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The China Resistent War

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Book :

“The China Resistant War Historic Collections “

The China Resistant War Collections”

Yuan Shih-kai silver
Vintage Shanghai harbour
Garden Bridge Shanghai
Ming Tomb Nanking
Vintage Peking
Palace London printing
Palace Peking printing
Junk London printing
Junk Peking Print
Martyr stamp 1932
Double circle 1931
Single circle 1931
Dahtung printing 1942
Communist Military stamp 1930
Red Communist stamp 1932
Mao Military stamp 1932
Reds military stamp 1932
Reds Flower stamp 1933
Red Communist stamp 1933
KMT Military stamp 1937
Reds Soldier 1938
Reds Military stamp 1940
Reds Soldier 1942
Reds Communist stamp 1942
Reds Ship 1943
Reds Flight 1944
Reds Train 1945
Gen Okamura war criminal 1945
Mao first stamp 1945
25th anniversary KMT post 1921
Unification stamp 1929
Tan Yen Kai 1933
KMT and US flag 1939
Pres.Lin Sen 1945
DN Occupation Hupei 1943
DN Occupation 1944
Poeyi Manchuria 1931
KMT granat NorthChina 1932
DN Occupied Proclaimed Mukden
Gen.Honjo Kwantung 1931
Gen Sadao Araki 1931
Bloody Shanghai 1937
DN street fighting 1937
DN Air attack Garden Bridge
DN across Yangtse river 1937
Mao and Chiang
ROC newmovement 35

CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTION
DURING CHINA RESISTENT WAR 1912-1945.

I. CHINA NATIONAL REVOLUTINARY UPRISING (1912-1929)

A. Dr Sun Yat Sen’s Revolutionary

(1) 1912
(a) The founding Father Dr Sun leaves shanghai station the morning on New year’s day 1912 for his nanking searing-in as the ROC provisional president.
the document of Dr Sun Yat Sen ‘s Declaration and the oat taken by him during the President swearing-in ceremony at Nanking and the photo after the ceremonies still exist now at The Sun Yat-sen Memoriable Museum.
After the ceremony Dr Sun and other leaders went to the Ming Tomb at Nanking for ceremonies informing ancetors that the Alien Qing Manchus had been overthrown and Chinese ruled restored.
four Original vintage smal b-W photo , at the back written in Indonesia and china language :
(a.1). Pemandangan (landscape)Koe Lao
(a.2.) Djalan2 naek koeda pegi Ming Tai Tjoe poenja koeboeran (Travellin by horse went to the Great Ming tombs).
Wah soengoeh seneng sekali!(Oh very much happy!) di ini gambar nyang naek koeda jaitoe (in the pictures which riding horse) Oen Tjiok,Tjoetjoe dari (grandchild of) oen Tjwan.
(a.3)Tionghoa Bin Kok poenja soldadoe ( Chung hwa Min kwo=Kuomintang soldier)
(a.4) Ini satoe koempoelan ponya soldadoe lagi pada brenti didepan koeboeran.(This is a soldier group were rest in the front of Tomb ? in chinese char)
(b)Jan.28th
Dr Sun Yat-sen addressed the first meeting of the Provisional Council

(2) March 1912
(a)In March ,3rd..1912 The tung men Hui assambled at Nanking and elected Dr Sun the Tsungli or President
(b) In March the government moved its seat North,
Sung Cio-yen brought the tung Meng Hui tofether with other factions and parties in KMT and Dr Sun was elected President in hope that he could bring factionalism to an end.
(3) The Qing Yuan Shih-kai issued the commerative of the revolution with his profile, consist 12 nomial 1,2,3,5,8,10,16,20,50 c and $ 1,2 & 5.- with same design
(4)ROC issued The Chung Hwa republic papermoney $10,$100, and $1000. gold ,with KMT flag design.
San Hsi Zeng Fun bank issued Ten liang banknote.

2.1913
ROC postal office issued the first definitive stamps printed at London (first Def.London printing =1st DLP.) consist three design:
(1) Chinese Junk 1/2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 10 cents.
(2) Farmer ,15,16,20 ,30 and 50 cent
(3) Palace $ 1,2,5,and 10.-

3.1914
(1)June 1914
(a)In June,23th.1914 Dr Sun assam-bled his comrades and organized the Chung Hua Ke Ming Tang ( ChineseRevolutionary Party) to defend the provisional constitution against the effort of Yuan Shih-kai, who had seized power, dissolved parliament,scrapped theConstitution and Killed KMT member in his attempt to reestablished the momarchy. Many revolutionaries fled to Japan,
(b) J.Gunar Anderson ,Swedish Geologist have served as mining adviser to the ROC government from 1914 to 1927. He established cordial co-operation with Chinese geologist and mining engineers, and the Central government, at that time located in Peking, as weel as the provincial authorities, extended to him very possible support and facility.
(c) chekiang Provincial Govermant Bond one Dollar Local Currency , value Recieved at Hangchow guaranteed by the Financial Bureu of the Chekiang Province .
4. 1915
(a)ROC postal office issue the first definitive peking printing (1st DPP) with the same design and nominal with the 1st definive london printing(1st DLP) except added one nominal 13 cent farmer.
The different between 1st London and Pepking printing, the design of DLP were the line under the bow of the junk is smooth and didn’t touch the junk , but the 1st DPP the line rough and touch the Junk.
(b) ROC issued the Hung Shian Comerative stamps 5c,10c,50c and overprint Sin Kiang n 50 c.
(c) The Yuan Futteh Bank issued commemrative Banknte In the Memory f The Chnese Repubic Revlution in Yunnan 1916. Ten Yuan.
5.1916
(a)After Yuan shih-kai failure to established a dynasty of his own and his death in misery and solitude in 1916, there remained as his fatal legacy to his people a most poisnous element, the military governors in the procinces, later nicknamed the “war Lords”, some of them men of considerable ability who seriously desired to save their country, but taken as a whole a set of greedy and inefficient generals who, ind order to carry on their endless and fruitless civil wars, exacted exorbitant taxes from the poor peaceful peasantry. The countryside was impoverished and devastated, the rollingstock of the railways became terribly depleted in the hands of the fighting armies,bandity prevailed, the student in their despair turned to Communism as a last resort. Many of the intellectual leaders held the recovery of their country to be question of decades,still distant.
(b)Dr Sun meeting with Naval office in Canton and after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the KMT’s military campaign was ended and Dr Sun decided to quit the political arena
(c) ROC military bank issued Republic- an China Military banknote at several area ,
(c.1)shanghai five dollar local currency sign m.y.sung
(c.2) Military Bank note five dollars issued by The Republic of China sign Sun Yat-sen guaranteed by the minestry of finance
(c.3) THe Republican China Military Banknote Nanking one Dollar Local Currency, guaranteed by Central Bureu.
(c.4) Republican Govderment of Chinsa Military Notes issued by the Menistry of War.One Dollar and five dollar
(c.5) The Republican Military bank-note AN Hwei one dollatr Local Currency
(c.6) The Wang-Ho Bank of the Republic Military Bank Note one dollar Local Currency.
(c.7) The Kang -Se Bank Of The Republic Military Bank Note One Dollar Local Currency
(c.8) Military note of Chekiang Goverment five Dollars

6. 1917
(a)Parliament was dissolved again and Dr Sun decided to send the navy to Canton as a move to safeguard the provisional contiturion
(b) In September 10th , Dr sun established a military government at Canton.

II. Saving The ROC

1. Dr Sun to quit the political arena and Chiang Combatting adversaries (1917-1925)

(1)Chiang Khai-sek stayed with his father and mother in the small village , he have merried the first wife( village lady) but he never love her.

(2)1918
The Agricultural.Industrial and Connercial Trust Company limited at Chang Chow issued Banknote ren cents and one dollar.

(3)1921
(a)ROC post Office issued three stamps commemorated 25 years China Post Office 1,5,6,and 10 c. and Famine relief surcharge on the junk stamps 1c on 2c,3c on 4c and 5c on 6c.
Also issued the first Isuued airmail stamps (without KMT emblem) nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(b) THe National Bank of China issued ten cents and ten dollars banknote with Dr Sun profile.

(4)1922
(a)Chen Chun-ming(the chinese warlord) mounted his coup attemp-ted and Dr Sun took refuge abroad the Naval vessel “Yungfeng” at Whampoa and Chiang risked his life to rush to the side of Dr Sun
(b) ROC issued the first black machinal overprint i cent provisional on the junk Stamps
(c) August 1922
Fragment used farmer stamp 20 cent ,CDS Shanghai 21.8.22.
(d) ROC post office issued Provisiional surcharge on Junk and Farmer(Reaper) type stamps

(5) 1923
(a)In this year, Dr Sun sent Chiang to Russia on an inspection tour.
(b) ROC post office issued the second definitive Peking printing stamps (2nd DPP) , same design and nominal, but added $20.- Palace stamps.This 2nd DPP more common that the first DLP and DPP0.
also iisued the First Constitutin commemrative stamp 1,2,4 and 10 cent.
(c) The Central bank Of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen Banknote sign by LSWong one dolar, 10 dollar and 100 dollars. and this banknote used at Hunan,Kiangsi $Kwansi with official Handchopped in violet ink.

(6) 1924
(a) in the hout of direct need, there emerged a young leader, Chiang kai-sek, a military officer who had acted as Chief of the Staff to Dr Sun Yat-sen ever since the revolution of 1911-12, had established in 1924 under the orders of this “father of the Revlution”, the Whampoa Military academy near Canton and had here created in the space of two years a new type of Military cadets educated to fight, not for any individual War Lord, but for the resistant of China.
(b)Upon Chiang return frm Russia, he was assigned to establish an army academy which opened at Whampoa n June 16,1924.
In his inaugural address Dr Sun said that the task of revolutinary forces would be to assure the continuity of the Republic and carry out the three Principles of the People
Chiang , the first ccommandant of the Academy
The entrance if the famed Whampoa academy in the subburps of Canton
Dr Sun and Chiang have taken photo on the academy’s founding day
The Vintage Picture Photo of Chiang from Book Illustration ‘China national hero ,chiang Kai-sek,
(c)From january 27th to August 24th 1924. Dr Sun gave a series of lectures on the Three Principles of the people at Canton Senior Normal School. He cmplete six lectures each on Nationalism and Democracy and four on the people’s livelihood before going to Shakuan in nothern of Northward Expedition forces.
The vintage picture photo of Canton street from vintage minddleschool history book 1938.
(d) March 1924
In March ,19th.1924,Sven Hedin have written China Travelling book in Stockholm “From Peking to Moscow” the story of his Travel by land with car and another transportation from Beijing to Moscow via Mongolia, with many picture photo illustrations. If the collectors want to know the story and the rare photo picture illustrations please aksed as the collectors choice via comment and we will put in this blog.the vintage picture photo illustration of writes profile, his car and the staff ,Port Hateman Peking,mongol caravan in Peking. Wantsjuan road,the Pas of Hongte, on Horse, Chinese trader,Larson second car at Mongol,Telegraaf station at Ude,Rest the car at Woeastijn,Temple at the high Pas, Mongolnative people,Lama Temple at Oerga, Larson car at Chara, chinese carriage at Pas mengatai, larson car at Selenga , Mongolia Oerga Smiking pipe and the picture photo at Russia.
(e) Used Block four Junk stamps 3 cent , CDS Shanghai 1 .11.24.
(f) The Fuching Bank of Kiangsi issued $1 one yuan banknote.

(7)1925
(a)In Jan.1925 The Mienhu battle, the forces of Chen Chun-ming (the chinese warlord ) invaded Canton ,while dr Sun was in Peiping and ill,he died at Peking because the metastage stage of Heart Cancer diseases in 1925.
Chiang organized Whampoa cadet and part of Cantonese Forces into an army of resitance that routed the 100.000 invaders at Tan-sui ,Piingshan and mienfu. this campaign is known as the First Eastward Expedition.
Chiang first didn’t have the fund to organised the Whampoa cadet because the Warlord didn’t like him , but when he met the two brother of Dr Sun ‘s wife the rich Shanghai Bankers , Chiang were help by them with enough funds and he met their younger sister and Chiang fall in love.
(b)in July 1925.The second Eastward Expedition was undertaken, Strategic Huichou was taken, Chen Chun-miens’s influence was obliterated and peace was restored to whole of Kwantung province.
(c) used Not clear city cds 12.11.25 on junk stamp 1/2 cent ,fragment postcard with chinese language.
(d) ROC issued Great Wall banknote one dollar local currency
(e) The Bank of Kwangsi issued Temple of Heaven banknote 5 Dollars
(8)1926
(a) Starting from cantn in July,27th 1926, Chiang with an army of only one hundred thusend men, set out Northwards expeditin t subjugate the prvincial satraps and unite China.
(b)The Chiang returning the salute of his forces after adrressing his soldier during Military Parade on the eve of Northward Expedition(P) Chiang Northward Expedition strategy was onenof divide and conquer.
His major target was Wuhan. He routed Wu Pei-fu forces and took the city.
The second target was nanking which was occupied after defeat of Sun Chuan-fang’s forces.
Peking ) soon renamed Peiping) was tkaen after the defeat of Chang Tso-ling and other warlords.
(c)With small force chiang was going to face armies many times more numerous tha his own and commanders like Wu pei-fu, Feng Yu-hsiang, Sun Chuan-fang and Chang Tso-lin, men whse feats had inspired their opponents with awe.
(d) ROC post office issued the second red provisional 1 c overprint on junk stamps
(e)April 1926
Fragment post packet CDS Shanghai 27.4.26 on junk stamp 6 x 1 cent, 2 x 8 cent and 1x 4 cent (total rate 26 cent). (send to Indonesia)
(f) July 1926
The Chiang Southwards Expedition forces set off from the south on July,9th.1926 and advanced like a whirwing.
In July 1926,from the capital of southern revlutionary gvernment,canton (Guangzhou) , which for a succession of years had brought redicule and contempt upn itself as hotbed of treason and political intigue, the comparatively unknown, thirty eight years old General Chiang Kai-sek set out for the north to carry out the testament which Dr Sun at his death in 1925, had placed in the hands of his young chief of staff; the unificarions of China in accordance with the Republican principle of Kuomintang.
Chiang’s armies amounted only to a fraction of the numbers The Kuomintang troops enter the provincial capital Changsha,By now both Chiang and his celebrated opponent,Wu Fei-fu, had reached the front. Fierce and finally decisive took place at a point of strategical important, Tingszekiao, in suthern Hupei. At First the KMT troops succeede in occupying the place without much difficulty but Wu ordered the execution of nine officers who were responsible for the loss. Soldiers armed with swords were posted at eight points to cut down anyne who retreated. In cnsequence Wu’s troops fought with desperatin, and n the evening of August 27th they recaptured Tingszekian. Chiang at once gave orders that the place was to be reoccupied at all cost, and on the morning of the 28th it was again in possesion of the southern troops. Wu called up his reserves, and after heavy losses on both side he again occupied Tingszekiao. Now chiang in his turn threw the suthern armies’s general reserve into the firing-line and after a whole day’s fighting Tingszekiao reamined finally in his hand.
Changsa was captured on July 11.
(g) August 1926
The Battle of Tingtzuchiao bridge began on August 27
(h)October 1926
Wuahan was capture October 10
(i)Nopember 1926
Nanchang was capture Nopember
(j) The Miltary bank issued Military banknote Five dollars.

(9) 1927
(a)The Mao communist undertook a series of uprising in 1927 and their Head quaters at Hotel Chiangsi Nanchang
(b) The Mao communist built “Red Yard” during the Lu-Hai uprising.
(c) March 1927
Shanghai Captured in March 19
and Nanking in march 23. This meant that two of the princupal targets (Shanghai and nanking) had been Won by Chiang.
(d) Mao Communist instigation then succeeded in dividing the Chiang KMT into nanking and Wuhan faction.
(e)July 1927
On July 15,1927 , The Chiang KMT authorities in Wuhan decided to break with the Mao communist, whohad not kept their promises to work for the unification and peace of the cuntry.
The Mao communist thereupon followed the order of the comintern to rise the liberation and seize political power.
(f) August 1927
On August 1st 1927, the Public security and Northward Expedition force under the command of Chu Te,Ho Lung and Yen Ting mounted an uprising at nanchang Kiangsi
On August 5th 1927, The Mao PLA force ,pursued by government forces, fled southward from Nanchang.
On August 17, 1927, a remmant force of 8000 men entered juichin .
On august 13th 1927 Chiang resigned as the Commander in Chief of
(g) September 1927
On Septemebr 24th 1927, Chiang KMT forces occupied the Chaochow-Swatow area.
After start of the nanchang uprising, the Communist Party held the “August 7 conference” at wuhan tlo made plan for all out Liberation.
On September 8 th 1927, Mao and Hsiang Ying led a force of 2000 in the ” Autumn Harvest Uprising” and ravaged a dozen cunties in eastren Hunan and nothern Hupeh.The Chiang Government forces routed the Liberation army.
Mao then led more then 500 remnants to Chingkangshan. Survivors of the Nanchang figting organized Soviets in Lufeng and Haifong of Kwantung province under the command of Peng Pai.They went on a killing spree known as the Lu-hai uprising.
Other nanchang remnants under Yeh Chien-yin and Ho Lung reached
canton and incited peassants to join them. This war known as the Canton uprising.
It was now urgently necessary for Chiang to lose no time in turning against the mighty Sun Chuan-fang,who controlled five provinces (Kiangsi,Fukien,Chekiang,Anhui and Kiangsu) and had at his disposal the best-equipped troops.
As early as September 19th one of Chiang’s generals occupied Nanchang, the capital of Kiangsi. But here again reinforcements were brought up on both sides and fighting proceeded continously until November 8th before the town was definitely in Chiang’s hands.
(h) December 1927
On december and one of Chiang’s subordinate commanders entered Foochow, the capital of Fukien.
(g) J.Gunnar Anderson left china in 1927 at the lowest ecc of political decay .

(10)1928
(a)The vintage photo of Indonesia native man at.Peking (P)
(b) February 1928
The fourth plenary session of the KMT’s second Central Comittee was held in this month and urged Chiang to return to his command.
On February 1928, Hangchw, thecapitalf Chekiang was occupied by Chiang soldiers. some of Sun’s subrdinates now went over t chiang, and the commander-in;chief of the fleet also rejoined him. Later Feng Yu-hsiang and yen Hsi-shan follow their example and went over to the KMT.
(c)March 1928
On March 24th General Cheng chien with the seventh canton army corps occupied Nanking. He was accompanied by political agents who were infected by Communist docterines and sought to compromise Chiang in the eyes of foreigners. Some foreigners were killed in Nanking and a great number of their housees were plundered. Probably a great massacre of foreigners would be occured, if the guns of tje foreigners warships anchored in the Yangtse off the city had not set up a barrage round the hill on which their nationals were gathered.
Chiang was on board a steamer on his way down the river when this happened. He realized at once the extent of the danger he insurred through this reversal of his own extremly considerate policy toward foreigners. Without pausing at nanking he went on direct to Shanghai, assumed command there and gave such assurances regarding the safety of theforeign settlements that he reagined at one stroke tke confidence of the Power. After this there was a combing out of the instigator of the Communist excesses in Nanking.
(d)April 1928
In april the Kuomintang goverment was constituted in Nanking The southern Capital.
Chiang launched the second phase on the campaign in April,23th 1928.and he inspect the frontline at Tenghsien.
Before the month was ended chiang occupied Pukow, the ferry station opposite Nanking, and continued his victorious progess noryth ward.
On April 7th 1928, Chiang set out forces the North, Chang Tso-lin fled t his manchuriaan capital Mukden..
(d) May 1928
Japanese obstructionism resulted in the Tsinan Incident of May 39th 1928.
on may.21st pengpu fell.
(e) June 1928
On June 2nd Hsichow , the town which has later become so famous in the war with Dai Nippon.
Tsangchou was taken in June 2nd 1928 and Chang Tso-ling fled northward, he was assasinated by the Japanese at Huangkutun in Liaoning.
(f)July 1928
The careful planning of the campaign and to the patriotic spirit of his young officers Chiang succeeded .On July ,5th.1928 his troops enter Peking without resistance . A brilliant campaign, a march almost incredible,extending from the south coast through the whole length of China to the mongolian frontier and accompanied by constant fighting against War Lords battling for their independence, was successfully accomplished in less thatn two year, The foundation laid for the rebirth of China.
But no more than the foundation. Rebellion cropped up in different parts of the immense empire, the allies of today became the enemies oof tomorrow, as the formerly independednt provincial chief felt that their very existance was a stake. A still more deadly danger to Chiang’s great unification scheme was the foundation of a Soviet rule over a large part of the provinces saouth of the Yangtse. The russian issued two stamps at that area one Stalin figure and the other lenin figures.
(g)In the first half July, the Expedi-tionary force capture Peking and Tientsin to complete its assignment.The National KMT flag flying at top the Chengyang Gate at Peking, with this victory the country was unified for the northeastern prvinces.
Expeditionary force moves to Hunan and Kiangsi by Train.
(h) July 1928
In July,6th,1928 Chiang led his commanders in paying tribute to Dr Sun Yat-sen at Piyun Temple.
(i) October 1928
Chiang took office as Chairman of the national Government in Octber,10th 1928. President f the five yuan(brances f gvernment) were swrn in at the same time,
The Executive Yuan began its function in October 29th 1928
(j)November 1928
The North China Insurance Co.limited sertificate was issued by Indonesia Agent “The Borneo Company Limited” at Batavia(Jakarta) in November,25th 1928.
(k)Communism became a formidalbe threat t the rule of the Kuomintang, the party of Sun and Chiang.Not till he had engaged them in five most sanginary campaigns was Chiang able to oust the communists from southern China, only to see them erect a new stronghold in the distant North-west, where they are still in control at the present day.
(l) ROC issued Marshal Chang Ts Lin commemorative stamps 1,4,qoc and $1.-

(11) 1929
(a)Shanghai accident, The japanese aggressive move
(b)The vintage photo of Shanghai port and The vintage silk embrodery of shanghai port.
(c) October 1929
as early as October 20th 1029, the first step towards commercial flying taken in China. For on that day a trial flight was made with a Douglass transport machine on the route Shanghai-hankow, and the five hundred and thirty-seven miles were cvreed in seven hurs
(d) ROC post office issued the Unification comemorative stamps nominal 1,4,10 c and $1.-
Also issued the second issued Airmail stamps (with KMT emblem0 nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.

(12)1930
(a) Dr Sun Yat Sen last will
(b) The first National Council ROC meeting
(c) October 1930
Mao Comunist local Post Office issue two types stamps, the first stamps nominal 1,3,and 10 cents design chinese character, and the second stamps design comminust symbol nominal in chinese charavter 1 and 5 cent color red.

II.ROC NEW LIFE MOVEMENT(1930-1937)
(a) Side by side with reapested wars for progressive unifications, Chiang, backed by a great number of active and capable men, succeeded in building up during the short period from 1930 to 1937 a new modern China with a stable financial system, a reformed currency,simplified and unified taxation, important new railways and an immense network of motor roads. A new army was trained and equipped with the very able assintance of German military advisers and an air force was created with the help of America and italian instructors.

1. ROC battle 1930-1933

(1) 1930
(a)The Central China battle 1930
(b) May 1930
In his last will and testament, Dr Sun Yat-sen called fr the convening of a national coyuncil and the scrapping of all enequal treaties. these objectives were attained by Chiang. The first National Council meeting was convened at Naking in May of 1930 and at the same time the government prepared for mobilization against Dai Nippon aggression. These cadres are training at Lushan.
Chiang Government forces engage the Mao Communist in Kiangsi..

(2)1931
(a)The Japanese engineered the Mukden incident 1931 and manchuria was occupied.
(b) The vintage picture photo from magazine ,The proclamatie that dai nippon occupied Mukden in 1931(P)
(c) May.16th 1931
The Vintage picture photo magazine illustration , General Honjo the commandant of Kwantung army.(P)
(d) December1931
December ,8th,1931
The phillatelic creatipn Postcard with second Tatung war commemorative postmark on Dr Sun 10 cent stamps with Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS 8.12.31.
on Nasanof Dental Surgery & Prsthetic Dentistry Dental Radiograps card (phillatelic creation or CTO)
With heyear 1931 begins the Dai Nippn aggression against China, the first stage of which was the occupation of Manchuria, September to december 1931. The situation at last became so confused that Chiang and with him a large propotion of the government resigned office in December 15th 1931. But it was not long before the opposition obliged to beg him to return.
(e) ROC issued Dr Sun stamps type I double circle and type II single circle. this stamps printed in 1931-1937.
(f) ROC post office issue Dr Sun type one, Double thin circle of the KMT coat of arm. seven nomianl1,2,4,20 c and $ 1,2 and 5.- after that also issued Dr Sun type two ,Single bold circle with different color 2,4,5,15 drak green,15 scarlet,20c ,25 c and $ 1,2 and 5.-
(g) Mao communist local post re -issued the the first stamps 1 c with color red and the communist eblem and globe in red color..

DAI NIPPON WAR IN CHINA

(3)1932
(a)january 1932
The Japanese seized the Northeastren China Province in 1932.In manchuria a violent tension had arisen in shanghai between dai Nippon and chinese, a tension which led the landing of Dai Nippon Marines on January 28th 1932 for what was expected to be a rapid and simple action-the dispersal of the Chinese defensive forces.
Mao Comunist local pst office issued the thirs stamps nominal 4 cent design Communist emblem in the star.
(b) The Japanese stamps used at Daeren. manchuria 1932.
(c)The vintage picture photo from vintage dutch enciclopedia, Emperor Puyi (the young man with jacket) with the Dai Nippon soldier and the Manchuira government official(P)
(d)Januaty 1932
ROC soldier moving to the front after Dai Nippon invasion of Shanghai in January 28th,1932.
(e) The Vintage picture photo book illustration .Profile of Araki Sadao, Dai Nippon General and menistry of war of prime menistry Inoekai (Dec 1931-Jan 1934). He created the Bloody military attack during China-japan conflict, Occupied Manchuria, Shanghai and province Jehol (P)
(f) The vintage Picture Photo book illustration, Effect of Bomb in Hongkew,Shanghai.and A chinese soldier examining a comarade who has been killed by a bomb at Taitsang outside Shanghai , and Japanese soldiers during street-fighting in shanghai (P)
(g)May 1932
May 1st, Mao communist Local postoffice issue eight worker day stamps, three communist flag and glbe,tw sldier, two communiat flag and one the communist soldiers in war.
(h)The vintage picture photo book illustration, A picture taken on August,14th 1937 showing the immense crowds on Garden Bridge and the bund to watch the first air attack on Idzumo.
(h)The Vintage color Picture Postcard of Honkew Market Shanghai and Race Course Shanghai.
(i) ROC Post office issued the Martyr stamps, printing between 1932-1934.
nominal 1/2,1,21/2,3,8,10,13,17,10,20,30,40 and 50 cent.
also issued Nrthwest Scientific expedition cmmemrative stamps nominal 1,4. 5 and 10 cent
and the thir issue airmail Stamps fligt on greatwall nominal 15c,25,30,45,50,60,90 c and $ 1.-,2.- ,5.- .
(j) March 1932
The vintage picture photo from magazine illustration in March,5th 1932. The Chinese Artillerist training to used Granat at the Chinese-Japanese fornt (P)
Not until very cnsiderable reinforcements had been brought from Dai Nippon did the Nineteenth Army retire in good order on Marchd 2nd, but by then the district of Chapei, where fighting had taken place, wasno more than a heaps of ruins and it is estimated that the material damage in this thickly populated quater amounted to 350 million shanghai dollars.
(k) May 1932
May 1st 1932, Mao Communist local post office issued two types stamps, Military stamps eight nominal and
worker day stamps two nominal 1 and 2 cents.
2. The Chiang New life Movement (1933-1937)

(1)1933
(a)The Mao Communist mounted an uprising in Fukien provcince 1933
and Chiang issued the strategy against Mao in 1933.
(b) January 1933
Fragment cover used Dr Sun type I double circle 2x 1cent and Junk 2x 4 cent (rate 10 cent) CDS Shanghai 18.1933.
January 1933,Mao Communist Local Post office issued red Flower stamp
(c)In 1933 Dai Nippon Military seizure Jehol and invasion of eastren Hopei ( DN issued overprint Hupei in chines langguage on Dr Sun stamps)
(d)February 1933
In February,19th.1933.Chiang launching the “New Life Movement” at nanchang in an effort to rekindle the chinese moral sense and reinfrce determination to resist foreign aggression and ideology
The Kuomintang has developed more and more into an upperclass party. It is not likely in the beginning the Father of the revolution, Dr Sun ,foresaw any such tendency. But sun merried one of the exceptionnally gifted daughters of the Soong dynasty, one of the richerest families in China, and Chiang chose for his consort the most energic of these ssiters, while Dr H.H.Kung, the present Prime menister of China, merrierd a third of the sisterss , and the brothers Soong, particulary T.V.Shoong have acquired a far reching influence in State affairs.
Chiang asked Dr Sun ‘s mother in law and Dr Sun’s wife brothers , to marry to Dr Sun’s wife sister.
All the family of Dr Sun’s mother in law accepted to Chiang prefered with one condition, Chiang must went home t the village fr asking permisiions from his family and divorce his first wive. chiang sent his first wife to USA and never met her again.
After that Chiang merried the Dr sun’s wife sister , his second wife then became the ROC first lady and she have gave Chiang many support.
(d) the rare Cinderella stamp commemorate one years Tuberculosis campaign in China. desig TB control emblem and the sun rays with the TB man.
(e) In the autumn of 1933 a revolt broke out in Fukien,which, however, was quickly crushed.
(f) In April 1933,Chiang launched his fourth campaign against, the communist armies in Kiangsi. In the course of the first engagement two f Chiang’s divisions were disarmed. After Chiang’s best division, the eleventh had been destroyed, the war was ended.
(g) October 1933
Used fragment cover Dr Sun double circle stamp 3x 25 cent and Martyr 2×10 cent CDS Shanghai 14.10.33.(PH)
(h) ROC issued Tan Yen Kai commemorative stamps.nominal 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(1) Hupeh provincial bank issued the Pagoda Banknote 1 Yuan,10 Yuan and 100 Yuan.

(2)1934
(a)Fragment used block five Dr Sun stamps ttype II single circle 5 cent CDS Shanghai 9.5.1934 (rate 25 cents to Indonesia)
(b) From this year until 1936 eastren hopei entirely lawless conditions prevailed, with armed smuggling which cause the Chinese government a loss in revenue of two million dollars a week.(J.G.Anderson,1939)
(c) October 1934
The red generals now realized that their only chance of escape was to cut their way out and retire to more sheltered region. Quite unexpectedly they fell upon the blockading forts in Quangtung and Hunan in October 1934 and tok them bystorm, till the way lay open t the suth and west. Then began the Red armies long and famous March to the north-west thrugh Kiangsi,Hunan,Kueichw,Yunnan,Szechuan and eastren Tibet into Sensi and Kansu which became their new home. it was a strategic retreat, or ought we rather to call it astrategic advance-agains Dai Nippon; since the Reds have for years detested the civil war and dream of meeting the aggresor in the north ? This migration over adistance of more than six thousand miles, including several of the highest mountains of Asia and some of its greatest rivers is an aimost inconceivable feat of strength, the more so as it was attended by constant engagements with a far superirenemy. Altogether the march lasted almost exactly a year, and of its three hundred and sixty-eight days only one hundred were rest days,often disturbed by serious fighting, and in the two hundred and sixty-eight marching days the phenomenal average rate of twenty-three and a half miles a day reached, in great part on unmade mountain tracks! It is true that of ninety thousand who started from kiangsi only twenty thousand reached thei new home in Shensi; but their spirit was unbroken, as is shown by the succeeding great events,which contributed to bring about the present crisis between China and dai nippon.
Chiang never succeeded in completely defeating the red armies, although in the course of fve great campaign he mobilized all his available forces to this end.
The constanttly repeat assention by Dai Nippon that they are waging war against Chiang in order to extirpate Bolshecism in China is one of the most ludicrus f the propaganda lies by which world pinin is being misled at the present time. The truth is that during the great work of reorgani-zation ofthe last ten years Chiang has been forced t live between the devil and the deep sea. n the ther hand he had the cntinual intriguing f the great generals, besides the Reds, who shot up like a social epidemic where ne least expevted them; on the other the never-resting aggressin of the Dai Nippn. If during these years of recionstraction Dai Nippon had left the Chinese in piece to work ut their wn salvation.
the Red agitation would certainly have been in process of liquidation long ago in the only really effective way, namely by an agrarian reform, initiated from above but going to the bottom of the question,with the object of providing the agricultural Labourer with Land and making his hard life secure. Chiang himself comes of peasant stock and knows full well whre the shoe piinches.
(d) In the autumn of 1934 there began for Chiang and his energic consort new, colourful and adventuruous phase of their life.Their great flying tours in the interior of China to parts of the country which to them were comparatively unknown.

(3)1935
(a)The Vintage Picture Photo ” The first Mass Wedding in Shanghai 1935. A young couple could be merried for 23 shilling, wedding dinner included. (vintage book illustration)
(b) January 1935
fragment cover Cds 1/1-35 special chinese language postmark on 4 X 1c martyr and 2×5 c Dr Sun single circle (rate 14 cent) and frag. Martyr 10 cent and Dr Sun 15 cent CDS Swatow , date incHinese language.
(c) December 1935
In this month Mao communist local post office issued blue Military stamps.

(4)1936
(a)In the spring of 1936 the province of Quantung and Quanshi declared themselves independent of Nanking , but his revlt was brught to end in July when the Quantung air frce flew ver the Chiang’s flying base at Nanchang in Kiangshi and placed its self to the disposal of nanking.
For ten anxious years, amid constant fighting, now with the super-Tuchuns,the great provincial Governors, now withthe Rd Armies(Russian&Mao), Chiang had welded the cuntry into something resemblin a unified state. It was to be shown,howeever, in the ggreat event before and during the war with Dai Nippon, how far this cohesion yet come short of accomplishment.
(b)October 1936
In October 1936 Chiang flew up to Sian to organize the campaign against the Reds. He found the tungpei troops unwilling to fight the Reds, with whom they had so many interest in common. The only possibility was to sent up Nanking divisions for the anti-Communist campaign, ameasure which was eventually to lead the eliminating of the tungpei army. The tensin were extreme, the more so as a new ill-conceled dai Nippon advance was in progress in the north, in the province of Suiyuan. Chiang wished at all cost to avoid a general armed conflict with dai Nippon. The Tungpeis and the red together wished to march agains dai Nippon.Ten Nanking divison,with field equipment,were waiting in Tungkuan,ready to advance into Shensi. Railway trains full of war material were unloaded at Sian, and rders were given from Nanking that Sian and Lanchow to arrange to receive a hundred bombing planes, to be used in wiping outvthe Reds.
Thre events now follwed in rapid succesin, all calculated to increase the tension at Sian.The first was the signing of the anti-comitern pact between Germany and Dai Nipponwith Italy’s tacit recognation of the dai nippon occupation of Manchukuo in return for dai Nippon’s recognation of Italy’s conquest Abyssinia.
Seven respected citize of Shanghai , a banker,a jurist, some professors and writers had been arrest by Chiang’s order for Anti Japanese propaganda.
(c) November 1936
J.Gunnar Anderson entered again in November 1936, finding everywhere sweeping evidences of the rapid renaissance of avigrous healty nation.
The work of freconstruction would have been a still more assured success, had not Chiang and the thousand of able reformers working with him been labouring all the time under the most terrific stress, walk-ing “between the devil and the deep sea” . On the one hand,there were the constant onsslaught of the rebellious generals and the Communist, on the other, the never-ceasing encroachment of Land-hungry Dai Nippon militarist on Chinese territory.
n November 21st ne of Chiang best general Hu Chung-an the head f Nanking’s first Army, was ttally defeated far up in Kansu by the red armies.for weeks the Reds had dne nthing but retreat,while Hu, entirely misinterpeting the situation , had penetrated farther and farther into nothern kansu. the one night,after the Reds had lured hu into a basin of Loess surrounded by heights, they fell upn him from all sides. two brigades and a regiment of cavalary were entirely cut to pieces and one regiment went over to the reds.
(d)December 1936
In December 8th in athunder -laden atsmophere that Chiang landed with his giant plane on the flyingground at Sian. several hundred officers from the Tungpei and Hsipei armies met him and demandes a hearing, He referred then to Chiang Hsueh-liang as the proper man to communicate their view to him. During the next few days Chiang and Chang conferred with each other many times. The former desired war with the Communists, the latter armed resistance to Dai Nippon. They had reached a deadlock,beyond which their exchange of view could no further.
on december 11th Chiang move out to Hua ching chi, a bathing resort about fifteen miles from sian,where he often stayed during his visit to Shensi. At half past five on the morning of the 12th Chiang heard rifle-fire in the vicinity, and it soon became clear that Chang’s and Yang’s troops had started a revolt against Chiang.
the greter of Chiang Bodyguard was shot down, and one of its officers urged chiang to seek safety on the mountain.
Before the war of Resistent against Dai Nippon, Mao communist urged that Chinese not fight each other nut joint together in fighting the Dai Nippon. The slogan confused forces under the command of Chang Hsueh-lien, deputy commander of the Mao Communist suppression Forces in Northeast China ,
From the Northeast Provinces occupied by the Dai Nippon, and the followers of Yang Hu-cheng commander of the Shensi farrison.
On December 3 1936, Chang Hsueh-lien went to Loyang to meet Chiang and reported that the situation in northwest China was chaoutic and required a visit by the commander in chief.
In December 4th 1936, the Chiang flew to Sian in chang’s company and was housed at the Chinghuachih Hostel. Many Governmengt leaders and military commander converged on Sian.
On the Moring of December 12 1936, the hostel was surrounded by the troops of CHang Hsueh-liang (the Chinese war lord)
One of the Chiang’s bodyguard and a secretary were killed in line of duty. The Mao PLA forces abducted the Chiang and took him to another place in the city. High ranking officials and commanderds in Sian were detained. Shao Yuan-chung,vice president of the Legislative Yuan, died of wounds inflicted by the Mao PLA army.
Chang Hsueh-liang and Yang Ho-cheng telegraphed and eight point plitical manifesto to the Central Executive Committee of the KMT and the natinal Government.
The Whole country was dismayed. At urgently summond meeting, the national Government decided to dismiss Chang & Yang and named Ho Ying-chin commander of the Communist Suppresion force.
At the same time.Ku Ch-tung was named commander of the west Route Army and Liu Chih commander of the SWest Rute Army.
These two forces advanced in Shensi form different directions. Aircraft were dispatched to drop leaflet on Sian.
When Chang Hsueh-liang read in the Chiang diary how the commander in chief had worked desperately to mount a war of resistance against Dai Nippon, he was convinced and began to feel repentance.
On December 2nr 1936, Madam Chiang flew to Sian to persuade Chang Hsuen-liang to realese chiang.
in december 25,1936. Chang accompanied the Chiang on a flight to Nanking via Loyang. Thw hole country erupted in a joyous celebration . String of firecrackers were sent off every where to mark the leader’s safe return..
(c) Finally in this year, the desperate Chinese patriots lost their temper”YThere is no limit to the aggresioon of Dai Nippon, but there is no limit to the aptience of the Chinese (Hu shih).
The scheme f the Dai Nippon army was to seize northern China, the to stop and consilidate that gain. But the chinese, once forced into war, have nevefr allowed the japanese to rest and consilidate. I spite of repeated Dai Nippon victories on the battlefield, their army have only plunged deepetr and eeper intoa gloomy adventure, the issue of which now looks more doubtful tha ever. Dai Nippon captured Namking in this year and then waited for the chinese to sue for peace. Nerly five mth later, after prtracted and most sanguinary struggle, Dai Nippon cuptured Hankw, and nw again they invite the chinese to come to terms-term which are generous according to the Dai Nippon, but which, in the opinion of the despearte and stubborn Chinese, are only terms of surrender and subjugation. the situation seems very absurd. The victors offer peace time and again, obviously anxious to see the war ended. the retreating Chinese refuse even to discuss the dai nippon terms, still hoping to make the aggressor collapse under a protacted war of attrition.
(e) ROC post office issued New Life Movement commemorative stamps nominal 2,5,20 cent and $1.- Also issued 40th Anniversary Chinese Post Office. nomial 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(f) Kwang Tung Provincial Treasury issued one dollar local currency , ten dollars banknote with auto truck design
III. WAR WITH DAI NIPPON (1937-1945)

(1)1937
(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

(2)1938
(a) January 1938
January.7t.1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
(k) September 1938
Mao Communist local poat ffice issued the red military victory stamp
(2)1939
(a) January 1939
in January,5th,1939, Postally used latter and cover of The Chinese American Publishing Company Nanking Road Shanghai send Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS Jan.7th.1939 on Dr sun stamps 5 cent and the Martyr stamp 10 cent one stamp off to Soerabaja, JAVa NEI(Indonesia).
The letter in the cover written by typemachine:

The Chinese American Publishing Company. 160 Nanking road Shanghai,China.
Jan.5,1939

Mr Tan Tik Ie
107 Dongojoedan street
surabaya,Java.N.E.I.

Dear sir :
In reply to your post card d December 17 wuld state that we should be please to fill your orders,
should you desire to send them to us, and there is no risk so far as mailing things to or from Shanghai.
We are mailing you a Mcgraw-Hill Co. catalohue, listing their technical publications, ost of which we carry in stock in Shanghai, although if out, we can order them from New York, to be send direct to you. we don’t carry radio or electronical magazines in stock, but accept subscriptions which are forwarded to the Publishers. The megazinees you would like to subscribe to, we shall be pleased to send you a proforms invoice showing prices. All such subscrriptions are payable in advance, by demand draft on N.Y. in U.S.currency.
Thanking you for your inquiry, we are,
Yours faitfully
Chinese American Publishing Co,inc
hand signed
m.m. Magill.
This letter very rare and have many informations about the Shanghai situation, and about the publications like McGraw Hill Co and also for the US expatriat Mr Magill the sender and mr Tan Tik Ie, especially their family, please contacct uniquecollections blog via comment and UCM will put the memoriable letter illustratins in this blog.
(b) September 1939
Off Cover used Dr Sun stamps double circle 1.00 Dollars(Yuan) cds shanghai 23.9.39
(c) November 1939
Postally used cover from Nam Chow Company 41 consulat road cds shanghai 1.11.39 on Dr Sun Stamp 2x 25 cent(rate) with Chinese character stamped (?) to Mrs Tjoan Seng Tjan Pintoe kecil (small door) gang Boeroeng (bird0 Batavia (Java)

(3)1940
(a)ROC issued Palace Chung hwa- full button (die 2) $ 1 and $2.
and Dr Sun Dah tung book cp printing (type III) 2,5 c and $ 1,2,5 ,10.- single thin line KMT star coat of arm. , also Dr Sun imperfect Button $1,2,5,10 qnd 20,- and Dr Sun unwatermarked secret marks 5 green,5 olive green,8 olive green.8 without Dah in button,10,30,50c $1,2,5,10, and 20,- , Dr sun Dah Tung printingg watermarked -secret mark type III same nominal as Dah Tung type II.
In this year issue martyr Hongkong print watermarked nominal same as the Peking printing.
also Surcharge 3c Hongkong print on Dr Sun 5c dah tung print,Hunan 3c surchage, Kansu 3 cent surcharge, Kiangsi 3c surcharge, Szechuen 3 c Surcharge,Chekiang 7 c surcharge, 7c Fukien surcharge, Kiangshi 7 c surcharge on Dr sun dahtung print.
Provisional surcharge on martyr stamps from Fukien,Hunan kwantung,kwangsi, kiangsi,Szechuan,Yunnan on Dr Sun Dah Tung printing.
(b) October 1940
Mao communist local pst issued red 5 cent National Day stamps design star.
(4) 1941
(1)All area occupied by the Dai Nippon issued surcharge the area name in chinese languaged on Dr Sun and martyr stamp , I have found from Hupe1,mengyang, Nianyudi,Henan and Supei .
(2) ROC Post Office issued six stamps of Presiden Lin Sen profile.
(3) ROC issued Dr Sun New York printing with different design and same nominal as Peking printing. and also Martyr peking printing 8c re-issue. and also Thrift commemorative stamp nominal 8,21,28,33 ,50 cents and $1.-
(4) ROC issued Express and Registry stamp $1,5 and 2

(5)1942
(a)January 1942
The Allied countried name Chiang as the commander-in-chief for China-Burma war theater in January
(b) ROC reinforcemnts rush to the front in the Battle at Changsa
(c) ROC Foreign menistry Wei Tao-ming signing of the treaty on equality and reprocity with the secretary of State Cordel Hull of the United State.
(d) ROC post office issue Dr Sun stamps ,Chungking print at native paper.
(e) Fragment used this stamps 3x Y.50. and 2×500.-(rate 1100)
(f) ROC post office issued Dr Sun Pacheng print with same design and nominal with the paking print. but Thin paper-roulet and imperfect.
(g) The Central Bank of China issued Dr Sun yat-sen and Ming palace Banknote one hundred Yuan.
(h) June 1942
Mao Communist local post issued the bird stamps there nominal 2.5 cent and $ 1.-
(i) July 1942
Mao communist local post issue the military horse riding and obor (Flame stick) stamps

(6) 1943
(a)Chiang with government leaders have at the meeting of the National Government chairmanship in October 10 1943
(b) October 1943
In October 10th, Mao communist Xuat nan local post issued the ship stamps , Star ,and ttransportation stamps bird post, flight,junk and ship.

(7)1944
(a)Dai Nippon military administarition China issue two deffenitve Dai nippon occupation stamps.
(b)ROC post office issued Dr Sun pacheng print and Chung hua print, also The 50th years kuomintang anniversary stamps nominal $ 2,5,6,10 and 20.
(c)OC used Block Four of 500.- and 1000,- Chinese character pstmark.

(8)1945
(a) January 1945
The masacre of 89 chinese civilians and burning of houses at Leinhua,Suchuan and Taiho, Kiangsi by the Dai Nippon troops
(b)April-July 1945
the murder of 110 chinese civilians at Shaoyang,Hunan, by troops of the Dai Nippn 116th Division.
(c)January-August 1945
Arsn and pillaging of civialian property at Yungkiang and Loching,Chekiang, by troops of the 55th Brigade of Dai nippon 64th division.
(d) February-May 1945
the murder of 22 Chinese civilian at Yuangking and Hsiangying,Hunan by troops under the dai Nippon Changsa Garrison Command.
all of that infrmation above have charge againgst General Okumura , but he answered that he was in command of the japanese Land forces in China for only eight months when the war came to a close. Ha also said that he was commander-in-chief the Dai Nippon forces in North China when Japan attacked Pearl Harbour. The trial was resmed when Okamura was taken under armed escort to the military court along with four other Japanese officers from the Kiangwan war prisoner camp. Another trial will be held before judgment is handed down.
(c) ROC won a pyrrhic victory in the eight-years war against Dai Nippon.
(b) Chiang is greeted warmly outside a radio station after broadcasting the news of victory over Japan to the world.
(c) March 1945
In March 15th 1945,Mao Communist Local Post issued Train stamp.
(d) August 5,1945
Dai Nippon surrender
(c) September 9,1945
General Ho Ying-ching represent ROC in recieving the instrument of surrender from General Okamura Neiji, commander of the Japanese forces in China
(d) ROC Post office issued National Currencey Surcharge type one serie A on Sr Sun single circle stamps and also on the Dr Sun Chungking print native paper. also 20th anniversary death of Sun Yat-sen ,nominal $ 2,5,6,10,20 and 30,-
(e) ROC issued comemmorative stamps, Cairo Conference with Chiang photo and 1943, also Presidenyt Lin Sen nminal 1,2,5,6 cent and $ 10.- & 25.-
(f) The bank of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen and flight-boomber banknote
500 yuan and 1000 Yuan Dr Sun with ancient building

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Dr Iwan Book part Three : “The Dai Nippon War In China”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Perkenalan
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore,also Phillipine

In Malaya the Japanese overwhelmed a Commonwealth army composed of British, Indian, Australian and Malay forces. The Japanese were quickly able to advance down the Malayan peninsula, forcing the Commonwealth forces to retreat towards Singapore. The British lacked aircover and tanks; the Japanese had total air superiority. The sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse on December 10, 1941 led to the east coast of Malaya being exposed to Japanese landings and the elimination of British naval power in the area. By the end of January 1942, the last Allied forces crossed the strait of Johore and into Singapore. Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

In the Philippines, the Japanese pushed the combined Filipino-American force towards the Bataan peninsula and later the island of Corregidor. By January 1942, General Douglas MacArthur and President Manuel L. Quezon were forced to flee in the face of Japanese advance. This marked among one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans, leaving over 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war in the custody of the Japanese.

On February 15, 1942, Singapore, due to the overwhelming superiority of Japanese forces and encirclement tactics, fell to the Japanese, causing the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. An estimated 80,000 Indian, Australian and British troops were taken as prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken in the Japanese invasion of Malaya (modern day Malaysia). Many were later used as forced labour constructing the Burma Railway, the site of the infamous Bridge on the River Kwai.

During 1943 and 1944, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and vast raw material resources of the United States, advanced steadily towards Japan. The Sixth United States Army, led by General MacArthur, landed on Leyte on 19 October 1944. In the subsequent months, during the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth troops, together with the recognized guerrilla units, liberated much of the Philippines.

Dai nippon War Part Three.

“The Dai nippon War In China”

Prolog

DAI NIPPON WAR IN CHINA

(3)1932
(a)january 1932
The Japanese seized the Northeastren China Province in 1932.In manchuria a violent tension had arisen in shanghai between dai Nippon and chinese, a tension which led the landing of Dai Nippon Marines on January 28th 1932 for what was expected to be a rapid and simple action-the dispersal of the Chinese defensive forces.Mao Comunist local pst office issued the thirs stamps nominal 4 cent design Communist emblem in the star.


(b) The Japanese stamps used at Daeren. manchuria 1932.
(c)The vintage picture photo from vintage dutch enciclopedia, Emperor Puyi (the young man with jacket) with the Dai Nippon soldier and the Manchuira government official(P)


(d)Januaty 1932
ROC soldier moving to the front after Dai Nippon invasion of Shanghai in January 28th,1932.
(e) The Vintage picture photo book illustration .Profile of Araki Sadao, Dai Nippon General and menistry of war of prime menistry Inoekai (Dec 1931-Jan 1934). He created the Bloody military attack during China-japan conflict, Occupied Manchuria, Shanghai and province Jehol (P)
 

Sadao Araki Gen 1931

(f) The vintage Picture Photo book illustration, Effect of Bomb in Hongkew,Shanghai.and A chinese soldier examining a comarade who has been killed by a bomb at Taitsang outside Shanghai , and Japanese soldiers during street-fighting in shanghai (P)
(g)May 1932
May 1st, Mao communist Local postoffice issue eight worker day stamps, three communist flag and glbe,two soldier, two communiat flag and one the communist soldiers in war.
(h)The vintage picture photo book illustration, A picture taken on August,14th 1937 showing the immense crowds on Garden Bridge and the bund to watch the first air attack on Idzumo.
(h)The Vintage color Picture Postcard of Honkew Market Shanghai and Race Course Shanghai.
(i) ROC Post office issued the Martyr stamps, printing between 1932-1934.
nominal 1/2,1,21/2,3,8,10,13,17,10,20,30,40 and 50 cent.
also issued Nrthwest Scientific expedition cmmemrative stamps nominal 1,4. 5 and 10 cent
and the thir issue airmail Stamps fligt on greatwall nominal 15c,25,30,45,50,60,90 c and $ 1.-,2.- ,5.- .
(j) March 1932
The vintage picture photo from magazine illustration in March,5th 1932. The Chinese Artillerist training to used Granat at the Chinese-Japanese fornt (P)
Not until very cnsiderable reinforcements had been brought from Dai Nippon did the Nineteenth Army retire in good order on Marchd 2nd, but by then the district of Chapei, where fighting had taken place, wasno more than a heaps of ruins and it is estimated that the material damage in this thickly populated quater amounted to 350 million shanghai dollars.
(k) May 1932
May 1st 1932, Mao Communist local post office issued two types stamps, Military stamps eight nominal and
worker day stamps two nominal 1 and 2 cents.
2. The Chiang New life Movement (1933-1937)

(1)1933
(a)The Mao Communist mounted an uprising in Fukien provcince 1933
and Chiang issued the strategy against Mao in 1933.
(b) January 1933
Fragment cover used Dr Sun type I double circle 2x 1cent and Junk 2x 4 cent (rate 10 cent) CDS Shanghai 18.1933.
January 1933,Mao Communist Local Post office issued red Flower stamp
(c)In 1933 Dai Nippon Military seizure Jehol and invasion of eastren Hopei ( DN issued overprint Hupei in chines langguage on Dr Sun stamps)
(d)February 1933
In February,19th.1933.Chiang launching the “New Life Movement” at nanchang in an effort to rekindle the chinese moral sense and reinfrce determination to resist foreign aggression and ideology
The Kuomintang has developed more and more into an upperclass party. It is not likely in the beginning the Father of the revolution, Dr Sun ,foresaw any such tendency. But sun merried one of the exceptionnally gifted daughters of the Soong dynasty, one of the richerest families in China, and Chiang chose for his consort the most energic of these ssiters, while Dr H.H.Kung, the present Prime menister of China, merrierd a third of the sisterss , and the brothers Soong, particulary T.V.Shoong have acquired a far reching influence in State affairs.
Chiang asked Dr Sun ‘s mother in law and Dr Sun’s wife brothers , to marry to Dr Sun’s wife sister.
All the family of Dr Sun’s mother in law accepted to Chiang prefered with one condition, Chiang must went home t the village fr asking permisiions from his family and divorce his first wive. chiang sent his first wife to USA and never met her again.
After that Chiang merried the Dr sun’s wife sister , his second wife then became the ROC first lady and she have gave Chiang many support.
(d) the rare Cinderella stamp commemorate one years Tuberculosis campaign in China. desig TB control emblem and the sun rays with the TB man.
(e) In the autumn of 1933 a revolt broke out in Fukien,which, however, was quickly crushed.
(f) In April 1933,Chiang launched his fourth campaign against, the communist armies in Kiangsi. In the course of the first engagement two f Chiang’s divisions were disarmed. After Chiang’s best division, the eleventh had been destroyed, the war was ended.
(g) October 1933
Used fragment cover Dr Sun double circle stamp 3x 25 cent and Martyr 2×10 cent CDS Shanghai 14.10.33.(PH)
(h) ROC issued Tan Yen Kai commemorative stamps.nominal 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(1) Hupeh provincial bank issued the Pagoda Banknote 1 Yuan,10 Yuan and 100 Yuan.

(2)1934
(a)Fragment used block five Dr Sun stamps ttype II single circle 5 cent CDS Shanghai 9.5.1934 (rate 25 cents to Indonesia)
(b) From this year until 1936 eastren hopei entirely lawless conditions prevailed, with armed smuggling which cause the Chinese government a loss in revenue of two million dollars a week.(J.G.Anderson,1939)
(c) October 1934
The red generals now realized that their only chance of escape was to cut their way out and retire to more sheltered region. Quite unexpectedly they fell upon the blockading forts in Quangtung and Hunan in October 1934 and tok them bystorm, till the way lay open t the suth and west. Then began the Red armies long and famous March to the north-west thrugh Kiangsi,Hunan,Kueichw,Yunnan,Szechuan and eastren Tibet into Sensi and Kansu which became their new home. it was a strategic retreat, or ought we rather to call it astrategic advance-agains Dai Nippon; since the Reds have for years detested the civil war and dream of meeting the aggresor in the north ? This migration over adistance of more than six thousand miles, including several of the highest mountains of Asia and some of its greatest rivers is an aimost inconceivable feat of strength, the more so as it was attended by constant engagements with a far superirenemy. Altogether the march lasted almost exactly a year, and of its three hundred and sixty-eight days only one hundred were rest days,often disturbed by serious fighting, and in the two hundred and sixty-eight marching days the phenomenal average rate of twenty-three and a half miles a day reached, in great part on unmade mountain tracks! It is true that of ninety thousand who started from kiangsi only twenty thousand reached thei new home in Shensi; but their spirit was unbroken, as is shown by the succeeding great events,which contributed to bring about the present crisis between China and dai nippon.
Chiang never succeeded in completely defeating the red armies, although in the course of fve great campaign he mobilized all his available forces to this end.
The constanttly repeat assention by Dai Nippon that they are waging war against Chiang in order to extirpate Bolshecism in China is one of the most ludicrus f the propaganda lies by which world pinin is being misled at the present time. The truth is that during the great work of reorgani-zation ofthe last ten years Chiang has been forced t live between the devil and the deep sea. n the ther hand he had the cntinual intriguing f the great generals, besides the Reds, who shot up like a social epidemic where ne least expevted them; on the other the never-resting aggressin of the Dai Nippn. If during these years of recionstraction Dai Nippon had left the Chinese in piece to work ut their wn salvation.
the Red agitation would certainly have been in process of liquidation long ago in the only really effective way, namely by an agrarian reform, initiated from above but going to the bottom of the question,with the object of providing the agricultural Labourer with Land and making his hard life secure. Chiang himself comes of peasant stock and knows full well whre the shoe piinches.
(d) In the autumn of 1934 there began for Chiang and his energic consort new, colourful and adventuruous phase of their life.Their great flying tours in the interior of China to parts of the country which to them were comparatively unknown.

(3)1935
(a)The Vintage Picture Photo ” The first Mass Wedding in Shanghai 1935. A young couple could be merried for 23 shilling, wedding dinner included. (vintage book illustration)
(b) January 1935
fragment cover Cds 1/1-35 special chinese language postmark on 4 X 1c martyr and 2×5 c Dr Sun single circle (rate 14 cent) and frag. Martyr 10 cent and Dr Sun 15 cent CDS Swatow , date incHinese language.
(c) December 1935
In this month Mao communist local post office issued blue Military stamps.

(4)1936
(a)In the spring of 1936 the province of Quantung and Quanshi declared themselves independent of Nanking , but his revolt was brught to end in July when the Quantung air frce flew ver the Chiang’s flying base at Nanchang in Kiangshi and placed its self to the disposal of nanking.
For ten anxious years, amid constant fighting, now with the super-Tuchuns,the great provincial Governors, now withthe Rd Armies(Russian&Mao), Chiang had welded the cuntry into something resemblin a unified state. It was to be shown,howeever, in the ggreat event before and during the war with Dai Nippon, how far this cohesion yet come short of accomplishment.
(b)October 1936
In October 1936 Chiang flew up to Sian to organize the campaign against the Reds. He found the tungpei troops unwilling to fight the Reds, with whom they had so many interest in common. The only possibility was to sent up Nanking divisions for the anti-Communist campaign, ameasure which was eventually to lead the eliminating of the tungpei army. The tensin were extreme, the more so as a new ill-conceled dai Nippon advance was in progress in the north, in the province of Suiyuan. Chiang wished at all cost to avoid a general armed conflict with dai Nippon. The Tungpeis and the red together wished to march agains dai Nippon.Ten Nanking divison,with field equipment,were waiting in Tungkuan,ready to advance into Shensi. Railway trains full of war material were unloaded at Sian, and rders were given from Nanking that Sian and Lanchow to arrange to receive a hundred bombing planes, to be used in wiping outvthe Reds.
Thre events now follwed in rapid succesin, all calculated to increase the tension at Sian.The first was the signing of the anti-comitern pact between Germany and Dai Nipponwith Italy’s tacit recognation of the dai nippon occupation of Manchukuo in return for dai Nippon’s recognation of Italy’s conquest Abyssinia.
Seven respected citize of Shanghai , a banker,a jurist, some professors and writers had been arrest by Chiang’s order for Anti Japanese propaganda.
(c) November 1936
J.Gunnar Anderson entered again in November 1936, finding everywhere sweeping evidences of the rapid renaissance of avigrous healty nation.
The work of freconstruction would have been a still more assured success, had not Chiang and the thousand of able reformers working with him been labouring all the time under the most terrific stress, walk-ing “between the devil and the deep sea” . On the one hand,there were the constant onsslaught of the rebellious generals and the Communist, on the other, the never-ceasing encroachment of Land-hungry Dai Nippon militarist on Chinese territory.
n November 21st ne of Chiang best general Hu Chung-an the head f Nanking’s first Army, was ttally defeated far up in Kansu by the red armies.for weeks the Reds had dne nthing but retreat,while Hu, entirely misinterpeting the situation , had penetrated farther and farther into nothern kansu. the one night,after the Reds had lured hu into a basin of Loess surrounded by heights, they fell upn him from all sides. two brigades and a regiment of cavalary were entirely cut to pieces and one regiment went over to the reds.
(d)December 1936
In December 8th in athunder -laden atsmophere that Chiang landed with his giant plane on the flyingground at Sian. several hundred officers from the Tungpei and Hsipei armies met him and demandes a hearing, He referred then to Chiang Hsueh-liang as the proper man to communicate their view to him. During the next few days Chiang and Chang conferred with each other many times. The former desired war with the Communists, the latter armed resistance to Dai Nippon. They had reached a deadlock,beyond which their exchange of view could no further.
on december 11th Chiang move out to Hua ching chi, a bathing resort about fifteen miles from sian,where he often stayed during his visit to Shensi. At half past five on the morning of the 12th Chiang heard rifle-fire in the vicinity, and it soon became clear that Chang’s and Yang’s troops had started a revolt against Chiang.
the greter of Chiang Bodyguard was shot down, and one of its officers urged chiang to seek safety on the mountain.
Before the war of Resistent against Dai Nippon, Mao communist urged that Chinese not fight each other nut joint together in fighting the Dai Nippon. The slogan confused forces under the command of Chang Hsueh-lien, deputy commander of the Mao Communist suppression Forces in Northeast China ,
From the Northeast Provinces occupied by the Dai Nippon, and the followers of Yang Hu-cheng commander of the Shensi farrison.
On December 3 1936, Chang Hsueh-lien went to Loyang to meet Chiang and reported that the situation in northwest China was chaoutic and required a visit by the commander in chief.
In December 4th 1936, the Chiang flew to Sian in chang’s company and was housed at the Chinghuachih Hostel. Many Governmengt leaders and military commander converged on Sian.
On the Moring of December 12 1936, the hostel was surrounded by the troops of CHang Hsueh-liang (the Chinese war lord)
One of the Chiang’s bodyguard and a secretary were killed in line of duty. The Mao PLA forces abducted the Chiang and took him to another place in the city. High ranking officials and commanderds in Sian were detained. Shao Yuan-chung,vice president of the Legislative Yuan, died of wounds inflicted by the Mao PLA army.
Chang Hsueh-liang and Yang Ho-cheng telegraphed and eight point plitical manifesto to the Central Executive Committee of the KMT and the natinal Government.
The Whole country was dismayed. At urgently summond meeting, the national Government decided to dismiss Chang & Yang and named Ho Ying-chin commander of the Communist Suppresion force.
At the same time.Ku Ch-tung was named commander of the west Route Army and Liu Chih commander of the SWest Rute Army.
These two forces advanced in Shensi form different directions. Aircraft were dispatched to drop leaflet on Sian.
When Chang Hsueh-liang read in the Chiang diary how the commander in chief had worked desperately to mount a war of resistance against Dai Nippon, he was convinced and began to feel repentance.
On December 2nr 1936, Madam Chiang flew to Sian to persuade Chang Hsuen-liang to realese chiang.
in december 25,1936. Chang accompanied the Chiang on a flight to Nanking via Loyang. Thw hole country erupted in a joyous celebration . String of firecrackers were sent off every where to mark the leader’s safe return..
(c) Finally in this year, the desperate Chinese patriots lost their temper”YThere is no limit to the aggresioon of Dai Nippon, but there is no limit to the aptience of the Chinese (Hu shih).
The scheme f the Dai Nippon army was to seize northern China, the to stop and consilidate that gain. But the chinese, once forced into war, have nevefr allowed the japanese to rest and consilidate. I spite of repeated Dai Nippon victories on the battlefield, their army have only plunged deepetr and eeper intoa gloomy adventure, the issue of which now looks more doubtful tha ever. Dai Nippon captured Namking in this year and then waited for the chinese to sue for peace. Nerly five mth later, after prtracted and most sanguinary struggle, Dai Nippon cuptured Hankw, and nw again they invite the chinese to come to terms-term which are generous according to the Dai Nippon, but which, in the opinion of the despearte and stubborn Chinese, are only terms of surrender and subjugation. the situation seems very absurd. The victors offer peace time and again, obviously anxious to see the war ended. the retreating Chinese refuse even to discuss the dai nippon terms, still hoping to make the aggressor collapse under a protacted war of attrition.
(e) ROC post office issued New Life Movement commemorative stamps nominal 2,5,20 cent and $1.- Also issued 40th Anniversary Chinese Post Office. nomial 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(f) Kwang Tung Provincial Treasury issued one dollar local currency , ten dollars banknote with auto truck design
III. WAR WITH DAI NIPPON (1937-1945)

DN Occupation Hupei 1943
DN Occupation 1944
Poeyi Manchuria 1931
KMT granat NorthChina 1932
DN Occupied Proclaimed Mukden
Gen.Honjo Kwantung 1931
Gen Sadao Araki 1931
Bloody Shanghai 1937
DN street fighting 1937
DN Air attack Garden Bridge
DN across Yangtse river 1937

(1)1937
(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

(2)1938
(a) January 1938
January.7t.1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
(k) September 1938
Mao Communist local poat ffice issued the red military victory stamp
(2)1939
(a) January 1939
in January,5th,1939, Postally used latter and cover of The Chinese American Publishing Company Nanking Road Shanghai send Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS Jan.7th.1939 on Dr sun stamps 5 cent and the Martyr stamp 10 cent one stamp off to Soerabaja, JAVa NEI(Indonesia).
The letter in the cover written by typemachine:

The Chinese American Publishing Company. 160 Nanking road Shanghai,China.
Jan.5,1939

Mr Tan Tik Ie
107 Dongojoedan street
surabaya,Java.N.E.I.

Dear sir :
In reply to your post card d December 17 wuld state that we should be please to fill your orders,
should you desire to send them to us, and there is no risk so far as mailing things to or from Shanghai.
We are mailing you a Mcgraw-Hill Co. catalohue, listing their technical publications, ost of which we carry in stock in Shanghai, although if out, we can order them from New York, to be send direct to you. we don’t carry radio or electronical magazines in stock, but accept subscriptions which are forwarded to the Publishers. The megazinees you would like to subscribe to, we shall be pleased to send you a proforms invoice showing prices. All such subscrriptions are payable in advance, by demand draft on N.Y. in U.S.currency.
Thanking you for your inquiry, we are,
Yours faitfully
Chinese American Publishing Co,inc
hand signed
m.m. Magill.
This letter very rare and have many informations about the Shanghai situation, and about the publications like McGraw Hill Co and also for the US expatriat Mr Magill the sender and mr Tan Tik Ie, especially their family, please contacct uniquecollections blog via comment and UCM will put the memoriable letter illustratins in this blog.
(b) September 1939
Off Cover used Dr Sun stamps double circle 1.00 Dollars(Yuan) cds shanghai 23.9.39
(c) November 1939
Postally used cover from Nam Chow Company 41 consulat road cds shanghai 1.11.39 on Dr Sun Stamp 2x 25 cent(rate) with Chinese character stamped (?) to Mrs Tjoan Seng Tjan Pintoe kecil (small door) gang Boeroeng (bird0 Batavia (Java)

(3)1940
(a)ROC issued Palace Chung hwa- full button (die 2) $ 10 and $20.

and Dr Sun Dah tung book cp printing (type III) 2,5 c and $ 1,2,5 ,10.- single thin line KMT star coat of arm. , also Dr Sun imperfect Button $1,2,5,10 and 20,- and Dr Sun unwatermarked secret marks 5 green,5 olive green,8 olive green.8 without Dah in button,10,30,50c $1,2,5,10, and 20,- ,

Sun Double circle 1931
sun Single circle 1931
sun Dahtung printing 1942

Dr sun Dah Tung printingg watermarked -secret mark type III same nominal as Dah Tung type II.
In this year issue martyr Hongkong print watermarked nominal same as the Peking printing.


also Surcharge 3c Hongkong print on Dr Sun 5c dah tung print,Hunan 3c surchage, Kansu 3 cent surcharge, Kiangsi 3c surcharge, Szechuen 3 c Surcharge,Chekiang 7 c surcharge, 7c Fukien surcharge, Kiangshi 7 c surcharge on Dr sun dahtung print.


Provisional surcharge on martyr stamps from Fukien,Hunan kwantung,kwangsi, kiangsi,Szechuan,Yunnan on Dr Sun Dah Tung printing.

Palace London printing
Palace Peking printing
Junk London printing
Junk Peking Print
Martyr stamp 1932

(b) October 1930
Mao communist local pst issued red 5 cent National Day stamps design star and other types from 1930 until 1945

Communist Military stamp 1930
Red Communist stamp 1932
Mao Military stamp 1932
Reds military stamp 1932
Reds Flower stamp 1933
Red Communist stamp 1933
KMT Military stamp 1937
Reds Soldier 1938
Reds Military stamp 1940
Reds Soldier 1942
Reds Communist stamp 1942
Reds Ship 1943
Reds Flight 1944
Reds Train 1945

.
(4) 1941
(1)All area occupied by the Dai Nippon issued surcharge the area name in chinese languaged on Dr Sun and martyr stamp , I have found from Hupe1,mengyang, Nianyudi,Henan and Supei .
(2) ROC Post Office issued six stamps of Presiden Lin Sen profile.
(3) ROC issued Dr Sun New York printing with different design and same nominal as Peking printing. and also Martyr peking printing 8c re-issue. and also Thrift commemorative stamp nominal 8,21,28,33 ,50 cents and $1.-
(4) ROC issued Express and Registry stamp $1,5 and 2

(5)1942
(a)January 1942
The Allied countried name Chiang as the commander-in-chief for China-Burma war theater in January
(b) ROC reinforcemnts rush to the front in the Battle at Changsa
(c) ROC Foreign menistry Wei Tao-ming signing of the treaty on equality and reprocity with the secretary of State Cordel Hull of the United State.
(d) ROC post office issue Dr Sun stamps ,Chungking print at native paper.
(e) Fragment used this stamps 3x Y.50. and 2×500.-(rate 1100)
(f) ROC post office issued Dr Sun Pacheng print with same design and nominal with the paking print. but Thin paper-roulet and imperfect.
(g) The Central Bank of China issued Dr Sun yat-sen and Ming palace Banknote one hundred Yuan.
(h) June 1942
Mao Communist local post issued the bird stamps there nominal 2.5 cent and $ 1.-
(i) July 1942
Mao communist local post issue the military horse riding and obor (Flame stick) stamps

(6) 1943
(a)Chiang with government leaders have at the meeting of the National Government chairmanship in October 10 1943
(b) October 1943
In October 10th, Mao communist Xuat nan local post issued the ship stamps , Star ,and ttransportation stamps bird post, flight,junk and ship.

(7)1944
(a)Dai Nippon military administarition China issue two deffenitve Dai nippon occupation stamps.
(b)ROC post office issued Dr Sun pacheng print and Chung hua print, also The 50th years kuomintang anniversary stamps nominal $ 2,5,6,10 and 20.
(c)OC used Block Four of 500.- and 1000,- Chinese character pstmark.

(8)1945
(a) January 1945
The masacre of 89 chinese civilians and burning of houses at Leinhua,Suchuan and Taiho, Kiangsi by the Dai Nippon troops
(b)April-July 1945
the murder of 110 chinese civilians at Shaoyang,Hunan, by troops of the Dai Nippn 116th Division.
(c)January-August 1945
Arsn and pillaging of civialian property at Yungkiang and Loching,Chekiang, by troops of the 55th Brigade of Dai nippon 64th division.
(d) February-May 1945
the murder of 22 Chinese civilian at Yuangking and Hsiangying,Hunan by troops under the dai Nippon Changsa Garrison Command.
all of that infrmation above have charge againgst General Okumura , but he answered that he was in command of the japanese Land forces in China for only eight months when the war came to a close. Ha also said that he was commander-in-chief the Dai Nippon forces in North China when Japan attacked Pearl Harbour. The trial was resmed when Okamura was taken under armed escort to the military court along with four other Japanese officers from the Kiangwan war prisoner camp. Another trial will be held before judgment is handed down.
(c) ROC won a pyrrhic victory in the eight-years war against Dai Nippon.
(b) Chiang is greeted warmly outside a radio station after broadcasting the news of victory over Japan to the world.
(c) March 1945
In March 15th 1945,Mao Communist Local Post issued Train stamp.
(d) August 5,1945
Dai Nippon surrender
(c) September 9,1945
General Ho Ying-ching represent ROC in recieving the instrument of surrender from General Okamura Neiji, commander of the Japanese forces in China
(d) ROC Post office issued National Currencey Surcharge type one serie A on Sr Sun single circle stamps and also on the Dr Sun Chungking print native paper. also 20th anniversary death of Sun Yat-sen ,nominal $ 2,5,6,10,20 and 30,-
(e) ROC issued comemmorative stamps, Cairo Conference with Chiang photo and 1943, also Presidenyt Lin Sen nminal 1,2,5,6 cent and $ 10.- & 25.-
(f) The bank of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen and flight-boomber banknote
500 yuan and 1000 Yuan Dr Sun with ancient building

The Chronic Historic Collections

1. 1915

092205

In May 1915, Yuan Shikai’s representatives agreed to Japan’s Twenty-one Demands in order to win support from the Japanese government for his scheme to restore the monarchy. This incident sowed the seeds of discontent that led to the May Fourth Movement. (Photo courtesy of The National Museum of China)

Yuan Shih-kai silver

1a.1927 EMPEROR HIROHITO ORDER

1b.1937

1) Dai nippon Occupied Manchuria and Puyi became Emperor of Manchuria.

KMT granat NorthChina 1932

THE PROCLAMATION OF MANCHURIA KINGDOM

DN Occupied Proclaimed Mukden

PUYI BECAME THE EMPEROR OF MANCHURIA(MANCHUKUO),THE CEREMONY AT THE CAPITAL CITY MUKDEN.

 
Poeyi Manchuria 1931

Manchuria Under Japanese Dominion

 

 

Introduction

1. Japan’s “Sole Road for Survival”: The Range of Views Within the Guandong Army over the Seizure of Manchuria and Mongolia
2. Transforming Manchuria-Mongolia into a Paradise for Its Inhabitants: Building a New State and Searching for State-Building Ideals
3. Toward a Model of Politics for the World: The Banner of Moral State Creation and the Formation of Manzhouguo Politics
4. “The Long-Term Policy of National Management Will Always Be in Unison with the Japanese Empire”: The Paradise of the Kingly Way Stumbles and the Path Toward the Merging of Japan and Manzhouguo
5. Conclusion: Chimera, Reality, and Illusion

Afterword
Interview: How Shall We Understand Manchuria and Manzhouguo?
Appendix: On the Historical Significance of Manchuria and Manzghouguo
Chronology on the Modern History of Manchuria and East Asia


 
The Shadow of Manzhouguo(MANCHURIA)

There was once a country known as Manzhouguo (also rendered Manchukuo). It emerged suddenly in China’s northeast on March 1, 1932, and vanished with Emperor Puyi’s manifesto of abdication on August 18, 1945, having lasted for just over thirteen years and five months.

For the Japanese who actually lived there, however, this country’s final end was only the beginning of their real Manzhouguo “experience.” What was Manzhouguo and how did it relate to them personally? They must have asked themselves these questions repeatedly as various images of Manzhouguo later took shape; virtually all of these Japanese went through gruesome experiences in the aftermath of the state’s collapse, often lingering between life and death—the invasion of the Soviet Army, their evacuation, and perhaps their internment in Siberian camps—experiences that are exceedingly difficult to describe. Is it now possible for us to see through to the countless fragments of these images of Manzhouguo which continue to live in their memories now strewn through innumerable notes and memoirs?

For the great majority of Japanese who have since lived through more than a half-century longer than the thirteen and one-half years that Manzhouguo existed, that land has become little more than a historical term which conjures up no particular image of any sort. To be sure, the past half-century has been sufficiently long for many matters to pass from experience to memory and from memory into history, long enough perhaps for even the experience of hardship to be refined into a form of homesickness, for the crimes that transpired all around them to be forgotten as if the whole thing had been a daydream. For the Japanese in the home islands with no links to Manzhouguo, whether they have sunk into oblivion or, pent up with their memories, have taken their ignorance of Manzhouguo as commonsensical, today the scars left from Manzhouguo continue to live on in that land, be it as the issue of war orphans “left behind” in China or as that of the wives left behind. Although Manzhouguo has ceased to exist, for the people who continue to live there, and for the dwindling number of survivors of that era, the wounds of Manzhouguo continue to ache and will not heal or disappear.

In fact, the Japanese are by no means the only ones still affected. Indeed, the Chinese and Koreans who lived in Manzhouguo suffered far more and bore far heavier burdens. Certainly for descendants of those “suppressed” as “bandits” who opposed the state of Manzhouguo and Japan and for those who had their lands confiscated by such concerns as East Asian Industry (Tō-A kangyō) and the Manchurian Colonization Corporation (Manshū takushoku kōsha), the shadow of Manzhouguo always lingers close at hand and never leaves for long. So, too, for those who may have participated in Manzhouguo affairs or been pro-Japanese and were subjected to persecution by their fellow nationals, particularly at such times as the Cultural Revolution in China. Furthermore, among those Koreans who, in conjunction with the colonial policy of Japan and Manzhouguo, were forcibly moved there, many were mobilized by the Guandong (also transcribed as Kwantung) Army and taken prisoner in Siberia, and later—after the disintegration of Manzhouguo—wanted to return to home but were detained for economic reasons and must have been burning with homesickness for Korea.

Manzhouguo, a Puppet State

The number of people who have no knowledge of Manzhouguo increases with each passing day. However, like a piercing thorn that cannot be removed, the incessant pain it caused has left a residue of bad feelings in the minds of many Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, and others. While the great majority of people now know nothing about Manzhouguo, for those who lived through it, much too short a time has passed for it to be forgotten. Any evaluation of Manzhouguo would be remiss not to stress the extraordinary artificiality of which it smacked.

In Japanese dictionaries and historical encyclopedias, its position has all but become fixed. The general narrative runs as follows: Manzhouguo—in September of 1931, the Guandong Army launched the Manchurian Incident and occupied Northeast China; the following year it installed Puyi, the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, as chief executive (he was enthroned in 1934), and a state was formed; all real power in national defense and government were held by the Guandong Army, and Manzhouguo thus became the military and economic base for the Japanese invasion of the Asian mainland; it collapsed in 1945 with Japan’s defeat in the war. Also, most designate Manzhouguo as a puppet state of Japan or of the Guandong Army.

In Chinese history texts and dictionaries, by contrast, Manzhouguo is described in the following manner: a puppet regime fabricated by Japanese imperialism after the armed invasion of the Three Eastern Provinces (also known as Manchuria or Northeast China); with the Japan-Manzhouguo Protocol, Japanese imperialism manipulated all political, economic, military, and cultural powers in China’s northeast; in 1945 it was crushed with the victory of the Chinese people’s anti-Japanese war. In order to highlight its puppet nature and its anti-popular qualities, the Chinese refer to it as “wei Manzhouguo” (illegitimate Manzhouguo) or “wei Man” for short. They frequently refer to its institutions, bureaucratic posts, and laws as the “illegitimate council of state,” “illegitimate legislature,” and “illegitimate laws of state organization.” This language is not unique to mainland China, but appears in works published in the Republic of China (Taiwan) as well.

In addition to writings of this sort by people involved in the events, narratives of Manzhouguo in English and other Western languages frequently offer explanations such as the following: “Manchukuo” (or Manchoukuo): a puppet state established by Japan in China’s northeast in 1931; although Puyi was made nominal ruler, all real power was dominated by Japanese military men, bureaucrats, and advisors; in so doing, Japan successfully pursued the conquest of Manchuria, which had been contested by China and Russia (later, the Soviet Union) for nearly half a century; in spite of the fact that many countries recognized it, Manzhouguo remained essentially a puppet regime; and it was destroyed with Japan’s surrender in World War II.

Putting aside for the moment the actuality of who manipulated and ruled whom and in what way, if we consider a “puppet state” one in which—despite its formal independence as a nation—its government rules not on behalf of the people of that nation but in accordance with the purposes of another country, then Manzhouguo was a puppet state. One can scarcely deny that one of the forms of colonial rule was the very form this state took. In particular, for people who were mercilessly stripped of the wealth they had painstakingly saved on the land they worked for many years and who consequently suffered greatly, no matter how often they heard the ideals of this state recounted in elegant, lofty language, they certainly would not have accepted any legitimation for a state that threatened their lives and livelihoods.

Each person is likely to see the level of “puppetry” in Manzhouguo somewhat differently. While the concept of an illegitimate or puppet state may be too strong for many Japanese to accept, once exposed to the Chinese museum exhibits and pictures depicting excruciating pain in such places as the Museum of the Illegitimate Manzhouguo Monarchy in Changchun, or the Northeast China Martyrs Museum and the Museum of the Evidence of the Crimes of Unit 731 of the Japanese Army of Aggression in Harbin, or the Hall of the Remains of the Martyred Comrades at Pingdingshan in Fushun, comfortable images will no longer be acceptable.

Furthermore, it is certainly necessary to investigate the realities behind the “pits of 10,000 men” scattered about at various sites where it is said were buried roughly one million victims to plans for the development of the region from 1939, or the “human furnaces” at which human bodies were roasted on plates of steel to draw off their fat. However, when we realize that in most cases forced labor in general prisons or reformatories led to death and arrest itself was completely arbitrary, it would seem only natural that the horrifying shock this entails would necessitate calling Manzhouguo an Auschwitz state or a concentration-camp state, more than just a puppet state. The claims of the last two sentences raise the ante very high: I strongly recommend that some claims follow the presentation of the author’s evidence to avoid a sense that this is empty rhetoric. Let’s talk about this and, if you and I agree, find a way to discuss it with the author. I think that the point is an important one. I’m not familiar with the claim of human furnaces to “draw off fat.” If, on the other hand, the author wishes to present this as among the charges that have been levied by the Chinese government or by others, that would be fine.

Manzhouguo, an Ideal State

In spite of all this, though, Manzhouguo was never simply a puppet state or just a colonial regime. Another view has continued unshakably to persevere even after 1945: Manzhouguo as the site of a movement to expel Western imperialist control and build an ideal state in Asia; its establishment then is seen as an effort to realize a kind of utopia.

Hayashi Fusao (1903-75) once wrote: “Behind this short-lived state lay the 200-year history of Western aggression against Asia. The Meiji Restoration was the first effective resistance against this [onslaught]; Manzhouguo was the continuation of this line of opposition…. Asian history will itself not allow us to disregard it by invoking the Western political science concept of a ‘puppet state.’ Manzhouguo still continues to live in the development of world history.” It may take another one hundred years, he noted, to come to a proper evaluation of Manzhouguo.

Kishi Nobusuke (1896-1987), who worked as deputy director of the Management and Coordination Agency of Manzhouguo and became prime minister of Japan after the war, has also noted in a memoir that, in the establishment of Manzhouguo, “the ideals of ethnic harmony and peace and prosperity [lit. the paradise of the Kingly Way] shone radiantly. A scientific, conscientious, bold experiment was carried out there. This was a truly unique modern state formation. The people directly involved devoted their energies to it motivated by their sincere aspirations, and also the peoples of Japan and Manzhouguo strongly supported it; and Mohandas Gandhi, the Indian holy man, offered encouragement from far away. At the time Manzhouguo was the hope of East Asia.”

Furumi Tadayuki (1900-83), who witnessed the last moments of Manzhouguo as a deputy director of the Management and Coordination Agency, firmly believed in it: “The nurturing that went into the establishment of the state of Manzhouguo was a trial without historical precedent…. It was the pride of the Japanese people that, in an era dominated by invasion and colonization, our efforts to build an ideal state were based on ethnic harmony in the land of Manchuria. That young Japanese at that time, indifferent to fame or riches, struggled for their ideals remains the pride of Japanese youth.” Without the least doubt, he believed that the ideal of ethnic harmony—the founding ideal of the state of Manzhouguo—would continue to shine brilliantly for many years.

Guandong Army Staff Officer Katakura Tadashi (1898-1991), who promoted the establishment of Manzhouguo, saw Manzhouguo as the manifestation of a humanism based on the lofty ideals of peace, prosperity, and ethnic harmony. “In the final analysis,” he averred, “as a cornerstone for stability in East Asian, it was an abundant efflorescence.” Similarly, Hoshino Naoki (1892-1978), who worked as director of the Management and Coordination Agency, endlessly praised the formation of Manzhouguo: “Not only did the Japanese take a leading position, but all the ethnic groups of East Asia broadly worked together for development and growth. We were building a new paradise there in which the blessings were to be shared equally by all ethnicities.”

In one line of his memoirs, Hoshino attached to Manzhouguo the heading “Atlantis of the twentieth century.” (By “Atlantis” he was referring to the ideal society of the distant past, as described in Plato’s dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, said to have been to the West of the Straits of Gibraltar.) It is unclear in what sense Hoshino was himself dubbing Manzhouguo the “Atlantis of the twentieth century,” because he simply suggests this heading and says nothing about the content of Atlantis itself. However, the plot of a visionary state—beyond the Straits of Gibraltar, with an orderly, well-planned city and strong military organization, based on a national structure of harmony and single-mindedness, which having attempted the conquest of Asia and Europe now faced retaliation by Athenian warriors, and had sunk into the sea in a single twenty-four-hour period of great earthquakes and floods—remains eerily imaginable even now, corresponding in great detail to Manzhouguo. Like the tale of Atlantis as a dreamlike paradise, Manzhouguo would be passed down over the centuries, and perhaps a day would come many generations hence when it might occupy a kind of resuscitated historical position, such as that given Atlantis by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis(1627).

Be that as it may, even if it cannot compare to the myth of Atlantis, which is said to have produced a wide assortment of books in excess of 20,000 volumes, Manzhouguo has continued to be portrayed in the image of such an ideal state. A good part of the reason for this is the exceedingly tragic experience that followed its dismemberment and the great suffering that ensued. One can readily imagine that an act of psychological compensation—not wanting that pain to go for naught—has been invested in this now defunct state.

All this notwithstanding, the examples given by these and other leading figures cannot sustain the view that Manzhouguo alone, in its search for coexistence and coprosperity among all ethnic groups, was qualitatively different from other colonies. This view would undoubtedly be the sentiment shared by those people who were on the spot as local officials or members of cooperatives, as well as those who were directly connected with them; so, too, among most Japanese who were linked to the formation and management of Manzhouguo in one form or another, such as the Japanese emigrants there and the Manchurian-Mongolian Pioneer Youth Corps. There were many who, supported by a sense of personal pride in the accomplishments of Manzhouguo, survived down into the postwar era. This being the case, we have to redouble our efforts to listen to the low, strained voices behind the loud, booming voices propounding the idea of an ideal state and try to ascertain the realities of this “ideal” in which not only Japanese but Chinese, too, gambled their lives.

Must we heed the view repeatedly put forward that one should rightfully look not only at the aspect of the Japanese invasion of the mainland leading to the creation of Manzhouguo but also at the aspect of its accomplishments? In other words, it has been emphasized that despite its short history a “legacy of Manzhouguo” has contributed greatly to the modernization of China’s Northeast in such areas as the development and promotion of industry, the spread of education, the advancement of communications, and administrative maintenance. These attainments, the argument continues, cannot only withstand scrutiny from our perspective today—when ethnic harmony has become an important ideal in politics—but they also warrant significance as an “experiment for the future”—namely, what may be possible in the arena of cooperation among different ethnic groups in years to come. Can this argument be justified?

How would this argument about an ideal state, stressing the positive factors and legacy of Manzhouguo, echo among people from countries other than Japan? The issue of Manzhouguo refuses to leave us—not only must we evaluate its results but the “seeds it planted” as well. In fact, one may recognize its distinctive qualities as being surpassingly pregnant with contemporary implications.

Manzhouguo, a Chimera

On reflection, there may be nothing that spurs on human dreams and emotions quite like the reverberations of such words as “state-founding” or “nation-building,” as hinted at by Goethe in Faust. Especially in the early Shōwa years, the Japanese empire towered overwhelmingly above the individual, and people were seized by a sense of being closed in and unsettled. When he committed suicide in 1929, Akutagawa Ryūnosuke (b. 1892) left behind the expression: “bakuzentaru fuan” (a sense of being unsettled). For Japanese of that time, words such as “state-founding” or “nation-building” may have borne a distinctively seductive power offering an impression of liberation stirred up by a sense of mission hidden within. Thus, for many Japanese, the notion that “what drew them to Manchuria was neither self-interest nor fame, but a pure aspiration to participate in the opening up of a new realm and the building of a new nation” cannot be completely denied as false consciousness. That they firmly believed this in their own subjective minds would scarcely be strange, but selfless, unremunerated, subjective goodwill does not necessarily guarantee good deeds as a final result, especially in the world of politics. Also, no matter how pure the emotions behind one’s actions, in politics responsibility for ultimate results is an issue, and one cannot elude the blame that one deserves. One individual’s ideal may for one’s counterpart be an intolerable hypocrisy, indeed a form of oppression.

In the final analysis, in what sense was Manzhouguo a Japanese puppet or colonial state? Should we instead recognize that this is merely a distortion, an arbitrary understanding dictated by the victor nations, the “historical view of the Potsdam Declaration” or the “Tokyo Trials view of history” which echo it; and insist that the historical reality of Manzhouguo was the creation of a morally ideal state in which many ethnic groups would coexist? As Kagawa Toyohiko (1888-1960) has noted: “In the invasion carried out by Japan, only Manzhouguo possessed a mixture of dreams and lofty ideals.”

Before rushing to any conclusions, we need to begin by asking why Manzhouguo was established in the first place and then follow its traces where they lead us. Why in the world did this state of Manzhouguo have to have been created under Japanese leadership in China’s Northeast? What was the process of its formation, and how were Japanese and Chinese involved in it? Furthermore, what actually were ruling structure and national ideals of the new state? Also, what were the mutual relations among Manzhouguo, China, and Japan in political institutions and legal systems, policy and political ideas? In sum, what was the distinctive nature of Manzhouguo as a state, and what place should it occupy in modern world history? Portraying this state of Manzhouguo through an analysis of these questions is the principal task of this book.

I set the task in this way because one reason the evaluation of Manzhouguo remains unsettled lies in the fact that each of the opposing views of this state that I have outlined stresses only one side of the issue. From the perspective that sees it as a puppet state, the organization and ideals of Manzhouguo are belittled as merely camouflaging its essence as one of military control by Japan; from the perspective that sees it as an ideal and moral state, its essence lies more in the lofty state principles it professed than in the background to its founding, and the actual mechanisms of rule are of scant interest.

Although Manzhouguo enjoyed a short life, still portraying the features of this state as a whole in more or less the correct proportions remains an exceedingly difficult task. Although the quantity of memoirs and reminiscences about Manzhouguo written since the end of World War II is absolutely immense, there is nonetheless a dearth of official government sources of sources, as much of the “primary historical documentation” from the Manzhouguo era itself was destroyed by fire or disappeared during the period when the state was in the process of destruction.

In considering all this, there may simply be no way to avoid the abundance of material in one arena and the rough and uneven quality of it in another, but by focusing on Manzhouguo as a state, I hope in this book to offer a portrait of Manzhouguo as I have come to understand it. I have attempted here to portray Manzhouguo by likening it to the Chimera, a monster from Greek mythology. Thomas Hobbes used the Leviathan, a beast that appears in the Book of Job, to symbolize the state as an “artificial being.” Similarly, Franz Neumann (1900-54) used the name of the monster Behemoth to characterize the Third Reich of the Nazis. Drawing inspiration from these cases, I offer for Manzhouguo the Chimera, a beast with the head of a lion, the body of a sheep, and the tail of a dragon. The lion is comparable to the Guandong Army, the sheep is the state of the emperor system, and the dragon the Chinese emperor and modern China. What is implied here will be become clear as the argument of this book develops.

2) Dai nippon Occupaied Tianjin and beijing

Japanese troops , which already occupied tianjin and beijing ,were now moving steadily southwards,. they met suprisingly strong resistance in nanking and, in retaliation, went on a terrifying spree of rape,looting and murder. over 3000.000 civilians and prisoners were torrtured and killed during the rape of nanking in 1937.

Pao Ju which originally severed as a store for cannons, ordnances, and waste cannons during late Qing Dynasty, was converted into a prison at the end of the Qing Dynasty. A map printed in Republican period confirms that there was already a military prison between Pao Ju Hutong and Pao Ju Tou Tiao at the time.

pj4

In November 1934 General Ji Hongchang, known for his strong anti-Japanese position, was placed in Pao Ju prison.  Ji was born in October 1895 in Fu Gou, Henan province. The general was known for his bravery and the troops that he lead in the Northern expedition were known as the “Iron Army” of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1930, Ji was nominated as chief commander of twenty-second troop of the Kuomintang. Because he refused to fight a civil war for Chiang Kai-shek, Ji was exiled in the name of “overseas research”in 1931.

On 28 January 1932, the Songhu Battle broke out.  Ji Hongchang quickly returned to China and went to Shanghai to facilitate the logistics of the war and joined the Chinese Communist Party in the autumn of that same year.  To support the war effort, Ji sold all his private property for around sixty thousand silver coins in exchange for munitions and arms. In May 1933, General Ji, along with General Feng Yuxiang and General Zhang Zhenwu in Zhangjiakou, organized an allied civilian volunteer military force in Chahar to defend against the Japanese.

In May 1934, Ji organized the Chinese people’s  “Anti-Fascist Alliance” in Tianjin.

On November 9 of that year he was wounded during a Kuomintang planned assassination. On 22 November, Ji was detained and transferred to a Beijing army prison. During his interrogation, Ji denounced both Chiang Kai-shek and Ho Yingqin, an act which lead to Chiang Kai-shek ordering his execution.

On November 24, 1934,

 Ji Hongchang calmly walked to the execution ground. The sky was covered with dark clouds and the ground was covered with thin snow. He picked up a piece of wood, and wrote a poem on the snowing ground: I am only sorry that I did not die while fighting the Japanese invaders, and,today, I feel it as a great shame; my motherland is suffering so much, why should I care about my own life and death. Ji was only thirty- nine years old when he died. Another general, Ren Yingqi, was also executed the same day, but his Communist Party membership was not recognized until now.

JULY 1937

Beijing fell on 29 July, 1937 to the Japanese and came under full Japanese occupation 8 August. Beijing became the political, military, and cultural center of the Japanese occupation in North China. Japan fostered a regime backed by the military and stationed the command and various military and political authorities of North China in Beijing.  During this time, Pao Ju became a Japanese military prison.

According to a newspaper article written around 1944, Zhao Zhongyi and six other Communist Eighth Route Army soldiers were put in Pao Ju prison and were tortured there.

After the Second World War in 1945, Pao Ju became the Kuomintang prison. According to an article by Wang Zhihong, Pao Ju prison was externally called the “young patriots discipline brigades” and it was there that underground Communist Party members were detained.

(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937

DAI NIPPON OCCUPIED SHANGHAI

Bloody Shanghai 1937
DN street fighting 1937
DN Air attack Garden Bridge
DN across Yangtse river 1937

1)1937
(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.


Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)

Bloody Shanghai 1937
DN street fighting 1937
DN Air attack Garden Bridge

(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

Japanese pressure on China increased. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of July 1937 marked a new level of Japanese intrusion into China, but Mathews was able to continue working.

Shanghai in 1941

The external tempo now picked up. The Japanese declaration of war on America at the end of 1941 further polarized relations among Japan, China, and foreign residents in China.

Japanese Troops Entering Shanghai, 1941

Shanghai was a virtually international city, with its nearly extraterritorial legation zones. It was entered by the Japanese Army in 1941, but for a time was handled with circumspection. At at the end of 1942, this changed (a moment that Reifler experienced in a different way, and in a different part of Shanghai), and CIM, which had already moved its quarters within Shanghai in 1931, now relocated more drastically, to Chungking in Szchwan, where the Nationalist Chinese government had also taken refuge. In 1943, the previous CIM compound in Shanghai was taken over by Japanese occupation troops, and the printing blocks as well as the copies of Mathews’ own revision of his Dictionary were destroyed. That left only the original edition, and the lack of copies of that edition suddenly became an urgent matter for the English-speaking nations involved in the Pacific War. Within a few months, Harvard University Press had issued a reprint of the original Dictionary. The March 1943 Foreword begins thus:

Shanghai in 1943.

In April 1943, Mathews himself, along with Violet, was interned by the Japanese at the Lunghwa Camp, the former campus of the Kiangsu Middle School, seven miles southwest of Shanghai and a mile from the Whangpoo River. With them were missionaries both Protestant and Catholic, businessmen and their families, and the officers and crew of the SS President Harrison, among hundreds of others. At 42 acres, this was the largest of all the internment camps in China, and one of the bleakest. Most buildings were of concrete, three of them were ruined, and the landscape was desolate, with “only one tree.” The prospect was not improved by the typhoon of 11 August 1943, which blew the roof off the West Dining Hall, and effectively destroyed that building; it also unroofed several small residence houses. A few Americans were repatriated in September of that year. The rest settled down to wait out the war. By and large, conditions were manageable. Ten acres were devoted to communally farmed vegetable gardens, and there were also a few private gardens. Hot showers were available, though since the well pumps were slow, the showers had to be brief. The animal population included two cows, hens, a flock of goats, and sixty pigs. Communications with the outside were possible, and the Shanghai Dairy donated an additional Holstein calf; eventually there was enough milk for all the camp children to get half a pint a day. Communications with the outside worked both ways, and there were four successful escapes, plus a few failed attempts, during the next two years. Nor were high spirits confined to escape attempts. One internee recalls that the single men, who were quartered in the Assembly Hall, “raised so much hell at night, laughing and telling jokes, that one night a guard took a potshot into our window to stop us from making so much noise.” As at some other camps, the guards were not Japanese Army, but drawn from the Consular Police. The bullets, however, were real.

Japan surrendered in August 1945, the Swiss temporarily took over the management of the camp, and the internees left later that month. Mathews, then 68, returned to Melbourne for a third and final time, to a well earned retirement. But China continued to loom large in the Australian consciousness, and Mathews’ linguistic skills were known to the Australian Department of Defense. In 1948 he was recruited to work part time on the translation of archival material and the compilation of glossaries. In 1951, this was increased to full time.

(2)1938
(a) January 1938
January.7 th.1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)Early 1938  after the nanking city was captured by the japanese . shanghai fell and chiang kaisek fled westward across china, up the yangtse river, deep into the mountainous province od sichuan. there he set up his wartime goverment in the town of chongqing. it’s not hard to image the tension and turmoil that these monumntous political upheaval imposed on chinese family life.

(d)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
…etc….etc……………………………………………………………………….

1939

in 1939, sudenly and without warning, tianjin was drowned in a great flood. the disaster was of staggering propotion. the chinese called it “china’s sorrow” and went to the buddhist temple to burn incense and offewr prayers for relief. pro japanese newspapers printed in tianjin blamed the catastrope on chiang kaisek while the nationalist party press in chongqing accused the japanese

Chinese Flee to Southern China


War orphans Many Chinese fled southward to Yunnan and Sichuan (where the Kuomintang had their wartime capital in Chongqing). Air raids were launched on Chongqing in May 1939. Altogether 218 air raids were conducted on the city over the next several years, leaving the city in ruins and killing around 20,000 people, including people that sought refuge in tunnels and suffocated to death there

THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION PROPAGANDA

THE NANKING MASSACRE – two films to remind us

Why do I do this to myself? First I watch two intensely depressing dramatic recreations of war atrocities, intense enough to haunt me for days. Then I decide to review them, challenging my love of Japan with these accounts of atrocious conduct by their armed forces.

In 1937, when Japan was invading China, its armies conquered the (then) capital city of Nanking. The Japanese army then began killing the prisoners of war, then the civilians, to strike a psychological blow to the rest of China. Knowing full well that they were breaking international conventions of war, they disguised the massacre from the rest of the world.

NANKING MASSACRE(RAPE)

(A) HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

(B) FILM COLLECTIONS

These are two very different films about the siege, serving two audiences: one is obviously intended for ‘international cinema’, the other (possibly unintentionally) is ‘exploitation’.

Though they’re tough viewing, knowing that these events actually happened, I wanted to learn more about the depths that the Japanese army sank to. While I admire Japanese culture, pop and otherwise, I’ve mainly been learning about their history from their viewpoint. But after visiting several of Japan’s neighbouring countries and reading their news sites, I became increasingly aware of ‘old wounds’ and lasting hostilities.

While the US and Europe are hyper-conscious of the history of Nazi Germany, we mainly remember wartime Japan for Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima. In China, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines, Japan was regarded the same way we saw Germany. Indeed, the scale of Japanese war crimes and the variety of atrocities rivals Nazi Germany.

So I’m having trouble joining the dots between their peace-loving society of today and the extremes of their wartime mindset. How can a country change so quickly and so completely? I guess the answer is closer to home – my own country has much to answer for in it’s conduct abroad, both recently and historically.

I’m not going to boycott Japanese culture for the crimes of the past, but I’m not going to ignore history either. When I first heard of the ‘Rape of Nanking’, I naively assumed it happened centuries ago in more barbaric times. To find that it was only last century showed up a large gap in my historical knowledge.

BLACK SUN: THE NANKING MASSACRE,
MEN BEHIND THE SUN 4
(1994, Hong Kong, Hei tai yang: Nan Jing da tu sha)

This is a weird film that would need much more research to determine what the film-makers were trying to do, if I was at all impressed by it. The director, T F Mou, denies it’s an exploitation film, and the size of the budget seems to lift the project out of that genre. But it’s an endless diary of gory re-enactments of war atrocities, with little story or drama, and a near absence of continuing characters. The Japanese soldiers storm around the city, killing and raping. The commanders take pleasure in trying out various methods of execution, from machine-gun to samurai sword.

It looks like a wartime propaganda film, but it was made 1994. I’m almost guessing it was intended to pressure the Japanese government on outstanding issues – maybe compensation, apologies, selective history books? The other likely result was to incite outrage amongst Chinese audiences.
Japan conquered Nanking but with utmost brutality

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan’s influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan’s position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, “Manchukuo” was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.

In 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations since she was heavily criticized for her actions in China.

Japanese soldiers bayoneting Chinese civilians in Nanking

Compare this blunt approach to any modern American movie about the Nazis. One moment in Black Sun made me remember a silent movie where Eric Von Stroheim throws a baby out of a high window. The scene looked comical: a swift but lazy cinematic shorthand to make you hate the character in seconds, and tell you what to think about all German commanders.

While City of Life and Death shows only one Japanese leader orchestrating the destruction of the city, Black Sun takes pains to name and shame many different commanders and their personal roles in the killing. This is perhaps another clue to the movie’s intentions.

After a while, the many shock moments reminded me of the climax to Soldier Blue, but in contrast with it’s involving characters, storyline and complex portrayal of the invaders as well as the invaded (Soldier Blue himself is shocked by his own sides’ misconduct). The Japanese soldiers of Black Sun are portrayed with a uniform hive mentality. It also doesn’t help that the Japanese soldiers all look very Chinese. Only the commanders look as if they’re played by Japanese actors. Lazily and inaccurately, the soldiers of both sides talk in Chinese.

I expected this to be far more cheaply made than it is. It looks largely authentic, uses a lot of extras and some extensive locations. The most spectacular scene illustrates how the Japanese burned the bodies of civilians before dumping them in the river. They could then claim that they’d only killed soldiers. The scale of the fire of hundreds of bodies along a riverbank rivals the inferno at the end of Apocalypse Now.

But if there’s any doubt that what we’re being shown happened, the catalogue of atrocities is verified onscreen, by cross-cutting with actual photographs and filmed footage. The power and importance of these images was not lost on the Japanese army who made every effort to destroy any incriminating material that left Nanking at the time, and they burnt any such evidence of their own when the war was lost.

There’s no doubt that all this and worse actually happened, but without any emotional involvement and a clumsy, one-sided approach, it’s a far less powerful and informative film than it should have been.

I watched the US region 1 DVD, which fills in much of the historical context with an informative old documentary episode of Frank Capra’s Why We Fight as a DVD extra.

In the UK, it’s purely been sold as exploitation, check out the crass DVD cover, which somehow borders on comedy, using a poorly staged publicity shot of one of the film’s most infamous scenes. Contrast that with the US DVD cover that uses an actual archive photograph.

This is actually the fourth in a series of films, called Men Behind the Sun, which I won’t be investigating any further. The first film in the series has an important subject, the horrifying human experiments of Camp 731, but the inclusion of animal cruelty and mondo footage (using an actual corpse for one scene) means I’ll avoid it. However, the story of Camp 731 has one hell of conspiracy storyline and I’d like to learn more about it.

Black Sun is a bizarre experience – as it abandons so many movie conventions – that it’s fairly silly to compare it to the professionally and artfully produced City of Life and Death. But I have.

CITY OF LIFE AND DEATH
(2009, China/Hong Kong, Nanjing! Nanjing!)

An involving man-made disaster

This major new film, shot in black and white, is still being premiered round the world. It’s also about the Nanking during the Japanese siege.

While Black Sun throws out plenty of factual context in captions and voiceovers, this has no such introduction and relies on small badly-written postcards to set up a little historical background. Black Sun also portrayed the Chinese, soldiers and civilians alike, as totally defeated. This begins with the army still defending itself, albeit with guerrilla tactics. It also sets up storylines with soldiers from both armies, one Japanese soldier being just as traumatised.

The success of the film is the emotional involvement with the characters, focussing on the family of the Chinese translator to John Rabe – a German envoy famous for his attempts to protect the civilians against impossible odds.

Unlike Black Sun, if anyone gets hurt, raped, slaughtered, the impact is devastating. There’s a dreadful scene that’s basically a point of view experience of being herded into a mass slaughter.


After the threat of counterforce has been systematically eradicated, the invading army are rewarded with ‘comfort women’, Japanese prostitutes rationed out to the soldiers. But as the siege wears on, the supply of women starts taking Chinese ‘volunteers’. The widescale use of civilian women for sex lends an awful, literal meaning to ‘the rape of Nanking’.

While the Japanese use of unnecessary force was meant to terrify the rest of China, it instead unified the regions of the massive country into an unbeatable foe.

The inclusion of a sympathetic portrayal of a Japanese soldier has drawn criticism from Chinese critics, complaining that the tone of the film wasn’t harsh enough on the Japanese. Perhaps they would have preferred a less-sensitive, less balanced film, like Black Sun perhaps?


I’d recommend City of Life and Death as a beautifully made and observed film on a harrowing subject.

It had a limited cinema release in the UK and there’ll be a DVD and Blu-Ray release in August. I watched a Chinese DVD, which may be slightly censored (missing some violence). The subtitles didn’t translate all the onscreen signs and nameplates.

The excellent WildGrounds site has an article comparing City of Life and Death to actual (and upsetting) photos from the siege.

DAI NIPPON WAR IN HONGKONG(1941-1945)

Japanese soldiers marching along Queen's Road on Hong Kong Island in December 1941.

Japanese soldiers marching along Queen’s Road on Hong Kong Island in December 1941.
Main article: Battle of Hong Kong

In the autumn of 1941, the Third Reich was at its height of power. German forces had overrun much of Western Europe and were racing towards Moscow in the invasion of the Soviet Union. With France under occupation, England was enduring devastating German bombardment almost daily, having to fend off an amphibious invasion. In the Asian theatre, Japan was also experiencing spectacular victories and began consolidating its territorial gains. At the time, the United States was not participating in the war but was seen by the Axis Powers as an obstacle to further global conquest. This prompted Japan to launch a sudden attack against the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7 1941. As part of a general Pacific campaign, the Japanese launched an assault on Hong Kong on the morning of December 8, 1941 (Hong Kong local time), less than eight hours after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. British, Canadian and Indian forces, supported by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defense Forces attempted to resist the rapidly advancing Japanese invasion but were outnumbered. After racing down the New Territories and Kowloon, Japanese forces crossed Victoria Harbour on December 18. After fierce fighting continued on Hong Kong Island, the only reservoir was lost. Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers fought at the crucial Wong Nai Chong Gap that secured the passage between Hong Kong proper and secluded southern sections of the island. Hopelessly defeated, on December 25, 1941, British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong Kong Mark Aitchison Young surrendered in-person at the Japanese headquarters on the third floor of The Peninsula Hotel. On 20 February 1942, General Rensuke Isogai became the first Japanese governor of Hong Kong, ushering in almost four years of Imperial Japanese administration.

Postal History

DN Occupation  issued china local stamp in 1944

Politics

Rensuke Isogai

Rensuke Isogai

Throughout the Japanese occupation, Hong Kong was ruled as a detained terrain and was subjected to martial law. Headed by General Rensuke Isogai, the Japanese established their administration and commanding post at the Peninsula Hotel in Kowloon. The military government, composed of the departments of politics, civilian, economy, judiciary, and navy, enacted stringent regulations and established executive bureaus to have power over all residents of Hong Kong. On top of Governor Mark Young, 7,000 British soldiers and civilians were kept in prisoner-of-war or internment camps, such as Sham Shui Po Prisoner Camp and Stanley Internment Camp. Famine, malnourishment and sickness were pervasive. Severe cases of malnutrition among inmates, for example, occurred in the captivity camp at Stanley in 1945. Moreover, the Japanese military government blockaded Victoria Harbour and controlled warehouses. Early in January 1942, former members of the Hong Kong Police, including the Indians and Chinese, were recruited into a reformed police, the Kempeitai (Military Police) with new uniforms. The Japanese gendarmerie took over all police stations and organized the Police in five divisions, namely East Hong Kong, West Hong Kong, Kowloon, New Territories and Water Police. The headquarters was situated in the former Supreme Court Building. Police in Hong Kong were under the organization and control of the Japanese government. The onset of the new Japanese governor was the indicator for important administrative fluctuations. Japanese experts and administrators were chiefly employed in the Governor’s Office and its various bureaux. These Japanese experts occupied all key posts whereas the Chinese could only take the middle and lower ranks of posts. Under the Japanese control, the basic framework of Japanese administration was created by the division of Hong Kong Island into 12 districts and Kowloon into 6. Each district was under a Chinese who represented the needs of the district residents to the Japanese authorities. Also, a Civil Affairs Bureau was set up for policy-making, exercising control and supervision. The administrative regime re-designed by Governor Isogai was under instructions from Tokyo.

Economy

Japanese soldiers arrested the western bankers and kept them in a Chinese hostel.

Japanese soldiers arrested the western bankers and kept them in a Chinese hostel.

Economically, all trading activities were sternly guarded, and the majority of the factories were taken over by the Japanese. Having deprived the vendors and banks of their possessions, the Japanese replaced local dollars with Japanese Military Yen. The Hong Kong Dollar was outlawed and anyone caught with possession of it was tortured. The exchange rate was fixed at 2 Hong Kong dollars to one military yen in January 1942. Later, the yen was re-valued at 4 Hong Kong dollars to a yen in July 1942, which meant local people could exchange fewer military notes than before. While the citizens of Hong Kong became poor in forced exchanges, the Japanese government sold the Hong Kong Dollar to help finance their war-time economy. Later, the yen was made the sole legal tender for official purposes in June 1943. Prices of commodities for sale had to be marked in yen. Its gradual devaluation resulted in severe inflation and disruption of the economy, directly affecting Hong Kong citizens. The Japanese Military Yen was later declared worthless and the citizens, without possession of their original HKD, were completely destitute. Public transportation and utilities unavoidably failed, owing to the shortage of fuel and tho the augmentation of American air raids on Hong Kong. Tens of thousands of people became homeless and helpless, and many of them were employed in shipbuilding and construction. In agricultural field, the Japanese took over the race track at Fanling and the air strip at Kam Tin for their rice-growing experiments. A scheme of reclamation of Tolo Harbour was also discussed. With the intention of boosting the Japanese influence on Hong Kong, two Japanese banks, the Yokohama Specie Bank and the Bank of Taiwan, were re-opened. The Japanese banking experts were sent to liquidate enemy banks. British, American and Dutch bankers were forced to live in a small hotel, while some bankers who were viewed as the enemy of the Japanese were executed. In May 1942, Japanese companies were encouraged to be set up. A Hong Kong trade syndicate consisting of Japanese firms was set up in October 1942 to manipulate all overseas trade.

Community life, social services and public hygiene

Life in fear

Population decrease due to repatriation.

Population decrease due to repatriation.

The Japanese enforced a repatriation policy throughout the period of occupation because of the scarcity of food and the possible counter-attack of the Allies. As a result, the unemployed were deported to the Mainland, and the population of Hong Kong had dwindled from 1.6 million to 600,000 in 1945[1]. Furthermore, the Japanese reconstructed both government and private facilities for the sake of their own interests and developments. In order to expand the Kai Tak Airport, for example, the Japanese demolished the Kowloon Walled City and the Sung Wong Toi Monument in today’s Kowloon City. Buildings of some prestigious secondary schools such as Jesuits’ Wah Yan College Hong Kong, Diocesan Boys’ School, the Central British School (now King George V School), the St. Paul’s Girls’ College (now St. Paul’s Co-educational College) of the Anglican church and de La Salle brothers’ La Salle College were commandeered as military hospitals by the Japanese. Diocesan Boys’ School was even rumoured to be the execution place of the Japanese. Life was hard for people under Japanese rule. As there was inadequate food supply, the Japanese rationed necessities such as rice, oil, flour, salt and sugar. Each family was given a rationing license, and every person could only buy 6.4 taels (0.24 kg), of rice per day. Most people did not have enough food to eat, and many died of starvation. The rationing system was canceled in 1944.

Charity and social services

After the occupation of the Japanese, charitable activities were highly restricted. Although a fund which may be translated as “Far East Foundation Fund” was set up to collect donations, it was regarded as a means to collect money for the Japanese government, instead of providing welfare services for the Hong Kong people. The Bishop and the Chinese Representatives’ Association, as organizers of charitable activities for relief of the poor, demanded assistance from the government. In September 1942, the Japanese governor Isogai promised to accept their suggestion. The implementation of this suggestion involved money from the Far East Foundation Fund being given to the governor first, and then transferred to a relief fund for the local people of Hong Kong. This was seen as a credit to Japanese administrative policy. With the assistance of the Far East Foundation Fund, an association which may be translated as “Chinese Charity Association” was set up to organize fundraising and distribution work. In order to promote charity activities, a fundraising committee was established which created a network of donation movement. It selected famous people from trade unions to be the leaders of the fundraising groups. They were then asked to choose members to join their group and to help with activities. These members then took donations from different social strata so as to raise as much funds as possible. The activities also included propaganda works which promoted the program. This mass donation movement finally resulted in a collection of 55500 military yen (MY). Besides this, there were also charitable football competitions and drama performances which donated all of their profits for the Chinese Charity Association. The fund raising activities were continued in the following years. During the occupation, hospitals available to the masses were limited. The Kowloon Hospital and Queen Mary Hospital were occupied by the Japanese army. The Japanese also used the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital as a military hospital. Despite the lack of medicine and funds, the Tung Wah and Kwong Wah Hospital continued their social services but in a limited scale. These included provision of food, medicine, clothing, and burial services. Although funds were provided, they still had great financial difficulties. Failure to collect rents and the high reparation costs forced them to promote fundraising activities like musical performances and dramas. The charitable organization Po Leung Kuk was another important organization taking in orphans. However faced with financial problems during the occupation, their bank deposits could not be withdrawn under Japanese control. Their services could only be continued through donations by Aw Boon Haw, a long-term financier of Po Leung Kuk.

Health and public hygiene

There were very few public hospitals during the Japanese occupation as many of them were forced to be converted to military hospitals. With the inadequate supply of resources, Tung Wah Hospital and Kwong Wah Hospital still continuously offered limited social services to the needy persons.

Education, press and political propaganda

Through schooling, mass media and other means of propaganda, the Japanese tried to control the mindsets of Hong Kong people so as to build up a stronger administration regime. Japanization was a common means for restricting people’s thinking, and it prevailed in different aspects of daily life.

Japanese education

It was the Japanese conviction that education was an imperative means in infusing Japanese influence. Teaching of the Japanese language was obligatory, and students who received bad results in Japanese exams risked corporal punishment. English could not be taught. Some private Japanese language schools were established to promote oral Japanese. The Military Administration ran the Teachers’ Training Course, and those teachers who failed a Japanese bench-mark test would need to take a three-month training course. Also, Japanese culture, affairs, ethics and rituals were introduced through education. The primary aims of this Japanization of the education system were mainly to facilitate the Japanese control over the local people and to establish the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. Therefore, what it was trying to create was a rush to learn Japanese.

A hand-out of a Japanese language learning radio programme.

A hand-out of a Japanese language learning radio programme.

Propaganda

Names of the roads were rewritten in Japanese.

Names of the roads were rewritten in Japanese.
Celebration of a "New Hong Kong" after Japanese occupation.

Celebration of a “New Hong Kong” after Japanese occupation.

The Japanese promoted a bilingual system of English with Japanese as a communication link between the locals and the occupying forces. English shop signs and advertisements were taken away, and in April 1942, streets and buildings in Central were renamed in Japanese. For example, Queen’s Road Central became Shōwa-dori and Des Voeux Road Meiji-dori. Similarly, the Gloucester Hotel became the Matsubara; the Peninsula Hotel, the Matsumoto; Lane Crawford, Matsuzakaya. Their propaganda also pointed to the pre-eminence of the Japanese way of life, of Japanese spiritual values and the ills of western materialism. The commemoration of Japanese festivals, state occasions, victories and anniversaries also strengthened the Japanese influence over Hong Kong. For instance, there was Yasukuri or Shrine Festival honoring the dead; there was also a Japanese Empire Day on 11 February 1943 centered around the worship of the Emperor Jimmu. The Japanese also built shrines to honor the war dead. A monument of the Japanese war heroes was laid at a site on a spur of Mount Cameron.

Press and entertainment

The Hong Kong News, a pre-war Japanese-owned English newspaper, was revived on January 1942. Ten local Chinese newspapers had been reduced to five in May. These newspapers were under press censorship. Radio sets were used for Japanese propaganda. Amusements still existed, though only for those who could afford them. The cinemas only screened Japanese films, such as The Battle of Hong Kong, the only film made in Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation. Directed by Tanaka Shigeo and produced by the Dai Nippon Film Company, the film featured an all-Japanese cast but a few Hong Kong film personalities were also involved. This film appeared on the first anniversary of the attack. Horseracing continued to be held.

Strikes and anti-Japanese activities

During this period, people organized strikes and refused to buy or use Japanese products. Owing to hostilities to Japanese aggression, many Hong Kong trade unions which had disappeared in the past ten years again revived in the 1930s. They were moved by their patriotic feeling to renew their activities, this time against the Japanese. The Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong did not mean the immediate termination of Chinese anti-Japanese patriotism. In fact, these activities turned underground and continued in secrecy.

Gangjiu Da Dui Guerillas

Founded by the Communists in January 1942, the Guangdong Renmin Kangri guerrillas were established to reinforce anti-Japanese forces in Dongjiang and Zhujiang (Pearl River) deltas. The third and fifth branches under Cai Guoliang, which were sent to Hong Kong and Kowloon, became known as Gangjiu (Hong Kong-Kowloon) da dui (brigade) (港九大隊). Led by Wong Kwun Fong and Lau Hak Tsai, the guerillas endeavored to attack robbers, traitors and enemies, and secure farm produce and human lives in Hong Kong. In April 1942, the guerillas extended their influence over Lantau Island, which enhanced communication with Macao and Guangzhou. The spread of their activities into multi-ethnic Hong Kong Island, in particular, led to Chinese collection of classified information on Japanese strategies of South China, Taiwan, and Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the force played a central role in saving British and foreigners of the Allied cause. 20 British, 54 Indians, 8 Americans, 3 Danish, 2 Norwegians, 1 Russian, and 1 Filipino were estimated to have been saved. The Gangjiu Da Dui helped undermine the Japanese military position in Hong Kong, and fostered friendships among Chinese, British and Americans.

Dongjiang Guerillas

Dongjiang Guerillas fighting in trenches

Dongjiang Guerillas fighting in trenches

During the Japanese Occupation the only fortified resistance was mounted by the Dongjiang guerillas (東江游擊隊). Originally formed by Zeng Sheng in Guangdong in 1939, this was mostly comprised peasants, students, and seamen. When the war reached Hong Kong in 1941, the guerilla force grew from 200 to more than 6,000 soldiers. In the wake of the British retreat, the guerillas picked up abandoned weapons and established bases in the New Territories and Kowloon. Applying conventional tactics of guerilla warfare, they killed Chinese traitors and collaborators, protected traders in Kowloon and Guangzhou, attacked the police station at Tai Po, and bombed Kai Tak Airport. Additionally, the guerillas were noteworthy in rescuing prisoners-of-war, notably Sir Lindsay, Sir Douglas Clague, Professor Gordan King, and David Bosanquet. The guerillas’ most significant contribution to the Allies, in particular, was their rescue of twenty American pilots who parachuted into Kowloon when their planes were shot down by the Japanese.

British Army Aid Group

The British Army Aid Group was formed in July 1942 at the suggestion of Colonel Lindsay Ride. After the fall of Hong Kong in December 1941, all British side personnel were sent into various prisoners-of-war camps on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. Ride later escaped from his camp and arrived in Chongqing, where he formed the unit, with its headquarters in Guilin, Guangxi as a frontline base in the south. They mainly rescued POWs from the camps, smuggled medicine and other supplies in and out of the camps, and gathered intelligence for the Allied Forces. In the process, the Group provided protection to the Dongjiang River which was a source for domestic water in Hong Kong.

Liberation

Japanese document of surrender

Japanese document of surrender
The document of surrender was signed by Japan on September 15, 1945 in Hong Kong

The document of surrender was signed by Japan on September 15, 1945 in Hong Kong
Japanese war criminals prepare for their transfer to Stanley Prison

Japanese war criminals prepare for their transfer to Stanley Prison
The British warship, Swiftsure, entering Victoria Harbour through North Point on 30 August 1945

The British warship, Swiftsure, entering Victoria Harbour through North Point on 30 August 1945
Liberation of Hong Kong in 1945. Picture taken at the Cenotaph in Central, Hong Kong.

Liberation of Hong Kong in 1945. Picture taken at the Cenotaph in Central, Hong Kong.

Japanese surrender

The Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong ended in 1945. The United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Another one was dropped on Nagasaki three days later. Japan finally surrendered on August 15, 1945. The British sovereignty over Hong Kong thus was restored. The Sino-Japanese War Victory Anniversary (“the Saturday preceding the last Monday in August” and “Liberation Day, being the last Monday in August” (重光紀念日) before the handover) became a public holiday, before being replaced by Labour Day and the PRC National Day

 

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF CHINA

Of the estimated 20 million people that died as a result of the Japanese hostilities during World War II, about half of them were in China. China claims that 35 million Chinese were killed or wounded during the Japanese occupation from 1931 to 1945.

An estimated 2.7 million Chinese were killed in a Japanese “pacification” program that targeted “all males between 15 and 60 who were suspected to be enemies” along with other “enemies pretending to be local people.” Out of the thousands of Chinese prisoners captured during the war only 56 were found alive in 1946.

The first phase of the Chinese occupation began when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. The second phase began in 1937 when the Japanese launched major attacks on Beijing, Shanghai and Nanking. By the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 they were firmly entrenched in China, occupying much of the eastern part of the country.

How Japan Became a Major Power in Asia

Japan modernized at a much faster rate than China in the 19th and early 20th centuries. By the late 1800s, it was on its way to becoming a world class, industrial-military power while the Chinese were fighting among themselves and being exploited by foreigners. Japan resented China for being a “sleeping hog” that was pushed around by the West.

The world was awakened to Japan’s military strength when they defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95 and Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905.

The Russo-Japanese war halted European expansion into East Asia and provided an international structure for East Asia that brought some degree of stability to the region. It also changed the world from being a European-centered one to one in which a new pole was emerging in Asia.

Japanese Colonialism

The Japanese hated European and American colonialism and were committed to avoiding what happened to China after the Opium Wars. They felt humiliated by the unequal treaties that were forced on them by the United States after the arrival of Perry’s Black ships in the 1853. But in the end Japan became a colonial power itself.

The Japanese colonized Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria and islands in the Pacific. After defeating of China and Russia, Japan began conquering and colonizing East Asia to expand its power.

The Japanese victory over China in 1895 led to the annexation of Formosa (present-day Taiwan) and Liaotang province in China. Both Japan and Russia claimed Liatong. The victory over Russia in 1905 gave Japan the Liaotang province in China and led the way to the annexation of Korea in 1910. In 1919, for siding with the Allies in World War I, the European powers gave Germany’s possessions in Shandong province to Japan in the Treaty of Versailles.

In some ways, the Japanese mimicked the Western colonial powers. They built grand government buildings and “developed high-minded schemes to help the natives.” Later they even claimed they had the right to colonize. In 1928, Prince (and future Prime Minister) Konroe announced: “as a result of [Japan’s] one million annual increase in population, our national economic life is heavily burdened. We cannot [afford to] wait for a rationalizing adjustment of the world system.”

To rationalize their actions in China and Korea, Japanese officers invoked the concept of “double patriotism” which meant they could “disobey moderate policies of the Emperor in order to obey his true interests.” A comparison has been made with religious-political-imperial ideology behind Japanese expansion and the American idea of manifest destiny. [Source: “History of Warfare” by John Keegan, Vintage Books]

The Japanese tried to build a united Asian front against Western imperialism but its racist views ultimately worked against it.

Japanese Enter Manchuria

The Japanese operating out of their concessions on China’s east coast encouraged and profited from the opium trade. Profits were funneled to right wing societies in Japan that advocated war.

The absence of a strong central government after the collapse of the Qing dynasty made China easy prey for Japan. In 1905, after the Russo-Japanese War, the Japanese took over the Manchurian port of Dalien, and this provided a beachhead for its conquests in northern China.

Tensions between China and Japan arose over claims on the Russian-built Manchurian railroad. In 1930, China owned half the railways outright and owned two thirds of the remainder with Russia. Japan held the strategic South Manchurian railway.

The Chinese railroads were built with loans from Japan. China defaulted on these loans. Both China and Japan promised a peaceful resolution to the problem. On the eve of discussions on the matter a bomb exploded on the tracks of the South Manchurian Railway.

Early Events in the Japanese Occupation of China

On March 18, 1926, students in Beiping staged a demonstration to protest the Japanese navy opening fire on Chinese troops in Tianjin. When protesters gathered outside the residence of Duan Qirui, a warlord who was chief executive of the Republic of China at the time, to submit their petition, a shooting was ordered and forty-seven people died. Among them was 22-year-old Liu Hezhen, a student activist campaigning for a boycott of Japanese goods and the expulsion of foreign ambassadors. She became the subject of Lu Xun’s classic essay In Memory of Miss Liu Hezhen . Duan was deposed after the massacre and died of natural causes in 1936.

In Memory of Miss Liu Hezhen was written by the celebrated and revered left-wing writer Lu Xun in 1926. For decades, it had been in high school textbooks, and there was quite a bit of controversy when education authorities decided to remove it in 2007. There was speculation that the article was junked in part because it might remind people of a similar incident that occurred in 1989.

Japan Takes Over Manchuria

The 10,000-man Japanese Kwantung Army was responsible for guarding the Manchuria railway. In September 1931, it attacked one of its own trains outside Mukden (present-day Shenyang). Claiming that the attack had been carried out by Chinese soldiers, the Japanese used the event—now known as the Manchurian Incident—to provoke a fight with Chinese forces in Mukden and as an excuse to start a full-scale war in China.

The instigators of the incident were Kanji Ishihara and Seishiro Itagaki, staff officers in the Kwantung Army, a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. Some blame these two men for starting World War II in the Pacific. They modeled their attack on the assassination of Zhang Zuolin, a Chinese warlord with a strong influence in Manchuria, whose train was blown up in 1928.

After the Manchurian Incident Japan sent 100,000 troops to Manchuria and launched a full-scale invasion of Manchuria. Japan took advantage of China’s weakness. It encountered little resistance from the Kuomintang, taking Mukden in a single day and advancing into Jilin province. In 1932, 3,000 villagers were massacred in Pingding, near Fushan.

Chiang Kai-shek’s army offered no resistance against the Japanese after Japan entered Manchuria in 1931. Out of disgrace Chiang resigned as head of the nation but continued on as head of the army. In 1933, he made peace with Japan and attempted to unify China.

In a tactic intended to halt the southward movement of Japanese soldiers from Manchuria before World War II, Chiang Kai-shek ordered his soldiers to breach the levees of the Yellow River and purposely divert its flow. At least 200,000, maybe millions, died, millions more were made homeless and the Japanese advanced anyway.

Japan Attacks Shanghai

In January 1932, the Japanese attacked Shanghai. After several hours of fighting the Japanese occupied the northen section of the city and placed the foreign settlement under martial law. Looting and murder prevailed throughout the city, American, French and British troops took up positions with bayonets out of fear of mob violence.

Reporting from Shanghai, an International Herald Tribune reporter wrote: “Terrified by innumerable acts of violence and the persistent rumors of impending Japanese air raids, foreigners kept indoors…Attempting to carry heavy munitions to a secret fortification in the river front, 23 Chinese were killed in a terrific blast which destroyed their craft and shattered windows along the quays, when sparks form the boat’s smokestack ignited the cargo. A live bomb was discovered in the Nanking Theater, Shanghai’s largest movie house, and another bomb, which exploded in the Chinese native city, near the French settlement, did great damage and resulted in grave rioting.”

Japanese Occupation of Manchuria


Japanese-built Dalian station In March 1932, the Japanese created the puppet state of Manchukou. The next year the territory of Jehoi was added. The former Chinese emperor Pu Yi was named the leader of Manchukuo in 1934. In 1935, Russia sold the Japanese its interest in the Chinese Eastern Railway after the Japanese had already seized it. China’s objections were ignored.

Japanese sometime romanticize their occupation of Manchuria and take credit for the great roads, infrastructure and heavy factories they built. Japan was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the Russian-built trans-Manchurian railway and an extensive network of railroads they built themselves. Vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down to provide wood for Japanese houses and fuel for Japanese industries.

For many Japanese Manchuria was like California, a land of opportunity where dreams could be realized. Many socialists, liberals planners and technocrats came to Manchuria with utopian ideas and big plans. For Chinese it was like the German occupation of Poland. Manchurian men were used as slave laborer and Manchurian women were forced to work as comfort women (prostitutes). One Chinese man told the New York Times, “You looked at the forced labor in the coal mines. There wasn’t a single Japanese working in there. There were great railroads here, but the good trains were for Japanese only.”

The Japanese enforced racial segregation between the themselves and the Chinese and between the Chinese, Koreans and Manchus. Resisters were dealt with using free fire zones and scorched earth policies. Even so Chinese from the south migrated to Manchuria for jobs and opportunities. The pan-Asian ideology given lip service by the Japanese was a view widely held by the Chinese.

People ate tree bark. One elderly woman told the Washington Post that she remembered her parents buying her a corn cake, a rare treat at the time, and bursting into tears when someone ripped the cake from her hand and ran off before she had time to eat it.

Japanese forces fought with Soviet forces along the Manchuria-Outer Mongolia bordered during May-September 1939. Japanese troops were slaughtered in a Mongolian Desert called Nomonhan by Soviet tanks because the military leaders though they were assured of victory because they had been given a blessing by the Emperor.

Japanese Invasion of China

The Japanese began an eight-year undeclared war with China in 1937 when China was weak and torn apart by rivalry between warlords. The excuse for the incursion was the so-called Marco Polo Bridge Incident on July 7, 1937, when Japan seized Beijing after Chinese nationalist troops under Chiang Kai-shek opened fire on some Japanese troops who had illegally taken over a railway station. Chinese general Fang Zhenwu, “the man who shot the first bullet against the Japanese,” is regarded today as a great Chinese hero.

After the Marco Polo incident as armistice was briefly established by the Japanese government which then yielded to pressure from the military and sent in more troops and expanded the front. Chinese resistance was more than the Japanese anticipated.

Also on July 7, the Japanese 1st Division, stationed in northern China, demanded to enter the city of Wanping, purportedly to search for a missing Japanese soldiers. Chinese officials refused and the Japanese shelled the city into submission.

After that Japanese troops conquered city after city. In November 1937, Shanghai was captured; the infamous Rape of Nanking took place in December 1937; and Canton was captured in 1938. Beijing, Tsinan and Wuhan also fell. The the U.S. gunship Panay and three Standard Oil tankers were sunk by Japanese bombs on the Yangtze River.

Describing the Battle for Shanghai, the Washington Post reported: “Fresh regiments of veteran Japanese regular army troops smashed China’s defense line on the northern edge of the Yangtzepoo area of the International Settlement…Nipponese infantrymen fought with their bayonet behind a curtain of artillery shells and aerial bombs. There were continuous explosions of large-caliber artillery shells as Chinese and Japanese batteries engaged in a deafening duel.”

Japanese General Hideki Tojo, the most well-known Japanese war criminal from World War II, lead attacks in Char Province on Inner Mongolia, urging men to repeatedly charge and attack. There were reports of atrocities and mass executions of Chinese there.

By 1939, most of coastal China was occupied by the Japanese. A year later more than 1.5 million Japanese troops were stationed in China, costing Japan more than $4 million a day. The Japanese occupied most of eastern China for eight years. The Kuomintang and the Communists were holed up in western China, where they were supplied towards the end of World War II by American and British weapons brought in on the Burma Road.

Rape of Nanking

One of the most horrible events of the Japanese occupation of China was the Rape of Nanking. Unspeakable atrocities were committed throughout the Yangtze Delta, which includes Nanking as well as Shanghai. No one knows how many Chinese were butchered. The extent of the atrocities did not come to light until after the end of World War II. The Japanese have estimated that 100,000 troops and unarmed Chinese civilians were killed. The Chinese figure is 300,000.

From December 1937 to March 1938, Japanese terrorized the people of Nanjing. The world was shocked by Japan’s brutal aggression. Even swastika-wearing Nazis set up safety zones for Chinese. In many Japanese cities, by contrast, people held lantern parades to celebrate the capture of Nanking.

Book: Rape of Nanking by Iris Chang contains numerous eyewitness accounts of rapes, beheadings, murders and other crimes at the hands of Japanese troops. Tillman Durdin of the New York Times, Archibald Steel of the Chicago Daily and Leslie Smith of Reuters were in Nanking at the time of the incident:

Atrocities of Rape of Nanking

On December 13, 1937, Japanese soldiers entered Nanking, then the capital of China. During the assault, Japanese soldiers were involved in mass rapes, point-blank executions,and public beheadings. They buired people alive; killed people at random; raped women, girls and boys; bayoneted people tied to stakes; used Chinese peasants as human minesweepers; and looted and set fire to shops, temples, houses and churches.

Japanese soldiers raped thousands of girls and women, many of whom were dragged from their homes. By the end of December, 20,000 cases of rape had been reported. One girl was raped 37 times. Another had her four-month-old son smothered by the soldier who raped her. Some Japanese soldiers raped pregnant women, killed them, cut the fetuses out of their bodies and then had their picture taken with the fetuses. Some young Chinese women disguised themselves as elderly women to escape being raped.

One former Japanese soldier, who confessed to sexually assaulting a Chinese woman with a wooden sword, said “I kept beating her until her skin broke and started to bleed, but she didn’t answer my questions.” A soldiers that ate the flesh of a young Chinese boy said, “It was the only time, and not so much meat.”

Photographs taken by Japanese show Imperial army soldiers holding up severed heads; placing, their feet on dead women and babies; rape victims begging for mercy; and soldiers standing beside dead people hung from ropes as if they were prize fish. Some Japanese soldiers competed among themselves to see who could kill the most Chinese. Two sub-lieutenants, battling to be the first to reach 100, beheaded 167 people in a single day.

The slaughter lasted for six weeks. One relief agency buried 100,000 people; the Red Crescent buried 43,000. In just five days, the Japanese disposed of 150,000 bodies by throwing them in the Yangtze. [Source: Denis and Peggy Warner, International Herald Tribune]

Account of a Nanking Rape Victim

Liu Xiuying, a 78-year-old survivor told a court in Tokyo in 1996: “The Japanese troops entered the city on Dec. 13, 1937. We were about 100 young women sheltering in the cellars of a building. On the afternoon of the 18th a group of soldiers came and some of us were taken by force.”

“We knew what they were doing to women,” she said. “They were dragging them into a neighboring building where they were often raped. The following morning some soldiers returned and one of them seized me by the arms. I was 19 and I was seven months pregnant. I resisted with all my force and I bit him on the arm. He screamed and his colleagues came immediately.”

The soldiers leapt on her and stabbed her 37 times in the face and stomach. She was left for dead in a pool of blood. The next day she lost her child but miraculously survived. She was taken to a Protestant church where she was taken care of by an American. “I can’t forget, and I can’t forgive,” she said. “From that day on and for years to come, I had nightmares. I was so disfigured that I never left the house. I couldn’t work. Even today my face sometimes hurts.”

John Rabe, a German in Nanking at the time of the massacre wrote in his diary, ‘An American once said, ‘The Safety Zone has become a brothel for the Japanese.’ This statement is largely in accordance with the facts. Yesterday night around 1,000 girls and women were raped, in the Jinling Women’s College alone, more than 100 girls were raped. These days all one hears about is rape. If brothers or husbands come out to interfere, they’re shot by the Japanese. All about me is the cruel violence and brutality of the Japanese army thugs.]

Machine Gun Squads in Nanking

Machine-gun squads worked for hours non-stop executing people. Tillman Durdin of the New York Times wrote that he saw the execution of 200 men in 10 minutes.

A correspondent for a Tokyo newspaper later reported that he saw a continuous procession of Chinese taken to an execution area near the Yangtze River. He saw piles of burned corpses covering an entire wharf and 50 to 100 Chinese workers dragging the bodies and throwing them in the river. After their work was done, the Chinese workers were lined up and executed.

One Chinese man later told AP he was lined up on December 14, 1937 with 300 people mowed down by machines gun. He said he awoke under a pile of bodies. “Slowly, slowly, I made my way out. My coat was completely soaked with blood. I thought I was a ghost.” When he went to the river to wash he found the water red with blood from hundreds of dead bodies.

One account from classified Chinese documents goes: “In the last ten days of December, the campaign to clear the streets began…Japanese soldiers, in groups of three to five, went from door to door wielding long swords, loudly screaming out orders, and insisting the doors be opened…those who had been hiding inside…could not help but poke their heads out their doors to look around and see what happened outside. The catastrophe befell them. The moment they opened their doors…the Japanese opened fire. On this day alone, the dead and wounded numbered in the thousands.” [Source: Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre of Nanjing by Gao Xingzu, Wu Shimin]

Why Were the Japanese So Brutal in Nanking

DECEMBER 1937

City Of Life And Death – 南京!南京!

China, December 1937

The country is at war with Japan. Beijing and Shanghai have already fallen. Japanese troops arrive at the doors of the capital, Nanjing. Following weeks of bombardment, local and foreign officials have fled the city in ruins.

Lu, a charismatic Chinese General intensely determined to repel the enemy, leads his men in defense of their capital, street by street. They have little ammunition left as they face the Japanese tanks, but they refuse to leave.

Mr Tang is guardedly optimistic as he and his family fled to the International Safety Zone, where a growing number of Chinese civilians find shelter. Operated by the city’s few remaining foreigners, the zone has become a large refugee camp. Ms Jiang, a young Chinese teacher with a strong sense of mission, coordinates life in this crowded enclave, attempting to protect as many individuals as she can.

The Japanese are taking over the city and installing their troops. The occupation of Nanjing begins.

Kadokawa, a quiet and romantic Japanese soldier, observes the brutality of the war, unable to delay the impending exactions.

A HELL IS SLOWLY TAKING OVER NANJING(NANKING)

As hell is slowly taking over Nanjing, all of them are striving to survive in a city where death is easier than life.

Motivation remains a central question. Why did the Japanese army massacre the city? Or, on an individual level, why would a Japanese soldier turn so blood-thirsty? Why did the people not fight back? Or on the same an individual level, why would an ordinary citizen not fight back? Why didn’t the citizens flee? Did no one anticipate the Japanese army’s atrocities?

No one knows exactly why the Japanese soldiers behaved so brutally. In the Japan-Russia War of 1905, the Japanese went of their way to treat prisoners of war with mercy. Explanation for their behavior in Nanking include the samurai code of honor and a desire by the Japanese to terrorize the Chinese into surrendering.

In the Japanese-made film Japanese Devils (2001) by Minori Matsui, 14 former Japanese soldiers who served in China were asked why atrocities were committed. They said that horrible things were done to civilians not out of stress or fanaticism but rather because they regarded the Chinese as less than human and potential spies; they wanted to be a member of the group; and they were worried that if they didn’t do terrible things their manhood would be questioned.

Committing atrocities was condoned and even encouraged. One man in the film said that he and his comrades wiped out an entire village simply for the thrill of it. Another said he burned a mother and her newborn baby alive and stuck around to hear their screams.

The soldiers claimed their brutal training—in which they were beaten by their superiors and subjected to cruel hazing by their peers with the object of crushing their “arrogant” individuality—turned them from village farm boys into heartless soldiers who were able to kill without feeling.

Account of Nanking in Chinese History Book

According to Modern and Contemporary Chinese History, Book One: “Wherever Japanese went, they committed all manners of crimes: arson, homicide rape and looting. In December, 1937, Japanese armies occupied Nanjing ad massacred the city’s peaceful residents, the ultimate act of human cruelty. Within six weeks more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and unarmed soldiers in Nanjing were murdered. The means of massacre were extremely brutal. Some victims were bayoneted some were were buried alive; some were cremated alive.”

“The Japanese military commander, Tani Hisao, and his troops entered Nanjing and killed whoever they saw. At the time, numerous refugees, unarmed Chinese citizens and wounded were crowded into the city. They were killed by Japanese soldiers manically shooting with machine guns, rifles and pistols. Crowds of old people, women and children were felled.”

“The Japanese armies also smashed their way into civilian houses and randomly killed residents living peacefully in Nanjing. They hauled a young man into the street, stripped his clothes, poured aqua fortis [nitric acid solution] on his body and forced him walk until his death; they tied captured soldiers on pillars, stabled them with awls till they became bleeding bodies, and finally thrust bayonets into their throats; they also gang raped pregnant women, cut open their wombs and took out the embryos to play with on the top of their bayonets.”

Account of Nanking in Japanese History Book

According to Japanese History B: “In August, hostilities broke out in Shanghai and the flames of war spread south…Japan continuously committed a large army [to the area], and occupied the Nationalist government capital in Nanjing by the end of the year…Because the Nationalist government retreated from Nanjing to Hankou and the further inland to Chonqing and persistently continued to resist, the Sino-Japanese war became a quagmire-like drawn-out war.”

A foot note from the book reads: “In addition to repeated looting and violence within and outside Nanjing at the time of its fall, the Imperial Japanese Army murdered a large number of Chinese noncombatants (including women and children) and prisoners (Nanjing incident).”

In 1995, a right-wing political party in Japan took out a full page ad in the New York Times claiming the Rape of Nanking never took place. In Japanese textbooks from the 1980s the only reference to the “Rape of Nanking” was a footnote that called it the “Nanking Incident.” See Textbooks, World War II.

Legacy and Film of the Rape of Nanking

After Durdin’s account’s were printed, the Japanese imposed a news blackout and restricted vehicles form coming to and going from Nanking.

Massacres also occurred in other places. Describing a mass slaughter in Beijing by soldiers who killed everyone they thought might be soldiers, one eyewitness wrote, ”The area was filled with crumpled, twisted corpses, piled on top of each other in bloody mounds. Coolie laborers were set to work throwing bodies into the river…An officer said, ‘There are about 20,000 dead Chinese here.’”

Many Chinese feel the Japanese need to apologize for the Rape of Nanking and other atrocities committed in China. In 1995, Jiang Zemin said: “Japan should make a correct recognition of its past imperialism which forced calamities on [Asian] people.”

The Japanese government has requested that China tone down the exhibitions in the Memorial Hall to Victims in the Nanjing Massacre in Shanghai on the grounds they “inspire anti-Japanese feeling and animosity” among Chinese citizens. For their part the Chinese want the museum to be given UNESCO World heritage status like Auschwitz and Hiroshima Peace Park.

City of Life and Death is a Chinese-made film by Lu Chuan about the invasion of Nanking that has been both praised and condemned for portraying the Japanese in a somewhat sympathetic light. The film has been lauded for its gritty, unflinching depiction of the horrors of the massacre, and its portrayal of Japanese characters as actual people instead of faceless demons has been both praised and deplored, depending on political leanings of the individual viewer. In its first week in China it brought in more than 100 million yuan. [Source: Danwei.org] City of Life and Death , ‘Nanjing! Nanjing!’), directed by Lu Chuan, presents events from the point of view of the city’s military defense, civilian refugees, and Japanese invaders.The film depicts the Nanking massacre through the eyes of a Japanese soldier who is shocked and terrified by the atrocities committed by his compatriots and ultimately kills himself after letting a Chinese prisoner of war escape. Even though the film attracted large audience and was approved by the Communist Party, Lu was accused by some as being a traitor.

City of Life and Death won the top award at the San Sebastian film festival in Spain Lu won an award at the Tokyo Film festival for his film Kekexili: Mountain Patrol about men trying to protect Tibetan antelope from poachers.

Chinese Flee to Southern China


War orphans Many Chinese fled southward to Yunnan and Sichuan (where the Kuomintang had their wartime capital in Chongqing). Air raids were launched on Chongqing in May 1939. Altogether 218 air raids were conducted on the city over the next several years, leaving the city in ruins and killing around 20,000 people, including people that sought refuge in tunnels and suffocated to death there.

The most deadly panic ever occurred in Chongqing in June 1941, when 700 people suffocated in an underground tunnel in a Japanese air raid.

Describing Chongqing in 1939, Edgar Snow wrote: “Acres of buildings had been destroyed in barbaric raids of May and June. The Japanese preferred moonlit nights for their calls, when from their base in Hankow they could follow the silver banner of the Yangtze up to its confluence with the Jialing, which identified the capital in a way no blackout could obscure.”

“The city had no defending air force and only a few anti-aircraft guns…Spacious public shelters were being dug, but it was estimated that a third of the population still had no protection. Government officials given advanced warning, sped outside the city in their motor cars—cabinet ministers first, then vice-ministers, then minor bureaucrats. the populace soon caught on; when they saw a string of official cars racing off to the west, they dropped everything and ran. A mad scramble of rickshaws, carts, animals and humanity blew up the main streets like a great wind, carrying all before it.”

Recalling how he survived during the war one Chinese man told Time, “I would scavenge for food and elude the soldiers by running up into the hills and hiding.”

Jews in Occupied China

The Japanese were not all beasts. Shanghai under the Japanese was one of the few places in the world that accepted Jewish refugees from Europe. Thousands of Jews arrived in Japanese-occupied Shanghai in the late 1930s and early 1940s from Europe because it was the only place that would accept them without passports or visas and unlike other places there were no restrictions on the numbers of Jews allowed in the country.

Japanese rulers in Shanghai accepted 25,000 Jewish refugees, more than Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India combined. The Japanese Foreign Minister told a group of Jewish businessmen in December 1940: “I am the man responsible for the alliance with Hitler, but nowhere have I promised that we would carry out his anti-Semitic policies in Japan.”

Most of the Jewish refugees came from Austria, Poland and Russia. The Japanese “Schindler,” Chiyune Sugihara, a consul in the Japanese Embassy in Lithuania issued thousands of exit visa for Jews, which allowed them to leave the country before the Nazi occupation. After his seal was taken he issued the visas by hand and continued doing so out of the window of the train that took him out of the country.

Suffering of Jews in Occupied China

In 1943, partly to appease their Nazi allies, the Japanese rounded up 18,000 newly arrived Jews, mostly from Austria, Germany and Poland, and placed them in Hongkew (now Hongkou), a two-square-mile ghetto that had been badly damaged by bombing raids.

The Nazis proposed rounding up the Jews for a “final solution.” One suggestion was to sponsor a big Rosh Hashana party on some barges and then send the celebrators to concentration camps on Tsungming Island (later canisters of gas were found on the island that contained the same chemicals used to kill Jews in Europe). Why the Japanese refused to go along with the plan is unknown? Some have suggested that it was because Jewish businesses had lent them money during the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.

The Jews in Shanghai suffered terribly. They did menial jobs and relied on charity to survive. Baths, fresh food and hot water were luxuries. They ate old bananas and cabbage soaked in chemicals to kill bacteria and washed their hair with kerosene to kill lice. Many died from starvation and diseases. Others busied themselves with clubs, dances and theater performances. Most survived the war.

Image Source: Mostly from Nanjing History Wiz

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Dr Iwan Book Dai Nippon War part seventh :”Dai Nippon Pacific War”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Perkenalan
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

.

toon_a.jpg (46119 bytes) a. “People of the Southern Region” appeared in Osaka Puck in December 1942 as part of a “before-and-after” sequence depicting Asia under Western domination and after Japanese liberation.  It reveals many of the ways the Japanese signified their superiority vis-a-vis other Asians.  Here, the familiar purifying sun (labeled “Co-Prosperity Sphere”) beams down on Indonesia, driving out the Dutch, while the Japanese hand clasps the native’s as that of an unmistakable patriarch–indeed, literally as the hand of God (a conceit Western illustrators also used).  The Japanese hand is far lighter in color than the dark-skinned native’s and a jacket cuff is in evidence, whereas the “southern person,” obviously a manual laborer, is half-naked and implicitly half-civilized.   Not only is his inferior “proper place” as a race, nation, and culture absolutely clear, but so also is his subordinate role in the division of labor within the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
toon_b.jpg (46476 bytes) b.  This poster reprinted in Osaka Puck Japanese publication in February 1942 urges the enchained of India to rise up against the British, represented here by John Bull (Winston Churchill). The message on the Japanese flag proclaims that Japan’s Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere will bayonet the British. From John W.Dower. War Without Mercy:Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon, New York, 1986, p. 200.

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore,also Phillipine

In Malaya the Japanese overwhelmed a Commonwealth army composed of British, Indian, Australian and Malay forces. The Japanese were quickly able to advance down the Malayan peninsula, forcing the Commonwealth forces to retreat towards Singapore. The British lacked aircover and tanks; the Japanese had total air superiority. The sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse on December 10, 1941 led to the east coast of Malaya being exposed to Japanese landings and the elimination of British naval power in the area. By the end of January 1942, the last Allied forces crossed the strait of Johore and into Singapore. Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

In the Philippines, the Japanese pushed the combined Filipino-American force towards the Bataan peninsula and later the island of Corregidor. By January 1942, General Douglas MacArthur and President Manuel L. Quezon were forced to flee in the face of Japanese advance. This marked among one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans, leaving over 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war in the custody of the Japanese.

On February 15, 1942, Singapore, due to the overwhelming superiority of Japanese forces and encirclement tactics, fell to the Japanese, causing the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. An estimated 80,000 Indian, Australian and British troops were taken as prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken in the Japanese invasion of Malaya (modern day Malaysia). Many were later used as forced labour constructing the Burma Railway, the site of the infamous Bridge on the River Kwai.

During 1943 and 1944, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and vast raw material resources of the United States, advanced steadily towards Japan. The Sixth United States Army, led by General MacArthur, landed on Leyte on 19 October 1944. In the subsequent months, during the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth troops, together with the recognized guerrilla units, liberated much of the Philippines.

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Due to the United States blockade and embargo of raw material, the Japanese military–industrial complex sought raw materials elsewhere and turned their attention to the vast steel, (latex) rubber, coal and oil riches of South-East Asia. The Japanese swept into relatively lightly guarded Burma (modern-day Myanmar), the well-defended British Malaya states and the heavily fortified Fortress Singapore Singapore for highly strategic control of major trans-Pacific shipping routes.

Many were later used as forced labour constructing the Burma Railway, the site of the infamous Bridge on the River Kwai.

Battle of Singapore, February 1942. Victorious Japanese troops march through the city center. (Photo from Imperial War Museum)

Japanese armored units advance in the Philippines.

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese launched offensives against Allied forces in South East Asia, with simultaneous attacks on Hong Kong, British Malaya and the Philippines.

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pacific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon Pacific War

Pacific War

In the Pacific War, many of the islands became dominions of the Empire.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

 

USS Arizona burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.

Facing an oil embargo by the United States as well as dwindling domestic reserves, the Japanese government decided to execute a plan developed by the military branch largely led by Osami Nagano and Isoroku Yamamoto to bomb the United States naval base in Hawaii, thereby bringing the United States to World War II on the side of the Allies. On September 4, 1941, the Japanese Cabinet met to consider the war plans prepared by Imperial General Headquarters, and decided:

Our Empire, for the purpose of self-defense and self-preservation, will complete preparations for war … [and is] … resolved to go to war with the United States, Great Britain and the Netherlands if necessary. Our Empire will concurrently take all possible diplomatic measures vis-a-vis the United States and Great Britain, and thereby endeavor to obtain our objectives … In the event that there is no prospect of our demands being met by the first ten days of October through the diplomatic negotiations mentioned above, we will immediately decide to commence hostilities against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.

The Imperial Japanese Navy made its surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces sustained significant losses. The primary objective of the attack was to incapacitate the United States long enough for Japan to establish its long-planned Southeast Asian empire and defensible buffer zones. The U.S. public saw the attack as a treacherous act and rallied against the Empire of Japan. The United States entered the European Theatre and Pacific Theater in full force. Four days later, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany declared war on the United States, merging the separate conflicts.

.

Ōkubo Toshimichi, one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration and modernized Japan.

Prime Minister Prince Ito Hirofumi

Prime Minister Prince Yamagata Aritomo

In the administration of Japan dominated by the military political movement during World War II, the civil central government was under the management of military men and their right-wing civilian allies, along with members of the nobility and Imperial Family. The Emperor was in the center of this power structure as supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armed Forces and head of state.

Military

The military of Imperial Japan was divided into two main branches under Imperial General Headquarters responsible for the overall conduct of operations including prominent military leaders and commanders:

  • Prominent generals and leaders:

Timeline

Emperors

Posthumous name1 Given name² Childhood name³ Period of Reigns Era name4
Meiji Tennō
(明治天皇)
Mutsuhito
(睦仁)
Sachi-no-miya
(祐宮)
1868–1912
(1890–1912)5
Meiji
Taishō Tennō
(大正天皇)
Yoshihito
(嘉仁)
Haru-no-miya
(明宮)
1912–1926 Taishō
Shōwa Tennō
(昭和天皇)
Hirohito
(裕仁)
Michi-no-miya
(迪宮)
1926–19896 Shōwa
1 Each posthumous name was given after the respective era names as Ming and Qing Dynasties of China.
2 The Japanese imperial family name has no surname or dynastic name.
3 The Meiji Emperor was known only by the appellation Sachi-no-miya from his birth until 11 November 1860, when he was proclaimed heir apparent to Emperor Kōmei and received the personal name Mutsuhito .
4 No multiple era names were given for each reign after Meiji Emperor.
5 Constitutionally.
6 Constitutionally. The reign of the Shōwa Emperor in fact continued until 1989 since he did not abdicate after World War II. However, he lost his status as a living god.

 

    Occupation of Japan
1945–1952

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 “Chronological table 5 1 December 1946 – 23 June 1947”. National Diet Library. http://www.ndl.go.jp/constitution/e/etc/history05.html. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  2. One can date the “restoration” of Tenno’s rule from the edict of 3 January 1868.Jansen, p.334.
  3. Bruce R. Gordon (2005). To Rule the Earth… (See Bibliographyfor sources used.)
  4. Hagiwara, p. 34.
  5. Jansen, pp. 314–5.
  6. Hagiwara, p. 35.
  7. Satow, p. 282.
  8. Keene, p. 116. See also Jansen, pp. 310–1.
  9. Keene, pp. 120–1, and Satow, p. 283. Moreover, Satow (p. 285) speculates that Yoshinobu had agreed to an assembly of daimyos in the hope that such a body would reinstate him.
  10. Satow, p. 286.
  11. During a recess, Saigō, who had his troops outside, “remarked that it would take only one short sword to settle the discussion” (Keene, p. 122). Original quotation (Japanese): “短刀一本あればかたづくことだ.” in Hagiwara, p. 42. The specific word used for “dagger” was “tantō”.
  12. Keene, p. 124.
  13. Keene, p. 340, notes that one might “describe the Oath in Five Articles as a constitution for all ages.”
  14. 千島樺太両島交換ニ付条約書公告ノ儀上申 National Archives of Japan
  15. The Secret of Japan’s Strengthhttp://www.calvin.edu
  16. – The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (1889)
  17. Duus, Peter (1995). The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895–1910. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-0861F7
  18. 18.0 18.1 A reckless adventure in Taiwan amid Meiji Restoration turmoil, THE ASAHI SHIMBUN, Retrieved on 2007-7-22.
  19. MacMillan, Margaret (2003). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. Random House. p. 321. ISBN 0375760520
  20. “Question 1917年(大正6年)のロシア革命時に、シベリアに在留していたポーランド孤児を日本政府が救済したことについて調べています。”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/annai/honsho/shiryo/qa/taisho_01.html#0908_02. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  21. “Polish orphans”. Tsuruga city. http://www.city.tsuruga.lg.jp/sypher/free/kk-museum/polish-orhpans/polish-orhpans.html. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  22. Hane, Mikiso, Modern Japan: A Historical Survey(Oxford: Westview Press, 1992) 234.
  23. 23.0 23.1 “第150回国会 政治倫理の確立及び公職選挙法改正に関する特別委員会 第12号 平成12年11月16日(木曜日)”. House of Representatives of Japan. 2000-11-16. http://www.shugiin.go.jp/itdb_kaigiroku.nsf/html/kaigiroku/007115020001116012.htm?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  24. “戦間期台湾地方選挙に関する考察”. 古市利雄. 台湾研究フォーラム 【台湾研究論壇】. http://www.nittaikyo-ei.join-us.jp/koichi.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  25. Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.284
  26. David C. Earhart, Certain Victory, 2008, p.63
  27. “Question 戦前の日本における対ユダヤ人政策の基本をなしたと言われる「ユダヤ人対策要綱」に関する史料はありますか。また、同要綱に関する説明文はありますか。”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/annai/honsho/shiryo/qa/senzen_03.html. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  28. “猶太人対策要綱”. Five ministers council. Japan Center for Asian Histrical Record. 1938-12-06. p. 36/42. http://www.jacar.go.jp/DAS/meta/listPhoto?IS_STYLE=default&ID=M2006092115064531921. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  29. J. W. Dower, Japan in War & Peace, New press, 1993, p.11
  30. Japanese Periodicals in Colonial Korea
  31. Japanese Immigration Statistics, DiscoverNikkei.org
  32. Lankov, Andrei (2006-03-23). “The Dawn of Modern Korea (360): Settling Down”. The Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200603/kt2006032318091354130.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  33. Formosa (Taiwan) Under Japanese Rule
  34. The Life Instability of Intermarried Japanese Women in Korea
  35. Killing of Chinese in Japan concerned, China Daily
  36. Prasenjit Duara: The New Imperialism and the Post-Colonial Developmental State: Manchukuo in comparative perspective
  37. A Go: Another Battle for Sapian
  38. The Kurile Islands Dispute
  39. When Empire Comes Home : Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan by Lori Watt, Harvard University Press
  40. “Russia Acknowledges Sending Japanese Prisoners of War to North Korea”. Mosnews.com. 2005-04-01. http://www.mosnews.com/news/2005/04/01/japanesedied.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  41. “Abe questions sex slave ‘coercion'”. BBC News. March 2, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6411471.stm. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  42. Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryō II(Materials on poison gas Warfare II), Kaisetsu, Hōkan 2, Jūgonen sensô gokuhi shiryōshū, Funi Shuppankan, 1997, p.25-29
  43. Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.xii, 173.
  44. Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 2003, p. 109. The deal was concluded in 1948. “http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0510-24.htm An Ethical Blank Cheque: British and U.S. mythology about the second world war ignores our own crimes and legitimises Anglo-American war making- the Guardian, May 10, 2005, by Richard Drayton

Books and journals

 
 
 
 
 
Dr Iwan Suwandy Book
 
 
DAI NIPPON WAR
 
 
 
 
 please honor my copyright
 
 
 
 
 
 copyright @ Dr Iwan suwandy 2011
 
 
 The use of nukes on Japan was the result of modern warfare of the 40’s. Japan, though economically pressured by the U.S., knew what sorts of risks it was taking by bombing Pearl Harbor.
 
 
 
 
   
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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1. Otake Pearl Harbor

2.Gilbert island

The Japanese Command reasoned that only decisive destruction of the United States’ Pacific Fleet and conquest of its remote outposts would ensure that the Japanese Empire would not be overwhelmed by America’s industrial might. In May 1942, failure to decisively defeat the Allies at the Battle of the Coral Sea, in spite of Japanese numerical superiority, equated to a strategic defeat for Imperial Japan.

3.Marshal and Mariana Island

This setback was followed in June 1942 by the catastrophic loss of a four carrier task force at the Battle of Midway. Midway was a decisive defeat for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and proved to be the turning point of the war. Further defeats by the Allies at Guadalcanal in September 1942, and New Guinea in 1943 put the Empire of Japan on the defensive for the remainder of the war.

setback was followed in June 1942 by the catastrophic loss of a four carrier task force at the Battle of Midway. Midway was a decisive defeat for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and proved to be the turning point of the war. Further defeats by the Allies at Guadalcanal in September 1942, and New Guinea in 1943 put the Empire of Japan on the defensive for the remainder of the war.

 4. Saipan Island

After securing airfields in Saipan and Guam in the summer of 1944, the United States Army Air Forces undertook an intense bombing campaign, using incendiary bombs, burning Japanese cities in an effort to pulverize Japan’s industry and shatter its morale. While these campaigns, peaking on the night of March 9–10, 1945 in Tokyo during Operation Meetinghouse, led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians. Concurrent to these attacks, Japan’s vital coastal shipping operations were severely hampered with extensive aerial mining by the US’ Operation Starvation. Regardless, these efforts did not succeed in persuading the Japanese military to surrender

5. Iwo Jima island

6. The end Of Pasific War in 1945

 The Japanese surrender Informations

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.

. In mid August 1945, the United States dropped two nuclear weapons on Japan. These atomic bombings were the first, and so far only, used against another nation. These two bombs killed approximately 100,000 to 200,000 people in a matter of minutes, and many more people died as a result of nuclear radiation in the following weeks, months, and years. The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945.

Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

6 August 1945:
At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY 

That same day, following TG 35.3’s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit. 

8 August 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan. 

9 August 1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4] 

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5] 

10 August 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state. 

12 August 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity. 

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000. 

13 August 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!” 

14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage. 

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript 

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire. 

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August 

7.Dai nippon Official surender at Tokyo Bay on Missouri ship Sepetember 1945.

The Japan Homeland During And After Dai Nippon War (SITUASI TANAH AIR JEPANG SAAT PERANG DAI NIPPON )

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Kata Pengantar
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pacific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Japan Homeland During and after  Dai Nippon  War

Chapter One :

Used Japanese postal stationery  Reply card

A.Dai Nippon TAIKOKU (Japanese Homeland) Before 1937

1.1889

Dainippon term refers to “Dainippon Teikoku” that is, large Japanese empire, the self-designation of Japan during its expansionist era and since the Meiji Constitution (1889) the official name for Japan

2.1895

Dainippon Butokukai (Japanese 大 日本 武 徳 会. 1895-1946) is a large Japanese martial arts association to promote the virtues of Budo. It was founded in April 1895 and by the Imperial Japanese government responsible for the inspection of the various Japanese Ryu Bujutsu and standardize. For this purpose a committee was formed that the Budo menjō – spent (Bujutsu menjō rank certificates of martial arts master) and the menjō Shihan (teaching licenses) and confirm. This made all of Ryu, who joined the Butokukai not official outside of the frame.

 1902

For the participants in the annual tournament was awarded “seirensho created while assigned to the cooperating teacher from 1902 the title of” Hanshi “,” tasshi “and” Kyoshi

1904-05

Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan’s influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05.

1912

During the era of the weak emperorTaisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia

1915

a postcard send from Kobe cds 14.2.1915 to Indonesia

1923

After WW1, Japan’s economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

1930

a picture postcard og Dai Nippon Emperor Palace’s bridge with hirohito coronation stamp.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

1931

Nagasaki picture postcard

When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan’s position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, “Manchukuo” was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements

Bepu Island picture postcard sent from Kyoto  to Indonesia in 1931

1933

In 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations since she was heavily criticized for her actions in China.

1934

in 1934 followed by” Renshi “, with” Hanshi “as the highest title.

The Dan system was required by the Butokukai also initiated and established a Panel of Judges. This was commissioned to the rules for training and competitions in each division ((kendo, judo, naginata (halberd-like spears) and Kyudo (archery)) set to modernize the martial arts and to provide for their increased proliferation in all the land concerned .

B.Dai Nippon Homelande 1937

In July 1937, the second Sino-Japanese Warbroke out. A small incident was soon made into a full scale war by the Kwantung army which acted rather independently from a more moderate government. The Japanese forces succeeded in occupying almost the whole coast of China and committed severe war atrocities on the Chinese population, especially during the fall of the capital Nanking. However, the Chinese government never surrendered completely, and the war continued on a lower scale until 1945.

1.Tokyo 1937

2Yokohama 1937

3.Dai Nippon Emperor visit germany in 1937

Chapter Three :

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preapration 1938

1.Tokyo 1938

2.Hokkaido 1938

Dai Nippon war Homeland Preparation 1939

 Tokyo 1939

1940

In 1940, Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the French Vichy government, and joined the Axis powers Germany and Italy. These actions intensified Japan’s conflict with the United States and Great Britain which reacted with an oil boycott. The resulting oil shortage and failures to solve the conflict diplomatically made Japan decide to capture the oil rich Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and to start a war with the US and Great Britain.

Tokyo 1940

1942

The turning point in the Pacific War was the battle of Midway in June 1942

1944

 In 1944, intensive air raids started over Japan.

Japan and the Second World War: In brief

 
During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan’s proposal of amending a “racial equality clause” to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.


After WW1, Japan’s economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

Japan conquered Nanking but with utmost brutality

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan’s influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan’s position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, “Manchukuo” was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.

In 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations since she was heavily criticized for her actions in China.

Japanese soldiers bayoneting Chinese civilians in Nanking

In July 1937, the second Sino-Japanese War broke out. A small incident was soon made into a full scale war by the Kwantung army which acted rather independently from a more moderate government. The Japanese forces succeeded in occupying almost the whole coast of China and committed severe war atrocities on the Chinese population, especially during the fall of the capital Nanking. However, the Chinese government never surrendered completely, and the war continued on a lower scale until 1945.

On December 13, 1937, Japanese soldiers entered Nanking, then the capital of China. During the assault, Japanese soldiers killed people at random; raped women, girls and boys; bayoneted people tied to stakes; used Chinese peasants as human minesweepers; and looted and set fire to shops, temples, houses and churches.
Japanese soldiers raped thousands of girls and women, many of whom were dragged from their homes. By the end of December, 20,000 cases of rape had been reported. One girl was raped 37 times. Another had her four-month-old son smothered by the soldier who raped her. Some Japanese soldiers raped pregnant women, killed them, cut the fetuses out of their bodies and then had their picture taken with the fetuses. Some young Chinese women disguised themselves as elderly women to escape being raped.
One former Japanese soldier, who confessed to sexually assaulting a Chinese woman with a wooden sword, said “I kept beating her until her skin broke and started to bleed, but she didn’t answer my questions.” A soldiers that ate the flesh of a young Chinese boy said, “It was the only time, and not so much meat.”
Photographs taken by Japanese show Imperial army soldiers holding up severed heads; placing, their feet on dead women and babies; rape victims begging for mercy; and soldiers standing beside dead people hung from ropes as if they were prize fish. Some Japanese soldiers competed among themselves to see who could kill the most Chinese. Two sub-lieutenants, battling to be the first to reach 100, beheaded 167 people in a single day.
The slaughter lasted for six weeks. One relief agency buried 100,000 people; the Red Crescent buried 43,000. In just five days, the Japanese disposed of 150,000 bodies by throwing them in the Yangtze.

In 1940, Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the French Vichy government, and joined the Axis powers Germany and Italy. These actions intensified Japan’s conflict with the United States and Great Britain which reacted with an oil boycott. The resulting oil shortage and failures to solve the conflict diplomatically made Japan decide to capture the oil rich Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and to start a war with the US and Great Britain.

In December 1941, Japan attacked the Allied powers at Pearl Harbour and several other points throughout the Pacific. Japan was able to expand her control over a large territory that expanded to the border of India in the West and New Guinea in the South within the following six months.

The Battle of Okinawa was a fiercely fought one. It convinced the US that japan was not going to accept defeat easily. The atom bomb was later used to ‘soften’ Japanese resolve.

The turning point in the Pacific War was the battle of Midway in June 1942. From then on, the Allied forces slowly won back the territories occupied by Japan. In 1944, intensive air raids started over Japan. In spring 1945, US forces invaded Okinawa in one of the war’s bloodiest battles.
On July 27, 1945, the Allied powers requested Japan in the Potsdam Declaration to surrender unconditionally, or destruction would continue. However, the military did not consider surrendering under such terms, partially even after US military forces dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, and the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan on August 8.

On August 14, however, Emperor Showa finally decided to surrender unconditionally.

Chapter Five :

 Dai Nippon Homeland After The War 1)1945

(1)In spring 1945, US forces invaded Okinawa in one of the war’s bloodiest battles.

(2)On July 27, 1945, the Allied powers requested Japan in the Potsdam Declaration to surrender unconditionally, or destruction would continue. However, the military did not consider surrendering under such terms, partially even after US military forces dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasakion August 6 and 9, and the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan on August 8.

On August 14, however, Emperor Showa finally decided to surrender unconditionally

(1)Dai Nippon Official surrender at Tokyo Bay on the US Missouri Ship Sept.1945.

(2)Nagasaki October 1945

(3)Dai nippon Army surrender location unidentified.

 2)1946

Dai Nippon War criminal International Justice Court

War crimes

Many political and military Japanese leaders were convicted for war crimes before the Tokyo tribunal and other Allied tribunals in Asia. However, all members of the imperial family implicated in the war, such as Emperor Shōwa and his brothers, cousins and uncles such as Prince Chichibu, Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu and Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by Douglas MacArthur.

3) 1947

Emperor Hirohito visit Hirosima and Nagasaki

 1951

the postal used  biggest printed matter  enveloped sendt via shipmail to Indonesia

1952

THE JAPAN -USA PEACE TREATY

During World War II, the Association of Government was under the direct resolved but after the war by the American occupation. With the conclusion of the peace treaty in 1952 between the U.S. and Japan and the restoration of the sovereignty of Japan was the way for the reestablishment of the Butokukai. First the fees were a major power on the right displays “dai” (big) and called the new foundation only “Nippon Butokukai” Currently the Butokukai trades under the symbol DNBK (www.dnbk.org), what. “Dai Nippon Butoku is Kai, the ‘ dai “has thus rediscovered recording. While the DNBK is now a completely politically independent organization that denies OF ANY connection with the old Butokukai and form a new look appears to be, but similar structures and objectives seen. President is a relative of the imperial family, the annual tournaments were held over the years on the birthday of the Showa emperor, on 29 April, and the repeated prime minister and leading member of the ruling LDP, Miyazawa Kiichi was, until his death last year Member of the Board. On the Web the association is to read: “The DNBK is committed to the promotion of education and willingness to serve (service) with the help of martial arts, and for the restoration of the heritage of the virtues of Bushido.”

1974

On this Day in History: March 10, 1974 – Second Lt. Hiroo Onoda of the Imperial Japanese Army surrenders to Philippine authorities. He believed World War II was still underway and continued a 30 year guerrilla battle with other islanders. His final capitulation came when his senior officer, Maj. Taniguchi, ordered his surrender. Upon return to the Japanese homeland, Onoda was treated as a hero, but had difficulty coping with his “postwar” life.

 
the end 
copyright @ Dr Iwan suwandy 2011
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
  

DAI NIPPON PRISONER OF WAR CAMPS IN JAPAN HOMELAND

World War Two – Japanese Prisoner of War Camps

Japanese Prisoner of War Camps

There were more than 140,000 white prisoners in Japanese prisoner of war camps. Of these, one in three died from starvation, work, punishments or from diseases for which there were no medicines to treat.

Prisoners of the Japanese found themselves in camps in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and other Japanese-occupied countries.

Prisoner of war camps in Japan housed both capture military personnel and civilians who had been in the East before the outbreak of war.

The terms of the Geneva Convention were ignored by the Japanese who made up rules and inflicted punishments at the whim of the Camp Commandant.

 
 

Execution of a prisoner of war

Camps were encircled with barbed wire or high wooden fencing and those who attempted escape would be executed in front of other prisoners. In some camps the Japanese also executed ten other prisoners as well. Escape attempts from Japanese camps were rare.

“Death of a POW.” Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World…

Camp accommodation was generally in barracks and prisoners were given mats to sleep on.

Prisoners of war exercising

Very few of the Japanese guards spoke English and internees were forced to learn Japanese in order to understand commands they were given. Failure to comply with instructions would merit a beating. Tenko was the name given to the daily roll-call and prisoners had to call out their prisoner number in Japanese.

The majority of prisoners were put to work in mines, fields, shipyards and factories on a diet of about 600 calories a day. Harry Carver comments “..I was – a white slave. I worked 12 hours a day on a diet of soya beans and seaweed.” Prisoners were rarely given fat in their diet and all were continuously hungry. The majority survived on barley, green stew, meat or fish once a month and seaweed stew. Red Cross parcels were not distributed to the prisoners.

Those that suffered the worst conditions and hardship while Japanese prisoners of war, were those that were sent to build the Burma-Thailand railway. Prisoners of war and Asian labourors worked side by side to build the 260 mile railroad by hand. They were expected to work from dawn to dusk, ten days on and one day off, moving earth, building bridges, blasting through mountains and laying track.

They survived on a meagre diet of rice and vegetables and illness was common. Prisoners suffered from malnutrition, ulcers and cholera.  Around 61,000 prisoners were put to work on the railroad. Of those 13,000 died.

Japan Foreign Minister’s Visit to POW Remembrance Service Backfires

By Matsubara Hiroshi

By now it has surely dawned on Japan’s political establishment, eager for issues of Japanese war accountability to fade away, that appointing Aso Taro to the post of foreign minister last fall was a major mistake. While Aso’s provocative comments about Japanese imperialism and war conduct predated his tenure as the nation’s top diplomat, the historical record of forced labor in Japan by Asians and Allied POWs is being newly thrust into the media spotlight.

Thousands of Korean labor conscripts were exploited for dangerous work in the northern Kyushu coalfields owned by Aso Mining Company between 1939 and 1945. Most Korean forced laborers never received the wages they earned; the money was deposited in the national treasury after the war and remains there today. The Aso family’s coal profits helped bankroll the rise of the dominant political figure in early postwar Japan, Yoshida Shigeru, who was prime minister when Aso Mining and scores of other Japanese corporations quietly deposited the unpaid wages of some 700,000 Korean labor conscripts. Yoshida was also Aso Taro’s grandfather.

The South Korean government’s Truth Commission on Forced Mobilization under Japanese Imperialism continues to demand, thus far with limited success, name rosters and data about human remains from Aso Mining’s successor company and the other firms. “The corporations’ remains survey has been insincere,” a Seoul government official charged last November. “It is also strange that the family company of the foreign minister, which should be setting an example, has provided no information whatsoever.”

 

Fukuoka POW Camp 3, pinhole camera photo by Terence Kirk

Japan Focus recently publicized the fact that 300 Allied prisoners of war performed forced labor at Fukuoka POW Camp 26, better known as Aso Mining’s Yoshikuma coal pit. A stream of English-language media accounts of the Aso-POW connection followed in Japan, Australia, Canada, France, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, the United Kingdom—and even Qatar. No Japanese-language media, however, have reported that Allied POWs toiled for the company headed during the 1970s by Aso Taro, even though the foreign minister is a candidate to succeed Koizumi Junichiro as prime minister in September. Aso has not yet replied to a written request for an apology and compensation sent to him in June by the daughter of an 87-year-old Australian man who worked without pay at the Aso Yoshikuma mine in 1945.

The article below, by Matsubara Hiroshi of the Asahi Shimbun, describes Aso’s participation in a controversial July 3 memorial service at Juganji temple outside Osaka, in honor of Allied POWs who died in Japanese labor camps. Ambassadors from wartime Allied nations were invited by Aso to participate in an official commemoration, but they were suddenly disinvited over fears that revelations about the foreign minister’s own ties to prisoner labor might cause some embassies to skip the service or send only junior staff. Aso ended up attending the ceremony in a private capacity and did not speak, making the event a missed opportunity for advancing the forced labor reparations process—at least for some Western victims. No state commemoration was ever contemplated for Korean and Chinese victims of forced labor in Japan, still less for the millions of nameless “romusha” coerced to labor across the Japanese wartime empire.

The Foreign Ministry shifted into damage control mode regarding the Juganji fiasco during a July 4 press conference, as a transcript available at the ministry’s website shows. Aso’s spokesman contended that “malicious news reports” were responsible for the service being downsized at the last minute, while implausibly insisting the ministry was never officially involved. Yet not a single media interrogator asked about POWs at Aso Mining, which was the chief reason why the event aroused controversy in the first place. Would Japanese society even care about Allied POW forced labor at a coalmine owned by the foreign minister’s family? The answer is unknown, because Japanese media have failed to provide the information needed to form an opinion.

Efforts toward healing and reconciliation are moving forward anyway, in the face of opposition by the Japanese state and corporations. Last May, the annual convention of the American Defenders of Bataan and Corregidor (ADBC) was held in Phoenix, Arizona, and attended by 72 ex-POWs and 300 family members. Keynote speaker Lester Tenney was held at Fukuoka POW Camp 17 and dug coal without pay for the giant Mitsui Company. Tenney’s speech (available in PDF format) relates how the fight for compensation in American courts by POW forced laborers ended in failure amid staunch opposition from Washington as well as Tokyo.

 

Lester Tenney demands apology and compensation in San
Francisco, 2001

Former POW and ADBC member Terence Kirk died at age 89 in early May. Kirk secretly used a pinhole camera (photos available) to document the appalling conditions at Fukuoka POW Camp 3, which provided workers for steel mills located not far from the Aso Yoshikuma mine. Duane Heisinger, whose father was killed on a POW hellship late in the war, also died just before the ADBC convention. Heisinger was the driving force behind the Hellships Memorial that was dedicated in the Philippines earlier this year and author of Father Found.

Represented at the Phoenix event were the California-based U.S.-Japan Dialogue on POWs and the Tokyo-based POW Research Network Japan, grassroots groups dedicated to reconciliation. Following inquiries by the former group, the Japanese Embassy in Washington on May 17 clarified the status of the government’s “Peace, Friendship and Exchange Initiative.” The little-known program, aimed at “facilitating a sincere and honest appraisal of the past and promoting mutual understanding,” brings about 40 to 50 British and Dutch ex-POWs or family members to Japan for goodwill visits each year. All other nationalities have thus far been excluded from the program, a reality that Lester Tenney called unfair and may campaign to change.

“While our feelings of deep remorse and heartfelt apology are no different towards British, Dutch and American POWs, the circumstances surrounding the POWs are different with each country and no similar program currently exists for the former American POWs,” wrote the Japanese Embassy in response to the inquiry. Redress movements for all classes of forced labor in wartime Japan, far from abating, are being reinvigorated—due in part to the family background of the man now serving as Japan’s official face to the world.

 

Undated photo of work camp at Aso Yoshikuma coal mine, Fukuoka

************************************

Matsubara Hiroshi

HIGASHI-OSAKA, Osaka Prefecture–Foreign Minister Aso Taro on Monday became the first Cabinet member to attend a memorial service for allied prisoners of war at the Juganji temple here.

The facility honors approximately 1,000 POWs who died in World War II camps across Japan.

Notably absent were ambassadors and consuls general who had been invited to attend but were discouraged from going at the last minute. In preparation for his first visit to the temple, Aso invited representatives from several allied nations to join him.

But after media reports expressing skepticism of his political motivations, Aso’s office sent out notices late last week informing the invited guests the visit was now purely “private” and that Aso would go alone.

Aso was accompanied by his secretaries and Foreign Ministry officials. He paid a 20-second tribute to the 1,086 POWs of Australia, Britain, Canada, India, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States whose remains were kept at the temple.

Afterward, Aso said he had wanted to express his gratitude to the temple for honoring the deceased POWs for the past 60 years with little public recognition.

“With gratitude to the priests, I came to pray that the POWs might rest in peace,” he said.

About 20 priests, 60 local residents and a nephew of a deceased U.S. POW whose ashes were once held at the temple also attended the service. Foreign embassy officials stayed away as requested.

 

Aso Iizuka Golf Club, near the former Yoshikuma mine site

After the end of World War II, the Buddhist temple accepted urns containing the cremated remains of 1,086 POWs who had died at a POW camps in Osaka and elsewhere.

Many remains have since been returned to the home countries of the deceased POWs. However, some remains are still kept in the pagoda at the temple, according to priests.

Some of the families of the deceased POWs and several consuls general of the allied nations have visited the temple, which conducts an annual memorial service each Aug. 25.

Konishi Yukio, chief priest at the temple, was clearly overjoyed at this first-ever visit by a Cabinet minister.

“It may have been an unofficial visit but a Cabinet member attended a service for the first time today, and I believe the spirits of the deceased servicemen must be relieved,” Konishi said.

Aso first expressed a wish to attend a remembrance service at the temple shortly after assuming his ministerial post in October. His office then contacted the temple in March and it was agreed that the remembrance service would be moved to Monday to fit in with Aso’s schedule, his secretary said.

Aso’s office invited ambassadors and consuls general to the service through the Foreign Ministry in June. Several were planning to attend.

However, the mood changed late last month after both domestic and foreign media questioned Aso’s intentions in visiting the temple. There was speculation his visit was aimed at deflecting criticism of Japan’s failure to fully address the POW issue and also to soften Aso’s hawkish image overseas.

A British Embassy spokesman confirmed that Ambassador Graham Fry had initially planned to attend, but along with the other foreign dignitaries invited, canceled last Friday after receiving notice from Aso’s office.

“Aso’s attendance at the service has no motivation behind it. We just wanted to avoid causing any trouble or inconvenience for the embassies,” Aso’s secretary said.

“His attendance has already been highly politicized by the media, and Aso apparently decided not to cause further turmoil by involving ambassadors,” said a senior Foreign Ministry official who accompanied his boss on Monday.

But the decision to label the visit as private disappointed some. John Glusman, the 50-year-old son of an American POW who published his father’s memoir Conduct Under Fire last year, canceled after being told the foreign minister’s visit was purely private.

Glusman said he had been invited to attend the service by a senior Foreign Ministry official in April. Having heard that allied ambassadors and consuls general were also attending, Glusman said he thought there would be an official event during which Aso might make a statement addressing the POW issue.

“I thought it would be a wonderful opportunity to open the possibility (for Japan) to address this delicate issue, but the event was minimized from a public event to a private one,” Glusman said. “The Foreign Ministry realized that it is a far more complicated issue than it had initially thought.”

The government’s official position remains that the treatment of POWs during the war has been settled by Japan’s compensation to allied nations in line with the 1951 San Francisco Treaty.

Matsubara Hiroshi is an Asahi Shimbun Staff Writer.
This article appeared in the Asahi Shimbun on July 4, 2006. Posted at Japan Focus on August 2, 2006.

William Underwood, a faculty member at Kurume Kogyo University, is a coordinator of Japan Focus

PS.COMPLETE BOOK EXIST,but only for premium member,please subscribed via comment.

THE END  @copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

Dr IWAN BOOK’S INTRODUCTIONS “THE DAI NIPPON WAR “(BUKU PERANG DAI NIPPON)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Perkenalan
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pasific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon(imperial Japan) Military Postcard(Koleksi Kartupos Militer Balatentara Nippon)

Frame One:

The Dai Nippon Military Postcard(Dr Iwan Collections)

Please the native collectors help me to translate the postcard ‘s info from native Nippon katakana  or hiragana langguage to english languague thank(Dr Iwan S.)

A Japan

B.Occupation Indonesia

1.October 26th 2602(1942),Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

2.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

3.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .

Rare Dai Nippon Guntjo Pos Losarang with house of delivery(Rumah Pos) Stamped on postal stationer card 2603(1943)

Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus

Frontside

Backside

Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)

C.Occupation South Korea

D.Occupation China

E.Occupation Malaya

F.Occupation Myanmar(Burma)

G.Occupation Phillipine

Frame Two:

The Dai Nippon Military Picture Postcard Found In Indonesia (Dr Iwan Collections)

A.The Central Museum Jakarta Indonesia Ethnic Pictures

1.the Picture postcard cover

Gunseikanbu(Dai Nippon Military Office) Moesioem Jakarta(Jakarta Museum)

2.The Indonesia Ethnic Picture

B.The Japanese Military Propaganda Pictures

FrameThree:The after of Dai Nippon War in Thailand

 Liberation and Heartbreak (August 1945 – May 1946)

 
Prisoner no more!
A jubilant Han Samethini symbolically tramples his POW identification tag
Caricature by J. Chevallier
Han Samethini Collection [1]

As Java plunged into revolutionary chaos in August 1945, Thailand was undergoing an orderly transfer of power. Incoming British troops quickly relieved the Japanese of their posts and weapons, while the RAPWI [2] organization began the formidable task of recovering thousands of Allied prisoners of war. Most of them were moved to large transit camps around Bangkok. Slowly at first, then more rapidly as logistics improved, survivors of the Burma Railway filtered through the city to board transport aircraft for the first stage of their long journey home: Rangoon for the Americans and the British, Singapore for the Australians. The POWs from these nations were repatriated by the end of October. [3]

Disarmed and humbled, Japanese military police and Kempei-tai await
outbound trains in the Bangkok railway station
Australian War Memorial

The 10,871 Dutch ex-POWs would remain in Thailand for a much longer period. Holland lacked the ability to evacuate her servicemen, being economically devastated after five years of Nazi occupation. Nor did she have the political clout to get her merchant vessels in the Pacific released from Allied naval control. But even had the Netherlands possessed the ships and the money to bring the men out of Thailand, home for the great majority of them was in the East Indies. Return there must await British permission. This state of affairs rankled Dutch pride, but worse for the men’s morale was news of the massacres on Java and the realization that they could do nothing to protect their families.

Perceiving early that the men would need more than material provisions to stave off boredom and demoralization, the Dutch command in Bangkok commissioned Han Samethini to organize entertainments. He started as soon as he was released from Tamuang, working alongside the best talent of the Railway camps, including the Tamarkan concert party and Postma’s show group from Chungkai.

Combined Concert Party of ex-POWs in Bangkok, September 1945.
Composed of Australians and Dutch from the Tamarkan and Chungkai groups.
Photo taken on the steps of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce building.
Joop Postma (dark suit) stands in the second row from the top, far left.
Conductor Han Samethini (white jacket) stands at bottom left.
See Footnotes for photo credit [4]

There was much to do, and few resources with which to do it. Saxophonist Lou Bloemhard recalls the origins and early work of the Samethini Band:

Immediately after the capitulation Lt. Colonel Mantel in Bangkok engaged Han Samethini to form an orchestra for the entertainment of the ex-POWs. This was the very first postwar band playing in Bangkok. The band featured mainly English and Dutch players, with a few Australians and Indians. The English and the Australians went home quite soon while the Dutch did not. Their departure greatly reduced Samethini’s orchestra. He therefore asked and received Mantel’s permission to tour the various camps to find additional musicians.

Aloysius “Lou” Bloemhard
Han Samethini Collection

In this way Sam, as we called him, came to Tamuan camp where I was bivouacked. He invited me to Bangkok and I, together with other musicians, drove there by truck the next morning. We were lodged in the buildings of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce on Sathorn Road. Thus the Dutch Samethini band was created, the first show and dance orchestra with mostly Dutch Indo guys. Together with the drama troupe of Joop Postma we were given the task of organizing cabaret and dance evenings for the army troops and ex-POWs in Bangkok, who would later be joined by the women and children evacuated from the Indies. For most people this meant reunions with the family.

But there were also outlying camps without any opportunity to get entertainment, and we had to travel there as well. The task finally became too large for just one orchestra and we needed help. Help came from up-country camps in the form of the Atomic Boys, led by the very popular prewar band leader Piet Bruyn van Rozenburg, a dance band led by Hofstede and also a trio consisting of Frans de Haan, Hans van Leeuwen and Jaap Schaap [in Dutch these surnames mean Rooster, Lion, and Sheep], nicknamed The Zoo.

The Samethini Band at the Chinese Chamber of Commerce
(Click on the smaller images to see the names of the musicians)
Han Samethini Collection
The Atomic Boys
Photo courtesy of Arno Ooms, Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

Our headquarters in Bangkok had leased a dance hall (a bankrupt Siamese establishment) and created a place for dancing and amusement for the Allied armed forces. Every POW returning from Siam to the Indies had to stay in Bangkok for a few days until transportation (usually by plane) became available. Every ex-POW in Bangkok came to know the Holland Club, where one of the above bands would play every evening. [5] [6]

From Nakhon Pathom arrived one of the brightest stars among Dutch POW entertainers, the famed cabaretier Wim Kan. Before the war he had been touring the Indies with his wife, Corry Vonk, and their ABC Cabaret. The fall of Holland made return to the mother country impossible, and when the Japanese conquered the Indies the couple was imprisoned. Corry was packed off to a women’s camp on Java. Kan was sent to the Burma Railway. Towards the end of the war he became gravely ill, but he had recovered and was now in fine fettle. In November he produced and headlined “Mystery in Budapest” at the Garrison Theater, a combination stage play and variety show where the Samethini Band provided much of the musical accompaniment. [7]

Poster for “Mystery in Budapest” (November 1945)
Produced by Wim Kan
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection
Review of “Mystery in Budapest”
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

The work of Kan, Samethini, and their fellow ex-POW entertainers revolutionized Bangkok’s night life. It was part of a larger, if ephemeral, transformation of the Thai capital into a virtual Dutch enclave, as great numbers of white and Eurasian refugees arrived from the East Indies in late 1945. This development was described in glowing terms by the Singapore-based Dutch language biweekly Oranje:

 
Netherlanders in Bangkok

Here follows a report from someone who has recently returned from Siam, where he visited all camps where Dutch ex-prisoners of war are quartered.

11,000 men are waiting anxiously in Thailand for the moment when they can return to Java and Sumatra. They have been quartered in the city of Bangkok and the surrounding areas.

Thanks to the good care of Rapwi, these guys are in very good health and all of them should be able to return to their prewar careers. Their condition compares favorably with the English troops in Bangkok.

(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

Also their morale is excellent. It seems as if Bangkok has been taken over by the Dutch. It even looks Dutch. The language heard in the streets is mostly Dutch, and everywhere one sees the uniforms of our POWs. Night life and Bangkok entertainment are mostly in their hands, thanks especially to Wim Kan and the band leader Samethini, who have managed with very limited resources to give an extraordinarily successful show which draws full audiences night after night…. [8]

Review of a Samethini Band charity concert given at the Chalerm Krung Theater
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

The Chalerm Krung Royal Theater today
Chatriumhotels.net

Review of “Eastward Ho”
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection
Chinese Chamber of Commerce auditorium

The Samethini Band also received favorable mention in the English language press. Articles clipped from an unknown source, probably the SEAC Services Newspaper, praise shows given at the Chalerm Krung Royal Theater and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce. “Eastward Ho,” performed at the CCC, was originally the 1944 Chungkai POW musical “Zijn Groote Reis” (His Big Trip). No review has been found for “The Black Cat,” an obscure Samethini production evidenced by a single surviving poster.

Poster for “The Black Cat” (November 1945)
Artwork by Piet van Velthuysen
Han Samethini Collection

String section of the Samethini Band
L-R: Johnny Ockerse, Harry Reinders, Bram Koot,
Fons Ockerse, Lex Koot, Tjalie Wagenaar
Han Samethini Collection

Hugo “Alie” Brinkman
Han Samethini Collection

Between performances, the band’s skill and finesse were honed by diligent rehearsing. Saxophonist Alie Brinkman recalled these sessions vividly when he spoke of the Bangkok days with his son, Hugh:

For years and years afterwards my father liked to reminisce on the happy “Samethini time”, as he used to call it. Han apparently had the gift, as my father frequently said, to meld the band in such a way together to be able to produce a specific full and rich sound! And that resulted in a very close comradeship of the band members. They were quite well known in Bangkok during that time. Plans to make a sound recording in Bangkok were made but unfortunately it never came off. [9]

The men of the Samethini Band shared qualities deeper than technical competence and enthusiasm for music. Theirs was a camaraderie forged in the terrible furnace of Japanese captivity, a unique bond shared and understood only by Allied ex-POWs of the Pacific War. They also had a common homesickness and longing for their beloved East Indies – a sentiment too intense for words and expressible, if it all, only in melody.

Han was not among those fortunate enough to be reunited with his family in Bangkok. Dutch women and children arriving at the Thailand refugee camps told of the horrors they had seen on Java. This and newspaper reports of the bloodbath in Surabaya led him to fear the worst. He’d received no letters from his wife, nor did Anna’s and Margie’s names appear on the Red Cross refugee lists that he searched daily. By late November he had given them up for dead. As he walked dejectedly down the street one day, he noticed a windblown sheet of paper in his path. He picked it up and saw that it was another Red Cross list. There were the names: Samethini, Anna C. and Samethini, Margareth J. They were alive, quartered in a refugee camp in Singapore!

Letter from the Red Cross thanking Samethini for
his work at the Alliance Francais dance hall in Bangkok
(Click image to enlarge)
Han Samethini Collection

Taking leave of Bangkok and his bandmates in December, Han hurried to Singapore. His mind must have been a whirl of mixed emotions: gratitude, anticipation, and perhaps fear that the war might have changed Anna and her feelings towards him. He knew only too well the harm the Japanese Army could inflict on the bodies and souls of its subjects. Then there was Margie. He would be a stranger to her. Would she show affection for him? Would she even accept him?

Anna Samethini, 1946
Passport photo taken in Singapore
Courtesy of Margie Samethini-Bellamy

When he arrived at the entrance to the Nee Soon Hospital Camp, Anna met him at the gate. Jean stood beside her. Margie was nowhere in sight. Then the announcement, cold and curt: She had decided to spend her life with Jean. She wanted a divorce. Han was devastated. Probably he tried to persuade Anna to reconsider, and it seems incredible that he would not have demanded at least to see his daughter. Many years later he would say, vaguely yet with great vehemence and anguish, that he tried hard to put his family back together. Whatever the reason, Margie does not remember any visits from her father while she was in Singapore. On March 16, 1946 she and her mother left for Holland aboard the liner Nieuw Amsterdam. [10] [11]

Margie, 1946
Courtesy of Margie Samethini-Bellamy
Han in MP uniform
Han Samethini Collection

Han remained in Singapore, where he’d been assigned to the 2nd Military Police Brigade in Wilhelmina Camp. He was not long confined to the mundane duties of a sentry. This city, like Bangkok, hosted a sizable Dutch military and refugee community that was eager for amusements:

Together with their families, and other civilian support staff (for the Dutch merchant navy), the Dutch lived in two camps in the Katong district in the eastern part of Singapore. To make living more pleasant, the Dutch had organized their own newspaper, news service, a radio station, postal unit, and even entertainment outlets like cinemas and an orchestra. [12]

Samethini with fellow army musicians in Singapore, 1946
Singer’s and bass player’s names are unknown.
The guitarist has been tentatively identified as Jimmy van Lingen [13]
Han Samethini Collection

Samethini threw himself into this new project, driven by his love of music-making and the need to bury his pain under a mountain of work. The Singapore period is one of the briefest and most mysterious of his career, attested only by a photograph of him posing with an army entertainment troupe. He also seems to have directed an orchestra, a natural role given his training and experience. Of the orchestra we have only a fanciful illustration, drawn by a friend of Han’s who was not a witness to the events. It contains references to different themed performances (French Evening, Spanish Evening, Dutch Evening), and lyrics from one of his original compositions, “Sweet Muchachabelle of Spain.” Most striking are the depictions of the alluring Spanish maiden in roseate costume, the golden-haired chanteuse in white evening gown, and the bobbing and swaying jazz players in their immaculate tuxedos. They seem to express the refugees’ longing for the glamor of the prewar days in the Indies, the carefree evenings of dance and song whose spirit was epitomized in the popular Hollywood musicals shown at the cinemas. The merry strains of Samethini and his band brought back those happy memories, allowing audiences a few hours’ escape from the drabness of the present and uncertainty of the future.

Whimsical drawing of Han Samethini’s orchestra in Singapore
(Names of the people in the Volendammer costume photo unknown)
Artwork by Mieke Dusseldorp
Han Samethini Collection


But Singapore was more to the Dutch than a refugee settlement. It was the staging area for the return of colonial government and military forces to the East Indies. Already, in February, the British-trained Gadja Merah (Red Elephant) brigade, composed of the fittest Dutch survivors of the Burma Railway, had passed through the city. They wore different uniforms and carried better weapons than they’d shouldered in 1942, but they were still proud fighting men of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army. On March 2 the Gadja Merah landed on Bali and disarmed the Japanese garrison. On the 8th other units secured the Lesser Sundas, and the next day three Dutch battalions arrived in Batavia. The British were beginning their withdrawal from the Indies, glad to extricate themselves from a colonial war they had no intention of fighting. The last British troops would leave in November. It would be up to the Dutch either to defeat the Indonesian nationalists or come to terms with them.

In May 1946, Han himself received orders for transfer to Batavia. The colonial army’s Welfare Service needed musicians to entertain the troops, and no man was better qualified for the job. Packing his faithful accordion, Samethini boarded the trooper Tegelberg and sailed for Java. He had left the Indies as a wretched POW crammed in the hold of a Japanese slave ship. He was coming back as a soldier aboard a worthy Dutch vessel. Yet in another way he was returning as he had departed: outwardly surrounded by throngs, inwardly alone.

S.S. Tegelberg
blog.seniorennet.be

_______________________

Footnotes

[1] The towers in Chevallier’s caricature are probably the prangs of the Wat Arun Temple, a major Bangkok landmark. Compare also his drawing of the POW ID card with the third image below:

(Click images to enlarge)
Australian War Memorial

[2] RAPWI stands for Recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees. This was the organization dedicated to the welfare and repatriation of ex-POWs and civilian internees in SEAC-administered areas of the former Japanese Empire.

[3] See the newspaper article below:

Canberra Times (October 29, 1945)
(Click image to enlarge)
National Library of Australia

[4] Photo credit: CU Nixon Combined Concert Party, Ted A. Weller Private Collection, courtesy of Sears Eldredge. Professor Eldredge is writing a book on the Burma Railway POW entertainments, which promises to be a unique and valuable contribution to the history of the Pacific War. His advice has been of great help in writing this biography.

The same photograph was used in a feature story in the Australian magazine PIX (February 9, 1946). The caption gives the names of the Australian musicians:

(Click image to enlarge)
PIX Magazine / Han Samethini Collection

[5] Dutch magazine article “Samethini’s Dans- en Showorkest”, by A. Bloemhard, (Moesson No. 2, August 15, 1989). Translated by Margie Samethini-Bellamy. The article concludes:

“Later on everyone connected to O & O [Ontwikkeling & Ontspanning / Rest & Recreation] was moved to Transit Camp, together with the by-then arrived families. We stayed there until September 1946, when we sailed home to the Indies on the liner Nieuw Holland. Upon arrival in Surabaya, those choosing to stay in the Indies left the ship, and the rest were repatriated to Holland.”

[6] Lt. Colonel P.G. Mantel was the highest ranking Dutch officer in Thailand. He had been a KNIL staff officer, and was present at the signing of the formal surrender of the Netherlands East Indies to the Japanese in March 1942. Here is a prewar photo of Mantel in Bandung, Java:

Lt. Colonel P.G. Mantel (center)

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[6] The Australian musicians of the Combined Concert Party left for home in early October. Samethini attended a farewell dinner in their honor given at the Ratanakosin Hotel. The Dutch and Australians passed around menus to collect autographs. A scan of Samethini’s menu appears below. Among the most prominent signatures are those of Ron Wells and Joop Postma. Wells was the producer of the Combined Concert Party show.

Ratanakosin Hotel, Bangkok
Circa 1946

Front of the Ratanakosin Hotel menu with ex-POW autographs
Samethini’s and Postma’s signatures visible above.

October 1, 1945
Han Samethini Collection

Reverse side of the Ratanakosin Hotel menu
Autograph of Ron Wells appears near the top.

Han Samethini Collection

[7] Wim Kan’s diary of his POW ordeal and postwar performances in Bangkok has been published in the Netherlands under the title Burma Dagboek.

Wim Kan
Sketch by Jack Chalker

Australian War Memorial

[8] The press clipping is not dated, but probably the article appeared in a November issue. The only clue to the source is a line of text on the reverse side: “Printed at the Straits Times.” Oranje was printed at the Straits Times Press Pte Ltd, as was the English language SEAC newspaper. The article concludes: “Even in outlying camps entertainments are being given. Our reporter witnessed a performance by Mary Honri at Pratchai camp. ”

Mary Honri (1910-1988) was a British music hall entertainer. A Honri-Samethini accordian duet would have been quite a show, but there is no evidence that they worked together. Below are two photos of the Pratchai performance:

British accordionist Mary Honri entertains
Dutch ex-POWs at Pratchai Camp

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[9] Personal e-mail from Hugh Brinkman (son of Alie Brinkman), November 23, 2009.

[10] The Nieuw Amsterdam arrived in Holland on April 10, 1946 at the port of Rotterdam. Below is a page of the passenger list, showing the names of Anna and Margie:


Courtesy of Jeroen Kemperman
Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

[11] Exactly one month before she left Singapore, Anna took part in a music and dance recital presented by Nee Soon Hospital. It was given in Sembawang, a northern area of the city. The program credits her as choreographer for “Arabian Nights”. Anna stands at far left in the photograph below:


Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

(Click image to enlarge)
Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

(Click image to enlarge)
Courtesy of Marge Samethini-Bellamy

[12] Yong Mun Cheong, The Indonesian Revolution and the Singapore Connection, 1945-1949 (Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press, 2003), p. 58.

[13] Identification made by British ex-POW Fergus Anckorn.

Frame Four:

The International Collections

1.Dai Nippon Prisoner Of War Java Card

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

DAI NIPPON WAR PART ONE “DAI NIPPON WAR IN INDONESIA 1942”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karang Dr Iwan “Perang Dai nippon)

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java ‘s Postal and document History 1942

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Idsland 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pasific War

__________________________________________________________________________

DAI NIPPON WAR PART TWO: CHAPTER ONE

 “THE DAI NIPPON WAR IN INDONESIA 1942”

1.Dai Nippon War in West Papua

Hamadi bay was once an ally of the first soldiers landed, which then goes and makes the defense barracks in the hills Mac Arthur (ordinary Papuans call Makatur hill), located in the hills Sentani. If the current travel there by car takes between 45-60 minutes from Jayapura, I can not imagine how long the first Allied troops reached the hill in one week

macarthur

Jend. D. MacArthur and Major General HH Fuller; commander Div # 41, shortly after landing on the beach Hamadi

Yes, hills Ifar Mountain, where the headquarters of the Pacific Southwest of the Mandala Command led by General MacArthur is located, held approximately 2-3 days after U.S. forces completed the 4-day military operation to master the three Japanese air base in Sentani area.
Allied military operation to seize Jayapura (then named Hollandia) and Sentani from the Japanese took place on 22 to 26 April 1944 and known as Operation Reckless, and usually called simultaneously with Operation Persecution run concurrently with the target of Aitape, 200km in east of Jayapura, Papua New Guinea in the region now.
I saw the scholar  never any attempt to study these events, unfortunately, the information obtained the  IMO rather vague and less specific about the Battle of Hollandia itself. So, this is a short version .

 3.1943.

peta #1
Allied counter-attack:
Mid-1943, the Pacific war had passed the turning point where the original Japanese in the offensive has turned into the defensive.

4. 1944
Purple arrows: invasion of the Allies until February 44, controls the eastern tip of New Guinea, and will jump straight to Madang to Wewak Hollandia

The absence of orientation in a long term war, and the leaking of secret code the Japanese military, played a role in the series of Japan’s defeat in the outer perimeter of the Japanese defense line in the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons and the Huon Peninsula in the east end of New Guinea, while Rabaul, Japan’s leading bastion in the Pacific practical been isolated. Therefore the Japanese began to rewind the perimeter defenses in the north coast of New Guinea with the front line around Wewak, Madang, Hollandia, which is built into the main military base for the transit of troops and cargo from the sea, also the center of the new air force (moved from Rabaul).

Toward Hollandia:
Meanwhile, the Allied side (in this case General MacArthur and the Southwest Pacific Command Mandala lead) looking at Hollandia as a strategic stepping stone that will bring him and his soldiers 800km to the main targets in the Philippines. Leap frog strategy to seize Hollandia also means fighting in a place chosen the U.S., because Japan expects the Allies landed between Madang and Wewak, where the Japanese hold three infantry divisions of the Army # 18-automatic-insulated with Hollandia landings.
Tuk predict the failure of Japan to the Allied attack Hollandia Hollandia due to their calculations that are beyond the reach of allied fighter planes of their leading pengkalan in Nieuw Guinea (Nadzab). This is certainly easy to be overcome by utilizing the support Allied aircraft carriers and planes within the latest travel far. However, operations planners decided to occupy the Aitape also because there are air base that can be used Tadji allies, taking into account the Hollandia will be stubbornly defended. Moreover, because Japan is also building two air base in Wakde and Sarmi, over 200km southwest of Hollandia.

APRIL,1944

Operation target:
In the attack on Hollandia, in addition to the city and sea port, which became the main target is the three Allied air base in Sentani area, 40km west of Hollandia, which each called Lanud Sentani, Cyclops and air base air base Hollandia (Lanud Tami, the fourth, are near the border of RI-PNG now). Targets in Sentani is clamped with a planned simultaneous attack through the amphibious landing of two directions, ie from the direction of Humboldt Bay (Gulf Yos Sudarso now) and the Gulf Tanahmerah. The military operation is scheduled to take place on April 22, 1944.

Allied strength.
Air power in this attack is the U.S. Air Force # 5, Task Force 73 (land-based naval aircraft), Australia AU components, Task Force 78 (escort aircraft carriers of the Fleet # 7) and Task Force 58 (the major carriers of Fleet # 5, loaned by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Ocean to the MacArthur Mandala tuk this attack).
Allied fleet was divided into Task Forces 77.1 (group assault center. Objective: Bay Tanahmerah); Task Force 77.2 (western assault group. Objective: Humboldt Bay); Task Force 77.3 (east assault group; Target: Aitape); Task Force 74 ( A bodyguard unit), Task Force 75 (bodyguard unit B) and several other Task Force (77.4-7) that serves as a reserve force and controlling the landing. Together with carriers, a total of 217 Allied ships deployed in this mission.
As the spearhead of the attack on Hollandia was the Task Force Reckless: two infantry divisions of the Corps # 1, # 6 U.S. Army; Infantry Division # 24 (Gulf Tanahmerah target) and the Infantry Division # 41 (Humboldt Bay target); while Aitape be occupied by Cluster Persecution task, namely Infantry Regiment # 163 of Divif # 41. Total of all ground forces numbered nearly 50,000 soldiers.

From H to H plus minus.
Beginning in late March, the Allied air forces conducted repeated bombings against all Japanese air and naval bases along the northern coast of Papua, to the Arafura Sea, also get to Kep. Caroline and Palau. In Hollandia course, this preemptive strike to destroy Japanese planes 300an per 3 April. Meanwhile, the Allies continued to deceive the Japanese with a variety of tactics so that Japan can not predict where the next invasion would be directed.
On 17 and 18 April 1944, a convoy of ships began to move from their base at the end of New Guinea. Of Goodenough Island brings Div # 24, and from Cape Cretin brings Div # 41. While the Task Force set out from Finschhafen Persecution. 20 April, the convoy headed north to play Admiralties islands, so as not observed from Hansa Bay coastline. From the north Admiralties convoy moving directly toward the target. 12km from the coast between Hollandia and Aitape, attacking the eastern breakaway group to execute Operation Persecution.
On the day 0130AM, 20 miles off the coast between the two bays target, a convoy of the remaining breakaway: group attacking the middle toward Humboldt Bay, while the western attack groups and task forces operating from headquarters + reservists to the Gulf Tanahmerah. 0700 planned landing simultaneously on the morning after a series of shore bombardment, and Reckless Operation officially begins.

Allied fleet movement from base to target

In the Gulf Tanahmerah, landings performed Infantry Division # 24 at two locations codenamed Red Beach 1 and 2. Due to take into account that the main Japanese force will be concentrated to maintain Hollandia (who invaded from Humboldt), the largest landing troops, including logistics and staff will put ashore here. But conditions in the field was not in accordance with the interpretation of aerial photographs of the operations planner. At Red Beach 2 there is no way to Red Beach 1, so that troops, equipment and supplies are piling up on the beach should be taken back to the small boats to Red Beach 1.

APRIL,25th.1944
LST at Red Beach 2

Meanwhile, from Depapre (Red Beach 1) to the target in Sentani turns out there is only a path that can not pass a vehicle up to much, even by tanks, there’s no way made in Japan as predicted. Therefore, troops from Div # 24 should move forward with a walk, bringing logistics chain. Meanwhile supplies, headquarters staff (some of which have gone down), reservists and support units are still on the ship diverted to Humboldt Bay. So is the status of forces transferred to the main bat Div # 41 which moves more smoothly.
That same morning the leading forces (Yon # 1) has reached Maribu without a fight, there are only remnants of the Japanese troops who fled equipment. Next to the Paipou. Jangkena, Waibron, Dazai (Dosai now) before reaching Sabron next day. In Sabron Japan had no resistance to withstand forces up to date 23. While the battalion # 1 opens the road. Battalion # 2, # 3 and the remaining forces preoccupied with carrying ammunition and rations in sequence, a walk from the beach until the troop leader (about 12 miles). These logistical problems inhibiting the movement of troops until the 25th, because the distance that must be taken to drain the logistics to forces that also more and more, not to mention the rain always falls. 25 April, where forces had received opposition leader again in Dejaoe River, about 3500 troops already assigned to just to bring the logistics alone. Even with all the limitations, the next day (26), Yon # 1 has been successfully mastered Lanud Hollandia, and some logistics successfully deployed using the aircraft in Dazai. Meanwhile the vehicle from both ends also have to get through some of the road. That day, around Weversdorp, a unit of Div # 24 was able to make contact with the unit from Div # 41.

The movement of Allied ground forces

peta #2

The beach is very narrow

In Humboldt Bay, the landing Div # 41 conducted at four locations codenamed White Beach 1-4. Here also the landing went smoothly and very few get resistance. The problem faced is also the same, namely the beach is too narrow to accommodate the cargo ship-landing craft, and endeavor to build a road from the beach to the highway Pim-Hollandia.
As soon as all the troops landed, the two regiments from Div # 41 split. # 162 Regiment moved to the town of Hollandia, while the Regiment # 186 moves toward Sentani. Pancake Day is also the hill and the hill Jarremoh (complex transmitter Polimaq now) can be controlled, and the date of 23 noon, the city of Hollandia, had fallen into the hands of U.S. troops.
On the other hand, forces that led to Sentani experienced little difficulty because of heavy rains that make roads full of puddles, also some sporadic resistance from Japanese forces. U.S. troops also could be saving rations and ammunition because on 23 midnight, a single attack Japanese fighter planes at White Beach, a chain explosion that destroyed 60% of U.S. logistics and ammunition up to H +1.
On the 24th afternoon, U.S. forces have control of small natural dock in koyabu (Yoka) which can be used for amphibious assault. 25 am, 2 companies of the 1st Battalion started the movement of amphibians through the village towards the lake Sentani Nefaar (Netar now), followed by the rest of the Battalion 1 in the afternoon. 25 afternoon, 3rd Battalion moving by land (Sentani lake side) has joined. On 26 morning, leading the troops that day divided by two and also controlled air base Cyclops (10:40 hours) and, after passing through the village Ifaar, controlled air base in Sentani (11:30). The entire target declared safe an hour later without combat means, and when the dusk, was able to make contact with a unit of Division # 21.

JUNE,1944

Allied troop movements to the phase of “clean”.

After all the main targets declared operations is achieved on 26, then proceed with the operation control of the area around and clean them from remaining Japanese forces. In the days that followed U.S. forces move to master the south side of Mount Cyclops (the Southwest Pacific Command headquarters Mandala later built), Tanjung Suaja (Tanjung Ria), Hollekang (Holtekamp now), Goya (Koya) and Tanjung Jar, then mastered Lanud Tami. This air base was later used as a bridgehead tuk air transport logistics of troop ships bound for the difficulties in the Sentani area ration. U.S. troops also spread and establish outposts to the Marneda, Gulf Demta, even Genyem. The “clean-up” is completed by June 6, 1944.

Survivors:
Unexpected ally, the attack on Hollandia did not get resistance from the Japanese meaning. In addition to its element of surprise, this is also due to the limited time and resources owned by the Japanese to move a significant ground combat element to the Hollandia or reinforce existing forces. As of 22 April 1944, from about 11,000 Japanese troops in Hollandia, 500an only just ground forces of anti-air attack unit. The rest comes from the air force, navy and other supporting units.

Japanese forces retreat

22 April morning, which took over the command of Major General Inada of Japan in Hollandia, prepare their best opposition and still managed to coordinate the resistance in Sabron. But most of the troops immediately fled to the mountains shortly after the U.S. ships do the bombardment, and in that night, Major General Inada already ordered retreat. Without the supplies which are all stored in the vicinity of Humboldt Bay, the Japanese retreated toward Genyem, where they held a farming project. April 30, about 7,000 Japanese troops in 10 groups to organize themselves, without a map and supplies are limited, began a long march toward Sarmi through the path in the woods; some one to Demta, 25km to the west coast village Depapre. Because the insulation of U.S. troops, stray, hunger, injury, fatigue and illness, the trip becomes deadly, and only about 7% up in Sarmi. In total, only about 1000an those Japanese soldiers who survived the invasion of Hollandia. 3300an people were killed or found dead, and the remainder (almost 7000) is lost. On the other hand, only 124 U.S. troops are killed, 1057 wounded and 28 missing.

Hollandia, after the invasion.
After the successful invasion, the Allies then build a variety of military facilities, especially for the Seventh Fleet, which spread from the Gulf to the Cape Suadja Tanahmerah. The entire military installations in the Hollandia and the surrounding area was then given an alphabetic code “Base G”.

The flurry of U.S. troops in the port that is being built

Jend. D. MacArthur moved his headquarters Mandala Command Southwest Pacific from Brisbane to Hollandia in August 1944, on a hill now called Ifar Mountain, about 4km Cyclops northern air base. Together with co-headquartered in SWPA headquarters also commands underneath al: Armada # 7, AD # 6, # 8 Army, Allied Force and Allied Land Army.
Later in the war, Hollandia became the starting point for subsequent Allied invasions into P. Wakde, P. Biak, P. Numfor, Sansapor, and P. Morotai, until landing in P. Luzon, Philippines. Meanwhile AD # 18 Japanese were locked around Wewak result of this operation, was defeated at the end of August.

5. 1945.

DECEMBER  ,1945

After the war.
Along with the end of World War II, in December 1945 to sell all U.S. military facilities in Hollandia, the Dutch East Indies government, which then pass it to the government of Indonesia after surgery Trikora (subsequently named Soekarnopura Hollandia, and Jayapura). Most of the military facilities are built MacArthur’s troops and fell into the hands of Indonesian military, especially to the military command Trikora XVII, including mako complex in Ifar Mount MacArthur, Sentani, who is now a Parent Regiment Kodam (Rindam), and the Regional Military installations around Kloofkamp, ​​including complex Kodam long. Allied landing site at White Beach 1 & 2 into Navy housing complex, while the air base used AFAIK Hollandia AU base in Jayapura (without aviation facilities). Fleet # 7 As for the port and air base in Sentani (Sentani airport now) functioned as a general entrance gate to Jayapura. There are also buildings controlled by civilians and was switching function or torn down. Only Lanud Cycloops which I can not be sure no place for them. Although there is a place which I suspect is based on the approximate position of the map and some of the Quonset hut-building half-cylindrical metal assemblies that characterized the construction of U.S. military engineer corps legacy of World War II-era near there.
As for heritage buildings is not like the carcasses of so many military vehicles scattered around the landing site, is up for sale as scrap metal by local communities. While the rest of the bombs, mortars and bullets that do not explode during the Allied attack, there is no end to be found and used as raw material for bomb fishing by local communities. BTW, a drum of fuel supertebal USAAF still remains as a drum of water I use in my home now.

20090414_024726_monumen
MacArthur Monument at Mount Ifar now. .

Encore:
A monument on the beach Hamadi events marking the Allied landings, while the other Abepantai monument marking the arrival of Japanese troops two years earlier. Both, along with dozens of Quonset hut that is still scattered throughout the city, and MacArthur in the complex Rindam Monument, a reminder of the war that never passes Jayapura, whose story is more vague and forgotten. There are even official information is false, too! So, while there has been no more wars, let us celebrate life

original information in Indonesia Language:
 

Teluk Hamadi ini dulu merupakan daerah awalnya para tentara sekutu mendarat, yang kemudian berjalan dan membuat barak pertahanan di bukit Mac Arthur (orang Papua biasa menamakan bukit Makatur), yang terletak di atas perbukitan Sentani. Jika perjalanan ke sana saat ini dengan kendaraan memakan waktu antara 45-60 menit dari Jayapura, saya tak terbayangkan berapa lama tentara Sekutu dulu mencapai atas bukit tsb. satu minggu.

 

macarthurJend. D. MacArthur dan Mayjen H.H Fuller; panglima Div #41, sesaat sesudah mendarat di pantai Hamadi

Ya, bukit Ifar Gunung, tempat markas Komando Mandala Pasifik BaratDaya yang dipimpin Jenderal MacArthur terletak, dikuasai sekitar 2-3 hari sesudah pasukan AS menyelesaikan 4 hari operasi militer untuk menguasai 3 pangkalan udara Jepang di daerah Sentani.
Operasi militer Sekutu untuk merebut Jayapura (saat itu bernama Hollandia) dan Sentani dari pihak Jepang ini berlangsung tanggal 22-26 April 1944 dan dikenal dengan nama Operation Reckless, dan biasanya disebut secara simultan dengan Operation Persecution yang dijalankan secara bersamaan dengan target Aitape, 200km di sebelah timur Jayapura, di wilayah Papua New Guinea sekarang.
Saya melihat pernah ada usaha Bu Enny untuk mempelajari peristiwa ini, sayangnya, informasi yang didapat Bu Enny IMO agak kabur dan kurang spesifik tentang Battle of Hollandia itu sendiri. Jadi, ini versi singkat dari saya.
*sok tahu mode: ON*

Serangan balik Sekutu:
Pertengahan 1943, perang Pasifik telah melewati titik baliknya dimana Jepang yang semula di pihak ofensif telah berganti menjadi pihak defensif.

peta #1Panah ungu: serbuan pasukan sekutu hingga Februari 44, menguasai ujung timur Nieuw Guinea, dan akan melompati Madang hingga Wewak langsung ke Hollandia

Ketiadaan orientasi dalam suatu perang jangka panjang, dan bocornya sandi rahasia militer Jepang, turut berperan dalam rangkaian kekalahan Jepang di garis terluar perimeter pertahanan Jepang di Kepulauan Bismarck, Solomons dan Semenanjung Huon di ujung timur Nieuw Guinea, sementara Rabaul, benteng terdepan Jepang di Pasifik praktis sudah terisolasi. Karena itu Jepang mulai memundurkan perimeter pertahanannya di pantai utara Nieuw Guinea dengan garis depan di sekitar Wewak-Madang, dimana Hollandia dibangun menjadi pangkalan militer utama untuk transit pasukan dan kargo dari laut, juga pusat kekuatan udara yang baru (pindah dari Rabaul).

Menuju Hollandia:
Sementara itu, pihak Sekutu (dalam hal ini Jenderal MacArthur dan Komando Mandala Pasifik Barat Daya yang dipimpinnya) memandang Hollandia sebagai batu loncatan strategis yang akan mendekatkan beliau dan tentaranya 800km ke sasaran utama di Filipina. Strategi lompat katak untuk merebut Hollandia juga berarti berperang di tempat yang dipilih AS, karena Jepang mengharapkan Sekutu mendarat diantara Madang dan Wewak, dimana Jepang menggelar tiga divisi infanteri dari AD #18 -yang otomatis terisolasi dengan pendaratan Hollandia-.
Kegagalan pihak Jepang tuk memprediksi serangan Sekutu ke Hollandia disebabkan perhitungan mereka bahwa Hollandia berada diluar jangkauan pesawat-pesawat tempur sekutu dari pengkalan terdepan mereka di Nieuw Guinea (Nadzab). Hal ini tentunya mudah diatasi Sekutu dengan memanfaatkan dukungan kapal-kapal induk dan pesawat-pesawat terbaru yang berjarak tempuh jauh. Namun demikian, perencana operasi memutuskan untuk menduduki juga Aitape karena disana terdapat lanud Tadji yang dapat digunakan sekutu, dengan mempertimbangkan Hollandia bakal dipertahankan mati-matian. Apalagi karena Jepang juga membangun 2 lanud di Wakde dan Sarmi, 200km lebih baratdaya Hollandia.

Target operasi:
Dalam serangan ke Hollandia, selain kota dan pelabuhan lautnya , yang menjadi sasaran utama Sekutu adalah tiga pangkalan udara di daerah Sentani, 40km di barat kota Hollandia, yang masing-masing disebut lanud Sentani, lanud Cyclops dan lanud Hollandia (lanud Tami, yang keempat, ada di dekat perbatasan RI-PNG sekarang). Sasaran-sasaran di Sentani ini direncanakan dijepit dengan penyerangan simultan melalui pendaratan amfibi dari dua arah, yaitu dari arah Teluk Humboldt (Teluk Yos Sudarso sekarang) dan Teluk Tanahmerah. Operasi militer dijadwalkan berlangsung pada 22 April 1944.

Kekuatan Sekutu.
Kekuatan udara dalam penyerangan ini adalah AU #5 AS, Gugus Tugas 73 (pesawat AL yang berpangkalan darat), komponen AU Australia, Gugus Tugas 78 (kapal-kapal induk pengawal dari Armada #7) dan Gugus Tugas 58 (kapal-kapal induk utama dari Armada #5, dipinjamkan oleh Laksamana Chester W. Nimitz, panglima Komando Mandala Samudra Pasifik ke MacArthur tuk serangan ini).
Armada laut sekutu dibagi dalam Gugus Tugas 77.1 (grup serbu tengah. Sasaran: Teluk Tanahmerah); Gugus Tugas 77.2 (grup serbu barat. Sasaran: Teluk Humboldt); Gugus Tugas 77.3 (grup serbu timur; Sasaran: Aitape); Gugus Tugas 74 (satuan pengawal A); Gugus Tugas 75 (satuan pengawal B) dan beberapa Gugus Tugas lain (77.4-7) yang berfungsi sebagai pasukan cadangan dan pengendali pendaratan. Bersama kapal-kapal induk, total Sekutu mengerahkan 217 kapal dalam misi ini.
Sebagai ujung tombak serangan ke Hollandia adalah Gugus Tugas Reckless: dua divisi infanteri dari Korps #1, AD #6 AS; Divisi Infantri #24 (sasaran Teluk Tanahmerah) dan Divisi Infanteri #41 (sasaran Teluk Humboldt); sementara Aitape akan diduduki oleh Gugus Tugas Persecution, yaitu Resimen Infanteri #163 dari Divif #41. Total semua pasukan darat berjumlah hampir 50.000 prajurit.

Dari H minus ke H plus.
Mulai akhir Maret, kekuatan udara Sekutu mengadakan pemboman berulang-ulang terhadap semua pangkalan udara dan laut Jepang di sepanjang pantai utara Papua, hingga laut Arafura, juga sampai ke Kep. Caroline dan Palau. Di Hollandia saja, serangan pendahuluan ini menghancurkan 300an pesawat Jepang per 3 April. Sementara itu, Sekutu terus menipu Jepang dengan berbagai taktik supaya Jepang tidak bisa memperkirakan dimana invasi berikutnya akan diarahkan.
Tanggal 17 dan 18 April 1944, konvoi kapal mulai bergerak dari pangkalannya masing-masing di ujung Nieuw Guinea. Dari Pulau Goodenough membawa Div #24, dan dari Tanjung Cretin membawa Div #41. Sementara Gugus Tugas Persecution berangkat dari Finschhafen. 20 April, konvoi menuju utara untuk memutar kepulauan Admiralties, supaya tidak terpantau dari garis pantai Teluk Hansa. Dari utara Admiralties konvoi langsung bergerak menuju sasaran. 12km dari pantai diantara Hollandia dan Aitape, grup serang timur memisahkan diri untuk mengeksekusi Operation Persecution.
Pada hari H 0130AM, 20 km dilepas pantai antara kedua teluk sasaran, konvoi yang tersisa memisahkan diri: grup serang tengah menuju Teluk Humboldt, sementara grup serang barat dan gugus tugas pasukan cadangan+mabes operasi menuju Teluk Tanahmerah. Pendaratan direncanakan serentak pada 0700 pagi sesudah serangkain bombardemen pantai, dan Operation Reckless resmi dimulai.

peta #2Gerakan armada Sekutu dari pangkalan ke sasaran

Di Teluk Tanahmerah, pendaratan dilakukan Divisi Infantri #24 pada dua lokasi yang bersandi Red Beach 1 dan 2. Karena memperhitungkan bahwa kekuatan utama Jepang akan terkonsentrasi mempertahankan Hollandia (yang diserbu dari Humboldt), maka pasukan pendarat terbesar, termasuk logistik dan para staf akan didaratkan disini. Tetapi kondisi di lapangan ternyata tidak sesuai dengan interpretasi foto udara para perencana operasi. Di Red Beach 2 tidak terdapat jalan ke Red Beach 1, sehingga pasukan, peralatan dan perbekalan yang menumpuk di pantai harus dibawa lagi dengan kapal-kapal kecil ke Red Beach 1.

ngp3LST di Red Beach 2

Sementara itu, dari Depapre (Red Beach 1) ke sasaran di Sentani ternyata hanya terdapat jalan setapak yang tak dapat dilalui kendaraan hingga jauh, bahkan oleh tank, tidak ada jalan buatan Jepang seperti yang diperkirakan. Oleh karena itu pasukan dari Div #24 harus bergerak maju dengan berjalan kaki saja, membawa logistik secara berantai. Sementara itu perbekalan, staf mabes (yang sebagian sudah turun), pasukan cadangan dan unit-unit pendukung yang masih di kapal dialihkan ke Teluk Humboldt. Begitu juga dengan status pasukan pemukul utama dialihkan ke Div #41 yang bergerak lebih lancar.
Pagi itu juga pasukan terdepan (Yon #1) sudah mencapai Maribu tanpa perlawanan, hanya ada sisa-sisa peralatan pasukan Jepang yang kabur. Selanjutnya menuju ke Paipou. Jangkena, Waibron, Dazai (Dosai sekarang) sebelum mencapai Sabron keesokan harinya. Di Sabron sempat ada perlawanan Jepang yang menahan pasukan hingga tanggal 23. Sementara batalyon #1 membuka jalan. Batalyon #2, #3 dan pasukan selebihnya disibukkan dengan membawa amunisi dan ransum secara berantai, berjalan kaki dari pantai sampai pasukan terdepan (sekitar 12 mil). Masalah logistik ini menghambat pergerakan pasukan hingga tanggal 25, karena semakin jauhnya jarak yang harus ditempuh untuk mengalirkan logistik ke pasukan yang juga semakin banyak, belum lagi hujan yang selalu turun. 25 April, dimana pasukan terdepan sempat mendapat perlawanan lagi di Sungai Dejaoe, sekitar 3500 pasukan sudah ditugaskan untuk hanya untuk membawa logistik saja. Meskipun dengan segala keterbatasan, hari esoknya (26), Yon #1 sudah berhasil menguasai lanud Hollandia, dan sebagian logistik berhasil diterjunkan menggunakan pesawat di Dazai. Sementara itu kendaraan dari kedua ujung juga sudah bisa melewati sebagian jalan. Hari itu juga, di sekitar Weversdorp, unit dari Div #24 sudah bisa mengadakan kontak dengan unit dari Div #41.

peta #3Pergerakan pasukan darat Sekutu
hollandiaPantai yang sangat sempit

Di Teluk Humboldt, pendaratan Div #41 dilakukan di empat lokasi yang diberi sandi White Beach 1-4. Disini juga pendaratan berjalan lancar dan hanya sedikit sekali mendapat perlawanan. Masalah yang dihadapi juga sama saja, yaitu pantai yang terlalu sempit untuk menampung segala muatan kapal-kapal pendarat, dan usaha keras membangun jalan dari pantai ke jalan raya Pim-Hollandia.
Sesegera semua pasukan mendarat, kedua resimen dari Div #41 berpencar. Resimen #162 bergerak menuju kota Hollandia, sementara Resimen #186 bergerak ke arah Sentani. Hari itu juga bukit Pancake dan bukit Jarremoh (kompleks pemancar Polimaq sekarang) bisa dikuasai, dan tanggal 23 siang, kota Hollandia sudah jatuh ke tangan pasukan AS.
Disisi lain, pasukan yang menuju Sentani mengalami sedikit hambatan karena hujan lebat yang membuat jalanan penuh kubangan, juga beberapa perlawanan sporadis dari pasukan Jepang. Pasukan AS juga sempat harus menghemat ransum dan amunisi karena pada tanggal 23 tengah malam, serangan tunggal pesawat tempur Jepang di White Beach 1 menimbulkan ledakan berantai yang menghancurkan 60% logistik dan amunisi AS hingga H+1.
Tanggal 24 sore, pasukan AS sudah menguasai dermaga alam kecil di Koyabu (Yoka) yang bisa digunakan untuk serangan amfibi. 25 pagi, 2 kompi dari Yon 1 memulai gerakan amfibi lewat danau Sentani menuju kampung Nefaar (Netar sekarang), disusul sisa Yon 1 pada siang harinya. 25 Sore, Yon 3 yang bergerak lewat darat (sisi danau Sentani) sudah bergabung. Tanggal 26 pagi, pasukan terdepan dibagi dua dan hari itu juga menguasai lanud Cyclops (jam 10.40) dan, setelah melewati kampung Ifaar, menguasai lanud Sentani (jam 11.30). Seluruh target dinyatakan aman sejam kemudian tanpa pertempuran berarti, dan ketika senja, sudah mampu mengadakan kontak dengan unit dari Divisi #21.

peta #4Pergerakan pasukan Sekutu hingga fase “bersih-bersih”.

Setelah semua target utama operasi dinyatakan tercapai tanggal 26, operasi kemudian dilanjutkan dengan menguasai wilayah sekitar dan membersihkannya dari pasukan Jepang yang tersisa. Pada hari-hari berikutnya pasukan AS bergerak menguasai sisi selatan Gunung Cyclops (tempat markas Komando Mandala Pasifik BaratDaya kemudian dibangun), Tanjung Suaja (Tanjung Ria), Hollekang (Holtekamp sekarang), Goya (Koya) dan Tanjung Jar, lalu menguasai lanud Tami. Lanud ini kemudian sempat dipakai sebagai pangkalan jembatan udara tuk mengangkut logistik dari kapal menuju pasukan di wilayah Sentani yang kesulitan ransum. Pasukan AS juga menyebar dan membangun pos-pos hingga ke Marneda, Teluk Demta, bahkan Genyem. Acara “bersih-bersih” ini selesai per 6 Juni 1944.

Yang bertahan:
Diluar perkiraan sekutu, serangan ke Hollandia ternyata tidak mendapat perlawanan berarti dari pihak Jepang. Selain karena unsur kejutannya, hal ini juga disebabkan oleh terbatasnya waktu dan sumberdaya yang dimiliki Jepang untuk memindahkan elemen tempur darat yang signifikan ke Hollandia atau memperkuat pasukan yang sudah ada. Per 22 April 1944, dari sekitar 11.000 pasukan Jepang di Hollandia, hanya 500an saja pasukan darat dari unit anti serangan udara. Sisanya berasal dari pasukan udara, laut dan unit-unit pendukung lainnya.

peta #5Gerakan mundur pasukan Jepang

22 April pagi, Mayjen Inada yang mengambilalih komando Jepang di Hollandia, menyusun perlawanan semampunya dan masih sempat mengkoordinasikan perlawanan di Sabron. Tetapi sebagian besar pasukannya segera kabur ke pegunungan sesaat setelah kapal-kapal AS melakukan bombardir, dan pada malam itu juga Mayjen Inada sudah memerintahkan mundur teratur. Tanpa perbekalan yang semuanya tersimpan di sekitar Teluk Humboldt, Jepang mundur ke arah Genyem, dimana mereka mengadakan proyek pertanian. Tanggal 30 April, sekitar 7000 tentara Jepang mengorganisasikan diri dalam 10 kelompok, tanpa peta dan perbekalan terbatas, memulai long march menuju Sarmi lewat jalan setapak di hutan; sebagian lagi ada yang ke Demta, desa pantai 25km di barat Depapre. Karena penyekatan pasukan AS, tersesat, kelaparan, luka, kelelahan dan penyakit, perjalanan ini menjadi mematikan, dan hanya sekitar 7% yang sampai di Sarmi. Secara total, hanya sekitar 1000an orang tentara Jepang yang selamat dari penyerbuan Hollandia. 3300an orang terbunuh atau ditemukan tewas, dan sisanya (hampir 7000) hilang. Di lain pihak, hanya 124 pasukan AS yang gugur, 1057 terluka dan 28 hilang.

Hollandia, sesudah invasi.
Sesudah invasi sukses, Sekutu kemudian membangun berbagai fasilitas militer, terutama bagi Armada Ketujuh, yang tersebar mulai dari Teluk Tanahmerah hingga Tanjung Suadja. Seluruh instalasi militer di Hollandia dan sekitarnya itu kemudian diberi kode alfabetik “Base G”.

bases2-p306Kesibukan tentara AS di pelabuhan yang sedang dibangun

Jend. D. MacArthur lalu memindahkan markas besar Komando Mandala Pasifik Baratdaya dari Brisbane ke Hollandia pada Agustus 1944, di sebuah bukit yang sekarang disebut Ifar Gunung, sekitar 4km diutara lanud Cyclops. Bersama mabes SWPA turut bermarkas di juga komando-komando dibawahnya a.l.: Armada #7, AD #6, AD #8, AU Sekutu dan Tentara Darat Sekutu.
Selanjutnya dalam perang, Hollandia kemudian menjadi titik awal bagi serbuan-serbuan Sekutu berikutnya ke P. Wakde, P. Biak, P. Numfor, Sansapor, dan P. Morotai, hingga pendaratan di P. Luzon, Filipina. Sementara itu AD #18 Jepang yang terkunci di sekitar Wewak akibat operasi ini, berhasil dikalahkan pada akhir Agustus.

Seusai perang.
Seiring dengan berakhirnya PD II, pada Desember 1945 AS menjual segala fasilitas militernya di Hollandia kepada pemerintah Hindia Belanda, yang lalu mewariskannya kepada pemerintah RI sesudah operasi Trikora (sesudah itu Hollandia dinamakan Soekarnopura, lalu Jayapura). Sebagian besar fasilitas militer yang dibangun pasukan MacArthur lalu jatuh ke tangan militer Indonesia, terutama ke Kodam XVII Trikora, termasuk kompleks mako MacArthur di Ifar Gunung, Sentani yang kini menjadi Resimen Induk Kodam (Rindam), dan instalasi Kodam di sekitar Kloofkamp, termasuk kompleks Kodam lama. Tempat pendaratan Sekutu di White Beach 1 & 2 menjadi kompleks perumahan AL, sementara Lanud Hollandia AFAIK dijadikan pangkalan AU di Jayapura (tanpa fasilitas penerbangan). Adapun pelabuhan Armada #7 dan lanud Sentani (bandar udara Sentani sekarang) difungsikan sebagai pintu gerbang umum masuk ke Jayapura. Ada juga bangunan-bangunan yang dikuasai sipil dan sudah beralih fungsi atau dirobohkan. Hanya lanud Cycloops yang tidak dapat saya pastikan lagi tempatnya. Walaupun ada tempat yang saya curigai berdasarkan perkiraan posisinya dari peta dan beberapa quonset hut -bangunan logam rakitan setengah silinder yang menjadi ciri khas konstruksi peninggalan korps zeni militer AS jaman PD II- didekat situ.
Akan halnya peninggalan bukan bangunan seperti bangkai-bangkai kendaraan militer yang begitu banyak terserak di sekitar lokasi pendaratan, sudah habis dijual sebagai besi tua oleh masyarakat lokal. Sementara sisa bom, mortir dan peluru yang tidak meledak saat serangan Sekutu, tak ada habis-habisnya ditemukan dan digunakan sebagai bahan baku bom ikan oleh masyarakat lokal. BTW, sebuah drum BBM supertebal peninggalan USAAF masih saya pakai sebagai drum air di rumah saya sekarang.

20090414_024726_monumenTugu MacArthur di Ifar Gunung sekarang. Klik untuk melihat prasastinya.

Encore:
Sebuah tugu di pantai Hamadi menandai peristiwa pendaratan Sekutu, sementara tugu lainnya di Abepantai menandai kedatangan pasukan Jepang 2 tahun sebelumnya. Keduanya, bersama puluhan quonset hut yang masih bertebaran di penjuru kota, dan Tugu MacArthur di kompleks Rindam, menjadi pengingat akan perang besar yang pernah melewati Jayapura, yang ceritanya makin samar dan terlupakan ini. Bahkan ada informasi resmi yang sesat pula! Jadi, mumpung belum ada perang lagi, mari kita rayakan hidup ini

2.Dai Nippon Occupation Sumatera under the command from Singapore(syonato) Dai Nippon Military administration (Gunseikanbu) Malaya .(from march 192=42 until march,1st 1943,after that the command at BukittinggI,except Riau Island still under Singapore)

(1) Pictures Collections

a.DAI NIPPON POSTER AT JAVA 1942

toon_a.jpg (46119 bytes)

(2) Postal History Collections

Due to diffucty of trasporatation and communicatiobs, each the command of each area issued their own overprint to the Dutch Queen (kon.) stamps and also numeric and dancer stamps.

Sumatra under Dai Nippon center Singapore)

 
24.8.1943 Fragment Dai nippon acheh star overprint used at Koetaraja(now bandar Aceh)
5.3.1943 Japan homeland stamp used at medan
28.3.1943 Violet Dai nippon est sumatra overprint Postcard staioner 31/2 cent DEI , postally used from Tarutung.
postally used Black Dai Nippon verprint east sumatra on Postcard Stationer DEI 31/2 cent
16.4.1943 .Small Dai Nippon west Sumatra overprint, postally used postcard cds Medan .
Rare DN overprint Hinomaru Tapanuli
2.7.1942 Fragment Dai nippon overprin west sumatra cross early used Sidjoendjoeng.
Used Dai nippon overprint Hinomaru tapanuli

The photocopy of ex Dr Iwan S collection : Nippon MA overprin Jambi on Tax stamps used as regular stamps

Dai Nippon Bold west sumatra Dai nippon Yubin overpint lettersheet 71/2 cent (restored) 23.12.1944. Japan homeland definitif stamp used at Batusangkar west sumatra. 6.10.1944 Dai nippon poostcard stationer 31/2 cent send from padang to Painan Rejoined middle sumatra dai Nippon cross overprint oh the photocopy of Didik coolection Postally used cover from Pakanbaru to Syonato(Singapore) return to sender because the written language forbidden. The photocopy of ex Dr iwan s. collection : Straits 1 cent overprint Dai Nippon single frame (type 2) cds Padang 5.2.1943, during under Singapore Dai nippn military administration. 8.12.1943.Rejoined Middle sumatra Dai Nippon yubin and cross overprin on the photocopy of postally used cove send from pajakumbuh to Padang rejoined oc Dai nippon Yubin overprin on Karbou Kriesrler stamp with the photocopy one.send from West sumatra Resident to ChicoSaibancho Boekittinggi, below wrong info sent from padang Pandjang to Solo. Rejoined fragment with photocopy, Japan postcard stationer 2c with DN overprint 1 1/2 cent used at Bukittinggi fromm Resident west sumatra padang to chicko Sai bancho Boekittinggi

13.7.1943 Rejoined fragment with the photocopy Japanese postal stationer 2c,overprint Dai nippon added 1 1/2 cent , used ad Bukittingi 18.3.17.
The photocopy of Straits postal stationer used at Bintan riouw Island, this area still under Singapore center DN military admin. from 1942 -1945 different from another sumatra island only until April 1st 1943 center move to Bukittingi(Didik collection)
Palembang Dai Nippon square overprin used cds Prabumoelih (King moved) the oil city south Sumatra ,my son work at Indonesia Oil company Pertamina sumatra center explortaion & production center.
Palembang Dai Nipponsquare overprint also used in other south sumatra , used CDS Pagaralam south sumatra.
2.3.1943. palembang Dai Nippon square overprint, used CDS 18.3.2,this time sumatra still under Singapore Dai nippon Military adminsitration, al Sumatra area had got permission to overprint the Dutch East Indie stamps with Ryal Head picture, but also the other deffinitive,but different in Java no emergency ovpt because different military administration.
Dai Nippon Postmaster Initial overprint on DEI Kon 10 cent, IPL(I.Piet lengkong) postmaster palembang first from his sihnet ring and hthen five type of IPL , the other Post office also issue the Ring signet or handsign overprint from all post office at south Sumatra-look at Dainippon occupation Sumatra catalogue, the guinined overprint very rare on postally used cover (please report)
Rare Dai nippon Bangka overprint on DEI kon 10 cent , used CDS Soegai Liat 17.10.1943.
3.8.1942. Dai nippon emergency overprint Lampong Hinomaru red ball , type 1 during Sumatra under DN Singapore administration(April 1st 1942-1943), very rare, Ihave sold one postally used cover with this stamps to bulterman that put in his catalogue.
26.12.1943 Rare Dai Nippon Lampong ovpt. on DEI Kon 10 cent CDS Telok Betong after Dai Nippon center move from Singapore to Bukittinggi

2. Eastren Area Of Indonesia Under dai Nippon  Naval Administration,

center at Macasar South Celebes)

(1) Pictures Collections

(2)Postal History Collections

(a) Borneo

(a1) West Borneo :

Pontianak

 Pemangkat

 Other city

(a2) South Borneo :

Banjarmasin

Other City

(a3) East Borneo :

Balikpapan

Samarinda

Tarakan

other city

(b) Celebes:

 (b1)Macassar

 (b2)Manado 

(c) Molluca

 (1) Ambon

\

(2) other area

(d) Small Sunda Island (Bali and Nusatenggara)

(d1) Bali

 (d2) Ampenan

(d3 )other area.

3.The Dai Nippon Occupation Java postal and Documen History 1945(March ,8th until Dec.31th 1945-2605 Dai nippon Year)

Prolog

1.January 1942

On the 10th of January 1942, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies. The newspapers brought us a lot of bad news. My father had long ago advised me to read some of the articles I liked from the Malanger and the Javabode starting since I was almost eleven years old, so now I could read all the bad news in the papers when I was at our Sumber Sewu, plantation home near the East Java city of Malang during the weekends.

Now and then we saw Japanese planes flying over Java. I found it all strange and very unreal. The only Japanese I knew where those living in Malang; they were always very polite and friendly towards us. But from now on Japan was our enemy.(true story By Elma)

2.February 1942

(1)February,12th.1942.

The Battle Of Palembang

The Dai Nippon  paratroops army  by parachute landed at Palembang and the oil area at plaju near Palembang were attack and occupied ,look the pictures.

(2)FEBRUARY,14TH,1942

On Saturday the 14th of February 1942,

 my father came to fetch Henny (my younger sister) and I from our boarding-school for the weekend. We went into town where we did some shopping for my mother and next we went to the Javasche Bank. When my father came out of the bank, we heard and then saw Japanese planes coming over. This time they machine-gunned Malang. I saw two working men, who were hit, falling from the roof where they were busy. They were dead, we saw them lying in their blood on the street. I had never seen dead people before; Henny and I were deeply shocked. Henny started crying, my father took us both quickly away from this very sad sight.

(3)FEBRUARY,15TH. 1942

On Sunday the 15th of February we received the bad news over the radio that Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands. Indeed, that was a very sad Sunday. Who had ever thought that Singapore could fall? Were the Japanese so much stronger than the Allies? And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle. The 8th of March 1942, the Dutch Army on Java surrendered to the Japanese Army.

..

.Jungle and Indian Ocean

Soon it was the New Year. We had no more Japanese visitors. There were not many Dutch or other Europeans outside of camps. In Malang there was already a camp for men called Marine Camp. And another camp, we were told, called De Wijk, prepared to house women and children. Taking a long, last walk through the rubber plantations and jungle, my father and I beheld the Indian Ocean. My father looked at me and said, “I have to ask you something, you are almost 16 so you are old enough. I want you to look after Mama and your sisters when I have to leave Sumber Sewa. Will you promise me that?” I remonstrated, but he insisted and I agreed.

And so, at the beginning of February 1942, my father received a phone call ordering him to leave our home in Sumber Sewu within six days and report to the Marine Camp in Malang. This would be a fateful separation. By now, most Dutch men were internees.

A Japanese visitor

(1)March,3th,1942

Gen.Immamura&staff.
Dai Nippon landing
Banten attack Map 1942
Indramajoe Landing Map 1942
Front Capitulation cover 1942
Back Capitulation cover 1942
DEI Marines 1942

THE DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION IN INDONESIA COLLECTION

1.MARCH 1st 2002

(1) Early in the morning this day, Dai Nippon forces landing in Java and succeeded withou any struggle by DEI forces(KNIL) and Indonesia Native people accepted DN Frces with up the DN and Indnesian national flag because Dai Nippon propaganda before the war that Indonesia will Independent when they occupied Indonesia,
Three Dai Nippon Forces Landing area in Java:
(a) Banten Beach at Merak with route Merak-Serang-Rangkasbitung-Leuwiliang-Buitenzorg(Bogor)-Kragilan-Tanggerang-Batavia under the command of the commander-in-chief 16th Dai Nippon forces Lt.Gen.Hitoshi Immamura, with the 2nd Division under Commander May.Gen. Maruyama, and the 49th Division under Commander May.Gen Tsuchi Hashi , also Brigade under commander May gen.
Sakaguchi and one Resimen under commander Col, Shoji.
Three Illustrations:
(ill.1) Gen.Immamura profile
(ill.2) Dai Nippon Landing
(1ll.3) The Vintage Dutch Map of Banten 1942: Merak beach landing area, and the route attack Searanf-Rangkasbitung,Leiwilliang Buitenzorg, Tanggerang- Batavia.
Caption : DN route map Banten 1942
(b) Eretan Wetan near Indramajoe
(ill 4) The Vintage Dutch Map of Indramjoe Dai Nippon landing area 1942,caption Indramajoe map 1942
(c) Krangan Rembang middle Java,
The fleet of Dai Nippon Naval Forces reach the Krangan coast ,a village between Rembang and Lasem, about 160 km west of Soerabaja.
The Sakaguchi detachment from Balikpapan joined this invasion fleet. After landing divided into 3 units with 1 battalion of 124th Infantry Regiment :
(c.1) Col.Yamamoto,1st Battalion unit.
(c.2) Mayor Kaneuji, 2nd Battalion unit.
(c.3) Let.Col.Matsimoto,3rd battalion unit.
In one week ,they advanced rapidly and overcome all Dutch army defended in Blora ,Solo ,Bojolali-Yogja ,Magelang and Ambarawa
the Map will illustrated

(2) All of the West Java Postal office were closed not opretated inculding Tjiandjoer.
(1ll.5) Postally free postally used Geadvisers (Registered) cover with Commander of the forces and the Departmen of War’s chief (Commandant Leger en hoofd departement van Oorlog ) official Headquaters Stamped send from The Dutch East Indie Forces Head Quaters Bandoeng CDS Bandoeng Riaow Str 27.2.42, arrival Cds Tjiandjoer 28.2.42 and after that the post office closed, open after capitulaition CDS Tjiandjoer 4.4.42 Onafgeh. and ret.afzd handwritten postmark (Cann’t delivered and return to sender) , arrived back CDS Bandoeng 6.4.42 (during dai nippon occupation0 to Dai Nippon Forces Headquaters in java .(The very rare Dai Nippon capitulation Postal History collection from the DEI forces headquaters back to Dai nippon forces Bandoeng Headquaters only one ever seen, if the collecters have the same collectins please send information via comment-Dr iwan S.)
Caption : capitulation cover 1942

(3) DEI Marine Defendwork Offive Letter during DN landing at west and Central Java.
Veryrare Letter from Marine Defensiewerk (Defense Worl office) sign by the chief van Schooninveld. the conduete latter of B Kasiman who work as opzichert (civilian official) at the Soerabaya Marine office from Augist 1941 to March 1942, the letter date April 1st 1942.
(Ill.6) The DEI Marine Soerabaya letter during DN landing west java, caption DEI Marine letter 1942

Dai Nippon Army Landed at Merak, and other area

 (2)March,5th.1942 Batavia(Jakarta) occupied by dai Nippon Army lead by Let.General Immamura

 

A Japanese soldier outside oil tanks near Jakarta destroyed by Dutch forces in March,5th. 1942

 (3)MARCH ,9th.1942.

The 9th of March, when we were in the recreation-room from our boarding-school while all the girls were looking through the windows into the streets, the Japanese entered Malang. Henny and I stood there together.

They came on bicycles or were just walking. They looked terrible, all with some cloth attached at the back of their caps, they looked very strange to us. This was a type of Japanese we had never seen before. Much later I learnt that many Koreans also served as shock-troops in the Japanese Army.

The nuns went to the chapel to pray for all those living in the Dutch East Indies.  But the Dutch East Indies is lost forever.

Dutch a forbidden language

My father found it too dangerous for my mother and youngest sister Jansje to stay with him at Sumber Sewu, because there were still small groups of Australian, English and Dutch military fighting in the mountains in East Java against the Japanese troops, notwithstanding the fact that the Dutch East Indies government and Army had surrendered.

My mother and Jansje came to stay at our boarding school [at Malang], where there were small guest rooms. We all stayed inside the building, only the Indonesians working for the nuns went outside to do the shopping.

A few days later we received the order that all Dutch schools had to be closed down, so several parents came to take their daughters. The school looked empty and abandoned. We all felt very sad, our happy schooldays were over.

Dutch became a strictly forbidden language. Luckily we had a huge library at school so I had lots of books to read in those days.

A few weeks later my father phoned my mother and said that the four of us should return to Sumber Sewu as he had heard that Malang was no longer a safe place for us to stay.

I was really very happy to be back home. Rasmina, our cook, and Pa Min, our gardener, were happy to have my mother back again. There was absolutely nothing to fear on the plantation, the “Indonesians” (actually Javanese and Madurese) on the plantation were nice as ever and we didn’t see any Japanese soldiers around.

Indeed we were safer at Sumber Sewu. Life began to feel like a vacation,

I started walking with my father again and visited the local kampung (village) and since we had no more newspapers to read, I started reading several of my parent’s books.

We received a Japanese flag, together with the order that the flag had to be respected and had to hang in the garden in front of our house.

My father no longer received his salary, just like all the other Dutch, British, Americans and Australians, living in Indonesia. All our bank accounts were blocked; no one was even allowed to touch their own money.

We still had rabbits and eggs to eat, and several vegetables my mother and Pa Min had planted long before the war in the kitchen garden, and we had many fruit trees.

The thought that we might have to leave Sumber Sewu made me feel very sad. To me this plantation was a real paradise on earth, with its pond in front of the house with the two proud banyan trees, the lovely garden my mother and Pa Min had made, the kitchen where Rasmina made so many delicious meals. The sounds early in the morning, and the sounds in the evening were also very special, I can still remember them so well.

Of course we hoped that this Japanese occupation would soon be over. My father had broken the seal of the radio, hoping that he could get some more news from outside Java.

 

 

My mother and her three daughters.

(4)

 In this month all the post office in Java not operational the letter send from Bandung February 17 1942 to Tjiandjoer arrived in february,28th,but cannot bring to sender because of the Dai nippon landed at Merak and marching to Jakarta (batavia) March,5th and capitulation Kalidjati Armyport March,8th 1942. this letter send to sender but cannot found  and the sletter send back to sender April, 4th 1942 . Please look carefully this  very rare historic postal used cover from DEI Armed forces Headquater Bandung official free stamp covers and return back to Dai Nippon Occupation Military Headquater Bandung below

front

back

2)March,8th 1942 Capitulation Dai nippon at Kalidjati military airport, The Dutch Armed Forces surrender (1) The House of capitulation’s Meeting now

(a) Interior still same meubeleur

(b)Exterior

(2)The Position of the capitulations meeting participant.

(c)The Original Photos

Let General Hitoshi Immamura the command of Dai nippon Army

had the cpitulation Meeting at kalidjati army port March 7th at night ,Immamura didnot want to meet with the ex DEI Govenorgeneral Tjarda

and the meeting only with the command od DEI Army General Ter Porten and Kastaf Col Bakkers

, and DEI Army surrender which announced at the newpaper morning March,8th, and the second meeting at Kalidjati 10 am with bring the list of DEI army powers. Immamura write in his memoir that they have sign the capitulation acta which never seen anymore (lost), after meeting they made a photo in the front of the meeting house which still exist now with the same meubelueur. look the photos below.

(c1) Interior

 (c2) exterior

very difficult to find the original clear photos of the kalidjati capitulation meeting, all the pictures were taken by Dr Huesein at the location now which given to me not so clear, who have the original clear photos please show us.

2.April 1942

1)except Surabaya the DEI Govement still operation :

(1)The DEI marine still issued the recomendations letter

(2)the PTT  still issued the telephone  bill for april 1942.look below at April collectionsApril.1st 1945 .Surabaja.Ned.indie.Revenue stamp .PTT Phone Bill.

a.Front

 b. back

(2) April,3rd1942,soerabaja,Recieved Of Buying Breadpaper, DEI Revenue stamped

(4) April,14th 1942,the DEI overtoon document (Surat hutang) handwritten sur charge to Indonesia Language ,the DEI change to Pemerintah balatentara Dai Nippon(DN army Government)

3.May 1942(1942)

(1) May,3th.1942, Koedoes,Recieved of Dai Nippon Postal saving bank(Chokin kyoku ) with the chokin  label and book

(2)May,14th 1942 ,Sitoebondo,Legalization of Radio Permit of DEI 1941 document with DEI revenue that time,no Dai Nippon special revenue (all the radio band were closed only open for Dai nippon channel only)

Inside

Frontside

Legalized DEI C7 Adress card with Kon stamp 10 cent issued at Batoe Malang east java ,by Dai nippon in Indonesia language with handwritten

 Beside the road in jakarta,dai nippon put their  propaganda radio on the pole,look the book illustration from magazine july 2602

4. June 2602(1) June 11th 2602 DEI Postal stationer CDS Bandoeng send to Semarang.(all DEI postal issued without Queen Wilhelmina picture permit to used without overprint in Java.This is the earliest postal stationer card used during Dai Nippon Occupation Java.

 5.July 2602

(1) july,7th 2602 billing recieved, DEI Revenue,and Dai nippon Calender date 2602

(2)July,11th 2602, The Dai nippon Liscence to print a book at the front page

6.August 2602 

on the 11th of August in , that I read in the Dutch newspaper, De Telegraaf, that many more people had seen what my father and I witnessed that day in 1942.  Other people had seen many of these men transported in bamboo baskets not only in trucks but also in trains. The article said that the men had been pushed into the bamboo baskets, transported, and then, while still in those baskets, thrown into the Java Sea. Most of the men in the bamboo baskets were Australian military.

I have often wondered: Did my father learn what happened to those poor men we saw that day? Did   the local people see it as well? I shall never know.

Come! Let’s walk home

It was strange that we didn’t get Japanese military visitors at Sumber Sewu since they went to Wonokerto the head plantation and other plantations as well, and asked many questions there. My parents were of course more than pleased that the Japanese hadn’t visited Sumber Sewu yet

7.September 2602The first Dai nippon 2602 Zegel van Ned indie Imprint used adi nippon year but still used the same imprint zegel of DEI emblem, used at Magelang Polytechnic middle school certificate

8.October 1942

(1)one day at the end of October 1942, when my father and I walked back home for lunch, we heard a lot of noise. It was the sound of trucks coming in our direction as we were walking on a main road. So we quickly walked off the road and hid behind some coffee bushes. We saw five trucks coming and we heard people screaming. When the trucks passed we could see and hear everything, especially since we were sitting higher than the road. What we saw came as a real shock to both of us.

We saw that the open truck platforms were loaded with bamboo baskets, a type of basket used to transport pigs. But the bamboo baskets we saw that day were not used for pigs but for men. They were lying crammed in those baskets, all piled up three to four layers of baskets high. This sight shocked us deeply, but the screaming of all those poor men, for help and for water, in English and Dutch, shocked us even more. I heard my father softly saying; “Oh my God?”

We walked home without saying a word. We had just come out of a nightmare. Even today I can still hear the harsh voices of these poor men crying and screaming for help and for water.

At lunch time my father told my mother the whole story — she could hardly believe that people could do such things. She asked who were driving the trucks. My father told her that in each truck he had seen a Japanese driver and another Japanese sitting next to them.

This tragedy that I saw together with my father happened in the mountains of East Java.

(2)October 26th 2602(1942)

Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

9.November 2602

(1)one day in November 1942 my parents received a phone call from the police in nearby Ampelgading. My father had to bring his car to the police station. It was summarily confiscated. Still, he was happy to have my company on this very difficult afternoon.  We went by car but– a real humiliation – we had to walk back home.

When my father came back from work, he said that he really hoped that the Americans and Aussies would come soon to rescue us all from this Japanese occupation of Indonesia.  Many Dutch civilian men were now interned all over Java, but not only men, as the Japanese had also started to open camps for women with their children as well.

We were still “free” but for how long?

 (2) November,9th 2602.Solo, the earliest Dai Nippon Plakzegel revenue Stamped.

10.December 2602

(1) December,25th.1942

Christmas 1942

My mother did her utmost in the kitchen to prepare a nice Christmas meal. And then at last it was the 25th of December, 1942. It must have been around 12 noon when we started our delicious Christmas meal, sitting there all six happy around the table.

All of a sudden we heard Pa Min calling; “Orang Nippon, orang Nippon.” (lit. Japanese).  My father stood up and went to the front door, my mother took little Jansje by her hand and they went to the living room. Cora went to our bedroom with a book; she was very scared.  Henny and I stood at the back of the house and so we could see that there were about six or seven Japanese military getting out of two cars. One of them was an officer. Directly approaching my father, he said that his men had received an order to search the house for weapons. My father told him that there were no weapons hidden in the house. 

It was our last Christmas as a whole family together. I can still feel the special warmth of that gathering we had that day because, notwithstanding the Japanese military visit, we were still together

(2)December,31th 2602.

the document of Dai Nippon lend the Car

1)original document

 2) translate of the document

 

1943

1.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

Bab Tiga(Chapter Three):

The Dai nippon Military Java Postal History  

1.October 26th 2602(1942),Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

2.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

3.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .

Rare Dai Nippon Guntjo Pos Losarang with house of delivery(Rumah Pos) Stamped on postal stationer card 2603(1943)

Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus

Frontside

Backside

Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)

C.Occupation

Bab Empat(Chapter Four);

.The History of Japanese occupation  Indonesia

This article is part of the
History of Indonesia series
History of Indonesia.png
See also:
Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Kutai (4th century)
Tarumanagara (358–669)
Kalingga (6th to 7th century)
Srivijaya (7th to 13th centuries)
Sailendra (8th to 9th centuries)
Sunda Kingdom (669–1579)
Medang Kingdom (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
Spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese occupation (1942–1945)
National revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformasi era (1998–present)
v · d · e

The Japanese Empire occupied Indonesia during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of War in 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history.

The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch in Indonesia—it ended the Dutch colonial rule—and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesia Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier.[1] Under German occupation itself, the Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, and less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces, ending over 300 years of Dutch colonial presence in Indonesia. In 1944–45, Allied troops largely by-passed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra. As such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of their surrender in August 1945.

The most lasting and profound effects of the occupation were, however, on the Indonesian people. Initially, most had optimistically and even joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters. This sentiment quickly changed as the occupation turned out to be the most oppressive and ruinous colonial regime in Indonesian history. As a consequence, Indonesians were for the first time politicised down to the village level. But this political wakening was also partly due to Japanese design; particularly in Java and to a lesser extent Sumatra, the Japanese educated, trained and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for a claim of Indonesian independence. Following World War II, Indonesians pursued a bitter five-year diplomatic, military and social struggle before securing that independence.

Contents

 

Background

Until 1942, Indonesia was colonised by the Netherlands and was known as the Netherlands East Indies. In 1929, during the Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian nationalists leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta (later founding President and Vice President), foresaw a Pacific War and that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might be advantageous for the independence cause.[2]

The Japanese spread the word that they were the ‘Light of Asia’. Japan was the only Asian nation that had successfully transformed itself into a modern technological society at the end of the nineteenth century and it remained independent when most Asian countries had been under European or American power, and had beaten a European power, Russia, in war.[3] Following its military campaign in China Japan turned its attention to Southeast Asia advocating to other Asians a ‘Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere’, which they described as a type of trade zone under Japanese leadership. The Japanese had gradually spread their influence through Asia in the first half of the twentieth century and during the 1920s and 1930s had established business links in the Indies. These ranged from small town barbers, photographic studios and salesmen, to large department stores and firms such as Suzuki and Mitsubishi becoming involved in the sugar trade.[4] The Japanese population peaked in 1931, with 6,949 residents before starting a gradual decrease, largely due to economic tensions between Japan and the Netherlands Indies government.[5] Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort. Dutch intelligence services also monitored Japanese living in Indonesia.[6] A number of Japanese had been sent by their government to establish links with Indonesian nationalists, particularly with Muslim parties, while Indonesian nationalists were sponsored to visit Japan. Such encouragement of Indonesian nationalism was part of a broader Japanese plan for an ‘Asia for the Asians’.[7]

In November 1941, Madjlis Rakjat Indonesia, an Indonesian organization of religious, political and trade union groups, submitted a memorandum to the Dutch East Indies Government requesting the mobilization of the Indonesian people in the face of the war threat.[8] The memorandum was refused because the Government did not consider the Madjlis Rakyat Indonesia to be representative of the people. Within only four months, the Japanese had occupied the archipelago.

The Invasion

Main article: Netherlands East Indies campaign

Japanese advance through Indonesia, 1942

On December 8, 1941, Netherlands declared war on Japan.[9] In January the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM) was formed to co-ordinate Allied forces in South East Asia. On the night of January 10–11, 1942, the Japanese attacked Menado in Sulawesi. At about the same moment they attacked Tarakan, a major oil extraction centre and port in the north east of Borneo. On February 27, the Allied fleet was defeated in the Battle of the Java Sea. From February 28 to March 1, 1942, Japanese troops landed on four places along the northern coast of Java almost undisturbed. On March 8, the Allied forces in Indonesia surrendered. The colonial army was consigned to detention camps and Indonesian soldiers were released. European civilians were interned once Japanese or Indonesian replacements could be found for senior and technical positions.[10]

Outline of the Japanese entry in Batavia, as imagined by the Japanese

Liberation from the Dutch was initially greeted with optimistic enthusiasm by Indonesians who came to meet the Japanese army waving flags and shouting support such as “Japan is our older brother” and “banzai Dai Nippon“.

The Indonesians abandoned their colonial masters in droves and openly welcomed the Japanese as liberators. As the Japanese advanced, rebellious Indonesians in virtually every part of the archipelago killed small groups of Europeans (particularly the Dutch) and informed the Japanese reliably on the whereabouts of larger groups[11]

In Aceh, the local population rebelled against the Dutch colonial authorities, even before the arrival of the Japanese. As renowned Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer noted:

With the arrival of the Japanese just about everyone was full of hope, except for those who had worked in the service of the Dutch.[12]

The occupation

Indonesia under the Japanese occupation [13]

Initially Japanese occupation was welcomed by the Indonesians as liberators.[14] During the occupation, the Indonesian nationalist movement increased in popularity. In July 1942, leading nationalists like Sukarno accepted Japan’s offer to rally the public in support of the Japanese war effort. Both Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1943.

Japanese rulers divided Indonesia into three regions; Sumatra was placed under the 25th Army, Java and Madura were under the 16th Army, while Borneo and eastern Indonesia were controlled by the Navy 2nd South Fleet. The 16th and 25th Army were headquartered in Singapore[1] and also controlled Malaya until April 1943, when its command was narrowed to just Sumatra and the headquarters moved to Bukittinggi. The 16th Army was headquartered in Jakarta, while the 2nd South Fleet was headquartered in Makassar.

Internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945

Experience of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one’s social position. Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as unfree labour (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam Railway, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. People of Dutch and mixed Dutch-Indonesian descent were particular targets of the Japanese occupation and were interned.

During the World War II occupation, tens of thousands of Indonesians were to starve, work as slave labourers, or be forced from their homes. In the National Revolution that followed, tens, even hundreds, of thousands (including civilians), would die in fighting against the Japanese, Allied forces, and other Indonesians, before Independence was achieved.[15] A later United Nations report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths.[16]

Netherlands Indian roepiah – the Japanese occupation currency

Materially, whole railway lines, railway rolling stock, and industrial plants in Java were appropriated and shipped back to Japan and Manchuria. British intelligence reports during the occupation noted significant removals of any materials that could be used in the war effort.

The only prominent opposition politician was leftist Amir Sjarifuddin who was given 25,000 guilders by the Dutch in early 1942 to organise an underground resistance through his Marxist and nationalist connections. The Japanese arrested Amir in 1943, and he only escaped execution following intervention from Sukarno, whose popularity in Indonesia and hence importance to the war effort was recognised by the Japanese. Apart from Amir’s Surabaya-based group, the most active pro-Allied activities were among the Chinese, Ambonese, and Menadonese.[17]

Indonesian nationalism

Young Indonesian boys being trained by the Japanese Army

During the occupation, the Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalistic feeling, created new Indonesian institutions, and promoted nationalist leaders such as Sukarno. In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese proved fundamental for coming Indonesian independence.[15]

The Japanese regime perceived Java as the most politically sophisticated but economically the least important area; its people were Japan’s main resource. As such—and in contrast to Dutch suppression—the Japanese encouraged Indonesian nationalism in Java and thus increased its political sophistication (similar encouragement of nationalism in strategic resource-rich Sumatra came later, but only after it was clear the Japanese would lose the war). The outer islands under naval control, however, were regarded as politically backward but economically vital for the Japanese war effort, and these regions were governed the most oppressively of all. These experiences and subsequent differences in nationalistic politicisation would have profound impacts on the course of the Indonesian Revolution in the years immediately following independence (1945–1950).

In addition to new-found Indonesian nationalism, equally important for the coming independence struggle and internal revolution was the Japanese orchestrated economic, political and social dismantling and destruction of the Dutch colonial state.[15]

End of the occupation

Japanese commanders listening to the terms of surrender

General MacArthur had wanted to fight his way with Allied troops to liberate Java in 1944-45 but was ordered not to by the joint chiefs and President Roosevelt. The Japanese occupation thus officially ended with Japanese surrender in the Pacific and two days later Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence. However Indonesian forces would have to spend the next four years fighting the Dutch for its independence. American restraint from fighting their way into Java certainly saved many Japanese, Javanese, Dutch and American lives. On the other hand, Indonesian independence would have likely been achieved more swiftly and smoothly had MacArthur had his way and American troops occupied Java.[18]

Liberation of the internment camps holding western prisoners was not swift. Sukarno, who had Japanese political sponsorship starting in 1929 and continuing into Japanese occupation, convinced his countrymen that these prisoners were a threat to Indonesia’s independence movement. Largely because they were political bargaining chips with which to deal with the colonizer, but also largely to humiliate them; Sukarno forced Westerners back into Japanese concentration camps, still run by armed Japanese soldiers. While there certainly was enough labor to garrison these camps with Indonesian soldiers, Sukarno chose to allow his former ally to maintain authority. Conditions were better during post war internment than under previous internment, this time Red Cross supplies were made available and the Allies made the Japanese order the most heinous and cruel occupiers home. After four months of post war internment Western internees were released on the condition they leave Indonesia.

Most of the Japanese military personnel and civilian colonial administrators were repatriated to Japan following the war, except for several hundred who were detained for investigations into war crimes, for which some were later put on trial. About 1,000 Japanese soldiers deserted from their units and assimilated into local communities. Many of these soldiers provided assistance to rebel forces during the Indonesian National Revolution.[19]

Japanese soldiers on trial.

The first stages of warfare were initiated in October 1945 when, in accordance with the terms of their surrender, the Japanese tried to re-establish the authority they relinquished to Indonesians in the towns and cities. Japanese military police killed Republican pemuda in Pekalongan (Central Java) on 3 October, and Japanese troops drove Republican pemuda out of Bandung in West Java and handed the city to the British, but the fiercest fighting involving the Japanese was in Semarang. On 14 October, British forces began to occupy the city. Retreating Republican forces retaliated by killing between 130 and 300 Japanese prisoners they were holding. Five hundred Japanese and 2000 Indonesians had been killed and the Japanese had almost captured the city six days later when British forces arrived

________________________________________________________________

The official Office Stamped during Dai nippon War In Java(restored)

1. Official Keraton Jogya

2.Dai Nippon Kanji Choped(?)

3.Postal Saving Office

 

4.Madioen Student(Pelajar)

5.District Karangan

6.chief of village

 

PSThe Dai Nippon Occupation postal and document history  from other time and area In Indonesia only for Premium Member,please subscribe via comment, and we will tell you the regulations via your e.mail adress.this improtant for security the web blog.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Anomali Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak Yang Dapat Bersifat Ganas Pada Jaringan Saraf Yang Merusak Postur Manusia)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Health Cybermuseum

Buku Karangan Dr Iwan Suwandy:

 Anomaly Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak yang bersifat ganas Jaringan Saraf Dengan Keruskan postur Manusia)

KATA PENGANTAR(Preface)

Neurofibromatosis adalah suatu kelainan(anomali atau Osis) Medis akibat pertumbuhan jaringan(fibro) saraf(neuro) baru (neoplasma atau tumor) yang abnormal ,walaupun bersifat jinak,tetapi kerusakan yang ditimbulkannya bersifat ganas karena  merusak postur tubuh dan wajah penderita.

Tanpa melihat pasien secara langsung , pasti anda tidak akan dapat membayangkan bagaimana penampilan penderita , bagi yang ringan saya sudah pernah lihat seperti tubuh dengan pembengkakan  jaringan kulit yang sangat banyak ibarat seperti pohon dengan buah yang bergantungan, tetapi pada kasus yang ekstrim terlihat seperti seorang manusia monster, kasus ini baru saja dilaporkan oleh para dokter ahli tumor(Onkologi) dari Rumah Sakit(Hospital) di Amerika Serikat, ada dua kasus yang dilaporkan.

Apabila ada yang melihat kasus seperti ini di lingkungan kediamannya ,harap dapat membantu saya dengan mengirimkan foto pasien tersebut dengan riwayat singaktnya.

Saya harap tulisan ini, yang merupakan bagian dari buku karangan saya yang berjudul” MENGENAL DAN MENGATASI ANOMALI MEDIS”

SEHARUSNYA ,KASUS SEPERTI INI TIDAK PERLU TERJADI,APABILA  MASYARAKAT MENGETAHUI PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT(PATOGENESIS) DAN UPAYA MEDIS YANG DAPAT DILAKSANAKAN.

Saya harap tulisan ini dapat menambaH wawasan pembaca,sekaligus mencegah kelainan menjadi anomali yang sangat parah seperti yang dilaporkan oleh sejawat dari Amerika Serikat.

Jakarta .Juni 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

ENGLISH VERSION:

Neurofibromatosis is a disorder (anomaly or Osis) Medical from the growing  tissue (fibro) nerve (neuro) new (neoplasms or tumors) are abnormal, though it may be benign, but malignant demaged caused the  body and face posture ‘s demage .Without view the patients directly, you definitely will not be imaging  how the appearance of the patient, for a light I’ve ever seen as the body with swelling of skin tissue that is very much like a like a tree with hanging fruit, but in extreme cases look like a human monster, the case This new  reported by the physician experts tumor (Oncology) from the Hospital (Hospital) in the United States, there are two reported cases.

If anyone sees a case like this in his home environment, I hope to help by submitting photos of patients with a short history

I hope this paper, which is part of my essay book entitled “KNOW AND OVERCOMING MEDICAL ANOMALY”

SHOULD, LIKE THIS CASE DOES NOT NEED TO HAPPEN, IF PEOPLE KNOW PERKEMABNAGN DISEASE (PAOGENESIS) MEDICAL AND EFFORT THAT CAN BE EXECUTED.

I hope this article can menambas insightful readers, and prevent the disorder becomes severe anomalies as reported by colleagues from the United States.

Jakarta. June 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

CHAPTER ONE:

 STUDI KASUS(CASE STUDY) 1. JENIS KELAINAN(ANOMALIES TYPE)

(1)KASUS SATU(CASE ONE)

 (2).CASE TWO(KASUS DUA)

 2.PERKEMBANGAN KELAINAN(ANOMALIES DEVELOPMENT) A.CASE ONE

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

 

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

B.CASE TWO

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

3.MEDICAL OPERATION(TINDAKAN OPERASI) 

CHAPTER TWO:

THE NEUROFRIBOMATOSIS INFORMATIONS

Neurofibromatosis

 
Neurofibromatosis
Classification and external resources

Back of an elderly woman with neurofibromatosis
ICD10 Q85.0
ICD9 237.7
ICD-O: 9540/0
eMedicine derm/287
MeSH D017253

Neurofibromatosis (commonly abbreviated NF; neurofibromatosis type 1 is also known as von Recklinghausen disease) is a genetically-inherited disorder in which the nerve tissue grows tumors (i.e., neurofibromas) that may be benign or may cause serious damage by compressing nerves and other tissues.

The disorder affects all neural crest cells (Schwann cells, melanocytes and endoneurial fibroblasts). Cellular elements from these cell types proliferate excessively throughout the body, forming tumors; melanocytes also function abnormally in this disease, resulting in disordered skin pigmentation and “cafe-au-lait” spots. The tumors may cause bumps under the skin, colored spots, skeletal problems, pressure on spinal nerve roots, and other neurological problems.[1][2]

Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means only one copy of the affected gene is needed for the disorder to develop. Therefore, if only one parent has neurofibromatosis, his or her children have a 50% chance of developing the condition as well. The severity in affected individuals can vary, this may be due to variable expressivity. Approximately half of cases are due to de novo mutations and no other affected family members are seen. It affects males and females equally.

 Classification

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1)

Plexiform neurofibroma on the neck of a patient; plexiform neurofibromas are a cause of morbidity in the affected individuals.

Patient with multiple small cutaneous neurofibromas and a ‘café au lait spot’ (bottom of photo, to the right of centre). A biopsy has been taken of one of the lesions.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (also known as “von Recklinghausen disease”[1]) is the most common form of NF, accounting for up to 90% of the cases. NF 1 has a disorder frequency of 1 in 4,000, making it more common than neurofibromatosis type 2, with a frequency of 1 in 45,000 people.[3] It occurs following the mutation of neurofibromin on chromosome 17q11.2. 100,000 Americans have neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor gene whose function is to inhibit the p21 ras oncoprotein.[3] In absence of this tumor suppressor’s inhibitory control on the ras oncoprotein, cellular proliferation is erratic and uncontrolled, resulting in unbalanced cellular proliferation and tumor development. The diagnosis of NF1 is made if any two of the following seven criteria are met:

  • Two or more neurofibromas on or under the skin, or one plexiform neurofibroma (a large cluster of tumors involving multiple nerves); neurofibromas are the subcutaneous bumps characteristic of the disease, and increase in number with age.
  • Freckling of the groin or the axilla (arm pit).
  • Café au lait spots (pigmented, light brown macules located on nerves, with a smooth edges(“coast of California”)[4] birthmarks). Six or more measuring 5 mm in greatest diameter in prepubertal individuals and over 15 mm in greatest diameter in postpubertal individuals.

 

NF 1 also increases the risk of tumor development, particularly, meningiomas, gliomas and pheochromocytomas.

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF 2)

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (also called “central neurofibromatosis”[1]) is the result of mutation of the merlin (also known as “schwannomin”[1]) in chromosome 22q12. It accounts for only 10% of all cases of NF, and its frequency is lower than NF1. It is also caused by a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene (NF2 or merlin). The normal function of merlin is not well understood.[3] The disorder manifests in the following fashion:

NF 2 increases the risk of meningiomas and ependymomas.[3]

Schwannomatosis

 

Main article: Schwannomatosis

Schwannomatosis – mutation in both chromosomes 17 and 22

  1. Multiple schwannomas occur.
  2. The schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves.
  3. Chronic pain, and sometimes numbness, tingling and weakness
  4. About 1/3 of patients have segmental schwannomatosis, which means the schwannomas are limited to a single part of the body, such as an arm, a leg or the spine.
  5. Unlike the other forms of NF, the schwannomas do not develop on vestibular nerves, and as a result, no loss of hearing is associated with schwannomatosis.
  6. Patients with schwannomatosis do not have learning disabilities related to the disorder.

One must keep in mind, however, that neurofibromatosis can occur in or affect any of the organ systems, whether that entails simply compressing them (from tumor growth) or in fact altering the organs in some fundamental way. This disparity in the disorder is one of many factors that makes it difficult to diagnose, and eventually find a prognosis for.

 Signs and symptoms

Patients with neurofibromatosis can be affected in many different ways. Morbidity is often a result of plexiform neuromas, optic gliomas, or acoustic neuromas, but mortality can also be associated with malignant transformation of the neuromas, such as neurofibrosarcomas[1] (often there is a malignant transformation in less than 3% of the cases of NF1[3]). There is a high incidence of learning disabilities or cognitive deficit[1][5] in patients with NF, particularly NF-1, however severe retardation is not part of the syndrome. Because of the tumor generating nature of the disorder and its involvement of the nervous system and also because of early onset macrocephaly in the pediatric population, there is often an increased chance of development of epilepsy in those affected. Neurofibromatosis also increases the risk of leukemia particularly in children; Children with NF-1 have 200 to 500 times the normal risk of developing leukemia compared to the general population.[1] Since the tumors grow where there are nerves, they can also grow in areas that are visible, causing considerable social suffering for those affected. The tumors can also grow in places that can cause other medical issues that may require them to be removed for the patient’s safety.[6] Affected individuals may need multiple surgeries (such as reduction surgery, or Gamma knife surgery), depending on where the tumors are located. For instance, those affected with NF 2 might benefit from a surgical decompression of the vestibular tumors to prevent deafness.[2]

Diagnosis

 Prenatal testing

 Embryo

For embryos produced via in vitro fertilisation, it is possible via preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to screen for NF-1.[7]

“PGD has about 95-98% accuracy but requires that the partner with NF2 have a recognizeable genetic mutation, which is only the case for about 60% of people with a clinical diagnosis of NF2. Having the initial genetic testing to determine if the mutation is recognizeable takes approximately 6 months, and then preparing the probes for the PDG testing takes approximately another 6 months.” [8]

PGD can not be used to detect Schwannomatosis‎, because the gene for it has not yet been identified.[9]

 Fetus

Chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis can be used:[10]

 Related disorders

Neurofibromatosis is considered a member of the neurocutaneous syndromes (phakomatoses).[2] In addition to the types of neurofibromatosis, the phakomatoses also include tuberous sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. This grouping is an artifact of an earlier time in medicine, before the distinct genetic basis of each of these diseases was understood.

 Genetics

NF-1 and NF-2 may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, as well as through random mutation.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutation on chromosome 17q11.2 , the gene product being neurofibromin (a GTPase activating enzyme (GAP)).[1][11] Neurofibromatosis type 2 is due to mutation on chromosome 22q, the gene product is merlin, a cytoskeletal protein.[1]

Both NF-1 and NF-2 are autosomal dominant disorders, meaning only one copy of the mutated gene need be inherited to pass the disorder. A child of a parent with NF-1 or NF-2 and an unaffected parent will have a 50%-100% chance of inheriting the disorder, depending on whether the affected parent is heterozygous (Aa) or homozygous (AA) for the trait (“A” depicts the affected dominant allele, while “a” depics the recessive allele).

Complicating the question of heritability is the distinction between genotype and phenotype, that is, between the genetics and the actual manifestation of the disorder. In the case of NF1, no clear links between genotype and phenotype have been found, and the severity and the specific nature of the symptoms may vary widely among family members with the disorder. This is a good example of the phenomenon of variable expressivity: the differing severities of disease in different individuals with the same genotype.[12] In the case of NF-2, however, manifestations are similar among family members; a strong genotype-phenotype correlation is believed to exist.[12] Both NF-1 and NF-2 can also appear to be spontaneous de novo mutations, with no family history. These cases account for about one half of neurofibromatosis cases.[12]

Similar to polydactyly, NF is also a autosomally dominant mutation, that is not prevalent in the society. Neurofibromatosis-1 is found in approximately 1 in 2,500-3,000[3] live births (carrier incidence 0.0004, gene frequency 0.0002) and is more common than NF-2.

 Pathophysiology

The gene affected in NF-1, is located on the long arm of the chromosome 17 (q11.2). It encodes for a protein called neurofibromin, otherwise known as “the tumor suppressor” protein. This protein is a negative regulator of the Ras kinase pathway (p21 oncoprotein).[13] Neurofibromatosis alters or weakens this protein (due to deletion, missense mutation, or nonsense mutations,[1]) allowing rapid, radical growth of cells all over the body, especially around the nervous system. The essential problem is the inability to inactivate GTP due to a defective GTP-ase (neurofibromin). This leads to the common symptoms for neurofibromatosis – clumpings of the tumors, called neurofibromas and schwannomas. Less is known about the NF-2 linked gene and its product, merlin. However, it is on the long arm of the chromosome 22q(11.1-13.1[1]) and codes for the protein.

 Treatment

Because there is no cure for the condition itself, the only therapy for patients with neurofibromatosis is a program of treatment by a team of specialists to manage symptoms or complications. Surgery may be needed when the tumors compress organs or other structures. Less than 10% of people with neurofibromatosis develop cancerous growths; in these cases, chemotherapy may be successful.[14]

Although there is no cure for NF, the Neurofibromatosis Association is optimistic there will be an effective treatment within the next five to ten years. For families with NF, genetic screening and counselling is available.[15]

The St. Louis Children’s Hospital Neurofibromatosis Center maintains a comprehensive list of current NF research studies.

 History

Neurofibromatosis (or von Recklinghausen disease[2]) was first described in 1882 by the German pathologist, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (December 2, 1833-August 26, 1910). As a young scientist, Recklinghausen was the student of the then renowned Rudolf Virchow in Berlin. Recklinghausen was successful in generating some of the most descriptive medical observations of his time, making him the first person to describe and coin the term “hemachromatosis” (Hämochromatose, Tageblatt der Naturforschenden Versammlung). Recklinghausen is now known for his contributions to staining methods, and most importantly for his important paper on neurofibromatosis published in 1881, to honor Rudolf Virchow’s 25 year jubilee, in which he describes neurofibromatosis. Recognized as a distinguished histopathologist, and a great scientist to this date, he lends his name to the syndrome, which he himself elucidated.[16]

 Notable cases

In May 2011, a case was reported in the United Kingdom in which a 15-month-old child who turned out to have Neurofibromatosis type I was misdiagnosed as being abused under the assumption that the mother had Münchausen syndrome, because the child gained weight while in hospital and lost weight while at home.[17] The child was placed in foster care for 6 months and then returned to his parents after he was correctly diagnosed.

In January 2008, 32-year-old Huang Chuncai of China underwent a second operation to remove another 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) of tumor from his face. A previous operation removed 15 kg (33 lb) from what was originally a 23 kg (55.7 lb) tumor.[18][19]

In March 2007, the treatment of 30-year-old neurofibromatosis patient Pascal Coler of France ended after he had received what his doctors call the world’s first successful full face transplant.[20][21]

In November 2006, there was an hour-long documentary on the British television network Channel 4 about Facing the World, an organization that helps children with severe facial disfigurements in developing countries. One of the children featured on the documentary was Arianto, an Indonesian boy who suffered from a severe form of neurofibroma resulting in hemifacial giganticism.

Also in that year, another documentary on BBC2 (edge of life) featured a neurofibromatosis case. On that documentary was a young teenager, Amit Ghose, who had decided for himself to have corrective surgery at the age of 14. In this case, the neurofibroma occurred on the face, resulting in the loss of sight in one eye and having to have it removed. This was a case of NF-2, resulting in the disfigurement of the one side of the face, while leaving the other side completely normal.

Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man, was once considered to have been affected with neurofibromatosis type I. However, it is possible Merrick suffered from the very rare Proteus syndrome. This, however, has given rise to the common misconception that neurofibromatosis and “Elephant Man disease” are one and the same.

Research Organizations

[edit] Foundations

Several national organizations provide support for those challenged by neurofibromatosis. Some include:

 Academic Research and Clinical Centers

The following research and clinical centers specialize in neurofibromatosis in the United States:

Drug Companies

The following drug companies are supporters of the Children’s Tumor Foundation and are actively developing NF-related drugs:

 Versi Indonesia:

 Neurofibromatosis (biasa disingkat NF; neurofibromatosis tipe 1 juga dikenal sebagai penyakit von Recklinghausen) adalah kelainan genetik-mewarisi di mana jaringan saraf tumbuh tumor (yaitu, Neurofibroma) yang mungkin jinak atau dapat menyebabkan kerusakan serius oleh mengompresi saraf dan jaringan lain . Kelainan ini mempengaruhi semua sel pial neural (Schwann sel, melanosit dan fibroblast endoneurial). Cellular elemen dari jenis sel berkembang biak secara berlebihan di seluruh tubuh, membentuk tumor; melanosit juga berfungsi normal pada penyakit ini, mengakibatkan gangguan pigmentasi kulit dan “cafe-au-lait” spot. Tumor dapat menyebabkan benjolan di bawah kulit, bintik-bintik berwarna, masalah tulang, tekanan pada akar saraf tulang belakang, dan masalah-masalah neurologis lainnya. [1] [2]

Neurofibromatosis merupakan gangguan dominan autosomal, yang berarti hanya satu salinan gen yang terkena diperlukan untuk gangguan untuk dikembangkan. Oleh karena itu, jika hanya satu orangtua memiliki neurofibromatosis, nya atau anak-anaknya memiliki kesempatan 50% mengembangkan kondisi juga. Tingkat keparahan pada individu yang terkena dapat bervariasi, hal ini mungkin karena expressivity variabel. Sekitar setengah dari kasus disebabkan oleh mutasi de novo dan tidak ada anggota keluarga lain yang terkena dampak terlihat. Ini mempengaruhi laki-laki dan perempuan sama.

Isi
1 Klasifikasi
1.1 Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (NF 1)
1.2 Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (NF 2)
1.3 Schwannomatosis
2 Tanda dan gejala
3 Diagnosis
3.1 Prenatal pengujian
3.1.1 Embrio
3.1.2 Janin
3.2 Terkait gangguan
4 Genetika
5 Patofisiologi
6 Pengobatan
7 Sejarah
8 Terkemuka kasus
9 Penelitian Organisasi
9.1 Yayasan
9.2 Akademik dan Pusat Penelitian Klinis
9.3 Obat Perusahaan
10 Referensi
 

 Klasifikasi
Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (NF 1)

Plexiform neurofibroma pada leher pasien; Neurofibroma plexiform adalah penyebab kematian pada individu yang terkena.

Pasien dengan beberapa Neurofibroma kulit kecil dan ‘café au lait spot’ (bawah foto, di sebelah kanan pusat). Biopsi telah diambil dari salah satu lesi.

Artikel utama: Neurofibromatosis tipe I
Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (juga dikenal sebagai “penyakit von Recklinghausen” [1]) adalah bentuk paling umum dari NF, akuntansi hingga 90% dari kasus. NF 1 memiliki frekuensi gangguan dari 1 di 4.000, sehingga lebih umum daripada neurofibromatosis tipe 2, dengan frekuensi 1 dalam 45.000 orang. [3] Ini terjadi setelah mutasi pada kromosom neurofibromin 17q11.2. 100.000 Amerika telah neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin adalah tumor supresor gen yang berfungsi untuk menghambat onkoprotein p21 ras [3] Dalam tidak adanya kontrol penghambatan ini supresor tumor pada onkoprotein ras,. Proliferasi seluler tidak menentu dan tidak terkendali, yang mengakibatkan proliferasi seluler tidak seimbang dan perkembangan tumor. Diagnosis NF1 dilakukan jika ada dua dari tujuh kriteria berikut ini terpenuhi:

Dua atau lebih Neurofibroma pada atau di bawah kulit, atau satu neurofibroma plexiform (sekelompok besar tumor yang melibatkan beberapa saraf); Neurofibroma adalah benjolan subkutan karakteristik penyakit, dan peningkatan jumlah dengan usia.
Freckling dari pangkal paha atau ketiak (arm pit).
Café au lait spot (pigmen, makula coklat muda terletak pada saraf, dengan tepi halus (“pantai California”) [4] tanda lahir). Enam atau lebih ukuran 5 mm diameter terbesar dalam individu prepubertal dan lebih dari 15 mm dengan diameter terbesar dalam individu postpubertal.
Kelainan rangka, seperti displasia sphenoid atau penipisan korteks tulang panjang tubuh (tulang yaitu kaki, berpotensi menghasilkan membungkuk kaki) [1]
Lisch nodul (hamartomas iris), freckling di iris
Tumor pada saraf optik, juga dikenal sebagai glioma optik
Macrocephaly dalam 30-50% dari populasi anak tanpa [5] hidrosefalus
Epilepsi (kejang)
opacity Juvenile lenticular posterior [1]
NF 1 juga meningkatkan resiko perkembangan tumor, khususnya, meningioma, glioma dan pheochromocytomas.

Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (NF 2)
Artikel utama: Neurofibromatosis tipe II
Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (juga disebut “neurofibromatosis pusat” [1]) adalah hasil mutasi dari merlin (juga dikenal sebagai “schwannomin” [1]) di 22q12 kromosom. Ini account hanya 10% dari semua kasus NF, dan frekuensi lebih rendah daripada NF1. Hal ini juga disebabkan oleh mutasi pada gen supresor tumor (NF2 atau merlin). Fungsi normal merlin tidak dipahami [3] memanifestasikan Gangguan dengan cara berikut.:

neuromas akustik bilateral (tumor dari saraf vestibulocochlear atau saraf kranial 8 (CN VIII) juga dikenal sebagai schwannoma), yang sering menimbulkan gangguan pendengaran. Bahkan, ciri khas NF 2 adalah gangguan pendengaran akibat neuromas akustik sekitar usia dua puluh.
Tumor dapat menyebabkan:
sakit kepala
keseimbangan masalah, dan vertigo perifer sering karena schwannoma dan keterlibatan dari telinga bagian dalam
wajah kelemahan / kelumpuhan akibat keterlibatan atau kompresi pada saraf wajah (saraf kranial 7 atau CN VII)
pasien dengan NF2 juga dapat mengembangkan tumor otak lainnya, serta tumor tulang belakang.
tuli dan tinnitus
NF 2 meningkatkan risiko meningioma dan ependymomas. [3]

Schwannomatosis
Artikel utama: Schwannomatosis
Schwannomatosis – mutasi di kedua kromosom 17 dan 22

Beberapa schwannomas terjadi.
The schwannomas mengembangkan pada saraf kranial, tulang belakang dan perifer.
Sakit kronis, dan kadang-kadang mati rasa, kesemutan dan kelemahan
Sekitar 1 / 3 dari pasien memiliki schwannomatosis segmental, yang berarti schwannomas terbatas pada satu bagian dari tubuh, seperti tangan, kaki atau tulang belakang.
Berbeda dengan bentuk lain dari NF, yang schwannomas tidak berkembang pada saraf vestibular, dan sebagai akibatnya, tidak ada kehilangan pendengaran dikaitkan dengan schwannomatosis.
Pasien dengan schwannomatosis tidak memiliki ketidakmampuan belajar yang terkait dengan gangguan tersebut.
Salah satu harus diingat, bagaimanapun, bahwa neurofibromatosis dapat terjadi pada atau mempengaruhi salah satu sistem organ, apakah yang memerlukan hanya memadatkan mereka (dari pertumbuhan tumor) atau bahkan mengubah organ dalam beberapa cara fundamental. Perbedaan dalam gangguan ini merupakan salah satu faktor yang membuat sulit untuk mendiagnosa, dan akhirnya menemukan prognosis untuk.

 Tanda dan gejala
Pasien dengan neurofibromatosis dapat dipengaruhi dalam berbagai cara. Morbiditas sering merupakan akibat dari neuromas plexiform, glioma optik, atau neuromas akustik, namun kematian juga dapat dikaitkan dengan transformasi ganas dari neuromas, seperti neurofibrosarcomas [1] (sering ada transformasi ganas kurang dari 3% dari kasus dari NF1 [3]). Ada insiden tinggi ketidakmampuan belajar atau defisit kognitif [1] [5] pada pasien dengan NF, khususnya NF-1, namun keterbelakangan yang parah bukan merupakan bagian dari sindrom tersebut. Karena sifat tumor menghasilkan kekacauan dan keterlibatan terhadap sistem saraf dan juga karena onset awal macrocephaly pada populasi anak, sering terjadi peluang peningkatan pengembangan epilepsi pada mereka yang terkena dampak. Neurofibromatosis juga meningkatkan risiko leukemia terutama pada anak-anak, Anak-anak dengan NF-1 memiliki 200 sampai 500 kali risiko leukemia normal berkembang dibandingkan dengan populasi umum [1] Sejak tumor tumbuh di mana terdapat saraf, mereka juga bisa tumbuh dalam. daerah yang terlihat, menyebabkan penderitaan sosial yang cukup untuk mereka yang terkena dampak. Tumor juga bisa tumbuh di tempat-tempat yang dapat menyebabkan masalah kesehatan lain yang mungkin mengharuskan mereka harus dikeluarkan untuk keselamatan pasien. [6] individu yang terkena mungkin perlu operasi beberapa (seperti operasi pengurangan, atau operasi Gamma pisau), tergantung di mana tumor berada. Misalnya, mereka yang terkena dampak dengan NF 2 mungkin mendapat manfaat dari dekompresi bedah dari tumor vestibular untuk mencegah tuli. [2]

Diagnosa
 Prenatal testing
 Embrio
Untuk embrio yang dihasilkan melalui fertilisasi in vitro, adalah mungkin melalui praimplantasi genetik diagnosis (PGD) ke layar untuk NF-1. [7]

“PGD memiliki ketepatan sekitar 95-98% tetapi mengharuskan bermitra dengan NF2 memiliki mutasi genetik recognizeable, yang hanya berlaku untuk sekitar 60% orang dengan diagnosis klinis NF2 Setelah pengujian genetik awal untuk menentukan. Apakah mutasi adalah recognizeable diperlukan sekitar 6 bulan, dan kemudian mempersiapkan probe untuk pengujian PDG berlangsung sekitar 6 bulan lagi. ” [8]

PGD ​​tidak dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi Schwannomatosis, karena gen untuk itu belum teridentifikasi. [9]

 Janin
Chorionic villus sampling atau amniosentesis dapat digunakan: [10]

Untuk mendeteksi jenis Neurofibromatosis saya.
Untuk mendeteksi Neurofibromatosis tipe II dengan akurasi 95%.
Tidak bisa digunakan untuk mendeteksi Schwannomatosis, karena gen untuk itu belum teridentifikasi.
 Terkait gangguan
Neurofibromatosis dianggap sebagai anggota sindrom neurocutaneous (phakomatoses). [2] Di samping jenis neurofibromatosis, yang phakomatoses juga termasuk tuberous sclerosis, sindrom Sturge-Weber dan von penyakit Hippel-Lindau. Pengelompokan ini adalah artefak dari waktu sebelumnya dalam kedokteran, sebelum dasar genetik yang berbeda dari masing-masing penyakit dipahami.

 Genetika

NF-1 dan NF-2 dapat diwariskan dengan cara dominan autosomal, serta melalui mutasi acak.

Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 disebabkan oleh mutasi pada kromosom 17q11.2, produk gen neurofibromin menjadi (a enzim GTPase mengaktifkan (GAP)). [1] [11] Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 adalah karena mutasi pada kromosom 22q, produk gen yang merlin , sebuah protein cytoskeletal. [1]

Kedua-NF 1 dan NF-2 adalah gangguan dominan autosomal, yang berarti hanya satu salinan mutasi gen perlu diwariskan untuk lulus gangguan tersebut. Seorang anak dari orang tua dengan NF-1 atau NF-2 dan orang tua yang tidak terpengaruh akan memiliki kemungkinan 50% -100% dari mewarisi gangguan, tergantung pada apakah orang tua yang terkena heterozigot (Aa) atau homozigot (AA) untuk trait (“A” melukiskan alel dominan yang mempengaruhi, sementara “sebuah” depics alel resesif).

Rumit pertanyaan tentang heritabilitas adalah perbedaan antara genotipe dan fenotipe, yaitu, antara genetika dan manifestasi aktual dari kekacauan. Dalam kasus NF1, tidak ada hubungan yang jelas antara genotip dan fenotip telah ditemukan, dan tingkat keparahan dan sifat khusus dari gejala dapat bervariasi secara luas di antara anggota keluarga dengan gangguan tersebut. Ini adalah contoh yang baik dari fenomena expressivity variabel: severities berbeda dengan penyakit pada individu yang berbeda dengan genotipe yang sama [12] Dalam kasus NF-2, bagaimanapun, manifestasi yang serupa di antara anggota keluarga, sebuah fenotipe genotipe-kuat. korelasi diyakini ada [12] Kedua NF-1 dan. NF-2 juga dapat tampak spontan de novo mutasi, dengan tidak ada riwayat keluarga. Kasus-kasus ini mencapai sekitar satu setengah dari kasus neurofibromatosis. [12]

Serupa dengan polydactyly, NF juga merupakan mutasi autosomally dominan, yang tidak lazim di masyarakat. Neurofibromatosis-1 ditemukan pada sekitar 1 dari 2,500-3,000 [3] kelahiran hidup (pembawa kejadian 0,0004, frekuensi gen 0,0002) dan lebih umum daripada NF-2.

 Patofisiologi
Gen terpengaruh di NF-1, terletak pada lengan panjang kromosom 17 (q11.2). Ia mengkodekan untuk protein yang disebut neurofibromin, atau dikenal sebagai “penekan tumor” protein. Protein ini adalah pengatur negatif dari jalur kinase Ras (p21 onkoprotein) [13] Neurofibromatosis mengubah atau. melemahkan protein ini (karena penghapusan, mutasi missense, atau mutasi omong kosong, [1]) memungkinkan cepat, pertumbuhan radikal dari sel-sel di seluruh tubuh, terutama di sekitar sistem saraf. Masalah penting adalah ketidakmampuan untuk menonaktifkan GTP karena ase-cacat GTP (neurofibromin). Hal ini mengakibatkan gejala yang umum untuk neurofibromatosis – clumpings dari tumor, Neurofibroma menelepon dan schwannomas. Sedikit yang diketahui tentang gen-2 NF terkait dan produk, merlin. Namun, di lengan panjang kromosom 22q (11,1-13,1 [1]) dan kode untuk protein.

 Pengobatan
Karena tidak ada obat untuk kondisi itu sendiri, satu-satunya terapi untuk pasien dengan neurofibromatosis adalah sebuah program pengobatan oleh tim spesialis untuk mengelola gejala atau komplikasi. Pembedahan mungkin diperlukan ketika tumor kompres organ atau struktur lainnya. Kurang dari 10% orang dengan neurofibromatosis mengembangkan pertumbuhan kanker;. Dalam kasus-kasus, kemoterapi mungkin bisa berhasil [14]

Meskipun tidak ada obat untuk NF, Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis optimis akan ada pengobatan yang efektif dalam lima sampai sepuluh tahun. Untuk keluarga dengan NF, skrining genetik dan konseling tersedia. [15]

St Louis Children’s Hospital Neurofibromatosis Center maintain daftar komprehensif studi penelitian NF saat ini.

 Sejarah
Neurofibromatosis (penyakit von Recklinghausen atau [2]) pertama kali dijelaskan pada tahun 1882 oleh ahli patologi Jerman, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (2 Desember 1833-Agustus 26, 1910). Sebagai seorang ilmuwan muda, Recklinghausen adalah murid dari Rudolf Virchow kemudian terkenal di Berlin. Recklinghausen berhasil dalam menghasilkan beberapa pengamatan medis yang paling deskriptif waktunya, membuatnya orang pertama yang menggambarkan dan koin “hemachromatosis” istilah (Hämochromatose, Tageblatt der Naturforschenden Versammlung). Recklinghausen sekarang dikenal karena kontribusinya untuk metode pewarnaan, dan yang paling penting untuk kertas penting tentang neurofibromatosis diterbitkan pada 1881, untuk menghormati 25 tahun Rudolf Virchow’s Yobel, di mana ia menjelaskan neurofibromatosis. Diakui sebagai histopatologis dibedakan, dan seorang ilmuwan besar untuk tanggal ini, dia meminjamkan namanya sindrom, yang dia sendiri dijelaskan. [16]

 Terkemuka kasus
Pada bulan Mei 2011, kasus dilaporkan di Inggris di mana anak 15-bulan-tua yang ternyata memiliki tipe Neurofibromatosis aku misdiagnosed sebagai disalahgunakan dengan asumsi bahwa ibu telah Munchausen syndrome, karena anak yang diperoleh berat badan sementara di rumah sakit dan kehilangan berat badan sementara di rumah [17] Anak itu ditempatkan dalam anak asuh selama 6 bulan dan kemudian kembali kepada orang tuanya setelah dia benar didiagnosis..

Pada bulan Januari 2008, 32 tahun Huang Chuncai Cina menjalani operasi kedua untuk menghapus lain 4,5 kg (9,9 lb) tumor dari wajahnya. Sebuah operasi sebelumnya dihapus 15 kg (33 lb) dari apa yang awalnya 23 kg (£ 55,7) tumor. [18] [19]

Pada bulan Maret 2007, pengobatan pasien neurofibromatosis 30 tahun Pascal Coler Perancis berakhir setelah ia telah menerima apa yang dokter sebut transplantasi wajah pertama yang sukses di dunia penuh. [20] [21]

Pada bulan November 2006, ada dokumenter selama satu jam di jaringan televisi Inggris Channel 4 tentang Menghadapi Dunia, sebuah organisasi yang membantu anak-anak dengan wajah disfigurements parah di negara-negara berkembang. Salah satu dari anak-anak ditampilkan di film dokumenter itu Arianto, seorang anak Indonesia yang menderita bentuk parah neurofibroma mengakibatkan giganticism hemifacial.

Juga pada tahun itu, lain dokumenter BBC2 (pinggir hidup) menampilkan kasus neurofibromatosis. Di dokumenter itu adalah remaja muda, Amit Ghose, yang telah memutuskan untuk dirinya sendiri untuk menjalani operasi perbaikan pada usia 14. Dalam hal ini, neurofibroma terjadi pada wajah, yang mengakibatkan kehilangan penglihatan pada satu mata dan harus menghapusnya. Ini merupakan kasus NF-2, yang mengakibatkan cacat dari sisi yang satu wajah, sementara meninggalkan sisi lain normal.

Joseph Merrick, Manusia Gajah, pernah dianggap telah terpengaruh dengan neurofibromatosis tipe I. Namun, Merrick mungkin menderita sindrom Proteus sangat jarang. Ini, bagaimanapun, telah menimbulkan kesalahpahaman umum bahwa neurofibromatosis, dan “penyakit Elephant Man” adalah satu dan sama.

Penelitian Organisasi
[Sunting] Yayasan
Beberapa organisasi nasional memberikan dukungan bagi mereka ditantang oleh neurofibromatosis. Yang meliputi:

Australia: Little Frog Foundation (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja menyediakan informasi dan sumber daya untuk keluarga berurusan dengan NF1, NF2, dan neurofibromatosis tumor-terkait di Australia)
Belgia: NF KONTAKT.be (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang menyediakan informasi dan sumber daya untuk keluarga, Sekolah dan Perawatan kesehatan pekerja berurusan dengan NF1, NF2, dan neurofibromatosis tumor terkait di Belgia dan memberikan kesadaran dan dukungan dari Neurofibromatosis di Eropa)
Kanada: Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis Quebec
Perancis:
Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis dan Recklinghausen
Centre de Referensi labellisé NEUROFIBROMATOSES
United Kingdom: Yayasan Neuro
Amerika Serikat:
Children’s Tumor Foundation (KKP) (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bergerak menuju obat untuk neurofibromatosis)
Neurofibromatosis Inc (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja untuk mendukung neurofibromatosis pasien)
Neurofibromatosis Cafe (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja memberikan pendidikan kesadaran, pasien dan dukungan dari Neurofibromatosis)
 Akademik Penelitian dan Pusat Klinis
Penelitian lanjutan dan pusat klinis mengkhususkan diri pada neurofibromatosis di Amerika Serikat:

California:
House Ear Institute di Los Angeles adalah NFPC KKP fokus pada schwannoma NF2 dan meningioma.
NF / Ras Pathway Clinic di UCSF Medical Center di San Francisco. Ini adalah NFPC KKP berfokus pada NF1 leukemia myeloid.
Florida:
The Wallace Lab dan Muir Lab di University of Florida di Gainesville, Florida fokus pada studi molekuler tumor jinak sel Schwann dan pengembangan terapi baru untuk NF1.
Pusat Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit Anak Miami.
Illinois: Neurofibromatosis Program di Universitas Chicago Medical Center.
Indiana: Klinik Neurofibromatosis di Universitas Indiana. Klinik ini telah mempelopori penggunaan Imatinib untuk mengobati Neurofibroma. [22]
Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Center Neurofibromatosis menyeluruh di Rumah Sakit Johns Hopkins
Massachusetts:
Pusat Neurofibromatosis dan Sekutu Gangguan di Sekolah Kedokteran Harvard dan Massachusetts Rumah Sakit Umum. Ini adalah KKP NFPC fokus pada schwannoma NF2 dan meningioma.
Brigham dan Women’s Hospital di Harvard Medical School adalah NFPC KKP NF1 berfokus pada saraf tepi tumor ganas selubung.
Pusat Genetika Manusia di Boston University School of Medicine menyediakan layanan uji laboratorium genetik untuk jenis Neurofibromatosis I dan sindrom Legius. Pengujian meliputi sekuensing DNA dan amplifikasi probe Multiplex ligasi-dependen.
Missouri: Pusat Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit St Louis Children’s [23] Ini adalah NFPC KKP fokus pada jalur NF1 glioma optik.. Mereka mempertahankan daftar lengkap studi penelitian NF saat ini.
New Jersey: Pusat Neurofibromatosis dari New Jersey dan Institute of Medicine Genomic di Rumah Sakit Universitas (Newark, New Jersey)
New York:
Pusat Sistem Kesehatan Neurofibromatosis di North Shore-LIJ
The Neurofibromatosis Center di NYU Langone Medical Center (lihat juga Departemen THT).
Klinik Comprehensive Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit NewYork-Presbyterian.
Ohio: Neurofibromatosis Pusat Rumah Sakit Anak Cincinnati di Cincinnati Medical Center. Ini adalah NFPC KKP berfokus pada NF1 Neurofibroma plexiform. Lab Ratner memfokuskan pada interaksi antara sel glial dan akson dalam pengembangan sistem saraf dan bagaimana interaksi pergi miring mengarah ke NF1 dan kondisi NF2.
Pennsylvania: Program Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit Anak Philadelphia
Texas:
Klinik Comprehensive Neurofibromatosis pada University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Klinik Neurofibromatosis di Children’s Medical Center (Dallas)
Obat Perusahaan
Perusahaan-perusahaan obat berikut pendukung dari Children’s Tumor Foundation dan secara aktif mengembangkan obat NF-terkait:

Avila Terapi
Genentech
Merck
Novartis
Pfizer

 
 

References

   
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Raphael Rubin, David S. Strayer (2008 Baltimore). Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundation of Medicine (5 ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins. pp. 201–3. ISBN 9780781795166
  2. ^ a b c d Conrad Fischer, Farshad Bagheri, Rajpal Manchandani, Richard Pinsker, Sudheer Chauhan, Parenkumar Patel, Mohammad Maruf, Dhaval Satani, Kaushik Doshi, Ayaz Alwani, Naveen Pathak, Craigh Thurm, Mohammad Babury, Mahendra C. Patel, Arthur Shalanov, Samir Sarkar, Sabiha Raouf, Jebun Nahar, Prakashkumar Patel (2010). Master the Board USMLE Step 2 CK. KAPLAN Medical. p. 287. ISBN 9781607146537
  3. ^ a b c d e f John Barone (2008). USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes: Pathology. KAPLAN Inc. pp. 57. 
  4. ^ William D James, Raj D Sheth, Nazanin Saedi (Jul 20, 2009). Cafe Au Lait Spots. eMedicine from WebMD. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/911900-overview. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Steen RG, Taylor JS, Langston JW, Glass JO, Brewer VR, Reddick WE, Mages R, Pivnick EK. (2001, May). Prospective evaluation of the brain in asymptomatic children with neurofibromatosis type 1: relationship of macrocephaly to T1 relaxation changes and structural brain abnormalities.. 22. American Journal of Neuroradiology. pp. 810–7. PMID 11337320
  6. ^ Hayashi M, Chernov M, Tamura N, Yomo S, Ochiai T, Nagai M, Tamura M, Izawa M, Muragaki Y, Iseki H, Okada Y, Takakura K. (December 2010). Gamma Knife surgery for abducent nerve schwannoma. Report of 4 cases. 113. Journal of Neurosurgery. pp. 136–43. PMID 21121795
  7. ^ “British couple successfully screens out genetic disorder using NHS-funded PGD” by Antony Blackburn-Starza, June 9, 2008, BioNews 461
  8. ^ NF2 Planned Parenthood: Current prenatal testing options
  9. ^ Schwannomatosis, by Susan Toomey MS, page 4
  10. ^ “Are there any prenatal tests for the neurofibromatoses?”
  11. ^ Fauci, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (Small textbook) (16 ed.). pp. 2453. 
  12. ^ a b c Bruce R. Korf, Allan E. Rubenstein (2005). Neurofibromatosis: a handbook for patients, families, and health care professionals (2 ed.). Thieme. ISBN 9781588903013
  13. ^ Feldkamp MM, Angelov L, Guha A (1999). Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Peripheral Nerve Tumors: Aberrant Activation of the Ras Pathway. 51. Surgical Neurology. pp. 211–218. 
  14. ^ Janet M. Torpy, Alison E. Burke, MA, Richard M. Glass (2008). JAMA patient page: Neurofibromatosis. 300. JAMA (Journal of American Medical Association). doi:10.1001/jama.300.3.352. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/300/3/352.full
  15. ^ Trisha Macnair, Rob Hicks. “Neurofibromatosis”. British Broadcasting Company (BBC) – MMX. http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/neurofibroma1.shtml. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  16. ^ Ole Daniel Enersen. “Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen”. Who Named It?. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/1174.html. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  17. ^ “Billingham mum speaks of joy as baby is returned to her”, by Lindsay Bruce, May 10, 2011Evening Gazette (Teesside)
  18. ^ Dan Childs. “50-Pound Face Tumor: One Man’s Nightmare”. ACB News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4116455&page=1. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  19. ^ Radford, S. (2008-01-11). “Chinese man has surgery for 10 kg face tumour”. The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/01/09/whuang109.xml. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  20. ^ Watt, Nick (2008-03-25). “World’s First Full Face Transplant Hailed”. abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4511813&page=1. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  21. ^ Franklin, Katie (2008-03-25). “Man has first full-face transplant”. London: telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/23/wface123.xml. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  22. ^ “Gleevec Holds Potential As First Drug To Successfully Treat Neurofibromatosis, Scientists Report”, Science Daily, October 31, 2008
  23. ^ “Washington University Neurofibromatosis Center receives Department of Defense grant to participate in NF Clinical Trials Consortium”, July 1, 2007, Press release

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