. Istana dihancurkan oleh api pada malam tanggal 27 Februari 2007 setelah atap disambar petir.

 
 
 

(2)Pertulisan Kertanegara Pada patung Joko Dolok

 

 Joko Dolog Statue

 
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Arca Joko Dolog
One of the heritage which is also a place that often visit or as tourist attractions. Because of that  Indonesia that is why very importon to  write the information  about one of heritage in the center of Surabaya, precisely in Apsari Park, near Grahadi and Tunjungan Building Plaza, which is in the area Embong Trengguli Road near the school building Petra Christian Junior High 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy is a statue of Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, called the Holy Land Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG.. Maybe this is not one interesting sights for someone who didnot now history , but it can make a tour to the historian who wants to know the historical developments in Indonesia, especially Java island. From the statue’s why we included Joko Dolog as one international destination on the island of Java, Indonesia. In accordance with the topic of Java Indonesia International Destination.
Holy Land called Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG. There is an inscription on the lapiknya a poem, using the ancient Javanese characters, and the Sanskrit language. In the inscription is mentioned a place called Wurare, so called by the name prasastinya inscription Wurare. Joko Dolog  is known by locals as the “fat boy” or “fat boy”.
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Joko Dolog
Mahasobya Buddha statue is from the Cage Gajak. In 1817 moved to Surabaya by Resident de Salis. Elephant stables area was once a Kedoeng Wulan area, the area under the power of Majapahit. In the Dutch colonial period included in Surabaya residency, while the present including rural areas Bejijong, Trowulan Sub-district, Mojokerto – East Java. There are also saying that this Dolog Joko statue came from Candi Jawi notes related to the Buddha statue is missing Akshobya in the Temple. Mahasobya Buddha statue, made famous by the name of this Dolog Joko, now visited by many people who beg a blessing. But if you see lapiknya, called prasati Wurare, very interesting because it contains some historical data in the past.
 
Figures show the inscription of Saka 1211 and written by a servant of the king Kertajaya named Nada. Poetic inscriptions of both these 19 basic content can be broken down into 5 things, At one time there was a priest named Arrya Bharad served divide into 2 parts of Java, which then were each given a name and Panjalu Jenggala. The division of power is done because there is a power struggle between the crown prince.In the reign of king and consort Jayacriwisnuwardhana, Crijayawarddhani, both regions were brought together again. Ordination king (who ordered a plaque) as a Jina with Cri Jnanjaciwabajra title. Jina Mahasobya embodiment as established in the 1211 Saka Wurare. King in a short time managed to re-unite the region that have been broken, so that life becomes prosperous. The mention of the inscription maker named Tone, as servants of the king. Some of this data should be combined with historical data such as the Book of Negarakertagama, Pararaton, and inscriptions others, will result in the history of gambling terms. Previously we review the five figures mentioned in the inscription Wurare. These five characters are Arrya Bharad, Jayacriwisnuwarddhana called also the name Crihariwarddhana, Crijayawarddhani, King (who ruled a plaque), and tone (as the executor of the inscription maker).
 
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko Dolog
Joko Dolog
Who actually made the king who ruled this prasati? The answer is none other than King Kertanagara, the last Singosari King. In the inscription mentioned that he was the son of the king Crijayawisnuwarddhana with Crijayawarddhani. Crijayawisnuwarddhana name is now better known by the name or Ranggawuni Wisnuwarddhana. Then Arrya Bharad, this name is known in the reign of king Airlangga. While the obvious name mentioned that he was the servant of the king. Further from this inscription can be known historical data are important as follows:
In the days of Medang kingdom, namely the end of the reign of King Airlangga, exactly 963 Saka, occurs division into two kingdoms. This had to be done to avoid the power struggle between the crown prince 2. The division performed by the royal priest of the most famous miracle, called Arrya Bharad. The Way was down and split the earth with a shiny jug of water, two kingdoms is limited by the mountains and the river Brantas Kawi, and each called the kingdom  Panjalu and Jenggala. Jenggala Kingdom covering the area of Malang and Brantas river delta, with the port Surabaya, Rembang, and Pasuruan.The capital is Kahuripan, the former royal capital of Airlangga. While Panjalu kingdom, which became known by the name of Kediri, Kediri and includes Madison area. Capital Daha, which may Kediri area now.
 
In the days of empire Singosari, precisely in the reign of king Wisnuwarddhana, royal and Jenggala trying Panjalu reunited under royal rule Singosari. After king Wisnuwarddhana done to unite in a way to marry his son named Turukbali with Jayakatwang which is the last descendant of the king of Kediri King Kertajaya. Jayakatwang who feels that he is the rightful heir to the throne of Kediri, so he tried to seize back power.
 
Actions are always trying to grab power that prevented by the king wanted to Wisnuwarddhana with a political marriage. The work was continued by his later descendants named the king who married his son Kertanagara with Jayakatwang children named Arddhara.
 
The fact prove that the efforts with the good aim is not always smooth cause . Jayakatwang still trying to seize power. Kertanegara regarded as people who are not entitled to the throne. The effort of Kertanegara  to show that he is the rightful heir with mention Crijayawisnuwarddhana and Crijayawarddhani as his parents in Wurare inscription. Besides that, it is mentioned that Kertanagara is a good king in the dharma and literature, as well as pastor of the four islands. He was confirmed as the title Mahakshobya Jina Crijnanaciwabajra.
 
Mean inaugural as Jina is to demonstrate the power and greatness of him. Buddha Aksobhya Mahasobhya is highest. The term Mahasobhya given to Kertanagara as meaning he had a character in Aksobhya and emanation of Buddha, which has a peaceful nature, power, and unparalleled strength.Sedangan gelarnya sebagai Cri Jnannaciwabajra could mean that he is a person who has experience or experience such as Lord Shiva, and can destroy the evil for the welfare of all mankind.
 
these Kertnegara titles also have a political backgrounds. King Kertanegara to compete with the king Kublai Khan, who was confirmed as Jina Mahamitabha (Amitabha Buddha). This competition arises because the king Kublai Khan to power throughout Asia Landmarks. But the king Kertanegara did not want to submit. In Saka 1211, a messenger from the king of Kublai Khan named Meng-ch’i, who asked for recognition of the power of Kublai Khan, was rejected and sent back to the Mongols by the king Kertanegara. All of it happened to coincide with a plaque stating Wurare power and greatness a king Kertanagara as Mahasobhya Jina.Mahasobhya Jina is the ruler eye east wind, while the ruler eye west wind is Mahamitabha . Kublai Khan thus control of the area while the western part of mastering Kertanagara eastern region.
 
Of all the information it can be discovered that the statue of Joko Dolog  is a manifestation  Kertanegara own king. While the engraved inscription around lapiknya contain values important political history. Primarily as a proof that our nation since time immemorial not simply surrender to the foreign occupiers. Also try to foster unity to uphold the power
 
 
Arca Joko Dolog
Indonesia Java International Destination, Joko DologSalah satu warisan yang juga merupakan tempat yang sering dikunjungi atau sebagai tempat wisata. Karena itu perlu ditulis informasi dari  tentang salah satu warisan di pusat kota Surabaya, tepatnya di Taman Apsari, dekat Grahadi dan Gedung Tunjungan Plaza, yang berada di kawasan Jalan Embong Trengguli dekat gedung sekolah SMP Kristen Petra 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy adalah patung Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – salah satu dari Lima Dhyani Buddha, yang disebut Tanah Suci Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG .. Mungkin ini bukan merupakan salah satu pemandangan yang menarik bagi  pribadi yang tidk mengerti sejarah , tetapi bisa membuat tur ahli sejarah yang ingin mengetahui perkembangan sejarah di Indonesia, khususnya pulau Jawa. Dari patung sebabnya aku termasuk Joko Dolog sebagai salah satu tujuan internasional di pulau Jawa, Indonesia. Sesuai dengan topik Jawa Indonesia Internasional Destination.Holy Tanah disebut Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG. Ada sebuah prasasti di lapiknya puisi, menggunakan karakter Jawa kuno, dan bahasa Sansekerta. Dalam prasasti tersebut disebutkan tempat yang bernama Wurare, sehingga disebut dengan nama prasasti Wurare prasastinya. Joko Dolog ini dikenal oleh penduduk setempat sebagai “fat boy” atau “fat boy”.
 
Joko DologMahasobya patung Buddha adalah dari Gajak Cage. Tahun 1817 pindah ke Surabaya oleh Residen de Salis. Gajah istal daerah pernah menjadi Kedoeng Wulan wilayah, daerah di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit. Pada masa penjajahan Belanda termasuk dalam residensi Surabaya, sedangkan sekarang termasuk daerah pedesaan Bejijong, Kecamatan Trowulan, Mojokerto – Jawa Timur. Ada juga mengatakan bahwa ini patung Joko Dolog berasal dari Candi Jawi catatan yang terkait dengan patung Buddha yang hilang Akshobya di Bait Allah. Mahasobya patung Buddha, yang terkenal dengan nama Joko Dolog ini, sekarang dikunjungi oleh banyak orang yang mohon berkah. Tetapi jika Anda melihat lapiknya, disebut prasati Wurare, sangat menarik karena mengandung beberapa data sejarah di masa lalu.
 
Angka prasasti menunjukkan 1211 Saka dan ditulis oleh seorang hamba raja Kertajaya bernama Nada. Puitis prasasti kedua konten 19 dasar dapat dipecah menjadi 5 hal, Pada suatu saat ada seorang imam bernama Arrya Bharad dilayani dibagi menjadi 2 bagian Jawa, yang kemudian masing-masing diberi nama Jenggala dan Panjalu. Pembagian kekuasaan ini dilakukan karena ada perebutan kekuasaan antara prince.In mahkota pemerintahan raja dan permaisuri Jayacriwisnuwardhana, Crijayawarddhani, kedua wilayah tersebut dibawa bersama lagi. Pentahbisan raja (yang memerintahkan plak a) sebagai Jina dengan gelar Cri Jnanjaciwabajra. Jina Mahasobya perwujudan sebagaimana ditetapkan dalam Wurare Saka 1211. Raja dalam waktu singkat berhasil kembali menyatukan daerah yang telah rusak, sehingga hidup menjadi sejahtera. Penyebutan dari pembuat prasasti yang bernama Nada, sebagai pelayan raja. Beberapa data ini harus dikombinasikan dengan data historis seperti Kitab Negarakertagama, Pararaton, dan lain-lain prasasti, akan mengakibatkan sejarah istilah perjudian. Sebelumnya kami meninjau lima tokoh yang disebutkan dalam prasasti Wurare. Kelima karakter Arrya Bharad, Jayacriwisnuwarddhana disebut juga nama Crihariwarddhana, Crijayawarddhani, Raja (yang memerintah sebuah plakat), dan Nada (sebagai pelaksana pembuat prasasti).
 
 
Joko DologSiapa yang benar-benar membuat raja yang memerintah prasati ini? Jawabannya tidak lain adalah Raja Kertanegara, yang Raja Singosari terakhir. Dalam prasasti disebutkan bahwa ia adalah anak raja Crijayawisnuwarddhana dengan Crijayawarddhani. Crijayawisnuwarddhana nama sekarang lebih dikenal dengan nama atau Ranggawuni Wisnuwarddhana. Kemudian Arrya Bharad, nama ini dikenal pada masa pemerintahan raja Airlangga. Sedangkan nama yang jelas disebutkan bahwa dia adalah hamba raja. data historis Selanjutnya dari prasasti ini dapat diketahui penting sebagai berikut:
Pada hari-hari kerajaan Medang, yaitu akhir pemerintahan Raja Airlangga, tepatnya 963 Saka, terjadi pembagian menjadi dua kerajaan. Hal ini harus dilakukan untuk menghindari perebutan kekuasaan antara putra mahkota 2. Pembagian dilakukan oleh imam kerajaan dari keajaiban yang paling terkenal, bernama Arrya Bharad. Cara turun dan membagi bumi dengan air kendi mengkilap, dua kerajaan dibatasi oleh pegunungan dan sungai Brantas Kawi, dan masing-masing disebut kerajaan Panjalu dan Jenggala. Kerajaan Jenggala meliputi daerah Malang dan delta sungai Brantas, dengan pelabuhan Surabaya, Rembang, dan modal Pasuruan.The adalah Kahuripan, bekas ibukota kerajaan Airlangga. Sedangkan kerajaan Panjalu, yang kemudian dikenal dengan nama Kediri, Kediri dan termasuk daerah Madison. Modal Daha, yang mungkin daerah Kediri sekarang.
 
Pada hari-hari kerajaan Singosari, tepatnya pada masa pemerintahan raja Wisnuwarddhana, kerajaan Panjalu dan Jenggala berusaha bersatu kembali di bawah kekuasaan kerajaan Singosari. Setelah raja Wisnuwarddhana dilakukan untuk bersatu dalam cara untuk menikah dengan anaknya bernama Turukbali dengan Jayakatwang yang merupakan keturunan terakhir raja Raja Kediri Kertajaya. Jayakatwang yang merasa bahwa ia adalah pewaris sah takhta Kediri, jadi dia berusaha merebut kembali kekuasaan.
 
Tindakan selalu berusaha merebut kekuasaan yang dapat dicegah dengan raja ingin Wisnuwarddhana dengan perkawinan politik. Pekerjaan itu kemudian dilanjutkan dengan keturunannya yang bernama raja yang menikahi putranya Kertanegara dengan Jayakatwang anak bernama Arddhara.
 
Fakta membuktikan bahwa upaya dengan tujuan baik tidak selalu menyebabkan mulus. Jayakatwang masih berusaha untuk merebut kekuasaan. Kertanegara dianggap sebagai orang yang tidak berhak atas tahta. Upaya Kertanegara untuk menunjukkan bahwa ia adalah pewaris sah dengan menyebutkan Crijayawisnuwarddhana dan Crijayawarddhani sebagai orang tuanya dalam prasasti Wurare. Selain itu, disebutkan bahwa Kertanegara adalah raja yang baik dalam dharma dan sastra, serta sebagai pendeta dari empat pulau. Ia dikukuhkan sebagai Jina Mahakshobya judul Crijnanaciwabajra.
 
Berarti pengukuhan sebagai Jina adalah untuk menunjukkan kekuatan dan kebesaran dari dia. Buddha Aksobhya Mahasobhya tertinggi. Para Mahasobhya istilah untuk Kertanegara sebagai arti ia memiliki karakter dalam Aksobhya dan emanasi Buddha, yang memiliki sifat damai, daya, dan strength.Sedangan tak tertandingi gelarnya sebagai Cri Jnannaciwabajra bisa berarti bahwa ia adalah orang yang memiliki pengalaman atau pengalaman seperti Dewa Siwa, dan dapat menghancurkan kejahatan untuk kesejahteraan semua umat manusia.
 
Kertnegara judul-judul ini juga memiliki latar belakang politik. Raja Kertanegara untuk bersaing dengan raja Kubilai Khan, yang dikukuhkan sebagai Jina Mahamitabha (Amitabha Buddha). Kompetisi ini timbul karena raja Kubilai Khan berkuasa di seluruh Asia Tengara. Tetapi raja Kertanegara tidak mau menyerahkan. Pada 1211 Saka, utusan dari raja Kubilai Khan bernama Meng-chi, yang meminta pengakuan kekuasaan Kubilai Khan, ditolak dan dikirim kembali ke Mongol oleh raja Kertanegara. Semua itu terjadi bertepatan dengan sebuah plakat Wurare yang menyatakan kekuasaan dan kebesaran raja Kertanegara sebagai Jina Jina.Mahasobhya Mahasobhya adalah penguasa mata angin timur, sedangkan penguasa mata angin barat adalah Mahamitabha. Kubilai Khan dengan demikian menguasai wilayah sementara bagian barat Kertanegara menguasai wilayah timur.
 
Dari semua informasi dapat ditemukan bahwa patung Joko Dolog merupakan perwujudan raja Kertanegara sendiri. Sementara prasasti terukir sekitar lapiknya mengandung nilai sejarah politik yang penting. Terutama sebagai bukti bahwa bangsa kita sejak jaman dahulu tidak hanya menyerah kepada penjajah asing. Juga berusaha untuk membina persatuan untuk menegakkan kekuasaan
 
 

1294

Pertulisan Kertarajasa Gunung Butak Mojokerto

B.THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM 

1292 Tentara Jayakatong Kediri meruntuhkan Tumapel(SingasarI)

1293

1. The Tartar Army Landed At Java Beach

Tentara Tartar mendarat Di pantai Pulau Jawa

(1) Prasati indonesia

Landing troops Kublai Khan begins with a poklamation  which states that the purpose of landing soldiers  that Java island  is going to punish premises avenge the insult kepad a Kertanegara Ambassador of China (China) in 1289 due to chopping (tattoos) Mengki face (Men-chi), in accordance international law , proklamation  it is around declaration stating reasons why the weapons removed from the sovereignty violated and declared war.Raden Wijaya run tactics by sending a first ministers (prime minister) of the Majapahit kingdom as his envoy to the Headquarters of the Chinese troops who landed, so Majapajit became companion in arms with the army to overthrow the kingdom of Kublai Kan Jayakatong in Kediri sehngga Tartar army gives recognition to the minister who was sent Wijaya. After the confession were traveling siasast armed conflicts to destroy the power of mid Brantas river flow with the help of foreign armed forces (tartar), and this pekrjaan successful, so after that stay clean majapahit area of ​​influence of Tartars who many times deceived anymore, so finally at the beginning of the year 1294 only there is a power that is in East Java that is Majapahit.Penyusunan powers initially took place within the borders keuasaan Jayakatong, then nexus of power anatar majapahit with Daha decided by way of rebellion took up arms. Tentaraa Pemberontakn with the help of foreigners, who then destroyed as well. There are two events that took place when tenatara Tartar landed on the shore of Java and this incident raises concerns for the study of communication between Asian countries during the 13th century.Ratification of the Majapahit Kingdom can be read in its charter, written on 11 September 1294 (Saka 1216), in which rewarded the village charter Kudadu, when read carefully:(1) The first in when before the king is still named Naraya Sanggramawijaya (2) Series bagimnda has now become king,  as descended guardian  from heaven to earth , (3) Rise of penance became King of Majapahit as mentioned in the inscription Butak: “After the King Jayakatong die face of the earth became bright kembali.Pada saka year-arja 1216nmaka Nara became Queen, and the ruling dipura majapahit, loved (the people) and above all musuhnya.Sebagai king Jaya Seri Baginda called “Queen Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. On 11 September 1294 according to the inscription Butaki, he already holds biseka (ie rajahbiseka = rose nobat be a king) and was named King with the official

Pendaratan tentara Kunilai Khan dimulai dengan suatu rpoklamasi yang menyatakan bahwa maksud tentara mendarat  kepulau Jawa itu ialah hendak menghukum denga membalas dendam kepad a Kertanegara  yang menghina Duta Tiongkok(Cina)  pada tahun 1289 karena mencacah(mentatto) wajah Mengki(Men-chi) ,sesuai hukuj internasional ,proklamsi ini adaalh pernyataan yang berisi sebab -sebab mengapa senjata diangkat akibat kedaulatan dilanggar dan memaklumkan perang.

Raden Wijaya menjalankan siasat dengan mengirim seorang menteri pertama(perdana Menteri) dari Kerajaan Majapahit sebagai utusannya ke Markas Besar tentara  Tiongkok yang mendarat, sehingga Majapajit menjadi teman seperjuangan dengan Tentara Kublai Kan untuk meruntuhkan kerajaan Jayakatong di Kediri sehngga tentara Tartar memberikan pengakuan kepada menteri yang diutus Wijaya. Setelah pengakuan itu berjalanlah siasast perperangan untuk menghancurkan kekuasaan dipertengahan aliran sungai Brantas dengan bantuan angkatan bersenjata asing (tartar), dan pekrjaan ini berhasil ,sehingga sesudah itu tinggal membersihkan daerah majapahit dari pengaruh Tartar yang sekian kalinya tertipu lagi, sehingga akhirnya pada permulaan tahun 1294 hanya ada satu kekuasaan yang ada di jawa Timur yaitu Majapahit.Penyusunan kekuasaan mula-mula berlangsung didalam perbatasan keuasaan Jayakatong,kemudian perhubungan anatar kekuasaan majapahit dengan DAHA diputuskan dengan jalan pemberontakan mengangkat senjata. Pemberontakn dengan bantuan tentaraa asing,yang kemudian dihancurkan pula. Ada dua peristiwa yang berlangsung ketika tenatara Tartar mendarat dipantai Jawa dan peristiwa ini menimbulkan perhatian bagi orang penelitian perhubungan antar negara asia pada abad 13.

Pengesahan Kerajaan Majapahit dapat dibaca dalam Piagam yang ditulis tanggal 11 September 1294(saka 1216) ,dalam piagam yang menghadiahkan desa Kudadu, bila dibaca secara saksama :

(1)Yang dahulu pada ketika sebelum menjadi raja masih bernama Naraya Sanggramawijaya(2) Seri bagimnda kini telah menjadi raja,sehimngga sebagai turun dari kayangan menjadi eplindung bumi,(3) Naik tobat jadi Prabu Majapahit seperti tersebut dalam prasasti Butak :” Setelah Raja Jayakatong meninggal muka bumi menjadi terang benderang kembali.Pada tahun saka 1216nmaka Nara-arja menjadi Ratu, dan berkuasa dipura majapahit,disayangi(rakyat) dan Jaya atas segala musuhnya.Sebagai raja Seri Baginda bernama “Ratu Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. Pada tanggal 11 September 1294 menurut prasasti Butaki, beliau sudah bergelar biseka(yaitu rajahbiseka=naik nobat jadi raja) dan sudah bernama prabu dengan resmi.

(2)Dokumen Tiongkok

2.Raden wjaya founded Majapahit Kingdom.

1.In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana

Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

2.At saka year 1297, within months Asjwina, on a good day when a full moon, then arrange the powers of government This is the end rakawi which made  people happy under the Majesty (Deca Wardana Prapanca). So in this paradise region tersebutlah the land (Deca)and the  King (narendra), powers that be happy (kadigwijayan) (Dr. iwan notes:the government of the People’s welfare by government sources that are true and correct in compliance with the terms of a complete political organizations, such as praised in the phrase “iti Negarakrtagama Samapta, contains the history of greatness or grandeur Majapahit state)

Pada tahun saka 1297 ,dalam bulan Asjwina,pada hari baik waktu bulan purnama penuh ,maka tamatlah rakawi mengarangkan kekuasaan pemerintah  membahagiakan rakyat dibawah sang prabu (deca wardana prapanca).Maka dalam surga ini tersebutlah anazir daerah tanah(deca) raja(narendra) ,kekuasaan yang berbahagia (kadigwijayan) (catatn Dr iwan: pelaksaaan pemerintahan atas Rakyat  yang sumber sejahtera oleh pemerintah yang benar dan betul tersebut telah memenuhi dengan  lengkaplah syarat-syarat suatu organisasi politik, seperti dipujikan dalam kalimat “iti Nearakrtagama samapta ,berisi sejarah kebesaran atau kemegahan negara Majapahit)

1294

(1) Majapahit Faced Challenges

1.The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14]

Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14].

 

(2)Butak Hill Inscription

 
 

•Mpu Prapanca have writiing in Negarakertagama book in1365 bahwa Majapahit about Majapahit from Butak Inscriptions 1294.

 

This inscription contains the history of how the collapse of empire and how Wijaya forming Singasari Majapahit kingdom was written in the emakai chronicle prassati 1294. This paper trays dinamakn Mount Butak charter, because it was found that name dicelah mountain, located south west of the town of Mojokerto or poor. So when the charter was written in the memories of all who suffered in the years 1292-1293 are still diinagt by sipendengar.Sebagian of the text has been copied by Dr. Brandes kedealam belands language, such as being read in the book Pararaton pages 94-100. The translation is as follows:

A. AD Year: 1294

Selamatlah! at saka tahubn 1216, in Badrapada, on five months of being down, on the day Harjang, Umanis, sjanesjcara (according to days and weeks five, six and seven) at the time Madankungan, when the stars still shining moon disebellah southeast diperumahan Rohini with the Hiang Prajapati as eplindungnya and entered the circle mandala Mahendra, when Joga Siddhi and at Weraja, protected as a protective perbulanan Jama, on the day because the named Tetila and starred in when the virgin constellations.

B. Edict PRABU

then in command of the Series went down that day the king, that is the only king who can be praised highly bersifatnkepahlawanan, king of a very noble and brave, which destroy the enemy-mus bertentara great kings, who snagat diberkatai and have the disposition, energy, kindness, smartness and a sense of responsibility, the ruler of the region Jawadiwipa, protector of all rights of good people, a derivative family which stores Sari Narasimha rights obligations of countries, son of Narasimha sebading derivatives; happy married daughter in-law because Labour and the title as king Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya Rakrian it is accepted by all three ministers of the three Katrini mahamenteri, Ino, pestle and Sirikan. Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang” ae=”meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and emnetri zSirikan> Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously ditenagh war-center jobs ” closure_uid_x4vzi6=”78″>meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and emnetri zSirikan> Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously ditenagh war-center jobs , rakrian menterui mus in the region of desolation and the bersemanagt nusnatara hard, named Aria Adikara. rakrian ministers preceded by the supreme head of all the heroes who gain the trust of friends, and have compassion for all people, named Aria Wiraraja, which presumably can dianamkan Baginda Seri Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH Edict

The command of His Majesty Maharaja is derived for the benefit of the hovel bernua Kudadu as darma area named Kle’me, a decision which stamped king Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu and in copper, that are stored by the village head Kudadu, which will define freedom Swatantra hovel continent Kudadu , therefore has dijadsikan check by Series king, together with the fields above and dibaruh, mountains and valleys, and shall cease to be part Le’me darma area, for designation Kudadu village chief, to be held down temruun until extended to the cucnya, either now or ternus again incessantly.

CAUSE ANUGRAH

As for the cause it is the behavior Kudau village headman who once gave a place to hide carefully to the Majesty the King, when he became king and still have not named Naraja sanggrawijaya, on when he was in trouble heading Kudadu. hunted by the enemy by being chased in a state like berfikut: Seri Baginda Kertanegara former Maharaja became King and meninggakan the mortal world and entered the world an immortal in sjiwabudalaya when he was attacked by a series Jayakatong king of the rings with an enemy force as a shameful thing to do and treason to friends and violate perseujuan, because the king wished XSeri undermine the bersemayan Kertanegara Tumapel.Setelah known in the state of an army bahea Series Jayakatong king had to de Jasun Wungkal, then send Sei Kertanegara Majesty Majesty (The King now) and Ardaraja against Sri Sire Jayakatong. The Ardaraja and series Majesty King-in-law both adalh Series Kertnegara king, but as became known Ardaraja is also the son of the king Jayakatong Series.

After Sri king Prabu and Ardaraja leave Tumapel and until Kedung Hug, then Sei Bagindalah the very first meeting with musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda fighting, and msusuhpun defeated and fled, with a big defeat.

After that then the army moved into the valley Seri Baginda, but there has not encountered the enemy. After that keep moving towards the West, from the valley to the bars, and the front of the king Sei meet again with some of the enemy, who withdrew without fighting back. After meliwati Trunk, lalyu Majesty came to Pulungan, the king’s army to fight anymore Series Kapulungan west and defeat the enemy, and running in a really difficult situation with the suffering losses. large. Demikinalah circumstances, when the army Seri Baginda forward again and get to Rabut nozzle, while not how long the enemy came from the west, then Sei King fought with all the power and tenataranya, the enemy fled after receiving heavy losses, and it seems as if running for ever . But in such circumstances, the state of the east Hanyiru stump melambailambaikan enemy flag, red and white flag, and when I saw the stump was then Ardaraja then holstered his gun, apply a very embarrassing and ran towards Kapulungan with malicious intent. Therefore the army musnahlah Sei king, but tetapetia Majesty the king Kertanegara series, which is why the series King lived in Rabut Carat, and after that the next go-apajeg Pamwatan northward toward the north side of Sungei.

Sei Banginda the part at that time there were about six hundred oramng. (Soul). The next day after sunrise, the enemy came following a series baginda.tentara Seri Baginda backwards to meet them and he broke away, but even so the army has been greatly reduced Seri Baginda, kiarena already there who ran to hide himself and left him, sehimngga anxiety arises without a weapon nothing. Afterwards Majesty negotiate with those who are in Him. According pedapatnya Eggplant he should go to in order to negotiate with it there akuwu., Rakrian Wuru Agraja name who was appointed by King Kertanegara Kuwu, so he was willing to assist Series Banginda gather all the people on the Northeast Terung.Semuanya agree with it, and after day night, then Sei Majesty through KUlawan anxious lest the enemy followed very much.

In Kulawan meet again with the enemy, he was chased by them, but to escape by going towards the north, so if possible will run to the Flower essence, there tetapijuga meet again with the enemy is chasing him and when it alrilah he shared with them all the existing , seceapt besarf as possible across the river moving towards north. When it multiply that sank and others were hunted by the enemy and killed with spears, and who can be helped run divorced kegelaa temapt apart. Seri Baginda who lived only a dozen people.

Seri Baginda accident is very great indeed, but when he reached the village Kududu village, the headman was received with earnest heart and feel sorry for Beals, such as providing food and beverages as well as rice, and the Seri Baginda provided a hiding place and tried to correct for king ZSeri goal is reached, so belaiau orang.apabila do not find the enemy looking for him. After that he was shown the way and diiringkan until kedaerah Apex, in order to rid themselves Sei king to the island of Madura as he wanted.

So the first time the Series was brought to the king-Kudadu in difficult circumstances, and village heads were really true force and received the king with pity Beals, and the circumstances that cause liver gratitude aksih in his soul.

Seri Baginda (now) become king, so  earth’s guardian who descended from Heaven, so therefore fitting yourmajesty  repay good and made happy the people who have done good to him.

And so on (keswatentaraan, Money Indigenous, Perwatasan Kudadu, Prohibition, Crime, Money Offering, Strengthening Keeaktian, I swear, Lost.)

 
 

 Prasasti Gunung Butak

 Prasasti gunung butak tahun 1294. Prasasti itu menuliskan pemberontakan Kediri melawan SingasariSaat itu Kediri mengibarkan bendera merah putih.


•Mpu Prapanca mencatat dalam kitab Negarakertagama pada tahun 1365 bahwa Majapahit adalah keraton merah putih.

 

prasasti ini berisi riwayat bagaimana runtuhnya kerajaan Singasari dan bagaimana Wijaya membentuk kerajaan Majapahit merupakan tulisan dalam prassati yang emakai tarikh 1294. Tulisan loyang ini dinamakn piagam Gunung Butak,karena ditemukan dicelah gunung yang bernama demikian,terletak disebelah selatan Mojokerto atau sebelah barat kota malang. Jadi piagam itu ditulis pada ketika kenang-kenangan terhadap segala yang dialami dalam tahun 1292-1293 masih diinagt oleh sipendengar.Sebagian dari tulisan itu telah disalin oleh DR Brandes kedealam bahasa belands, seperti yang dibaca dalam kitab Pararaton halaman 94-100. Terjemahannya adalah sebagai berikut:

A. Tahun Masehi : 1294

Selamatlah! pada tahubn saka 1216 ,pada bulan Badrapada ,pada tanggal lima bulan sedang turun,pada hari Harjang,Umanis,sjanesjcara(menurut pekan berhari lima,enam dan tujuh) pada waktu Madankungan,ketika bintang tetap bersinar disebellah tenggara diperumahan rembulan Rohini dengan sang Hiang Prajapati sebagai eplindungnya dan masuk lingkaran mandala Mahendra ,ketika Joga Siddhi dan pukul Weraja ,dilindungi Jama sebagi pelindung perbulanan ,pada hari karena bernama Tetila dan pada ketika rasi bertanda bintang perawan.

B.TITAH RPABU

maka pada hari itu turunlah titah Seri baginda,yaitu satu-satunya raja yang dapat dipujikan sangat bersifatnkepahlawanan ,raja yang sangat mulia dan berani, yang memusnahkan musuh-mush raja-raja bertentara besar,yang snagat diberkatai dan mempunyai tabiat ,tenaga,budi,kebagusan dan rasa tangung jawab,penguasa seluruh daerah Jawadiwipa,pelindung segala hak orang-orang baik,turunan keluarga narasinga yang menyimpan Sari hak-hak kewajiban negara,putera turunan yang sebading narasinga; menantu karena berbahagia beristeri puteri Kartanegara dan yang sebagai raja bergelar Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya itu diterima oleh Rakrian menteri yang bertiga yaitu mahamenteri bertiga Katrini, Ino ,alu dan Sirikan . meteri Ino,diah Pamasi, menteri zlu Diah Sinlar dan emnetri zSirikan >Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang,rakrian menterui yang membinasakan mush di daerah nusnatara dan yang bersemanagt keras,bernama Aria Adikara. didahului oleh rakrian menteri kepala tertinggi pada segala pahlawan yang mendapatkan kepercayaan berbagai teman,serta mempunyai belas kasihan kepada segala orang,bernama Aria Wiraraja,yang kiranya dapat dianamkan Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya

ISIH TITAH

Adapun titah seri baginda Maharaja diturunkan untuk kepentingan teratak bernua Kudadu yang menjadi sebagai daerah darma bernama Kle’me,berupa keputusan raja yang dibubuhi cap Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu dan di tembaga, supaya disimpan oleh kepala desa Kudadu,yang akan menetapkan kebebasan Swatantra teratak benua Kudadu, oleh karena telah dijadsikan periksa oleh Seri baginda,bersama-sama dengan ladang diatas  dan dibaruh,gunung dan lembah, dan harus berhenti menjadi bagian daerah  darma Le’me, bagi peruntukan kepala desa Kudadu, yang akan dimiliki turun temruun sampai keanak-cucnya,baik kini ataupun ternus menerus tak putus-putusnya.

SEBAB ANUGRAH

Adapun yang menyebabkan itu ialah tingkah laku lurah desa Kudau yang dahulu memberi tempat bersembunyi dengan hati-hati kepada Seri Baginda Sang Prabu,ketika beliau belum menjadi raja dan masih bernama Naraja sanggrawijaya,pada ketika beliau dalam kesusahan menuju  Kudadu. diburu oleh musuh dengan dikejar-kejar dalam keadaan seperti berfikut : Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara yang dahulu menjadi Prabu dan meninggakan dunia yang fana dan memasuki dunia yang baka di sjiwabudalaya ketika diserang oleh Seri baginda Jayakatong dari gelang-gelang dengan berlaku sebagai musuh mengerjakan benda yang memalukan serta berkhianat kepada teman dan melanggar perseujuan ,karena berkeinginan meruntuhkan XSeri baginda Kertanegara yang bersemayan didalam negara Tumapel.Setelah diketahui bahea sepasukan tentara Seri baginda Jayakatong sudah sampai de Jasun Wungkal, lalu Seri Baginda Kertanegara mengirimkan Sei Baginda(Sang Prabu sekarang) dan Ardaraja melawan Sri Baginda Jayakatong. Adapun Ardaraja dan seri Baginda Sang Prabu keduanya adalh mantu Seri baginda Kertnegara,tetapi seperti diketahui orang Ardaraja adalah pula putera Seri baginda Jayakatong.

Setelah Sri baginda Prabu dan Ardaraja meninggalkan Tumapel dan sampai Kedung Peluk, maka Sei Bagindalah yang mula-mula sekali bertemu dengan musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda berkelahi,dan msusuhpun kalah dan melarikan diri , dengan menderita kekalahan besar.

Sesudah itu lalu tentara Seri Baginda bergerak ke lembah, tetapi disana tidak ditemui musuh. Setelah itu terus bergerak kearah Barat ,dari lembah menuju Batang, dan bagian depan Sei baginda bertemu lagi dengan beberapa musuh, yang menarik diri mundur tanpa berkelahi. Setelah meliwati Batang,lalyu Seri Baginda sampailah ke Pulungan, maka tentara Seri baginda bertempur lagi disebelah barat Kapulungan dan musuh menderita kekalahan , dan berlari-lari dalam keadaan susah benar dengan menderita kerugian. besar. Demikinalah keadaannya, ketika tentara Seri Baginda maju lagi dan sampai ke Rabut Curat, sedangkan tak berapa lamanya datanglah musuh dari arah barat, maka Sei Baginda berperang dengan segala tenaga dan tenataranya, musuh lari setelah mendapat kerugian besar, dan rupanya seolah-olah lari untuk selamanya.Tetapi dalam keadaan demikian,keadaan sebelah timur Hanyiru tunggul bendera musuh melambailambaikan , merah dan putih benderanya, dan ketika melihat tunggul itu maka Ardaraja lalu menyarungkan senjatanya,berlaku yang sangat memalukan dan lari kearah Kapulungan dengan maksud jahat. Oleh sebab itu maka musnahlah tentara Sei baginda, tetapi Seri Baginda tetapetia kepada seri baginda Kertanegara, itulah sebabnya maka seri Baginda tinggal di Rabut Carat , dan setelah itu selanjutnya pergi keutara menuju Pamwatan-apajeg disebelah utara diseberang sungei.

Dipihak Sei Banginda pada waktu itu masih ada kira-kira enam ratus oramng.(jiwa). Keesokan harinya setelah matahari terbit, maka musuh datang menyusul seri baginda.tentara Seri Baginda menyongsong mereka dan beliau mundur memisahkan diri,tetapi walaupun begitu tentara Seri Baginda sudah sangat berkurang, kiarena sudah ada yang lari menyembunyikan diri dan meninggalkan beliau, sehimngga timbullah kecemasan tanpa senjata apa-apa. Setelah itu Seri Baginda berunding dengan mereka yang ada pada Beliau. Menurut pedapatnya beliau harus  pergi ke Terung supaya berunding dengan Akuwu disana itu.,rakrian Wuru Agraja namanya yang diangkat menjadi Kuwu oleh Prabu Kertanegara, supaya ia bersedia membantu Seri Banginda mengumpulkan segala orang-orang disebelah Timur laut Terung.Semuanya menyetujui pendapat itu,dan setelah hari malam, maka Sei Baginda melalui KUlawan cemas kalau-kalau diikuti musuh yang sangat banyak.

Di Kulawan bertemu lagi dengan musuh, beliau dikejar oleh mereka, tetapi dapat melepaskan diri dengan pergi kearah utara,supaya apabila mungkin akan lari ke Kembang sari, tetapijuga disana bertemu lagi dengan musuh yang mengejar beliau dan ketika itu alrilah beliau bersama mereka sekalian yang ada dengannya, seceapt-cepatnya menyeberang sungai besarf menuju kearah utara. Ketika itu banyaklah yang tenggelam  dan yang lainnya diburu oleh  musuh dan dibunuh dengan tombak, dan yang dapat tertolong lari bercerai-berai kegelaa temapt. Yang tinggal hanya Seri Baginda  dengan belasan orang saja.

Kecelakaan yang menimpa Seri Baginda sungguhlah sangat hebat, tetapi ketika beliau sampai ke Kelurahan desa Kududu, maka lurah itu menerima dengan sungguh-sungguh hati dan berasa beals kasihan seperti menyediakan makanan dan minuman serta nasi, dan  kepada Seri Baginda diberikan tempat bersembunyi dan berusaha benar agar tujuan ZSeri baginda tercapai ,supaya belaiau jangan ditemukan orang.apabila musuh mencarinya. Setelah itu beliau ditunjukkan arah jalan dan diiringkan sampai kedaerah Rembang, agar Sei baginda dapat menyingkirkan diri ke pulau Madura seperti yang diinginkannya.

Demikianlah waktu dahulu Seri baginda dibawa ke-Kudadu dalam keadaan yang sukar,dan kepala desa itu berlaku sungguh-sungguh benar dan menerima raja dengan beals kasihan,dan keadaan itu menimbulkan rasa terima aksih dalam hati sanubarinya.

Sei bgaginda(kini) menjadi raja,jadi pelidung bumi yang turun dari Kayangan,sehingga oleh sebab itu patutlah belaiu membalas budi baik dan menyenagkan (mengirangkan) orang yang telah berbuat baik kepada beliau.

DAN SETERUSNYA (keswatentaraan,Uang Adat,Perwatasan Kudadu,Larangan,Kejahatan,Uang Persembahan,Penguatan Keeaktian,Sumpah,Hilang. )

1296.

PRASASTI KERTARAJASA ATAU PIAGAM PENANGUNANGAN 1296

PRASATI INI DITEMUKAN DICELAH BATU DILERENG GUNUNG pENANGUNANGAN SEBELAH UTARA ANATARA PUNCAK gAJAGMUNGKAR DENGAN bE’KE’L, DISEBLAG SELATAN mOJOKERTO , BENYAKNYA 11 KEPING .

Prasasti 1296 ini besama-sama dengan prasasti Kertarajasa 1924,1305 dan lain-lainnya berisi informasi tentang Majapahit, isinya antara lain sebbagai berikut:

1.Year 1296 AD

Blessed! At saka year 1218, the month Kartika (October-November), on the day kedu moonlight, Tungle, Kaliwon, Saturday, the town brass, fixed stars are on the south, home-bulanya aArdra, divine partner, mandala, Baruna, Atiganda, Wairaja a master at buhur astrology, Kubera, because, lucky sign, the scorpion

Tahun Msehi 1296

Berbahagialah ! Pada tahun saka 1218,pada bulan Kartika (oktober-Nopember) ,pada hari kedu ketika bulan terang ,Tungle,Kaliwon,Sabtu, pekan kuningan,bintang tetap sedang disebelah selatan, rumah-bulanya aArdra,dewata mitra ,mandala,Baruna,Atiganda,pukul Wairaja yang menguasai buhur perbintangan,Kubera,karana,tanda rasi,kalajengking.

2.Lowering the Edict which Jayawardana Kertarajasa

At that time His Majesty Maharaja series decree ordering the globe reduce the power of Java correspond with the melodious name, which is the desire trees (fruiting), courage and power that no blemish fennel, which dianatara kesatriannya families and nations can be compared with the full moon surrounded by stars-the stars are not cloudy. Who became a hero in the midst of struggle, with courage to overcome the other heroes, who destroy all enemy kings of the world, such as poison sjiwa Mahadeva, which split the head of prominent people who ignored orders.

Yang Menurunkan Titah Kertarajasa Jayawardana

Pada waktu itulah seri Baginda Maharaja menurunkan titah yang memerintahkan buana Jawa yang kekuasaannya berpadanan dengan namanya yang merdu, yang menjadi pohon keinginan (berbuah) , keberanian dan kekuasaan yang tidak adas cacatnya, yang dianatara keluarga dan bangsa  kesatriannya dapat dibandingkan dengan bulan purnama dikelilingi bintang-bintang dilangit yang  tidak berawan. Yang menjadi pahlawan ditengah-tengah perjuangan, dengan mengatasi keberanian pahlawan-pahlawan lainnya, yang memusnakan segala raja-raja musuh dunia, seperti racun mahadewa sjiwa , yang mengeping kepala orang-orang trekemuka yang tidak menagcuhkan eprintahnya.

1309

1.Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

Wijaya  Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.

the complete story read at another chapter :”The Rise Of Majapahit War as the part of Majapahit Kingdoma during war and peace part one”

the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011