Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

Penguasa Wanita Di dunia 1640-1670

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1640-1670

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  Around 1640 Queen Regnant Pea of Morning (Myanmar-Burma)
Today Morning is a village in the Caching State, in northern or “upper” Burma, inhabited by an ethnic Thai people.

  Ca. 1640-46 Sawbaw Saw Nin Mein of Wuntho (Myanmar-Burma)
She was daughter of the former Prince of the Sharen state, married Thankin Kaw Nyo, Prince of a Karen State, around 1616 and reigned after his death.

  Ca. 1640-ca.60 Moäng Ratu Dona Maria Ximenes da Silva of Sikka (Indonesia)
Succeeded her brother Moäng Ratu Pitang (alias Kapitan) as ruler of the Roman Catholic principality on the island of Flores. She was a daughter of the first Moäng Ratu or King of Sikka, Don Alesu da Silva (or Alexius Ximenes da Silva) who had converted to Christianity after meeting the Portuguese in Malacca. He established the principality around 1580. She was succeeded by her full cousin Moäng Ratu Don Simao (Samaoh), who was the son of her father’s sister Lise.

  1640-44 Regent Queen Isabel de Borbón of Spain
In charge of the government when her husband, Felipe IV was engaged in the Catalan Revolt supported the Duke of Nochera against the Count-Duke of Olivares in favour of an honourable withdrawal. Of her 6 daughters, 5 died in infancy and her son died in 1646 at the age of 16. Therefore her husband was succeeded by his son, Carlos II, by his second wife and niece, Mariana d’Austria, who was regent from 1665. After Carlos’ death in 1700, the son of her daughter, Marie-Therese (1638-84), Queen of France, became King of Spain after a war of Succession. Born as Élisabeth de Bourbon, she was eldest daughter of King Henri IV of France and Queen Marie de’ Medici, and lived (1602-44).

 

 

 

 

1640-46 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth zur Lippe-Alverdissen of Schaumburg with the Administrative Offices of Stadthagen, Bückeburg, Arensburg and Hagenburg (Germany)
Succeeded her son, Count Otto von Holstein-Schaumburg, who died 1640 without issue. In 1643 she transferred her rights to her brother Count Philip zur Lippe-Alverdissen, and ruled with him as co-regent till her death three years later. His descendants assumed the name Schaumburg-Lippe. (d. 1643).

  1640-49 Princess-Abbess Sedonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Sidonie, she joined the representative of the city in the protests against Brandenburg’s occupation of the City during the 30 Years War, but the troops stayed. She resigned in 1649 and married Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck (1612-27-75), whose second wife was Marie Sibylle von Nassau-Saarbrücken und Ottweiler (1628-99). Sedonia was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Danneberg, and her sister, Katherine Elisabeth, was sovereign of Gandersheim (1625-49). She lived (1611-50). 

  1640-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Johanna von Kollonitsch of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter and it’s art, which is still famous.

  1640-53 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufviller of Reuss zu Schleiz (Germany)
After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III, she was guardian for their son, Count Heinrich I (1639-92), while some male members of the family were regents. She had first been married to Heinrich IV von Reuss-Obergreiz and had 2 sons and 2 daughters with him. She was born as Wild- und Rheingraf zu Salm, and lived (1602-53).

  1641-75 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Ratu Safiat ud-din Taj ul-‘Alam Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu’llahi fi’l-‘Alam binti al-Marhum Sri Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh (North Sumatra) (Indonesia)
Her father Sultan Iskandar Muda extended Aceh’s sway to most of the Malayan Peninsula and the coastal regions of the northern half of Sumatra. Internally he was a scourge to the mercantile elite, concentrating power, property and trade in his own hands by a series of tyrannical devices. Her husband was adopted as his heir and succeeded as Sultan Iskandar Thani 1637-41. After his death, some days of dispute among the leading factions in the capital led to her elevation to the throne. Under her rule the state was orderly and prosperous, with a climate favourable to foreign commerce. Four of the principal merchant-aristocrats formed a kind of executive council, which took many decisions, and her authority was partly derived from a careful balancing of the two major factions at the court. Land grants to the Sultan’s loyal war leaders, which had been at the king’s pleasure under the two previous male rulers, became hereditary under Safiyyat ad-Din. She in fact resolved one major dispute by ruling that only grants of land made by her father would be recognised as valid in perpetuity, thus invoking his name to support a policy he would never have approved. Born as Raja Permusairi Putri Sri ‘Alam, her throne name was Safiat ud-din Taj ul-‘Alam Shah, which means “Purity of the Faith, Crown of the World”, and she was succeeded by Sultana Nagiat.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak of Keureuto in Aceh (Indonesia)
Also known as Tjut Njak Asiah or Cut Nyak Karti she was one of the several female Heads of Autonomous Regions, equivalent to an European duke. The principality was also known as Keureutau or Keureutu.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak Fatimah of the a settlement in West Aceh (Indonesia)
Acehnese women served as sultanas, Regional rulers – Uleebalang, parliament members, and or Uleeblang (Commanders). Sultan Safiyat expanded the role of the Legislative Council which was comprised of 73 people of whom 16 were women.

  1641-94 Sovereign Duchess Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé of Fronsac (France)
Daughter of the Marshall of France, Urbain de Maillé, marquis of Brézé, and Nicole du Plessis, who was insane and died in 1635. She succeeded her uncle, Cardinal Richelieu, Premier Minister of France the same year she married Louis II de Bourbon-Condé, Duke d’Enghien, Prince de Condé (1621-86), but like her mother, she was mentally instable, a condition inherited by her son, Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé, who married Anne de Bavière, Duchesse de Guise and Joyeuse. Claire-Clémence lived (1628-94).

  1641-92 Sovereign Princess Marie de Bourbon-Condé of Condé-en-Brie, Countess of Soissons (France)
After the death of her brother, Louis de Bourbon (1604-1641) his inheritance (including Soissons and Condé) was divided between and her niece Marie d’Orléans-Longueville, heiress of her sister Louise (1603-37) and Henri II d’Orléans-Longueville. She was married Tommaso Francesco di Savoia (Thomas-François de Savoie-Carignan) (1596-1656), who held the title by the right of his wife. 2 of her sons and a grandson also held the title from 1646 and her granddaughter, Anna Vittoria di Savoia-Carignano, was titular Countess from 1736. She was daughter of Charles de Bourbon-Condé, comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié, dame de Lucé, and lived (1606-92).

  Until 1641 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg und Bronckhorst of Elten (Germany)
Daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg.

  1641-86 Princess-Abbess Isabella Henrietta d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Received papal dispense because she was under 30 when elected amidst protest from her opponent, the Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. The chapter had survived the Thirty Years War, but towards the end it was occupied by the unemployed troops of Duke Karl  of Lorraine in 1656. After the death of her brother, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden in 1665, she was named guardian for his 16 children together with Prince-Bishop Frans Egon von Furstenberg of Liege, the brother of her sister-in-law, Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. The county can be passed down both in the male and in the female line. In 1671 the troops of King Louis XIV of France passed through the territory, making life difficult and several ladies left the chapter. The Dechaness stayed in Liège 1677-79, but after her return the old disputed was revived.  She was daughter of Ernst d’Aspremont and Anna de Gouffier, and lived (1615-86).

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Beaumont y Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a sideline of royal family of Navarra, which descended from Don Louis de Navarra, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger (d. 1372). King Felipe IV confirmed the rights of the scribes of the monastery to act as magistrates (judges) in 1643.

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess Isabelle III de Héricourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Appointed as Abbess by King Felipe IV of Spain, who as Count of Flanders and Artois, was head of the Southern Low Countries, after the canoness had been unable to elect as successor to Marie IV for 6 months.

  1641-60 Reigning Abbess Maria Margarethe Schenk von Castell of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Prioress in 1638. It is not known if she received the costmary homage by the inhabitants of Wald and the other territories in 1641 or not until 1651 because of the continued warfare. She was daughter of Hans Maz Schenk von Castell zu Gattburg and Eva Blarer von Wartensee zu Wartegg.

  1641-51 Joint County Sheriff Leonora Christine Christiansdatter Countess af Slesvig og Holsten of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1643-64 Politically Influential
in Denmark 
In 1641 her father, King Christian 4 granted her the tenantcy for life jointly with her husband, Corfitz Ulfeldt. Two years later he was appointed Chancellor of the Realm (Rigskansler), and since there was no Queen, she was de-facto first-Lady at the court. The death of her father in 1648 was followed by a power-struggle, which she and her husband lost. Her half-brother, Frederik 3, was elected king, but she and her husband continued to provoke the reigning couple. In 1651 they left the country and stayed by Queen Christina of Sweden until 1654, and then in Germany. In 1657 her husband sided with the Swedes during the war with Denmark, which Denmark lost. In 1659 her husband was charged with treason against the Swedish king, he was hit by a stroke, and she was in charge of his defence. They escaped to Denmark, where they were held in captivity until they were freed in 1662, after signing a number of humiliating declarations. Later the same year they were permitted to go abroad for treatment of Corfitz Ulfeldt, who had never recovered from the stroke, and during their travels, he made all kinds of plans against his brother-in-law. In 1663 she went to king Charles II to claim an old loan, but he gave her up to the Danes, she was transferred to Copenhagen and was put in prison in Blåtårn at the Royal Castle of Copenhagen, where she spend 22 years, while her husband died already in 1664. She was not freed until the death of her sister-in-law, Queen Sophie-Amalie, in 1685. During her time in Blåtårn, she wrote “Jammersmide” (Memory of Lamenting), one of the first Danish autobiographies by a woman, which was not published until 1869, though. She spent the rest of her life at the castle, Maribo Kloster. She was the mother of 10 children, and lived (1621-98).

  1641-42 Acting County Sheriff Maren Eriksdatter Skram of Mariæ Kirkes Domprovsti (Oslo), Norway
After the death of her husband, Hartvig Huitfeldt til Skjelbred, Maren Skram was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway, and Mariæ Kirke is the Cathedral of Oslo. Secondly married to Balthasar Gebhard v. Obelitz. Her step-daughter, Margrethe Huitfeldt, who willed her estates to the Gymnasium of Göteborg upon her death in 1683. Marien Skram was the daughter of Erik Skram til Rammegaard og Anne Vind and (d. 1675).

  Around 1642 Ruler Karenga I Pucu of Sanrabone (Indonesia)
Her brother Tumenanga ri Buttana was ruler of the Makkasarese state in South Western-Celebes/Sulawesi until 1647.

  1642-4.. Lieutenant-Governor Madame Colles of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
During the English Civil War the Parliamentarians held the island, and she took over after the death of William Colles (1639-42). Peter Le Febvre, surier de L’Epine was pretender from November 1643.

  1642 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Jørgensdatter Lunge of the County of Ålholm with the Shire of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Lisbeth Lunge was the third wife of Palle Rosenkrantz and lived (1610-59).

  1642-43 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Sophie Breidesdatter Rantzau of the County of Hindsgaul with the Shire of Vend, Denmark
Lisbeth Sophie Rantzau was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She lived (1587-1652).

 

 

1643-51 Regent Dowager Queen Anne d’Austrice of France
1646-54 Governor of Aunis
1647-66 Governor of Bretagne
Had been Governor of Paris 1636-49. She was Infanta of Spain and the eldest daughter of Felipe III of Spain, and married Louis XIII, King of France, in 1615.  After some political manoeuvring she attained full powers as Regent and as such she placed the well being of France before anything else. She ignored the representatives of the Catholic party and made Cardinal Mazarin Prime Minister. Both continued the policies laid out by Richelieu, which decided against a peace treaty with Germany and The Netherlands. At one stage, Anne even went to war against her brother, King Felipe IV of Spain, and in negotiations refused to make any compromises. In 1648 the revolution called “the Fronde” began and would last until 1653. This rebellion started in Paris and was supported by the higher nobility as well as by the common people who had had enough of war and the ever-increasing taxes. The rebels blamed Mazarin and not only demanded his removal but also wanted him expelled from France. In 1661 Mazarin died and Louis XIV took over control of the country. From then on Anna was given only representative roles. In 1666 she died of cancer, after having lived (1601-66). 

  1643-51 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Calenberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Georg of Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Calenberg and Celle (1582-1636-41), she was regent for oldest son Duke Christian Ludwig (1624-65), who was Duke of Calenberg (1641-48), Duke of Celle (1648-65) of Harburg (1651-65). Her second son, Georg II Wilhelm was Duke of Calenberg (1648-1703), of Celle (1665-1703), of Dannenberg (1773-1703), her third son, Johann Friedrich of Braunchweig-Lüneburg zu Hannover (1665-79), the fourth Ernst August of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Hannover (1679-92) and Elector from 1698. His wife, Sophie von Pfalz-Simmen became Heir to the Throne of United Kingdom in 1702. One of Leonora’s daughters, Sofie Amalie, married Frederik III of Denmark. Anna Leonora lived (1601-59).

  1643-76 Hereditary High Sheriff Lady Anne Clifford of Westmoreland (United Kingdom)
Third and only surviving child of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, and his wife Margaret Russell and heiress of the Baronies of Clifford, Westmoreland and Vesci. When she was 15, her father died, and his brother inherited the vast estate, and from that moment her mission in life was to regain her inheritance. She married and had five children, but her husband was obstructive to her claim for the inheritance. Six years later he died, and she married Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who did support her claim. Eventually she did inherit the estate in 1643 in the middle of the Civil War raging. She was now 60 years old, and spent the next 26 years rebuilding churches and castles. Skip ton, Pen dragon, Appleby, Borough and Brougham Castles were restored to their former glory. As a devout Christian she built and restored churches and almshouses. She lived (1590-1676).

  1643 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Hansdatter Arnfeldt of Koldinghus with Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Holmans, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt Herred, Denmark
Ingeborg Arnfeldt til Gundetved was widow Ernst Normand til Selsø.

  Around 1643 Princess-Abbess Henrica Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first member of the family started her reign in 1618, but it is not known for how long or when Henrica took over the reigns of the state. But in 1643 she built the Monnikenhof in the Chapter. Next abbess is mentioned in 1649.

  1643-53 Abbess Nullius Girolama Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her reign ends 1644.

  1643-62 Reigning Abbess Anne de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers
Daughter of François, Count de L’Hôpital and Rosnay and Charlotte des Essarts, the Maitresse of King Henri. Possibly succeeded by Marguerite de Gonzague. She (d. 1662).

  1643-87 Politically Influential Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen of China
Widow of Hong Tajii, took part in the affairs of state during the reign of her son, Shunzhi Emperor Thuận Trị (1643-61). And in 1669 she urged her 13 grandson, Kamgxi, who had been on the throne since 1661 to depose his regents, and she continued to be influential. She took charge of his upbringing after the death of his mother. When Oboi was posing a threat to Kang Xi’s rule, she helped the young emperor to get rid of Oboi. Born as Bumbutai, she was a daughter of a prince of Borjigit, the Khorchin Mongols, prince Jaisang, thus was a descendant of Chinggis Khan, known as Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu in Manchu, and lived (1613-87).

  1643-65 Political Advisor Abbess María Fernández Coronel of Agreda in Spain
Also known as Sor Maria de Jesus de Agreda, she was the political advisor of spanish king Felipe IV. Having survived the Spanish Inquisition, she preached Christianity in the American Southwest, mainly in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. She wrote a book, ‘Mary, Mystical City of God’, in which she also described her own spiritual visions. She lived (1602– 65).

  1644-ca. 57 Queen Regnant Cockacoeske of the Pamunkey in Virginia (USA)
Possibly known as Queen Betty to the Colonists, she is described as diplomat and suzeraine, she shrewdly used her connections with the Virginia colonist to rebuild her tribe’s primacy over the neighbouring tribes. She seems to have directly succeeded her Opechancanough, who might have come to power after having been Prince-Consort to a previous reigning Queen – Cockacoeske’s mother “Cleopatra”, the daughter of King Powhatan. Succeeded by her niece, Queen Anne Totopotomoi.

  1644-53 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Weglin of Baindt (Germany)
Around 1649 the ladies of the chapter resumed the life in the convent after the lootings during the Thirty Year War.

  1644-45 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María de Salinas of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Died within the first year of her three-year election period.

  1644-46 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jacobsdatter Bech of the County of Laholm in Halland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Bech til Førslev was in charge of the administration after the death of her husband Christian von Bülow til Engelstad. She was daughter of Jacob Bech and Helle Marsvin, and lived (1607-64).

  1644-55 Politically Influential Olimpia Maidalchini in The Vatican
At the age of 20 she married her second husband, Pamphilio Pamphilj. When her brother-in-law a few years later became Pope Innocent X, she exerted a strong influence upon him, and soon becoming the only person whose advice the pope fully relied on. For this reason ambassadors, artists, tradesmen, politicians, and any important person in Rome presented her with rich gifts, to gain her favour and be well introduced to the Pope. When he died, the new pope, Alexander VII, exiled her to San Martino al Cimino – a small village just north of Rome – and asked to give back the gold she had taken away. She refused and died of plague four years later. She lived (1592-1657).

  1645 Regent Dowager Empress Yudokia Lukyamanova Stresneva of Russia
Евдокия Лукьяновна Стрешнёва in Russian, her name is also transcribed as Eudoxia or Evdokia Lukianova Streschneva. Following the death of her husband, Mikhail I Fedorovich Romanov, in February 1645, she acted as regent for son Alexei Mikhailovich until her own death in July. Her situation at the royal court was difficult. It appears that the tsaritsa totally depended on her mother-in-law Marfa Ivanovna, whose firm grip had been felt in their everyday life, and who accompanied her daughter-in-law during all of her visits to monasteries and other places. She also chose tutors for her grandchildren. It also appears that Eudoxia Streshneva had no influence over Mikhail I even after the death of Marfa. She was daughter of Lukian Stepanovich Streshnev and Princess Anna Konstantinovna Volkonskaya, she was mother of 10 children and she lived (1608-45).

  1645-47 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Elisabeth Amalia von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen, Countess of Falkenstein (Germany)
After the death of her father, Steino, she was joint heiress to the lordship, which became a co-lordship (Erbgemeinschaft or Ganerbschaft) when the male line had died out. She was daughter of the Swedish Count Steno von Löwenhaupt, Graf zu Rasburg and Falkenstein (1586-1645), who was the son of Axel Lewenhaupt af Raseborg and Sidonia von Daun, Gräfin von Falkenstein, and Magdalena von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1574-1639). She was married to Count Philipp Dietrich von Manderscheid-Kail and they united the Manderscheid-lines. She lived (1607-47).

  1645-54 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Sivertsdatter Grubbe of the County of Hven (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Regize Grubbe was widow of Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve til Vindinge (1615-45), son of Karen Andersdatter and Christian 4, who was given the fief Kronborg for life in 1641, and apparently took over as acting fiefholder of Hven from his mother in 1640. She did not have any children, and lved (1618-1689).

  1645-67 Politically Influential Electress Luise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau of Brandenburg (Germany), Heiress of the Counties of Lingen and Moers (The Netherlands)
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-40-88), and enhanced the relationship between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Netherlands. She initiated commercial and economic reforms and helped revive the state after the devastations of the Thirty Years War. She was also a patron of culture and learning. Her father, Stadholder Frederik Hendrik van Oranje had stipulated in his will that she was to inherit the Counties of Lingen and Moers in the case that her brother, Willem III, should die with out issue. When this happened in 1702, her son, King Friedrich I. von Prussia, too over the regency and in 1707 it was united with Tecklenburg. She lived (1627-1667).

  1645-48 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a side-line of the former royal house of Navarra.

  1645-80 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie I von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Pfalzgraf Georg Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein and Gräfin Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde. She lived (1619-80).

  1645-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
Considered the second founder as she started rebuilding the chapter, a small Catholic Territory partly in Germany, partly within the Protestant Netherlands. 1664 she asked the Pope for confirmation and expansion of her ecclesiastical rights, using the example of her colleague in Essen, noting that her predecessors since ancient times had exercised episcopal authority leaving only the right to confirm the election of a new Abbess to the Bishop of Utrecht. The Papal Nuntius in Kölln recommended that the Pope confirmed her quasi-episcopal powers and that she appointed a General Vicar as her temporal substitute. The pope granted her theise rights in 1669 and confirmed them in 1675. In 1669 she founded a fond in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen, and lived lived (1620-74).

  1645-63 Reigning Abbess Catherine de Beauffremez of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
At her election, the Prior, the Chaplaine, the Treasurer, the lady of the refectory, the Matron of the novices, 2 ladies of the sacritsty, 2 canonesses and 6 other ladies, whose occupation is not mentioned, took part. She was daughter of Lord d’Esnes and Haily. The Abbey became part of France 1659.

  1646-62 Regent Dowager Countess Ämilie Antonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Germany)
1663-70 Reigning Dowager Lady of Könitz
Alternatively known as Amalia Antonia, she acted as regent for son Albrecht Anton (1641-1710), after the death of her husband, Count of the Realm (Reichsgraf) Ludwig Günther. When her son came of age, she took over the administration of Könitz as the last feudal ruler. Her son became the first Prince (Fürst) of the state in 1697. Her two sisters were Princesses-Abbesses; Catharina Elisabeth of Gandersheim (1625-49), and Sedonia of Herford (1640-49). Ämilie Antonia lived (1614-70).

  Ca. 1646-1664 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili of Solor (Indonesia)
Also known as Nyai Pertawi, she reigned after the death of her husband, Kaicil Partana alias Sultan Sili Pertawi. Western travellers called her a pagan Queen. Succeeded by daughter, Nyai Cili Muda.

  Around 1646 Countess Regnant Maria Cristina di Altemps of Altemps (Italy) 
She was daughter of Angelica de’ Medici and Count Gianpetro di Altemps and married Ipollito, Duke Lante delle Rovere.

  1646-before 1654 Captain-Donatary Branca da Gama Freire of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
Daughter of Luis da Gama Pereira and Violante Freire and married to Vasco da Gama, capitão de Chaul. The captains-donataries were similar to governors and had full control over their domain. They held the office of judge. They could make land grants. They also monopolized the gristmills, public baking ovens, and salt sales. She was mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters, one of whom was Joana de Menzeses, who succeeded to the Captainship in 1665.

  1646-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Maria Johanna von Helfenstein of Wernberg in Leuchtenberg (Germnay)
After the death of her husband, Maximilian Adam von Leuchtenberg (1607-46), she reigned the territory as her dowry as their only son had died by birth, and even though the husband of their late daughter, Mechthilde von Leuchtenberg, Duke Albrecht VI. von Bayern held the title of Landgrave until he gave the territory to his brother, Elector Maximilian I (1573-1651). Together with her sisters, Isabella Eleonore (d. 1678) and Franziska Karoline (d. 1641) she inherited a third of the County of Wiesensteig and the Lordships of Gomegnies, Meßkirch, Wildenstein, Wiesensteig and Wellenheim after the death of her father, Count Rudolf III von Helfenstein-Wiesensteig (1607-27).

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Lunge of the Countyof Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre and Sønderhals and Østerlisbjerg, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jost Høg til Gjorslev (or Just Høeg), Anne Lunge administered the the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled with the King and the a new Lensmand could be appointed. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe.

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Hartvigsdatter Lützow of the County of Dronningborg with the Shires of Galten, Gjerlev, Houlberg, Nørrehald, Onsild, Rugsø, Støvring and Sønderlyng, Denmark
Kirstine Lützow’s father, Hartvig von Lützow, was a noble from Mecklenburg who became the Lord Chamberlain of the Court of Danish Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg. After the death of her first husband, Knud  Jakobsen Ulfeldt, she was in charge of the tenantcy. She inherited the estate of Hellerup (Vindinge Herred) from him, who had inherited it from his first wife, Anne Lykke. She was Lady of the Chamber of Danish Hereditary Princess Magdalena Sibylla von Sachen when she married Johan Christoph von Kørbitz (1612-82), who was in the service of Danish Hereditary Prince Christian and after his death Lord Chamberlain of Princess Magdalena Sibylla until she married Duke Friederich Wilhelm von Sachsen-Altenburg in 1652. Upon their marriage he became recognised as a Danish noble. She did not have children, and lived (1615-93)

  1646-88 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome I von Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Essen, Lady of Bresig etc. (Germany)
1640-74 she was also Dechantess of Thorn and Lady of the Chapter (Stiftfrau) in Elten and St. Ursula (Köln). She was able to assert the princely sovereignty against the protestant city, and thereby secured the continued existence of the Damenstift (Ladies Chapter). Since 1661 she used the title “Des heiligen römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen” (Princess and Abbess of the Holy Roman Realm of Essen, Lady of Breisig etc). Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich von Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. One sister, Maria Sophie, reigned as Fürstäbtissin of Elten another, Anna Katharina of Thorn. A fourth, Sidonia Elisabeth, was Lady of the Chapter in Thorn, Essen and St. Ursula before she married Hartmann Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein in 1640, and became mother of 24 children. Anna Salome lived (1622-88).

  1646-47 Princess-Abbess Anna Catharina zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1660-68 Regent Dowager Countess of Rietberg (Germany)
Resigned in order to marry Count Johann IV von Rietberg, and after his death she was regent for son Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-77) who fell by Straßburg, and was succeeded by his brothers Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-80) and ( 1687-88) and Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), who were both Diachons and Domherrs of the Cathedral Straßburg, and Anna Catharina remained the virtual ruler of the territory. Ferdinand Maximilian was succeeded by his niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska. Anna Catharina’s older sister, Maria Sophie (1620-74) was Abbess in Elten and the other Anna Salome (1622-88) in Elten. They were daughters of Altgraf Ernst Friedrich, (1583-1639) and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen (†1649). Anna Catharina’s daughter, Bernhardine Sophia was Fürstäbtissin of Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina lived (1624-91).

  1647-90 Princess-Abbess Anna Salomé von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1689-91 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome II of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Had to raise taxes in the principality because of the ongoing wars, and worked closely together with her sister, Clara Elisabeth, who was her second-in-command. In 1688 Anna-Salome was elected Fürstäbtissin of Essen. She was daughter of Ernst Friedrich von Manderscheid-Blankenheim and Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. Her sister, Marie Sofie (1620-74), was Abbess in Eltern. Anna Salomé and lived (1622-91).

  1647-58 Regent Dowager Countess Barbara Magdalena von Mansfeld-Hinterort of Mansfeld-Eisleben (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, took over the regency for his oldest son Hoyer Christoph II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, (1636-53) from his marriage to Barbara Maria zu Stolberg in Schwarza (1596-1636). Barbara Magdalena became regent for her own son, Johann Georg III, when he succeeded older half-brother at the age of 13.She was daughter of Count David von Mansfeld zu Schraplau (1573-1628) and his second wife, Juliane Marie Reuss zu Gera (1598-1650). She later married Anton von Werthern, Georg Andreas Schwab von Lichtenberg and Georg Albert von Mansfeld-Vorderort (1642-96/97), and lived (1618-96).

  1647… Sovereign Countess Louise de Béon of Brienne (France)
Succeeded mother, Louise de Luxembourg, who inherited the County in 1608. She held the title jointly with her husband, Henri-Auguste de Loménie, who died 1666.

  1647-51 Executrix and Acting Lord Proprietor Margaret Brent of Maryland (USA)
1648 she appeared before the State Assembly and requested 2 votes as a landowner and as Lord Baltimore’s attorney. Together with two brothers and a sister, she had arrived from England to Maryland 10 years before. She became a substantial landowner and she was named jointly with Governor Leonard Calvert as joint guardian for Mary Kittamaquund, daughter of the chief of the Piscataways. Her continuing unmarried state was unusual in a settlement where the male/female ratio was about six to one. Governor Calvert died during an attack on the settlement and on his deathbed, exhorting her to “Take all and pay all,” he appointed her as his executor, a testimony to his faith in her abilities. The most pressing problem was paying Leonard Calvert’s soldiers, who were on the verge of a mutiny. She averted that disaster by having the assembly transfer to her Calvert’s power of attorney for his brother Lord Baltimore. Because his estate was not sufficient, she sold some of Lord Baltimore’s cattle to pay the soldiers. 1651 she and her family relocated to Virginia by 1651, where she set up a large plantation. She lived (1610-71).

  1647-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Hereditary Princess Magdalene Sibylla von Sachsen of Denmark of Lolland-Falster, Royal County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of Falster and the County of Ålholm, Denmark
After her husband, Hereditary Prince Christian died, she withdrew to her dowry in the south of Denmark until she married Duke Friedrich Wilhelm II zu Sachsen-Altenburg (d. 1669) in 1652 ans had her first child, Johanna Magdalene, in 1656 and the second, Friedrich Wilhelm II, in 1658. She lived (1617-68).

  1647-86 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Marie of Münsterberg-Oels (Ziębice-Oleśnica) (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
1664-72 Regent Dowager Duchess of Württemberg-Oels (Germany)
Also known as Elżbieta Maria Podiebrad, she was the only child of the Slesian Duke Karl Friedrich, she was married Silvius Nimrod von Württemberg (1622-64), and after her father’s death, he was granted the Duchy by emperor Ferdinand III and he founded the line of Württemberg-Oels, the first Slesian line, and after his death, she was regent for two sons, Silvius Friederich (1651-97) and Christian Ulrich (1652-1702), who were declared prematurely of age by the Emperor against her protests. She lived (1625-86).

  1648-51 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane von Hessen of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1651-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Burg Berum and the Estate of Westerhof bei Osterode am Harz
The widow of Count Ulrich II, she governed in the name of her son, Enno Ludwig, 1st Prince of Ostfriesland. Her reign was marked by the Thirty Years War and plague, but she managed to bring the territory trough the worst ordeals. Her son was declared “of age” before time and she withdrew to her dowry. She lived (1606-59).

  1648-56 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Effern of Holzappel
1656
Reigning Lady of Schaumburg, Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, who had gained the position of Imperial Immidiate in 1643 from Emperor Ferdiand III (Freien Reichsunmittelbaren Grafschaft Holzappel), she was able to expand the territory in 1656 by aquireing the Castle and Lordship of Schaumburg bei Balduinstein. After her death, the castle of Schaumburg was inherited by her daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg. She (d. 1656.). 

  1648-1707 Reigning Lady Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg of Schaumburg, Countess of Holzappel and Lady of Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Another version of her title is Gräfin von Holzapfel, in Schaumburg, Holzapfel und Laurenburg. After the death of her mother, Agnes von Effert, gennant Hall, who had been in charge of the government since the death of her father, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, she took over the reigns, with great vigour and intelligence. She allowed Hugenots and Waldenses from France to settle in her territory, abolished the serfdom, gave city and trade-rights to Holzappel and founded the village of Charlottenburg. She married Prince Adolf Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-76), who added Schaumburg to his princely title. After her death, her son-in-law, Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym added Schaumburg to his title. He was the widower of her youngest daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (d. 1700), and their son, Victor Amadeus Adolf became Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, the son of her youngest daughter, and in 1812 his great-granddaughter, Hermine, inherited the Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel. She was married to Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), and died giving birth to twins in 1817. Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1640-1707).

  1648-1652 Regent Dowager Countess Luise Juliane of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenberg and Altenkirchen (Germany)
Her father-in-law, Count Wilhelm zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn died in 1623, and since her husband, the Hereditary Count Ernst (1593-1641), had already died, the Archbishop of Köln occupied the county, but she continued to fight for her rights. In the Peace-treaty of Westphalia in 1648 both her own and her two surviving daughters (Johanette and Ernestine) right to rule the county was confirmed. She continued to act as regent for her two daughters who split the County among them, until she withdrew from Hachenburg Castle to Friedenwald Castle. She was mother of 5 daughters of whom 3 died as infants and a son, who died at the age of 9. She lived (1603-70).

  1648-61 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Ernestine Salentine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Hachenburg (Germany)
Initially Reichsgräfin Ernestine was co-ruler with sister, Johanette, but they split up the county in 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia confirmed their right to the inheritance and her part became known as Sayn-Hachenburg for short. She was married to count Salentin Ernst von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, Kirchenberg and the Nassau-Weilburg families, and is now one of the titles of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. She was first succeeded by son, Maximilian zu Manderscheid-Blankenheim (1655-75) and then by her daughter, Magdalena-Christina (1657-1715). She lived (1626-62).

  1648-1701 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Johanette zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (Germany)
Reichsgräfin Johanette’s part of the County is normally known as Sayn-Altenkirchen. She was married to Johannes-Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and was succeeded by son Duke Wilhelm Heinrich, who in 1741 was succeeded by his nephew Margrave Carl Wilhelm Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach, the son of her daughter, Eleonore Erdmute Louise (d. 1696). She lived (1632-1701).

  1648-83 Khadija Turhan Hadice Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
1651-56 Regent Naib-i-Sultanat of the Empire
When her son, Mehmed IV (1648-51-87), became sultan, she would normally have become regent, but instead her mother-in-law, Kösem was appointed to rule the empire, because she was considered too young. Turhan Sultan used the next years gathering support to undermine Kösem. The imperial guards revolted and Kösem decided to have Mehmet overthrown, but the plot was thwarted and Kösem strangled, and Turhan became regent, exercising her power through a series of twelve Grand Viziers over the next five years. She took her responsibilities very seriously and tried to make up for her inexperience by learning everything there was to know about her job. She also took part in the deliberations in the Imperial Diet seated behind a curtain; she authorized all appointments and cooperated closely with the Grand Vizier as “The Guardian and Representative of the Sultan”. She was sister of Yusuf Agha, of Russian origin, and lived (1627-83).

  1648-84 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de Rohan-Frontenay of Rohan, Duchess de Porhoët-León et Soubize, Princess de León, Countess de Porhoët and Lorges, Marquise de Blain and La Garnache, etc (France)
In 1645 Louis XIV allowed her to keep her status and dignity of Princess if she married Henri Chabot, Seigneur de Sainte-Aulaye, who was created Duke de Rohan in 1648. Their children got the surname Rohan-Chabot. Succeeded first by son and then by daughter, Anne in 1686. Marguerite lived (1617-84).

  1648-72 Reigning Lady Katharina Elisabeth Wechsler von Galler of Riegersburg in der Steiermark (Austria)
Also known as Freifrau von Gallen, Herrin auf der Riegersburg and in the folklorist tradition as “Schlimme Lisl” (Bad Lissy). She inherited the vast possessions of her family after the death of her uncle, Sigismund Wechsler, the last male member of the family. She has made a prenuptial agreement with her first husband, Freiherr Hans Wilhelm von Galler, that she would keep the right to determine over her own possessions, but they engaged in a dispute over the details of the agreement. After his death, she became the undisputed ruler of the territories. In 1660 Colonel Freiherr Detlef von Kapell, but he died in the battle against the Turkish in 1664. This marriage lead to a dispute with her only daughter, Regina Katharina, her son-in-law Freiherr Johann Ernst Graf von Purgstall and the Marshall of the Castle.  In 1666 she married the 25-year-old Hans Rudolf von Stadl, owner of the Castle of Kornberg, but she asked for a divorce 3 years later, but they came to an agreement, where she gave him one of her castles. She renovated the castle and rebuilt the economic foundations of the lands. In 1653 she was given the Patronage of the Pastorate of Regensburg, but the clerics did not recognize this right and they engaged in a long lasting battle, but again she entered into an agreement and gave up her rights in 1661 but was compensated economically. She was succeeded by dauther, and lived (ca. 1607-72).

  1648-57 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II d’Alençon of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elisabeth-Marguerite d’Orléans, Mademoiselle d’Alençon was 2 years old when she was elected as sovereign of the chapter, and therefore her parents, Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, Duke d’Anjou, d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d’Alençon, comte de Blois, Monthéry et de Limours, baron d’Amboise, Seigneur de Montargi and Marguerite de Lorraine, reigned for her. In 1657 Elisabeth-Marguerite left the Abbey and married Duke Louis Joseph de Guise (1650-71) with whom she had one child François Joseph de Guise (1670-75). The former Princess-Abbess lived (1646-96).

  Around 1648 Princess-Abbess Justina Anna Etlin von Rosenfels of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave the “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St. Georgen auf dem königl. Schloß zu Prag” dispensation from the war-tax because of the disasterous economic situation of the chapter.

  1648-51 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Góngora of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her ancestors were first mentioned as courtiers of the kings of Pamplona in the 700s and held many high offices through out the centuries.

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Ramel of the County of Kristianssand in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) and of the County of Bøvling with the Shires Skodsborg, Vandfuld, Hind and Ulvborg, Denmark  
Anna Ramel (or Rammel) til Vandås og Maltesholm took over the fief after the death of her husband, Malte Juel til Gjesinggård, County Sheriff of Kristiansstad. She had inherited a number of estates from her family. She (d. 1702).

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Jørgensdatter Lunge Dyre of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt, Denmark
Margrethe Lunge was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Mogens Bille til Tirsbæk (1617-48). Their only son, Jørgen Lunge Bille, was born and died the same year. 1649 she married Christen Skeel, with whom she had a son the following year. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge Dyre and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe, and lived (1616-53).

  1648-51 Acting County Sheriff Christence Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark
After the death of her second husband, Claus Alexandersen Sehested til Højgaard, Christence Lindenov til Tim and Ørslev, held the fief, that he had granted after returning to Denmark after a period as Lord Marshall of the Prince Bishop of Bremen in 1643. She had first been married to Axel Gyldenstjerne til Tim, Ørslevkloster og Strandet. They did not have any children. (d. 1681).

  1649-67 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Louise Juliane von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Herford (Germany)
She was daughter of Johann II, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken and Luise Juliane von Simmeren, and lived (1613-67).

  1649-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Salis of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss noble family, which was first recorded in 1202 as Salici zu Como and later held influential positions in the administration of Switzerland and other countries.

  Around 1649 Princess-Abbess and Steward Baroness Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
Apparently the Freiin (Baroness) was elected as the successor of Fürstäbtissin Henrica, who was mentioned in 1643, but of whom not much more is known. The last of the baronial (Freiherrliche) family of Raitz von Frentz to govern the territory was in office until 1669.

  1649 Abbess Nullius Antonia Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in an alternative chronology of Abbesses of the chapter. Sister of the Abbesses Donata and Mariana – all daughters of the Count and Countess of Conversano, Caterina Acquavia d’Aragona and Giulio Acquavia d’Aragona.

  1649-50 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Regitze Urne was widow of Jost Frederik von Pappenheim til Søholt. Mother of 4 children, she lived (1608-79).

  1649-71 Overseer of the Crown Lands Elżbieta Słuszczanka of Warka (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1649-ca. 55 Feudal Baroness Giulia Bardi Pignatelli Centelles Spatafora of Calcusa (Italy)
Married to Giulio Pignatelli.

  1649-67 Politically Influential Electress Louise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau in Brandenburg (Germany)
1650-67 In charge of the Administrative Unito of Bötzow (Oranienburg)
Given the Amt of Bötzow for life by her husband, Kurfürst Friederich Wilhelm ,and renamed it Oranienburg in 1652. She was strongly interested in politics and her influence cannot be underestimated. In spite of her bad health, she joined her husband on his journeys, sometimes even in warfare. During the Swedish-Polish war, she advocated a truce with Poland and Habsburgs. She was daughter of Frederik Hendrik van Oranje-Nassau (1584-1647) and Amalia von Solms (1602-72) and heir to the title of Princess of Oranje and the Prince of Preussen still uses this title today. She died one year after the birth of her 6th child. Her husband later married Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg (see 1665). Louise Henriette von Oranien lived (1627-67).

  Around 1650 Queen Mwabwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Head of the Lozi Tribe, which migrated from Katanga in the Congo and were ruled by a long line of female rulers until their settlement on the Bulozi flood plain. She was theearliest of these rulers and was succeeded by her daughter, Mbuymamwambwa. According to legend they both married Nyambe, the “maker of the world, the forests, the river, the plains, all the animals, birds and fish”. In reality, they, probably both bore children by several different consorts.

  Around 1650 Queen Mbuyambwambwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Succeeded mother and abdicated in favour of son, Mwanasolundwi Muyunda Mumbo wa Mulonga aka Mboo, who became the first Litunga or king. He appointed a female parallel chief, as his co-ruler, who was in charge of the southern parts of the territory.

  Ca. 1650-80 Queen Regnant Ama Tuan of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)
Head of the kingdom or rather empire in Eastern Timor. Timor was one big empire ruled by the divine Maromak Oan, who was based in the Belu area.

  1650-57 Captain-Donatary Dame Beatriz Mascarenhas of the Islands of Flores and Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)
The Capitana Donataria and 3rd Condessa de Santa Cruz was daughter of Don Martinho Mascarenhas, 2nd conde de Santa Cruz and Joana de Vilhena and married her relative João Mascarenhas (Ca. 1600-68). Las Ilhas das Flores e Corvo are remote part of the Azores. Beatriz was mother of 4 sons and 2 daughters, and lived (Ca. 1610-57).

  1650-63 Lady Landgravine Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of the Administrative Unit and Fief of the Castle Bingenheim in Hessen (Germany)
When she married Prince Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg (1625-81) in 1650, her father transferred and Administrative Unit and Fief of Schloss Bingenheim to them, and as her husband preferred Bingenheim for Homburg, he was mainly known as the Landgrave zu Bingenheim, since his younger brother, Friederich II succeeded their father, Friederich I as Landgrave of Homburg. Wilhelm Christoph and Sofie Eleonore had 8 sons and 4 daughters, who all died before their father, who married in a second childless marriage Anna Elisabeth von Sachsen-Lauenburg. She lived (1634-63).

  1650-60 Politically Active and Guardian, Dowager Princess Mary Stuart of England of Oranje-Nassau in The Netherlands
Her son Willem III was born 8 days after the death of her husband, Willem II, and she acted as his guardian and worked actively for his reinstatement as Governor-Stadholder of the Netherlands. Willem was married to Mary’s niece, Mary, and they later became king and Queen of England. Mary lived (1630-60).

  1650-60 Joint Guardian Dowager Princess Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels of Oranje-Nassau (The Netherlands)
1660 Guardian
Her husband Frederik Hendrik of Oranje and Nassau was succeeed by their son, Willem II, in 1647, but he died suddenly in 3 years later, and the Estates desided not to appoint a new Stadholder. 8 days after her son’s death, his heir, Willem III was born, and she was appointed joint guardian with her son-in-law the Prince Palantine of Brandenburg on one side and her daughter-in-law, Mary Stuart, on the other by the High Council (Hoge Raad) of Holland and Zeeland, and after Mary’s death in 1660, she became the sole Guardian (Voogd). She was very influential and had an important role in her grandson’s appointment as Stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland en Overijssel and Captain-General of the Union in 1672. He later became King of England as the husband of Queen Mary II. Her sister, Ursula von Soms, was Governor of Oranje 1637-48. Amalia lived (1599-1672), and Amalia herself had been Lady of Turnhout since 1648. She lived (1602-75).

  1650-65 Princess-Abbess Maria Sabina zu Solms-Lich of Gandersheim (Germany)
Since her predecessor, Fürstäbtissin Katharina Elisabeth did not reside in the chapter, she had to promise to stay there in order to get elected. Daughter of Count Ernst II zu Solms-Lich and Countess Anna von Mansfeld, she lived (1600-65).

  1650-69 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska I von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Before she became Canoness she was probably Lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Claudia von Tirol. Soon after her election she began rebuilding the chapter and bring the economic situation back on track. She managed to retrieve the “treasuer of the church”. When she became seriously ill the College of the Counts of Swabia tried to influence the election of her sucessor. Listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1650 and 1669 and she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) in 1664. She used the title of “Reverend and Illustrius Lady, Princess Abbess of the Holy Roman Empire of Buchau, nee Countess of Montfort, and was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort, Councillor of the Bavarian-Palatinate and Imperial Council and Chamber, and Euphrosina Truchsess von Waldburg-Wolfegg, and lived (Ca. 1622-69).

  1650-51 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Styggesdatter Høeg of the County of Århusgård with the Shires of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg, Denmark
Another version of her name was Jutte Høg, and she acted as administrator of the fief after the death of her husband, Niels Krag til Trudsholm. She lived (1589-1659).

  1650 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Frandsdatter Rantzau af Lunde Sankt Peders Kloster , Denmark
Kirsten Rantzau was widow of Falk Lykke til Skovgård, Bollerup og Gersnæs. She did not have any children.

  1651-57 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Anna von Habsburg of Bavaria (Germany)
1654-65 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen
Second wife of Kurfürst Maximillian I von Bayern she was very interested in politics and well instructed about developments. She was not bound to the Habsburgs, but rather completely advocated the Bavarian standpoint. Additionally, she conducted lively exchanges of opinion with high officials of the Munich court and took part in meetings of the cabinet. After Maximillian’s death she was regent for their son, Kurfürst Ferdinand Maria (1636-51-79). Generally described as clever, cautious, energetic, stern, frugal, and experienced in matters of financial administration, she was daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna von Bayern (1574-1616), mother of two sons, and lived (1610-65).

  1651-80 County Sheriff Queen Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1651-58 County Sheriff of Hven
1670-85 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster
with the Castle of Nykøbing
received the tenantcy of Hørsholm as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard and build Sophie-Amalienborg. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648 and supported his curbing of the nobility and was a leading force in the defence of Copenhagen from the attacks of the Sweden in 1659. She was mother of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85).

  1651-59 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Szumińska of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Held the office of starościna niegrodowa jointly with her husband.

  1651-53 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Osorio y Leyva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of the family of Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.

  1651-61 County Sheriff Anne Predbjørndsatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark
Anne Gyldenstierne was married to Jørgen Brahe to Hvedholm (1585-1661), she was daughter of Predbjørn Gyldenstjerne (1548-1616) and Mette Hardenberg (1569-1629), mother of a number of children, and lived (1596-1677).

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Jensdatter Bielke of the County of Bakke Kloster, Norway
After the death of her husband, Daniel Bildt til Morland (1601-51), Dorothea Bielke continued as the official local representative of King Frederik III of Denmark-Norway. She later arried Gabriel Rosenskold. The daughter of Daughter of Chancellor Jens Bielke, she lived (1612-74),

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hartvigsdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Dragsmark Kloster, Norway
Margrethe Huitfeldt continued the tenantcy, after her husband, Thomas Dyre til Sundsby (1605-51). As she had no children, she gave two of her estates Sundsby and Aaby in Baahus Len to students at Gøteborgs Gymnasium. She lived (1608-83).

  1652-97 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

  1652 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)
She was widow of Kraft VII zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (1582-1615-41) and in charge of the government in the name of Count Johann Friedrich I von Hohenlohe in Öhringen etc., the oldest son of her 14 children. She was daughter of Karl I, Pfalzgraf und Herzog von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, and lived (1593-1676).

  1652-76 Chiefess Wetamoo of the Wampanoag Tribe (USA)
Daughter of the Sachem Corbitant of Pocasset, which was located in and around present day Rhode Island. When Chief Corbitant died, Wetamoo became the Squaw Sachem. When her brother-in-law died mysteriously, she became convinced that the English had poisoned him. This belief led to a hatred of the whites that dominated her life. During the great war of the northeast against the Pilgrims/Puritans/English, Wetamoo joined forces with the great Wampanoag Sachem, Chief Philip. Since the whites could not understand the concept of tribal living, or the role of the chief, Philip became “King Philip” to them, and the resulting war lives in history as “King Philip’s War”. She was known for her great beauty and for diplomatic skills as well as her skills as a warrior. She was ever the fighter for her people against the unfairness of white rule. She was a powerful and regal Sachem and, at the height of her tenure, she commanded some 300 warriors. The Plymouth colonists hunted Wetamoo and her warriors continually during King Philip’s War, but they always were successful in evading the enemy. However, during one escape down the Fall River, Wetamoo lost her footing and drowned. The Pilgrims promptly cut off her head, and displayed it on a pike in the town of Taunton.

  1652-64 Princess-Abbess Maria Caecilia von Greuth of Schänis (Switzerland)
The bishop leter know that she had to use the Court of the Diocese in court cases. A relative of hers, Agnes III, was Fürstäbtissin of Säckingen 1621-58. Maria Caecilia was daughter of Hugo Theodorich von Greuth, of Klingenau, and Apollonia von Altendorp.

  1652-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Margarethe von Sigertshofen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a family of Lords of a territory in Schwaben in Germany.

  1652-54 Acting County Sheriff Anna Margrethe von Götzen of the County of Abrahamstrup with Hornsherred, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Schult til Finstrup, she was in charge of the County and the Wapentake (County Subdivision). She owned different estates, among others Leiholm, that she sold to her son-in-law, Niels Banner, who was married to her daughter, Anna Cathrine Schult (d. 1675). She (d. 1684).

  1652-57 Acting County Sheriff Karen Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Søbygaard with the Shire of Løve, Denmark
Karen Lange acted after the death of her husband, Kristoffer Gøye til Assendrup (1584-1652), as the tenantcy had been granted them jointly for their lifetimes. She was daughter of Gunde Lange til Søfde and Anne Hansdatter Basse, and (d. 1657).

  1652-…  County Sheriff Elsbet of the County of Kullegaard (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
It is not known how long she was in charge of the fief. She was widow of Thomas Jakobsen.

  1653 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna zu Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her husband, Hans Christian, she was regent for her 12 year old son, Christian Adolf of Holsten-Sønderborg in very difficult times, as the territory was marked by the wars between Denmark and Sweden. After her son came of age, she witdrew to her dowry, Gammelgård. She was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. Both her brothers died young and unmarried, one sister, Katharine Elisabeth, was Abbess of Gandersheim and two of her sister’s, Clara and Sidonie, married a relative of her sister, Duke August Philipp of Holstein-Beck. She lived (1605-68).

  1653-96 Sovereign Duchess Marie Françoise de Valois of Angoulême (France)
Succeeded father, Louis Emmanuel, because all her brother died before her, except Antoine Charles, who was illegitimate. Her great-grandfather was illegitimate son of Charles IX. Her husband, Louis de Lorraine, Duke de Joyeuse was joint ruler until his death in 1654 and since she did not have any children, the Duchy was inherited by her step-grandmother Françoise de Nargonne. Marie Françoise lived (1632-96).

  1653-80 De-facto Regent Princess Augusta Sophie von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Sternstein and Neustadt an der Waldnaab (Germany)
Her father, August von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, died in 1632, and her mother Hedwig sent her to Sweden to live with her great-aunt, Queen Hedwig-Eleonore zu Holstein-Gottrop. Augusta Sophie married Prince Wenzel Eusebus Lobkowitz of Neustadt, who as Chancellor of the Emperor was away most of the time and left the administration of the semi-independent principality to her and in 1673 he officially appointed her regent. A few years after his death in 1677 moved to Nürnberg. Mother of four children, and lived (1624-82).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Skeel of of the County Stege, Denmark
Margrethe Skeel acted after the death of her husband, Henrik Rammel. She was daughter of Birgitte Lindenov and Otto Skeel. Mother of 2 children, and (d. 1651).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Ide Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Ide Grubbe was widow of Frederik Barnewitz til Rugbjerggård and sister of Mette Grubbe. She (d. 1702).

  1653-72 Princess-Abbess Maria-Scholastica Klocker of Baindt (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was a member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis, and as Imperial Prelate she held a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The Diet of Regensburg in 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag).

  1653-56 Reigning Abbess-General Antonia Jacinta de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Duke Felipe of Navarre de la Cueva y de Salazar and Mariana de Mendoza. Her grandfather was Pedro batard de Navarra, whose sister Isabel was Abbess from 1665. Antonia Jacinta became a nun at Las Huelgas and was later elected abbess. She is said to have received the stigmata and was later declared venerable – during the investigation and process leading to canonization as a saint. She lived (1602-56).

  1653-65 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her first reign ended 1656 and the second lasted 1660-62.

  1654-68 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV d’Oyenbrugge of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Her surname was also spelled d’Oyenbrughe.

  1655-59 Princess-Abbess Johannetta Stephana von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)
According to the Westphalian Peace, which followed the Thirty Years War, the ecclesiastical territories, chapters and convents should revert to the situation prior to 1624. And at that time the convent was protestant but two years later Prince Johann of Nassau reintroduced Catholism, and therefore it was decided that Keppel should be a double-denomination chapter (stift), and the post of Abbess should alternate between Protestants and Catholics. Johanetta therefore succeeded the Protestant Maria von Effern. She resigned from the convent in order to marry, and was succeeded by another protestant.

  1655-92 Reigning Abbess Henriette II de Guise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Henriette de Lorraine, she was niece of Jehanne and during her reign, the Abbey became powerful, because of privilege of exemption, acquired in the 13th century. However this Abbess, too sure of her prerogatives, had disputes and a lawsuit with Bossuet, the bishop of Meaux. The “Eagle of Meaux”, as he was known, interfered violently. Henriette lost the case and resigned. However, Bossuet could be gentle too as his letters to the nuns testify. He wrote to them in 1695: “God loves Jouarre”. Daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse, Prince de Joinville and Marie Aimée de Rohan, Mademoiselle de Montbazon. Her oldest sister was, Anne Marie, Abbess of Pont-aux-Dames, and she lived (1631-93).

  1655-92 Regent Dower Landgravine Eleonora Katharina bei Rhein of Hessen-Eschwege, the Principality of Hersfeld and the Counties of Catzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc (Germany)
Her husband, Friedrich von Hessen-Eschwege, Landgraf zu Hessen, Fürst zu Hersfeld, Graf zu Katzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc. (1617-55) fell during the first year of the war between Sweden and Poland, and after his death, she administered the lands given to him by the Swedes. She was born as Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, and her brother became King Karl X Gustaf of Sweden, after the abdication of Queen Kristina. 

  1655-63 and 1673-75 Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Juliana von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg of Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld and Gaildorf (Germany)
After the death of her her first husband, Schenk Johann Wilhelm Limpurg zu Schmiedelfeld, she was in charge of the affairs of state in the name of her children, Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf (1652-90) and Sophia Eleonora (1655-1722) together with the counts Wolfgang Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Waldenburg and Heinrich Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg. 1758 she signed an agreement with Barbara Dorothea von Öttingen-Öttingen after the death of Schenk Wilhelm Ludwig von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and 1663 she married Franz von Limpurg zu Speckfeld, who took over her membership in the Regency Council, until he died 10 years later. She lived (1623-95).

  1655-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Maria Eleonore von Brandenburg of the Wadgasserhof in Kaiserslautern in Pfalz-Lautern (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Palatine Ludwig-Philipp zu Pfalz-Simmern-Kaiserslautern, she took over the government in her dowry. Her 4 oldest sons died as infants, the 5th, Ludwig Heinrich Moritz, survived to succeed his father and also her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Marie Charlotte (1638-64), survived and married Georg III of Liegnitz (1611-64). She lived (1607-75).

  1655-67 Hereditary Vice-Reine Geronima Colonna of Aragona, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 5th Duchess of Monteleone, Countess of Borrello (Italy) 
She was daughter of Ettore III, IV Duca di Monteleone (1572–1622), Viceroy of Catalogna and Caterina Caracciolo Countess of S. Angelo dei Lombardi and married to Fabrizio Pignatellli V Marchese di Cerchiara e III Principe di Noja. She lived (1599-1667).

  1655-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Rohan-Montbazon of Chevereuse (France)
Marie-Aimée was first married to Charles d’Albert, Duke de Luynes, the favourite of King Louis XIII and the most influential man in France. After his death she married Claude de Lorraine, Duke de Chevereuse (1578-1657) and bought the Duchy from him. In 1625 she pawed the way for a liaison between Queen Anne and the English Duke of Buckingham. The following year she was involved in a plot to kill Cardinal Richelieu together with her lover the Marquis de Chalais. When the plot was discovered Chalais executed and she send in exile in Poitou. She withdrew to Lorraine and won over Duke Charles IV for the anti-French coalition of Buckingham. 1628 she was allowed to return to France but in 1633 she was banned again after her lover Marquis de Châteauneuf betrayed state secrets to Spain, as it was discovered that the Queen corresponded with her Spanish relatives, Marie had to flee to Spain in 1637 and was only able to return after the death of the king and the Cardinal. Her relationship with the Queen did not survive her friendship with Cardinal Mazarin. She was again exiled after her involvement in the plot to kill but returned at the beginning of the Fronde and joined the party of the Prince de Condé. 1652 she was reconciled with the Queen and finally left the political stage. She left the Duchy to her grandson by her fist marriage, Charles Honoré d’Albert de Luynes, and lived (1600-79).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Eggersdatter Abildgaard of the County of Antvorskov, Denmark
Dorthe Abildgård held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Wentzel Rothkirch til Tjæreborg. She lived (1597-1657).
 

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Clausdatter Daa of the County of Akershus, Norway
Dorthe Daa married the Councillor of State, Gregers Krabbe til Torstedlund, who was appointed Stadholder of Norway and exchanged the tenantcy of Riberhus with Akershus Len in 1651. After his death, she continued to act as the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. She had inherited the Estate of Espe from her father, Claus Daa, in 1641, and lived (1617-75).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Mette Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Harre, Hindborg, Nørre and Rødding, Denmark
Mette Grubbe was sister of Ide Grubbe and widow of Ebbe Jakobsen Ulfeldt til Urup, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt. They did not have any children, and she lived (1615-83).

  1656-58 Regent Dowager Maharani Gangadhara Lakshimi of Cochin (India)
After the death of Rama Varma, The Velliama Thampuran (the Senior Female member of the royal family) took over the regency, as there was no successor. The Portuguese then commanded her to adopt five Thampurans from Aroor and Vettath. She resigned in favour of Rama Varma (1658-61) who was killed when Dutch attacked Cochin and the Rani was sent to prison. Gangadharalakshmi was an honorary name and her original name is still unknown.

  1656-70/71 Regent Khunza Humayun Sultana of Ahmadnagar (India)
Today Ahmadnagar is a city in the State of Maharashtra in Western India. 

  1656-62 Regent Dowager Queen Luísa Perez de Guzmão e Gómes de Sandovial of Portugal
Following the death of her husband, João IV, she became regent for son, Afonso VI (1643-56-67-75), who was mentally deficient. In 1658 the Dutch conquered Portugal’s last colony in Sri Lanka, in 1661 Portugal gave up of Bombay and Tangier to England as dowry her daughter, Catherine of Braganza who had married King Charles II of England and the same year English mediation saw The Netherlands acknowledge Portuguese rule of Brazil in return for uncontested control of Sri Lanka. Afonso was deposed by his brother, Pedro II in 1667. She was daughter of the Duke of Medina Sedona and lived (1613-66).

  1656-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore Sofie von Holstein-Sonderburg of Ballenstedt in Anhalt (Germany)
Her son 6th and first surviving son, Viktor Amadeus, was almost 20 when he took as Reigning Prince over from her husband, Christian II von Anhalt-Bernburg (1630-56) and she took charge of her dowry. The 23rd child of Duke Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön (1564-1622), by his second wife, Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt, she was mother of a total of 15 children, and lived (1603-75).

  1656-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylla von Preussen of and Administrative Unit of Colditz, The Estate of Krakau in and Administrative Unit of Grossenhain, and Administrative Unit of Lichtenwalde and the fore works of Frankenberg, Sachsenburg, Neusorge, Zadel and Baselitz in Sachsen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg I von Sachsen (1585-1656), she took over her dowry of Colditz – the other possessions she already acquired during their marriage, but she resided in Dresden. She was mother of 10 children and lived (1586-1659).

  1656-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Juliana Sophia von Barby-Mühlingen of the Administrative Office of Pewsum in Ostfriesland (Germany)
Her husband, Enno Ludwig I, Graf and Fürst von Ostfriesland, transferred the Office to her as her dowry. She was daughter of Count Albrecht Friedrich von Barby and Sophia Ursula of Oldenburg in Delmenhorst, and mother of 2 daughters. She lived (1636-77).

  1656-59 County Sheriff Dorothea Christensdatter Sehested of the Counties of Halsnø Kloster and Hardanger, Norway
Also known as Dorthe Sehested, she was given control over the fief for two years following the death of her husband, Lensmand Peder Juel (1623-56, who had been Envoy to the Netherlands and Resident in Sweden until 1655, where he had to keep an open eye at Corfits Ulfeldt who was plotting against the Danish king. His first wife, Margethe Jensdatter Juel had died in 1651 and they married in 1656, and when he died shortly after, she acted as the local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway in the Counties of Halsnøy and Hardanger, and lived (1637-64).

  1656-58 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jørgensdatter Friis of the County of Nyborg, Denmark
Sidsel Friis acted as administrator of the fief after her husband, Mogens Kaas til Støvring, had died. Mother of 3 sons.

  Ca. 1657-ca. 1715 Queen Anne Totopotomoi of the Pamunkey Tribe, Virginia (USA)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Cockacoeske. Her husband, the chief Totopotomoi was killed during the battle in which he supported the English against other Indian warriors. Her appearance at the Colonial Council, in which she scornfully rejected the request to furnish warriors for the Whites on the grounds that her people had been neglected for the past 20 years, in spite of their friendship to the Whites, was a dramatic confrontation between Indian and White. 1677 she signed “on behalfe of herselfe, & the severall Indians under her Subjection” a treaty between the Indians and the Virginia colonisers. It was only after strong promises of better treatment by the colonists that she agreed to provide the needed assistance. Following the end of the Rebellion, King Charles II of United Kingdom, presented her with a silver headband, or coronet, inscribed Queen of Pamunkey. Little more is heard about her following this period, beyond an appearance in 1715, when she visited the colonial authorities to request fair treatment for her people. She lived (ca. 1650-ca. 1725).

  1657 Regent Dowager Marchioness Anna Maria Carafo of Sant Emiliano, Botrugno and Melpignano (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Carlo Castriota Acquaviva d’Aragona, she became administrator of the feudal marchionate for her son Francesco, who was succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice in 1679.

  1657-95 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta Schrattenbachof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document from 1660, she is named as Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach and in the Topograhy of the Duchy of Steiermark from 1681, the entry about the chapter is called “Das Hoch Adeliche Iungfraw Closter Göss.

  1657-87 Princess-Abbess Ursula Scherlin of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The territory had been virtually abandoned during the Thirty Years War and the convent was severely damaged by the many passing troops that had made camp in the city of Rottweiler, the convent was put on fire, looted etc. Ursula started the rebuilding in 1662 and managed to bring the territory back in working condition.

  1657-60 Princesse-Abbesse Marie-Anne de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elected Abbess at the age of 11, she was daughter of Nicolas François, who resigned as Cardinal in 1634 to become Duke of Lorraine (1634-61), and Claude de Lorraine (1612-1648). She lived (1648-61).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Axelsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Mariager, Denmark
Øllegaard Gyldenstjerne til Bidstrup was widow of Christian Friis til Lyngbygård, with whom she had a daughter, Sophie Amalie Friis (1651-98). In 1660 she married a second time, to Cai Lykke, who was forced to flee the country after being convicted for Lèse majesté, and lived (ca. 1630-97).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Edel Jacobsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Landskrona in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Edel Rosenkrantz took over the administration of the tenancy after the death of her husband, Knud Ulfeldt til Svendstrup (1609-57), who had been in the service of the Danish army for many years. He had first been married to Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk til Østergaard, widow of Otte Lindenovs (1608-45), and her first husband was Gabriel Laxmand. She (d. 1684).

  1657 Acting County Sheriff Anna Elisabeth von der Groeben of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Lålands Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
In charge after the death of her husband, Flemming Ulfeldt til Oreby. She (d. 1690).

  1658/1661-65 (†) Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Maria Catharina von Braunschweig-Danneberg of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
When her husband, Adolf-Friederich I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628-58), died, she became regent for her newborn son, Adolf-Friederich II, who became Duke of Strelitz (1658-1708). On 14.02.1661 she and her stepsons got imperial confirmation of the regency (reichshofrätliche Bestätigung). Her oldest stepson was Christian Ludwig I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1623-92) the other Karl von Mecklenburg-Mirow. Her oldest son was Friederich von Mecklenburg-Grabow (1638-58-88). Of her 11 children, her daughters Christine (1639-93) and Marie Elisabeth (1646-1713) were Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim. She lived (1616-65).

  1658-81 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (Denmark and Germany)
The castle of Østerholm was built by Duke Hans in 1592 and she took in possession as her dowry after the death of her husband Friedrich of Slesvig-Holsten-Norborg (1581-1624-58), who was succeed by his only child by first his wife, Johann Bogislaw of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1629-58-69-79), who was deposed. Among her 5 children was Dorothea Hedwig, who was Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim (1665-78) until she married Count 1678 Gf Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld. She lived (1608-81).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Elisabeth Avgusta Christiansdatter of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
Frøken (Miss) Elisabeth Augusta was daughter of King Christian 4. of Denmark and Kirstine Munk. According to contemporary sources she gambled a lot and was not a good “housewife”, and therefore she had to sell the estates of Boller and Rosenvold, which she inherited from her mother in 1658 in order to pay off her debts. She administered the fief for the remaining part of the year after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm (Rigsråd) Hans Hansen Lindenov, til Fovslet, Allingkloster, Hundslund, Gavnø, Oregaard and Borgeby. Like her sisters, she was sometimes known as Christansdatter and held the title of Countess of Holsten. Her only daughter, Sophie Amalie Lindenov (1649-88), inherited the estates and bought a number of new ones. Her husband, Claus Då til Krængerup, Vedtoftegård og Dåsborg, was murdered in 1678, apparently on her command. 1681 she had Dåsborg named a Free-lordship (Barony) of Lindenborg with her nephew, Christian Gyldenløve, as heir, since her only child had died as an infant. Elisabeth Augusta lived (1623-77).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Vind of the County of Kronborg and the Shires of Holbro and Lynge, Denmark
Anne Vind took over as holder of the fief after the death of her husband, Arent von der Kuhla (1599-1658). She was owner of Løitved, and lived (1622-74).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Arnfeldt of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Låland, Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
Karen Arnfeldt was widow of Frederik Urne, and lived (1598-1673).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Helvig Nielsdatter Skinkel of the County of Dalum, Denmark
Helvig Skinkel med Lilje was Widow of Iver Vind til Nørholm. She lived (1602-67).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Else Friis of Trønsberg Len and St. Olavs Kloster, Norway
She had been granted year of residence and income of the tenantcy (nådsens år) when her husband, Vincents Bildt til Sem Kongsgård, Verne Kloster et cetera, had been granted the fief by the king of Denmark-Norway in 1658, but she got a financial compensation and handed it over to Johan Brockenhuus soon after her husband’s death. She (d. 1677).

  1658-59 Governor Marie Bonnard du Parquet of Martinique (French External Territory)
After the death of her husband, governor Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1635-46 and 1647-58), she took action to secure the island for her sons, Jean-Jacques Dyel d’Esnambuc (8 years old) and Louis Dyel du Parquet (5 years). She called an Island Council and got the support of the church. Father Feuillent then embarked on a journey to Paris to secure the succession by the king. At his departure, she was appointed regent for her son, and on 22 July 1658 she presided over a session of the Conseil de la Martinique, during which Gourselas was confirmed as Acting Governor. In August another Council, presided over by Gourselas, deposed her, and she was imprisoned and interrogated by one of the leaders of the revolt, de Plainville. In September the French king named her brother-in-law Adrien Dyel de Vaudroques, joint governor with her until the majority of the boys. In October she was again recognised as the head of the Island Council after a contra-revolution. Leaving the government to Gourselas, she departed for France, but she died on the way.

  1658-72 Princess-Abbess Francisca von Schauenburg of Säckingen (Germany)
Her reign marked a period of rebuilding after the devastations of the Thirty Year War. She was daughter of Hans Bernhard von Schauenburg, of the Luxembourg Line, and Elisabeth von Schönau, and lived (1588-1672).

  1658-70 Abbess NulliusMarianna Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list, she is listed as ruler 165..-56, 1671-72 and 1675. She was daughter of the Count of Countess of Conversano, Giulio Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 2nd Duke di Noci and Caterina Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 6th duchessa di Nardò. Her sister-in-law, Isabella Filomarino, was regent of the County 1655-65.

  1658-76 Sachem and Chiefess Quaiapen of the Narragansett Tribe (USA)
The word sachem, of Algonquian origin, was used among some northeastern tribes to refer to their leaders. In contrast to chiefs, who were chosen for their skill in battle or oratory, sachems held hereditary, civil positions and ruled by consensus. Their responsibilities included the distribution of land, the dispensation of justice, the collection of tribute, the reception of guests, and sometimes the direction of war or the sponsoring of rituals. Among the Narragansetts, sachems held sway over villages, which formed the basic political, territorial unit of the society. Most sachems were men, but many women are known to have been sachems as well. She was the most famous of the female sachems, also known as Magnus or Matantuck. In addition to establishing her own sachemdom after she was widowed in 1658, she was the sister, wife, and mother of several other Narragansett sachems. Rumors among white colonists of her marriage in 1649 to the sachem Mixanno aroused fear of an Indian conspiracy. That fear took on a new form in 1675, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony went to war against the Wampanoag sachem Metacom, whom white called King Philip. I. She was killed in battle.

  1658-76 Politically Influential Electress Henriette Adelheid de Savoie of Bavaria (Germany)
Had a strong influence over her husband Ferdinand Maria (1636-79), which lead to the alliance between Bavaria and France against the Habsburgs. She was mother of 7 children, and lived (1636-76).

  1659-86 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Giovanna-Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours of Aumale
1675-84 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy and Piemont (Italy)
1652 her father, Charles-Amédé de Savoie, Duke of Nemours, Aumale and Genevois, was killed in duel with his brother-in-law and her mother, Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme secured the income of the Lands of Nemours for her two daughters, Nemours was inherited by another member of the family, Geneve was re-incorporated into Savoy and she inherited Aumale, which she later sold. She was first married to Charles de Lorraine, but the marriage was never consummated and declared void. She became engaged in politics soon after her marriage to Carlo-Emmanuelle II of Savoia, who named her “reggente con il potere assoluto” on his deathbed. As regent she manoeuvred between the super-powers at the time and remained in close contact to her only sister, Queen Isabel Luisa Josefa of Portugal. When his son Victor-Amedeo reached his majority at the age of 14, he asked her to continue as regent. She had several young lovers, but neither they nor their relatives gained long-term political influence. She said no to becoming temporary regent when her son became king of Sicily in 1713, but she was probably played an important role in the government, as her grandson, Vittorio-Amedeo was only 14. She became an important promoter of art and architecture in her later years as a widow. Originally named Marie Jeanne, she lived (1644-1724).

  1659-63 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Theodora Vogtin von Elspe of Keppel (Germany)
She was a Protestant and like her Catholic predecessor, she resigned in order to enter into a marriage.

  1659-60 Possible Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Sachsen of Holstein-Gottorp
1660-84 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp (Denmark and Germany)
At the time of the death of her husband, Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, her 5th and oldest surviving son, Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp, was just 18 and she might have been his guardian for the first year. At least she did not move to her dowry, the Schuss vor Husum (The Castle outside Husum) until 1660. She expanded her residence and promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. Mother of a total of 16 children, and lived (1610-84).

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of Stjernholm Len with Bjerge, Hatting and Nim
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of the County of Stjernholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1660-61 and 1668 De Facto Ruler Princess Nestan-Darejan of Imerati (Georgia)
After the death of her second husband, King Aleksandri III (1639-60), she engineered the deposition of her stepson, King Bagrat IV, who reigned 1660-61, 1664-68 and 1679-81, whom she had ordered to be seized and blinded when he refused to marry her. She then married an insignificant nobleman Vakhtang Jujuniashvili, and had him proclaimed as king in 1660. They were deposed and exiled to Akhaltsikhe the following year. In 1668 the Turkish Pasha of Akhaltsikhe restored them but soon they were both killed. She was first married to Duke Zurab Sidamoni of Aragvi. She was daughter of King Taimuraz I, King of Kartli and Kakheti (Also known as Taimurazi Khan) and Princess Khwarashan of Kartli.

  Ca. 1660-17.. Queen Regnant Nana …. of Nsuta (Ghana)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Nana Yita.

  1660-72, 1697-98 and 1700-13 President of the Guardian Government Dowager Queen of the Realm Hedvig-Eleonora von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1660-1715 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Counties of Gripsholms, Eskilstuna, Strömsholms and Vadstena
1654 she married king Karl X Gustav (1622-54-60), and the following year she gave birth to her only child, the later Karl XI. After her husband’s death, she became Reigning Dowager Queen of the Realm (Riksänkedrottning) with two votes in the guardian-government for her son. Even after her son married Ulrika Eleonora the older of Denmark (1656-93), she kept the position as the leading Lady in the realm. After her son’s death she was again Regent grandson Karl XII. and finally she acted as regent during the Great Northern War. After her retirement she put all her energy in her dowries, and became very rich, build elaborate castles and promoted arts and culture. After her death her fiefs reverted to the Crown, but had a separate administration until 1719. The following year a ban on distributing dowries in the form of Counties and lands was introduced. She lived  (1636-1715).

  1660-71 Politically Influential Duchess Barbara Villiers of Cleveland in England
Became mistress of Charles II at Breda in 1660 and returned with him to England at the Restoration. The king made her husband, Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine. She was the archenemy of the Earl of Clarendon, the lord chancellor, and her glee at his downfall in 1667. She was made Duchess in 1670, but by 1671 had been supplanted in Charles’s affections by Louise de Kéroualle (the future Duchess of Portsmouth). She bore the king several children, and lived (1641–1709).

  1660-1702 Princesse-Abbesse Dorothée-Marie de Salm of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
Elected Coadjutrice with the right of succession as a child, and when Marie-Anne died, she was elected Abbess. 1677 she moved to the chateau of some relatives, Neuviller-sur-Moselle, 3 days of travelling from Remiremont, where she took up the fight for her position against the Administratrice, Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre, The territory was hit by an earthquake in 1688. 1691 she travelled to Paris to plead her case before the king and the ladies of the chapter send Madame de Bourdonné as their envoy. 1693 the king confirmed the seigniorial rights over the town of Remiremont and continued to share the rights of high, middle and low court with the town. Originally named Dorothea Maria zu Salm, she was daughter of Prince Leopold Philipp Karl zu Salm and Countess Maria Anna von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, Heiress of Anholt, who died in Remiremont in 1661, and lived (1651-1702)

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Hélène d’Anglure of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
As Dame Doyenne she was Second-in-Command. She protested against the election of Dorothée de Salm as Abbess, since she was below the required age of 25 at the age of her election, but the Pope dispended for the rule, and she became Acting Princess-Abbess of the Chapter, but remained in dispute with Dorothée after she came of age until her own death. (d. 1666).

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre

of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
1666-77 Administratrice
1666-84-1704-? Doyenne

Held the office of Dame Sonière and acted as administrator together with the Dame Doyenne, Hélène d’Anglure, for the under-age Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm. After she was elected as Madame d’Anglure’s successor she continued the power struggle with the Abbess, who named her sister, Christine, as  “Second-in-Command” in 1700 and it was her who acted as Regent for the minor Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle Lorraine from 1700 and 11 years onwards, not Bernarde. (d. after 1704)

  1660-81 Reigning Abbess Maria Salome von Bernhausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Oberbursiererin in 1639. In 1680 the main building of the chapter burnt down. She was related to a large number of the canonisses and was daughter of Hans Wilhelm von Bernhausen zu Eppishausen und Moos and Margarethe Blarer von Wartensee. She lived (1593-1681).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Christence Frandsdatter Lykke of the County of København with the Shires of Smørrum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke, Denmark
Christence Lykke was in charge after the death of her husband, Franz Brockenhuus. The English version of København is Copenhagen, the Capital of Denmark. Her second husband was Frederik von Arenstorf. She lived (1636-67).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Hald, Denmark
Dorthe Urne held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Ove Brostrupsøn Gjedde, who was in office from 1658. She was daughter of Knud Urne and Margrethe Eilersdatter Grubbe, mother of 4 children, and lived (1600-67).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Cathrine Caisdatter Sehested of the County of Dragsholm, Denmark
Cathrine Sehested acted after the death of her husband, Sivert Knudsen Urne til Raarup. The same year she married Hans von Ahlefelt. She was a close friend of the Danish Queen, and lived (1625-70).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Frederiksdatter Reedtz of the County of Århusgård, Denmark
After her husband, Malte Sehested til Ryhave og Boller, had died. She (d. 1697).

  1661-67 Ret Abudok nya Bwoc of Shilluk (Sudan)
The Shilluks have a divine king who symbolizes the whole realm, and they created life-sized representations of their first king, Nyikang. They also made clay pipe bowls, hyena figurines, and masks. The Shilluk are agriculturalists and herdsmen. They raise cattle, sheep, and goats. The men hunt, herd the animals, and milk the livestock. Both sexes take part in the agricultural work. Historically they were unified under one King or Reth chosen from the sons of previous kings. Abudok was the only female ruler of the people.

  1661-1701 Sovereign Duchess Madeleine Charlotte de Clermont-Tonnerre of Piney-Luxembourg, Princesse de Tigny, Countess de Piney and Baroness de Dangu (France)
Her mother, Marguerite Charlotte de Luxembourg, had been Duchess since 1616 and in 1661 she resigned in favour of her son by the first marriage, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg. Later the same year, he resigned in Madeleine’s favour in order to become a deacon (known as L’Abbe de Luxembourg). She was born in her mother’s second marriage with Charles Henri de Clermont-Tonnerre, and when she married Francois-Henri de Montmorency, who became known as the Duc de Piney-Luxembourg. Luxembourg. Madeleine-Charlotte-Bonne-Thérèse de Clermont “called de Luxembourg” lived (1635-1701).

  1661 Claimant to the Duchy of Piney Marie Charlotte de Luxembourg  (France)
Claimed the duchy, upon the resignation of her relative, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg, and simultaneously resigned it to her Madeleine and her son-in-law, François-Henri de Montmorency, comte de Luxe (1628-95), whose family used the title of duke of Montmorency-Luxembourg, after a prolonged legal battle, but this peerage was never considered to have been created. 

  1661-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie Catherine de La Rochefoucauld-Randan of Randan (France)
Heiress of the County of Randan and was created Duchess, with a remainder to her daughter, Marie Claire de Bauffremont-Sennecey and her male children with Jean-Baptiste Gaston de Foix de Candale, Comte de Fleix. They both resigned in 1663 in favour of Marie Claire’s son, who was known as duc de Foix. Marie Catherine (d. 1677).

  1661-62 Overseer of the Crown Lands Teofila Rej of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  Around 1661 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta von Schwarzenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document, she is named as “Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach.”

  1661-70 Politically Influential Princess Henriette-Anne Stuart of England in France
The wife of Duke Philippe d’Orléans, who was gay, she became involved in a love affair with her brother-in-law King Louis XIV. She played an important political role, and acted as an envoy to the signing of the Treaty of Douvres in 1670 between England and France. She was daughter of King Charles I Stuart of England and Henriette-Marie of France, mother of five children, and lived (1644-70).

  1662-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Laura Martinozzi of Modena e Reggio (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Alfonso IV d’Este, she acted as regent for their son two-year-old son Francesco II. Her daughter Maria Beatrice d’Este became Queen of England. Laura was the nice of Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France, and lived (1639-87).

  1662-67 Regent Dowager Fatima Sultan Saiyia Burhan of Kasimov/ Borjegin-Sibi (Russia)
1677-81 Sultan Regnant
Also known as Sultana Sayyidovna, she was first regent or Saiyia Burhan, before becoming ruler of the Ilkhan Kingdom of Qasim in Central Asia in her own right and had the Khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate rule. She was a descendant of the Tatars Golden Horde and said to be the last Mongol sovereign. The state was annexed by the Russian 1681 and she died the same year.  

  1662 De-facto Ruler Imperial Princess Raushanara Begum of the Indian Mongul Empire
Seized the power during the illness of her brother, Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707). Like her influential sister, Jahanara Begum Sahib, she was unmarried, and lived (1617-71).

  1662-65 and 1677-80Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)A relative (probably her sister), Magdalena, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1669-72 and 1680-83.

  1663-66 Queen Regnant Barbara of N’dongo and Matamba (Congo and Angola)When her sister, Queen Nijinga, became Queen in 1623, she was appointed as Member of the Council of Government. Before her christening, she had been named Mukambu, Makumba). Her sister had tried to marry her off to her close ally João Guterres, but the Portuguese protested since he was already married. Her reign was marked by civil war and she was killed by forces loyal to the general Njinga Mona. João succeeded 1669-70 but was also killed. She lived (1584-1666).

  1663–67 Queen Regnant Tuan Puteri Saadong binti Raja Loyor of Jembal, Puteri Vijaya Mala, Raja of Jembal (Malaysia)Also known as Puteri Saadong or Mariam, she succeeded her adopted mother, Chek Siti Wan Kembang (1610-63) and her father, Raja Loyor bin Raja Sakti, as Raja of Jembal in 1663. Married to her cousin, Raja Abdullah bin al-Marhum Sultan Samiruddin, Raja of Kelantan-Selatan (Jembal). She was captured by the Siamese and forced to become a concubine of King Narai of Thailand in order to spare her husband’s life. He vowed to wait for her return and never to remarry. However, after several years he gave up and remarried, and when she returned, she is supposed to have killed her with her hair pin, before leaving the Kingdom. According to some legends her mother was Raja Hijau or the Green Queen of Pattani.

  1663-77 Regent Dowager Landgravine Hedwig Sophie von Brandenburg of Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1677-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of Schmalkalden etc.
After the death of her husband, Landgrave Wilhelm VI von Hessen-Kassel (1629-63), she first became regent for their firstborn son, Wilhelm VII (1663-70) and after his death shortly before he was about to come age, she automatically continued as regent for the second son, Karl (1670-1730). She saw herself as the sole Head of Government Affairs (alleinige Leiterin der Regierungsgeschäfte) even though she ruled together with a Regency College, whose meetings she chaired almost daily. During her time in office she also called and chaired 6 Meetings of the Estates  (Landrat). She managed to remain more or less neutral during the disputes between Protestants and Catholics in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War. She did not abdicate the regency until her son was 23, even though decrees, laws and coins were issued in his name from the time he turned 18, but he seems to have been happy with the arrangement and even after she took over the government in her dowry, she remained influential in the Landgravate. Her third surviving son, Philipp, became Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal. Mother of another son who died as an infant and three daughters, and lived (1623-83)

  1663-66 Dowager Reigning Duchess Anna Sophie von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Parchwitz in Slesia (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Widow of Ludwig IV. in Liegnitz and daughter of Duke Johann Albert II. zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow. (d. 1666).

  1663-77 Overseer of the Crown Lands Konstancja Kos of Brodnica (Poland)
Through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta or starościna (for women), who would receive the office from the king and would keep it for life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta.

  1663-70 Princess-Abbess Maria Appolonia Schweizer of Heggbach (Germany)
She continued the building activities and at the same time paid back substantial parts of the chapter’s depths. Born in Ulm, she lived (1604-70).

  1663-96 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshalate of Swabia from 1685.

  1663-85 Princess-Abbess Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the Chapter in 1655, and 11 years later she became Catholic.

  1663-72 Reigning Abbess Anne Séverine de Warlzel of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The privilege was confirmed in 16666 that the Abbey was under direct authority of the Pope and not the local Bishop. She was daughter of Lord of Warluzel and Rombrin.

  1664-69 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella Clara von Habsburg of Mantova and Monferrato (Italy)
Widow of Carlo II Gonzaga and regent for their only child, Carlo III. Also known as Isabella Clara d’Asburgo, she was daughter of Leopold of Tirol, she lived (1629-85).

  1664-79 Regent Dowager Princess Albertina Agnes van Oranje-Nassau of Nassau in Diez and Friesland, Groningen and Drente (Germany and the Netherlands)
1679-96 Reigning Dowager Lady of Oranienburg (Germany)
Her husband, Prince Willem Frederik von Nassau-Dietz, Stadholder of Drente and Groningen, died from the wounds he got when he shot himself by cleaning his gun. She then took over the government in Friesland, Groningen and Drente for son Hendrik Casimir II of Nassau-Diez. In 1665 England and the Bishop of Münster declared war on The Netherlands. As the main provinces of The Netherlands, Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht had been without a Stadholder since 1650; their armies had been neglected, as the fleet was favoured. Count Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen was put in charge of the army but still the Bishop’s army could not be stopped. Even the strongly defended city of Groningen was threatened and to give moral support, Albertine Agnes hurried to the besieged city. Pressure by King Louis XIV of France, then an ally, forced the Bishop of Münster to withdraw. Six years later, Louis XIV changed his mind and attacked the south of The Netherlands himself, while the Bishop of Münster together with the Bishop of Köln attacked the North. Albertine Agnes arranged the defence and suggested opening the dykes to flood the lands. Her moral support kept Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen going; and at last her nephew, Prince Willem III of Orange became Stadholder. She was born as Countess van Nassau-Katzenelnbogen and lived (1634-96).

  1664-86 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili Muda of Solor (Indonesia)
Succeeded mother, Nyai Cili, and was followed by son of her sister, Sengaji Cili.

  1664-77 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
One of her relatives, Johann Jakob zu Rhein von Morschwiller (1643-90), was Domherr and Scholasticus of the Prince Bishop of Basel, where her family had been influential since the 12th century. The next of her family to reign the territory took office in 1701. She was daughter of Lorenz zu Rhein, of a Ministerial family (Civil Servant Nobility), and Maria Agnes von Rosenbach.

  1665-75 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Ana de Austria y Austria of Spain and The Indies
Widow of Felipe IV and regent for son Carlos V (b. 1661). Her reign was hampered by her dependence upon her Jesuit advisors and her preference for her Austrian advisors. She was preoccupied with combating Louis XIV of France’s attacks on the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands. Court nobles, lead by Don Juan José de Austria gained the upper hand, and eventually forced her to resign. After his death in 1679 she again gained political influence. She lived (1635-96). 

  1665-90 Regent Dowager Princess Christine Charlotte von Württemberg-Stuttgart of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1690-99 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office of Pewsum and Breum in Ostfriesland
She was pregnant when her husband, Georg Christian, suddenly died after 3 years of marriage, and she reigned in the name of Christian Eberhard, who was born a few months later. after his father. She tried to change the Principality into an absolute state and she was engaged in disputes with the Estates for much of her time in office and almost resulted in civil war a couple of times. But the Emperor gave his support to the existing constitution and declared her son to be of age before time. In 1690 the Estates pressured her to hand over the government to her son, and she withdrew to her dowries. She was daughter of Duke Eberhard III and Anna Dorothea von Salm-Kyrburg, and lived (1645-1699).

  1665-76 Sovereign Archduchess Clara Filicitas von Habsburg of Tirol and Vorlaberg (Austria)
Daughter of Karl von Habsburg and Anna de’ Medici. Married to Emperor Leopold I of Austria, and mother of two daughters: Anna Maria Sophia (Born and dead 1674) and Maria Josefa Klementina (1675-76). The territory was incorporated into the Austrian-Hungarian Realm after her death. Claudia-Felicitas lived (1653-76).

  1665-ca. 67 Captain-Donatary Joana de Menezes of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
She was daughter of Branca da Gama Freire, Capitana Donataria from 1646, and married to Jorge Mascarenhas. She was mother of 2 children. Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, Conde de Castelho Melhor was Captain-Donatary from 23rd of May 1667 until 1720.

  1665-72 Reigning Princess Gryzelda Wiśniowiecka of Zamość (Poland)
Gryzelda Konstancja z Zamoyskich Wiśniowieckabecame the owner of the great hereditary property of ordynacja zamoyska (Zamość) after her brother’s death. In 1669 she managed to secure the Polish throne for her only son, Michał Korybut. She was the daughter of Tomasz Zamoyski, Voivode of Kiev and Katarzyna. 1638-1651 she was married to Duke Jeremi Wiśniowiecki of Wiśniowiec and Łubnie, and lived (1623-72).

  1665-1705 Sovereign Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen of Criechingen (Germany)
Succeeded her brother, Ernst Kasimir (1640- 65) and married to Count Edzard Ferdinand von Ostfriesland-Rietberg. She was succeeded by two sons, Edzard Eberhard Wilhelm, who died two years later, and Friedrich Ulrich, who were succeeded by his infant daughter, Christiane Luise, in 1710. The daughter of Albrecht Ludwig von Criechingen (1610-51) and Altgräfin Agathe zu Salm-Kyburg, she lived (ca. 1645-1705)

  After 1665-88 Lady Anna-Elisabetha von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Philippseck bei Butzbach in Hessen-Homburg (Germany)
After Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg’s first wife Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt died giving birth to their 12th child, they got married, but their marriage soon failed. Her husband tried unsuccessfully to divorce her, but she was “exiled” to the Castle of Philippseck bei Butzbach, where she became a loved “mother of the realm” (Landesmutter) who cared for the young and the poor and among others founded several schools. She lived (1624-88).

  1665-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg of Castle and Administrative Unit of Herzberg am Harz in Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle (Germany)
1668-88 Political Advisor in Brandenburg
1671-89 Lady of the Lordship of Schwedt and the Castle of Caputh in Brandenburg
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Unit of Potsdam
Her first husband, Duke Christian Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, died after 12 years of not very happy and child-less marriage and she lived at her dowry until her marriage to Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 3 years later. She took over the care of his 3 minor sons and had 7 children from 1669 to 1677, and all but one reached adulthood. She also became his close political advisor. She was given the Amt Potsdam and the Castle of Potsdam became her favourite residence and later her dowry. From 1671 she also owned Caputh and she later bought the Lordship of Schwedt, which became the basis for the Margravate of her son Philipp Wilhelm, who founded the line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. From 1673 she built the Neustadt/Dorotheenstadt in Berlin which were given city rights in 1674. She was daughter of Duke Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg, mother mother of 4 sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1636-89).

  1665-69and 1672-77 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Don Pedro batard de Navarra and his mistress Beatriz Morales and granddaughter of Pedro II de Navarra, 3. Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión. Her aunt, Jeronima de Navarra, succeeded her father in 1556 as 2nd Marquesa de Cortes, 7th Vizcondesa de Muruzábal de Andión. She was married twice but had no children. Another aunt was Antonia Jacinta, who had been Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1653-56.

  1665-78 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Hedwig zu Slesvig-Holsten-Nordburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her full title was Heiress to Norway, Duchess of Slesvig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarsken, Countess of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst, and she had been Dechaness since 1652 and lived a very free life for a Fürstäbtissin. Converted to Catholisism and married Count Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625-96), and Pope Innocentius XI sent a personal congratulation on occasion of their wedding. After some years she went on a a journey to Vienna, where she paid her respect to Emperor Leopold. In Rome she moves in the circles of her far away cousin the ex-queen Christina of Sweden. In 1681 she gives birth to a son, Alexander Leopold Anthon, whose  sponsors are queen Christina of Sweden, the German Emperor Leopold and her brother-in-law, Duke Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig. Returned to Schleswig in 1682. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Norborg and his second wife Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst, and lived (1636-92).

  1666 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Piotrowska of Szadek (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1666-89 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Marie-Magdalene zu Pfalz-Birkenfeld of Auleben in Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Germany)
Widow of Count Anton Günther I von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1620-42-66). The Pfalzgräfin was mother of 11 children and lived (1622-89).

  166683 Politically Influential Queen Maria Francisca de Savoie-Namour of Portugal
Known as Maria Francisca de Sabóia, she was married to Afonso VI of Portugal and Afonso VI of Portugal in 1666. He was an ill young man paralyzed of the left side of his body and mentally unstable. In Lisbon she fomented a palace coup that ended the government of Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor and the following year she conducted a revolt together with her brother-in-law Pedro, forcing the king to abdicate his powers and consent to a practical exile in Terceira in the Azores. She also managed to get an annulment of the marriage, by invoking the supposed impotence of the king, and only months afterwards she married Prince Pedro, now the Prince Regent. Afonso died in 1683, and her husband became king and she was Queen until her death in December of the same year. Marie Françoise de Nemours was daughter of Charles Amédée of Savoy, 6th Duke of Nemours and Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendome and mother of Isabel Luísa Josefa of Braganza, Princess of Beira. She lived (1646-83).

  1666 Possible Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan, the II Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
The gender of the second holder of the Countly tilte is not known.

  1667, 1672 and 1678 Regent Queen Marie-Thérèse d’Austrice of France
Did not have any part in political affairs except when she acted as regent during the campaign of her husband Louis XIV in the Netherlands. She was daughter of King Felipe IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France, Heiress to the Throne, and it was through her, that her husband (the Sun King) claimed the Spanish inheritance for their sons after the death of her half-brother Carlos II in 1700. Of her six children only one survived her, the dauphin Louis, who died in 1711. She lived (1638-83).

  1667-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1778-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Coswig
Both she and her daughter, Sophia Augusta, survived the smallpox but her husband, Johann, died. She was named regent for their son, Carl Wilhelm, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, but the following year she suffered a number of strokes and fevers and had to endure months of suffering before she died. The mother of 14 children of whom 5 survived into adulthood, she lived (1630-80).

  1667-75 Sovereign Duchess Louise-Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc of Vallière (France)
Given the duchy in 1667, but eight years later she resigned in favour of her daughter, Marie-Anne de Bourbon, whose father was King Louis XIV, upon entering the Carmelite order as Louise de la Miséricode. She lived (1644-1710). 

  1667-85 Joint Ruler Princess Francesca Maria Cristina di Simiana of Masserano and Crevacuore (Italy)
Reigned together with her second husband, Sovereign Prince Francesco Ludovico Ferrero Fieschi of Masserano, Sovereign Marchese of Crevacuore, Principe del Sacro Romano Impero sulla Contea di Lavagna, Conte Palatino del Sacro Romano Impero, etc, etc. (1638-1685). The state involved several small territories in northwestern Italy near the Pennine Alps. She was first married to Francesco Valperga Conte di Masino. Her second son, Carlo Besso (1662-1720) succeeded his father. Her niece, Maria Irene Delfina di Simiana succeeded her brother as Princess di Montafia etc. in 1706. Francesca lived (1640-1716).

  1667-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von der Pfalz of Herford (Germany)
The Pfalzgräfin was daughter of Elector Friederich V von der Pfalz and King of Bohemia (The Winter-king) and Elizabeth Stuart. She was in close contact with many of the philosophers and scientists of the day. In 1661 was she elected Coadjutorin of the Abbess of the “reichsunmittelbaren” chapter (Imperial Immediate Territory) for Noble ladies and in 1667 she was elected as Princess-Abbess. She gave freedom of faith and shelter to a number of protestant churches, which were not allowed elsewhere – among others the Quaker. Her sister, Sophia von Hanover, was named Heiress to the British throne in 1701. Elizabeth lived (1618-80).

  1667-96 In charge of parts of the County Dowager Countess Sophia Katharina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg of Oldenburg (Germany)
After her husband, Anton Günther von Oldenburg (1583-1667) died, his inheritance was split up because they had no children and his natural son, Reichsgraf Anton I zu Aldenburg did not have any rights of inheritance. The King of Denmark inherited the county; she remained in charge of parts of it as her dowry and resided at the Castle of Neuenburg. She was daughter of Duke Alexander of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg and Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and lived (1617-96).

  1668 Regent Vicereine Ana de Borja y Doria of the Vice-Kingdom of Peru (June-November)
Her Spanish title was “Virreina Gobernadora” and she was appointed regent by her husband and cousin, Pedro Fernandez de Castro Andrade y Portugal, Count of Lemos, Marquis of Sarria and Duke of Taurisano, who was Viceroy of Peru 1666-72, when he went on a military campaign and during his absence she issued a number decrees and her authority was recognized by the Audiencia of Lima. She met with them and other officials on 5 July 1668. She was the daughter of Francisco Diego Pascual de Borja de Aragón y Centelles, 8th duque de Gandía, and of Artemisa María Ana Teresa Gertrudis, princesa de Doria de Melfi, and mother of 5 children. She was a niece of Francisco de Borja y Aragón, poet and viceroy of Peru (1615-1621) and related to other famous members of the House of Borgia, including Pope Calixtus III, Pope Alexander VI, and Saint Francis Borgia.  (1640-1706).

  1668-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Sophie Juliana zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach of Obersulzbürg in Castell-Remlingen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Wolfgang Georg I von Castell-Remlingen (1610-68). Mother of 2 daughters and a son, and lived (1620-98).

 

1668-71 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Eisenach
1681-87 Politically Influential of Sachen-Coburg
(Germany)

Her 5th and only surviving son, Wilhelm August,, was born 3 months after the death of her first husband, Adolf Wilhelm, and her brother-in-law,  Johann Georg I,  became regent and took over the whole Duchy when her son died at the age of 3. She was influential during the reign of her second husband, Duke Albrecht III (1648-81-99). Their only son died within the first year of his life in 1678. Her sister, Clara Augusta, Reigned Weisshof as Dowager Duchess of Württemberg from 1682. Marie Elisabeth lived (1638-87).

  1668-1705 Princess-Abbess Madeleine-Thérèse de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was the second member of the de Noyelle-family to rule the territory. The first, Marguerite V was in office 1561-69. 

  1669-95 Sovereign Duchess Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kedainiai (Lithuania)
Also known as Charlotte von Radziwill-Birze, she was a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as the last agnatic-line member of the most prominent Calvinists of Lithuania, and a descendant of the Gediminids and Jagiellons. She spent most of her life in Berlin and Königsberg, but laid much attention to her lands in the grand duchy. Like her father, she funded the issue of books in the Lithuanian language, and supported education and Calvinist parishes. She established scholarships for Lithuanian students of theology in the universities of Königsberg, Frankfurt an der Oder, and Berlin. She was sued by King John III Sobieski for the alleged breach of the prenuptial agreement with his son, Jakub Ludwik Sobieski, with the intention to seize her estates. The case was lost, since it was proven that the agreement was falsified. She first married Margrave Louis of Brandenburg and after his death, Elector Palatine Charles III Philip von der Pfalz, with whom she had 3 daughters; Leopoldyna Eleonora, Maria Anna and Elizabeth Augusta Sophie, but only the latter’s issue survived. She was daughter of Bogusław Radziwiłł/Boguslavas Radvila, Duke of Dubingiai, Governor of Prussia (1620-69) and Princess Anna Maria Radziwiłł/Ona Marija Radvilaitė, Heiress of Birzhai and Kedainiai (1640-67), and lived (1667-95).

  Before 1669-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
In 1669 she created a foundation in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line. Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen. She lived lived (1620-74).

  Until 1669 Princess-Abbess Freiherrin Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The last of 4 members of the family who reigned the territory from 1618. And like the case with her predecessor, her first name is not known.

  1669-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia I von Sulz of Buchau, Lady of Strassberg (Germany)
After her election the inhabitants of Strassberg paid homage to her(Erbhüldigung) and later her other subjects paid her the customary homage. After her inauguration, she stressed her right to appoint the Priest of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz and she tried to attempted to reintroduce serfdom in Strassberg. She was listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1672, 1675, 1690 and 1692. She left the College of the Counts of the Realm (Reichgrafen) because of there ever stronger attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of the chapter. The chapter never fully recovered from the devastations during the Thirty Years War and had sell a number of lordships and take up heavy loans to survive. She was daughter of Ludwig Ernst, Count von Sulz and Landgrave im Klettgau and Countess Maria Elisabeth von Hohenzollern, and lived (1634-92).

  1669-72 and 1680-83Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (probably her sister), Inés, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1662-65 and 1677-80.

Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia 1600-1650

 

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1600-1640

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  Until 1600 Queen Nganja of Kalembe (Angola)
Kalembe was part of a large cluster of Ovimbundu States, founded a various times from around 1600 – today the principality is situated on the border to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Ikuro of Nsuta (Ghana)
Followed by Nana Yita as head of the Akan speaking people, which is closely related to the Asante (Ashanti) royal family. In 1701 it was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Ankeyeo Nyame of Kokofu (Ghana)
Succeeded by Nana Aberewa Ampen as head of the Akan speaking people, which was another of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Adifa of Dwaben (Ghana)
Ruler of an Akan-speaking people, closely related to the Asante (Ahanti) royal family, and alto took part in the founding, of the Asante Confederation 100 years later.

  Around 1600 Aru We Cella of Alitta (Indonesia)
Inherited the principality after her father, Adatuang/Raja La Cellemata of Sawito, who founded the Buginese principality in Southwest-Sulawesi. She was succeeded by her son La Masora. She was married to the Adatuang of Sidenreng (La Pancaitana). La Masora was in his turn succeeded by his daughter We Tenrilekke, who married to the Aru of Rappang, La Tone(e).

  Around 1600 Datuk Tosappae (Indonesia)
Reigned until the beginning of the 1600s. Married a distant relative, and was succeeded by another distant relative Prince La Pancaitana.

  Around 1600 Datuk We Passulle of Supa (Indonesia)
Ruled in the beginning of the 1600s. She succeeded her father, La Pancaitana, married La Patiroi and was succeeded by her son La Tenrisessi.

  Around 1600 Military Leader Shen Yunying in China
Took over her father’s command when he was killed in battle. Later by special decree she was made a second captain so that she could legitimately succeed her father and command troops. Approximately 90 years later Chin Liang-Yu fought at her husband’s side and after his death continued to lead her army to many victories in a civil war. 

  1600-24 Regent The Dowager Begum of Maler (India)
After the death of her husband, Khan Sahib Fath Muhammad Khan, Rais of Maler (1566-1600) she was regent for their son, Nawab Muhammad Bayazid Khan Bahadur (1593-1600-59), who later changed the state’s name to Malerkolta. She was born in Rupar in Afghanistan.

  1600-23 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Erdmute von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office of Stolp and the Office and Castle of Schmolsin in Pommern-Wolgast (At the time Germany, now Poland)
Her late husband, Johann Friedrich had become Bishop of Cammin at the age of 14 in 1557 and held the office until 1674, was Duke of Pommern-Wolgast under the regency of his mother from 1560, and in 1569, he and his brother’s devided the Duchy of Pommern among them, and he received Stettin. He died 1600). They did not have any children, she lived (1561-1623).

  1600-15 Princess-Abbess Ursula Giel von Gielsberg of Säckingen (Germany)
A nun at Tämkon until she was allowed to move to Säckingen, where she was elected Princess by the Chapter consisting of 3 canonisses and 3 canons in the presence of representatives of the Bishop and the Government of Vorderöasterreich. Her brother, Gabril was Prince-Abbot of Murback 1573 and another relative, Roman Giel von Gielsberg, was Prince-Abbot of Kempten (1639-73). She was daughter of CHristoph Giel von Gielsberg zu Glattburg, Diocesian Steward of Klingenau (Bischöflichen Vogts) and Barbara Muntprat von Spiegelberg and (d. 1615).

  1600-03 Reigning Abbess Barbe II de Bailleul of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord d’Eecke and Steenvoorde.

  1600-36 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Werdenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Kustorin 1597, reformed the chapter 1607 and in 1632 the canonisses escaped to Konstanz, Überlingen and Pfullendorf. She lived (1557-1638).

  1600-01 Acting County Sheriff Mette Gregersdatter Ulfstand of the County Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge and the Counties of Högby and Vefre in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1601-02 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Lykå in Blekinge and Dragsmark Kloster in Norway
Following the death of her husband, Knud Grubbe til Alslev (1542-1600), Mette Ulfstand took over as County Sheriff – Lensmand, and acted as the King of Denmark’s representative in the fiefs also in the landscapes of Blekinge and Skåne. 1620 she handed over Lykå to her son-in-law, Siverd Grubbe. She lived (1554-1602).

  1600-12 County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Urne of Vemb Skibrede Len, Norway
Mette Urne til Højsgaard administered the fief in her own name after the death of her husband, Alexander Durham, until she passed away herself, as was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. He was a Scottish nobleman who moved to during the Seven Year War and held various fiefs in Denmark and Norway. She was daughter of Johan Urne and Mette Rønnow and had no children. (d. 1612).

  16…. Queen Regnant Keakamahana of Hawai’i
19th Alii Aimoku of Hawai’i. Succeeded on the death of her father, Keakealanikane. She married her Iwakakualii, son of Makakaualii. She had issue, a daughter and was succeeded by her only daughter, Keakealani who reigned until the year 1700.

  16… Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana-Malaka of Berau (Borneo) (Indonesia)
Succeeded father Adji di Kotoh, as ruler of the large sparely inhabited area, located in the northwestern and quite isolated part of the East Kalimantan province in Central Java. 

  16…. Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of ‘Uluakimata I Tele’a, Tu’i Tonga and Mata’ukipa, Ma’itaki. She married Tapu’osi, from Fiji. Her son, Fonomanu, married Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga. Her daughter was the Tamaha Princess Fonokimoana. In the Tongan system the Tui’i Tonga by his title and religious significance was considered the highest authority in the land, but he was by no means the person of highest rank. That honour belonged to his eldest sister, the Tu’i Tonga Fefine (Female King) and her eldest daughter, the Tamaha (or sacred child). But although they held the highest rank they had no political authority, but were considered through their privileges of rank to be quite powerful.

  16…. Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga
The daughter of the Tui’i Tonga Fefine, Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, she held the title of Tamaha, and was considered the highest spiritual entity in the kingdom, and both her mother and grandfather paid homage to her.

  16… Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
She was daughter of Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga and Kaloafutonga, Ma’itaki and married Fonomanu, son of Tapu’osi, from Fiji, and Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Uluakimata Tele’a, Tu’i Tonga and was mother of five children. Her daughter, Princess Tu’imala, became the Tamaha. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take lovers as she wanted.

  16….  Princess Tu’imala, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of  Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine and married to Mataeletu’apiko, 3rd Tu’i Kanokupolu.

  16… Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Lotunofo, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of ‘Uluakimatata II, Tu’i Tonga and Toa, Ma’itaki. Married to Tungimana’ia, 2nd Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Fakatakatu’u, 1st Tu’i Ha’ateiho. Mother of two daughters of whom the oldest became the Tamaha.

  16… Princess Simuoko, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Lotunofo, Tu’i Tonga Fefine.

  16… Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Fakana’ana’a, Tu’i Tonga and Tongotea, Moheofo. Her son, Latunipulu’i-teafua, 2nd Tu’i Lakepa, was first married to Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine.

  16…  Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. Her brother Fonomanu married Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. It is not known when she held office, but it must have been towards the end of the century.

  1601-10 Princess-Abbess Maria von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The 31st Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Duke Johann Wilhelm and Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein Dorothea Susanna, she lived (1571-1610).

  1601-04 Princess-Abbess Anne Marguerite de Namur of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was daughter of Philippe de Namur, Seigneur de Trivieres and Jacqueline van Liedekerke. The paternal lordship was inherited by her sister, Marie (d. 1603), who was married to Jacques de la Hamayde.

  1601-04 Reigning Abbess-General María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The abbess of the Abbey held quasi-episcopal powers.

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Turesdatter Trolle of the County of Dalby in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Lisbeth Trolle was in charge after her husband, Gabriel Sparre til Svanholm, had died. Owner of the Estate of Knabstrup. (d. 1611).

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Else Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Dalum, Denmark
Else Lindenov was widow of Absalon Gøye til Kærstrup. His name was also written as Absolon Gøe or Absalonn Gøie.

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Viffert of the County of Hanherred, Denmark
Margrethe Viffert til Gammel Wiffertsholm was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her second husband, Jørgen Urne. She had first been married to Evald Sehested. After her death, her son Axel Urne inherited the estate, but he sold it to his sister, Anne Jørgensdatter Urne epousé Seefeld in 1643. Margrethe lived (1562-1622).

  1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Agathe Jakobsdatter Seefeld of the County of Bygholm, Denmark
Agathe Seefeld or Sefeld took over the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Niels Skram til Urup together with stepdaughter, Elsebe Skram til Urup. She secondly married to Verner Parsberg til Eskær og Lynderup and had two children by him. She was daughter of Jakob Enevoldsen Seefeld and Sophie Pederdatter Bille, and lived (1579-?).

  1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Elsebe Nielsdatter Skram of the County of Bygholm, Denmark
Elsebe Skram acted together with her stepmother, Agate Seefeld. Inherited a number of estates from her father, Niels Skram, who had first been married to Kirsten Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz. She was married to Eske Bille til Svanholm.

  1602-11 Arumpone We Tenri Tuppu of Bone (Indonesia)
Succeeded cousin of grandfather La Patawang (1595-1602) and was succeeded by her son, La Tenriruwe.

  1602-27 Sovereign Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Linnep 
1610-12 Regent of Bentheim-Steinfurt  (The Netherlands and Germany)
Inherited Helpenstein, Linnep, Erbvogtei Köln, Alpen and Hackenbroich from her brother, Anton, in 1589, and the following year she gave her half-sister, Amalia, the right of use to the lordships. On the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575 she inherited Limburg after the death of Amalia in 1602. The Archbischopcy Köln had occupied Limburg since 1584, but gave it back to her in 1610. She installed her son, Konrad Gumprecht, as Commissioner and resigned Limburg and Linnep in his favour in 1616. The territory of her husband was also occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprecht von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618), and after his death she installed his widow, Johanette Elisabeth, as regent in Limburg and transferred Linnep to her as dowry. Magdalena was daughter of Gumbrecht II von Neuenahr-Alpen of Limburg and Amöna von Dhaun, and remained influential to her death. She lived (1551-1627).

  1602-05 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Maria von Anhalt-Dessau of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg)
1602-05 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Ohlau (Oława) (At the time Germany, now Poland)
Also known as Anna Maria Anhalcka. After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Joachim Friederich von Liegnitz und Brieg, she governed in the name of their son and at the same time she held Ohlau as her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau and Agnes von Barby, mother of 6 children, and lived (1561-1605).

  1602-08 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Amalia von Leiningen-Westerburg of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Born as Gräfin zu Falkenstein she inherited the Lordship after the death of her relative, Count Johann III von Hohenfels-Reipoltskirchen. According to her will the sons of her sister Sydonia zu Falkenstein; Casimir and Steino von Löwenhaupt inherited the Lordship. Steino’s daughter, Elisabeth Amalia, married Count Philipp von Manderscheid whose family thereby inherited parts of the lordship. Amalia lived (1546-1608).

  1602-55 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Elisabeth of Hesse-Darmstad of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)
The first years, she resided at the Castle of Wehen together with her mother-in-law, Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, and after her death in 1616, she took over the reign of the lordship. She was widow of a younger son, Count Johann Kasimir von Nassau-Gleiberg (1593-1602), who died the year after their marriage.  Her only daughter, Anna Eleonore, was born 6 months after her husband’s death and later married Duke Ludwig Friedrich of Württemberg-Mömpelgard (1586-1631). Elisabeth lived (1579-1655)

  1602-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Marie von Pfalz-Neuburg of Dornburg an der Saale in Sachsen–Altenburg (Germany)
Widow of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Sachsen–Altenburg (1562–1602) and mother of the next four Dukes of Altenburg: Johann Philipp (1597–1639), Friedrich (1599–1625), Johann Wilhelm (1600–1632) and Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1603–1669). The daughter of Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg (1547–1614) and Anna von Jülich–Cleve–Berg (1552–1632), she lived (1575-1643).

  1602 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Munthe of the County of Sorø, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Headmaster of Sorø Akademi, Hans Mikkelsen.

  1602 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eriksdatter Kaas of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred
Anne Kaas was widow of Preben Bild til Aggersborg and Lindholm.

  1602-11 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
Resigned in favour of Catherine de Lorraine ad received a large pension. She was daughter of Friedrich I de Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf in Dhaun et Neuviller-sur-Moselle, of the French branch of the family, and Franziska zu Salm. Around 1605 the copper production in the mines at Thillot reached its maximum. She lived (ca. 1570-1611).

  1602-10 Princess-Abbess Regina von Schrattenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a noble family in Niederösterreich.

  Until 1602 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Manderscheid
-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Eltern and Vreden (Germany)
Her sister, Elisabeth, was Fürstäbtissin of Essen (1575-78) until she abdicated in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. They were daughters of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied. Fürstäbtissin Margaretha lived (1539-1602).

  1602-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg-Styrum und Bronckhorst of Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst and Borghorst (Germany)
1640 Hereditary Countess of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen
In 1619 she gave the Vredener Hungertuch (Cloth of Hunger) to the city of Vreden, which depicts 11 passion-pictures and an inscription in Latin stating: “Agnes, by the Grace of God, Abbess to Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst und Borghorst, Countess von Limburg und Bronckhorst, has given this ornament in the honour of the sufferings of Christ…” In 1635 her sister’s son; Jobst-Hermann von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen, Count of Bückeburg, died unmarried. He was first succeeded by his cousin, Otto, but he died after four years, and she managed to secure the inheritance of Gemen for herself against the claims of the Holstein-Schaumburg-family, and then ceded the lordship to her nephew, Count Hermann-Otto I von Limburg-Styrum. She was daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg, and lived (1563-1645).

  1603-11 Sovereign Lady Isabella Appiano d’Aragona of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1611-24 Sovereign Princess of Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaionla 
Succeeded her brother, Cosimo Jacopo VII, Lord and Prince of Piombino, Margrave of Populonia, who died 1603, but was deposed by the Spanish, and in 1634 her grandson, Niccolò Luduvici, son of her daughter, Hereditary Princess Polissena (d. 1642), became Prince. She was daughter of Alessandro, Lord of Piombino and Isabel de Mendoza dei Conti di Binasco (1577-1661), who had been regent 1590 and was first married to Giorgio de Mendoza, Count di Binasco, and secondly to Paolo Giordano II Orsini, Duke of Bracciano. She lived (1577-1661).

  1603-05 Handan Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Her full title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Hansam Validi Sultan ‘Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, during the reign of her son Ahmed Khan I (1613-17), but she never attained the prominence and power of her predecessors Nurbanu and Safie, because she has little influence on her son, but in some aspects the Valide Sultan was still considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She lived (1576-1605).

  1603-20 Reigning Abbess Jacqueline de Lannoy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Hautmont.

  1603-16 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Arildsdatter Griis of the County of Sandby in Skåne
1608-40 County Sheriff of the County of Hörje in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Vibeke Griis was widow of Peder Mund til Sandbygård, and held the fief of Hørjre for life and was in the service of Queen Anna Cathrine of Denmark. Her surname means “Pig”. Skåne was conquered by Sweden in 1658. She (d. ca. 1640).

  1603-04 Acting County Sheriff Anne Mortensdatter Brok of the County of Onsø, Norway
Following her husband, Erik Mortensen (Mormand) til Bramsløkke, Anne Brok was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. (d. after 1625).

  1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Hagenskov with Bogherred and the County of Eskebjerg, Denmark
1604….  County Sheriff of the County of Strynø, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Erik Hardenberg (1529-1604), Anne Rønnow was in charge of the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled, and was also appointed fief-holder  in her own right. She was known to suffer of periods of depressions and her daughter, Anne Hardenberg, also suffered from mental ilnesses and conducted cases against witches, and Mette Hardenberg, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Bøvling Len from 1616 also had mental problems. 6 of their 9 children died, including the 3 sons. She lived (1541-1609).

  1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Lykke of the Counties of Lundegård and Jegindø, Denmark
Anne Lykke took over the adminsitration of the fief after the death of her husband, Mourids Hansen Stygge til Holbækgård. She lived (1554-1623).

  Until 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima I of Bullom (Sierra Leone)
Followed her husband as ruler of the area near the Atlantic Ocean.

  From 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima II of Bullom (Sierra Leone)
Succeeded her sister-in-law.

  1604-21 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Schleiden of Virneburg in the Eifel (Germany)
Her mother, Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbanden, had inherited the country from her brother-in-law Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Scheleiden-Virneburg in 1593. Elisabeth took over the inheritance after her mother’s death, and her husband, Count Christoph Ludwig (1568-1618) assumed the name of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, and their descendants reigned as Counts co-regnant of the immediate County of Wertheim. In 1613 the emperor confirmed the title for her son, Count Friedrich-Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1598-1657), who lost his entire estates 1622 for siding with the Elector Palatine, but was reinstated by the Treaty of Westpahlia 1648. Elisabeth lived (1569-1621).

  1604-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands Princess Anna Vasa of Brodnica
1611-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Golub, Poland
The sister of Sigismund III Vasa of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania, she received the administration of Brodnica and Golub when she had to leave the court because she insisted on staying Lutheran. Never the less she was her brother’s political advisor and acted as protector for the exiled Swedish loyalists and Protestants. She also became very respected because of her great learning and was interested in litterature, music, gardening and medicine. She was a specialist in medicinal herbs and kept her own apothecary. She lived (1568-1625).

  1604-21 Princess-Abbess Felicitas II von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)
The Countess had apparently been Abbess of Gerresheim until 1585, and in 1603 she is named as Koadjutorin of Herford. 1609 the War of Succession for the territory of Jülich-Berg-Kleve-Ravensberg which lasted until 1647 and laid great strains on the chapter.

  1604-31 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Marck of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, she succeeded her sister, Josiana, as sovereign, and she managed to keep the principality relatively unharmed in spite of the 30th year war. Anna lived (1551-1631).

  Ca. 1604-23 Princess-Abbess Marguerite VI de Haynin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Took over as head of the chapter and ruler of the city from Anne-Marguerite van Namur, who died 1604.

  1604-08 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Villamízar Cabeza de Vac of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a family of explorers of the new world and governors in South America.

 

 

Ca. 1604-1614 Countess Báthory Erszébet of Transylvania (Hungary)
Known as the Blood-Countess or The Vampire, she began killing young virgins after her husband, Count Ferencz Nasdasdy, had died, because she thought their blood would keep her young. She was member of one of the oldest and wealthiest families in Transylvania, who counted – a cardinal, princes, and a cousin who was Prime minister of Hungary. The most famous Bathory was King Stephan of Poland. 1575-86. Her husband spent a great deal of time away from home fighting, and while he was away, and she surrounded herself with people claimed to be witches, sorcerers, seers, wizards, alchemists, and others who practiced the most depraved deeds in league with the Devil. Her deeds were discovered and her castle was raided. Erzsébet was put under house arrest. A trial was held in 1611, but she refused to plead guilty or innocent and never appeared at the trial. A complete transcript of the trial was made at the time and it survives today in Hungary. Johannes Ujvary, major-domo, testified that about 37 unmarried girls has been killed and Erzsébet’s old nurse testified that about 40 girls had been tortured and killed. Erzsébet was never convicted of any crime, but the windows and doors of the bedchamber were walled up with only a small hole through which food could be passed. King Mathias II demanded the death penalty for her but because of her cousin, the Prime minister, he agreed to an indefinitely delayed sentence, which really meant solitary confinement for life. She was mother of three daughters and a son, and lived (1560-1614).

  1605 (†) Regent Dowager Tsarina Maria Grigorevna Skuratova-Bel’skaya of Russia
Her husband, Boris Godunov, had been the real power behind the throne since the succession of his brother-in-law, Fedor II, who was mentally deficient, and after his death in 1598 Boris was elected Tsar. It was a period with widespread famine 16-03, and during the ensuing discontent, a man emerged who claimed to be Dmitriy, Ivan IV’s son who had died in 1591. This pretender to the throne, who came to be known as the first False Dmitriy, gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow, gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. In 1605 Boris died and Maria became regent for her son, Tsar Fedor II, who was murdered and Dmitriy was crowned tsar Maria was also murdered. She lived (ca. 1560-1605).
 

  1605 Regent Queen Christina von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1611-22 Regent of Värmland and other Duchies
1611-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Norrköping, Gotland, Öland, Ösel, Wolgast and the Pommerian lands, Poel and Neukloster in Mecklenburg (Sweden and Germany)
1612-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of the
Estate and County of Veckholms and Tynnelsö, The Town and Caste of Gävle and Gästrikland, Örbyhus with the Parishes of Tierps and Tolfta, the Shire of Vendel, the Parishes of Älvkarleby and Västlands and the Right and Income from the Salmon Fishery of Älvkarleby
First acted as regent during the absence of her husband, king Karl IX (1550-1611). After his death her brother-in-law. Duke Johan av Östergötland became regent for her son Gustav Adolf, and she instead took over the regency for her younger son Karl Filips in his Dukedom until his death in 1622. She was daughter of Adolf of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. (1573-1625).

  1605-14 Regent Dowager Queen Ketevan of Kakheti and Kakhet  (The Kingdom of Georgia)
Both her father-in-law, King Alexander II of Kakhetia (1577 – 1605) and her husband, Crown Prince David were assassinated by her brother-in-law, Constantine the Accursed, who had adopted Islam, on the instigation of Shah Abbas I of Persia. She took up arms against Constantine, and together with a multitude of Persian warriors, he suffered an ignominious death. Under her wise rule, peace and justice settled in Kakhetia, and Shah Abbas I returned her son Teimuraz to her. Later, making threats that he could decimate Georgia, Shah Abbas forced the Kakhetian vassals to give up some important hostages, and she volunteered to be one them. 2 of her grandsons were also held hostage, they were castrated and tortured to death or insanity. She spent ten years in her “honorary” imprisonment in Iran in the house of Imam-Kuli-Khan Undiladze, a Georgian who had accepted Islam. Her body became exhausted through fasting, prayer, and nights spent on cold stone floors, but she remained vigorous and cheerful, taking care of her small flock of about twenty Georgians. Finally, Shah Abbas decided to force her to renounce Christ and accept Islam. He even offered her to become a member his harem, but she refused and was tortured. She became a saint and is known as Holy Great-martyr Ketevan. She was of the royal house of Bagration, and (d. 1624).

  1605-14 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IX van Berge-s’Heerenberg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Her election to the post of abbess took place under dubious circumstances. At the time, the Chapter only consisted of three protestant Ladies of the Chapter, and according to the regulations the abbess had to be elected among the three. But the Archbishop of Köln gave dispensation so that she could be elected. She was catholic and reintroduced Catholicism to the Chapter. She was daughter of Count Willem van Berg-s’Heerenberg and Maria van Oranje-Nassau, and lived (1581-1616).

  1605-10 Princess-Abbess Veronica von Freyberg of Heggbach (Germany)
1605 and 1606 heavy “Turk Taxes” were imposed on the territory, which was also hit by the plague. The right of High Court was transferred from the Chapter to the Paternal Abbey of Salem during her reign and in 1610 the nuns and other inhabitants of the convent fled for the plague to Biberach and Weitenau. She resigned because of bad health. (d. 1613)

  1605-16 Princess-Abbess Eva von Uhrhausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany and it was granted royal protection and, immunity in 1002. In 1494 the Fürstäbtissin was granted a seat in the College of Swabian Prelates who had a joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Diet and in 1521 she was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  Until 1605 Reigning Abbess Françoise de la Châtre of Faremoutiers (France)
Succeeded her sister, Anne, who reigned at a not known time. They were members of the family of the barons de Montfort. (d. 1605).

  1605-35 Joint County Sheriff Else Kristendatter Munk of  the County of Løndborg Bispegård, Denmark
Else Munk was given the teantcy for life jointly with her husband, Kristoffer Gersdorf, as security for lones.

  1606 De-Facto Ruler Tsarina Marina Mniszech of Russia (18.-25. May)
In 1605 the ‘False Dmitri I’, Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow. She was the first crowned Zarina in Russian history, but the fact that she was catholic and her husband’s favoritism toward Poland aroused the opposition of the boyars, led by Prince Vasily Shuiski. Dmitri was killed, and Shuiski was crowned czar as Vasily IV. In 1607 another Dmitri appeared. Aided by the Poles after Marina identified him as her husband, he marched on Moscow and had some success, but in 1610 he was killed. She even produced an heir, Ivan Dmitrievich. Then she was married to ataman Ivan Zarudzki. After 1610 she fought for Russian throne. She was probably killed in Russian jail, was daughter of Jerzy Mniszech, Voivode of Sandomierz in Poland. lived (around 1588-1614).

  1606-08 Hereditary/Sovereign Countess Anna Elisabeth von Sayn of Sayn-Sayn (Germany)
Heiress to her uncle, Count Heinrich IV. von Sayn, Lord Herr zu Homburg, Montclair und Meinsberg (1539-1606), who was the last Count von Sayn-Sayn of the male line of Sayn-Sponheim. He inherited the county jointly with her father, Hermann after death of their uncle Sebastian II, and after her father’s death in 1588, he reunited the County. In 1605 he transferred the government to her husband, who asumed the title of Count Wilhelm III von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, because of ilness, and had him make a guarantee that he would support the Lutheran confession, but he soon replaced the Lutheran priests with Reformed.  After her death, the county was in dispute and some territories were occupied by foreign powers. Wilhelm was succeeded by their oldest son, Ernst in 1626. She lived (1572-1608).

  1606-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Dorothea Maria von Württemberg of Hilpoltstein in Pfalz-Neuburg (Germany)
As the Protestant line of Duchy of Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg place their “surplus sons” in the Church, they began to secure them an income through small parts of lands, which they held for life and reverted to the Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg. She was widow of Duke Otto Heinrich II von Pfalz-Neuburg of Hilpoltstein, Heideck, Allersberg and Sulzbach.

  1606-31 Politically Influential Queen Konstancja Austriaczka of Poland
1625-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica and Golub in Poland
Archduchess Konstanze von Habsburg was the second wife of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632), and political influential during his reign. She was a daughter of Archduke Karl von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1588–1631). 

  1606-07 Acting County Sheriff Adel Hansdatter of the County of Sorø, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Anders Kristensen, Headmaster of Sorø Akademi, she took over the administration of the fief.

  1607-09 Sultan Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu, Sultana of Land and Sea, Lady of the Thousand Islands and Sultans of the Maldive Islands 
In spite of the fact that the island was Islamic, the rulers continued to use ancient Sanskrit titles alongside their Islamic styles until the middle of the twentieth century. The sultanate was attacked by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century but regained its independence in 1573. They also fell prey to the marauding raids of the Ali Rajas of Cannanore, who frequently kidnapped princes and influential nobles and carried them off to the Laccadives. Although close trading relations were established with the Dutch in Sri Lanka, the Maldives remained aloof from the Western powers for another two centuries. She was never secure as ruler due to a long civil war. She died at sea or on Mahibadu Island, Ari Atol, while on pilgrimage to give alms.

  1607-27 Panembahan Putri Bunku of Sukudana (Indonesia)
Succeeded husband, Panembahan Giri Kusuma. She was the daughter of Ratu Prabu of Landak, who was ruler, and was succeeded by her son, Sultan Muhammad Safiuddin (Giri Mustaka).

  Before 1607 Ruler Malangkanae of Rapang (Indonesia)
Took over the reign after the death of her husband, La Pasampo, and succeeded by their son, La Pakolongi, who ruled for sure in 1607, and was succeeded by daughter.

  After 1607 Ruler We Dangkau of Rapang (Indonesia)
Succeeded mother and married to a relative, La Patiroi

  1607-08 Acting County Sheriff Maren Jensdatter Juel of Visborg in the County Gotland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Maren Juel acted as administrator of the fief (Lensmand) after the death of her husband, Herman Juel til Aabjerg (1548-1607).

  1607-08 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Romellsdatter Brun of the County of Frølands Skibrede  and the Parish of Ejdsberg, Norway
Birgitte Brun administered the fief after the death of her husband, Per Knutsson Måneskiölds til Akervik. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. Her husband had 8 children with his first wife, Bodil Green. (d. before 1622).

  Until 1608 Queen of the Jam Chiefs of Gersoppa (India)
Her family, the Jam Chiefs of Gersoppa, was established in power in 1409 by the Vijayanagar kings, but subsequently became practically independent and established its capital in Nagarbastikere. Women several times held the chieftaincy, and on the death of the last Queen it collapsed, having been attacked by the chief of Bednur. Among the Portuguese the North Kanara district of Bombay was celebrated for its pepper, and they called its Queen Regina da pimenta (Queen of pepper).

  1608-56 Sovereign Duchess Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse of Joyeuse, Countess du Bouchage and Baroness des Roches (France)
1641-54 Sovereign Princess de Joinville
Succeeded father, Henri de Joyeuse, comte du Bouchage, and first married to Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier de Châtellerault de Saint-Fargeau and Prince souverain des Dombes etc. (d. 1608) who was succeeded by their only daughter, Marie de Bourbon (1605-27). 1611 she married Charles de Lorraine,  duc de Guise (1591-1640). Her husband went in exile to Firenze after his intrigues agaisnt the Cardinal Richelieu in 1636 and remained there until his death 4 years later. She lead a pious life and was devoted to charity. Their daughter, Marie de Lorraine (1615-88), inherited a grand-nephew as Duchess de Guise and Princesse de Joinville in 1675. The other children either died young or became clerics- including Françoise (1627-82), who was Abbesse de Saint-Pierre de Reims and Françoise Renée, (1621-82, Montmartre), Abbesse de Montmartre. She lived (1585-1656). 

  1608-27 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Bourbon of Montpensier, Châtellerault et de Saint-Fargeau and  Princesse Souveraine des Dombe, Countess de Mortain etc. (France)
Inherited the Duchy when her father, Henri de Bourbon, was killed. Her mother was Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, duchesse de Joyeuse (1608-47) and Princesse de Joinville (1641-54). She married Gaston of France, who was Duc d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d’Alençon, Comte de Blois, de Monthéry et de Limours etc. Died giving birth to her only daughter, Anne-Marie, and lived (1605-27). 

  1608-47 Sovereign Countess Louise de Luxembourg of Brienne (France)
Also known as Louise de Brienne, she succeeded her uncle, Charles de Luxembourg, and first married to Georges d’Amboise d’Aubijoux, secondly to Bernard V de Béon du Massés, who held high military and offices at court. The daughter of Jean de Luxembourg, comte de Brienne and Guillemette de La Marck – who again was daughter of Robert IV de La Marck, Duc de Bouillon and Maréchal de France and Françoise de Brézé, Comtesse de Maulévrier, she was mother of Charles de Luxembourg-Béon and Louise de Béon, who succeeded her as Comtesse de Brienne.

  1608-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Praxedis von Perckhausen of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter became an immediate realm in 833 and the abbess held the rank of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm and reigned over the canonesses in the chapter and the subjects in the territories belonging to the chapter, which held a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and on the Bavarian Landtag. In ecclesiastical affairs she was subject to the Prince Bishop of Regensburg and in secular affairs she was obliged to consult the canonesses, so she was not a absolute ruler.

  1608-11 Reigning Abbess-General Juana  de Leyva y Guevara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
By the favour of the king, she was invested with almost royal prerogatives, and exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 villages. Like the Lord Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1608 Revolt Leader Princess Anna of Koda in Siberia (Russia)
A Native woman, also branded “a Tartar Joan of Arc” almost succeeded in uniting the entire native population of Western Siberia in revolt against the Russians.

  Until 1609 Quee Regnant Ambary of Antakarana (Madagascar)
Founder of the Sakalava kingdom and succeeded by the king Kozobe or Kazobe, who ruled until 1639.

  After 1609-before 1630 Sri Paduka Ratu Sepudak of Sambas (Indonesia)
Descendant of the Majapahit Kings and the last Hindu ruler of the kingdom. Her youngest daughter, Putri Mas Ayu Bungsu’s husband, Radin Sulaiman, became Sultan of Sambas. He was son of the Sultan of Brunei.

  1609-25 Hereditary Countess Anna zu Hohenzollern von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein
1618-25 Hereditary Duchess of Prussia (Germany)
Also known as Duchess Anna von Preussen und Jülich-Kleve-Berg, she was daughter of Marie Eleonore von Jülich-Kleve-Berg, the heiress of the three duchies and some counties, and Albrecht II Friedrich von Preussen. 1594 she married her distant relative, Elector Johann Sigismund zu Hohenzollern of Brandenburg (1572-1619), and was the dominant force during his reign. He was regent for her father from 1609, and in 1611 he was given Prussia as a personal fief. After the death of her uncle, Johann Wilhelm zu Jülich in 1609, a succession-dispute followed with the Pfalz-Newburg’s until a division was agreed upon in 1614, and the counties of Kleve, Mark, Ravensberg and Ravenstein went to Brandenburg, though she primarily considered it as her personal possessions. After her father’s death in 1618 she and her son, the kurprinz Georg-Wilhelm, took over the government, since her husband had been hit by a stroke two years earlier, and she remained in charge until her death. She lived (1575-1625).

  1609-14, 1620-26 and 1629-32 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Mendoza II of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”, and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

  1610-17 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de’ Medici of France
1612-19 Governor of Normandie (Normandy)
1619-28 Governor of Anjou
1628-39 Countess d’Anjou
After the assassination of her husband, King Henri IV, she became regent for her son Louis XIII. She reversed the policies set by her husband. Having remained in power for three years beyond the king’s majority, Marie was forced into exile after the murder of Concini in 1617. In 1619 her partisans rose in revolt, but she was reconciled to her son in 1622. After the rise to power of her former favourite, Cardinal Richelieu, she attempted to regain influence by urging the king to dismiss his minister of state; instead Louis forced his mother into a new exile at Compiègne, whence she fled to the Netherlands in 1631, never to return to France. One of her children was the politically influential Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England. She was daughter of Francesco de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Toscana and  lived (1573-1642).
 


  1610-63 Queen Regnant Chek Siti Wan Kembang of Kelantan (Malaysia)
When her father died, a cousin of her mother, a prince of Johor, was appointed Regent and remained in office until she was in her thirties. Kelantan continued to prosper under her rule. Arab traders bestowed upon her the title “Paduka Cik Siti” in which Siti means honourable woman. Henceforth, the Queen of Kelantan came to be known as Cik Siti Wan Kembang. She eventually abdicated and was succeeded by her adopted daughter, Princess Saadong. After this point, she became a legend because nobody knows where and when she died.

 


  Ca. 1610 Queen Dodi Akaibi of Ga-Adamge (Ghana)
Succeeded by son, Okai Koi, who was killed 1677.

  1610-14 Regent Dowager Electress Luise-Juliana van Oranje-Nassau of the Pfalz (Germany)
Also known as Luisa Juliane, she reigned in the name of her son, who later became known as king Friedrich V (The “Winther-King” of Bohemia). Her sisters Elisabeth was regent of Sedan, Catharina Belgica in Hanau-Munzenberg and Amalia, the Dowager Landgravine zu Hessen-Kassel, played a major role in the Thirty Years War and acted as leader of the Evangelican States at the Westphalian Congress (1637-after 1647). The Daughter of Willem I van Oranje-Nassau and his second wife, Charlotte de Bourbonhe she lived (1576-1644).

  1610-16 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of Neustettin in Pommern-Stettin (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Married Bogislaw XIII (1544-1618), who was Duke of Pommern-Barth und Neuenkamp 1569-1603 and of Pommern-Stettin (1603-06) as his second wife in 1601. Two of her sisters: Sophia and Elisabeth married one of his 11 children by his first wife, and she thereby became their mother-in-law. The marriages of all three sisters were childless. After Bogislaw’s death, she took over the government in her dowry and died on a journey from Sachsen to Pommern, after having lived (1577-1616).

  1610-50 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Spaur-Pfaum und Valier of Buchau (Germany)
In dispute with the bishop on Konstanz and the College of Counts, defending her own position and travelled to Vienna to discuss her affairs with the emperor, and during the Thirty Years War, she was able to keep the territory out of trouble – not the least because of the connections with her brother, Dominikus Virgil, who was Colonel in the Army of the League and Erbschenk and Governor of Tirol. Her sister, Maria Clara, was Princess-Abbess of Essen (1614-44) and another sister, Anna Genvra, was Abbess of Sonnenberg (1622-52). Katharina was daughter of Leo Freiherr von Spaur, Pfaum und Valier and Juliane Barbara, Countess Federici, and lived (1580-1650).

  1610-17 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1615 she started printing her own coins. Daughter of Kurfürst Christian I von Sachsen and Margravine Sophia von Brandenburg, and lived (1591-1617).

  1610-27 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Hörburger of Heggbach (Germany)
Former Secretary of the Chapter. Aound the time of her reign, the Abbesses used the title of: “Die hochwürdige Frau des hochlöblichen Reichstifts und Gotteshauses Heggabach Äbbtissin und Frau – (The high-worthy Lady of the Highly praisable Chapter of the Realm and House of God Abbess and Lady). And the inhabitants the towns and villages of her territory paid homage to the abbess (hüldigung) after the other nuns had elected her.

  1610-30 Princess-Abbess Anna Segesser von Brunegg of Gutenzell (Germany)
Succeeded Maria Segesser von Brunegg, who had been in office since 1567.

  1610-40 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV von Khünburg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter.

  1610 Acting County Sheriff Elsebe Jensdatter Juel of the County of Hammershus, Denmark
Elsebe Juel, or Elsebet Jul, acted for about half a year after the death of her husband, Hans Lindenov til Øsløf, and lived (ca. 1524-before 1627).

  1610-11 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Christoffersdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Tranekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark
Vibeke Gyldenstierne was also known as Viveke Gyldenstjerne, and was widow of Niels Friis, with whom she had 13 children. She lived (1549-1613).

  1611-32 Olangio to hoelialio Mboheleo Raja To Huliyalio (Ju Balu) of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She followed her mother, Wulutileni, on the throne, and was succeeded by her husband’s adopted daughter, Bumulo.

  1611-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Magdalena von Nassau-Dillenburg of Öhringer Schloss in Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)
During the reign of her husband, Wolfgang I von Hohenlohe-Langenburg und Neuenstein (1546-1610), she was in charge of administrative tasks, managed the pharmacy nd enegaged in charities. After his death, she took over her dowry and built the so-called Lange Bau (Long Building). She was mother of 16 children, and lived (1547-1643).

  1612-38 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Bellheim zu Baumgarden of Schänis (Switzerland)
Elected on 21 January and inagurated on 6 may. The Bishop confirmed the new statutes that had been drawn up after the fires in 1585 and 1610, and the Papal Nuntius gave his approval in 1616. The fact that all the documents, treaties and privileges were destroyed lead to more and more conflicts with the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, which were guardians of the chapter, but considered the noble chapter an alien body in the area and treated it as such.

  1611-25 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Auguste von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Former Koadjutor. She had to flee for the army of Tilly which was on its way to Wolfenbüttel. Daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Dorothea von Sachsen. Died of the plague. Her older sisters, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and Elisabeth was Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim 1578-82.She lived (1577-1625).

  1611-37 Reigning Abbess Louise II de Bourbon-Lavedan of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
With aide of  Ange de Joyeuse and Joseph du Tremblay, she sought to improve the status of the monks of St-Jean de l’Habit and made various attempts to establish theological seminaries for them. Daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Vicomte de Lavedan – son of Jean II, Duke of Bourbon and Auvergne – and Jeanne Louise d’Albret.

  1611-29 Reigning Abbess-General Ana de Jesus de Austria of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Natural daughter of Dona Maria de Mendoza and Don Juan de Austria, a Spanish Prince and Army Leader. She is well noted for her indirect involvement in a conspiration of an alleged king Sebastian of Portugal. In a document she was named “Dilectae in Christo Filiae Anne ab Austria Abbatissae Monasterii Monialium de Las Huelgas propre et extramuros Civitatis Burgensis Nullius Dioecesis, Ordinis Cisterciensis”

  1611-12 Acting County Sheriff Ellen Jørgensdatter Marsvin of the County of Odensegård and Odense Sankt Hans Kloster with the Shires of Åsum, Bjerge, Lunde, Odense and Kam, Denmark
1620-39 County Sheriff of the County of Dalumkloster
1626-38 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Davinde
Fru Ellen Marsvin was of high noble family and the largest landowner of her time. Anne Lykke was the second, and in 1625 a total of 6 of the 20 largest landowners were women. Fru means Mrs but at the time the title was only used for noble ladies. Her daughter, Kirsten Munk, was married to King Christian IV. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of royal appointed lensmænd (fiefholders) who each administered a len (fief). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases she administered the len after her husband’s death. She lived (1572-1649).

  1611-12 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eriksdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Silkeborg with the Shires of Hids, Lysgård and Vrads and the County of Tanekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark
Anne Rosenkrantz inherited a number of estates in Norway, and was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Frantz Henriksen Rantzau to Brobygard. She held ecclesiastical juristiction, and lived (1566-1618).

  1611-27 De-facto Ruler Empress Nur Jahan of India
Also known as Begam Noor Jahan, Nur Jehan or Nor Jahan, she was the twentieth and favourite wife of Mughal Emperor Jehangir, who was her second husband. Born as member of a leading Afghan family who immigrated to India. After her first husband, the Persian adventurer, Sher Afghan Ali Quli Khan Istajlu, was killed in 1607 she became a lady-in-waiting to one of Emperor Jahangir’s step-mothers, Ruqayya Sultana Begam.
In 1611 she married him and received the name Nur Mahal (“Light of the Palace”) and received the title Nur Jahan (“Light of the world”) in 1616. Her husband’s addiction to opium and alcohol meant that she effectively wielded imperial power and was recognized as the real force behind the Mughal throne. She gave audiences at her palace and the ministers consulted with her on most matters. Also, her husband permitted coinage to be struck in her name. Furthermore she had her family members appointed to high state offices. Her nice  Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) married to Prince Khurram, her husband’s eldest son, who later started a war of succession broke out. She shifted her support to a younger son, Shahryar, and arranged for him to marry her own daughter of her first marriage, Ladli Begum. Jahangir was captured by rebels in 1626, she had him rescued but he died the following year. Her brother sided with Khurram, who became Shah Jahan, and she was confined to a comfortable mansion for the rest of her life.
Born as Mehr un-Nissa, she lived (1577–1645).

  1611-41 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Hedwig af Danmark of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg with Prettin and Lichtenburg and the Administrative Units of Annaburg, Schlieben, Schweinitz und Seyda in Sachsen (Germany) 
The first to reside at the castle, which had been, build between 1574-82. As reigning dowager lady she was in charge of the police and courts, she shared her authority with the Elector but her subjects considered her as their lady. She founded churches, aided the poor, the sick and the weak. As the sister of the Danish king and the sister-in-law of the British king she became an important figure for her brother-in-law, Elector Johann Georg I, and she was involved in arranging the marriages of five of his seven children. Because of her positions her territories were hardly attacked during the Thirty Years War, and she acted independently granting letters of free passage etc., something that was normally the prerogative of the Elector, and she maintains her independence against her brother-in-law also when it came to trade and commerce. She did not have any children with her husband, Kurfürst Christian II. (1583-91-1611). She was the 7th and youngest child of Frederik II of Denmark and Norway (1534-59-88) Sofie von Mecklenburg-Wismar and lived (1581-1641).

  1612-26 Regent Dowager Countess Catharina-Belgica van Oranje-Nassau of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
1626-48 Reigning Dowager Lady of Windecken in Hanau
Also known as Katharina-Belgica, she took over the reins of government after the death of her husband, Philipp Ludwig II, for their son, Philipp Moritz. In 1619 when the Emperor Ferdinand II was on his way to Frankfurt for his coronation, he wanted to pass through with 1.500 soldiers but Catharina Belgica refused him entry into the city of Hanau. In 1621 Spanish and Imperial armies ravaged her territories but her complaints to Spanish and Imperial officials were of no avail. In 1626 her son took over the rule from her; however, in 1634 the family had to flee to Holland and was able to return only in 1637. Her sisters were regents in Sedan and The Rhine. She lived (1578-1648).

  1612 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita di Savoia of Mantua and Monferrato (Italy)
1612-29 Governor of Lisboan (Portugal)
1633-40 Vice-reine of Portugal
Following the death of her husband, Francesco IV Gonzaga, she became regent for daughter Maria in Mantova until her brother-in-law took over as Duke after having renounced his position of Cardinal. Her only son died a few months before Francesco. She was later appointed Governor of Lisbon and Vice-Queen of Portugal by her cousin King Felipe IV of Spain and Portugal (1605-21-65). In 1640 the Spanish were driven out of Portugal by the Duke of Bragança, King João IV and she was taken prisoner. She was daughter of Duke Carlo Emanuele I di Savoia, Prince of Piemonte, Count di Aosta, Moriana, Asti e Nizza, titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, and Marchese di Saluzzo and Infanta Catalina Michaella of Spain, whose sister was Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Margarita lived (1589-1655).

  1612 Sovereign Duchess Maria Gonzaga of Mantua and Monferrato (Italy)
1631-47 Regent Dowager Duchess of Nevers and Rethel etc. (France and Belgium)
1637-51 Regent Duchess of Monferrato
Succeeded her father, Duke Francesco IV Gonzaga, who only reigned 10 months, but she was soon replaced by uncle, Ferdinando I, who had renounced his position of Cardinal. He died in 1615 and was succeeded by his brother, Vinzenco II, also a former Cardinal. She was engaged to Carlo Emanuele I of Savoia, but married Carlo Gonzaga Nevers, Duke de Nevers et Rethel, de Mayenne et d’Aiguillon, Marquis de Villars, Comte du Maine, de Tende et de Sommerive in 1627 (d. 1631), and their son, Caro II (1629-65), inherited Mantua in 1637 from her father-in-law, Carlo I Gonzaga, who had inherited the Duchy in 1627 from Vinzenco II, but Mantua was conquered by one of the other rulers in Italy. Also mother of one daughter, Eleonore, she lived (1609-60).

  1612-26 Acting Lord of Mann Elizabeth de Vere (Territory of the English Crown (United Kingdom))
Also known as Elizabeth Stanley. Her husband, William Stanley, Sixth Earl of Derby, must have passed control to her around 1612, as she is associated with reforms in household officers of the Isle of Man at that period. One year after her death, her husband transferred estates and Lordship of Man to their son James. She was daughter of the Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, mother of five children and lived (1575-1626).

  1612-35 Reigning Duchess Anne de Croÿ of Arschot (Belgium)
Inherited the title from her brother, Charles II, Duc d’Arschot et de Croy etc., and was married to Fürst Karl von Arenberg (d. 1615).

  1612-48 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine IV de Lorraine-Vaudemont of Remiremont (France)
Coadjutrice from 1602. In 1638 the troops of Turenne occupied Remiremont for a month. The following year the Princess obtained the neutrality of Vosges (for Epinal, Remiremont, Bruyère, St Dié, Arches) for the rest of the Thirty Years War. She tried to reform the convent, but failed and also founded the Monastery of the Ladies du Saint Sacrement in Nancy, and was daughter of François II de Vaudemont, duke of Lorraine, and lived (1576-1648).

  1612-14 Abbess Nullius Donata Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Another chronology of Abbesses lists her as ruler 1637-38. Daughter of Don Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d’Aragona, 19th Count di Conversano, di San Flaviano e Castellana and created Duca di Noci in 1600, and Donna Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona, Heiress to the Duchy di Nardò.

  1612-13 Acting County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Lykke of the County of Arnsborg in the Island of Ösel in Gotland (then Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Lykke was the second largest landowner of her time after Ellen Marsvin. She was in charge of the administration after the death of her husband, Klavs Maltesen Sehested til Højris og Nøragergård. She lived (1568-1645).

  1613-14 Acting County Sheriff Else Steensdatter Bille of the County of Århusgård with the Shire of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg, Denmark
Following the death of her husband, Carl Bryske (1547-1613), Else Bille was in charge of the administration. He held a number of tenantcies and was a trusted employee at court. He was also used as envoy to Sweden and Russia. She (d. 1621).

  1613-19 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Ksenia Ivanovna Shestova of Russia
Her son, Mikael Romanov (1613-45), was elected czar, but left the direction of the state affairs to her. She had left the convent where Boris Godunov had placed her. In 1619 her husband, Philaret Romanov, returned from his banishment to Poland, was elected patriarch, and assumed the reigns of government. Her name is also transcribed as Xenia or Kseniya Šestova and she is also known as Marfa or Martha, and lived (1596-1631).   

  1613-33 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Elisabeth I Clara van Bergh ‘s-Heerenberg of Bergen op Zoom, Countess van Walhain, Dame of Beerssel, Duffel, Gheel, Leefdael, Waver, Eigenbrakel etc. (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Maria Mencia van Wittem van Beersel, titular marchioness (1581-88-1613) and Herman van Berg s’Heerenberg, count of Bergh, Governor of Spanish Gelders (1558-1611), she was succeeded first by uncle, and in 1638 by cousin Maria Elisabeth II.  Maria Elisabeth Clara lived (1610-33). 

  Ca. 1613-26 Sovereign Countess Josina van der Marck of Rochefort (Belgium)
It is not quite clear to me if she succeeded her father, Philipp von der Marck, Baron von Lummen, who died 1613, or another relative. Her mother was Katharina von Manderscheid (d. 1594) and she was married to Johann Dietrich von Löwenstein-Wertheim (d. 1644), who added her name to his. Her two aunts Josina and Anna were Princess-Abbesses of Thorn. 1570-1604 and 1604-31, and the oldest of her 7 children, Josina Walpurgis van Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort 1631-32 until her marriage to Herman Frederik van den Bergh. She lived (1583-1626). 

  1613-26 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth af Danmark of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
1616-22 De-facto in charge of the government of Braunschweig
After the death of her husband, Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig-Lüneburg she reigned in her dowry. After 3 years she removed her son, Friederich Ulrich, from the government together with  her brother, Christian 4 of Denmark, and she remained in charge for the next 6 years. In 1617 she founded the Retreat for the Poor with a chapel (Elisabeth Stift) During the Thirty Years War (1618-48) the castle was raided and was not repaired until 1654. Elisabeth lived (1573-1626).

  1613-48 Commander-in-Chief of Sichuan Province General Qin Liangyu in China
Married to Ma Qiancheng, the military commander of Shizhu district who was ordered to lead 3,000 soldiers to suppress a rebellion in 1559. She led another 500 men, and they fought side by side in battle and suppressed the rebellion quickly. In 1613, Ma offended a court eunuch, was arrested and died in prison, and she was ordered to take her husband’s former military office. She became famous for fighting the Qing invaders at the end of the Ming dynasty 1620 crushed numerous rebellions. In 1646 Emperor Longwu of the southern Ming gave her the title of Loyal Marquis. She lived (1547-1648).

  1614-29 Sovereign Princess Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine of Château-Regnault (France)
Daughter of Catherine, and married in 1605 to François de Bourbon, prince de Conti, first cousin of Henri IV of France (d. 1614 without issue). In 1629, she ceded Château-Regnault to the king of France in exchange for Pont-sur-Seine, and 3 years later she secretly married François de Bassompierre. The sovereignty of Château-Regnault included Linchamp, la Tour-à-Glaire, Macaucourt, Mohon, Montcy-Notre-Dame. In practice, since Château-Regnault is so small (it had 1.200 inhabitants in the mid-19th c.), the substantial prerogative was the right to mint coins and excelled in copying coins from the neighbouring countries, and she minted coins with the titulature: “Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine par la grâce de Dieu princesse souveraine de Château-Regnault”. She lived (1574-1631).

  1614-16 Acting County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Skinkel of the County of Holbæk with the Shire of Ingelsø, Denmark
Karen Skinkel was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Anders Nielsen Dresselberg til Vognstrup, who was judge and held other administrative offices. He had first been married to Mette Grubbe (d. 1584). Karen (d. 1624).

  1614-44 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara von Spaur-Pflaum und Valör of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)From 1612 she had been Lady of the Chapter and Dechantess of Vreden, in 1616 she also became Abbess of Nottuln and 1621 of Metelen. In 1623, during the Thirty Years War, Essen received a Spanish garrison. The following year the re-catholication-law was introduced, non-catholic books banned and the obligatory church attendance reintroduced. In 1629 the Spanish bastion fell to the Dutch, and a council dominated by protestants took over power of the City of Essen, Maria Clara fled to Köln, only to return for a short period in 1631. Her sister reigned as Princess-Abbess Katharina II of Buchau, (1610-50). Maria Clara lived (ca. 1590-1644). 

  1614-34 Princess-Abbess Susanna von Bubenhofen of Lindau   (Germany)
In 1628 the Emperor employed troops in the City of Lindau after internal riots, and he tried to re-catholicise the City and to tie it closer to Austria. The head of the Catholic chapter, Fürstäbtissin Susanna, was member of an old Prussian noble family.

  1614-21 Princess-Abbess Maria Brümsi von Herblingen of Säckingen (Germany)
The City of Bad Säckingen was occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. The last male member of her family, Hans Brümsi, had died 1551.

  1614 “The Legitimate Representative of the past Sovereign Incas of Peru” Doña Ana María de Loyola Cova y Coya-Inca in Peru, Marchioness  de Santiago de Oropesa, Adelantada of del Valle de Yucay and Yupangui and Lady de Loyola
Given the title of “representante legítima de los antiguos soberanos incas del Perú” by King Felipe III of Spain She married Don Juan Enríquez de Borja, and was daughter of Don Martín García de Loyola, Señor de Oñaz, Capitán General of the Bodyguard of the Viceroy of Perú around 1569, governor of Potosí ca. 1579 and Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Chile around 1591 and Doña Beatriz Clara Coya, Señora del Valle de Yucay, the only daughter and heiress of Inca Sayri-Tupac, sovereign of Tahuantinsuyu and his wife, the sovereign of la Coya Cusi Huarcay. (b. 1596).

  1615-16 Regent Dowager Princess Nang Nawn Pe of Yawng Hwe (Myanmar – Burma)
Saw Hkam was king in 1615 followed by a 12-year vacancy on the throne of state, which is also known as Nyaungywe and was one of the Shan – ethnic Thai – states in Burma. 

  1615-27 County Sheriff Beate Christoffersdatter Huitfeldt of Lunde Sankt Peders Kloster and Gers Herred in Skåne (Denmark and Sweden)
Beate Huitfeldt til Møllerød was Mistress of the Court, Hofmesterinde. Married to Knud Ulfeldt, and lived (1544-1626)

  1615-46 Olangio to tilaiot Molie Raja To Tilayo of the Upper Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Tilayo Branch and her title means ruler of the upper parts. She succeeded her father Pangoliwudaa, who was the second Muslim ruler of the Raja To Tilayo branch, and was followed by husband, Eiato, who reigned until 1674.

  1615-32 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Anna von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of the Castle and Administrative Office of Höchstädt in Pfalz-Neuburg (Germany)
The death of her brother Johann Wilhelm in 1609 led to the Jülich-Kleve Succession War where the families of her own and her 3 sisters fought over the inheritance. She transferred the rights of inheritance to the areas of the Low Rhine (niederrheinischen) she possessed as the oldest surviving daughter to her oldest son Wolfgang Wilhelm. She was chocked and kept her own Evangelical faith when he converted to the Catholic Faith in order to marry the daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria to gain the support of the Catholic League in 1613, but in the end it helped him secure his mother’s inheritance as Duke of Jülich and Berg in 1614. Her husband, Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig, died the same year, and she moved to her dowry the following year, she moved to her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Wilhelm IV. of Jülich, Kleve und Berg and Maria von Österreich, mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1552-1632).

  1616-24 Raja Ratu Biru of Patani (Thailand)
Succeeded her sister, Ratu Hijau; ‘The Green Queen’ and became known as Ratu Biru; ‘The Blue Queen’. Her rise to the throne, does suggest that the orangkaya class of merchant aristocrats, in the words of the seventeenth-century French visitor to Siam Nicholas Gervaise, ‘were weary of obeying kings who maltreated them, and shook off their yoke’ in favour of queens. It became a political preference, and increasingly a recognised system. When she in turn died in 1624, a third sister, who would have had to be nearly sixty, came to the throne as Raja Ungu, ‘the purple queen’.

  1616 Regent rGyal Khatun of Ladakh-Balistan (Tihbat-I-Khurd) (Tibet)
Acted as regent for Seng-ge who ruled 1616-23 and sometime later.  

  1616-61 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite Charlotte de Luxembourg of Piney-Luxembourg, Princesse de Tigny, Countess de Piney and Baroness de Dangu (France)
Succeeded her father, Henri de Luxembourg (1583-1613-16) and first married to León d’Albret de Luynes, and then Charles Henri de Clermont-Tonnerre – both dukes de Luxembourg et de Piney by the right of their wife. She resigned the duchy in favour of son, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg, who then resigned in favour of his half-sister in order to become a deacon.

  1616-52 Princess-Abbess Anna Maria von Salis of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of an old noble family from Graubünden in Switzerland. During her reign the church of the Chapter was redecorated in Barock-style. 

  1616-36 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Augusta af Danmark of Holstein-Gottorp
1616-39 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johan Adolf, she was politically influential during the reign of her son, Duke Friedrich. She governed Husum as her dowry and here she promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. She lived (1580-1639).

  1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Mette Eriksdatter Hardenberg of the County of Bøvling, Denmark
Just after her birth, Mette Hardenberg, was brought to her aunt, Birgitte Rønnow, and it was not until after 6 years that she returned to her parents at Hagenskov. At the age of 19 she married the 20 year older Preben Gyldenstierne, County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Åstrup by Hjørring. Her mother and sisters were marked by depressions and mental ilnesses and at one time she was “possessed” by an evil spirit for some weeks until she was “saved”. She published a prayer’s book by her own hand. Her mother, Anne Rønnow til Skousborg, was Acting County Sheriff of Skousborg, Hagenskov, Eskebjerg and Strynø after the death of her father, Erik Hardenberg in 1604. Mette was mother of 5 children, and lived (1569-1629).

  1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Kristen Eriksdatter Hardenberg of the Counties of Dalum and Strynø, Denmark
Kirsten Hardenberg was in control of the fief after her husband Axel Brade til Elvedgård, Orebygård and Eskeberjerg’s death. He had served the Counts in Braunschweig, Szhwarzburg and Brandenburg and worked at court. Also former Stadholder of Fyn, Skåne, Halland and Blekinge. 1614 var han regeringsråd. She was his second wife. With the first, Mette Gøye, he ad 6 children, and they had 4. She owned several estates in her own right, and (d. 1639).

  1616 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Eilersdatter Krafse of the County of Søbygaard with Løveherred, Denmark
Hilleborg Krafse acted after the death of her husband, Mogens Gøye. She also owned a number of estates, among others Hald.

  1616-17 Acting County Sheriff Pernille Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of Hagenskov with Bogherred, Denmark
Pernille Gyldenstierne was widow of Jakob Rosenkrantz til Kærstrup, who had also had been County Sheriff of Nyborg. They had 10 children, and she lived (1576-1622).

  1616-40 County Sheriff Karen Andersdatter of the County of Hven (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
The mistress of King Christian 4 for about 3 years, she left the royal court ca. 1615, presumably on account of the King’s marriage to Kirsten Munk. She received the Island of Hven as an entailed estate, and where she served as county administrator, and also received a lifelong pension, and later on a number of estate in Copenhagen. In 1642 her son by Christian 4. Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve was appointed County Sheriff of Hven. The daughter of Anders Hansen and Bodil Knudsdatter, she also had two daughters who died in infancy. She (d. 1673).

  1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Henriksdatter Below of the County of Skivehus, Denmark
Sophie Below administered the fief after the death of her husband, Christen Pedersen Thott til Boltinggård (1568-1617). She researched the history of her family, it’s genealogy and heraldica and also wrote a number of prayerbooks. She was daughter of Henrik Below and Lisbeth Skram, mother of 3 children, and lived (1590 – 1650).

  1617-18 Acting County Sheriff Jutte Gyldenstierne of the Counties of Verne Kloster and Ingedals Skibrede, Norway
Acted as tenant of the fief (also known as Værne) after the death of her husband, Kristoffer von der Grøben til Fitseband. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway.

  1617-34 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also listed as ruler in 1624-30. Sister of Donna Barbara, the Abbess from 1558.

  1617-1623 Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1617-18 and 1622-23 Regent Naib-i-Sultanat of the Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
After the death of her husband, Sultan Ahmed Khan I (1603-17), she ruled in the name of her mentally unstable son, Mustapha Khan I (1717-23). When he was deposed she was sent off to the Old Saray, where her predecessor Safiye was already living. She was probably sent back again in 1623 but her fate is not known after her son was deposed for the second time and killed. She escaped punishment because of her privileged status as the mother of Mustafa, whose madness led the populace to consider him a saint. Her name is not known, but she was probably born in Europe (b. 1576-?).

  1618-20 Kahadija Mahfiruz Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
There is evidence that she might not have taken up the position as Sultan Valide when her son Osman II (1618-22) came to the throne, and she seems to have remained in the Old Saray, where she had been sent after the death of her husband, Ahmet I the year before. She lived (1590-1620).

  1618-54 Regent Dowager Countess Johannetta Elisabeth von Nassau-Katzenelnbogen of Bentheim- Limburg und Burg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Konrad Gumprecht, her mother-in-law, Magalena von Neuenahr-Alpen (see 1602) installed her as regent for her son, Wilhelm, and after his death in 1626 for her second son, Friederich Ludolf who already died in 1639. She then became regent for his successor – a nephew – Count Moritz von Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda and in 1638 they made a treaty that secured her the regency of the County for life. She was in charge of in Limburg and Burg during the Thirty Years War, which left the county devastated. In 1633 she had to flee to her sister’s residence in Fürstenau, and the same year the county was hit by plague. She returned in 1637 and managed to keep the county within the Bentheim family. She lived (1592-1654).  

  1618-19 Joint Administrator Elizabeth Stuart of Kurpfalz (Germany)
Already as a child she was involved in intrigue as part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to put her onto the throne of England and Scotland as a Catholic monarch, after assassinating her father and the Protestant English aristocracy. In 1613 she married Elector Palatine Friedrich V. (1596-1632) and soon became a dominating force at his court because of her energy and strong personality. In 1618 he came to the assistance of the Bohemians who had deposed their king, Ferdinand von Habsburg (future Emperor) and won the battle at Pilsen. He had appointed a relative as administrator and it seems that she was given a joint role in the government during his absence. The following year the Bohemians offered the crown to him as an influential member of the Evangelical Union, but his allies in the abandoned him, and his brief reign ended with his defeat only two months after their coronation (thus ‘the Winter King’). Imperial forces invaded the Palatinate lands and they had flee to the Netherlands in 1622. He lived the rest of his life in exile with his wife and family at the Hague, where she remained for another 28 years until the Restoration of the British monarchy, when she travelled to London to visit her nephew, King Charles II, and died while there. She had been Heiress Presumptive 1625-30 until his birth. Among their 13 children were Karl Ludwig (1617-1680), who regained the Palatinate at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Elizabeth, Princess-Abbess of Herford (1618-1680) and the later Electress Sophie of Hannover and Heir to the English throne (1630-1714). She was the eldest daughter of James of Scotland and Great Britain and Anne of Denmark, and lived (1596-1662).

  1618-58 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophia von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön of Treptow an der Rega in Pommern-Stettin (Poland)
Following the death of her husband, Philipp II, Duke of Pommern-Stettin (1573-1606-18), she took over the government in her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Johann von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön and Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, who had a total of 23 children. Her sister, Anna, had married Philip’s father, Bogislaw XIII (1544-1618) in 1601. Sophia’s marriage was childless, and she lived (1579-1658).

  1618-45 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Sophia zu Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The Thirty Year War reached the city in 1622 and four years later the city is hit by the plague. In the Neustadt 2.374 people died within six months. 1632 Wilhelm von Weimar passed through Quedlinburg and the following year the city was occupied by – and forced to accommodate – Imperial and Swedish troops, who also looted the city and forced the citizen to supply them with money and goods. 1636 the city was hit by another epidemic of plague. The regiment of the Swedish colonel Bleicke occupied the city from 1639-41 when fightings broke out between the imperial colonel Laba and Count Johann Ludwig of the Rhine. 1642 General  Königsmark was in Quedlinburg. Duchess Dorothea-Sophia daughter of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm and Duchess Sophia von Württemberg, and lived (1587-1645).

  1618-25-? Princess-Abbess Anna Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first of four members of the Freiherrliche family of Raitz von Frentz to reign the state in the period until 1669. It is not known how long she reigned, but Henrica Raitz von Frentz is mentioned as Fürstäbtissin in 1643.

  Before 1618 District Chief of Appamattuck of the Pamunkey Tribe, Virginia (USA)
Also known as Appomattox, she was the sister of the great chief Powhatan, she governed the strategically important town at that river’s junction with the James. The chiefly position was also inherited matrilineal; thus his children could not succeed the Chief. Powhatan’s three brothers, in order of age, were his successors, followed by his two sisters, and then by their two daughters.

  1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Baden of the County Kronborg Len with the Shires of Holbro and Lynge, Denmark
Anne Baden acted after the death of her brother, Christian or Kristen Hansen (Baden) til Nørgård. She (d. earliest 1633).

  1618-ca. 1636 County Sheriff Else Tønnesdatter Galde of the Counties of Verne Kloster Len and Ingedals Skibrede and the Parish of Skjeberg, Norway
Else Galde was given the tenantcy jointly with her husband, Sivert Gabrielsen Akeleje til Krengerup and Kambo (1584-1659) for the duration of their lifetimes. She had first been married to the German noble, Eiler Weide von Jasmund. Siverd then married Øllegaard Gerlofsdatter Nettelhorst and Anne Ottesdatter Bildt. She did not have any children (d. ca. 1636).

  1618-19 Acting County Sheriff Sofie Hansdatter Oldeland of Brunla Len and Numedalen Len, Norway
Sofie Oldeland had inherited the Castle of Vejlgård from her brother, Laurids in 1610. In charge of the fief after her husband, Caspaer or Kasper Markdanner (1533-1618), had passed away. His background is not known, but he was a soldier at various European courts, and ennobled by the Austrian Emperor in 1571 before he returned to Denmark and was employed at court. had also been Lensmand of Koldinghus 1585-1617.  They married in 1593 and had 2 sons. She lived (1578-1639).

  1618-19 Dowager Princess Eléonore-Charlotte de Bourbon-Condé of Oranje (France)
Married to Filips Willem, Prince d’Orange in 1606, and followed him on his frequent travels between Brussels and Orange. He had grown up under the protection from the Duke of Alba, Governor of the Netherlands, during his studies in Leuven, until he was taken out of university at the age of 14 and brought to Spain while his family fled to Germany. As a captive by the king Philip II, he guaranteed the attitude of the princes d’ Orange towards Spain. His father was assassinated in 1584, but he was not freed until 11 years later, and marched to his northern possessions. His brother, Mauritz, was now head of the family and his sister, Maria, looked after his domains during his absence. 1598 the Principality is returned to him, and competes with his brother for many years. After his death she fought with her in-laws over the inheritance of Oranje until her own death. She lived (1587-1619).

  1619-30 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg of Delmenhorst (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Anton II, Count von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst (1573-77) and Count von Delmenhorst (1577-1619), she was first regent for her oldest son, Anton Heinrich von Delmenhorst who died at the age of 18 in 1622, and then for the second son, Christian IX von Delmenhorst, (1612-1647), who was unmarried. She had nine daughters, among others, Catharine Elisabeth, Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim and Sibylle Marie, Dechaness in Herford. The other daughters inherited the possessions of their brother, but the county reverted to the Counts of Oldenburg and thereby to the Danish King. She lived (1576-1630).

  1619-20 Acting County Sheriff Dorte Ovesdatter Juul of Århusgård with Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg Herred, Denmark
Dorte Juul was widow of Jørgen Kaas til Geldskov. She had no children, and (d. 1634)

  1619-24 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jensdatter Brahe of the County of Sølvitsborg with Bregneherred and Lister, Denmark
Anne Brahe was widow of Otto Lindenov til Boreby.

  Around 1620 Queen Nana Bempomaa of Kokofu (Ghana)
Succeeded Queen Nana Ankeyo Nyame and was succeeded by son, Nana Akyempon Tenten.

  Around 1620 Governor Elena de Caso, Dos Ilheus (Brazil)
The Vice-Kingdom of Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire. She was followed on the post by Antonio Ribeiro.

  1620-40 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bonnières of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord de Biez and Marie de Tournai.

  1620-35 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophia von Sachsen of and Administrative Unit of Wollin in Pommern (Poland)
Probably held Island and Administrative Unit as her dowry after the death of her husband, Franz von Pommern (1577-1606-20). As it was the case with all the last Dukes of Pommern, their marriage was childless. She was daughter of Duke and Elector Christian I. von Sachsen and Sophia von Brandenburg, and lived (1587-1635).

  1620-28 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Lichtenberg in Brandenburg (Germany)
When she married the Polish Prince Janusz Radziwill (1579-1620) in 1617 they were granted the Castle, Office and City , and after his death, she ruled and was known as a charitable and just ruler. They had a son and 2 daughters. When she married Julius Heinrich zu Sachsen-Lauenburg (1586-1665), her brother Christian von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, bought the Lordship. Mother of 1 son and 2 daughters by her first husband, and she gave birth to Franz Erdmann in February 1629 and died on Christmas Eve the same year. She lived (1589-1629).

  1620 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Jørgensdatter Rostrup of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
Sophie Rostrup acted following the death of her husband, Steen Brahe til Knudstrup. She was his third wife, and she had been married to Mads Sandberg til Løjstrup (d. 1597). The daughter of Jørgen Rostrup til Selleskovgård and Margrethe Skeel, she (d. 1632).

  1620 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Steensdatter Brahe  of the County of Vestervig, Denmark
Sophie Brahe inherited the estate of Birkelse after the death of her husband, Jørgen Lunge til Odden, and bought the estates of Toftegård, Rævkærgård, Ulveskoven og Nejsumskov. Mogens Kristensen Scheel, the son of her late daughter, Margrethe, inherited half of Birkelse but exchanged it with his aunt, Ide Lunge. Sophie (d. 1656).

  1620-27 Politically Influential Madame Ke in China
客氏 or Kè Shì was the nanny of Emperor Zhu Youjiao (The Tianqi Emperor) (1605-27), who succeeded at the age of 15 and was illiterate, and delegated all duties to his eunuch Wei Zhongxian and her. Both of them were eliminated as soon the Chongzhen Emperor (the last one of the Ming dynasty) succeeded his brother to the throne in 1627.

  1621-28 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Chrétienne de Lorraine of Toscana (Italy)
Christine was widow of Ferdinando I de’ Medici (1549-87-1609) and acted as co-regent for grandson Ferdinando II (1610-21-70) after the death of her son, Cosimo II. She was well disposed to the scientist Galileo and as a favour in return for some services rendered by him when he was still in Padua found a position for his brother in law Benedetto Landucci. It was to Christina that Galileo later wrote his letter on science and scripture, “Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Lorraine.” She was the daughter of Charles II and Claude de France and lived (1565-1637).

  1621-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Maddalena de Austria of Toscana (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Cosimo II de’ Medici, she acted as regent for son Ferdinando II (1621-70). Her weakness led to the loss of Tuscany’s right to the Duchy of Urbino, which fell vacant, and which Pope Urban VII took as an unoccupied fief of the Church. Also known as Maria Magalena von Habsburg, she was mother of 8 children, and lived (1589-1631).

  1621-42 Guardian Dowager Duchess Magdalena von Oldenburg of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1621-57 Dowager Reigning Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig
Her husband, Rudolf (1576-1603-21), died shortly after the birth of her son, Johan, and her brother-in-law, August von Anhalt-Köthen-Plötzkau (1575-1653), was named regent. Because of the upheavals during the Thirty Years War she had to leave Zerbst and seek refuge with her children in Wittenberg until she moved to Oldenburg with her children in 1633 and lived by her brother, Anton Günther, and they did not move back until Zerbst until 1642. In 1646 she and her son were named heirs of the Lordships Jever and Knyphausen after her childless brother, and her son inherited the territories in 1667. The mother of 2 daughters and a son, she was daughter of Graf Johann XVI. von Oldenburg (1540-1603) and Elisabeth von Schwarzburg (1541-1612), and lived (1585-1657).

  1621-25 Donatary Mariana de Sousa Guerra of São Vicente (Brazil)
Also Condessa de Vimieiro, she became “Donatária da Capitania de São Vicente” in succession to her father, Pero Lopes de Sousa. She was married to Martim Afonso de Sousa, and lived (ca. 1560-1625).

  1621 Acting County Sheriff Else Jørgendatter Marsvin of the County of Tranekær with the two Shires of Langeland, Denmark
1621-23 Acting County Sheriff
of the County of Akershus, Norway
Else Marsvin til Stenalt was widow of Enevold Kruse, former Treasurer, Councillor of the Realm and Governor of Norway. Mother of 4 children, and lived (1572-1649).

  1621-37 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Senior) of Rossano Calabro (Italy)
Niece of Pope Clemente VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini) (1536-92-1605) and universal heir of her brother, Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (d. 1621). She administered her places, cities and feudal fiefs in Calabria, Romagna, Lazio with great competence and laid the foundations for the future Duchies of Carpineto, Maenza, Gavignano, Montelanico and Gorga, and transformed the feudal territory into a dukedom also including several surrounding villages. In 1629, she ordered the building of St. Peter’s Church, which she provided with gorgeous reliquaries and frescoes, the best known being a fresco attributed to the famous painter Caravaggio. She was married to Gianfrancesco Aldobrandini and mother 2 daughters and 1 son, who also died in 1637 and the family inheritance was therefore taken over by her granddaughter, Olimpia Junior. She lived (1567-1637).

  1621-40 Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg was Contra-Abbess 1629-31. Herford became a Free City (Reichstadt) in  1631. Magdalene was daughter of Count Simon VI zur Lippe (1554-1613) and his second wife, Countess Elisabeth von Holstein-Schaumburg, and lived (1595-1640).

  1621-58 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Greuth of Säckingen (Germany)
1630 she cleared the relationship between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. During the The Thirty Year War the chapter had to pay heavy taxes and requisitions, and the chapter fled for the Swedish and French troops to Baden. Laufenburg was plundered and on top of that came the plague. 1648 she wrote to King Louis XIV of France asking for an end to the war contributions and 1652 she was the last Fürstäbtissin of the Chapter to be invited to the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). She was daughter of Christoph von Greuth zu Jestetten and Catharina Muntprat von Spiegelberg.

  1622-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Margherita Aldobrandini of Parma (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Rainuncio I (1569-1622), she chaired the government in the name of their son, Odoardo I. She was Princess di Parpugnano in her own right from 1601, and daughter of Olympia Aldorandini, Princess di Rossano Calabro (1567-1623-37), and lived (1585-1646).

  1622-84 Sovereign Princesse Anne de Rohan of Guémené, Châtellenie de Guémené, Plouray and Corlay, Baroness de Montauban and Dame de Saint Maure
1660-84 Duchess of Saint-Maure
Succeeded her brother, Pierre de Rohan, who did not have any children in his two marriages. During the Fronde she participated in all the complots against Richelieu and Cardinal de Retz. In 1660 the king named her Duchess of Saint Maure. She was married to Louis VIII de Rohan, Duke de Montbazon (1598-1667), mother of a number of children and lived (1604-84)

  1622-50 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of and Administrative Unit and Castle of Neustein in Pommern-Stettin (Poland/Germany)
Her husband Philipp had taken over the Evangelical Bishopcy of Cammin, when his brother, Franz succeeded their older brother as Duke of Pommern-Stettin. He later received the Offices of Neustettin and Rügenwalde until he succeeded his brother as duke but died after only two years, and she took over Neustettin as her dowry. In 1640 she founded a Gymnasium (High School) in the Town of Neustettin. Like the marriages of all the last Dukes of Pommern, theirs was also childless. She was daughter of Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Elisabeth af Danmark, and lived (1595-1650).

  1622-60 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Pommern-Stettin of Stolp in Pommern (Poland/ Germany)
2 years after the death of her husband, Ernst de Croy, she moved back to Pommeren where her brother, Duke Bogislaws XIV, granted her the tenantcy of Stolp as her dorwy, but she had to retreat to Rügenwalde, Stettin and Greifswald during the Swedish-Polish war. 1624 her son, Ernst Bogisla, inherited the titles of Prince and Duke de Croÿ from his uncle, Charles Alexandre, and she won a case at the Imperial Court that secured his inheritance, but the judgement was never executed, and his cousin, Marie Claire had control over the family estates and was created Duchess d’Havré in 1627. When her brother died as the last male of the family, she inherited his estates. Her son was named Bishop of Cammin, Governor in Hinterpommern and Governor in Eastern Preussia. She was the 11th and last child of Bogislaw XIII. von Pommern-Stettin and Klara von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and lived (1590-1660).

  1622-70 Hereditary Sovereign Lady Anna Katharina von Hohenzollern of Königsberg-Kynau (Germany)
9th child of Johann Georg von Hohenzollern, Herr zu Königsberg-Kynau, and his second wife, Katharina Berka von Duba und Leipa. Her only surviving sister, Anna Ursula (1607-67) did obviously not inherit the estate and title. Anna Katharina first married Baron Moritz August von Rochow and after his death in 1657 Count Heinrich Christof von Hochberg-Rohnstock (d. 1675), she lived (1618-70).

  1622 Acting County Sheriff Helle Jørgensdatter 
Marsvin of the County of Arnsborg, Denmark
In 1601 Helle Marsvin had inherited Vapnö, one of the three biggest manor houses in Halland. She became acting County Sheriff after the death of her husband, Jakob Bek til Gladsakse and Beldringe. She lived (1566-1637).

  1623-63 Queen Nzinga M’Bandi of N’Dongo and Matamba  (Angola and Congo)
1623-26 Governor of Luanda for the Portuguese
Also Known as Pande Doña Ana I Souza or Jinga, she assigned women important government offices. Constantly driven east by the Portuguese, Nzinga organized a powerful guerrilla army, conquered the Matamba, and developed alliances to control the slave routes. She even allied with the Dutch, who helped her stop the Portuguese advancement. After a series of decisive setbacks, Nzinga negotiated a peace treaty with the Portuguese, but still refused to pay tribute to the Portuguese king. Two of her war leaders were reputedly her sisters, her council of advisors contained many women, among others her sisters, Princess Grace Kifunji and Mukumbu, the later Queen Barbara, and women were called to serve in her army. She was daughter of N’Gola Kiluanzi Kia Samba and succeeded her brother. Lived (1581-1663). 

  1623-47 Member of the Council of Government Princess Grace of Matamba and Ndongo (Angola and Congo) 
Before her christening she was named Kifunji, and together with her sister Mukambu, she was closest aide and members of the government of their sister, Queen Nzinga.  Also an important religious leader. In October 1647 she was drowned by the enemy as they retreated. She lived (1587-1647)

  1623-48 Kösem Mahpeyker Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
1623-32 Regent (Naib-i-Sultanat)
1648-51 Regent Büyük Valide Sultan
In 1623 Sultan Mustafa was deposed for the second time and replaced by her son 14-year-old son, Murat IV, and she acted as his regent for some years a corresponded frequently with the various Grand Viziers about the state of the empire. When Murat died as result of alcoholism in 1640, she had to have Murat’s corpse brought before the door of the Cage, where her younger son, Ibrahim, had spend most of his life, like all princes in the Ottoman house, because he was too scared of being killed by his older brother to come out. He was mentally ill and power again fell to her together with the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha, but they were often at odds, trying to overthrow each other. 1648 Ibrahim was deposed and killed. Her grandson Mehmed IV was only six, and Kösem again became regent with the title of Great Mother Sultan because Mehmed’s mother Hadice Tarhan was only 23 and considered too young to rule. The period was the period of corruption, bribery and anarchy, and a fierce rivalry grew between Kösem Sultan and Turhan Hatice Sultan. Kösem tried to save herself and her followers by plotting to poison the young sultan – and to replace him with his mad cousin Süleymen. But Turhan Hatice Sultan learned of the plot and thwarted it with the help of the palace black eunuchs and the sultan’s personal guard, and Kösem was strangled to death after a fight, where it took four men to subdue her. Other versions of her name were Kiusem, Koisem, or Kieuzel Sultan, and she was probably born as Anastasya, the daughter of a Bosnian priest, and lived (ca. 1589-1651).

  1623-26 Regent Princess Dowager Elisabeth van Nassau of Sedan (France)
Her husband, de La Tour d’Auvergne, Duc de Bouillon tried to keep his small but independent state of Sedan independent from France, but as more and more Huguenots came for refuge, it became a Protestant centre within an increasingly hostile Catholic country. She acted as regent during his absence from the state and after his death; she reigned in the name of her son, Frédéric-Maurice (1605-52) and continued to act as temporary regent for him after he came of age. Two of her sisters were regents in Hanau and The Rhine. She lived (1577-1642).

  1623-30 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Schouteete van Zuylen of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of an old Belgian family of high nobility.

  1623-24/25 Acting County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Lykke of the County of Kalundborg with the Shires of Arts and Skippinge and Samsø and County Sheriff of the County of København with the Shires of Smørum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke, Denmark
Anne Lykke was member of one of the riches families of the realm, and so was that of her husband, Cai Rantzau. He was Councillor of the Realm and County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Kalundborg from 1615. He later became General War Commissioner and when he died during the 30 Year War, she took over the administration of the tenancies until the accounts had been settled. In 1625 her estates was estimated to be worth more than 4.600 barrols of corn, which was 7 times more than an average estate owner. When King Christian 4 the following year learned that she had become the mistress of his son, Prince Christian, he had her arrested and send to Bohus in Norway. She refused to accept the king’s terms for her release, and she complained to the Council of the Realm who freed her in 1628 and she was given back her only child, Sophie. The following year she married Knud Ulfeldt, and the relationship to the royal family became normalized though never warm. Her daughter, Sophie (1616-35) married her stepfathers brother and had 3 children who died shortly after the birth, and 1635 she died herself. She lived (1595-1641).

  1623-1634 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Daniłowiczowa of Hrubieszów, Poland
Appointed by the king as his local representative.

  1623/24-69 Sovereign Duchess Françoise de Lorraine of Mercoeur and Penthièvre, Sovereign Princess of Martigues (France)
Daughter of Duchess Marie de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl (1579-1602) married to Cécar de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme, the son of Gabrielle d’Estree and King Henry IV. She lived (1692-1669). 

  1623-43 Politically Influential Kasugano-tsubone in Japan
In 1604, she was given the position as nurse of Tokugawa Iemitsu. When Iemitsu became the third Tokugawa shogun in 1623, she became the power behind the shogunate, particularly in his isolationist and anti-Christian policies. She was daughter of Saito Toshimitsu, a warlord who chose the wrong side in the fight between Hideyoshi and Akechi Mitsuhide; she was raised by her mother’s relatives, and lived (1579-1643).

  1624-35 Raja Ratu Ungu of Patani (Thailand)
The last of three sisters to rule the kingdom since 1585 and must have been well into her 60ies. She became known as ‘The Purple Queen”. During the reign of the three sisters the Malayan Kingdom-Sultanate was expanded its borders to include Kelantan and Trengganu and became the most powerful Malay state after Johor. It was during this time that Patani became renowned for manufacturing cannon, producing three of the largest bombards ever cast in the region – ‘Mahalela’, ‘Seri Negara’ and ‘Seri Petani’. With each measuring over six metres in length. She had previously married the neighbouring Sultan Abdul-Ghafur Mohaidin Syah of Pahang, which caused some tension until it was established that each would continue to live in their own state. She had had a daughter by him, who became Raja Kuning, ‘the yellow queen’ in 1636.

  1624-25 Sovereign Duchess Nicole of Lorraine (France)
Also known as Nikolaea, Nicoläa or Nicola von Lothringen, she was daughter of Heinrich II der Gute von Lothringen, who named her as his heir, but in the testament of René II it was stipulated that the Duchy could only be inherited in the male line, and therefore her cousin, Charles de Vaudémont claimed the territory. They got married, and the Estates General decided that the throne belonged to her uncle and father-in-law, Franz, who then abdicated in favour of her husband after a few days. In 1634 Charles was deposed, the following year divorced her, and in spite of the fact that the Pope refused to annul the marriage, he remarried twice. His brother Nicolas, was Duke for one year, France occupied the territory until 1670 when her ex-husband took over the throne again for the last five years of his life and was succeeded by a nephew. She did not have any children, and lived (1608-57).

  1624-32 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarita Gonzaga of the Marchionate of Nomeny and the Land of Létricourt in Lorraine (France)
After the death of her husband, Henri de Lorraine or Heinrich II, Herzog von Lothringen und Bar, she went to the French court to defend the rights of her daughter, Nicole or Nicoläa to the succession of the throne of Lorraine. She spend the last part of her life in her dowries. She was daughter of  Vincenzo I. Gonzaga (1562-1612), Duke of Mantua and Montferrato and his seond wife Eleonora de’ Medici (1566-1611). She lived (1591-1632).

  Until 1624 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Piney (France)
Daughter of Count Charles de Ligny  (d. 1608) and Brienne and Marie de Nogaret. Her sister was Louise, Countess de Brienne (1567-1647). 

  1624-38 Reigning Abbess Jehanne II de Lorraine of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Jeanne, she initiated sweeping monastic reforms in the Abbey and raised from the Crypt the remains of St Ebregisile and the founders of the Abbey in presence of Queen Marie de Medicis and transferred them to the reliquaries which are now in the Parish Church. They were brought out for processions, on Whit Tuesday and sometimes during public calamities. Jehanne de Lorraine demolished the old abbey church and rebuilt it splendidly. She was daughter Henri I de Guise, Duc de Guise, Prince de Joinville, (1550-88), who was murdered for becoming a protestant, and Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633). She lived (1586-1638).

  1624 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Dragsholm, Denmark
Lisbeth Gyldenstjerne acted after the death of her husband, Oluf Rosensparre. She lived (1564-1638).   

  1624-? Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Hansdatter of the County of Kullegaard with Ludgudeherred in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Widow of Bernd Vacke, Chief of Costums (Toldskriver) in Helsingør (Elsinore, Denmark), where she resided.

  1625-39 Regent Dowager Margravine Sophia zu Solms-Laubach of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Joachim Ernst, since their marriage in 1612. After his death, she became joint regent for their son Friederich, who died in battle just after reaching the age of majority in 1634 and then for the second son, Albrecht V, whom she send off to security in France. She was overpowered by the ordeals of the 30th year war, its devastation, famine and other problems and at one occasions she had to flee from the Swedish, Imperial and other troops, and the occupation continued even after she joined the so-called Peace of Prague in 1635. She lived (1594-1651).

  1625-49 Politically Influential Queen Henrietta Maria de France of England
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Charles I (1625-49). She married him in 1625 and although she was devoted and loyal to her husband, her Roman Catholic faith made her suspect in England. By her negotiations with the pope, with foreign powers, and with English army officers, she added to the suspicions against Charles that helped to precipitate the English civil war in 1642. After 1644 she lived in France, making continual efforts to secure foreign aid for her husband until his execution in 1649. She remained very active in the fight for her son’s restoration, and returned to England in 1660, but resumed living in France five years later. Her influence may have affected the religious beliefs of her sons Charles II and James II, although she herself was unsuccessful in her attempts to convert them to Catholicism. She was daughter of Henri IV of France, mother of seven children of whom only three survived into adulthood, and lived (1609–69).

  1625-53 Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lucretia of Teschen-Freistadt (Těšín/Cieszyn) (Bohemia – Czech Republic)
Also known as Alžběta Lukrécie or Elżbieta Lukrecja, she succeeded brother, Friedrich Wilhelm of the Slesian Duchy, which had become part of Bohemia, and was successful in maintaining her independence against the co-regency of her husband, Fürst Gundacar von Liechtenstein (who was first married to Countess Agnes of Ostfriesland-Rietberg). She was an ardent follower of the contra-reformation and mother of 3 children. After her death, the Duchy was incorporated into Bohemia. She lived (1599-1653).

  1625-74 Sovereign Lady Ursula Catharina zu Donha of Muskau (Germany)
Succeeded her father, Burggraf and Graf Karl Christoph zu Dohna, Herr zu Muskau (1595-1625), initially under the regency of her mother, Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose. Married to Curt Reincke von Callenberg, and succeeded by son. She lived (1622-74).

  1625-43 Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Ursula von der Schulenburg-Lieberose of Muskau (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl Christoph, she was regent for their 2 year old daughter.

  1625-30 Princess-Abbess Juliana Rembold of Baindt (Germany)
The Abbey was founded 1227, and it’s Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire.

  1625-49 Princess-Abbess Katharina Elisabeth von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Gandersheim (Germany)
Because of the ongoing wars she resided in Delmenhorst and there were numerous fights among the employees of the chapter. The city of Gandersheim was occupied several times by Tilly’s troops in 1626. Also known as Catharina Elisabeth she was daughter of Duke Anton II of Oldenburg Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Dannenberg, regent of Delmenhorst 1619-30. One sister, Sidonia, was sovereign of Herford (1640-49) before her marriage to Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck, and another, Sibylla Maria, was Dechantin of Herford until 1638.  Catharina Elisabeth lived (1603-49).

  From 1626 Regent Aayat Bahs Bigum of Golkonda (India)
After the death of her husband, she reigned in the name of Sultan Abd Allah (1613-26-72). The Golkonda state broke from Gulbarga in 1518 and remained independent under eight sultans until 1687 when it was conquered by the Great Mughal Aurangzeb.

  1626-27 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Prebensdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Låland  and Nørre- and Sønderherred, Denmark
Birgitte Gyldenstjierne was widow of Axel Urne til Rygård. She owned the estate until she sold it to Niels Trolle in 1640. Mother of 5 children, and lived (1595-1675)

  1626 Feudal Baroness Donna Eleonore Mastrantonio Bardi Centelles of Calcusa (Italy)
Succeeded her father, Vincenzo Mastrantonio, but sold the feudal title to Giuseppe Bologna shortly after.

  Before 1626 and 1650-54 Princess-Abbess Maria von Effern, genant Hall of Keppel (Germany)
The Chapter had been protestant since 1572, but as a result of the counter-reformation initiated by Johann VIII von Nassau  (1623-1638), the Chapter was abolished 1626 and transferred to the Jesuits. She managed to have the Chapter restored as a double-convent with both Protestant and Catholic canonesses, and until its secularisation in 1806, the post of Abbesses alternated between representatives of the two denominations.

  1627-82 Sovereign Duchess Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans of Montpensier, Countess d’Eu, Mortain etc.  (France)
As a French Princess she was also called La Grande Mademoiselle. She held the title for all her life in succession to her mother, Marie de Bourbon (1605-08-27), who died giving birth to her. Her father, Gaston d’Orléans, the brother of Louis XIII. She took an active part on the rebel side in the Fronde of the Princes. In 1652 she relived the city of Orleans at the head of her troops and opened the gates of Paris to Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé, and his army. Exiled with her father in 1652, she returned to court in 1657. She fell in love with the duc de Lauzun and got the king’s permission for their marriage – but it was revoked  in 1670. Shortly thereafter, he was imprisoned.  She bought his release in 1681 and apparently married him, but they soon separated. She spent the rest of her life in pious works and the composition of her memoirs. She lived (1627-93).

  1627-64 Duchess Marie-Claire de Croÿ-Havré of Havré (Belgium)
Her father, Charles Alexandre Havré, Prince and Duc of Croÿ,  was murdered in 1624 and her cousin, Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ (1620-1684), inherited both princely and ducal titles of Croÿ, but lived with his mother in Pomerania. Marie Claire first married a relative Charles Philippe de Croy, Marquis de Renty (d. 1640) and then his brother, Philippe Francois de Croy, Count of Solre (d. 1650) and in 1627 King Felipe III of Spain raised her Marquesate to a Duchy with her as the first Duchess. Her son, Phillippe Eugene, was Marquis de Renty and Bishop of Valencia until his death in 1665. Then her daughter, Marie Ferdinande (d. 1683) succeeded to the title. She was married to Count Louis van Egmond, Prince de Gavre (d. 1682). Her only son by the second marriage, Ferdinand Francois Joseph de Croÿ-Solre, succeeded to the ducal title. She lived (1605-64). 

  1627-31 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Magdalena von Waldeck-Wildungen of Lippe (Germany)
Her son Simon Ludwig (1610-27-36) succeeded his half-brother, Simon VII.  (1587-1613-27) under the regency of her father, count Christian zu Waldeck. She lived (1606-71).

  1627-33 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Denmark and Germany)
Retained undivided possession of the estate after the death of her husband, Duke Alexander of Holsten-Sønderborg. She handed over the estates to the oldest of her 11 children, Hans Christian (1627-53).

  1627-29 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Gräter of Heggbach (Germany)
The former Prioress, she died of the plague, and lived (1567-1629).

  Until 1627 Reigning Abbess Marie de Guise of Chelles (France)
Daughter of Claude de Guise, duc d’Aumale and Louise de Brézé, and lived (1565-1627).

  1627-29 Reigning Abbess Marie Henriette de Bourbon of Chelles (France)
Daughter of King Henri V of France and his mistress Charlotte des Essarts de la Haye, and lived (1609-29).

  1627-58 Titular Countess Kirsten Munk of Slesvig and Holsten, Denmark
Married King Christian 4 of Denmark to the “left hand” in 1615 and had 12 children with him (who had a total of 24 children with his two wifes and a number of mistresses). In 1627 she and her daughters were given the title of Countess, but in 1630 she was banned to her estates Boller and Rosenvold, which she had inherited from her mother, Ellen Marsvin, because of an affaire with Count Otto Ludwig zu Salm. One of her daughters was Leonora Christine (see 1643). Kirsten Munk lived (1598-1658).

  1628 Chief Guardian Dowager Duchess Barbara Sophie von Brandenburg of Württemberg
1628-36 Reigning Dowager Lady of Kirchheim (Germany)
As Chief Guardian (Obervormünderin) of her 14-year-old son, she was politically active. She had withdrawn to her dowry after her husband’s death but returned to Stuttgart in 1632. She lived (1584-1636).
 

  1628-59 Reigning Lady Duchess Anna Sophie von Brandenburg of Schöning in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1634-59
Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Hessen (Germany)
1623 she was behind an attempt to murder her husband, Duke Friederich Ulrich (1591-1634). After their separation, she lived at the castle and reigned the territory almost independently. She opened a Latin school. She had no children, and lived (1598-1659).

  1628-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Amalia zu Solms-Sonnenwalde  im Ort Döttingen in Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)
Widow of Count Philipp Ernst von Hohenlohe-Langenburg-Neuenstein (1584-1628), she build a hospital and other charitable institutions, and lived (1585-1634).
 

  1628-46 Acting Imperial Postmaster General  Alexandrine de Rye in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and and Postmaster General in the Spanish Netherlands, Burgundy and Lorraine (Germany, The Netherlands and France)
Shortly before his death, her husband, Count Leonhard II von Taxis, had named her guardian for their minor son, Lamoral Claudius Franz von Thurn und Taxis, and Emperor Ferdinand II confirmed the guardianship and appointed her to the post of Postmaster General (Generalpostmeisterin der Kaiserlichen Reichspost und Generalpostmeisterin in den Spanischen Niederlanden) in the name of her son. Also King Felipe IV of Spain appointed her as Postmaster General in his territories. Despite the difficulties of the Thirty Years War she showed herself as an able organiser and was able expand the area covered by the Post of the Holy Roman Empire.  In 1637 the new Emperor Ferdinand III confirmed her temporary appointment and the following year he named her daughter, Genoveva, as designated successor should Lamoral Claudius Franz die without heirs. When he turned 25 she resigned. She was daughter of Philibert Bar de Balançon Comte de Varax and Claudine de Tournon-Roussillon, and lived (1589-1666).

  1629-43 Meishō Tennō of Japan
明正天皇 was the 109th imperial ruler of Japan, reigning from December 22, 1629 to November 14, 1643. She was the 2nd daughter of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. Her mother was Tokugawa Kazuko, daughter of the 2nd shōgun, Tokugawa Hidetada. Her name was derived by combining the names of two previous empresses, Gemmei (707-715) and her daughter Genshō (715-724). She became Empress after her father; Emperor Go-Mizunoo suddenly abdicated in the Purple Clothes Incident. By her enthronement, she became the first woman to occupy the throne since Empress Shōtoku, who died in 769. During her reign, her father Emperor Go-Mizunoo ruled in her name. In 1643, she abdicated in favour of her younger half-brother, who became Emperor Go-Kōmyō.  Her personal name was Okiko and her title was Onna Kazu no miya. After her abdication, Meisho, lived in retirement for 53 years, having lived (1624-96).

  1629-30 Princess Regnant Katharina von Brandenburg of Transylvania (Hungary/Romania)
Became ruler after the death of her husband, Bethlen Gábor (or Gabriel), who was elected prince af the assassination of Báthori Gábor in 1613. A Protestant, though tolerant toward all religions, he had allied himself with the Protestant Frederick, the Winter King of Bohemia and overran Hungary in 1619 and was elected its king the following year. After Frederick’s defeat at the White Mountain, Gábor signed with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II the Treaty of Nikolsburg, by which he renounced the royal title but retained control of seven Hungarian counties and received the rank of prince of the empire. He continued his relations with the Protestant powers opposing the emperor in the Thirty Years War, but kept the interests of Transylvania paramount. He was a wise administrator and encouraged the development of law and learning. Katharina was succeeded by brother-in-law Istvan Bethlen, who died 1630. In Transylvania she was known as Brandenburgi Katalin, and lived (1602-44).

  1629-47 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliane Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufville of Reuss zu Obergreiz (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Heinrich IV Reuss zu Obergreiz (1597-1629), she was guardian for son, Heinrich I, who was raised to the status of Counts in 1673. His relative, Heinrich II von Reuss zu Schleiz was regent until 1637 and Heinrich III zu Schleiz until 1647 of the state which today is part of Thüringen. She lived (1602-53).

  1629-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Täschler of Heggbach (Germany)
Daughter of a Mayor of Ravensburg and former nurse, gatekeeper and prioress before her election. In 1632 the ladies of the chapter fled for the Swedish troops first to Waldsee and Biberach and then further into Switzerland. 1634 she was taken hostage in Ravensburg by Swedish troops together with the Abbess of Gutenzell and the Abbots of Weissenau and Schussenried and only released against a large ransom. In 1635 the first ladies returned, but Margaretha died of the plague, after having lived (1591-1635).

  1629-33 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Maria Manrique de Lara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a family of high nobility, descendants of the kings of Navarra, Viscounts of Narbona, Lords of Molina and later counts of Aguilar, which held high, state office and were very influential.

  1629-43 Reigning Lady Juliane von Nassau-Dillenburg of the Office and Castle of  Rotenburg in Rotenburg an der Fulda in Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
Took over her dowry after the abdication of her husband, Landgrave Moritz von Hessen-Kassel. Her oldest son, Wilhelm V, took over the landgravate, and the rest of her 14 children moved with her to Rotenburg. Her younger sons were given the Landgravates of Rhinfels, Eschwege etc. She lived (1587-1643).

  1629-31 Contra-Abbess Maria Klara Theresia von Wartenberg  of Herford (Germany)
In oppostition to the Princess-Abbess Magdalene II zur Lippe, who reigned 1621-40.

  1629-42 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Hansdatter of the County of Sællemarksgård with Samsø, Denmark
In charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Jakob Brun.

  1629-48 Politically Influential Vibeke Kruse in Denmark
Came into the service of Kirsten Ludvigsdatter Munk, the second wife of Christian 4, and later of Munk’s mother, Ellen Marsvin. The long-suffering relationship between the king and his wife ended in divorce and Christian and Vibeke had a son, Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve. She is known to have a large degree of influence on the King. He presented her with an estate in Holstein and a house in Copenhagen, but when he died, she was expelled from Rosenborg by Kirsten Munk’s son-in-law, Corfitz Ulfeldt, who also tried to initiate a court case against her. She died a few months later. (d. 1648).

  1630s Joint Reigning Princess Goshayah-biyche of The Karachai (Russia)
First reigned the Turkic people closely related to the Balkars together with Kamgut, then with Elbuzduk and finally with Giliaksan. The territory was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828 but they continued to resist Russian rule throughout the 19th century.

  Ca. 1630-ca. 60 Queen Nana Yita of Nsuta (Ghana)
Succeeded Queen Nana Ikuro and was succeeded by her son Nana Dansu Abeo. In 1701 Nsuta was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

  Ca. 1630 Queen Nana Aberewa Ampen of Dwaben (Ghana)
Followed on the throne by son, Nana Ampomben Afera.

  1630-52 Reigning Lady Anna Sophia von Anhalt zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt of the Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld and its villages (Germany)
Widow of Count Carl Günther zu Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, who acquired the Oberschloss zu Kranichfeld in 1620, and she reigned there after his death. They had no children and her brother-in-law, Anthon, inherited the county of Schwarzburg. Kranichfeld was divided in the Oberschloss and Niederburg and it meant that many streets, houses and even rooms were divided between the different overlords. Anna Sophia had the village given city rights in 1651. She was preoccupied with youth and education and she founded an Academy for women, she was a poet, philosopher, and lived (1584-1652).

  1630-70 Sovereign Princess Charlotte di Madruzzo of Valangin, Countess de Challant, Baroness de Bauffremont etc. (France)
The daughter of Gabriele Ferdinando, who died in 1630, she succeeded her brother, Carlo Enrico, 9th Barone di Madruzzo, Sovereign Prince of Valangin etc, who died the same year. She married Charles de Lenoncourt Marquis de Lenoncourt et Blainville, and lived (1602-70).

  1630-54 Princess-Abbess Adrienne II de Lannoy of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Member of an old and illustrious Belgian noble family, the Lords and Dames of Lannoy etc.

  1630-44 Princess-Abbess Katharina III Rueff of Baindt (Germany)
In May 1632 the Swedes attacked the Chapter for the first time, and most of the nuns escaped. In the autumn of 1635 seven of the nuns died of the plague within a few weeks. And in 1643 the chapter was looted three times.

  1630-31 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Lauridsdatter Brockenhuus of the County of with the Shire of Gudme, Salling, Sunds and Vinding, Denmark
Birgitte Brockehuus acted as administrator of the fief and local representative of the king after the death of her husband, Jakob Ulfeldt til Ulfeldsholm. They were parents of Corfitz Ulfeldt, Chancellor of the Realm etc. and husband of Leonora Christine, the daughter of King Christian 4.

  1630-63 Princess-Abbess Barbara Thumb of Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1632 the ladies of the Chapter fled the approaching Swedes and escaped to Steiermark. When the Swedes left in 1646, they put the Chapter on fire.

  1631-42 Regent Dowager Maharani Mata Karnavati Sahiba of Tehri Garhwal (India)
After her husband, Maharaja Mahipat Shah, was killed in battle she became regent for her son,  Maharaja Prithvi Pat Shah Sahib Bahadur. She became known as the ‘rani who chops off noses’ for her treatment of her vanquished foes, including the army sent against her by Shah Jahan.

  1631-81 Politically Influential Jahanara Begum Sahib of the Mughal Empire (India)
Eldest daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahall and is an example of a tradition of unmarried Princesses in the Mughal Dynasty. When her mother Mumtaz Mahall (Taj Mahall) died in 1631 giving birth to her 14th child,  Jahanara, became the uncrowned woman figure head, and her father’s fondness for her was reflected in the multiple titles he bestowed upon her, which include Sahibat al-Zamani, Mistress of the Age, and Padshah Begum, or Lady Emperor. Jahanara played an important role in the politics of the imperial family. This is seen through the instrumental position she held in the marriage arrangements of her three brothers. In addition she was politically active during the ‘War of Succession’ that took place at the end Shahjahan’s reign as emperor in 1658 when Azrangzib, Jahanara’s brother, challenged and eventually took power from Shahjahan. During the conflict Jahanara supported her father’s claim to the throne and cared for him during his forced imprisonment, which lasted until his death in 1666. Upon her father’s death, Jahanara emerged from fort Agra and was given a sizable monetary gift by Azrangzib. The title of Padishah Begum she was permitted to disobey Aurangzeb’s laws and criticize him. Jahanara composed many poems, painted, and honoured her father and mothers’ love of the arts, and lived (1614-81).

  1631-32 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Eskesdatter Brok of the County of Vestervig, Denmark
After her husband, Jørgen Skeel til Sostrup, died, Jytte Brok was in charge of the fief. He was Councillor of the Realm, owned a number of castles and estates, took part in the war of Kalmar and was Rigsmarsk – Chief Commander of the Armed Forces and Prime Minister in 1627. She lived (1595-1640).

  1631-42 Sovereign Countess Sophia Hedwig zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Spiegelberg (Germany)
1632-42 Regent Dowager Countess of Nassau in Diez (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Ernst Kasimir, Count of Nassau, Katzenelnbogen, Vianden and Diez, Baron of Dillenburg, Governor of Rhineberk, Lieutenant-governor of Gelderland and of Utrecht, Stadholder of Friesland 1620 and of Groningen and Drenthe in 1625, she took over the regency of Dietz and in 1633 she moved to the old middle-age borough, with little furniture and without any kind of luxury. She was in the middle of the 30-year war, with continuing warfare, troops moving through the country and lootings with damaged the county seriously. On top of it all came failed harvests, epidemics and famine. She developed into a forceful and brave ruler and she was able to hand over the power to her son, Hendrik Casimir, after he came of age in 1634, but he was in Friesland as Stadholder. After his death in 1640, her second son, Willem Frederik, became Stadholder of Friesland, and she again takes over the reigns in Dietz. She was very fat and of ill health. Only two of her nine children survived into adulthood, and she lived (1592-1642)

  1631-32 Princess-Abbess Josina Walburgis von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort  of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
Only 15 when she was elected to the post of sovereign of the Eccleastical territory after the death of her aunt, Anna von der Marck, in March. She had a secret relationship to Count Herman Frederik van den Bergh and in December she married him secretly and returned to Thorn. When her father, father, Johann Dietrich, Count von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort, heard about the wedding in 1632, he put her in the very strict Chapter of Rochefort, but after four years she escaped and was reunited with her husband. Her mother was Josina von der Marck, Countess of Rochefort from about 1613. They did not have any children. She lived (1615-83).

  1631-96 “Heiress” Vittoria della Rovere of Urbino (Italy)
Her father, Hereditary Duke Federico Ubaldo, was poisoned at the age 18 and when his father, Francesco Maria II, died in 1631 the duchy was re-incorporated to the Papal State. Vittoria inherited the vast personal inheritance of the family. She was married to Fernando II de’ Medici of Toscana (1610-21-70), and lived (1622-94).

  1632-54 Christina, by the Grace of God of Sweden’s, the Goths and Wends Queen, Grand Duchess of Finland, Duchess of Estonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, Pommeria, Cassuben and Wendia, Princess of Rügen and Mistress over Ingermanneland and Wissmar
1654-89 Lady of the Castle and City of Norrköpings, the Islands of Gotland, Öland and Ösel, Wolgast, a number of Estaes in Swedish Pomerania and Poel and Neukloster in Mecklenburg
When she succeeded her father Gustav II Adolf at the age of six, a regency under Axel Oxenstierna reigned until she assumed full royal power in 1644. Throughout her reign, she attempted to increase the authority of the Crown, and in this she was supported by the lower estates against the nobility and the Council of the Realm. The Thirty Years’ War, however, had led Sweden into an economic crisis that Christina was unable to resolve. Highly intelligent, she was interested in intellectual pursuits and was influenced by the French philosopher René Descartes, who lived in Stockholm in 1649-50. Christina never married, and in 1654 she abdicated in favour of her cousin Karl of the Pfalz and received a number of tenantcies, conties and estates for life. She moved to Rome and later announced that she had converted to Roman Catholicism and only visited Sweden 2 times. She lived (1626-89). 

  1632-44 Politically Active Dowager Queen Maria Eleonora zu Hohenzollern-Brandenburg of Sweden
Reigning Dowager Lady of Gripsholm, Tynnelsö, Räfsnäs, Eskilstunahus, Strömsholm, Fiholm, Örbyhus and the Estate of Gävleborgs and the Towns of Strängnäs, Mariefred, Torshälla and Gävle with 9 Shires with 65 Parishes
Engaged in disputes with the Regency-council for her daughter, Queen Kristina. 1636 her parental right to Kristina was taken away from here and she was taken to Gripsholms castle. 1640 she fled to Gotland where she got on board a Danish warship that took her to Denmark. In Denmark she became the guest of Christian 4 at Nykøbing Castle. Her intentions where to go to Germany, but as her brother refused to accept her she didn’t reach Brandenburg until her nephew Fredrik Wilhelm, which succeeded his father in 1640, gave his permission in 1644. But soon she started to long for Sweden again and after the Westphalian Peace she returned. Before she died in 1655 she had endured one last sorrow, her daughters’ abdication from the Swedish Throne. She lived (1599-1655).

  1632/33 Sultan Alimah I of Nzwani, Comoro Islands
Formerly known as Anjouan, an Island in the Mozambique Channel off northwest Madagascar between Mayotte and Njazídja in the Indian Ocean. The hilly island is only 424 square kilometres. 

  1632-47 Olangio to hoelialio Bumulo Raja To Huliyalio of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She succeeded her adopted father’s wife, Mbohelo. Bumlo was succeeded by husband, Tiduhula, who in 1677 was succeeded by sons Bia (d. 1680) and Walangadi I (d. 1718).

  1632-37 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes Reuss zu Gera of Mansfeld zu Heldrugen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Ernst Ludwig von Mansfeld, (1605-32), she became regent for son, Christoph Heinrich (1628-37) until his death. She was daughter of Heinrich II Reuss zu Plauen, Lord zu Lobenstein, Gera,  Herr zu Ober-Kranichfeld and his second wife n Magdalene von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1600-42).

  1632-46 Regent Dowager Archduchess Claudia de’ Medici of Tirol (Austria)
Her husband had been Governor of Tirol, but later became Prince of the Territory. After his death she reigned together with 5-person Council of Advisors for her minor son Archduke Ferdinand Karl von Habsburg of Austria (1628-32-62).  She was in charge of the government during the 30-year war, the Swedes threatened Tyrol and she had a defence-line built at the northern boarder, and she reorganised the army. She also promoted trade, cut spending, limited the state-depths, reintroduced law and order, tried to limit the persecution of witches. But she did not allow Protestants or other non-Catholics in the County; she wanted it to be a “holy land”. She lived (1604-48). 

  1632-1660 Dowager Reigning Lady Dowager Countess Anna Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt (Germany)
Widow of Wilhelm Heinrich von Bentheim-Steinfurt, and lived (1598-1660)

  1632-46 Princess-Abbess Anna Eleonora von Stauffen of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1645-46 Princess-Abbess of Essen (Germany)
Had been Dechantin or Decaness of Essen before she was elected Princess-Abbes of Thorn, and was the first to be elected sovereign of both territories. Both Chapters held a vote in the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle), and therefore held two votes in the regional assembly. She also had two votes in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench.

  1632-4.. County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Pax of the County of Kornerupgård, Denmark
Karen Pax was widow of Erik Madsen Vasspyd til Vinderup (d. 1615). She apparently (d. 1650).

  1632-38 Overseer of the Crown Lands Princess Anna Katarzyna Konstancja of Brodnica, Golub and Tuchola
The daughter of the monarch of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania, Sigismund III Vasa and Queen Konstancja Habsburżanka, she married Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine in 1642, and three years later they had a still-born son. She lived (1619-1651).

  1633-50 Sovereign Duchess Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency of  Montmorency and Dame de Saint-Liébault et d’Arvilliers (France)
Succeeded brother, Henri II, Duc de Montmorency et de Damville, Governor of Languedoc and Vice-Roy of New France, and married to Prince Henri II de Bourbon-Condé. She attracted the attention of King Henri IV and therefore she was send out of the country and her husband had to flee to escape the king’s fury. After Henri IV’s assassination they returned. She was mother of three children and lived (1594-1650).

  1633-79 Reigning Territorial Princess Maria Polissena Landi of Val di Taro con Val di Ceno (Valditaro), Marchioness di Bardi, Countess and Baroness di Compiano, Lady di Valdena, Bedonia etc. (Italy)
From 1578 to 1682 the principality consisted solely of the two jurisdictions of Bardi and Compiano, the only example of an “institutional territorial state” in Italy, the life of which, however, is crystallized on foundations antiquated by the imperial protection. All powers were in the hands of the lord, the Most Excellent Prince. 1627 her father Federico I Landi obtained imperial permission to let her succeed all the fiefs of the Consanguin House of Svevi and Genoese Princely family. 1630 was the year of the Manzonian plague and the golden era of the State of Bardi and Compiano was about to end. She was married to Pagano Giovanni Andrea II Doria, Principe di Melfi, Marchese di Torriglia, Santo Stefano d’Aveto, Ottone, Carrega, Garbagna, Cabella e Fontanarossa, Conte di Loano, etc., Viceroy of Sardinia (1607-40). 3 years after her death, the principality was incorporated into Parma. She lived (1608-1679).

  1633-36 and 1639-41 Reigning Abbess-General Catalina de Arellano y Zúñiga of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Probably related to Felipe Ramírez de Arellano, Conde de Aguilar, who was Viceroy of Navarra 1618-20.

  1634-49 Hereditary Sovereign Lady Anna Maria of Geroldseck und Sulz (Germany)
Heir to the large territory from her father, Jakob von Geroldseck und Sulz, who was the last male of the family. But conflict broke out between the Overlord, the Emperor of Austria, and the Margrave of Baden-Durlach. Austria occupied the territory and appointed Hermann von Cronberg as Lord, who had already been promised the post in 1620. Anna Maria’s mother was Elisabeth Schenkin vom Limburg and married Friedrich von Solms, and she lived (1593-1649).

  1634 Adatuang We Abeng of Sidenreng (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father Adatuang La Patiroi, but the same year her half-brother, La Makkaraka, took power in the Bugis state in South-Western Celebes/Sulawesi.

  1634-76 Princess-Abbess Anna Christiane Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau (Germany)
1646-47 the City of Lindau was under siege during the 30th Year War. Swedish troops tried to conquer the city, the citizen fought back. After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Imperial Troops left the city and the Confessional Independence of the City was confirmed – it remained Protestant. The Catholic Fürstäbtissin Anna Christiane was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.

  Until 1634 Feudal Baroness Isabella Filomarino Della Tolfa, Principessa del Principe della Rocca d’Aspro (Italy)
In 1634 she sold the feudal barony to Beatrice de Grevara.

  1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Hellum, Hindsted, Horns, Hvetbor, Kær and Hanherred, Denmark
Birgitte Lindenov was in charge following the death of her husband, Councillor of State Otte Christensen Skeel. She was employed at the court of Ane Cathrine von Brandenburg, and lived (1581-1648).

  1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Ide Hansdatter Lange of the County of Bøvling with the Shires Skodborg Len, Vandfuld, Hind and Ulvborg, Denmark
Ide Lange was widow of Jens Juul til Kjeldgård, Åbjerg og Nørre Vosborg. Former Governor of Norway and Councillor of the Realm. Died as she fell of a balcony. She lived (1584-1649).

  1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Christoffersdatter Krafse of the County of Stege Len with the two Shires of Møn
1653-55 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Hald, Denmark
Hilleborg Krafse til Ravnholt became acting administrator Stege after the death of her first husband, Henrik Holk til Raunholt, who was appointed Count of the Realm by the German Emperor and died of the plauge on the battlefield during the Thirtieth Year War. Later she was in charge of Hald after her second husband, Frands Pogwisch had died, who had been appointed County Sheriff of  Marie Kirkes Provsti in Oslo and Rakkestad Len in Norway at the time of their marriage in 1641 and he continued to be hold high positions at court. She lived (1600-61).

  1634-35 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe von der Lühe of the County of Ryfylke, Jøderen and Dalerne (Stavangers Len), Norway
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Brockenhuus til Sebber Kloster. She was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. She was daughter of Carl von der Lühe and Agathe von Oetzen, mother of 3 children, and lived (1590-1667).

  1635-88 Raja Ratu Kuning of Patani (Thailand)
Known as ‘The Yellow Queen’, she succeeded her mother Queen Raja Ungu as the last of four successive Queens. She was the last Queen that the Patani chronicles acknowledge as legitimate. European traders found Patani less attractive than some of its neighbours in the second half of the century, and consequently sources are scarce. From the reports deposed in Nagasaki by Chinese junk captains, however, we know that the system of queens continued at least into the 1690s, through two debilitating invasions by Siam in 1674 and 1688. The four queens were able rulers and they all survived several coup attempts amid a fluctuating political situation in the region. All the men who challenged their power were “dealt with” in different ways. Nobody knows what actually happened to them, but they were never seen again.

  Around 1635 Datu We Tan-ri Sui of Mario-ri Wawo (Indonesia)
Daughter of I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (1590- 1607) and her husband and successor La Tan-ri Ruwa Paduka Sri Sultan Adam (1607-08). She was married to La Pakkou To’ Angkone Taddampali, Prince of Bone and their son became Sultan and Arumpone of Bone in 1672, at a time when he had already succeeded her as Datu of Mario-ri Wawo. He lived (1635-96). It is not known when she lived. 

  1635-40 Regent Dowager Duchess Luisa Juliana von der Pfalz of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz  (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Herzog Johann II (1591-1604-35), she was in charge of the Duchy in the name of her son, Friedrich. Her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Louise Juliana, Pfalzgräfin v.d. Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was Äbtissin zu Herford 1649-67. She was daughter of Elector Friedrich IV. von der Pfalz and Louise Juliane van Oranje-Nasau, who was regent from 1610, and lived (1594-1640).

  1635-54 Joint Reigning Princess Anna Alojza  z Ostrogskich Chodkiewicz of Jarosław and Ostróg (Ukraine and Poland)
When her mother, Anna Ostrogska died, she inherited the town and domains jointly with her sister, Katarzyna Zamoyska and her 3 sons, since their father, Alexander, had died in 1603. But it was her who was the actual ruler of the area. At the age of 20 she had been married to the 60-year-old Lithuanian Jan Karol Chodkiewicz who died within a year and never remarried. She lived a highly ascetic life and lived (1600-54).

  1635-42 Joint Reigning Princess Katarzyna z Ostrogskich Zamoyska of Jarosław and Ostróg (Ukraine and Poland)
She and her 3 sons inherited the town and domains jointly with her sister, Anna Alojza Chodkiewicz. She (d. 1642).

  1635-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowger Duchess Anne Sabine von Holstein-Sonderburg of Leonberg in Württemberg (Germany)
Also known as Anna Sabina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön, she was widow of Duke-Administrator Julius Friedrich von Württemberg in Juliusburg (1588-1635) and held the castle and landscape as her dowry. She was daughter of Johann, Duke von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (son of king Christian 3 of Denmark) and Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt-Zerbst, mother of 8 children, and lived (1593-1659).

  1635-36 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter  Friis of the County of Århusgård with the Shires of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisberg, Denmark
Anne Friis was the second wife of Laurids Hansen Lindenov til Oregård (1583-1635), a former courtier. She did not have any children, and lived (1587-1656).

  1636-43 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Wildungen of Lippe-Detmold (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Simon Ludwig, she claimed the regency for her Simon Philipp (1632-36-50), but since she was only 24 and therefore not fully of age (25 years). She aspired to have her father, Christian von Waldeck named Co-Guardian or Contutor – he had already been regent for her husband. Her claims were supported by the courts and Imperial decrees, but her brothers-in-law ignored her rights and were de-facto in charge of the regency. As she feared that her sons were in danger of being taken away from her, she made contact with some troops from Hessen-Darmstadt, who secured the children and placed them under the protection of Landgrave Georg II. von Hessen-Darmstadt. Her brother-in-law Johann Bernhard made plans to divide the county between him and another brother, but this alienated the Land-states who were now on Katharina’s side. In 1640 Imperial troops attacked the Castle of Detmold, and disarmed her brothers-in-law, and took up negotiations with her. 10 years later her son died without heirs, and her brother-in-law finally inherited the county two years before his death. His brother Hermann Adolf succeeded him. Katharina lived (1612-49).

  1636-37 Designate Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Eleonora Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Germany)
Third wife of Johann Albrecht II and gave birth to his first surviving son, Gustav Adolf, in 1633. He named her, as regent and guardian in his will, jointly with the reformed Elector Kurfürst Georg Wilhelm von Brandenburg. Johann Albrecht wanted his son to be raised in the Calvinist faith, but the Lutheran duke Adolf Friedrich von Mecklenburg-Schwerin protested. He demanded that she withdrew to her dowry in Strelitz and left the child with him. At the funeral the present princes tried to mediate but failed, she refused to close her Calvinist chapel. Her opponents tried to oust her from the castle with all means. Adolf Friedrich kidnapped his nephew from the Castle of Güstrow and raised him with his own children in the Lutheran faith in Bützow, and he also took over the guardianship of Güstrow. She appealed at the Emperor tried to find support in Sweden. Even though Adolf Friedrich harassed her, she did not move to her dowry until 1644, and from then on her 11-year-old son lived at Güstrow Castle. At the same time the Swedish, Imperial and Prussian troops crossed through Mecklenburg several times, causing much looting and hardship. Also mother of three daughters, she lived (1600-57).

  1636-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Scholastica Erberhard of Heggbach (Germany)
Elected Abbess by the ladies of the chapter in exile in Feldbach in Thurgau, where they had fled for the Swedes. But they soon returned and continued their life in the territory. 1644 she wrote to Emperor Ferdinand III asking for a moratorium against the creditors, this was granted and the depths were cancelled, but still the finances remained limited and it took years to rebuild the convent.

  1636-41 Princess-Abbess Maria Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Her election as successor of her half-sister, Magalena, took place in Liège where the 13 canonesses and 3 canons had fled for the plauge. She accepted 21 articles set up by the ladies of the chapter to limit her powers, and the situation was still insecure because of wars and epedemics. She was daughter of Gottfried, Herr zu Üttingen, Wolmeringen, Ennery, Clervaux und Kumeringen and Elizabeth de Heu, and lived (1581-1641).

  1636-39 Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena Enríquez Manrique de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The various branches of the Mandrique family held many Duchal and Countly titles.

  1636-41 Reigning Abbess Gertrud Giel von Gielsberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The whole complex was almost totally destroyed during the 30 Year War (1618-48). She was daughter of Jörg Christoph Giel von Gielsberg and Anna Katharina von Bernhausen from Swabia.

  1637-38 and 1638-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Marie-Chrétienne de France of Savoia and Piedmont (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Victor Amadeus I (1630-37), she was regent for two sons, Francesco Giacinto (d. 1638) and Carlo Emanuele II. Civil war erupted between her and her brother-in-law, Thomas from 1639-42. Until the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, France remained a threat to Savoy.
As Princess of France her official title was Madame Royale. She lived (1606-63).

  1637-50 Regent Dowager Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münzenberg of Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1643-51 Lady of the Administrative Office of Schwarzenfels in Hanau
Even though she was with her husband Wilhelm V in Ostfriesland when he died, she was immediately named regent for their son Wilhelm VI and was in control in spite of the fact that she did not return to the Landgravate until 1640 because of the upheavals during the Thirty Years War. She was an able ruler and managed add new territory to the state. She made a truce with the emperor but formed an alliance with France and became a leading force in the Protestant Group during the warfare. As regent she chaired the Councils of Regency almost daily, she chaired various Local Diets (Landtags), which she called when she felt the need for it. She was daughter of Count Philipp Ludwig II von Hanau–Münzenberg, and after the death of the last of Münzenberg line she claimed her rights on the basis of a inheritance-treaty from 1643, and received the Office of Schwarzenfels as security and handed over the territory as her own property. She was mother of several children and lived (1602-51).

  1637-48 Stadholder Countess Ursula von Solms-Braunfels of the Principality of Orange (France)
Appointed to the post after the death of her husband, Christoph, Burgrave and Lord zu Dohna-Schlobitten, who had been an Aide of the Princes of Anhalt-Köthen, Advisor of Elector Friederich V. von der Pfalz, the Winter-king of Bohemia, before he was appointed Governor of Oranje in 1630 by her brother-in-law, Friedrich Heinrich of Orange-Nassau, Stattholder of the Netherlands, who was married to her sister, the politically influential Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels. She was followed on the post by her son Friedrich (1621-48-60-88). The daughter of Count Johann Albrecht I von Solms-Braunfels in Braunfels and Gambit and Countess Agnes zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, she lived (1594-1657).

  1637-47 Governor Ludowika Maria Gonzaga of Nivernais (France)
1649-67 De Facto Co-Ruler Queen of Poland
1655-67 Sovereign Duchess of Opole and Racibórz
Very political influential and de facto co-ruler after her marriage to Władysław IV Waza (1595-1632-48) and during the reign of his younger brother, king Jan II Kazimierz Waza (1609-48-68). Maria Ludvica Gonzaga, Princess of Mantua, was also known as Marie-Louise de Gonzague, and lived (1611–67).

  1637-38 Regent Dowager Empress Eleonora Gonzaga of Austria
Third wife of Ferdinand II of Austria and after his death; she acted as regent for stepson Ferdinand III, who was participating in the Thirty Years War. She established Carmelite convents in both Graz and Vienna. The daughter of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga of Mantua) and Eleonora de Medici, she did not have any children of her own, and lived (1598-1655).

  1637-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Schleswig-Hostein-Sønderborg-Plön of The Castle and Administrative Unit of Rügenwalde in Pommern (Germany)
At the day of her marriage to Bogislaw XIV, who was the last Duke of Pommern-Stettin (1620-25) and Duke of Pommern (1625-37) and Evangelican Bishop of Cammin (1623-37) he transferred the Schloss and Amt (or Bezierk) von Rügenwalde to her for life. Her husband was a weak ruler, entangled in the chaos of the Thirty Years War. As his brothers and cousins died, he inherited all of Pommern but the united duchies did not have an united administration. In 1633 he suffered a stroke and until his death 4 years later, the Duchy was conducted by a Council of Regency. Her sister, Anna, was the second wife of Bogislaw’s father and her sister, Sophia was the wife of her brother-in-law, Philipp II, and as her sisters, and she did not have any children. Elisabeth lived (1580-1653).

  1637-46 Politically Influential Empress Maria Anna de Austria of The Holy Roman Empire
Already by the time of her marriage to Archduke Ferdinand, she became very influential at court. In 1637 he succeeded his father as Emperor Ferdinand III, and she became involved in politics and was his closest aide. During the Thirty Years War, the imperial family moved to Linz, and here she died of poisoning during her last pregnancy, her daughter was still alive, and was born by a caesarean, but died soon after. Maria Anne was daughter of Felip III of Spain and Archduchess Margarete of Austria, and lived (1606-46). 

  1637-44 Politically Influential Queen Cecilia Renata von Habsburg of Poland 
1638-44 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica, Golub and Tuchola
Influential during the reign of her husband, king Władysław IV Zygmunt Waza (Vladislav IV Vasa) (1595-1632-48). Her son Zygmunt Kazimierz died in 1647 aged 7 and her only daughter Maria Anna Isabella, died one month after her birth in 1642. After Cecilia Renate’s death her husband married Maria Ludovica Gonzaga (1611-67). The daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II von Habsburg, Count of Tyrol, Archduke von Steyer and King of Bohemia and Anna-Maria von Bayern, and lived (1611-44).  

  1637-70 Reigning Abbess Jeanne-Baptiste de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
At the age of 10 she entered the Abbey of Chelles and Louise de Bourbon-Lavedan appointed her as coadjutrice at the age of 16, but she did not take over the position until she was 25. She reigned with absolute “souverainty” and her direct dependence on the Pope in Rome allowed her to act autonomously from the church in France.  In 1641 she obtained royal letters confirming the reform and finally quashing the claims of the monks, who sought to organize themselves independently of the authority of the abbess. The following year the Rule approved by Sixtus IV was printed at Paris, but in 1658, the Sacred Congregation of Rites categorically condemned that she of her own authority, obliged the monks and nuns of her obedience to recite offices, say Masses, and observe rites and ceremonies which had never been sanctioned or approved of by Rome. She was the legitimized daughter of king Henri IV and Charlotte des Essarts, and her full sister; Marie Henriette de Bourbon (1609-29) was Abbess of Chelles. She lived (1608-70).

  1637-81 Territorial Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini (Junior) of Rossano (Italy)
Daughter of Jorge Aldobrandini (1591-1637) and Hipólita Lodovisi, she succeeded her grand mother, Olimpia Senior.  First married to Paolo Borghese and after his death to Camillo Pamphilj (Panfili) (1622-66), the nephew of Pope Innocenzo X and son of another heiress, Olimpia Maidalchini. The Aldobrandini family’s wide domain enjoyed a great artistic and urban growth, and they maintained their dukedom until 1816, when Pope Pius VI abolished feudalism. Mother of 5 children, she lived (1623-81).

  1637-44 Feudal Duchess Anna Carafa de Stigliano-Gonzaga of Sababioneta (Italy)
Succeeded by grandmother, Donna Isabella, and was married to Duc de Medinas de Torres, Don Ricardo de Guzmán.

  1638-50 Regent Dowager Landgravine Margareta Elisabetha von Leiningen-Westerburg-Schaumburg of Hessen-Homburg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Friedrich I (1585-1622-38), she took over the regency for son, Wilhelm Christoph Landgraf zu Bingenheim (1625-81). She asked her brother-in-law, Philipp von Hessen-Butzbach (1581-1661) to act as joint regent, but he refused with reference to his high age, and the fact that he had already acted as regent for his nephew, Georg II von Hessen-Darmstadt from 1621. She was mother of 6 children, and lived (1604-67).

  1638-41 Regent Dowager Countess Sibylle Christine von Anhalt-Dessau of Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)
1641-47 and 1585-86 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle of Steinau in Steinau an der Straße
In charge of the government from the time of death of her husband, Philipp Moritz, until the death of her only surviving child Philipp Ludwig III, after which she took charge of her dowry. The county was first inherited by Johann Ernst von Hanau-Münzenberg-Schwarzenfels, who died the following year. As widow she had substantial financial claims to the county, which was in economic difficulties because of the 30 Year War, and therefore she was married off to the next heir, Friedrich Casimir von Hanau-Lichtenberg (1623-85) in 1647 after he had come of age. The couple was in various disputes during their marriage, one of the reason was that she was Reformed – like the inhabitants in Münzenberg – and he belonged to the Lutheran Faith. She lived  (1603-86 ).

  1638-45 Regent Dowager Countess Ernestine de Ligne of Nassau-Siegen (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Johann VIII of Nassau-Siegen, Marchese di Monte Caballo, (1583-1638), she reigned in the name of their son, Johann Franz Desideratus, who was created Fürst of Nassau-Siegen, in 1652. He lived (1627-99). In 1650 she signed the treaty re-establishing the Chapter of Keppel, which was governed by a Princess-Abbess but under the sovereignty of Nassau with the titulature “ihre fürstliche Gnaden, die fraw Princessin Ernestine de Ligne und des Reichs verwittibte grävin zu Nassau Siegen”. She lived (1594-1663).

  1638 Temporary Administrator Konstancja Ligęza of Rzeszów (Poland)
In charge of the domain after the death of her father, Castellan Mikołaj Spytek Ligęza until her marriage to Grand Marshal and Hetman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski. Her mother was Zofia Krasińska, the daughter of starost and voivod Stanisław Krasiński, and she (d. 1648).

  1638-75 Sovereign Duchess Marie Madeleine de Vignerot of Aiguillon (France)
1649-61 Governor of Le Havre
The niece of the Cardinal Richelieu, as daughter of his sister Françoise (d. 1615) who was René Vignerot, Seigneur de Pont-Courlay (d. 1625). She was a renowned cultural personality of her times and her Salon was famous. Succeeded by niece Marie-Thérèse Vignerot, and lived (1604-1675).

  1638-52 Princess-Abbess Maria von Ramschwag of Schänis (Switzerland)
In her role as Kollatorin – her right to appoint the local clergy – she confirmed the earlier decisions taken about the church of Amden in 1642 and had to flee for the Sweds in 1647. She was daughter of Kasper von Ramschwag, Steward of Gutenberg and Sophia von Kippenheim, and lived (1579-1652).

  1638-44 Abbess Nullius Barbara Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
As every newly appointed Abbess of Conversano, she received public “homage” of her clergy after her appointment, – the ceremony of which was sufficiently elaborate. The clergy, in a body repaired to the abbey; at the great gate of her monastery, the Abbess, with mitre and corsier, sat enthroned under a canopy, and as each member of the clergy passed before her, he made his obeisance, and kissed her hand.

  1638-55 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de la Trémoille of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Former Coadjutrice and Abbess of another chapter. She continued the work of reform striving to revive a real “spirit of community” re-establishing, enclosure, poverty, silence, as well as morning and evening meditation in the monastery now numbering 120 religious.

  1638-71 Sovereign Marchioness Maria Elisabeth II van den Bergh ‘s-Heerenberg of Bergen op Zoom, Countess of Walhain and ‘s-Heerenberg (The Netherlands)
Given the Marchionate as a fief from in 1635, three years after her aunt, Maria Elisabeth I, died, but she was not able to take the fief into possession until after the Peace of Munster in 1648. Her aunt’s widower, Albert, Count van den Bergh, had claimed the succession of his wife, and he was given the Marchionate as a fief by the king of Spain in 1641, and not until 1650 did he give up his claims, after she gave up her claims to the County of Bergh. Maria Elisabeth II ruled jointly with husband, Fürst Eitel Friedrich zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen until his death in 1661. She was succeeded by daughter, Franziska Henrica, and lived (1613-71). 

  1639 Queen Regnant Soanaomby of Antakarana (Madagascar)
She was the elder daughter of the king Kozobe or Kazobe, who had succeeded the founder of the Sakalava Kingdom , Queen Ambary in 1609. After his death she ruled with her son, Andriamaitso (he ruled 1639-1689).

  Until before 1639 Lieutenant-Governor Mary Colles of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
In charge of the island sometime during the 1630ies. John Chamberlain had been given the lease by Queen Elizabeth I in 1584 after his brother George got involved with the faction supporting Mary, Queen of Scots. He started the hereditary rule of the Chamberlain family that lasted until 1640, through several vicissitudes, mainly caused by the family’s Catholic faith; disputes with the islanders; and a temporary holding of the lease by Elizabeth’s favourite, the Earl of Essex from 1591. John Colles followed her on the post around 1639.

  1639 Acting County Sheriff Berte Nielsdatter Friis of Riberhus with Gjørding, Skads and Veser Herred, Denmark
Berte Friis was widow of Albert Skeel til Hegnet, Fusingø, Holbækgård, Katholm ,Hessel og Lergrav, who held many high positions in the state administration and army. They had 8 children, and she. She lived (1583-1652).

  1639-40 Overseer of the Crown Lands Urszula Grudzińska of Szadek, Poland
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  Around 1639 Reigning Princess Giovanna Agliavia Aragona Cortes of Castevetrano, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Duchess of Terranova, Marchioness of Avola and Valle Oaxaca and Countess of Borghetto and Priego  (Italy)
Also Grandee of Spain (noble) and married Ettore Pignatelli, Duke of Monteleone and Count of Borrello.

 

thre end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Penguasa Wanita di dunia 1550-1600

WOMEN IN POWER 
1540-1570

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  154.. County Sheriff Gertrud Tønnesdatter Parsberg of Annisegård
Gertrud Parsberg held the tenantcy as security for lones in a period of 9 years. She was widow of Johan Bjørnsen Bjørn (d. 1534). She (d. 1552).

  1540-41 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella Jagiello of Poland of Hungary
1541-51 and 1556-59 Regent of Transylvania and Siebenbürgen (Hungary)
1551-56 Sovereign Duchess of Troppau and Opelln in Slesia (Germany-Poland)
Her husband King János I Szapolyai (or Zápolya)of Hungary (1526-40) died two weeks before  the birth of their son Janos II Zigismund Zapolyta (1540-71), and she began her struggle to keep the Hungarian throne as a widow queen and the guardian of her son, who was elected electus rex in the meantime. After the reoccupation of Buda in 1541, she had to go to Transylvania on the order of the Sultan, where she reigned over the territories under her authority. However, the real governor was György Martinuzzi. In the summer of 1551 she left Transylvania, which fell into the hands of Ferdinand Habsburg in accordance with the treaty of Nyírbátor, and handed over the insignia of the Kingdom to Ferdinand in exchange for Opelln and Troppau in Slesia. By the request of the Hungarian nobles, she returned to the country together with her son and her advisor, Mihály Csáky, in autumn 1556. After this she set up her Transylvanian chancellery with the help of Mihály Csáky, and the new state started to function, and she ruled until her death. She was daughter of Sigismund I of Poland, and mother Bona Sforza, she lived (1519-59).

  1540-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg (Germany)
1540-58 Reigning Dowager Lady of Münden
After a few years as the second wife of Duke Erich I (1470-1540), she converted to Protestantism, promoted the Calvinist faith, and forced her husband to have his mistress, Anna Rumschottle, burned as a witch. She held the regency jointly with Philipp von Hessen for son Erich II, and introduced Protestantism to the state during her reign. One year after her son took over the government she married Count Poppo XII. zu Henneberg in Thüringen (1513-1574) and continued to reign in her Dowry Münden, but in 1555 she moved to Henneberg. The daughter of Kurfürst Joachim I. and Elisabeth of Denmark (1485-1555), she was mother of a son and three daughters by her first husband and lived (1510-58).

  1540-61 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Ostfriesland (Germany)
Widow of Enno II Cirksena and regent for three minor sons Edzard II (1532-40-93), Christoph (1536-66) and Johann (1538-91). Anna’s government was supported by the States and favoured a bi-confessional co-existence system. Personally she was in favour of the reformation, but she remained neutral because the nobility was split more or less fifty-fifty between Lutheranism and  “Zwinglianismus”. She also tolerated both Catholics and Spiritualists, and it was only after pressure from the Emperor that she banned the Mennonites (Baptists) in 1549. She concentrated on consolidating the territory and used her diplomatic skills and will to compromise. Her most important advisor was her brother, Christoph von Oldenburg. In 1558 she decided that her three sons should govern the territory jointly after her regency was over, as a way to limit the influence of the House of Vasa after the marriage of Edzard to Princess Katharina of Sweden. She lived (1501-75).

  1540Sovereign Princess Anne de Rohan-Caboët of Rohan, Porhoët and León (France)
Married to her cousin, Pierre II de Rohan, Seigneur de Fontenay, who became Duke of Rohan after their marriage.  

  1540-92 Sovereign Countess Louise de Clermont-Tallard of Tonnerre (France)
Succeeded mother, Anne de Husson, who reigned from 1537, and mamaged to buy the remaining parts of the County from the other heirs. She was brought up with the royal children, was Maiden-of-honor to Louise de Savoie, and a close confidante of Catherine de’ Medici and became influential during the latters regency and among other served as go-between for Catherine de’ Medici and Elizabeth I of England during one of the many attempts to negotiate the marriage to one of the royal sons of France. She was first married François Du Bellay and had a son, Henri (1540-54) and 1556, she married Antoine de Crussol, enabling him to raise the title of Baron of Uzès to that of count, then duke in 1565 and peer in 1572. Succeeded by nephew and lived (1496-1592).

  Ca. 1540-69 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Brosse of Penthièvre (France)
Her father, René de Brosse, was killed in Italy in 1525. She was married Francois II of Luxembourg. Her son, Sébastien de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl, got the title of Duke of Penthièvre, and was succeeded by daughter Marie in 1579. 

  1540-59 Politically Influential Empress Sabla Wangal of Ethiopia
Widow of emperor Lebna Dengel [or Wanag Sagad or Dawit II] and the political advisor of her son Galawdewos [Atsnaf Sagad I]. Also known as Seble Uengel, she was the daughter of a father from northern Tigre and a mother from Simien (d. 1568). 

  1540-59 Politically Influential Princess Ameta Giyorgis of Ethiopia
Influential during the reign of her brother, Gelawdenos. Daughter of Emperor Lebna Dengel.

  1540-56 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
At the time of her election, the economic situation of the convent was very bad, and she was preoccupied with the restoration. At the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1542, she voted just after the Prelates and the Abbess of Rottenmünster. Two years later she was represented by Mr. Weingarten and Mr. Marchtal. The same year she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) and in 1555 she was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia.She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Anna von Zweibrücken, and her sister, Sibylle, had been Princess-Abbess of Essen since 1533.

  1540-45 County Sheriff Anne Arvidsdatter Trolle of the Counties of Åsum and Elleholm (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1540-41 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge
Anne Trolle was widow of Axel Eriksen Urup til Ugerup, who was Lensmand or County Sheriff of Sölvesborg etc. until his death. After his death she was in charge of the two fiefs in Skåne, which was incorporated in Sweden in 1658.

  1540-41 Acting County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Åstrup with the Shires of Vennebjerg and Jerslev, Denmark
Anne Friis was the second wife of Ove Vincentsen Lunge, who had 3 daughters with his first wife, Karen Rosenkrantz and 8 children by her. She (d.

  1540 Acting County Sheriff Christine Johansdatter Urne of the County of Amtofte, Denmark
Kristine or Christine Urne was widow of Iver Hansen Skeel til Palsgård and Nygård. She (d. after 1545).

  1540-55 County Sheriff Berte Eggertsdatter Ulfeldt of Herrested Birk, Denmark
Beate or Berte Ulfeldt was widow of Niels Evertsen Bild til Ranvholt, who had the tenantcy granted with the specification that she would keep it for 5 years after his death, and for their children 5 years after her death. She lived (d. 1555).

  1541 Governor Beatriz de la Cueva de Alvarado of Guatemala (Spanish Colony)
After the death of her husband, Pedro de Alvarado, she manoeuvred her own election and became the
only woman to govern a major American political division in Spanish times. A young and ambitious woman who styled herself the Hapless One (La Sin Ventura), she was drowned a few weeks after assuming office in the destruction of Ciudad Vieja by a sudden flood from the volcano Agua. She was succeeded by brother, Francesco de la Cueva y Villacreces, Governor 1540-41 and 1541-42.

  1541-50 Regent Dowager Marchioness Jacoba de Croÿ of Bergen-op- Zoom (The Netherlands)
In charge of the margravate after the death of her husband, Antoon, who was lord from 1532 and Marquess from 1533. Her son Jan IV van Glymes took over as regent in 1550 at the age of 22. Jacoba (d. 1559).

  1541-61 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein in Sachsen (Germany)
An early supporter of Martin Luther, she was in opposition to her brother-in-law, Duke Georg of Mecklenburg, who tried to bribe her to remain Catholic. Her husband, Heinrich von Sachsen-Freiberg, at first suppressed Lutheranism, but Freiberg became Lutheran. After Gerorg’s death in 1539 they moved to Dresden and introduced the reformation here. Heinrich died in 1551, and she spent the rest of her life in her dowry, the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein. She was mother of six children, and lived (1477-1561).

  1541-42 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Vesterherred, Denmark
Sidsel Rosenkrantz was widow of Erik Krumedige. She (d. 1557).

  1541-51 Acting County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Rosenkrantz of Båstad in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Rosenkrantz was widow of Tyge Krabbe who held it as security for lones to King Frederik I. Her son-in-law, Peder Skram paid it off. She lived (ca. 1490-1551).

  Until 1541 Acting County Sheriff Elline Corfitzdatter Rønnov of Askimne in Halland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Ellen or Elline Rønnow was widow of Claus Ågesen Thott til Hjuleberga (d. ca. 1522). She held a number of separate estates 1523-24. She (d. before 1544).

   1541 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Handatter Holck of the County of Ellinge, Denmarik
Kirsten Holck til Barritskov was first married Peder Lauridsen Baden and follwed him as holder of the bishoply tenantcy. (Bispelensmand) Her second husband was Steen Brahe til Knudstrup. She (d. ca. 1599).

  1541-44 County Sheriff Dorthe Hennekesdatter Sehested of Ellinge Bispelen and the County of Årupgård, Denmark
Dorthe Sehested was daughter of Hennk Sehested, who had not been Lensmand of the tenantcy (Bispelensmand). She first married Otto Drewe, then Mikkel Grape and finally Mogens Kaas til Brendore. (d. 1579).

  1541-69 County Sheriff Susanne Eilersdatter Bølle of Marup Len
1563-65 Acting County Sheriff of Stege Len
Susanne Bølle was daughter of Eiler Bølle (d. 1534) and Anne Bildsdatter (Bild) til Hellerup and inherited Nakkebølle around 1534, she was first married to Claus Eriksen (Ravensberg) (d. 1541) secondly to Claus Eriksen Ravensberg til Kindholm and finally to Jacob Brockenhuus, and was in charge of the fief during her husband, admiral Jakob Brokenhuus’ imprisonment in Sweden. She (d. 1569).

  1542-67 Princess-Abbess Maria von Hohenlandenberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The chapter was founded in 1230, started the process of independence in 1417 and in around 1521 the Abbess achieved the rank of Princess of the Realm.

  1542-51 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Holmekloster, Denmark
1560-63 and 1563-70 County Sheriff of the COunty of Lister, Norway
Sophie Lykke was married to Councillor of the Realm, Jacob Hardenberg, who died 1542. Thereafter she administered the possessions of her three young daughters together with her own lands. She was very unpopular. Her peasants protested to the king against her, and in 1557 she was convicted of illegally selling cattle. In 1560 she was given Lister Len as security for a lone, and moved to Norway. Also here the peasants complained against her, and she broke the ban against exporting timber abroad, and she lost the fief, but managed to get it back later the same year, because of her good connections. She lived (Ca. 1510-70).

  1542-44 County Sheriff Maren Christiansdatter Spend of the County of Oksvang, Denmark
Maren Spend was widow of Hans Lange Munk, who had died already in 1535.

  Around 1542-.. County Sheriff Birgitte Iversdatter Dyre of the County of Thodbøl, Denmark
Birgitte Dyre was widow of Enevold Stykke, who had been granted the tenantcy by Bishop Niels Stykke. She bought the estate in 1544, and lived (ca. 1510-after 72).

  1542-64 County Sheriff Ermegaard Andersdatter Bille of Øster Velling Birk
1563-64 County Sheriff of Viskumsgård with Synderlyng Herred, Denmark
Ermegaard Bille was widow Jørgen Podebusk. She paid off the other heirs and was granted Østervelling for life, and held Viskumsgård as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. 1564).

  1542-71 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Markvardsdatter Buchwald of Harridslevgård, Denmark
Catharine Buchwald was ppointed jointly with husband, Jørgen Svave. They both (d. 1571).

  1542-69 Influential International Banker Gracia Mendes Nasi in Europe and the Ottoman Empire
Also known by her Christianized name Beatrice de Luna Miques, she inherited the enormous Mendes fortune after the death of her brother-in-law, Diego in 1542, whom she had joined in Antwerpen after the death of her husband, Francisco whose wealthy Spanish Jewish banking family had also fled the Inquisition and settled in Portugal. She then took over the management of the international banking empire and continued using the family’s contacts and resources to help Jews escape the Inquisition, and this meant that she and her remaining family were constantly in danger. Over the next 11 years, she moved across Europe with her daughter, her sister, and her daughter- and son-in-law, travelling from Antwerp through France, Italy, and Turkey. The Inquisition pursued them, local rulers relentlessly crying heresy and attempting to confiscate their fortune. With diplomacy, shrewdness, and business acumen, she managed to escape each assault and continue building the family business. She and her family finally reached Turkey in 1553, where they settled near Constantinople. In 1558 she leased Tiberias, in Palestine, from Sultan Suleiman, for a yearly fee of 1000 ducats and, in 1561, her nephew and son-in-law, Joseph Nasi obtained ruling authority over Tiberias and Safed, developing major new centres of Jewish settlement.. She lived (1510-1569).

  1543-52 Regent Dowager Sultana Bat’ial Dël Wanbara of Harrar (Ethiopia)
Also known as Bati Del Wambara she was ruled the territory after her husband, Imam Ahmad died in battle. She reigned jointly with ‘Ali Jarad. She had accompanied her husband on his expeditions of conquest in the Christian highlands. At times she had to be carried on their shoulders up and down steep and rocky mountain slopes, twice in a state of pregnancy. She gave birth to Muhammad in 1531 and Ahmad two years later. After the defeat and death of her husband and the capture of her young son Muhammad, she fled to the northwest of Lake Tana, and eventually succeeded in returning to Harar, then at the centre of Adal power. Her first task was to make arrangements for the exchange of her eldest son Muhammad for Emperor Galawdewo’s brother, Minas. Del Wanbara was determined to revenge her husband’s death and, nine years later, agreed to marry the Emir of Harar, Nur Ibn Mujahid, son of her first husband’s sister, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim. Emir Nur began by rebuilding Harar, which had been sacked, and enclosed the town with a wall, which can be seen to this day. Having reorganized his forces, he undertook a new conquest of the Christian highlands and, in 1559, killed Emperor Galawdewos in battle. She was daughterof Imam Mehefuz, governor of Zayla and de facto ruler of the state of Adal. She married Imam Ahmad and, ignoring the protests of his soldiers.

  1543-56 Politically Active Guardian Dowager Duchess Emilie von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Also known as Aemilie, and after the death of her husband, Georg the Pious, she was guardian of their son, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who reigned under the regency of the Electors of Brandenburg and Sachsen and Landgrave of Hessen until 1556. She gave him a good scientific and humanistic education. She must have spend the rest of her life administering her dowry lands, but I have found no specific informations about this. She lived (1516-91).

 

1543-66Princess-Abbess Amalia von Leisser of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family.


  1543-49 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Hausen of Säckingen (Germany)
The last known decree from her is from 1547 and according to legent she tried to eleope in order to marry Thomas Leimer, former Diacon of Schpfheim, but instead she was kept prisoner and resigned 1549, but remained in the chapter until she bought her freedom in 1558 and moved to Basel. She had entered the chapter together with her sister Genoveva in 1514 and lost her position temporarily in 1524 because of her Protestant sympaties. Daughter of Sixt von Hausen and Sigone von Freiberg.

  1543-83 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon de Vendôme of Chelles (France)
The daughter of Charles de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme et de Françoise d’Alençon de Beaumont, she lived (1527-83).

  1543-59 Reigning Abbess Louise de Longwy-Givny of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded her aunt, Madeleine d’Orléans. Daughter of Jean de Longwy-Givny, Seigneur de Givny etc. and Jeanne d’Orléans, the daughter of Charles d’Angoulême and Jeanne de Polignac.

  1544 Governor of the Realm Queen Katherine Parr of England (United Kingdom)
Very learned and inclined towards the reformed doctrines and successfully interceded for many so-called ‘heretics,’ who would otherwise have suffered death. She also induced Henry VII, her third husband, to restore, to Royal rank, the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth whose legitimacy his remarkable matrimonial arrangements had left in doubt. Henry named Catherine as Regent when he designed an expedition to France in 1544. Her main functions, in the last two years of her husband’s reign, were those of his nurse as he suffered agonies of pain from an ulcer in his leg. After his death in 1547, she married Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudley, and died giving birth her first child, named Mary, the year after. She lived (1512-48).

  1544-60 Governor Brites de Albuquerque of Pernambuco (Brazil)
Widow of Duarte Coelho Periera (1534-44) and succeeded by son Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque, who was governor for the Portuguese King (1560-72).

  Around 1544 Datuk Lampe Ellong of Supa (Indonesia)
Granddaughter of Dom Joao, and sucessor of her father, married La Cellamata and was succeeded by Princess Tosappae.

  1544-68 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite IV d’Haraucourt dite d’Ubexy of Remiremont (France)
Around 1520 Madeleine de Choiseul had resigned as Princess-Abbess in her favour, but Marguerite de Neufchâtel prevailed in the powerstruggle in 1528. After her death in 1544 she was succeeded by Madame de Choiseul, who was in office for a few months before she died and Marguerite d’Haraucourt finally was able to take office as the 42nd Princess-Abbess. She was also known by the surname of d’Ubex because her family owned the castle Ubexy, which had been inherited by Elisabeth d’Haraucourt in 1543, the wife of Nicolas du Châtelet, who had no children. She was the 42nd Abbess of the Chapter. In 1565 the war of “panonceaux” broke out between Duke Charles III of Lorraine and the ladies of the chapter, who used the Imperial Eagles in the city shield to show their independence. Charles profited by the fact that Emperor Maximillan II was tied up in Hungary and used force to have his sovereignty recognised. 

  1544-87 Sovereign Lady Ermgard van Wisch of Wisch op Oud-Wisch, Wildenborch, Overhagen and Lichtenvoorde (The Netherlands)
1552-58 Regent Dowager Countess of Limburg-Stirum
1553-87 Hereditary Countess of Bronckhorst and Borculo
Inherited the family’s possessions in Wisch after the death of her brother, Joachim, but her mother, Waldburga van den Bergh was allowed to reside in the castle for life. After the death of her husband, Georg von Limburg in Stirum (1500-52), she was regent for son, Herman George, Graaf van Limburg en Bronckhorst, heer in Stirum, Wisch en Borculo (1540-74), who later married to Maria von Hoya (1534-1612). Finally she inherited the possessions of her uncle, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo. She (d. 1587).

  1544-? Politically influential Mihrumâh Sultana of the Ottoman Empire
Only daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan, who adoredher, and complained with her every wish. She married Rüstem Pasha, Governor-General of Diyarbakýr, who was shortly afterwards appointed grand vizier. According to Ottoman historians, she, together with her mother and husband conspired to bring about the death of Sehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of her influence over her father. The fact that she encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father’s death she lent 50.000 gold sovereigns to Sultan Selim to meet his immediate needs, illustrate the political power which she wielded.  Her husband was grand vizier in the periods 1544-1553 and 1555-1561, and she and her mother formed an inner circle in the government, which evidently influenced the sultan’s decisions particularly in issues concerning the succession and the future of the sultanate. They were accused of putting pressure on her father to execute his eldest surviving son, Mustafa. At that critical point when he was faced with open protest from the army and negative public opinion following the murder of Mustafa, her father was forced to replace his her husband in the position of Grand Vizirate with Kara Ahmed Pasha, a war hero and favorite of the army. But within two years under pressure from the inner circle under Hürrem, Kara Ahmed was eliminated and Rustem resumed the Grand Vizierate, keeping the office until his death in 1561.

  Ca. 1545-64 Rani Regnant Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya of Gondwana (India)
The principality is also known as Garha-Kalanga, and it’s inhabitants were a group of Dravidian tribes, aboriginal (pre-Aryan) people She was the daughter of the Rajput chief of Mohaba and married to Dalpat Shah, and after his death she ruled for their minor son. In 1564, the Moghul emperor Akbar directed one of his commanders Asaf Khan to conquer the kingdom. On the advance of the huge imperial Moghul army, she was cautioned by her counsellors to whom she replied, “It is better to die with glory than to live with ignominy”. Her son Bir Narayan was seriously wounded. But she waged the war with the great skill and bravery until she was disabled by two arrow shots. Her officers wanted to carry her from the battlefield to a place of safety, but she rejected the proposal and committed suicide.

  1545-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine of Denmark of Lorraine and Bar (France)
1560-90 Titular Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, The Wends, Goths and Slavs, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein, Ditmasken, Countess of Oldenborg
1558-68 Political Advisor and Temporary Acting Regent in Lorraine
1568-75 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen in Bayern (Germany)
1578-90 Reigning Dowager Lady of Tortona (Italy)
After her father, Christian 2 of Denmark was deposed she grew up by her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg’s aunt, Margaretha, Governor-General of the Netherlands, who took it upon her to guard the children from the Lutheran faith. After Margaretha’s death, their mother’s sister, Dowager Queen Maria of Hungary took over their upbringing. In 1535 her first husband, the 26 year older Duke Francesco 2. Sforza of Milano of died after 1½ year of marriage, and she returned to the Netherlands. In 1541 at the age of 20 she married François of Bar who inherited Lorraine three years later.
She was regent whenever her husband was abroad from the Duchy and acted as his political advisor, among others at the Reichstag in Speyer in 1544. In his will her husband appointed her regent jointly with her brother for her son, Charles (Karl) (1545-1608), but she tried to rule independently. In 1552 France attacked the Duchy and in exchange for a peace treaty she had to give up the regency and accept that her 10 year old son were to grow up at the French court as a future husband of Princess Claude, and she returned to her aunt in the Netherlands together with her two daughters. Six years later both her aunt and the emperor died and everybody assumed that she would be appointed Governor-General of the Netherlands as she was close to her cousin Filip II and was much loved by the Dutch people. Also, she had just contributed to the peace treaty between the French and Habsburgs in Cateau-Cambrésis, but the post of Regent was given to Felip’s sister, Margaretha of Parma. She then lived in Lorraine as the political advisor of her son Charles and also acted as regent from time to time. She never gave up the thought of regaining her father’s Nordic realms. In 1560 she tried to have her daughter René married to King Frederik 2 of Denmark. At the beginning of the seven-year war between Denmark and Sweden 1563-70 she attempted, through alliances with the Swedish king Erik XIV and the Danish exiled Councillor of the Realm, Peder Oxe, to plan how to regain the realms, and already signed her self as Queen: “Chretienne par la grace de dieu royne de Dennemarck, Suede, Norwegen”. When Renata married Duke Wilhelm of Bayern, she took up residence at the castle, the city of Friedberg became the center of the court life and in the next years it experienced a major boom. For health reasons she withdrew to her Italian Dowry Tortona in 1578, where she presided over a big court. She continued to print coins and medals as Queen of Denmark. She took over the claims as successor of their father, Christian II (d. 1559), from her sister, Countess Palatine Dorothea, who had no children. Christine lived (1521-90).

  1545-53 Regent Dowager Queen Yun Mun-jong of Korea
Also known as Mun-jong Wang-hu, she was widow of Chung-jong, Chung-jong (1488-1506-44) and in charge of the government in the name of Myong-jong, who succeeded his brother, Injong. Her reign saw a lull in the suppression of Buddhism and The Buddhist monk Hyujong (1520-1604) did much to promote an ecumenical movement and harmonized the value of Buddhism with philosophical Daoism and Confucianism in his ‘Mirror of the Three Teachings’. She lived (1501-65).

  Ca. 1545-ca.1570/80 Sultan Hudah bint Sarmah al-Fasi of Fazzan (Libya)
Grandchild of Muhamad al-Fasi Fezzan. The state mainly consisted of oases in the Sahara Desert, and the population is largely Arab, with Berber and black African influence. Located on caravan routes connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Sudan, Fazzan was long important in the trans-Saharan trade. From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the centre of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

  1545-47 (and possibly 1564-78) Queen Regnant Phra Chao Chira Prapa Mahadevi of Lanna (Thailand)
Also known as Chiraprabha, Mahatevi Jiraprapa or Phra Nang Yout Kham Thip, she was the oldest daughter of king Phaya Ket, and took over after a power struggle among various factions and during civil war in the region. According to some sources, King Burengnong married her, (now in her 40s (at least), and she ruled for a second time from 1564 until her death in 1578, according to other sources, it was her younger sister, Queen Wisutthithew, that Burengong married, and it was she who ruled from 1564.

  1545-48 Regent Dowager Lady Elena Salviati of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa  (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Jacopo V Appiani (1480-1545) she was regent for their son, Iacopo VI (1529-85). The Lordship was under attack from Toscana and in 1548 she protested against the investiture of Cosimo I de’ Medici as Duke of Piombino. She lived (1506-62).

  1545-80 Reigning Princess Zofia ze Sprowy Odrowąż of Jarosław  (Then Ukraine, now Poland)
The town and domaine was was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. First married to hetmanJan Krystof Tarnowski (1555-1567) and from 1575 to castellan Jan Kostka, and lived (1540-80).

  1545-68 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Saint-Omer, dite de Morbecque of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Ebblinghem.

  1545 Acting County Sheriff Ide Mogensdatter Munk of the County of Abrahamstrup, Denmark
Ide Munk was a major land-owner, also known as Ida, she was married to Oluf Nielsen Rosenkrantz til Vallø, and their daughter was Birgitte Olufdatter Rosenkrantz til Øster Vallø. Ide died 1586.

  1545 Military Leader Lilliard in Scotland (United Kingdom)
Led the Scots at the Battle of Ancrum in one of their last victories over the English forces. She killed the English commander but lost her own life later in the battle.

  1546-48 Joint Regent Dowager Queen Si Sudachan of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)
สมเด็จพระศรีสุริโยทัย was also known as Sudachachandra. After the death of her husband, Chairajadhirai (Chaiya Radschathira) she poisoned his oldest son and made her lover, the minor court official, Kaeofa (Phra Yod Fa),kingChaiya Radschathira, and executed those who protested. Her son was succeeded by Worawongsathirat, a favourite of the widow of king Boromaradscha IV (1529-33) and after he was deposed her close relative, Maha Chakrapat, ursurped the throne and ruled until 1568. She (d. 1548).

  1546-60 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Amalie von Leising of Mansfeld-Vorderort zu Bornstädt (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Philipp II (1502-46), she ruled in the name of her son, Bruno II (1545-1615). Their three other children died young. She was daughter of Hugo von Leisnig and Dorothea Schenkin von Landsberg, was Dame de Penig in her own right, and lived (1508-60).

  1546-1601 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl of Estouteville, Countess de Saint-Pôl (France)
Also known as Marie de Bourbon-Vendôme, she was daughter of François de Bourbon-Vendôme, Duc d’Estouteville and Count of Saint-Pôl and Chaumont (1491-45) and Adrienne II, Duchesse d’Estouteville (1512-60). Marie succeeded her brother, François (1536-46). She first married Jean de Bourbon-Vendôme, Count de Soissons, then François de Clèves-Nevers, Duke de Nevers, whom she divorced in 1561 and finally with Léonor d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville (d. 1573). Marie lived (1539-1601).

  1546-53 In-charge of the Government Electress Agnes von Hessen of Sachsen (Germany)
1553-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee in Sachsen
Reigned as her husband, Moritz was away in various wars. 1547 he was awarded with the title of Kurfürst (Elector) and Duke of Sachsen-Wittenberg. In 1553 he was wounded in the battle of Sievershausen and died shortly after. Their only surviving child was a daughter, Anna von Sachsen (later married to and divorced from Willem of Oranje) and therefore he was succeeded by his brother August. Her sister, Anna, was Guardian in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Birkenfeld from 1569. Agnes lived (1527-55).

  1547-60 Member of the Chosen Council Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina of Russia
Also known as Anastasiia Zakharina, she was member of the Chosen Council with a number of military leaders, priests that carried out a number of political, military, and ecclesiastical reforms during the reign of her husband, Ivan the terrible. She was periodically able to control her husband’s fits of bad temper, and those periods were known as the “good part” of his reign. After her death – during the “bad part” he carried out a reign of terror against the boyars. He married six more times, and treated his wives cruelly: one was drowned, three were imprisoned, and two were sent to a nunnery. She lived (1530–60).

  1547-58 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore of Austria of Touraine (France)
Married to Manoel I of Portugal and then to king François I of France (1497-1547). After his death she was given the duchy as a dowry. His brother Henri II succeeded him as king, since their marriage was childless. She lived (1498-1558).

  1547-67 Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVIII “la Folle” of Laval (France)
The daughter of Guyonne VIII, she was origninally named Renée de Rieux, and succeeded her uncle Count Guy XVI. 1545 she had married Louis de Sainte-Maure, marquis de Nestlé et comte de Joigny. She lived a tumultary life and converted to the Calvinist faith. Her sister, Claude de Rieux, married one of the protestant leaders François d’Andelot. She was convicted for treason by the Parliament of Paris together with two other leaders of the “poursuite de Meaux” which tried to kill King Charles IX and Dowager Queen Catherine de Médici in 1567; their possessions were confiscated, and executed. Guyonne escaped this faith because of her mental instability. She sought refuge in Laval and died a few months later. She was succeeded by her sister Claude, or his son Paul, who took the name of Guy XIX he died 1586.

  1547-77 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)
During the Schmalkaldian war, she was she only canoness who remained in the chapter, and Duke Heinrich von Brauschweig had her appointed as head of the territory. In 1568 the church service became protestant but she remained a Catholic. Duke Julius von Braunschweig occupied the territory in 1575 and she was taken prisoner. She was member of a Bohemian noble family.

  1548-58 Reigning Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren, Leerdam en Lingen, Dame of Ijsselstein, Borssele, Grave, Cranendonk, Sint Maartensdijk en Odijk (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Maximiliaan van Egmond and Francoise de Lannoy, Dame de Lannoy, de Santes et de Trochiennes. Married to Prince Willem I van Oranje and lived (ca. 1533-58).

  1548-58 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kittlitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The Lords of Kittlitz had their lands in Sachsen and Slesia.

  1548-66 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Portiers of Valentinos and d’Étampes (France)
Mistress of King Henri II of France and first married to Louis de Breze, Count de Maulevrier. She hat tree daughters, Francoise de Breze, Countess de Maulevrier, who was married to Robert von der Marck, lord of Sedan, Duc de Bouillon, Louise de Breze, Dame d’Anet, who was married to Claude of Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, and by Henri II, she had Diane de Valois. She lived (1499-1566).

  1548-53 De facto Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Wied-Runckel of Manderscheid-Blankenheim (Germany)
After the death of Arnold of Manderscheid-Blankenheim, two male relatives were appointed guardians of her children, but they does not seem to have taken much part in the governing of the county, and she was in fact the regent until her oldest son, Hermann, came of age. Two of her daughters became Princess-Abbesses of Essen – Elisabeth VI and VII and another daughter, Margarethe was Abbess of Elten and Vreden. A son, Johann, was Prince-Bishop of Strassburg.  Margarethe von Wied later married a Count of Bentheim, and (d. 1571).

  1548-49 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Gjordesdatter Drefeld of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Herm, Denmark
Ingeborg Drefeld was widow of Peder Galt Ebbesen til Birkelse etc, Lensmand til Lundenæs. 

  1548-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Morbecq of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
As ruler of the territory she was Princess of the Empire and Head of a number of Lordships around Nivelles.

  1548 Heroine Queen Suriyothai of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)
Also known as Somdet Phra Sisuriyothai or T’ao Sri Suda Chan. Barely six months into the reign of her husband, King Maha Chakapat, the King of Burma invaded Siam with the intent of sacking the main capital, Ayutthaya. Her husband lead his troops in the defence of the city from atop his war elephant and she disguised herself as a man and rode into battle on her own elephant. During the battle with Burmese troops, her husband’s elephant collapsed from wounds and he was in danger of being killed and she rode her elephant to protect her husband and was killed by a scythe. (d. 1548).

  1549-53 Regent Dowager Khanum Söyembikä of Kazan (Tartarstan in Russia)
Sujumbike, Syun Beka or Syunbeka reigned in the name of her 2 year old son, Ütämesch, after the death of her second husband, Safagäräy, whom she married in 1535 after the death of her first husband, Canğäli, the brother of the second. When the Russians conquered the city of Kasan in 1553 she was married to the new Khan Şahğäli, and brought to Moscow as hostage, where she died in 1554. Her son was christened and brought up in a school for the nobility and died of tuberculosis at the age of 20. Her father, the Khan of the Nogais, asked Tsar Ivan IV to release her but he did not receive an answer. She lived (1516-54). 

  1549-1601 Sovereign Countess Henriette de la March-Nevers of Rethel (Belgium)
1564-1601 Sovereign Duchess of Nevers, Sovereign Princess Boisbelle-Henrichemont (Belgium and France)
In 1564 she succeeded her brother Jacques, who had succeeded their father, François de March Nevers as Duke of Nevers in 1563. Her husband Ludovico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova was duke of Nevers-Rethel by the right of his wife. Her father and brother had left her with large debts but she managed to bring the financial situation back in order, and was one of the chief creditors of the kingdom. Her son, Charles II de Gonzauge, had been co-governor with his father of Champagne since 1589 and had become titular duke in 1595 after his father’s death, but did not take part in the government until after her death in 1601. Her one sister, Catherine, was countess d’Eu and the other, Marie, was Comtesse de Beaufort. Henriette lived (1542-1601). 

  1549-76 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara zu Sachsen-Lauenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Fallersleben in Braunschweig (Germany)
Her husband, Franz von Braunschweig-Gifhorn, died at his 41th birthday from the effects of an infected foot. She was mother of 2 daughters, and her husband’s Duchy returned to the main line in Celle, but she was given Fallersleben as her dorwy, and was responsible for an economical boom.

  1549-61 Princess-Abbess Marguerite IV d’Estourmel of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a French noble family.

  1549-74 County Sheriff Abele Hansdatter Breide of the County of Näsbyholm (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
After the death of her husband, Mikkel Hals til Näsbyholm, Abele Breide was Acting Lensmand or County Sheriff of the fief in Skåne, which has been part of Sweden since 1658.

  After 1549-74 County Sheriff Karen Eilersdatter Bølle of Toreby Birk, Denmark
Karen Bølle til Hellerup og Søbo was widow of Laue Johansen Urne til Rygård (d. 1559) and held the tenantcy jointly with Jacob Brockenhuus as security for lones. She had first been married to Marqvard Tidemandd ti lHellerup and did not have chidlren, and (d. 1582).

  1550-74 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de France of Berry (France)
Daughter of François I of France and Duchess Claude de Bretagne, she was married to Emmanuel-Philibert, duc de Savoie, and lived (1523-74). 

  1550-83 Joint Administator Duchess Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)
Exhibited considerable administrative talent at domestic economy as well as in the running of the vast Guise dominions surrounding their chateau of Joinville after the death of her husband, Duke Claude de Guise, together with her daughter-in-law, Anna d’Este. Described as a remarkable woman, combining a strong sense of family pride with a wry sense of humour, she exerted a powerful influence on the childhood of her granddaughter Mary, Queen of Scots during the latter’s thirteen-year sojourn in France, and was one of her principal advisors, and acted as proxy for her daughter, Mary of Guise during the betrothal ceremony of the Queen of Scots and the Dauphin Francis in 1558.  Her two other daughters were Abbesses, Renée de Guise of St. Pierre in Reims and Antoinette de Joinville of Faremoutiers. Also mother of 9 sons.  The daughter of Count François de Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg, she lived (1493-1583).

  1550-66 Joint Administrator Duchess Anna d’Este of France of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)
1550-1607
Politically Influential in France
During her marriage to Francis de France, Duke of Aumale and Guise, she was in charge of the family estates and the enormous fortunes of the Guise after the death of her father-in-law, Claude. At court she was active on behalf of her father, Duke Ercole II d’Este of Ferrara, and acted as mediator between  France and Ferrara. In 1563 her husband was assassinated. She held the leader of the French Huguenots, Gaspard de Coligny, responsible for the assault and her contemporaries considered her responsible for the shot which was fired on him in 1572 and which became the starting signal for the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. 1566 she had married Jacques de Savoie, Duke of Nemours and Genevois, and spent most of her time in Annecy or on the road between Genevois and the court of France. She acted as mediator between her husband and the Duke of Savoie, and still claimed a prominent place in official ceremonies at the French Court. After the death Jacques in 1585 she lived in Paris. With the formation of the Catholic League, in which her sons played a prominent part, her importance increased again. In 1588 King Henri III ordered the murder of her two oldest sons and her imprisonment. Some contemporaries also held her responsible for the assassination of the king. During the siege of Paris by Henri IV, she was declared “queen-mother” by the League, but after his conversion to Catholicism, she recognized him and tried to convince her sons to do the same. She spent her last years in the highly respectable position of “superintendante de la maison” of the Queen Marie de’ Medici. Her mother, Renée de France, was Duchess of Chartres 1515-75. She lived (1531-1607).

  1550-82 Adelantada Catalina Montejo of Yucatán (Mexico)
Inherited position of Adelantado (a kind of governor/landowner) jointly with her husband, Alonso Maldonado. After his death she was in charge of the area alone.

  1550/55-71 Princess-Abbess Agathe Heggenzer von Wassersteltz Säckingen (Germany)
After the resignation of Fürstäbtissin Magdalene no canonisses remained in the chapter and the “grand verge” (Grossmeier) Hans Jakob von Schönau acted as administrator, but the Austrian Government and Bishop Christoph Metzler of Konstantz asked the 3 canons to elect an Abbess. At the time she was a nun at St. Katharinental bei Diessehhof and she is known to have been in Säckingen at lest 1552 together with another nun from her original convent but she did not take office until 1555. She restored the chapter and is seen as it’s second founder, brought it back on its feet economically, and restored the church. The water supply was renewed and several treaties were made between the Chapter and the city of Säckingen.. She also introduced new and more sombre status and reinstated the secular authority of the chapter which the Grossmeier had “ursurped” during the interregnum. She was daughter of Landvogt Johan Melchior Heggenzer.

  1550-61 Acting County Sheriff Eline Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Skjoldnæs, Denmark
Eline Gøye was married to Mourits Olufsen Krognos and Vincents Juel. She was daughter of one of the country’s major landowners, Mogens Gøye, but he had many children, and she therefore only inherited half of the estate Clausholm together with a brother. She was in dispute with her sister-in-law Anne Rosenkrantz, and in 1561 a compromise was reached, which according to Eline favourised Anne. Later same year Anne also was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) Skjoldnæs, which Eline had got after the death of her first husband. She was sister of another major landowner and Lensmand, Birgitte Gøye, and lived (ca. 1510-63).

  1551 Queen Jalampa Siri Sudhamma Mahadevi of Lanna (Chiang Mai)  (Thailand)
Also known as princess Thao Meh Ku, she was married to Sethathirat of Lan Xang, who became king of Chiang Mai. After he was deposed, she ruled on her own until she was deposed herself by Mekut (Mekkhuti), the king of the Shan State of Muong Nai (he was succeded by Queen Wisuthatevi in 1564). Sethathirat continued fighting against Lanna until his death in 1571.

  1551-64 Reigning Lady Duchess Sabina von Bayern of Nürtingen in Württemberg (Germany)
After the birth of the Crown Prince Christoph in 1515 she fled the threats of her husband Ulrich with both her children to her brothers, the Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm und Ludwig, and only after her son ascended to the throe she was able to return to Württemberg, where she took up residence in her dowry in Nürtingen, where she held a small court, which became a local centre of Protestantism. She lived (1492-1564).

  1551-72 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Roye of Roucy (France)
Succeeded her father, Charles de Roye and was married to François III de la Rochefoucauld.

  1551-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Tecklenburg of Essen (Germany)
During her tenure in office, the protestant movement became stronger. 1555 was the year of the Augsburg Peace, where it was made clear that the subjects had to have the same faith as their sovereign. In Essen the citizens were mainly protestant, but Katharina remained catholic, and the city council saw this as a way to free the city from the dominance of the Abbess, and for a period they were successful. Daughter of Otto IX von Tecklenburg and Irmgard von Cuyk-Rietberg. Her older sister, Jakobäa was Abbess of Vreden (1533-1563), and the younger Irmgard Abbess of Quernheim since 1534. Their niece Anna was heiress of Tecklenburg und Rheda (1527-82) and married to Everwin III von Götterswick Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt. Katharina lived (1517-60).

  Until 1551 County Sheriff Birgitte Steensdatter Bille of the County of Sandby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1553 County Sheriff of the County of Katsløse (Denmark)
Birgitte Bille’s husband, Jens Torbensen Rosensparre died in 1553. Sandby is situated in the landscape of Skåne which was annexed by Sweden in 1658. She (d. 1553).

  1551-52 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jensdatter Ulfstand of the County of Kalundborg with the Shire of Arts Løve, Ods and Skippinge  and Samsø, Denmark
1554-ca. 75 County Sheriff of Villands Herred in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) 
In 1535, during the “Fight of the Count” (Grevens Fejde) Sidsel Ulfstand’s husband, Knud Pedersen Gyldenstierne til Tim, was imprisoned by Count Christoffer, and he was not freed until Copenhagen gave in to Christian 3. one and a half year later leaving her in charge of his estates. He rejoined the Council of State became in charge of the tenancy of Kalundborg Slot. After his death she acted as an energetic and able administrator with economic sense. She was in charge of her husband’s estate for her minor children, she inherited some estates from her childless brothers and in 1554 she was given charge of Villads Herred in Skåne for life. During the Seven Year War 1563-70 she lend money to the crown against security in estates in Ramsø and Tune Counties. As County Sheriff of Villands herred, she made good use of her talents as she had to gather supplies for the army, conscribe peasants for the war, collect taxes and maintain roads, bridges and defences in a unruly boarder area, and she was also a frequent visitor at court. She mainly lived at Ljungby, but also often lived at Bønnet, where she was the patron of the parish church of Horbelev from 1565. She was very preoccupied with securing that her pastors lead a sober life, and one of them, Mr. Jakob, had to ask for her forgiveness. She seems to have a formidable women, also much respected by her children. Mother of 7 children and (d. ca. 1575).

  1551-… County Sheriff Sophie Holgersdatter Rosenkrantz of Börringe Kloster in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Sophie Rosenkrantz was widow of Axel Axelsen Brahe til Krageholm, Hammar, Vittskövle og Tunbyholm (d. 1551), and (d. 1558).

  1551-54 County Sheriff Ane Christensdatter of Hindselgård with Refs Herred in Thy, Denmark
Widow of Jens Lassen, citizen of Hostebro, who had held the tenantcy as security for lones. After his death, she was given royal permision to keep the tenantcy for life. She handed over the right to the administration and income to Erik Rud but kept the estate.

  1551 County Sheriff Helvig Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting, Nim and Vor, Denmark
Helvig Gøye til Avnsbjerg og Ormholt was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Otto Henriksen Gyldenstierne. Secondly married to Mogens Gøye til Bremversvold. She (d. 1597).

  1551 County Sheriff Eline of the County of Nygård, Denmark
Widow of Anders Rølike. Her background is not known.

  1552-67 HM Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (United Kingdom)
1558-87 Titular Duchess of Touraine (France)
Ascended to the throne of Scotland when she was just six days old. At age five she was sent to France to be brought up in the French court, and eventually married King Francis II, who died the next year, where after Mary returned to Scotland where a series of politically unwise love affairs and her continued adherence to Catholicism in a Protestant country led to trouble and a revolt against her. Forced to flee to England for refuge, but Queen Elizabeth kept her under a form of imprisonment for the next 19 years. Watched closely, she was implicated in a series of conspiracies against Queen Elizabeth, and was executed, but her son, Jacob later succeeded as king of England. Mary lived (1552-87).

  1552-75 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgensdatter Urne of Krønge Birk, Denmark
Alhed Urne was widow of Jørgen Venstermand, who had first been married to Maren Hansdatter Griis. She lived (1505-after 60).

  1553 HM Jane, By the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth, under Jesus Christ, Supreme Head (United Kingdom)
Lady Jane Grey was also known asQueen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland. She was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, daughter Mary, the younger of King Henry VIII’s two sisters. On May 21, 1553, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who exercised considerable power at that point in the minority of King Edward VI, joined with Jane’s father, Duke of Suffolk, in marrying her to his son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Edward VI accepted Jane as his heir and on his death she was proclaimed Queen on July 10 and the Council of the Realm recognized her claim. The rightful heir, Edward’s sister, Mary Tudor, had the support of the populace, and on July 19 even Suffolk, who by now despaired of success in the plans for his daughter, attempted to retrieve his position by proclaiming Mary Queen. Jane was later beheaded (as was her husband) in 1554 having lived (1537-54).

  1553-58 HM Mary I Tudor, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (United Kingdom)
1553-54 Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland 
She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. She also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason. As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years. Her decision to marry Philip, King of Spain from 1556, in 1554 was very unpopular; the protest from the Commons prompted her reply that Parliament was ‘not accustomed to use such language to the Kings of England’ and that in her marriage ‘she would choose as God inspired her’. England suffered during her reign. The economy was in ruin, religious dissent reached a zenith and England lost her last continental territory. She possibly died from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth. Mary lived (1516-58).

  1553-79 De-facto Reigning Dowager Countess Maria von der Hoya of Bronckhorst, Lady of Borckelo (Germany)
After her husband, Jobst, Graf zu Bronkhorst und Herrn zu Borculo, was killed in an accident the fief reverted to the Diocese of Münster, but she continued to be in charge of the administration until her own death.

  1553-59 Princess-Abbess Ursula I Schad of Heggbach (Germany)
Prioress and Second in Command 1540-53 until her election as ruler of the territory. She resigned because of bad health, and died later the same year.

  1553-70 Dowager Reigning Lady Elena von Pfalz-Simmern of Schwarzenfel in Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
Widow of Count Philipp II von Hanau. The castle served as the seat of the dowry government for other dowager countesses of Hanau as well.

  Until 1553 County Sheriff Johanne Jørgensdatter Krumpen of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark
Johanne Krumpen was widow of Jacob Eskilsen Høegh til Lergrav, Eskær Vang and Kjølskegård, who died after 1528 at a not known time. She lived (ca. 1480-ca. 1553).

  1553-79 County Sheriff  Lene Tønnesdatter Viffert of the County of Havelse
1564-79 County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Lene Viffert was given ownership for life of Havelse and later granted the tenantcy of Dalby Kloster after the death of her second husband, Jacob Sehested til Havelsegård i Havelse Magle, but had to promise to marry Claus von Ungern til Käsel og Clausholm på Øsel, who was given the right of succesion after her death. (fik ventebrev). Her first husband was Basse Christoffersen Basse til Sørup. She (d. 1579).

  1553-85 Politically Influential Electress Anna af Danmark of Sachsen (Germany)
Reigned at the side of her husband, Kurfürst August von Sachsen (1626-86), with whom she lived a very harmonious marriage. She was especially when it came to the fights over religion from 1574, her opponents blamed her of  ‘Gynaecocracy’, and she always took the side of the Lutherans in the fights with the Calvinists. In 1563 she intertwined in the negotiations between Denmark of Sweden together with her mother, Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg, and managed to end the long war between the two countries, she initiated that her husband took the side of her brother, Frederik II, and had Emperor Maximilian II. act as mediator in the conflict. She was also a very able trader and industrialist, and in 1578 her husband transferred the administration of all the Electoral Domains to her and she was a pioneer within modern agriculture. She was also knowable with medical plants, and even the Queen of Portugal asked for her help. In 1548 she was handed over the administation of her dowries in Weissenfels, Freyburg (or Sangerhausen). The daughter of Christian III of Denmark and Norway, she signed her letters, ‘Anna, born as Royal Danish Stock, Electress of Sachsen.’ She was mother of 15 children, and lived (1532-85).

  1554-60 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de Guise of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
Married to James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. The daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, she was also known as Mary of Lorraine. Before her marriage to James V in 1538, she had been married to Louis d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville, who died in 1537. When James died in 1542, shortly after his daughter’s birth, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, became regent. By 1554, with French aid, Marie de Guise had replaced the ineffectual Arran as regent, and she made no secret of her desire to bring France and Scotland together. Meanwhile, Protestantism was spreading rapidly in Scotland, and Marie, though at first conciliatory toward the reformers, began a campaign of suppression. In 1559 the Protestants, exhorted by John Knox, rose against the regent and declared her deposed. She received French aid, but the Protestants, allied with the English, proved the stronger force. The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie’s death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church. She lived (1515-60).

  1554-55 Regent Infanta Juana of Spain
Acted as stand-in for her brother, Felipe II, who had been appointed regent of Spain by their father, Carlos I (Emperor Karl V), but who was in England some of the time with his wife, Mary I Tudor. Juana had returned to Spain after the death of her husband, the Crown Prince of Portugal, leaving her son, Sebastao behind. In 1555 their father abdicated in favour of Felipe. She founded a very rich monastery and remained influential till her death. She lived (1537-73).

  1554-79 Queen Regnant Kalinyamat of Jepara (Indonesia)
Succeeded to the throne when her husband, R. Toyib or “Sultan Hadlirin”, was killed by Bupati Jipang. The commercial port gave wealth to the kingdom and she sent her combat fleet for Malacca to attack and destroy Portuguese in 1551 and 1574, but her forces did not manage to drive Portuguese away from Malacca. The daughter of Sultan Trenggono of Demak, she was originally named Retno Kencono. (d. 1579).

  1554-55 Regent Dowager Abakyala Nannono of Buganda (Uganda)
The seventh wife of Kabaka Nakibinge Kagali, she acted as regent for 8 months after his death, pending the birth of her posthumous child, but when it showed out to be a daughter (Nono), her husband’s son by his 4th wife, Kabaka Mulondo Sekaja, was elected king. She was daughter of Seggirinya, of the Dgo clan.

  1554-1610 Sovereign Princess Marie de Créquy of Poix, Dame de Mareuil (France)
Granddaughter of Jossine, who was Dame de Poix around 1526. Marie married Gilbert de Blanchefort, Lord of Saint-Janvrin. She lived (1526-1610).

  1554-56 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Member of the Countly Family of Conversano and other territories in Puglia in the South of Italy at the time in the Kingdom of Napoli.

  1555-1572 Queen Regnant Juana III d’Albret of Navarra and Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchess of Albert, Comtesse de Foix-Béarn-Grailly, Périgod, de Rodez, d’Armagnac, Perche, Fezensac, de L’Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët and Pardiac, Viscomtesse de Limoges, Brulhois, Lomagne, Fezenzaguet, Cressey, d’Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé (France and Spain)
Also known as Jeanne d’Albret, she grew up in France as a French princess. She married Antoine de Bourbon out of love but their marriage was unhappy because of his constant infidelities. He died just before she succeeded her father as Queen of Navarra. She converted to Calvinism en 1560 and favoured this faith in Navarra and Béarn as her other domains was under the suzerainty of the king of France. She was involved in the different wars of religion of the time, and in 1571 she made Calvinism the state religion in Béarn and Navarre, and in order to maintain and affirm her authority in her domains, she negotiated the marriage of her son Henri with Marguerite de Valois, sister of Charles IX. She died before the celebration of the marriage and the Saint-Barthélemy massacre on the French Protestants. Her son became king of France and trough him the post of Co-prince has passed on to the Presidents of the French Republic. She lived (1528-72). 

  1565-71 Reigning Abbess Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Louis III de Montpensier et de Jacqueline de Longwy. With the help of Queen Jeanne III de Navarre, she found refuge innHeidelberg and married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands and had 6 daughters of whom Louise-Juliana, Catharina Belgica and Charlotte-Brabantine became regents after their husband’s deaths, and Charlotte Flandrina (1579-1640) became Abbess de Poitiers. She lived (1546-82). 

  1555-66 Reigning  Abbess-General Catalina Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As one of the only abbesses in the history of the Catholic church, the Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas de Burgos held quasi Episcopal powers.              

  1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Stege with the two Shires of Møn
1564-74 County Sheriff of the Church Servants in the County of the Shire of Gjerlev
1569-70 Acting County Sheriff of Spøtrup
1569/70-74 County Sheriff of the Counties of Medelsom and Sønderlyng with Spøtrup, Denmark
Anne Lykke til Demstrup administered Stege after her first husband, Anders Bentsen Bille til Søholm, was killed in the Feud of the Count and was in charge of Medelsom etc. after the death of her seond husband, to Otto Jørgensen Krumpen til Trudsholk, a member of one of the oldest noble families of the country and one of the most influential men of their time, who died without issue as the last male member of the family. She held Spøtrup as security for lones and exchanged it with Øtsløf Kloster in 1570. Her last husband was Claus Daa. 1574 she returned the letter of security for the Tenantcies to the king who dropped a case against her. Her branch of the family Lykke was also known as Lykke Munk til Overgaard. She (d. after 1574).          

  1556-58/60 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Hamida Begum of The Mughal Empire (India)
After the death of Emperor Humayun (1530-1556), who spend 15 years in exile from 1540-55 his 14-year-old son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne, and Hamida Begum (perhaps also known as Maliam Anga) was part of the regency.

  1556-64 Regent for the Governor Mah-Chehak Begum of Kabul, Afghanistan
Also known as Mah Čučak Bigum, she was regent for her son, Prince Mirza Muhammad Hakim (1553-56-85), son of the Moghul Emperor Humayum (1508-56), to whom she was a concubine.  She was murdered in 1565. 

  1556-57 Regent Dowager Princess Françoise de Breeze of Sedan and Bouillon (France)
Took over the government after the death of her husband, Robert IV de Sedan, who was also created Duke de Bouillon. She was daughter of Diane de Portier, mistress of the French King. Françoise was also Countess of Maulevrier and had two sisters, Diane de Valois, who was Duchess of Chatellerault etc., and Louise de Breeze, Dame d’Anet. Françoise was mother of 9 children, and died 1557.

  1556-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Dorothea af Danmark og Norge of Neumarkt in Pfalz (Germany)
After the death of her brother, Hans, in 1532, she was considered a serious contender to the Danish and Norwegian Throne by her Habsburg relatives, who still supported her father, Christian 2, who had been imprisoned and died in prison in 1559. Her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg (Isabel of Spain), died 1526 and together with her brother and sister, she grew up at the court of her grat-aunt and aunt, the Governor Generals of the Netherlands, Margaret I and Maria. She was married to Friedrich II von Pfalz (1482-1556). After his death, she transferred her claims to the Danish throne to her sister, Christine, Regent of Lorraine from 1545. In spite of her Catholic relatives and the new Calvinist Elector of the Palitinate, she kept her Lutheran faith in her dowry where she lead a lavish life and remained in close contact with her Habsburg relatives for the rest of her life. She did not have any children, and lived (1520-80).

  1556-68 Politically Influential Duchess Sophie of Poland of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
1568-75 Sovereign Lady of Schöning and the Amt Jerxneim
Also known as Sophie die Jagiellonin, she was engaged in diplomatic activities both with her native Poland and the rest of Europe during the reign of her husband, Heinrich the Younger, she was also active in Politics, and an outstanding intellectual capacity and cultural personality. After her husband’s death, and the accession to the throne of her stepson, she retired to her dowry, which she reigned as a sovereign with rights over administration, juridical matters, trade and a small army. She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband’s relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years. The daughter of King Zygysmund I of Poland and Bona Sforza, she had no children, and lived (1522-75). 

  1556-94 Princess-Abbess Maria Jacoba von Schwarzenberg of Buchau (Germany)
She was in dispute with the bishop of Konstanz and strongly maintained her own rights as ecclesiastical leader and the position of her territory. She was also promoter of religious and cultural affairs. In 1559 she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid), participated in the the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) 1569, represented by the Count of Fürstenberg in the Imperial Diet 1572 and 1576, and by the Truchess von Waldburg in 1577. She was daughter of Freiherr Christoph and Eva von Montfort, and lived (1515-94).

  1556-57 County Sheriff Sidsel Andersdatter Bille of the County of Gårdstange and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Widow of Niels Tønnesen Parsbjerg til Kulla Gunnarstorp, Lensmand of Vrejlev Len(d. 1556). She (d. 1566).

  1556-80 County Sheriff Mette Hansdatter Lange Munk of Holmegård, Denmark
Mette Lange became in charge of the tenantcy after her husband, Iver Kjeldesen Juel, died the same year he became County Sheriff. She was later granted the tenantcy for life.

  1557-62 Regent Dowager Queen Catarina von Austria of Portugal and the Algaves
Her husband João III died without leaving instructions about regency. A hastily convened council of nobles declared that it had been his wish that Queen Catarina should undertake the office of regent and she was duly appointed and governed in the name of her grandson, Sebastião (1557-78). She was daughter of Juana I la Loca and Emperor Maximillian. After Sebastião came of age at 14, she retired to a convent and lived (1507-78).

  1557-80 Sovereign Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Tecklenburg und Rheda 
1562-73 Regent of Bentheim
1566-72 Regent of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau (Germany)
Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62), but she remained a staunch Lutheran when Everwin joined Catholism, and he tried to take over her territories and lock her in the tower of the castle of Tecklenburg, but the lords of the immediate county backed her. The situation was solved when he died of syphilis. After his death, she was regent in Bentheim and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV von Bentheim-Tecklenburg. It is said about her that she had knowledge of healing plants and that she prevented the prosecution of witches in her territory. She lived (1532-82).

  1557-.. County Sheriff Queen Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Denmark of Vejle Mølle
1558-66 County Sheriff of Holme Kloster
1559-71 County Sheriff of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fugelse and Musse, the Counties of Ravnsborgn and Åkær with the Shire of Had 
When her husband, Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1503-34-59) died, she withdrew to her dowry that she also administered as a fief-holder, Lensmand, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She was very influential as head of the family. She also held Als, Sundeved og Ærø in the landscape of Slesvig. She lived (1511-71)

  Ca. 1557-74 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Clausdatter Bille of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark
Sidsel Bille was widow of Just Jacobsen Høeg Banner til Vang og Lergrav (d. 1557), who had first been married to Mette Mogensdatter Gøye.

  1557 Abbess Nullius Barbara Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Daughter of Andrea Matteo III Acquaviva d’Aragona, Duke of Atri etc. (1457-1529),  and probably his second wife Caterina della Ratta, Countess di Caserta, Alessano e Sant’Agata (from 1488). Her italian title was Badessa di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano dal 1558

  1557 Reigning Abbess Magdalena von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Only reigned for a few months.

  1557-68 Reigning Abbess Margrethe von Reischach von Hohenstofffeln of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The chapter was a major landowner and also held lower jurisdiction in a number of surrounding villages.

  1558-1603  Elizabeth I, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (United Kingdom)
Daughter of Henry VIII Tudor and Anne Boleyn, she succeeded her half-sister Mary. she was very well educated (fluent in six languages). Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.Although autocratic and capricious, she had astute political judgement and chose her ministers well. Her reign also saw many brave voyages of discovery, which prepared England for an age of colonisation and trade expansion, In 1588, aided by bad weather, the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130 ships – the ‘Armada’ which was intended to overthrow the Queen and re-establish Roman Catholicism by conquest, as Philip II believed he had a claim to the English throne through his marriage to Mary I. She was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, and lived (1533-1603).

  1558-61 Regent Infanta Maria de Austria of Spain
In charge of the government during the travels of her brother Felipe II in the Empire. She was married to Maximillian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor. Their son, Archduke Albrecht of Austria, Duke of Teschen, married the daughter of Felipe – Infanta Isabella, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Maria lived (1528-1603).

  1558-78 Politically Active Margravine Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
The most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603) until her death. She lived (1540-78).

  1558-64 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Gleichen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Several members of her family – of the Counts of Gleichen – were Princess-Abbesses and held other ecclesiastical offices.

  1558 Acting County Sheriff Anne Ottesdatter  Rosenkrantz of the County of Skanderborg with the Shires of Framlev, Gjern, Hjelmslev, Sabro, Tyrsting, Vrads, Støvring, Hald, Onsild and Ning, Denmark
1561-67 County Sheriff of the County of Skjoldnæs
After the death of her husband, Albert Gøye, in 1558, Anne Rosenkrantz was left in charge of the family possessions. Her lands were scattered all over the country, but she managed to unify most of it, and she achieved the right to appoint the judges within her jurisdiction. Anne was involved in many disputes with her relatives, among others the sister-in-law Eline Gøye, and in 1561 she was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) of Skjoldnæs after Eline was removed from this position. In 1566 Anne was ordered to give up the fief again – but only pawed way for the newly appointed Lensmand the following year. She lived (1522-89). 

  1558-67 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Jochumsdatter Beck of the County of Ruggård with the Shire of Skovsby, Denmark
Margrethe Beck was appointed jointly with her husband, Palle Christoffersen Ulfeldt (d. 1571) for a period of 20 years, but died after 9 years. Her husband then married Margrethe Clausdatter Brockenhuus. She (d. 1567).

  Ca. 1558-62 Acting County Sheriff Bege Pedersdatter Skram of Brinkgård, Denmark
Bege Skram til Stovgård was widow of Jørgen Hansen Juel. Apparently only one daughter, Karen Juel, survived. She (d. after 1562).

  1559-67 and 1580-82 Stadholder Margaretha de Parma of The Netherlands 
1559-67 Governor of Franche-Comté
1572-86 Perpetual Governor of L’Aquila (Italy)
Also known as Madama or Margarita de Austria, her full title was Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Princess of Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily. She was daughter of Emperor Karl V and his mistress Johanna van den Gheynst. Her first husband was Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Firenze (1510-37), the son of the Black servant Simonetta da Collavechio and Cardinal Giulio de Medici (the later Pope Clement VII), was finally assassinated a few months after their wedding in 1536. She then received the titles of Feudal Duchess of Borbona, Penne and Posta and Feudal Lady of Campli, Castel Sant’Angelo (now Castel Madama), Civita Ducale (now Cittaducale), Leonessa, Montereale and Ortona, Lady of Amatrice, Borbona, Posta which she held until her death. In 1538 she was married to Ottavio Farnese (1525-86), whose father was given the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III. In 1545 she became mother of twins. Her half-brother, King Felipe II of Spain, appointed her Governor-General of the Netherlands, and she proved to be an able administrator, but resigned after the Duke of Alba’s crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She then returned to Italy and was governor of L’Aquila by her brother. Her son Alessandro Farnese was Governor-General of the Netherlands until 1580 when she replaced him. After his return, she was kept a virtual prisoner in Namur, until she was allowed to return to Italy in 1583 where she died three years later. She lived (1522-86).

  1559-68 Regent Doamna Chiajna of Walachia (Romania)
After the death of her husband, Mircea Ciobanul, who was Voivode of Wallachia in 1545-1552, 1553-1554 and in 1558-1559, she was regent for her son, Petru cel Tînăr (Peter the Young). She was daughter of Petru Rareş, ruler of Moldova.

  1559-89 Princess-Abbess Lucia Hildebrand of Heggbach (Germany)
A former Prioress, she took over enormous depths during a period of bad harvests, hard winters, wet summers, epidemics of plague in 1564, 1572/73, 1574, 1579 and 1589 and on top of it all heavy “turk taxes”. But her bad handling of the economy made the situation worse and the existence of the whole territory was endangered, and she had to resign from her post for the same reason. She lived (1523-1605).

  1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Jacobsdatter Trolle of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Øllegaard Trolle was a major landowner, widow of Christoffer Hvidtfeldt, mother of 11 children, and lived (1513-78).

  1559-62 and 1568-74 County Sheriff Anne Olufsdatter Krognos of Hundlund Kloster
Appointed after the death of her husband, Klaus Podebusk. During her second term in office she held the tenantcy as security for lones. (Pantelen).

  1559-63 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Gregoriusdatter Ahlefeldt of Borgeby Len in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1565-82 Joint County Sheriff  of the County of Gladsaxe with the Shire of Albo, Denmark
First appointed joint County Sheriff together with her husband, Hans Spiegel til Borreby (d. 1599), who bought the fief and estate of Borgeby and then appointed as security for lones. She had first been married to Johan Stake and Lucas Krabbe. Her husband married Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov til Julskov (d. 1602), widow of Emmike Kaas after her death. She (d. 1582).

  1559-… County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Oxe of Ralsvig på Rygen (Germany)
1559 Acting County Sheriff of Boisø Kloster, Denmark
1566-68 County Sheriff of Ørslev Kloster
Mette Oxe acted in the name of her four sons after the death of her husband, Hans Barnekow, of an old Wendian noble family, who had been appointed hereditary tenant by the Duke of Pommern, it was confirmed by the Duke and King of Denmark in 1564. Was later granted the tenantcy of Ørslev Kloster. 3 of her sisters; Inger, Pernille and Sidsel also acted as County Sheriffs.

  1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Lucie Mortensdatter of the County of Jonstrup, Denmark
Daughter of Morten Ebbensen til Gavnø, possibly of the Laale-family, and Benedikte Rubek, and took over the administration after the death of her husband, Christian Eriksen Pors (or Christiern).

  Until 1559 County Sheriff Elline Stensdatter Bille of Fredsgård with Tømmerup at Halsnæs, Denmark
Elline Bille was widow of Morids Skave (d. 1532). She (d. 1559).

  Until 1559 Feudal Marchioness Diana de Cardona of Giuliano, Contessa della Chiusa, Baronessa di Borgia (Italy)
Second wife of Vespasiano I, Marchese di Sabionetta, Principe di Sabionetta, 1st Duca di Sabionetta, Conte di Roddi e Ricalta, Barone di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchese di Ostiano, Conte di Fondi, Duca di Traetto, Viceroy of Navarra an Valencia, Knight of Golden Fleece Order. She died upon the delivery of a child.

  1560-63 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine de’ Medici of France
1562-89 Sovereign Duchess of Valois, Countess Auvergne and Boulogne
In 1533 she was married to Henri, Duke of Orleans, who became the French king in 1547. As Queen she was very influential in bringing aspects of Italian culture to France, such as their theatre and food. After her husband’s death, she gained political power as regent for her sons. An ambitious woman, she actively involved herself in the political intrigues of the court, always trying to increase royal power. At first Catherine tried to reconcile France’s opposing Catholic and Protestant factions as their violent disputes threatened national unity. But instead she initiated the massacre in 1570 of Protestants (the massacre of St Bartholomew). Succeeded her aunt, Anne de la Tour as Countess of Auvergne in 1524, and father Lorenzo II de Medici as titular Countess of Urbino 1519-21. Mother of 10 children, she lived (1519-89)

  1560-62 De-facto regent Maham Anga of the Mughal Empire (India) 
The chief nurse of Emperor Akbar, she gained influence after she convinced Akbar to dismiss his minister, Bairam. Her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Atkah Khan as chief minister. Five months later her son, Adham Khan, Akbar’s foster-brother, attempted to assassinate Atkah Khan, but was executed, and she died shortly after, and the emperor, who was now 19 ruled alone from then on. 

  1560 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Duchess Maria von Sachen-Wettin of Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)
1574-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Pudagla in Pommern-Wolgast
After the death of her husband, Philipp I Duke von Pommern-Wolgast (1515-31-60) a Council of Regency took over the government for her son, Johann Friedrich (1542-60-1600). She was guardian for her sons who shared the inheritance of another relative, who abdicated in 1569; Bogislaw XIII von Pommern-Barth/Neuenkamp and later of Pommern-Stettin, Ernst Ludwig von Pommern-Wolgast, Barnim X von Pommern-Rügenwalde und Bütow and Kasimir VI, who was Evangelican Bishop of Cammin. She was also guardian for the daughters Amelia, Margaretha and Anna. The Duchy was hit by The Seven Years War (1563-70), which demonstrated how powerless the Duchy was. Lack of finances and of military power, forced it to remain neutral and thereby it ended up as a “playbill” between the foreign powers. Her Johann Friederich received the Imperial confirmation of his fief (kaiserliche Belehnung) at the Reichstag in Augsburg in 1566. She was daughter of Duke and Elector Johann von Sachsen and Margareta von Anhalt, and lived (1516-83).

  1560-76 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Countess Margarethe von Hoya of Diepholz (Germany)
1560-93 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Office of Auburg
1585-93 Regent of Diepholz
Following the death of her husband, Rudolf IX, a regency council took power under the leadership of Duke Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle in the name of her son Friederich II, and she managed to become part of the council, even though she had not been designated a seat from the beginning. Margarethe von Diepholz was also given the whole of the County as her dowry. In 1582 the Hoya-line died out and she tried to secure her inheritance without success, The same year her only grandson died and 3 years later her son followed. Nominally the county fell to Braunschweig-Lüneburg but in effect she managed to act as regent for her granddaughter, Anna Margarethe (1580-), possibly because Duke Wilhelm had become mentally ill. She reorganised and modernised the administration. The daughter of Jobst II von Hoya and Anna von Gleichen, she had been elected as Abbess of the Noble Chapter of Bassum in 1541, but remained at the court of her parents, and lived (1527-93).

  Ca. 1560-ca. 1600 Clan Leader Grania O’Mally of the West Coast of Camacht and Achill Island, Ireland
1565-1603 Pirate Queen”
Also known as Grace O’Malley or Gráinne Ni Mháille, she was only daughter of Dubndara O’Mally. Her husband, Donal O’Flatherty, leader of the neighboring clan, was killed and she managed to hold the besieged castle of the family. Imprisoned in 1578-79 and 1593 for piracy and her sons and son-in-law was also held prisoners by the British. Her fleet numbered some 20 ships, and her blatant piracy was seriously emptying the pockets of English merchants at Galway. She wrote a letter to the Chiefess of the Tudor Clan, Queen Elizabeth I, and was granted an audience in London, which resulted in the release of her relatives and the right to continue her activities on Sea and on Land – though under English flag. She lived (1530-1603).

  1560-1600 Lady Doña Beatriz Clara Cova-Inca of Valle de Yucay, Peru
Only daughter and heir of the last Inca of Peru, Sayri Tupac and his sister and wife María Manrique Cusi Huarcay (circa 1531-after 1586). After her father’s death, her possessions were administered by various Spanish guardians and she was placed in a convent, until her mother managed to get the pension she had been promised by her late husband and had found refuge at the residence of Cristóbal Maldonado. Beatriz later married Martín García de Loyola, Lord de Calatrava and their only daughter, Doña Ana María de Loyola Cova y Coya-Inca, was named “The Legitimate Representative of the past Sovereign Incas of Peru”, Marquesa de Santiago de Oropesa and Adelantada del Valle de Yucay and Yupangui and Lady de Loyola in 1614. Beatriz lived (1558-1600)

  Until 1560 County Sheriff Karen Gans of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark
Widow of Thomas Logen (or Lage), who died in the 1550s. Her second husband, Jacob Krafse became County Sheriff (Lensmand) 1560-ca. 72.

  Around 1560 Princess-Abbess Ludmilla de Bliziva of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Another version of her surname was von Bliziwa.

  1560-61 Princess-Abbess Maria von Spiegelberg of Essen (Germany)
The counts of Spiegelberg had ruled their Small County, cantered around Coppenbrüg since around 1280. In 1494 they inherited the County of Pyrmont, but in 1557 the family died out in the male line. The fief was inherited by Braunschweig-Calenberg, but with the condition that the sovereignty was inherited in the female line to a sideline of the family of Lippe. In 1485 the county was inherited by the counts of Gleichen and in 1631 by Nassau-Oranje, who sold it to Hannover in 1819.

  1561-75 Princess-Abbess Irmgard III von Diepholz of Essen (Germany)
Pröbstin – or second ranking – in the Chapter until her election as its sovereign. Like Maria von Spiegelberg, she was catholic and that caused problems with the predominantly protestant City of Essen. In 1568 Irmgard applied to the imperial supreme court to resolve a wider, century-old dispute between the Abbesses and the Essen citizenry over the rights and responsibilities of the citizens. The judgement, which took 102 years to deliver, was ambiguous. The Abbess was declared the “sole authority and rightful princess of the state”, to whom the citizens owed obedience as “subjects and members of the state”. At the same time however the city was defined as a “civitas mixta” or free city of the German Empire, and therefore not a county, which would have meant complete subjugation to the aristocracy, nor a municipality without jurisdiction or statutory power. This judgement gave rise to continuing legal disputes, which carried on until 1803, when the state was finally secularised. Irmgard also took a keen interest in coal mining.

  1561-69 Princess-Abbess Marguerite V de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The abbess of the chapter was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.

  Until 1561 Reigning Abbess Antoniette de Joinville of Faremoutiers (France)
Following the concordat de Bolgone, signed in 1516 between François I and Pope Léon X, the abbesses were named by the king. Her sister, Renée, was Abbess of St. Pierre until her death in 1602. The daughter of Duke Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche, she lived (1531-61).

  Until 1561 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline-Marguerite de Longwy of Bar-sur-Seine (France)
First wife of Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon and Dauphin d’Auvergne. 

  1561-62 County Sheriff Karen Globsdatter Krabbe of the Counties of Amtofte , Amtofte Kloster and Thistedgård with the Shire of Hundborg, Denmark
1576-78 County Sheriff of the County of Voergård
1579 County Sheriff of the County of Vinderslevgård
Until 1586 County Sheriff of the County of Strekhals
Karen Krabbe til Nissum, Skovsgård og Voergård, or Karen Krabbe Glob, was married to Nils Hansen Skeel Nygård til Vinderslevgård, Ullerup, Merringgård, Nipgård, Skovsgård, Momtoftegård og Thistedgård (d. 1561). She settled the inheritance with her son-in-law Otto Banner and got Vinderslevgård in exchange. 1578 she and her daughter, Ingeborg Skeel, got the right to the juristiction of the Estate of Vorgård. Ingeborg was County Sheriff from 1585. She lived (1509-86).

  1561… Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Nielsdatter Tornekrans of the County of Bråde, Denmark
Dorothea Tornekrans was widow of Niels Markvardsen Skiernov til Mejlgård (d. 1561), who had been granted the tenantcy for life by the Bishop some years before and confirmed by the king after the Reformation. She (d. earlist 1591).

  1561-62 and 1562-72 Acting County Sheriff Magdalene Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Skivehus Len with the Shires of Lørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark
Magdalene Banner was left in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Iver Krabbe. She (d. 1597).

  1561-72 County Sheriff Jytte Presbjørnsdatter Podebusk of Vestervig Kloster, Denmark
Jytte Podebusk was widow of Knud Gyldenstierne (d. 1568), who held the tenantcy before her. She (d. 1573).

  1561-62 Acting County Sheriff Mette Eriksdatter Hardenberg of Biskotorp, Denmark
Mette Hardenberg was widow of Didrik Henningsen Qvistzow til Rørbæk etc. (d. 1561). Mother of one daughter, Anne who died young. She (d. 1573).

  1561-62 County Sheriff Anne Albrechtsdatter Glob of Sebber Kloster and Asmild Kloster, Denmark
Anne Glob was widow of Jørgen Urne (d. 1560), and was appointed to both tenantcies for life. (d. 1562).

  1562-65 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hennekesdatter Rantzau of the County of Skodborg with Malt and ½ of the Shire of Andst, Denmark
Margrethe Rantzau was married to her relative, Jesper Hansen Rantzau, Amtmand in Flensborg and Lensmand in Schmoel, Skodborg, Haderslev and Tørning Len, and she took over the administration of one of his fief after his death.

  1562-63 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Maltesdatter Viffert of the County of Viskumsgård with the Shire of Synderlyng, Denmark
Dorthe Viffert til Øls was widow of Peder Christoffersen Kruse til Ballegård, Ryomgård og Kjellerup. She lived (ca. 1514-after 1563).

  1562-1622 Politically Influential Empress Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba of the Mughal Empire (India)
As one of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar’s three chief queens, she was politically involved in the court until Nur Jahan became empress. Like other few women at the Mughal court, she could issue official documents (farman), which was usually the exclusive privilege of the emperor. She used her wealth and influence to build gardens, wells, and mosques around the country. In 1586, she arranged a marriage of her son, Prince Salim (later Jahangir), to her niece, Princess Manmati (Manbhawati Bai), who was the mother of Prince Khusrau Mirza. Even though she remained a Hindu after her marrage, she was buried according to Islamic custom and was not cremated. Born as Rajkumari Hira Kunwari Sahiba – or Harkha Bai, she was the eldest daughter of Kacchwaha Rajput, Raja Bharmal, Raja of Amber, and lived (1542-1622)

  1563-79 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Eisenberg
of Lippe (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Bernhard VIII (1527-36-63), she was in disputes with the other regents for her son Simon VI, mainly Count Hermann Simon zu Pyrmont (d. 1576). Her son was appointed Imperial Commissioner and was in charge of mediating hereditary disputes and gained more and more importance as the years went by. She lived (1524-83).

  1563-1621 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Katarina Stenbock of Strömsholms Estate with the Shire of Snevringe , Fiholms Estate with the Parishes of Säby and Stora Rytterne, the estates of Tynnelsö and Magerö wit Aspö, the Parishes of Överselö and Ytterselö with Tosterö in the Parish of Strängnäs and the Estate of Kungsberga with the Parishes of Fogdö, Vansö and Helgarö, Sweden
She was engaged when king Gustav Vasa decided to marry her after the death of his previous wife, her aunt, Margareta Leijonhufvud. He was 37 tears older than he, and she was more his nurse than his wife. She was the first Queen Dowager to be named Riksänkedrottning – Dowager Queen of the Realm, and lived (1535-1621).

  1563-ca. 88 County Sheriff Anne Vernersdatter Parsberg of Derup
1580-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Øster Gårdstange and the County of Reving (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1580-93 County Sheriff of the Counties of Vram, Visby, Stibberup and Revinge, Denmark
Anne Parsberg was first married to Christoffer Gyldenstierne and secondly to Hans Jepsen Skovgaard til Gundestrup (1526-80), Councillor of the Realm and Lensmand of Helsingborg. 

  1563-64 County Sheriff Else Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Svaløv (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1567-.. County Sheriff of the County of Rørum, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Tage Thott, Else Ulfstand administered Rørum, in Skåne, together with her sister, Thale Ulfstand, who was also County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Hesselbjerg from 1595. Her daughter, Thale Thott, was County Sheriff or Lensmand of Åhus and Åsum in Skåne 1587-90. She lived (1520-73).

  1563-87 County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Urup of the County of Søfed (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Margrethe Urup til Ugerup was widow of Erik Madsen Bølle til Terløse, Elved and Orebygård and Lensmand at Tureby (d. 1562). She did not have any children. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of a royal appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) who each administered a Len (fief or tenantcy). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases a woman administered the Len after her husband’s death. 

  1563-65 County Sheriff Ingeborg Andersdatter Bille of Øvid Kloster, Denmark
Jomfru Ingeborg Bille held the tenantcy as security for lones. She was a rich landowner and inherited Egedegaard from her two unmarried aunts, Ermegaard Bentdsatter and Birgitte Torbendsdatter Bille who had inherited the estate from their fathers, the brothers’ Bent and Torben who owned it jointly. Both cousins died 1587, and from these three unmarried women – Jomfruer – the estate got the present name, Jomfruens Egede (Egede of the Virgin (or unmarried lady)). She (d. 1608).

  1563-after 68 County Sheriff Lisbet Johansdatter Urne of the County of Klingstrup, Denmark
Lisbet Urne was widow of Peder Lykke til Skovsbo, granted the tenantcy for life. 1577 she married Johan Bockholt. She (d. 1584).

  1563-91 County Sheriff Agnete Busksdatter Skenk of the County of Pandumgård with the Shire of Hornum and the Estate of Snorup, Denmark
Agnete Skenk til Brudagergård was widow of Jørgen Jørgensen Prip til Pandumgård len. She (d. before 1599).

  1563-71 County Sheriff Ellen Pallesdatter Bang of the County of Lønborggård and Lønborg Birk
Ellen Bang was widow of Jørgen Hennekesen Kremon Rantzau til Kærgård og Lønborggård. 1570 she was permitted to keep the tenantcy for 8 years, but it was paid off the following year when she married the German noble Ernst von Reckenberg. Her third husband was
Mads Nielsen Skade.

  1564-78 Queen Regnant Wisuthatevi of Lanna
(Thailand)
Also known as Phra Nang Visuti, Wisutthi Thewi or Wisutthithew (Maha Tewi) she was youngest daughter of Phaya Ket and placed on the throne by the Burmese after King Phra Mekut was deposed, and married to King Burengnong, or Bayinnaung. of Hantawaddy and Pegu, who sacked Ayudhaya in 1569 and continued fighting until his death in 1581. Lanna became a vassal state required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver trees, and manpower as necessary in times of war. She was the last descendent of Mengrai to rule, and after her death, the Burmese sent their own princes to rule in Lanna. (d. 1578).

  1564-1633 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Clèves-Nevers of Eu and Souveraine de Chateau-Renaud (France)
Successor of her brother, Jacques de Clèves. First married to Antoine de Croÿ, prince of Porcien and in 1570 to Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise, who was assassinated in 1588. (1548-1633)..

  Until 1564 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her relative, Moritz was Prince-Bishop of Freising until he resigned in 1566.

  1564-79 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Ratzin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1219 the “reichsunmittelbare” – Imperial Immediate – convent came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the convent immunity and during the reign of Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 it was turned into a noble Ladies Chapter (Gräflicher Damenstift) with a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and the Princess-Abbess also sat on the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) in 1500, which was the Regional Assembly.

  1564-70 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was also member of the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. She resigned in order to marry Count Wolfgang II von Barby. She was the youngest daughter of Johann von Anhalt-Zerbst and Margrethe von Brandenburg was succeeded by her niece, Anne Marie von Anhalt, and lived (1545-74).

  1564-66 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Reventlow of the County of Åstrup, Denmark
1566-80  County Sheriff of the County of Jegindø
Margrethe Reventlow was the second wife of Erik Krabbe (1510-64), and after his death, she was in charge of the fief until a new Lensmand (County Sheriff) was appointed. Held Jegindø as security for lones until it was paid off by Tyge Krabbe. She lived (1525-1606).

  1564-73 County Sheriff Johanne Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of the Shire of Hindsted, Denmark
Johanne Rotfeld til Eskær was widow of Hans Lykke, but apparently appointed to the tenantcy in her own right.

  1564-? County Sheriff Karen Jacobsdatter Ged of Gisleberg Len, Denmark
Karine or Karen Ged til Røsøholm og Jordbjærg was widow of Mogens Krabbe til Vegholm og Skillinge, and held the tenantcy as security for lones. (d. 1587).

  1565-ca. 76 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Rietberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband Count Johann II of Rietberg, Lord auf Esens, Stedesdorf und Wittmund (1541-1562) she acted as regent for her daughters, Armgard and Waldburgis. The Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, and in 1565 the daughters were granted the fief (des Lehens erneut belehnt). In 1567 she granted Wittmund City Rights.

  1564/65-82 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Urne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Entered the chapter in 1542 and “reigned as Abbess ably and well like no other abbess before or after her”. There were complaints that the chapter was opened to anyone who wanted to visit, the canonesses fought openly and refused to comply with the rule or the abbess, many were drunk on a regular basis, drinking up the fourteen barrels of beer received each year as rent and more. It was also asserted that women’s rooms were used as brothels for any young nobleman who wandered inside. She was daughter of Knud Urne til Søgård, and (d. 1582).

  1565-76 Hereditary Countess Armgard von Rietberg of Rietberg (Germany)
1576-84 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
Also known as Irmgard, she was daughter Johann II and Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt. After her father’s death, the Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, but her mother protested and in 1565 she and her sister, Walburgis, were given back the fief. The latter received the Harlingerlands and Armgard received Rietberg. She was first married to Erich Count von Hoya (from 1568) and from 1578 with Simon VI. von der Lippe. She did not have any children and was succeeded as Countess by her sister, Walburgis.

  1565-84 Lady Walburgis von Rietberg of the Harlingerland (Germany)
1584-86 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
The two sisters were granted the territory three years after their father’s death, and in 1576 the inheritance was finally settled. Also known as Walburga, she was married to Count Enno III von Ostfriesland. After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days. Her two daughters seem to have been taken in the care of her mother-in-law, Anna of Sweden. Walburgis was succeeded by daughter, Sabine Catharina von Ostfriesland (b. 1582) with her father as regent for a number of years. The younger daughter, Agnes, married Lord Gundacar zu Liechtenstein and Nicolsburg in 1603. The marriage-treaties resulted in various lawsuits – the last ended in 1835 – where the Princes of Liechtenstein claimed the County of Rietberg and they still use the weapon and title for sidelines of the family. Walburga was the last of the house of Werl-Arnsberg, and lived (1555/56-86)

  1565-before 1609 Reigning Marchioness Anne de Croÿ of Renty (Belgium) 
Succeeded father, Guillaume and was first married to Emanuel de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny (d. 1590) and secondly to Philippe de Croy, Comte de Sole (d. 1612).

  1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Staufenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
Her husband, Johann von Münsterberg zu Oels in Slesia, died 1565, and her brother, Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Calenberg und Göttingen, granted her the Castle as her dowry and transformed it into a hosptal, and lived (ca. 1516-80).

  1565-75 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Also Abbess of Freckenhorst 1570, and of Borghorst 1572. She introduced the reformation after years of oppostion by her predecessor, whereafter Herford became a secular protestant Stift – the only one to be reformed. The other Protestant Chapters were Lutheran. She was daughter of Simon V, Count of Noble Lord zur Lippe and Magdalene von Mansfeld. Her sister, Magdalene was sovereign from 1586. She lived (1525-78).

  1565-74 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Kapelgård, Denmark
1565-66 County Sheriff of the County of Tølløse
1565-71 Acting County Sheriff of the Counties of Kappelgården and Ringkloster
1571-72 County Sheriff of the County of Åkær
1572 County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs
After her mother’s death, Birgitte Gøye was brought up at the convent  Ringkloster by Skanderborg. Her relationship with her stepmother, Margrethe Sture, was very bad. 1537 she became Lady of the Chamber (Kammerjomfru) of King Dorotheas and became a close friend of Princess Anna, later electress of Sachsen. Married Councillor of the Realm, Admiral Herluf Trolle in 1544 after she had managed to break off another engagement. They had no children, but she was in charge of the upbringing of many young noble ladies who lived with her for numerous years. In 1564 she and Herluf founded Herlufsholm Boarding school for children of the nobility and she was its Chancellor 1565-67. In 1571, after she had lost her other fiefs, Dowager Queen Dorothea, gave her the tenantcy of Åkær by Horsens, but after the Queen’s death, Birgitte also lost this possession, until she was given Ydernæs for life. She lived (ca. 1511-74).

  1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Mette Olufsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
1565-67 County Sheriff of the County of Strø in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
All her life, Mette Rosenkrantz was extremely rich, and together with her sister, Birgitte, she inherited the estate of Vallø, a very big possession, she administered Skarhult for her children of the first marriage with Councillor of the Realm Steen Rosensparre, and her second husband, Chancellor Peder Oxe, had given her possession for life of his enormous lands and the estates of Gisselfeld, Tølløse and Løgismose, which she could not inherit, since they had no children, and she won the cases his relatives raised against her disputing the legality of his transfers. As all other estate owners at the time she went through numerous disputes and court-cases not least because their lands were scattered over big areas, not one unit. She also inherited lands from her mother, Ide Munk (d. 1586), and was probably the biggest landowner of her time and a reformed the way the estates and farms were run. Mother of 3 children, and lived (ca. 1533-88).

  1565-85 County Sheriff Abel Sørensdatter Skeel of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Hjem and the County of Dueholm
1565 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Riberhus Len with the Shires of Gjørding and Skad, Denmark
Abel Skeel was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Hr. Niels Hansen Lange Munk til Kærgård, Fadersbøl og Visselbjerg. 1573 King Frederik 2 asked her to give one of the three bells of the Chapter of Dueholm to the Church of Sct. Clemens Kirke in Nykøbing Mors, as the old bells had been lost in the fire of 1560. She did not have any children, and (d. 1585).

  1565-67 County Sheriff Elsebe Axelsdatter Brahe of the County of Fliginde (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Elsebe Brahe took over after the death of her husband, Hans Jepsen Skovgaard. She did not have any children her two fiancees prior to her marriage had both died.

  1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Apollonia Frederiksdatter von Ahlefeldt of the County of Hagenskov with the Shire of Bog, Denmark
Apollonia von Ahlefeldt was widow of Joachim Brockdorff. She was daughter of Frederik von Ahlefeldt, of Pinneburg in Slesvig-Holstein and Catharine Henningsdatter Pogwisch. She was mother of one son, and lived (ca. 1515-88).

  1565-91 County Sheriff Inger Johansdatter Oxe of Lund Sankt Peders Kloster (Then Denmark, Now Sweden) and the County of Søllestedgaard, Denmark
1565-66 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbning with the two Shires of Falster
Inger Oxe was widow of Jørgen Brahe til Tostrup, who had been appointed County Sheriff of Dowager Queen Sophie, who held Lolland and Falster as her dorwy. As they did not have any chidren they became the foster parents of the later famous astronomer Tycho Brahe. Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Sophie af Mecklenburg 1572-84. 3 of her sisters, Mette Pernille and Sidsel also were County Sheriffs. She (d. 1592).

  1565-74 County Sheriff Pernille Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Korsør with the Shires of Flakkebjerg and Slagelse, Denmark
Pernille Oxe was appointed to the tenantcy in succession to her late husband, Admiral Otto Rud, who had died in a Swedish prison. The sister of Inge and Sidsel Oxe and the Chancellor Peder Johansen Oxe, she lived (1530-76).

  1565-78 County Sheriff Ide Truidsdatter Ulfstand of Hassens Birk
1587 Acting County Sheriff of Marup, Denmark
1589-91 County Sheriff of Mørup in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Ide Ulfstand was widow of Falk Gøye, she held Hassens as security for lones and exchanged Marup and Mørup with other properties in an agreement with Eiler Brokkenhuus. Granted Mørup with out any duties to the king when she followed Princess Anne to Sachen. She (d. ca. 1604).

  Around 1565 County Sheriff Birgitte Clausdatter Bille of the County of Svendstrup
1575-? County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark
Birgitte Bille was widow of Christoffer Galle and held the tenantcy as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. after 1613).

  1566-86 Co-Guardian Duchess Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach (Germany)
Her husband, Duke Johann Friedrich II von Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach, (1529-95), had attempted to win back the dignity of Elector through taking up arms. He was defeated and imprisoned for life by the Emperor and Imperial Diet. She then lived with her brother-in-law, Johann Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, together with her two sons, Johann Casimir von Sachsen-Coburg (1564-1633) and Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Eisenach and after his brother’s death also in Coburg (1566-1638), but later she set up her own court in the Zollhof zu Eisenach, in 1571 at the Castle of Wartburg and finally at the Castle of Eisenberg. In 1570 the Imperial Diet had reinstated her sons and named three electors: Friedrich III. von der Pfalz, August von Sachsen as Johann Georg von Brandenburg as their guardians and in 1572 the duchy was divided in a part for each son. 1578-81 they both studied at the University of Leipzig, and in 1586 they assumed the reigns in their duchies. Johann Friederich II was still imprisoned and died one year after her. Her two oldest sons died in infancy, and she lived (1540-94).

  1566-1631 Dame Catherine Parthenay-L’Archevêque of Parthenay-Soubise and Mouchamp (France)
Also known as de Parthenay-Larchevêque, she was a poet, dramaturgist and mathematician and a center of the protestant culture in the North Eastern part of France. 1568 married to Charles de Quélenec Baron du Pont., who died during the Saint Barthelemew’s Night in 1572. A few years later she married René II de Rohan Vicomte de Rohan, Prince de Léon, Comte de Porhoët, and took up residence in Bretange and developped a number of protestant churches. When her husband died in 1586 she concentrated on raising her 5 children and in 1627-28 she participated in the defence of the City of Rochelle against the armies of Cardinal de Richelieu.. After the fall of the city she was imprisoned at the Castles of Blain and Josselin. Her oldest son, Duke Henri II de Rohan-Soubise (1579-1638), became chief of the Huguenot Party together with Condé, Coligny and Henri de Navarre and was succeeded by his daughter, Marguerite de Rohan upon his death. Catherine was daughter of another Huguenot leader, Jean V (1512-1566) and Antoinette Bouchard (d. 1580), and lived (1554-1631).

  1566-? County Sheriff Sidsel Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Broby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1571-92 County Sheriff of the County of Rødinge, Denmark 
1573-74 Dowager County Sheriff of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård
Sidsel Oxe was daughter of Johan Oxe til Nielstrup and Mette Mogensdatter Gøye and was appointed tenant in her own right. When her husband, Councillor of the Realm, Erik Jørgensen Podebusk til Bidstrup died, she administered the tenantcy. He inheited Øster Velling Birk from his mother, Ermegård Andersdatter Bille, when she died 1564. In 1593 Sidsel was granted the jurisdiction of Øster Velling, giving her right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She (d. 1593).

  1566-68 County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Rotfeldt of the County of Ulvskov, Denmark
Margrethe Rotfeldt was widow of Hans Mandrupsen Holk, who defended Varberg Castle in Halland against the Swedish troops, but was run over and held prisoner with her and their 2 children. He died shortly after and they were freed the following year. She lived (ca. 1540-75).

  1566-68 County Sheriff Sidsel Eilersdatter Bryske of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark
Sidsel Bryske inherited the tenantcy from her brother, Antonius (Klausen) Bryske. She was widow of Eskild Gøye. She (d. 1573).

  1566-76 County Sheriff Maren Eilersdatter Friis of the County of Vejstrupgård, Denmark
Marine or Maren Friis was widow of Claus Brockenhuus, she held the tenantcy for life. She (d. 1576).

 

1566-73 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Liechtenstein-Murauof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Otto von Liechtenstein-Murau (d. 1564) and Benigna von Liechtenstein (of the later Princes of Liechtenstein) (d. 1579). Her parents were not related.


  1566-70 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Manrique de Lara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her family was extremely influential during the reigns of Carlos V (1500-16-56) and Felipe II (1537-56-98).

  1567-68 Regent Dowager Queen Shim of Korea
Also known as In-sun Wang-hu, she was the widow of Myongjong (1534-1567), and adopted the third son of Prince Tok-hung, who then succeeded his uncle as Kun Jong-jon or Sonjo (1552-1608). She lived (1532-75).

  1567-79 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Johann von Mansfeld, she took over the regency for son Ernst VI (1561-1609). She was daughter of Duke Ernst I von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Sofie von Mecklenburg, and lived (1534-96).

  1567-1625 Politically influential Queen Anna af Danmark of Scotland and England (United Kingdom)
The newest research shows that she was very influential during the reign of her husband, James VI of Scotland and from 1603 James II of England. She was a shrewd and powerful player in the court politics of Scotland and, later, England. Her influence can be seen in James’s choices for advisors and beneficiaries of royal attention. She also developed an alternative court and sponsored many of the other artistic ventures in one of the most productive and innovative periods of English cultural history. James’ and Anna’s longstanding dispute over the raising of the heir, Henry, caused a major scandal of the time and was suspected as a plot against the king’s safety. In order to assert her own power, Anna actually forced a miscarriage upon herself; an event that is referred to in much hitherto unnoticed contemporary diplomatic correspondence. She lived (1574-1619)

  1567-70 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Fadersdatter Sparre of the Counties of Vefre and Høgby, Denmark
1570-72 Acting County Sheriff of Helne Kirke in Land (Allehelgenes Kloster)
1574-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County Verpinge (Skåne)
1574-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Borgeby
1582-1605 County Sheriff of Börreringe Kloster and the Shire of Frost (Frostherred)
1586-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Sørby
1599-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Skøtsherred
1601-05 County Sheriff of the Counties of Hiöby and Lindholm in Skåne (Now Sweden)
Gørvel Sparre was one of the last members of the so-called “Nordic nobility” which existed during the Union between Denmark, Norway and Sweden as she had possessions in all three countries. She was an only child and inherited Norway’s largest estate Giske from her mother’s brother in 1537. During the The Count’s Feud  1534-36 she was kept prisoner with her seven stepchildren at her second husband’s estate, Varberg in Skåne, and also gave birth to her only son, who died 1548. She secured her possessions by giving large grants to the king, and in exchange she became Lensmand (County Sheriff) for life of Verpinge, and she were later given other fiefs to administer for the crown for life. She continued to grant most of her Norwegian estates to the crown, and in 1601 she appointed king Christian 4 as her sole heir after the death of her only child, Nils Ulfstad. In a number of her tenantcies, she also held pastorial rights. Married to the Swedish Councillor of the Realm, Peder Nilsson Grip (d. 1533), Truid Gregersen Ulfstand (d. 1445) and Lave Axelsen Brahe (d. 1567). She lived (ca. 1509-1605).

  1567-.. County Sheriff Tale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Rørum, Denmark
1595-99 County Sheriff of the County of Hesselbjerg in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Tale Ulfstand’s husband, Poul Pedersen (Laxmand) den yngre til Stenholt, died 1557. At first she administered Rørum jointly with Else Ulfstand and later with Lisbeth Rosenkrantz. She owned the castles of Skabersjö, Häckeberga and Høgestad in Denmark and in the landscapes that was conquered by Sweden in 1658.

  1567 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk of the County of Odensegård
1567-68 Acting County Sheriff of the Conty Stege with the two Shires of Møn, Denmark
Viveke or Vibeke Podebusk was widow of Evert Bildt. She held Herrested as security for lones. She was owner of Raunholt and Lindholm Castle and in 1580 was granted the jurisdiction of Raunholt, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines.). She (d. 1596).

  1567-79 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of the Shire of Rugsø, Denmark
1580-82 County Sheriff of the County of Satsø
1582-1611 County Sheriff of the County of Orlofgård
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shire Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg
Karen Banner til Høgholt held the teantcy as security for a lone to her husband, Gregers Truedsen Ulfstand, who was County Sheriff 1548-80, and held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Karen’s uncle, Peder Oxe in 1575. (d. 1611).

  1567-91 County Sheriff Birgitte Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Kirkeby, Denmark
Birgitte Rønnow was widow of Henning Jørgensen Qvitzow til Sandager, Rørbæk, Lykkesholm and Falde (1513-1569), who had first been married to Ide Thomesdatter Lange to Lydum (d. 1553). She (d. 1590).

  1567-91 County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Friis of the County of Gudumlund, Denmark
Anne Friis eld the biscopal fief for life until she handed it over to Jens Kaas. She was married to Chresten Krabbe, mentioned to Viumgård in 1592.

  1567-1610 Princess-Abbess Maria Segesser von Brunegg of Gutenzell (Germany)
Considered one of the most important rulers of the territory. During the visitation in 1574, by the Abbot of Bodenseezisterze, who was in charge of the clerical affairs and responsible for the economic affairs, the 47 Heggbachers and other neighbouring convents were praised for their piety and it lasted another 50 years before the convent reforms were introduced. Another version of her name is Maria von Segesser aus Brunegg.

  1567-90 Royal Abbess Magdalena von Habsburg of the Royal Chapter of Hall in Tirol (Königliches Damenstift Hall) (Austria-Hungary)
She founded the royal Chapter for royal and noble ladies that existed until 1783. She lived there with her two sisters, Margaretha and Helena. Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I and Anna of Hungary, she lived (1532-90)

  1568-ca. 72 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna-Maria von Brandenburg–Ansbach of Württemberg (Germany)
Widow of Christoph (1515-50-68) and regent for son Ludwig (1554-68-93) together with her brother Margrave Georg-Friedrich of Brandenburg, Margrave Karl von Baden and Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken. The mother of 12 children, she lived (1526-89).

  Ca. 1568-97 Sovereign Marquise Renée d’Anjou of Mézières, Countess de Saint-Fargeau (France)
Married to François, Prince-Dauphin d’Auvergne, Duc de Montpensier (1582), duc de Saint-Argau (1572) and de Châtellerault (1582/84), who lived (ca. 1542-92). She (d. 1597).

  1568-80 Princess-Abbess Renée de Dinteville of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
Coadjutrice 1565-68 and elected Abbess because duke Charles III of Lorraine preferred an Abbess from the local nobility of the Duchy. 1579 was forced to accept Barbe de Salm as Coadjutrice of the Chapter. She was the issue of a noble family of high-ranking courtiers. 

  1568-78 Reigning Abbess Marie III de de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of Lord of Thieuloye and Lievin.

  1568-92 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Goeberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The General of the Order of the Cisterciensers (Ordensgeneral) visited the chapter in 1573.

  1568-69 Acting County Sheriff Rigborg Lauridsdatter Tinhuus of the County of Silkeborg, Denmark
Rigmor Tinhuus til Julskov was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She was mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and (d. 1572).

  1569 Queen Visutthikasat of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand) 
Also known as Thepkasattery or Khun Pirenthep, she was the last of the old ruling family, her husband, Mahathammaracha (Maha Tammaradschathirat or King Maha Thammaraja), Chief of the Sukhothai, was king (1569-90). She is not listed as Queen Regent in most chronologies, but the Thai National Museum in Bangkok list her as such.

  1569-1623 Sovereign Princess Marie de Penthièvre of Martigues (France)
Created Princess after her father, Sébastien de Luxembourg, Duke de Penthièvre, was killed. She married Philibert-Emmanuel de Lorraine, duc de Meroeur (d. 1602). And their daughter brought Martigues to her husband, Cécar de Bourbon-Vendôme, legitimated son of Henri IV. 

  Ca. 1569-72 Sovereign Lady Jeanne de Mérode of Veulen (Belgium)
Her brother died in 1569, but the date of her accession has not been confirmed.

  1569-84 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Anna von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken (Germany)
After the death of her husband Duke Wolfgang von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1526-69), she became joint guardian for their fourth and fifth sons, Friedrich von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein (1557-97) and Karl (1560-) together with her brother Onkels Landgraf Wilhelm IV. von Hessen-Kassel, Kurprinz Ludwigs VI. von der Pfalz and her two older sons Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg und Johann I. von der Paflz-Zweibrücken. She was mainly engaged with her sons upbringing and education – in the orthodox Lutheran faith. Her sister, Agnes, was In-charge of the Government of Sachesen 1546-53 and Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee 1553-55. Anna lived (1529-91).

  1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
The sister of Duke Heinrich the younger von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, she was widow of the Slesian Duke Johann von Münsterberg und Oels and transformed the castle into a hosptal.

  1569-83 Politically Active Queen Katarina Jagellonica of Sweden 
Originally named Katarzyna Jagiellonka, she was the youngest daughter of Sigismund I of Poland and Bona Sforza. In 1562 Katarina and the duke Johan (Brother to king Erik) got married, a marriage that was not blessed by king Erik. As a result Johan and Katarina was thrown in to jail at Gripsholms Castle. During their prison period Katarina gave birth to Isabella and Sigismund.1566 Tsar Ivan in Russia demanded that Katarina Jagellonica would be extradited to him. King Erik liked the idea but As he was forced to abdicate in 1568 he didn’t get the chance to realize the extradition.As Queen Katarina tried to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. As she had good contact with (among other) Cardinal Hosius and her husband was interested in the new reforms, which had been carried out in the catholic church, she made good progress. Her death marked the end of the attempt to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. She lived(1526-83). 

  1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Jane Howard in England (United Kingdom)
Another of the rebellion-leaders. Her husband the 6th Earl of Westmoreland, Charles Neville, was another of the leaders of the failed rebellion. In effect she had more to do with raising the troops than he did. She was well educated but not the cleverest when it came to understanding political machinations. She was first to urge the rebels to rise up against the queen and yet she expected Elizabeth to pardon her when they failed. She hoped to arrange the marriage of her brother, the Duke of Norfolk, to Mary Queen of Scots and put them both on England’s throne. Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. Jane Howard lived under house arrest for the rest of her life, while her husband fled to the Continent and lived there in exile. She lived (1537-93).

  1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Anne Somerset in England (United Kingdom)
One of the leaders of the Rebellion of the Earls of Northern England revolted against Elizabeth in order to restore Catholicism to England. The rebels hoped to free Mary, Queen of Scots from captivity. Queen Elizabeth put down the rebellion, and her troops killed 3. 000 of the rebels Lady Anne escaped to the Netherlands in 1570 and died here. Marred to Thomas Percy, 1st. Earl of Northumberland who had a very important role in the Rising of the North, he fled to Scotland once that rebellion was defeated, where he was captured by the Earl of Morton and handed over to the English government, and publicly executed in 1572. The Earldom went to her brother-in-law and the estates inherited by their four daughters. She was daughter of the Earl of Worcester, and lived (1538-91).

  1569-98 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kirmbreith of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
As Reichsprältin (Imperial Prelate), the Fürstäbtissin had a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and she was also member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bavarian Circle (Bayrischer Kreis).

  1569-ca. 1601 Princess-Abbess Marie I van Hoensbroek of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
One of her ancestors, Knight Herman Hoen, was appointed Lord van Hoensbroek by Duchess Johanna van Brabant in 1388 for his service at war. The family were later given the title of Count.

  1569 Abbess Nullius Isabella II Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The list of Abbesses of the chapter is not complete and there are at least two different versions of the chronology of the reign of the Abbesses, and in an alternative list, she appears as ruler in 1621. She was another member of the family of the Counts of Conversano.

WOMEN IN POWER 
1570-1600

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  1570-1609 Ratu Loharaung of Tagulandang (Indonesia)
Daughter of a local minor ruler, Raja Bowntehu, she became the first monarch of whole Tagulandang. Succeeded by the son of her daughter, Tansekoa, Balango.

  1570-79 Regent and Guardian Maria Jacobäa von Baden   of Baden-Baden (Germany)
Together with her son, Duke Albrecht V von Bayern (1528-79), she was guardian for her  grandson, Margrave Philipp II von Baden-Baden (1559-69-99) after the death of both his parents, Philibert (1536-54-69) and Mechtild von Bayern (1532-65) (Her daughter). Philbert, had inherited Baden-Baden from his father, Bernhard III who was her uncle, and who had inherited his share of the state when her father died as she was his only child. The other share was inherited by her other uncle Ernst I, and their decendants;
Christoph, Philipp and Karl von Baden-Durlach claimed the regency, but she had already received the homage by the inhabitants and Estates (“die Erbhuldigung eingenommen”) and was confirmed as regent by the Emperor. She lived (1507-80).

  1570-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)
In 1538 she was married to Duke Friederich III von Liegnitz and held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry. Also known as Katarzyna Meklemburska, she was daughter of Duke Heinrich V von Mecklenburg and Helena von der Pfalz, mother of sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1518-81).

  Around 1570 Leader Nei Anginimaeao of the immigration to Kiribati
Around 1570 Chief of Tabiang
According to the oral history, the immigration to the Kiribati islands was lead by Nei Anginimaeao and her brother Na Kouteba, who commanded a fleet of canoes which left Beru, not long after the wars had started under Tem Mwea, when Bakarerenteiti was Uea of Beru. No one was in danger of losing lands on Beru Island and it seems probable that Nei Anginimaeao and her followers thought it a good time to settle on an island not quite so crowded. Others had left during the wars and settled on most of the islands to the north as far as Marakei. Nei Anginimaeao clearly knew exactly where she was going and what she was going to do, and she did it with superb skill. Afterwards she became chief of parts of the islands.

  Around 1570 Chief Nei Teborata of Toakira (Kiribati)
One of the followers of Nei Anginimaeao, who gave her the territory to administer on her own. Kiribati still has female chiefs. If there are only daughters in the family, the eldest daughter would be called Chiefess but the nearest male relative will do the work until the son of the Chiefess will be old enough to take it on. The succession passes to the firstborn child, and if the eldest child is a daughter she will be called Chief but her eldest brother will do the work until her eldest son is old enough to take it on.

  1570-71 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Bild of the County of Ørbæk, Denmark
Margrethe Bild was given the tenantcy for life together with her husband, Henrik Friis til Hesselager, who died in March 1571. She died two months later. They had 13 children together. (d. 1571).

  Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Pederdatter Fikkesen of the County of Gedestorp, Denmark
Karen Fikkesen was widow of Mads Torbernsen til Sandby (of the Hässelholm family), and held the tenantcy as security for lones.

  Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Krumstrup of Toreby Birk, Denmark
Widow of Lave Urne, she held it as security for lones jointly with Jakob Brockenhuus.

  1570-77 Princess-Abbess Anne Marie von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Anna Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg-Zerbst, she succeeded her aunt as the first of four sisters to occupy the now titular dignity as Fürstäbtissin. The territory had in reality been incorporated into the Principality of Anhalt, with her father as “administrator” and holder of Gernrode’s vote in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). She resigned in order to marry Duke Joachim Friederich Schlesien, Duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau (1550-1602), and became mother of 6 children. She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, and lived (1551-1605).

  1570-81 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca Manrique of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of an ancient and influential noble family in Castilla.

  1571-1600 Princess-Abbess Anna Jakobäa von Sulzbach of Säckingen (Germany)
As the only canoness remaining in the Chapter, she was elected by the canons. Expanded the possessions of the chapter and continued the building projects of her predecessor and 1575 the new residence of the chapter (Stiftsgebäude) was finished. The year before Ursula Giel had entered the chapter and was soon after followed by 2 other ladies. Also known as Maria Jacobe, she lived (1538-1600).

  1571-72 Acting County Sheriff Beate Klausdatter Bille of the County of Rødinge and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1575 County Sheriff of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark
Beate Bille was married to Otto Tygesen Brahe, Councillor of the Realm and Fief-holder of Helsingborg. She administered the tenantcy in Skåne, now Sweden, jointly with Sidsel Oxe. She was among others mother of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, and Margrethe, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Lanskrona in 1612, and lived (1526-1605).

  1571-.. County Sheriff Magdalene of the County of Møgeltønder, Denmark
Widow of Claus Rantzau.

  1571-87 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Blome of the County of Hørbygård, Denmark
Karen Blome was widow of Mogens Godske (of the Bielke Family), who had previsously been married to Margrethe Torbendsdatter Sparre. She was from Holstein and her family was close to the king, who gave them joint ownership of the tenantcy of Hørbygård from 1539 and he later held many tenantsies and fiefs. She (d. 1587).

  1571-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Katharine von Braunschweig of Crossen in Brandenburg-Küstrin (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Markgraf Johann von Küstrin, she took up residence at her dorwy. Mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1518-74).

  1571-1614 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Stolberg of Wertheim and Bereuberg (Germany)
The three daughters of Count Ludwig of Stolberg, Lord of Wertheim am Main and Königstein am Taunus were heiresses. Their husbands: Count Dietrich VI von Manderscheid-Schleiden, Philipp von Eberstein and Ludwig von Löwenstein alternated in the government for one year at the time until the possessions were divided in 1581. Elisabeth’s first husband died in 1593 and the following year she married Wilhelm von Kreichingen. She had no children.

  1572-1604 Sovereign Duchess Catherine de Bourbon de Navarra of Albret, Comtesse d’Armagnac and Rodez 
1577 Lieutenant-général of Béarn
1582-92 Regent of Béarn (France)
Succeeded her mother, Juana III of Navarra in some of her fiefs, and was also Princess of Navarra and “Madame France” through her father, Antoine de Vendôme. She was heir presumptive to the throne of Navarre, the County of Bearn, the Co-Principality of Andorra and the Duchy of Donnezan. Her brother, King Henri III of Navarra, became Henri IV of France in 1589 and two years after her death she had a son. She was married to Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Bar, who was succeeded by his daughter by the second marriage, Nicoläa. Catharine had no children, and lived (1559-1604).

  Ca. 1572-1605 Sovereign Countess Marie de Brimeu of Megen (The Netherlands)
It is not clear if she was the direct successor of Charles de Brimeu, who died 1572, but she is recorded as regent of the Free Imperial County jointly with her husband Charles de Croÿ-Aarschot, Duke of Croÿ and Prince de Chimay, who died 1610, and was succeeded by a distant relative, François Henri de Croÿ-Crecques. 

  1572-90 Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde of Reuss zu Gera (Germany)
Her son Heinrich II Posthumous, was born two months after her husband, Heinrich XVI Reuss zu Plauen, Gera and Krainchfeld, died in April, and she was guardian for son, Heinrich (1572-1635), who was under regency of some male relatives. Her son was also Lord of 1/6 of Lobstein from 1577 and 1/3 of Ober-Kranichfeld from 1596 until he inherited all the estates of Ober-Kranichfeld and Lobenstein in 1616. She lived (1547-95).

  1572-90 Countess Regnant Marguerite de Foix of Candale, d’Astarac et de Bénauges (France) 
After her brother, Henri, was killed at Sommiéres, she inherited her family’s possessions. She was married to Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Duc d’Epernon (1554-1642), but had no children. She imprisoned her sister, Madame Françoise de Candale (d. 1649), and forced her to become a nun, but after her death Françoise left the convent and started a process in order to gain the family possessions. Marguerite lived (1567-93).

  1572-1624 Reigning Abbess Jehanne I de Bourbon of Jouarre (France)
Her sister Charlotte been Abbess before her but became a protestant and later married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. Another sister was Louise, Abbess of Faremoutier, (1548-86). They were Duc Louis II de Bourbon “le Bon” de Montpensier, etc, and his first wife Jacqueline de Longwy, Countess de Bar sur Seine. She lived (1541-1624).

  1572-73 and 1576-79 County Sheriff Dorthe Iversdatter Krabbe of Spøtrup, Denmark
Jomfru Dorthe Krabbe was granted the tenantcy jointly with her fiance Count Günther von Barby, but she died and she married Benedikt von Ahlefeldt. who was County Sheriff 1573-76 and after his death she married Erik Lykke.

  1572-1604 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Działyńska of Brodnica, Poland
As representative of the king she was in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1572-73 and 1576-79 County Sheriff Dorthe Iversdatter Krabbe of Spøtrup, Denmark
Jomfru Dorthe Krabbe was granted the tenantcy jointly with her fiancé, Count Günther von Barby, but she died and she married Benedikt von Ahlefeldt. who was County Sheriff 1573-76 and after his death she married Erik Lykke.

  1573 Regent Dowager Duchess Dedis Imedi Bagration of Samtzkhe (Georgia)
Governed in the name of their son after the death of her husband, Duke Kaihosro II Djakeli. After the Ottomans conquered the country, her son Minucihr converted to Islam and took the name, Mustafa, and she was bestowed with three villages were also to Dedis-Imedi. She was daughter of Duke Bagrat I of Muchrani, and (d. 1580).

  1573-1601 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bourbon of Neuchâtel (Neuenburg) (Switzerland)  
First married to Jean de Bourbon, Duke d’Enghien and secondly François II. de Clèves, Duke Nevers and last to Léonor d’Orléans (1540-73), Duke de Longueville, Prince de Neuchâtel. After his death she was regent for her son, Henri II d’ Orléans-Longueville, and showed both force and talent by her reinforcement of the princely authority and the financial reforms. She made treaties and took over the control of the finances from the citizen of the city. She made her own coins and used much of her energy to incorporate the Lordship of Valangin in the Principality of Neuchâtel, and on this occasion she made her only visit to the city in 1576. Daughter of François de Bourbon, Comte de Saint-Pol and Duchess Adrienne d’Estouteville, she lived (1539-1600).

 

1573-76 Princess-AbbessAnna II von Harrach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Count Leonhard III von Harrach and Barbara von Gleinitz and widow of Leonhard von Sinzendorf (1506-48). She lived (1510-76).


  1573 Acting County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Hardenberg of the County of Helsingborg (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Of high nobility, Anne Hardenberg was chambermaid to Queen Dorothea 1557-71, and here she got to know king Frederik 2 (king from 1559) who fell in love with her, and wanted to marry her, but this met widespread opposition. In 1572 she married Councillor of the Realm, Oluf Mouritsen Krognos, who died after only six months marriage. She lived at her dowry Bregentved and managed to keep her husband’s family at distance with the help of the royal family. She (d. 1589).  

  Ca. 1573-81 County Sheriff Margrethe Christensdatter Sandbjerg of Øland and Vig Len, Denmark
Margrethe Sandberg was widow of Niels Kjeldsen Juel til Astrup, Bøvling Len og Vilstedgård Len. (d. 1581).

  1574-84 Regent Dowager Duchess Françoise de Brézé of Sagan (France)
Countess de Maulevner in her own right. She took the reins after death of her husband Henri-Robert de La March, Duke of Sagan and Titular Duke of Bouillon, in the name of her son Guillaume-Robert (1562-88), who was succeeded by sister, Charlotte. Françoise was daughter of King François and lived (…87).

  1574-84 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Regenstein of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Ulrich VI of Regenstein (Reinstein) and Countess Magdalena von Stolberg.

  Until 1574 Princess-Abbess Magdalena zu Wied-Runkel of Elten (Germany)
She was daughter of Count Johan III zu Wied and Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg. (d. 1574).

  1574-78 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Walburga zu Wied of the Town, Adminsitrative Office and Winery of Butzbach in Stolberg (Germany)
Widow of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg, whose sister was Princess-Abbess Anna II von Quedlinburg. Her own sister was Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Elten. He inherited Königstein from his relative Count Eberhard IV zu Eppstein-Königstein in 1535, Wertheim, Breuberg from his daughter Katharina, the widow of the last count of Wertheim und Breuberg, Michael III, 1556, but it fell to their younger daughter Anna zu Stolberg-Rochefort and her husband Ludwig III von Löwenstein in 1598. (d. 1578).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, Denmark
Kirstine Ulfeldt was widow of Morten Svendsen (Orning) til Eget, who had been appointed Lensmand of Koldinghus in 1563 by Queen Dorothea, who held it as her dowry. He was member of a poor noble family and had first been married to Maren Clausdatter (Strangesen), widow of Godske Holck. Kirstine had first been married to Poul Abildgaard til Vranderup, and (d. 1589).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Abrahamsdatter Gyldenstierne of the Counties of Høgsted, Katsløse and Magleby in Skåne (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
1574-77 County Sheriff of Bekkeskov Kloster, Denmark
Gørvel Gyldenstierne til Asserbo had exchanged other property to get the 3 tenantcies. She had first been married to Gert Jensen Ulfstand til Bønnet and secondly to Laue Truedsen Ulfstand til Torup. She (d. 1577).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Berite Eriksdanner Banner of the County of Vester Skerning, Denmark
Berite Danner exchanged the tenantcy with other lands. Her first husband, Claus Bryske died 1565, in 1578 she married Knud Bille (d. 1592). She (d. 1591).

  Until 1574 Marquise Marie de Clèves de l’Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)
Daughter of Francois I de Clèves, Duke of Nevers. 1574 she married Henri I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, Duc d’Enghien, she died during the birth of her daughter, Catherine de Bourbon, Marquise d’Isles (1574-95). Marie lived (1553-74). 

  1574-95 Marquise Catherine de Bourbon of de l’Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)
Succeeded mother, Marie de Clèves, who died during her birth. Catherine lived (1574-95).

  1574-83 Politically Influential Nurbanu Sultan Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
When her husband, Selim III died, she kept his corpse in an icebox to conceal the death until her son; Murad III (1574-95) could be summoned from Manisa, where he was governor. He arrived 12 days later, and Nur Banu run the government together with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmet Pasha and was the chief advisor of her son. She also carried on a correspondence with the regent of France, Catherine de’ Medici, promoting good relations between the two courts. She was the first of influential women in the period called the Sultanate of Women. Probably born as Cevilia Venier-Baffo, the illegitimate issue of two Venetian noble families, and was captured by the Turks on the Aegean Island of Paros in 1537 and became a slave in Topkapi Sarayi lived (1525-83).

  1575-86 Rex Poloniae Anna Jagiellonka of Poland
Daughter of King Zygmunt I the Old of Poland and Bona Sforza, and was Queen and co-regent with her husband Stefan Batory, but she was not politically influential and only titular “king”. After the death of her husband, she introduced nephew Zygmunt Vasa of Sweden (the son of her sister) on the throne. Anna was a follower of the Contra-reformation, and lived (1523-96).

  After 1575-86 Regent Dowager Margravine Cecilia Vasa of Baden-Rodemachern (Germany)
Also known as Cäcilia Wasa, she was allowed to take over the regency after many years of processes against the stipulation in the will of her husband, Christoph II of Baden (1537-75). Her son, Eduard Fortunatus von Baden (1565-1600) was Margrave of Baden-Baden (1588-96). She lived a stormy life and travelled a lot. She spent a year in London, where her oldest son was born, and became a friend of Queen Elizabeth I. At some point she lived at her dowry Arboga in Sweden where she started an iron-mine and was behind piracy at the Baltic Sea. When Eduard Fortunatus died, his oldest son Wilhelm was only 7. He did not become Margrave of Baden-Baden until 1621 and it is not clear if either Cecilia or her daughter-in-law, Marie von Eichen (d. 1636), played any role during his minority. Apart from her oldest son she was mother of 5 sons who all were unmarried or died young. The daughter of King Gustav I Vasa of Sweden and his second wife Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, and lived (1540-1627).

  1575-78 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VI von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)
All the Ladies of the Chapter had the right to participate in the Landtag of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Essen, which met at least once a year, but the Secretary of the Chapter or other office-holders often represented them. The Landtag met in the Grand Hall of the Convent. Elisabeth IV held close connections with her brother, Count Hermann, she resigned in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. Her sister, Margaretha, was Princess-Abbess of Eltern and Vreden until her death in 1602. Elisabeth was daughter of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied, and lived (1544-86).

  1575-86 Princess-Abbess Felicitas I von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)
At this time the line of Hereditary Stewarts, the Lords von Helfenstein, was dying out. The last Lord, Johann XIV, had one daughter, Wilhelmina, who married Otto von Rolshausen, who was granted the Lordship of Mühlbach by Felicitas Countess von Eberstein.

  1575-87 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)
Reached a compromise with the villages in Gasterland and Kerenzen about the tithe. Her brother Johann Jakob was Provost of Bischofzel and another relative of hers, Jakob Christian Blarer von Wartensee, was Bishop of Basel – he lived (1542-1608). Her family had owned the Borough of Wartensee and in 1405 they got the “Landrecht” of the Appenzelle-Canton and stayed out of the Appenzeller-wars. The daughter of Kasper, Chief steward of Arbon and Siguna von Diesbach, and lived (1536-87).

  1575-1611 Reigning Abbess Eléonore III de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The French Princess had great influence with her nephew, King Henri IV of France, and her affection for him was so great that, towards the end of her life, when he was assassinated, her nuns dared not tell her lest the shock should be too great. She was daughter of Duc Charles IV de Vendôme and Françoise d’Alencon, Duchesss de Beaumont. Her brother, Duc Antoine de Vendôme, was married to Juanna III of Navarra and Titular King of Navarre (1555-62) – the parents of Henri IV – and 3 of her sisters were also Abbesses, Madeleine (1521-61) in Poitiers, Catherine in Notre Dame de Soissons and Renée (1527-83) in Chelles. Eleonore lived (1532-1611).

  1575-76 Acting County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerg, Hatting, Nim and Vor  and the County of Sankt Hans Kloster, Denmark
Also known as Karen Gyldenstjerne til Stjernholm. After the death of her husband, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz til Boller, she administered his fief for a period. Rosenkrantz was Stadholder in Norway, and later became military commander of the realm. Statholder in Nothern Jutland and a few years later he became Marshal of the Realm. They were closely connected to King Frederik 2. who was the sponsor of one of their sons. She was an able administrator. She built several manor houses, a new church in Uth. She collected a number of folk songs, which is one of the most important sources for knowledge of this tradition. Around 1590 she moved to Skt. Hans Kloster in Horsens, which she renamed, into Stjernholm. She had bought a number of houses in the town of Horsens, which caused much dispute with the city council, because she claimed that as a noble she did not have to pay tax and thereby she damaged the economic life of the city. It was not until 1598 that the case was settled. She was accused using sorcery to harm Anne Hardenberg at the neighbouring estate, but no case was raised and the king settled the dispute. 1599 her son, Frederik was convicted to lose his “honour” because of his relationship to Rigborg Brockenhuus. He was allowed to travel to Hungary to fight the Turks, but died in Prague in 1602. She was the oldest child of Christoffer Gyldenstierne (d. 1562) and Anne Parsberg (1515-87), who had 9 other children after her. The mother of 4 sons, of whom 2 died as infants, she lived (1544-1613). 

  1576-1610 Queen Amina Sarauniya of Zazzua, Zaria and Abuja
1580-82 Queen of Kano (Nigeria)
Probably the granddaughter of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states, which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling Queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother’s reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became Queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Lived (ca. 1533-ca- 1610).

  1576… Adelantada Juana Ortiz de Zárate of Corrientes, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, Adelantado of Chile (Chile)
Following the death of her father, Juan Ortiz de Zárate, Adelanto and Governor, founder of the City of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, she inherited the estates of the family and apparently Emperor Charles V named her Adelantado of Chile. She was married to Juan de Torres de Vera y Aragón, who became Governor in 1578, and mother of Juan Alonso de Vera y Zárate. Apparently her mother was the Inca Princess, Leonor Yupanqui, daughter of Tupac-Hupalla (Originally Auqui Huallpa Tupac) puppet-emperor in 1533.

  1576-78 Sovereign Duchess Elizabeth d’Austrice of Berry (France)
Given the duchy after the death of her husband, King Charles IX (1550-60-74), the son of Henri II and Catherine de’ Medici. Their only child was a daughter – Princess Marie-Elisabeth who lived (1572-78) – and Charles therefore was succeeded by his brother Henri III. Elizabeth lived (1554-78).

  1576-1602 Princess-AbbessFlorentina von Putterer of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The chapter of canonisses (Kanonissen or Chorfrauenstift) and it was founded around 1000 by Countess Palatine Adala of Bavaria. The abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress. In 1020 her grandchild, Aribo III handed it over to the protection of Emperor Heinrich II, who granted it immunity and raised it to the status of an Chapter of the Realm – or Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbaren Abtei) – the only one in Austria – and removed the Chapter from the influence of the Metropolits of Salzburg.

  1576-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
Alternatively resided at Eldenburg after the death of her husband, Johann-Albrecht I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The daughter of Elector Albrecht von Brandenburg, she was mother of 3 sons, and lived (1527-91). 

  1576-91 County Sheriff Anne Mandrupsdatter Holck of the County of Hørby, Denmark
Anne Holck til Stadsgård was widow of Verner Tønnesen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygår, Lensmand of Sölvesborg  (d. 1567). She (d. 1591).

  1577-79 De-facto joint ruler Queen Mahid-I Uliyah of Persia (Iran)
Also known as Mahd-e Olya, she initially dominated her husband, Mohammad Shah, who succeeded his brother, Shah Esma’il II, who was a brutal a pro-Sunni ruler who was poisoned with the participation of their sister Pari Khan Khanom after only one year at the throne. Mohammad proved to be a weak leader, but after her assassination in 1579 the Qezelbash took control. Meanwhile Ottomans took advantage of Iran’s political turmoil to launch a major invasion of the country. Consequently extensive territories were lost to Ottomans, including most of Azerbaijan, with Tabriz, and Georgia. The Safavid Dynasty was of Turkmen origin and established themselves first at Tabriz, which had been the capital of the Mongol Il Khans, in Turkish speaking Azerbaijanistan. They also brought the Shi’ite branch of Islam to Persia.

  1577-78 Reigning Sri Rani Makayiram Thirunal ofTravancore (India)
The Kulusekhara Dynasty of Travancore (or Tiruvankur) is of very ancient lineage, tracing its origins to the Royal House of Vanad and dating from 1100 AD. They attained considerable power during the reign of Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, during the early years of the fourteenth century. Marco Polo claimed to have visited his capital at Quilon, a centre of commerce and trade with China and the Levant. Europeans were attracted to the region during the late fifteenth century, primarily in pursuit of the then rare commodity, pepper. The Portuguese were the first to arrive, followed by their later rivals, the Dutch, during the seventeenth century.

  1577-84 Head of the Regency Government Dowager Margravine Anna von der Pfalz-Veldenz of Baden-Durlach (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl II (1553-77) she was regent for her sons together with Elector Ludwig VI. von der Pfalz and Duke Ludwig von Württemberg. The 2 oldest sons were Markgraf Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach and, Markgraf Jakob von Baden-Hachberg. The third son, Georg Friedrich inherited the whole territory in 1604. She was daughter of Pfalzgraf Ruprecht von Veldenz and Ursula, Wild- und Rheingräfin von Daun-Kyrburg und Salm and mother of 8 children, and lived (1540-77)

  1577-82 Superintendent Maria Marguerite de Mérode of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Was given the Marchionate as a fief by the States of Brabant, but she did not recieve the title of Marchioness. The king of Spain had administered it after the death of her uncle, Jan IV van Glymes, who died childless in 1567. Joint administrator with her husband, Jan baron van Wittem from 1578. Both were deposed by the Dutch after they sided with the Spanish, and the possession was given to the Prince of Oranje and not until 1588 is the eldest of their three daughters, Maria, given the Marchionate as a fief. She lived (1560-88).

  1577-1631 Reigning Lady Sophia Hedwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office of Darsim in Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)
1592-1631 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Loitz
Her husband, Duke Ernst Ludwig of Pommern-Wolgast (1545-69-92), handed over the village to her as her dowry. Her only son, Philipp Julius, was under the guardianship of an uncle until 1603. She was daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Brandenburg, her younger sisters, Elisabeth was Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1678 and Dorothea Augusta Princess-Abbess from 1611. She was also mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1561-1631).

  1577 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Karin Månsdotter of Sweden of Liuksiala Kungsgård in Finland
Initially the mistress of Eric XIV and later married to him to the “left hand” in 1567 and 1568, when she was ennobled and crowned queen under the name Katarina Magnusdotter. He was deposed on grounds of insanity in 1569, a few years later she was placed under house arrest in Åbo in Finland, her son, Gustav, was removed from her but she was allowed to have her daughter, Sigrid, by her side. Her brother-in-law, Johan III granted her the Royal Estate of Liuksiala which she administered justly and vize. She lived (1550-1612).

  1577-79 Princess-Abbess Josina I von Manderscheid-Blankenheim und Gerolstein of Thorn (The Netherlands)
At the elections for the successor of Margaretha von Brederode, Josina von der Marck got the most votes, but since she was not yet 30 Josina von Manderscheid took over the position of ruler of the territory. After a few years she fell seriously ill and nominated Josina v.d. Marck as her successor. She was daughter of Gerhard and Franziska von Montfort. Her sister Helena was a nun until she left the Chapter in order to marry Count Reinhard von Brederode. Josina lived (1537-79).

  1577-81 Princess-Abbess Sibylle von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
1601-14 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg
Even though she was still a minor, her father, Joachim Ernst von Anhalt, forced through her election as successor of her sister, Anne Marie as titular sovereign of the territory. It was confirmed by Emperor Rudolf II the same year. She only issued one decree in which she gave some land to the widow of Stefan Molitor the first evangelican Superintendent of the chapter.  When she resigned to marry Duke Freiderich von Württemberg (1557-1616), she was succeeded by another sister, Agnes Hedwig. She was mother of 14 children, and lived (1564-1614).

  1577-89 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)
Elected as successor of her sister, Magdalene, but after the Duke of Braunchweig occupied the territory and installed his daughter, Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, as de-facto as ruler. Margarethe had to flee to Neuenheerse and was only able to return after the second contra-abbess Margarete von Warberg died in 1587.

  1578-82 “Titular” Contra Abbess Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
After Margareta von Chlum was elected as Princess-Abbess, her father, Duke Julius, occupied and claimed that she was the real ruler, and Margareta had to flee. Margarete von Warberg was in power until 1587, and only then Margareta II was able to return. Her older sister, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and their younger sister, Dorothea Auguste was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1611. She lived (1677-1618).

  1578-1600 Sovereign Lady Anna Walburga von Neuenahr-Bedburg of Moers, Bedburg, Garsforf and Rosberg (Germany)
Also known as Waldburga von Neuenhar, Countess von Hoorn, or Regierende Gräfin Walburgis von Neuenahr-Moers, she succeeded her brother Hermann Graf von Neuenahr-Moers. Moers was occupied to by the Archbishopcy of Köln 1584-88, by Maurits van Oranje 1588-94, Bedburg and Garsdorf was claimed by Adolf Bentheim-Steinfurt and Roesberg was held by the Ketler family 1578-ca. 1595 until she sold the lordship to this family. She was first married to Philipp von Montmorency-Nivelle, Count von Hoorn, who was decapitated in 1567, and in 1570 to her relative Adolf von Neuenahr, Lord of Neuenhar, Moers, Limburg, Bedburg, Alpen, Alterna, Weerth, Hackenboiche, Lennep and Helfenstein (d. 1589). In 1594 named Maurits as her heir. She lived (1522-1600)

  1578-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VII von Sayn of Essen (Germany)
During her reign “only” 14 witch-processes were conducted, only a fraction of the processes in the neighbouring countries. Elisabeth VII was daughter of Count Adolf of Sayn and Maria von Mansfeld. Her brother’s daughter Anna Elisabeth (1572-1608) inherited the county from her uncle in 1606. Anna Elisabeth was married to Count Wilhelm zu Sayn and Wittgenstein (d. 1623). 

  1578-1614 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Breiten-Landenberg of Lindau (Germany)
Member of an old countly family.

  Around 1578-ca. 1606 Princess-Abbess Marie-Madeleine de Rebstock of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)
Conferred the fief of Wangenbourg at at her brother, Jean-Gabriel Rebstock, in 1606.

  1578-1600 Reigning Abbess Antoniette II de Wissocoq of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Bomy.

  1578-1611 Olangio to hoelialio Wulutileni Raja To Huliyalio of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She succeeded her father, Tuliabu, and was followed on the throne by daughter, Mboheleo.

  1578-79 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Eriksdatter Lange of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård
1615-16 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Bygholm Len with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
After the death of her first husband, Jens Nielsen Kaas, Margrethe Lange was acting Lensmand (County Sheriff) until a successor was appointed. Afterwards married to Knud Brahe (1555-1615) and after his death in charge of Bygholm etc. As most fief administrators she belonged to the ancient non-titled nobility. (d. 1622).

  1578 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Nebbegård, Denmark
1580 Acting County Sheriff of Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg
with the Shires of Arts Løve, Ods, Skippinge and Samsø
Birgitte Rosenkrantz was widow of Bjørn Kaas who was Lensmand in Helsingborg and Malmöhus. She later had a relationship to her late husband’s cousin, Gjord Kaas. Because it was considered to be incest at the time, she was executed on the command of King Christian 4. Gjord went into exile, and when he returned after 17 years he too was executed. According to the legend she is today the “White Lady” a ghost at Stårup Castle. (d. 1603).

  1578 County Sheriff Bege Clausdatter Emmiksen of the County of Hundsbæk, Denmark
Bege Emmiksen til Damgård was widow of Peder Galskyt (d. ca. 1554). She (d. ca. 1613).

  1578 County Sheriff Magdalene Clausdatter Sehested of the County of Æbelø, Denmark
Magalene Sehested til Spandetgård was widow of Mourids Podebusk and lived most of her life in Ribe, where she died after having been blind for some years. She was daughter of Claus Sested or Sehested, and lived (1538-1611).

  1578 County Sheriff Kirsten Pedersdatter Galt of the County of Børglum Kloster, Denmark
Kirsten Galt til Tyrrestrup was widow of Erik Kaas til Voergård og Lindbjergård, Lensmand of Børglum Kloster 1574. He had first been married to Berte Seefeld. She lived (1536-1616).

  1578-90 Feudal Princess Zenobia del Carretto of Melfi (Italy)
Succeeded her father, Marcantonio Doria del Carretto, as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and married Gian Andrea Doria, Duke di Tursi and Marchese di Torriglia etc. (1540-1606). The family retained certain sovereign rights until the War of the Spanish Succession, and the title became dormant to a degree. It was revived though, under less autonomous conditions, in 1760. She lived (1541-90).

  1578-1603 Politically Active Margravine Sophia von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
1603-39 Reigning Dowager Lady in Nürnberg
Following the death of his first wife, Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin, she took over her role, as the most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who had no children in any of his marriages. Sophia lived (1563-1639).

  1578  Candidate for the throne Infanta Catarina de Bragança of Portugal
After the death of Sebastião and because of the fact that Cardinal-King Henrique would not have heirs, she was among the candidates for the throne. Filipe II of Spain gained the throne, but her decendant, João II, Duque de Bragança became king under the name of  João IV in 1640. She was daughter of Infant Duarte, Duque de Guimarães, son of King Manuel I, and Infanta Isabel de Bragança married to João I de Bragança, Duke of Bragança and mother of 8 children. She lived (1540-1614).

  1579-86 Regent Dowager Duchess Katharina Sidonia von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Teschen-Freistadt (Poland)
Also known as Katarzyna SydoniaCieszyn, she reigned theshe reigned the Slesian Duchy in the name of her son Adam Wacław, after the death of her husband, Duke Wenzel III Andam.In 1586 she married.Emmerich III Forgach, Obergespan of Trentschin. The daughter of Duke Franz I and Sibylle von Sachsen-Freiberg, she was mother of 6 of her husband’s 9 children.Her son’s daughter, Elisabeth Lukretia, succeeded her brother Friederich Wilhelm (1601-17-25) as ruler of Teschen in 1625. Katherina Sidonia(d. 1594).

  1579-1623/24 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Penthièvre (France)
Succeeded father. Her husband, Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine, was Duke of Penthièvre 1579-1602 by the right of his wife. She was succeeded by daughter, Françoise de Lorraine in 1623 or 1624.

  1579-1604 Princess-Abbess Josina II von der Marck of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
Had been elected Abbess already in 1577, but since she was not yet 30, she had to step aside for Josina von Manderscheid. In 1586 she obtained a seat and voting right in the Westphalian Circle of the Diet of the Realm and the following year she participated in the Assembly in person. But Josina was the “black sheep” among the Princess-abbesses, and was, among other things, accused of printing false money. She was daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, and was succeeded by her sister, Anna, and lived (1546-1604).

  1579-94 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Gleissenthal of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1219 the reichsunmittelbare Chapter came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the Chapter immunity and during Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies, with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots), which had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Fürstäbtissin also sat on the Bavarian Landtag and from 1495/1500 member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) and in 1521 mentioned as Reichsprälatin (Imperial Prelate) in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  1579-80 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Mogensdatter Gyldenstierne of Åkær with Hadsherred, Denmark
Dorthe Gyldenstierne was in charge after the death of her husband, Christian Munk former Stadholder of Norway et cetera. She lived (1547-1583).

  1579-82 County Sheriff Margrethe Rantzau of the County of Gudum Kloster, Denmark
Widow of Otto Emmiksen. Detailed information missing.

  1579-97 Politically Influential Empress Maryam Sena of Ethiopia
During reign of her husband, Sarsa Dengel (1563-97). The country had been plagued by anarchy and civil war for generations, and it continued during her husband’s period as Emperor. 

  1580-90 Regent Dowager Sultana Cand Bibi of Bijapur
1596-99 Regent of Ahmadnagar 
(India)
After her husband, ‘Ali ‘Adil Shah II, was killed in 1580, she ruled with great prudence and intelligence till her nephew, Ibrahim ‘Adil Shah II, came of age. When order was restored in Bijapur kingdom she went back to her motherland Ahmadnagar, where the ruler, Murtada Shah, died at a moment when the foreign relations of the state were strained to breaking point and war was imminent. She returned to Bijapur and mustered some reliable troops for the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the army of the Mughals. After this great defence, she was known as Chand Sultana. Later the Mughals succeeded to turn her troops and had a siege over Ahmadnagar in 1599. She resisted the Mughal attacks with such courage that the invaders were repelled at many places. At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace to kill her. She fought bravely but was killed, and thus, the Mughals captured Ahmadnagar in 1600. She was daughter of Hussain Nizam shah of Ahamadnagar, and lived (1550-99).

  1580-1611 Sovereign Marquise Henriette de Savoie of Villars, Countess of Tende and Sommerive (France)
Daughter of Honoré II and Jeanne-Françoise de Foix and married to Charles de Lorraine. Her daughter, Catherine de Lorraine (1585-16189) and her husband, Carlo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova, Monferrato, Nevers and Rethel were Duchess and Duke of Mayenne. Henriette lived (1541-1611).  

  1580 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Krabbe of the County of Åkær with the Shire of Had, Denmark
Anne Krabbe was widow of Axel Viffert, who had taken over the teantncy in 1579. She married Erik Kass til Voergaard in 1595 and became a widow again 3 years later. Her sister, Karen, was Acting County Sheriff in 1594. Anne was mother of 2 daughters by her first husband and 1 by the second, and (d. 1625).

  1580-92 County Sheriff Else Hansdatter Mule of the County of Nordby, Denmark
Else Mule was widow of Iver Bertelsen, Magister in Sorø, Headmaster of Ringsted Kloster (1548-83) and Niels Pedersen Krag, Professor of History, Royal Histographer, Rector of Copenhagen University and Headmaster of Sorø Academy (d. 1602), who was send on various diplomatic missions and was ennobled by King James of Scotland. Her family had held the position of mayor of Odense for generations. SHe lived (1556-1605).

  1580-.. County Sheriff Gese Brokkenhuus of the County of Rynkeby with the Shire of Gudme, Denmark
Exchanged the tenantcy with other estates. Widow of Erik Bille. Detailed information missing.

  1580 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Skodborg, Denmark
Kirsten Ulfeldt had the tenantcy exchanged to her on behalf of her children. First married to Poul Abildgaard (d. 1563) as his third wife and secondly to Svend Mogensen Orning til Eget, who had first been married to Maren Clausdatter Strangesen Bild (ca. 1502-73), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Koldinghus. She (d. 1589).

  1580-1601 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Kłoczewska of Małogoszcz, Poland
Also known as Kłoczowska.

  1580-1602 Princess-Abbess Barbe de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of St. Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Also known as Maria Barbara von Salm. The Duke of Lorraine forced her predecessor to accept her as Coadjutrice in 1579. But the other canonisses refused to accept the automatic succession of Barbara von Salm and instead they elected Huberte de Chastenay and appealed to the pope, but he ruled in favour of Barbe, who appointed her rival as Coadjutrice and managed to build up a good relationship with the ladies of the chapter.  1588 the territory was again hit by the plague. (d. 1602)

  1581-1604 Sovereign Duchess Claude Catherine de Clermont of Retz (France)
Originally Dame de Dampierre and Baronne de Retz she was created Duchess-regnant together with her husband. She lived (ca. 1543-1604).

  1581-1610 Captain-Donatary Margarida Côrte-Real of Captainship of Angra including the Island of Terceira, Praia and São Jorge in the Azores (Portugal)
Held the office of Capitana do donatário which was similar to that of governor, jointly with her husband, Cristovão de Moura, 1st marquês de Castelo Rodrigo (1538-1613), Vice-King of Portugal on several occations. She succeeded her father, Vasco Anes Corte-Real (1530-77-81), was mother of 3 children, and lived (1570-1610).

  1581-… Regent Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Palandt-Culemborg of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)
Widow of Jobst II von Schaumburg-Gemen, who had participated in the freedom-fights of the Dutch against the Spanish and as a result the lordship, had been raided by the Duke of Alba in 1568. Born as Gräfin von Palandt.

  1581-1625 Joint Reigning Princess Anna Ostrogska of Jarosław (Then Ukraine, now Poland)
The daughter of Zofia ze Sprowy, who ruled (1545-80) and her first husband, she was married to Alexander Ostrogski at the age of 19 and they settled in Jaroslaw and in 1606 she bought the half of the town owned by her sister,  Katarzyna Sieniawska the second half of the city. She died after a lengthy illness after having lived (1575-1635/36).

  1581-1606 Joint Reigning Princess Katarzyna Sieniawska of Jarosław
Together with her sister, she ruled the town and domain which was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. (d. 1606).

  1581-86 Princess-Abbess Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The third of four of daughters of prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt to be titular head of the territory. She was follower of Melanchthons (Philippstine), which was in opposition to the ruling Lutheran Orthodoxy in Dresden. At the age of 14 she married Kurfürst August von Sachsen-Dessau, who died of a stroke after less than a month. And then, after 5 years as ruler of Gernrode, she married as his second wife, Duke Johann von Holstein-Sønderborg in 1588. He was the brother of August’s first wife, Anna of Denmark. Agnes-Hedwig gave birth to seven children of which two daughters survived, and lived (1573-1616).

  1581  County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge
1586-89 County Sheriff of Snersted in Skåne
(At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes to destinguis her from her many contemporary cousins with the same name. Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).

  1581 Acting County Sheriff Christence Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
Christence Rotfeld was widow of Bjørn Kaas, who had taken office the previous year. Mother of 7 children,  and lived (ca. 1535-1601).

  1582-1615 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite of Valois, Senlis, Clermont et d’Etampes (France)
1608-15 Countess of Auvergne et d’Eu
Succeeded mother, Catherine de Medici, in Valois. In 1572 she was forced to marry the Protestant Henri of Navarra (later Henri IV) to seal Catholic-Protestant reconciliation. She was involved in a number of extramarital love affairs at the courts of both her brother Henri III at Paris and her husband at Nerac. Expelled from the royal court for her political intrigues, she returned to the unwilling Navarre in 1584. After taking up arms against her husband, she was banished to the castle of Usson in Auvergne, where she soon took control. In 1599, ten years after her husband’s accession to the throne, she consented to the annulment of her marriage. He was a very important cultural personality; her charm and literary talent were admired by the leading writers of the age and was also known as Reine Magot. She lived (1553-1615).

  1582-1619 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Valois of Châtellerault, d’Angoulême et d’Etampes (France)
1593-96 Governor of Limousin
1605-19 Governor of the Bourbonnais
Daughter of Diane de Portiers and King Henri II of France, and was legitimized as Princess of France in 1548. She married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro and secondly with François Villers-Cotterets, Duke de Montmorency. She lived (1538-1619).

  1582-87 Reigning  Abbess-General Leonor de Castilla of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The last Perpetual Abbess – that is elected for life. Her successors were elected for three-year periods. Possibly the 10th child of Alonso de Castilla, Lord del Mayorazgo de Valladolid, of an illegitimate sideline of the royal house of Castilla, and Ines de Acuna.

  1582-87 De-facto Ruler Contra Abbess Margarete von Warberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Followed Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel as the contra-abbess and real ruler after the official office-holder, Margareta II, had to flee in 1578.

  1582-1611 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Orlofgård, Denmark
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shires of Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg
Karen Banner held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Karen’s uncle, Peder Oxe in 1575. (d. 1611).

  1582-96 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Sophia Gyldenstjerne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Elected by the Assembly of Canonesses and instated by the two Councillors of the Realm, Chancellor Ejler Grubbe and Steen Brahe. In the beginning she was an able administrator but soon the old disputes among the canonesses entrupted again and she was removed from office by King Christian 4. She was in charge of the estats of the chapter and mangade the Town of Maribo jointly with the Confessor.

  1582 Hereditary Landgravine Maximiliane von Pappenheim of Stühlingen, Lady of Hohenhöwen (Germany)
Inherited the territory after the death of her brother, Hereditary Marshal Maximilian von Pappenheim, and was married to Count Friedrich Rudolf von Fürstenberg.

  1583-… Joint Sovereign Lady Susanne von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
The daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship. Married to Georgs von Rindersbach.

  1583-… Joint Sovereign Lady Agnes von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
Younger daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship from her brother, Friedrich Karl I von Wildenstein. Married to a Lord von Haslang.

  1583-1609 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of the County and Castel of Philippsburg in Hessen-Rheinfels (Germany)
Her husband Philipp II of Hessen-Rheinfels (1541-67-83) had apparently received the county from his father, Philipp of Hessen-Kassel (d.1567). They did not have any children, and she lived (1549-1609).

  1583-1611 Princess-Abbess Katherina II Brümsi von Herblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
During her term in office the chapter burned down twice, in 1585 and 1610, and she sold some of the possessions in South Germany in order to extend the buildings of the Abbey and church. She reformed the Chapter and exerted her position as ruler of the territories. She was daughter of Eberhard von Brümsi, Lord of Altenklingen and Rosa von Breitenlandenberg.

  1583-98 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Steinhauer of Baindt (Germany)
Probably member of the noble family of Steinhauer zu Bulgarn.

  Around 1583 Abbess Nullius Vittoria Palagano of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory.

  1583-98 Joint County Sheriff Magdalene Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark
Magdalene Emmiksen was the owner of Millinge and Hejsager, she held the tenantcy jointly with her sister, Margrethe. After her death it was taken over by her husband, Erik Bille til Kjærsgård. Apparently her first husband had been Albert Maltesen Viffert with whom she had a son, Anders. She (d. 1598).

  1583-85 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark
Margrethe Emmiksen was unmarried and held the fief jointly with her sister. (d. 1585),

  1583 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Christoffersdatter Galde of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark
Lisbeth Galde was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Eggert Ulfeldt. She later married Jørgen Friis, as his third wife. He was County Sheriff of Vinderslevgård and Lysgård Herred, Skivehus, Hald, Akershus and Sejlstrup, also Judge, Councillor of the Realm and Stadholder of Norway. They were burried on the same day. (d. 1616).

  1583-1602 County Sheriff Beate Ågesdatter Brahe of the Counties of Gislumsherred and Ramsø, Denmark
Beate Brahe heldt the fief for life as security for a lone. She was widow of Jørgen Pedersen Lykke (Munk) til Hverringe og Overgård, Bonderup, Hessel, Ovegård and Bregenholm. She lived (after 1523-1602).

  1583-84 Acting County Sheriff Karen Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Ålborghus, Denmark
Karen Friis was acting Lensmand or (County Sheriff) after the death of her husband, Bjørn Andersen Bjørn til Stenalt, Bjørnsholm, Voer, Gunderupgård og Strandbygård. 1562-66 Judge in Zealand, Councillor of State 1567, Lensmand of Fredsgård, Stege, Københavns Slot, Roskildegård, Tryggevælde, Århusgård og Ålborghus. They had 3 children and he had 6 children with his first wife, Sidsel Ulfstand. Karen Friis lived (1541-1601).

  1584-1616 Raja Ijau I of Patani (Pattani) (Thailand)
According to the Portuguese chronicler Mendez Pinto, the mercantile elite decided in 1584 to give the throne to the sister of the murdered king after twenty years of unstable rule. She ruled as Raja Ijau the ‘great queen’ and was also known as Ratu Hijau “The Green Queen”. She was on the throne when the first Dutch and English Company agents visited Patani. One of these, Jacob van Neck, writing in 1604, reported a relatively prosperous state under Raja Ijau, one well disposed to merchants. She was one of the major traders and financiers of the city. Her Malay monarchy absorbed a diversity of foreign traders into a polyglot elite united by the royal person, a Malay lingua franca, and a pattern of rules and sacred regalia passed down from courts such as Malacca and Pasai. Chinese were the major merchants, but the most important of them, like the leading commercial official Datu Sirinara, had adopted Islam and the Malay manners of the court. Her aunt, Raja A’isyah had sometime been regent for Sultan Bahdur after Sultan Manzur Syah who ruled (1564-73). She was succeeded by sister.

  1584-1616 Administrator Countess Maria von Oranje-Nassau of Buren, Leerdam and some of the Nassau Properties (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren and Leerdam and Willem I, Count of Nassau and Prince of Oranje. In 1567 her brother, Philips Willem was adducted to Spain and the next 10 years she spent by her uncle, Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. The Prince of Orange had given control over Philips Willem’s properties to Maria, before he was assassinated in 1584. After her marriage to Count Philipp zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein in 1595, a curator was appointed to care for the paternal inheritance, which her younger half-brother, Mauritz had demanded control of. In the summer of 1595, Philips Willem, was allowed to leave Spain and return to Brussels, but was still kept under tight Spanish control. The following year they met secretly in Clèves; their first meeting in 28 years. Maria continued to administer her properties and founded an orphanage in Buren. She lived (1556-1616).

  1584 Acting Lady Hilleborg Hansdatter of Gotland (Sweden)
Acting Lensherre – royal appointed lord of the fief – after the death of her husband, Emicke Kaas, until his successor arrived to the island.

  1584-1601 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Stolberg-Weiningsrode  of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Heinrich the Older and Countess Elisabeth von Gleichen. Her brother, Wolfgang 1512 became Domherr of Halberstadt at the age of 10 and 2 years later he as chosen as Koadjutor as the Dean of the Cathedral (Dompropst) and he succeeded to the eccleastical office at the age of 15 and received its incomes while it was executed by a Vicar. Later he also became Dean of Dardesheim and Königstein. She lived (1565-1601).

  1584-1635 Princess-Abbess Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
When she was elected abbess in spite of the fact that she was only around 20 years old, the failed candidate, 35 year old Magdalena von Eynatten, sister of the predecessor Maria, protested and the case dragged on for years until the Vatican ruled in von Eltz’s favour and she was officially installed in 1591. 1610 she was first mentioned as Princess of the Realm in an official document, but the Prince-Bishop of Liège protested, and they engaged in a fierce powerstruggle. In 1616 she had her sister, Claudia named as Coadjutrice, but she married the following year. The chapter was also marked by the ongoing wars and was hit by plauge in 1622-23, 1629 and 1633-36. She was daughter of Godfried von Eltz-Uttingen and Regina van Elter, and lived (ca. 1564-1635).

  1584 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Hilleborg Lindenov was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Emmike Kaas. She later married Hans Speil til Borreby og Julskov, and (d. 1602).

  1585-97 Politically Influential Duchess Jakobäa von Baden of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)
Also known as Jakobea or Jakobe, she married to Johann Wilhelm (1592-1609), and since her father-in-law, Wilhelm IV, was mentally deficient and her husband mentally ill and both were unable to rule, she took the reigns after her marriage in 1585. She managed to get some councillors on her side. She stood between the catholic party around the powerful Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, supported by the Spanish Low Countries and the protestant lead by the Counts von Broich and Valckenstein and Lords von Rheydt who tried to remove the catholic regentess with the help of the Dutch General States. Because of the intrigues of her sister-in-law, Sybille, she thought about moving back to Bavaria, but the responsibly towards her husband, made her stay in Düsseldorf. She became more and more powerful, but Sybille spread rumours about her unmoral way of life and in 1595 Von Waldenburg held her prisoner, she was accused and convicted of infidelity and kept in the castle for two years. With the help of her brother-in-law Count Leuchtenberg, she wrote a document of defence and managed to have a trial arranged, but died before the trial was called. After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d. 1610), but did not have any children. She lived (1558-97).

  1585-86 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Christiansdatter Lykke of the County of Vordingborg with the Sires of Tryggevælde and Faxe, Denmark
Kirsten Lykke was also known as Kirstine, and was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Eiler Grubbe til Lystrup (1532-85), who was at one time Chancellor of the Realm. In 1594 she married Niles Gyldenstierne til Bjørnholm, and lived (1558-1630)

  1585-1604 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Nielsdatter Skeel of the County of Sejlstrup
1586 County Sheriff of the County of Amtofte and Strekhals, Denmark
Ingeborg Skeel had bought Voergård in 1578 together with her mother, Karen Krabbe and they got the right of lower court in the parishes of Voer, Albæk og Skæve, which meant that they appointed the judge and got the income from fines and the costs of the law cases. She was an able farmer and trader, and administered both her own and her husband’s estate. After the death of her husband, Otto Banner til Asdal, she took over the administration of the fief, and after her mother, Karen Krabbe died the following year, she took over her two small royal fiefs; Amtofte in Thy and Strekhals in Mors (Northern Jutland). There are many stories about her as an evil mistress, who killed the architect of one of her estates and a harsh employer towards the peasants, but the stories does not seem to be based on facts. She was daughter of Niels Skeel and Karen Banner, had no children, and lived (ca. 1545-1604).

  158516.. County Sheriff Margrethe Skovgaard of the County of Davinde, Denmark
Jomfru Margrethe was granted the tenantcy for life. Owned Sanderumgård together with Karen Skovgaard 1581-83. Details missing.

  1586-1618 Sovereign Countess Sabine Katharina Cirksena von Ostfriesland of Rietberg (Germany)
4 years old when her mother and predecessor, Walburga of Rietberg, died, and her father, Enno III Cirksena von Ostfriesland, acted as regent. She was married to her uncle, Count Johann von Ostfriesland – who had converted to Catholism – with papal dispensation because they were too closely related. She also converted and introduced the catholic faith to her county. She died giving birth to her 11th child, and lived (1582-1618). 

  1586-1616 Hereditary Lady Agnes Cirksena von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Dietrichstein-Wichelstädt, Esens Stedesdorf and Wittmund (Germany)
Sister of Countess Sabine Katharina of Rietberg, she inherited parts of the territories of her family. She was the first wife of Gundacker von Liechtenstein, Lord of Wilffersdorf and Riegelsdorf, Governor of Austria (1614-17) and 1st Prince of Liechtenstein (1623-58) and mother of two sons. His second wife was Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lukretia of Teschen (1599-1653). Agnes lived (1586-1616). 

  1586-1612 Princess Zofia Olelkowicz-Slucki of Sluck (Lithuania – Now Poland)
Only one year old when she inherited the possessions of her father, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Slucki, with her mother, Barbara Kiszczanka (d. before 1606) acting as her guardian. She married Janusz Prince Radziwill, castellan of Wilno (1579-1620) and lived (1585-1612)

  1586-1600 Regent Dowager Princess Barbara Kiszczanka of Sluck (Lithuania – Now Poland)
Reigned during her daughter’s minority after her husband, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Slucki’s death of the large estate in what was Lithuania at the time – it later became part of Russia, Belarus and since 1920 Poland. She was daughter of Mikolaj Kiszka, Voivode Podlaski and Barbara Chodkiewicz, and (d. before 1608).

  1586-95 Reigning Dowager Duchess Barbara of Brandenburg of Brieg (Brzeg) (Poland)
Also known as Brandenburska, she was widow of Duke Georg von Brieg (Jerzy II of Brzeg) and held the Slesian Principality as her dowry

  1586-93 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Maria von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose
1605-15 Joint Guardian of Sachsen-Weimar (Germany)
The last of four sisters to occupy the post, she resigned in order to marry Duke Johann von Sachsen-Weimar (1570-1605). After his death, the Duchy and her 10 surviving sons came under the guardianship of the unpopular Electors of Sachsen-Albertine (Albertinischen Kurfürsten). She concentrated on the education of her 8 surviving sons who shared and expanded the inheritance: Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar (1594-1626), Friederich (1596-1622), Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, zu Remda, in Eisenach, Creuzburg, Gerstungen, Salzungen, Gotha, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Berka, Buttsadt, Lobeda, Eisenach, Ilmenau, Kaltennordheim, etc, (1598-1662), Duke Albrecht of Sachsen-Eisenach, (1599-1644), Duke Ernst I the Pious von Sachsen-Gotha, in Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg und Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld und Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen und Wasungen, Kranichfeld, Altenburg, Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen und Römhild (1601-75), Friedrich Wilhelm, (1603-19) and Bernhard (1604-39), who became Duke of Franken in 1633, and the posthumously born daughter, Johanna (1606-09). She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, died after a fall from a horse, and lived (1574-1617).

  1586-1604 Princess-Abbess Magdalena I zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Her sister, Margareta, had been sovereign of the territory 1563-78.

  Until 1586 Reigning Abbess Louise de Bourbons-Vendôme of Faremoutiers (France)
Sister of Charlotte, who was first Abbess of Jouarre and later married Willem I van Oranje-Nassau, and succeeded by another sister, Jeanne de Jouarre. She lived (1548-86).

  1586-97 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Gunilla Bielke of the Town and Estate of Björneborg with various Parishes, the Estate and Parishes of Kumo, the Estate of Sari with certain Parishes (Finland), the Estate of Brånäs in Östergötland with the Parishes of Dagsbergs, Steneby and Konungsund and hundred royal hereditary estates closest to Brånäs (Sweden)
She was widow of King Johan III of Sweden, and lived (1568-1597).

  1586-1618 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore von Württemberg of Lichtenberg in Anhalt (Germany)
Widow of Joachim Ernst, Fürst von Anhalt (1536-86) who reigned Anhalt-Köthen from 1551 and all of the parts of the Principality of Anhalt from 1570. With his first wife Agnes von Barby (1540-69) he had 3 sons and 4 daughters and they had 5 sons and 3 daughters together. She lived (1552-1618).

  1586-87 County Sheriff Kirstine Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Kirsten Lindenov was widow of Steen Clausen Bille (1527-86), who was Judge, diplomat and soldier, and she held the fief, which is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden. She owned the estate of Herrevad Kloster and Sellerup in her own right. After 17 years of marriage she had a son followed by one more son and a daughter (d. 1612).

  1586-1626 County Sheriff Beate Christoffersdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Møllerud, the Shire of Gers and the County of Epholt, Denmark
1615-26 County Sheriff of the Counties of Lund Skt. Peders Kloster
in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Beate Huitfeldt was widow of Knud Ebbesen Ulfeldt til Svenstorp and held the small tenantcies as security for some loans. Mistress of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Anna Cathrine von Brandenburg from 1597 until her death in 1612 and for the three young princes until 1617. As an award for her court service, she was given the tenantcy of Gers Herred i Skåne and 1615 St. Peders Kloster i Lund, also Skåne, also owner of a number of estates in her own right. She wrote the history of her family and she was sister of the famous Chancellor of the Realm and historian, Arild Huitfeldt, mother of 2 sons, and lived (1554-1626).

  1586-89 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Snersted in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes. Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and Member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).

  1586-.. County Sheriff Kirsten Ludvigsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Vesterbygård, Denmark
Kirsten Gyldenstierne was widow of Gregers Carlsen Bryske til Skaftelevgård (d.1566) and Erik Bassesen Basse, County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster in Skåne (d. after 1581) as his second wife.

  1587-93 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Kassel of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
1587-1604 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel
Her oldest son, Friederich II, succeeded his father, Adolf (1526-33-86) as Duke of Gottorp at the age of 18. He died after one year and was then succeeded by their second son, Philipp (1570-87-90) and after his death for the youngest, Johan Adolf (1575-1590-1616).Her husband had been given the duchy after the death of his father, King Frederik I of Denmark and his older brother, Johann was given Hadersleben (Haderslev) but he died without issue in 1591. She was mother of a total of 10 children, and lived(1543-1604).

  1587-90 and 1596-99 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Enríquez of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The first Abbess to be elected for a three years period – and to be re-elected. Before that Abbesses of the chapter were elected for life.

  1587-89 County Sheriff Pernille Albrechtsdatter Gøye of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Pernille Gøye was probably married to Hak Holgersen Ulfstand til Hikkebjerg (1535-95), who married Anne Vernerdatter Parsberg after her death. She did not have any children, and lived (1550-89).

  1587-90 County Sheriff Tale Tagesdatter Thott of the Counties of Åhus and Åsum, (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Thale Thott or Tale Tot was in charge of Åhus and Åsum, situated in the Landscape of Skåne after the death of her husband, Arild Axelsen Urup (1528-87). A number of folk tales and folk songs were written about their love story. She lived (1550-1611).

  1587 Acting County Sheriff Lene Tagesdatter Thott of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark
Lene Thott was widow of Henrik Brahe. Mother of 7 children, and (d. 1599).

  1587-92 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Garnysz of Barcice and Rytro, Poland
Her Polish title of starościna niegrodowa translate into “Elder” in the female version and she held the territory as representative of the king.

  1588-94 Regent Dowager Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten) (Denmark and Germany)
1588-1631 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the 2 Shires of Falster and the Counties of Ålholm and Ravnsborg, Denmark
Sophie af Mecklenborg was widow of Frederik 2., she was regent for her son Christian 4. in the Duchies of Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94. She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the following year. She then withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich and she lend her son a lot of money for his warfares. Her Dowries included the jurisdiction of Majbølle, Nybølle, Kallø, Soersmark, TOreby, Urne and Vignæs Birk, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She lived (1557-1631).

  1588-94 Titular Duchess Charlotte de La Mack of Boullion, Princess of Sedan, Jametz and Ravcourt (France)
Inherited the title after her brother, Guillaume-Robert, and after she died giving birth to a stillborn daughter, she was succeeded by husband, Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne. The duchy today is held by the Dukes of Rohan, via succession trough female lines. She lived (1575-94).

  1588-1613 Titular Marchioness Maria Mencia van Wittem van Beersel of Bergen op Zoom, Countess van Walhain, Dame of Beerssel, Duffel, Gheel, Leefdael, Waver, Eigenbrakel etc. (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Jan van Wittem, Vicomte de Sébourg etc (d. 1588), who was joint superintendent with his wife, Marie Marguerite de Mérode, Marchioness van Bergen op Zoom (d. 1588). Maria Mencia was first married to Herman van Berg s’Heerenberg, count of Bergh, Governor of Spanish Gelre (1558-1611), and secondly to Guillaume de Melun, Prince d’Epinoy (d. 1635), and was succeeded by daughter Maria Elisabeth Clara. Maria Mencia’s sister Margareta inherited the title of Baroness van Bautershem and Ernestine inherited the title of Countess de Walhain, Viscountess de Sébourg.  She lived (1581-1613). 

  1588-98 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VIII von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Essen (Germany)
Sister of Elisabeth VI, who had resigned in 1578 in order to marry an Evangelical count. The abbey was very damaged during the wars of the time. In 1590 she appointed her brother Amtmann (Governor) in Breisig, a small territory claimed by the Duke of Jülich. 

  1589-93 Governor Luisa Grinalda, Espírito Santo (Brazil)
After the death of her husband, Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, she acted as governor for the King of Portugal, until she returned to her Portugal and died in a Chapter in Èvora some years later. She was daughter of Pedro Álvares Corrêa and Caterina Grimaldi, and lived (1541-ca. 1626).

  1589-1602 Sovereign Countess Amelie von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Acting Hereditary Marshal of the Diocese of Köln, Acting Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep (The Netherlands and Germany)
In charge of Vianden and a number of attached possessions 1579-87 as an inheritance from her first husband, Heinrich von Brederode (1531-68). She married Friedrich II von der Pfalz in 1569, but he died in 1576. In 1589 she inherited Limburg from her half-brother, Anton. The county had been occupied by the Diocese of Köln since 1584. In 1590 she was given the rights of use of Alpen, Helpenstein, Lennep and Erbvogtei of Köln by her half-sister, Magdalena, who was the owner of the territories after the death of their brother. Alpen was occupied by the Republic of the Netherlands in 1597 and the following year by the Spanish Low Countries that also occupied. Helpenstein and the Stewardship of Köln. 1600 she took possession of Alpen and, she still held the right of Linnep and Limburg, and was succeeded by sister, Magdalena, the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575. Also known as Amalia, she was daughter of Gumprecht II. von Neuenahr-Alpen, Count of Limburg (1505-1552/1556) and Carda von Schaumburg (d. 1540) in her second marriage, and lived (1539-1602).

  1589-1601 Sovereign Duchess Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont of Berry (France)
After her husband, King Henri III was murdered, she spend the rest of her life in sorrow. She did not have any children, and lived (1553-1601).

  1589-1605 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Stotzingen of Heggbach (Germany)
Prioress and second-in-command for a number of years before her election. At the time of her reign, her family was Imperial Immediate Lords (Reichsfreien Herren) of a territory in Württemberg and were later appointed Counts.

  1589-1611 Princess-Abbess Anna Erika zu Waldeck-Eisenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
The first Evangelical ruler of the territory and for the first time since 1206 no Papal confirmation was sought for her election. She saw the fact that Emperor Rudolf II gave her the fief and regalia (mit den regalien belehnt) as a proof of the independent character of the territory and she refused to swear an oath of allegiance (Erbhuldigung) to the Duke of Braunschweig, but in 1593 she and Duke Heinrich Julius signed the “Grand Treaty” (Grosser Vertrag), where she gave the Duke a right to have a say when positions within the chapter had to be filled. On the other hand the Duke accepted that the Chapter enjoyed Freedom of the Realm (Reichsunmittelkeit). The chapter burned down in 1597 and was rebuilt in renaissance-style, which lead to heavy depths to the Duke of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Wolrad II Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg and Anastasia von Schwarzenburg, and lived (1551-1611).

  1589-94 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Galt of the County Nederby  (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Galt was widow of Anders Keldsen Bing, Councillor of the Realm, County Sheriff of Nederby and Varberg. (d. 1589) without children as the last male of his family. She lived (1546-after 1605).

  1589 County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Vestermand of Thistedgård with Hundborg Herred, Denmark
Anne Venstermand til Pilegård was widow of Godske Brockenhuus, and (d. after 1607).

  Ca. 1590-1660 Mwan and Yau Lundij Rweej of Lunda (Congo)
Succeeded by husband Cibinda Ilunga as ruler of the marshy environment of the Upemba depression, the source of the Zaire River, which encouraged the formation of a state. It demanded that its inhabitants develop forms of large-scale cooperation if they were to maintain a secure and productive lifestyle. In the Upemba environment of lakes, marshes and river channels, they needed dikes to protect homes against seasonal flooding, drainage channels, and dams to retain lake waters for dry-season fishing. The scholar Reefe believes that the need for large-scale cooperation in public works projects led the people of Upemba to develop political unity.

  Before 1590 Datuk I Sambo of Tallo(Indonesia)
Inherited the principality from her father, I Daeng Padulu, and was succeeded by husband, Tunijallo, who was also Somba of Gowa, and ruled in Tallo until 1590.

  1590-1607 I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Successor of her father, and abdicated in favour of her husband as rule by females was not in keeping with Islam, but he was deposed after one year for urging his people to accept Islam. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Sidenreng.

  1590 Regent Dowager Princess Isabel de Mendoza of Piombino and the Lordships of Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and Vignale and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaiola  (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Alessandro Appiani d’Aragona, she was regent for son, Giacopo VIII (1581-1603). His sister, Isabella (1577-1661), was Princess of the territory 1611-24 until she was deposed by the Spanish. Isabel was daughter of Don Pedro Gonsalvo de Mendoza, COunt of Binasco, Ambassador of the King of Spain to Genova, and lived (1558-1619).

  1590-1603 Joint Sovereign Countess Gabrielle of Joigny (France)
Reigned jointly with Countess Anne.

  1590-? Joint Sovereign Countess Anne of Joigny (France)
Held the county jointly with Countess Gabrielle.

  1590-93 Reigning Abbess-General Beatriz Manrique of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Held both secular and temporal powers of the abbey and the surrounding territories.

  1591-1604 Guardian Dowager Electress Sophie von Brandenburg of Sachsen (Germany)
1591-1622 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Offices and Castles of Rochlitz, Colditz and Borna, the Office and Castle of Leisnig with the Cities of Leisnig and Döbeln in Sachsen
After the death of her husband, Christian I (1560-86-91) she was guardian for their son, Christian II (1583-91-1611) and other children. She was very much involved in the religious fights during her lifetime and on her demand the Calvinist Chancellor Nikolaus Crell and a big part of the Saxon nobility were arrested and after a lengthily process executed in 1611. A very able administrator, she extended her dowry over the years, held a large court with many civil servants, and Colditz experienced a time of cultural and commercial growth. The castle remained the dowry of Saxonian Dowager Electresses until 1753. She lived (1568-1622).

  1591-1603 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Wied (Germany)
1603-1605 Dowager Reigning Lady of Gronau in Bentheim
After the death of her husband, Count Hermann I zu Wied, she was regent for their son, Johann Wilhelm (ca. 1580-1633). After he came of age, she took over her dowry in her “native” Bentheim. Mother of 3 sons and 3 daughters and lived (1555-1628).

  1591 Acting County Sheriff Anne Knudsdatter Gyldenstierne of of the County of Malmøhus  with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1591-92 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Kalundborg with the Shires of Arts Løve and Ods Skippinge and Samsø, Denmark
Anna or Anne Gyldenstierne was widow of Corfitz Viffert. She lived (1544-95).

  1591-1637 Feudal Duchess Isabella Gonzaga of Sabbioneta e Treatto, Contessa di Roddi e Ricalta, Baronessa di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchesa di Ostiano, Contessa di Fondi (Italy)
Succeeded her brother, Vespasiano I, married to Don Luigi Carafa Principe di Stigliano (d. 1630), and succeeded by granddaughter, Donna Anna Carafa de Stigliano-Gonzaga (1637-44) who was married to the Duke de Medinas de Torres, Don Ricardo de Guzmán. She lived (1565-1637).

  1592-1600 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorothea af Danmark of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Winsen (Schloss und Amt) and of Gross Rhode
From 1582 her husband, Wilhelm, suffered fits of insanity and she fled in security. After his death, she was regent for son, Duke Georg (1692-1644) who inherited the duchies of Carlenberg-Göttingen from a relative. She mistrusted the Councillors who had thrown the country into chaos during her husband’s illness. She took matters in her own hand and became known as an energetic and charitable regent. She was daughter of Christian III and lived (1546-1617).

  1592-1609 Politically Influential Princess Sibylla von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)
Contemporary sources described her as power-mad, stupid and vindictive. She supported Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, who became more and more powerful. In 1595 she handed over a petition against her sister-in-law, Jakobäa von Baden, to the Landtag in Grevenbroich, where she accused her of among others infidelity. She and von Waldenburg claimed to working for the healing of the insane Duke, and in this way they managed to keep power. They were rumoured to have caused the sudden and mysterious death of Jakobäa, and the rumours continued for centuries. After the death of her brother, Johann Wilhelm, she engaged in a war of succession together with her husband, Archduke Karl of Austria (d. 1618) with the husbands and children of her sisters: Marie Eleonora (1550-1608), Anne (1552-1632) and her husband, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (d. 1614), Magdalena (1553-33) and Pfalzgraf Johann von Pfalz-Zweibrücken (d. 1604). It was the oldest daughter of Marie Eleonora, Anna von Preussen, who inherited the duchies. Sibylle lived (1557-1627).

  1592-98 Politically Influential Queen Anna von Habsburg of Poland 
The beginning of the 17th Century in Poland was a very unrest full time, and she was influential during the reign of her husband Zygmunt III Wasa, who was elected as successor of Stefan Batory as King of the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sigismund was son of Johann III Vasa of Sweden (1537-1592) and Katarina of Poland (1526-83), the daughter of Sigismund I the Old and his wife Bona Sforza. On his father’s death Sigismund was offered the Swedish throne, and he was crowned in 1594. He tried to rule Sweden from Poland but his uncle (duke Charles, later king Charles IX) took full control of Sweden. In 1598 Sigismund tried to defeat him with a mixed army from Sweden and Poland but was defeated in the battle of Stångebro. Anna was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria, mother of four children, and lived (1573-98).

  1592-1608 Guardian Dowager Duchess Sophie von Holstein-Gottorp of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Güstrow (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Offices of Rehna, Wittenburg and Lübz
1603-08 Administrator of Schwerin
After her husband, Duke Johann VII of  (1558-76-92) committed suicide at Stargard, she became guardian for her sons, Duke Adolf Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628) and Johann Albrecht II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (1590-92-1610-36) and yielded substantial influence over the government in Schwerin. After the death of her brother-in-law Sigismund August was Duke (1576-1603) andhis uncle, Ulrich III (1603) she signed a treaty with the new Duke Karl which left her with the administration of Schwerin until her sons came of age. She was engaged in heavy disputes with the Treasurer Andreas Meier, whom she accused of fraud and she demeaned to have the financial control transferred to her at the Assemblies of 1604 and 1606, but it was denied. She was active in trade and commerce and modernised her residence in her dowries where she possessed full sovereignty over her dowries except the role as fief-overlord over the nobility. But her territories were occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. Her sons accused her of mismanagement and their relationship was never good. She lived (1569-1634).

  1592-1600 Reigning Abbess Agnes Reiff genannt Walter von Blidegg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it’s acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn.

  1592 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Clausdatter Daa of the County of Hald, Denmark
Following the death of her husband, Jørgen Skram, Hilleborg Daa took over the administration of the fief. Daughter of Claus Daa af Ravnstrup. She lived (1549-95).

  1592-93 County Sheriff Christence Cortiftzdatter Viffert of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark
Christence Vifferet was widow of Henrik Bille til Mogenstrup (1559-92). Mother of one son, and (d. 1604).

  1592 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Mikkelsdatter Seested of Roskildegård with Harritsborg and Kirketjenerne under bispegården og Fadeburslenet, Denmark
Lisbeth Seested was widow of Niels Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygård. She lived (1555-1624).

  After 1592-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Herburtowna Czarnkowska of Świecie, Poland
Appointed by the King as his local representative.

  1592-1632 Politically Influential Urszula Meierin in Poland
The senior governess and very close and unofficial advisor of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632) of Poland and his wifes Queen Anna Austriaczka and Queen Konstancja Austriaczka. Also known as Meyerin and her real name was Urszula Gienger, Gänger or Giengerin.  She lived (around 1570-1635).

  1593-1604 Sovereign Countess Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbaden of Virneburg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Joachim von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1540-82), two relatives were appointed regents and guardians for her children, and she spend lot of energy keeping on to her dowry Neurburg and preventing her young son from being taken abroad for “proper catholic education” by the Spanish Duke of Alba, the governor of the Southern Netherlands (Manderscheid was within the Luxembourgian interest sphere). Her son Philipp Dietrich died in 1590 and her daughters and son-in-laws were engaged in a fight over the succession, which was solved in the way that the three son-in-laws alternated in reigning the country one year at a time. In the end the county of Schleiden was divided among the three. She later inherited the country of Virneburg from her brother-in-law, Count Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Schleiden-Virneburg, who was the last male member of the line. She secured the succession for her oldest, and only daughter Elisabeth, who took over the inheritance in 1604 and transferred the county to her husband and son. Magdalene lived (1546-1604).

  1593-1616 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Weilburg and of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Ottweiler (Germany)
Widow of Count Albrecht von Nassau-Ottweiler, Ottweiler, Hohenburg, Kircheim, Lahr and Mahlberg, a leading follower of the reformation and diplomat. The lordshipof Wehen was poor and she managed to revitalise the economy and build a school in the area, and from 1602 she lived together with her daughter-in-law, Elizabeth von Hessen-Darmstadt at the Castle of Wehen. Mother of 14 children and lived (1541-1616).

  1593-1610 Princess-Abbess Sophie Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
When she resigned in order to marry her cousin, Georg Rudolf (Jerzy) von Liegnitz (1595-1653) as his first wife, the Ecclesiastical Territory was secularised and incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg. She was daughter of Johann Georg I von Anhalt-Dessau and his first wife, Dorothea von Mansfeld-Arnstein, did not have any children, and lived (1589-1622).

  1593-96 and 1599-1601 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Ayala      of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her title was noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey.

  1593-1643 Reigning Abbess Louise de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers (France)
Appoined by a bulle by Pope Clement VIII. One of 3 Abbesses from the Dynasty. Nicolas, Marquis de Vitry et d’Arc, Count de Châteauvillain and Seigneur de Coubert and Lucrèce Bouhier, succeeded by niece Anne de L’Hôpital , and lived (1567-1643).

  1594-1613 Queen Kusumasanadevi of Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Also known as Queen Doña Catherina Kusumasana Devi, she was the daughter of previous King of Kandy, Karaliadde Bandara, who died when she was three years old, and she grew up with the Portuguese, who installed her as “puppet-ruler” with the title of Empress, only as cover for Portuguese occupation of the Kandyan Kingdom, lasting only for four months with Lopez de Souza, the Portuguese Conquistador on her side. The latter was killed at the battle of Danture in l594 when Catherina fell into the hands of Konappu Bandara He was a Kandyan aristocrat who had mastered Portuguese military skills by feigning to have become a Christian became the king of Senkadagalapura (Kandy) in 1592, after deposing the Portuguese puppet Don Juan, set up by them. Konappu Bandara assumed the name of Vimaladharmasuriya I, (1592- 1604) marrying Dona Catherina and thereby strengthening his claim to the throne. After his death, she married his first cousin Senarat (1604-1635), a former priest. She lived (1578-1613).

  1594-1608 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Mufflin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Magdalena von Gleissenthal.

  1594-1610 Princess-Abbess Eléonore von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Her reign was very quiet and the chapter was in a stable development. She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Magdalena von Schwarzenberg and niece of the former abbess, Margarete von Montfort (1540-56). 

  1594 County Sheriff Thale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Malmøhus (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
In various documents Thale Ulfstand wrote her name as Thaale Wlffstandt til Skabersøe. She took over as Lensmand after the death of her brother Hack Holgersen Ulfstand, who had been Government Councillor, Councillor of State, Marsk, Knight of the Order of the Elephant and after the death of King Frederik 2, guardian for his son, Christian 4, but in 1590 he was executed for treason. (d. 1604).

  1594 Acting County Sheriff Karen Iversdatter Krabbe of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark
Karen Krabbe was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Falk Falksen Gøye. Her sister, Anne was Acting County Sheriff in 1580. Karen was mother of 2 children, and (d. 1602).

The carriage presented to Safiye as a present by Queen Elizabeth I of England 1594-1603 Politically Influential Safiye Vailde Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Already as Chief Wife of her husband, Murat III from 1574 she was the power behind the throne especially after the death of her mother-in-law Nurbanu. She continued the pro-Venetian policy of Nurbanu and maintained an extensive foreign correspondence, most notably with Queen Elizabeth I of England. When her husband died, she kept the news secret, because wanted to give her son, Mehmet, time to return from Manisa, where he was governor. In 1599 Queen Elizabeth presented Mehmet with an organ and Safiye with a splendid carriage, which she used to excursions into the town. When Mehmet died in 1603 her grandson, Ahmet I, sent her to the Old Seray where she died 15 years later. She lived (1550-1618).

  1594-1600 (†) Politically Influential Esperanza Malchi in the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Throughout the ages the Queen Mothers had carried out their financial dealings through a series of Jewish women (kira), who acted as commercial agents for the secluded Harem women. Safiye’s kira was Esperanza Malchi, who became enormously rich, and the Secretary to the British embassy in the 1600s even attributed her influence to the fact that she and Safiye were lovers. In 1600 the imperial cavalry rose up in a revolt because of the devaluation of the currency. Their fury was directed towards Malchi, who was killed together with her son.

  1595-96 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottosdatter Brahe of the Counties of Åkjær and Sønderlyngherred, Denmark
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Landskrona Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Margrethe Brahe was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her hsuband, Councillor of State Christen Skeel, til Hegnet, Hammeltofte and Fusingø (1543-96), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Fiefs of Bøvling Slot and Len and Aakjær Len for many years. After the death of her second husband, Christian (Kristen) Bernekov she was in charge of his tenantcy. She was daughter of Otto Brahe til Knudstrup and Beate Bille,  was County Sheriff of Røding from 1571, and lived (1551-1616).

  1595-99 Duchess Gabrielle d’Estree of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marquise de Monceaux (France)
Mistress of Henri IV of France and active in persuading him to convert from Protestantism to Catholism. She died after having given birth to a stillborn child, her third, and lived (1571-99).

  1595-1615 Princess-Abbess Maria III von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Possibly the daughter of Bernhard, Herr von und zu Eltz zu Üttingen und Wolmeringen, Governor of Diedenhofen, Statholder of Luxemburg, (d. b.1550) and Jutta de Villers (d. before 1534).

  1596-1616 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Württemberg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)
Also known as Anna Wirtemberska, and she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her first husband, Duke Jan Jerzy of Oława (Johan von Ohlau). In 1594 she was married (as the third wife) to Duke Friederich IV von Liegnitz (Fryderyk of Legnica). She was daughter of Duke Christopher von Württemberg and markgräfin Anna Maria von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of two children, and lived (1561-1616).

  1596-99 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Hans Johansen Lindenov, Margrethe Rosenkrantz was in charge of the tenantcy. She raised several young noble women and her own grandchildren, and was mother of 9 children, and lived (1552-1635).

  1596-1602 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Pedersdatter Norby of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Elected as successor of Sophia Gyldenstjerne. She had been married to Jørgen Bryske until their divorce, and in 1564 she entered the chapter. As Abbess she held the jurisdiction of those who lived at the estates of the Chapter and 1559 over the City of Maribo and surroundings. This meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. Daughter of Peder Norby til Urup (d. 1602).

  1596 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre- and Sønderherred, Djurs, Sønderhand and Østerlisberg, Denmark
Dorthe Lange was widow of Jørgen Rosenkrantz, chancellor and leader of the regency government for the minor King Christian 4. Her mother, Karen Breide, had been County Sheriff of Svendstrup 1539-44 . She was mother of 3 children, and lived (1541-1613).

  1596 Governor and Admiral Isabel Barreto de Castro, Santa Cruz (Solomon Islands at the time a Spanish Possession)      
Just after the death of her husband, Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish navigator (1541-96), she proclaimed herself governor and took command of the fleet as the only Admiral of the Spanish Amada. Her husband had been given command of a small fleet by his uncle, the Governor-General of Peru in 1567. After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there. They left for the islands in 1595 and on the way they discovered the Marquesas de Mendoza Islands and another large island, which they named Santa Cruz, and resolved to establish the colony there. Some of the crew murdered one of the native chiefs, and a bloody war was begun against the invaders. Afterward there was a mutiny among the troops. These adversities undermined Mendana’s health, and he soon died, leaving the government to Isabel. Soon after she and the chief pilot, Quiros resolved to abandon the colony, and she directed her ships to the Philippines. She held the title “La Amiranta de la Mar Oceana”.  She lived (1570-1612).

  1597-1603 Crown Councillor Dowager Empress Hamalmal Malik Mogasa of Ethiopia
1604-1607 Politically Influential
Following the death of her husband, Emperor Sartsa Dengel (or Malik Sagad I) (1563-97), she was member of the regency for stepson, Yaqub (Malik Sagad II) (1590-97-1603 and 1604-07), and remained influential after he came of age. He was deposed by a cousin in 1603 and killed in battle against another, who took over the throne. She was born as Mariam Senna, and (d. 1614).

  1597 Regent Dowager Feudal Baroness Isabella Della Tolfa (Italy)
The widow of Agostino and regent for son, Nicola, she sold the feudal the barony to Dalmazio Arcalla Caracciolo.

  1597-1611 Regent Dowager Lady Metta van Limburg-Bronckhorst of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)
When her husband, Heinrich V von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen died, their only son, Jobst Herman, was four years old and, she took over the government of the territories in Northern Germany and the Netherlands, among others’ the Water-castle (Wasserburg) Gemen van Schaumburg.

  1597-1628 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Erika von Isenburg-Birstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Burgschwalbach in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)
Widow of Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, she died in Berleburg where her the youngest of her 2 daughters, Elisabeth Juliane (1598-1647) was married to Count Ludwig Kasimir von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1643) and Count Georg von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1680). The oldest, Anna (1597-1645) was married to Count Friedrich X von Leiningen-Dagsburg. She lived (1569-1628).

  1597-1608 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina Sophia von Liegnitz of the Administrative Offices of Flossenbürg and Vohenstrauß and parts of Parkstein-Weiden in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Velden-Parkestein (Germany)
Widow of Pfalzgraf Friedrich II. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkestin, who had been given the Offices of Parkstein, Weiden und Flossenbürg, when his father died. Since both their sons and their daughter died as infants the seigniorial rights returned to the Principality of Pfalz-Neuburg, but she remained in charge of her dowry and resided at the Castel of Friedrichsburg bei Vohenstrauß, that her husband had built. She was daughter of Heinrich XI. von Liegnitz, Brieg und Goldberg., and lived (1561-1608).

  1598-1658 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Klara zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Heringen an der Helme in Schwarzburg (Germany)
Due to her wise actions during the Thirty Year War, she managed to save the city from plundering and war taxes.  She was widow of Wilhelm I. Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, Lord of Hohenstein Count Wilhelm I von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (1535-83-97). She was the 8th of 16 children of Duke Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1535-59-92) and Dorothea af Danmark (1549-1617), and lived (1571-1658).

  1598 De facto reigning Zarina Irina Fedorovna Godunova of Russia (07.-17. January)
Considered to be the effective ruler throughout the reign of her weak husband Fedor I Ivanovich from 1584. In 1598 she took the throne for ten days before retirering to a convent to become a nun. After a brief interregnum, her brother Boris Godunov was elected to succeed her. She lived (1557-1603).

  1598-1621 Isabel Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, By the Grace of Good Archduchess of Austria, Joint Duchess of Burgundy, Lothringen, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg and of Gelders, Joint Countess of Vlaanderen, Artois and Bourgogne and Tirol, Palatine of Hainault, Holland, Namour and of Zuytphen, Margravine of the Holy Roman Realm, Joint Lady of Friesland, Salins, Mechelen, of the City, Cities and Lands of Utrecht, Overijssel and Groeningen
1589-1633 Countess of Franche-Comté (Belgium)
1617-33 Joint Marchioness of Coligny and Andelot (France)
1621-33 Governor of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
After her uncle, Henri III of France, was assassinated 1589, her father Felipe II of Spain claimed the French crown on her behalf in spite of the Salic Law and the fact that her mother, Elisabeth de Valois, had to abjure any claims to the French crown with her marriage. 10 years later she married her cousin Archduke Albert of Austria, and they became joint Governors of the Southern Netherlands. Their reign brought a period of much-needed peace and stability to the economy and their actions stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity. She promoted the Flemish Baroque and artists as Rubens, Brueghel, Coebergher, the De Nole family, the Van Veens and others. Their court became a vital link in the chain of Habsburg courts and the diplomatic conduits between Madrid, Vienna, Paris, London, Lisbon, Graz, Innsbruck and Prague. When her husband died in 1621, she joined the order of the Sisters of St. Clare, and became the governor of the Netherlands. Mother of three children who died as infants, and lived (1566-1633).

  1598-99 Sovereign Countess Anna von Stolberg-Königstein-Rochefort of Wertheim and Rochefort (Germany)
Daughter of Ludwig zu Stolberg-Königstein. In 1532 he had inherited the possessions of the House of Eppstein-Königstein and in 1556 he inherited the county of Wertheim She was married to Count Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Scharffeneck  (1530-1611), who added Wertheim to his name and was Stadholder of Styria, Carinthia and Carnolia. She lived (1531/48-99).

  1598-1625 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Hartmann of Baindt (Germany)
In 1607 she introduced the more strong clausures and the common meal that had been demanded already in 1573. And in 1622 she build the long-building (Langbau) and reconstructed the Mill of the Chapter, which was financially very important for the territory

  1598-1604 Princess-Abbess Margaretha-Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)
From 1586 she had been Abbess of the Stift Gerresheim, from 1598 of Freckenhorst, in 1590 she had become Probstin (Vice-Abbess) of Relinghausen and around 1600 she was elected Abbess in Schwarzrheindorf. She was daughter of Count Hans Gerhard and Margarethe, Wild und Rheingräfin, and lived (1569-1604). 

  1598-1605 Princess-Abbess Katharina II Scheiffl of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Assembly of the Bavarian Circle. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. The system was formalized in 1500, when Emperor Maximilian I created 6 circles (Bavaria, Franconia, Lower Saxony, Swabia, Upper Saxony, Westphalia), and reorganized twelve years later into ten, with the addition of Austria, Burgundy, the Rheinish Electorates, and the Rhine Palatinate.


 

  1598-1611 Politically Influential Queen Margarita d’Austria of Spain and Portugal
Reacted toward the influence of the advisors and the Duke of Lerma during the reign of her spouse, King Felipe III, and was active in an intrigue to reveal the corrucption she accused Lerma of having, which eventually lead to his fall from power, although not until after her own death. Active in representing the Austrian Habsburg interests at the Spanish court from 1599 until her death. A great patroness of the arts, she was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria-Este and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and mother of a number of children. She lived (1584-1611).

 


  1599-1610 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina av Sverige of Pewsum, Woquard Loquard and Campen in Ostfriesland and Neeuwarden (Germany)
Held the territories after the death of her husband, Edzard II of Ostfriesland, and after her death the four lordships were united into the office of Pewsum, which was inherited by her son Enno III. Also known as Catharina Wasa, she travelled, with her one-year old son, to her estates in Ostfriesen and Neeuwarden, and took care of those for a month, and while there she felt the murmur, the more open talks of rebellion, the Calvinists urge to throw of the Spanish King. After a couple of months she went to Madrid, where the King used her as a sort of “Advisor of Protestant affairs”. She was daughter of king Gustav I Vasa, mother of 10 children and lived (1539-1610).

  1599-1600 County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Bille of the County of Mariager, Denmark
Sophie Bille til Svanholm was widow of Jakob Seefeld til Visborg. She lived (1549-1608).

 the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

PENGUASA WANITA DIDUNIA TAHUN 1500-1550(WOMEN IN LEADER)

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1500-1540

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  Around 1500 Queen Sukda of Mandara (Cameroon)
She was the first ruler of The Mandara (or Wandala) tribe, which is located just south of Lake Chad in both northern Cameroon and Nigeria in savannah in which mounds of rocks can be seen high above the plains. The tribe also occupy a mountainous area where the Gotel and Mandara Mountains meet. This hot, tropical region has only 30 inches of rainfall each year, and the Mandara are among other tribes of Sudanic herdsmen who migrate seasonally with their animals, searching for fresh grazing lands. 

  1500s Reigning Abbess Claire Motier de La Fayette of Montvilliers (France)
Daughter of VI Gilbert IV  Motier de La Fayette, Seigneur de Saint-Romain, de Hautefeuille and de Pontgibault and Isabeau. (b. 1482-?).

  1500-.. Regent Patodhara Sodhaji Raniji Shri Asadi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)
One of the many wives of Rana Raj Raydharji, she became regent when her grandfather, Thakore Shri Lakhadhirji II Samatsinhji Sahib, Thakore Sahib of Muli, installed her son, Raydharji, as ruler, when his two older brothers accompanied their father’s funeral procession

  1500-40 Sovereign Countess Marie d’Albret of Rethel, Sovereign Princess of Boisbelle-Henrichemont  (France) (Belgium)
Succeeded her mother, Charlotte de Bourgogne, as Countess of Rethel, and was married to Charles of Clèves, Count de Nevers (d. 1521) and succeeded by son, François de Nevers et Rethel, Duke of de Nevers (d. 1561) whose daughters shared the inheritance. Henriette de Clève became Duchess of Nevers-Rethel, Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633) Countess d’Eu and Marie de Nevers (1553-74) Comtesse de Beaufort. Her father was Jean d’Albret (d. 1524), and she lived (1491-1549).

  From 1500 Sovereign Countess Anne de Chabannes of Dammartin (France)
Daughter of Jean VII de Chabannes, Count of Dammartin. 

  Ca. 1500 Sovereign Countess Lucretia Loredani of Ios (Greece)
Governed the island in the Cyclades located south of Naxos and north of Thera.

  1500-15 Governatrice Dowager Lady Francesca Grimaldi of the Fiefs of Dolceacqua, Isolabona, Apricale and Perinaldo (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Luca Doria she became regent in his lands. She was daughter of Lamberto Grimbaldo, Councillor of Antibes and Cagnes, Sovereign Lord of Monaco and Roccabruna and Patrician of Genova.

  1500-23 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg of Katzenelnbogen and ¼ of the County of Diez (Germany)
After her mother, Anna von Katzenelnbogen, died in 1494 the County was disputed among her and her sister, Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505), and a compromise was not reached until 1520. Elisabeth was married to Johann V Count of Nassau, Vianden, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Baron of Breda, Stadholder of Gelre and Zutphen 1504-1505. She lived (1466-1523).

  1500-01 Administrator of the Tenantcy Dowager Burgravine Johanetta von Salm of Rheineck (Germany)
According to tradition she administered the fief for the remainder of the year following the death of her husband, Burgrave Jakob von Rheineck. Her son Jakob II, reached the age of majority in 1508 and Archbishop Hermann of Köln granted him the fief of Rheineck. As he died without male heirs in 1539, Köln withdrew the fief, but his niece, Mezza claimed the inheritance, it was not until 1571 after a court process, that her sons Johann and Wilhelm von Warsberg were declared as rightful heirs. Consequently Archbishop Salentin von Isenburg of Köln granted the Burgravate as a hereditary fief. Johnanette married Philipp Beissel von Gymnich in 1501, she was daughter of Wild- und Rheingraf Johann V. and Johanna von Salm, and lived (ca. 1465-after 1516).

  1500-? Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin of the territory became a member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) when it was formed in 1495 by Emperor Maximilian I. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. She also had the right to a seat and vote in the College of Swabian Prelates in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), which met in Regensburg.

  1500-26 County Sheriff Sophie Pederdatter Høeg Banner of the County Jungshoved, Denmark
Sophie Høeg til Maribo Sankt Jørgensgård was widow of Ebbe Mogens Galt, who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget). Mother of 3 surviving children, she (d. 1531-).

  1500-39 County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Rønnow of Risby Birk, Denmark
Anne Rønnow til Fårevejle was widow of Erik Hardenberg,  who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget).

  Until 1500 County Sheriff Tale Arvidsdatter Baad of Majbølle Birk (The Denmark, new Sweden)
Tale Baad til Vasted in Halland held the tenantcy as security for lones to the king. She was widow of Laurits Follersen Knob til Gyllebo in Skåne. She lived (ca. 1434-1500).

  15.. Princess Regnant Nur Begum of Hunza (Pakistan)
The daughter of Girkis Han, she ruled for 12 years of the mountainous region the Northern Areas of Pakistan adjoining the Sinkiang Autonomous Region of China. Her family ruled the area of Hunz for more than 900 years and the Hunzakuts are believed to be the descendents of five wandering soldiers of Alexander the Great. They speak Brushuski, an aboriginal language. She was succeeded by her nephew Ayaso I as ruler.

  15.. Queen Putri Pinang Masak of Djambi (Indonesia)
Succeeded by husband, Paduka Berhale, as ruler of the East Sumatran kingdom. 

  15.. Queen of Angoche (Moçambique)
Ascended the throne after the death of her her brother and was succeeded by husband, Molidi. Today Angoche is a port-town in the Northern part of the country. 

  15…. 17th Alii Aimoku Kaikilani of Hawai’i (USA)
Succeeded Queen Kaikilani, who reigned sometime in the 15th century, and she first married her cousin Kanaloakua’ana, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii and secondly to Lonoikamakahiki, joint Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, younger son of Keawe-nui Aumi, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, and succeeded by son, Keakealanikane, 18th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii.

  15… Legendary Queen Salamasina of Samoa, Queen of the Upolu, Savai’i, and Tutuila Islands
As a child she had been made Tupu O Samoa and Tafaifa (supreme monarch of Samoa) and held all four Paramount Titles in Samoa. According the legend, she was kind, just, and skillful in leading her country, making great effort and sacrifice to ensure peace for all. During her 40 years reign, there were no wars and people prospered and were happy. She was daughter of Vaeitoefaga and Tamalelagi. Through her mother she’s the granddaughter from the king Tu’i Tonga of Tonga and through her father she’s the descended from the High Chiefs of Samoa and Fiji. The late Paramount Ruler of Samoa, His Royal Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a direct descendant of this legendary queen.

  15…Princess Latutama, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Momo, Tu’i Tonga and Nua, Ma’itaki, former wife of Ngongokilitoto, of Malapo, and daughter of Lo’au, by a woman from Ha’amea. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was forbidden from marrying any Tongan mortal, and her eldest daughter was styled Tamaha, the highest dignity on earth, to whom both her mother and grandfather, paid homage.

  15..Princess Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Tu’itatu’i, Tu’i Tonga.  She probably held office towards the end of the century.

  15… County Sheriff Else of the County of Næsby, Denmark
Widow of Christian Brun. Her successor, Hans Krafse, was in office until 1530.

  1501-ca. 10 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Agrippina Ivanovna Babicheva of Ryazan (Riazan) (Russia)
After the death of her mother-in-law, Anna, she took over the government in the name of their son Ivan VI (1496-1500-16-34). In 1520 his cousin, Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow invited him into Moscow and imprisoned him immediately after the arrival. In 1521 during the unrest caused by an invasion of the Crimean Khan Mehmed I Giray, Prince Ivan Ivanovich fled into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania where he received a small town of Stakliškės into lifetime possession, and Ryazan was finally annexed by Russia. She was widow of Ivan V of Riazanj (1467-83-1500).

  1501-24 Sovereign Countess Anne de la Tour Auvergne of Auvergne and Boulogne and Baroness de la Tour (France)
Elder daughter and eventually heiress of Jean III and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme. 1505 she was married to her first cousin John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, the intermittent heir presumptive to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland, and its sometime Regent. As she did not have any children, the counties were inherited by her her infant niece, donna Caterina dei Medici of Urbino (born 1519), daughter of her late younger sister Madeleine and Lorenzo II, Duke of Urbino. She lived (ca. 1495-1524).

  1501-20 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Orléans of Bar-sur-Seine (France)
Daughter of Antoinette de Polignac and the king of France. She was legitimized by her marriage to Jean Aubin, Seigneur de Malicorne. She secondly married Jean de Longwy, Baron de Pagny.  

  1501-05 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne II d’Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
In the beginning of the 16th century discipline was lax and the nuns, without the pope’s consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent. She was Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).

  1501-35 Reigning Abbess Katharina zu Stolberg of the Chapter of Drübeck (Germany)
Mentioned as canoness at Chapter of Rohrbach the age of 6, mentioned there as Mistress of Songs (Sangmesterin) in 1491. During the last years of her tenure, the reformation influenced the life in the chapter in many ways. King Otto III confirmed the right to choose the abbess in 995, giving it a special position similar to the Chapters of the Realm of Gandersheim and Quedlinburg, but the chapter died out during upheavals of the Reformation, Peasant Wars and the Thirty Year War. By the end of the 17th century the chapter building came in the possession of the Counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode, and 1732 they founded a Protestant Ladies Chapter (evangelisches Damenstift). She lived (1463-1535).

  After 1502-10 County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Grubendal  of Abildtorp Birk, Denmark
Margrethe Grubendal til Broholm was widow of Johan Fikkesen Fikkesen, County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Harritsborg. She later became Mistress of the convent of Skt. Jørgens Møn

  1502-06 Politically Active Queen Anna de Foix-Candale of Hungary and Bohemia
Active during the reign of her husband Władysław II Jagiellończyk, and after his death, she fought to secure the Hungarian and Bohemian crown for her son Ludwik. She lived (1484-1506).  

  1503-30 Queen Putri Kalunggu of Banja (Indonesia) 
Succeeded Pangeran Gangga who reigned for 45 years (1460-1505). The head of the government was however Patih Mangkubumi Lambung Mangkurat. The Hindu kingdom was situated in today’s South Kalimantan.

  Until 1503 Queen Regnant Anacaona of the Maguana (Taino Tribe) in Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic)
Sister of the tribal chief Boechio Anacauchoa, king of Xaragua or Jaragua, and married to King Caonabo, king. When her husband was taken prisoner, sent to Spain and died in a sea voyage, she inherited the tribe of the Maguana.  She displayed confidence to maintain unity in the kingdom, fought to maintain peace and depose belligerence relating to the Christians.  It’s doubtful that the obedient tribes, under the authority of the Queen, would make an effort to please her, but the Spaniards didn’t want to comprehend the Taino message of living together in peace.  They took their abnegation, their nobility and tolerance as a weakness and gratified their cruelty with unusual conniving, destroying their traditions, and they massacred her soldiers. The survivors fled from the tragic inferno.  The small Taino prince, Guarocuya, was saved by the tribal leader Tamayo and was delivered by el “Padre de las Casas”(a priest) to the Franciscans (catholic monks) of the Verapaz. Higuemota, (Ana de Guevara) daughter of Anacaona, Mencia, Anacaona’s grandaghter tribal leader Hatuey and tribal leader Guarocuya escaped from the tragedy. Queen Anacaona was accused of being a traitor.  In September of 1503, she was hanged in the province of Xaragua.

  1503-18 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Radziwiłłówna of Mazowsze (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Konrad III Rudy of the Masovian Piast Dynasty in 1497, Anna Radziwillowna was regent for her sons Stanisław and Janusz III. Her daughter was Anna, who ruled in Mazowsze-Bełz in 1526-29. Daughter of the Lithuanian nobles Mikalojus Radziwiłł the Old and Zofia Maria Monwind, and lived (1475-1522).

  1503-04 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth of Bayern-Landshut (Lower Bavaria in Germany) 
As the daughter of Georg der Reiche of Bavaria-Landshut, she and her two sons with Pfalzgraf Ruprecht were heirs, but Duke Albrecht of Bavaria-München opposed their rights and it resulted in a succession war. Both she and her husband died in 1504 and the result was the reunion of the territory with Upper Bavaria. But her two sons became Princes of Pfalz-Neuburg. Elisabeth lived (1430-1504).

  1503-05 and 1529-43 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Hochberg of Neuchatel, Marquise de Rothelin (Rötteln (Switzerland)
Successor of her father, Philippe von Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg, Margrave of Badenweiler, Neuenburg and Rotelin, and was married to Louis d’Orleans-Longueville (d. 1516). She was first deposed by the French but was later reinstated, and introduced reformism in her lands in the 1530s. Both her and her husband’s lands were inherited by their sons. She lived (1480-1543). 

  1503-22 Sovereign Duchess Suzane de Bourbon of Bourbon, Bourbonnais, Auvergne and La Dombes (France)
Daughter of Pierre III de Bourbon de Beajeau and the former regent of France, Anne de France, Vicomtesse de Thouars who was initially regent in Bourbon. Suzane was married to Charles III de Bourbon-Montpensier, Duke of Bourbonnais, who claimed the inheritance after her death. This was disputed by her first cousin, Louise de Savoie, mother of king François I. Charles entered the service of Emperor Karl V and was declared guilty of leze-majesty, his feudal possessions forfeited to the crown and his personal estate confiscated, but through the intervention of the emperor he was later given his possessions back. She lived (1491-1522).

  1503–ca. 21 De-Facto Ruler Costanza d’Avalos of the Island Ischia, Duchess of Francavilla and Lady di Pomanico, (Italy)
In 1483 her husband, the governor of the island, Prince Federico del Balzo of Taranto, died. She had her brother; Inìgo d’Avalos named governor and governed jointly with him. After her brother’s death in 1503, she defended the island against the French, restoring it to the Aragonian owerlordship. She continued to rule together with her nephew, Francesco Ferrante, who married the famous poet Vittoria Colonna, in 1509 and later also together with Alfonso d’Avalos and Costanza junior, and during her reign the Island became a famous cultural centre. She was (b. 1460).

  1503-ca. 1531 Joint County Sheriff Mette Joachimsdatter Hardenberg of the County of Kylderup, Denmark
Around 1506 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Saling and Sund
1520-ca. 28 County Sheriff of the County of the Shire of Salling
Mette Hardenberg was first appointed jointly with her husband, Markvard Rønnov til Hvidkilde (d. 1506) . After some years she lost first Sunds and later also Salling, but later she recovered the latter tenancy together with her son, Eiler Rønnov after a few years, who confirmed the right to Kylderup Len for himself and his wife, Anne Krabbe in 1531. (d. ca. 1550).

  1504-55 Queen Juana I of Castilla, Des Asturias and Galicia
1516-55 By the Grace of God, Queen of Castilla, Aragon, Leon, Sicily, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indias, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Countess of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, Lady of Biscay and Molina, Duchess of Athens and Neopatria, Margravine of Oristano and Gocian (Spain)
Succeeded her mother, Isabel I in 1505 and father Fernando in 1516. Her father had nominated her as heir of all his possession with her son as regent, because of her mental instability, which is why she is known as Juana la Loca. Her husband Felipe I was king and regent 1504-06 and her son, Carlos I (and V of the Holy Roman Empire) became king in 1516. Juana lived (1479-1555).

  1504-31 Sovereign Princess Hedwig of Münsterberg, Duchess of Sagan (Żagań-Ziębice) (Then Germany now Poland)
Inherited the territories from her fahter, Duke Karl of Münsterberg, and was married to Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1525 who then became joint ruler. He had inherited some lands from his first wife, Beatrix Frankopani (see 1504) and inherited Oppeln and Ratibor from a relative and later bought Jägerndorf – all duchies in Schlesia that is now a part of Poland. Hedwig was mother of two daughters, and lived (1477-1531). 

  1504-10 Sovereign Lady Beatrix Frankopani of Gyula and Hunyad etc. (Hungary), Wraschin Krapina, Medved, Rokonok, Lukavec, Urbovec, Seni, Novigrad etc. (Croatia) and possessions in Austria and Slovonia
Heiress of vast lands in Croatia she also inherited the lands of her first husband, Duke Johannes Corvinicus, the son of King Matthias of Hungary. In 1509 she married Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach with the stipulation that she was to remain in charge of her own lands and did not have to move to Germany. She probably died in childbed, and her husband inherited some of her lands. She lived (1480-1510).

  1504-42 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Sarrebruck of Roucy (France)
Succeeded her father, Robert IV de Sarrebruck, and married to Antoine de Roye (d. 1515) and was succeeded by her son Charles de Roye.

  1504-26 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita di Foix of Saluzzo, and the County of Carmagnola (Italy) 
Also known as Marguerite de Foix, she too over the reins after the death of her husband, Ludovico II del Vasto of Saluzzo, Count of Carmagnola from 1475 and Margrave of Saluzzo 1475-87) and (1490-1504), pretender of the Monferrato Margravate (through his mother Isabella del Montferrato (1427-75)) and Viceroy of Napoli 1503, in the name of her son Michele Antonio I (1495-1504-28). He was succeeded by his brother Gian Ludovico I, Abbot in Casanova del Villar San Costanzo, who was deposed the following year and was succeeded another brother Francesco Ludovico I, who was murdered in 1537 and succeeded by the fourth brother, Gian Gabriele I, Bishop of Aire, who renounced his ecclesiastic career and was deposed in 1548. Originally named Marguerite de Foix, she was daughter of Jean de Foix, Count de Benauges, who was created Earl of Kendal for services to England, but relinquished the title on opting for French nationality, and Margaret Kerdeston, Duchess of Suffolk. (d. 1536).

  1504-12 Politically Influential Mette Iversdatter Dyre in Sweden 
1515-ca. 27 County Sheriff of the County of Hørby, Denmark
Mette Dyre, or Mätta Ivarsdotter in Sweden, was very influential during the regency of her third husband, Svante Nilsson Sture, who was Regent of Sweden for King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. She was Svante’s assistant and advisor, and an influential power in the national counsel. In important questions the great men rather went to her than to her husband. In 1507 she defended Stockholm Castle and in 1510 she was his representative in Finland. After her husband’s death in 1512 she was in dispute with her stepson, Sten Sture the Younger, about some of her dowry. In 1515 King Christian 2. Appointed Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Bishopal Fief of Hørby near Holbæk and as Chancellor of the Convent of Saint Agnete in Roskilde. Her first two husbands were the Norwegian Councillors of the Realm, Anders van Bergen (d. 1491) and Knut Alvsson (d. 1502). She lived (ca. 1460-ca.1527).

  1504-32 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Reuss zu Weida of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Canoness at Quedlinburg when the desingnated successor to Scholastika von Anhalt, Margarethe von Warberg, refused to take up the position because of the ongoing process against the Bishop of Halberstadt because of a dam that had flodded big parts of the territory’s lands. Elisabeth used funds of her own to reach a settlement where the chapter was compensated financially, but the daughter-convent of Frose had to be abandoned as it’s lands was under water. In 1519 she send her preacher, Stephan Molitor to Worms, where he heard Martin Luther, in 1521 she introduced the Evangelical service and in 1523 she participated in the Reichstag von Worm, which laid the foundation of Protestant movement and she became the first Abbess of a Chapter of the Realm to join protestant faith. 1525 the inhabitants of the Stift revolted against her plans to raise taxes and revenues, but she prevailed. She was daughter of Heinrich XX zu Reuss von Weida and Agnes Schenkin von Landaberg. (d. 1532).

  1504-20 Princess-Abbess Verena vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)
Many members of her family held high ecclesiastical office throughout the years.

  1504-31 Princess-Abbess Gertrud von Regenstein und Blankenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her election was confirmed by the Pope with the provision that she had to pay a yearly pension to the “contra-abbess” Katharina von Hohenstein, but she did not fulfil this part of her obligation. Three other women claimed the office during her reign. The ducal castle was expanded in 1528 and neighbouring hoses torn down to get a free shot at the chapter.

  1504-36 “Contra-Abbess” Katharina von Hohnstein of Gandersheim (Germany)
In 1506 a compromise was reached with Gertrud von Regenstein-Blankenberg and she was named Dechaness and got a pension for life for resigning the post to which she had been elected, just like Gertrud. But as she did not get her pension the dispute continued. But in 1518 Duke Heinrich zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel forced a compromise between the two competitors for the office.

  1504-54/57 Abbess Nullius Beatrice Acquaviva d’Aragonaof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Daughter of Andrea Matteo III and his first wife, Isabella Piccolomini Todeschini. Her father was 8th Duke d Atri, Count di San Flaviano, Lord di Forcella, Sant’Omero, Torre di Tronto, Poggio Morello, Cordesca, Castelvecchio, etc. Duke di Teramo and Martina from 1481, until they were confiscated in 1496. The same year he became 15th Count di Conversano in succession to his mother Caterina Orsini del Balzo natural daughter of Giovanni Antonio Orsini, Principe di Taranto, who succeeded to the titles of Contessa di Conversano, Signora di Casamassima, Turi, Casamassima, Bitetto, Gioa, Turi e Noci in 1456, which was confirmed in 1462. Beatrice was “Badessa del monastero di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano”.

  1505-18 Regent Dowager Lady Mechteld van den Bergh of Bronckhorst and Borculo (The Netherlands)
After the death of her husband, Frederik van Bronckhorst en Borculo, she was regent for their son, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo, who married Maria van Hoya, but died without issue in 1553 leaving the possessions to his niece Ermgard van Wisch.

  1505-07 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Dammartin of Remiremont  (France)
At the time discipline in the chapter was lax and the nuns, without the pope’s consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent.

  1505-16 Reigning Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Chapter was founded 1230 as a free worldly chapter for noble ladies.

  1505-before 1557 Reigning Abbess Anna von Rotenstein zum Falken of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Reformed the territory’s court system in 1533. The stewardship and Higher Jurisdiction of the vast territory was taken over by the Hohenzollern family in 1535 an Hohenzollern.

 

1506-14Princess-Abbess Veronika von Radmannsdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


  1507-15 and 1518-30 General-Stadholder Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
First appointed regent by her father, Emperor Maximilian and acted as intermediary between him and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favorable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508). Her nephew, Karl V, removed her from office but soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers, and she was again governor of the Netherlands. In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies’ Peace. Her mother was Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Divorced from her first husband King Charles VIII of France, her second husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón and Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501 she married Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died three years later. She was also Countess of Artois, Bourgogne (Franche-Comté), Mâcon, Auxerre and Charolais, and Dame de Salins from 1493 as Marguerite III. She had no children, and lived (1480-1530).

  1507-16 Regent Dowager Empress Eleni of Ethiopia
Born as Jan-zela, she was one of the widows of Emperor Baeda Maryam I (1468-78), and was politically influential during the reign of her son, Naod I (1494-1507), and then became regent for grandson Lebna Dengel (also known as Wanag Sagad or Dawit II). (1994-1507-16). She was author of two works on theology and remained politically influential to her death in 1522.

  1507-16 Junior Regent Dowager Empress Noad Mogassa of Ethiopia
After the death of her husband, Naod I, she was junior regent for son Lebna Dengel jointly with mother-in-law. She was the sister of Dori, the Bahr Negus – Ruler of Eritrea. (D. after 1527).

  1507-? Iyoba Idia of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Appointed to the position of Queen Mother by her son Oba Ensigie (1504-50), after she helped pressing the attacking Igala back across the Niger River. Since then the Queen Mother was one of Benin’s most powerful women. As a senior town chief she was has a voice in palace affairs and rules her own court. Though she is forbidden to see her son once he is crowned king, the Queen Mother is expected to support him spiritually. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a “wife” with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 

  1507-53 Sovereign Duchess Luisa Borgia of Valentinos, Countess of Diois, Dame of La Mothe-Feuilly, Vaires and Neves (France)
1514-53 Dame de Chalus
1535-53 Duchess of Borgia (Navarra)
Also known as Louise, she was daughter of Cesare Borgia and in 1517 married to Louis II de La Trémoille, Vicomte de Thouars, (1476-1525) who fell in battle. Five years later she married Philippe de Bourbon-Busset, Seigneur de Chabannes and Busset (1499-1557), with whom she had 6 children. She lived (1500-53)

  1507-14 (†) Guardian Dowager Duchess Charlotte d’Albret of Valentinos (France)
After the death of her husband, Cesare Borgia, she was regent for her only child, Luisa Borgia. Charlotte was daughter of Alain d’Albret, Count de Gavre, de Périgord et de Castres and Françoise de Blois dit de Bretagne, Countess de Perigord. Her brother Jean married Catherine de Foix, Queen of Navarra and was king there  (1483-1516). She was Dame de Chalus in her own right, and lived (1500-53).

  1507-20 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Choiseul of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Aleidis, she resigned in favour of Madeleine de Choiseul shortly before her own death.

  1507-18 and 1523-35 County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Meinstrup of the County of Højstrup, Denmark
Anne Meinstrup was also known as Anne Holgers, she was first married to Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz til Boller and secondly to Jørgen von Ahlefeldt til Søgård, who was killed in battle in 1500. After this period she took care of herself and her own possessions, inherited from her parents. In 1507 she took over the fief of Højstrup as security (becoming Lensmand or County Sheriff) for a major lone she had given to King Hans. Around 1516 she was appointed Hofmesterinde (Mistress of the Court) of Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg. From the following year until 1522 she stayed in Northern Germany because she had criticized the relationship of King Christian 2 to Dyveke. After Christian fled the country, she returned and was re-appointed both Hofmesterinde and Lensmand. During the civil war, Grevens Fejde (The Count’s Feud), she supported Count Christoffer, while her son, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz, supported the later Christian 3., but was killed in battle in 1534. Some months later Count Christoffer had called for a meeting at the “Assembly in Ringsted”, and here she was killed by peasant-soldiers. She lived (ca. 1475-1535). 

  1508-37 Sovereign Princess Adriana Crispo of Therasia, Nio and Ios (Greek Island-State)
1528-37 Princess Regnant of Antiparos
Succeeded her parents, Marco II and III of Ios and Santhorini and Lucretia Loredani, and co-ruled with her husband, Alessandro Pisani of Anaphi and Antiparos. Succeeded grandmother, Succeeded grandmother, Lucrezia Loredano (1446-1528) in Antiparos, which was conquered by the Osman Turks in 1537.

  Until ca. 1508 Arumpone We Tenri Gau Daeng Marowa Aru Majang (Makalappi) of Bone (Indonesia)
Successor of her father, La Saliwu Karampeluwe Pasodowakkae, and was followed by son La Tenri Sukki Mapajunge who ruled ca. 1508-1535).

  1508-10 and 1516-25 Regent Margravine Isabella d’Este of Mantova (Italy) 
Before 1508 she reigned when her husband, Federico I Gonzaga, was away from the state, she was regent during his captivity, afterwards during his illness and finally for son, Federico II Gonzaga, who was away from the state. She was very well educated. She was able to speak Greek and Latin as well as play the lute, sing, dance and debate. As regent she founded a school for young women where they had to observe a strict code of morals. She was a patron of the Arts and she also set artistic fashions and standards. She also wrote over two thousand letters and in these she commented on everything from politics to war. Mother of 5 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1474-1539).

  1508-16 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga of Urbino (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, she was regent for their adopted child, Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the son of his sister. He was sickly and impotent, and they had no children, but she refused to divorce him and nursed him through his illnesses. 1502 Cesare Borgia occupied Urbino, and they went into exile until 1504.. Her court attracted writers, artists, and scholars, and she was involved in the power politics of her time. She in close contact with her siter-in-law of Isabella d’Este. In 1506 she reluctantly went with Lucrezia Borgia to Ferrara, where Lucrezia was married to Alfonso I d’Este. In June 1516 she was expelled from Urbino by Pope Leo X, who wanted to give the duchy to his nephew, Lorenzo de Medici. Together with her niece Leonora she found refuge in Ferrara where she died in Ferrara. The daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua and Magaret of Bavaria, she lived (1471-1526).

  1508-10 Regent Dowager Duchess Kunigunde von Habsburg of Bavaria-Munich (Germany)
Married Albrecht IV of Bayern-München (1467-1508) against the will of her own father, Emperor Friedrich III, and joint regent for son Wilhelm IV (1493-1508-50). She later joined the Convent of Pütrich, which she favoured. In spite of the resignation from the court she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons. She was in close contact with her brother, Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, and with other rulers and relatives in Europe. She was a political player in her own right and not only an “instrument” of her family. She lived (1465-1520).

  1508-09 and 1514-18 Regent Dowager Langravine Anna von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Hessen (Germany)
1510-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Geissen, Grünberg, Borken, Felsberg, Wildeck and Rotenburg (from 1511)
Took over the regency for her Wilhelm II, who was unable to govern because of syphilis, but after his death she was removed, as regent by the Estates in spite of his will, which named her guardian and regent. The Estates named their own regents, on the pretext that she was below the age of 25, but the real reason was the fight for power among the different groups in the society. She continued her fight to become regent for Philipp (1504-25). She spoke her case before the Estates; in 1510 she claimed her right to a seat and vote at the Diet of the Realm as the rightful guardian. The emperor sympathised with her, but did not back her, but she also presented her case here. Later that year she withdrew to her dowry, but because of internal disputes in the regency college, she managed to be named regent. She called and chaired a Local Diet (Landtag) and an agreement was made. She named her own regency government and promised to report to the Estates once a year, but reigned independently. In 1518 she had emperor Maximilian I declare her 13 year old son of age, but the nobility continued the fight for power until it was finally defeated in 1523. She was daughter of Magnus II von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Sophie von Pommern, also mother of a daughter, and lived (1485-1525).

  1508-34 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)
Took over after after the resignation of her half-sister, Elisabeth III. She had originally been a canoness in Buchau, where she took part in the election of Barbara von Gundelfingen as Abbess in 1497. Emperor Karl V invited her to the Diet of the Realm, the Reichstag in Worm in 1520 and confirmed the privileges of the chapter the same year. Fought against all Protestant ideas and remained within the chapter when the citizen of Säckingen and Laufenburg who occupied it and attempted to take over the administration during the peasent’s war. The Parish of Hornussen and the churches of Zuzgen, Sulz and Rheinsultz were all incorporated in the chapter during her reign. She was daugter of Thomas von Falkenstin und his second wife Amalia von Winsberg, and her family originated from Solothurn in Switzerland and Breisgau.

  1509-15 Princess-Abbess Anna II Kobold of Heggbach (Germany)
Perhaps also known as Kobodin, she was born as daughter of a citizen of Ulm.

  1509-12 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Borch of Kaufingen (Germany)
Called together with other nuns from Gehrden to introduce more sombre rules in Kaufingen. 1521 the Abbess of the Ritterschaftliche Stift Kaufingen in Hessen was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände. The chapter was abolished 1527/32 and incorporated into Hessen-Kassel. She was grand-daughter of Arnd von der Borch and Beate von Dreer, Heiress of Langendreer. (d. 1512).

  1510-52 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)
Also known as Sayida Al Horra Bent Ali Ar Rachid, she was first confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán (“Hakima Tatwan”). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean, and in 1520 captured the Governors wife and caused great damage to the Portuguese colonial shipping. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband’s death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552. 

  1511 (†) Regent Dowager Princess Elena Salviati of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
Widow of Iacopo IV, who had regained control of the territory after it had been occupied by Cesare Borgia, she acted as regent for her son Iacopo V, but died shortly after taking office. The position of regent was taken over by another relative.

  1511-39 Sovereign Duchess Maria of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Heinsberg  (Germany)
Succeeded her father, Wilhelm IV. She married Johann III von Marck-Kleve and their duchies were united. She was a very devout catholic and was sceptic towards the liberal reforms of both her father and husband. One of her daughters, Anne of Kleve, married Henry the VIII of England. Maria lived (1491-1543).

  1511-54 Reigning Dowager Lady Sybilla von Brandenburg of Bensberg in Jülich-Berg (Germany)
Widow of Duke Wilhelm III von Jülich and Berg (1475-1511), who had one daughter, Marie von Jülich und Berg (1491-1543), by his first wife, who married Johan III von Kleves (1490-1539). Sibylla did not have any children, and  lived (1490-1524)

  1511-15 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Anhalt of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Fürst Albrecht IV and Countess Elisabeth von Mansfeld. She probably resigned and died later the same year.

  1511-13 Reigning Abbess Emerita Lutschern of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The Chapter acquired many possessions in Argau, Swabia and Alsace, but did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstin).

  1511-.. County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Grubbe of the County of Snedinge, Denmark
Karen Grubbe was daughter of Niels Gruppe, who was appointed County Sheriff of the Bishop of Roskilde in 1500. (Bispelensmand). She was widow of Søren Daa, and apparently she bought the tenantcy from the bishop.

  1512-16 Sovereign Duchess Germaine de Foix of Nemours, Countess of Foix-Béarn (France)
1526-37 Vice-Reine and Lieutenant General of Valencia (Spain)
Known in Spain as Germana, she was the daughter of Count Jean de Foix, d’Étampes and Vicomte de Narbonne and Marie d’Orléans, she succeeded her brother, Gaston. She was married to Fernando II the Catholic of Aragón as his second wife after the death of Queen Isabel I. They engaged in a power struggle over her lands until his death in 1516. Three years later she married Johan von Brandenburg-Ansbach (d. 1525) one year after his death she married Fernando d’Aragon, Duca di Calabria (d. 1550) and they were appointed Virreina and Virrey of Valencia. She did not have any children, and lived (1490-1537).

  1512-14 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, she was regent for her 11 year old son, Philipp II, together with his grand-uncle Johann V von Nassau-Dillenburg, who was sole regent until his own death 2 years later and then other relatives took over the government. She had secured the support of the nobility of the county and had it confirmed by the Court of the Empire (Reichskammergericht). She lived (after 1470-1514).

  1511-.. County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Grubbe of the County of Snedinge, Denmark
Karen Grubbe was daughter of Niels Gruppe, who was appointed County Sheriff of the Bishop of Roskilde in 1500. (Bispelensmand). She was widow of Søren Daa, and apparently she bought the tenantcy from the bishop.

  1512-15 Sovereign Duchess Françoise of Longueville, Countess of Montgomery and Tancarville (France) 
Natural daughter of Daughter of king François II of France, and married to the Viscount de Melun, who died 1512. 

  1513-14 Regent Dowager Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James IV of Scotland, was killed, she became regent for her infant son, James V, but her marriage in 1514 to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, led to the loss of the regency to John Stuart, duke of Albany, who soon obtained custody of the king. She fled to England, but returned in 1517, during James Stuart’s absence, and shortly thereafter she became estranged from her husband. Her son was proclaimed king in 1524 and was for several years virtually a prisoner of her husband. In 1527 she obtained a divorce and soon married Henry Stuart, later Lord Methven. The following year her son escaped from her ex-husband and joined her and her new husband, and they were for a time his chief advisers. A plan of of hers for a meeting between her brother Henry VIII of England and her son led James to accuse her of betrayal in 1534. They were further estranged by James’s refusal to allow her to divorce her third husband. For long periods Heiress Presumptive to the English throne, and lived (1489–1541).

  1513 Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King’s Forces Queen Catherine of Aragón of England, Wales and Ireland (United Kingdom)
Following the death of her first husband, Prince Arthur of England, she married his brother Henry VIII. When he went to France on warfare she was appointed regent and led the English troops against the invading Scots at the Battle of Flodden (in Northumberland) and, afterwards, sent over to her husband, in Flanders, a grim reminder of her achievements there: the blood-stained tunic of dead James IV of Scots. In 1520, however, the she went to France alongside Henry and was present at the great meeting of the ‘Field of the Cloth of Gold’. Of her four children only the later Queen Mary I survived. In 1533 Henry divorced her and broke with the Catholic church, she was deprived of her titles as Queen of England and was forced to revert to ‘Princess Dowager of Wales’. She was kept in confinement but never remained long in one place, for she enjoyed great popularity throughout a Country and there were fears of an uprising in her favour.  She was daughter of Queen Isabel I of Castilla and Ferdinand of Aragón and initially heir to her father, but her sister, Juana La Loca, inherited both Countries. Catherine lived (1485-1536).

  1513-29 Joint Ruler Queen Burecca of The Maldive Islands
Also known as Buraki Rani, she was educated in the martial arts and out-shone her younger brother and sister. She had expected to succeed her grandfather to the throne. However several years after Siri Bavana Sooja died, it was her brother who came to the throne as King Siri Ananda Sultan Ali V (1512 -13) after several other reigns in between. She quarrelled with her brother, fled the Maldives, and travelled east to the Kingdom of Aceh (known to the Maldivians as Asey Cara) on the island of Sumatra. There she completed her education and perfected her martial arts before returning home to depose her brother. Her fleet entered Malé harbour in the dead of night. She fought a duel with her brother on the square inside the royal palace complex, several hours before dawn that morning. She slew her brother and ascended the throne to rule jointly with her husband King Siri Dhammaru Bavana (Sultan Mohamed the Black). It was his third accession to the throne. In spite of her ambitions, and unlike several other women who occupied the throne, she did not take the title of Rehendi or Sultana. Instead she took the title of Ranin or Queen Consort. 

  Until 1513 Sovereign Countess Claudine de Brosse of Penthièvre (France)
Also known as Claude, she succeeded Jean II de Brosse, Seigneur de Boussac, de Sainte-Severe, Count of Penthièvre by the right of his wife, Nicole de Châtillon de Blois, Comtesse de Penthièvre, Vicomtesse de Limoges (d. after 1479) and married Philippe I,  Duke of Savoie 1496-1497, Comte de Bresse. (d. 1513-).

  1513-50 County Sheriff Else Pederdatter Thott of the County of the Shire of Sund, Denmark
1521-47 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Nørvang and Hønborg with the Shire of Elbo
1521-25 Acting County Sheriff of Vester Herred
Until 1550 County Sheriff of Krarup and Rynkeby
Else Thott til Alnarp was first married to Claus Krummedige and secondly to Thomas Nilsson (Lange), and was granted Krarup and Rynkeby for life. Her son, Karl Lange, paid it off after her death and kept it for life. She (d. 1550).

  Until 1513 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth zu Dhaun-Kyburg of Elten (Germany)
Daughter of Johann IV, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun und Kyrburg and Elisabeth von Hanau.

  1514-15 (or 1515-20) Acting Governor Maria Alvarez de Toledo y Rojas of Hispaniola/Las Isla Espanola (Dominican Republic and Haïti), Acting Vicereine of las Indias Occidentales (West Indies)
Her husband, Diogo Colón, 1. Duke of Veragua, was Vice-roy 1509-14 and 1520-23, and she also held the title of Vicereine of the West Indies. She was stand-in for her husband when he was in Spain 1515-20, and remained in close contact with the Queen of Spain, Isabel de Portugal, and her husband Emperor Charles V (1516-56). She was daughter of Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 1st Lord de Villora and Maria de Rojas, and mother of 5 children. Her youngest, Isabel Colón was married to don Jorge de Portugal, Count de Gelves y Mayor de los alcázares de Sevilla, and lived (ca. 1490-1549).

  1514-20 Regent Dowager Despina Helena of Serbia
Her first husband was Jovan Brankovic, despot of Sebia in 1493–1502. After his dead she was married to Croatian nobleman Ivanis Berislavic who then became the Serbian despot. After his death, she conducted the affairs of state in place of her minor son, Stjepan Berislavic (1514 – 35).

 

1514-23Princess-Abbess Margaretha III von Mindorfof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark. During her reign the new gothic church was finished.


  1514-24 Sovereign Duchess Claude de France of Bretagne, Countess d’Étampes 
1514-17 Sovereign Duchess of Berry (France)
Eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and successor of her mother Anne as Duchess of Brittany. The same year she married her cousin, who because of the French salic law succeeded her father as king François I. In 1532 the personal union of France with Brittany was made definitive. Their oldest son became duke and was succeeded by his brother, François in 1536. Her life was spent in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Her husband had many mistresses but was usually relatively discreet. She imposed a strict moral code on her household, which only a few like her lady-in-waiting Mary Boleyn chose to flout. Another lady-in-waiting was Anne Boleyn, who later married Henry VIII of England. Claude was short in stature and afflicted with scoliosis that gave her a small hunched back. She was mother of 7 children, among other King Henri III, Duchess Marguerite de Valois de Berry, and Queen Madeleine of Scotland, and lived (1499-1524).

  1515-75 Sovereign Duchess Renée de France of Chartres, Countess of Gisoirs et de Montargis (France)
Also known as Renata di Francia. Her mother, Duchess Anne of Bretagne, who had always fought fiercely to keep the state independent of the French crown, tried to will the duchy to Renée, but her father King Louis XII ignored this and instead granted Brittany to his successor, the husband of her sister, Francis I, King of France. In return for renouncing her claims to the duchy of Brittany, she was granted the duchy of Chartres. She was married in 1528 to Ercole II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara who ruled 1534-59. After his death she returned to France because she was on bad terms with her son Alfonso II and settled in Montargis. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1510-74).

  1515-50 Sovereign Princess Isabelle-Louise de Bourbon of Carency (France)
Her brother, Betrand died in 1515 as the last male of the line. The following year she married François de Perusse d’Escars, Seigneur de La Vauguyon. Their son Jean de Perusse d’Escars (d. 1595), knight of the Saint-Esprit in 1578, made comte de La Vauguyon in 1586, continued the use the title Prince de Carency.

  1515-24 Joint Sovereign Duchess Philiberta di Savoia of Nemours (France)
Also known as Philiberte de Savoie, and her husband, Giuliano de Medici (ca. 1478-1516), had been created joint holders of the duchy. Her brother, Philippe, Comte de Geneve, was given the duchy in 1516. She was daughter of Claude de Brosse and Duke Philippe I de Savoie, and lived (1498-1524).

  1515-19 De-facto Governor Alfonsina Orsini of The Republic of Firenze (Italy)
As mother of the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo II de’ Medici, she was able to govern during his absence. She was involved in the strategic planning of Florence’s war with the French and the plans for making a treaty as well as her oversight of Pope Leo’s entry into Florence in November 1515. Her governorship was indicative of the increasingly signora nature of the Medici regime and that she had far more power, influence and authority than the previous generation of Medici women. She was the daughter of Roberto Orsini, Conte Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino and married to Piero “il Unfortunato” de’ Medici, who lived 1503. Apart from Lorenzo, she was mother of Clarissa de’ Medici, and lived (1472-1520).

  1515-26 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Ellenbog of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1525 Heggbach was raided by the peasant’s war (Bauernkrieg) that covered parts of Germany at the time. A daughter of a citizen of Augsburg, she entered the chapter in 1487 and some of her brothers were also clerics.

  1515-74 Princess-Abbess Anna II zu Stolberg-Weiningsrode of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Elected to the office when she was scarcely thirteen years old, she introduced Lutheranism in all the houses under her jurisdiction. The choir service in the abbey church was abandoned, and the Catholic religion wholly abrogated. The monastic offices were reduced to four, but the ancient official titles retained. Thereafter the institution continued as a Lutheran sisterhood till the secularization of the abbey in 1803. Anna II was daughter of Botho III von Stolberg and Countess Anna von Eppenstein, and lived (1504-74).

  1515-43 Reigning Abbess Madeleine d’Orleans, batard d’Angoulême of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Continued the renovation and rebuilding of the chapter amidst the wars raging in France. She was daughter of Comte Charles d’Angoulême et de Perigord, and she received her half-brother, King Francis I, twice at the Abbey. The year after her death, the nuns had again to leave the Abbey during the war against Charles the V. She lived (ca. 1496-1543).

  1515-44 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgendatter Urne of the County of Farum with Farumgård, Denmark
Alhed Urne continued as County Sheriff appointed by the Bishop of Roskilde and after the reformation in 1536 she is granted the tenantcy for life. She was widow of Tetz Jensen Rosengård, who was County Sheriff until his death in 1485. She (d. 1544).

  1516-20 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne d’Orléans of Valois (France)
Granddaughter of Louis d’Orléans (1392-1407) the son of King Charles V of France. She succeeded her relative, king François of France, and married to Charles de Coëtivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520). 

  1516-49 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite d’Orléans-Angoulême of Berry 
1525-49 Duchess of Alençon and Rodez, Comtesse d’Armagnac, du Perche, Pezenac, de L’Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët, Pardiac, Viscomtesse Fezenzaguet, Brulhois, d’Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé (France)
Sister of Francis I of France, and first married the Duke of Alençon (d.1525) and in 1527, Henry d’Albret (titular king of Navarra). With a strong interest in Renaissance learning, she was much influenced by Erasmus and the religious reformers of the Meaux circle, who looked to her for patronage and protection. She encouraged agriculture, learning, and the arts, and her court was the most intellectual in Europe. The patron of men of letters, including the heretical poet Clément Marot, she was a prolific writer of long devotional poems, dramas, secular poems, and the celebrated Heptaméron, a collection of stories on the theme of love. She lived (1492-1549).

  1516-22 Regent Dowager Duchess Margaretha von Münsterberg-Oels of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)
Widow of Ernst and regent for Johannes II (1504-16-51). She was a respected ruler, and corresponded with Martin Luther, but remained a devout Catholic and refused to accept the reformation, but after her death, her sons jointed the Protestant movement. She lived (1473-1530).

  1516 Rani Regnant of Quilon (India)
Quilon or Kollam in Karalla is an old seaport town on the Arabian coast. The state had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and the Romans. The port of was frequented by the Chinese, Arabs and the Nestorian Christians from Alexandria, it was regarded by the Arab author, Ibn Batuta, as one of the major five ports, which he had seen in the course of his travels during a period of twenty-four years, in the 14th century. The rulers of Kollam (Desinganadu) and China, exchange embassies and there was flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam.  

  1516-67 Ruler Puteri di Dalam Petung of Pasir (Indonesia)
Oldest daughter of a mythical woman, who married a Prince of Grisee – a priest-principality on Java. Puteri di Dalam married Abu Mansyur Indra Jaya, who introduced Islam in Pasir. She was succeeded by her son Aji Mas Pati Indra as ruler of the principality in East-Borneo/Kalimantan

  1516-28 Reigning-Abbess Katherina von Waldburg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The last reigning Abbess of the Ecclesiastical Territories of Königsfelden, which had vast possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace. As a result of the reformation the Chapter was secularized and its possessions in Aargau were annexed to Bern and the possessions in Swabia and Alsace were sold in 1528.

  1516-26 Princess-Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)
Since 1521, the Ladies of the chapter (sift) charged the Hofmeister with the task of taking part in the Schwäbian Circle of the Imperial Diet in their name. At the time, the Stift ruled over eight settlements with 1.189 inhabitants.

  1516-28 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Medelsom and the Shire of Sønderlyng, Denmark
Birgitte Thott til Valø acted after the death of her second husband, Niels Eriksen Rosenkrantz. She (d. 1528).

  1517 Sovereign Lady Dorothea Papinga of Jever (Germany)
Daughter of the Frisian chief, Edo Wiemken of West-Friesland, she and her two sisters succeeded their brother, Junker Christoph. Count Enno II of Friesland tried to incorporate Jever into his domain, he occupied the territory, and held the three sisters imprisoned in the castle, where Dorothea died shortly after.

  1517-36 Sovereign Lady Anna Papinga of Jever (Germany)
Joint heiress of Jever with her two sisters. In 1531 the Lord Boring von Oldersum sided with the two sisters and secured the land for them. 

  1517-75 Sovereign Lady Maria of Jever, Rüstringen, Östringen and Wangerland (Germany)
After the death of her two sisters, and the removal of the West-Frisians, she became sole ruler of the area, with the title of Erbherrin. Also known as Fräulein or Miss Maria, she concentrated on the consolidation and expansion of the Jever-territory and with support from the Emperor she maintained her demands in the Ostfrisean lands and the Frisian village developed into a modern territorial state. She never married and after her death the territory was inherited by her mother’s family; the counts of Oldenburg. She lived (1500-75).

  1517-35 County Sheriff Karen Bentsdatter Bille of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hattinge, Nim and Vor, Denmark
Karen Bille took over the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Henrik Knudsen Gyldenstierne. 7 of her 22 children survived, and she lived (ca. 1470-1540).

  1518-56 Politically influential Queen Bona Sforza of Poland and Lithuania
1524-57 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico (Italy)
Her mother, Isabella de Aragon, had provided Bona with an excellent education. She read classic masterpieces and studied law and history and was fluent in Spanish and Latin. Bona married the 51-year old recently widowed King Sigmund I of Poland. It did not take long before she got involved in politics and economics, and she spent a lot of energy on recovering royal properties that had been in the hands of creditors. She increased the revenues and raised taxes, and remained familiar with the current affairs of Bari and Rosano that legally remained in her hands. Emperor Felipe II was putting a great deal of pressure on Bona to pass her properties in Apulia and Calabria to Spain. In 1556 she returned to Italy and was warmly welcomed by her people, but one of her favourite advisors, Gian Baptista Pappacoda, was a Spanish spy. In November 1557 she turned very ill and she could not return to Poland as planned. Pappacoda tricked the Queen to change her will in favour of Felipe II. When her health improved, she tried to change the will, but she was poisoned by Pappacode, and everything she had owned was stolen and no will could be imposed. She lived (1494-1557).

  1518-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Anne d’Alençon of Monferrato
1533-36 Possible Regent of Monferrato (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Guglielmo IX Secondo Lazzaro (1494-1818), she was ruled in the name of her son, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), who was succeeded by uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, (1488-1530-33). After her oldest daughter, Maria, had been divorced from Federico II Gonzaga, Anne arranged the marriage between Federico and her second daughter Margherita, who transmitted the claims of the Margravate to her husband, who was appointed Marchese of Monferrato in 1536. Anne might have acted as regent in the remaining period. She was also Dame de La Guerche and lived (1492-1562).

  1518-29 County Sheriff Drude Claudatter Krummedige of the Counties of Skibelunde, Hoby and Vester Ulslev, Denmark
Drude Krummedige was widow of Christian Rantzau, former County Sheriff of Nyborg, who had been granted the tenantcy for the liftime of both of them in 1516. She had first been married to Otto Krumpen.

  1518-23 De-facto In charge of the Customs Sigbrit Villoms in Denmark
1519-23 “Second in Command” in Denmark
1522-23 De-facto Leader of the Treasury
Generally known as Mor Sigbrit, she was a Dutch tradeswoman who moved Norway and managed a trading company in Bergen of a substantial size. Her daughter, Dyveke, became mistress of the later Christian 2 of Denmark around 1509. When became king in 1513 they moved with him to Copenhagen and Sigbrit’s influence grew. Dyveke died suddenly in 1517 – rumoured to have been poisoned. Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg appointed her as her Chief of Court and she also acted as midwife of the king’s children. Her brother was a pharmacist and she was knowledgeable about medicine. She was also left in charge of the government when Christian was abroad. 1522 she was given a so-called “General receipt” (generalkvittering), that made her de-facto a kind of Minister of Finance. When the king was deposed in 1523 for his dictatorial rule, she went with the family to the Netherlands where they tried to gain support for the king’s return. One of the conditions was that Christian had to part with her. From then on, nothing is heard of her, though the story of an old woman in prison accused of heresy or witchcraft sounds like it could have been her. Sigbrit Willoms also wrote her surname as Villumsdatter and she (d. ca. 1532).

  Before 1519 Queen Regnant Azcasuch of Tepetlaoxtoc (Mexico)
Also known as  or Azcaxóchitl, she was Cihuatlatoani (queen) of the pre-Columbian Acolhua altepetl of Tepetlaoztoc in the Valley of Mexico, in succession to her husband, Cocopin, and she was succeeded by her grandson, Diego Tlilpotonqui, who ruled when the Spanish arrived in 1519. She was daughter of daughter of King Nezahualcoyotl of Texoco, who ruled 1431-72.

  1518-20 Pretender Fiorenza Sommaripa of Paros (Greece)
1520 Princess Regnant
Daughter of Gasparo di Sommaripa and Maria Sanudo of Naxos. The Principality was confiscated by her brother-in-law Duke Giovanni II after the death of her husband, but she was restored after pressure from Venice.

  1519-56 Sovereign Margravine Riccairda Malaspina of Massa and Carrara, Lady of Massa dei Malpasina, Sovereign Lady of Carrara, Avenza e Moneta, (Italy)
Inherited the possessions of her father, Alberico II Malpasina. After the death of her sister, Eleonora, she got papal dispensation to marry her close relative, Count Scipione Fieschi. After his death in 1520 she married Lorenzo Cybo – the nephew of Pope Leon X. 1525 Emperor Karl V formally invested her with the fief of Massa e Carrara and the Malaspina territories in 1529. She was an intelligent woman who maneuvered her state during the political turmoils of Italy, but preferred to reside in Rome and Firenze, and in her absence Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo was in charge of the government. Succeeded by son Giulio Cybo-Malaspina, and lived (1497-1556).

  1519-possibly 21 Acting County Sheriff Johanne Henriksdatter Sparre of the County of Holbæk with the Shires of Merløse and Tudse, Denmark
Johanne Sparre til til Haglösa took over after the death of her first husband Erik Pedersen Bille, later she married Aage Axelsen Brahe til Sireköpinge. She (d. 1568).

  Ca. 1519-44 Joint County Sheriff Alhed Jørgensdatter Urne of the County of Farum, Demark
Alhed Urne was widow of Tetz Rosengaard (d. 1519) and held the tenantcy jointly with her son Jens Tetzsen. She (d. 1544).

  1520-30 Queen Regnant Rangitamanjakatrimovavy of Hova/Imerina (Madagascar)
Also known as Rangita, she succeeded her father Ratsimisytoazy, and was succeeded by her daughter Rafohy. The Merina or Hova Dynasty later became rulers of the United Kingdom of Madagascar.

  1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)
Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was succeeded by king Andriamponga.

  1520-25 City Regent Dowager Countess Magdalena von Öttingen of Montfort-Tettnang (Germany)
After the death of her husband Count Ulrich VII, she was named regent of the city (Stadtregentin). In 1521 Emperor Karl V gave her Blutbann as a fief and in 1525 she was faced with a peasant uprising.Her second husband was Count Johann I von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg (d. 1529). After her death, Emperor Karl V gave the county as a fief to her nephew, Hugo XVI von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg, Count of Montfort-Tettnag, who was first married to her granddaughter, Maria Magdalena von Schwarzenberg zu Hohenlandsberg (1510-43), the oldest of the 14 children of her daughter, Eva von Montfort-Tettnang (1494-27). Another of Eva’s daughters, Maria Jakobe (1515-94) was Princess-Abbess of Buchau. Magdalena lived (1473-1525).

  1520 Rebellion Leader Kristina Gyllenstierna in Sweden
The daughter of Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna (member of the Swedish Council of the Realm) she married Sten Sture in 1511 and Sten Sture was elected regent the following year. From the age of 21 she took part in the national counsel and showed a remarkable knowledge and maturity. In 1520 her husband died of the damages he had got at the battle of Bogesund, and in may the same year she manned the Stockholm and defended the city, with success, against the Danish troops under command of Christian II. In September she had to capitulate and surrendered Stockholm to the Danish king. This was the beginning of the infamous ‘Stockholm’s bloodbath’. She was imprisoned at Stockholm Castle where she stayed until November 1521 when she was brought to Denmark. 1524 she could return to Sweden, country which now where ruled by the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, the son of her half sister Cecilia of Eka. She once again tried to get involved in politics, but in 1525 she reached a settlement with her nephew, and married Johan Turesson Tre Rosor (a member of the national counsel) in 1527. He died in 1566. She had a son with Svante and one with Johan, and lived (1494-1559).

  1520-65 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Limburg-Stirum of Herford and Gerresheim (Germany)
Also known as von Limburg-Styrum, she had been Koadjutorin 1515-20, and was the first to be appointed Princess of the Empire of the territory in 1523. She was strong opponent of the Protestantism which lead to various disputes with the city of Herford, which joined the new faith in the 1520’s. She was daughter of Count Adolf von Limburg and Elisabeth von Reichenstein Her sister Agnes was Abbess of Freckenhorst and Metelen, (d.1570) and Katharina was Abbess of Borghorst (d.1572). Anna resigned and lived another 20 years before her death in 1585.

  1520-29 Princess-Abbess Anna VII Schlaibegg of Baindt (Germany)
The Chapter and City of Baindt were closely connected during the centuries, but the Peasant’s Uprising (Bauernkrieg) of 1525 the abbey was burned down.

  1520-22 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III d’Esne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of an ancient North-French family.

  1520-69 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Aham of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Influential in Regensburg, the frequent meeting place of the imperial diet from 1532, and from 1663 to 1806 it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet – where she was member of the Bench of Bavarian Prelates. Barbara was member of an old Bavarian noble family.

  1520 and 1544 Princess-Abbess Madeleine de Choiseul of Remiremont (France)
The fact that she was selected by her predecessor and not by the ladies of the chapter as the rules stipulated, caused some protests, and she resigned in favour of Nicole de Dommartin, who resigned shortly after in favour of Marguerite d’Haraucourt. This on the other hand was contested  by Marguerite de Neufchâel, who appointed Madeleine as Coadjutrice when she prevailed in 1528 after years of incertanties. After Madame de Neuchâtel’s death, Madeleine was Princess-Abbess for a few months’ before being succeeded by Madame d’Haraucourt.

  1520-? Princess-Abbess Nicole de Dommartin of Remiremont (France)
Her election as successor of Madeleine de Choiseul, was contested by Marguerite de Neufchâtel, Abbess of Baume, and she soon resigned in favour of  Margureite d’Haraucourt, but Madame de Neufchâtel prevailed in 1528, and appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutrice.

  1520-34 Gülbehar Hatun Mahidevran Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Hafsa Hatin or Aisha Hafsa Khanum acted as Queen Mother of her son, Süleyman the Magnificent after the death of her husband Selim I. She may have been daughter of Mengli Giray Khan of the Crimean Tatars, and lived (1494-1534).

  1521-22 Regent Queen Anna Jagiellonka of Austria
1539 Regent of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia
The daughter of king Wladislaw II Jagiello of Hungary and Bohemia and Anne de Foix-Candale. Since 1521 a wife of Ferdinand von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, since 1526 Anna and Ferdinand were king and Queen of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. She lived (1503-47).  

  1521-50 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Pommern of Lüben (Lubin) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Georg I von Brieg (Jerzy of Brzeg) (1495-1521), she held the Slesian Principality as her dowry. She lived (142-1550).

  1521-47 Reigning Lady Anna von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
1547-67 Reigning Dowager Lady
Wife of Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg and given the territories (Städte und Ämter) as her dowry for life.  Her husband died in 1547 and she moved to the renovated castle of Eldenburg. She was a devout Catholic, but in 1559 her son, Johann Albrecht I expelled the monks and priests from her lordship, which was the only place that had not joined the reformation.

  1521-32 Regent Dowager Queen Njai Tjili of Ternate (Indonesia)
Reigned for sons Deijalo and Bohejat. In 1532 Prince Kaitjil became sultan.

  1521-34 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Beichlingen of Essen (Germany)
During the 14th century the organisation of the Chapter and its surrounding got more character of an actual state. Margarethe II was member of the very ancient Countly family of von Beichlingen, which was one of the most important families of Thüringen.

  1521-39  Princess-Abbess Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
The 9th of the 11 children of Friedrich II von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Württemberg, she was titular ruler of the chapter all of her life, and was succeeded by her 7-year-old sister, and lived (1521-39).

  1521-.. County Sheriff Mette Borkvardsdatter Skinkel, Harridslevgård
1527-39/42 County Sheriff of Odense Møntergård, Denmark
Mette Skinkel til Torpegård and Åsum, was also known as Skinkelsdatter, she was named successor to Harridslevgård tenantcy (fik ventebrev) in 1514, and took over after the death of her husband, Tjelluf Eriksen Bjørn (Tilluf Eriksøn). Was later granted Odense Møntergård for life. She (d. 1539/42).

  1521-28 County Sheriff Sophie Jørgendatter Rud of the County of Isolte  in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Sophie Rud, who was also known as Rudsdatter, was appointed jointly with her husband, Tyge Brahe and took over the administration after his death in 1523. Her second husband, Erik Madsen Bølle was County Sheriff 1528-63. She (d. 1551)

  1521-after 26 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter of the County of Thurø, Denmark
Jomfru Anne (Miss or virgin) was granted the island south of Svendborg, in 1526 it was noted that she was not to “interfere with the peasants” (ikke befatte sig med bønderne).

  1522-39 Sovereign Countess Ludovica Torello of Gaustalla (Italy)
After the death of her second husband, she became a cleric. The County of Gaustalla, which she had inherited from her father, was claimed by another branch of the family, and the affair was carried before Pope Clement VIII and Emperor Charles V. She settled the matter by disposing of her estates to Fernando Gonzaga, thereby also increasing her resources for the religious foundations she had in mind. In 1536 she entered the Angelicals, a congregation that she had founded, taking the name of Paola Maria. Later she established or assisted in the establishment of several other religious houses in various parts of Italy. When Paul III imposed the cloister on the Angelicals, she instituted another community, also at Milano. Like the Angelicals, they were under the direction of the Barnabites. The members, known as Daughters of Mary, dedicated themselves to the care of orphans of noble family, eighteen being provided for in the endowment.  She lived (1499-1569).

  1522-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Saint Omer of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Her family were lords of the city of St.-Omer in Belgium. 

  1523-.. Regent Patodhara Waghelji Raniji Shri Kalyandi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)
7th wife of Rana Raj Raydharji, she took over the regency after his death for their son, Shri Shaktimant Jhaladipati Mahamandleshwar Rana Sriraj Mansinhji Ranoji Sahib, Rana Raj Sahib of Halvad.

  1523-58 De-facto Ruler Kadin Hürrem Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Western sources refer to her variously as Roxelana, Rosa, Rosanne, Rossa, Ruziac or La Rossa. She is generally believed to have been enslaved during raids by the Crimean Turks on Ukraine and Galcia during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, and presented to the Ottoman palace. Of the diverse theories about her ethnic origin, it is most likely that she was Russian or Polish, and there is evidence that she considered herself to be Polish. She was given the name Hürrem, on account of her cheerful temperament. And became Süleyman the Magnificent’s premier wife, the birinci kadin. To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Süleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa. She also conspired to bring about the execution of Grand Vezir İbrahim Paşa, who was a staunch supporter of Şehzade Mustafa. She persuaded Süleyman to appoint as grand vizier their daughter Mihrumâh’s husband Rüstem Paşa, and the three schemed to bring about the death of Şehzade Mustafa. From her letters written to Süleyman when he was on campaign, we learn that she advised him on political matters. The letters of congratulation and gifts sent to the Polish King Zigsmund II by Hürrem and Mihrumâh, and the correspondence between Hürrem and the sister of Shah Tahmasp of Iran are cited as evidence of her influential role in politics and foreign affairs. During her later life, Hürrem Sultan became more concerned with charitable works and founded a number of institutions, becoming the first woman to endow a mosque complex in Istanbul. She lived (ca. 1507-58).

  1523-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Hohengeroldseck of Buchau (Germany)
In 1497 she was Canoness and participated in the election of her predecessor. In 1524 the territory became a member of the Swabian League (Schwäbische Bund) and member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank – Bench of the Lords Spiritual of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) – the regional assembly. In 1529 she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid), she participated in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1531 and in the Reichstag of Worms with the Prelates of Swabia 1535 and the following year she was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia. According to the older literature she was driven out of the Chapter for a period during a peasant revolt. She was daughter of Gangolf von Hohengeroldseck and Kunigunde von Montfort and lived (before 1480-1540).

 

1523-43Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Spangstein of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


  1523-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Queen Sophie von Pommern of Denmark of Lolland and Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of  Falster in Denmark and Lady of the Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön (Slesvig-Holsten)
The islands of Lolland and Falster was given to her as a dowry (Livgeding) when her husband, King Frederik I ascended to the throne in 1523. In Lolland and Falster she appointed her own County Sheriffs to take care of the administration of the minor tenancies. She also held the German Castles and Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön and adjourning areas in Holsten (Schloss und Amt von Kiel und Plön) as part of her dowry. She lived (1498-1568).

  1523-… County Sheriff Inger Ottesdatter Rømer of the Counties of Fosen, Edøen, Romsdal and Søndmøre and Tønsberg, Norway
Until 1555 County Sheriff of the County of Romsdal and Rejns Kloster, Denmark
Inger Rømer til Østeråt by Tronhjem was married to Niels Henriksen Gyldenløve, who was send to The Netherlands to accompany Elisabeth of Habsburg back to Denmark, where she would marry King Christian 2. After his death she managed to keep most of his tenancies. Only Vardøhus she had to give up to her son-in-law Erik Ugerup, married to Anne. She later got Tønsberg as security for loans (Pantelen). And she managed to acquire the famous estate of Giske and even though it rightfully belonged to Carl Knudsens’ female heirs. She also tried to get her hand on the estates that had been owned by Inger Erlandsdatter Losne, who died, even though it belonged to a branch of the Danish Rosenkrantzer. Finally she also became “Mistress” (Forstanderinde) of the abbey of Rejns and thereby in charge of its rich estates during the reformation. In the 1530s she was involved in disputes with the Archbishop who got the upper hand and she sought refuge at Østeråt. 1533 she had to give up to Giske and later the Losne-Estates also went to the rightful heirs. Mother of 5 daughters who all married high ranking and influential Danish nobles. She (d. 1555). 

  After 1523-ca. 29 County Sheriff Lene Ludvigsdatter Rosenkrantz of Lunde with several parishes in Mors, Denmark
Lene Rosenkrantz til Estrup was widow of Thomas Iversen Juel, who was in office from 1520. The tenancy was paid off by her son Iver Juel after her death. She (d. 1529).

  1523-26 Politically Active Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg of Denmark
Accompanied her husband, Christian 2. (1481-1513-23-59) of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, in exile, and she was active on his behalf on the European stage, working for his reinstatement. In 1524 she spoke in his favour at the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in Nürnberg. He later tried to reclaim the throne, but was taken captive and died in imprisonment. She was daughter of Queen Juana la Loca and king Felipe de Austria of Castilla, and lived (1501-26).

  1524-31 County Sheriff Ingeborg Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Gårdstange (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Ingeborg Podebusk was in charge of the fief, which was also known as Gardsstange, after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm Tønne Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Ørtofte. During the The Count’s Feud  (Grevens Fejde) her estate was burned down by the peasants. She was mother of one son, Verner Tønnsen Parsberg, and (d. 1542).

  1524 Acting County Sheriff Karen Steensdatter Gøye of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Nørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark
Karen Gøye was in charge after the death of her husband, Niels Pedersen Høeg Banner.

  1525-50 Sovereign Duchess Françoise d’Alençon of Beaumont-Maine, Princesse d’Alençon (France)
Succeeded brother, Charles IV, who had no children with his wife Marguerite d’Orléans-Angoulême, Duchesse de Berry. Françoise was married to François d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville and to Charles IV de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme. Her sister Anne d’Alençon was Dame de la Guerche and married to Guillaume Paléolouge, Marquis de Monferrato, and lived (1492-1562). Françoise lived (1490/91-1550). 

  Ca. 1525-50 Lady Isabel Xipaguazin Moctezuma of Tacuba (Mexico)
Originally named Tecuichpo, Techichpotzin, or Tecuichpotzin, Princesa Isabel, was daughter of Moctezuma II (1466-1520), who was the last emperor of the Aztecs (1502-20), who ruled the grand city of Tenochtitlán, and after her cousin, Cuauhtémoc, was executed, she was considered heiress of the Aztec empire, and married two conquistadors, Alonso de Grado and Pedro Gallego de Andrada. King Carlos I of Spain named her Holder for perpetuity of the Lordship of Tacuba – which largely corresponds with the historic centre of the City of México. She was mother of 7 children and founded the Spanish noble house of the counts of Moctezuma, and lived (ca. 1510-50)

  1525-55 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Muntprat von Spiegelberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1525 the people of the Gasterland in the Schänis Area joined the reformed faith and the Chapter was briefly suspended in 1529, but after the victory of the Catholic areas around Kappel in 1531 they were forced back to the catholic faith, the confederates (eidgenossen) assembled and discussed the affairs of the Chapter in 1551 and 1552. Her family originated kn Konstantz and in 1535 she lost a court case about the inheritance from their parents to her parents Hans Heinrich Muntprat von Spiegelberg.

  1525-29 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Sosa de Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The Abbess of the Chapter held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1526-29 Sovereign Princess Anna of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)
Księżna Anna Mazowiecka succeeded her father, Duke Konrad III. Her mother was Princess Anna Radziwiłłówna, and she lived (1498/1500-after 1557).  

  1526-33 Reigning Dowager Countess Anna von Schönberg
 of Schaumburg (Germany)
Took over the castle (Die Schaumburg auf dem Nesselberg) and surrounding territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside in the castle and territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside of the castle.

  1526-35 Acting Governor Isabel Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)
Together with her husband, the judge of the High Court of Santo Domingo, Marcelo de Villalobos, she had been installed in the island since 1512. In 1525 he obtained, by pact with the Spanish Crown, the Governorship of Margarita, but he passed away the following year, and Isabel asked for the rights of governorship to be transferred to her daughter, Aldonza. Isabel appointed a number of governor-lieutenants, but continued to take care of her daughter’s interests until she married in 1535.

  1526-32 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Bitterler of Heggbach (Germany)
Member of a Noble family from Basel in Switzerland and died of breast cancer.

  1526-28 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Stottingen of Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1526 the peasants attacked the Chapter and looted the rooms and the same year the citizen of Biberach wanted to introduce the reformation but did not succeed.

  1527-28 Regent Dowager Queen Maria von Habsburg of Bohemia-Hungaria
1527 Presided over the Hungarian Assembly (December)
1530 Presided over the Austrian Landtag (January)
1530-55 General-Stadholder of the Netherlands
1530-58 Governor of Franche-Comté (France)
At the age of 17, she married King Lajos II Jagello of Hungary, who was 15. Four years later, the Turks over-ran half his kingdom, including the capital, Budapest. Louis was killed at the battle, and Maria fled west, taking the Hungarian treasury with her, and she called the Assembly, which elected her brother, Archduke Ferdinand von Österreich king of Hungary. In 1530 she Presided over the Landtag in his name. Her brother, Karl V, appointed her Governor of the Netherlands after the death of their aunt, Margaretha and she was also put in charge of Franche-Comté. Maria was granddaughter of Duchess Marie of Burgundy, had no children, and lived (1505-58). 

  1527-35 Sovereign Duchess Giulia da Varano of Camerino (Italy)
Succeeded to the title when her father died of plague, but was deposed by a male relative. She was daughter of Giovanni Maria, Lord and 12th Pontifical Vicar of Camerino and Count since 1503 Duke of Camerino, who was deposed in 1521, reappointed the following year and confirmed by papal bull with the right of succession for her in 1524, and of Caterina Cybo. Married to Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke di Urbino (1514-74), and lived (1523-47).

  1527-ca. 75 Governor-in-absentia Aldonza de Villalobos Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)
Normally known as Aldonza Manrique. After her father’s death, her mother, Isabel Manrique, had the king transfer the governorship to her in 1527 – with the condition that while she was under age or was unmarried, the governorship was held by “a man with appropriate age”, and her mother therefore appointed a number of governor-lieutenants.  In 1535 she married the conqueror Pedro Ortiz de Sandoval, who came to Santo Domingo from Peru. In 1539 the Council of the Indians confirmed her rights, but she did not take over before 1542, when she and her husband ruled as lieutenant-governors.  There are no documents evidencing she ever travelled to the island, and it cannot be taken for granted that her husband did it either. After her husband’s death in 1546, she retained the title of Governor of Margarita, but continued to live in Santo Domingo, until her daughter, Marcela, got married aged 14 with Juan Gómez de Villandrando, who became the new lieutenant-governor on her behalf. In 1561 the island was invaded, and Marcela’s husband killed. In 1565 she travelled to Spain with her daughter and two grandsons, and requested to the Council of the Indians the island Governorship to be transferred to one of those, Juan Sarmiento de Villandrando. The petition was accepted after 10 years, after she had already died. She lived (ca. 1520-75).

  1527-47 Princesse-Abbesse Magdalena de Choiseul of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor’s deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. She resigned from the post as sovereign of the ecclesiastical state and 74 lordships in northern France. She resigned from her position.

  1528, 1529-33, 1535-36 and 1538-39 Regent Queen Isabel de Portugal of Spain
In charge of the government during her husband emperor Carlos (V) of the Holy Roman Empire (1516-56)’s travels in the Empire. A strong willed woman, though delicate, she governed the country and her children with a strong hand. Though a rarity in arranged marriages it is believed Charles and Isabella shared a strong love for one another. When she died following a miscarriage, Charles was heartbroken. He collected all the paintings that were done of her and had more commissioned to keep the memory of her alive. She was granddaughter of Ferdinand and Isabel I and mother of 6 children – among others king Felipe II (Husband of Queen Mary of England). She lived (1503-39).

  1528-42 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Chapter was founded in 1230 and started the process towards independence as a princely territory in the Holy Roman Empire in 1417.

  1528-44 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III de Neufchâtel of Remiremont  (France)
Since 1520 she had contested the appointment of Madeleine de Choiseul, the election of Nicole de Dommartin and her resignation in favour of Marguerite d’Haraucurt and in 1528 she finally gained the upper hand, and then appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutice. Marguerite’s  sister, Bonne, succeeded their brother, Thibaut XI, as Dame de Neufchatel in 1500/04 and lived until 1515. Her younger sister, Elizabeth de Neufchatel was Dame de Chatel-sur-Moselle, etc, They were children of Claude, Lord de Neufchatel, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Governor of Luxembourg and Burgundy, Marshall of Burgundy, etc. and Bonne van Bolchen. Marguerite lived (Ca. 1480-1544).

  1528-51 County Sheriff Pernille Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Jungshoved and Roskilde Agnete Kloster, Denmark
Pernille Gøye was widow of Anders Ebbesen Galt til Tyrrstrup, Rubjerggård og Skumstrup (d. 1529). She was granted the tenantcy for life in 1528. Her second husband, Birger Trolle, was County Sheriff of Roskilde Agnethe Kloster ca. 1546-71. She lived (1506-52).

  1528-70 Feudal Duchess Isabella Colonna of Traetto, Contess di Fondi and Ceccano, Lady of Paliano, Olevano, Serrone, Zancati, Morulo etc, Acquaviva, Maranola, Carpello, Sperlonga, Monticelli, Imola, Pastena and S. Chigia, Capranica Prenestina, Genzano, Genazzano, Guliano, Montecmopatri, Sgurgola, Nettuno, Ciliano, Castel Mattia, Supino, San Lorenzo, San Vito, Ceccano, Ofi, Falvaterra, Sonnino and Vallecorsa (Italy)
Official heiress of Traetto and Fondi and pretender to the other fiefs. Fist married to Lodovico II Gonzaga, 3rd Count di Sabbioneta (1500-32) and then to Philippe de Lannoy, Prince de Sulmona. She lived (1513-70).

  1529-30 Regent Dowager Sultan Dudu of Janupur (India)
After the death of her husband, Muhammed, she was regent for Galal Han, who was deposed in 1533. Under her family’s reign, the state became the home of Islamic culture and refuge for men of letters. She was killed in 1530. 

  1529-31 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)
When her first husband, Philipp II von Hanau-Münzenberg (1501-29), died she was one of the guardians for her son, Philipp III (1526-61). The youngest daughter was born 2 days after her husband died. 2 years later she married one of the other guardians, Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Dillenburg, and moved with her children to Dillenburg. When her sons joined the Dutch battle against the Spanish from 1566, she was engaged and gave advice to all of them. She had 5 children with her first husband and 12 with the second. The daughter of Count Botho zu Stolberg and Anna von Eppstein-Königstein, she was sister of Princess-Abbess Anna II of Quedlinburg, and lived (1506-80).

  1529…. Sovereign Baroness Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier of Mercoeur (France)
The barony was given to her and her husband, Antoine, duc de Lorraine. Her son was made a prince of Mercoeur.

  1529-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV Brock of Baindt (Germany)
In 1521 the Princess-Abbess was mentioned as an Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  1529-36 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
She was the Supreme Head of the congregation consisting of the monasteries of  Torquemada, Gradefes, Carrizo, Perales, San Andrés de Arroyo, Santa Maria de Otero, Cañas y Fuencaliente, Villamayor de los Montes, Renuncio, Barría y Avia and the temporal territory of Vileña.

  1529 Hereditary Countess Irmgard von Sayn of Limburg an der Lenne and Broich (Germany)
Daughter of Count Johann VIII zu Sayn (1493-1529) and Otille of Nassau-Saarbrücken, she was married to Wirich von Daun-Falkenberg.

  1529-31 County Sheriff Sophie Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark
As Lensmand (County Sheriff) Sophie Gyldenstierne til Buckenhagen acted as the king’s representative and was in charge of various aspects of the local administration. She was widow of Bendix von Ahlefeldt til Haseldorf og Gelting (1418-1517) and mother of Anne Benedictsdatter von Ahlefeldt (1515-50), and (d. after 1529).

  1529-35 Politically Influential Queen Anne Boleyn of England (United Kingdom)
Her father, Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, was a diplomat and as a child she was offered a place at the court of Margareta of Habsburg, Regent of the Netherlands. She later became a lady-of-waiting to Queen Claude of France and of Queen Catherine of Aragon when she returned to England. In 1525 Henry VIII also fell in love with her and began his pursuit, she refused until he proposed marriage to her sometime in 1527. She managed to have Cardinal Wolsey, who opposed their marriage, removed from power in 1529, and she became the most powerful person at Court where she had a great say over appointments and political matters. She clashed heads with the king’s new chief minister, Sir Thomas More, who was a bitter enemy of religious freedom and reform. When the Pope refused to accept their marriage, she suggested that he should follow the advice of religious radicals like William Tyndale who denied Papal Authority and believed that the monarch should lead the Church of his own nation. When the devoutly Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury died, Anne had her family’s chaplain – Thomas Cranmer – appointed to the vacant position. She also facilitated the rise of Thomas Cromwell, who became the king’s favourite new adviser, though she would later regret this. During this period, she also played an enormous role in England’s international position, by solidifying the French alliance. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Giles de la Pommeraye. She was appointed Marchioness of Pembroke before their secret marriage in 1532. In 1533 a public wedding was conducted and Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen in time for Anne’s coronation in May 1533 and the “break with Rome. In September her only daughter, the later Queen Elizabeth, was born. The marriage soon began breaking down and she had miscarriages in 1534 and 1536. Henry began a relationship to Jane Seymour and in order to be able to marry her, he accused her of adultery and had her executed. She lived (ca. 1507-36).

  1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)
Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was succeeded by king Andriamponga.

  1530-99 Rani Abbakka Devi Chowta of Ullal (India)
Sources and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army, but the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great Queen and a brilliant personality; Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. She was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher, but the marriage did no last long, and the husband thus nurtured revenge against her and later on joined the Portuguese to fight her. The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, but she had repulsed each of their attack. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Don Alvaro da Silvereira against the Abbakka who had refused to pay them the tribute. She fought with courage and intelligence and pushed them out. In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire. Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked. Queen Abbakka Devi Chowta (Bucadevi I) resisted it. The same year one general Joao Peixoto was sent by the Portuguese Viceroy Antony Norohna with a fleet of soldiers.  He captured the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. However the Queen escaped and took asylum in a mosque.  The same night, she counter-attacked the Portuguese army, with a help of 200 of her soldiers and killed General Peixoto and 70 Portuguese soldiers. The invaders were forced to flee to their ships in disgrace. In 1569, the Portuguese Army not only regained the Mangalore Fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). The Portuguese won the confidence of her estranged husband, kind of Bangher and started attacking Ullal.  She fought vigorously, and formed an alliance in 1570 with Bijapur Sultan Ahmed Nagar and the Zanmorine of Calicut.  Kutty Pokar Markar, a general of the Zamorine fought on her behalf and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese. She was finally arrested and jailed. However, she revolted in the prison and died as a soldier – fighting.

  1530-33 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Rud of the County of Roskilde Vor Frue Kloster, Denmark 
Anne Rud married Rigsråd Henrik Krummedige, who was Councillor of the Realm in both Denmark and Norway. In 1502 she was in charge of the defence of the Norwegian boarder-castle Båhus in his absence. She was an extremely able land-owner, farmer and trader. Since 1531 she also had possession of a number of minor fiefs in Norway, administered by her son-in-law, married to her only daughter, Sofie. She left an extensive correspondence with her daughter, son-in-law and other relatives, and according to the custom of the time, she were in charge of the upbringing of her grandchildren, before her death in 1533. 

  1530 Acting County Sheriff Lene Christoffersdatter Hak of Næsby Birk, Denmark
Lene Hak til Egholm was the sole heir of her family, as her father, Christoffer Hak, was the last male of the family. She was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Hans Krafse. The mother of two surviving children, she (d. 1551).

  Until 1530 Queen Tlaxco Cihuapilli of Xochimilco (Mexico)
In march of 1530 Queen Cihuapilli Tzaptzinco peacefully offered her surrender to a Spanish conquistador, who took possession of the land in the name of his Majesty Emperor Charles V. during 20 days he toured the surrounding towns and quickly received their allegiance. The Aztec Kingdom was situated in what is today the centre of Mexico City.
 

  1531-36 Pretender Caecilia of Paros (Greek Island-State)
1536-37 Princess Regnant
Successor of her father, Nicolo II (1520-31), and reigned jointly with her husband, Bernado Sagredo (d. 1603) The state was conquered by the Osman Turks 1537, and among the captured was the future Sultan Valide Nurbanu. Caecilia (d. 1543).

  1531-… Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVII of Laval (France)
Daughter of Guy XVI and Charlotte de Aragon. She was originally named Catherine Anne, but took the feminized version of Guy upon her succession. She married Claude de Rieux, and was succeeded by daughter Renée in 1547, who took the name Giyonne XVIII.

  1531-78 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von Bodman of Lindau   (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin of the Ecclesiastical Territory had been member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) the Regional Assembly since 1500 with a seat in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Her family was Lords (Freiherren) of Bodman, Espasingen, Wahlwies, Freudental, Langenrain and Liggeringen.

  1531-77 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV van Brederode of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Obtained papal dispensation since she was only 17 at the time of her election. She was daughter of Waleram II, Lord of Brederode and Vianden, Burgrave van Utrecht and Anna von Neuenahr. The abbesses no longer used the nun’s habit and in 1544 and 1549 emperor Karl V confirmed, that Thorn was a separate entity outside the Netherlands, and also declared that the Abbey belonged to the Westphalian Circle within the Diet of the Realm. Margaretha seems to have been the first to use the right of the principality to make it’s own money – and she was accused of using base metal in the coins.

  1532-39 and 1539-44 Regent Dowager Countess Ippolita Cybo of Cajazzo, Serre and Persano (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Roberto Robert Ambrogio da Sanseverino, Markgrave of Colorno, it seems that she was first regent for her sons and then for her daughter Maddalena). he was daughter of Francesco Cybo, Count Palatine of the Lateran, and Maddalena de’ Medici., and lived (1503-62).


  1532-43 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg (Germany)
1541-43 Joint Regent of the Duchy
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II, she was regent for son, Wolfgang, jointly with her brother-in-law, Ruprecht. In 1541 her son was granted the fief of the realm (reichslehn) and two years later he officially took over the government, and in 1557 his childless relative, Pfalzgraf Ottheinrich of Pfalz-Neuburg, abdicated in his favour. In 1541 she married Georg Count Palatine von Simmern (Pfalz-Simmern) (1518-69) and lived (1503-63).

  1532-48 Princess-Abbess Anna I Reuss von Plauen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The chapter was mismanaged during her reign, it was marked by internal disputes and the Archbishops of Magdeburg and Bishops of Halberstadt perused a policy of acquiring the lands of the Stift. 1544 the possessions of the once so powerful and rich community had fallen back to 5 villages and a limited amount of land. In 1549 she gave the city of Gernrode the right of “lower court” 10 years after it had required the position of a town. She was daughter of Heinrich III Reuβ von Plauen, Burgrave von Meiβen, Landvogt von Niederlausitz and Barbara von Anhalt, and lived (1506-48).

  1532-39 Princess-Abbess Maria zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Because of the dispute following the double-election of two Abbesses in 1504, her father was able to have her appointed without an election even though she was a minor and had been K She newer set foot in the chapter. The administration was taken over by Ducal civil servants. She lived (1527-39).

  1532-39 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I Hauptmann of Heggbach (Germany)
Initiated extensive renovations of the central buildings of the chapter. Her father, Hans Hauptmann, was Secretary of the Abbey of Salem. One brother was Priest in Griesingen and another brother citizen of Lindau.

  1532 County Sheriff Sophie Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Malmøhus with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1532-40 County Sheriff of the County of Ellinge, Denmark
1538-40 County Sheriff of the County of Isløf
Sophie Podebusk administered the tenantcies after the death of her husband, Albert Jepsen Ravensberg, who had been invested with the fief in 1529. She was later given Isløf for life. (d. 1540).

  1532-4. County Sheriff Eline Henningsdatter Godov of the County of Rønnebæksholm, Denmark
Eline Godov was widow of Henrik Gøye til Gisselfeldt, County Sheriff of Korsør 1516-23, Royal Stadholder in Sweden 1522, Stadholder of Sjælland 1522 when Christian 2 left the country. 1524 he had to surrender Copenhagen to Frederik 2 and went abroad for some years, until he joined Frederik 2 and given Vordingborg as a tenancy 1525 and finally Councillor of the Realm at the time of his death. In 1537 she was given 13 farms in Rønnebæk and 11 in the surroundings. She was mother of 3 children, and (d. after 1551).

  1532-59 County Sheriff Elline Stensdatter Bille of Fredsgård with Tømmerup at Halsnæs, Denmark
Eline or Elline Bille was widow of Bispelensmand Morids Skave (d. 1532), who was appointed Holder of the tenancy of the Bishop of Roskilde ca. 1520. After the reformation in 1536 she is granted the fief for life by the king who had taken over all the estates owned by the Catholic Church (Krongods). She (d. 1559).

  1533-38 (†) Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Yelena Vasilevna Glinskaya of Russia
Елена Васильевна Глинская or Elena Glinskaya, assumed power in the name of her three year old son Ivan IV, later known as “the Terrible”. Her brother-in-law, Yuri challenged his rights to the throne, was arrested and imprisoned in a dungeon. She deposed a member of the regency-council, Prince George III of Dimitrov, and had another brother-in-law killed, but a short time afterwards she suddenly died, almost surely poisoned. A week later her confidant, Prince Ivan Obolensky, was arrested and beaten to death by his jailers. She was not very interested in her son, who was left to the care of Agrafena Oblenskaya, who was imprisoned in a convent, and Ivan was neglected during the rest of his upbringing. Yelena lived (Ca. 1506-38).

  1533-66 Margravine Margherita Palaiologina of Monferrato 
1540-50 Regent of Mantova
1540-60 Sovereign Countess of Carmagnola (Italy) 
In 1530 her brother, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), had been succeeded by their uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, and she and her older sisters became heiresses presumptive. After her sister Maria had divorced Federico II di Mantova and entered the Convent of Casale, Margherita took over her claims to the Margravate and married Federico, who was given the title of Margrave of Mantova in 1536. After his death she became regent for son Gugliermo jointly with brother-in-law, Cardinal Ercole. She lived (1510-66).

  1533-53 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Brederode of Bentheim and Steinfurt (Germany)
1553-68 Reigning Dowager Lad of the Office and Castle of Gronau in  Bentheim-Steinfurt
Her husband, Arnold II von Bentheim-Steinfurt died after 3 years of marriage and left her in charge of the government in the name of her son. She took over the castle of Gronau as her personal income in 1537. After her death, her daughter Agnes was in dispute with Anna von Bentheim-Steinfurt (Regent of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda)were in dispute over the possession until 1571. She lived (1512-68).

  Until 1533 Sovereign Princess Louise de Coëtivy of Mortagne-sur-Gironde, Countess de Taillebourg, Baroness de Royan (France)
Her father, Charles de Coetivy, was styled prince of Mortagne in 1487. She married Charles de La Trémoïlle, prince de Talmon in 1501. She lived (1481-1533).

  1533-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Brandenburg of and Administrative Unit and Town of Tribsee in Pommern (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Second wife of Georg I von Pommern (1493-1531) who died after one year of marriage. Mother of one daughter, Georgia (1531-74), who later married Stanislaus Latalski Count von Labischin, Stardost von Inowrazlaw und Schlochau. Margareta settled her dowry with her stepson, Phillip, and moved there in 1533. She was daughter of Elector Joachim von Brandenburg and Elisabeth of Denmark, and lived (1511-77).

  1533-36 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Redwitz of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain who she was elected to succeed.

  1533-45 Reigning Abbess Antoniette I de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Succeeded her relative, Adrienne de Noyelle.

  1533-36 County Sheriff Hilleborg Pedersdatter Bille of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark
Her husband, Laurids Tinhuus Skinkel, whose mother, Margrethe Friis, held the tenancy 1480-1502, had it confirmed for both of them for life in 1523, and she took charge after his death. Their daugther, Anna Skinkel married Frans Brockenhuus, who took over after her death. She lived (1474-1536).

  1534 or 1547 Regent Dowager Queen Maha Tewi of Lan Xang (Laos)
King Photisarath, who reigned (1520-1547) was devoted to Buddhism but failed to eradicate animism and witchcraft. To improve trade with Siam and Annam he moved his capital to Vientiane. After Chiangmai’s line of kings was ended by assassination in 1543, Photisarath accepted the crown for his young son Sethathirat and sent a regent. Siam’s King Phrajai led an army but was persuaded by Princess Maha Tewi to return home. After Photisarath died in 1547, Sethathirat had to go back to Lan Xang to prevent his brothers from partitioning the kingdom, and Phrajai invaded again. Princess Maha Tewi fought back, and the Siamese army retreated and was routed by the Laos army. Sethathirat managed to withstand Burmese invasions, first by fleeing to Ayutthaya and then by moving his capital to Vientiane in 1563. After he died in 1570, Burmese king Bayinnaung had Sethathirat’s brother Oupahat put on the throne in 1575, replacing Sethathirat’s father-in-law Saensurin.

  1534-34 Acting Governor Ana Pimentel of the Capitania de São Vicente (Brazil)
Her husband, Martim Afonso de Sousa, arrived in Brazil and explored the country in 1531. He founded the first formal Portuguese settlement in the village of São Vicente, and in 1533 he left her in charge of the administration as he left for Portugal. The following year the captaincies system was introduced and she became the Acting Capitana, and besides sugar cane plantations, she also stimulated cattle breeding in the region. Her husband never returned to Brazil.

  1534 Joint Sovereign Lady Rosina von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
The daughter of Alexanders II von Wildenstein inherited half of the Lordship. Succeeded by husband, Karl von Welden.

  1534-52 Joint Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Amalie von Leißnig zu Penig of Schönburg and Hertenstein, the Lordships of Glauchau, Waldenburg and Lichtenstein, and the Estates of Hohnstein, Lohmen, Wehlen and Kriebstein (Germany)
As part of the guardianship for her sons, Johann Ernst, Georg, Hugo and Wolf she was able to expand the possessions that her husband, Ernst II, had collected: The secularized Convent of Remse, the Lordship Klösterle in Bohmia and Rochsburg in Sachsen. In 1542 Lutheranism was introduced in the lordships.

  1534-49 Reigning Lady Constanza Sarmiento y Herrera of Lanzarote (Spain)
Reigned jointly with her cousin and husband, Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra, after the death of her father,  Sancho de Herrera (Died 23 October 1534). Her granddaughter, Constanza de Herrera Rojas y Béthencourt , succeeded to the title of Second Marquesa of Lanzarote in 1568. Her mother was Catalina de Escobar de las Roelas, and she lived (1489-1549).

  1534-51 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Montfort-Rotenfels of Essen (Germany)
As the territory got more character of an actual state, three estates developed like in other German States, with the Ladies of the Chapter constituting the First Estate. The Second Estate was the Male Canons in the Male Chapter and the Third Estate was constituted by the Office-Holders (Ministerials) of the Chapter and State, who were of low n