Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

Penguasa Wanita di dunia 1550-1600


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  154.. County Sheriff Gertrud Tønnesdatter Parsberg of Annisegård
Gertrud Parsberg held the tenantcy as security for lones in a period of 9 years. She was widow of Johan Bjørnsen Bjørn (d. 1534). She (d. 1552).

  1540-41 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella Jagiello of Poland of Hungary
1541-51 and 1556-59 Regent of Transylvania and Siebenbürgen (Hungary)
1551-56 Sovereign Duchess of Troppau and Opelln in Slesia (Germany-Poland)
Her husband King János I Szapolyai (or Zápolya)of Hungary (1526-40) died two weeks before  the birth of their son Janos II Zigismund Zapolyta (1540-71), and she began her struggle to keep the Hungarian throne as a widow queen and the guardian of her son, who was elected electus rex in the meantime. After the reoccupation of Buda in 1541, she had to go to Transylvania on the order of the Sultan, where she reigned over the territories under her authority. However, the real governor was György Martinuzzi. In the summer of 1551 she left Transylvania, which fell into the hands of Ferdinand Habsburg in accordance with the treaty of Nyírbátor, and handed over the insignia of the Kingdom to Ferdinand in exchange for Opelln and Troppau in Slesia. By the request of the Hungarian nobles, she returned to the country together with her son and her advisor, Mihály Csáky, in autumn 1556. After this she set up her Transylvanian chancellery with the help of Mihály Csáky, and the new state started to function, and she ruled until her death. She was daughter of Sigismund I of Poland, and mother Bona Sforza, she lived (1519-59).

  1540-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg (Germany)
1540-58 Reigning Dowager Lady of Münden
After a few years as the second wife of Duke Erich I (1470-1540), she converted to Protestantism, promoted the Calvinist faith, and forced her husband to have his mistress, Anna Rumschottle, burned as a witch. She held the regency jointly with Philipp von Hessen for son Erich II, and introduced Protestantism to the state during her reign. One year after her son took over the government she married Count Poppo XII. zu Henneberg in Thüringen (1513-1574) and continued to reign in her Dowry Münden, but in 1555 she moved to Henneberg. The daughter of Kurfürst Joachim I. and Elisabeth of Denmark (1485-1555), she was mother of a son and three daughters by her first husband and lived (1510-58).

  1540-61 Regent Dowager Countess Anna von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Ostfriesland (Germany)
Widow of Enno II Cirksena and regent for three minor sons Edzard II (1532-40-93), Christoph (1536-66) and Johann (1538-91). Anna’s government was supported by the States and favoured a bi-confessional co-existence system. Personally she was in favour of the reformation, but she remained neutral because the nobility was split more or less fifty-fifty between Lutheranism and  “Zwinglianismus”. She also tolerated both Catholics and Spiritualists, and it was only after pressure from the Emperor that she banned the Mennonites (Baptists) in 1549. She concentrated on consolidating the territory and used her diplomatic skills and will to compromise. Her most important advisor was her brother, Christoph von Oldenburg. In 1558 she decided that her three sons should govern the territory jointly after her regency was over, as a way to limit the influence of the House of Vasa after the marriage of Edzard to Princess Katharina of Sweden. She lived (1501-75).

  1540Sovereign Princess Anne de Rohan-Caboët of Rohan, Porhoët and León (France)
Married to her cousin, Pierre II de Rohan, Seigneur de Fontenay, who became Duke of Rohan after their marriage.  

  1540-92 Sovereign Countess Louise de Clermont-Tallard of Tonnerre (France)
Succeeded mother, Anne de Husson, who reigned from 1537, and mamaged to buy the remaining parts of the County from the other heirs. She was brought up with the royal children, was Maiden-of-honor to Louise de Savoie, and a close confidante of Catherine de’ Medici and became influential during the latters regency and among other served as go-between for Catherine de’ Medici and Elizabeth I of England during one of the many attempts to negotiate the marriage to one of the royal sons of France. She was first married François Du Bellay and had a son, Henri (1540-54) and 1556, she married Antoine de Crussol, enabling him to raise the title of Baron of Uzès to that of count, then duke in 1565 and peer in 1572. Succeeded by nephew and lived (1496-1592).

  Ca. 1540-69 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Brosse of Penthièvre (France)
Her father, René de Brosse, was killed in Italy in 1525. She was married Francois II of Luxembourg. Her son, Sébastien de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl, got the title of Duke of Penthièvre, and was succeeded by daughter Marie in 1579. 

  1540-59 Politically Influential Empress Sabla Wangal of Ethiopia
Widow of emperor Lebna Dengel [or Wanag Sagad or Dawit II] and the political advisor of her son Galawdewos [Atsnaf Sagad I]. Also known as Seble Uengel, she was the daughter of a father from northern Tigre and a mother from Simien (d. 1568). 

  1540-59 Politically Influential Princess Ameta Giyorgis of Ethiopia
Influential during the reign of her brother, Gelawdenos. Daughter of Emperor Lebna Dengel.

  1540-56 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
At the time of her election, the economic situation of the convent was very bad, and she was preoccupied with the restoration. At the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1542, she voted just after the Prelates and the Abbess of Rottenmünster. Two years later she was represented by Mr. Weingarten and Mr. Marchtal. The same year she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) and in 1555 she was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia.She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Anna von Zweibrücken, and her sister, Sibylle, had been Princess-Abbess of Essen since 1533.

  1540-45 County Sheriff Anne Arvidsdatter Trolle of the Counties of Åsum and Elleholm (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1540-41 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge
Anne Trolle was widow of Axel Eriksen Urup til Ugerup, who was Lensmand or County Sheriff of Sölvesborg etc. until his death. After his death she was in charge of the two fiefs in Skåne, which was incorporated in Sweden in 1658.

  1540-41 Acting County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Åstrup with the Shires of Vennebjerg and Jerslev, Denmark
Anne Friis was the second wife of Ove Vincentsen Lunge, who had 3 daughters with his first wife, Karen Rosenkrantz and 8 children by her. She (d.

  1540 Acting County Sheriff Christine Johansdatter Urne of the County of Amtofte, Denmark
Kristine or Christine Urne was widow of Iver Hansen Skeel til Palsgård and Nygård. She (d. after 1545).

  1540-55 County Sheriff Berte Eggertsdatter Ulfeldt of Herrested Birk, Denmark
Beate or Berte Ulfeldt was widow of Niels Evertsen Bild til Ranvholt, who had the tenantcy granted with the specification that she would keep it for 5 years after his death, and for their children 5 years after her death. She lived (d. 1555).

  1541 Governor Beatriz de la Cueva de Alvarado of Guatemala (Spanish Colony)
After the death of her husband, Pedro de Alvarado, she manoeuvred her own election and became the
only woman to govern a major American political division in Spanish times. A young and ambitious woman who styled herself the Hapless One (La Sin Ventura), she was drowned a few weeks after assuming office in the destruction of Ciudad Vieja by a sudden flood from the volcano Agua. She was succeeded by brother, Francesco de la Cueva y Villacreces, Governor 1540-41 and 1541-42.

  1541-50 Regent Dowager Marchioness Jacoba de Croÿ of Bergen-op- Zoom (The Netherlands)
In charge of the margravate after the death of her husband, Antoon, who was lord from 1532 and Marquess from 1533. Her son Jan IV van Glymes took over as regent in 1550 at the age of 22. Jacoba (d. 1559).

  1541-61 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein in Sachsen (Germany)
An early supporter of Martin Luther, she was in opposition to her brother-in-law, Duke Georg of Mecklenburg, who tried to bribe her to remain Catholic. Her husband, Heinrich von Sachsen-Freiberg, at first suppressed Lutheranism, but Freiberg became Lutheran. After Gerorg’s death in 1539 they moved to Dresden and introduced the reformation here. Heinrich died in 1551, and she spent the rest of her life in her dowry, the Castle and Office of Wolkenstein. She was mother of six children, and lived (1477-1561).

  1541-42 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Vesterherred, Denmark
Sidsel Rosenkrantz was widow of Erik Krumedige. She (d. 1557).

  1541-51 Acting County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Rosenkrantz of Båstad in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Rosenkrantz was widow of Tyge Krabbe who held it as security for lones to King Frederik I. Her son-in-law, Peder Skram paid it off. She lived (ca. 1490-1551).

  Until 1541 Acting County Sheriff Elline Corfitzdatter Rønnov of Askimne in Halland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Ellen or Elline Rønnow was widow of Claus Ågesen Thott til Hjuleberga (d. ca. 1522). She held a number of separate estates 1523-24. She (d. before 1544).

   1541 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Handatter Holck of the County of Ellinge, Denmarik
Kirsten Holck til Barritskov was first married Peder Lauridsen Baden and follwed him as holder of the bishoply tenantcy. (Bispelensmand) Her second husband was Steen Brahe til Knudstrup. She (d. ca. 1599).

  1541-44 County Sheriff Dorthe Hennekesdatter Sehested of Ellinge Bispelen and the County of Årupgård, Denmark
Dorthe Sehested was daughter of Hennk Sehested, who had not been Lensmand of the tenantcy (Bispelensmand). She first married Otto Drewe, then Mikkel Grape and finally Mogens Kaas til Brendore. (d. 1579).

  1541-69 County Sheriff Susanne Eilersdatter Bølle of Marup Len
1563-65 Acting County Sheriff of Stege Len
Susanne Bølle was daughter of Eiler Bølle (d. 1534) and Anne Bildsdatter (Bild) til Hellerup and inherited Nakkebølle around 1534, she was first married to Claus Eriksen (Ravensberg) (d. 1541) secondly to Claus Eriksen Ravensberg til Kindholm and finally to Jacob Brockenhuus, and was in charge of the fief during her husband, admiral Jakob Brokenhuus’ imprisonment in Sweden. She (d. 1569).

  1542-67 Princess-Abbess Maria von Hohenlandenberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The chapter was founded in 1230, started the process of independence in 1417 and in around 1521 the Abbess achieved the rank of Princess of the Realm.

  1542-51 Acting County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Holmekloster, Denmark
1560-63 and 1563-70 County Sheriff of the COunty of Lister, Norway
Sophie Lykke was married to Councillor of the Realm, Jacob Hardenberg, who died 1542. Thereafter she administered the possessions of her three young daughters together with her own lands. She was very unpopular. Her peasants protested to the king against her, and in 1557 she was convicted of illegally selling cattle. In 1560 she was given Lister Len as security for a lone, and moved to Norway. Also here the peasants complained against her, and she broke the ban against exporting timber abroad, and she lost the fief, but managed to get it back later the same year, because of her good connections. She lived (Ca. 1510-70).

  1542-44 County Sheriff Maren Christiansdatter Spend of the County of Oksvang, Denmark
Maren Spend was widow of Hans Lange Munk, who had died already in 1535.

  Around 1542-.. County Sheriff Birgitte Iversdatter Dyre of the County of Thodbøl, Denmark
Birgitte Dyre was widow of Enevold Stykke, who had been granted the tenantcy by Bishop Niels Stykke. She bought the estate in 1544, and lived (ca. 1510-after 72).

  1542-64 County Sheriff Ermegaard Andersdatter Bille of Øster Velling Birk
1563-64 County Sheriff of Viskumsgård with Synderlyng Herred, Denmark
Ermegaard Bille was widow Jørgen Podebusk. She paid off the other heirs and was granted Østervelling for life, and held Viskumsgård as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. 1564).

  1542-71 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Markvardsdatter Buchwald of Harridslevgård, Denmark
Catharine Buchwald was ppointed jointly with husband, Jørgen Svave. They both (d. 1571).

  1542-69 Influential International Banker Gracia Mendes Nasi in Europe and the Ottoman Empire
Also known by her Christianized name Beatrice de Luna Miques, she inherited the enormous Mendes fortune after the death of her brother-in-law, Diego in 1542, whom she had joined in Antwerpen after the death of her husband, Francisco whose wealthy Spanish Jewish banking family had also fled the Inquisition and settled in Portugal. She then took over the management of the international banking empire and continued using the family’s contacts and resources to help Jews escape the Inquisition, and this meant that she and her remaining family were constantly in danger. Over the next 11 years, she moved across Europe with her daughter, her sister, and her daughter- and son-in-law, travelling from Antwerp through France, Italy, and Turkey. The Inquisition pursued them, local rulers relentlessly crying heresy and attempting to confiscate their fortune. With diplomacy, shrewdness, and business acumen, she managed to escape each assault and continue building the family business. She and her family finally reached Turkey in 1553, where they settled near Constantinople. In 1558 she leased Tiberias, in Palestine, from Sultan Suleiman, for a yearly fee of 1000 ducats and, in 1561, her nephew and son-in-law, Joseph Nasi obtained ruling authority over Tiberias and Safed, developing major new centres of Jewish settlement.. She lived (1510-1569).

  1543-52 Regent Dowager Sultana Bat’ial Dël Wanbara of Harrar (Ethiopia)
Also known as Bati Del Wambara she was ruled the territory after her husband, Imam Ahmad died in battle. She reigned jointly with ‘Ali Jarad. She had accompanied her husband on his expeditions of conquest in the Christian highlands. At times she had to be carried on their shoulders up and down steep and rocky mountain slopes, twice in a state of pregnancy. She gave birth to Muhammad in 1531 and Ahmad two years later. After the defeat and death of her husband and the capture of her young son Muhammad, she fled to the northwest of Lake Tana, and eventually succeeded in returning to Harar, then at the centre of Adal power. Her first task was to make arrangements for the exchange of her eldest son Muhammad for Emperor Galawdewo’s brother, Minas. Del Wanbara was determined to revenge her husband’s death and, nine years later, agreed to marry the Emir of Harar, Nur Ibn Mujahid, son of her first husband’s sister, seeing in him the best prospect of achieving her aim. Emir Nur began by rebuilding Harar, which had been sacked, and enclosed the town with a wall, which can be seen to this day. Having reorganized his forces, he undertook a new conquest of the Christian highlands and, in 1559, killed Emperor Galawdewos in battle. She was daughterof Imam Mehefuz, governor of Zayla and de facto ruler of the state of Adal. She married Imam Ahmad and, ignoring the protests of his soldiers.

  1543-56 Politically Active Guardian Dowager Duchess Emilie von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Also known as Aemilie, and after the death of her husband, Georg the Pious, she was guardian of their son, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who reigned under the regency of the Electors of Brandenburg and Sachsen and Landgrave of Hessen until 1556. She gave him a good scientific and humanistic education. She must have spend the rest of her life administering her dowry lands, but I have found no specific informations about this. She lived (1516-91).


1543-66Princess-Abbess Amalia von Leisser of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family.

  1543-49 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Hausen of Säckingen (Germany)
The last known decree from her is from 1547 and according to legent she tried to eleope in order to marry Thomas Leimer, former Diacon of Schpfheim, but instead she was kept prisoner and resigned 1549, but remained in the chapter until she bought her freedom in 1558 and moved to Basel. She had entered the chapter together with her sister Genoveva in 1514 and lost her position temporarily in 1524 because of her Protestant sympaties. Daughter of Sixt von Hausen and Sigone von Freiberg.

  1543-83 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon de Vendôme of Chelles (France)
The daughter of Charles de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme et de Françoise d’Alençon de Beaumont, she lived (1527-83).

  1543-59 Reigning Abbess Louise de Longwy-Givny of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded her aunt, Madeleine d’Orléans. Daughter of Jean de Longwy-Givny, Seigneur de Givny etc. and Jeanne d’Orléans, the daughter of Charles d’Angoulême and Jeanne de Polignac.

  1544 Governor of the Realm Queen Katherine Parr of England (United Kingdom)
Very learned and inclined towards the reformed doctrines and successfully interceded for many so-called ‘heretics,’ who would otherwise have suffered death. She also induced Henry VII, her third husband, to restore, to Royal rank, the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth whose legitimacy his remarkable matrimonial arrangements had left in doubt. Henry named Catherine as Regent when he designed an expedition to France in 1544. Her main functions, in the last two years of her husband’s reign, were those of his nurse as he suffered agonies of pain from an ulcer in his leg. After his death in 1547, she married Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudley, and died giving birth her first child, named Mary, the year after. She lived (1512-48).

  1544-60 Governor Brites de Albuquerque of Pernambuco (Brazil)
Widow of Duarte Coelho Periera (1534-44) and succeeded by son Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque, who was governor for the Portuguese King (1560-72).

  Around 1544 Datuk Lampe Ellong of Supa (Indonesia)
Granddaughter of Dom Joao, and sucessor of her father, married La Cellamata and was succeeded by Princess Tosappae.

  1544-68 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite IV d’Haraucourt dite d’Ubexy of Remiremont (France)
Around 1520 Madeleine de Choiseul had resigned as Princess-Abbess in her favour, but Marguerite de Neufchâtel prevailed in the powerstruggle in 1528. After her death in 1544 she was succeeded by Madame de Choiseul, who was in office for a few months before she died and Marguerite d’Haraucourt finally was able to take office as the 42nd Princess-Abbess. She was also known by the surname of d’Ubex because her family owned the castle Ubexy, which had been inherited by Elisabeth d’Haraucourt in 1543, the wife of Nicolas du Châtelet, who had no children. She was the 42nd Abbess of the Chapter. In 1565 the war of “panonceaux” broke out between Duke Charles III of Lorraine and the ladies of the chapter, who used the Imperial Eagles in the city shield to show their independence. Charles profited by the fact that Emperor Maximillan II was tied up in Hungary and used force to have his sovereignty recognised. 

  1544-87 Sovereign Lady Ermgard van Wisch of Wisch op Oud-Wisch, Wildenborch, Overhagen and Lichtenvoorde (The Netherlands)
1552-58 Regent Dowager Countess of Limburg-Stirum
1553-87 Hereditary Countess of Bronckhorst and Borculo
Inherited the family’s possessions in Wisch after the death of her brother, Joachim, but her mother, Waldburga van den Bergh was allowed to reside in the castle for life. After the death of her husband, Georg von Limburg in Stirum (1500-52), she was regent for son, Herman George, Graaf van Limburg en Bronckhorst, heer in Stirum, Wisch en Borculo (1540-74), who later married to Maria von Hoya (1534-1612). Finally she inherited the possessions of her uncle, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo. She (d. 1587).

  1544-? Politically influential Mihrumâh Sultana of the Ottoman Empire
Only daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan, who adoredher, and complained with her every wish. She married Rüstem Pasha, Governor-General of Diyarbakýr, who was shortly afterwards appointed grand vizier. According to Ottoman historians, she, together with her mother and husband conspired to bring about the death of Sehzade Mustafa, who stood in the way of her influence over her father. The fact that she encouraged her father to launch the campaign against Malta, promising to build 400 galleys at her own expense; that like her mother she wrote letters to the King of Poland; and that on her father’s death she lent 50.000 gold sovereigns to Sultan Selim to meet his immediate needs, illustrate the political power which she wielded.  Her husband was grand vizier in the periods 1544-1553 and 1555-1561, and she and her mother formed an inner circle in the government, which evidently influenced the sultan’s decisions particularly in issues concerning the succession and the future of the sultanate. They were accused of putting pressure on her father to execute his eldest surviving son, Mustafa. At that critical point when he was faced with open protest from the army and negative public opinion following the murder of Mustafa, her father was forced to replace his her husband in the position of Grand Vizirate with Kara Ahmed Pasha, a war hero and favorite of the army. But within two years under pressure from the inner circle under Hürrem, Kara Ahmed was eliminated and Rustem resumed the Grand Vizierate, keeping the office until his death in 1561.

  Ca. 1545-64 Rani Regnant Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya of Gondwana (India)
The principality is also known as Garha-Kalanga, and it’s inhabitants were a group of Dravidian tribes, aboriginal (pre-Aryan) people She was the daughter of the Rajput chief of Mohaba and married to Dalpat Shah, and after his death she ruled for their minor son. In 1564, the Moghul emperor Akbar directed one of his commanders Asaf Khan to conquer the kingdom. On the advance of the huge imperial Moghul army, she was cautioned by her counsellors to whom she replied, “It is better to die with glory than to live with ignominy”. Her son Bir Narayan was seriously wounded. But she waged the war with the great skill and bravery until she was disabled by two arrow shots. Her officers wanted to carry her from the battlefield to a place of safety, but she rejected the proposal and committed suicide.

  1545-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine of Denmark of Lorraine and Bar (France)
1560-90 Titular Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, The Wends, Goths and Slavs, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein, Ditmasken, Countess of Oldenborg
1558-68 Political Advisor and Temporary Acting Regent in Lorraine
1568-75 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen in Bayern (Germany)
1578-90 Reigning Dowager Lady of Tortona (Italy)
After her father, Christian 2 of Denmark was deposed she grew up by her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg’s aunt, Margaretha, Governor-General of the Netherlands, who took it upon her to guard the children from the Lutheran faith. After Margaretha’s death, their mother’s sister, Dowager Queen Maria of Hungary took over their upbringing. In 1535 her first husband, the 26 year older Duke Francesco 2. Sforza of Milano of died after 1½ year of marriage, and she returned to the Netherlands. In 1541 at the age of 20 she married François of Bar who inherited Lorraine three years later.
She was regent whenever her husband was abroad from the Duchy and acted as his political advisor, among others at the Reichstag in Speyer in 1544. In his will her husband appointed her regent jointly with her brother for her son, Charles (Karl) (1545-1608), but she tried to rule independently. In 1552 France attacked the Duchy and in exchange for a peace treaty she had to give up the regency and accept that her 10 year old son were to grow up at the French court as a future husband of Princess Claude, and she returned to her aunt in the Netherlands together with her two daughters. Six years later both her aunt and the emperor died and everybody assumed that she would be appointed Governor-General of the Netherlands as she was close to her cousin Filip II and was much loved by the Dutch people. Also, she had just contributed to the peace treaty between the French and Habsburgs in Cateau-Cambrésis, but the post of Regent was given to Felip’s sister, Margaretha of Parma. She then lived in Lorraine as the political advisor of her son Charles and also acted as regent from time to time. She never gave up the thought of regaining her father’s Nordic realms. In 1560 she tried to have her daughter René married to King Frederik 2 of Denmark. At the beginning of the seven-year war between Denmark and Sweden 1563-70 she attempted, through alliances with the Swedish king Erik XIV and the Danish exiled Councillor of the Realm, Peder Oxe, to plan how to regain the realms, and already signed her self as Queen: “Chretienne par la grace de dieu royne de Dennemarck, Suede, Norwegen”. When Renata married Duke Wilhelm of Bayern, she took up residence at the castle, the city of Friedberg became the center of the court life and in the next years it experienced a major boom. For health reasons she withdrew to her Italian Dowry Tortona in 1578, where she presided over a big court. She continued to print coins and medals as Queen of Denmark. She took over the claims as successor of their father, Christian II (d. 1559), from her sister, Countess Palatine Dorothea, who had no children. Christine lived (1521-90).

  1545-53 Regent Dowager Queen Yun Mun-jong of Korea
Also known as Mun-jong Wang-hu, she was widow of Chung-jong, Chung-jong (1488-1506-44) and in charge of the government in the name of Myong-jong, who succeeded his brother, Injong. Her reign saw a lull in the suppression of Buddhism and The Buddhist monk Hyujong (1520-1604) did much to promote an ecumenical movement and harmonized the value of Buddhism with philosophical Daoism and Confucianism in his ‘Mirror of the Three Teachings’. She lived (1501-65).

  Ca. 1545-ca.1570/80 Sultan Hudah bint Sarmah al-Fasi of Fazzan (Libya)
Grandchild of Muhamad al-Fasi Fezzan. The state mainly consisted of oases in the Sahara Desert, and the population is largely Arab, with Berber and black African influence. Located on caravan routes connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Sudan, Fazzan was long important in the trans-Saharan trade. From the early 16th to the early 19th century it was the centre of the Bani Muhammad dynasty, which originated in Morocco.

  1545-47 (and possibly 1564-78) Queen Regnant Phra Chao Chira Prapa Mahadevi of Lanna (Thailand)
Also known as Chiraprabha, Mahatevi Jiraprapa or Phra Nang Yout Kham Thip, she was the oldest daughter of king Phaya Ket, and took over after a power struggle among various factions and during civil war in the region. According to some sources, King Burengnong married her, (now in her 40s (at least), and she ruled for a second time from 1564 until her death in 1578, according to other sources, it was her younger sister, Queen Wisutthithew, that Burengong married, and it was she who ruled from 1564.

  1545-48 Regent Dowager Lady Elena Salviati of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa  (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Jacopo V Appiani (1480-1545) she was regent for their son, Iacopo VI (1529-85). The Lordship was under attack from Toscana and in 1548 she protested against the investiture of Cosimo I de’ Medici as Duke of Piombino. She lived (1506-62).

  1545-80 Reigning Princess Zofia ze Sprowy Odrowąż of Jarosław  (Then Ukraine, now Poland)
The town and domaine was was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. First married to hetmanJan Krystof Tarnowski (1555-1567) and from 1575 to castellan Jan Kostka, and lived (1540-80).

  1545-68 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Saint-Omer, dite de Morbecque of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Ebblinghem.

  1545 Acting County Sheriff Ide Mogensdatter Munk of the County of Abrahamstrup, Denmark
Ide Munk was a major land-owner, also known as Ida, she was married to Oluf Nielsen Rosenkrantz til Vallø, and their daughter was Birgitte Olufdatter Rosenkrantz til Øster Vallø. Ide died 1586.

  1545 Military Leader Lilliard in Scotland (United Kingdom)
Led the Scots at the Battle of Ancrum in one of their last victories over the English forces. She killed the English commander but lost her own life later in the battle.

  1546-48 Joint Regent Dowager Queen Si Sudachan of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)
สมเด็จพระศรีสุริโยทัย was also known as Sudachachandra. After the death of her husband, Chairajadhirai (Chaiya Radschathira) she poisoned his oldest son and made her lover, the minor court official, Kaeofa (Phra Yod Fa),kingChaiya Radschathira, and executed those who protested. Her son was succeeded by Worawongsathirat, a favourite of the widow of king Boromaradscha IV (1529-33) and after he was deposed her close relative, Maha Chakrapat, ursurped the throne and ruled until 1568. She (d. 1548).

  1546-60 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Amalie von Leising of Mansfeld-Vorderort zu Bornstädt (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Philipp II (1502-46), she ruled in the name of her son, Bruno II (1545-1615). Their three other children died young. She was daughter of Hugo von Leisnig and Dorothea Schenkin von Landsberg, was Dame de Penig in her own right, and lived (1508-60).

  1546-1601 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl of Estouteville, Countess de Saint-Pôl (France)
Also known as Marie de Bourbon-Vendôme, she was daughter of François de Bourbon-Vendôme, Duc d’Estouteville and Count of Saint-Pôl and Chaumont (1491-45) and Adrienne II, Duchesse d’Estouteville (1512-60). Marie succeeded her brother, François (1536-46). She first married Jean de Bourbon-Vendôme, Count de Soissons, then François de Clèves-Nevers, Duke de Nevers, whom she divorced in 1561 and finally with Léonor d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville (d. 1573). Marie lived (1539-1601).

  1546-53 In-charge of the Government Electress Agnes von Hessen of Sachsen (Germany)
1553-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee in Sachsen
Reigned as her husband, Moritz was away in various wars. 1547 he was awarded with the title of Kurfürst (Elector) and Duke of Sachsen-Wittenberg. In 1553 he was wounded in the battle of Sievershausen and died shortly after. Their only surviving child was a daughter, Anna von Sachsen (later married to and divorced from Willem of Oranje) and therefore he was succeeded by his brother August. Her sister, Anna, was Guardian in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Birkenfeld from 1569. Agnes lived (1527-55).

  1547-60 Member of the Chosen Council Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina of Russia
Also known as Anastasiia Zakharina, she was member of the Chosen Council with a number of military leaders, priests that carried out a number of political, military, and ecclesiastical reforms during the reign of her husband, Ivan the terrible. She was periodically able to control her husband’s fits of bad temper, and those periods were known as the “good part” of his reign. After her death – during the “bad part” he carried out a reign of terror against the boyars. He married six more times, and treated his wives cruelly: one was drowned, three were imprisoned, and two were sent to a nunnery. She lived (1530–60).

  1547-58 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore of Austria of Touraine (France)
Married to Manoel I of Portugal and then to king François I of France (1497-1547). After his death she was given the duchy as a dowry. His brother Henri II succeeded him as king, since their marriage was childless. She lived (1498-1558).

  1547-67 Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVIII “la Folle” of Laval (France)
The daughter of Guyonne VIII, she was origninally named Renée de Rieux, and succeeded her uncle Count Guy XVI. 1545 she had married Louis de Sainte-Maure, marquis de Nestlé et comte de Joigny. She lived a tumultary life and converted to the Calvinist faith. Her sister, Claude de Rieux, married one of the protestant leaders François d’Andelot. She was convicted for treason by the Parliament of Paris together with two other leaders of the “poursuite de Meaux” which tried to kill King Charles IX and Dowager Queen Catherine de Médici in 1567; their possessions were confiscated, and executed. Guyonne escaped this faith because of her mental instability. She sought refuge in Laval and died a few months later. She was succeeded by her sister Claude, or his son Paul, who took the name of Guy XIX he died 1586.

  1547-77 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)
During the Schmalkaldian war, she was she only canoness who remained in the chapter, and Duke Heinrich von Brauschweig had her appointed as head of the territory. In 1568 the church service became protestant but she remained a Catholic. Duke Julius von Braunschweig occupied the territory in 1575 and she was taken prisoner. She was member of a Bohemian noble family.

  1548-58 Reigning Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren, Leerdam en Lingen, Dame of Ijsselstein, Borssele, Grave, Cranendonk, Sint Maartensdijk en Odijk (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Maximiliaan van Egmond and Francoise de Lannoy, Dame de Lannoy, de Santes et de Trochiennes. Married to Prince Willem I van Oranje and lived (ca. 1533-58).

  1548-58 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kittlitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The Lords of Kittlitz had their lands in Sachsen and Slesia.

  1548-66 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Portiers of Valentinos and d’Étampes (France)
Mistress of King Henri II of France and first married to Louis de Breze, Count de Maulevrier. She hat tree daughters, Francoise de Breze, Countess de Maulevrier, who was married to Robert von der Marck, lord of Sedan, Duc de Bouillon, Louise de Breze, Dame d’Anet, who was married to Claude of Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, and by Henri II, she had Diane de Valois. She lived (1499-1566).

  1548-53 De facto Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Wied-Runckel of Manderscheid-Blankenheim (Germany)
After the death of Arnold of Manderscheid-Blankenheim, two male relatives were appointed guardians of her children, but they does not seem to have taken much part in the governing of the county, and she was in fact the regent until her oldest son, Hermann, came of age. Two of her daughters became Princess-Abbesses of Essen – Elisabeth VI and VII and another daughter, Margarethe was Abbess of Elten and Vreden. A son, Johann, was Prince-Bishop of Strassburg.  Margarethe von Wied later married a Count of Bentheim, and (d. 1571).

  1548-49 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Gjordesdatter Drefeld of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Herm, Denmark
Ingeborg Drefeld was widow of Peder Galt Ebbesen til Birkelse etc, Lensmand til Lundenæs. 

  1548-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Morbecq of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
As ruler of the territory she was Princess of the Empire and Head of a number of Lordships around Nivelles.

  1548 Heroine Queen Suriyothai of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand)
Also known as Somdet Phra Sisuriyothai or T’ao Sri Suda Chan. Barely six months into the reign of her husband, King Maha Chakapat, the King of Burma invaded Siam with the intent of sacking the main capital, Ayutthaya. Her husband lead his troops in the defence of the city from atop his war elephant and she disguised herself as a man and rode into battle on her own elephant. During the battle with Burmese troops, her husband’s elephant collapsed from wounds and he was in danger of being killed and she rode her elephant to protect her husband and was killed by a scythe. (d. 1548).

  1549-53 Regent Dowager Khanum Söyembikä of Kazan (Tartarstan in Russia)
Sujumbike, Syun Beka or Syunbeka reigned in the name of her 2 year old son, Ütämesch, after the death of her second husband, Safagäräy, whom she married in 1535 after the death of her first husband, Canğäli, the brother of the second. When the Russians conquered the city of Kasan in 1553 she was married to the new Khan Şahğäli, and brought to Moscow as hostage, where she died in 1554. Her son was christened and brought up in a school for the nobility and died of tuberculosis at the age of 20. Her father, the Khan of the Nogais, asked Tsar Ivan IV to release her but he did not receive an answer. She lived (1516-54). 

  1549-1601 Sovereign Countess Henriette de la March-Nevers of Rethel (Belgium)
1564-1601 Sovereign Duchess of Nevers, Sovereign Princess Boisbelle-Henrichemont (Belgium and France)
In 1564 she succeeded her brother Jacques, who had succeeded their father, François de March Nevers as Duke of Nevers in 1563. Her husband Ludovico Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova was duke of Nevers-Rethel by the right of his wife. Her father and brother had left her with large debts but she managed to bring the financial situation back in order, and was one of the chief creditors of the kingdom. Her son, Charles II de Gonzauge, had been co-governor with his father of Champagne since 1589 and had become titular duke in 1595 after his father’s death, but did not take part in the government until after her death in 1601. Her one sister, Catherine, was countess d’Eu and the other, Marie, was Comtesse de Beaufort. Henriette lived (1542-1601). 

  1549-76 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara zu Sachsen-Lauenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Fallersleben in Braunschweig (Germany)
Her husband, Franz von Braunschweig-Gifhorn, died at his 41th birthday from the effects of an infected foot. She was mother of 2 daughters, and her husband’s Duchy returned to the main line in Celle, but she was given Fallersleben as her dorwy, and was responsible for an economical boom.

  1549-61 Princess-Abbess Marguerite IV d’Estourmel of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a French noble family.

  1549-74 County Sheriff Abele Hansdatter Breide of the County of Näsbyholm (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
After the death of her husband, Mikkel Hals til Näsbyholm, Abele Breide was Acting Lensmand or County Sheriff of the fief in Skåne, which has been part of Sweden since 1658.

  After 1549-74 County Sheriff Karen Eilersdatter Bølle of Toreby Birk, Denmark
Karen Bølle til Hellerup og Søbo was widow of Laue Johansen Urne til Rygård (d. 1559) and held the tenantcy jointly with Jacob Brockenhuus as security for lones. She had first been married to Marqvard Tidemandd ti lHellerup and did not have chidlren, and (d. 1582).

  1550-74 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de France of Berry (France)
Daughter of François I of France and Duchess Claude de Bretagne, she was married to Emmanuel-Philibert, duc de Savoie, and lived (1523-74). 

  1550-83 Joint Administator Duchess Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)
Exhibited considerable administrative talent at domestic economy as well as in the running of the vast Guise dominions surrounding their chateau of Joinville after the death of her husband, Duke Claude de Guise, together with her daughter-in-law, Anna d’Este. Described as a remarkable woman, combining a strong sense of family pride with a wry sense of humour, she exerted a powerful influence on the childhood of her granddaughter Mary, Queen of Scots during the latter’s thirteen-year sojourn in France, and was one of her principal advisors, and acted as proxy for her daughter, Mary of Guise during the betrothal ceremony of the Queen of Scots and the Dauphin Francis in 1558.  Her two other daughters were Abbesses, Renée de Guise of St. Pierre in Reims and Antoinette de Joinville of Faremoutiers. Also mother of 9 sons.  The daughter of Count François de Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg, she lived (1493-1583).

  1550-66 Joint Administrator Duchess Anna d’Este of France of the Duchies of Aumale and Guise (France)
Politically Influential in France
During her marriage to Francis de France, Duke of Aumale and Guise, she was in charge of the family estates and the enormous fortunes of the Guise after the death of her father-in-law, Claude. At court she was active on behalf of her father, Duke Ercole II d’Este of Ferrara, and acted as mediator between  France and Ferrara. In 1563 her husband was assassinated. She held the leader of the French Huguenots, Gaspard de Coligny, responsible for the assault and her contemporaries considered her responsible for the shot which was fired on him in 1572 and which became the starting signal for the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. 1566 she had married Jacques de Savoie, Duke of Nemours and Genevois, and spent most of her time in Annecy or on the road between Genevois and the court of France. She acted as mediator between her husband and the Duke of Savoie, and still claimed a prominent place in official ceremonies at the French Court. After the death Jacques in 1585 she lived in Paris. With the formation of the Catholic League, in which her sons played a prominent part, her importance increased again. In 1588 King Henri III ordered the murder of her two oldest sons and her imprisonment. Some contemporaries also held her responsible for the assassination of the king. During the siege of Paris by Henri IV, she was declared “queen-mother” by the League, but after his conversion to Catholicism, she recognized him and tried to convince her sons to do the same. She spent her last years in the highly respectable position of “superintendante de la maison” of the Queen Marie de’ Medici. Her mother, Renée de France, was Duchess of Chartres 1515-75. She lived (1531-1607).

  1550-82 Adelantada Catalina Montejo of Yucatán (Mexico)
Inherited position of Adelantado (a kind of governor/landowner) jointly with her husband, Alonso Maldonado. After his death she was in charge of the area alone.

  1550/55-71 Princess-Abbess Agathe Heggenzer von Wassersteltz Säckingen (Germany)
After the resignation of Fürstäbtissin Magdalene no canonisses remained in the chapter and the “grand verge” (Grossmeier) Hans Jakob von Schönau acted as administrator, but the Austrian Government and Bishop Christoph Metzler of Konstantz asked the 3 canons to elect an Abbess. At the time she was a nun at St. Katharinental bei Diessehhof and she is known to have been in Säckingen at lest 1552 together with another nun from her original convent but she did not take office until 1555. She restored the chapter and is seen as it’s second founder, brought it back on its feet economically, and restored the church. The water supply was renewed and several treaties were made between the Chapter and the city of Säckingen.. She also introduced new and more sombre status and reinstated the secular authority of the chapter which the Grossmeier had “ursurped” during the interregnum. She was daughter of Landvogt Johan Melchior Heggenzer.

  1550-61 Acting County Sheriff Eline Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Skjoldnæs, Denmark
Eline Gøye was married to Mourits Olufsen Krognos and Vincents Juel. She was daughter of one of the country’s major landowners, Mogens Gøye, but he had many children, and she therefore only inherited half of the estate Clausholm together with a brother. She was in dispute with her sister-in-law Anne Rosenkrantz, and in 1561 a compromise was reached, which according to Eline favourised Anne. Later same year Anne also was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) Skjoldnæs, which Eline had got after the death of her first husband. She was sister of another major landowner and Lensmand, Birgitte Gøye, and lived (ca. 1510-63).

  1551 Queen Jalampa Siri Sudhamma Mahadevi of Lanna (Chiang Mai)  (Thailand)
Also known as princess Thao Meh Ku, she was married to Sethathirat of Lan Xang, who became king of Chiang Mai. After he was deposed, she ruled on her own until she was deposed herself by Mekut (Mekkhuti), the king of the Shan State of Muong Nai (he was succeded by Queen Wisuthatevi in 1564). Sethathirat continued fighting against Lanna until his death in 1571.

  1551-64 Reigning Lady Duchess Sabina von Bayern of Nürtingen in Württemberg (Germany)
After the birth of the Crown Prince Christoph in 1515 she fled the threats of her husband Ulrich with both her children to her brothers, the Bavarian Dukes Wilhelm und Ludwig, and only after her son ascended to the throe she was able to return to Württemberg, where she took up residence in her dowry in Nürtingen, where she held a small court, which became a local centre of Protestantism. She lived (1492-1564).

  1551-72 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Roye of Roucy (France)
Succeeded her father, Charles de Roye and was married to François III de la Rochefoucauld.

  1551-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Tecklenburg of Essen (Germany)
During her tenure in office, the protestant movement became stronger. 1555 was the year of the Augsburg Peace, where it was made clear that the subjects had to have the same faith as their sovereign. In Essen the citizens were mainly protestant, but Katharina remained catholic, and the city council saw this as a way to free the city from the dominance of the Abbess, and for a period they were successful. Daughter of Otto IX von Tecklenburg and Irmgard von Cuyk-Rietberg. Her older sister, Jakobäa was Abbess of Vreden (1533-1563), and the younger Irmgard Abbess of Quernheim since 1534. Their niece Anna was heiress of Tecklenburg und Rheda (1527-82) and married to Everwin III von Götterswick Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt. Katharina lived (1517-60).

  Until 1551 County Sheriff Birgitte Steensdatter Bille of the County of Sandby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1553 County Sheriff of the County of Katsløse (Denmark)
Birgitte Bille’s husband, Jens Torbensen Rosensparre died in 1553. Sandby is situated in the landscape of Skåne which was annexed by Sweden in 1658. She (d. 1553).

  1551-52 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jensdatter Ulfstand of the County of Kalundborg with the Shire of Arts Løve, Ods and Skippinge  and Samsø, Denmark
1554-ca. 75 County Sheriff of Villands Herred in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) 
In 1535, during the “Fight of the Count” (Grevens Fejde) Sidsel Ulfstand’s husband, Knud Pedersen Gyldenstierne til Tim, was imprisoned by Count Christoffer, and he was not freed until Copenhagen gave in to Christian 3. one and a half year later leaving her in charge of his estates. He rejoined the Council of State became in charge of the tenancy of Kalundborg Slot. After his death she acted as an energetic and able administrator with economic sense. She was in charge of her husband’s estate for her minor children, she inherited some estates from her childless brothers and in 1554 she was given charge of Villads Herred in Skåne for life. During the Seven Year War 1563-70 she lend money to the crown against security in estates in Ramsø and Tune Counties. As County Sheriff of Villands herred, she made good use of her talents as she had to gather supplies for the army, conscribe peasants for the war, collect taxes and maintain roads, bridges and defences in a unruly boarder area, and she was also a frequent visitor at court. She mainly lived at Ljungby, but also often lived at Bønnet, where she was the patron of the parish church of Horbelev from 1565. She was very preoccupied with securing that her pastors lead a sober life, and one of them, Mr. Jakob, had to ask for her forgiveness. She seems to have a formidable women, also much respected by her children. Mother of 7 children and (d. ca. 1575).

  1551-… County Sheriff Sophie Holgersdatter Rosenkrantz of Börringe Kloster in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Sophie Rosenkrantz was widow of Axel Axelsen Brahe til Krageholm, Hammar, Vittskövle og Tunbyholm (d. 1551), and (d. 1558).

  1551-54 County Sheriff Ane Christensdatter of Hindselgård with Refs Herred in Thy, Denmark
Widow of Jens Lassen, citizen of Hostebro, who had held the tenantcy as security for lones. After his death, she was given royal permision to keep the tenantcy for life. She handed over the right to the administration and income to Erik Rud but kept the estate.

  1551 County Sheriff Helvig Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting, Nim and Vor, Denmark
Helvig Gøye til Avnsbjerg og Ormholt was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Otto Henriksen Gyldenstierne. Secondly married to Mogens Gøye til Bremversvold. She (d. 1597).

  1551 County Sheriff Eline of the County of Nygård, Denmark
Widow of Anders Rølike. Her background is not known.

  1552-67 HM Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (United Kingdom)
1558-87 Titular Duchess of Touraine (France)
Ascended to the throne of Scotland when she was just six days old. At age five she was sent to France to be brought up in the French court, and eventually married King Francis II, who died the next year, where after Mary returned to Scotland where a series of politically unwise love affairs and her continued adherence to Catholicism in a Protestant country led to trouble and a revolt against her. Forced to flee to England for refuge, but Queen Elizabeth kept her under a form of imprisonment for the next 19 years. Watched closely, she was implicated in a series of conspiracies against Queen Elizabeth, and was executed, but her son, Jacob later succeeded as king of England. Mary lived (1552-87).

  1552-75 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgensdatter Urne of Krønge Birk, Denmark
Alhed Urne was widow of Jørgen Venstermand, who had first been married to Maren Hansdatter Griis. She lived (1505-after 60).

  1553 HM Jane, By the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth, under Jesus Christ, Supreme Head (United Kingdom)
Lady Jane Grey was also known asQueen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland. She was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, daughter Mary, the younger of King Henry VIII’s two sisters. On May 21, 1553, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who exercised considerable power at that point in the minority of King Edward VI, joined with Jane’s father, Duke of Suffolk, in marrying her to his son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Edward VI accepted Jane as his heir and on his death she was proclaimed Queen on July 10 and the Council of the Realm recognized her claim. The rightful heir, Edward’s sister, Mary Tudor, had the support of the populace, and on July 19 even Suffolk, who by now despaired of success in the plans for his daughter, attempted to retrieve his position by proclaiming Mary Queen. Jane was later beheaded (as was her husband) in 1554 having lived (1537-54).

  1553-58 HM Mary I Tudor, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (United Kingdom)
1553-54 Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland 
She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and restored papal supremacy in England, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church, reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops and began the slow reintroduction of monastic orders. She also revived the old heresy laws to secure the religious conversion of the country; heresy was regarded as a religious and civil offence amounting to treason. As a result, around 300 Protestant heretics were burnt in three years. Her decision to marry Philip, King of Spain from 1556, in 1554 was very unpopular; the protest from the Commons prompted her reply that Parliament was ‘not accustomed to use such language to the Kings of England’ and that in her marriage ‘she would choose as God inspired her’. England suffered during her reign. The economy was in ruin, religious dissent reached a zenith and England lost her last continental territory. She possibly died from cancer, leaving the crown to her half-sister Elizabeth. Mary lived (1516-58).

  1553-79 De-facto Reigning Dowager Countess Maria von der Hoya of Bronckhorst, Lady of Borckelo (Germany)
After her husband, Jobst, Graf zu Bronkhorst und Herrn zu Borculo, was killed in an accident the fief reverted to the Diocese of Münster, but she continued to be in charge of the administration until her own death.

  1553-59 Princess-Abbess Ursula I Schad of Heggbach (Germany)
Prioress and Second in Command 1540-53 until her election as ruler of the territory. She resigned because of bad health, and died later the same year.

  1553-70 Dowager Reigning Lady Elena von Pfalz-Simmern of Schwarzenfel in Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
Widow of Count Philipp II von Hanau. The castle served as the seat of the dowry government for other dowager countesses of Hanau as well.

  Until 1553 County Sheriff Johanne Jørgensdatter Krumpen of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark
Johanne Krumpen was widow of Jacob Eskilsen Høegh til Lergrav, Eskær Vang and Kjølskegård, who died after 1528 at a not known time. She lived (ca. 1480-ca. 1553).

  1553-79 County Sheriff  Lene Tønnesdatter Viffert of the County of Havelse
1564-79 County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Lene Viffert was given ownership for life of Havelse and later granted the tenantcy of Dalby Kloster after the death of her second husband, Jacob Sehested til Havelsegård i Havelse Magle, but had to promise to marry Claus von Ungern til Käsel og Clausholm på Øsel, who was given the right of succesion after her death. (fik ventebrev). Her first husband was Basse Christoffersen Basse til Sørup. She (d. 1579).

  1553-85 Politically Influential Electress Anna af Danmark of Sachsen (Germany)
Reigned at the side of her husband, Kurfürst August von Sachsen (1626-86), with whom she lived a very harmonious marriage. She was especially when it came to the fights over religion from 1574, her opponents blamed her of  ‘Gynaecocracy’, and she always took the side of the Lutherans in the fights with the Calvinists. In 1563 she intertwined in the negotiations between Denmark of Sweden together with her mother, Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg, and managed to end the long war between the two countries, she initiated that her husband took the side of her brother, Frederik II, and had Emperor Maximilian II. act as mediator in the conflict. She was also a very able trader and industrialist, and in 1578 her husband transferred the administration of all the Electoral Domains to her and she was a pioneer within modern agriculture. She was also knowable with medical plants, and even the Queen of Portugal asked for her help. In 1548 she was handed over the administation of her dowries in Weissenfels, Freyburg (or Sangerhausen). The daughter of Christian III of Denmark and Norway, she signed her letters, ‘Anna, born as Royal Danish Stock, Electress of Sachsen.’ She was mother of 15 children, and lived (1532-85).

  1554-60 Regent Dowager Queen Marie de Guise of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
Married to James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. The daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, she was also known as Mary of Lorraine. Before her marriage to James V in 1538, she had been married to Louis d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville, who died in 1537. When James died in 1542, shortly after his daughter’s birth, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, became regent. By 1554, with French aid, Marie de Guise had replaced the ineffectual Arran as regent, and she made no secret of her desire to bring France and Scotland together. Meanwhile, Protestantism was spreading rapidly in Scotland, and Marie, though at first conciliatory toward the reformers, began a campaign of suppression. In 1559 the Protestants, exhorted by John Knox, rose against the regent and declared her deposed. She received French aid, but the Protestants, allied with the English, proved the stronger force. The civil war was concluded shortly after Marie’s death by the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which ended the French domination of Scotland and opened the way for the establishment of the Protestant church. She lived (1515-60).

  1554-55 Regent Infanta Juana of Spain
Acted as stand-in for her brother, Felipe II, who had been appointed regent of Spain by their father, Carlos I (Emperor Karl V), but who was in England some of the time with his wife, Mary I Tudor. Juana had returned to Spain after the death of her husband, the Crown Prince of Portugal, leaving her son, Sebastao behind. In 1555 their father abdicated in favour of Felipe. She founded a very rich monastery and remained influential till her death. She lived (1537-73).

  1554-79 Queen Regnant Kalinyamat of Jepara (Indonesia)
Succeeded to the throne when her husband, R. Toyib or “Sultan Hadlirin”, was killed by Bupati Jipang. The commercial port gave wealth to the kingdom and she sent her combat fleet for Malacca to attack and destroy Portuguese in 1551 and 1574, but her forces did not manage to drive Portuguese away from Malacca. The daughter of Sultan Trenggono of Demak, she was originally named Retno Kencono. (d. 1579).

  1554-55 Regent Dowager Abakyala Nannono of Buganda (Uganda)
The seventh wife of Kabaka Nakibinge Kagali, she acted as regent for 8 months after his death, pending the birth of her posthumous child, but when it showed out to be a daughter (Nono), her husband’s son by his 4th wife, Kabaka Mulondo Sekaja, was elected king. She was daughter of Seggirinya, of the Dgo clan.

  1554-1610 Sovereign Princess Marie de Créquy of Poix, Dame de Mareuil (France)
Granddaughter of Jossine, who was Dame de Poix around 1526. Marie married Gilbert de Blanchefort, Lord of Saint-Janvrin. She lived (1526-1610).

  1554-56 Abbess Nullius Caterina Acquaviva of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Member of the Countly Family of Conversano and other territories in Puglia in the South of Italy at the time in the Kingdom of Napoli.

  1555-1572 Queen Regnant Juana III d’Albret of Navarra and Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchess of Albert, Comtesse de Foix-Béarn-Grailly, Périgod, de Rodez, d’Armagnac, Perche, Fezensac, de L’Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët and Pardiac, Viscomtesse de Limoges, Brulhois, Lomagne, Fezenzaguet, Cressey, d’Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé (France and Spain)
Also known as Jeanne d’Albret, she grew up in France as a French princess. She married Antoine de Bourbon out of love but their marriage was unhappy because of his constant infidelities. He died just before she succeeded her father as Queen of Navarra. She converted to Calvinism en 1560 and favoured this faith in Navarra and Béarn as her other domains was under the suzerainty of the king of France. She was involved in the different wars of religion of the time, and in 1571 she made Calvinism the state religion in Béarn and Navarre, and in order to maintain and affirm her authority in her domains, she negotiated the marriage of her son Henri with Marguerite de Valois, sister of Charles IX. She died before the celebration of the marriage and the Saint-Barthélemy massacre on the French Protestants. Her son became king of France and trough him the post of Co-prince has passed on to the Presidents of the French Republic. She lived (1528-72). 

  1565-71 Reigning Abbess Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Louis III de Montpensier et de Jacqueline de Longwy. With the help of Queen Jeanne III de Navarre, she found refuge innHeidelberg and married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands and had 6 daughters of whom Louise-Juliana, Catharina Belgica and Charlotte-Brabantine became regents after their husband’s deaths, and Charlotte Flandrina (1579-1640) became Abbess de Poitiers. She lived (1546-82). 

  1555-66 Reigning  Abbess-General Catalina Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As one of the only abbesses in the history of the Catholic church, the Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas de Burgos held quasi Episcopal powers.              

  1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of Stege with the two Shires of Møn
1564-74 County Sheriff of the Church Servants in the County of the Shire of Gjerlev
1569-70 Acting County Sheriff of Spøtrup
1569/70-74 County Sheriff of the Counties of Medelsom and Sønderlyng with Spøtrup, Denmark
Anne Lykke til Demstrup administered Stege after her first husband, Anders Bentsen Bille til Søholm, was killed in the Feud of the Count and was in charge of Medelsom etc. after the death of her seond husband, to Otto Jørgensen Krumpen til Trudsholk, a member of one of the oldest noble families of the country and one of the most influential men of their time, who died without issue as the last male member of the family. She held Spøtrup as security for lones and exchanged it with Øtsløf Kloster in 1570. Her last husband was Claus Daa. 1574 she returned the letter of security for the Tenantcies to the king who dropped a case against her. Her branch of the family Lykke was also known as Lykke Munk til Overgaard. She (d. after 1574).          

  1556-58/60 Co-Regent Dowager Empress Hamida Begum of The Mughal Empire (India)
After the death of Emperor Humayun (1530-1556), who spend 15 years in exile from 1540-55 his 14-year-old son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne, and Hamida Begum (perhaps also known as Maliam Anga) was part of the regency.

  1556-64 Regent for the Governor Mah-Chehak Begum of Kabul, Afghanistan
Also known as Mah Čučak Bigum, she was regent for her son, Prince Mirza Muhammad Hakim (1553-56-85), son of the Moghul Emperor Humayum (1508-56), to whom she was a concubine.  She was murdered in 1565. 

  1556-57 Regent Dowager Princess Françoise de Breeze of Sedan and Bouillon (France)
Took over the government after the death of her husband, Robert IV de Sedan, who was also created Duke de Bouillon. She was daughter of Diane de Portier, mistress of the French King. Françoise was also Countess of Maulevrier and had two sisters, Diane de Valois, who was Duchess of Chatellerault etc., and Louise de Breeze, Dame d’Anet. Françoise was mother of 9 children, and died 1557.

  1556-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Dorothea af Danmark og Norge of Neumarkt in Pfalz (Germany)
After the death of her brother, Hans, in 1532, she was considered a serious contender to the Danish and Norwegian Throne by her Habsburg relatives, who still supported her father, Christian 2, who had been imprisoned and died in prison in 1559. Her mother, Elisabeth von Habsburg (Isabel of Spain), died 1526 and together with her brother and sister, she grew up at the court of her grat-aunt and aunt, the Governor Generals of the Netherlands, Margaret I and Maria. She was married to Friedrich II von Pfalz (1482-1556). After his death, she transferred her claims to the Danish throne to her sister, Christine, Regent of Lorraine from 1545. In spite of her Catholic relatives and the new Calvinist Elector of the Palitinate, she kept her Lutheran faith in her dowry where she lead a lavish life and remained in close contact with her Habsburg relatives for the rest of her life. She did not have any children, and lived (1520-80).

  1556-68 Politically Influential Duchess Sophie of Poland of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
1568-75 Sovereign Lady of Schöning and the Amt Jerxneim
Also known as Sophie die Jagiellonin, she was engaged in diplomatic activities both with her native Poland and the rest of Europe during the reign of her husband, Heinrich the Younger, she was also active in Politics, and an outstanding intellectual capacity and cultural personality. After her husband’s death, and the accession to the throne of her stepson, she retired to her dowry, which she reigned as a sovereign with rights over administration, juridical matters, trade and a small army. She became extremely rich, and her sisters and her husband’s relatives and later their descendants fought over the inheritance, which was not settled for another 100 years. The daughter of King Zygysmund I of Poland and Bona Sforza, she had no children, and lived (1522-75). 

  1556-94 Princess-Abbess Maria Jacoba von Schwarzenberg of Buchau (Germany)
She was in dispute with the bishop of Konstanz and strongly maintained her own rights as ecclesiastical leader and the position of her territory. She was also promoter of religious and cultural affairs. In 1559 she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid), participated in the the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) 1569, represented by the Count of Fürstenberg in the Imperial Diet 1572 and 1576, and by the Truchess von Waldburg in 1577. She was daughter of Freiherr Christoph and Eva von Montfort, and lived (1515-94).

  1556-57 County Sheriff Sidsel Andersdatter Bille of the County of Gårdstange and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Widow of Niels Tønnesen Parsbjerg til Kulla Gunnarstorp, Lensmand of Vrejlev Len(d. 1556). She (d. 1566).

  1556-80 County Sheriff Mette Hansdatter Lange Munk of Holmegård, Denmark
Mette Lange became in charge of the tenantcy after her husband, Iver Kjeldesen Juel, died the same year he became County Sheriff. She was later granted the tenantcy for life.

  1557-62 Regent Dowager Queen Catarina von Austria of Portugal and the Algaves
Her husband João III died without leaving instructions about regency. A hastily convened council of nobles declared that it had been his wish that Queen Catarina should undertake the office of regent and she was duly appointed and governed in the name of her grandson, Sebastião (1557-78). She was daughter of Juana I la Loca and Emperor Maximillian. After Sebastião came of age at 14, she retired to a convent and lived (1507-78).

  1557-80 Sovereign Countess Anna von Tecklenburg-Schwerin of Tecklenburg und Rheda 
1562-73 Regent of Bentheim
1566-72 Regent of Steinfurt-Wevelinghoven and Granau (Germany)
Succeeded father, Konrad von Tecklenburg-Ibbenbüren, and married to Everwin III von Götterswich, Graf von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1536-62), but she remained a staunch Lutheran when Everwin joined Catholism, and he tried to take over her territories and lock her in the tower of the castle of Tecklenburg, but the lords of the immediate county backed her. The situation was solved when he died of syphilis. After his death, she was regent in Bentheim and after the death Arnold III, also regent in Steinfurt. In 1580 she handed over Tecklenburg and Rheda to her son, Arnold IV von Bentheim-Tecklenburg. It is said about her that she had knowledge of healing plants and that she prevented the prosecution of witches in her territory. She lived (1532-82).

  1557-.. County Sheriff Queen Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Denmark of Vejle Mølle
1558-66 County Sheriff of Holme Kloster
1559-71 County Sheriff of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fugelse and Musse, the Counties of Ravnsborgn and Åkær with the Shire of Had 
When her husband, Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1503-34-59) died, she withdrew to her dowry that she also administered as a fief-holder, Lensmand, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She was very influential as head of the family. She also held Als, Sundeved og Ærø in the landscape of Slesvig. She lived (1511-71)

  Ca. 1557-74 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Clausdatter Bille of the County of Kjølskegård, Denmark
Sidsel Bille was widow of Just Jacobsen Høeg Banner til Vang og Lergrav (d. 1557), who had first been married to Mette Mogensdatter Gøye.

  1557 Abbess Nullius Barbara Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Daughter of Andrea Matteo III Acquaviva d’Aragona, Duke of Atri etc. (1457-1529),  and probably his second wife Caterina della Ratta, Countess di Caserta, Alessano e Sant’Agata (from 1488). Her italian title was Badessa di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano dal 1558

  1557 Reigning Abbess Magdalena von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Only reigned for a few months.

  1557-68 Reigning Abbess Margrethe von Reischach von Hohenstofffeln of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The chapter was a major landowner and also held lower jurisdiction in a number of surrounding villages.

  1558-1603  Elizabeth I, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (United Kingdom)
Daughter of Henry VIII Tudor and Anne Boleyn, she succeeded her half-sister Mary. she was very well educated (fluent in six languages). Her 45-year reign is generally considered one of the most glorious in English history. During it a secure Church of England was established. Its doctrines were laid down in the 39 Articles of 1563, a compromise between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.Although autocratic and capricious, she had astute political judgement and chose her ministers well. Her reign also saw many brave voyages of discovery, which prepared England for an age of colonisation and trade expansion, In 1588, aided by bad weather, the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130 ships – the ‘Armada’ which was intended to overthrow the Queen and re-establish Roman Catholicism by conquest, as Philip II believed he had a claim to the English throne through his marriage to Mary I. She was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, and lived (1533-1603).

  1558-61 Regent Infanta Maria de Austria of Spain
In charge of the government during the travels of her brother Felipe II in the Empire. She was married to Maximillian II von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor. Their son, Archduke Albrecht of Austria, Duke of Teschen, married the daughter of Felipe – Infanta Isabella, Governor of the Southern Netherlands. Maria lived (1528-1603).

  1558-78 Politically Active Margravine Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
The most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603) until her death. She lived (1540-78).

  1558-64 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Gleichen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Several members of her family – of the Counts of Gleichen – were Princess-Abbesses and held other ecclesiastical offices.

  1558 Acting County Sheriff Anne Ottesdatter  Rosenkrantz of the County of Skanderborg with the Shires of Framlev, Gjern, Hjelmslev, Sabro, Tyrsting, Vrads, Støvring, Hald, Onsild and Ning, Denmark
1561-67 County Sheriff of the County of Skjoldnæs
After the death of her husband, Albert Gøye, in 1558, Anne Rosenkrantz was left in charge of the family possessions. Her lands were scattered all over the country, but she managed to unify most of it, and she achieved the right to appoint the judges within her jurisdiction. Anne was involved in many disputes with her relatives, among others the sister-in-law Eline Gøye, and in 1561 she was appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) of Skjoldnæs after Eline was removed from this position. In 1566 Anne was ordered to give up the fief again – but only pawed way for the newly appointed Lensmand the following year. She lived (1522-89). 

  1558-67 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Jochumsdatter Beck of the County of Ruggård with the Shire of Skovsby, Denmark
Margrethe Beck was appointed jointly with her husband, Palle Christoffersen Ulfeldt (d. 1571) for a period of 20 years, but died after 9 years. Her husband then married Margrethe Clausdatter Brockenhuus. She (d. 1567).

  Ca. 1558-62 Acting County Sheriff Bege Pedersdatter Skram of Brinkgård, Denmark
Bege Skram til Stovgård was widow of Jørgen Hansen Juel. Apparently only one daughter, Karen Juel, survived. She (d. after 1562).

  1559-67 and 1580-82 Stadholder Margaretha de Parma of The Netherlands 
1559-67 Governor of Franche-Comté
1572-86 Perpetual Governor of L’Aquila (Italy)
Also known as Madama or Margarita de Austria, her full title was Archduchess of Austria, Infanta of Spain, Princess of Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily. She was daughter of Emperor Karl V and his mistress Johanna van den Gheynst. Her first husband was Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Firenze (1510-37), the son of the Black servant Simonetta da Collavechio and Cardinal Giulio de Medici (the later Pope Clement VII), was finally assassinated a few months after their wedding in 1536. She then received the titles of Feudal Duchess of Borbona, Penne and Posta and Feudal Lady of Campli, Castel Sant’Angelo (now Castel Madama), Civita Ducale (now Cittaducale), Leonessa, Montereale and Ortona, Lady of Amatrice, Borbona, Posta which she held until her death. In 1538 she was married to Ottavio Farnese (1525-86), whose father was given the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza by his father, Pope Paul III. In 1545 she became mother of twins. Her half-brother, King Felipe II of Spain, appointed her Governor-General of the Netherlands, and she proved to be an able administrator, but resigned after the Duke of Alba’s crushing of the Dutch opposition against the Spanish rule. She then returned to Italy and was governor of L’Aquila by her brother. Her son Alessandro Farnese was Governor-General of the Netherlands until 1580 when she replaced him. After his return, she was kept a virtual prisoner in Namur, until she was allowed to return to Italy in 1583 where she died three years later. She lived (1522-86).

  1559-68 Regent Doamna Chiajna of Walachia (Romania)
After the death of her husband, Mircea Ciobanul, who was Voivode of Wallachia in 1545-1552, 1553-1554 and in 1558-1559, she was regent for her son, Petru cel Tînăr (Peter the Young). She was daughter of Petru Rareş, ruler of Moldova.

  1559-89 Princess-Abbess Lucia Hildebrand of Heggbach (Germany)
A former Prioress, she took over enormous depths during a period of bad harvests, hard winters, wet summers, epidemics of plague in 1564, 1572/73, 1574, 1579 and 1589 and on top of it all heavy “turk taxes”. But her bad handling of the economy made the situation worse and the existence of the whole territory was endangered, and she had to resign from her post for the same reason. She lived (1523-1605).

  1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Jacobsdatter Trolle of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Øllegaard Trolle was a major landowner, widow of Christoffer Hvidtfeldt, mother of 11 children, and lived (1513-78).

  1559-62 and 1568-74 County Sheriff Anne Olufsdatter Krognos of Hundlund Kloster
Appointed after the death of her husband, Klaus Podebusk. During her second term in office she held the tenantcy as security for lones. (Pantelen).

  1559-63 Joint County Sheriff Catharine Gregoriusdatter Ahlefeldt of Borgeby Len in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1565-82 Joint County Sheriff  of the County of Gladsaxe with the Shire of Albo, Denmark
First appointed joint County Sheriff together with her husband, Hans Spiegel til Borreby (d. 1599), who bought the fief and estate of Borgeby and then appointed as security for lones. She had first been married to Johan Stake and Lucas Krabbe. Her husband married Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov til Julskov (d. 1602), widow of Emmike Kaas after her death. She (d. 1582).

  1559-… County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Oxe of Ralsvig på Rygen (Germany)
1559 Acting County Sheriff of Boisø Kloster, Denmark
1566-68 County Sheriff of Ørslev Kloster
Mette Oxe acted in the name of her four sons after the death of her husband, Hans Barnekow, of an old Wendian noble family, who had been appointed hereditary tenant by the Duke of Pommern, it was confirmed by the Duke and King of Denmark in 1564. Was later granted the tenantcy of Ørslev Kloster. 3 of her sisters; Inger, Pernille and Sidsel also acted as County Sheriffs.

  1559-60 Acting County Sheriff Lucie Mortensdatter of the County of Jonstrup, Denmark
Daughter of Morten Ebbensen til Gavnø, possibly of the Laale-family, and Benedikte Rubek, and took over the administration after the death of her husband, Christian Eriksen Pors (or Christiern).

  Until 1559 County Sheriff Elline Stensdatter Bille of Fredsgård with Tømmerup at Halsnæs, Denmark
Elline Bille was widow of Morids Skave (d. 1532). She (d. 1559).

  Until 1559 Feudal Marchioness Diana de Cardona of Giuliano, Contessa della Chiusa, Baronessa di Borgia (Italy)
Second wife of Vespasiano I, Marchese di Sabionetta, Principe di Sabionetta, 1st Duca di Sabionetta, Conte di Roddi e Ricalta, Barone di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchese di Ostiano, Conte di Fondi, Duca di Traetto, Viceroy of Navarra an Valencia, Knight of Golden Fleece Order. She died upon the delivery of a child.

  1560-63 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine de’ Medici of France
1562-89 Sovereign Duchess of Valois, Countess Auvergne and Boulogne
In 1533 she was married to Henri, Duke of Orleans, who became the French king in 1547. As Queen she was very influential in bringing aspects of Italian culture to France, such as their theatre and food. After her husband’s death, she gained political power as regent for her sons. An ambitious woman, she actively involved herself in the political intrigues of the court, always trying to increase royal power. At first Catherine tried to reconcile France’s opposing Catholic and Protestant factions as their violent disputes threatened national unity. But instead she initiated the massacre in 1570 of Protestants (the massacre of St Bartholomew). Succeeded her aunt, Anne de la Tour as Countess of Auvergne in 1524, and father Lorenzo II de Medici as titular Countess of Urbino 1519-21. Mother of 10 children, she lived (1519-89)

  1560-62 De-facto regent Maham Anga of the Mughal Empire (India) 
The chief nurse of Emperor Akbar, she gained influence after she convinced Akbar to dismiss his minister, Bairam. Her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Atkah Khan as chief minister. Five months later her son, Adham Khan, Akbar’s foster-brother, attempted to assassinate Atkah Khan, but was executed, and she died shortly after, and the emperor, who was now 19 ruled alone from then on. 

  1560 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Duchess Maria von Sachen-Wettin of Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)
1574-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Pudagla in Pommern-Wolgast
After the death of her husband, Philipp I Duke von Pommern-Wolgast (1515-31-60) a Council of Regency took over the government for her son, Johann Friedrich (1542-60-1600). She was guardian for her sons who shared the inheritance of another relative, who abdicated in 1569; Bogislaw XIII von Pommern-Barth/Neuenkamp and later of Pommern-Stettin, Ernst Ludwig von Pommern-Wolgast, Barnim X von Pommern-Rügenwalde und Bütow and Kasimir VI, who was Evangelican Bishop of Cammin. She was also guardian for the daughters Amelia, Margaretha and Anna. The Duchy was hit by The Seven Years War (1563-70), which demonstrated how powerless the Duchy was. Lack of finances and of military power, forced it to remain neutral and thereby it ended up as a “playbill” between the foreign powers. Her Johann Friederich received the Imperial confirmation of his fief (kaiserliche Belehnung) at the Reichstag in Augsburg in 1566. She was daughter of Duke and Elector Johann von Sachsen and Margareta von Anhalt, and lived (1516-83).

  1560-76 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Countess Margarethe von Hoya of Diepholz (Germany)
1560-93 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Office of Auburg
1585-93 Regent of Diepholz
Following the death of her husband, Rudolf IX, a regency council took power under the leadership of Duke Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle in the name of her son Friederich II, and she managed to become part of the council, even though she had not been designated a seat from the beginning. Margarethe von Diepholz was also given the whole of the County as her dowry. In 1582 the Hoya-line died out and she tried to secure her inheritance without success, The same year her only grandson died and 3 years later her son followed. Nominally the county fell to Braunschweig-Lüneburg but in effect she managed to act as regent for her granddaughter, Anna Margarethe (1580-), possibly because Duke Wilhelm had become mentally ill. She reorganised and modernised the administration. The daughter of Jobst II von Hoya and Anna von Gleichen, she had been elected as Abbess of the Noble Chapter of Bassum in 1541, but remained at the court of her parents, and lived (1527-93).

  Ca. 1560-ca. 1600 Clan Leader Grania O’Mally of the West Coast of Camacht and Achill Island, Ireland
1565-1603 Pirate Queen”
Also known as Grace O’Malley or Gráinne Ni Mháille, she was only daughter of Dubndara O’Mally. Her husband, Donal O’Flatherty, leader of the neighboring clan, was killed and she managed to hold the besieged castle of the family. Imprisoned in 1578-79 and 1593 for piracy and her sons and son-in-law was also held prisoners by the British. Her fleet numbered some 20 ships, and her blatant piracy was seriously emptying the pockets of English merchants at Galway. She wrote a letter to the Chiefess of the Tudor Clan, Queen Elizabeth I, and was granted an audience in London, which resulted in the release of her relatives and the right to continue her activities on Sea and on Land – though under English flag. She lived (1530-1603).

  1560-1600 Lady Doña Beatriz Clara Cova-Inca of Valle de Yucay, Peru
Only daughter and heir of the last Inca of Peru, Sayri Tupac and his sister and wife María Manrique Cusi Huarcay (circa 1531-after 1586). After her father’s death, her possessions were administered by various Spanish guardians and she was placed in a convent, until her mother managed to get the pension she had been promised by her late husband and had found refuge at the residence of Cristóbal Maldonado. Beatriz later married Martín García de Loyola, Lord de Calatrava and their only daughter, Doña Ana María de Loyola Cova y Coya-Inca, was named “The Legitimate Representative of the past Sovereign Incas of Peru”, Marquesa de Santiago de Oropesa and Adelantada del Valle de Yucay and Yupangui and Lady de Loyola in 1614. Beatriz lived (1558-1600)

  Until 1560 County Sheriff Karen Gans of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark
Widow of Thomas Logen (or Lage), who died in the 1550s. Her second husband, Jacob Krafse became County Sheriff (Lensmand) 1560-ca. 72.

  Around 1560 Princess-Abbess Ludmilla de Bliziva of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Another version of her surname was von Bliziwa.

  1560-61 Princess-Abbess Maria von Spiegelberg of Essen (Germany)
The counts of Spiegelberg had ruled their Small County, cantered around Coppenbrüg since around 1280. In 1494 they inherited the County of Pyrmont, but in 1557 the family died out in the male line. The fief was inherited by Braunschweig-Calenberg, but with the condition that the sovereignty was inherited in the female line to a sideline of the family of Lippe. In 1485 the county was inherited by the counts of Gleichen and in 1631 by Nassau-Oranje, who sold it to Hannover in 1819.

  1561-75 Princess-Abbess Irmgard III von Diepholz of Essen (Germany)
Pröbstin – or second ranking – in the Chapter until her election as its sovereign. Like Maria von Spiegelberg, she was catholic and that caused problems with the predominantly protestant City of Essen. In 1568 Irmgard applied to the imperial supreme court to resolve a wider, century-old dispute between the Abbesses and the Essen citizenry over the rights and responsibilities of the citizens. The judgement, which took 102 years to deliver, was ambiguous. The Abbess was declared the “sole authority and rightful princess of the state”, to whom the citizens owed obedience as “subjects and members of the state”. At the same time however the city was defined as a “civitas mixta” or free city of the German Empire, and therefore not a county, which would have meant complete subjugation to the aristocracy, nor a municipality without jurisdiction or statutory power. This judgement gave rise to continuing legal disputes, which carried on until 1803, when the state was finally secularised. Irmgard also took a keen interest in coal mining.

  1561-69 Princess-Abbess Marguerite V de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The abbess of the chapter was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.

  Until 1561 Reigning Abbess Antoniette de Joinville of Faremoutiers (France)
Following the concordat de Bolgone, signed in 1516 between François I and Pope Léon X, the abbesses were named by the king. Her sister, Renée, was Abbess of St. Pierre until her death in 1602. The daughter of Duke Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche, she lived (1531-61).

  Until 1561 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline-Marguerite de Longwy of Bar-sur-Seine (France)
First wife of Louis de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier, Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon and Dauphin d’Auvergne. 

  1561-62 County Sheriff Karen Globsdatter Krabbe of the Counties of Amtofte , Amtofte Kloster and Thistedgård with the Shire of Hundborg, Denmark
1576-78 County Sheriff of the County of Voergård
1579 County Sheriff of the County of Vinderslevgård
Until 1586 County Sheriff of the County of Strekhals
Karen Krabbe til Nissum, Skovsgård og Voergård, or Karen Krabbe Glob, was married to Nils Hansen Skeel Nygård til Vinderslevgård, Ullerup, Merringgård, Nipgård, Skovsgård, Momtoftegård og Thistedgård (d. 1561). She settled the inheritance with her son-in-law Otto Banner and got Vinderslevgård in exchange. 1578 she and her daughter, Ingeborg Skeel, got the right to the juristiction of the Estate of Vorgård. Ingeborg was County Sheriff from 1585. She lived (1509-86).

  1561… Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Nielsdatter Tornekrans of the County of Bråde, Denmark
Dorothea Tornekrans was widow of Niels Markvardsen Skiernov til Mejlgård (d. 1561), who had been granted the tenantcy for life by the Bishop some years before and confirmed by the king after the Reformation. She (d. earlist 1591).

  1561-62 and 1562-72 Acting County Sheriff Magdalene Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Skivehus Len with the Shires of Lørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark
Magdalene Banner was left in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Iver Krabbe. She (d. 1597).

  1561-72 County Sheriff Jytte Presbjørnsdatter Podebusk of Vestervig Kloster, Denmark
Jytte Podebusk was widow of Knud Gyldenstierne (d. 1568), who held the tenantcy before her. She (d. 1573).

  1561-62 Acting County Sheriff Mette Eriksdatter Hardenberg of Biskotorp, Denmark
Mette Hardenberg was widow of Didrik Henningsen Qvistzow til Rørbæk etc. (d. 1561). Mother of one daughter, Anne who died young. She (d. 1573).

  1561-62 County Sheriff Anne Albrechtsdatter Glob of Sebber Kloster and Asmild Kloster, Denmark
Anne Glob was widow of Jørgen Urne (d. 1560), and was appointed to both tenantcies for life. (d. 1562).

  1562-65 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hennekesdatter Rantzau of the County of Skodborg with Malt and ½ of the Shire of Andst, Denmark
Margrethe Rantzau was married to her relative, Jesper Hansen Rantzau, Amtmand in Flensborg and Lensmand in Schmoel, Skodborg, Haderslev and Tørning Len, and she took over the administration of one of his fief after his death.

  1562-63 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Maltesdatter Viffert of the County of Viskumsgård with the Shire of Synderlyng, Denmark
Dorthe Viffert til Øls was widow of Peder Christoffersen Kruse til Ballegård, Ryomgård og Kjellerup. She lived (ca. 1514-after 1563).

  1562-1622 Politically Influential Empress Mariam uz-Zamani Begum Sahiba of the Mughal Empire (India)
As one of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar’s three chief queens, she was politically involved in the court until Nur Jahan became empress. Like other few women at the Mughal court, she could issue official documents (farman), which was usually the exclusive privilege of the emperor. She used her wealth and influence to build gardens, wells, and mosques around the country. In 1586, she arranged a marriage of her son, Prince Salim (later Jahangir), to her niece, Princess Manmati (Manbhawati Bai), who was the mother of Prince Khusrau Mirza. Even though she remained a Hindu after her marrage, she was buried according to Islamic custom and was not cremated. Born as Rajkumari Hira Kunwari Sahiba – or Harkha Bai, she was the eldest daughter of Kacchwaha Rajput, Raja Bharmal, Raja of Amber, and lived (1542-1622)

  1563-79 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Waldeck-Eisenberg
of Lippe (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Bernhard VIII (1527-36-63), she was in disputes with the other regents for her son Simon VI, mainly Count Hermann Simon zu Pyrmont (d. 1576). Her son was appointed Imperial Commissioner and was in charge of mediating hereditary disputes and gained more and more importance as the years went by. She lived (1524-83).

  1563-1621 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Katarina Stenbock of Strömsholms Estate with the Shire of Snevringe , Fiholms Estate with the Parishes of Säby and Stora Rytterne, the estates of Tynnelsö and Magerö wit Aspö, the Parishes of Överselö and Ytterselö with Tosterö in the Parish of Strängnäs and the Estate of Kungsberga with the Parishes of Fogdö, Vansö and Helgarö, Sweden
She was engaged when king Gustav Vasa decided to marry her after the death of his previous wife, her aunt, Margareta Leijonhufvud. He was 37 tears older than he, and she was more his nurse than his wife. She was the first Queen Dowager to be named Riksänkedrottning – Dowager Queen of the Realm, and lived (1535-1621).

  1563-ca. 88 County Sheriff Anne Vernersdatter Parsberg of Derup
1580-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Øster Gårdstange and the County of Reving (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1580-93 County Sheriff of the Counties of Vram, Visby, Stibberup and Revinge, Denmark
Anne Parsberg was first married to Christoffer Gyldenstierne and secondly to Hans Jepsen Skovgaard til Gundestrup (1526-80), Councillor of the Realm and Lensmand of Helsingborg. 

  1563-64 County Sheriff Else Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Svaløv (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1567-.. County Sheriff of the County of Rørum, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Tage Thott, Else Ulfstand administered Rørum, in Skåne, together with her sister, Thale Ulfstand, who was also County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Hesselbjerg from 1595. Her daughter, Thale Thott, was County Sheriff or Lensmand of Åhus and Åsum in Skåne 1587-90. She lived (1520-73).

  1563-87 County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Urup of the County of Søfed (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Margrethe Urup til Ugerup was widow of Erik Madsen Bølle til Terløse, Elved and Orebygård and Lensmand at Tureby (d. 1562). She did not have any children. The local administration and juridical system was in the hand of a royal appointed Lensmand (County Sheriff) who each administered a Len (fief or tenantcy). It was normally the local manor-owner, and if that was an unmarried woman she was in some cases appointed Lensmand in her own right, in other cases a woman administered the Len after her husband’s death. 

  1563-65 County Sheriff Ingeborg Andersdatter Bille of Øvid Kloster, Denmark
Jomfru Ingeborg Bille held the tenantcy as security for lones. She was a rich landowner and inherited Egedegaard from her two unmarried aunts, Ermegaard Bentdsatter and Birgitte Torbendsdatter Bille who had inherited the estate from their fathers, the brothers’ Bent and Torben who owned it jointly. Both cousins died 1587, and from these three unmarried women – Jomfruer – the estate got the present name, Jomfruens Egede (Egede of the Virgin (or unmarried lady)). She (d. 1608).

  1563-after 68 County Sheriff Lisbet Johansdatter Urne of the County of Klingstrup, Denmark
Lisbet Urne was widow of Peder Lykke til Skovsbo, granted the tenantcy for life. 1577 she married Johan Bockholt. She (d. 1584).

  1563-91 County Sheriff Agnete Busksdatter Skenk of the County of Pandumgård with the Shire of Hornum and the Estate of Snorup, Denmark
Agnete Skenk til Brudagergård was widow of Jørgen Jørgensen Prip til Pandumgård len. She (d. before 1599).

  1563-71 County Sheriff Ellen Pallesdatter Bang of the County of Lønborggård and Lønborg Birk
Ellen Bang was widow of Jørgen Hennekesen Kremon Rantzau til Kærgård og Lønborggård. 1570 she was permitted to keep the tenantcy for 8 years, but it was paid off the following year when she married the German noble Ernst von Reckenberg. Her third husband was
Mads Nielsen Skade.

  1564-78 Queen Regnant Wisuthatevi of Lanna
Also known as Phra Nang Visuti, Wisutthi Thewi or Wisutthithew (Maha Tewi) she was youngest daughter of Phaya Ket and placed on the throne by the Burmese after King Phra Mekut was deposed, and married to King Burengnong, or Bayinnaung. of Hantawaddy and Pegu, who sacked Ayudhaya in 1569 and continued fighting until his death in 1581. Lanna became a vassal state required to pay annual tribute of gold and silver trees, and manpower as necessary in times of war. She was the last descendent of Mengrai to rule, and after her death, the Burmese sent their own princes to rule in Lanna. (d. 1578).

  1564-1633 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Clèves-Nevers of Eu and Souveraine de Chateau-Renaud (France)
Successor of her brother, Jacques de Clèves. First married to Antoine de Croÿ, prince of Porcien and in 1570 to Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise, who was assassinated in 1588. (1548-1633)..

  Until 1564 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her relative, Moritz was Prince-Bishop of Freising until he resigned in 1566.

  1564-79 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Ratzin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1219 the “reichsunmittelbare” – Imperial Immediate – convent came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the convent immunity and during the reign of Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 it was turned into a noble Ladies Chapter (Gräflicher Damenstift) with a seat and vote in the Diet of the Realm and the Princess-Abbess also sat on the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) in 1500, which was the Regional Assembly.

  1564-70 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly Member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was also member of the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. She resigned in order to marry Count Wolfgang II von Barby. She was the youngest daughter of Johann von Anhalt-Zerbst and Margrethe von Brandenburg was succeeded by her niece, Anne Marie von Anhalt, and lived (1545-74).

  1564-66 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Reventlow of the County of Åstrup, Denmark
1566-80  County Sheriff of the County of Jegindø
Margrethe Reventlow was the second wife of Erik Krabbe (1510-64), and after his death, she was in charge of the fief until a new Lensmand (County Sheriff) was appointed. Held Jegindø as security for lones until it was paid off by Tyge Krabbe. She lived (1525-1606).

  1564-73 County Sheriff Johanne Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of the Shire of Hindsted, Denmark
Johanne Rotfeld til Eskær was widow of Hans Lykke, but apparently appointed to the tenantcy in her own right.

  1564-? County Sheriff Karen Jacobsdatter Ged of Gisleberg Len, Denmark
Karine or Karen Ged til Røsøholm og Jordbjærg was widow of Mogens Krabbe til Vegholm og Skillinge, and held the tenantcy as security for lones. (d. 1587).

  1565-ca. 76 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Rietberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband Count Johann II of Rietberg, Lord auf Esens, Stedesdorf und Wittmund (1541-1562) she acted as regent for her daughters, Armgard and Waldburgis. The Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, and in 1565 the daughters were granted the fief (des Lehens erneut belehnt). In 1567 she granted Wittmund City Rights.

  1564/65-82 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Urne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Entered the chapter in 1542 and “reigned as Abbess ably and well like no other abbess before or after her”. There were complaints that the chapter was opened to anyone who wanted to visit, the canonesses fought openly and refused to comply with the rule or the abbess, many were drunk on a regular basis, drinking up the fourteen barrels of beer received each year as rent and more. It was also asserted that women’s rooms were used as brothels for any young nobleman who wandered inside. She was daughter of Knud Urne til Søgård, and (d. 1582).

  1565-76 Hereditary Countess Armgard von Rietberg of Rietberg (Germany)
1576-84 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
Also known as Irmgard, she was daughter Johann II and Agnes von Bentheim-Steinfurt. After her father’s death, the Landgrave of Hessen occupied the county, but her mother protested and in 1565 she and her sister, Walburgis, were given back the fief. The latter received the Harlingerlands and Armgard received Rietberg. She was first married to Erich Count von Hoya (from 1568) and from 1578 with Simon VI. von der Lippe. She did not have any children and was succeeded as Countess by her sister, Walburgis.

  1565-84 Lady Walburgis von Rietberg of the Harlingerland (Germany)
1584-86 Sovereign Countess of Rietberg
The two sisters were granted the territory three years after their father’s death, and in 1576 the inheritance was finally settled. Also known as Walburga, she was married to Count Enno III von Ostfriesland. After having given birth to two daughters she died two months after the birth of her only son, who only lived a few days. Her two daughters seem to have been taken in the care of her mother-in-law, Anna of Sweden. Walburgis was succeeded by daughter, Sabine Catharina von Ostfriesland (b. 1582) with her father as regent for a number of years. The younger daughter, Agnes, married Lord Gundacar zu Liechtenstein and Nicolsburg in 1603. The marriage-treaties resulted in various lawsuits – the last ended in 1835 – where the Princes of Liechtenstein claimed the County of Rietberg and they still use the weapon and title for sidelines of the family. Walburga was the last of the house of Werl-Arnsberg, and lived (1555/56-86)

  1565-before 1609 Reigning Marchioness Anne de Croÿ of Renty (Belgium) 
Succeeded father, Guillaume and was first married to Emanuel de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny (d. 1590) and secondly to Philippe de Croy, Comte de Sole (d. 1612).

  1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Staufenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
Her husband, Johann von Münsterberg zu Oels in Slesia, died 1565, and her brother, Duke Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel in Calenberg und Göttingen, granted her the Castle as her dowry and transformed it into a hosptal, and lived (ca. 1516-80).

  1565-75 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Also Abbess of Freckenhorst 1570, and of Borghorst 1572. She introduced the reformation after years of oppostion by her predecessor, whereafter Herford became a secular protestant Stift – the only one to be reformed. The other Protestant Chapters were Lutheran. She was daughter of Simon V, Count of Noble Lord zur Lippe and Magdalene von Mansfeld. Her sister, Magdalene was sovereign from 1586. She lived (1525-78).

  1565-74 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Kapelgård, Denmark
1565-66 County Sheriff of the County of Tølløse
1565-71 Acting County Sheriff of the Counties of Kappelgården and Ringkloster
1571-72 County Sheriff of the County of Åkær
1572 County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs
After her mother’s death, Birgitte Gøye was brought up at the convent  Ringkloster by Skanderborg. Her relationship with her stepmother, Margrethe Sture, was very bad. 1537 she became Lady of the Chamber (Kammerjomfru) of King Dorotheas and became a close friend of Princess Anna, later electress of Sachsen. Married Councillor of the Realm, Admiral Herluf Trolle in 1544 after she had managed to break off another engagement. They had no children, but she was in charge of the upbringing of many young noble ladies who lived with her for numerous years. In 1564 she and Herluf founded Herlufsholm Boarding school for children of the nobility and she was its Chancellor 1565-67. In 1571, after she had lost her other fiefs, Dowager Queen Dorothea, gave her the tenantcy of Åkær by Horsens, but after the Queen’s death, Birgitte also lost this possession, until she was given Ydernæs for life. She lived (ca. 1511-74).

  1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Mette Olufsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
1565-67 County Sheriff of the County of Strø in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
All her life, Mette Rosenkrantz was extremely rich, and together with her sister, Birgitte, she inherited the estate of Vallø, a very big possession, she administered Skarhult for her children of the first marriage with Councillor of the Realm Steen Rosensparre, and her second husband, Chancellor Peder Oxe, had given her possession for life of his enormous lands and the estates of Gisselfeld, Tølløse and Løgismose, which she could not inherit, since they had no children, and she won the cases his relatives raised against her disputing the legality of his transfers. As all other estate owners at the time she went through numerous disputes and court-cases not least because their lands were scattered over big areas, not one unit. She also inherited lands from her mother, Ide Munk (d. 1586), and was probably the biggest landowner of her time and a reformed the way the estates and farms were run. Mother of 3 children, and lived (ca. 1533-88).

  1565-85 County Sheriff Abel Sørensdatter Skeel of the County of Lundenæs with the Shires of Bølling, Ginding, Hammerum and Hjem and the County of Dueholm
1565 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Riberhus Len with the Shires of Gjørding and Skad, Denmark
Abel Skeel was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Hr. Niels Hansen Lange Munk til Kærgård, Fadersbøl og Visselbjerg. 1573 King Frederik 2 asked her to give one of the three bells of the Chapter of Dueholm to the Church of Sct. Clemens Kirke in Nykøbing Mors, as the old bells had been lost in the fire of 1560. She did not have any children, and (d. 1585).

  1565-67 County Sheriff Elsebe Axelsdatter Brahe of the County of Fliginde (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Elsebe Brahe took over after the death of her husband, Hans Jepsen Skovgaard. She did not have any children her two fiancees prior to her marriage had both died.

  1565-66 Acting County Sheriff Apollonia Frederiksdatter von Ahlefeldt of the County of Hagenskov with the Shire of Bog, Denmark
Apollonia von Ahlefeldt was widow of Joachim Brockdorff. She was daughter of Frederik von Ahlefeldt, of Pinneburg in Slesvig-Holstein and Catharine Henningsdatter Pogwisch. She was mother of one son, and lived (ca. 1515-88).

  1565-91 County Sheriff Inger Johansdatter Oxe of Lund Sankt Peders Kloster (Then Denmark, Now Sweden) and the County of Søllestedgaard, Denmark
1565-66 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbning with the two Shires of Falster
Inger Oxe was widow of Jørgen Brahe til Tostrup, who had been appointed County Sheriff of Dowager Queen Sophie, who held Lolland and Falster as her dorwy. As they did not have any chidren they became the foster parents of the later famous astronomer Tycho Brahe. Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Sophie af Mecklenburg 1572-84. 3 of her sisters, Mette Pernille and Sidsel also were County Sheriffs. She (d. 1592).

  1565-74 County Sheriff Pernille Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Korsør with the Shires of Flakkebjerg and Slagelse, Denmark
Pernille Oxe was appointed to the tenantcy in succession to her late husband, Admiral Otto Rud, who had died in a Swedish prison. The sister of Inge and Sidsel Oxe and the Chancellor Peder Johansen Oxe, she lived (1530-76).

  1565-78 County Sheriff Ide Truidsdatter Ulfstand of Hassens Birk
1587 Acting County Sheriff of Marup, Denmark
1589-91 County Sheriff of Mørup in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Ide Ulfstand was widow of Falk Gøye, she held Hassens as security for lones and exchanged Marup and Mørup with other properties in an agreement with Eiler Brokkenhuus. Granted Mørup with out any duties to the king when she followed Princess Anne to Sachen. She (d. ca. 1604).

  Around 1565 County Sheriff Birgitte Clausdatter Bille of the County of Svendstrup
1575-? County Sheriff of the County of Ydernæs, Denmark
Birgitte Bille was widow of Christoffer Galle and held the tenantcy as security for lones (Pantelen). She (d. after 1613).

  1566-86 Co-Guardian Duchess Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach (Germany)
Her husband, Duke Johann Friedrich II von Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach, (1529-95), had attempted to win back the dignity of Elector through taking up arms. He was defeated and imprisoned for life by the Emperor and Imperial Diet. She then lived with her brother-in-law, Johann Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, together with her two sons, Johann Casimir von Sachsen-Coburg (1564-1633) and Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Eisenach and after his brother’s death also in Coburg (1566-1638), but later she set up her own court in the Zollhof zu Eisenach, in 1571 at the Castle of Wartburg and finally at the Castle of Eisenberg. In 1570 the Imperial Diet had reinstated her sons and named three electors: Friedrich III. von der Pfalz, August von Sachsen as Johann Georg von Brandenburg as their guardians and in 1572 the duchy was divided in a part for each son. 1578-81 they both studied at the University of Leipzig, and in 1586 they assumed the reigns in their duchies. Johann Friederich II was still imprisoned and died one year after her. Her two oldest sons died in infancy, and she lived (1540-94).

  1566-1631 Dame Catherine Parthenay-L’Archevêque of Parthenay-Soubise and Mouchamp (France)
Also known as de Parthenay-Larchevêque, she was a poet, dramaturgist and mathematician and a center of the protestant culture in the North Eastern part of France. 1568 married to Charles de Quélenec Baron du Pont., who died during the Saint Barthelemew’s Night in 1572. A few years later she married René II de Rohan Vicomte de Rohan, Prince de Léon, Comte de Porhoët, and took up residence in Bretange and developped a number of protestant churches. When her husband died in 1586 she concentrated on raising her 5 children and in 1627-28 she participated in the defence of the City of Rochelle against the armies of Cardinal de Richelieu.. After the fall of the city she was imprisoned at the Castles of Blain and Josselin. Her oldest son, Duke Henri II de Rohan-Soubise (1579-1638), became chief of the Huguenot Party together with Condé, Coligny and Henri de Navarre and was succeeded by his daughter, Marguerite de Rohan upon his death. Catherine was daughter of another Huguenot leader, Jean V (1512-1566) and Antoinette Bouchard (d. 1580), and lived (1554-1631).

  1566-? County Sheriff Sidsel Johansdatter Oxe of the County of Broby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1571-92 County Sheriff of the County of Rødinge, Denmark 
1573-74 Dowager County Sheriff of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård
Sidsel Oxe was daughter of Johan Oxe til Nielstrup and Mette Mogensdatter Gøye and was appointed tenant in her own right. When her husband, Councillor of the Realm, Erik Jørgensen Podebusk til Bidstrup died, she administered the tenantcy. He inheited Øster Velling Birk from his mother, Ermegård Andersdatter Bille, when she died 1564. In 1593 Sidsel was granted the jurisdiction of Øster Velling, giving her right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She (d. 1593).

  1566-68 County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Rotfeldt of the County of Ulvskov, Denmark
Margrethe Rotfeldt was widow of Hans Mandrupsen Holk, who defended Varberg Castle in Halland against the Swedish troops, but was run over and held prisoner with her and their 2 children. He died shortly after and they were freed the following year. She lived (ca. 1540-75).

  1566-68 County Sheriff Sidsel Eilersdatter Bryske of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark
Sidsel Bryske inherited the tenantcy from her brother, Antonius (Klausen) Bryske. She was widow of Eskild Gøye. She (d. 1573).

  1566-76 County Sheriff Maren Eilersdatter Friis of the County of Vejstrupgård, Denmark
Marine or Maren Friis was widow of Claus Brockenhuus, she held the tenantcy for life. She (d. 1576).


1566-73 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Liechtenstein-Murauof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Otto von Liechtenstein-Murau (d. 1564) and Benigna von Liechtenstein (of the later Princes of Liechtenstein) (d. 1579). Her parents were not related.

  1566-70 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Manrique de Lara of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her family was extremely influential during the reigns of Carlos V (1500-16-56) and Felipe II (1537-56-98).

  1567-68 Regent Dowager Queen Shim of Korea
Also known as In-sun Wang-hu, she was the widow of Myongjong (1534-1567), and adopted the third son of Prince Tok-hung, who then succeeded his uncle as Kun Jong-jon or Sonjo (1552-1608). She lived (1532-75).

  1567-79 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Johann von Mansfeld, she took over the regency for son Ernst VI (1561-1609). She was daughter of Duke Ernst I von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Sofie von Mecklenburg, and lived (1534-96).

  1567-1625 Politically influential Queen Anna af Danmark of Scotland and England (United Kingdom)
The newest research shows that she was very influential during the reign of her husband, James VI of Scotland and from 1603 James II of England. She was a shrewd and powerful player in the court politics of Scotland and, later, England. Her influence can be seen in James’s choices for advisors and beneficiaries of royal attention. She also developed an alternative court and sponsored many of the other artistic ventures in one of the most productive and innovative periods of English cultural history. James’ and Anna’s longstanding dispute over the raising of the heir, Henry, caused a major scandal of the time and was suspected as a plot against the king’s safety. In order to assert her own power, Anna actually forced a miscarriage upon herself; an event that is referred to in much hitherto unnoticed contemporary diplomatic correspondence. She lived (1574-1619)

  1567-70 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Fadersdatter Sparre of the Counties of Vefre and Høgby, Denmark
1570-72 Acting County Sheriff of Helne Kirke in Land (Allehelgenes Kloster)
1574-81 Acting County Sheriff of the County Verpinge (Skåne)
1574-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Borgeby
1582-1605 County Sheriff of Börreringe Kloster and the Shire of Frost (Frostherred)
1586-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Sørby
1599-1605 County Sheriff of the County of Skøtsherred
1601-05 County Sheriff of the Counties of Hiöby and Lindholm in Skåne (Now Sweden)
Gørvel Sparre was one of the last members of the so-called “Nordic nobility” which existed during the Union between Denmark, Norway and Sweden as she had possessions in all three countries. She was an only child and inherited Norway’s largest estate Giske from her mother’s brother in 1537. During the The Count’s Feud  1534-36 she was kept prisoner with her seven stepchildren at her second husband’s estate, Varberg in Skåne, and also gave birth to her only son, who died 1548. She secured her possessions by giving large grants to the king, and in exchange she became Lensmand (County Sheriff) for life of Verpinge, and she were later given other fiefs to administer for the crown for life. She continued to grant most of her Norwegian estates to the crown, and in 1601 she appointed king Christian 4 as her sole heir after the death of her only child, Nils Ulfstad. In a number of her tenantcies, she also held pastorial rights. Married to the Swedish Councillor of the Realm, Peder Nilsson Grip (d. 1533), Truid Gregersen Ulfstand (d. 1445) and Lave Axelsen Brahe (d. 1567). She lived (ca. 1509-1605).

  1567-.. County Sheriff Tale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Rørum, Denmark
1595-99 County Sheriff of the County of Hesselbjerg in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Tale Ulfstand’s husband, Poul Pedersen (Laxmand) den yngre til Stenholt, died 1557. At first she administered Rørum jointly with Else Ulfstand and later with Lisbeth Rosenkrantz. She owned the castles of Skabersjö, Häckeberga and Høgestad in Denmark and in the landscapes that was conquered by Sweden in 1658.

  1567 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk of the County of Odensegård
1567-68 Acting County Sheriff of the Conty Stege with the two Shires of Møn, Denmark
Viveke or Vibeke Podebusk was widow of Evert Bildt. She held Herrested as security for lones. She was owner of Raunholt and Lindholm Castle and in 1580 was granted the jurisdiction of Raunholt, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines.). She (d. 1596).

  1567-79 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of the Shire of Rugsø, Denmark
1580-82 County Sheriff of the County of Satsø
1582-1611 County Sheriff of the County of Orlofgård
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shire Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg
Karen Banner til Høgholt held the teantcy as security for a lone to her husband, Gregers Truedsen Ulfstand, who was County Sheriff 1548-80, and held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Karen’s uncle, Peder Oxe in 1575. (d. 1611).

  1567-91 County Sheriff Birgitte Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Kirkeby, Denmark
Birgitte Rønnow was widow of Henning Jørgensen Qvitzow til Sandager, Rørbæk, Lykkesholm and Falde (1513-1569), who had first been married to Ide Thomesdatter Lange to Lydum (d. 1553). She (d. 1590).

  1567-91 County Sheriff Anne Nielsdatter Friis of the County of Gudumlund, Denmark
Anne Friis eld the biscopal fief for life until she handed it over to Jens Kaas. She was married to Chresten Krabbe, mentioned to Viumgård in 1592.

  1567-1610 Princess-Abbess Maria Segesser von Brunegg of Gutenzell (Germany)
Considered one of the most important rulers of the territory. During the visitation in 1574, by the Abbot of Bodenseezisterze, who was in charge of the clerical affairs and responsible for the economic affairs, the 47 Heggbachers and other neighbouring convents were praised for their piety and it lasted another 50 years before the convent reforms were introduced. Another version of her name is Maria von Segesser aus Brunegg.

  1567-90 Royal Abbess Magdalena von Habsburg of the Royal Chapter of Hall in Tirol (Königliches Damenstift Hall) (Austria-Hungary)
She founded the royal Chapter for royal and noble ladies that existed until 1783. She lived there with her two sisters, Margaretha and Helena. Daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I and Anna of Hungary, she lived (1532-90)

  1568-ca. 72 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna-Maria von Brandenburg–Ansbach of Württemberg (Germany)
Widow of Christoph (1515-50-68) and regent for son Ludwig (1554-68-93) together with her brother Margrave Georg-Friedrich of Brandenburg, Margrave Karl von Baden and Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken. The mother of 12 children, she lived (1526-89).

  Ca. 1568-97 Sovereign Marquise Renée d’Anjou of Mézières, Countess de Saint-Fargeau (France)
Married to François, Prince-Dauphin d’Auvergne, Duc de Montpensier (1582), duc de Saint-Argau (1572) and de Châtellerault (1582/84), who lived (ca. 1542-92). She (d. 1597).

  1568-80 Princess-Abbess Renée de Dinteville of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
Coadjutrice 1565-68 and elected Abbess because duke Charles III of Lorraine preferred an Abbess from the local nobility of the Duchy. 1579 was forced to accept Barbe de Salm as Coadjutrice of the Chapter. She was the issue of a noble family of high-ranking courtiers. 

  1568-78 Reigning Abbess Marie III de de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of Lord of Thieuloye and Lievin.

  1568-92 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Goeberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The General of the Order of the Cisterciensers (Ordensgeneral) visited the chapter in 1573.

  1568-69 Acting County Sheriff Rigborg Lauridsdatter Tinhuus of the County of Silkeborg, Denmark
Rigmor Tinhuus til Julskov was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She was mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and (d. 1572).

  1569 Queen Visutthikasat of Ayutthaya (Ayudhaya) (Thailand) 
Also known as Thepkasattery or Khun Pirenthep, she was the last of the old ruling family, her husband, Mahathammaracha (Maha Tammaradschathirat or King Maha Thammaraja), Chief of the Sukhothai, was king (1569-90). She is not listed as Queen Regent in most chronologies, but the Thai National Museum in Bangkok list her as such.

  1569-1623 Sovereign Princess Marie de Penthièvre of Martigues (France)
Created Princess after her father, Sébastien de Luxembourg, Duke de Penthièvre, was killed. She married Philibert-Emmanuel de Lorraine, duc de Meroeur (d. 1602). And their daughter brought Martigues to her husband, Cécar de Bourbon-Vendôme, legitimated son of Henri IV. 

  Ca. 1569-72 Sovereign Lady Jeanne de Mérode of Veulen (Belgium)
Her brother died in 1569, but the date of her accession has not been confirmed.

  1569-84 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Anna von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein and Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken (Germany)
After the death of her husband Duke Wolfgang von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken (1526-69), she became joint guardian for their fourth and fifth sons, Friedrich von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkstein (1557-97) and Karl (1560-) together with her brother Onkels Landgraf Wilhelm IV. von Hessen-Kassel, Kurprinz Ludwigs VI. von der Pfalz and her two older sons Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg und Johann I. von der Paflz-Zweibrücken. She was mainly engaged with her sons upbringing and education – in the orthodox Lutheran faith. Her sister, Agnes, was In-charge of the Government of Sachesen 1546-53 and Reigning Dowager Lady of Weissenfels and Weissensee 1553-55. Anna lived (1529-91).

  1569-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margarete von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
The sister of Duke Heinrich the younger von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, she was widow of the Slesian Duke Johann von Münsterberg und Oels and transformed the castle into a hosptal.

  1569-83 Politically Active Queen Katarina Jagellonica of Sweden 
Originally named Katarzyna Jagiellonka, she was the youngest daughter of Sigismund I of Poland and Bona Sforza. In 1562 Katarina and the duke Johan (Brother to king Erik) got married, a marriage that was not blessed by king Erik. As a result Johan and Katarina was thrown in to jail at Gripsholms Castle. During their prison period Katarina gave birth to Isabella and Sigismund.1566 Tsar Ivan in Russia demanded that Katarina Jagellonica would be extradited to him. King Erik liked the idea but As he was forced to abdicate in 1568 he didn’t get the chance to realize the extradition.As Queen Katarina tried to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. As she had good contact with (among other) Cardinal Hosius and her husband was interested in the new reforms, which had been carried out in the catholic church, she made good progress. Her death marked the end of the attempt to re-establish the catholic church in Sweden. She lived(1526-83). 

  1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Jane Howard in England (United Kingdom)
Another of the rebellion-leaders. Her husband the 6th Earl of Westmoreland, Charles Neville, was another of the leaders of the failed rebellion. In effect she had more to do with raising the troops than he did. She was well educated but not the cleverest when it came to understanding political machinations. She was first to urge the rebels to rise up against the queen and yet she expected Elizabeth to pardon her when they failed. She hoped to arrange the marriage of her brother, the Duke of Norfolk, to Mary Queen of Scots and put them both on England’s throne. Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. Jane Howard lived under house arrest for the rest of her life, while her husband fled to the Continent and lived there in exile. She lived (1537-93).

  1569 Joint Leader of the Northern Rebellion Lady Anne Somerset in England (United Kingdom)
One of the leaders of the Rebellion of the Earls of Northern England revolted against Elizabeth in order to restore Catholicism to England. The rebels hoped to free Mary, Queen of Scots from captivity. Queen Elizabeth put down the rebellion, and her troops killed 3. 000 of the rebels Lady Anne escaped to the Netherlands in 1570 and died here. Marred to Thomas Percy, 1st. Earl of Northumberland who had a very important role in the Rising of the North, he fled to Scotland once that rebellion was defeated, where he was captured by the Earl of Morton and handed over to the English government, and publicly executed in 1572. The Earldom went to her brother-in-law and the estates inherited by their four daughters. She was daughter of the Earl of Worcester, and lived (1538-91).

  1569-98 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Kirmbreith of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
As Reichsprältin (Imperial Prelate), the Fürstäbtissin had a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and she was also member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bavarian Circle (Bayrischer Kreis).

  1569-ca. 1601 Princess-Abbess Marie I van Hoensbroek of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
One of her ancestors, Knight Herman Hoen, was appointed Lord van Hoensbroek by Duchess Johanna van Brabant in 1388 for his service at war. The family were later given the title of Count.

  1569 Abbess Nullius Isabella II Acquaviva d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The list of Abbesses of the chapter is not complete and there are at least two different versions of the chronology of the reign of the Abbesses, and in an alternative list, she appears as ruler in 1621. She was another member of the family of the Counts of Conversano.


Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1570-1609 Ratu Loharaung of Tagulandang (Indonesia)
Daughter of a local minor ruler, Raja Bowntehu, she became the first monarch of whole Tagulandang. Succeeded by the son of her daughter, Tansekoa, Balango.

  1570-79 Regent and Guardian Maria Jacobäa von Baden   of Baden-Baden (Germany)
Together with her son, Duke Albrecht V von Bayern (1528-79), she was guardian for her  grandson, Margrave Philipp II von Baden-Baden (1559-69-99) after the death of both his parents, Philibert (1536-54-69) and Mechtild von Bayern (1532-65) (Her daughter). Philbert, had inherited Baden-Baden from his father, Bernhard III who was her uncle, and who had inherited his share of the state when her father died as she was his only child. The other share was inherited by her other uncle Ernst I, and their decendants;
Christoph, Philipp and Karl von Baden-Durlach claimed the regency, but she had already received the homage by the inhabitants and Estates (“die Erbhuldigung eingenommen”) and was confirmed as regent by the Emperor. She lived (1507-80).

  1570-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess Katharina von Mecklenburg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)
In 1538 she was married to Duke Friederich III von Liegnitz and held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry. Also known as Katarzyna Meklemburska, she was daughter of Duke Heinrich V von Mecklenburg and Helena von der Pfalz, mother of sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1518-81).

  Around 1570 Leader Nei Anginimaeao of the immigration to Kiribati
Around 1570 Chief of Tabiang
According to the oral history, the immigration to the Kiribati islands was lead by Nei Anginimaeao and her brother Na Kouteba, who commanded a fleet of canoes which left Beru, not long after the wars had started under Tem Mwea, when Bakarerenteiti was Uea of Beru. No one was in danger of losing lands on Beru Island and it seems probable that Nei Anginimaeao and her followers thought it a good time to settle on an island not quite so crowded. Others had left during the wars and settled on most of the islands to the north as far as Marakei. Nei Anginimaeao clearly knew exactly where she was going and what she was going to do, and she did it with superb skill. Afterwards she became chief of parts of the islands.

  Around 1570 Chief Nei Teborata of Toakira (Kiribati)
One of the followers of Nei Anginimaeao, who gave her the territory to administer on her own. Kiribati still has female chiefs. If there are only daughters in the family, the eldest daughter would be called Chiefess but the nearest male relative will do the work until the son of the Chiefess will be old enough to take it on. The succession passes to the firstborn child, and if the eldest child is a daughter she will be called Chief but her eldest brother will do the work until her eldest son is old enough to take it on.

  1570-71 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Nielsdatter Bild of the County of Ørbæk, Denmark
Margrethe Bild was given the tenantcy for life together with her husband, Henrik Friis til Hesselager, who died in March 1571. She died two months later. They had 13 children together. (d. 1571).

  Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Pederdatter Fikkesen of the County of Gedestorp, Denmark
Karen Fikkesen was widow of Mads Torbernsen til Sandby (of the Hässelholm family), and held the tenantcy as security for lones.

  Until 1570 County Sheriff Karen Krumstrup of Toreby Birk, Denmark
Widow of Lave Urne, she held it as security for lones jointly with Jakob Brockenhuus.

  1570-77 Princess-Abbess Anne Marie von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Anna Maria von Anhalt-Bernburg-Zerbst, she succeeded her aunt as the first of four sisters to occupy the now titular dignity as Fürstäbtissin. The territory had in reality been incorporated into the Principality of Anhalt, with her father as “administrator” and holder of Gernrode’s vote in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag). She resigned in order to marry Duke Joachim Friederich Schlesien, Duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau (1550-1602), and became mother of 6 children. She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, and lived (1551-1605).

  1570-81 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca Manrique of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of an ancient and influential noble family in Castilla.

  1571-1600 Princess-Abbess Anna Jakobäa von Sulzbach of Säckingen (Germany)
As the only canoness remaining in the Chapter, she was elected by the canons. Expanded the possessions of the chapter and continued the building projects of her predecessor and 1575 the new residence of the chapter (Stiftsgebäude) was finished. The year before Ursula Giel had entered the chapter and was soon after followed by 2 other ladies. Also known as Maria Jacobe, she lived (1538-1600).

  1571-72 Acting County Sheriff Beate Klausdatter Bille of the County of Rødinge and the Shire of Frost (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Until 1575 County Sheriff of Vissenbjerg Birk, Denmark
Beate Bille was married to Otto Tygesen Brahe, Councillor of the Realm and Fief-holder of Helsingborg. She administered the tenantcy in Skåne, now Sweden, jointly with Sidsel Oxe. She was among others mother of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe, and Margrethe, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Lanskrona in 1612, and lived (1526-1605).

  1571-.. County Sheriff Magdalene of the County of Møgeltønder, Denmark
Widow of Claus Rantzau.

  1571-87 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Blome of the County of Hørbygård, Denmark
Karen Blome was widow of Mogens Godske (of the Bielke Family), who had previsously been married to Margrethe Torbendsdatter Sparre. She was from Holstein and her family was close to the king, who gave them joint ownership of the tenantcy of Hørbygård from 1539 and he later held many tenantsies and fiefs. She (d. 1587).

  1571-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Katharine von Braunschweig of Crossen in Brandenburg-Küstrin (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Markgraf Johann von Küstrin, she took up residence at her dorwy. Mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1518-74).

  1571-1614 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Stolberg of Wertheim and Bereuberg (Germany)
The three daughters of Count Ludwig of Stolberg, Lord of Wertheim am Main and Königstein am Taunus were heiresses. Their husbands: Count Dietrich VI von Manderscheid-Schleiden, Philipp von Eberstein and Ludwig von Löwenstein alternated in the government for one year at the time until the possessions were divided in 1581. Elisabeth’s first husband died in 1593 and the following year she married Wilhelm von Kreichingen. She had no children.

  1572-1604 Sovereign Duchess Catherine de Bourbon de Navarra of Albret, Comtesse d’Armagnac and Rodez 
1577 Lieutenant-général of Béarn
1582-92 Regent of Béarn (France)
Succeeded her mother, Juana III of Navarra in some of her fiefs, and was also Princess of Navarra and “Madame France” through her father, Antoine de Vendôme. She was heir presumptive to the throne of Navarre, the County of Bearn, the Co-Principality of Andorra and the Duchy of Donnezan. Her brother, King Henri III of Navarra, became Henri IV of France in 1589 and two years after her death she had a son. She was married to Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Bar, who was succeeded by his daughter by the second marriage, Nicoläa. Catharine had no children, and lived (1559-1604).

  Ca. 1572-1605 Sovereign Countess Marie de Brimeu of Megen (The Netherlands)
It is not clear if she was the direct successor of Charles de Brimeu, who died 1572, but she is recorded as regent of the Free Imperial County jointly with her husband Charles de Croÿ-Aarschot, Duke of Croÿ and Prince de Chimay, who died 1610, and was succeeded by a distant relative, François Henri de Croÿ-Crecques. 

  1572-90 Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde of Reuss zu Gera (Germany)
Her son Heinrich II Posthumous, was born two months after her husband, Heinrich XVI Reuss zu Plauen, Gera and Krainchfeld, died in April, and she was guardian for son, Heinrich (1572-1635), who was under regency of some male relatives. Her son was also Lord of 1/6 of Lobstein from 1577 and 1/3 of Ober-Kranichfeld from 1596 until he inherited all the estates of Ober-Kranichfeld and Lobenstein in 1616. She lived (1547-95).

  1572-90 Countess Regnant Marguerite de Foix of Candale, d’Astarac et de Bénauges (France) 
After her brother, Henri, was killed at Sommiéres, she inherited her family’s possessions. She was married to Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Duc d’Epernon (1554-1642), but had no children. She imprisoned her sister, Madame Françoise de Candale (d. 1649), and forced her to become a nun, but after her death Françoise left the convent and started a process in order to gain the family possessions. Marguerite lived (1567-93).

  1572-1624 Reigning Abbess Jehanne I de Bourbon of Jouarre (France)
Her sister Charlotte been Abbess before her but became a protestant and later married Willem van Oranje-Nassau, Stadtholder of the Netherlands. Another sister was Louise, Abbess of Faremoutier, (1548-86). They were Duc Louis II de Bourbon “le Bon” de Montpensier, etc, and his first wife Jacqueline de Longwy, Countess de Bar sur Seine. She lived (1541-1624).

  1572-73 and 1576-79 County Sheriff Dorthe Iversdatter Krabbe of Spøtrup, Denmark
Jomfru Dorthe Krabbe was granted the tenantcy jointly with her fiance Count Günther von Barby, but she died and she married Benedikt von Ahlefeldt. who was County Sheriff 1573-76 and after his death she married Erik Lykke.

  1572-1604 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Działyńska of Brodnica, Poland
As representative of the king she was in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1572-73 and 1576-79 County Sheriff Dorthe Iversdatter Krabbe of Spøtrup, Denmark
Jomfru Dorthe Krabbe was granted the tenantcy jointly with her fiancé, Count Günther von Barby, but she died and she married Benedikt von Ahlefeldt. who was County Sheriff 1573-76 and after his death she married Erik Lykke.

  1573 Regent Dowager Duchess Dedis Imedi Bagration of Samtzkhe (Georgia)
Governed in the name of their son after the death of her husband, Duke Kaihosro II Djakeli. After the Ottomans conquered the country, her son Minucihr converted to Islam and took the name, Mustafa, and she was bestowed with three villages were also to Dedis-Imedi. She was daughter of Duke Bagrat I of Muchrani, and (d. 1580).

  1573-1601 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bourbon of Neuchâtel (Neuenburg) (Switzerland)  
First married to Jean de Bourbon, Duke d’Enghien and secondly François II. de Clèves, Duke Nevers and last to Léonor d’Orléans (1540-73), Duke de Longueville, Prince de Neuchâtel. After his death she was regent for her son, Henri II d’ Orléans-Longueville, and showed both force and talent by her reinforcement of the princely authority and the financial reforms. She made treaties and took over the control of the finances from the citizen of the city. She made her own coins and used much of her energy to incorporate the Lordship of Valangin in the Principality of Neuchâtel, and on this occasion she made her only visit to the city in 1576. Daughter of François de Bourbon, Comte de Saint-Pol and Duchess Adrienne d’Estouteville, she lived (1539-1600).


1573-76 Princess-AbbessAnna II von Harrach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Possibly daughter of Count Leonhard III von Harrach and Barbara von Gleinitz and widow of Leonhard von Sinzendorf (1506-48). She lived (1510-76).

  1573 Acting County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Hardenberg of the County of Helsingborg (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Of high nobility, Anne Hardenberg was chambermaid to Queen Dorothea 1557-71, and here she got to know king Frederik 2 (king from 1559) who fell in love with her, and wanted to marry her, but this met widespread opposition. In 1572 she married Councillor of the Realm, Oluf Mouritsen Krognos, who died after only six months marriage. She lived at her dowry Bregentved and managed to keep her husband’s family at distance with the help of the royal family. She (d. 1589).  

  Ca. 1573-81 County Sheriff Margrethe Christensdatter Sandbjerg of Øland and Vig Len, Denmark
Margrethe Sandberg was widow of Niels Kjeldsen Juel til Astrup, Bøvling Len og Vilstedgård Len. (d. 1581).

  1574-84 Regent Dowager Duchess Françoise de Brézé of Sagan (France)
Countess de Maulevner in her own right. She took the reins after death of her husband Henri-Robert de La March, Duke of Sagan and Titular Duke of Bouillon, in the name of her son Guillaume-Robert (1562-88), who was succeeded by sister, Charlotte. Françoise was daughter of King François and lived (…87).

  1574-84 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Regenstein of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Ulrich VI of Regenstein (Reinstein) and Countess Magdalena von Stolberg.

  Until 1574 Princess-Abbess Magdalena zu Wied-Runkel of Elten (Germany)
She was daughter of Count Johan III zu Wied and Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg. (d. 1574).

  1574-78 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Walburga zu Wied of the Town, Adminsitrative Office and Winery of Butzbach in Stolberg (Germany)
Widow of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg, whose sister was Princess-Abbess Anna II von Quedlinburg. Her own sister was Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Elten. He inherited Königstein from his relative Count Eberhard IV zu Eppstein-Königstein in 1535, Wertheim, Breuberg from his daughter Katharina, the widow of the last count of Wertheim und Breuberg, Michael III, 1556, but it fell to their younger daughter Anna zu Stolberg-Rochefort and her husband Ludwig III von Löwenstein in 1598. (d. 1578).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans, Tørrild and ½ of Andst, Denmark
Kirstine Ulfeldt was widow of Morten Svendsen (Orning) til Eget, who had been appointed Lensmand of Koldinghus in 1563 by Queen Dorothea, who held it as her dowry. He was member of a poor noble family and had first been married to Maren Clausdatter (Strangesen), widow of Godske Holck. Kirstine had first been married to Poul Abildgaard til Vranderup, and (d. 1589).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Gørvel Abrahamsdatter Gyldenstierne of the Counties of Høgsted, Katsløse and Magleby in Skåne (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
1574-77 County Sheriff of Bekkeskov Kloster, Denmark
Gørvel Gyldenstierne til Asserbo had exchanged other property to get the 3 tenantcies. She had first been married to Gert Jensen Ulfstand til Bønnet and secondly to Laue Truedsen Ulfstand til Torup. She (d. 1577).

  1574 Acting County Sheriff Berite Eriksdanner Banner of the County of Vester Skerning, Denmark
Berite Danner exchanged the tenantcy with other lands. Her first husband, Claus Bryske died 1565, in 1578 she married Knud Bille (d. 1592). She (d. 1591).

  Until 1574 Marquise Marie de Clèves de l’Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)
Daughter of Francois I de Clèves, Duke of Nevers. 1574 she married Henri I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, Duc d’Enghien, she died during the birth of her daughter, Catherine de Bourbon, Marquise d’Isles (1574-95). Marie lived (1553-74). 

  1574-95 Marquise Catherine de Bourbon of de l’Isle, Countess de Beaufort (France)
Succeeded mother, Marie de Clèves, who died during her birth. Catherine lived (1574-95).

  1574-83 Politically Influential Nurbanu Sultan Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
When her husband, Selim III died, she kept his corpse in an icebox to conceal the death until her son; Murad III (1574-95) could be summoned from Manisa, where he was governor. He arrived 12 days later, and Nur Banu run the government together with the Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmet Pasha and was the chief advisor of her son. She also carried on a correspondence with the regent of France, Catherine de’ Medici, promoting good relations between the two courts. She was the first of influential women in the period called the Sultanate of Women. Probably born as Cevilia Venier-Baffo, the illegitimate issue of two Venetian noble families, and was captured by the Turks on the Aegean Island of Paros in 1537 and became a slave in Topkapi Sarayi lived (1525-83).

  1575-86 Rex Poloniae Anna Jagiellonka of Poland
Daughter of King Zygmunt I the Old of Poland and Bona Sforza, and was Queen and co-regent with her husband Stefan Batory, but she was not politically influential and only titular “king”. After the death of her husband, she introduced nephew Zygmunt Vasa of Sweden (the son of her sister) on the throne. Anna was a follower of the Contra-reformation, and lived (1523-96).

  After 1575-86 Regent Dowager Margravine Cecilia Vasa of Baden-Rodemachern (Germany)
Also known as Cäcilia Wasa, she was allowed to take over the regency after many years of processes against the stipulation in the will of her husband, Christoph II of Baden (1537-75). Her son, Eduard Fortunatus von Baden (1565-1600) was Margrave of Baden-Baden (1588-96). She lived a stormy life and travelled a lot. She spent a year in London, where her oldest son was born, and became a friend of Queen Elizabeth I. At some point she lived at her dowry Arboga in Sweden where she started an iron-mine and was behind piracy at the Baltic Sea. When Eduard Fortunatus died, his oldest son Wilhelm was only 7. He did not become Margrave of Baden-Baden until 1621 and it is not clear if either Cecilia or her daughter-in-law, Marie von Eichen (d. 1636), played any role during his minority. Apart from her oldest son she was mother of 5 sons who all were unmarried or died young. The daughter of King Gustav I Vasa of Sweden and his second wife Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, and lived (1540-1627).

  1575-78 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VI von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)
All the Ladies of the Chapter had the right to participate in the Landtag of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Essen, which met at least once a year, but the Secretary of the Chapter or other office-holders often represented them. The Landtag met in the Grand Hall of the Convent. Elisabeth IV held close connections with her brother, Count Hermann, she resigned in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. Her sister, Margaretha, was Princess-Abbess of Eltern and Vreden until her death in 1602. Elisabeth was daughter of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied, and lived (1544-86).

  1575-86 Princess-Abbess Felicitas I von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)
At this time the line of Hereditary Stewarts, the Lords von Helfenstein, was dying out. The last Lord, Johann XIV, had one daughter, Wilhelmina, who married Otto von Rolshausen, who was granted the Lordship of Mühlbach by Felicitas Countess von Eberstein.

  1575-87 Princess-Abbess Barbara III Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)
Reached a compromise with the villages in Gasterland and Kerenzen about the tithe. Her brother Johann Jakob was Provost of Bischofzel and another relative of hers, Jakob Christian Blarer von Wartensee, was Bishop of Basel – he lived (1542-1608). Her family had owned the Borough of Wartensee and in 1405 they got the “Landrecht” of the Appenzelle-Canton and stayed out of the Appenzeller-wars. The daughter of Kasper, Chief steward of Arbon and Siguna von Diesbach, and lived (1536-87).

  1575-1611 Reigning Abbess Eléonore III de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
The French Princess had great influence with her nephew, King Henri IV of France, and her affection for him was so great that, towards the end of her life, when he was assassinated, her nuns dared not tell her lest the shock should be too great. She was daughter of Duc Charles IV de Vendôme and Françoise d’Alencon, Duchesss de Beaumont. Her brother, Duc Antoine de Vendôme, was married to Juanna III of Navarra and Titular King of Navarre (1555-62) – the parents of Henri IV – and 3 of her sisters were also Abbesses, Madeleine (1521-61) in Poitiers, Catherine in Notre Dame de Soissons and Renée (1527-83) in Chelles. Eleonore lived (1532-1611).

  1575-76 Acting County Sheriff Karen Christoffersdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerg, Hatting, Nim and Vor  and the County of Sankt Hans Kloster, Denmark
Also known as Karen Gyldenstjerne til Stjernholm. After the death of her husband, Holger Ottesen Rosenkrantz til Boller, she administered his fief for a period. Rosenkrantz was Stadholder in Norway, and later became military commander of the realm. Statholder in Nothern Jutland and a few years later he became Marshal of the Realm. They were closely connected to King Frederik 2. who was the sponsor of one of their sons. She was an able administrator. She built several manor houses, a new church in Uth. She collected a number of folk songs, which is one of the most important sources for knowledge of this tradition. Around 1590 she moved to Skt. Hans Kloster in Horsens, which she renamed, into Stjernholm. She had bought a number of houses in the town of Horsens, which caused much dispute with the city council, because she claimed that as a noble she did not have to pay tax and thereby she damaged the economic life of the city. It was not until 1598 that the case was settled. She was accused using sorcery to harm Anne Hardenberg at the neighbouring estate, but no case was raised and the king settled the dispute. 1599 her son, Frederik was convicted to lose his “honour” because of his relationship to Rigborg Brockenhuus. He was allowed to travel to Hungary to fight the Turks, but died in Prague in 1602. She was the oldest child of Christoffer Gyldenstierne (d. 1562) and Anne Parsberg (1515-87), who had 9 other children after her. The mother of 4 sons, of whom 2 died as infants, she lived (1544-1613). 

  1576-1610 Queen Amina Sarauniya of Zazzua, Zaria and Abuja
1580-82 Queen of Kano (Nigeria)
Probably the granddaughter of Sarkin (king) Zazzau Nohir. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states, which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling Queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials. Although her mother’s reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became Queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Lived (ca. 1533-ca- 1610).

  1576… Adelantada Juana Ortiz de Zárate of Corrientes, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, Adelantado of Chile (Chile)
Following the death of her father, Juan Ortiz de Zárate, Adelanto and Governor, founder of the City of Santa Fe and Buenos Aires, she inherited the estates of the family and apparently Emperor Charles V named her Adelantado of Chile. She was married to Juan de Torres de Vera y Aragón, who became Governor in 1578, and mother of Juan Alonso de Vera y Zárate. Apparently her mother was the Inca Princess, Leonor Yupanqui, daughter of Tupac-Hupalla (Originally Auqui Huallpa Tupac) puppet-emperor in 1533.

  1576-78 Sovereign Duchess Elizabeth d’Austrice of Berry (France)
Given the duchy after the death of her husband, King Charles IX (1550-60-74), the son of Henri II and Catherine de’ Medici. Their only child was a daughter – Princess Marie-Elisabeth who lived (1572-78) – and Charles therefore was succeeded by his brother Henri III. Elizabeth lived (1554-78).

  1576-1602 Princess-AbbessFlorentina von Putterer of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The chapter of canonisses (Kanonissen or Chorfrauenstift) and it was founded around 1000 by Countess Palatine Adala of Bavaria. The abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress. In 1020 her grandchild, Aribo III handed it over to the protection of Emperor Heinrich II, who granted it immunity and raised it to the status of an Chapter of the Realm – or Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbaren Abtei) – the only one in Austria – and removed the Chapter from the influence of the Metropolits of Salzburg.

  1576-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
Alternatively resided at Eldenburg after the death of her husband, Johann-Albrecht I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The daughter of Elector Albrecht von Brandenburg, she was mother of 3 sons, and lived (1527-91). 

  1576-91 County Sheriff Anne Mandrupsdatter Holck of the County of Hørby, Denmark
Anne Holck til Stadsgård was widow of Verner Tønnesen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygår, Lensmand of Sölvesborg  (d. 1567). She (d. 1591).

  1577-79 De-facto joint ruler Queen Mahid-I Uliyah of Persia (Iran)
Also known as Mahd-e Olya, she initially dominated her husband, Mohammad Shah, who succeeded his brother, Shah Esma’il II, who was a brutal a pro-Sunni ruler who was poisoned with the participation of their sister Pari Khan Khanom after only one year at the throne. Mohammad proved to be a weak leader, but after her assassination in 1579 the Qezelbash took control. Meanwhile Ottomans took advantage of Iran’s political turmoil to launch a major invasion of the country. Consequently extensive territories were lost to Ottomans, including most of Azerbaijan, with Tabriz, and Georgia. The Safavid Dynasty was of Turkmen origin and established themselves first at Tabriz, which had been the capital of the Mongol Il Khans, in Turkish speaking Azerbaijanistan. They also brought the Shi’ite branch of Islam to Persia.

  1577-78 Reigning Sri Rani Makayiram Thirunal ofTravancore (India)
The Kulusekhara Dynasty of Travancore (or Tiruvankur) is of very ancient lineage, tracing its origins to the Royal House of Vanad and dating from 1100 AD. They attained considerable power during the reign of Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, during the early years of the fourteenth century. Marco Polo claimed to have visited his capital at Quilon, a centre of commerce and trade with China and the Levant. Europeans were attracted to the region during the late fifteenth century, primarily in pursuit of the then rare commodity, pepper. The Portuguese were the first to arrive, followed by their later rivals, the Dutch, during the seventeenth century.

  1577-84 Head of the Regency Government Dowager Margravine Anna von der Pfalz-Veldenz of Baden-Durlach (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl II (1553-77) she was regent for her sons together with Elector Ludwig VI. von der Pfalz and Duke Ludwig von Württemberg. The 2 oldest sons were Markgraf Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach and, Markgraf Jakob von Baden-Hachberg. The third son, Georg Friedrich inherited the whole territory in 1604. She was daughter of Pfalzgraf Ruprecht von Veldenz and Ursula, Wild- und Rheingräfin von Daun-Kyrburg und Salm and mother of 8 children, and lived (1540-77)

  1577-82 Superintendent Maria Marguerite de Mérode of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Was given the Marchionate as a fief by the States of Brabant, but she did not recieve the title of Marchioness. The king of Spain had administered it after the death of her uncle, Jan IV van Glymes, who died childless in 1567. Joint administrator with her husband, Jan baron van Wittem from 1578. Both were deposed by the Dutch after they sided with the Spanish, and the possession was given to the Prince of Oranje and not until 1588 is the eldest of their three daughters, Maria, given the Marchionate as a fief. She lived (1560-88).

  1577-1631 Reigning Lady Sophia Hedwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Administrative Office of Darsim in Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)
1592-1631 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Loitz
Her husband, Duke Ernst Ludwig of Pommern-Wolgast (1545-69-92), handed over the village to her as her dowry. Her only son, Philipp Julius, was under the guardianship of an uncle until 1603. She was daughter of Julius von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Brandenburg, her younger sisters, Elisabeth was Contra-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1678 and Dorothea Augusta Princess-Abbess from 1611. She was also mother of 2 daughters, and lived (1561-1631).

  1577 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Karin Månsdotter of Sweden of Liuksiala Kungsgård in Finland
Initially the mistress of Eric XIV and later married to him to the “left hand” in 1567 and 1568, when she was ennobled and crowned queen under the name Katarina Magnusdotter. He was deposed on grounds of insanity in 1569, a few years later she was placed under house arrest in Åbo in Finland, her son, Gustav, was removed from her but she was allowed to have her daughter, Sigrid, by her side. Her brother-in-law, Johan III granted her the Royal Estate of Liuksiala which she administered justly and vize. She lived (1550-1612).

  1577-79 Princess-Abbess Josina I von Manderscheid-Blankenheim und Gerolstein of Thorn (The Netherlands)
At the elections for the successor of Margaretha von Brederode, Josina von der Marck got the most votes, but since she was not yet 30 Josina von Manderscheid took over the position of ruler of the territory. After a few years she fell seriously ill and nominated Josina v.d. Marck as her successor. She was daughter of Gerhard and Franziska von Montfort. Her sister Helena was a nun until she left the Chapter in order to marry Count Reinhard von Brederode. Josina lived (1537-79).

  1577-81 Princess-Abbess Sibylle von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
1601-14 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg
Even though she was still a minor, her father, Joachim Ernst von Anhalt, forced through her election as successor of her sister, Anne Marie as titular sovereign of the territory. It was confirmed by Emperor Rudolf II the same year. She only issued one decree in which she gave some land to the widow of Stefan Molitor the first evangelican Superintendent of the chapter.  When she resigned to marry Duke Freiderich von Württemberg (1557-1616), she was succeeded by another sister, Agnes Hedwig. She was mother of 14 children, and lived (1564-1614).

  1577-89 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Chlum of Gandersheim (Germany)
Elected as successor of her sister, Magdalene, but after the Duke of Braunchweig occupied the territory and installed his daughter, Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, as de-facto as ruler. Margarethe had to flee to Neuenheerse and was only able to return after the second contra-abbess Margarete von Warberg died in 1587.

  1578-82 “Titular” Contra Abbess Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
After Margareta von Chlum was elected as Princess-Abbess, her father, Duke Julius, occupied and claimed that she was the real ruler, and Margareta had to flee. Margarete von Warberg was in power until 1587, and only then Margareta II was able to return. Her older sister, Sophia-Hedwig, reigned her dowries in Pommern from 1677 and their younger sister, Dorothea Auguste was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1611. She lived (1677-1618).

  1578-1600 Sovereign Lady Anna Walburga von Neuenahr-Bedburg of Moers, Bedburg, Garsforf and Rosberg (Germany)
Also known as Waldburga von Neuenhar, Countess von Hoorn, or Regierende Gräfin Walburgis von Neuenahr-Moers, she succeeded her brother Hermann Graf von Neuenahr-Moers. Moers was occupied to by the Archbishopcy of Köln 1584-88, by Maurits van Oranje 1588-94, Bedburg and Garsdorf was claimed by Adolf Bentheim-Steinfurt and Roesberg was held by the Ketler family 1578-ca. 1595 until she sold the lordship to this family. She was first married to Philipp von Montmorency-Nivelle, Count von Hoorn, who was decapitated in 1567, and in 1570 to her relative Adolf von Neuenahr, Lord of Neuenhar, Moers, Limburg, Bedburg, Alpen, Alterna, Weerth, Hackenboiche, Lennep and Helfenstein (d. 1589). In 1594 named Maurits as her heir. She lived (1522-1600)

  1578-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VII von Sayn of Essen (Germany)
During her reign “only” 14 witch-processes were conducted, only a fraction of the processes in the neighbouring countries. Elisabeth VII was daughter of Count Adolf of Sayn and Maria von Mansfeld. Her brother’s daughter Anna Elisabeth (1572-1608) inherited the county from her uncle in 1606. Anna Elisabeth was married to Count Wilhelm zu Sayn and Wittgenstein (d. 1623). 

  1578-1614 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Breiten-Landenberg of Lindau (Germany)
Member of an old countly family.

  Around 1578-ca. 1606 Princess-Abbess Marie-Madeleine de Rebstock of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)
Conferred the fief of Wangenbourg at at her brother, Jean-Gabriel Rebstock, in 1606.

  1578-1600 Reigning Abbess Antoniette II de Wissocoq of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Bomy.

  1578-1611 Olangio to hoelialio Wulutileni Raja To Huliyalio of the Downlying Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Huliyalio Branch and her title means ruler of the downlying parts. She succeeded her father, Tuliabu, and was followed on the throne by daughter, Mboheleo.

  1578-79 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Eriksdatter Lange of the County of Ålborghus with the Shires of Års, Flæskum, Gislum, Hindsted, Hornum, Horns, Hvetbo and Kære and the County of Viskumgård
1615-16 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Bygholm Len with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
After the death of her first husband, Jens Nielsen Kaas, Margrethe Lange was acting Lensmand (County Sheriff) until a successor was appointed. Afterwards married to Knud Brahe (1555-1615) and after his death in charge of Bygholm etc. As most fief administrators she belonged to the ancient non-titled nobility. (d. 1622).

  1578 Acting County Sheriff Birgitte Timmesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Nebbegård, Denmark
1580 Acting County Sheriff of Rosenkrantz of the County of Kalundborg
with the Shires of Arts Løve, Ods, Skippinge and Samsø
Birgitte Rosenkrantz was widow of Bjørn Kaas who was Lensmand in Helsingborg and Malmöhus. She later had a relationship to her late husband’s cousin, Gjord Kaas. Because it was considered to be incest at the time, she was executed on the command of King Christian 4. Gjord went into exile, and when he returned after 17 years he too was executed. According to the legend she is today the “White Lady” a ghost at Stårup Castle. (d. 1603).

  1578 County Sheriff Bege Clausdatter Emmiksen of the County of Hundsbæk, Denmark
Bege Emmiksen til Damgård was widow of Peder Galskyt (d. ca. 1554). She (d. ca. 1613).

  1578 County Sheriff Magdalene Clausdatter Sehested of the County of Æbelø, Denmark
Magalene Sehested til Spandetgård was widow of Mourids Podebusk and lived most of her life in Ribe, where she died after having been blind for some years. She was daughter of Claus Sested or Sehested, and lived (1538-1611).

  1578 County Sheriff Kirsten Pedersdatter Galt of the County of Børglum Kloster, Denmark
Kirsten Galt til Tyrrestrup was widow of Erik Kaas til Voergård og Lindbjergård, Lensmand of Børglum Kloster 1574. He had first been married to Berte Seefeld. She lived (1536-1616).

  1578-90 Feudal Princess Zenobia del Carretto of Melfi (Italy)
Succeeded her father, Marcantonio Doria del Carretto, as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and married Gian Andrea Doria, Duke di Tursi and Marchese di Torriglia etc. (1540-1606). The family retained certain sovereign rights until the War of the Spanish Succession, and the title became dormant to a degree. It was revived though, under less autonomous conditions, in 1760. She lived (1541-90).

  1578-1603 Politically Active Margravine Sophia von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
1603-39 Reigning Dowager Lady in Nürnberg
Following the death of his first wife, Elisabeth von Brandenburg-Küstrin, she took over her role, as the most important aide of her husband, Georg Friedrich (1539-1603), who had no children in any of his marriages. Sophia lived (1563-1639).

  1578  Candidate for the throne Infanta Catarina de Bragança of Portugal
After the death of Sebastião and because of the fact that Cardinal-King Henrique would not have heirs, she was among the candidates for the throne. Filipe II of Spain gained the throne, but her decendant, João II, Duque de Bragança became king under the name of  João IV in 1640. She was daughter of Infant Duarte, Duque de Guimarães, son of King Manuel I, and Infanta Isabel de Bragança married to João I de Bragança, Duke of Bragança and mother of 8 children. She lived (1540-1614).

  1579-86 Regent Dowager Duchess Katharina Sidonia von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Teschen-Freistadt (Poland)
Also known as Katarzyna SydoniaCieszyn, she reigned theshe reigned the Slesian Duchy in the name of her son Adam Wacław, after the death of her husband, Duke Wenzel III Andam.In 1586 she married.Emmerich III Forgach, Obergespan of Trentschin. The daughter of Duke Franz I and Sibylle von Sachsen-Freiberg, she was mother of 6 of her husband’s 9 children.Her son’s daughter, Elisabeth Lukretia, succeeded her brother Friederich Wilhelm (1601-17-25) as ruler of Teschen in 1625. Katherina Sidonia(d. 1594).

  1579-1623/24 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Penthièvre (France)
Succeeded father. Her husband, Philippe Emmanuel de Lorraine, was Duke of Penthièvre 1579-1602 by the right of his wife. She was succeeded by daughter, Françoise de Lorraine in 1623 or 1624.

  1579-1604 Princess-Abbess Josina II von der Marck of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
Had been elected Abbess already in 1577, but since she was not yet 30, she had to step aside for Josina von Manderscheid. In 1586 she obtained a seat and voting right in the Westphalian Circle of the Diet of the Realm and the following year she participated in the Assembly in person. But Josina was the “black sheep” among the Princess-abbesses, and was, among other things, accused of printing false money. She was daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, and was succeeded by her sister, Anna, and lived (1546-1604).

  1579-94 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Gleissenthal of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1219 the reichsunmittelbare Chapter came under direct Papal protection and in 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the Chapter immunity and during Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre. 1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies, with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots), which had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Fürstäbtissin also sat on the Bavarian Landtag and from 1495/1500 member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) and in 1521 mentioned as Reichsprälatin (Imperial Prelate) in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  1579-80 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Mogensdatter Gyldenstierne of Åkær with Hadsherred, Denmark
Dorthe Gyldenstierne was in charge after the death of her husband, Christian Munk former Stadholder of Norway et cetera. She lived (1547-1583).

  1579-82 County Sheriff Margrethe Rantzau of the County of Gudum Kloster, Denmark
Widow of Otto Emmiksen. Detailed information missing.

  1579-97 Politically Influential Empress Maryam Sena of Ethiopia
During reign of her husband, Sarsa Dengel (1563-97). The country had been plagued by anarchy and civil war for generations, and it continued during her husband’s period as Emperor. 

  1580-90 Regent Dowager Sultana Cand Bibi of Bijapur
1596-99 Regent of Ahmadnagar 
After her husband, ‘Ali ‘Adil Shah II, was killed in 1580, she ruled with great prudence and intelligence till her nephew, Ibrahim ‘Adil Shah II, came of age. When order was restored in Bijapur kingdom she went back to her motherland Ahmadnagar, where the ruler, Murtada Shah, died at a moment when the foreign relations of the state were strained to breaking point and war was imminent. She returned to Bijapur and mustered some reliable troops for the defence of Ahmadnagar fort against the army of the Mughals. After this great defence, she was known as Chand Sultana. Later the Mughals succeeded to turn her troops and had a siege over Ahmadnagar in 1599. She resisted the Mughal attacks with such courage that the invaders were repelled at many places. At length, Hamid Khan, the traitor allowed the Mughal force to enter Ahmadnagar, and entered the palace to kill her. She fought bravely but was killed, and thus, the Mughals captured Ahmadnagar in 1600. She was daughter of Hussain Nizam shah of Ahamadnagar, and lived (1550-99).

  1580-1611 Sovereign Marquise Henriette de Savoie of Villars, Countess of Tende and Sommerive (France)
Daughter of Honoré II and Jeanne-Françoise de Foix and married to Charles de Lorraine. Her daughter, Catherine de Lorraine (1585-16189) and her husband, Carlo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova, Monferrato, Nevers and Rethel were Duchess and Duke of Mayenne. Henriette lived (1541-1611).  

  1580 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Krabbe of the County of Åkær with the Shire of Had, Denmark
Anne Krabbe was widow of Axel Viffert, who had taken over the teantncy in 1579. She married Erik Kass til Voergaard in 1595 and became a widow again 3 years later. Her sister, Karen, was Acting County Sheriff in 1594. Anne was mother of 2 daughters by her first husband and 1 by the second, and (d. 1625).

  1580-92 County Sheriff Else Hansdatter Mule of the County of Nordby, Denmark
Else Mule was widow of Iver Bertelsen, Magister in Sorø, Headmaster of Ringsted Kloster (1548-83) and Niels Pedersen Krag, Professor of History, Royal Histographer, Rector of Copenhagen University and Headmaster of Sorø Academy (d. 1602), who was send on various diplomatic missions and was ennobled by King James of Scotland. Her family had held the position of mayor of Odense for generations. SHe lived (1556-1605).

  1580-.. County Sheriff Gese Brokkenhuus of the County of Rynkeby with the Shire of Gudme, Denmark
Exchanged the tenantcy with other estates. Widow of Erik Bille. Detailed information missing.

  1580 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Clausdatter Ulfeldt of the County of Skodborg, Denmark
Kirsten Ulfeldt had the tenantcy exchanged to her on behalf of her children. First married to Poul Abildgaard (d. 1563) as his third wife and secondly to Svend Mogensen Orning til Eget, who had first been married to Maren Clausdatter Strangesen Bild (ca. 1502-73), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Koldinghus. She (d. 1589).

  1580-1601 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Kłoczewska of Małogoszcz, Poland
Also known as Kłoczowska.

  1580-1602 Princess-Abbess Barbe de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of St. Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Also known as Maria Barbara von Salm. The Duke of Lorraine forced her predecessor to accept her as Coadjutrice in 1579. But the other canonisses refused to accept the automatic succession of Barbara von Salm and instead they elected Huberte de Chastenay and appealed to the pope, but he ruled in favour of Barbe, who appointed her rival as Coadjutrice and managed to build up a good relationship with the ladies of the chapter.  1588 the territory was again hit by the plague. (d. 1602)

  1581-1604 Sovereign Duchess Claude Catherine de Clermont of Retz (France)
Originally Dame de Dampierre and Baronne de Retz she was created Duchess-regnant together with her husband. She lived (ca. 1543-1604).

  1581-1610 Captain-Donatary Margarida Côrte-Real of Captainship of Angra including the Island of Terceira, Praia and São Jorge in the Azores (Portugal)
Held the office of Capitana do donatário which was similar to that of governor, jointly with her husband, Cristovão de Moura, 1st marquês de Castelo Rodrigo (1538-1613), Vice-King of Portugal on several occations. She succeeded her father, Vasco Anes Corte-Real (1530-77-81), was mother of 3 children, and lived (1570-1610).

  1581-… Regent Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Palandt-Culemborg of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)
Widow of Jobst II von Schaumburg-Gemen, who had participated in the freedom-fights of the Dutch against the Spanish and as a result the lordship, had been raided by the Duke of Alba in 1568. Born as Gräfin von Palandt.

  1581-1625 Joint Reigning Princess Anna Ostrogska of Jarosław (Then Ukraine, now Poland)
The daughter of Zofia ze Sprowy, who ruled (1545-80) and her first husband, she was married to Alexander Ostrogski at the age of 19 and they settled in Jaroslaw and in 1606 she bought the half of the town owned by her sister,  Katarzyna Sieniawska the second half of the city. She died after a lengthy illness after having lived (1575-1635/36).

  1581-1606 Joint Reigning Princess Katarzyna Sieniawska of Jarosław
Together with her sister, she ruled the town and domain which was established by an Ukrainian prince in the 11th century. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further and it was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. (d. 1606).

  1581-86 Princess-Abbess Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The third of four of daughters of prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt to be titular head of the territory. She was follower of Melanchthons (Philippstine), which was in opposition to the ruling Lutheran Orthodoxy in Dresden. At the age of 14 she married Kurfürst August von Sachsen-Dessau, who died of a stroke after less than a month. And then, after 5 years as ruler of Gernrode, she married as his second wife, Duke Johann von Holstein-Sønderborg in 1588. He was the brother of August’s first wife, Anna of Denmark. Agnes-Hedwig gave birth to seven children of which two daughters survived, and lived (1573-1616).

  1581  County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge
1586-89 County Sheriff of Snersted in Skåne
(At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes to destinguis her from her many contemporary cousins with the same name. Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).

  1581 Acting County Sheriff Christence Nielsdatter Rotfeld of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
Christence Rotfeld was widow of Bjørn Kaas, who had taken office the previous year. Mother of 7 children,  and lived (ca. 1535-1601).

  1582-1615 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite of Valois, Senlis, Clermont et d’Etampes (France)
1608-15 Countess of Auvergne et d’Eu
Succeeded mother, Catherine de Medici, in Valois. In 1572 she was forced to marry the Protestant Henri of Navarra (later Henri IV) to seal Catholic-Protestant reconciliation. She was involved in a number of extramarital love affairs at the courts of both her brother Henri III at Paris and her husband at Nerac. Expelled from the royal court for her political intrigues, she returned to the unwilling Navarre in 1584. After taking up arms against her husband, she was banished to the castle of Usson in Auvergne, where she soon took control. In 1599, ten years after her husband’s accession to the throne, she consented to the annulment of her marriage. He was a very important cultural personality; her charm and literary talent were admired by the leading writers of the age and was also known as Reine Magot. She lived (1553-1615).

  1582-1619 Sovereign Duchess Diane de Valois of Châtellerault, d’Angoulême et d’Etampes (France)
1593-96 Governor of Limousin
1605-19 Governor of the Bourbonnais
Daughter of Diane de Portiers and King Henri II of France, and was legitimized as Princess of France in 1548. She married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro and secondly with François Villers-Cotterets, Duke de Montmorency. She lived (1538-1619).

  1582-87 Reigning  Abbess-General Leonor de Castilla of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The last Perpetual Abbess – that is elected for life. Her successors were elected for three-year periods. Possibly the 10th child of Alonso de Castilla, Lord del Mayorazgo de Valladolid, of an illegitimate sideline of the royal house of Castilla, and Ines de Acuna.

  1582-87 De-facto Ruler Contra Abbess Margarete von Warberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Followed Elisabeth zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel as the contra-abbess and real ruler after the official office-holder, Margareta II, had to flee in 1578.

  1582-1611 County Sheriff Karen Eriksdatter Banner of the County of Orlofgård, Denmark
1611 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Jungshoved
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Vordingborg with the Shires of Bårse, Hammer and Tybjerg
Karen Banner held the fief of Orlofgård after the death of her first husband Gregers Ulfstand and the fief of Jungshoved after the second, Henrik Lykke til Overgaard og Hverringe. She inherited the estate of Gisselfeld and Ryegård in 1588 after the death of Mette Rosenkrantz til Vallø, who had inherited it from her husband, Karen’s uncle, Peder Oxe in 1575. (d. 1611).

  1582-96 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Sophia Gyldenstjerne of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Elected by the Assembly of Canonesses and instated by the two Councillors of the Realm, Chancellor Ejler Grubbe and Steen Brahe. In the beginning she was an able administrator but soon the old disputes among the canonesses entrupted again and she was removed from office by King Christian 4. She was in charge of the estats of the chapter and mangade the Town of Maribo jointly with the Confessor.

  1582 Hereditary Landgravine Maximiliane von Pappenheim of Stühlingen, Lady of Hohenhöwen (Germany)
Inherited the territory after the death of her brother, Hereditary Marshal Maximilian von Pappenheim, and was married to Count Friedrich Rudolf von Fürstenberg.

  1583-… Joint Sovereign Lady Susanne von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
The daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship. Married to Georgs von Rindersbach.

  1583-… Joint Sovereign Lady Agnes von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
Younger daughter of Alexander III von Wildenstein, she inherited 1/4 of the lordship from her brother, Friedrich Karl I von Wildenstein. Married to a Lord von Haslang.

  1583-1609 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern of the County and Castel of Philippsburg in Hessen-Rheinfels (Germany)
Her husband Philipp II of Hessen-Rheinfels (1541-67-83) had apparently received the county from his father, Philipp of Hessen-Kassel (d.1567). They did not have any children, and she lived (1549-1609).

  1583-1611 Princess-Abbess Katherina II Brümsi von Herblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
During her term in office the chapter burned down twice, in 1585 and 1610, and she sold some of the possessions in South Germany in order to extend the buildings of the Abbey and church. She reformed the Chapter and exerted her position as ruler of the territories. She was daughter of Eberhard von Brümsi, Lord of Altenklingen and Rosa von Breitenlandenberg.

  1583-98 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Steinhauer of Baindt (Germany)
Probably member of the noble family of Steinhauer zu Bulgarn.

  Around 1583 Abbess Nullius Vittoria Palagano of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory.

  1583-98 Joint County Sheriff Magdalene Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark
Magdalene Emmiksen was the owner of Millinge and Hejsager, she held the tenantcy jointly with her sister, Margrethe. After her death it was taken over by her husband, Erik Bille til Kjærsgård. Apparently her first husband had been Albert Maltesen Viffert with whom she had a son, Anders. She (d. 1598).

  1583-85 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Emmiksen of the County of Vissenbjerg Birk (or Grøftebjerg), Denmark
Margrethe Emmiksen was unmarried and held the fief jointly with her sister. (d. 1585),

  1583 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Christoffersdatter Galde of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark
Lisbeth Galde was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her first husband, Eggert Ulfeldt. She later married Jørgen Friis, as his third wife. He was County Sheriff of Vinderslevgård and Lysgård Herred, Skivehus, Hald, Akershus and Sejlstrup, also Judge, Councillor of the Realm and Stadholder of Norway. They were burried on the same day. (d. 1616).

  1583-1602 County Sheriff Beate Ågesdatter Brahe of the Counties of Gislumsherred and Ramsø, Denmark
Beate Brahe heldt the fief for life as security for a lone. She was widow of Jørgen Pedersen Lykke (Munk) til Hverringe og Overgård, Bonderup, Hessel, Ovegård and Bregenholm. She lived (after 1523-1602).

  1583-84 Acting County Sheriff Karen Henriksdatter Friis of the County of Ålborghus, Denmark
Karen Friis was acting Lensmand or (County Sheriff) after the death of her husband, Bjørn Andersen Bjørn til Stenalt, Bjørnsholm, Voer, Gunderupgård og Strandbygård. 1562-66 Judge in Zealand, Councillor of State 1567, Lensmand of Fredsgård, Stege, Københavns Slot, Roskildegård, Tryggevælde, Århusgård og Ålborghus. They had 3 children and he had 6 children with his first wife, Sidsel Ulfstand. Karen Friis lived (1541-1601).

  1584-1616 Raja Ijau I of Patani (Pattani) (Thailand)
According to the Portuguese chronicler Mendez Pinto, the mercantile elite decided in 1584 to give the throne to the sister of the murdered king after twenty years of unstable rule. She ruled as Raja Ijau the ‘great queen’ and was also known as Ratu Hijau “The Green Queen”. She was on the throne when the first Dutch and English Company agents visited Patani. One of these, Jacob van Neck, writing in 1604, reported a relatively prosperous state under Raja Ijau, one well disposed to merchants. She was one of the major traders and financiers of the city. Her Malay monarchy absorbed a diversity of foreign traders into a polyglot elite united by the royal person, a Malay lingua franca, and a pattern of rules and sacred regalia passed down from courts such as Malacca and Pasai. Chinese were the major merchants, but the most important of them, like the leading commercial official Datu Sirinara, had adopted Islam and the Malay manners of the court. Her aunt, Raja A’isyah had sometime been regent for Sultan Bahdur after Sultan Manzur Syah who ruled (1564-73). She was succeeded by sister.

  1584-1616 Administrator Countess Maria von Oranje-Nassau of Buren, Leerdam and some of the Nassau Properties (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Countess Anna van Egmond of Buren and Leerdam and Willem I, Count of Nassau and Prince of Oranje. In 1567 her brother, Philips Willem was adducted to Spain and the next 10 years she spent by her uncle, Johann VI, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. The Prince of Orange had given control over Philips Willem’s properties to Maria, before he was assassinated in 1584. After her marriage to Count Philipp zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein in 1595, a curator was appointed to care for the paternal inheritance, which her younger half-brother, Mauritz had demanded control of. In the summer of 1595, Philips Willem, was allowed to leave Spain and return to Brussels, but was still kept under tight Spanish control. The following year they met secretly in Clèves; their first meeting in 28 years. Maria continued to administer her properties and founded an orphanage in Buren. She lived (1556-1616).

  1584 Acting Lady Hilleborg Hansdatter of Gotland (Sweden)
Acting Lensherre – royal appointed lord of the fief – after the death of her husband, Emicke Kaas, until his successor arrived to the island.

  1584-1601 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Stolberg-Weiningsrode  of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Heinrich the Older and Countess Elisabeth von Gleichen. Her brother, Wolfgang 1512 became Domherr of Halberstadt at the age of 10 and 2 years later he as chosen as Koadjutor as the Dean of the Cathedral (Dompropst) and he succeeded to the eccleastical office at the age of 15 and received its incomes while it was executed by a Vicar. Later he also became Dean of Dardesheim and Königstein. She lived (1565-1601).

  1584-1635 Princess-Abbess Magalena von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
When she was elected abbess in spite of the fact that she was only around 20 years old, the failed candidate, 35 year old Magdalena von Eynatten, sister of the predecessor Maria, protested and the case dragged on for years until the Vatican ruled in von Eltz’s favour and she was officially installed in 1591. 1610 she was first mentioned as Princess of the Realm in an official document, but the Prince-Bishop of Liège protested, and they engaged in a fierce powerstruggle. In 1616 she had her sister, Claudia named as Coadjutrice, but she married the following year. The chapter was also marked by the ongoing wars and was hit by plauge in 1622-23, 1629 and 1633-36. She was daughter of Godfried von Eltz-Uttingen and Regina van Elter, and lived (ca. 1564-1635).

  1584 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Visborg with Gotland (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Hilleborg Lindenov was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Emmike Kaas. She later married Hans Speil til Borreby og Julskov, and (d. 1602).

  1585-97 Politically Influential Duchess Jakobäa von Baden of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)
Also known as Jakobea or Jakobe, she married to Johann Wilhelm (1592-1609), and since her father-in-law, Wilhelm IV, was mentally deficient and her husband mentally ill and both were unable to rule, she took the reigns after her marriage in 1585. She managed to get some councillors on her side. She stood between the catholic party around the powerful Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, supported by the Spanish Low Countries and the protestant lead by the Counts von Broich and Valckenstein and Lords von Rheydt who tried to remove the catholic regentess with the help of the Dutch General States. Because of the intrigues of her sister-in-law, Sybille, she thought about moving back to Bavaria, but the responsibly towards her husband, made her stay in Düsseldorf. She became more and more powerful, but Sybille spread rumours about her unmoral way of life and in 1595 Von Waldenburg held her prisoner, she was accused and convicted of infidelity and kept in the castle for two years. With the help of her brother-in-law Count Leuchtenberg, she wrote a document of defence and managed to have a trial arranged, but died before the trial was called. After her death, her husband married Antionia of Lorraine (d. 1610), but did not have any children. She lived (1558-97).

  1585-86 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Christiansdatter Lykke of the County of Vordingborg with the Sires of Tryggevælde and Faxe, Denmark
Kirsten Lykke was also known as Kirstine, and was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Eiler Grubbe til Lystrup (1532-85), who was at one time Chancellor of the Realm. In 1594 she married Niles Gyldenstierne til Bjørnholm, and lived (1558-1630)

  1585-1604 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Nielsdatter Skeel of the County of Sejlstrup
1586 County Sheriff of the County of Amtofte and Strekhals, Denmark
Ingeborg Skeel had bought Voergård in 1578 together with her mother, Karen Krabbe and they got the right of lower court in the parishes of Voer, Albæk og Skæve, which meant that they appointed the judge and got the income from fines and the costs of the law cases. She was an able farmer and trader, and administered both her own and her husband’s estate. After the death of her husband, Otto Banner til Asdal, she took over the administration of the fief, and after her mother, Karen Krabbe died the following year, she took over her two small royal fiefs; Amtofte in Thy and Strekhals in Mors (Northern Jutland). There are many stories about her as an evil mistress, who killed the architect of one of her estates and a harsh employer towards the peasants, but the stories does not seem to be based on facts. She was daughter of Niels Skeel and Karen Banner, had no children, and lived (ca. 1545-1604).

  158516.. County Sheriff Margrethe Skovgaard of the County of Davinde, Denmark
Jomfru Margrethe was granted the tenantcy for life. Owned Sanderumgård together with Karen Skovgaard 1581-83. Details missing.

  1586-1618 Sovereign Countess Sabine Katharina Cirksena von Ostfriesland of Rietberg (Germany)
4 years old when her mother and predecessor, Walburga of Rietberg, died, and her father, Enno III Cirksena von Ostfriesland, acted as regent. She was married to her uncle, Count Johann von Ostfriesland – who had converted to Catholism – with papal dispensation because they were too closely related. She also converted and introduced the catholic faith to her county. She died giving birth to her 11th child, and lived (1582-1618). 

  1586-1616 Hereditary Lady Agnes Cirksena von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Dietrichstein-Wichelstädt, Esens Stedesdorf and Wittmund (Germany)
Sister of Countess Sabine Katharina of Rietberg, she inherited parts of the territories of her family. She was the first wife of Gundacker von Liechtenstein, Lord of Wilffersdorf and Riegelsdorf, Governor of Austria (1614-17) and 1st Prince of Liechtenstein (1623-58) and mother of two sons. His second wife was Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth Lukretia of Teschen (1599-1653). Agnes lived (1586-1616). 

  1586-1612 Princess Zofia Olelkowicz-Slucki of Sluck (Lithuania – Now Poland)
Only one year old when she inherited the possessions of her father, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Slucki, with her mother, Barbara Kiszczanka (d. before 1606) acting as her guardian. She married Janusz Prince Radziwill, castellan of Wilno (1579-1620) and lived (1585-1612)

  1586-1600 Regent Dowager Princess Barbara Kiszczanka of Sluck (Lithuania – Now Poland)
Reigned during her daughter’s minority after her husband, Jerzy Olelkowicz-Slucki’s death of the large estate in what was Lithuania at the time – it later became part of Russia, Belarus and since 1920 Poland. She was daughter of Mikolaj Kiszka, Voivode Podlaski and Barbara Chodkiewicz, and (d. before 1608).

  1586-95 Reigning Dowager Duchess Barbara of Brandenburg of Brieg (Brzeg) (Poland)
Also known as Brandenburska, she was widow of Duke Georg von Brieg (Jerzy II of Brzeg) and held the Slesian Principality as her dowry

  1586-93 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Maria von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose
1605-15 Joint Guardian of Sachsen-Weimar (Germany)
The last of four sisters to occupy the post, she resigned in order to marry Duke Johann von Sachsen-Weimar (1570-1605). After his death, the Duchy and her 10 surviving sons came under the guardianship of the unpopular Electors of Sachsen-Albertine (Albertinischen Kurfürsten). She concentrated on the education of her 8 surviving sons who shared and expanded the inheritance: Duke Johann Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar (1594-1626), Friederich (1596-1622), Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar, zu Remda, in Eisenach, Creuzburg, Gerstungen, Salzungen, Gotha, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Berka, Buttsadt, Lobeda, Eisenach, Ilmenau, Kaltennordheim, etc, (1598-1662), Duke Albrecht of Sachsen-Eisenach, (1599-1644), Duke Ernst I the Pious von Sachsen-Gotha, in Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg und Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld und Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen und Wasungen, Kranichfeld, Altenburg, Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen und Römhild (1601-75), Friedrich Wilhelm, (1603-19) and Bernhard (1604-39), who became Duke of Franken in 1633, and the posthumously born daughter, Johanna (1606-09). She was daughter of Prince Joachim Ernst von Anhalt and Eleonore von Württemberg, died after a fall from a horse, and lived (1574-1617).

  1586-1604 Princess-Abbess Magdalena I zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)
Her sister, Margareta, had been sovereign of the territory 1563-78.

  Until 1586 Reigning Abbess Louise de Bourbons-Vendôme of Faremoutiers (France)
Sister of Charlotte, who was first Abbess of Jouarre and later married Willem I van Oranje-Nassau, and succeeded by another sister, Jeanne de Jouarre. She lived (1548-86).

  1586-97 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Gunilla Bielke of the Town and Estate of Björneborg with various Parishes, the Estate and Parishes of Kumo, the Estate of Sari with certain Parishes (Finland), the Estate of Brånäs in Östergötland with the Parishes of Dagsbergs, Steneby and Konungsund and hundred royal hereditary estates closest to Brånäs (Sweden)
She was widow of King Johan III of Sweden, and lived (1568-1597).

  1586-1618 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore von Württemberg of Lichtenberg in Anhalt (Germany)
Widow of Joachim Ernst, Fürst von Anhalt (1536-86) who reigned Anhalt-Köthen from 1551 and all of the parts of the Principality of Anhalt from 1570. With his first wife Agnes von Barby (1540-69) he had 3 sons and 4 daughters and they had 5 sons and 3 daughters together. She lived (1552-1618).

  1586-87 County Sheriff Kirstine Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Kirsten Lindenov was widow of Steen Clausen Bille (1527-86), who was Judge, diplomat and soldier, and she held the fief, which is situated in the Landscape of Skåne, now Sweden. She owned the estate of Herrevad Kloster and Sellerup in her own right. After 17 years of marriage she had a son followed by one more son and a daughter (d. 1612).

  1586-1626 County Sheriff Beate Christoffersdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Møllerud, the Shire of Gers and the County of Epholt, Denmark
1615-26 County Sheriff of the Counties of Lund Skt. Peders Kloster
in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Beate Huitfeldt was widow of Knud Ebbesen Ulfeldt til Svenstorp and held the small tenantcies as security for some loans. Mistress of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Anna Cathrine von Brandenburg from 1597 until her death in 1612 and for the three young princes until 1617. As an award for her court service, she was given the tenantcy of Gers Herred i Skåne and 1615 St. Peders Kloster i Lund, also Skåne, also owner of a number of estates in her own right. She wrote the history of her family and she was sister of the famous Chancellor of the Realm and historian, Arild Huitfeldt, mother of 2 sons, and lived (1554-1626).

  1586-89 County Sheriff Karen Ottesdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Snersted in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Karen Gyldenstierne was also known as Karen Ottes. Her husband Jørgen Marsvin (1527-81) was Lensmand at Landskrona and Member of the Danish Council of State until his death. Her cousin, Karen Gyldenstierne, was Acting County Sheriff of Bygholm 1575-76. Karen Ottes lived (1542-89).

  1586-.. County Sheriff Kirsten Ludvigsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Vesterbygård, Denmark
Kirsten Gyldenstierne was widow of Gregers Carlsen Bryske til Skaftelevgård (d.1566) and Erik Bassesen Basse, County Sheriff of Dalby Kloster in Skåne (d. after 1581) as his second wife.

  1587-93 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Kassel of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
1587-1604 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel
Her oldest son, Friederich II, succeeded his father, Adolf (1526-33-86) as Duke of Gottorp at the age of 18. He died after one year and was then succeeded by their second son, Philipp (1570-87-90) and after his death for the youngest, Johan Adolf (1575-1590-1616).Her husband had been given the duchy after the death of his father, King Frederik I of Denmark and his older brother, Johann was given Hadersleben (Haderslev) but he died without issue in 1591. She was mother of a total of 10 children, and lived(1543-1604).

  1587-90 and 1596-99 Reigning Abbess-General Inés Enríquez of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The first Abbess to be elected for a three years period – and to be re-elected. Before that Abbesses of the chapter were elected for life.

  1587-89 County Sheriff Pernille Albrechtsdatter Gøye of the County of Vesterstad (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Pernille Gøye was probably married to Hak Holgersen Ulfstand til Hikkebjerg (1535-95), who married Anne Vernerdatter Parsberg after her death. She did not have any children, and lived (1550-89).

  1587-90 County Sheriff Tale Tagesdatter Thott of the Counties of Åhus and Åsum, (At the time Denmark, now Sweden)
Thale Thott or Tale Tot was in charge of Åhus and Åsum, situated in the Landscape of Skåne after the death of her husband, Arild Axelsen Urup (1528-87). A number of folk tales and folk songs were written about their love story. She lived (1550-1611).

  1587 Acting County Sheriff Lene Tagesdatter Thott of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark
Lene Thott was widow of Henrik Brahe. Mother of 7 children, and (d. 1599).

  1587-92 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Garnysz of Barcice and Rytro, Poland
Her Polish title of starościna niegrodowa translate into “Elder” in the female version and she held the territory as representative of the king.

  1588-94 Regent Dowager Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Schleswig-Holstein (Slesvig-Holsten) (Denmark and Germany)
1588-1631 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the 2 Shires of Falster and the Counties of Ålholm and Ravnsborg, Denmark
Sophie af Mecklenborg was widow of Frederik 2., she was regent for her son Christian 4. in the Duchies of Slesvig-Holsten 1588-94. She was engaged in a power struggle with the Regents of Denmark, The Council of State, which had Christian declared of age in 1593, but she did not give up her position in the Duchies before the following year. She then withdrew to Lolland-Faster, where she managed her estates extremely well and became very rich and she lend her son a lot of money for his warfares. Her Dowries included the jurisdiction of Majbølle, Nybølle, Kallø, Soersmark, TOreby, Urne and Vignæs Birk, which meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. She lived (1557-1631).

  1588-94 Titular Duchess Charlotte de La Mack of Boullion, Princess of Sedan, Jametz and Ravcourt (France)
Inherited the title after her brother, Guillaume-Robert, and after she died giving birth to a stillborn daughter, she was succeeded by husband, Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne. The duchy today is held by the Dukes of Rohan, via succession trough female lines. She lived (1575-94).

  1588-1613 Titular Marchioness Maria Mencia van Wittem van Beersel of Bergen op Zoom, Countess van Walhain, Dame of Beerssel, Duffel, Gheel, Leefdael, Waver, Eigenbrakel etc. (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Jan van Wittem, Vicomte de Sébourg etc (d. 1588), who was joint superintendent with his wife, Marie Marguerite de Mérode, Marchioness van Bergen op Zoom (d. 1588). Maria Mencia was first married to Herman van Berg s’Heerenberg, count of Bergh, Governor of Spanish Gelre (1558-1611), and secondly to Guillaume de Melun, Prince d’Epinoy (d. 1635), and was succeeded by daughter Maria Elisabeth Clara. Maria Mencia’s sister Margareta inherited the title of Baroness van Bautershem and Ernestine inherited the title of Countess de Walhain, Viscountess de Sébourg.  She lived (1581-1613). 

  1588-98 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth VIII von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Essen (Germany)
Sister of Elisabeth VI, who had resigned in 1578 in order to marry an Evangelical count. The abbey was very damaged during the wars of the time. In 1590 she appointed her brother Amtmann (Governor) in Breisig, a small territory claimed by the Duke of Jülich. 

  1589-93 Governor Luisa Grinalda, Espírito Santo (Brazil)
After the death of her husband, Vasco Fernandes Coutinho, she acted as governor for the King of Portugal, until she returned to her Portugal and died in a Chapter in Èvora some years later. She was daughter of Pedro Álvares Corrêa and Caterina Grimaldi, and lived (1541-ca. 1626).

  1589-1602 Sovereign Countess Amelie von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Acting Hereditary Marshal of the Diocese of Köln, Acting Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Lennep (The Netherlands and Germany)
In charge of Vianden and a number of attached possessions 1579-87 as an inheritance from her first husband, Heinrich von Brederode (1531-68). She married Friedrich II von der Pfalz in 1569, but he died in 1576. In 1589 she inherited Limburg from her half-brother, Anton. The county had been occupied by the Diocese of Köln since 1584. In 1590 she was given the rights of use of Alpen, Helpenstein, Lennep and Erbvogtei of Köln by her half-sister, Magdalena, who was the owner of the territories after the death of their brother. Alpen was occupied by the Republic of the Netherlands in 1597 and the following year by the Spanish Low Countries that also occupied. Helpenstein and the Stewardship of Köln. 1600 she took possession of Alpen and, she still held the right of Linnep and Limburg, and was succeeded by sister, Magdalena, the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575. Also known as Amalia, she was daughter of Gumprecht II. von Neuenahr-Alpen, Count of Limburg (1505-1552/1556) and Carda von Schaumburg (d. 1540) in her second marriage, and lived (1539-1602).

  1589-1601 Sovereign Duchess Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont of Berry (France)
After her husband, King Henri III was murdered, she spend the rest of her life in sorrow. She did not have any children, and lived (1553-1601).

  1589-1605 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Stotzingen of Heggbach (Germany)
Prioress and second-in-command for a number of years before her election. At the time of her reign, her family was Imperial Immediate Lords (Reichsfreien Herren) of a territory in Württemberg and were later appointed Counts.

  1589-1611 Princess-Abbess Anna Erika zu Waldeck-Eisenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
The first Evangelical ruler of the territory and for the first time since 1206 no Papal confirmation was sought for her election. She saw the fact that Emperor Rudolf II gave her the fief and regalia (mit den regalien belehnt) as a proof of the independent character of the territory and she refused to swear an oath of allegiance (Erbhuldigung) to the Duke of Braunschweig, but in 1593 she and Duke Heinrich Julius signed the “Grand Treaty” (Grosser Vertrag), where she gave the Duke a right to have a say when positions within the chapter had to be filled. On the other hand the Duke accepted that the Chapter enjoyed Freedom of the Realm (Reichsunmittelkeit). The chapter burned down in 1597 and was rebuilt in renaissance-style, which lead to heavy depths to the Duke of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Wolrad II Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg and Anastasia von Schwarzenburg, and lived (1551-1611).

  1589-94 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter Galt of the County Nederby  (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Galt was widow of Anders Keldsen Bing, Councillor of the Realm, County Sheriff of Nederby and Varberg. (d. 1589) without children as the last male of his family. She lived (1546-after 1605).

  1589 County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Vestermand of Thistedgård with Hundborg Herred, Denmark
Anne Venstermand til Pilegård was widow of Godske Brockenhuus, and (d. after 1607).

  Ca. 1590-1660 Mwan and Yau Lundij Rweej of Lunda (Congo)
Succeeded by husband Cibinda Ilunga as ruler of the marshy environment of the Upemba depression, the source of the Zaire River, which encouraged the formation of a state. It demanded that its inhabitants develop forms of large-scale cooperation if they were to maintain a secure and productive lifestyle. In the Upemba environment of lakes, marshes and river channels, they needed dikes to protect homes against seasonal flooding, drainage channels, and dams to retain lake waters for dry-season fishing. The scholar Reefe believes that the need for large-scale cooperation in public works projects led the people of Upemba to develop political unity.

  Before 1590 Datuk I Sambo of Tallo(Indonesia)
Inherited the principality from her father, I Daeng Padulu, and was succeeded by husband, Tunijallo, who was also Somba of Gowa, and ruled in Tallo until 1590.

  1590-1607 I-Dangka We Tan-ri Tuppu, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Successor of her father, and abdicated in favour of her husband as rule by females was not in keeping with Islam, but he was deposed after one year for urging his people to accept Islam. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Sidenreng.

  1590 Regent Dowager Princess Isabel de Mendoza of Piombino and the Lordships of Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and Vignale and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaiola  (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Alessandro Appiani d’Aragona, she was regent for son, Giacopo VIII (1581-1603). His sister, Isabella (1577-1661), was Princess of the territory 1611-24 until she was deposed by the Spanish. Isabel was daughter of Don Pedro Gonsalvo de Mendoza, COunt of Binasco, Ambassador of the King of Spain to Genova, and lived (1558-1619).

  1590-1603 Joint Sovereign Countess Gabrielle of Joigny (France)
Reigned jointly with Countess Anne.

  1590-? Joint Sovereign Countess Anne of Joigny (France)
Held the county jointly with Countess Gabrielle.

  1590-93 Reigning Abbess-General Beatriz Manrique of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Held both secular and temporal powers of the abbey and the surrounding territories.

  1591-1604 Guardian Dowager Electress Sophie von Brandenburg of Sachsen (Germany)
1591-1622 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Offices and Castles of Rochlitz, Colditz and Borna, the Office and Castle of Leisnig with the Cities of Leisnig and Döbeln in Sachsen
After the death of her husband, Christian I (1560-86-91) she was guardian for their son, Christian II (1583-91-1611) and other children. She was very much involved in the religious fights during her lifetime and on her demand the Calvinist Chancellor Nikolaus Crell and a big part of the Saxon nobility were arrested and after a lengthily process executed in 1611. A very able administrator, she extended her dowry over the years, held a large court with many civil servants, and Colditz experienced a time of cultural and commercial growth. The castle remained the dowry of Saxonian Dowager Electresses until 1753. She lived (1568-1622).

  1591-1603 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Bentheim-Steinfurt of Wied (Germany)
1603-1605 Dowager Reigning Lady of Gronau in Bentheim
After the death of her husband, Count Hermann I zu Wied, she was regent for their son, Johann Wilhelm (ca. 1580-1633). After he came of age, she took over her dowry in her “native” Bentheim. Mother of 3 sons and 3 daughters and lived (1555-1628).

  1591 Acting County Sheriff Anne Knudsdatter Gyldenstierne of of the County of Malmøhus  with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1591-92 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Kalundborg with the Shires of Arts Løve and Ods Skippinge and Samsø, Denmark
Anna or Anne Gyldenstierne was widow of Corfitz Viffert. She lived (1544-95).

  1591-1637 Feudal Duchess Isabella Gonzaga of Sabbioneta e Treatto, Contessa di Roddi e Ricalta, Baronessa di Caramanico e Tutino, Marchesa di Ostiano, Contessa di Fondi (Italy)
Succeeded her brother, Vespasiano I, married to Don Luigi Carafa Principe di Stigliano (d. 1630), and succeeded by granddaughter, Donna Anna Carafa de Stigliano-Gonzaga (1637-44) who was married to the Duke de Medinas de Torres, Don Ricardo de Guzmán. She lived (1565-1637).

  1592-1600 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorothea af Danmark of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Winsen (Schloss und Amt) and of Gross Rhode
From 1582 her husband, Wilhelm, suffered fits of insanity and she fled in security. After his death, she was regent for son, Duke Georg (1692-1644) who inherited the duchies of Carlenberg-Göttingen from a relative. She mistrusted the Councillors who had thrown the country into chaos during her husband’s illness. She took matters in her own hand and became known as an energetic and charitable regent. She was daughter of Christian III and lived (1546-1617).

  1592-1609 Politically Influential Princess Sibylla von Jülich-Kleve-Berg of Jülich-Kleve-Berg-Mark (Germany)
Contemporary sources described her as power-mad, stupid and vindictive. She supported Marshal Wilhelm von Waldenburg, who became more and more powerful. In 1595 she handed over a petition against her sister-in-law, Jakobäa von Baden, to the Landtag in Grevenbroich, where she accused her of among others infidelity. She and von Waldenburg claimed to working for the healing of the insane Duke, and in this way they managed to keep power. They were rumoured to have caused the sudden and mysterious death of Jakobäa, and the rumours continued for centuries. After the death of her brother, Johann Wilhelm, she engaged in a war of succession together with her husband, Archduke Karl of Austria (d. 1618) with the husbands and children of her sisters: Marie Eleonora (1550-1608), Anne (1552-1632) and her husband, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg (d. 1614), Magdalena (1553-33) and Pfalzgraf Johann von Pfalz-Zweibrücken (d. 1604). It was the oldest daughter of Marie Eleonora, Anna von Preussen, who inherited the duchies. Sibylle lived (1557-1627).

  1592-98 Politically Influential Queen Anna von Habsburg of Poland 
The beginning of the 17th Century in Poland was a very unrest full time, and she was influential during the reign of her husband Zygmunt III Wasa, who was elected as successor of Stefan Batory as King of the Polish and Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sigismund was son of Johann III Vasa of Sweden (1537-1592) and Katarina of Poland (1526-83), the daughter of Sigismund I the Old and his wife Bona Sforza. On his father’s death Sigismund was offered the Swedish throne, and he was crowned in 1594. He tried to rule Sweden from Poland but his uncle (duke Charles, later king Charles IX) took full control of Sweden. In 1598 Sigismund tried to defeat him with a mixed army from Sweden and Poland but was defeated in the battle of Stångebro. Anna was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria, mother of four children, and lived (1573-98).

  1592-1608 Guardian Dowager Duchess Sophie von Holstein-Gottorp of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Güstrow (Germany)
1592 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Offices of Rehna, Wittenburg and Lübz
1603-08 Administrator of Schwerin
After her husband, Duke Johann VII of  (1558-76-92) committed suicide at Stargard, she became guardian for her sons, Duke Adolf Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628) and Johann Albrecht II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (1590-92-1610-36) and yielded substantial influence over the government in Schwerin. After the death of her brother-in-law Sigismund August was Duke (1576-1603) andhis uncle, Ulrich III (1603) she signed a treaty with the new Duke Karl which left her with the administration of Schwerin until her sons came of age. She was engaged in heavy disputes with the Treasurer Andreas Meier, whom she accused of fraud and she demeaned to have the financial control transferred to her at the Assemblies of 1604 and 1606, but it was denied. She was active in trade and commerce and modernised her residence in her dowries where she possessed full sovereignty over her dowries except the role as fief-overlord over the nobility. But her territories were occupied several times during the Thirty Years War. Her sons accused her of mismanagement and their relationship was never good. She lived (1569-1634).

  1592-1600 Reigning Abbess Agnes Reiff genannt Walter von Blidegg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it’s acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn.

  1592 Acting County Sheriff Hilleborg Clausdatter Daa of the County of Hald, Denmark
Following the death of her husband, Jørgen Skram, Hilleborg Daa took over the administration of the fief. Daughter of Claus Daa af Ravnstrup. She lived (1549-95).

  1592-93 County Sheriff Christence Cortiftzdatter Viffert of the County of Vinstrupgård, Denmark
Christence Vifferet was widow of Henrik Bille til Mogenstrup (1559-92). Mother of one son, and (d. 1604).

  1592 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Mikkelsdatter Seested of Roskildegård with Harritsborg and Kirketjenerne under bispegården og Fadeburslenet, Denmark
Lisbeth Seested was widow of Niels Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Sandbygård. She lived (1555-1624).

  After 1592-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands Zofia Herburtowna Czarnkowska of Świecie, Poland
Appointed by the King as his local representative.

  1592-1632 Politically Influential Urszula Meierin in Poland
The senior governess and very close and unofficial advisor of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632) of Poland and his wifes Queen Anna Austriaczka and Queen Konstancja Austriaczka. Also known as Meyerin and her real name was Urszula Gienger, Gänger or Giengerin.  She lived (around 1570-1635).

  1593-1604 Sovereign Countess Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbaden of Virneburg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Joachim von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1540-82), two relatives were appointed regents and guardians for her children, and she spend lot of energy keeping on to her dowry Neurburg and preventing her young son from being taken abroad for “proper catholic education” by the Spanish Duke of Alba, the governor of the Southern Netherlands (Manderscheid was within the Luxembourgian interest sphere). Her son Philipp Dietrich died in 1590 and her daughters and son-in-laws were engaged in a fight over the succession, which was solved in the way that the three son-in-laws alternated in reigning the country one year at a time. In the end the county of Schleiden was divided among the three. She later inherited the country of Virneburg from her brother-in-law, Count Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Schleiden-Virneburg, who was the last male member of the line. She secured the succession for her oldest, and only daughter Elisabeth, who took over the inheritance in 1604 and transferred the county to her husband and son. Magdalene lived (1546-1604).

  1593-1616 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Weilburg and of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Ottweiler (Germany)
Widow of Count Albrecht von Nassau-Ottweiler, Ottweiler, Hohenburg, Kircheim, Lahr and Mahlberg, a leading follower of the reformation and diplomat. The lordshipof Wehen was poor and she managed to revitalise the economy and build a school in the area, and from 1602 she lived together with her daughter-in-law, Elizabeth von Hessen-Darmstadt at the Castle of Wehen. Mother of 14 children and lived (1541-1616).

  1593-1610 Princess-Abbess Sophie Elisabeth von Anhalt-Dessau of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
When she resigned in order to marry her cousin, Georg Rudolf (Jerzy) von Liegnitz (1595-1653) as his first wife, the Ecclesiastical Territory was secularised and incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg. She was daughter of Johann Georg I von Anhalt-Dessau and his first wife, Dorothea von Mansfeld-Arnstein, did not have any children, and lived (1589-1622).

  1593-96 and 1599-1601 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Ayala      of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her title was noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey.

  1593-1643 Reigning Abbess Louise de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers (France)
Appoined by a bulle by Pope Clement VIII. One of 3 Abbesses from the Dynasty. Nicolas, Marquis de Vitry et d’Arc, Count de Châteauvillain and Seigneur de Coubert and Lucrèce Bouhier, succeeded by niece Anne de L’Hôpital , and lived (1567-1643).

  1594-1613 Queen Kusumasanadevi of Kandy (Sri Lanka)
Also known as Queen Doña Catherina Kusumasana Devi, she was the daughter of previous King of Kandy, Karaliadde Bandara, who died when she was three years old, and she grew up with the Portuguese, who installed her as “puppet-ruler” with the title of Empress, only as cover for Portuguese occupation of the Kandyan Kingdom, lasting only for four months with Lopez de Souza, the Portuguese Conquistador on her side. The latter was killed at the battle of Danture in l594 when Catherina fell into the hands of Konappu Bandara He was a Kandyan aristocrat who had mastered Portuguese military skills by feigning to have become a Christian became the king of Senkadagalapura (Kandy) in 1592, after deposing the Portuguese puppet Don Juan, set up by them. Konappu Bandara assumed the name of Vimaladharmasuriya I, (1592- 1604) marrying Dona Catherina and thereby strengthening his claim to the throne. After his death, she married his first cousin Senarat (1604-1635), a former priest. She lived (1578-1613).

  1594-1608 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Mufflin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Magdalena von Gleissenthal.

  1594-1610 Princess-Abbess Eléonore von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Her reign was very quiet and the chapter was in a stable development. She was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Magdalena von Schwarzenberg and niece of the former abbess, Margarete von Montfort (1540-56). 

  1594 County Sheriff Thale Holgersdatter Ulfstand of the County of Malmøhus (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
In various documents Thale Ulfstand wrote her name as Thaale Wlffstandt til Skabersøe. She took over as Lensmand after the death of her brother Hack Holgersen Ulfstand, who had been Government Councillor, Councillor of State, Marsk, Knight of the Order of the Elephant and after the death of King Frederik 2, guardian for his son, Christian 4, but in 1590 he was executed for treason. (d. 1604).

  1594 Acting County Sheriff Karen Iversdatter Krabbe of Hammershus with the 4 Herreds of Bornholm, Denmark
Karen Krabbe was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Falk Falksen Gøye. Her sister, Anne was Acting County Sheriff in 1580. Karen was mother of 2 children, and (d. 1602).

The carriage presented to Safiye as a present by Queen Elizabeth I of England 1594-1603 Politically Influential Safiye Vailde Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Already as Chief Wife of her husband, Murat III from 1574 she was the power behind the throne especially after the death of her mother-in-law Nurbanu. She continued the pro-Venetian policy of Nurbanu and maintained an extensive foreign correspondence, most notably with Queen Elizabeth I of England. When her husband died, she kept the news secret, because wanted to give her son, Mehmet, time to return from Manisa, where he was governor. In 1599 Queen Elizabeth presented Mehmet with an organ and Safiye with a splendid carriage, which she used to excursions into the town. When Mehmet died in 1603 her grandson, Ahmet I, sent her to the Old Seray where she died 15 years later. She lived (1550-1618).

  1594-1600 (†) Politically Influential Esperanza Malchi in the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Throughout the ages the Queen Mothers had carried out their financial dealings through a series of Jewish women (kira), who acted as commercial agents for the secluded Harem women. Safiye’s kira was Esperanza Malchi, who became enormously rich, and the Secretary to the British embassy in the 1600s even attributed her influence to the fact that she and Safiye were lovers. In 1600 the imperial cavalry rose up in a revolt because of the devaluation of the currency. Their fury was directed towards Malchi, who was killed together with her son.

  1595-96 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottosdatter Brahe of the Counties of Åkjær and Sønderlyngherred, Denmark
1612 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Landskrona Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Margrethe Brahe was in charge of the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her hsuband, Councillor of State Christen Skeel, til Hegnet, Hammeltofte and Fusingø (1543-96), who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Fiefs of Bøvling Slot and Len and Aakjær Len for many years. After the death of her second husband, Christian (Kristen) Bernekov she was in charge of his tenantcy. She was daughter of Otto Brahe til Knudstrup and Beate Bille,  was County Sheriff of Røding from 1571, and lived (1551-1616).

  1595-99 Duchess Gabrielle d’Estree of Beaufort and Verneuil, Marquise de Monceaux (France)
Mistress of Henri IV of France and active in persuading him to convert from Protestantism to Catholism. She died after having given birth to a stillborn child, her third, and lived (1571-99).

  1595-1615 Princess-Abbess Maria III von und zu Eltz of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Possibly the daughter of Bernhard, Herr von und zu Eltz zu Üttingen und Wolmeringen, Governor of Diedenhofen, Statholder of Luxemburg, (d. b.1550) and Jutta de Villers (d. before 1534).

  1596-1616 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Württemberg of Hainau (Chojnów) (Poland)
Also known as Anna Wirtemberska, and she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her first husband, Duke Jan Jerzy of Oława (Johan von Ohlau). In 1594 she was married (as the third wife) to Duke Friederich IV von Liegnitz (Fryderyk of Legnica). She was daughter of Duke Christopher von Württemberg and markgräfin Anna Maria von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of two children, and lived (1561-1616).

  1596-99 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Hans Johansen Lindenov, Margrethe Rosenkrantz was in charge of the tenantcy. She raised several young noble women and her own grandchildren, and was mother of 9 children, and lived (1552-1635).

  1596-1602 Abbess with the authority of a County Sheriff Margrethe Pedersdatter Norby of the Chapter and Town of Maribo and surroundings (Denmark)
Elected as successor of Sophia Gyldenstjerne. She had been married to Jørgen Bryske until their divorce, and in 1564 she entered the chapter. As Abbess she held the jurisdiction of those who lived at the estates of the Chapter and 1559 over the City of Maribo and surroundings. This meant that she had the right to appoint the judge (birkedommer) and received the income from the costs of the proceedings and fines. Daughter of Peder Norby til Urup (d. 1602).

  1596 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre- and Sønderherred, Djurs, Sønderhand and Østerlisberg, Denmark
Dorthe Lange was widow of Jørgen Rosenkrantz, chancellor and leader of the regency government for the minor King Christian 4. Her mother, Karen Breide, had been County Sheriff of Svendstrup 1539-44 . She was mother of 3 children, and lived (1541-1613).

  1596 Governor and Admiral Isabel Barreto de Castro, Santa Cruz (Solomon Islands at the time a Spanish Possession)      
Just after the death of her husband, Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish navigator (1541-96), she proclaimed herself governor and took command of the fleet as the only Admiral of the Spanish Amada. Her husband had been given command of a small fleet by his uncle, the Governor-General of Peru in 1567. After his return they married and in 1594 Philip II appointed him as governor of the island of San Cristobal in the Solomons, and gave orders to found a colony there. They left for the islands in 1595 and on the way they discovered the Marquesas de Mendoza Islands and another large island, which they named Santa Cruz, and resolved to establish the colony there. Some of the crew murdered one of the native chiefs, and a bloody war was begun against the invaders. Afterward there was a mutiny among the troops. These adversities undermined Mendana’s health, and he soon died, leaving the government to Isabel. Soon after she and the chief pilot, Quiros resolved to abandon the colony, and she directed her ships to the Philippines. She held the title “La Amiranta de la Mar Oceana”.  She lived (1570-1612).

  1597-1603 Crown Councillor Dowager Empress Hamalmal Malik Mogasa of Ethiopia
1604-1607 Politically Influential
Following the death of her husband, Emperor Sartsa Dengel (or Malik Sagad I) (1563-97), she was member of the regency for stepson, Yaqub (Malik Sagad II) (1590-97-1603 and 1604-07), and remained influential after he came of age. He was deposed by a cousin in 1603 and killed in battle against another, who took over the throne. She was born as Mariam Senna, and (d. 1614).

  1597 Regent Dowager Feudal Baroness Isabella Della Tolfa (Italy)
The widow of Agostino and regent for son, Nicola, she sold the feudal the barony to Dalmazio Arcalla Caracciolo.

  1597-1611 Regent Dowager Lady Metta van Limburg-Bronckhorst of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen (Germany)
When her husband, Heinrich V von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen died, their only son, Jobst Herman, was four years old and, she took over the government of the territories in Northern Germany and the Netherlands, among others’ the Water-castle (Wasserburg) Gemen van Schaumburg.

  1597-1628 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Erika von Isenburg-Birstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Burgschwalbach in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)
Widow of Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg, she died in Berleburg where her the youngest of her 2 daughters, Elisabeth Juliane (1598-1647) was married to Count Ludwig Kasimir von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1643) and Count Georg von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (d. 1680). The oldest, Anna (1597-1645) was married to Count Friedrich X von Leiningen-Dagsburg. She lived (1569-1628).

  1597-1608 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Katharina Sophia von Liegnitz of the Administrative Offices of Flossenbürg and Vohenstrauß and parts of Parkstein-Weiden in Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Velden-Parkestein (Germany)
Widow of Pfalzgraf Friedrich II. von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Veldenz-Parkestin, who had been given the Offices of Parkstein, Weiden und Flossenbürg, when his father died. Since both their sons and their daughter died as infants the seigniorial rights returned to the Principality of Pfalz-Neuburg, but she remained in charge of her dowry and resided at the Castel of Friedrichsburg bei Vohenstrauß, that her husband had built. She was daughter of Heinrich XI. von Liegnitz, Brieg und Goldberg., and lived (1561-1608).

  1598-1658 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Klara zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Heringen an der Helme in Schwarzburg (Germany)
Due to her wise actions during the Thirty Year War, she managed to save the city from plundering and war taxes.  She was widow of Wilhelm I. Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, Lord of Hohenstein Count Wilhelm I von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (1535-83-97). She was the 8th of 16 children of Duke Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1535-59-92) and Dorothea af Danmark (1549-1617), and lived (1571-1658).

  1598 De facto reigning Zarina Irina Fedorovna Godunova of Russia (07.-17. January)
Considered to be the effective ruler throughout the reign of her weak husband Fedor I Ivanovich from 1584. In 1598 she took the throne for ten days before retirering to a convent to become a nun. After a brief interregnum, her brother Boris Godunov was elected to succeed her. She lived (1557-1603).

  1598-1621 Isabel Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, By the Grace of Good Archduchess of Austria, Joint Duchess of Burgundy, Lothringen, Brabant, Limbourg, Luxembourg and of Gelders, Joint Countess of Vlaanderen, Artois and Bourgogne and Tirol, Palatine of Hainault, Holland, Namour and of Zuytphen, Margravine of the Holy Roman Realm, Joint Lady of Friesland, Salins, Mechelen, of the City, Cities and Lands of Utrecht, Overijssel and Groeningen
1589-1633 Countess of Franche-Comté (Belgium)
1617-33 Joint Marchioness of Coligny and Andelot (France)
1621-33 Governor of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium-Luxembourg)
After her uncle, Henri III of France, was assassinated 1589, her father Felipe II of Spain claimed the French crown on her behalf in spite of the Salic Law and the fact that her mother, Elisabeth de Valois, had to abjure any claims to the French crown with her marriage. 10 years later she married her cousin Archduke Albert of Austria, and they became joint Governors of the Southern Netherlands. Their reign brought a period of much-needed peace and stability to the economy and their actions stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity. She promoted the Flemish Baroque and artists as Rubens, Brueghel, Coebergher, the De Nole family, the Van Veens and others. Their court became a vital link in the chain of Habsburg courts and the diplomatic conduits between Madrid, Vienna, Paris, London, Lisbon, Graz, Innsbruck and Prague. When her husband died in 1621, she joined the order of the Sisters of St. Clare, and became the governor of the Netherlands. Mother of three children who died as infants, and lived (1566-1633).

  1598-99 Sovereign Countess Anna von Stolberg-Königstein-Rochefort of Wertheim and Rochefort (Germany)
Daughter of Ludwig zu Stolberg-Königstein. In 1532 he had inherited the possessions of the House of Eppstein-Königstein and in 1556 he inherited the county of Wertheim She was married to Count Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Scharffeneck  (1530-1611), who added Wertheim to his name and was Stadholder of Styria, Carinthia and Carnolia. She lived (1531/48-99).

  1598-1625 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Hartmann of Baindt (Germany)
In 1607 she introduced the more strong clausures and the common meal that had been demanded already in 1573. And in 1622 she build the long-building (Langbau) and reconstructed the Mill of the Chapter, which was financially very important for the territory

  1598-1604 Princess-Abbess Margaretha-Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Gerolstein of Essen (Germany)
From 1586 she had been Abbess of the Stift Gerresheim, from 1598 of Freckenhorst, in 1590 she had become Probstin (Vice-Abbess) of Relinghausen and around 1600 she was elected Abbess in Schwarzrheindorf. She was daughter of Count Hans Gerhard and Margarethe, Wild und Rheingräfin, and lived (1569-1604). 

  1598-1605 Princess-Abbess Katharina II Scheiffl of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Assembly of the Bavarian Circle. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. The system was formalized in 1500, when Emperor Maximilian I created 6 circles (Bavaria, Franconia, Lower Saxony, Swabia, Upper Saxony, Westphalia), and reorganized twelve years later into ten, with the addition of Austria, Burgundy, the Rheinish Electorates, and the Rhine Palatinate.


  1598-1611 Politically Influential Queen Margarita d’Austria of Spain and Portugal
Reacted toward the influence of the advisors and the Duke of Lerma during the reign of her spouse, King Felipe III, and was active in an intrigue to reveal the corrucption she accused Lerma of having, which eventually lead to his fall from power, although not until after her own death. Active in representing the Austrian Habsburg interests at the Spanish court from 1599 until her death. A great patroness of the arts, she was daughter of Archduke Karl II of Austria-Este and Maria Anna of Bavaria, and mother of a number of children. She lived (1584-1611).


  1599-1610 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina av Sverige of Pewsum, Woquard Loquard and Campen in Ostfriesland and Neeuwarden (Germany)
Held the territories after the death of her husband, Edzard II of Ostfriesland, and after her death the four lordships were united into the office of Pewsum, which was inherited by her son Enno III. Also known as Catharina Wasa, she travelled, with her one-year old son, to her estates in Ostfriesen and Neeuwarden, and took care of those for a month, and while there she felt the murmur, the more open talks of rebellion, the Calvinists urge to throw of the Spanish King. After a couple of months she went to Madrid, where the King used her as a sort of “Advisor of Protestant affairs”. She was daughter of king Gustav I Vasa, mother of 10 children and lived (1539-1610).

  1599-1600 County Sheriff Sophie Pedersdatter Bille of the County of Mariager, Denmark
Sophie Bille til Svanholm was widow of Jakob Seefeld til Visborg. She lived (1549-1608).

 the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011




Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  Around 1500 Queen Sukda of Mandara (Cameroon)
She was the first ruler of The Mandara (or Wandala) tribe, which is located just south of Lake Chad in both northern Cameroon and Nigeria in savannah in which mounds of rocks can be seen high above the plains. The tribe also occupy a mountainous area where the Gotel and Mandara Mountains meet. This hot, tropical region has only 30 inches of rainfall each year, and the Mandara are among other tribes of Sudanic herdsmen who migrate seasonally with their animals, searching for fresh grazing lands. 

  1500s Reigning Abbess Claire Motier de La Fayette of Montvilliers (France)
Daughter of VI Gilbert IV  Motier de La Fayette, Seigneur de Saint-Romain, de Hautefeuille and de Pontgibault and Isabeau. (b. 1482-?).

  1500-.. Regent Patodhara Sodhaji Raniji Shri Asadi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)
One of the many wives of Rana Raj Raydharji, she became regent when her grandfather, Thakore Shri Lakhadhirji II Samatsinhji Sahib, Thakore Sahib of Muli, installed her son, Raydharji, as ruler, when his two older brothers accompanied their father’s funeral procession

  1500-40 Sovereign Countess Marie d’Albret of Rethel, Sovereign Princess of Boisbelle-Henrichemont  (France) (Belgium)
Succeeded her mother, Charlotte de Bourgogne, as Countess of Rethel, and was married to Charles of Clèves, Count de Nevers (d. 1521) and succeeded by son, François de Nevers et Rethel, Duke of de Nevers (d. 1561) whose daughters shared the inheritance. Henriette de Clève became Duchess of Nevers-Rethel, Catherine de Nevers (1548-1633) Countess d’Eu and Marie de Nevers (1553-74) Comtesse de Beaufort. Her father was Jean d’Albret (d. 1524), and she lived (1491-1549).

  From 1500 Sovereign Countess Anne de Chabannes of Dammartin (France)
Daughter of Jean VII de Chabannes, Count of Dammartin. 

  Ca. 1500 Sovereign Countess Lucretia Loredani of Ios (Greece)
Governed the island in the Cyclades located south of Naxos and north of Thera.

  1500-15 Governatrice Dowager Lady Francesca Grimaldi of the Fiefs of Dolceacqua, Isolabona, Apricale and Perinaldo (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Luca Doria she became regent in his lands. She was daughter of Lamberto Grimbaldo, Councillor of Antibes and Cagnes, Sovereign Lord of Monaco and Roccabruna and Patrician of Genova.

  1500-23 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von Hessen-Marburg of Katzenelnbogen and ¼ of the County of Diez (Germany)
After her mother, Anna von Katzenelnbogen, died in 1494 the County was disputed among her and her sister, Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505), and a compromise was not reached until 1520. Elisabeth was married to Johann V Count of Nassau, Vianden, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Baron of Breda, Stadholder of Gelre and Zutphen 1504-1505. She lived (1466-1523).

  1500-01 Administrator of the Tenantcy Dowager Burgravine Johanetta von Salm of Rheineck (Germany)
According to tradition she administered the fief for the remainder of the year following the death of her husband, Burgrave Jakob von Rheineck. Her son Jakob II, reached the age of majority in 1508 and Archbishop Hermann of Köln granted him the fief of Rheineck. As he died without male heirs in 1539, Köln withdrew the fief, but his niece, Mezza claimed the inheritance, it was not until 1571 after a court process, that her sons Johann and Wilhelm von Warsberg were declared as rightful heirs. Consequently Archbishop Salentin von Isenburg of Köln granted the Burgravate as a hereditary fief. Johnanette married Philipp Beissel von Gymnich in 1501, she was daughter of Wild- und Rheingraf Johann V. and Johanna von Salm, and lived (ca. 1465-after 1516).

  1500-? Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin of the territory became a member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle) when it was formed in 1495 by Emperor Maximilian I. The function of each Circle was primarily the administration of Imperial law and the maintenance of order, but the assemblies also served to assess local opinion and to direct regional efforts as circumstances dictated. She also had the right to a seat and vote in the College of Swabian Prelates in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), which met in Regensburg.

  1500-26 County Sheriff Sophie Pederdatter Høeg Banner of the County Jungshoved, Denmark
Sophie Høeg til Maribo Sankt Jørgensgård was widow of Ebbe Mogens Galt, who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget). Mother of 3 surviving children, she (d. 1531-).

  1500-39 County Sheriff Anne Corfitzdatter Rønnow of Risby Birk, Denmark
Anne Rønnow til Fårevejle was widow of Erik Hardenberg,  who was killed during the war in the Ditmarsk (Ditmarskertoget).

  Until 1500 County Sheriff Tale Arvidsdatter Baad of Majbølle Birk (The Denmark, new Sweden)
Tale Baad til Vasted in Halland held the tenantcy as security for lones to the king. She was widow of Laurits Follersen Knob til Gyllebo in Skåne. She lived (ca. 1434-1500).

  15.. Princess Regnant Nur Begum of Hunza (Pakistan)
The daughter of Girkis Han, she ruled for 12 years of the mountainous region the Northern Areas of Pakistan adjoining the Sinkiang Autonomous Region of China. Her family ruled the area of Hunz for more than 900 years and the Hunzakuts are believed to be the descendents of five wandering soldiers of Alexander the Great. They speak Brushuski, an aboriginal language. She was succeeded by her nephew Ayaso I as ruler.

  15.. Queen Putri Pinang Masak of Djambi (Indonesia)
Succeeded by husband, Paduka Berhale, as ruler of the East Sumatran kingdom. 

  15.. Queen of Angoche (Moçambique)
Ascended the throne after the death of her her brother and was succeeded by husband, Molidi. Today Angoche is a port-town in the Northern part of the country. 

  15…. 17th Alii Aimoku Kaikilani of Hawai’i (USA)
Succeeded Queen Kaikilani, who reigned sometime in the 15th century, and she first married her cousin Kanaloakua’ana, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii and secondly to Lonoikamakahiki, joint Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, younger son of Keawe-nui Aumi, 16th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, and succeeded by son, Keakealanikane, 18th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii.

  15… Legendary Queen Salamasina of Samoa, Queen of the Upolu, Savai’i, and Tutuila Islands
As a child she had been made Tupu O Samoa and Tafaifa (supreme monarch of Samoa) and held all four Paramount Titles in Samoa. According the legend, she was kind, just, and skillful in leading her country, making great effort and sacrifice to ensure peace for all. During her 40 years reign, there were no wars and people prospered and were happy. She was daughter of Vaeitoefaga and Tamalelagi. Through her mother she’s the granddaughter from the king Tu’i Tonga of Tonga and through her father she’s the descended from the High Chiefs of Samoa and Fiji. The late Paramount Ruler of Samoa, His Royal Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a direct descendant of this legendary queen.

  15…Princess Latutama, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Momo, Tu’i Tonga and Nua, Ma’itaki, former wife of Ngongokilitoto, of Malapo, and daughter of Lo’au, by a woman from Ha’amea. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was forbidden from marrying any Tongan mortal, and her eldest daughter was styled Tamaha, the highest dignity on earth, to whom both her mother and grandfather, paid homage.

  15..Princess Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Tu’itatu’i, Tu’i Tonga.  She probably held office towards the end of the century.

  15… County Sheriff Else of the County of Næsby, Denmark
Widow of Christian Brun. Her successor, Hans Krafse, was in office until 1530.

  1501-ca. 10 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Agrippina Ivanovna Babicheva of Ryazan (Riazan) (Russia)
After the death of her mother-in-law, Anna, she took over the government in the name of their son Ivan VI (1496-1500-16-34). In 1520 his cousin, Grand Prince Vasili III of Moscow invited him into Moscow and imprisoned him immediately after the arrival. In 1521 during the unrest caused by an invasion of the Crimean Khan Mehmed I Giray, Prince Ivan Ivanovich fled into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania where he received a small town of Stakliškės into lifetime possession, and Ryazan was finally annexed by Russia. She was widow of Ivan V of Riazanj (1467-83-1500).

  1501-24 Sovereign Countess Anne de la Tour Auvergne of Auvergne and Boulogne and Baroness de la Tour (France)
Elder daughter and eventually heiress of Jean III and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme. 1505 she was married to her first cousin John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, the intermittent heir presumptive to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland, and its sometime Regent. As she did not have any children, the counties were inherited by her her infant niece, donna Caterina dei Medici of Urbino (born 1519), daughter of her late younger sister Madeleine and Lorenzo II, Duke of Urbino. She lived (ca. 1495-1524).

  1501-20 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Orléans of Bar-sur-Seine (France)
Daughter of Antoinette de Polignac and the king of France. She was legitimized by her marriage to Jean Aubin, Seigneur de Malicorne. She secondly married Jean de Longwy, Baron de Pagny.  

  1501-05 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne II d’Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
In the beginning of the 16th century discipline was lax and the nuns, without the pope’s consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent. She was Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).

  1501-35 Reigning Abbess Katharina zu Stolberg of the Chapter of Drübeck (Germany)
Mentioned as canoness at Chapter of Rohrbach the age of 6, mentioned there as Mistress of Songs (Sangmesterin) in 1491. During the last years of her tenure, the reformation influenced the life in the chapter in many ways. King Otto III confirmed the right to choose the abbess in 995, giving it a special position similar to the Chapters of the Realm of Gandersheim and Quedlinburg, but the chapter died out during upheavals of the Reformation, Peasant Wars and the Thirty Year War. By the end of the 17th century the chapter building came in the possession of the Counts of Stolberg-Wernigerode, and 1732 they founded a Protestant Ladies Chapter (evangelisches Damenstift). She lived (1463-1535).

  After 1502-10 County Sheriff Margrethe Andersdatter Grubendal  of Abildtorp Birk, Denmark
Margrethe Grubendal til Broholm was widow of Johan Fikkesen Fikkesen, County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Harritsborg. She later became Mistress of the convent of Skt. Jørgens Møn

  1502-06 Politically Active Queen Anna de Foix-Candale of Hungary and Bohemia
Active during the reign of her husband Władysław II Jagiellończyk, and after his death, she fought to secure the Hungarian and Bohemian crown for her son Ludwik. She lived (1484-1506).  

  1503-30 Queen Putri Kalunggu of Banja (Indonesia) 
Succeeded Pangeran Gangga who reigned for 45 years (1460-1505). The head of the government was however Patih Mangkubumi Lambung Mangkurat. The Hindu kingdom was situated in today’s South Kalimantan.

  Until 1503 Queen Regnant Anacaona of the Maguana (Taino Tribe) in Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic)
Sister of the tribal chief Boechio Anacauchoa, king of Xaragua or Jaragua, and married to King Caonabo, king. When her husband was taken prisoner, sent to Spain and died in a sea voyage, she inherited the tribe of the Maguana.  She displayed confidence to maintain unity in the kingdom, fought to maintain peace and depose belligerence relating to the Christians.  It’s doubtful that the obedient tribes, under the authority of the Queen, would make an effort to please her, but the Spaniards didn’t want to comprehend the Taino message of living together in peace.  They took their abnegation, their nobility and tolerance as a weakness and gratified their cruelty with unusual conniving, destroying their traditions, and they massacred her soldiers. The survivors fled from the tragic inferno.  The small Taino prince, Guarocuya, was saved by the tribal leader Tamayo and was delivered by el “Padre de las Casas”(a priest) to the Franciscans (catholic monks) of the Verapaz. Higuemota, (Ana de Guevara) daughter of Anacaona, Mencia, Anacaona’s grandaghter tribal leader Hatuey and tribal leader Guarocuya escaped from the tragedy. Queen Anacaona was accused of being a traitor.  In September of 1503, she was hanged in the province of Xaragua.

  1503-18 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Radziwiłłówna of Mazowsze (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Konrad III Rudy of the Masovian Piast Dynasty in 1497, Anna Radziwillowna was regent for her sons Stanisław and Janusz III. Her daughter was Anna, who ruled in Mazowsze-Bełz in 1526-29. Daughter of the Lithuanian nobles Mikalojus Radziwiłł the Old and Zofia Maria Monwind, and lived (1475-1522).

  1503-04 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth of Bayern-Landshut (Lower Bavaria in Germany) 
As the daughter of Georg der Reiche of Bavaria-Landshut, she and her two sons with Pfalzgraf Ruprecht were heirs, but Duke Albrecht of Bavaria-München opposed their rights and it resulted in a succession war. Both she and her husband died in 1504 and the result was the reunion of the territory with Upper Bavaria. But her two sons became Princes of Pfalz-Neuburg. Elisabeth lived (1430-1504).

  1503-05 and 1529-43 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Hochberg of Neuchatel, Marquise de Rothelin (Rötteln (Switzerland)
Successor of her father, Philippe von Baden-Hachberg-Sausenberg, Margrave of Badenweiler, Neuenburg and Rotelin, and was married to Louis d’Orleans-Longueville (d. 1516). She was first deposed by the French but was later reinstated, and introduced reformism in her lands in the 1530s. Both her and her husband’s lands were inherited by their sons. She lived (1480-1543). 

  1503-22 Sovereign Duchess Suzane de Bourbon of Bourbon, Bourbonnais, Auvergne and La Dombes (France)
Daughter of Pierre III de Bourbon de Beajeau and the former regent of France, Anne de France, Vicomtesse de Thouars who was initially regent in Bourbon. Suzane was married to Charles III de Bourbon-Montpensier, Duke of Bourbonnais, who claimed the inheritance after her death. This was disputed by her first cousin, Louise de Savoie, mother of king François I. Charles entered the service of Emperor Karl V and was declared guilty of leze-majesty, his feudal possessions forfeited to the crown and his personal estate confiscated, but through the intervention of the emperor he was later given his possessions back. She lived (1491-1522).

  1503–ca. 21 De-Facto Ruler Costanza d’Avalos of the Island Ischia, Duchess of Francavilla and Lady di Pomanico, (Italy)
In 1483 her husband, the governor of the island, Prince Federico del Balzo of Taranto, died. She had her brother; Inìgo d’Avalos named governor and governed jointly with him. After her brother’s death in 1503, she defended the island against the French, restoring it to the Aragonian owerlordship. She continued to rule together with her nephew, Francesco Ferrante, who married the famous poet Vittoria Colonna, in 1509 and later also together with Alfonso d’Avalos and Costanza junior, and during her reign the Island became a famous cultural centre. She was (b. 1460).

  1503-ca. 1531 Joint County Sheriff Mette Joachimsdatter Hardenberg of the County of Kylderup, Denmark
Around 1506 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Saling and Sund
1520-ca. 28 County Sheriff of the County of the Shire of Salling
Mette Hardenberg was first appointed jointly with her husband, Markvard Rønnov til Hvidkilde (d. 1506) . After some years she lost first Sunds and later also Salling, but later she recovered the latter tenancy together with her son, Eiler Rønnov after a few years, who confirmed the right to Kylderup Len for himself and his wife, Anne Krabbe in 1531. (d. ca. 1550).

  1504-55 Queen Juana I of Castilla, Des Asturias and Galicia
1516-55 By the Grace of God, Queen of Castilla, Aragon, Leon, Sicily, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indias, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Countess of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, Lady of Biscay and Molina, Duchess of Athens and Neopatria, Margravine of Oristano and Gocian (Spain)
Succeeded her mother, Isabel I in 1505 and father Fernando in 1516. Her father had nominated her as heir of all his possession with her son as regent, because of her mental instability, which is why she is known as Juana la Loca. Her husband Felipe I was king and regent 1504-06 and her son, Carlos I (and V of the Holy Roman Empire) became king in 1516. Juana lived (1479-1555).

  1504-31 Sovereign Princess Hedwig of Münsterberg, Duchess of Sagan (Żagań-Ziębice) (Then Germany now Poland)
Inherited the territories from her fahter, Duke Karl of Münsterberg, and was married to Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1525 who then became joint ruler. He had inherited some lands from his first wife, Beatrix Frankopani (see 1504) and inherited Oppeln and Ratibor from a relative and later bought Jägerndorf – all duchies in Schlesia that is now a part of Poland. Hedwig was mother of two daughters, and lived (1477-1531). 

  1504-10 Sovereign Lady Beatrix Frankopani of Gyula and Hunyad etc. (Hungary), Wraschin Krapina, Medved, Rokonok, Lukavec, Urbovec, Seni, Novigrad etc. (Croatia) and possessions in Austria and Slovonia
Heiress of vast lands in Croatia she also inherited the lands of her first husband, Duke Johannes Corvinicus, the son of King Matthias of Hungary. In 1509 she married Margrave Georg the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach with the stipulation that she was to remain in charge of her own lands and did not have to move to Germany. She probably died in childbed, and her husband inherited some of her lands. She lived (1480-1510).

  1504-42 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Sarrebruck of Roucy (France)
Succeeded her father, Robert IV de Sarrebruck, and married to Antoine de Roye (d. 1515) and was succeeded by her son Charles de Roye.

  1504-26 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita di Foix of Saluzzo, and the County of Carmagnola (Italy) 
Also known as Marguerite de Foix, she too over the reins after the death of her husband, Ludovico II del Vasto of Saluzzo, Count of Carmagnola from 1475 and Margrave of Saluzzo 1475-87) and (1490-1504), pretender of the Monferrato Margravate (through his mother Isabella del Montferrato (1427-75)) and Viceroy of Napoli 1503, in the name of her son Michele Antonio I (1495-1504-28). He was succeeded by his brother Gian Ludovico I, Abbot in Casanova del Villar San Costanzo, who was deposed the following year and was succeeded another brother Francesco Ludovico I, who was murdered in 1537 and succeeded by the fourth brother, Gian Gabriele I, Bishop of Aire, who renounced his ecclesiastic career and was deposed in 1548. Originally named Marguerite de Foix, she was daughter of Jean de Foix, Count de Benauges, who was created Earl of Kendal for services to England, but relinquished the title on opting for French nationality, and Margaret Kerdeston, Duchess of Suffolk. (d. 1536).

  1504-12 Politically Influential Mette Iversdatter Dyre in Sweden 
1515-ca. 27 County Sheriff of the County of Hørby, Denmark
Mette Dyre, or Mätta Ivarsdotter in Sweden, was very influential during the regency of her third husband, Svante Nilsson Sture, who was Regent of Sweden for King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. She was Svante’s assistant and advisor, and an influential power in the national counsel. In important questions the great men rather went to her than to her husband. In 1507 she defended Stockholm Castle and in 1510 she was his representative in Finland. After her husband’s death in 1512 she was in dispute with her stepson, Sten Sture the Younger, about some of her dowry. In 1515 King Christian 2. Appointed Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Bishopal Fief of Hørby near Holbæk and as Chancellor of the Convent of Saint Agnete in Roskilde. Her first two husbands were the Norwegian Councillors of the Realm, Anders van Bergen (d. 1491) and Knut Alvsson (d. 1502). She lived (ca. 1460-ca.1527).

  1504-32 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Reuss zu Weida of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Canoness at Quedlinburg when the desingnated successor to Scholastika von Anhalt, Margarethe von Warberg, refused to take up the position because of the ongoing process against the Bishop of Halberstadt because of a dam that had flodded big parts of the territory’s lands. Elisabeth used funds of her own to reach a settlement where the chapter was compensated financially, but the daughter-convent of Frose had to be abandoned as it’s lands was under water. In 1519 she send her preacher, Stephan Molitor to Worms, where he heard Martin Luther, in 1521 she introduced the Evangelical service and in 1523 she participated in the Reichstag von Worm, which laid the foundation of Protestant movement and she became the first Abbess of a Chapter of the Realm to join protestant faith. 1525 the inhabitants of the Stift revolted against her plans to raise taxes and revenues, but she prevailed. She was daughter of Heinrich XX zu Reuss von Weida and Agnes Schenkin von Landaberg. (d. 1532).

  1504-20 Princess-Abbess Verena vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)
Many members of her family held high ecclesiastical office throughout the years.

  1504-31 Princess-Abbess Gertrud von Regenstein und Blankenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her election was confirmed by the Pope with the provision that she had to pay a yearly pension to the “contra-abbess” Katharina von Hohenstein, but she did not fulfil this part of her obligation. Three other women claimed the office during her reign. The ducal castle was expanded in 1528 and neighbouring hoses torn down to get a free shot at the chapter.

  1504-36 “Contra-Abbess” Katharina von Hohnstein of Gandersheim (Germany)
In 1506 a compromise was reached with Gertrud von Regenstein-Blankenberg and she was named Dechaness and got a pension for life for resigning the post to which she had been elected, just like Gertrud. But as she did not get her pension the dispute continued. But in 1518 Duke Heinrich zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel forced a compromise between the two competitors for the office.

  1504-54/57 Abbess Nullius Beatrice Acquaviva d’Aragonaof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Daughter of Andrea Matteo III and his first wife, Isabella Piccolomini Todeschini. Her father was 8th Duke d Atri, Count di San Flaviano, Lord di Forcella, Sant’Omero, Torre di Tronto, Poggio Morello, Cordesca, Castelvecchio, etc. Duke di Teramo and Martina from 1481, until they were confiscated in 1496. The same year he became 15th Count di Conversano in succession to his mother Caterina Orsini del Balzo natural daughter of Giovanni Antonio Orsini, Principe di Taranto, who succeeded to the titles of Contessa di Conversano, Signora di Casamassima, Turi, Casamassima, Bitetto, Gioa, Turi e Noci in 1456, which was confirmed in 1462. Beatrice was “Badessa del monastero di Santa Maria dell’Isola a Conversano”.

  1505-18 Regent Dowager Lady Mechteld van den Bergh of Bronckhorst and Borculo (The Netherlands)
After the death of her husband, Frederik van Bronckhorst en Borculo, she was regent for their son, Count Joost van Bronckhorst-Borculo, who married Maria van Hoya, but died without issue in 1553 leaving the possessions to his niece Ermgard van Wisch.

  1505-07 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Dammartin of Remiremont  (France)
At the time discipline in the chapter was lax and the nuns, without the pope’s consent, declared themselves canonesses. They did not take the vows and admitted only novices who could give proof of noble descent.

  1505-16 Reigning Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Chapter was founded 1230 as a free worldly chapter for noble ladies.

  1505-before 1557 Reigning Abbess Anna von Rotenstein zum Falken of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Reformed the territory’s court system in 1533. The stewardship and Higher Jurisdiction of the vast territory was taken over by the Hohenzollern family in 1535 an Hohenzollern.


1506-14Princess-Abbess Veronika von Radmannsdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.

  1507-15 and 1518-30 General-Stadholder Margareta von Habsburg of the Netherlands 
First appointed regent by her father, Emperor Maximilian and acted as intermediary between him and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favorable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508). Her nephew, Karl V, removed her from office but soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers, and she was again governor of the Netherlands. In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies’ Peace. Her mother was Duchess Marie of Bourgogne. Divorced from her first husband King Charles VIII of France, her second husband, Juan, the Crown Prince of Aragón and Castilla, died shortly after their marriage in 1497. In 1501 she married Duke Philiberto II of Savoie, who died three years later. She was also Countess of Artois, Bourgogne (Franche-Comté), Mâcon, Auxerre and Charolais, and Dame de Salins from 1493 as Marguerite III. She had no children, and lived (1480-1530).

  1507-16 Regent Dowager Empress Eleni of Ethiopia
Born as Jan-zela, she was one of the widows of Emperor Baeda Maryam I (1468-78), and was politically influential during the reign of her son, Naod I (1494-1507), and then became regent for grandson Lebna Dengel (also known as Wanag Sagad or Dawit II). (1994-1507-16). She was author of two works on theology and remained politically influential to her death in 1522.

  1507-16 Junior Regent Dowager Empress Noad Mogassa of Ethiopia
After the death of her husband, Naod I, she was junior regent for son Lebna Dengel jointly with mother-in-law. She was the sister of Dori, the Bahr Negus – Ruler of Eritrea. (D. after 1527).

  1507-? Iyoba Idia of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Appointed to the position of Queen Mother by her son Oba Ensigie (1504-50), after she helped pressing the attacking Igala back across the Niger River. Since then the Queen Mother was one of Benin’s most powerful women. As a senior town chief she was has a voice in palace affairs and rules her own court. Though she is forbidden to see her son once he is crowned king, the Queen Mother is expected to support him spiritually. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a “wife” with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 

  1507-53 Sovereign Duchess Luisa Borgia of Valentinos, Countess of Diois, Dame of La Mothe-Feuilly, Vaires and Neves (France)
1514-53 Dame de Chalus
1535-53 Duchess of Borgia (Navarra)
Also known as Louise, she was daughter of Cesare Borgia and in 1517 married to Louis II de La Trémoille, Vicomte de Thouars, (1476-1525) who fell in battle. Five years later she married Philippe de Bourbon-Busset, Seigneur de Chabannes and Busset (1499-1557), with whom she had 6 children. She lived (1500-53)

  1507-14 (†) Guardian Dowager Duchess Charlotte d’Albret of Valentinos (France)
After the death of her husband, Cesare Borgia, she was regent for her only child, Luisa Borgia. Charlotte was daughter of Alain d’Albret, Count de Gavre, de Périgord et de Castres and Françoise de Blois dit de Bretagne, Countess de Perigord. Her brother Jean married Catherine de Foix, Queen of Navarra and was king there  (1483-1516). She was Dame de Chalus in her own right, and lived (1500-53).

  1507-20 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Choiseul of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Aleidis, she resigned in favour of Madeleine de Choiseul shortly before her own death.

  1507-18 and 1523-35 County Sheriff Anne Henriksdatter Meinstrup of the County of Højstrup, Denmark
Anne Meinstrup was also known as Anne Holgers, she was first married to Holger Eriksen Rosenkrantz til Boller and secondly to Jørgen von Ahlefeldt til Søgård, who was killed in battle in 1500. After this period she took care of herself and her own possessions, inherited from her parents. In 1507 she took over the fief of Højstrup as security (becoming Lensmand or County Sheriff) for a major lone she had given to King Hans. Around 1516 she was appointed Hofmesterinde (Mistress of the Court) of Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg. From the following year until 1522 she stayed in Northern Germany because she had criticized the relationship of King Christian 2 to Dyveke. After Christian fled the country, she returned and was re-appointed both Hofmesterinde and Lensmand. During the civil war, Grevens Fejde (The Count’s Feud), she supported Count Christoffer, while her son, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz, supported the later Christian 3., but was killed in battle in 1534. Some months later Count Christoffer had called for a meeting at the “Assembly in Ringsted”, and here she was killed by peasant-soldiers. She lived (ca. 1475-1535). 

  1508-37 Sovereign Princess Adriana Crispo of Therasia, Nio and Ios (Greek Island-State)
1528-37 Princess Regnant of Antiparos
Succeeded her parents, Marco II and III of Ios and Santhorini and Lucretia Loredani, and co-ruled with her husband, Alessandro Pisani of Anaphi and Antiparos. Succeeded grandmother, Succeeded grandmother, Lucrezia Loredano (1446-1528) in Antiparos, which was conquered by the Osman Turks in 1537.

  Until ca. 1508 Arumpone We Tenri Gau Daeng Marowa Aru Majang (Makalappi) of Bone (Indonesia)
Successor of her father, La Saliwu Karampeluwe Pasodowakkae, and was followed by son La Tenri Sukki Mapajunge who ruled ca. 1508-1535).

  1508-10 and 1516-25 Regent Margravine Isabella d’Este of Mantova (Italy) 
Before 1508 she reigned when her husband, Federico I Gonzaga, was away from the state, she was regent during his captivity, afterwards during his illness and finally for son, Federico II Gonzaga, who was away from the state. She was very well educated. She was able to speak Greek and Latin as well as play the lute, sing, dance and debate. As regent she founded a school for young women where they had to observe a strict code of morals. She was a patron of the Arts and she also set artistic fashions and standards. She also wrote over two thousand letters and in these she commented on everything from politics to war. Mother of 5 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (1474-1539).

  1508-16 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga of Urbino (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, she was regent for their adopted child, Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the son of his sister. He was sickly and impotent, and they had no children, but she refused to divorce him and nursed him through his illnesses. 1502 Cesare Borgia occupied Urbino, and they went into exile until 1504.. Her court attracted writers, artists, and scholars, and she was involved in the power politics of her time. She in close contact with her siter-in-law of Isabella d’Este. In 1506 she reluctantly went with Lucrezia Borgia to Ferrara, where Lucrezia was married to Alfonso I d’Este. In June 1516 she was expelled from Urbino by Pope Leo X, who wanted to give the duchy to his nephew, Lorenzo de Medici. Together with her niece Leonora she found refuge in Ferrara where she died in Ferrara. The daughter of Federico I Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua and Magaret of Bavaria, she lived (1471-1526).

  1508-10 Regent Dowager Duchess Kunigunde von Habsburg of Bavaria-Munich (Germany)
Married Albrecht IV of Bayern-München (1467-1508) against the will of her own father, Emperor Friedrich III, and joint regent for son Wilhelm IV (1493-1508-50). She later joined the Convent of Pütrich, which she favoured. In spite of the resignation from the court she tried to influence the politics of the state as she acted in favour of the rights of her younger sons. She was in close contact with her brother, Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, and with other rulers and relatives in Europe. She was a political player in her own right and not only an “instrument” of her family. She lived (1465-1520).

  1508-09 and 1514-18 Regent Dowager Langravine Anna von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Hessen (Germany)
1510-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Geissen, Grünberg, Borken, Felsberg, Wildeck and Rotenburg (from 1511)
Took over the regency for her Wilhelm II, who was unable to govern because of syphilis, but after his death she was removed, as regent by the Estates in spite of his will, which named her guardian and regent. The Estates named their own regents, on the pretext that she was below the age of 25, but the real reason was the fight for power among the different groups in the society. She continued her fight to become regent for Philipp (1504-25). She spoke her case before the Estates; in 1510 she claimed her right to a seat and vote at the Diet of the Realm as the rightful guardian. The emperor sympathised with her, but did not back her, but she also presented her case here. Later that year she withdrew to her dowry, but because of internal disputes in the regency college, she managed to be named regent. She called and chaired a Local Diet (Landtag) and an agreement was made. She named her own regency government and promised to report to the Estates once a year, but reigned independently. In 1518 she had emperor Maximilian I declare her 13 year old son of age, but the nobility continued the fight for power until it was finally defeated in 1523. She was daughter of Magnus II von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Sophie von Pommern, also mother of a daughter, and lived (1485-1525).

  1508-34 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)
Took over after after the resignation of her half-sister, Elisabeth III. She had originally been a canoness in Buchau, where she took part in the election of Barbara von Gundelfingen as Abbess in 1497. Emperor Karl V invited her to the Diet of the Realm, the Reichstag in Worm in 1520 and confirmed the privileges of the chapter the same year. Fought against all Protestant ideas and remained within the chapter when the citizen of Säckingen and Laufenburg who occupied it and attempted to take over the administration during the peasent’s war. The Parish of Hornussen and the churches of Zuzgen, Sulz and Rheinsultz were all incorporated in the chapter during her reign. She was daugter of Thomas von Falkenstin und his second wife Amalia von Winsberg, and her family originated from Solothurn in Switzerland and Breisgau.

  1509-15 Princess-Abbess Anna II Kobold of Heggbach (Germany)
Perhaps also known as Kobodin, she was born as daughter of a citizen of Ulm.

  1509-12 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Borch of Kaufingen (Germany)
Called together with other nuns from Gehrden to introduce more sombre rules in Kaufingen. 1521 the Abbess of the Ritterschaftliche Stift Kaufingen in Hessen was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände. The chapter was abolished 1527/32 and incorporated into Hessen-Kassel. She was grand-daughter of Arnd von der Borch and Beate von Dreer, Heiress of Langendreer. (d. 1512).

  1510-52 Governor Sayyida al-Hurra of Tetouán (Morocco)
Also known as Sayida Al Horra Bent Ali Ar Rachid, she was first confirmed as prefect and then appointed governor of the city state of Tetouán (“Hakima Tatwan”). She was the undisputed leader of the pirates in the western Mediterranean, and in 1520 captured the Governors wife and caused great damage to the Portuguese colonial shipping. She was married to Sultan Al-Mandri and after his death she married Ahmad al-Wattasi, who reigned (1524-49). After her first husband’s death, she gained the title al-hurra (Sovereign Lady). She was member of the Andalusian noble family, Banu Rashid, who immigrated to Morocco after the Christian conquest of Muslim Spain. She was deposed in 1552. 

  1511 (†) Regent Dowager Princess Elena Salviati of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
Widow of Iacopo IV, who had regained control of the territory after it had been occupied by Cesare Borgia, she acted as regent for her son Iacopo V, but died shortly after taking office. The position of regent was taken over by another relative.

  1511-39 Sovereign Duchess Maria of Jülich-Berg-Ravensberg-Heinsberg  (Germany)
Succeeded her father, Wilhelm IV. She married Johann III von Marck-Kleve and their duchies were united. She was a very devout catholic and was sceptic towards the liberal reforms of both her father and husband. One of her daughters, Anne of Kleve, married Henry the VIII of England. Maria lived (1491-1543).

  1511-54 Reigning Dowager Lady Sybilla von Brandenburg of Bensberg in Jülich-Berg (Germany)
Widow of Duke Wilhelm III von Jülich and Berg (1475-1511), who had one daughter, Marie von Jülich und Berg (1491-1543), by his first wife, who married Johan III von Kleves (1490-1539). Sibylla did not have any children, and  lived (1490-1524)

  1511-15 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Anhalt of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Fürst Albrecht IV and Countess Elisabeth von Mansfeld. She probably resigned and died later the same year.

  1511-13 Reigning Abbess Emerita Lutschern of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The Chapter acquired many possessions in Argau, Swabia and Alsace, but did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstin).

  1511-.. County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Grubbe of the County of Snedinge, Denmark
Karen Grubbe was daughter of Niels Gruppe, who was appointed County Sheriff of the Bishop of Roskilde in 1500. (Bispelensmand). She was widow of Søren Daa, and apparently she bought the tenantcy from the bishop.

  1512-16 Sovereign Duchess Germaine de Foix of Nemours, Countess of Foix-Béarn (France)
1526-37 Vice-Reine and Lieutenant General of Valencia (Spain)
Known in Spain as Germana, she was the daughter of Count Jean de Foix, d’Étampes and Vicomte de Narbonne and Marie d’Orléans, she succeeded her brother, Gaston. She was married to Fernando II the Catholic of Aragón as his second wife after the death of Queen Isabel I. They engaged in a power struggle over her lands until his death in 1516. Three years later she married Johan von Brandenburg-Ansbach (d. 1525) one year after his death she married Fernando d’Aragon, Duca di Calabria (d. 1550) and they were appointed Virreina and Virrey of Valencia. She did not have any children, and lived (1490-1537).

  1512-14 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, she was regent for her 11 year old son, Philipp II, together with his grand-uncle Johann V von Nassau-Dillenburg, who was sole regent until his own death 2 years later and then other relatives took over the government. She had secured the support of the nobility of the county and had it confirmed by the Court of the Empire (Reichskammergericht). She lived (after 1470-1514).

  1511-.. County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Grubbe of the County of Snedinge, Denmark
Karen Grubbe was daughter of Niels Gruppe, who was appointed County Sheriff of the Bishop of Roskilde in 1500. (Bispelensmand). She was widow of Søren Daa, and apparently she bought the tenantcy from the bishop.

  1512-15 Sovereign Duchess Françoise of Longueville, Countess of Montgomery and Tancarville (France) 
Natural daughter of Daughter of king François II of France, and married to the Viscount de Melun, who died 1512. 

  1513-14 Regent Dowager Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James IV of Scotland, was killed, she became regent for her infant son, James V, but her marriage in 1514 to Archibald Douglas, 6th earl of Angus, led to the loss of the regency to John Stuart, duke of Albany, who soon obtained custody of the king. She fled to England, but returned in 1517, during James Stuart’s absence, and shortly thereafter she became estranged from her husband. Her son was proclaimed king in 1524 and was for several years virtually a prisoner of her husband. In 1527 she obtained a divorce and soon married Henry Stuart, later Lord Methven. The following year her son escaped from her ex-husband and joined her and her new husband, and they were for a time his chief advisers. A plan of of hers for a meeting between her brother Henry VIII of England and her son led James to accuse her of betrayal in 1534. They were further estranged by James’s refusal to allow her to divorce her third husband. For long periods Heiress Presumptive to the English throne, and lived (1489–1541).

  1513 Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King’s Forces Queen Catherine of Aragón of England, Wales and Ireland (United Kingdom)
Following the death of her first husband, Prince Arthur of England, she married his brother Henry VIII. When he went to France on warfare she was appointed regent and led the English troops against the invading Scots at the Battle of Flodden (in Northumberland) and, afterwards, sent over to her husband, in Flanders, a grim reminder of her achievements there: the blood-stained tunic of dead James IV of Scots. In 1520, however, the she went to France alongside Henry and was present at the great meeting of the ‘Field of the Cloth of Gold’. Of her four children only the later Queen Mary I survived. In 1533 Henry divorced her and broke with the Catholic church, she was deprived of her titles as Queen of England and was forced to revert to ‘Princess Dowager of Wales’. She was kept in confinement but never remained long in one place, for she enjoyed great popularity throughout a Country and there were fears of an uprising in her favour.  She was daughter of Queen Isabel I of Castilla and Ferdinand of Aragón and initially heir to her father, but her sister, Juana La Loca, inherited both Countries. Catherine lived (1485-1536).

  1513-29 Joint Ruler Queen Burecca of The Maldive Islands
Also known as Buraki Rani, she was educated in the martial arts and out-shone her younger brother and sister. She had expected to succeed her grandfather to the throne. However several years after Siri Bavana Sooja died, it was her brother who came to the throne as King Siri Ananda Sultan Ali V (1512 -13) after several other reigns in between. She quarrelled with her brother, fled the Maldives, and travelled east to the Kingdom of Aceh (known to the Maldivians as Asey Cara) on the island of Sumatra. There she completed her education and perfected her martial arts before returning home to depose her brother. Her fleet entered Malé harbour in the dead of night. She fought a duel with her brother on the square inside the royal palace complex, several hours before dawn that morning. She slew her brother and ascended the throne to rule jointly with her husband King Siri Dhammaru Bavana (Sultan Mohamed the Black). It was his third accession to the throne. In spite of her ambitions, and unlike several other women who occupied the throne, she did not take the title of Rehendi or Sultana. Instead she took the title of Ranin or Queen Consort. 

  Until 1513 Sovereign Countess Claudine de Brosse of Penthièvre (France)
Also known as Claude, she succeeded Jean II de Brosse, Seigneur de Boussac, de Sainte-Severe, Count of Penthièvre by the right of his wife, Nicole de Châtillon de Blois, Comtesse de Penthièvre, Vicomtesse de Limoges (d. after 1479) and married Philippe I,  Duke of Savoie 1496-1497, Comte de Bresse. (d. 1513-).

  1513-50 County Sheriff Else Pederdatter Thott of the County of the Shire of Sund, Denmark
1521-47 County Sheriff of the County of the Shires of Nørvang and Hønborg with the Shire of Elbo
1521-25 Acting County Sheriff of Vester Herred
Until 1550 County Sheriff of Krarup and Rynkeby
Else Thott til Alnarp was first married to Claus Krummedige and secondly to Thomas Nilsson (Lange), and was granted Krarup and Rynkeby for life. Her son, Karl Lange, paid it off after her death and kept it for life. She (d. 1550).

  Until 1513 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth zu Dhaun-Kyburg of Elten (Germany)
Daughter of Johann IV, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun und Kyrburg and Elisabeth von Hanau.

  1514-15 (or 1515-20) Acting Governor Maria Alvarez de Toledo y Rojas of Hispaniola/Las Isla Espanola (Dominican Republic and Haïti), Acting Vicereine of las Indias Occidentales (West Indies)
Her husband, Diogo Colón, 1. Duke of Veragua, was Vice-roy 1509-14 and 1520-23, and she also held the title of Vicereine of the West Indies. She was stand-in for her husband when he was in Spain 1515-20, and remained in close contact with the Queen of Spain, Isabel de Portugal, and her husband Emperor Charles V (1516-56). She was daughter of Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, 1st Lord de Villora and Maria de Rojas, and mother of 5 children. Her youngest, Isabel Colón was married to don Jorge de Portugal, Count de Gelves y Mayor de los alcázares de Sevilla, and lived (ca. 1490-1549).

  1514-20 Regent Dowager Despina Helena of Serbia
Her first husband was Jovan Brankovic, despot of Sebia in 1493–1502. After his dead she was married to Croatian nobleman Ivanis Berislavic who then became the Serbian despot. After his death, she conducted the affairs of state in place of her minor son, Stjepan Berislavic (1514 – 35).


1514-23Princess-Abbess Margaretha III von Mindorfof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark. During her reign the new gothic church was finished.

  1514-24 Sovereign Duchess Claude de France of Bretagne, Countess d’Étampes 
1514-17 Sovereign Duchess of Berry (France)
Eldest daughter of King Louis XII of France and successor of her mother Anne as Duchess of Brittany. The same year she married her cousin, who because of the French salic law succeeded her father as king François I. In 1532 the personal union of France with Brittany was made definitive. Their oldest son became duke and was succeeded by his brother, François in 1536. Her life was spent in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Her husband had many mistresses but was usually relatively discreet. She imposed a strict moral code on her household, which only a few like her lady-in-waiting Mary Boleyn chose to flout. Another lady-in-waiting was Anne Boleyn, who later married Henry VIII of England. Claude was short in stature and afflicted with scoliosis that gave her a small hunched back. She was mother of 7 children, among other King Henri III, Duchess Marguerite de Valois de Berry, and Queen Madeleine of Scotland, and lived (1499-1524).

  1515-75 Sovereign Duchess Renée de France of Chartres, Countess of Gisoirs et de Montargis (France)
Also known as Renata di Francia. Her mother, Duchess Anne of Bretagne, who had always fought fiercely to keep the state independent of the French crown, tried to will the duchy to Renée, but her father King Louis XII ignored this and instead granted Brittany to his successor, the husband of her sister, Francis I, King of France. In return for renouncing her claims to the duchy of Brittany, she was granted the duchy of Chartres. She was married in 1528 to Ercole II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara who ruled 1534-59. After his death she returned to France because she was on bad terms with her son Alfonso II and settled in Montargis. She was mother of 4 children, and lived (1510-74).

  1515-50 Sovereign Princess Isabelle-Louise de Bourbon of Carency (France)
Her brother, Betrand died in 1515 as the last male of the line. The following year she married François de Perusse d’Escars, Seigneur de La Vauguyon. Their son Jean de Perusse d’Escars (d. 1595), knight of the Saint-Esprit in 1578, made comte de La Vauguyon in 1586, continued the use the title Prince de Carency.

  1515-24 Joint Sovereign Duchess Philiberta di Savoia of Nemours (France)
Also known as Philiberte de Savoie, and her husband, Giuliano de Medici (ca. 1478-1516), had been created joint holders of the duchy. Her brother, Philippe, Comte de Geneve, was given the duchy in 1516. She was daughter of Claude de Brosse and Duke Philippe I de Savoie, and lived (1498-1524).

  1515-19 De-facto Governor Alfonsina Orsini of The Republic of Firenze (Italy)
As mother of the de facto ruler of Florence, Lorenzo II de’ Medici, she was able to govern during his absence. She was involved in the strategic planning of Florence’s war with the French and the plans for making a treaty as well as her oversight of Pope Leo’s entry into Florence in November 1515. Her governorship was indicative of the increasingly signora nature of the Medici regime and that she had far more power, influence and authority than the previous generation of Medici women. She was the daughter of Roberto Orsini, Conte Tagliacozzo and Catherine San Severino and married to Piero “il Unfortunato” de’ Medici, who lived 1503. Apart from Lorenzo, she was mother of Clarissa de’ Medici, and lived (1472-1520).

  1515-26 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Ellenbog of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1525 Heggbach was raided by the peasant’s war (Bauernkrieg) that covered parts of Germany at the time. A daughter of a citizen of Augsburg, she entered the chapter in 1487 and some of her brothers were also clerics.

  1515-74 Princess-Abbess Anna II zu Stolberg-Weiningsrode of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Elected to the office when she was scarcely thirteen years old, she introduced Lutheranism in all the houses under her jurisdiction. The choir service in the abbey church was abandoned, and the Catholic religion wholly abrogated. The monastic offices were reduced to four, but the ancient official titles retained. Thereafter the institution continued as a Lutheran sisterhood till the secularization of the abbey in 1803. Anna II was daughter of Botho III von Stolberg and Countess Anna von Eppenstein, and lived (1504-74).

  1515-43 Reigning Abbess Madeleine d’Orleans, batard d’Angoulême of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Continued the renovation and rebuilding of the chapter amidst the wars raging in France. She was daughter of Comte Charles d’Angoulême et de Perigord, and she received her half-brother, King Francis I, twice at the Abbey. The year after her death, the nuns had again to leave the Abbey during the war against Charles the V. She lived (ca. 1496-1543).

  1515-44 County Sheriff Alhed Jørgendatter Urne of the County of Farum with Farumgård, Denmark
Alhed Urne continued as County Sheriff appointed by the Bishop of Roskilde and after the reformation in 1536 she is granted the tenantcy for life. She was widow of Tetz Jensen Rosengård, who was County Sheriff until his death in 1485. She (d. 1544).

  1516-20 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne d’Orléans of Valois (France)
Granddaughter of Louis d’Orléans (1392-1407) the son of King Charles V of France. She succeeded her relative, king François of France, and married to Charles de Coëtivy, Count de Tailleburg, and lived (1462-1520). 

  1516-49 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite d’Orléans-Angoulême of Berry 
1525-49 Duchess of Alençon and Rodez, Comtesse d’Armagnac, du Perche, Pezenac, de L’Isle-Jourdain, Porhoët, Pardiac, Viscomtesse Fezenzaguet, Brulhois, d’Auvillars, Baroness de Castelnau, Caussade, Montmiral and Dame de La Flêche and Baugé (France)
Sister of Francis I of France, and first married the Duke of Alençon (d.1525) and in 1527, Henry d’Albret (titular king of Navarra). With a strong interest in Renaissance learning, she was much influenced by Erasmus and the religious reformers of the Meaux circle, who looked to her for patronage and protection. She encouraged agriculture, learning, and the arts, and her court was the most intellectual in Europe. The patron of men of letters, including the heretical poet Clément Marot, she was a prolific writer of long devotional poems, dramas, secular poems, and the celebrated Heptaméron, a collection of stories on the theme of love. She lived (1492-1549).

  1516-22 Regent Dowager Duchess Margaretha von Münsterberg-Oels of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)
Widow of Ernst and regent for Johannes II (1504-16-51). She was a respected ruler, and corresponded with Martin Luther, but remained a devout Catholic and refused to accept the reformation, but after her death, her sons jointed the Protestant movement. She lived (1473-1530).

  1516 Rani Regnant of Quilon (India)
Quilon or Kollam in Karalla is an old seaport town on the Arabian coast. The state had a sustained commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and the Romans. The port of was frequented by the Chinese, Arabs and the Nestorian Christians from Alexandria, it was regarded by the Arab author, Ibn Batuta, as one of the major five ports, which he had seen in the course of his travels during a period of twenty-four years, in the 14th century. The rulers of Kollam (Desinganadu) and China, exchange embassies and there was flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam.  

  1516-67 Ruler Puteri di Dalam Petung of Pasir (Indonesia)
Oldest daughter of a mythical woman, who married a Prince of Grisee – a priest-principality on Java. Puteri di Dalam married Abu Mansyur Indra Jaya, who introduced Islam in Pasir. She was succeeded by her son Aji Mas Pati Indra as ruler of the principality in East-Borneo/Kalimantan

  1516-28 Reigning-Abbess Katherina von Waldburg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The last reigning Abbess of the Ecclesiastical Territories of Königsfelden, which had vast possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace. As a result of the reformation the Chapter was secularized and its possessions in Aargau were annexed to Bern and the possessions in Swabia and Alsace were sold in 1528.

  1516-26 Princess-Abbess Walburga Buck of Gutenzell (Germany)
Since 1521, the Ladies of the chapter (sift) charged the Hofmeister with the task of taking part in the Schwäbian Circle of the Imperial Diet in their name. At the time, the Stift ruled over eight settlements with 1.189 inhabitants.

  1516-28 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Medelsom and the Shire of Sønderlyng, Denmark
Birgitte Thott til Valø acted after the death of her second husband, Niels Eriksen Rosenkrantz. She (d. 1528).

  1517 Sovereign Lady Dorothea Papinga of Jever (Germany)
Daughter of the Frisian chief, Edo Wiemken of West-Friesland, she and her two sisters succeeded their brother, Junker Christoph. Count Enno II of Friesland tried to incorporate Jever into his domain, he occupied the territory, and held the three sisters imprisoned in the castle, where Dorothea died shortly after.

  1517-36 Sovereign Lady Anna Papinga of Jever (Germany)
Joint heiress of Jever with her two sisters. In 1531 the Lord Boring von Oldersum sided with the two sisters and secured the land for them. 

  1517-75 Sovereign Lady Maria of Jever, Rüstringen, Östringen and Wangerland (Germany)
After the death of her two sisters, and the removal of the West-Frisians, she became sole ruler of the area, with the title of Erbherrin. Also known as Fräulein or Miss Maria, she concentrated on the consolidation and expansion of the Jever-territory and with support from the Emperor she maintained her demands in the Ostfrisean lands and the Frisian village developed into a modern territorial state. She never married and after her death the territory was inherited by her mother’s family; the counts of Oldenburg. She lived (1500-75).

  1517-35 County Sheriff Karen Bentsdatter Bille of the County of Bygholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hattinge, Nim and Vor, Denmark
Karen Bille took over the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Henrik Knudsen Gyldenstierne. 7 of her 22 children survived, and she lived (ca. 1470-1540).

  1518-56 Politically influential Queen Bona Sforza of Poland and Lithuania
1524-57 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico (Italy)
Her mother, Isabella de Aragon, had provided Bona with an excellent education. She read classic masterpieces and studied law and history and was fluent in Spanish and Latin. Bona married the 51-year old recently widowed King Sigmund I of Poland. It did not take long before she got involved in politics and economics, and she spent a lot of energy on recovering royal properties that had been in the hands of creditors. She increased the revenues and raised taxes, and remained familiar with the current affairs of Bari and Rosano that legally remained in her hands. Emperor Felipe II was putting a great deal of pressure on Bona to pass her properties in Apulia and Calabria to Spain. In 1556 she returned to Italy and was warmly welcomed by her people, but one of her favourite advisors, Gian Baptista Pappacoda, was a Spanish spy. In November 1557 she turned very ill and she could not return to Poland as planned. Pappacoda tricked the Queen to change her will in favour of Felipe II. When her health improved, she tried to change the will, but she was poisoned by Pappacode, and everything she had owned was stolen and no will could be imposed. She lived (1494-1557).

  1518-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Anne d’Alençon of Monferrato
1533-36 Possible Regent of Monferrato (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Guglielmo IX Secondo Lazzaro (1494-1818), she was ruled in the name of her son, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), who was succeeded by uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, (1488-1530-33). After her oldest daughter, Maria, had been divorced from Federico II Gonzaga, Anne arranged the marriage between Federico and her second daughter Margherita, who transmitted the claims of the Margravate to her husband, who was appointed Marchese of Monferrato in 1536. Anne might have acted as regent in the remaining period. She was also Dame de La Guerche and lived (1492-1562).

  1518-29 County Sheriff Drude Claudatter Krummedige of the Counties of Skibelunde, Hoby and Vester Ulslev, Denmark
Drude Krummedige was widow of Christian Rantzau, former County Sheriff of Nyborg, who had been granted the tenantcy for the liftime of both of them in 1516. She had first been married to Otto Krumpen.

  1518-23 De-facto In charge of the Customs Sigbrit Villoms in Denmark
1519-23 “Second in Command” in Denmark
1522-23 De-facto Leader of the Treasury
Generally known as Mor Sigbrit, she was a Dutch tradeswoman who moved Norway and managed a trading company in Bergen of a substantial size. Her daughter, Dyveke, became mistress of the later Christian 2 of Denmark around 1509. When became king in 1513 they moved with him to Copenhagen and Sigbrit’s influence grew. Dyveke died suddenly in 1517 – rumoured to have been poisoned. Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg appointed her as her Chief of Court and she also acted as midwife of the king’s children. Her brother was a pharmacist and she was knowledgeable about medicine. She was also left in charge of the government when Christian was abroad. 1522 she was given a so-called “General receipt” (generalkvittering), that made her de-facto a kind of Minister of Finance. When the king was deposed in 1523 for his dictatorial rule, she went with the family to the Netherlands where they tried to gain support for the king’s return. One of the conditions was that Christian had to part with her. From then on, nothing is heard of her, though the story of an old woman in prison accused of heresy or witchcraft sounds like it could have been her. Sigbrit Willoms also wrote her surname as Villumsdatter and she (d. ca. 1532).

  Before 1519 Queen Regnant Azcasuch of Tepetlaoxtoc (Mexico)
Also known as  or Azcaxóchitl, she was Cihuatlatoani (queen) of the pre-Columbian Acolhua altepetl of Tepetlaoztoc in the Valley of Mexico, in succession to her husband, Cocopin, and she was succeeded by her grandson, Diego Tlilpotonqui, who ruled when the Spanish arrived in 1519. She was daughter of daughter of King Nezahualcoyotl of Texoco, who ruled 1431-72.

  1518-20 Pretender Fiorenza Sommaripa of Paros (Greece)
1520 Princess Regnant
Daughter of Gasparo di Sommaripa and Maria Sanudo of Naxos. The Principality was confiscated by her brother-in-law Duke Giovanni II after the death of her husband, but she was restored after pressure from Venice.

  1519-56 Sovereign Margravine Riccairda Malaspina of Massa and Carrara, Lady of Massa dei Malpasina, Sovereign Lady of Carrara, Avenza e Moneta, (Italy)
Inherited the possessions of her father, Alberico II Malpasina. After the death of her sister, Eleonora, she got papal dispensation to marry her close relative, Count Scipione Fieschi. After his death in 1520 she married Lorenzo Cybo – the nephew of Pope Leon X. 1525 Emperor Karl V formally invested her with the fief of Massa e Carrara and the Malaspina territories in 1529. She was an intelligent woman who maneuvered her state during the political turmoils of Italy, but preferred to reside in Rome and Firenze, and in her absence Cardinal Innocenzo Cybo was in charge of the government. Succeeded by son Giulio Cybo-Malaspina, and lived (1497-1556).

  1519-possibly 21 Acting County Sheriff Johanne Henriksdatter Sparre of the County of Holbæk with the Shires of Merløse and Tudse, Denmark
Johanne Sparre til til Haglösa took over after the death of her first husband Erik Pedersen Bille, later she married Aage Axelsen Brahe til Sireköpinge. She (d. 1568).

  Ca. 1519-44 Joint County Sheriff Alhed Jørgensdatter Urne of the County of Farum, Demark
Alhed Urne was widow of Tetz Rosengaard (d. 1519) and held the tenantcy jointly with her son Jens Tetzsen. She (d. 1544).

  1520-30 Queen Regnant Rangitamanjakatrimovavy of Hova/Imerina (Madagascar)
Also known as Rangita, she succeeded her father Ratsimisytoazy, and was succeeded by her daughter Rafohy. The Merina or Hova Dynasty later became rulers of the United Kingdom of Madagascar.

  1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)
Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was succeeded by king Andriamponga.

  1520-25 City Regent Dowager Countess Magdalena von Öttingen of Montfort-Tettnang (Germany)
After the death of her husband Count Ulrich VII, she was named regent of the city (Stadtregentin). In 1521 Emperor Karl V gave her Blutbann as a fief and in 1525 she was faced with a peasant uprising.Her second husband was Count Johann I von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg (d. 1529). After her death, Emperor Karl V gave the county as a fief to her nephew, Hugo XVI von Montfort-Rothenfels-Wasserburg, Count of Montfort-Tettnag, who was first married to her granddaughter, Maria Magdalena von Schwarzenberg zu Hohenlandsberg (1510-43), the oldest of the 14 children of her daughter, Eva von Montfort-Tettnang (1494-27). Another of Eva’s daughters, Maria Jakobe (1515-94) was Princess-Abbess of Buchau. Magdalena lived (1473-1525).

  1520 Rebellion Leader Kristina Gyllenstierna in Sweden
The daughter of Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna (member of the Swedish Council of the Realm) she married Sten Sture in 1511 and Sten Sture was elected regent the following year. From the age of 21 she took part in the national counsel and showed a remarkable knowledge and maturity. In 1520 her husband died of the damages he had got at the battle of Bogesund, and in may the same year she manned the Stockholm and defended the city, with success, against the Danish troops under command of Christian II. In September she had to capitulate and surrendered Stockholm to the Danish king. This was the beginning of the infamous ‘Stockholm’s bloodbath’. She was imprisoned at Stockholm Castle where she stayed until November 1521 when she was brought to Denmark. 1524 she could return to Sweden, country which now where ruled by the Swedish king Gustav Vasa, the son of her half sister Cecilia of Eka. She once again tried to get involved in politics, but in 1525 she reached a settlement with her nephew, and married Johan Turesson Tre Rosor (a member of the national counsel) in 1527. He died in 1566. She had a son with Svante and one with Johan, and lived (1494-1559).

  1520-65 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Limburg-Stirum of Herford and Gerresheim (Germany)
Also known as von Limburg-Styrum, she had been Koadjutorin 1515-20, and was the first to be appointed Princess of the Empire of the territory in 1523. She was strong opponent of the Protestantism which lead to various disputes with the city of Herford, which joined the new faith in the 1520’s. She was daughter of Count Adolf von Limburg and Elisabeth von Reichenstein Her sister Agnes was Abbess of Freckenhorst and Metelen, (d.1570) and Katharina was Abbess of Borghorst (d.1572). Anna resigned and lived another 20 years before her death in 1585.

  1520-29 Princess-Abbess Anna VII Schlaibegg of Baindt (Germany)
The Chapter and City of Baindt were closely connected during the centuries, but the Peasant’s Uprising (Bauernkrieg) of 1525 the abbey was burned down.

  1520-22 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III d’Esne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of an ancient North-French family.

  1520-69 Princess-Abbess Barbara II von Aham of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Influential in Regensburg, the frequent meeting place of the imperial diet from 1532, and from 1663 to 1806 it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet – where she was member of the Bench of Bavarian Prelates. Barbara was member of an old Bavarian noble family.

  1520 and 1544 Princess-Abbess Madeleine de Choiseul of Remiremont (France)
The fact that she was selected by her predecessor and not by the ladies of the chapter as the rules stipulated, caused some protests, and she resigned in favour of Nicole de Dommartin, who resigned shortly after in favour of Marguerite d’Haraucourt. This on the other hand was contested  by Marguerite de Neufchâel, who appointed Madeleine as Coadjutrice when she prevailed in 1528 after years of incertanties. After Madame de Neuchâtel’s death, Madeleine was Princess-Abbess for a few months’ before being succeeded by Madame d’Haraucourt.

  1520-? Princess-Abbess Nicole de Dommartin of Remiremont (France)
Her election as successor of Madeleine de Choiseul, was contested by Marguerite de Neufchâtel, Abbess of Baume, and she soon resigned in favour of  Margureite d’Haraucourt, but Madame de Neufchâtel prevailed in 1528, and appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutrice.

  1520-34 Gülbehar Hatun Mahidevran Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Hafsa Hatin or Aisha Hafsa Khanum acted as Queen Mother of her son, Süleyman the Magnificent after the death of her husband Selim I. She may have been daughter of Mengli Giray Khan of the Crimean Tatars, and lived (1494-1534).

  1521-22 Regent Queen Anna Jagiellonka of Austria
1539 Regent of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia
The daughter of king Wladislaw II Jagiello of Hungary and Bohemia and Anne de Foix-Candale. Since 1521 a wife of Ferdinand von Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, since 1526 Anna and Ferdinand were king and Queen of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia. She lived (1503-47).  

  1521-50 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Pommern of Lüben (Lubin) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Georg I von Brieg (Jerzy of Brzeg) (1495-1521), she held the Slesian Principality as her dowry. She lived (142-1550).

  1521-47 Reigning Lady Anna von Brandenburg of the Cities and Administrative Offices of Crivitz and Lübz in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
1547-67 Reigning Dowager Lady
Wife of Albrecht VII of Mecklenburg and given the territories (Städte und Ämter) as her dowry for life.  Her husband died in 1547 and she moved to the renovated castle of Eldenburg. She was a devout Catholic, but in 1559 her son, Johann Albrecht I expelled the monks and priests from her lordship, which was the only place that had not joined the reformation.

  1521-32 Regent Dowager Queen Njai Tjili of Ternate (Indonesia)
Reigned for sons Deijalo and Bohejat. In 1532 Prince Kaitjil became sultan.

  1521-34 Princess-Abbess Margarethe II von Beichlingen of Essen (Germany)
During the 14th century the organisation of the Chapter and its surrounding got more character of an actual state. Margarethe II was member of the very ancient Countly family of von Beichlingen, which was one of the most important families of Thüringen.

  1521-39  Princess-Abbess Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
The 9th of the 11 children of Friedrich II von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Hedwig von Württemberg, she was titular ruler of the chapter all of her life, and was succeeded by her 7-year-old sister, and lived (1521-39).

  1521-.. County Sheriff Mette Borkvardsdatter Skinkel, Harridslevgård
1527-39/42 County Sheriff of Odense Møntergård, Denmark
Mette Skinkel til Torpegård and Åsum, was also known as Skinkelsdatter, she was named successor to Harridslevgård tenantcy (fik ventebrev) in 1514, and took over after the death of her husband, Tjelluf Eriksen Bjørn (Tilluf Eriksøn). Was later granted Odense Møntergård for life. She (d. 1539/42).

  1521-28 County Sheriff Sophie Jørgendatter Rud of the County of Isolte  in Halland (Then Denmark, now Sweden)
Sophie Rud, who was also known as Rudsdatter, was appointed jointly with her husband, Tyge Brahe and took over the administration after his death in 1523. Her second husband, Erik Madsen Bølle was County Sheriff 1528-63. She (d. 1551)

  1521-after 26 County Sheriff Anne Pedersdatter of the County of Thurø, Denmark
Jomfru Anne (Miss or virgin) was granted the island south of Svendborg, in 1526 it was noted that she was not to “interfere with the peasants” (ikke befatte sig med bønderne).

  1522-39 Sovereign Countess Ludovica Torello of Gaustalla (Italy)
After the death of her second husband, she became a cleric. The County of Gaustalla, which she had inherited from her father, was claimed by another branch of the family, and the affair was carried before Pope Clement VIII and Emperor Charles V. She settled the matter by disposing of her estates to Fernando Gonzaga, thereby also increasing her resources for the religious foundations she had in mind. In 1536 she entered the Angelicals, a congregation that she had founded, taking the name of Paola Maria. Later she established or assisted in the establishment of several other religious houses in various parts of Italy. When Paul III imposed the cloister on the Angelicals, she instituted another community, also at Milano. Like the Angelicals, they were under the direction of the Barnabites. The members, known as Daughters of Mary, dedicated themselves to the care of orphans of noble family, eighteen being provided for in the endowment.  She lived (1499-1569).

  1522-49 Princess-Abbess Adrienne I de Saint Omer of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Her family were lords of the city of St.-Omer in Belgium. 

  1523-.. Regent Patodhara Waghelji Raniji Shri Kalyandi Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)
7th wife of Rana Raj Raydharji, she took over the regency after his death for their son, Shri Shaktimant Jhaladipati Mahamandleshwar Rana Sriraj Mansinhji Ranoji Sahib, Rana Raj Sahib of Halvad.

  1523-58 De-facto Ruler Kadin Hürrem Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Western sources refer to her variously as Roxelana, Rosa, Rosanne, Rossa, Ruziac or La Rossa. She is generally believed to have been enslaved during raids by the Crimean Turks on Ukraine and Galcia during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, and presented to the Ottoman palace. Of the diverse theories about her ethnic origin, it is most likely that she was Russian or Polish, and there is evidence that she considered herself to be Polish. She was given the name Hürrem, on account of her cheerful temperament. And became Süleyman the Magnificent’s premier wife, the birinci kadin. To ensure that one of her own sons would succeed to the throne, she did everything in her power to turn Süleyman against his eldest son and heir Mustafa. She also conspired to bring about the execution of Grand Vezir İbrahim Paşa, who was a staunch supporter of Şehzade Mustafa. She persuaded Süleyman to appoint as grand vizier their daughter Mihrumâh’s husband Rüstem Paşa, and the three schemed to bring about the death of Şehzade Mustafa. From her letters written to Süleyman when he was on campaign, we learn that she advised him on political matters. The letters of congratulation and gifts sent to the Polish King Zigsmund II by Hürrem and Mihrumâh, and the correspondence between Hürrem and the sister of Shah Tahmasp of Iran are cited as evidence of her influential role in politics and foreign affairs. During her later life, Hürrem Sultan became more concerned with charitable works and founded a number of institutions, becoming the first woman to endow a mosque complex in Istanbul. She lived (ca. 1507-58).

  1523-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth von Hohengeroldseck of Buchau (Germany)
In 1497 she was Canoness and participated in the election of her predecessor. In 1524 the territory became a member of the Swabian League (Schwäbische Bund) and member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank – Bench of the Lords Spiritual of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) – the regional assembly. In 1529 she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid), she participated in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag) in 1531 and in the Reichstag of Worms with the Prelates of Swabia 1535 and the following year she was represented in the Imperial Diet by the Counts of Swabia. According to the older literature she was driven out of the Chapter for a period during a peasant revolt. She was daughter of Gangolf von Hohengeroldseck and Kunigunde von Montfort and lived (before 1480-1540).


1523-43Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Spangstein of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.

  1523-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Queen Sophie von Pommern of Denmark of Lolland and Falster, County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of  Falster in Denmark and Lady of the Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön (Slesvig-Holsten)
The islands of Lolland and Falster was given to her as a dowry (Livgeding) when her husband, King Frederik I ascended to the throne in 1523. In Lolland and Falster she appointed her own County Sheriffs to take care of the administration of the minor tenancies. She also held the German Castles and Administrative Units of Kiel and Plön and adjourning areas in Holsten (Schloss und Amt von Kiel und Plön) as part of her dowry. She lived (1498-1568).

  1523-… County Sheriff Inger Ottesdatter Rømer of the Counties of Fosen, Edøen, Romsdal and Søndmøre and Tønsberg, Norway
Until 1555 County Sheriff of the County of Romsdal and Rejns Kloster, Denmark
Inger Rømer til Østeråt by Tronhjem was married to Niels Henriksen Gyldenløve, who was send to The Netherlands to accompany Elisabeth of Habsburg back to Denmark, where she would marry King Christian 2. After his death she managed to keep most of his tenancies. Only Vardøhus she had to give up to her son-in-law Erik Ugerup, married to Anne. She later got Tønsberg as security for loans (Pantelen). And she managed to acquire the famous estate of Giske and even though it rightfully belonged to Carl Knudsens’ female heirs. She also tried to get her hand on the estates that had been owned by Inger Erlandsdatter Losne, who died, even though it belonged to a branch of the Danish Rosenkrantzer. Finally she also became “Mistress” (Forstanderinde) of the abbey of Rejns and thereby in charge of its rich estates during the reformation. In the 1530s she was involved in disputes with the Archbishop who got the upper hand and she sought refuge at Østeråt. 1533 she had to give up to Giske and later the Losne-Estates also went to the rightful heirs. Mother of 5 daughters who all married high ranking and influential Danish nobles. She (d. 1555). 

  After 1523-ca. 29 County Sheriff Lene Ludvigsdatter Rosenkrantz of Lunde with several parishes in Mors, Denmark
Lene Rosenkrantz til Estrup was widow of Thomas Iversen Juel, who was in office from 1520. The tenancy was paid off by her son Iver Juel after her death. She (d. 1529).

  1523-26 Politically Active Queen Elisabeth von Habsburg of Denmark
Accompanied her husband, Christian 2. (1481-1513-23-59) of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, in exile, and she was active on his behalf on the European stage, working for his reinstatement. In 1524 she spoke in his favour at the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in Nürnberg. He later tried to reclaim the throne, but was taken captive and died in imprisonment. She was daughter of Queen Juana la Loca and king Felipe de Austria of Castilla, and lived (1501-26).

  1524-31 County Sheriff Ingeborg Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Gårdstange (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Ingeborg Podebusk was in charge of the fief, which was also known as Gardsstange, after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm Tønne Vernersen Parsberg til Harrested og Ørtofte. During the The Count’s Feud  (Grevens Fejde) her estate was burned down by the peasants. She was mother of one son, Verner Tønnsen Parsberg, and (d. 1542).

  1524 Acting County Sheriff Karen Steensdatter Gøye of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Nørre, Harre, Hindborg and Rødding, Denmark
Karen Gøye was in charge after the death of her husband, Niels Pedersen Høeg Banner.

  1525-50 Sovereign Duchess Françoise d’Alençon of Beaumont-Maine, Princesse d’Alençon (France)
Succeeded brother, Charles IV, who had no children with his wife Marguerite d’Orléans-Angoulême, Duchesse de Berry. Françoise was married to François d’Orléans, Duc de Longueville and to Charles IV de Bourbon, Duc de Vendôme. Her sister Anne d’Alençon was Dame de la Guerche and married to Guillaume Paléolouge, Marquis de Monferrato, and lived (1492-1562). Françoise lived (1490/91-1550). 

  Ca. 1525-50 Lady Isabel Xipaguazin Moctezuma of Tacuba (Mexico)
Originally named Tecuichpo, Techichpotzin, or Tecuichpotzin, Princesa Isabel, was daughter of Moctezuma II (1466-1520), who was the last emperor of the Aztecs (1502-20), who ruled the grand city of Tenochtitlán, and after her cousin, Cuauhtémoc, was executed, she was considered heiress of the Aztec empire, and married two conquistadors, Alonso de Grado and Pedro Gallego de Andrada. King Carlos I of Spain named her Holder for perpetuity of the Lordship of Tacuba – which largely corresponds with the historic centre of the City of México. She was mother of 7 children and founded the Spanish noble house of the counts of Moctezuma, and lived (ca. 1510-50)

  1525-55 Princess-Abbess Ursula II Muntprat von Spiegelberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1525 the people of the Gasterland in the Schänis Area joined the reformed faith and the Chapter was briefly suspended in 1529, but after the victory of the Catholic areas around Kappel in 1531 they were forced back to the catholic faith, the confederates (eidgenossen) assembled and discussed the affairs of the Chapter in 1551 and 1552. Her family originated kn Konstantz and in 1535 she lost a court case about the inheritance from their parents to her parents Hans Heinrich Muntprat von Spiegelberg.

  1525-29 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Sosa de Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The Abbess of the Chapter held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1526-29 Sovereign Princess Anna of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)
Księżna Anna Mazowiecka succeeded her father, Duke Konrad III. Her mother was Princess Anna Radziwiłłówna, and she lived (1498/1500-after 1557).  

  1526-33 Reigning Dowager Countess Anna von Schönberg
 of Schaumburg (Germany)
Took over the castle (Die Schaumburg auf dem Nesselberg) and surrounding territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside in the castle and territory as her dowry after the death of her husband, Anton, the last count to reside of the castle.

  1526-35 Acting Governor Isabel Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)
Together with her husband, the judge of the High Court of Santo Domingo, Marcelo de Villalobos, she had been installed in the island since 1512. In 1525 he obtained, by pact with the Spanish Crown, the Governorship of Margarita, but he passed away the following year, and Isabel asked for the rights of governorship to be transferred to her daughter, Aldonza. Isabel appointed a number of governor-lieutenants, but continued to take care of her daughter’s interests until she married in 1535.

  1526-32 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Bitterler of Heggbach (Germany)
Member of a Noble family from Basel in Switzerland and died of breast cancer.

  1526-28 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Stottingen of Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1526 the peasants attacked the Chapter and looted the rooms and the same year the citizen of Biberach wanted to introduce the reformation but did not succeed.

  1527-28 Regent Dowager Queen Maria von Habsburg of Bohemia-Hungaria
1527 Presided over the Hungarian Assembly (December)
1530 Presided over the Austrian Landtag (January)
1530-55 General-Stadholder of the Netherlands
1530-58 Governor of Franche-Comté (France)
At the age of 17, she married King Lajos II Jagello of Hungary, who was 15. Four years later, the Turks over-ran half his kingdom, including the capital, Budapest. Louis was killed at the battle, and Maria fled west, taking the Hungarian treasury with her, and she called the Assembly, which elected her brother, Archduke Ferdinand von Österreich king of Hungary. In 1530 she Presided over the Landtag in his name. Her brother, Karl V, appointed her Governor of the Netherlands after the death of their aunt, Margaretha and she was also put in charge of Franche-Comté. Maria was granddaughter of Duchess Marie of Burgundy, had no children, and lived (1505-58). 

  1527-35 Sovereign Duchess Giulia da Varano of Camerino (Italy)
Succeeded to the title when her father died of plague, but was deposed by a male relative. She was daughter of Giovanni Maria, Lord and 12th Pontifical Vicar of Camerino and Count since 1503 Duke of Camerino, who was deposed in 1521, reappointed the following year and confirmed by papal bull with the right of succession for her in 1524, and of Caterina Cybo. Married to Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke di Urbino (1514-74), and lived (1523-47).

  1527-ca. 75 Governor-in-absentia Aldonza de Villalobos Manrique, Isla de Margarita (Venezuela/Spanish Possession)
Normally known as Aldonza Manrique. After her father’s death, her mother, Isabel Manrique, had the king transfer the governorship to her in 1527 – with the condition that while she was under age or was unmarried, the governorship was held by “a man with appropriate age”, and her mother therefore appointed a number of governor-lieutenants.  In 1535 she married the conqueror Pedro Ortiz de Sandoval, who came to Santo Domingo from Peru. In 1539 the Council of the Indians confirmed her rights, but she did not take over before 1542, when she and her husband ruled as lieutenant-governors.  There are no documents evidencing she ever travelled to the island, and it cannot be taken for granted that her husband did it either. After her husband’s death in 1546, she retained the title of Governor of Margarita, but continued to live in Santo Domingo, until her daughter, Marcela, got married aged 14 with Juan Gómez de Villandrando, who became the new lieutenant-governor on her behalf. In 1561 the island was invaded, and Marcela’s husband killed. In 1565 she travelled to Spain with her daughter and two grandsons, and requested to the Council of the Indians the island Governorship to be transferred to one of those, Juan Sarmiento de Villandrando. The petition was accepted after 10 years, after she had already died. She lived (ca. 1520-75).

  1527-47 Princesse-Abbesse Magdalena de Choiseul of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor’s deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. She resigned from the post as sovereign of the ecclesiastical state and 74 lordships in northern France. She resigned from her position.

  1528, 1529-33, 1535-36 and 1538-39 Regent Queen Isabel de Portugal of Spain
In charge of the government during her husband emperor Carlos (V) of the Holy Roman Empire (1516-56)’s travels in the Empire. A strong willed woman, though delicate, she governed the country and her children with a strong hand. Though a rarity in arranged marriages it is believed Charles and Isabella shared a strong love for one another. When she died following a miscarriage, Charles was heartbroken. He collected all the paintings that were done of her and had more commissioned to keep the memory of her alive. She was granddaughter of Ferdinand and Isabel I and mother of 6 children – among others king Felipe II (Husband of Queen Mary of England). She lived (1503-39).

  1528-42 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Chapter was founded in 1230 and started the process towards independence as a princely territory in the Holy Roman Empire in 1417.

  1528-44 Princess-Abbess Marguerite III de Neufchâtel of Remiremont  (France)
Since 1520 she had contested the appointment of Madeleine de Choiseul, the election of Nicole de Dommartin and her resignation in favour of Marguerite d’Haraucurt and in 1528 she finally gained the upper hand, and then appointed Madeleine de Choiseul as coadjutice. Marguerite’s  sister, Bonne, succeeded their brother, Thibaut XI, as Dame de Neufchatel in 1500/04 and lived until 1515. Her younger sister, Elizabeth de Neufchatel was Dame de Chatel-sur-Moselle, etc, They were children of Claude, Lord de Neufchatel, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Governor of Luxembourg and Burgundy, Marshall of Burgundy, etc. and Bonne van Bolchen. Marguerite lived (Ca. 1480-1544).

  1528-51 County Sheriff Pernille Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Jungshoved and Roskilde Agnete Kloster, Denmark
Pernille Gøye was widow of Anders Ebbesen Galt til Tyrrstrup, Rubjerggård og Skumstrup (d. 1529). She was granted the tenantcy for life in 1528. Her second husband, Birger Trolle, was County Sheriff of Roskilde Agnethe Kloster ca. 1546-71. She lived (1506-52).

  1528-70 Feudal Duchess Isabella Colonna of Traetto, Contess di Fondi and Ceccano, Lady of Paliano, Olevano, Serrone, Zancati, Morulo etc, Acquaviva, Maranola, Carpello, Sperlonga, Monticelli, Imola, Pastena and S. Chigia, Capranica Prenestina, Genzano, Genazzano, Guliano, Montecmopatri, Sgurgola, Nettuno, Ciliano, Castel Mattia, Supino, San Lorenzo, San Vito, Ceccano, Ofi, Falvaterra, Sonnino and Vallecorsa (Italy)
Official heiress of Traetto and Fondi and pretender to the other fiefs. Fist married to Lodovico II Gonzaga, 3rd Count di Sabbioneta (1500-32) and then to Philippe de Lannoy, Prince de Sulmona. She lived (1513-70).

  1529-30 Regent Dowager Sultan Dudu of Janupur (India)
After the death of her husband, Muhammed, she was regent for Galal Han, who was deposed in 1533. Under her family’s reign, the state became the home of Islamic culture and refuge for men of letters. She was killed in 1530. 

  1529-31 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)
When her first husband, Philipp II von Hanau-Münzenberg (1501-29), died she was one of the guardians for her son, Philipp III (1526-61). The youngest daughter was born 2 days after her husband died. 2 years later she married one of the other guardians, Count Wilhelm von Nassau-Dillenburg, and moved with her children to Dillenburg. When her sons joined the Dutch battle against the Spanish from 1566, she was engaged and gave advice to all of them. She had 5 children with her first husband and 12 with the second. The daughter of Count Botho zu Stolberg and Anna von Eppstein-Königstein, she was sister of Princess-Abbess Anna II of Quedlinburg, and lived (1506-80).

  1529…. Sovereign Baroness Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier of Mercoeur (France)
The barony was given to her and her husband, Antoine, duc de Lorraine. Her son was made a prince of Mercoeur.

  1529-35 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV Brock of Baindt (Germany)
In 1521 the Princess-Abbess was mentioned as an Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  1529-36 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor Sarmiento of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
She was the Supreme Head of the congregation consisting of the monasteries of  Torquemada, Gradefes, Carrizo, Perales, San Andrés de Arroyo, Santa Maria de Otero, Cañas y Fuencaliente, Villamayor de los Montes, Renuncio, Barría y Avia and the temporal territory of Vileña.

  1529 Hereditary Countess Irmgard von Sayn of Limburg an der Lenne and Broich (Germany)
Daughter of Count Johann VIII zu Sayn (1493-1529) and Otille of Nassau-Saarbrücken, she was married to Wirich von Daun-Falkenberg.

  1529-31 County Sheriff Sophie Henriksdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark
As Lensmand (County Sheriff) Sophie Gyldenstierne til Buckenhagen acted as the king’s representative and was in charge of various aspects of the local administration. She was widow of Bendix von Ahlefeldt til Haseldorf og Gelting (1418-1517) and mother of Anne Benedictsdatter von Ahlefeldt (1515-50), and (d. after 1529).

  1529-35 Politically Influential Queen Anne Boleyn of England (United Kingdom)
Her father, Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, was a diplomat and as a child she was offered a place at the court of Margareta of Habsburg, Regent of the Netherlands. She later became a lady-of-waiting to Queen Claude of France and of Queen Catherine of Aragon when she returned to England. In 1525 Henry VIII also fell in love with her and began his pursuit, she refused until he proposed marriage to her sometime in 1527. She managed to have Cardinal Wolsey, who opposed their marriage, removed from power in 1529, and she became the most powerful person at Court where she had a great say over appointments and political matters. She clashed heads with the king’s new chief minister, Sir Thomas More, who was a bitter enemy of religious freedom and reform. When the Pope refused to accept their marriage, she suggested that he should follow the advice of religious radicals like William Tyndale who denied Papal Authority and believed that the monarch should lead the Church of his own nation. When the devoutly Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury died, Anne had her family’s chaplain – Thomas Cranmer – appointed to the vacant position. She also facilitated the rise of Thomas Cromwell, who became the king’s favourite new adviser, though she would later regret this. During this period, she also played an enormous role in England’s international position, by solidifying the French alliance. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Giles de la Pommeraye. She was appointed Marchioness of Pembroke before their secret marriage in 1532. In 1533 a public wedding was conducted and Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen in time for Anne’s coronation in May 1533 and the “break with Rome. In September her only daughter, the later Queen Elizabeth, was born. The marriage soon began breaking down and she had miscarriages in 1534 and 1536. Henry began a relationship to Jane Seymour and in order to be able to marry her, he accused her of adultery and had her executed. She lived (ca. 1507-36).

  1530-40 Queen Regnant Rafohy of Imerina (Madagascar)
Successor of her mother, Rangitamanjakatrimovavy, who reigned the Hova dynasty from 1520, and was succeeded by king Andriamponga.

  1530-99 Rani Abbakka Devi Chowta of Ullal (India)
Sources and historical analysis confirm that there were three Abbakkas: mother and two daughters, who fought against the Portuguese Army, but the folklore treats all three Abbakkas as one great Queen and a brilliant personality; Abbakka Mahadevi or Rani Abbakka. She was married to a neighbouring local king of Bangher, but the marriage did no last long, and the husband thus nurtured revenge against her and later on joined the Portuguese to fight her. The Portuguese had made several attempts to capture Ullal, but she had repulsed each of their attack. The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Don Alvaro da Silvereira against the Abbakka who had refused to pay them the tribute. She fought with courage and intelligence and pushed them out. In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire. Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked. Queen Abbakka Devi Chowta (Bucadevi I) resisted it. The same year one general Joao Peixoto was sent by the Portuguese Viceroy Antony Norohna with a fleet of soldiers.  He captured the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. However the Queen escaped and took asylum in a mosque.  The same night, she counter-attacked the Portuguese army, with a help of 200 of her soldiers and killed General Peixoto and 70 Portuguese soldiers. The invaders were forced to flee to their ships in disgrace. In 1569, the Portuguese Army not only regained the Mangalore Fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). The Portuguese won the confidence of her estranged husband, kind of Bangher and started attacking Ullal.  She fought vigorously, and formed an alliance in 1570 with Bijapur Sultan Ahmed Nagar and the Zanmorine of Calicut.  Kutty Pokar Markar, a general of the Zamorine fought on her behalf and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese. She was finally arrested and jailed. However, she revolted in the prison and died as a soldier – fighting.

  1530-33 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Rud of the County of Roskilde Vor Frue Kloster, Denmark 
Anne Rud married Rigsråd Henrik Krummedige, who was Councillor of the Realm in both Denmark and Norway. In 1502 she was in charge of the defence of the Norwegian boarder-castle Båhus in his absence. She was an extremely able land-owner, farmer and trader. Since 1531 she also had possession of a number of minor fiefs in Norway, administered by her son-in-law, married to her only daughter, Sofie. She left an extensive correspondence with her daughter, son-in-law and other relatives, and according to the custom of the time, she were in charge of the upbringing of her grandchildren, before her death in 1533. 

  1530 Acting County Sheriff Lene Christoffersdatter Hak of Næsby Birk, Denmark
Lene Hak til Egholm was the sole heir of her family, as her father, Christoffer Hak, was the last male of the family. She was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Hans Krafse. The mother of two surviving children, she (d. 1551).

  Until 1530 Queen Tlaxco Cihuapilli of Xochimilco (Mexico)
In march of 1530 Queen Cihuapilli Tzaptzinco peacefully offered her surrender to a Spanish conquistador, who took possession of the land in the name of his Majesty Emperor Charles V. during 20 days he toured the surrounding towns and quickly received their allegiance. The Aztec Kingdom was situated in what is today the centre of Mexico City.

  1531-36 Pretender Caecilia of Paros (Greek Island-State)
1536-37 Princess Regnant
Successor of her father, Nicolo II (1520-31), and reigned jointly with her husband, Bernado Sagredo (d. 1603) The state was conquered by the Osman Turks 1537, and among the captured was the future Sultan Valide Nurbanu. Caecilia (d. 1543).

  1531-… Sovereign Countess Guyonne XVII of Laval (France)
Daughter of Guy XVI and Charlotte de Aragon. She was originally named Catherine Anne, but took the feminized version of Guy upon her succession. She married Claude de Rieux, and was succeeded by daughter Renée in 1547, who took the name Giyonne XVIII.

  1531-78 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von Bodman of Lindau   (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin of the Ecclesiastical Territory had been member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Swabian Circle) the Regional Assembly since 1500 with a seat in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Her family was Lords (Freiherren) of Bodman, Espasingen, Wahlwies, Freudental, Langenrain and Liggeringen.

  1531-77 Princess-Abbess Margaretha IV van Brederode of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Obtained papal dispensation since she was only 17 at the time of her election. She was daughter of Waleram II, Lord of Brederode and Vianden, Burgrave van Utrecht and Anna von Neuenahr. The abbesses no longer used the nun’s habit and in 1544 and 1549 emperor Karl V confirmed, that Thorn was a separate entity outside the Netherlands, and also declared that the Abbey belonged to the Westphalian Circle within the Diet of the Realm. Margaretha seems to have been the first to use the right of the principality to make it’s own money – and she was accused of using base metal in the coins.

  1532-39 and 1539-44 Regent Dowager Countess Ippolita Cybo of Cajazzo, Serre and Persano (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Roberto Robert Ambrogio da Sanseverino, Markgrave of Colorno, it seems that she was first regent for her sons and then for her daughter Maddalena). he was daughter of Francesco Cybo, Count Palatine of the Lateran, and Maddalena de’ Medici., and lived (1503-62).

  1532-43 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Hessen of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg (Germany)
1541-43 Joint Regent of the Duchy
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II, she was regent for son, Wolfgang, jointly with her brother-in-law, Ruprecht. In 1541 her son was granted the fief of the realm (reichslehn) and two years later he officially took over the government, and in 1557 his childless relative, Pfalzgraf Ottheinrich of Pfalz-Neuburg, abdicated in his favour. In 1541 she married Georg Count Palatine von Simmern (Pfalz-Simmern) (1518-69) and lived (1503-63).

  1532-48 Princess-Abbess Anna I Reuss von Plauen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The chapter was mismanaged during her reign, it was marked by internal disputes and the Archbishops of Magdeburg and Bishops of Halberstadt perused a policy of acquiring the lands of the Stift. 1544 the possessions of the once so powerful and rich community had fallen back to 5 villages and a limited amount of land. In 1549 she gave the city of Gernrode the right of “lower court” 10 years after it had required the position of a town. She was daughter of Heinrich III Reuβ von Plauen, Burgrave von Meiβen, Landvogt von Niederlausitz and Barbara von Anhalt, and lived (1506-48).

  1532-39 Princess-Abbess Maria zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Because of the dispute following the double-election of two Abbesses in 1504, her father was able to have her appointed without an election even though she was a minor and had been K She newer set foot in the chapter. The administration was taken over by Ducal civil servants. She lived (1527-39).

  1532-39 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I Hauptmann of Heggbach (Germany)
Initiated extensive renovations of the central buildings of the chapter. Her father, Hans Hauptmann, was Secretary of the Abbey of Salem. One brother was Priest in Griesingen and another brother citizen of Lindau.

  1532 County Sheriff Sophie Predbjørnsdatter Podebusk of the County of Malmøhus with the Shires of Oxle, Ingelstad and Jærestad and the County of Högby (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1532-40 County Sheriff of the County of Ellinge, Denmark
1538-40 County Sheriff of the County of Isløf
Sophie Podebusk administered the tenantcies after the death of her husband, Albert Jepsen Ravensberg, who had been invested with the fief in 1529. She was later given Isløf for life. (d. 1540).

  1532-4. County Sheriff Eline Henningsdatter Godov of the County of Rønnebæksholm, Denmark
Eline Godov was widow of Henrik Gøye til Gisselfeldt, County Sheriff of Korsør 1516-23, Royal Stadholder in Sweden 1522, Stadholder of Sjælland 1522 when Christian 2 left the country. 1524 he had to surrender Copenhagen to Frederik 2 and went abroad for some years, until he joined Frederik 2 and given Vordingborg as a tenancy 1525 and finally Councillor of the Realm at the time of his death. In 1537 she was given 13 farms in Rønnebæk and 11 in the surroundings. She was mother of 3 children, and (d. after 1551).

  1532-59 County Sheriff Elline Stensdatter Bille of Fredsgård with Tømmerup at Halsnæs, Denmark
Eline or Elline Bille was widow of Bispelensmand Morids Skave (d. 1532), who was appointed Holder of the tenancy of the Bishop of Roskilde ca. 1520. After the reformation in 1536 she is granted the fief for life by the king who had taken over all the estates owned by the Catholic Church (Krongods). She (d. 1559).

  1533-38 (†) Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Yelena Vasilevna Glinskaya of Russia
Елена Васильевна Глинская or Elena Glinskaya, assumed power in the name of her three year old son Ivan IV, later known as “the Terrible”. Her brother-in-law, Yuri challenged his rights to the throne, was arrested and imprisoned in a dungeon. She deposed a member of the regency-council, Prince George III of Dimitrov, and had another brother-in-law killed, but a short time afterwards she suddenly died, almost surely poisoned. A week later her confidant, Prince Ivan Obolensky, was arrested and beaten to death by his jailers. She was not very interested in her son, who was left to the care of Agrafena Oblenskaya, who was imprisoned in a convent, and Ivan was neglected during the rest of his upbringing. Yelena lived (Ca. 1506-38).

  1533-66 Margravine Margherita Palaiologina of Monferrato 
1540-50 Regent of Mantova
1540-60 Sovereign Countess of Carmagnola (Italy) 
In 1530 her brother, Bonifacio IV (1512-18-30), had been succeeded by their uncle, the former Bishop Giangiorgio Sebastiano, and she and her older sisters became heiresses presumptive. After her sister Maria had divorced Federico II di Mantova and entered the Convent of Casale, Margherita took over her claims to the Margravate and married Federico, who was given the title of Margrave of Mantova in 1536. After his death she became regent for son Gugliermo jointly with brother-in-law, Cardinal Ercole. She lived (1510-66).

  1533-53 Regent Dowager Countess Walburga von Brederode of Bentheim and Steinfurt (Germany)
1553-68 Reigning Dowager Lad of the Office and Castle of Gronau in  Bentheim-Steinfurt
Her husband, Arnold II von Bentheim-Steinfurt died after 3 years of marriage and left her in charge of the government in the name of her son. She took over the castle of Gronau as her personal income in 1537. After her death, her daughter Agnes was in dispute with Anna von Bentheim-Steinfurt (Regent of Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda)were in dispute over the possession until 1571. She lived (1512-68).

  Until 1533 Sovereign Princess Louise de Coëtivy of Mortagne-sur-Gironde, Countess de Taillebourg, Baroness de Royan (France)
Her father, Charles de Coetivy, was styled prince of Mortagne in 1487. She married Charles de La Trémoïlle, prince de Talmon in 1501. She lived (1481-1533).

  1533-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Brandenburg of and Administrative Unit and Town of Tribsee in Pommern (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Second wife of Georg I von Pommern (1493-1531) who died after one year of marriage. Mother of one daughter, Georgia (1531-74), who later married Stanislaus Latalski Count von Labischin, Stardost von Inowrazlaw und Schlochau. Margareta settled her dowry with her stepson, Phillip, and moved there in 1533. She was daughter of Elector Joachim von Brandenburg and Elisabeth of Denmark, and lived (1511-77).

  1533-36 Princess-Abbess Katharina II von Redwitz of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain who she was elected to succeed.

  1533-45 Reigning Abbess Antoniette I de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Succeeded her relative, Adrienne de Noyelle.

  1533-36 County Sheriff Hilleborg Pedersdatter Bille of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark
Her husband, Laurids Tinhuus Skinkel, whose mother, Margrethe Friis, held the tenancy 1480-1502, had it confirmed for both of them for life in 1523, and she took charge after his death. Their daugther, Anna Skinkel married Frans Brockenhuus, who took over after her death. She lived (1474-1536).

  1534 or 1547 Regent Dowager Queen Maha Tewi of Lan Xang (Laos)
King Photisarath, who reigned (1520-1547) was devoted to Buddhism but failed to eradicate animism and witchcraft. To improve trade with Siam and Annam he moved his capital to Vientiane. After Chiangmai’s line of kings was ended by assassination in 1543, Photisarath accepted the crown for his young son Sethathirat and sent a regent. Siam’s King Phrajai led an army but was persuaded by Princess Maha Tewi to return home. After Photisarath died in 1547, Sethathirat had to go back to Lan Xang to prevent his brothers from partitioning the kingdom, and Phrajai invaded again. Princess Maha Tewi fought back, and the Siamese army retreated and was routed by the Laos army. Sethathirat managed to withstand Burmese invasions, first by fleeing to Ayutthaya and then by moving his capital to Vientiane in 1563. After he died in 1570, Burmese king Bayinnaung had Sethathirat’s brother Oupahat put on the throne in 1575, replacing Sethathirat’s father-in-law Saensurin.

  1534-34 Acting Governor Ana Pimentel of the Capitania de São Vicente (Brazil)
Her husband, Martim Afonso de Sousa, arrived in Brazil and explored the country in 1531. He founded the first formal Portuguese settlement in the village of São Vicente, and in 1533 he left her in charge of the administration as he left for Portugal. The following year the captaincies system was introduced and she became the Acting Capitana, and besides sugar cane plantations, she also stimulated cattle breeding in the region. Her husband never returned to Brazil.

  1534 Joint Sovereign Lady Rosina von Wildenstein of Breitenegg (Germany)
The daughter of Alexanders II von Wildenstein inherited half of the Lordship. Succeeded by husband, Karl von Welden.

  1534-52 Joint Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Amalie von Leißnig zu Penig of Schönburg and Hertenstein, the Lordships of Glauchau, Waldenburg and Lichtenstein, and the Estates of Hohnstein, Lohmen, Wehlen and Kriebstein (Germany)
As part of the guardianship for her sons, Johann Ernst, Georg, Hugo and Wolf she was able to expand the possessions that her husband, Ernst II, had collected: The secularized Convent of Remse, the Lordship Klösterle in Bohmia and Rochsburg in Sachsen. In 1542 Lutheranism was introduced in the lordships.

  1534-49 Reigning Lady Constanza Sarmiento y Herrera of Lanzarote (Spain)
Reigned jointly with her cousin and husband, Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra, after the death of her father,  Sancho de Herrera (Died 23 October 1534). Her granddaughter, Constanza de Herrera Rojas y Béthencourt , succeeded to the title of Second Marquesa of Lanzarote in 1568. Her mother was Catalina de Escobar de las Roelas, and she lived (1489-1549).

  1534-51 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Montfort-Rotenfels of Essen (Germany)
As the territory got more character of an actual state, three estates developed like in other German States, with the Ladies of the Chapter constituting the First Estate. The Second Estate was the Male Canons in the Male Chapter and the Third Estate was constituted by the Office-Holders (Ministerials) of the Chapter and State, who were of low nobility. The three estates were constituted the members of the Landtag (Local Diet) Sibylla was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort and Countess Anna von Zweibrücken, and her sister; Margarete II was abbess of Buchau (1540-56/59).

  1534-43 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde II von Geroldseck und Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)
Her family had been lords of Hohengeroldseck through many years, and in 1519 the family was given Sulz as a fief but had to give it back to Württemberg 1532, though they continued to use the name of von Hohengeroldseck und Sulz. In 1534 the lordship became an Austrian fief. 

  1534-43 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde II von Geroldseck und Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)
Kellerin (In charge of the winery) when the Election Chief appointed by the Bishop of Konstantz proclaimed her the winner of an election, during which the different factions within the chapter asked their relatives for assistance, the government of Vorderösterreich and the Bishop tried to influence the result. The disputes within the chapter continued during her reign. She was daugter of Gangolf von Hohengeroldseck und Sulz, Lord of Hohengeroldseck and Schenkelzele and Countess Kunigund von Montford. (d. 1543).

  1534-75 Reigning Abbess Louise I de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
A woman of sincere but gloomy piety, and during her tenure the order suffered many losses at the hands of the Protestants, who even besieged the great abbey itself, though without success; many nuns apostatized, but twelve more houses were reformed. She was daughter of Marie de Luxembourg, Sovereign Countess of Saint Pôl, Ligny, de Marle, Soissons and Conversano, Sovereign Princess of Condé-en-Brie etc. (1472-82-1546) and François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme.

  1534-36 and 1555-56 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Jepsdatter Friis of the County of Ørum with 4 Shires in Thy, Denmark
Either known as Karen or Kirstine Friis, she took over the tenantcy after husband, Holger Holgersen Rosenkrantz til Boller was killed in battle during the civil war known as The Count’s Feud  (Grevens Fejde). Also acted after the death of second husband, Gabriel Gyldenstjerne, who had become the next Lensmand. Mother of one daughter, Else Holgerdatter Rosenkrantz. She (d. 1565).

  1534-35 Joint County Sheriff Anna Markvardsdatter Rønnov of the County of Ruggård with the Shire of Skovsby, the County of Løgismose and the City of Skelskør, Denmark
Anna Rønnov til Løgismose was appointed together with her her husband, Johan Jørgensen Urne, who died in 1537 in prison and was deprived of his possessions because of his in the Feud of the Count. Her mother, Mette Hardenberg was County Sheriff of Sallng and Sunds Herreds from around 1506. (d. before 1572).

  1535-37 Sovereign Baroness Caecilia Sangredo of Naupila (Greece)
Reigned Jointly with Bernardo Sangredo. The island had been in the hands of Venezia 1531-35.

  1535-83 Princess-Abbess Anna VIII Wittmeyer of Baindt (Germany)
In 1560 the church of the chapter got a new arch in the late gothic style, and in 1573 the General Abbott Nicholas I Bucherat demanded that the chapter and its rules were reformed.

  1535-36 Acting Country Sheriff Kirsten Pedersdatter Lykke of the County of the Shire of Gislum, Denmark
Kirsten Lykke took over the administration after the death of her father, Councillor of the Realm, Peder Hanssøn Lykke. Together with her sister, Anne, she inherited Nørlund. But together with her second husband, Christoffer Urne, she bought her sister’s part. After his death in 1566, she was in ran the estate alone until her own death. (d. 1570).

  1535-37 Acting County Sheriff Mette Mogensdatter Gøye of the County of Ravnsborg, Denmark
Mette Gøye was daughter of Mogens Gøye til Krenkerup and after the death of her husband, Johan Oxe til Nielstrup, she acted as County Sheriff or Lensmand until her own death one year later. Mother of one daughter, Pernille Johansdatter Oxe (b. 1530).

  1535 Acting County Sheriff Ellen Andersdatter Gøye of Vissenbjerg Birk and the County of Æbelø etc., Denmark
1556 Abbess of Maribo Kloster
Ellen Gøye was married to Jørgen Henningsen Quitzow til Sandager and Jerstrup, Rugård og Æbelø, who was Chancellor of the Realm 1537-44, until his death. She became the first Abbesses of the Lutheran Chapter for  Noble Ladies Maribo, which was opned 20 year after it’s Catholic predecessor was closed during the reformation. As Abbess she functioned more or less as a local County Sheriff (Lensmand) and held the jurisdiction of those who lived at the large estates of the Chapter. She was mother of 2 children, and (d. after 1558).

  1535-53 County Sheriff Cecilie Nielsdatter Lange Munk of the Parish of Hillerslev, Denmark
Cecilie Lange (Also known as Sidsel) was widow of Anders Reventlow til Søbo, who was in office from 1527 until his death 1535. The tenantcy was owned jointly by the brothers, Jacob and Knud Reventlow 1553-61.

  1535 Acting County Sheriff Inger Olufsdatter Falster of Øster Thisted Birk, Denmark
Inger Flaster of Laurids Madsen Vasspyd til Ålestrup and Rudbjergård and Judge in Lolland. It is not known when he took office, but he followed Karen, who held it as security for lones sometime in the begnining of the 1500s. Mother of several children. She (d. after 1551).

  Before 1535 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Jasińska of Małogoszcz, Poland
Held the office of starościna niegrodowa  jointly with her husband.

  1535-37 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Słupska of Małogoszcz, Poland
Appointed by the king as administrator of the area.

  1536-39 Queen Bakwa Turunku of Zaria and Abuja (Nigeria)
Succeeded grandfather king Nohir Tuknariki, succeeded first by son-in-law Karama then by two daughters, Amina and Zaria.

  1536-41 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna of Münsterberg and Sagan in Slesia (Poland)
Also known as Anna of Schlesia-Sagan, she was married to Prince Karl I Albrecht of Münsterberg-Oels (1476-1536) and reigned in Münsterberg after his death. She lived (1483-1541).

  1536-40 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Magdalena von Mansfeld of Lippe (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Simon V, she became guardian for her 8-year-old son, Bernhard VIII, the 15. Noble Lord to Lippe and 2. Count to Lippe (Edler Herr und Graf zur Lippe), and Count Adolf von Schaumburg, Koadjutors von Köln, Count Jobst von Hoya were regents until 1438. She lived (1509-40).

  1536-42 Princess-Abbess Wandula von Schaumberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain who succeeded her, but Barbara II von Sandizell reigned until 1564.

  1536-39 and 1543-55 Reigning  Abbess-General Isabel de Navarra y Mendoza  of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a sideline of the royal family of Navarra.

  1536 Acting County Sheriff Karen Nielsdatter Lange Munk of the County of Holmegård, Denmark
Karen Lange (also known as Karine) was widow of Kjeld Iversen Juel (d. 1536), who was appinted County Sheriff of the Bishoply Tenantcy (Bispelensmand) of Holmgaard in Bølle Herred by his brother, Bishop Hartvig Juel of Roskilde. She (d. 1555).

  1536-37 County Sheriff Sophie Olufsdatter Gøye of the County of Havelse, Denmark
Sophie Gøye was appointed county sheriff by the local bishop (Bispelensmand). After her death, the tenantcy reverts to the king. Probably widow of Henning Venstermand, who exists in the records until 1496. She (d. 1537).

  1537-99 Margarethe von der Marck, by the Grace of God, Countess of Arenberg 
1576-99 Sovereign Princess-Countess of Arenberg (Germany)
Also known as Margaretha or Marguerite de La Marck d’Arenberg, she succeeded her brother, Robert III, as the sole heir of the Dutch House van der Marck. She was married to Jean de Ligne, Baron de Barbancon, who was named Reichsgraf von Arenberg in 1549 – he died in battle in 1568, and Margaretha vigorously defended her territory from invading forces. In 1571 emperor Maximillian II confirmed the “Reichsunmittelbarkeit” – position as an Imperial immediacy, which meant that the territory  was was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights. In 1576 both she and her son were granted the title of Reichsfürst/in (Gefürstete Gräfin or Fürstgräfin). She was given the right to mint her own money, and though she was of Dutch birth, she was very preoccupied with the governing of her German realm. Among others she fought against witch-hunts and backed industry and education. She lived (1527-99).

  1537-60 Sovereign Duchess Adrienne II of Estouteville (France)
Daughter of Jean III, Seigneur d’Estouteville, and married François de Bourbon-Vendôme, Duc d’Estouteville and Count of Saint-Pôl, and was succeeded by daughter, Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl, Countess of St. Pol from 1546. She lived (1512-60).

  1537-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth zu Hessen of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz, the Castle and Administrative Unit of Kriebstein with the cities of Waldheim and Hartha in Sachsen (Germany)
Also known as Elisabeth von Rochlitz she received the lordships as dowry after the death of her husband, Johann zu Sachsen (1498-1537). She was the first territorial ruler in Germany to give her citizen freedom of confession and conscience, but her father-in-law, Duke Georg of Sachsen, “makes sure” that she is excommunicated, which meant that all citizen were declared free and she was no longer under princely protection. But she accepted the Evangelical preacher Magister Schütz aus Kassel, who was send to her lordship by her brother, Landgrave Philipp von Hessen, who had already introduced the reformation in her lands. She was a very effective administrator and developed her fief economically and culturally. She lived (1502-57).

  1537-40 Sovereign Countess Anne de Husson of Tonnerre, Dame de Husson, d’Ancy-le-Franc, de Laignes, de Cruzy, de Chassignelles and de Ravières (France)
Succeeded nephew, Louis IV de Husson and married to Bernardin de Clermont, vicomte de Tallart, succeeded by daughter, Louise de Clermont, and lived (1475-1540).

  1537-ca. 54 Lady Regnant Anna von Haracourt of Bettingen, Dollendorf, Fischbach, Falkenstein and Everlingen (Germany)
Already old when she inherited the “Haracourt Inheritance” from the last male of the family, Count Wilhelm von Haracourt-Dollendorf-Brandenburg. Her daughter Anna von Solm, Heiress of Dollendorf (d. 1557) married as his second wife, Count Jakob von Manderscheid-Kail, and Anna von Haracourt declared that her granddaughter, Anna von Manderscheid (1630-61) should be her sole heir, but in the end the inheritance was divided among the Manderscheid-Kail and Solm families. 

  1537-65 Sovereign Duchess Anne de Pisseleu of Étampes (France)
Created Duchess jointly with husband, Jean de Brosse. She was mistress of King François I.

  1537-4. County Sheriff Christence Jensdatter Ulfstand of Krønge Birk, Denmark
Christence Ulfstand was widow of Tønne Tønnesen Viffert. She later withdrew to Skt. Clara Kloster (Convent). The mother of 4 children, she (d. before 1545).

  1537-40 County Sheriff Maren of the County of Holbækgård, Denmark
Widow of Anders Jacobsen Bjørn, who had been granted the tenantcy for both of them for life in 1527.  Her background is unknown.

  Until 1537 County Sheriff Anne Jonsdatter Viffert of Bækmark Mølle, Denmark
Anne Viffert was widow of Markvard Eilersen Juel (Krabbe-Juel). Held the Mill as a tenantcy from the bishop of Ribe, and handed it over to her son, Bertel Juel just before her son. She (d. 1537).

  1537-43 Politically Influential Maria Salviati of Firenze and Toscana (Italy)
Instrumental in ensuring that her son, Cosimo I de’ Medici was chosen to succeed her cousin, Alessandro de Medici, who had been assassinated, by predicating her right to be involved in deliberations to choose a new ruler on her authority as the young’s man mother- Her husband, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, had died in 1526. She was the daughter of Lucrezia di Lorenzo de’ Medici and Jacopo Salviati, and lived (1499-1543).

  Ca. 1538-68 Rani Regnant Abbaka Devi of Ullal (India)
Allied herself with Malabar Kings and feudal lords, challenging the Portuguese invasion into Mangalore. For three decades, she defied the Portuguese supremacy refusing to pay tribute to them. However, at the famous siege of Mangalore in 1568, the Queen and her Moorish allies suffered a crushing defeat by the Portuguese army.

  Around1538 Governor Dildar Agha Begum of Bulandshahr (India)
An inscription from Bulandshahr records the construction of a mosque 1538 by Neki Khan during the governorship (‘amal) of a lady named Begam Dildar Aghacha, the 7th wife of Emperor Babur of India.

  1538-67 Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg-Schleusingen of Rudolstadt in Schwarzburg (Germany)
Known as Katharina the Brave (die Heldenmütige) for her opposition against the Duke of Alba. She was widow of Heinrich XXXII, Graf von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg-Rudolstadt, daughter of of Wilhelm VII and Anastasia  von Brandenburg and mother of 3 surviving daughters and 3 sons who died as children. She lived (1509-67)

  1538-51 County Sheriff Ide Thomesdatter Lange of Estates in Vester Herred, Lydum etc., Denmark
Ide Lange was widow of of Morits Jepsen Sparre til Svanholm (d. 1534), who had first been married to Karine Pedersdatter Høeg Banner. Ide secondly married Henning Jørgen Qvistzow til Sandager.

  1539-44 Acting Governor Inés de Bobadilla, Cuba (Spanish Colony)
Left in charge of the government when her husband, Hernando de Soto (1496/1500-42) left for an expedition where he died in 1542. Two years later Juan de Avila was appointed governor.

  Ca. 1539-51 Reigning Countess Maddalena Sanseverino of Cajazzo, Lady of Serre and Persano (Italy)
Apparently she succeeded her brother. Her mother, Ippolita Cybo had been regent from 1532 and took over again after a few months in 1551. Married to Giulio Cesare Rossi in 1539, who became Count of Cajazzo (d. 1554) and was succeeded by son. She lived (ca. 1520-1551)

  Around 1539 Sovereign Countess Cathérine de Silly of Rochefort, Dame de La Roche-Guyon (France)
Daughter of Charles de Silly and Philippe von Saarbrücken-Commercy and married to François de Rohan, Vicomte de Fronsac (d. 1559), and after her death, he married Renée de Rohan, who was the sister of Louis VI de Rohan, the husband of his daughter, Léonore, who succeeded her at a nok know time.

  After 1539-83 Sovereign Countess Léonore de Rohan of Rochefort,
Succeeded her mother Cathérine at a not known time, Married to Louis VI. de Rohan (1540-1611), Prince de Guéméné, Comte de Montbazon etc., Her sister, Jacqueline inherited the title of Dema de Gié, and the youngest, Françoise-Diane, was Dame de Gillebourg. Mother of several children and lived (1539-83) 

  1539-62 Temporary Regent Duchess Eleonora Alvarez de Toledo of Firenze and Toscana (Italy)
Her husband, Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519-74), left her in charge of the government during his frequent absences from the Duchies. She encouraged the arts, encouraged the Jesuit order to settle in Florence and also founded many new churches in the city. She was interested in agriculture and business, helping to expand and increase not only the profitability of the vast Medici estates, but also through her charitable interests the lot of the peasantry. She was daughter of the Viceroy of Naples, Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the, Lieutenant-Governor of Carlos V, and Maria Osorio-Pimentel, 2, Marquessa de Villafranca, and lived (1522-62).

  1539-47  Princess-Abbess Klara von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
In 1542 the Sclamalkaldic League forcibly introduced Protestantism to the area. In 1547 her father, Duke Heinrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, reintroduced the catholic faith, but only a few years later Lutheranism was permanently introduced by her brother, Duke Julius of Braunschweig (1528-1589). She was appointed in succession to her sister, Maria, who was Fürstäbtissin all her life (1521-39). Klara or Clara resigned in order to marry Duke Philipp II von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (d. 1596). She lived (1532-95).

  1539-53 Princess-Abbess Veronica Berenike Krel of Heggbach (Germany)
Her surname might also have been Kröhl. In August 1546 an Evangelical ordinance banns the ladies of the chapter to pray in the choir, to celebrate mass and take communion, but in December the Chapter is granted freedom of religion. She lived (1487-1559).

  1539-47  Princess-Abbess Klara von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
In 1542 the Sclamalkaldic League forcibly introduced Protestantism to the area. In 1547 her father, Duke Heinrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, reintroduced the catholic faith, but only a few years later Lutheranism was permanently introduced by her brother, Duke Julius of Braunschweig (1528-1589). She was appointed in succession to her sister, Maria, who was Fürstäbtissin 1532-39. Klara or Clara resigned in order to marry Duke Philipp II von Graunswheig-Grubenhagen (d. 1596). She lived (1532-95).

  1539-43 Reigning Abbess-GeneralMaría de Aragón of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Natural daughter of Fernando II the Catholic – the husband of Isabel I de Castilla.

  1539-46 County Sheriff Inger Torbernsdatter Present of Rude and Stærrede, Denmark
Inger Present was in charge of the former bishop-tenantcy (bispelen) which now belonged to the crown. She was widow of Erik Daa.

  1539-44 County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Breide of the County of Svendstrup, Denmark
Karen Breide til Kjeldet was bispelensmand – appointed by the bishop. She was married to Gunde Lange til Bregninge, Bølling og Holmegård (d. 1564). She was mother of 5 children, one of whom was Dorthe Lange, who was County Sheriff of Kalø in 1596. and (d. 1551).


THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2011




Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  Around 1450 Chieftainess Sharifa Fatima of the Zaydi (Yemen)
Daughter of the religious leader, Imam al-Zayel al-Nasir Li Din Allah, she and her tribe took San’a by force of arms in the mid 15th century.

  Ca. 1450 and 1484-…  Regent Dowager Queen Nang Han Lung of Möng Mint (Myanmar-Burma)
Ruled in the name of her son, Si Wai Fae, and acted as head of one of the Shan – ethnic Thai – states in Burma. The state is also known as Momeik and had the ritual name Gandalarattha.

  1450-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Mechthild von der Pfalz of Böblingen, Sindelfingen, Aidlingen, Dagersheim, Darmsheim, Dettenhausen, Döffingen, Holzgerlingen, Magstadt, Maichingen, Ostelsheim, Schönaich and Steinenbronn in Württemberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband Ludwig von Württemberg she was in a yearlong dispute with her brother-in-law Ulrich and her brother Pfalzgraf Friedrich over the guardianship of her two sons. In the end she retired to her dowry, before she married Archduke Albrecht VI, the younger brother of Emperor Friedrich III, though they mainly lived apart, from 1456 mainly lived in Rottenburg, but she remained in the possession of her main dowry Böblingen. Her court was an intellectual and cultural centre and she promoted convents, churches and the University of Tübingen. She lived  (1419-82).

  1450-54 Princess-Abbess Agatha von Stadion of Heggbach (Germany)
Member of the noble family von Stadion zu Börningheim that supplied the church with many bishops, imperial abbots and Princess-Abbesses throughout the centuries. She resigned and (d. 1480).

  Around 1450 Princess-Abbess Johanka z Risenberka of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prague (The Czech Republic)
The St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. Jiri was the oldest convent in the Bohemian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. The Abbess of was named Princess-Abbess in 1348 with the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia. During the reign of Josef II the Chapter was abolished in 1782.Johanka was daughter of Děpolt z Risenberka (d. 1474) and Kateřina Sokolová z Lemberka (d. 1470).

  Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)
Daughter of Jean III de Chambray, seigneur de Chambray and Gilette Cholet

  Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)
Succeeded her relative Germaine de Chambray at a not known time.

  1451-53/54 Regent Dowager Duchess Chiara Giorgio of Athenai (Greece)
Also known as Chiara Zorzi, Clara or Claire, she was charge of the government after the death of her husband, Raineri II Acciajulo, who was duke of Athens 1435-39 and again from 1441 until his death 10 years later. He was involved in the fights against the Ottomans, who conquered Constantinople a few years later. She was regent for her son Francesco I. She fell in love with the Venetian Bartolomeo Contarini, who murdered his wife in order to stay with her and marry her in Athens in 1453. However, Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire intervened at the insistence of the people on the behalf of her son and summoned her and her lover to his court at Adrianople. Another member of the Acciajuoli family, Francesco II, was sent to Athens as a Turkish client duke and she was thus deprived of her power in the city. Evidently, the citizenry had mistrusted the two lovers influence over the young duke, for whose safey they may have feared. The new duke had her murdered and Bartolommeo appealed to the sultan for justice. Athens was taken into Turkish hands and the new Duke deposed. She was the daughter of Nicholas III Zorzi, the titular margrave of Bodonitsa, and renowned for her beauty. (d. 1454).

  1451-64 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Pommern-Stettin (Poland)
After both her husband, Joachim and his cousin Barnim VIII. von Pommern-Barth, had died of the plague, she took over the regency for her son, Otto III (1444-64) together with her brother, Elector Friedrich II. von Brandenburg, who was the co-guardian. In 1454, she married Duke Wartislaw X von Pommern-Rügen und Barth (1435-78) and became mother of two more sons, who died of plague like their older brother in 1564. She lived (1425-65). 

  1451-61 Governor Queen Juana Enriquez de Mendoza y Fernández de Cordoba of Navarra 
1461-62 Governor of Cataluña
1466-68 Presiding over the Cortes of Aragón (Spain)
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Juan II of Aragón, who took over the crown of Navarra after the death of his first wife Queen Blanca I (1391-41). After he tortured Don Carlos, his son by Blanca to death in 1461 the nobles of Catalonia offered the crown to various neighbouring kings and princes who held to e principality for brief periods until 1479 when Juan won the battle. She was daughter of Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza and Marina de Ayala, mother of one son and three daughters, and lived (1425-68).

  1451-78 Princess-Abbess Adelheid V Trüllerey genannt von Trostberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
Even though the chapter had become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1438, the Abbess still used the title of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm (Fürstin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches). Her sister, Adnes, was Meisterein (Mistres) in Hermetschwil. They were daughters of Rüdiger von Trullerey, of a noble family from Aargau and Schaffenhausen in Switzerland, which also had possessions in Germany, and Anes from Trostberg.

  1451-87 Politically Influential Sultanina Mara Branković of the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Also known as Maryam Khanum, Despina Hatun or Amerissa, she was daughter of Durad, Despot of Serbia, and when she was married to the Ottoman sultan Murad II in 1433 her dowry was the larger part of Serbia. She had no children of her own but was close to her husband’s son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1430-51-81), and she was very influential during his reign from 1451, and he often called upon her for advice. She later held court at Ježero in Macedonia surrounded by exiled Serbian nobles, 1461 she was joined by her sister, Catherine, widow of Ulrich II Cantacuzene of Cilly, and they lead an unofficial “foreign office” from Macedonia. In the war between Turkey and Venetia (1463-79) they played an important role as intermediaries and were employed by both sides as diplomatic agents. In 1471 Mara personally accompanied a Venetian ambassador to the Porte for negotiations with the Sultan. She retained her influence of the appointment of leaders of the Orthodox Church, and remained influential during Mehmed’s successor, Bayezid II. She lived (ca. 1412-87).

  1451-57 Reigning Abbess Marie III de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Daughter of Jean II de Montmorency, Seigneur de Beaussault and Isabelle de Nestlé, Dame du Plessis-Cacheleu. Her older sister, Catherine inherited the titles of dame de Beaussault et de Breteuil after the death of two of their brothers. Marie (d. 1461).

  1452-60 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna of Teschen-Freistadt (Cieszyn) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Bolesław II of Cieszyn, she ruled the Slesian Duchy for her son Kazimierz II. Daughter of Duke Iwan of Bielsk.

  1452-58 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein of Hanau (Germany)
When her son, Reinhard III von Hanau (1412-52) died one year after his father, Reinhard II, she became part of the regency for his son, Philipp I the Younger, together with his maternal grandfather,  Pfalzgraf Otto I. von Pfalz-Mosbach and her youngest son, Philipp I the Older, until the country was devided in 1458, when the latter became sole regent. Mother of 6 children, and (d. 1459).

  1452-57 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Margareta von Mosbach of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)
When her husband, Reinhard III, died after only one year reign, she fought to secure the whole County for her oldest son, the 3 year old Philipp I the Younger (1449-1500), according to principle of primogeniture which had been followed since 1475, but other members of the family wanted to divide the inheritance. Her mother-in-law, Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, was able to secure the support of many of the relatives, the most important co-operations of the inhabitants of the County, most importantly the citizen of the the 4 cities; Hanau, Windecken, Babenhausen and Steinau, a number of associations and the vassals of the County. But Margareta and her father managed to keep the County undivided until her death. Born as Pfalzgräfin von Mosbach, and lived (1432-57).

  1452-76 Sovereign Countess Marie d’Harcourt of Aumale (France)
1456-76 Sovereign Countess of Harcourt 
Inherited the counties from her father Jean VII d’Harcourt and married to Antoine de Lorraine, Duke de Vaudémont in 1440 whose descendants inherited the duchy of Lorraine Lillebonne, Elbeuf, Aumale. She was succeeded her sister, Jeanne in Harcourt, and lived (1398-1476).

  1452-56 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Harcourt of Harcourt (France)
Second daughter of Jean d’Harcourt, she was first married to Jean de Rieux Baron d’Ancenis (d 1431) and secondly to Bertrand de Dinan, Baron de Châteaubriant, Marshal of Bretagne. Succeeded by sister, Marie, who had been Countess of Harcourt since 1452. She lived (1399-1456).

  1452-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Rochemberg of Karniów-Rybnik and Pszczyna (Poland)
Widow of the Slesian Duke Mikołaj III.

  1452-1485 Acting Governor Inés de Peraza de las Casas of The Canary Islands (Spain)
1452-1503 Reigning Lady of Lanzarote
Inherited the governorship from her father, Ferdinand de Peraza, together with her husband, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, who was Governor by the rights of his wife (jure uxoris) but ruled the his absence and defend the islands. In 1576 there was a revolt against their rule because of their continued reclutings of islanders to fight against the „unfaithful islands”, but they won the battle, but Queen Isabel I took over the protection of Lanzarote and send a commission leaded by Estevan Perez de Cabitos to examine their rights over the Canary Islands and the following year they were given a large sum of money and the title of Countess and Count but was deprived of Tenerife, Canaria and La Palma. After her husband’s death in 1485 at the age of 60, the islands were divided among 2 of their 3 sons and 2 daughters. The daughters Maria de Ayala and Constanza de Sarmiento, split Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste among them. She was daughter of Inés de Las Casas, and lived (circa 1425-1503).

  1452-67 Princess-Abbess Walburg zu Spiegelberg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Thrown out of the chapter by troops from Braunschweig in 1453. Her election was confirmed by the Pope in 1453, 1456, 1458 and 1465, but she was not able to claim her rights, and in 1467 she resigned

  1452-53 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne III de Chauvirey of Remiremont (France)
As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor’s deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. Her family originated from Haute Saône south of Paris.

  1453-67 De Facto Ruler Sophia IV zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1467-85 Princess-Abbess
The troops of her brother, Duke Heinrich III from Braunschweig pawed her way to the office by exiling Princess-Abbess Waldburg, and after Waldburg’s abdication in 1467 she was confirmed in the office. Sophia’s sister, Agnes II, reigned 1412-39. She lived (ca. 1407-85).

  1453 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Selnhofer of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The sources show how her family paid 63 pound for her support when she entered the chapter.

  1453-71 Queen Shin Saw Pu of Mons (Bartaban) (Myanmar-Burma)
Also known as Byih-nya Daw, Shinsawbu or Shengtsambu, she was daughter of Razadarit, king of the Mons in Hanthawaddy (Bago) in Lower Myanmar, who was succeeded by her brother. She married Sinphushin Thihathu of Bamarl. After his death three years later, she married his successor Minhla Nge, who died after three months, and his successor Kalay Taung Nyo died after seven months. She then moved back to Hanthawaddy, which was then ruled by her brother King Byinnya Yan. Within a year he was succeeded by Byinnya Baru and Byinnya Gyan, before she finally became Queen of the Mons Kingdom. Her reign was peaceful, quiet and prosperous. She abdicated and retired to the Shwedagon Pagoda, built new pagodas and monasteries and devoted to rest of her life to religious activities. She died at the age of 79.She is still revered today for giving the pagoda its present shape and form. She gave her weight in gold (40 kg) to be beaten into gold leaf and used to plate the stupa. 

  1453-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Liegnitz of Hainau-Lüben (Chojnów-Lubin) (Poland) 
Also known as Jadwiga Legnicka, she was the youngest daughter of Duke Ludwik II of Legnica-Brzeg and Elżbieta von Brandenburg (ruler of Legnica-Brzeg in 1436-38). In 1445 she married Duke Jan of Chojnów-Lubin. In 1446 she gave birth her only son, Duke Friederich (Fryderyk). Her husband died in 1453 and she became regent of the Slesian Duchy. She lived (ca. 1430-1471).

  1453-? Political Advisor and Head of Diplomatic Missions Sara Khatun of the Ak Kooyunlu (Azerbaian, Armenia, Western Iran, Iraq and Turkey)
After the death of Turali bek Akkoyunlu, she was able to stop the struggle for power among his  sons and had her son, Uzun Hasan (1453-78) placed on the throne. He transformed the Akkoyunlu state into a powerful feudal empire. Apart from supporting him in his actions, she was in charge of diplomatic negotiations with foreign diplomats from  Europe and the East. 1461 she was also send to negotiate with Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire who was about to conquer the neighbouring Empire of Trapezund, and was received by Mekhmed with great respect and honor. In the course of the talks, it was decided that the state of Akkoyunlu would remain neutral during Mekhmed IIs campaign against Trapezund, and Turkey would not go to war with Akkoyunlu. That accord had enormous importance for Akkoyunlu. Indeed, it was thanks to this agreement that the state of Akkoyunlu preserved its independence.

  1453-1507 Leader and Spokesperson of the Byzantine Diaspora Anna Notaras Palaiologina (Italy)
Together with two of her sisters, she had already been send to Italy when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1454. Her father, Byzantine Grand Duke and Prime Minister, Loukas Notaras, and the rest of the family were killed. She became a leading member of the Byzantine Diaspora and 1471 she obtained the permission of the city authorities to establish a Greek colony in the Commune of Siena, but for an unknown reason it never materialized. Later moved to Venetia where she worked for the right to establish an Orthodox Church against the wishes of the Catholic hierarchy. She used her mother’s surname Palaiologina and (d. 1507).

  1454-94 Sovereign Lady Johanna van der Aa de Randeraedt of Veulen (Belgium)
Her husband, Willem de Mérode was co-lord until 1483. Succeeded by Willem de Mérode, who was probably her son.

  1454-1501 Politically Influential Queen and Grand Duchess Elisabeth von Habsburg of Poland and Lithuania
Also known as Elzbieta Rakuszanka (of Austria), she was very influential during the reign of her husband, polish king and great duke of Lithuania, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk and their son, Jan I (1492-1501). She was a daughter of Emperor Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia and Hungary and Elisabeth of Bohemia-Hungaria (1437-48), and lived (1436–1505).

  1454-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara of Mazowsze (Poland)
Following the death of her husband Duke Bolesław IV, she ran the government in the name of her sons.

  1454-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II Kröhl of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1467 she introduced a more sombre version of the convent life of the Cistercian order. Anna Gräter was “Anti-Abbess” in 1439, but apparently died after a few months in office. She was probably daughter of a citizen of Lindau.

  1454-73 Princess-Abbess Elsa van Buren of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Became acting Vorstin-Abdis of the Ecclesiastical Territory, after Jacobäa van Heinsberg vacated the post, the former Abbess Mechtildis van Heine, did not die until 1459. Elsa was excommunicated because of her refusal to follow certain Papal decisions. 

  1454-64 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Rentz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Member of a seigneurial family.

  1455-79 Lieutenant General Infanta Leonor Trastmara de Aragón y Navarra of Navarra (Spain)
1479 Queen Regnant (Leonor I)
Daughter of Blanca I of Navarra and King Juan II de Aragón, and at the age of 2 she was acclaimed by the Cortes in Pamplona as the legitimate heir of her brother and sister; Carlos, Prince of Viana, and Blanca of Navarra, but when their mother died in 1441, their father ursurped the throne. She was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom in 1455 civil war broke out between her father and brother until the latter’s death in 1461. Her father made a treaty making her his heir, excluding her older sister, Blanca II, who was left with Foix and Moncada, but died in 1464. The following year she signed a treaty with the Beamontese using the title of “Primogenic Princess, Heiress of Navarra, Infanta of Aragón and Sicilia, Countess of Foix and Bigorra, Lady Béarn, Acting General for the Serene King, my wery reduptable lord and father in this his Kingdom of Navarra”. And when her father died, she succeeded him as monarch of Navarra, but died soon after. She was married to Gaston IV, count of Foix, and had 11 children with him. The oldest, Gaston died in 1470 and her daughter-in-law, Madelaine de Valois was regent for her two children, Francisco and Catalina who succeeded their grandmother. She lived (1425-79).

  1455-58 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonora of Scotland of Austria-Tirol
1467 Regent of Vorlanden (Austria)
In charge of the government in the name of her husband, Sigismund von Habsburg, who was abroad. They had no children, and she lived (1433-80). 

  1455-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Oleśnicka of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)
1455-1476 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Sochaczew
1455-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Płock
1476-before 1491 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Koło, Brdów, Bolimów, Mszczonów and Stare Wikitki
After the death of her husband, Władysław I of Masovia-Plock she reigned in the name of her sons Siemowit VI and Władysław II. Both sons died in 1462. She was daughter of Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica and Małgorzata and lived (1420/30-before 1491).

  1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont  (France)
Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.

  1455-81 Sovereign Countess Françoise de Châtillon of Périgod, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame d’Avesnes (France)
Daughter of Isabelle, who reigned 1317-28 and succeeded father, Guillaume de Châtillon-Blois, dit de Bretagne, vicomte de Limoges, Seigneur d’Avesnes. Married to Alain d’Albret Le Grand, Seigneur d’Albert, Comte de Graves, Vicomte de Tartas (1440-1522), who was joint ruler 1470-1522. She (d. 1481).

  1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont  (France)
Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.

  1456-79 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Egloffstein of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss noble family, originating in Burg Egloffstein now in Bavaria, and divided into various sidelines.

  Around 1456 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Mirlingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Also sovereign over a number of possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.

  1456-80 Hereditary Countess Margaret of Celje (Slovenia)
Daughter of Ulrich III of Cilli (1406-1456), who was supporter of Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia and her son, Ladislaus V Posthumous, and virtually regent of the kingdom. Margaret married Count Herman of Montfort and Duke Vladislav of Teschen (d. 1456).

  1456-89 Hereditary Lady Elisabeth von Sirck of Furbach, Monklar and Meinzberg, The Fief of  Lützelburg and other Lordships (Germany)
Inherited the Lordships from her uncle, Jacob von Sirck, Kurfürst von Trier and her father and her possessions were incorporated into the County of Sayn. Her husband, Gerhard II, Count of Sayn, Lord of Homburg, (1452-1493), was an influential statesman in the German Empire and was named Stadholder of the Westphalian Courts. She was mother of 9 sons and 7 daughters, though most of them died as infants. She was first married to a Count of Zweibrücken, and lived (1435-89).

  1457-1515 Sovereign Dame Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco, Sovereign Dame of Mentone and Roccabruna, Baroness di San Demetrio
Daughter of Seigneur Catalan Grimaldi and reigned jointly with her husband and relative Lamberto Grimaldi d’Antibes during their marriage 1458-94 and with sons Jean II 1494-1505 and Lucien 1505-23. She lived (1451-1515).

  1457-58 Regent Dowager Dame Pomelline Fregoso of Monaco
Took over the regency for her granddaughter, Claudine, after the death of her son Catalan Grimaldi di Monaco, Signore de Monaco et Menton (1454-57). Her husband, Jean I, who had initially ruled with his two brothers, were taken prisoner of the Duke of Milano who threatened to kill him if Monaco was not released to his power, but her tough and courageous attitude was catalyst to his release. Her daughter-in-law, Blance del Caretto, died in 1458. Born as Pomellina Campo Fregoso to a noble Genoese family, she lived (1387/88-1468).

  1457-58 Captain-Donatary Isabel Moniz of Porto Santo in Madeira (Portugal)
Succeeded her husband, Bartolomeu I Perestrelo (1425-57), to the office of capitano donataria, which meant that she was governor of the Island and had full control over the domain. She held the office of judge, could make land grants. er daughter, Felipa Moniz e Perestrello, was married to Christopher Columbus in Lisabon, where the family had moved. But later they moved back to Porto Santo in the Madeira islands, to live with her son, who had been handed over his Hereditary Captainship (Capitão Donatário do Porto Santo) about 1476. She was daughter of Vasco Martins Moniz and Brites Pereira, and lived (ca. 1430-after 1480).

  1457-62 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Aigler of Baindt (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin had the right to be represented on the on the College of Prelates of Swabia which had one joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1457-75 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bretagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor Berenger of Provence. The order had suffered severely from the decay of religion, which was general about this time, as well as from the Hundred Years War. In the three priories of St-Aignan, Breuil, and Ste-Croix there were in all but five nuns and one monk, where there had been 187 nuns and 17 monks at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and other houses were no better off. In 1459, a papal commission decided upon a mitigation of rules that could no longer be enforced, and nuns were even allowed to leave the order on the simple permission of their priories. Dissatisfied with the mitigated life of Fontevrault, she moved to the priory of La Madeleine-les-Orléans in 1471. Here she deputed a commission consisting of religious of various orders to draw up a definite Rule based on the Rules of Blessed Robert, St. Benedict, and St. Augustine, together with the Acts of Visitations. Sixtus IV finally approved the resulting code in 1475, and four years later it was made obligatory upon the whole order. She lived (1442-77).

  1457-59 Reigning Abbess-General Maria de Almenárez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Like Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

  1457 Rebellion Leader Elizabeth Szilágyi in Hungary
Szilágyi Erszébet was widow of Hunyadi János (John Corvinius) (ca. 1387-1456), Baron of Szolnok and Count of Temesvár, Regent of Hungary 1446-53 during the minority of Lazslo V Postumus. Together with her brother, Michael, she led an open revolt against the king who held her son, Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás Hunyadi), as prisoner. Fierce but indecisive fighting continued for months and was ended only by the news of Ladislaus V’s premature death in Prague in November 1457 without an heir. Her son was elected king by the Diet and crowned the following year.

  1458-64 Queen Regnant Charlotte of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
As she succeeded her father, Jean II, the Grand Caraman, the Turkish ruler of Caramania, seized the opportunity afforded by a weak government in Cyprus to capture Courico, the last Latin outpost in Armenia, which had been in the possession of the Lusignans since the reign of Pierre I. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks had expanded to the shores of the Bosporus and invested Constantinople by sea and land. While she had the support of the nobility, her half-brother Jacques the Bastard, had the sympathy of the Cypriot population, and had been led to believe that his father wished him to succeed to the throne. But the barons were too strong for him, and Jacques, although archbishop, was not allowed to take part in the coronation. In 1459 she married her cousin, count Louis of Savoy, and Jacques broke into open rebellion and took refuge in Cairo. Presenting himself to the sultan, who was suzerain of Cyprus, Jacques complained that, though next male heir to the throne, and he had been driven from the island, and appealed successfully for help to recover his inheritance.
In 1460, with a fleet of eighty Egyptian galleys, Jacques landed at Larnaca. The Cypriots, hating the Savoyards whom her husband had brought to the island, received him gladly, and he was soon master of the island. Charlotte and her husband took refuge in the castle of Kyrenia, where they were blockaded for three years. The castle, which was not actively attacked, was finally surrendered by the treachery of its commandant. They fled to Rome, where she died in 1487 after bequeathing her sovereignty to the house of Savoy. Her half-brother was renowned for his political amorality. She lived (1436-87).

  1458-59 Regent Dowager Despotess Jelena Palaiologina of Serbia
Widow of Lazar II Brankovic (1456-58) and regent for son Stefan Brankovic. In 1459 Stefan Tomasevic was despot, but the same year the Ottoman Turks finally conquered Serbia. Died as nun in 1473.  

  1458-86 Temporary Regent Margravine and Electress Anna von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Brandenburg-Kumblach and Brandenburg (Germany) 1486-1512 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Neustadt an der Aisch
After their marriage in 1458, she was in charge of the government during many absences from the state of her husband, Margrave and Elector Albrecht Achilles (1414-86), Margrave of Ansbach after the death of his father in 1440, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach after the death of his brother in 1464 and Elector of Brandenburg in 1470 after the abdication of his oldest brother and at the same time he inherited all the possessions of the House of Hohenzollern.After his death she resided at her dowry. She was mother of 13 children, and lived (1437-1512).

  1458-79 Sovereign Countess Margaretha von Limburg and Broich (Germany)
Succeeded her father, Wilhelm and was married to Wilhelm von Buren and Gumprecht II von Neuenhar, and lived (1406-79).

  1458-1511 Princess-Abbess Hedwig von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1465 Emperor Friedrich III confirmed her secular rights as Princess of the Realm (Reichsfürstin). 1477 the citizens of Quedlinburg raised arms to remove her, but she was supported by the Dukes Ernst und Albrecht with 400 mounted and 200 foot soldiers, who occupied the castle after a short fight and a little later the city capitulates. Hedwigs terms were written down in a treaty – among others she forced the Council of the City to leave the Hanse – the Northern German Trade Association. When the administration of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles, Reichskreisen, in 1495, she became member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was daughter of Kurfürst Friedrich II and Archduchess Margarete von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1504-74).

  1458-59 Politically Influential Dowager Despotess Helena Palailogina of Serbia
Attemted to assume power together with her brother-in-law Stefan III Brankovic after the death of her husband Prince Lazar II Branković, as local Serbs rebelled after Ottomans seized Smederevo in March 1458, taking Michael Andjelović prisoner. She arranged the marriage of her daughter to the King of Bosnia in an attempt to gather support for her position, but the Ottomans captured Smederevo during a major assault 20 June 1459 which marked the final end of the Serbian state. She fled with her two younger daughters to the island of Leukas, where she converted to Catholicism and became a nun as Hypomone. The daughter of Thomas Palaiologos, Ruler of Morea, and Catherine Zaccaria of the Principality of Achaea, she lived (1431-73).

  1459-74 Hereditary Duchess Zofia of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (At the time Germany, now Poland)
1474-83 Lady of Darłowo
She left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I (ex-king of Denmark) had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erik II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. But she remained in her territories until her death. She was daughter of Bogusław IX and Maria, who had been regent for Erik I of Pommerania (ex-king Erik VII of Denmark). She lived (1435-97).

  1459-89 Princess-Abbess Sophia III von Gleichen of Essen (Germany)
Member of a family of Counts of Gleichen in Thüringen.

  Around 1459 Reigning Abbess Eva von Erpach of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Her family was Free Lords and Lords zu Erpach und Bickenbach in Odenwald and the city of Michelstadt.

  1459-73 Reigning Abbess Ottilia Durchlacher of Gutenzell (Germany)
Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory’s position as an independent state.

  1459-77 Reigning  Abbess-General Juana de Guzmán I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas she possessed the privilege also to confirm Abbesses of subsidiary convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1459-79 Hereditary Lady Margarethe von Limburg of Bedbur and Hakenbroich (Germany)
Daughter of Wilhelm I, Count von Limburg (d. 1459) and Metza von Reifferscheid (d. 1437), and married to Gumprecht II von Neuenahr (d. 1484).

  1460-63 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Mary of Guelders of Scotland (United Kingdom)
After the death of her husband, of James II, she was regent for her son, James III, and her adviser, James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews. After their deaths, James was seized (1466) by the Boyd family, who ruled Scotland until 1469. In that year James married Margaret, daughter of the Danish king, and began to rule personally. Maria de Gelders was daughter of Duke Arnold Gelders and Catherine of Cleves and lived (1432-63).

  1460/65-74 Regent Dowager Countess Maddalena di Carreto of Gaustalla (Italy)
Widow of Pietro Guido I and regent for son Guido Galeotto.

1460-72 Regent Duchess Battista Sforza of Urbino (Italy)
 In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Duke Federico from the state. She was the daughter of Alessandro Sforza and Constanza da Varano. She lived (1446-72).

  1461-64 Titular Queen Blanca II of Navarra (Spain)
Proclaimed Queen on the death of her brother, Carlo, but was imprisoned by her father Juan II, King of Aragon since 1458, who then became King of Navarra, and was succeeded by her younger sister, Leonor in 1479. Blanca II was married to Enrico IV of Castilla and Léon, until their marriage was annulled in 1454 because she had chosen to remain a virgin. She lived (1420-64).

  1461-70 Regent Dowager Sultana Mhduma Gahan of Bahmani Sahi (India)
Ruled on behalf of her sons, Nizanu Shah (d. 1463) and Sams ad-Din Muhamed Shah II (1463-82).

  1461-65 Member of the Regency Council The Dowager Queen, Makhduma-e-Jahan Nargis Begum of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)
The widow of Humayun she was the mastermind of the Regency Council, which reigned for her son, Nizam-ud-din Ahmad III, who succeeded to the throne at the age of 8. He died on the night of his marriage, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III, who was between 9 and 10 years. When he got married at the age of 14, she retired from active role. 

  1461-72 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anastasya Aleksandrovna of Suzdal of Tver (Russia)
After the death of her husband, Boris (1399-1425-61) she was regent for Mikhail III (1453-61-85-1505), the last Grand Prince of Tver. (d. 1483).

  1461-80 County Sheriff Hebele Lydikesdatter of the County of Nygård, Denmark
Heble Kande or Kane was widow of Peder Eriksen Gyldenstierne and took over the function as County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Tenantcy of the Bishop of Roskilde (Bispelensmand). She Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Dorothea and allowed to enjoy the income of the City Tax of Odense. The daughter of Lydike Kane or Kande and Elsebe Daa, she lived (ca. 1420-80).

  1462 Politically Active Princess Katherine of Płock, Rawsk and Zawkrzew (Poland)
Engaged in politics since the death of her nephew, Prince Władysław II of Wisk, Płock, Płońsk, Rawsk, Sochaczew, Zawkrze and Bełz) in 1462, but she was deposed. Also an army leader. She had married the Lithuanian prince Michał 1440/45. She was daughter of prince of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland, and lived (1409/20-after 1468). 

  Around 1462 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Ruska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)
The widow of Bolesław IV, she reigned jointly with the bishop of Płokck.

  1462-74 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of the family of Mérode-Frankenberg, who were Guardians or Stewards if the Imperial Ecclesiastical Territory of Burtscheid. Its members were sometimes known as Merode sometimes as Franckenberg, but most Princess-Abbesses of Nivelle and of Burtscheid used the name of Franckenberg.

  1462-71 Princess-Abbess Anna VI von Räns of Baindt (Germany)
The chapter was founded 1227 it’s Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin).

  1462-91 Reigning Abbess Jeanne IV d’Ailly of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
The lands that was abandoned as a result of the war, weighed heavily on her and she constantly leased them out to the very poor. This was the origin of the association known as the “Usages” which still exists today.

  Until 1462 Hereditary Countess Anastasia von Isenburg-Wied of Isenburg and Wied (Germany)
She was the last of her line and married Dietrich IV von Runkel. Their son, Friedrich IV, was created Count zu Wied in 1454.

  1463 Regent Dowager Duchess Petronella Bembo of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greece Island-State)
Second wife of Francesco II, 16th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Lord of Syros, and regent for son Giacopo III (1446-63-80), whose daughter Fiorenza was Lady of Santhorini (1479-80), Namphios 1463, and Paros in 1520. The Turks attacked Andros in 1468 and 1470, and Naxos in 1477. His unnamed daughter held the island of Santorini as her dowry.

  1463-1528 Sovereign Dame Fiorenza Crispo of Namfios (Greek Mainland)
1479-80 Sovereign Princess of Santhorini, Thera and Therasia (Greek Island-State)
1520-28 Sovereign Dame of Paros
Inherited the lordship from her father, Guglielmo II, Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Baron of Artrogidis, Lord of Milos, Santhorini, Andros, Delos, Ios, Paros and Co-Lord of Amorgos, who had succeeded his great nephew in 1453 as Duke of Naxos with the agreement of his nephew and co-regent Francesco, depriving his niece Adriana of her rightful inheritance as well as her right of inheritance, as it was also agreed that Francesco would succeed Duke Guglielmo. She was married to Luigi Barbaro (d. 1485). Domenico I Pisani, Lord of Antiparos, and lived (1463-1528).

  1463-78 Dowager Queen Katarina Vukic Kosaca of Bosnia-Serbia
When the kingdom was occupied by the Ottomans in 1461, her husband Stjepan Tomasevic (1461-63) was killed and her son and daughter brought up in the Islamic faith. She escaped and lived in exile in Rome where she died. As the legal representative of the Bosnian Kingdom, she left it to the Holy See. She lived (1424-78). 

  1463-65 Reigning Princess Isabelle de Clermont of Taranto, Titular Queen of Jerusalem (Italy)
Isabella di Chiaromonte succeeded her uncle, Giovanni Antonio Orsini Del Balzo and had been married to Ferrante di Aragona since 1444/45, the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon who had conquered the Napolitan kingdom from French Angevins. Her husband became King of Napoli in 1458 and through her claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The elder daughter of Tristan di Chiaramonte (Tristan de Clermont-Lodeve), Count of Cupertino, and Catherine Orsini Del Balzo di Taranto, daughter of Maria d’Enghien, she was mother of 6 children, and lived (ca. 1424-65).


1463-74 Princess-Abbess Begina Grassler of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet – Schwäbisches Reichsprälatenkollegium.

  1463-69 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Merwitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Elected Pröbstin of Frose in 1425, which meant that she was the head of that dependent chapter. She gave the tenantcies of “the Castle of Plötzkau with dependencies, the Stewardship of Gernrode and Badeborn, the Lord-service (herrendienst) and half of the excise of Gernrode, estates in Asmersleben, the income from Frose and a “free farm”, and some rights in Juezer, Balberge, Pösigkau und Möllendorf and the Sewardship of Walda” jointly to the to Sovereign Princes Georg I. von Anhalt-Zerbs, Adol and Albrecht in 1468.

  Around 1463 Princess-Abbess Suzanne d’Eptingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)
Confirmed the fief, castle and village of Wangenbourg at Georges de Wangen and his brothers.

  1464-1505 Sovereign Princess Marietta Da Korogna of Sifanto 
1464-76 Sovereign Princess of Zia (Greek Island States)
Married to Nicolo Gozzadini II (Nikolaos B’ Goranidis or Gozadini). They reigned during very difficult times for the island, which was under attack from the Turks and experienced as serious reduction of the population.

  1464-79 Baroness Regnant Catherine de Coarraze of Coarraze and Aspet (France)
When she succeeded her father, her husband, Count Mathieu de Foix had been dead for 11 years, and her reign was troubled by family feuds, and in 1479 she lost the Castle and Barony of Coarraze and withdrew to Aspet. Ruined by the feuds, she sold the barony to Jean de Foix, Vicomte de Narbonne in 1483, and sought refuge at he Castle of Durfort in the village of Galey in Couserans. The mother of two daughters, she lived (1431-92).

  1464-1506 De-facto Ruler Ginevra Sforza of Bologna (Italy)
Totally dominated her second husband, Giovanni II Bentivoglio. Also her first husband, Sante Bentivoglio, ruled the state 1454 until his death in 1462. She was illegitimate daughter of Alessandro Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, and she lived (1440-1507).

  1464-83 Politically Influential Queen Elizabeth Woodville of England (United Kingdom)
1475 “Guardian of the Keeper of the Realm”
In 1464 she was married privately to King Edward IV, who reigned (1461-70 and 1471-83). Apparently she was a greedy, unscrupulous woman who insisted on the King showering lands and wealth on all her relations. In 1470 her husband was in exile and she had to take sanctuary at Westminster. In 1475 her infant old son, the later Edward V, was appointed “Keeper of the Realm” and she was named his guardian during her husband’s absence from the country. When her husband died she attempted to play a part in the regency but instead her marriage was declared invalid and she took sanctuary again. The most extraordinary point in her career was reached when the wily Richard III tempted her to come to his Court again and she went through some sort of reconciliation with him. Henry VII never trusted her and, in 1487, she went to reside in the nunnery at Bermondsey on a pension. She was daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, of the house of Luxemburg, and had first been married Sir John Grey of Groby, a Lancastrian, who fell at St. Albans in 1461. By him she had two sons. With Edward she had 10 children, among whom was Elizabeth of York, who married Henry VII and the “Princes in the Tower”, Edward V and his brother, Richard, Duke of York, who were murdered, apparently, by their uncle, Richard III. She lived (1437-65).

  1464-96 Reigning Abbess Anna von Reischach von Reichenstein-Linz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Resigned (d. 1499).

  1464 Acting Lady Anne Jensdatter of Gotland (Sweden)
Acting Lensherre – representative of the king – jointly with brother-in-law Filip Axelsen Thott after the death of her husband, Oluf Axelsen Thott, whose third wife she was.

  1465-97 De-Facto Reigning Duchess Sophia von Hinterpommern of Rügenwalde in Pommern (Poland)
Left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erich II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. She remained in her lands until her death. She was daughter of Bogislaw IX von Hinterpommern and Sophie von Schleswig-Holstein. She lived (1435-97).

  1465-75 Reigning Abbess Ursule de la Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Sister of Bonne, who reigned 1438-65.

  1466-72 Female King Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán (Mexico)
Also known as Huitzilxochtzin. Sources indicate that she might have acted as tlatoani (King) of the kingdom during a six-year gap between the reigns of Motecuhzoma I and Axayacatl. This possibility is raised by the document ‘Los Anales de Tula’. Another document, the ‘Relación de la genealogía’  goes even further, claiming that this Atotoztli actually ruled for more than thirty years. The reason so little is known about her reign because the official Aztec scribes—almost all of whom were men—neglected to mention the female tlatoani since female rulers were so uncommon. Thus, rather than mentioning her, most scribes filled this gap between male kings either by extending the reign of Motecuhzoma I beyond his death, or by pushing back the beginning of Axayacatl’s reign to a date before his actual inauguration. Shewas daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac, and married Tezozomoc, son of the previous emperor Itzcoatl, and gave birth to three sons who would later become emperors themselves: Axayacatl, Tizoc, and Ahuitzotl.

  1466-69 Regent Duchess Yolande de Valois of Savoia, the Counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte
1471-1472-78 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy (Italy)
Jolanda di Valois was in charge of the government during the illness of husband, Amedeo IX. With the help of her brother, King Louis XI of France, she managed to fight of the armed resistance of her three sons. After Amadeo’s death she became regent for her son, Duke Philiberto I of Savoy and Titular-king of Armenia, Cyprus and Jerusalem, who died 18 years old in 1482. She managed to manoeuvre between the interests of her brother and Charles, Duke of Burgundy. She was daughter of King Charles VII of France and Maria di Napoli, and lived (1434-78).

  1466-94 Regent Dowager Countess Theda Ukena of Ostfriesland (Germany)
Grand-daughter of the Friesian chief Fokko Ukena and married Ulrich Cirksena who was created count of Ostfriesland in 1454 one year after their marriage. After his death she was first regent for son Enno I, who drowned in 1491 and then for Edzard I. She successfully led her troops in warfare against other major chiefs and counts in the Friesland area.

  1466-80 Dowager Reigning Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Gemen of the Office and Castle of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Arnold I von Bentheim-Steinfurt, she reigned her dowry, until she resigned in 1480. She lived (after 1439-1502).

  Until 1466 Sovereign Countess Marguerite d’Orléans of Vertus-en-Champagne (France)
Daughter of Louis de France, Duc de Touraine, d’Orléans etc., and married Richard de Bretagne, comte d’Étampes. She lived (1406-66).

  1467 Princess Regnant Bigum Hatun of Qara Quyünlü (Black Sheep Turks in Iran/Iraq)
After the death of Jahanshah (1435-67) she held power before the Hassan Ali came on the throne of the Emirate of Qara Qoyunu, Turkmen vassals of the Jalayirids in Eastern Anatolia. They became independent in 1389, after the Jalayirids had been overrun by Tamerlane’s Timurids.

  From 1467 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Leiningen-Westerburg (Germany)
Following the death of her brother Hesso, the last male of the family, she took possession of the lands. She was the widow of Richard zu Westerburg and became the founder of the lines of Alt-Leiningen-Westerburg and Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg. 

  1468-77 Regent Great Dowager Queen Yun Jong-hi of Korea
Also known as Jong-hi Wang-hu, she ruled in the name of her son Ye-jong II after the death of her husband, Great King Se-jo. In 1469 her son died and was succeeded by a nephew, her grandson Song-jong (1457-69-95). She was daughter of the Prime Minister, and lived (1418-83).

  1468-69 De Facto Reigning Dowager Countess Marie von Croÿ of Blankenheim (Germany)
Managed to keep control of the territory for a period after her husband, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, but in the end had to give in to her in-laws. At first she pretended to be pregnant, and then petitioned Duke Charles von Burgund for aid and assistance. In 1471 her marriage to Wilhelm von Vierneburg ended the feud.

  1468-70 Claimant Elisabeth von Schleiden of the County of Blankenheim (Germany)
Daughter of Johanna von Blankenheim and Johann von Scheiden, she claimed the County after her cousin, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, without leaving any heirs. Elisabeth’s son Dietrich von Manderscheid came in possession of the territories Blankenheim and Gerolstein in 1470, but the disagreements with other branches of the family continued for many years. 

  1469-82 Politically Influential Lucrezia Tornabuoni of Firenze (Italy)
During the reign of her son, Lorenzo de’ Medici, she was very involved in the political life of the Republic and exercised considerable influence. She also also wrote sonnets, She was a daughter of Francesco Tornabuoni and Selvaggia Alessandrini. and was married to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, son of Cosimo de’ Medici, a wealthy banker from Florence, who helped the family return from their exile from the City State. She lived (1425-82)

  1469-87 Politically Influential Clarice Orsini of Firenze (Italy)
Functioned as representative – as a quasi-diplomat – of her husband, Lorenzo de’ Medici, during his tenure as de-facto ruler of the Florentine Republic.  She was mother of Pope Leo X and daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. She lived (circa 1453-87).

  1469-1504 Princess-Abbess Scholastika von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The Princess grew up in the Convent of Helfta and became a canoniss in Quedlinburg before she was elected Fürstäbtissin at the age of 18, but was not confirmed in office by Emperor Friederich III until 1488. She stabilized the internal affairs of the chapter, but the finances was put under heavy strain by a process against the Bishop of Halberstadt, who had made a dam which flodded parts of the lands of the territory. After 24 years it ended with a settlement. She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie von Honstein (d. 1451). Her aunt, Mechtildis, had been sovereign of the territory 1451-63, and her sister, Agnes was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1485. Scholastika lived (1451-1504).

  1469-75 Acting Reigning Abbess Margaretha III von Paulstorff of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
As Coadjurix she was Acting Chief of the chapter and territory.

  1469-1490/1492 Politically Influential Catherine Cantacuzina Branković in the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
When her husband, Count Ulrich II of Celli (1406-56), died she inherited his properties, but was obliged to conclude a treaty one year later with Friedrich III Duke of Austria under which she handed over all the Cilli castles in Carinthia, Styria and Carniola while she retained the family castles in Hungary and Croatia. However, in 1460 she was had to sell her remaining properties to Vitovec,  Ban of Slavonia, and retired to Dubrovnik. 9 years later she joined her younger sister, Mara Branković, widow of Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire, at her residence in Ježevo (probably identical to the modern settlement of Dafni in Mount Athos), who was and advisor of her step-son Mehmed from 1451. Together with her sister, she acted as intermediary during the Turkish/Venetian war which lasted until 1479. The daughter of Despot Đurađ Branković of Serbia and Eirene Kantakouzene, she lived (ca. 1418-1490/1492).

  1470-82 Regent Princess Madeleine de France of Andorra and Foix-Béarn (France)
1479-83 and 1483-84 Regent of Navarra (Spain)
Also known as Madalena de Valois, she was in charge of the government in the name of Francesco in Foix-Béarn and Andorra 1470-83 after her husband, Count Gaston V’s death. In 1479 her son succeeded his paternal grandmother, Queen Leonor, who only reigned a few months, in Navarra, After Francesco’s premature death, she became regent for daughter, Catalina, but her brother-in-law, Jean de Foix, claimed the throne on the basis of salic law, which had never been used in Navarra. This led to civil war, and she was taken hostage by Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1494, and died the following year. Her death provoked fresh conflict. She was daughter of Charles VII of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and lived (1443-95).

  1470-ca. 92 Regent Khatun Mandughai of Mongolia
Also known as Mandugaya Setsen Khantun, she was widow of Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan, who was succeeded by his nephew, Bolkho, in 1467. When he was assassinated three years later, the mother of his five-year-old son, Dayan Qagani, had deserted the child, and Mandughai took him under her protection, proclaimed him khan, and became his regent. She assumed command of the Mongol troops and defeated their enemy, the Oirat. In 1481 she married Dayan, and 1491-92 she again lead the army to fend off the Orat. She lived (circa 1448-circa 1492).

  1470-90 We Ban-ri Gau Daeng Marawa Makalappi Bisu-ri La Langpili Patta-ri La We Larang, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Styled Arung Majang before her accession on the death of her father. Her ceremonial name was Malajangi-ri China, and she was mother of two sons.

  1470-… Sultana Narisa Malik uz-Zahir of Samudra Pasai Kesepulih (Indonesia)
Daughter of Sultan Kadir al Malik uz-Zahir ibnu al-Marhum of Pasai and married to Sultan Muhammad of Aceh, who reigned (1465-77).

  1470-97 Temporary Regent Ingeborg Åkesdotter Tott the County of Gripsholm with the Shires of Selebo, Åkers, Österrekarnas and Villåttinge and the Estate of Strömsrum (Sweden) 1504-07 Reigning Dowager Lady of the fief of Häme Castle (Finland) Often in charge of Gripsholms Län after her second husband, Sten Gustafsson Sture, became regent of Sweden. She was highly interested in science, theology and education and known as the patron of such things. She encouraged the foundation of the first secular university in Sweden, the Uppsala Academy and the Uppsala University in 1477, and gave large and independent donations from her own money to print books and finance libraries. When union with Denmark was re-established, and the Danish king made regent of Sweden in 1497, she and her husband left for Finland, where they held a grand court at Tavastehus Castle. In 1501, a rebellion broke out and her husband again retook his position. After his death in 1503, she withdraw to her estates. In 1505, the castellan Folke Gregerinpolka tired to take the castle by force with the support of the council, but she was supported by the people and by some of the nobility and his troops had to retreat. She lived (1440s-1507).

  1470s Legendary Resistance Leader Marfa Boretskaya of Novgorod (Russia)
Also known as Marfa-posadnitsa – or Martha the Mayoress – and according to legend she led the Novgorodian opposition to Grand Prince Ivan III of Muscovy. Her reputation derives from the “Slovesa izbranna,” a unique medieval account of events culminating in the Battle of Shelon’ in 1471. Its anonymous author vilifies Marfa for conspiring to align Novgorod politically and ecclesiastically with Lithuania and alleges that her treasonous, heretical acts prompted Ivan III’s retribution against Novgorod. This article correlates the literary portrait with other documentation, including charters, land cadastres, and chronicles. These sources confirm that Marfa Boretskaia was a wealthy widow, connected through kinship ties to a number of influential Novgorodian families, but not that she organized anti-Muscovite activities. Literary analysis identifies the “Slovesa izbranna” as a work of homiletic rhetoric. By exploiting misogynistic biases to demonize Marfa, the writer hoped to divert the blame for Novgorod’s transgressions away from his clients, Archbishop Feofil and the ecclesiastical administration at the Cathedral of St. Sophia, and thus to forestall anticipated reprisals by Moscow against the Novgorodian church. Novgorod was finally conquered in 1478.

  1471-75 Regent Infanta Joana of Portugal
In charge of the government during a military campaign of her father, king Afonso V (1438-81). At birth, she was declared Crown Princess after the death of her older brother João who died as an infant the year before, and she was given the title of Princess – a title reserved to the heir apparent. When brother, Joao was born in 1555 she became second-in-line to the throne. After vehemently refusing several proposals of marriage, she was allowed to join the Dominican Convent of Jesus in Aveiro in 1475 after her brother, had his first child. Still, she was compelled several times to leave the convent and return to the court, before she was finally professed as a nun. She continued to be a great supporter of her brother, the later king João II of Portugal, throughout his reign and her life. She was beatified in 1693 by Pope Innocent XII, and even though she has not been canonized, she is known as Santa Joana Princesa, and lived (1452-90).

  1471-72 and 1477-81 Regent Princess Catarina van Egmond-Gelders of Gelders and Zypten (The Netherlands)
First reigned on behalf of her brother, Adolf II, who was held prisoner and later for son, Karel van Egmond (1492-1538). In 1479 her claims was recognized by France who supported her against Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, who in the end drew her away. She was daughter of Duke Arnold van Egmond-Gelders and Katharina von Kleve, and lived (1439-96).

  1471-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Lüchow in Braunschweig (Germany)
1479-86 Member of the Council of Regency of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1479-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ziegenhain and Nidda in Katzenelnbogen
After the death of her husband Duke Otto (1438-64-71), she withdrew to her dowry in Lüchow. In 1474 she married Count Philipp von Katzenelnbogen and leased her dowry out, and left her children behind in Celle as costmary for princely widows at the time. After Philipp’s death in 1479, she returned to Braunschweig, where her son Heinrich had succeeded his grandfather Friederich II (reigned 1451-57, d. 1578) as Duke a few months before. She was given a large sum to give up claims to the County of Katzenelnbogen (her step-daughter Anna (1443-94) was among the claimants of the county). In 1481 she is mentioned in the sources as her as part of the regency council, even though no official sources of her installation as regent has survived. She reformed the economy of the country; spend money on religious institutions and charity. Her son proved to be a totally irresponsible ruler, and with the help of the Estates, became head of a council that virtually empowered him. She put much energy in reforming the economy but many depths remained when she again withdrew to her dowry. 1495 was also the year that Celle was hit by the plague and she therefore reformed the hospitals. During her last years she travelled a lot visiting family, and lived (1440-1515).

  1471-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Mechthild von Württemberg of the City and Office of Rotenburg an der Fulda and the Castle and Office of Gudensberg in Hessen  (Niederhessen) (Germany)
Even though she had been asked to take the regency, she transferred the regency for her two sons Wilhelm the Older and Wilhelm the Middle in Niederhessen, to her brother-in-law Heinrich III in Oberhessen. three days after the death of her husband, Ludwig II. Instead she was given a rich dowry and she was possibly in charge of the upbringing of her sons, and she remained influential in the government of the county. She lived (ca. 1444-94).

  1471-75 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta of Masowia of Bernstadt and Oels (Bierutów and Oleśnica) (Then Germany, now Poland)
Also known as Małgorzata, she had been politically active since her marriage to the Slesian Prince of Oleśnica, Konrad IX, in 1447/53 and after his death she held the duchy as her dowry, and 1575 her daughter, Barbara took over as Duchess of Oels. Daughter of prince of Małopolska Siemowit V (Ziemovit von Masowien) and Małgorzata, she lived 1436/41- after 1483).

  1471-1504 Princess-Abbess Margarethe III vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)
In 1478, by a visitation of the bishop of Trient, the Chapter was “Hortus Floridus” – describer of flowers – for the first time.

  Around 1471 Reigning Abbess Osanna Jäger of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
The Chapter acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace, but the abbess did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire.

  Until 1472 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Guise (France)
Married Charles d’Anjou, Duc de Maine, whose first wife was Corbella Ruffo, Contessa di Montalto e di Corigliano (d. 1442). She was mother of one daughter, Louise (1445-77), who was married to Jacques, Comte d’Armagnac and Duc de Nemours. 

  1472-92 Reigning Abbess Apollonia von Hohenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Daughter of Sigmund von Hohenberg, of the House of Hohenzollern, and Ursula von Räzüns. 

  After 1472-1503 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Sophia Palaiologina of Moscow and Russia
Over the years she started to wield great influence on her aged husband, Ival III, Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all the Russians (1440-1505). It is thought that she was the first to introduce the Kremlin to grand Byzantine ceremonies and meticulous etiquette. The idea of Moscow as the Third Rome evidently pleased her. Shortly before her death she persuaded her husband to pass the throne to her son Vasili, rather than to Ivan’s grandson Dmitry, as had been planned earlier. Apart from Vasili III, only her fifth son, Andrey of Staritsa, left issue. She was daughter of Thomas Palaeologus, the Despot of Morea and was taken to Rome together with her brothers after conquest of Morea by Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1460. In Rome, her Greek name Zoe was changed to Sophia. She lived (ca. 1455-1503).

  1473-74 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine Cornaro of Cyprus
1474-89 Queen Regnant of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
1489-1510 Sovereign Countess of Alonso (Italy)
When her husband King Jacques II died, she was appointed Queen until the birth of an heir, with a council of regency among whom were her uncles, but her son King Jacques III only lived one year. The Venetians acquired increased importance, but their pretensions were resented by the Cypriot nobility, who designed to place on the throne Alfonso, a natural son of Ferdinand of Napoli. The Latin archbishop, Fabricius, who was the leader of Alfonso’s party, arrived in Cyprus with two armed galleys and a letter from the Pope denouncing her uncles Andrea Cornaro and Marco Bembo as murderers of her husband, and they were killed. But the Cypriots did not support the conspiracy. On the arrival of a Venetian fleet at Famagusta to demand satisfaction for the murder of her uncles, the conspirators sought safety in flight. She was allowed to remain Queen of Cyprus, but had no real power, since all the principal offices of the kingdom were in the hands of the Venetians. After 15 years she was persuaded to leave Cyprus. To compensate her she was allowed to retain the title of Queen, with an ample allowance. In 1489 she embarked for Venice, and remained in exile at Alonso for the remainder of her life. She lived (1454-1510).

  1473-83 Sovereign Duchess Yolande d’Anjou of Lorraine
1480-83 Duchess of Bar, Countess d’Alsace  (France) 
1480-83 Titular Queen of Sicily, Sardegna and Jerusalem 
Her brother, Jean II, succeeded their mother, Isabelle, who was Duchess 1431-53), and when he died, his son, Nicolas, inherited the title. She succeeded him, but transferred the Duchy to her son, Ferry II, and did the same when she inherited the Duchy of Bar from her father. From him, René I d’Anjou, Count of Guise, Provence and Forcalquier Duke d’Anjou, King of Napoli and Titular king of Sicily, Hungary, Jerusalem and Aragon (1409-80). From him she also inherited the claim to Jerusalem. She was married to Ferry II de Lorraine,  Count de Vaudémont and Lord de Joinville (ca. 1428-70), son of Antoine de Lorraine and Marie, Comtesse d’Aumale et baronne d’Elbeuf. She lived (1428-83).

  1473 Edaiken Edeleyo of Benin (Nigeria)
King Ezoti was killed by an aggravated palace boy during his coronation. A relative, Owere, was elected king, but both he and his mother were assassinated on the way back by his uncle, Okpame – but news of Okpame’s action leaked, and he was banished to Ora. Fear of Okpame made Owere’s brother, Olua, refuse the throne and instead his older sister, Edeleyo was invited to become Oba. She was actually installed as Edaiken but fell ill to an unspecified incurable female complaint on her way to Uselu. Since her problem was incurable and of “a peculiarly female nature” it was enacted that no woman should be allowed to reign in the future. But Queen-Mothers continued to be important and still is.

  1473-88 Reigning Abbess Ursula Egglofer of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Swabian Chapter was mainly for Swabian noble maidens.

  1473-86 Princess-Abbess Gertrudis de Sombreffe of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Countess Eva van Isenburg, was elected as her successor in 1486, but another of the ladies of the chapter, Amalia van Rennenberg, claimed to be have more right to the position of  sovereign of the territory. Emperor Maximillian supported Eva, but Amalia and her brother Count Willem van Rennenberg attacked the Abbey, and the succession was not finally settled until 1502 with Eva as the winner.  

  1473 Princess-Abbess Catherine III de Neufchatel of Remiremont  (France)
Her election was not confirmed. A sister, Agnes was a nun at Remiremont until her death in 1474 and another, Marguerite, was Abbess of Baume-les-Dame. They were children of Thibaud IX, Lord de Neufchatel, de Blamont, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Marshall and Captain-General of Burgundy and Bonne de Chateauvillain, Dame de Grancey. Catherine lived (1455-1501).

  1473-1505 Princess-Abbess Jeanne III d’Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont  (France)
Doyenne and Second in Command 1427-52, and probably held other offices until her election as sovereign of the statelet. In 1484 the troops of Maréchal de Bourgogne and the Lord de Joinville fought a battle on the walls of Remiremont and the lands of the abbey was ruined by the war. Also Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).

  1473-93 Politically Influential Duchess Eleonora de Aragon of Modena and Ferrara
Held firmly on to the reins of government during the absences of her husband Ercole I d’Este, showing herself to be decisive and authoritative, but also wise and level-headed. She had first been married to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Bari and was daughter of Ferdinando I of Napoli and Isabella of Tarento and lived (1450-93).

  1474-1504 Queen Isabel I de Trastamara of Castilla and León (Spain)
The daughter of Juan II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 she married Fernando de Aragón. She succeeded her brother Enrico IV, but Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of her brother’s daughter, Juana la Beltraneja, attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later her husband became King Fernando V the Catholic of Aragón. This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spain’s future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Juana the Mad. Isabella and her husband (known together as “the Catholic monarchs”) are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the re-conquest of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbus’s voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain. She lived (1451-1504).

  1474-76 Pretender Infanta Juana da Beltraneja of Castilla (Spain)
In 1454 her father, Enrico IV appointed her heiress to the throne (Princess of Asturias) after he had disinherited Isabel after her marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon. Rumours had it that she was the result of an affair between her mother, Juana of Portugal, and Beltrán de la Cueva, and therefore the paternity was disputed, and she was passed over in the succession in favour of her aunt, Queen Isabel I. She rebelled but in 1479 she signed off her rights to the throne and the following year she entered a Chapter in Portugal. Juana lived (1462-1530).

  1474 Acting Captain-Donatary Antonia de Burges of the Island of Terceira in Azores (Portugal)
Reigned as governor of the king of Portugal in the absence of her father, Jacome de Burges, who had evidently disappeared during a sea voyage, and in spite of the fact that the captaincy was originally granted with a stipulation that if there were no male heir, she would inherit it, the King Afonso V, gave it in part to Joao Vaz Corte-Real.

  Until 1474 Hereditary Marshall Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of the Archbishopric of Köln and Heiress of Alfter (Germany)
Married to Count Johann VI von Reifferscheid, Count zu Salm (d. 1475).


1474-97 Princess-Abbess Ursula von Silberberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.

  Until 1474 Princess-Abbess Beatrix von Enzberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Resigned because of fights between different factions of the ladies of the chapter.

  1474-90 Princess-Abbess Marguerite II van Hauchin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Another member of the family, Joannes Hauchinus (Hauchin) (1527-89), was the second Archbishop of Mechelen.

  1475-78 Sovereign Duchess Barbara von Ohlau of Oleśnica (Oels) (Then Germany, now Poland)
The Polish version of her name is Barbara Oleśnicka, she was daughter of Duke Konrad IX and Małgorzata, who reigned 1471-75.

  1475-… Hereditary Castellana Ludovica Hofer of Duino in Trieste (Italy)
Her father, Matteo Hofer (or Hoffer) had been given the fief by Emperor Maximilian in 1473. Ludovica was married to Raimondo IV della Torre. In 1653 the fief reverted to the state, but the family continued to rule the area and it was handed down trough the female line to the families of Della Torre Valvassina, Hohenlohe, Thurn und Taxis and Torre e Tasso.

  1475-1520 Princess-Abbess Agnes von Notthafft of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1494 she was appointed Princess of the Empire and was granted a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Reichstag frequently met in Regensburg, and from 1500 she was member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle). She was daughter of Count Albrecht von Notthafft von Wernberg (1422-68), Her niece, Kunigunde, was Lady of the Chapter and was mentioned as the “Old Lady of the Chapter” in 1560, and lived (before 1440-1580).

  1475-95 Reigning Abbess Barbe I d’Ollenhain d’Estaimbourg of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Estaimbourg.

  1475-93 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina von Österreich of the Administrative Office and Castle of Hohenbaden in Baden-Baden (Germany)
Widow of Margrave Karl I von Baden (1453-75), who was succeeded by their oldest son, Christoph I, who build the “New Castle” and left the old one for his mother as her residence and dowry. Among her other 5 children was Margareta, Abbess in Lichtenthal, who lived (1452-95). Katharina lived (1423-93).

  1476-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Bona di Savoia of Milano (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Galeazzo, she became took over the regency for their son, Gian Galazzo II (1476-94), until she was supplanted in her power by the boy’s uncle, Lodovico the Moor in 1474. She was daughter of Duke Ludovico I of Savoy (1343-65) and Princess Anne de Lusignan Cyprus, mother of four children and lived (1449-1503).

  1476 De-Facto Ruler Duchess Barbara von Brandenburg of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów-Krosno/Krosno Odrzańskie) (Poland/Germany)
1476-1510 Reigning Lady in Züllichau und Crossen
Her first husband, Heinrich XI of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów and Krosno) died in February and in August 1476, she married per procura Ladislaus II Jagiellon of Bohemia and Hungary, but they never met and as her husband wanted to marry the Anna von Habsburg of Bohemia and Hungary and in 1495 she asked the pope to annul her marriage and got engaged to Konrad von Heideck. As reaction her family imprisoned her in the Castle of Plassburg. Five years later the divorce was granted and nothing more is known of her, but she probably remained at Plassburg. She was daughter of margrave Albrecht Achilles Hohenzollern and his wife Anna, and lived (1464-1515).

  1476-79 Contra-Abbess Jakobe von Neuenhar  of Herford (Germany)
In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen (1442-84). Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen had been Contra-Abbess 1442-43.

  1476-81 Territorial Countess Anne Mowbray of Norfolk (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest. She was the only child of John Mowbray, 4th. Duke of Norfolk. She was only three years of age when her father died, leaving her heiress to the vast Mowbray estates. At the age of three she was married to king Edward IVs younger son Prince Richard, Duke of York. (1473-83). She died of the plague and died in 19 November 1481 a month before her ninth birthday and two years before the disappearance of the Princes. She lived (ca. 1472-81).

  1477-82 Maria de Bourgogne, by the Grace of God, Duchess Burgundy, Lorraine, Gelders, Limburg, Jülich, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Countess of Flanders, Hainault, d’Artois, Boulogne, Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d’Eu, Vermandois, Charolais, Macon, Montbelliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel and Baroness d’Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine, Lady of Friesland, Salins and of Mechelen etc (France and Belgium)
At her father’s death in January 1477, Louis XI of France seized Burgundy and Picardy and prepared to her entire inheritance. To gain the assistance of Flanders, Brabant, Hainault, and Holland, whose representatives met at Ghent in February 1477, she granted the Great Privilege, which restored the liberties of the provincial estates that her father and grandfather had abrogated. She then rejected Louis XI’s proposal that she marry the dauphin Charles, and in May she married Maximilian, who had hastened to her assistance with an army. However, the Low Countries remained in turmoil; despite his victory at Guinegate in 1479, and after Maria’s death Maximilian was forced to agree to the Treaty of Arras, by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed to France. Mary’s premature death, caused by a fall from horseback, left her young son Philip (later Philip I of Castile) her heir, but only in 1493 was Maximilian able to regain control over the Low Countries, where Philip had been a virtual prisoner until 1485. The Treaty of Senlis in 1493 with France restored Artois and Franche-Comté to Philip, but Burgundy and Picardy remained French. Mary of Burgundy had several children, and lived (1457-82).

  1477-1501 Sovereign Countess Caterina Sforza of Forli and Imola (Italy)
Daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza by Lucrezia Landiani, and was later legitimized. At the age 15 she gave birth to the first of 7 children in nine years. The Orsi family murdered her first husband, Girolamo Riaria, in 1488 and she was taken captive with the children – but escaped. She got help from Milano and Bologna. From here on, she became noted as a brutal tyrant, initially as regent for her son, Ottaviano. Married her second husband, Giacomo Peo, around 1490 and had a son with him, before he was murdered 1495. Her third husband was Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de Medici, who died of natural causes after one year of marriage. She continued to rule her small lands until they were attacked by Cesare Borgia in 1499. She was then imprisoned in Belvedere Palace at the Vatican for four months. After a failed escape attempt, she was imprisoned in Castel Sant’ Angelo for one year. Released after having given up her lordship, and died eight years later in Firenze. She lived (1463-1509).

  1477-1500 Acting Captain-Donatary Maria de Vilhena of Flores e Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)
Acted in the name of her oldest son, Capitão do donatário Rui Teles. In 1500 she sold the islands to João da Fonseca, de Évora.

  1477-91 Reigning Abbess Anne d’Orléans of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Sister of Louis XII, she continued the reforms of the order initiated by Marie de Bretagne.

  1477-86 Reigning Abbess-General María de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Spiritual and secular ruler of more than 60 lordhips and villages in Castilla and Léon.

  1478-before 1481 Regent Dowager Margravine Barbara von Hohenzollern of Mantua (Italy)
Participated in the management of government during the reign of her husband, Ludovico II Gonzaga 1444-78, and personally edited the education of children. After the death of her husband, she was regent for son, Federico (1441-84). She was the first daughter of Johan the Alchemist, Elector of Brandenburg and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenbere lived (1423-81).

  1478-82 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Jestetten of Schänis (Switzerland)
The chapter presented her to the Bishop of Chur for her inauguration after her election. 1479 se presented the priest Bartholome Zwingli to the church of Schänis, he was uncle of Ulrich Zwingli, the leader of the Swiss reformation. She was member of the line of “Civil Servant Nobility” (Ministerialen) von Tengen, who owned the Swiss lordship of Hedingen in the Canton of Schaffenhausen, and originated in the Baden-area on the boarder to Switzerland.

  1478-1501 Politically Influential Queen Giovanna III de Aragona of Napoli (Italy)
1494-96 Lieutenant General of Napoli
1501 Regent of Aragon (Spain)
1505 Regent of Valencia (Spain)
1505-08 Regent of Napoli
Until 1517 Lady of the Fief of the Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)
Closest advisor of her husband, Ferrante I, who succeeded his father Alfonso I of Sicily in 1558. After his death in 1494, she encouraged her step-son King Alfonso II (1448-95) not to abdicate after the French attacked the kingdom, and when he left the country, he appointed her Lieutenant General. He was succeeded by his son, Ferrante II (1469-96), who married his aunt – her daughter, Giovanna IV (1478-1518) who was styled as joint monarch, whom she attempted to have placed on the throne in 1496. Instead her younger step-son Federico II came on the throne until he was deposed by King Louis XII of France in 1504. She went to Spain and was Regent in Aragon and Valencia until she returned when her brother, Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon (married to Isabel I the Catholic of Catille) conquered Napoli, and she became regent until she was removed from office, and both she and her daughter, Giovanna IV, disappeared from public life. Born as Juana de Aragón she was daughter of King Juan II of Aragon, Navarra, Valencia, Cerdeña and Sicilia and his second wife doña Juana Enríquez Señora de Casarrubios del Monte y Arroyojolinos, and lived (1454-1517).

  1479-84 Regent Ippolita Maria Sforza of Bari (Italy)
Ruled for her brother Ludovico il Moro (1452-1508). She was the daughter of Bianca Maria Visconti and the condottiero Francesco I Sforza. Ippolita was married to of King Afonso II d’Aragon of Napoli and she was mother of Isabella of Aragon, who later became Duchess of Bari and mother of Polish Queen Bona Sforza. She lived (1446-84).

  1479-94 Hereditary Countess Anna of Katzelnbogen-Dietz (Germany)
1483-94 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Lordship and Village of Biedenkopf, City and Office of Grissen and the City of Grünberg in Hessen-Marburg
A few days after the death of her husband, Landgraf Heinrich III von Hessen-Margurg (Oberhessen) , she relinquished all claims of the regency for her son, probably because she was only 20 years old herself, and the age of majority was 25. A source shows how she and her Councillors mended various feuds between the Council and inhabitants of Grünberg. She was daughter and heir of Philipp I. (ca. 1402-79), who was married to Anna von Württemberg, and Count of Katzenelnbogen and parts of the County of Diez, and after her death the County was in dispute between her two daughters and their heirs after the death of their brother, Wilhelm III in 1500; Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1523), clamed one part in 1500, and Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505) another. A compromise was not reached until 1520. Anna lived (1443-94).

  1479-86 Possible Member of the Regency Council Margarethe von Stargard of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)
Known as Margarethe von Stargard, it appears that she sometimes stood in for her sister-in-law, Anna, when she was absent from Celle. She was the third wife of Heinrich von Mecklenburg-Stargard (1417-38-66), and mother of tow daughters Magdalene (1454-1532), who was married to Duke Wartislaw V of Pommerania (d. 1478) and Count Burkard von Barby-Mülingen (d. 1505) and Anna, who was a nun at Ribnitz (1465-98). After her husband’s death she resided at her dowries at Plau, but she moved back to Braunschweig around 1473. The dispute over her dowries between the ducal houses of Mecklenburg and Lüneburg continued after the Stargard line dies out and was never settled. In 1498 she entered the Convent of Wienhausen and lived there for the rest of her life. She (d. 1512).

  1479-1500 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and the Princess-Abbess also sat in the Bavarian Landtag. She was succeeded by her relative Agnes II von Paulsdorff.

  Ca. 1480-ca.90 Paramount Chief Orompoto of Oyo (Nigeria)
Either the sister of Ofinran (1452-54) or his son, the sources are not clear about this!

  1480-1509 Princess-Abbess Anna I Sauter of Heggbach (Germany)
1481 Emperor Friederich III confirmed the imperial protection of the Chapter. During her reign the Abbey-church received another altar around 1490, the chapel a side-chapel and the west wing an addition. She was born as daughter of a citizen of Pfullendorf

  1480-1502 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Henriksdatter Friis of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark
Margrethe Friis was appointed jointly with her husband, Morten Tinhuus Skinkel, for life. Her son Laurids Skinkel paid it off from her in 1502. She (d. ca. 1511).

  1481-1521 Royal County Sheriff Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark of the Counties Tranekær, Næsbyhoved, Koldinghus and Ribe (Denmark)
1500-02 In charge of the government in Sweden 
Given the fiefs for personal use when her husband, Hans, became King Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1500-02 she was in charge of the government in Sweden during his engagement elsewhere. She was under siege from the Swedish nobility and kept in captivity 1502-03. After Hans’ death in 1513 she withdrew to her fiefs, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She died (1521). 

  1481-1501 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Sachsen von Bayern-Landshut of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz in Sachen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig she returned back to Saxony and exchanged her Bavarian dowries with Rochlitz, where she lived with a large court. The reason for the exchange seems that she wanted to be close to her mother, Margarethe von Österreich, who mainly lived at Altenburg and Colditz. Anna lived (1536-1501).

  1481-86 Amina Gülbahar Khanum Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Gülbahar was the widow of Mehmet II the Conqueror and became Queen Mother of her son, Bayazit (1481-1512). The Valide Sultan was the mother of the sultan, and had an important place in the imperial family. In some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. An apocryphal story about her is that she was a daughter of the king of France and abducted by the Turks on her way to marry the Emperor Constantine XI Draganes of Byzanz, but she was probably originally Greek and lived (1434-86).  

  1482-92 Regent ‘A’isha al-Hurra of Cordova (Spain)
Gained support from the nobles and military leaders to depose her husband, ‘Ali abu al-Hasan (reigned 1461-82), who was being infatuated by his Christian concubine, Isabella, who had converted to Islam and taken the name of Soraya. Aisha’s son, Muhammad Abu ‘Abdallah was proclaimed as caliph, and she played a prominent role in the last years of the Muslim reign in the south of Spain, which was conquered by their Catholic majesties, Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando of Aragon.

  1482-1503 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Margaret of York of Bourgogne (France)
Acted as de-facto joint regent with her son-in-law Maximillian von Habsburg, who was Holy Roman Emperor after the death of her stepdaughter, Duchess Maria. Margaret was the third wife and widow of Charles Le Hardi, who died 1477, and lived (1446-1503).

  1482-1546 Sovereign Countess Marie I de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint Pôl, Ligny, de Marle, Soissons and Conversano, Sovereign Princess of Condé-en-Brie, Vicomtesse de Meaux, Dame de Condé, Oisy, Espernon, Luceu, Ham, Bohaing, Beaurevoir, Dunkerke, Bourgbourg, Gravelinghes, Tonnelieux, Bruges, Chastelaine of De l’ Isle and Dame of the Castellany, Lands and Lordship of Saint Callais (France)
1495-1508 Regent Dowager Countess of Vendôme, Chartres and Mondoubleau
Daughter of Count Pierre II de Saint Pôl, Soissons, Brienne, Roussy and Marle and Margaritha of Savoia. First married to her uncle, Jacques de Savoie, Comte Romont and Baron de Vaud, and secondly to François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme. After her husband’s death, she was regent for her son, Charles, Duke of Vendôme, Count of Chartres and Soissons, Marle and La Fere and Lord of Mondoubleau, and the period of her regency was the most brilliant in the history of Vendôme. She enlarged the Collégiale Saint Georges, rebuilt the Church of Saint Martin. Her second son was François I de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl, Duke of Estouteville, Count of St.-Pôl. who died in 1545 and was succeeded by his son, François II, who died after one year and was succeeded by his sister Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl. A daughter, Louise, was Abbess of Fontevrault. Her sister, Françoise was dame d’Enghien, and she lived (1472-1546).

  1482-1530 President of the Regency Council The Makhduma-e-Jahan of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)
As Dowager Queen, she was regent for son Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when some usurpers had been overthrown.

  1483-1512 Queen Regnant Catalina de Grailly of Navarra, Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchesse de Gandía, Montblac,  Peñafiel, Countess de Foix, Bigorre, Ribagorza and Vicomtesse de Béarn (Spain)
1513-18 Queen of Baja Nawarra
Also known as Catharine de Foix-Grailly, she succeeded brother, King Francesco under the regency of her mother, Marguerite de Valois (regent for her brother from 1479), and until 1492 she fought over the throne with her uncle, Juan de Foix. 1484 she married Jean II d’Albert and ruled jointly with him. The death of her mother, Magdalena, 1504 as a hostage of Ferdinand the Catholic in Medina del Campo, provoked new wars between the Navarrese and the count of Lerín until 1508. In 1512 the Duke of Alba occupied Pamplona and the following year the Cortes of Navarra proclaimed Fernando the Catholic as king of Navarra, and since then, Alta Navarra has been an integral part of Spain. All subsequent attempts by her and her husband to reassemble their kingdom were futile, and she was queen in Lower Navarre, north of the Pyrenees, Succeeded by son, Enrique II and after his death by daughter Juana II d’Abret as titular Queen, and lived (1468/70-1517).

  1483-90 Regent Princess Anne de Beaujeu of France
1503-ca. 09 Regent of Bourbon etc. 
Created Viscountess of Thouars in 1468 in anticipation of her marriage to Nicholas, Duke of Lorraine, but when he broke the engagement and then died unexpectedly in 1473, her father, Louis XI took back the fief. That same year, Anne married Pierre II de Bourbon instead. After her father’s death, she was regent during the minority of her brother, Charles VIII, and maintained the royal authority and the unity of the kingdom against the Orleans party. Her regency overcome many difficulties, including unrest amongst the magnates who had suffered under her father’s oppressions. Concessions, many of which sacrificed Louis’s favourites, were made, and land was restored to many of the hostile nobles, including the future Louis XII, then the Duke of Orleans. She made the final treaty ending the Hundred Years’ War, the Treaty of Etaples and, in 1491 arranged the marriage of her brother to Duchess Anne de Bretagne, but when her brother came of age she and her husband fell victim to the wrath of the new queen, whose duchy’s independence had been compromised. When her husband died in 1503, their daughter Suzanne, succeeded him as Duchess of Bourbon. Anne, however, had always been the more dominant member in her marriage and remained the administrator of the Bourbon lands after his death, protecting them from royal encroachment. Suzanne married another Bourbon prince, Charles of Montpensier, Constable of France, who later became Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. The couple, however, remained childless, and Suzanne predeceased her mother and for the rest of her life, she was engaged in disputes with Louise de Savoie over succession to the Bourbon lands. Anne lived (1456-1522).

  1483-87 and 1500-01 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anna Vasilievna of Ryazan (Russia)
Анна Васильевна became regent for her 16 year old son, Ivan, after the death of her husband, Vasily, who grew up in Moscow as Anna’s father had been entrusted with the regency of Ryazan after the death Vasily’s father, Ivan, in 1456. In her policy Anna tried to expand her domain, she visited often Moscow and due her diplomatic efforts the Pronsk principality was added to Ryazan. A major problem in Ryazan-Moscow relations was so-called Ryazan Ukraina, a huge steppe region in the basin of Don River. According to treaties, Ryazan was obliged not to settle in these lands, but many years Ryazan princes secretly colonized this area and during her regency this process become much more significant. When her son died, she became regent for her grandson, Ivan VI, until her own death. She was daughter of Grand Prince Vasily II of Moscow and Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk, mother of 2 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1451–1501).

  1483-1507 Duchess Regnant Julianna Iwanówna of Mstsislaw (Belarus)
Daughter and heiress of Duke Iwan Jurjewicz (1456-83).

  1483-89 Regent Dowager Lady Camilla Covele da Marzano of Pesaro and Gradara (Italy)
Ruled for Giovanni I of Pesaro, her husband Costanzo I’s illegitimate son with Fiora Boni. She (d. 1490).

  1483-91 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)
The chapter asked the Bishop of Chur to inagurate her after she had been elected in a unclear election (zweispältiger Wahl). Invested Johannes Meyer with the fief of the Meierhof Knohau (“verge estate”) in 1483 and begun building a new church of the chapter in 1487. She bbelonged to one of the richest families in Switzerland, the Lords of Wartensee and had the Freedom of the Canton of Appenzell.

  1484-88 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Harcourt of Tancarville, Vicomtesse de Melun (France)
Succeeded her brother, Guillaume who succeeded their mother, Marguerite de Melun, who was Countess de Tancarville (1415-48). Jeanne was married to Duke René II of Lorraine (1451-1508) and as she had no children, she bequeathed all her estates to François Count de Dunois et de Longueville (d. 1488).

  1484-94 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Hunolstein of Herford (Germany)
Her family were Stewards of the Herford area.

  1484-1508 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)
received letters of protection and privileges from Maximillian I in 1495 and a confirmation of her jurisdiction and right of asylum. During the Swabian war between Austria and Switzerland the City of Bad Säckingen suffered badly. After the Peace of Basel in 1499, Maximilian paid a visit to the town. She was engaged in long dispute with the canonesses and canons, who accused her of over-stepping her authority, taking important decision without consulting them. Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg tried to mediate and introduce new statutes. Also the king tried to persuade her to accept the Bishop’s intervention but she refused and decided to resign instead, but remained in the chapter until her death, and was succeeded by her half-sister, Anna von Falkenstein. The daughter of Freiherr Thomas von Falkenberg and Ursula von Ramstein, she lived (before 1462-1520).

  1484-87 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Helfenstein of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
The first Count von Helfenstein, Helfrich is recorded as being a citizen of Rome in 225 CE. He was captain of the 5th Legion of Veterans in Germany, and Lord of the Fils River. His Legion fought against Hannibal in 210-205, hence the elephant symbol in the coat of arms. In the 800s another Count of Helfenstein was given magnificent lands in Swabia, in the South-West of Germany.

  1484-95 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Dronningholm, Denmark
Birgitte Thott was a major landowner and was married to the Swedish Councillor of State and lagmand Erengisle Nilsson, who died 1469. She was in dispute with her husband’s children of first marriage over her Swedish castles, and with her stepmother, Anne Present, over the ownership of Vallø-Castle, which Birgitte had inherited from her mother, Karen Falk. She was supported by the Danish king, who appointed her Lensmand (County Sheriff) of the Royal Lands of Dronningholm, and as such she was in charge of local administration. She sold many of her possessions to king Hans. Much of her troubles with inheritance and keeping on to her lands must be seen as a result of her having no children. (d. 1498)

  1485… Joint Lady Maria de Ayala of five parts of Lanzarote and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)
After the death of her father, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, his possessions were divided among her and her brothers and sister. She was married to Diego de Silva Count of Portalegre. Their other brother, Fernan Peraza, got the islands Gomera and Hierro, but was killed by the inhabitants of Gomera. She did not have any children.

  1485…. Joint Lady Constanza Sarmiento of three parts of Lanzarote, and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)
Her oldest brother, Pedro Garcia de Herrera was disinherited, and the third brother, Sancho de Herrera (1442-1534) inherited five parts (Fuerteventura, Alegranza, Graciosa, Lobos and Santa Clara) She was married to Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra and was mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter.

  1485-1509 Politically influential Lady Margaret Beaufort in England (United Kingdom)
Involved in the running of the government during the reign of her son, Henry VII Tudor, who inherited the throne through her – and his wife, Elizabeth of York. Margaret was the daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp, and was married at the age of about 7 to John De La Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, but the union was later dissolved. Henry VI, who had no children always looked upon the Beauforts as possible heirs and, in 1455, married the 12-year-old Margaret to his own maternal half-brother, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who died 1456, the same year their son was born. She, soon afterward, married Henry Stafford, the second son of the Duke of Buckingham, and submitted to the Yorkist rule; but, after the Battle of Tewkesbury, she was obliged to send her son, Henry to seek refuge in Bretagne. Margaret’s fourth husband was a pronounced Yorkist, Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby; but his final defection from Richard III on the field of Bosworth secured the victory to his stepson, Henry VII. Margaret, though she seldom appeared at her son’s court, remained his constant correspondent and one of his wisest advisers. She took vows of religion in 1504, but continued to live out of a nunnery. Also a very learned person, she lived (1441-1509).

  1485-1504 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gandersheim (Germany) 
In 1503 the chapter had to accept the occupation of Wilhelmsburg and the Convent of Barfüßer by the Duke of Braunschweig. She was also Abbess of Neuenheerse (1486-92) and of Kaufungen (1495-1504). She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie (d. 1451), and her sister Scholastika, was Abbess of Gernrode (1465-1505). She lived (1445-1504).

  1486-1503 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Mansfeld of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)
Possibly also known as Margareta. She became regent for her one-year-old son, Albrecht VII, after the death of her husband, Ernst I, and lived (1450-1531).

  1486-1531 Princess-Abbess Eva von Isenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)
In the first years of her reign she was in dispute with Amalia van Rennenberg over the position of sovereign of the territory. Eva had the support of emperor Maximillian, who in 1494 and 1499 declared that the Abbey and its lands were under the protection of the realm (Holy Roman Empire). The dispute was settled in 1502 in her favour, but she encountered many complaints over her reign, high taxes and her immoral conduct. Eva was daughter of Gerlach II von Isenburg in Grenzau and Hildgard von Sirck, Heiress of Meinsberg and Frauenberg.

  1486-99 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Mendoza I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her family was very powerful and the many braches held many high state and ecclesiastical office – including the office of Señora Abadesaes of Las Huelgas.

  1486 Pretender Ludovica Francesca di Savoia to the County of Roemont and the Lordship of Vaud (France and Switzerland)
Daughter of Giacomo di Savoia and Maria de Luxembourg, Countess of Saint-Pôl, Marle and Soissons. 1503 she married Count Heinrich III von Nassau-Diez. (d. 1511).

  1487-96 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Wissemburg-Krenkingen
of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
In charge of the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.

  1487-88 Queen Regnant Paccha of Quito (Cara) (Ecuador)
After the death of her father Cacha Shyri XV, Inca Huayna Cápac invaded the kingdom and the chiefs and nobles of the Kingdom appointed her sovereign. They then married and they became parents of two sons who divided the Inca Empire.

  Until 1487 Dame Jeanne de Bourbon of Rochefort (France)
Daughter of king Jean II de Bourbon, Count de Vendôme etc. and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La Roche-sur-Yon (1436-74), and married to Louis de Joyeuse, Count de Grand-Pré. She lived (1460-87).

  1488-1514 Sovereign Duchess Anne of Bretagne and Montfort-l’Amaury  (France)
Also known as Anne de Dreux Montfort, she became Duchess at the age of 11, just after her land had been invaded by French troops who demanded that she should not marry without the consent of the crown. Afraid that Bretagne would be absorbed into France, she made an alliance with Maximilian of Austria (whom she married by proxy in 1490), Henry VII of England and Ferdinand II of Aragon, but eventually, after a long siege, she was forced to marry the French king Charles VIII in 1491. After he died without an heir in 1498, Anne had to marry his successor Louis XII. But she insisted that Bretagne should form a separate part of the inheritance, going to a second son or daughter, or to her own heirs. Anne was a great patron of scholars, poets and artists, and lived (1476-1514).

  1488-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Ludmiła of Bohemia of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)
1488-1503 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Brzeg
Also known as Ludmilla Podiebrad or Ludmiła z Podiebradu. After the death of her husband, Friederich I von Brieg und Liegnitz, she first reigned for her sons; Jan, Fryderyk II and Jerzy, and then held Brzeg as her dowry. She was daughter of king Georg Podebrad of Bohemia, and (d. 1503).

  1488-98 Acting Governor  Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa of The islands El Hierro and La Gomera  in the Canary Islands  (Spain)
Also called Isabel or Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio, she acted on behalf of her son Guilléna Perazy de Ayala after the death of her husband, Ferdinand de Peraza y Ayala, the son of Inés de Peraza de Las Casas, Governor of the whole of the Canary Islands 1552-85. In 1498, she married Alphonse Fernández de Lugo, the Governor whole of the Canary Islands. She was known for her beauty and cruelty. the daughter of Juan Fernández de Bobadilla and doña Leonor de Aza y Ulloa and of Jewish origin. At the age of 17 years, was the lady-in-waiting on the court of Isabel the Catholic, and lived (1462-1501).

  1488-1505 Reigning Abbess Walburga Gretter of Gutenzell (Germany)
The chapter for noble ladies was situated in Gutenzell-Hürbel in Württemberg.

  1489-1521 Princess-Abbess Meyna Amoena von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)
The first Princess-Abbess to represent the 3 estates (Ladies of the Chapter, the male canons and the office-holders) in the local Diet (Landtag) for their approval of proposed tax-rises. As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin) she had a vote in the College of Prelates of the Rhine, which had one joint vote in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1489-98 Abbess Nullius Marcella Orsini of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Member of the large Orsini-family.

  1490 Dowager Queen Beatrix de Aragón of Hungary
After the death of King Matthias Corvinius (1458-90) she was de facto regent in the interregnum. She did her utmost to prevent her stepson, John Corvinius’ succession to the throne. Determined to have a word in the kingdom’s government she used her considerable wealth to help Vladislav of Bohemia, a son of a sister of King Lazlo of Hungary. She married the new king – who became king Laslo VI (1490-1516), but she gradually realised that she had been deceived, after nine years her husband managed to divorce her, her possessions were confiscated and she spend the rest of her life in Napoli. Also known as Beatrice, was daughter of King Ferrante of Napoli (1431-94) and Isabelle de Clermont, she did not have any children, and lived (1457-1508).

  1490-96 Regent Dowager Duchess Bianca di Monferrato of Savoia, the counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte  (Italy) 
Married to Carlo I, who was surnamed the Warrior was the Duke of Savoy 1482-90 and titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem from 1485. After his death she was regent for their son, Carlo II (1489-96). She lived (1472-1519).

  1490-1503 Olangio to tilaiot Ntihedud Raja To Tilayo of Upper Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)
The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Tilayo Branch and her title means ruler of the upper parts. She was daughter of Uloli (1427-1450) and succeeded her brother, Polamalo I (1481-1490) and was later followed on the throne by his son.

  1490-94 Princess-Abbess Guillelme de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Also known as Wilhelmine, she was the fourth of the Mérode-Franckenberg family to reign the territory.

  1491-1500 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Bourgogne of Rethel (France)
Succeeded father, Count Jean de Nevers, de Rethel, d’Étampes et d’Eu (1415-91). Her sister, Elisabeth de Rethel, was heiress of Nevers and Eu, but died 1483 – she was married to Johann I of Clèves. Charlotte married Jean d’Albret, Seigneur d’Orval (d. 1524) and was succeeded by daughter Maria d’Albret de Rethel. Charlotte lived (1472-1500).

  Until 1491 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Prassberg of Lindau  (Germany)
In 1466 the Abbess of the Ladies Chapter was granted the position of a worldly Princess of the Realm within the Holy Roman Empire. (die Würde einer weltlichen Reichsfürstin innerhalb des “Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation”), which is the reason why her successor was Member of the Bench of Secular Princes in the Swabian Circle Estate. It is not known when Ursula II was elected as ruler of the territory.

  1491-1531 Princess-Abbess Amalie von Reischach of Lindau (Germany)
When the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 circles (later 10), she became member of the Bench of Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Together with a Prince-Abbot and the Princess-Abbess of Buchau). In 1528 the City of Lindau became Protestant, but the Chapter and the surroundings remained Catholic, and the Chapter and City of Lindau were often engaged quarrels over their territory. The “Gefürstete Äbtissin” Amaile was daughter of the Count von Reischach who was also in charge of Burg Neuhewen in Bavaria.

  1491-1534 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Possibly the greatest of the abbesses of the Chapter, both on account of the numbers of priories in which she re-established discipline, and the victory which she gained over the rebellious religious at Fontevrault by the reform, enforced with royal assistance in 1502. The result was a great influx of novices of the highest rank, including several princesses of Valois and Bourbon. At her death there were 160 nuns and 150 monks at Fontevrault. She was daughter of Jean II de Bourbon, Comte de La Marche et de Vendôme and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La-Roche-Sur-Yon, and lived (1468-1534).

  1492-1504 Sovereign Duchess Agnieszka Zatorska of Wadowice (Poland)
Also known as Agnes of Zator was daughter of Duke Władysław I of Zator and Anna. In 1492 her father left her Wadowice in his will. But in 1503 King Aleksander Jagiellończyk granted the Duchy to Piotr Myszkowski of Mirów. She fought for her heritage, but the following year the king adjudicated, that Wadowice also belonged to Piotr. Married to Jan of Tworków and Kobierzyn (died in 1504). Mother of one son. She lived (1477/80-1505).

  1492-1528 Sovereign Lady Cordula von Gemen of Gemen (Germany)
The daughter of Heinrich IV von Gemen and Anna von Wevelinghoven, she married Count Johann IV von Holstein-Schaumburg as her second husband and they founded the line of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen. The Lordship had been “reichsunmittelbar und reichsstündisch” – an Imperial immediacy – that is placed directly under the Realm of the Empire – since 1431 and from 1495 with a seat in the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia.

  1492-1520 Regent Dowager Duchess Marguerite de Lorraine-Vaudémont of  Alençon (France)
After the death of her 23 year older husband, René, she reigned the Duchy for 20 years in the name of her son, Charles IV (1489-1524). She declared holy in 1921 by Pope Pius XI because of her work for the poor. She also founded a convent and entered it after her children came of age, but refused to become the Abbess. Her oldest daughter, Françoise d’Alençon, succeeded Charles in 1524. Marguerite de Lorraine was Daughter of Duke Ferry II de Vaudémont and Yolande d’Anjou, Titular Queen of Sicily and mother of three children and lived (1463-1521).

  1492-93 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Goldenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
A candidate in the 1482 elections but lost as she was not yet 30 years old at the time. She confirmed the tenancy of Johnannes Meyer von Knonau with the Meierhof (“verge estate”) in 1492. Member of a knightly family from Zürich

  1492-1515 Reigning Abbess Antoinette de Moustier of Jouarre (France)
Had already put in the lower room of the Tower the beautiful entombment, the work of Michel Colombe, a famous sculptor of the time: the principal figures that have survived are presently in the Parish Church.

  1492-97 Politically Influential Duchess Beatrice d’Este of Bari and Milano (Italy)
Visited Vennetia in 1492 as ambassador for her husband, Lodovico de’ Medici in his political schemes, which consisted chiefly in a desire to be recognized as duke of Milan and when Gian Galeazzo Sforza died the same year, his usurpation of the Duchy of Milano was legalized, and after the Battle of Fornovo in 1495, they both took part in the peace congress of Vercelli between Charles VIII of France and the Italian princes, at which she showed great political ability. But her brilliant career was cut short by death through childbirth. She surround herself with learned men, poets and artists, such as Niccolo da Correggio, Bernardo Castiglione, Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. The daughter of Ercole I d’Este and Eleonora d’Aragona, she lived (1475-97).

  1493-1506 Duchess Regnant Barbara von Schlesien of Jägerndorf-Rybnik (Poland)
Daughter of Duke Nikolaus IV (ca. 1400-52) and Margareta Clemm von Elguth, she succeeded brother, Johan IV in Jägerndorf. She married Duke Hanus IV of Auschwitz, was mother of one daughter, Helena, and lived ca. (ca. 1445-1510).

  1493 Taoist Priest Empress Zhang in China
The scroll that documents her ordination as a Taoist priest is one of the most important surviving documents of the relationship between Taoism and the Ming imperial family. The painting shows her with a group of divine ladies called “jade maidens,” the Taoist priest who ordained her, and a procession of deities. An accompanying inscription can identify each deity, making this work an invaluable source for the identification of images of Taoist gods in the Ming dynasty. The depiction of empress and priest together with Taoist gods indicates that the human figures have achieved divine status. She was married to Emperor Hongzhi.

  1494-99 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella de Aragón of Milano (Italy)
1502-24 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico
Widow of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, she was in charge of the regency for son, Francesco Sforza, until the King of France, Louis XII, ordered him into exile in France. Faced with limited options, she recognized the supremacy of the Spanish King Ferdinand the Catholic and was able to take the throne in Bari and Rossano. She was very strong and self-determined and she knew what it took to achieve her political goals. She managed the budget and resources very well and they soon started bringing profits. In 1518 her only surviving child, Bona, married to King Sigmund I of Poland, who later succeeded her mother as ruler of Bari etc. She was daughter of King Alfonso of Napoli and lived (1470-1524).

  1494-1520 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III van Herzelles of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a very illustrious Belgium family, which was in charge of many lordships.

  1494-1520 Reigning Abbess Ponzetta Boniseth von Limburg-Stirum of Herford (Germany)
Became member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle) when the regional assembly was created by Emperor Maximilian I in 1500. She was daughter of Count Wilhelm I von Limburg and Agnes von Limburg. Her sister Anna vas Abbess of Vilich and Borghorst. Apparently she resigned in favour of her relative, Anna, and died four years later in 1525.

  1494/94 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Sal of Schänis (Switzerland)
Appears to have died just after her election. She was daughter of Konrad von Sal, of a local knigly family

  1495-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)
Like her predecessors she confirmed Johnannes Meyer von Knonau as tenant of the Meierhof (“verge estate”) in 1492.  She began rebuilding the choir of the church of Schänis. Member of a knightly family from Aaargau.

  1495-1533 Reigning Abbess Adrienne de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Also known by the surname de la Chapelle, she was daughter of the Lord de Noyelle and Calonne.

  Around 1495 Reigning Abbess Jeanne Chrétien of Faremoutiers (France)
As Abbess she held clerical and seigneurial rights, but the chapter was in decay and 3 nuns had children.

  1495-1515 Sovereign Grand Princess Alexandra Olena Olelkowicz-Slucki of Pinsk (Belarus)
Daughter of Simeon Olelkowicz, and succeeded her brother, Vasily Olelkowicz, Prince of Pinsk (1488-95), and married Fiodor Ivanovich in 1498, and he became Prince of Pinsk (†V.1527).

  1495-96 Co-ruler Queen Consort Giovanna IV of Napoli (Naples) (Italy)
Daughter of Ferrante I of Naples (1458-94) and his third wife Infanta Juana of Aragon (Giovanna III) (1454-1517), and married to her nephew, King Ferrante II (1469-95-96), who succeeded her half-brother, Alphonso II, who abdicated because of the approaching invasion of Charles VIII of France and the general dissatisfaction of his subjects. Her husband defeated the French garrisons but died shortly after. Her mother tried to have her placed on the throne. She lived (1478-1518).

  1495-1525 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Chalon of Joigny (France)
Successor of her father, Charles de Chalon, and married Adrien de Sainte-Maure Count de Nesle et de Joigny (d. 1504) and Francois de Tourzel, seigneur de Precy.

  1495-1522 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
Her husband, Wilhelm II zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel was deposed in 1595 after he had deposed and imprisoned his brother, Friederich. Their sons inherited the dukedom. She promoted mining and the area propored economically. (d. 1522)

  1495-1506 Politically Influential Queen Helena Moskiewska of Poland 
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Aleksander Jagiellonczyk (the Jagiellonian). In 1503 she negotiated an armistice between Moscow and Lithuania. (1476-1513).

  1496-98 Regent Duchess Anna of Poland of Pommern (Pomerze) (Poland/Germany)
Her husband Bogislaw X of Pommern (1454-71-1523) charged her with the government when he left for a meeting with Emperor Maximilian asking him to mediate in the ongoing conflict with his brother-in-law about various lands. He then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and did not return until two years later. She was his second wife, mother of nine children and daughter of King Kazimierz IV of Poland and Elisabeth of Austria. She lived (1475-1503).

  1496-1515 Sovereign Countess Louise de Savoie of Angoulême 
1515-31 Sovereign Duchess d’Angoulême, Nemours, d’Auvergne, Bourbonnais et Châtellerault, Comtesse du Maine, de Beaufort, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis et Gien 
1516-31 Sovereign Duchess d’Anjou 
1523-27 Sovereign Duchess de Bourbon and La Dombes
1525-26 Regent of France
1528 Sovereign Duchess de Touraine (France)
Daughter of Philippe II de Savoie and Marguerite de Bourbon, married to Charles d’Orléans, and succeeded him as Duchess of Angoulême and d’Anjou. She was very influential during the reign of her son, King François I of France, and during his absence in the Italian Wars, she acted as regent, and during his captivity in Spain 1525–26 she made an alliance with King Henry VIII of England, in which Henry deserted his alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, François’ opponent in the Italian Wars. In 1529 she also negotiated the so-called Ladies’ Peace with Margaret of Austria, Charles V’s aunt. Louise lived (1476-1531).

  1496-1539 Sovereign Countess Louise de Bourbon of Montpensier, Princesse des Dombes, Dauphine d’Auvergne  (France)
1530-61 Countess of Mortain
1538-61 Duchesse of Auvergne 
1539-61 Duchesse of Montpensier
She was daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Comte de Montpensier, Dauphin d’Auvergne, Archduke de Sessa, Vice-roi de Napoli (1443-99) and Claire de Gonzaga of Mantua. First married to André de Chauvigny and then to Louis de Bourbon, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon. She lived (1482-1561).

  1496-1503 Reigning Dowager Lady Duchess Barbara Gonzaga of Böblingen in Württemberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband Eberhard V von Württemberg (1445-57-96), she took up residence at her dowry. Her only daughter, Barbara had died a few months after her death. She was Daughter of Ludovico II, Margrave of Mantua and Barbara of Brandenburg, and lived (1455-1503).

  1496-1524 Princess-Abbess Katharina von Zimmern of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Around 13 years old when she, together with her older sister, Anna, entered the Chapter. As Fürstäbtissin was she the titular Head of the City, but most of the executive rights had already been transferred to the city. As a result of the reformation it became her task to dissolve the small state and she sold the remaining territories to the City of Zürich. She then married Eberhard von Reischach, who was killed by the battle of Kappel. They first lived in Schaffhausen and Diessenhofen until 1529 when they moved back to Zürich. Mother of one daughter, and lived (1478-1547).

  Around 1497 Hereditary Steward Elisabeth of Hunolstein and Heiress of Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg (Germany)
Married to Count Salentin VII of Isenburg in Salm und Hohenstein (d. ca. 1534). Her son, Anton zu Sankt-Johannisberg died 1536.

  1497 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)
Elected as the successor of her sister, Margarethe, on the 20th of February 1497, she was inaugurated at 11th of March but died already at 23rd of October the same year.

  1497-1523 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)
One of the important rulers of the territory she was elected at the age of 25 and therefore obtained papal dispensation a few months later, because the minimum age for abbesses was 30. 1507 Mentioned in the Inventory of the Realm (Reichsmatrikel) as Princess Abbess, 1510 she was the first leader of Buchau to sign a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid). 1517 she was represented by the Abbot of Weissenau in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag). She reformed the internal affairs of the Chapter and was much preoccupied with the affairs of the territory and its neighbours. The daughter of Freiherr Georg von Gundelfingen and Countess Waldburga von Fugger-Kirchberg, she lived (1473-1523).


1497-1505  Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Harbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Her family posessed many estates in both Niederbayern and Austria.

  1497-1506 Reigning Abbess Anna II von Stein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Head of the Franciscan Ladies Chapter for noble ladies and of its territories and lands in Switzerland and France.

  1497-98 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Saal of Schänis (Switzerland)
Only women of the aristocracy were accepted as community members. Applicants were initially obliged to prove descent from four grandparents of the higher aristocracy, but later from 16 great-great-grandparents of the same rank. In this way Schänis became a place of care for the unmarried female offspring of the higher nobility of southern Germany.

  1498-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)
Apparently member of an important family in the Canton of Schaffenhausen.

  1498-1505 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne de Valois of Berry (France)
Daughter of King Louis IX and Charlotte de Savoie. Married to Louis II, Duc d’Orléans and later King Louis XII of France. She was crippled and a hunchback, the marriage was never consumated and they divorced in 1498 and she retired to Bourges, where she founded a convent. In 1950 she was canonized as Sainte Jeanne de France. She lived (1464-1505).

  1498-1504 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Hausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
The chapter was a major landowner with seigneurial rights.

  1499-1502 Governor Lucrezia Borgia of Spoleto and Foligno (Italy)
1501-02 In charge of the Administration of the Vatican and the Catholic Church
1506 Regent of Ferrara
Daughter of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) and Vannozza de Cattanei. First married to Giovanni Sforza, Prince of Pesaro. After their divorce in 1497 she served as her father’s hostess at diplomatic receptions. Also in 1497 she had a child by her young lover, who was given the name of Giovanni and legitimised as the son of her father, which led to rumours they had an incestuous relationship. The following year she was married to Prince of Alfonso Aragon, Alfonso, Duke of Bisceglia and Salerno in Napoli. She was appointed governor of Spoleto by her father, an office usually reserved for cardinals, and she administered the city well. In 1500 Alfonso was murdered by her brother, Cesare. A year later her father left the administration of the Vatican and the Church in her hands. A woman of twenty-one, acting as the head of Christendom, did not shock the cardinals of the Curia, accustomed as they were to the excesses of the papacy of Alexander. 1502 she was married to Afonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio and had four children by him, at the same time as she carried on a romance with the poet Pietro Bembo. At this time Lucrezia sided with her brother in his various military adventures. She brought her two sons, Giovanni, who posed as her brother and her son by her second husband, Rodrigo, to the court of Ferrara. Eventually, the two young boys were sent to Isabella of Aragon. As regent of Ferrara in absence of her husband in 1506 she issued an edict in favour of the Jews. After Rodrigo died in 1512, she retired a convent, but later returned to her husband. After giving birth to her fifth child, who died shortly after being born, she contracted puerperal fever and died. She lived (1480-1519).

  1499-1521 Politically Influential Princess Jadwiga of Cieszyn-Głogów of Hungary
Since 1483 married to the Hungarian Palatin Stefan Zapolya (died in 1499) and a mother of Barbara (since 1512 Queen of Poland) and Janos II. She fought for her the Hungarian Throne for her son, but he did not become king until 1526. She was daughter of a prince of Cieszyn-Głogów and Anna Mazowiecka, and lived (1469-1521).  

  1499-1529 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”, and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

 THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2011





Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  Ca. 1400-? Queen Regnant Kalaimanuia of Oahu (Hawai’i)
12th Alii Aimoku in succession to her mother, Kukaniloko who ruled from 1375, and married to Lupe Kapukeahomakalii. Later she gave her position to her daughter, Kekala, a warrior Chiefess.

  Around 1400 Queen Regnant Kekala of Oahu (Hawai’i)
A warrior Chiefess, she was handed the position as Mo’iwahine or supreme female ruler by her mother, Queen Kalaimanuia.

  1400-17 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Sponheim of Vianden (Luxembourg)
1414-17 Countess of Sponheim-Kreutznach (Germany)
Daughter of Countess Maria von Vianden (ca 1337-1400) and Count Simon III von Sponheim, who was Count of Vianden by the right of his wife until his death in 1414. Her brother Walram von Sponheim died 1382 and her sister Maria von Sponheim ca. 1414. Elisabeth first married Engelbert III von der Mark and Ruprecht Pipan, Count Palatine of the Rhine, had no children and lived (1365-1417).

  Ca. 1400/08-27 Sultana Seri Ratu Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu of Pasai/Pase (Samudra Pasai Kesepulih) (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father, Sultan Zainal Abidin, after she had gained the respect of the whole community and the royal family, who agreed to hand over the power of the state to her.  

  Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Provence (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Provence
Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles, who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, she manoeuvred to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Her early and strong support of Jeanne d’Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess’ possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid’s appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son, René, inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son’s Louis III’s death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).

  1400-34 Sovereign Duchess Marie d’Anjou of Auvergne (France)
1414-34 Regent of Bourbon
1416 Sovereign Duchess de Montpensier
Also known as Marie de Berry, she was daughter of Jean d’Anjou, Count de Poitiers, Duc de Berry, d’Auvergne and Jeanne d’Armagnac, and was married to Louis de Châtillon, Count de Dunois, Philippe d’Artois, Count d’Eu and finally to Jean I, Duc de Bourbon (1410-15-34), and regent during his imprisonment in England. He was succeeded by his son, Charles I (1401-34-56). The county of Auvergne had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Auvergne reigned the county 1424-37. Marie d’Anjou lived (1367-1434).

  1400-03 Princess-Abbess Ursula I von Brasberg of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1400-17 Countess-Abbess Bertrade von Schneuditz of Gernrode and Frose
1417-25 Princess-Abbess of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
The first ruler of the territory to be granted the rank of Princess of The Empire in 1417.

  1400-02 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Murach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain who was chosen as her successor, but it is known that Margaretha I reigned until 1435.

  Around 1400 Military Leader Maire O’Ciaragain of Ireland
Led Irish clans against the English and was known for her ferocity in battle.

  14.. Rani Regnant Lakshimi Devi ofMithila (India)
Succeeded her husband, Siva Simh, who reigned around 1399. Mithila is an ancient cultural region of North India between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.

  14.. Rani Regnant Visvasa Devi ofMithila (India)
Ascended the throne after the death of Padma Sima Chaulukyas. In the thirteenth century Mithila was invaded by Afghans, who deposed the Kshatriya ruler and placed a Maithil Brahman in control of land revenues over much of this region. This family soon began calling themselves kings, distributing land to other members of their caste, so that gradually land passed into the control of Maithil Brahmans. 

  14… Queen Putri Kaumnu ofBandjermasin (Indonesia)
Ruler of the principality in southern Borneo.

  14… Queen Daroh Nanti ofSangau (Indonesia)
Born as Princess of Majapahit and founded the state in Borneo.

  14…. Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco
Very influential during her lifetime in her Berber tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.

  14…. Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)
Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta – Friday’s prayers – preached in her name.

  1401-20 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Oppeln (Opole) (At the time Germany, Now Poland)
Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław Opolczyk. She lived (1352-1418/24).

  1402-04 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina Visconti of Milano (Italy)
The widow of her cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who inherited the lands of his family. 1395 He bought his investiture as hereditary duke of Milan from Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus and later defeated Emperor Ruprecht who sought to restore imperial rule over Italy. During her regency for their son, Giovanni Maria Visconti (1389–1412). Many cities were lost and political chaos prevailed. On reaching his majority Giovanni Maria revealed himself a dissolute and cruel ruler. He was assassinated, and the duchy passed to his brother, Filippo Maria Visconti, (1392–1447). She lived (1360-1404).

  1402-08 Sovereign Lady Valentina Visconti of Asti (Italy)
1407-08 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess of Orléans and the Counties of Valois, Blois, Dunois, Angoulême, Périgod, Dreux and Soissons (France)
After her husband, Duke Louis d’Orléans et cetera, was assassinated on the command of the Duke of Burgundy she became guardian of her children and took over the fiefs of her husband. She became the leader of the Orléans-party and worked for the rehabilitation of her late husband. Daughter of Duke Gian Galeazzo I of Milano, Lord of Pavia, Novara, Como, Vercelli, Alba, Asti, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano (1355-1402) and Princess Isabella de Valois of France and mother of eight children. She lived (1366-1408).

  1402-13 Temporary Regent Hereditary Princess Infanta Juana of Navarra (Spain)
Recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 3 December 1402, and governed Navarre in the name of her parents, King Carlos II of Navarra,  (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, during their absences abroad. 1401 she was bethrothed to King Martin I of Sicily, who instead married her sister, Blanca, who became Regent of Sicily in 1409 and Queen of Navarra in 1425. Their younger sister, Beatriz, was officially made third-in-line on the same occation in 1402. Juana lived (1382-1413)

  1402-04 Sovereign Princess Maria II Zaccharia of Achaia, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)
Succeeded her husband Pierre Bordeaux de San Superan (1386-1402). She was daughter of Centurione I Zaccharia, Lord of Veligosi, Damala and Chalandritza and was deposed by her nephew, Centurione II, who was prince until 1432/39. His daughter, Catharina Zaccharia, was marred to Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of Morea 1428-60 and Prince of Achaia from 1432.

  1402-25 Sovereign Countess Bonne d’Artois of Auxerre, d’Eu, de Mâcon, de Vermandois, d’Amiens et de Ponthieu (France)
Inherited parts of the domains of Jean, Duke of Touraine, Dauphin de Viennous, Duke de Berry, Count of Poitiers and Ponthieu. First married to Philippe de Nevers and Rethel, with whom she had two sons, and then, as his second wife, her first husband’s nephew, Philippe de Bourgogne. Died in childbed, and lived (1393-1425).

  1402-10 Reigning Abbess Anna III von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)
Probably daughter of Stephan von Gundelfingen. She was canoness around and 1385 and is confirmed as abbess in 1402. Her family was very influential in the Chapter during the 15th century, and she lived (Ca. 1360-1410).

  1402-20 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Schwandegg of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1403 she entered a treaty of a Burgrecht (Borough right) with the City of Zürich. The chapter had since then in the Münsterhof its own office that collected the income of the chapter in the city. She was member of the Freiherrliche family, the Barons of Schwandegg, which build the borough of Schwandegg in the 13th century and died out in the 15th.

  1402-12 Countess Abbess Sophia III zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Restored the economic situation that had deteriorated during the reign of her predecessor, Luitgard III zu Hammerstein. She was the only child of Duke Ludwig and Mathilde zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. (d. 1412).

  1402-24 Politically Influential Empress Xu of China
In charge of the administration of the City of Yan while her husband Zhu Di (the Yongle Emperor), was pursuing his campaign and in the midst of fierce fighting, she ascended the city walls and personally encouraged the troops to defend it.

  1403-19 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Blois of Sancerre (France)
Daughter of Jean III and Marguerite, Dame de Marmande. Married Gerard VI Chabot, Baron de Retz (d. ca. 1364), Beraud II Dauphin d’Auvergne, Comte de Clermont (d. 1400), Jean de Saligny, Constable of Naples and Jacques de Montberon, Baron de Maulevrier (d. 1422).

  1403-06 Princess-Abbess Adelheid III Abtsreuter of Baindt (Germany)
As ruler of the principality, she had the right to a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1403-07 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine II von Blamont of Remiremont  (France)
Concurrently held the office of Abbess of Epinal. In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformance of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire. (d. 1408).

  1403-21 Political Advisor Lady Jelena Balšić of Zeta (Montenegro)
After her husband, Lord Durad II of Zeta, died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the Battle of Gračanica, she became the advisor of her 17-year old son, Balša III. She made him declare the Orthodox Church as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became a tolerant confession. Her son waged two wars against Venezia, winning some territory and then loosing it again. He also became a vassal to the Ottoman Turks.  1419 he went to Belgrade to ask for aid from his mother’s brother, Despot Stefan Lazarević, but never returned and 1421 he passed the rule of Zeta to his uncle. She had married Vojvode Sandalj Hranić Kosača of Bosnia in 1411 and lived (1365/70-1443).

  1404-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig of Holstein (Germany)
After the murder of her husband, Gerhard IV, she was regent for their son, Heinrich IV, jointly with Bishop Heinrich of Osnabrück, Count of Holstein. Gerhard was count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1382-1404) before he was given Slesvig as a hereditary fief with the title of Duke by Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386. Elisabeth engaged in various disputes with Queen Margrethe and King Erik 6. of Pommern of Denmark over lands and incomes. Various dukes were asked to mediate, and in 1410 they made a truce. 1411 she gave the Shires of Søderup and Alslev to the Queen as security for lones. She was mother of 3 sons and two daughters, including Heilwig, who married Dietrich von Oldenburg, whose son, became Christian I of Denmark in 1448, and inherited Slesvig in 1459.

  1404-12 Princess-Abbess Benedicta von Bechburg of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Member of an ancient Baronial (Freiherrliche) family in today’s Canton Solothurn with close links of the Canton of Bern.

  1405-57 Politically Influential Gawhar Shad of Herat (Afghanistan)
Also known as Gowhar Shād, Gauhar Shad or Goharshad, she exercised extraordinary influence at court during the reign of her husband, Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty, and among others advised him on military campaigns. She was a patron of art and architecture, donated grants to mosques, She outlived her husband, who died 1445, by a decade, manoeuvred her favourite grandson onto the throne, and was executed on July 19th 1457 on the order of Sultan Abu Sa’id. Goharshad. (lived before 1377-1457).

  1405-17/18 Regent Dowager Signora Paola Colonna of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1441-45 (†) Regent of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Gherardo Leonardo Appiani, who was lord of Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, she was regent for their son, Iacopo II (1400/01-1441), who was succeeded by his sister Caterina. Paola was daughter of Agapito Colonna, Lord of Genazzano and sister of Pope Martinus V, and lived (1378/79-45).

  1405-35 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Isenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1426 Quedlinburg joined the German Hanse, the most powerful trade association in Europe. In 1435 she resigned and died five years later. She was daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Adelheid von Isenburg. Resigned in 1435. (d. 1441).

  Around 1405 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Hallwyl of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
She was member of an old Baronial (freiherrliche) family which was in the service of the Habsburgs and worked for the city of Bern, and was in charge of a number of lordships in Switzerland.

  1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)
Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Through her mother’s claims, Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).

  1406-20 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady Queen Philippa of England of Denmark of the County of Nøsbyhoved (Denmark), Romerike (Norway) and the County of Närke  with the Castle of Örebro (Sweden)
1420 and 1425-27 and 1429-30 In Charge of the Government of Denmark in Sweden
1420-30 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady of the County of Närke, most of the Mälar Area, all of the County of Västmanland with Västerås, the County of Uppland with Uppsala and the City, Castle and County of Stockholm
1423-25 Regent of Denmark, Norway and Sweden(August-May)
After her marriage to Erik VII of Pomerania, she was granted several fiefs in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When Erik appointed his cousin, Duke Bugislav IX. of Pommern-Stolp, they made a settlement that meant that she was granted large parts of Sweden as her Dowry (livgeding) and she acted as her husband, ‘s representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark. She made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of so-called Hanse-States about the validity of the coin-system (A monitary union) using the titulature; “We, Philippa By the Grace of God, Queen in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths and Duchess in Pommerania…according the power and command that our dearest graceful Lord in his absence has commanded realm and land..”. After his return, she was in charge of the government in Sweden. In 1426 she met with the Swedish Council of the Realm in order to secure military help in the war against the counts of Holstein and the following year she met with the Council to discus the war and domestic matters. 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. The following year she returned to Sweden, gave birth to a still-born child in 1429, and lived (1394-1430).

  1406-1408 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I von Wachingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Related to Bishop Bertold von Wachingen. Her family originated in Mittenwald in Bavaria.

  Around 1406-09… Princess-Abbess Anna of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
In 1406 she instigated a day of memory of the late Abbess Katherina. Dorotha was mentioned as Prioress in 1409 and Katherina as Cutrix

  Until 1407 Chatelaine Jeanne de Luxembourg of Saint Pôl and Ligny, de Lille (France)
Daughter of Count Valeran III de Luxembourg-St-Pôl (1355-1415) and Lady Maud Holland (Half sister of King Richard II of England). Married to Antoine de Bourgogne, Duke of Brabant and Limbourg (d. 1415), and their son, Philippe succeeded her father as count.

  1407-18 Princesse-Abbesse Henriette II d’Amoncourt of Remiremont  (France)
Held the office of Secrète 1381, 1384 and afterwards. Her election was contested by the supporters of Catherine de Blamont and Henri de Blamont deployed his troops in the territory, making it impossible for her to take up her position until 1412.

  1408-38 Hereditary Countess Adelheid of the Wild- and Rheingrafschaft of Kyrburg and Schmidtburg (Germany)
Daughter of Gerhard III of Kyrburg und Schmidtburg, and Adelheid von Veldenz, and married to Johann III, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun (d. 1428). She (d. 1438).

  Until 1408 Princess-Abbess Catherine de Blamont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformation of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire, and (d. 1408).

  1408-37 Reigning Abbess Bertha III von Freisingen of Gutenzell (Germany)
After the fall of the Stauffen kings the Chapter were able to became Imperial Immediate (reichsfrei), and in 1417 Emperor Sigismund granted certain privileges.

  1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca I de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra, Countess de Nemours and Everex  (Spain and France)
The daughter of King Carlos II of Navarra, Comte d’Évreux and Duc de Nemours (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, she was recognised as second in line to the throne at Olite in 1402 and as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite in 1416, and succeeded her father in 1425. Her first husband was Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409), who had first been married to Queen Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens, and was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10), who named her as regent in Sicily. Her second husband was Federico I de Aragon, who became King Consort of Navarre in her right. Their son, Carlos de Aragón y Navarra (1421-61) was designated heir to Navarre from birth by the Cortes, but her husband was already trying in 1427 to change the order of succession in favour of their daughter Infanta doña Leonor. Infante Carlos was excluded from the succession on her death, with her husband as King. Carlos left Navarre 1451 for Guipúzcoa, supported by the Beaumont clan. Imprisoned 1453-1455, and after a brief reconciliation in 1460, Carlos was incarcerated at Lérida. And after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca de Navarra lived  (1385-1441).

  1409-42 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Mechtild, she was also Abbess of Heerse, and the daughter of Count Heinrich III von Waldeck and Elisabeth von Berg. Her sister, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Kaufungen until her death in 1495.

  1409-44 Politically Influential Margravine Paola Malatesta of Mantova (Italy)
Took an active part in the government during the reign of her husband Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, who was Lord of Mantova and Captain of Popolo (1407-33) before being granted the title of Marchese by the Emperor in 1433. She was daughter of the Venetian noble, Carlo I Signore di Rimini and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga dei Signori di Mantova. She lived (1393-1449).

  1410-40 Temporary Regent Margravine Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Often managed the affairs of state and functioned as an effective ruler and valuable aid to her husband, Margrave and Elector Friedrich Hohenzollern I von Brandenburg-Ansbach und Kumblach. He was Burgrave of Nürnberg 1397-1409 and Elector from 1410. She was mother of 11 children, and lived (1383-1442).

   1410-26 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Tengen of Buchau (Germany)
In the year of her death she laid the foundation of the chaplancy of the Holy Cross (Heligkreuzkaplanie). Possibly daughter of Johann the Younger, Lord of Elisau and Freeherr of Tengen and Margrethe von Nellenburg. Lived (ca. 1381-1426).

  1410-13 Reigning Abbess Katharina I von Egloffstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss countly family, who were lords of the Castle of Egloffstein in the Swiss Franconia (Schweizische Franken).

  1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)
Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mameluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.

  1411-43 Elisabeth von Görlitz, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Luxembourg, of Brabant and of Limbourg, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire and Countess of Chiny
Given the Dukedom of Luxembourg as mortgage (Pfandherzogin) by her uncle Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg, who was also king of Hungary trough his marriage to Queen Maria of Hungary. Her first husband, Anton von Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, fought back three uprisings of the nobility until his death in 1415. Her next husband was Johann von Bavaria of Holland, and after his death in 1427, she became heavily indebted and sold her hereditary rights to Duke Philippe von Burgundy, but the Luxembourg states rejected this, but instead he invaded the duchy two years later. She was the only daughter of Duke Johann von Görlitz (d. 1396) and Ricardis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had no children and lived (1390- 1451).

  Until 1411 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Coucy of Soissons (France)
Daughter of Enguerrand de Coucy, Count de Soissons, and married Philippe de Bourgogne, Count of Nevers and Donzy, whose second wife was Bonne d’Artois, heiress d’Eu et cetera. They had no surviving children, and her husband inherited the county.

  1411 Regent Dowager Despotess Eudokia Balšić of Ioannina (Greece)
When her husband, Esau de’ Buondelmonti, died, she attempted to maintain control of Ioannina in the name of her infant son Giorgio, but she was not popular with the local nobility and when they learned that she was seeking to marry a Serbian nobleman, they promptly deposed her and her son just 20 days after his accession. He survived until at least 1453, and his name appears in various Ragusan documents.

  1411-15 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II von Grünenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Member of the Swiss noble family of the lords of Langenstein and Grünenberg.

  1412-25 Regent Dowager Countess Catherine d’Alençon of Mortain (France)
After the death of her husband, Pierre de Navarre, she was regent for Louis I, dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Guyenne, Comte de Mortain. In 1413 she married Louis II de Bavière, Duke of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who also became count of Mortain.

  1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 “Stadholder” Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 “Stadholder” of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1439-51 Reigning Dowager Lady of 28 Domains in the Czech Lands and Hungary
Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the “regni curia” when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420’s she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband’s death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. 1426 she was granted 3 lordships in Mähren and given the incomes of several royal cities in Bohemia after her coronation in 1437, so that at the time of the death of her husband, she controlled 28 domains with a number of villages. After Albrecht’s death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Melnik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).

  1412-21 Lieutenant Queen Dowager Margarida de Prades of Aragón (Spain)
Though she held the title of Queen Lieutenant, she did not govern because she was only 15 when her husband, Martin I de Aragón died after 6 months of marriage. Since he had no children by any of his marriages, his death led to a 2 year interregnum, which was ended by the Pact of Caspe, in which Ferdinando I of Aragón, infante of Castile’s House of Trastámara, younger son of his sister Leonor de Aragon, was chosen as the next king from among at least five contenders. She married her second husband Juan of Vilaragut in 1414, and when he died 1422, she entered the monastery of Monrepes. The daughter of Pedro de Aragon, Baron of Entenza (1352-1395) and Juana of Cabrera, she did not have any children and lived (1395-1422).

  1412-29 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Hohenklingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Represented by her father, Walther IX, Lord von Hohenklingen, Guardian of Stein am Rhein, at the Council of Konstanz, which assembled under the presidency of Emperor Sigmund.

  Around 1412-about 1437 Princess-Abbess Lucia von Kerpen of Elten (Germany)
Founded the first public school in the area in 1412 and in 1437 she founded the chapter of Saint Ursula.

  1412-17 Countess Abbess Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1417-39 Princess-Abbess
Received the rank and title of a Princess of the Realm in 1417. Daughter of Duke Erich I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Göttingen. Her sister, Sophie, was de-facto ruler of the territory from 1443. Agnes lived (ca. 1406-39).

  1413-26 Princess-Abbess Margareta I von der Mark-Arenberg of Essen (Germany)
During the 1500th century Essen was the only Imperial Free Worldly Ladies Chapter to develop a full “land-constitution” as territorial state within the German Realm with three estates; The Ladies of the Chapter (chanonesses), the male canons in the Abbey and the Office-holders of low nobility of the chapter. She was daughter of Eberhard von der Mark, Lord of Arenberg etc and Marie von Looz. One of her sisters, Maria, was Lady of the Chapter until she left it to marry and the other, Anna, was elected Abbess in Freckenhorst in 1427.

  1413-17 Reigning Abbess Barbara I Höffer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
In 1416 she and her chapter appointed the Provsosty of the Chapter to Heinrich V. Notthafft v. Wernberg as life-tenantcy from Georg v. Abensberg.

  1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d’Angiò of Napoli  (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria
Also known as Jeanne d’Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative Louis III d’Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis’ death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).

  1414-37 Sovereign Princess Fiorenza Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece)
Daughter Gaspare Sommaripa, Lord of Paros and Maria Sanudo of Naxos and Antiparos, and married to Jacopo I Crispo, 11th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos (1383-1418). Their two daughters, Maria and Fiorenza, were Co-Ladies of Milos.

  1415-ca. 26 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Agnes von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (Poland/Germany)
One of her close advisors, Kurt Bonow, an old enemy of Stralsund, was killed, probably in 1417, by a member of the Regency Council, Marshall Degner Buggenhagen, who found refuge in Stralsund, but its inhabitants could not prevent that Buggenhagen was killed by Heneke Behr and his followers at the table of her husband’s nephew, Duke Wartislaw IX of Pommern-Wolgast on her initiation in 1420. Consequently the cities of Stralsund and Greifswald to send troops to the Castle of Usedom, where Behr had sought refuge, he was caught and punished. She was widow of Wartislaw VIII. von Pommern-Wolgast (1373-1415) and mother of Barnim VIII, Duke of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (ca. 1405/07-51) and Swantibor IV (ca. 1408/10-32). Also mother of a daughter and another son that died in infancy, and (d. 1435).

  1415-59 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Pierrepont Bar of Soissons, Marle and Roucy (France)
Granddaughter of Marie de Coucy (1366-1405), who was the granddaughter of King Edward III of England, who was heiress of Soissons and most of the Coucy’s French estates. Her father, Robert, Count de Marle et de Soissons, was killed in battle in 1415. Her mother was Jeanne de Bethune (d. 1450) and she married Robert III de Sarrebruck, seigneur de Commercy (d. 1460), succeeded by son Jean VII, and lived (1415-62).

  From 1415 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bretagne of Alençon (France)
Widow of Pierre II le Noble she ruled in the name of her son Jean V le Beau (1409-15-75-76). She lived (1391-1446). 

  1415-48 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Melun of Tancarville, Vicomtess de Melun (France)
Successor of her father, Guillaume IV de Melun, Grand Bouteiller de France, who was killed at Agincourt, and married to Jacques II Baron de Montgomery, who had first been married to Leonore Jumelles, Dame de Cresèques. Her husband was killed in 1428. Her mother was Jeanne de Parthenay, Dame de Samblancay. She was first succeeded by her son, Guillaume and in 1484 by daughter Jeanne.

  1415 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von von Blankenheim of Blankenheim-Gerolstein and Kasselburg (Germany)
Her father, Gerhard VII died in 1406 and the territory was administered by her uncle, Prince-Bishop Friedrich von Utrecht until his death in 1415. Her husband Wilhelm I. von Loon of the house of Heinsberg, then came in possession of the County. 

  1415-31 Lady Philippa de Mohun of the Isle of Wright (United Kingdom)
Became Lady after her third husband Edward, Earl of Rutland and Duke of York was killed at Agincourt. She was first married to Lord Fitzwater and secondly to Sir John Golafre.

  1416 Regent Dowager Queen Nang Chlo Pumba of Lan-Xang (Laos)
After the death of Phya Ounmuong or Sam Sene Thai (1356-73-1416) she was regent for Lan Kamdaeng (1416-28). The name of the state is also spelled as Lan Ch’ang. 

  1416-56 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)
Might have been the seventh child of Count Rudolf von Leiningen-Rixingen, and Agnes von Zweibrücken.

  1417-28 Sovereign Duchess and Countess Jacobäa von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, Lady of Friesland and Countess of Ponthieu (The Netherlands and France)
1428-33 Titular Countess
Only child of Willem VI of Bayern-Straubing and Hainault-Holland. In 1415 she married the French Dauphin, Jean de Touraine, who died 1417. The following year she got papal acceptance to marry her cousin Jean IV of Brabant. With the support of Emperor Sigismund of Germany, her uncle, Johan VI of Bavaria demanded that she accepted him as regent. He persuaded the Pope to withdraw the dispensation and gave her lands to him. In 1419 Philippe of Bourgogne intervened. Johan got parts of southern Holland. The next year her husband gave Holland, Zeeland and Hainault as security to Johan. She die not accept this and had the marriage annulled. In 1422 she married Humphrey of Gloucester and in 1424 they launched an attack on her ex-husband. In 1424 she was taken prisoner and the following year her uncle died. He had given the countries to Philippe of Bourgogne. She escaped and fought against Philippe until 1428 until she had to capitulate. In 1432 she married Frank van Borsele and the next year she abdicated. Died of tuberculosis and lived (1401-36). 

  1417-20 Sovereign Countess Elénore de Beaufort of Touraine (France)
Succeeded brother, Raymond Louis de Beaufort. She was succeeded by her cousin Amanieu, who was first succeeded by his brother and in 1444 by niece, Anne. 

  1417-23 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Also known as Belle, she was the 35th ruler of the territory and was succeeded three others of the same family, Christine, Agnès and Wilhelmine.

  1417-22 Reigning Abbess  Herzenleid von Wildenwarth of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Cordula von Wildenwarth was Coadiutrix (Deputy Reigning Abbess) 1417-27.

  1418-61 Fon Nguopu of Banum (Cameroon)
Ascended to the throne after the death of her brother, Share Yen, who founded the state around 1394, but wore male dress, so that her gender was not discovered, and she ruled as Fon – or king.

  1418-ca. 33 Regent Dowager Duchess Sofia von Schleswig-Holstein of Pommern-Stargard (Pomerze) (Poland)
Also known as Zofia Holsztyńska, she reigned in the name of her son Bogusław IX of Pommern-Stargard after the death of her husband, Bogislaw VIII. She was daughter of Count Heinrich II von Holstein-Rendsburg (1317-40-82-84) and Mechtild zur Lippe, and lived (ca. 1375-1448).

  1418-21 De-Facto Joint Ruler Dowager Queen Kujava of Bosnia
She married King Ostoja in 1399, shortly after he repudiated his first wife, Queen Vitača. He gained support of the noble family of Radenović by marrying her, as they were closely related to the new queen consort. When her husband was deposed in 1404, he left Bobovac and fled to Hungary, but she and her son remained in Bosnia whose crown was given to her brother-in-law, King Stephen Tvrtko II. Tvrtko II himself was deposed in 1409 when Kujava’s her returned from exile and resumed the throne, at which point she became queen of Bosnia once again, but the marriage started falling apart in 1415. Prince Pavle Radenović, her brother or cousin [1], was killed in a plot set by her husband. Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić died soon after, leaving behind a wealthy widow, Jelena Nelipčić. Her husband saw the opportunity and divorced her and married Duchess Jelena, who brought Hrvoje’s lands into marriage. Three years later her ex-husband died and was succeeded by their son, Stephen Ostojić. She suddenly became very influential and powerful, de facto ruling along with her son. Her son’s short reign wa marked by her conflicts with Queen Jelena. Their conflicts stopped in the summer of 1419, when her son imprisoned the dowager queen. Jelena died under mysterious circumstances in 1422. After her son died in 1421 she supported various pretenders to the Bosnian throne.

  1418 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite II de Salvain of Remiremont  (France)
Another version of her name is Grilde de Salverne.

  1418-21 Reigning Abbess….. von Schwandorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Her first name is to be checked.

  1418-38 Reigning Abbess Marie I de la Chapelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The chapter was placed under the direct authority of the Pope.

  1419 Regent Dowager Queen Sophia of Bavaria of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
After the death of her husband, Václav IV of Bohemia (1378-1419), she acted as head of state until Sigismund of Luxembourg took over the throne. Her husband was king of Germany (1378-1400) and Duke of Luxembourg as Wenzel. She was the daughter of John II of Bayern-München and Catherine of Gorize, had no children, and lived (1376-1425).

  1419-30 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Boutershem of Bergen op Zoom and Grimsbergen, Bracht et cetera  (The Netherlands)
Succeeded father, Hendrik II, and was joint ruler with husband, Jan I van Glymes, until his death in 1427. Succeeded by son, Jan II, and lived (ca. 1330-90).

  Around 1419 Reigning Princess Bikhakhanim of “A small polity located on the Taman Peninsula” (Russia)
May have been of Circassian, Georgian, or Cuman origin, but it is suggested that she was Princess Bikhakhatun, daughter of the Georgian prince Beka II Jakeli (d. 1391), the ruler of Samtskhe and Klarjeti. She was married to Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through this marriage became ruler of that country under Genoese overlordship. One of his heirs, Zacharias de Guizolfi, was still reigning in 1482.

  1419-36 Reigning Abbess Brigitta Kopp of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire. 

  1420-23 Lieutenant-General Queen Maria de Trastámara de Castilla of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca
1432-58 Lieutenant-General of the Principality of Catalunya, (Spain)
Regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V’s warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spent most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancaster, was heir to the Castillian throne as Princess of Asturias 1402-05, had no children and lived (1401-58).

  1420-36 Sovereign Countess Marie of Dammartin (France)
Married to Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and succeeded by daughter, Marguerite.

  1420-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Greiffensee of Schänis (Switzerland)
In 1438 the Lordship of Windegg became a possession of the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, and thereby the chapter became a part of the Swiss Confederation (schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft). And even though the emperor confirmed the rights of the chapter in 1442, Glarus and Schwyz from then on considered themselves to be the rightful successors of the Royal Stewards of the chapter. Elisabeth was member of an old noble family that originated near Zürich.

  1421 Hereditary Lady Luitgard von Bentheim of Steinfurt (Germany)
Inherited Steinfurt from her maternal grandfather, Ludolf VIII von Steinfurt, since her mother, Mechtild, had died the previous year. Luitgard ceded the lordship to her father, Everwin I, and thus to her stepbrothers. She later married Wilhelm von der Lecke, Lord van Berg-s’Herenberg.  


1421-28 Princess-Abbess Gertrud II von Helfenberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a Bavarian noble family.

  1421-44 Princesse-Abbesse Isabella de Demengeville of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Yasbel de Demengevelle, she had been Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1414-21.

  1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England
Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37).

  1422-24 Reigning Dowager Countess Rengarda di Brancaleoni of Cingoli (Italy)
Held the territory after the death of her husband, Giovanni Cima and in 1424 the county became part of the Papal State. 

  1422 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)
Was in office for about 6 months before she died. The noble von Bussenang family had a tradition of occupying high clerical offices – Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland. Another member of the family, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Säckingen (1307-18) before it became a principality within the German Empire. 

  1422-28 Princess-Abbess Johanna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)
Listed as Kellerin (Wine-maker) in 1395. She was sister of Klaranna (1379/80-1422), and daughter of Freiherr Walther von Hohenklingen, Lord of Stein. Her family was closely related to the Lords von Brandis im Emmental and the von Bechburg in the Canton Solothurn was of importance, and the family split into two lines in the 14th century –  Hohenklingen-Bechburg and Hohenklingen-Brandis.

  1422-27 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Lords of Streitberg were originally noble officials of the local Bishop they joined the service of the Duke of Meran. Throughout the years the various family-lines fought over the inheritance and who were to be in charge of the Castle of Streitberg in Bavaria.

  1423-27 Lady Maria d’Harcourt of Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot and Brebeke in Jülich and Geldern (Germany and the Netherlands)
Daughter of Count Jean VI d’Harcourt et Aumale and Catherine de Bourbon, Princess of France. After the death of her husband Duke Rainald IV, Duke of Jülich and Geldern, Count of Zutphen, she remained Lady of a number of possessions of Jülich. In 1424, she granted freedom to her serfs. Two years she married Duke Ruprecht von Jülich-Berg, Bishop of Passau and Paderborn. She lived (ca. 1389-1427)

  1423-41 Princess-Abbess Christine de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Succeeded her sister, Isabelle I, and was member of the family De Mérode who used the surname of Franckenberg. 

  1423-25 Reigning Abbess Henriette I de Mello of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
The chapter was still marked by the 100 years war, a conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet or Anjou.

  1424–ca. 1449 Sovereign Duchess Elena Korybutówna of Pszczyna within Racibórz-Karniów (Poland)
Widow of Prince Jan II and ruled together with Mikołaj III and Wacław of her dowry in Pszczyna, a part of the Slesian Duchy of Racibórz-Karniów.

  1424-37 Sovereign Countess Marie I of Auvergne (France)
1424 Sovereign Countess of Boulogne
Granddaughter of Robert VII (ca. 1282-1314-25), she succeeded her cousin, Jeanne II (1404-24), and was succeeded by husband, Bertrand I de la Tour and then by son, Bertrand II. The county had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Anjou, reigned as Duchess of Auvergne 1400-34. Marie d’Auvergne lived (1376-1437).

  Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)
Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.

  1425-30 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Sofia Vitovtovna of Moscow and Vladimir (Russia)
After the death of her husband, Vasiliy I, she was regent for her fourth and only surviving son, the 10-year-old Vasiliy II , who reigned until 1433 and again 1434-62. She was daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania ( Lietuva) (1392-1430) and Anna of Smolensk, and lived (1371-1453).

  Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)
Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.

  1425-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Schenkin von Landsberg und Sydow of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Also known as Schenkin von Landsberg or Schenkin von Sydow, she brought the chapter in disrespute. Engaged in fights with the ladies of the chapter, who accused her of misusing the fortune of the stift. She got a warning letter from the pope and later also one from the Cardinal of St. Angelia and the Bishop of Halberstadt, but she did not change her ways and a court was put together consisting of the Bishop of Halberstadt and the Princes of Anhalt and Brandenburg, who removed her right to make decisions on her own. But at that time she had already died. Her family had been appointed to the office of “Schenk” of the Margraves of Landsberg in the beginning of the 12th century and after Duke Rudolf of Sachsen took over the territory in 1328, they were given the fief of Teupitz and were also lords of Sydow.

  Ca. 1425-ca. 30 Reigning Abbess Marguerite III de Bréban of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Admiral Pierre de Bréban.

  1425-38 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Member of the member of the family of Freiherren von Reischach and a decendant of Konrad von Reischach who married Titlar Queen Isabella of Mallorca.

  1426-45 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Stecke van Beeck of Essen (Germany)
After the resignation of Margareta von der Mark, 10 of the ladies of the Chapter voted for her and 11 of the male canons voted for Margarete von Limburg, who had the support of the Duke Kleve. The ladies – referring to the fact that they alone had the right to vote according to the various royal ad papal privileges -proclaimed her as Abbess, the men, referring to their majority, proclaimed to Margareta. The pope first confirmed the latter, but soon after withdrew the confirmation and installed her. She had sought refuge at the castle of Borbeck with the ladies of the chapter and was siege by the forces of Limburg, not until 1428 did the Papal legates manage to establish a ceasefire and she was confirmed as Abbess and the following she also granted the imperial fief. (kaiserliche Belehnung).

  1426-49 Reignign Abbess Klara von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Daughter of Count Heinrich V von Montfort and Anna Truchsess von Waldburg and stepdaughter of Count Stephan von Guldenfingen, who was very influential in the chapter. Because of illness, she resigned in 1449 in favour of her relative Margarethe von Werdenberg, who was still a minor at the time, and died later the same year.

  1426-30 Army Leader Joan d’Arc in France
As a teenager, Joan believed she heard the voices of angels telling her to help the future Charles VII, who had been deprived of his inheritance by the English and the Burgundians, to regain his throne. Charles sent her to raise the siege at Orléans, which she did successfully, driving the English from the city and allowing him to be crowned at Rheims. She was soon captured by Burgundians and sold to the English, who found her guilty of witchcraft and wearing a man’s clothes. She was burned at the stake in 1431 and canonized in 1920. She lived (1412-31)

  1426-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Clermont-en-Auvergne and Sancerre, Dauphine of Auvergne (France)
The County of Auvergne had been divided into two – the Dauphinie and the County in 1155 and therefore there are Countesses and Dauphines with the same name. She was daughter of Berauld III, count of Clermont and Boulogne and Gabrielle de la Tour, Heiress of Auvergne. She married Louis de Bourbon, who was count of Clermont, Sancerre and Montpensier. She did not have any children, and lived (1412-34).

  1427-47 Queen Regnant Suhita Prabusti ofMajapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)
Daughter of king Wikramawardhana Bhre Lesem Sang Alemu and succeeded by two brothers after each other.

  1427-39 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (Germany)
Widow of Erich II (ca. 1383-98-1427) and acted as regent for son Heinrich III (1416-27-64) . She lived (ca 1390-1444).

  1427 Reigning Abbess Beatrix von Rotheneck of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Since 1002 the Reichsstift was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, and the chapter was granted royal protection and, immunity.

  1427-44 Acting Reigning Abbess Osanna von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
As Coadiutrix she acted as head of the chapter and territory.

  1428-42 Sovereign Duchess Euphemia of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (Poland)
Daughter of the Slesian Duke Boleslaw III of Münsterberg (1358-1410) and Euphemia of Schlesia-Beuthen-Kosel, and inherited the Principality after the death of her brother, Duke Jan (1380/90-1410-28). Married to Count Friedrich IV von Öttingen (d. 1423). She lived (1370/85-47).

  1428-30 Princess-Abbess Margareth II von Klingen of Säckingen (Germany)
Probably identical with Margareth von Altenklingen who is mentioned as Küsterin (Verge) and acted as “election officer” at the election of her predecessor.


1428-63 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Known in a folkstale as “Frau Hitt”, a cruel and despotic ruler of the Chapter and surrounding territories.

  1429-38 Regent Dowager Countess Elisabeth de Vaudemont of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany) 
Also known as Elisabeth von Lothringen, and was daughter of Duke Friederich of Lorraine and Marguerite de Vaudémont-Joinville and grew up in the boarder-area between France and Germany and was bilingual. After the death of her husband Count Philipp I. she took over the regency of the country for her under-age sons. She translated four “Chanson de geste” in German and wrote her own novels and is known as the first German female author. (After 1393-1456).

  1429-36 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Kijowska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)
Also known as Anna Holszańska or Anne of Kiev, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Bolesław IV after the death of her husband, Bolesław Januszowic of Masovia-Warsaw. She was daughter of Ivan Olshanski and Agrypina, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter. (d. after 1458).

  1429-33 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck of Lippe (Germany)
When her husband, Simon IV, died her oldest son, Bernhard VII, was hardly one year old and she was pregnant with the second. She was in serious disputes with her brother-in-law, Otto, Dean of the Cathedral of Köln, who was named Guardian. In 1433 he gave part of the Lordship as security for loans he took out in order to secure her dowry at the Castle Brake, where she moved – without her sons. Otto died the same year and Archbishop Dietrich von Moers of Köln, the brother of her mother-in-law Elisabeth, was named regent. She lived (Ca 1411-56).

  1429-84 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Höwen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland) 
Member of an old Swiss noble family, which saw several Prince-Abbots and Bishops.

  1427-34 Princess-Abbess Klara Strölin of Heggbach (Germany)
Also known as Ströl or Ströler, she was the first Abbess of the chapter to be given the rank of Princess of the Realm in 1429. Two of the three co-heirs to the lordship of Achstetten, Eberhard and Hans von Freyberg, had sold their rights of patronage over Burgrieden to Heggbach Abbey in 1420 and the Abbey possessed the right to dispense low justice from at least 1429 in Sulmingen and from 1491 in Baustetten. In Mietingen the abbey had acquired the right to dispense both low and high justice in 1442.
She was deposed and (d.  1460).

  1430-71 Politically Influential Duchess Isabelle de Portugal of Bourgogne (France) 
As the third wife of Duke Philippe of Burgundy (1396-1467), she exercised power in the very wearied domains of her husband. She acted as regent in his absence, was in charge of the finances, negotiated treaties and initiated reforms of religious orders. Daughter of King João I of Portugal and Philippa de Gent and mother of Duke Karl (1433-1477)  (The father of Duchess Maria of Burgundy).

  1430 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint-Pôl and Ligny and Dame de Roussy (France)
Known as La Demoiselle de Luxembourg, she was daughter of Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pol sur Ternoise and Guy de Luxembourg, Count de Ligny-en-Barrois (1335-60-78), she succeeded her grandnephew, Philippe, who was son of the Hereditary Countess Jeanne (d. 1407), daughter of Waléran III (d. 1415), and after her death, the two Counties were devided between two nepews, Pierre and Jean. She (d. 1430)

  1430… Sovereign Lady Ludovica of Monte Porzio, Consignora, Bernardovecchio, Busichio, Ghirardo, Monleone, Calbana, Calbanella, Ginestreto e Secchiano, Castiglione (Italy)
1438… Lady of San Mauro
Daughter of Gaspare and Novella dei Signori di Roello and married to Niccolò da Montefeltro, natural son of Count Conte Antonio da Montefeltro.

  1430-32 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Geroldseck of Säckingen (Germany)
First mentioned in documents from 1430 because of her dispute with Albrecht von Schönau and the compromise reached with his widow about the bailiffs’ office (Meieramt) in 1432. Her family were lords of the Lordships of Lahr and Hohengeroldseck by Strasbourg.

  1430-33 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Astúñiga of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As all the abbesses of the chapter, she was a member of one of the most illustrious noble families of Castillia.

  Ca. 1430-33 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Bréban of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded sister, but was deposed by king Charles VII.

  1431-53 Sovereign Duchess Isabella of Haut-Lorraine and Bar (France and Belgium)
1435-38 Regent Queen of Napoli (Italy)
Succeeded her father Karl I as Duchess of Lorraine. Her husband, René d’Anjou (d. 1480), Duke of Anjou from 1430 was Duke by the right of his wife of Bar from 1434, and when Queen Giovanna of Napoli died in 1435, she left him her throne. Isabella led the government during his warfare with Giovanna’s previous adopted heir King Alfonso of Aragón and Sicily and in 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and the following year he was recognized as King by the Pope Eugene IV. Among Isabella’s six children was Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England. Isabel lived (1410-1453).

  1431-34 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Hanau of Rieneck (Germany)
1434-60 Reigning Lady of the Office and Castle of Mainberg bei Schweinfurt in Henneberg
After the death of her husband, Thomas II (1408-31), she was regent for their two sons Philipp the Older, Lord of Grünsfeld, Lauda und Wildenstein (d, 1488) and Philipp the Younger, Lord of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau und Schildeck (d. 1497), until her marriage to Count Wilhelm II von Henneberg-Schleusingen (1415-44). Instead her brother took over as regent. She declined any rights of the county of Rieneck but received her dowry of 8.000 Guilders and Mainberg from her new husband. Mother of another 5 children. She was oldest daughter of Reinhard II and Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, and lived (1408-60).

  1431-34 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Bayern of Haut-Lorraine (France and Belgium)
Apparently she took over the regency after her husband, Karl II von Ober-Lothringen died, since his successor, Isabella resided in Napoli. Her marriage was not very happy and she devoted her time caring for the poor and founded a number of hopitals. Later declared Holy. The daughter of the German Emperor Ruprecht van der Pfalz and Elisabeth von Hohenzollern and  mother of two surviving daughters and two sons who died young, and lived (1373-34).

  1431-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque dHarcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.

  1431-34 Contra-Abbess Marguerite II de Beaufort de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Elected in opposition to Marie II and was not recognized by the Pope.  

  1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)
After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.

  1432-62 Sovereign Lady Aikaterina Asania Zaccariaina of Arcadia, Heiress of the principality of Achaia (Greece)
Also known as Aikaterina Asanina Zaccariaina, she succeeded her father, enturione II, who succeeded his father in 1401 as Lord of Arkadiak and was installed in 1404 as Prince of Achaia by Ladislas King of Sicily, but was dispossessed in 1430 by the Emperors of Byzantium. Her husband, Thomas Palailogos, Despot of Morea 1428-60, son of Emperor Manuel II of Byzantinium, was Lord of Archaia-by the right of his wife. She lived (1392-1462).

  1432-84 Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)
She got papal dispensation to assume the office as she was on 22 at the time of her election. She mediated in a dispute between the fishermen of Säckingen and Laufenburg in 1438, Emperor Friederich II confirmed the rights and privileges of the Chapter in 1442, which suffered under the dispute between Austria and the Swiss Confederates and she reached an agreement with the Austrian Lordship Rheinfelden about the rights of the town of Mumpf. Her son, Hohann Thurn, was granted a position as canon at Säckingen through Papal  intervention. She was daughter of Count Rudolf von Sulz and Ursula von Habsburg-Laufenburg, Heiress of her father, Hans von Habsburg-Laufenburg, and lived (1409-84).

  1433-43 Sovereign Countess Isabel de Urgell, (Titular Dame of Andorra) (Spain)
The daughter of Jaime II, Count de Urgell, etc, who died in jail in Jativa and Princess Isabel of Aragon (1380-1424), she was married to Pedro of Portugal, Duque de Coimbra (1392-1449). They did not have any children, and she lived (1409-43).

  1433-1447 Co-ruler Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Teschen-Freistadt  (Cieszyn) (Poland)
Reigned the Slesian Duchy together with her 4 sons. She lived (1395/8-1447).

  1433-57 Reigning Abbess-General María de Sandoval I of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”.

  1433-62 Reigning Abbess Jeanne III de Melun of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Sister of Philippe de Melun, councillor of King Charles VII. After her death both Isabelle de Neuville and Marguerite de Levilly were elected abbesses. Jeanne d’Ailly took over in the end.

  1434-38 Possible Member of the Regency Council Dowager Queen Zofia Holszańska of Poland
1434-61 Politically Active
Also known as Sonka or Sofia of Holszany. After the death of her husband, king Władysław II Jagiełło, she lost the struggle over the regency for her son King Władysław III Warneńczyk of Poland and Hungary, though new research indicates that she might have been Regency Council Member. Anyhow she remained involved in politics, and in 1454 helped her younger son, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk, to asume the throne after the death of his brother. She lived (1405-61).

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Medhyn Zemeda of Damot in Ethiopia
Held the additional high office of “keń bituedded”. She was daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub (ruled 1434-68), who appointed his daughters to high state offices and governors in the provinces. Her sister, Byrhan Zemeda, held the office of “gyr bituedded”.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Meszih of Amhara in Ethiopia
Their brother, Baeda Mariam I, also known as either Siryakos or Dawit II (ruled 1507-40), killed his mother, Tseyun Work, for attempting to usurp power.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Dyl Semra of Tigraj in Ethiopia
Another daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob, who was also known as Yaqub or Qwastantinos I or Constantine. He was father of one son.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Semra of Godzham in Ethiopia
Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Rom Genejda of Scheua in Ethiopia
One more daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Segedu of Geń in Ethiopia
Another daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Tsebele Marjam in Ethiopia
Also known as Abala Marjam.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Gijorgis of a Province in Ethiopia
The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Sofija of Gyddym in Ethiopia
Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.

  Around 1434 Governor Princess Bahyr Mengyschain of a Province in Ethiopia
The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.

  1435-42 Regent Dowager Empress Zangof China
Widow of Emperor Hsuan Te (1425-35) and ruled in the name of her son, Zhu Qizhen (Zhengtong), who was Emperor (1435-49) and (1457-64). She was one of the most powerful of all Ming empresses was accompanied by her son, on a visit to Wansuishan, the artificial mountain just behind the palace. They also made a very public visit to the Ming tombs, thirty li northwest of the city. (d. 1442).). 

  1535-38 Regent Electress Mechtild von Savoien-Achaien of Pfalz (Germany)
From 1430 the progressing blindness of her husband Ludwig III von Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatine, forced him to transfer more and more of his powers to his brother, Otto, and in 1435 she was appointed joint regent together with brother-in-law and a Council of 25. The following year she became regent for her son, Ludwig IV after his death, but died before he came of age. She lived (1390-1438)

  Until 1435 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I Sattelbogerin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
It is not certain whom she followed on the post as Reichsfürstin and ruler of the ecclesiastical territory.

  1435-56 Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Absberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Head of the territory had been a Princess of the Realm since 1315.

  1435-38 Princess-Abbess Agathe II Grähter of Heggbach (Germany)
Another version of her surname is Gretterin.

  1435-58 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Plauen-Reuss of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Count Heinrich IX von Reuss, Lord of Plauen und Auerbach and Countess Anna von Riesenberg. (d. 1458).

  1436-38/39 Reigning Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)
1453-66 Regent of the Duchies
After the death of her husband, Ludwik II of Brzeg and Legnica, she ruled in her own name until she married her brother-in-law, Wacław I 1438/39, but the marriage ended in divorce. Later regent for son. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich I von Brandenburg and mother of four children, and lived (1403-49).

  1436… Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Dammartin (France)
Daughter of Marie Dammartin and Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and married to Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favourites of King Charles VII, who fought under the standard of Joan of Arc, became a leader of the Ecorcheurs, took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI, and then fought for him against the Burgundians. Their son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers

  1436 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Rothenstein of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The Chapter became an Imperial Immediacy (achieved Reichsunmittelbarkeit) in 1442 and the Abbess became Lady of the Chapter and its possessions, and given the right to collect taxes and customs. After the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 administrative units, called Imperial Circles or Reichskreisen in 1495, in the Abbess of Rottenmünster became member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the Regional Assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis. 1521 the Abbess was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm – which meant that she was member of the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The next known Princess-Abbess was Ursula Scherlin, who was in office 1657-87.

  1436-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque d’Harcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.

  1437-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Francesca Morosini of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greece Island-State)
After the death of her husband, Giovanni II Crispo of Naxos, she first imprisoned by her brother-in-law, Guglielmo Crispo, who claimed the regency for his son, but after 4 years she took over as regent for her son Giacopo II (1433-47). After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros in 1437, the Venetians installed their nominee Francesco Quirini to rule the island, Duke Giacomo being blackmailed into acceptance by threat of attack. In 1440 a Venetian court ruled in favour of Crusino I Sommaripa, son of Maria Sanudo, as ruler of Andros. Her daughter Adriana was deprived of her rightful inheritance by Guglielmo. She (d. after 1455)

  1437-40 Queen Elisabeth von Luxemburg of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Sovereign Duchess of Luxembourg
1439-1440 De-facto Regent of Hungary (27.10-29.07)
Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d’Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg’s election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son’s coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. When he died in 1457 her two daughters, Elisabeth and Anna, inherited some of the rights to the family lands. She lived (1409-42).

  1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)
After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven-year-old son James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (ca. 1383-ca. 1451) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Athol. (d. 1445).

  1437-44 Reigning Abbess Agnes of Gutenzell (Germany)
Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory’s position as an independent state.

  1438-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I Hoffmann of Heggbach (Germany)
In old sources her surname is written as Hofmannin. The chapter aquired the right to dispence both low and high justice in one of its possessions, the village of Mietingen, in 1442.

  1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves
Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son, Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king’s brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. She was daughter of Fernando I of Aragón and Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque (1409-45).

  1438 Queen Regnant Samdach Brhat-Chao Nang Keo Phim Fa Mahadevi of Lan-Xang (Laos)
Took over as ruler after having placed various princes on the throne. She only reigned for a few months before she was deposed and killed. She lived (1343-1438).

  1438-62 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore de Bourbon-La Marche of Nemours, Countess of Castres and La Marche (France) 
Daughter of Jacques de Bourbon-La Marche (1370-1438) and Beatrix d’Évreux, the daughter of Carlos III of Navarra. Her father’s second wife was Giovanna II of Napoli. Eleonore was married to Bernard d’Armagnac, Count de Pardiac. 

  1438-44 Princess-Abbess Anna V Schenkin zu Limpurg of Baindt (Germany)
1437 Emperor Sigismund had granted the Princess-Abbess of Baindt the right to act as a low court judge (Niedere Gerichtshofheit).

  1438-65 Reigning Abbess Bonne de a Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Seigneur of Thiennes and Blaringhem.

  1439-ca. 46 Sovereign Princess Maria de Sommaripa of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)
Succeeded father Crusino I. She was daughter of Princess Maria Saudos of Andros, Gespario and Samnaripa 

  1439-61 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scholastika von Sachsen of Naumburg am Bober (Nowogród Bobrzański) (Poland)
Also known as Scholastyka Wettin, she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Duke Johan von Sagan (Jan I of Żagań).

  1439-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Małgorzata of Wołów (Poland)
Following the death of her husband, Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica (Oels) and Kozielsk, she held the Slesian lordship as her dowry. 

  1439-92 Joint Hereditary Lady Anna von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)
Daughter of Wilhelm II von Wevelinghoven and married to Heinrich IV von Gemen and they were succeeded by their daughter, Cordula. She lived (1423-ca. 92).

  1439-? Joint Hereditary Lady Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)
Sister of Anna, she married Johann VI. von Reifferscheid in 1433. She received the Lordship of Alfter and the Erbmarschallamt Köln after an agreement with her husband in 1461.

  1439 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Dorstadt of Gandersheim (Germany)
Succeeded Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen.

  1439-52 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
Also known as Ilse, she was sister of Agnes who reigned the territory (1412-39), she was elected Fürstäbtissin in the year she became widow of Duke Kasimir V of Pommern, even though – according to the statutes from 1357 – she would not have been allowed to enter the chapter as she was not unmarried. She lived (ca. 1409-52).

  Around 1440-46 Princess-Abbess Sophie of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)
Transformed the lower parts the north transept of the Chapel .

  1441 Hereditary Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti of Milano (Italy)
1466 Regent of Milano
Heiress of the duchy and married to Francesco Sforza. She was a very energetic woman who assisted her husband in the administration of the state. Her cultural engagement was one of the contributing factors to the Lombardian Renaissance. After her husband’s death she was in charge of the government and had the Privy Council elect her son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza – who was in France at the time – as Duke. She lived (1425-68).

  1441-51 Sovereign Signora Catarina Appiano of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriato, Abbadia, al Fango, Vignale, Valle, Montini and the Island of Elba (Italy)
Daughter of Gherardo Leonardo who was, Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, who lived (1375-1445), succeeded her brother, Jacopo II, and died of the plague. Married Rinaldo Orsini Conte di Tagliacozzo et Alba, and was succeeded by uncle Emanuele. She lived (1402-50).

  1441-54/55 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta von Oppeln in Ohlau and Niemcza (Oława)
Also known as Małgorzata Opolska, she held the principality after the death of her husband Ludwig III of Lüben, Hainau, Ohlau, Nimptich and Brieg. She was the daughter of Duchess Bolesław IV of Opole and Małgorzata of Gorycja, mother of 2 sons: Jan and Henryk, and lived (1412/14-1454/5).

  1441-49 Princess-Abbess Agnès I de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The third ruler of the territory from the Mérode-family that used the name of Franckenberg.

  1441-52 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
One of many members of her family to be Abbesses of the chapter.

  1442-58 (†) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Palaiologina of Cyprus
Probably the most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances, which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458 Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).

  1442-84 Reigning-Abbess Margaretha I von Gleichen of Herford Germany)
In dispute with the Hereditary Steward and Lords von Helfenstein-Sporkenburg about a number of tenants and villages and against her protests, Johann XII von Helfenstein, Lord of Sporkenburg, placed the villages Arnberg and Immendorf under the protection of the Archbishop of Trier. This created the situation where the Abbey were Lords of the Fief and the Bishopcy were Lord Guardians.

  1442-43 Contra-Abbess Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Herford (Germany)
In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen. 1476-79 Jakobe von Neuenhar was Contra-Abbess.

  Until 1442 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Guyenne (France)
Daughter of Jean de Bourgogne, Duc de G. and Margareta of Bavaria. She was first married to Louis de France (1397-1415) and then to Arthur III de Montfort of Bretagne (193-1458).

  1442-76 Politically Influential Princess Magdalena Oppeln (Opole) (Poland) 
1474 Regent of Oppeln
Very influential during the reign of her husband Mikołaj I, and in 1474 she acted as regent for him. She lived (1426/30-1497).

  1442-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Margaretha von Ratibor of Gostynin in the Masovian Duchy of Rawa (Poland)
Also known as Małgorzata Raciborska, she received the town of Gostynin as her dowry after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Siemowit V of Masovia-Rawa, while the rest of the domain was joined with Płock.

  1442-59 Regent The Dowager Queen Nguyễn Thị Anh  of Vietnam
When Nguyen Thi Anh’s husband, King Lê Thái Tông, died, she took over the regency for her 1 year old son, Lê Nhân Tông. In reality, the real power behind the throne was Trịnh Khả and together they managed to rule Vietnam reasonably well, though there was some friction. Her son was officially given the powers of government in 1453 even though he was only 12 years old. This was unusual and seems to have made little real difference, the she continued to rule while the other noble families acted as a brake on her power. In 1459 her late husband’s oldest son staged a coup, killed the king and the next day she allowed herself to be killed by a loyal servant. She lived (circa 1422–1459).

  1444-(90) Sovereign Countess Agnes de Touraine (France)
Succeeded brother, Pierre. Her husband Agne de la Tour, was count by the right of his wife (1445-90).

  1444-60 Co-Ruler Duchess Margaret Cilly of Schlesien-Teschen-Gross-Glogau
1460-76 Titular Duchess of Głogów and Żagań
Also known as Małgorzata Cyllejska, and after the death of her husband, Władysław of Głogów and Cieszyn, she formally held Glogau and Sagan as her dowry until she was deposed and the principality was incorporated into Schlesien-Teschen-Freistadt. Daughter of count Herman III of Cilly. (d. 1480).

  1444-57 Princess-Abbess Wandelburgis of Baindt (Germany)
In the first year of her reign, she temporary took over the Patron-rights over Wechstsweiler.

  1444-52 Princesse-Abbesse Henrica III de Vienne of Remiremont  (France)
Also known as Henriette de Vienne.

  1444-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Hofmann of Heggbach (Germany)
Heggbach was the only ecclesiastical territory where the Princess-Abbess mainly came from peasant and merchant families.

  1444-59 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Neth of Gutenzell (Germany)
It is not clear when the abbesses became Princesses of Empire, Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Gutenzell), but in 1417 and 1437 the Chapter was granted certain privileges by Emperor Sigismund.

  1444-48 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Tauffkirchen-Hohenrain und Höchlenbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Originated from a family of Lords of the Watercastle in Taufkirchen near Munich and the lords of Hohenrain in Switzerland.

  1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England
Dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husband’s fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their first child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. The Yorkists deposed her husband in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. She was captured herself and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).

  1445-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Brandenburg of the City of Friedberg in Bayern (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig VIII of Bayern-Inglofstadt (1403-45), she kept her father-in-law, Ludwig VII (1365-1447) imprisoned at the Neuburg in order to use him as exchange for the damage payment demanded by her brother, Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach until Heinrich the Rich of Bayern paid the ransom. She kept her residence at Neuburg even though her dowry was at the Castle of Friedberg, and she died in Landshut. (d. 1465).

  1445-1456 Politically Influential Duchess Małgorzata of Szamotuły in Racibórz (Poland)
1456-? Regent
Until 1464 Co-Ruler
Very active supporter of her second husband was prince Wacław II of Racibórz’ politics. After his death she became regent and (later) co-ruler of their son, Jan V. (d. 1464).

  1445-47 Princess-Abbess Sophia II von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)
Member of the family of the Counts von Daun-Falkenstein, Lords of Daun-Oberstein und Falkenstein, who were vassals, of the Duchy of Berg.

  1445-63 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis II von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)
Perhaps Coadjurix and Pröbstin (Deputy Abbess) from 1439. Also known as Mathilde, she was daughter of Siegmunt I von Anhalt-Dessau and Jutta von Querfurt. Her niece, Scholastika, was abbess from 1569. Mechtildis (d.1463).

  1445-49 15th Territorial Countess Anne de Beauchamp of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1447-49 Lady of the Isles (Dependency of the English Crown)
As the only daughter of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and 14th Earl of Warwick, she was heir to the Warwick and the Despenser lands, the latter trough her grandmother, Isabel Despenser. When she died in January 1449, aged only five, her heir was her aunt Anne Neville, her father’s only sister in the full blood. His half-sisters were barred from any claim through common law to her estates. None the less a royal license dated 12 July 1449 described Margaret, Eleanor, Elizabeth and her as joint heiresses of Richard Beauchamp, but on July 23 of the same year, the king granted the title of Earl of Warwick to Richard and Anne Neville, declaring she was Henry Beauchamp’s heir. Anne de Beauchamp lived (1443-49). 

  1446-49 Regent Dowager Princess Maria of of Poland of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Bogisław IX, she was regent during the absence of his nephew, King Erik VII of Denmark and Sweden, who had abdicated in 1438 and spend the years 1442-49 as a privateer in the Baltic Seas, until he retired to Pomerania with his partner, Cecilia and lived there until his death in 1459. He was succeeded by her daughter, Zofia. Maria was the daughter of Duke of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra of Poland, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło, and lived (1408/15-1454).

  1446-1528 Sovereign Princess Lucrezia Loredano of Antiparos  (Greece Island-State)
Succeeded sister. 1207 the Venetian noble Mario I Sanudo conquered the Cycladerna, Sporades and other islands in the Aegean Sea from the Byzantine Empire. Naxos became the centre, but later the Aegean was marred by pirates and some times the Island of Antiparos was abandoned all together. In 1537 the island was occupied by the Ottomans.

  1446/47 Reigning Dowager Lady of Dagno Danjë (Albania)
The Lordship was also known as Dagno or Danja. In 1444 Gjergji Skanderbeg liberated parts of Albania and united the Albanian Princes in the “Liga of Lezha” in the fight against the Ottoman Turks, but 1448 the city and lordship was lost.

  1446-54 Princess-Abbess Jakoba van Heinsberg-Loon of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Took over as acting sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality from Mechtildis, who vacated the position, but remained titular Abbess to her death. Jacobäa abdicated in 1454 and moved to the court of her half-brother, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, where she seems to have fallen in love with the Knight van der Marck. Since she was also very pious she withdrew to a Benedictine Chapter – another version of the story is that he died in a duel. She was daughter of Johann II von Loen, Lord of Jülich and Heinsberg and his second wife, Anna von Solms, and died 1466.

  1447-59 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Saffenberg of Essen (Germany)
She might have been identical with the Elisabeth von Saffenberg, Lady of Saffenberg, Co-Heiress of Thomberg, Lanscroon, Koningsfeld and Meyl who was married Luther von Quadt zu Lantscroon, Knight from 1464 and Lord of Tomberg, Lanscroon, Hardenberg and Vorst. This Elisabeth was daughter of Croft van Saffenberg en Elisabeth Tomberg.

  1447-70 Abbess Nullius Sancia Fungetaof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the many privileges she enjoyed as Abbess were that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  1448-49 Regent Dowager Empress Helena Dragaš of the Byzantine Empire (Greece)
Left the convent where she had stayed since the death of her husband, Emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-91-1425), and asserted her right to act as regent until the eldest of her surviving sons arrived from Greece, after the death of her oldest son, John VIII Palailogos, since the younger of the surviving sons, Demetrios, had hurried to the capital to stake his claim over the older Constantine XI. She sent George Sphrantzes to the Sultan Murad to seek his approval and recognition of Constantine as the new Emperor, and  commissioned two of her leading courtiers to go to Mistra to confirm the fact of his succession. On 6 January 1449 they proclaimed and invested Constantine, who died in 1453 as the last Byzantine Emperor. The daughter of Constantin Dragaš, Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhesother of 9 sons and 1 or 2 daughters, and lived (ca. 1372-1450).

  1448 “Holder of the Royal Authority” Dowager Queen Dorothea zu Brandenburg of Denmark
1448-52 Mistress of the Counties of Örebro, Närke and Värmland (Sweden)
1481-90 Regent of Slesvig-Holsten (Schleswig-Holstein) (Germany)
The “royal authority” was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contra signed and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State, which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. Her dowry included Roskilde Len and Ringsted Len, and held large parts of Lolland, Falster, Slesvig and Holsten together with Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for loans she granted her husband. She founded a convent in Køge and travelled twice to Rom on pilgrimages. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).

  1448-54 Sovereign Countess Nicole de Châtillon de Blois of Penthièvre, Vicomtesse de Limoges, Dame de Thors, des Essars et de Reignac (France)
Married to Jean II de Brosse, Seigneur de Boussac et de Sainte-Severe. She (d. 1479).

  1448-69 Sovereign Lady Johanna von Loon zu Heinsberg of Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Dalenbroich, Diest, Sichem and Zeelhem (Germany and The Netherlands)
Daughter of Johann IV von Loon, Herr zu Heinsberg and Johanna von Diest and married to Johann II von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1423-72) and lived (1443-69).

  1448-68 Reigning Abbess Ottilia von Abensberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of an ancient Austrian noble family.

  1449-96 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)
Only 12 when elected abbess, and the Pope appointed the Counts Ulrich and Ludwig von Württemberg and the City of Ulm to run the affairs of the Chapter, and her mother, Elisabeth von Württemberg, was also influential. First mentioned as Princess of the Realm in 1455. She problably took over the reigns herself around 1466 when she reached the age of 30, the normal minimum age for abbesses. Her father was Johann IV von Werdenberg of the House of Montfort, she was succeeded by sister, Anna, and ived (ca. 1436-66).

  1449-62 Princess-Abbess Marguerite I d’Escornais of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.

  1449-50 Territorial Hereditary Countess Anne de Beauchamp Neville of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1471-87 Lady of the Isles (Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Brechou, Herm, Jethou and Sark) (Dependencies of the English Crown)
Inherited the claim to the title of her brother’s daughter Anne de Beauchamp, though her half-sister claimed the lands and title. After an investigation into Anne de Beauchamp’s estates affirmed that she was the heir and on 2 March 1450 a fresh grant of the title of Warwick was made to her and her husband, Richard Neville, who became the 16th Earl, this time adding provision that her sister, Margaret would inherit if the Nevilles remained childless. Anne and her husband were also confirmed with the office of Chamberlain of the Exchequer, which was part of the earldom of Warwick, on 6 December 1450 and her husband took possession of the office. Her half-sisters and their husbands immediately protested, and in consequence, her husband was removed from the office and the king committed it to temporary custodians until the Exchequer court could determine the rightful owner. 1454 they were re-confirmed with the office. After his death in 1471, she took over as Lady of the Isles. Their daughter, Anne Neville, first married the Prince Edward of Wales, and then Richard III. Anne de Beauchamp Neville lived (1426-92).


Majapahit During War And Peace Part II:”The Golden Age Of Majapahit Kingdom”(Masa Keemasan Kerajaan Majapahit)













The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 


Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections


             Edited By


     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

       special for premium member hhtp:// copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011



1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)

3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389

4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476

5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525



“The Golden Age Of Majapahit Kingdom”

Table Of content

1.King Jaya negara

 2.Queen Tribhuwana Wijaya Tungga Dewi(1325-1351)

3. King Hayam Wuruk with Patih Gajamada

 4, King Brawijaya


1.King Jaya negara

The Glory of Majapahit

Prof. Dr. Slamet Muljana said, “At the essence, the glorious history of Majapahit is the story of the life of Maha Patih Gajah Mada.” The glory of Majapahit dissipated after the reign of Hayam Wuruk. Hence, this part of the history of Majapahit revolves around the reign of Jayanegara, where Gajah Mada gained prominence, to the reign of Hayam Wuruk.


Raden Wijaya married the four daughters of Kertanegara. The wives are Tribhuaneswari, Narendraduhita, Pradnya Paramita, and Dya Dewi Gayatri. The most known among them is Rajapatni Gayatri, who had two daughters, Sri Gitarja (or Tribuwanatunggadewi) who became bhre Kahuripan (ruler of Kahuripan district) and Dyah Wiyat (or Rajadewi Maharajasa) who became bhre Daha (ruler of Daha district).

A source said that there was a historic prophecy that said that the kings of Java shall come from Gayatri. However the reality was Raden Wijaya appointed Jayanegara as his heir, who though was the only son of Raden Wijaya but was not the son of Raden Wijaya’s first queen. Jayanegara himself had a child name of Kala Gemet, which means “weak villain.” Jayanegara took the throne with the name Abhiseka Wiralandagopala in the year AD 1309.

Jayanegara was the son of Putri Negeri Seberang (Princess from the Country Across the Sea) who came from the Malay-Jambi Kingdom, Dharmasraya, in Sawahlunto. It was said that when the army of Raden Wijaya went to Negeri Seberang (either for colonization or mere visit), they brought home precious goods and two sister princesses, who were Dara Jingga and Dara Petak. Dara Jingga was married to a high official of Majapahit. Their son, Adityawarman, was Majapahit general and who was also to become King of Melayu (which seems to be under the ruling of Majapahit too).

Dara Petak herself was married by Raden Wijaya. In Majapahit, Dara Petak was known by the name Indreswari. Dara Petak bore Raden Wijaya a son, Raden Kala Gemet. Perhaps because she was the only wives of Raden Wijaya to bear him son, Dara Petak was made Sthri Tinuheng Pura, which means “wife that was made senior in pura (palace)”, or in the other words, she was made the Queen of the palace, although she was actually the fifth wife of Raden Wijaya.

When Jayanegara ruled, Gajah Mada was only a bekel, which is a low-ranked soldier under a senopati. However, he had been entrusted with leading the Bhayangkara squad, which was the last line of defense in protecting the royal family. During his reign, Jayanegara faced several rebellions, but the most famous one was the rebellion by Rakrian Kuti, which took place in Saka Year 1241 or AD 1319; this event was also one that soared Gajah Mada’s name.

The following was the information gotten from the novel Gajah Mada by Langit Kresna Hariadi. Though this is a history novel and has a lot of fiction, it has reliable information that was based on historic facts or Langit’s own research.

It was said that a king granted Anugerah Winehsuka to those who had high loyalty and service to the king. These people were called Rakrian Dharmaputra Winehsuka. In the novel Gajah Mada, it was said that during Jayanegara’s reign, there were several rakrian, which were Ra Kuti, Ra Tanca, Ra Pangsa, Ra Banyak, Ra Wedeng, Ra Yuyu, and Ra Semi. There were also three main squads, which were Jalapati, Jalayuda, and Jala Rananggara; however, none of the rakrians had authority over these main squads.

When Ra Kuti rebelled, Gajah Mada took the royal family to safety to Rimbi, the place where Gayatri who had become a Buddhist nun resided. Jayanegara himself fled to Bedander. Gajah Mada spread a rumor that Jayanegara had died. This, in addition to the ruthless ruling of Kuti, made the people unhappy. The throne was soon regained back by Jayanegara. Ra Kuti was killed during the rebellion. Gajah Mada, due to his great contribution, was made Patih Kahuripan or Minister of Kahuripan (later he would become Patih Kediri, and finally Maha Patih or Prime Minister). It is interesting to note that Tribuwanatunggadewi who would later become rani or queen of Majapahit was once a bhre Kahuripan.

It was said that Ra Tanca joined in the rebellion, but was forgiven. Nine years after the rebellion, Jayanegara suffered a serious boil. Ra Tanca, who was a skillful physician and a poison expert, was called to treat the king. Ra Tanca used that chance to kill Jayanegara (either by poison or by blade). Gajah Mada then killed Ra Tanca by stabbing him.

There were several theories regarding the assassination of Jayanegara. One version told that Ra Tanca murdered Jayanegara on his own initiative, either to avenge his friends who died during the rebellion, or, according to another version, to take revenge on Jayanegara for seducing Ra Tanca’s wife.

Another version said that it was Gajah Mada who ordered Ra Tanca to kill Jayanegara. One version mentioned of Gajah Mada giving that order because Jayanegara was an immoral king who wanted to marry his half-sisters, which were Sri Gitarja and Dyah Wiyat. Another legend said that Gajah Mada was vengeful because Jayanegara took Gajah Mada’s wife; this version, however, is very doubtful because there is no strong evidence, especially because it was believed that Gajah Mada had no wife.

Another theory was Jayanegara was killed to return the throne of Majapahit to the descendants of Kertanegara because the oracle was that the descendants of kings of Java shall come from Gayatri, which sadly only had daughters. Because Jayanegara had no son when he died, the throne would fall back to the descendants of Kertanegara because Gayatri then would sit on the throne.

Jayanegara was a mixed-blood son, a mix of Java and Malay (or Negeri Seberang). As such, it might be the case that the royal family did not like this. There was also a rumor that Jayanegara did not want any man to marry his half-sisters so that their husbands would not be able to claim the throne. However, this theory had never been confirmed.

Negarakertagama itself wrote a lot about Rajapatni Gayatri and portrayed her as a wise Empress Dowager. Because Negarakertagama was written under the command of Gajah Mada, it is plausible that Gajah Mada had a good relation with the Empress Dowager. As such, there is a possibility that Gajah Mada supported the descendant of Gayatri to claim the throne. However, no theory can confirm the role of Gajah Mada in the assassination of Jayanegara.

Langit Kresna Hariadi himself, in his novel Gajah Mada, theorized that Ra Tanca fell in love with Dyah Wiyat. When Jayanegara came to know about this, he mocked Ra Tanca because of his lower status than the king’s half-sister. Because of that, Ra Tanca took revenge on Jayanegara. However, whether Langit got this idea from historical facts or even legends such as Babad Tanah Jawi is unknown.

In the end, it seems which theory or version of history that one wants to believe in would depend on one’s own interpretation and analysis.

info two:


Brahu temple is located at Bejijong village sub district of Trowulan, about one kilometer from the capital of sub district in northern. Brahu temple is made from patio. It faces to western. The map is square with size 18 x 22.5 meter and height rest about 20 meters.
Vertically, the temple building is divided into three sides. They are the leg which is the bottom side up to room and synchronized. The body side is stay above leg side that functioned as room cover and roof prop. The roof side is the top side of temple as the room cover.
Observed from its building style and profile of top side of southern side, this temple is probably a kind of Buddha religious building and established in 15 century. Others opinion predict that Brahu temple is order than others temples in Trowulan resort. Brahu temple has been renovated on 1990 and finish on 1995.


It is located on Temon village sub district of Trowulan. The distance is about 72 km fromSurabayaand able to be reached by private motorcycle, car and bus. The public transportation that able to reach the resort is by ojek (public motorcycle cartage) from Trowulan crossroad wich reachable and reasonable price.

Bajang Ratu arch is likely Paduraksa (arch with roof) that has wings in right and left side, made from patio except flooring that made from stone, with height 16.1 meters, lengths 11 meters, and width 6.7 meters. The relief that cover the arch from up to bottom is likely one eye, hawk head, sun tied with dragon, scorpion head tied with lion, long ear animal. The relief with story meaning is Ramayana and Sri Tanjung relief’s which chiseled in wing side.

Bajang Ratu arch is related to Prabu Jayanegara, The Second king of Majapahit who died in single (bachelor). Thus, the real function of it is not the entrance to Majapahit empire buy to holly building, the place of Prabu Jayanegara.

versi Indonesia:


Candi Brahu terletak di Desa Bejijong Kecamatan Trowulan, sekitar satu kilometer dari ibukota kecamatan di utara. Candi Brahu terbuat dari teras. Ini wajah untuk barat. Peta persegi dengan ukuran 18 x 22,5 meter dan sisanya ketinggian sekitar 20 meter.
Vertikal, bangunan candi ini dibagi menjadi tiga sisi. Mereka adalah kaki yang merupakan bagian bawah ke kamar dan disinkronisasi. Sisi tubuh tetap di atas sisi kaki yang berfungsi sebagai penutup ruang dan atap penyangga. Sisi atap adalah sisi puncak candi sebagai penutup ruang.
Ditinjau dari gaya bangunan dan profil dari sisi atas sisi selatan, candi ini mungkin jenis bangunan agama Buddha dan didirikan pada abad ke-15. Lain pendapat memprediksi bahwa candi Brahu pesanan dari candi lain di resor Trowulan. Candi Brahu telah direnovasi pada tahun 1990 dan selesai pada 1995.
Candi Bajangratu
Hal ini terletak di kecamatan Temon sub desa Trowulan. Jaraknya sekitar 72 km fromSurabayaand dapat dicapai dengan kendaraan pribadi, mobil sepeda motor dan bus. Transportasi publik yang mampu mencapai resor ini dengan ojek (angkutan gerobak motor umum) dari perempatan Trowulan harga yang terjangkau yang.
Arch Bajang Ratu mungkin paduraksa (gapura dengan atap) yang memiliki sayap di kanan dan kiri, yang terbuat dari teras kecuali lantai yang terbuat dari batu, dengan ketinggian 16,1 meter, panjang 11 meter, dan lebar 6,7 meter. Relief yang mencakup lengkungan dari atas ke bawah kemungkinan satu mata, kepala elang, matahari diikat dengan naga, kalajengking kepala diikat dengan singa, binatang telinga panjang. Relief dengan makna cerita Ramayana dan relief Sri Tanjung’s yang dipahat di sisi sayap.

Bajang Ratu arch berkaitan dengan Prabu Jayanegara, Raja kedua Majapahit yang meninggal dalam satu (sarjana). Jadi, fungsi sebenarnya bukan merupakan pintu masuk ke kerajaan Majapahit membeli untuk  bangunan suci , tempat Prabu Jayanegara.


information three

It knowable that the relation of King Jayanegara and Blitar area was had a special character. That special relationship that showed at stipulating a number of ha that given to the functionaries, in respect to the faithfulness of Blitar village to the King. In this relationship event of what happened so that the King had the pleasure to give an award to Blitar village resident.

King Jayanegara is the second Majapahit King; replace his father, Kerjarajasa Jayawardhana who had died in 1309 M. In his government, there are two sources that giving different description. Both the sources are Negarakertagama that written by Prapanca and Pararaton, which are not mentioned the written name. Negarakertagama tell about a period of the government in 1309-1328 Mash. It is in ‘Pupuh’ XLVII Prapanca had described, which translation in Indonesian is: He left Jayanegara as King Wilwatikta and his sister Rajapadhi Utama. The two very beautiful females, as twin Ratih give in the eldest angel Rani in Jiwana, while the youngest Jadirani in Daha. In Saka year: To force honeymoon aspect, Lord Jayanegara leave to avoid the enemy to Lumajang. He said that Pajarakan destroyed, Nambi and the family destroyed, and the whole of public felt scare to saw His Majesty officer ship. Year Saka: circle bow the sun, he return, soon buried in gate, having symbol Wisnuparama statue. In Between Check and located Bubat is area Wisnuparama. Between Check and ‘Bubat’ straightened Wisnu area symbolize ‘Tara Inda’. In Sukalila picturesque of Buda as Amoga sidi transform.

From ‘Pupuh’ above, hence knowable that during the Jayanegara government, he could broke the rebellion of Nambi in 1361M. Further, Pararaton reported the rebellion that led by Ranggalawe, Sora and Nambi. All the rebellions earn in extinguished by the Lord. There was again a rebellion in 1316 and 1317 under Kuti and Seni leader. The rebellion made King Jayanegara run to Bedander village accompanied by Bhayangkara team under Gajah Mada led. Because the Gajah Mada tactics, Jayanegara had successfully return to the coronation. Kuti and Seni had successfully destroyed (Pararaton: 80-83). That news gave us a guide that during the Jayanegara government, there was a rebellion, but it successfully extinguished. That reality, gives a proven that Jayanegara avoid a difficult condition in his first led. This reality can give a reason, of Jayanagara was release his inscription. It cannot be questionable again; that the stipulating of this inscription in Blitar is the important event of Jayanegara wrote that inscription. It also was an important point of the declared of Blitar in Majapahit government. Moreover, that important event, based on the element of calendar in the inscription, had happened at Sunday ‘Pahing’ month of Srawana 1246 Saka, on 5 Augusts 1324M. For next period, Blitar mentioned in Negarakertagama book its relationship with the King Hayam Wuruk touring to East Java areas. Some years that was making the matter of news along the length of concerning Blitar and other places in vicinity area written in ‘Pupuh-pupuh’

versi Indonesia

Hal ini dapat diketahui bahwa hubungan Raja Jayanegara dan daerah Blitar memiliki karakter khusus. Bahwa hubungan khusus yang menunjukkan pada penetapan sejumlah ha yang diberikan kepada pejabat, berkenaan dengan kesetiaan desa Blitar kepada Raja. Dalam acara ini hubungan antara apa yang terjadi sehingga Raja merasa senang untuk memberikan penghargaan kepada penduduk desa Blitar.Jayanegara raja Majapahit kedua adalah Raja; menggantikan ayahnya, Kerjarajasa Jayawardhana yang meninggal di 1309 M. Dalam pemerintahannya, ada dua sumber yang memberikan gambaran yang berbeda. Baik sumber-sumber adalah Negarakertagama yang ditulis oleh Prapanca dan Pararaton, yang tidak menyebutkan nama yang tertulis. Negarakertagama menceritakan tentang masa pemerintah dalam Mash 1309-1328. Hal ini dalam ‘Pupuh’ XLVII Prapanca melukiskan yang terjemahan dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah: Dia meninggalkan Jayanegara sebagai Raja Wilwatikta dan adiknya Rajapadhi Utama. Dua yang betina sangat indah, seperti Ratih kembar memberi pada malaikat tertua Rani di Jiwana, sedangkan yang termuda Jadirani di Daha. Pada tahun Saka: Untuk memaksa aspek bulan madu, Tuhan Jayanegara meninggalkan untuk menghindari musuh ke Lumajang. Dia mengatakan bahwa Pajarakan hancur, Nambi dan keluarga hancur, dan seluruh masyarakat merasa ketakutan untuk melihat kapal Mulia petugas-Nya. Tahun Saka: lingkaran busur matahari, ia kembali, segera dimakamkan di pintu gerbang, memiliki simbol patung Wisnuparama. Di Antara Periksa dan Bubat terletak merupakan daerah Wisnuparama. Antara Periksa dan ‘Bubat’ diluruskan Wisnu wilayah melambangkan ‘Tara Inda’. Dalam indah Sukalila dari Buda sebagai Amoga sidi transformasi.

Dari ‘Pupuh’ di atas, maka dapat diketahui bahwa selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, ia bisa mematahkan pemberontakan Nambi pada tahun 1361M. Selanjutnya, Pararaton melaporkan pemberontakan yang dipimpin oleh Ranggalawe, Sora dan Nambi. Semua pemberontakan dapat di dipadamkan oleh Tuhan. Ada lagi pemberontakan pada 1316 dan 1317 di bawah pimpinan Kuti dan Seni. Pemberontakan itu membuat Raja Jayanegara lari ke desa Bedander didampingi oleh tim Bhayangkara di bawah pimpinan Gajah Mada. Karena taktik Gajah Mada, Jayanegara berhasil kembali ke penobatan. Kuti dan Seni telah berhasil menghancurkan (Pararaton: 80-83). berita itu memberi kami panduan bahwa selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, ada pemberontakan, tetapi berhasil dipadamkan. realitas itu, memberikan membuktikan bahwa Jayanegara menghindari kondisi sulit pertamanya memimpin. Kenyataan ini dapat memberikan alasan, dari Jayanagara adalah rilis tulisan nya. Hal ini tidak bisa diragukan lagi, bahwa penetapan prasasti di Blitar ini adalah peristiwa penting dari Jayanegara menulis prasasti itu. Hal ini juga merupakan titik penting dari menyatakan Blitar dalam pemerintahan Majapahit. Selain itu, peristiwa penting, berdasarkan unsur kalender di prasasti, yang terjadi di ‘Pahing’ Minggu bulan Srawana Saka 1246, pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1324M. Untuk periode berikutnya, Blitar disebutkan dalam buku Negarakertagama hubungannya dengan Raja Hayam Wuruk tur ke daerah Jawa Timur. Beberapa tahun yang membuat hal berita sepanjang mengenai Blitar dan tempat-tempat lain di daerah sekitar ditulis dalam ‘Pupuh-Pupuh’


2.Queen Tribhuwana Wijaya Tungga Dewi(1325-1351)

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi is the third ruler of Majapahit who ruled in 1328-1351. From Inscription Singasari (1351) and charter Berumbung year 1351 is unknown degree abhisekanya Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani.Real name Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (abbreviated Tribhuwana) is Dyah Gitarja.She is the daughter of Raden Wijaya and Gayatri. Having a younger brother named Dyah Wijat and half sister named Jayanagara.Death Jayanegara cause polemics that quite complicated because he does not have offspring(Prabu Jayanegara, The Second king of Majapahit who died in single or bachelor). . According to historical records since the death of Jayanegara takes time during the year to designate who is entitled to become queen of Majapahit.In accordance with the rules of royal lineage, the right to replace Sri Jayanegara as king was his brother, one of the daughters of Sri Gitarja and Dyah Wyat. Before the option was dropped into one of them, still held power in the hands of Queen of Gayatri, the wife of the late Raden Wijaya (the first king of Majapahit). This is because of the potential conflicts that were analyzed by Gajah Mada power if appointment is done in a hurry.Gajah Mada analysis centered on the fact that Sri Jayanegara successor as king of Majapahit was a woman. Given the history, it’s really not an issue of a woman to be King. The evidence in fact is the daughter of Shima who managed to uphold the kingdom even though she is a woman. Nevertheless, Gajah Mada could not leveling between daughter Shima condition of two daughters who both have the potential to replace Sri Jayanegara as the queen of Majapahit.Coat Majapahit
Gajah Mada conclude that it does not matter as long as a woman becomes king was accompanied by a strong figure. Well, this powerful figure comes from a man who will accompany them as husbands. The royal family had chosen as a companion of the knight’s two daughters are. Sri Gitarja paired with Raden Cakradara. While Dyah Wyat paired with Raden Kudamerta. Both are the rulers of the district-level areas that became part of Majapahit. Along with the death of king Sri Jayanegara, second daughter of the kingdom is also married to her partner.And on the advice of Gajah Mada Queen Gayatri finally appointed his daughters to lead the Majapahit. Nagarakretagama According to stanza 49, Tribhuwana took the throne on the orders of his mother (Gayatri) in 1329 to replace Jayanagara who do not have offspring in 1328 were 1 year after the death of King Jayanegara. Nagarakretagama as Jayanagara inherited the throne proclaim that Gayatri, because her stepmother was the daughter Kertanagara. Given the Gayatri is the youngest daughter, the possibility that time the wives of other Raden Wijaya was dead all. Because of Gayatri has been a pastor, then his government was represented by Tribhuwanotunggadewi.According Pararaton, Jayanagara feared threatened his throne, so he forbade her siblings married. In Jayanagara reign (1309-1328) was appointed as a ruler Tribhuwana Tunggadewi subordinates in Jiwana Bhre Kahuripan title. Tribhuwana husband named Cakradhara who holds Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel.At Charter Trowulan Year 1358 said that Kerthawardhana is a descendant of King Wisnuwardhana in Singhasari.Dari marriage was born Dyah Hayam Wuruk and Dyah Nertaja. Hayam Wuruk then appointed as Yuwaraja hold Bhre Kahuripan or Bhre Jiwana, while Dyah Nertaja as Bhre Pajang.Heritage Majapahit piggy bankPeriod Tribhuwana GovernmentName name Majapahit government officials in the reign of King Kertarajasa Age appropriate Brumbung year charter in 1329.1. Mahamentri Katrini
· Rakyan Minister Hino: Dyah Anarjaya
· Rakyan Minister Halu: Dyah Mano
· Rakyan Minister Sirikan: Dyah Lohak2. The Panca Wilwatika
· Rakyan Patih Majapahit: Pu Krewes
· Rakyan demung: Pu Tanparowang
· Rakyan Kanuruhan: Pu Blen
· Rakyan Rangga: Pu Wheel
· Rakyan Tumenggung: Pu WayuhGovernment Tribhuwana known as the expansion of Majapahit territory in all directions as the implementation Patih Palapa Oath of Gajah Mada. Year 1343 to defeat the king of Majapahit Kingdom Bedahulu (Bali) Year 1347. Adityawarman Malay descent who was sent to conquer the remnants of Sriwijaya Kingdom and the Kingdom of Malay. Adityawarman later became uparaja (king subordinates) of Majapahit in the Sumatra region. Expansion continued in the reign of Majapahit Hayam Wuruk, where the territory until it reaches Lamuri at the west end until Wanin at the east end.

In the early days of government who became governor Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Arya amangkubumi is fed. In the year 1251 Saka Aryan ill fed, and felt it was no longer able to carry out duties as governor Amangku earth.Arya fed and then beg the Queen to release him from his position, but the request was rejected because it had not found the right person to replace them. Arya fed felt that the right person to replace his position as vizier Gajah Mada Amangku Earth is because of his services to King Jayanegara Services and Tribhuwana Wiojayatunggadewi coronation as Queen of Majapahit.

Arya fed then approached Gajah Mada Gajah Mada purpose but are still reluctant to accept the offer. After the end of Gajah Mada urged continued to accept the offer after the crush the rebellion in Sadeng. From these events we can know how careful Gajah Mada took his attitude towards others. Gajah Mada do not want to assume the position of others, but expect the willingness of the people who occupy these positions because it is expected that cooperation with the willingness to him by officials of the old Aryan fed will go well.Important events during the reign of Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi· Rebellion SadengIn 1331 occurred the rebellion in the region Sadeng and Keta. Gajah Mada has future goals to beat Sadeng first before accepting a position as governor Amangku earth. Concerning the Keta and Sadeng, narrated that the two regions is intended to separate the part of Majapahit from the Majapahit kingdom and make serious preparations. Among them are doing a massive recruitment of civilians to be educated soldiering in the jungle Alas bans. The goal is to strengthen the army both regions, which in turn will dibenturkan against the war power of Majapahit.At that time, the Majapahit also established relations with the kingdom Swarnabhumi, on the island of Sumatra. The arrival of the king Swarnabhumi – Adityawarman home – to Majapahit described using a large warship unprecedented naval forces of the oneness of Majapahit.Adityawarman itself is a cousin of the late King Sri Jayanegara, as well as a best friend who is close enough to Gajah Mada. Depictions of the large size of warships from Swarnabhumi presumably intended as the embryo adoption of technology that makes the Majapahit navy later when the campaign begins the unification of the archipelago. .Judging from the strength of his troops, the strength of Keta-Sadeng is nothing compared with the power of Majapahit troops. However, behind the physical strength sepapan segelar troops are not yet comparable with the forces of Gajah Mada, Keta-Sadeng protected by a powerful warrior capable mandraguna. This knight is a former patron of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit. The name is Wirota Wiragati knight, famous for its miracle has ajian quiet, ajian panglimunan, and the power to bring in fog which could complicate any troops the power of vision.But what a disappointment that the siege Sadeng Gajah Mada occurred before his arrival, Ra precede twin purposes of Gajah Mada. Knowing that the Minister Gajah Mada Araraman and very angry. Gajah Mada and then send five workshops each consisting of 5 people to beat the Twins Ra. They then met with Ra Twins in the forest and sitting on a tree branch that fell, like riding a horse and holding the whip hand.Heritage Majapahit

The delegates then convey the anger of Gajah Mada University and intends to beat Ra twins. Knowing the attack Ra twins thong forehead but the envoys envoys to escape and report the matter to Gajah Mada. Gajah Mada was very disappointed because his goal to beat Sadeng ideals are not implemented because it has been preceded by Ra Twins.According Pararaton there is competition between Gajah Mada Gajah Mada and Ra Twins in getting the position of commander of the crackdown Sadeng. So, Tribhuwana set off alone as commander of the attacking Sadeng, accompanied by his cousin Adityawarman.Twin Ra is the youngest son of King Pemelekahan, he is a formidable warrior and an expert on horseback and use a whip weapon. In the essay De Sadeng Oorlog en de myte van groot Majapahit, Prof. CC Berg Sadeng equate it with Bali area, seandainyq in Bali have called Sadeng and Keta area, the equation will be easy to understand.However, in Bali there is no place called Sadeng and Keta. Prof CC Berg Sadeng think that word is a word that meant wangsalan Bali. The word comes from the word Sadeng Sedeng another or different meaning. The word difference is almost the same as said Bada is a kingdom called Badahulu in the area of ​​Bali. While Keta linked to Kuta which is a region located in southern part of Bali Island. Mention under pseudonyms such menyelubugi intended for the actual name of the city where it is associated with the fellowship of the archipelago since the reign of King Kertanagara Singhasari.Victory over fear and Sadeng provide awareness that the strength of Majapahit had been restored and their future goals to realize the archipelago must be re-embodied politics. After returning from crushing Sadeng, Gajah Mada was then appointed Angabehi and not some time later was appointed as Patih Amangku earth while Twin appointed Ra Araraman Workshop.· Oath PalapaPatih Gajah MadaThe next important event in the government is Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Palapa Oath spoken by Gajah Mada rakryan when sworn in as governor of Majapahit in 1334.Gajah Mada political program is essentially the continuation of the idea of ​​the archipelago at the time of King Kertanagara government so that more appropriately called the idea Nusantara II, that efforts to reunite the country across the ocean that separated the State back in the reign of King Kertarajasa and Jayanagara plus other Nusantara State State.Because of the extent of Nusantara II program is a lot of ministers who can not even understand even ridicule, so to realize these ideas then stranglehold stranglehold must be removed first. So finally there is a change on a large scale composition of ministers in the early days vizier Gajah Mada leadership in government.Majapahit Kingdom territory before the year 1334 includes only East Java and Central Java. From the Book Nagarakertagama archipelago known political program began with attacks on the island of Bali, the attack occurred in the saka year 1265 or year 1343 AD.

Death Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi estimated abdicate the throne in 1351 (after the release Inscription Singasari). He later returned to Bhre Kahuripan incorporated in Saptaprabhu, a kind of grand-member council consideration the royal family. As for who becomes the next king of Majapahit was his son, namely Hayam Wuruk.

It is not known exactly when the year Tribhuwana death. Kahuripan Bhre Pararaton only preach the elephant died after appointment as governor in 1371 Enggon.

Majapahit Heritage Gold Jewelry

According Pararaton, Tribhuwanotunggadewi didharmakan in Pantarapura temple located in the village and the temple Rimbi Panggih southwest Mojokerto, manifested as Parvati, while her husband, namely Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel died in 1386, and didharmakan in sarwa Jayapurwa Temple, located in rural Japan .
version two:


Jayanegara left no heir to rule Majapahit after him. Rightfully, the throne falls to the hands of his stepmother, Gayatri. However, at that time Gayatri had become a Buddhist nun and apparently was not interested in ruling on the throne. As such, it had to be decided on who was to rule in the place of Gayatri, was it her daughters, Sri Gitarja or Dyah Wiyat? It was said that after the death of Jayanegara, the throne was empty for about a year.

Finally, on Gajah Mada’s suggestion, Gayatri appointed both of her daughters to be rani kembar (twin queens). However, the queen that was more prominent (and apparently had more power) was Tribuwanatunggadewi. This bhre Kahuripan took the throne with abhiseka name of Jayawisnuwardhani. It is interesting to note that Gajah Mada’s suggestion who was only a patih at that time had a huge impact on determining the next ruler of Majapahit.

Tribuwanatunggadewi married Kertawardana (bhre Tumapel, whose real name was Cakradara) and Rajadewi married Wijayarajasa (bhre Wengker, whose real name was Kudamerta). Tribuwanatunggadewi bore Hayam Wuruk in the Saka Year 1256.

In AD 1320, Maha Patih Arya Tada appointed Gajah Mada to replace him as Maha Patih. However, Gajah Mada rejected the idea, saying that he would only become a Maha Patih after he defeated Keta and Sadeng who rebelled against Majapahit. After defeating Keta and Sedang, Gajah Mada became Maha Patih in AD 1334.

When he was appointed as Maha Patih, Gajah Mada said his famous oath, which is Nusantara Oath or Palapa Oath (Sumpah Palapa) on the Saka Year 1256 or AD 1336, which was said in front of the rani of Majapahit.

Palapa Oath that was declared by Gajah Mada as written in Pararaton is as follows:

“Sira Gajah Mada pepatih amungkubumi tan ayun amukti palapa, sira Gajah Mada: Lamun huwus kalah nusantara ingsun amukti palapa, lamun kalah ring Gurun, ring Seram, Tanjungpura, ring Haru, ring Pahang, Dompo, ring Bali, Sunda, Palembang, Tumasik, saman ingsun amukti palapa.”

The translation is:

“Gajah Mada the Maha Patih will not enjoy palapa, said Gajah Mada: As long as I have not united nusantara, I will not taste enjoy palapa. Before I conquered Gurun Island (Lombok), Seram Island, Tanjungpura (Kalimantan), Haru Island (North Sumatera), Pahang Island (Malaya), Dompo, Bali Island, Sunda, Palembang, and Tumasik (Singapore), I will not enjoy palapa.”

Palapa is a spice; hence, the Palapa Oath can be interpreted as Gajah Mada not tasting any spice until he fulfilled his oath. Although spice was precious then, spice also represented the pleasure of life. Hence, the Palapa Oath may also be Gajah Mada’s oath for not enjoying the pleasures of life and work incessantly for the unification of Nusantara.

It was said that the Palapa Oath of Gajah Mada brought mocking and objection from several high officials and ministers of Majapahit, and caused conflict between Gajah Mada and these people.

The period of AD 1294 (the beginning of Raden Wijaya’s reign) until AD 1336 (the reign of Tribuwanatunggadewi) was the period of consolidation of Majapahit rule to get back vassal countries that were part of Singosari but did not want to acknowledge Majapahit as the succesor of Singosari. After the consolidation, Majapahit then started to look outside to expand its boundaries. During this time was when Gajah Mada endeavored to fulfill his Oath.


Indonesiasn version:

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi adalah penguasa ketiga Majapahit yang memerintah tahun 1328-1351. Dari Prasasti Singasari (1351) dan piagam Berumbung tahun 1351 diketahui gelar abhisekanya ialah Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani.Nama asli Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi ( disingkat Tribhuwana) adalah Dyah Gitarja.Ia merupakan putri dari Raden Wijaya dan Gayatri. Memiliki adik kandung bernama Dyah Wijat dan kakak tiri bernama Jayanagara .Wafatnya Jayanegara menimbulkan polemik yang cukup rumit karena beliau belum memiliki keturunan. Sesuai catatan sejarah sejak kematian Jayanegara dibutuhkan waktu selama setahun untuk menunjuk siapa yang berhak menjadi ratu Majapahit.Sesuai dengan aturan silsilah kerajaan, yang berhak menggantikan Sri Jayanegara sebagai raja adalah saudaranya, salah satu dari putri Sri Gitarja dan Dyah Wyat. Sebelum pilihan dijatuhkan ke salah satunya, kekuasaan masih dipegang di tangan Ratu Gayatri, istri mendiang Raden Wijaya (raja Majapahit pertama). Hal ini karena adanya potensi konflik yang dianalisis oleh Gajah Mada apabila penunjukan kekuasaan dilakukan secara tergesa-gesa.Analisis Gajah Mada berpusat pada kenyataan bahwa pengganti Sri Jayanegara sebagai raja Majapahit adalah seorang perempuan. Menilik pada sejarah, sebetulnya tidak menjadi masalah seorang perempuan menjadi Raja. Bukti nyatanya adalah putri Shima yang berhasil menegakkan kerajaan walaupun dia seorang perempuan. Walaupun demikian, Gajah Mada tidak bisa penyamarataan kondisi antara putri Shima dengan dua orang putri yang sama-sama berpotensi menggantikan Sri Jayanegara sebagai ratu Majapahit.Lambang MajapahitGajah Mada berkesimpulan bahwa memang tidak masalah seorang perempuan menjadi raja asalkan didampingi oleh figur yang kuat. Nah, figur kuat ini berasal dari laki-laki yang nantinya mendampingi mereka sebagai suami. Keluarga kerajaan telah memilih para ksatria sebagai pendamping kedua putri tersebut. Sri Gitarja dijodohkan dengan Raden Cakradara. Sedangkan Dyah Wyat dijodohkan dengan Raden Kudamerta. Keduanya adalah penguasa-penguasa wilayah setingkat kabupaten yang menjadi bagian dari Majapahit. Bersamaan dengan wafatnya raja Sri Jayanegara, kedua putri kerajaan tersebut juga dinikahkan dengan pasangannya.Dan atas saran Gajah Mada akhirnya Ratu Gayatri menunjuk kedua putrinya untuk memimpin Majapahit. Menurut Nagarakretagama pupuh 49, Tribhuwana naik takhta atas perintah ibunya (Gayatri ) tahun 1329 menggantikan Jayanagara yang tidak punya keturunan tahun 1328 yaitu 1 tahun setelah meninggalnya prabu Jayanegara. Nagarakretagama seolah memberitakan kalau takhta Jayanagara diwarisi Gayatri, karena ibu tirinya itu adalah putri Kertanagara. Mengingat Gayatri adalah putri bungsu, kemungkinan saat itu istri-istri Raden Wijaya yang lain sudah meninggal semua. Karena Gayatri telah menjadi pendeta, maka pemerintahannya pun diwakili oleh Tribhuwanotunggadewi.Menurut Pararaton, Jayanagara merasa takut takhtanya terancam, sehingga ia melarang kedua adiknya menikah. Pada masa pemerintahan Jayanagara (1309-1328) Tribhuwana Tunggadewi diangkat sebagai penguasa bawahan di Jiwana bergelar Bhre Kahuripan. Suami Tribhuwana bernama Cakradhara yang bergelar Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel.Pada Piagam Trowulan Tahun 1358 dikatakan bahwa Kerthawardhana adalah keturunan Raja Wisnuwardhana di Singhasari.Dari perkawinan itu lahir Dyah Hayam Wuruk dan Dyah Nertaja. Hayam Wuruk kemudian diangkat sebagai Yuwaraja bergelar Bhre Kahuripan atau Bhre Jiwana, sedangkan Dyah Nertaja sebagai Bhre Pajang.Celengan Peninggalan Majapahit

Masa Pemerintahan Tribhuwana

Nama nama pejabat pemerintahan Majapahit pada Jaman pemerintahan Raja Kertarajasa sesuai piagam Brumbung tahun 1329.

1. Mahamentri Katrini
· Rakyan Menteri Hino : Dyah Anarjaya
· Rakyan Menteri Halu : Dyah Mano
· Rakyan Menteri Sirikan : Dyah Lohak

2. Sang Panca Wilwatika
· Rakyan Patih Majapahit : Pu Krewes
· Rakyan Demung : Pu Tanparowang
· Rakyan Kanuruhan : Pu Blen
· Rakyan Rangga : Pu Roda
· Rakyan Tumenggung : Pu Wayuh

Pemerintahan Tribhuwana terkenal sebagai masa perluasan wilayah Majapahit ke segala arah sebagai pelaksanaan Sumpah Palapa dari Patih Gajah Mada. Tahun 1343 Majapahit mengalahkan raja Kerajaan Bedahulu (Bali) Tahun 1347. Adityawarman yang masih keturunan Melayu dikirim untuk menaklukkan sisa-sisa Kerajaan Sriwijaya dan Kerajaan Malayu. Adityawarman kemudian menjadi uparaja (raja bawahan) Majapahit di wilayah Sumatra. Perluasan Majapahit dilanjutkan pada masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk, di mana wilayahnya hingga mencapai Lamuri di ujung barat sampai Wanin di ujung timur.

Pada masa awal pemerintahan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi yang menjadi patih amangkubumi adalah Arya Tadah. Pada tahun saka 1251 Arya Tadah sakit, dan merasa sudah tidak mampu lagi mengemban tugas sebagai patih Amangku bumi.

Arya Tadah kemudian mohon kepada sang Ratu agar membebaskannya dari jabatannya tersebut, namun permintaan tersebut masih ditolak karena belum menemukan orang yang tepat untuk menggantikan kedudukan tersebut. Arya Tadah merasa bahwa orang yang tepat untuk menggantikan kedudukannya sebagai patih Amangku Bumi adalah Gajah Mada karena Jasa jasanya terhadap Prabu Jayanegara dan penobatan Tribhuwana Wiojayatunggadewi sebagai Ratu Majapahit.

Arya Tadah kemudian mendekati Gajah Mada untuk maksud tersebut namun Gajah Mada masih enggan menerima tawaran tersebut. Setelah didesak terus akhirnya Gajah Mada menerima tawaran tersebut sepulang dari menumpas pemberontakan di Sadeng. Dari peristiwa tersebut dapat kita ketahui bagaimana hati hatinya Gajah Mada mengambil sikap terhadap orang lain. Gajah Mada tidak ingin mengambil kedudukan orang lain, namun mengharapkan kerelaan dari orang yang menduduki jabatan tersebut karena dengan kerelaan tersebut diharapkan kerjasama dirinya dengan pejabat yang lama yaitu Arya Tadah akan berjalan dengan baik.

Peristiwa penting pada masa pemerintahan Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

· Pemberontakan Sadeng

Pada tahun 1331 terjadi pemberontakan di daerah Sadeng dan Keta. Gajah Mada mempunyai cita cita untuk menundukkan Sadeng terlebih dahulu sebelum menerima jabatan sebagai patih Amangku bumi. Mengenai Keta dan Sadeng, diceritakan bahwa kedua wilayah bagian Majapahit tersebut berniat memisahkan diri dari kerajaan Majapahit dan melakukan persiapan serius. Diantaranya adalah melakukan perekrutan besar-besaran terhadap warga sipil untuk dididik keprajuritan di tengah hutan Alas Larang. Tujuannya adalah memperkuat angkatan perang kedua wilayah tersebut, yang pada akhirnya akan dibenturkan terhadap kekuatan perang Majapahit.

Pada saat itu, Majapahit juga menjalin hubungan dengan kerajaan Swarnabhumi, di pulau Sumatra. Kedatangan raja Swarnabhumi – Adityawarman – ke Majapahit digambarkan menggunakan kapal perang berukuran besar yang belum ada tandingannya dari kesatuan pasukan laut Majapahit.

Adityawarman sendiri adalah saudara sepupu mendiang prabu Sri Jayanegara, sekaligus sahabat yang cukup dekat dengan Gajah Mada. Penggambaran besarnya ukuran kapal perang dari Swarnabhumi agaknya dimaksudkan sebagai cikal bakal adopsi teknologi yang menjadikan besarnya armada laut Majapahit kelak ketika kampanye penyatuan nusantara dimulai. .

Dilihat dari kekuatan gelar pasukan, kekuatan Keta-Sadeng bukanlah apa-apa dibanding dengan kekuatan pasukan Majapahit. Namun, dibalik kekuatan fisik pasukan segelar sepapan yang belum sebanding dengan pasukan Gajah Mada, Keta-Sadeng dilindungi oleh kesatria mumpuni yang sakti mandraguna. Ksatria ini adalah mantan pelindung Raden Wijaya, raja Majapahit yang pertama. Nama ksatria tersebut adalah Wirota Wiragati, terkenal dengan kesaktiannya memiliki ajian sirep, ajian panglimunan, dan kekuatan untuk mendatangkan kabut yang bisa menyulitkan daya penglihatan pasukan mana pun.

Tetapi alangkah kecewanya Gajah Mada bahwa pengepungan Sadeng terjadi sebelum kedatangannya, Ra kembar mendahului maksud Gajah Mada. Mengetahui hal tersebut para Menteri Araraman dan Gajah Mada sangat marah. Gajah Mada kemudian mengirim 5 bengkel yang masing masing terdiri dari 5 orang untuk menghajar Ra Kembar. Mereka kemudian bertemu dengan Ra Kembar di hutan dan sedang duduk di sebuah dahan pohon yang roboh, seperti naik kuda dan tangannya memegang cemeti.

Peninggalan Majapahit

Para utusan kemudian menyampaikan kemarahan dari Gajah Mada dan bermaksud akan menghajar Ra kembar. Mengetahui serangan tersebut Ra kembar mencemeti dahi para utusan namun para utusan dapat menghindar dan melaporkan hal tersebut kepada Gajah Mada. Gajah Mada sangat kecewa karena cita citanya untuk menundukkan Sadeng tidak terlaksana karena telah didahului oleh Ra Kembar.

Menurut Pararaton terjadi persaingan antara Gajah Mada Gajah Mada dan Ra Kembar dalam memperebutkan posisi panglima penumpasan Sadeng. Maka, Tribhuwana pun berangkat sendiri sebagai panglima menyerang Sadeng, didampingi sepupunya Adityawarman.

Ra Kembar adalah putra bungsu Raja Pemelekahan, ia adalah prajurit yang tangguh dan ahli menunggang kuda serta menggunakan senjata cemeti. Dalam karangannya De Sadeng oorlog en de myte van groot Majapahit, Prof CC Berg menyamakan Sadeng tersebut dengan daerah Bali, seandainyq di Bali terdapat daerah bernama Sadeng dan Keta maka penyamaan tersebut akan mudah di pahami.

Namun di daerah Bali tidak ada tempat yang bernama Sadeng maupun Keta. Prof CC Berg beranggapan bahwa kata Sadeng adalah kata wangsalan yang maksudnya Bali. Kata Sadeng berasal dari kata sedeng yang artinya lain atau beda. Kata beda hampir sama dengan kata Bada yaitu suatu kerajaan yang bernama Badahulu di daerah Bali. Sedangkan Keta dihubungkan dengan Kuta yaitu suatu daerah yang terdapat di Pulau Bali bagian selatan. Penyebutan dengan nama samaran yang demikian dimaksudkan untuk menyelubugi nama kota yang sebenarnya dimana hal tersebut berkaitan dengan adanya persekutuan Nusantara sejak jaman pemerintahan Prabu Kertanagara dari Singhasari.

Kemenangan atas keta dan Sadeng memberikan kesadaran bahwa kekuatan Majapahit telah pulih kembali dan cita cita untuk mewujudkan politik Nusantara harus kembali diwujudkan. Setelah pulang dari penumpasan Sadeng, Gajah Mada kemudian diangkat menjadi Angabehi dan tidak beberapa lama kemudian diangkat menjadi Patih Amangku bumi sedangkan Ra Kembar diangkat menjadi Bengkel Araraman.

· Sumpah PalapaPatih Gajah Mada

Peristiwa penting berikutnya dalam pemerintahan Tribhuwana Tunggadewi adalah Sumpah Palapa yang diucapkan Gajah Mada saat dilantik sebagai rakryan patih Majapahit tahun 1334.

Program politik Gajah Mada pada hakekatnya adalah kelanjutan gagasan Nusantara pada jaman pemerintahan Prabu Kertanagara sehingga lebih tepat disebut gagasan Nusantara II yaitu usaha untuk menyatukan kembali Negara Negara diseberang lautan yang lepas kembali pada masa pemerintahan prabu Kertarajasa dan Jayanagara ditambah dengan Negara Negara Nusantara lainnya.

Oleh karena luasnya program Nusantara II ini banyak para menteri yang tidak bisa memahami bahkan malah mengejek, sehingga untuk mewujudkan gagasannya tersebut maka perintang perintang tersebut harus disingkirkan terlebih dahulu. Demikianlah akhirnya terjadi perubahan susunan menteri secara besar besaran pada masa awal kepemimpinan patih Gajah Mada dalam pemerintahan.

Wilayah Kerajaan Majapahit sebelum tahun 1334 hanya meliputi Jawa Timur dan Jawa Tengah. Dari Kitab Nagarakertagama diketahui pelaksanaan program politik Nusantara dimulai dengan penyerangan terhadap Pulau Bali, serangan tersebut terjadi pada tahun saka 1265 atau Tahun tahun 1343 Masehi.

Wafatnya Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi diperkirakan turun takhta tahun 1351 (sesudah mengeluarkan Prasasti Singasari). Ia kemudian kembali menjadi Bhre Kahuripan yang tergabung dalam Saptaprabhu, yaitu semacam dewan pertimbangan agung yang beranggotakan keluarga raja. Adapun yang menjadi raja Majapahit selanjutnya adalah putranya, yaitu Hayam Wuruk.

Tidak diketahui dengan pasti kapan tahun kematian Tribhuwana. Pararaton hanya memberitakan Bhre Kahuripan tersebut meninggal dunia setelah pengangkatan Gajah Enggon sebagai patih tahun 1371.

Perhiasan Emas Peninggalan Majapahit

Menurut Pararaton, Tribhuwanotunggadewi didharmakan dalam Candi Pantarapura yang terletak di desa Panggih dan di candi Rimbi di sebelah barat daya Mojokerto, yang diwujudkan sebagai Parwati sedangkan suaminya, yaitu Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel meninggal tahun 1386, dan didharmakan di Candi Sarwa Jayapurwa, yang terletak di desa Japan.

3. King Hayam Wuruk with Patih Gajamada

Rajasanegara (Hayam Wuruk)

1.Info One:

It is not clear when exactly Hayam Wuruk, son of Tribuwanatunggadewi, took the throne. However, it is estimated to happen in AD 1350. Hayam Wuruk took the throne at a very young age with Abhiseka name of Rajasanegara.

History notes that the golden age of Majapahit was during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. It was during this time too that Gajah Mada aggressively conquered various kingdoms around Majapahit. According to Negarakertagama, Sumatera regions that had submitted to Majapahit included Jambi, Palembang, Toba, Minangkabau, Lampung, etc.

During the rule of Hayam Wuruk, there happened a famous tragedy, the Bubat War. Pararaton noted that in Saka Year 1279 or AD 1357, Bubat War happened between Majapahit and the Kingdom of Sunda Pasundan.

The tragedy of Bubat War began with the desire of Hayam Wuruk to wed Sunda Princess, Dyah Pitaloka Citrasemi. Legend said it that Hayam Wuruk saw the picture of Dyah Pitaloka that was painted by Sungging Prabangkara. Other legend said that Hayam Wuruk who had no wife was looking for one that could be respected and loved by the people, and he heard that the beautiful Sundanese Princess had those characteristics.

Hayam Wuruk then sent a messenger to Sunda-Galuh to propose Dyah Pitaloka, in which this proposal was accepted by the Sundanese royal family. Hayam Wuruk himself was said to have Sundanese blood. Hence, it was expected that this marriage can make the Sunda Kingdom and Majapahit closer.

At that time, it was customary for the groom to go to the bride. However, at that time Hayam Wuruk asked Dyah Pitaloka to come to Majapahit instead. This was objected by several royal family members of Sunda as well as its Maha Patih, Hyang Bunisora Suradipati. However, the king, Maharaja Linggabuana, finally decided to bring Dyah Pitaloka to Majapahit. They went together with the Queen, Dewi Lara Linsing, and a small group of Balapati squad the royal army and several high officials and ministers of the kingdom. Their number was less than 100.

When the Sunda party arrived at the designated place in Bubat district, which was located just north of Majapahit capital of Trowulan, they found that they were not welcomed as expected.

According to Pararaton, Gajah Mada did not want an official wedding between Dyah Pitaloka and Hayam Wuruk, and demanded that Linggabuana give his daughter as a tribute and sign of submission of Sunda Kingdom to Majapahit; this would fulfill the Palapa Oath that was declared by Gajah Mada.

Of course Linggabuana became enraged and exchanges of insults took place, which led to a war between the bridal party from the Sunda Kingdom and Gajah Mada’s army. This war was not really fair because the Sundanese army had only less than 100 people and Gajah Mada’s army itself was more than 1,000 people. In the end the bridal party all died, including the king Linggabuana and his daughter, Dyah Pitaloka.

There were several theories regarding the death of Dyah Pitaloka. A source said that Dyah Pitaloka also joined in the war and managed to wound Gajah Mada with a kujang (a type of blade), and the wound that was suffered by Gajah Mada eventually led him to his death. However, the time difference between Bubat War and the death of Gajah Mada was quite long, which was around seven years; hence, it is unlikely that the wound caused by Dyah Pitaloka could cause the death of Gajah Mada. Besides, it was customary for princesses to bring cundrit or patrem, a small blade, and not keris to fight. Another theory said that Dyah Pitaloka, together with her mother and her maids, performed bela pati, which is a ritual whereby honor is paid by one’s life. They did suicide. One thing for sure, Dyah Pitaloka died in Bubat War.

There were also several theories regarding the cause of Bubat War. Pararaton said that the ambition of Gajah Mada to conquer nusantara was the cause. Another source said that there was a misunderstanding by Gajah Mada regarding the purpose of the arrival of the Sundanese Princess, which caused anger among the Sundanese party.

Hayam Wuruk who came to know about this war quite late regretted deeply the deaths of the bridal party. He sent an emissary from Bali, who was at Majapahit to witness the wedding between Hayam Wuruk and Dyah Pitaloka, to the Sunda Kingdom to ask for forgiveness from Maha Patih Hyang Bunisora Suradipati, who at that time became temporary official in Sunda Kingdom.

It was said that Bubat War caused the relationship between Gajah Mada and Hayam Wuruk soured, and Gajah Mada was eventually demoted. A source said that because of the Bubat War, Hayam Wuruk fell sick, in which this caused the anger of the royal family who blamed Gajah Mada, and Gajah Mada ran then ran away.

According to Negarakertagama itself, Hayam Wuruk still respect Gajah Mada and bestowed him Madakaripura village in Probolinggo. Some said that actually, Gajah Mada was demoted from his position as Maha Patih after Bubat War, but in the year of 1359 was promoted again as Patih of Madakaripura.

Gajah Mada died in the year of 1364, witnessed by Prapanca. After his death, the position of Maha Patih remained empty for three years. It was said that due to the big role of Gajah Mada as Maha Patih, it was difficult for Hayam Wuruk to find a replacement that he had to appoint six Patih to do Gajah Mada’s previous duties.

Negarakertagama by Prapanca itself stopped its story in the reign of Hayam Wuruk, which is in the year of 1365. It is predicted that Majapahit suffered a decline. It seems that after Gajah Mada, the glory of Majapahit declined, and declined much further after the death of Hayam Wuruk. Hayam Wuruk died in the Saka Year of 1311 or AD 13

Info Two :
The Bubat war

The Bubat War
Bubat events initiated from King Hayam Wuruk intention to marry the daughter of State Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi Sunda. Hayam Wuruk against the daughter’s interest because the circulation of the Majapahit princess paintings painted secretly by Sungging Prabangkara, artists painting at the time.

The reason for this is almost the same as those contained in the Book Novel about Bubat. Dyah Pitaloka in pictures secretly on the orders of the family palace, aims to find out the Princess paras.

Reasons that may make sense described by the author Pajajaran history, namely Saleh Danasasmita and playwright Bubat War, namely Yoseph Iskandar. Both these historical experts say, that the intention was to strengthen marriage kinship that has long break between Majapahit and Sundanese. Urang Sunda still feel you with urang Majapahit,. Because of Raden Wijaya who became the founder of Majapahit, still Sundanese descent. Thus marriage is considered reasonable in the past, just as the previous kings. As Galuh relationship with an age Wretikandayun Kalinga, who married Mandiminyak, his son by Parvati, Daughter of the Queen Sima (See relationship with Majapahit Sunda).

Intention to marry King Hayam Wuruk Dyah Pitaloka majapahit royal family has been sanctioned, so no longer have a problem with the status of both kingdoms, except for a wedding. Next Hayam Wuruk send a cover letter to the Maharaja Linggabuana and offer for marriage ceremonies performed in Majapahit.

Majapahit Bids must still be considered, especially by Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora ​​linggabuana Suradipati.Adik from Prabhu. First, the problem of the location or place of marriage.

At that time customary in the archipelago considered unusual if the parties come to the bride groom.

 Second, the alleged reason for this is a diplomatic trap of Majapahit, who was expanding his power, such as by way of mastering the Kingdom of Dompu in Nusa Tenggara. But King Linggabuana only see a sense of brotherhood of the ancestral line, so he decided to stay off to Majapahit.

Sunda royal party then went to Majapahit, and received and placed in Pesanggrahan Bubat.

Seeing the King of Sunda came to Bubat and empress and princess Dyah Pitaloka with the accompaniment of a little soldier, then another intention arising from Gajah Mada Mahapatih namely to rule the Kingdom of Sunda. Mada elephant intention is to fulfill the oath that made the Palapa. Because of all the kingdoms in the archipelago that have been conquered only sundalah who have not mastered the kingdom of Majapahit. With this aim was made excuse by Gajah Mada University who thinks that the arrival of the party at Guesthouse Bubat Sunda as a form of surrender to the Majapahit Kingdom of Sunda, in accordance with Palapa Oath he had said at that time before Hayam Wuruk as