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Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia 1770-1800



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1770-95 Queen Kamakahelei of Kauai in Hawai’i (USA)
22nd Alii Aimoku of Kauai in the Northwestern part of the Island group of Hawai’i. She succeeded king Peleiokolai and was succeeded to king Kaumualii, who reigned until 1810 when the island was incorporated in the united Hawaiian Kingdom.  Her daughter Kawalu, married her half-brother, George Kaumu-alii, King of Kauai (1794-1810).

  1770-93 Denkyirahene Amoako Atta Yiadom of Denkyira (Ghana)
Reigned after Amoako Atta Kuma (1725-70). The state was founded in 1500 under the name of Agona, but was renamed in 1620. In 1701 it was defeated by the Asante and became a tributary kingdom. 

  1770/80-1807 Regent Dowager Princess Gusti Ayu Oka Kaba-Kaba of Mengwi (Indonesia)
After the death of her husband, Gusti Agung Made Munggu, she ruled in the name of her son Gusti Agung Putu Agung and from 1793/4 for grandson.

  1770-74 Tenant Caroline Carey of Herm (A Dependency of the English Crown)
Took over the tenantcy of the tiny Channel Island after the death of Peter Carey (1766-70). Peter John and Thomas de Jersey were joint Tenants (1774-79).

  1770-93 Politically Influential Franziska von Hohenheim in Württemberg (Germany)
Her husband, Freiherr Friedrich Wilhelm von Leutrum, was employed at the court of Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg 1728-37-93). She became his Maitresse in 1770 and divorced her husband two years later. From then on they lived at the castle of Hohenheim. 1774 she was created Reichsgräfin von Hohenheim Karl Eugen’s wife, Elisabeth Friederike Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth died in 1780 and they married secretly three years later, but the Catholic Church did not accept that he married a protestant until 1785. The following year she received the rank of a Duchess. She had a moderating influence on her husband, who developed in a less absolutist and ruthless direction than in his first years. She also engaged in charitable work. After her husband’s death she moved to Sindlingen. Daughter of Freiherr Ludwig Wilhelm von Bernerdin in Sindlingen and Johanna von Vohenstein zu Adelmannsfelden, did not have any children and lived (1748-1811).

  Until 1770 Treasurer Karoline Raphael Kaulla in Fürstenberg in Donaueschingen (Germany)
1770-1809 Treasurer in Württemberg (Germany)
Her Hebrew name was Chaile, but she was mainly known as Madame Kaulla or “Kiefe” Auerbacher, and she was one of the greatest Court Jews of her time, and was reputed to have been the richest woman in Germany. Her father, Isaak Raphael, was a Court Jew for the house of Hohenzollern. Besides her role as Treasurer (Hoffaktorin) she was Leader of the Trading House Kaulla in Stuttgart, and during the French war her business thrived and she was able to get supplies for the war for Württemberg. She later was a co-founder of the Royal Württemberg Court Bank, which, after many fusions, resulted in the Deutsche Bank in the a jew she was not allowed to live in Württemberg, but she was given a special right of residence, and she received great honours, amongst them the Civil-Verdienst-Medaille with golden chain presented to her by Emperor Franz I. She is reputed to have been a beautiful, impressive woman, praised for the welfare, her care for the poor and her works for the Jewish community in Hechingen. Her wealth and influence was similar to that of the Family of Rothschild. She was married to Salomon Auerbacher, and lived (1739-1809).

  1770-? Princess-Abbess Maria Electa Wrazda von Kunwald  of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Empress Maria Theresia: “Maria Theresia, Römische Kayserin, Wittib”, bestätigt die nach dem Tode der Maria Josepha von Fürstenberg erfolgte Wahl der Maria Electa Freyin Wrazda von Kunwald zur Aebtissin von St. Georg.” 

  Around 1770 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Conty d’Hargicourt of Montvilliers (France)
Unpopular and accused the sisters of misusing the revenues of the abbey. The chapter was abandoned during the French revolution in 1792.

  1771-? Regent Princess Mai Desan of the Sikhs In Punjab (India)
Widow of Charhat Singh Sukarchakia and a great administrator, an experienced and a wise diplomat who conducted the civil and military affairs dexterously.


  1771-72 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Schmidt of Brodnica (Poland)
Appointed by the king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration

  1771 Overseer of the Crown Lands Antonina Rzewuska of Luboml (Ukraine)
Held the office of Starościna niegrodowa of the area which was then part of the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania.

  1771-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Agatha von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
Her family had many Prince-Bishops and other ecclesiastical office holders trough the times.

  1771-74 Reigning Abbess-General Angela de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of Las Huelgas held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

  1771-ca. 85 Spy Chief Marguerite Wolters in Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Following her husband, Richard Wolters’s death, she carried on the British spy network in Rotterdam, at least until 1785.

  1771-96 The King’s Secret Diplomatic Representative and Advisor Henrietta Zofia z Puszetów Lullier in Poland
Born as Henriette Puszet, she had an affair with the later Polish King Stanislaw August Poniatowski when he stayed in Paris in 1753, and about one year later she married Louis Antoine Lullier. In 1762 Stanislaw Poniatowski re-established contact with her in Warsaw, and as his secret diplomatic representative and advisor, she negotiated on his behalf in secret international cases. For example she supported the mission of Franciszek Ksawery Branicki to the french Court. Daughter of Benedict Puszet and Barbara Euhinger. (d. 1802).

  1772-84 De-facto In Charge of the Government Dowager Queen Juliane-Marie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Denmark and Norway
Initiated a coup d’etat against the “premier” count Struensee who had an affair with the Queen, Caroline-Mathilde of England, and total influence on the insane King Christian 7. Her son, Hereditary Prince Ferdinand and Premier Høegh-Guldberg became official leaders of the Government with her as the power behind the scenes in the triumvriate. In 1784 they were removed by her stepson, Crown Prince Frederik (6). Her sister Therese Natalie, was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim 1766-77 and her sister-in-law was Grand-Duchess Anna Pavlovna, regent of Russia 1740-41 for her oldest son, Zar Ivan, and after she was executed, her younger children lived in Denmark. Juliane-Marie lived (1729-96).

  1772-89 Princess-Abbess Sofia Helena von Stadion-Tannhausen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
When she became Dechaness in 1755, she had been Vice-Dechaness for some years. In 1756 she lost the elections for the post of Princess Abbess to Antonietta von und zu Eltz-Kempenich  and sided with the Bishop of Liège in the long lasting dispute over the position of the Princess-Abbess and territory. After Antonietta’s death, Sophia was in charge of the territory in her capacity as Dechaness. She accepted the “capitulation” of 1773 and recognized the owerlordship of Liège but kept the title of Princess and the lordship of her possessions. She stopped the internal infightings that lasted for centuries, but like her predecessors she was an authoritarian figure. The territory was marked by the ongoing wars and the economic situation very bad. After the election of Waldburg von Heidenheim in 1783, she seems to have lost some of her authority within the chapter. (d. 1789).

  1772-99 Reigning Abbess Maria Edmunda von Kolb of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as 1758 Kastnerin (bursary officer) and the related offices of Bursiererin and Oberbursiererin 1768-72. Her brother, who was a Pastr in Dietersofeh, accused her of mismanagement and suppression of her subjects and she was put under temporary administration in 1785. She was daughter of Karl Ferdinand von Kolb and Maria Anna Karrer, and lived (1734-99).

  1773-83 Regent Princess Dowager Marie Luise Eleonore von Hessen-Rheinfels of Salm-Salm 
1794-.. Possibly Regent of Salm-Kyburg (Germany)
Until 1777 she reigned alone, then she became regent for Konstantin Alexander Joseph, Fürst und Reingraf von Salm zu Salm, Wildgraf von Daun und Kyburg, Rheingraf von Stein et cetera  (1773-78-1828). In 1794 her late husband’s relative, Friedrich III von Salm-Kyburg died, and she possibly became one of the regents for his son, Friedrich IV (1789-94-1801-59) whose mother had already died. Marie Luise Eleonore lived (1732-1800).

  1773-79 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Durga Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  
After the death Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj, who had been regent for adopted son since 1760, she took over the regency until her own death in 1779. They were both widows of Shahu Sambahaji II. she (d. 1779).

  1773-74 Joint Regent Princess Amina Kabafa’anu the Maldive Islands
Her brother, Sultan Al-Haj Muhammed (1766-77), appointed her and her husband, Ali Shah Bandor Vela’ana’a Manikufa’anu, as joint regents, when he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He drowned on his return in 1774. Her sister, Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu, had been regent 1753-57.

  1773 Sovereign Countess Louise-Marguerite de la Marck of Marck and Schleiden, Baroness of Lummen, Seraing-le-Château and Schaffenburg (Germany and France)
Succeeded her father, Louis Pierre de La Marck et de Schleiden (1701-50-73), Marquis de Vares and Baron, the son of Count Ludwig Peter von der Marck (1674-1700) and Marie Marguerite Francoise de Rohan-Chabot, who lived in France as an imperial Field Marshal. Louise-Marguerite married the Belgian Charles Marie Raymond de Ligne, Duc d’Arenberg et d’Aerschot (1721-78). Through her possession of Schleiden and of Saffenburg, her husband had two votes in the single collegiate vote of the chamber of the counts of Westphalia in addition to his vote in the Chamber of Princes in his capacity as Duke of Arenberg. Their oldest son, Louis Engelbert inherited the Duchies of Arenberg and Aerchot (Aarchot) and was created Duke von Meppen and Fürst von Recklinghausen in 1803. Their second son, Auguste (1753-1833) inherited the County de la Marck. Mother of a total of eight children, and lived (1730-1820).

  1773-89 Joint Sovereign Countess Auguste Luise Friederike von Sachsen-Coburg of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz and her first husband Christian Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha and one of the many reigning; she was married to Friedrich-Karl von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1752-1805).

  1773-80 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Sachsen-Coburg of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Second daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz with her second husband, Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha, she married to Grand Duke Friedrich-Franz I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837), and lived (1756-1808). 

  1773-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Kurz of Heggbach (Germany)
Elected Abbess in third round after the 7 other candidates had been defeated, and managed to manoeuvre through Joseph II of Austria’s “anti-nun” reforms of 1782 because the Abbesses were highly politically influential because of the centuries of independence as an Imperial Immediacy (in posession of Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and uninterrupted membership of the College of the Prelates of the Realm, even though she was normally represented at the meetings of the Assemblies of the Realm, Circles and College, she would always be in close contact with her envoy. In July 1790 the Emperor wrote to her asking for a military contribution and she answered in August, and the territory was hard hit by the French wars. When Joseph died two years later, a “party of gratitude” was celebrated after the election of his successor. She lived (1726-92).

  1773-82 Princesse-Abbesse Abbess Christine de Saxe of Remiremont (France)
Maria Christina Anna Teresia Salomea Eulalia Franziska Xaveria von Sachsen, Royal Princess of Poland was one of the 14 children of King Friedrich August III of Poland and became Coadjutrice in 1764 after the personal intervention of her sister’s father-in-law, king Louis XV as her sister Marie Josephe (1731-67) was the second wife of the heir to the French throne, Louis (1729-65), whose son succeeded as King Louis XVI in 1774. Another sister was Marie Kuningunde, Princess-Abbess of Essen and Thorn from 1776. Their brother, Duke Albert von Teschen, was married to Marie-Christine von Hasburg, and they were joint Governor-Generals of the Lower Netherlands. Their father had 354 known children outside marriage. Marie-Christine lived (1735-82).

  1773 Abbess Nullius Vincenza Martucci of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Cistercian monastery existed from before 889 and was placed under direct papal protection in 1110 and 1266 it was given to a group of Cistercian Nuns.

  1774-77 Regent Queen Maria Ana Vittoria de Borbon of Portugal
Wife of King José I (1750-77), who showed no interest in affairs of state and was dominated by Sebastião José Carvalho e Mello, Duke of Pombal. In 1774 her husband was declared insane, and she was named regent, and began gradually to erode the power of the Duke of Pombal. Her husband was succeeded by their daughter, Maria I. Maria Ana Vittoria was daughter of king Felipe V of Spain and Isabel Farnesio, and lived (1718-81).

  1774-92 Politically Influential Queen Marie-Antoinette von Habsburg-Lorraine of France
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Louis XVI (1774-92), and her very autocratic opinions and luxurious life-style was a contributing factor the to the French Revolution during which both her husband, son and herself was executed. She lived (1755-93).

  1774-1801 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline (I) zu  Waldeck-Pyrmont of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Unmarried daughter and successor of Dorothea von Solms-Assenheim. Her brother Josias (1774-88) was succeeded by son, Karl who died in 1849, and first succeeded by son Richard (1835-49-63) and then by daughter Mathilde (1826-99), who was married to Carel von Aldenburg-Bentinck (1792-1864). At some point she shared the sovereignty with Karoline (II). Karoline (I) lived (1729-1801).

  1774-89 Kpojito Chai of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Kpengla, she is not known to have been a priestess, but the aim of her office was to serve as compliment to the king and in some aspects as his double, not the least in the spiritual world.

  1774-96 Princess-Abbess Marie Félicité Philippine van der Noot of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The last reigning Princess-Abbess of Nivelles, which was occupied by France and afterwards incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands. She was member of the old Bruxelloise noble family whose title dates back to the beginning of the 1330s.

  1774-77, 1780-83 and 1786-89 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Chaves y Valle of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Temporal and Secular ruler of the territory.

  1774-75 Pretender to the Throne Princess Yelizaveta Alekseyevna Tarakanova in Russia
Appeared in various cities of Western Europe in the early 1770s and attracted several noble suitors. In 1774 she was convinced by émigré Polish rebels to pretend to the Russian throne and claimed that she was daughter of the unmarried empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–62) and Count Aleksey Razumovsky and also that she was the sister of Y.I. Pugachov, who was then leading a rebellion in southeastern Russia. She was arrested by Catherine II’s supporter, Aleksey Orlov, discovered Tarakanova in Livorno, seduced her, and lured her aboard his ship in the harbour, and sent to St. Petersburg, where she was imprisoned by Catherine in the Peter and Paul Fortress. She died there without revealing the secret of her past. Also known as Knyaginya Vladimirskaya (Princess of Vladimir), Fräulein Frank, or Madame Trémouille. She claimed to have been reared in St. Petersburg, but she was probably not Russian, and her origins and real name are unknown. She lived (ca. 1745-1775).

  Around 1775-85 Queen Nankali of Uukwangali (Angola – Namibia)
During her reign friction developed with the neighboring communities and the Kwangali moved from Makuzu to Sihangu (near Mukukuta). Succeeded by Queen Simbara, during whose reign the Kwangali group moved down to Namibia.

  1775-76 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Auguste von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach of Salm-Dyck (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Franz Wilhelm (1714-67-75), she reigned the small territory south-east of Mönchengladbach in present Nordrhein-Westphalien during the minoruty of her son, Altgraf Joseph Franz Maria von Salm Reifferscheid zu Dyck (1773-75-1806-61), who lost his territory to France in 1806 but was created Fürst und Altgraf in 1816. She lived (1743-76).

  1775-93 Regent Dowager Countess Maria Anna von Dalberg of Blieskastel (Germany)
Generally known as Marianne von der Leyden she took over as regent for son after the death of her husband, Reichsgraf Franz Karl von der Leyden und zu Hohengeroldseck. Her son came of age in 1791, but she continued to be in charge of the government. She supported the economic development and introduced social reforms, reformed the schools and in 1786 she abolished the serfdom. In 1793 she had to flee the French troops after having initially managed to keep a neutral position. She died in exile in Frankfurt am Main, and lived (1745-1804).

  1775-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Felicitas von Neuenstein-Hubacker of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Freiin (Free Lady) von Neunstein was the last sovereign of the territory, which included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. Known as an able ruler, she renovated the building of the chapter 1784-99 and the state experienced a period of economic growth. 1781 a number of younger canonesses appealed to the bishop of Regensburg for better living conditions, more servants etc, but her spartan approach won the upper hand. The territory was secularized in 1803 and became part of Bavaria/Bayern in 1805. She remained an inhabitant of the Chapter for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Privy Councillor and Crown Equerry  of the Princes of Fürstenberg, Freiherr Reinhard Friederich von Neuenstein and Maria Anna Maximiliana Theresia von Frauenberg. In her death announcement she was mentioned as “Ehrwürdige Frau Maria Josepha, Fürstin des heiligen Römischen Reiches, Äbtissin des adeligen Damestiftes in Obermünster”. she lived (1739-1822).

  1775-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Maximiliana von Stadion of Buchau (Germany)
The last Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory, she had been elected in the third round of voting with the participation of 10 Ladies of the Chapter and 2 Canons (Chorherren). Like that of her predecessor’s her election took part without the participation of the Bishop of Konstanz, and he protested at first but ended up inaugurating her. During her reign she reached compromises with the neighbours, the Count von Hohenberg and Prince zu Turn und Taxis, about some of the lands of the territory. During the end of her reign, she was preoccupied with the financial strain caused by the Coalition Wars. In July 1802 she had to flee for the invading French forces, but later returned. Her and the other families of the Ladies of the Chapter protested against the secularization and abolision of the chapter and territory using the the argument that the territory was already secular and not ecclesiastical. In the end Turn and Taxis took over the territory, and she moved to München and lived there the rest of her life. She was daughter of Count Anton Heinrich Friedrich von Stadion zu Thannhausen und Wartenhausen, Minister of the Elector of Mainz, and Freiin Maria Anna Augusta Antonia von Sickingen-Hohenburg. Maria Maximiliana Esther lived (1736-1818).

  1775-1802 Reigning Abbess Sophie Friederike von Holle of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The free-worldly chapter for noble ladies, were place directly under the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary liege lord, and had the right to collect taxes and tolls themselves, and held juridical rights. De facto imperial immediacy corresponded to a semi-independence with a far-reaching autonomy.

  1775-81 Politically Influential Janab Aliya Muta’aliya Bahu Begum (Bahu Begum) of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)
After her father-in-law’s death, she paid off the huge debts of her husband, Jalal-ud-din-Haider, (Shuja-ud-daula), to the East India Company, thereby ensuring his succession. After this he seems to have decided to entrust his finances to Bahu Begum. After his death in 1775 she secured the succession for her son, Mirza Amani (Asaf-ud-daula) against the advice of her mother-in-law, Nawab Begum. Her son continuously demanded money from her. In 1781 both the Begums were arrested by the British, two eunuchs, whose position at the court of Bahu Begum were unrivalled, were tortured until they handed over the treasure. Members of the royal zenana and khurd-Mahal were harassed, humiliated and made to suffer enormous privation. She remained illiterate all her life, but it never seemed to hamper her perspicacity or tenacity in dealing with the outside world. She always militated against the growing influence of the British. She was quick to see through the British plans of making Avadh a buffer state between themselves in Bengal and the strong Marathas. And yet when she saw there was no one worthy in her own family she made the British the trustees of her property after her death. During her lifetime there were few women and men who could rival her strength or match her dignity in northern India. At the peak of her glory it is said that she had at her command ten thousand troops, an excellent cavalry, innumerable horses and elephants. Her son died in 1798, and she outlived five rulers of Avadh and saw the installation of the sixth. Born as Amat-uz-Zehra in Persia and lived (Ca. 1747-1815).

  1775 Politically Active Ex-Queen Caroline Mathilde of Great Britain of Denmark and Norway
In 1775 she was approached by a group of opponents of the rule of her step-mother-in-law, Queen Juliane Marie and her son, who wanted to depose her insane ex-husband, Christian 7. and make her Head of the Regency Government for her son. She had been exiled after her affair with the royal physician and minister Johann Friedrich Struensee, who was almost certainly father of her daughter, Louise Augusta (1771-1843). Struensee was executed in 1772, and she was divorced and deported to Celle in the Electorate of Hannover of her brother, Georg III, who was not supportive of her attempts to return to Denmark. The posthumously born daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales by his wife, Augusta von Sachsen-Gotha, she died suddenly from throat cancer having lived (1751-75).

  1776-1801 Regent N.N. of Salm-Dyck (Germany)
It is not clear who succeeded Countess Auguste von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach as regent for Joseph Franz Maria, who was still a minor.

  1776-97 Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachsen of Thorn, Ladyof Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1776-1803 Princess-Abbess of Essen,
Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
After the failed weddings plans with Empress Maria-Teresia’s son, the later Joseph II of Austria, The Royal Princess of Poland and Sachsen was elected Coadjutorin of Essen and Thorn in 1775 with the right of succession, which took place the following year after the death of Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach. As Sovereign of the 2 Ecclesiastical Territories of Thorn and Essen in the Netherlands and Germany, she spend most of her time by her brother, Elector Klemens Wenzeslaus von Trier, and dominated the government here. During her reign Thorn experienced a strong economic growth, but when the war between Austria and France broke out on 1793, the ladies escaped to the other side of the Rhine. When the French had to withdraw the following year, 6 ladies returned, including Dechaness Clementine von Hessen-Rhinfels, who took the reigns and they were both busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten) – as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was the 14th and last child of the Elector of Sachsen and King of Poland and Lithauen, Friedrich August II and Maria Josepha von Habsburg. Her sister, Marie Christine, was Princess-Abbess of Remiremont from 1773. Known as Maria Cunegonda in Thorn, she lived (1749-1826).

  1776-1803 Princess-Abbess Justina von Erolzheim of Gutenzell (Germany)
Last sovereign ruler of the territory, which was secularized and first taken over by Joseph August von Toerring-Jettenbach and then incorporated into Württemberg. The last canoness died in 1859. Justina (d. 1809).

  1776-97 Reigning Abbess Amalie Dorothea Elisabeth von der Bottlenberg gnt. Kessel of the Free Worldly Abbey of Elsey (Germany)
Until 1793 the territory did not have a vote in the Local Assembly, but that year she bought the Manor of Berchum and thereby the Chapter came in the possession of its vote in the Landtag (In German: Berchumer Landtagsstimme). The Abbess was Lady of a number of possessions in Hohenlimburg but never had any sovereignty or any other rights than a local noble landowner.

  1777-1816 Queen Maria I of Portugal, 13th Duchess de Bragança, 7th Duchess de Barcelos, 12th Marquesa de Vila Viçosa, 1st Princess de Beira, 14th Countess de Arraiolos, 20th Countess de Barcelos, 14th Countess de Neiva and 17th Countess de Ourém
1808-1816 Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Her full title was The Most High, Serene and Potent Lady Dona Maria I, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, and above and below the Seas of Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies, Most Faithful Queen. She was granted the title of Princess of Beira by her grandfather, King Dom João V at birth, and became Princess of Brazil in 1750. Her first act as queen was to dismiss the unpopular Prime Minister, the Marquis of Pombal, following the brutal treatment given to the Távoras in the Tavora affair. Noteworthy events of this period were Portugal’s membership of the League of Armed Neutrality (July 1782) and the 1781 cession of Delagoa Bay from Austria to Portugal. In 1801 the Spanish dictator Manuel de Godoy invaded Portugal with backing from Napoleon, but was forced to abandon the campaign in the same year. However the Treaty of Badajoz on June 6 1801 forced Portugal to cede Olivenza and part of Guyana to Spain. She suffered from religious mania and melancholia. It made her incapable of handling state affairs after 1799 and so her son Prince John became regent. The refusal of his government to join the Continental Blockade of Britain culminated in the 1807 Franco-Spanish invasion led by Marshal Junot. The royal family fled to Brazil, and Junot was appointed governor of the kingdom pending Napoleon’s decision on its ultimate fate. In 1808, the Duke of Wellington landed a British army in Lisbon and thus commenced the Peninsular War. When Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815, Maria and her family were still in Brazil. The aged Queen died at Rio de Janeiro in 1816 and the Prince Regent succeeded her as King John VI of Portugal and Brazil. She was married to her uncle, The Most High, Serene and Potent Lord Dom Pedro III, King of Portugal etc, their son; Infante Dom Jose (1761-88) was married to her sister, Infanta Dona Maria (1746-1829). Maria da Gloria was mother of 6 children, and lived  (1734-1816).

  1777-81 and 1789-93 12th Tui’i Kanokupolo Tupou’ Mohe’ofo of Tonga
Also known as Tupoumahe’ofo. She held temporal power, wielding absolute power over the life and death of the people. In the first period she reigned jointly with Tu’i Halafatai. She was deposed by Mulikiha’amea , who was Tu’i Ha`atakalaua 1777-99 and Tu’i Kanokupolu) 1777 and 1781-89. Her second husband, the Tu’i Tonga, Fatefehi Paulaho, was the lord of the soil, and enjoyed divine honours. He took no part in the civil government of the country and could not arbitrate in any civil quarrel, but could absolve sinners who had broken the taboo. They received Captain James Cook in 1777. Their two daughters succeeded each other as Tu’i Tonga Fefdine. Tupou’ Mohe’ofo was daughter of the 7th Tu’i Konkupolo, and lived (1745-93).

  1777-1819 Rani Junumabe Adi Raja Bibi II of Cannanore (India)
On December 18, 1790 Minicoy was surrendered to the Court of Directors of the English East India Company by the Ali Raja of Cannanore, Junumabe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi II. The Ali Raja was allowed to administer Minicoy in return for a tribute to the East India Company. On 27 July 1795, the Governor General of the Presidency of Madras under whose jurisdiction Minicoy was, abolished Junumabe Ali Adi-Raja Bibi’s coir monopoly. This was the beginning of the end of the Ali Raja’s real control over Minicoy, but she continued to dispute the transfer of sovereignty but in 1824, her successor, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi made a formal written recognition of the suzerainty of the East India Company. She and her successors, however, continued the tributary arrangement. 

  1777-78 and 1779-85 Regent Dowager Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Maharani Rajendra Rajya Lakshmi Devi of United Nepal
Rajendralaxmi’s minor son Rana Bahadur Shah was placed on the throne after the death of her husband King Pratap Singh Shah. In the beginning she was co-ruler with Bahadur Shah, but he had her imprisoned. When she was released from her imprisonment, she exiled Bahadur Shah and began to rule as the sole regent. She and her military chiefs managed to defeat an uprising by local chiefs and kings in 1781, resulting in the annexation of both the Lamjung and Tanahun to the kingdom of Nepal in 1782. The king of Kaski, Siddhi Narayan Shah also surrendered before the Gorkha troops, and his widow also made an unsuccessful attempt to control over Kirat state in the east. Also known as Rajendra Laximi she (d. 1785).

  1777-? High Chiefess Te-ha’a papa I Te-i’oa-tua Teri’i-tari’a of Huahine (French Polynesia)
First succeeded by son, Mahine Te hei ‘ura Puru, and then by daughter, Teri’i tari’a Ari’i paea vahine who reigned until 1852. Huahine is located 175 km North-West of Tahiti within the Leeward Islands. In 1809, Protestant missionaries Davies and Bennet undertake a 1-year round the island tour during which they wrote a detailed journal.

  1777-78 Queen Andrianghinarivo of Boina (Madagascar)
Daughter of King Andriamahatindrivo (ca. 1730-60), she succeeded her son Andrianikeniarivo, and was succeeded by Queen Tombola.

  1777-1800 Joint Duchess Marie-Adélaïde de France of Louvois (France)
Held the duchy jointly with her sister. She was unmarried and lived (1732-1800).

  1777-82 Joint Duchess Sophie-Philippine de France of Louvois (France)
The two unmarried daughters of king Louis XV held the duchy jointly. She lived (1734-82).

  1777-80 Reigning Abbess-General María Ana de Acedo y Torres of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa de Las Huelgas, she had the privilege to confirm Abbesses of dependent convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1777-… Sovereign Countess Karolina Franziska Dorothea von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Parkstein
1777-93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm of Reipoltskirchen
1779-… Lady of Berzweiler, Seelen, Rudolphkirchen und Niederkirchen (Germany)
Also known Fürstin Karoline von Isenburg, she bought the Ellrodt’ian part of the lordship of Reipoltskirchen and reached an agreement with the co-owner, the Countess of Hillesheim, and the documents was approved by her father, Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz in 1777. In 1803 she was granted an eternal grant for her share in Reipoltskirchen and the other Lordship on the Left Side of the Rhine (Herrschaft Reipoltskirchen und anderen Herrschaften am linken Rheinufer), which had been seeded to France, and she was also compensated for her income from the shipping tax on the river. It is not clear when the county of Parkstein was incorporated into one of the other German states. She was married to Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm zu Isenburg-Birstein, and lived (1762-1816).

  1777-80 Opposition Leader Bahu Begum of Bhopal (India)
Widow of Nawab Faiz, and disputed the succession of his brother, Hayat, to the throne. She began a revolt against the de facto ruler her stepmother-in-law, Mamola Bai, supported by members of another branch of the family. She began holding courts at her husband’s tomb and set up a parallel government in Islamnagar. For three years she regularly held Dunbars (Assemblies) as an act of defiance against Mamola Bai. 

  1777-78 Regent The Asantehemaa Nana Akua Afriyie of Asante (Ghana)
It is not exactly known when she took office as Asantehemaa as successor of Nana Nketia Ntem Abamoo. She was mother of King Osei Kwadwo (Around 1764-77) and of three daughters. The oldest, Akyamaa was the mother of king Osei Kwame (Around 1777-98) and the 6. Asantehemaa. The second daughter, Sewaa Okuwa was mother of the 5. Asantehemaa. Akua Afriye was succeeded by the third daughter, Konadu Yaadom I as the 4. Asantehemaa.

  Ca.1778-1809 4th Asantehemaa Nana Kwaadu Yiadom I of Asante (Ghana)
Succeeded mother, Akua Afriye as Queen Mother and was mother of four kings; Osei Kwame, Opoku Fofie, (1798-1801), Osei Bonsu (1801-24) and Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-33) and of two Asantehemaas, Nana Ama Serwaa and Yaa Dufie. She lived (1752-1809).

  1778 Queen Tombola of Boina (Madagascar)
Ascended the throne after the death of Queen Andrianaginarivo, but abdicated soon after in favour of Queen Ravahiny.

  Ca. 1778-1808 Queen Ravahiny of Boina (Madagascar)
The kingdom in the northwestern coast of Madagascar was ruled by the Sakalava dynasty. It’s capital was Mahajanga, formerly located at the crossroads to Africa, Arabia and Asia, this Malagasy, and was therefore also an important trade centre. In Madagascar males and females had equal rights of succession, and the Queen’s husbands did not normally participate in the government.

  1778-1803 Regent Dowager Rani Suimri Begum of Sandhana (India)
1803-36 Rani Regnant
Governed in the name of Musffard ad-Daula Zafar Nab Han (Aloyis Baltasaar Reinhard) – illegitimate son of her husband, Bum Raja (1773/76-78), who was born in Luxembourg as Walther Reinhard. After her stepson’s death, she became Rani in her own right, and continued to perform her contracted military duties, leading her troops into battle in person. However she concentrated her efforts on developing the agriculture of Sardhana, which became famous as an island of green in a land of desolation, using her troops to keep out marauders and to enforce her policy, instead of plundering her neighbours as was the general practice at the time. She played a prominent part in the politics of the time, the fall of Mughals, the rise of the Mahrattas, and the establishment of the British. She emerged as a sovereign Princess of her own territories, which she had enlarged and improved, so that she accumulated vast wealth. Born as Johanna Noblis (d. 1836).

  1778-1815 Rani Regnant Arnapura of Pal Lahara (India)
Succeeded by Raja Nanda Pal (1815-25). 

  1778-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim (Germany)
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the Lordship after the death of her father, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim. She was in dispute over the inheritance with a relative, Johann Ernst Carl von Solms-Rödelheim. She married Fürst Friedrich Wilhelm zu Leiningen and mother of 3 daughters and a son; Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen (1753-92) married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen  (1755-85) married to Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, Caroline Sophie Wilhelmine zu Leiningen (1757-1832) married to Friedrich Magnus I, Graf zu Solms-Laubach-Wildenfels and Emich Carl, Fürst zu Leiningen (1763-1814) who was married to Sophie Henriette Reuss-Ebersdorf and Viktoria von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. She lived (1736-1803)

  1778-1802 Princess-Abbess Auguste Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The last Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Ruler of the Territory of the Realm. 1776 she had become Dechaness in Quedlinburg and shortly after she was also elected to the post in Gandersheim, but refused to take up the position. Two years later she accepted the post of Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim but continued to spend most of her time at the court of Braunschweig, later also Pröpstin in Quedlinburg. In 1802 she resigned her rights and the chapter accepted the sovreignty of Braunschweig, but remained it’s Abbess until her death. After her death, King Jerome of Westphalen abolished and anexed the chapter. She was daughter of  Karl I von Braunschweig (1713-35-80) and Augusta of Great Britain, and lived (1749-1810).

  1778 Rebellion Leader Baltazara Chuiza in Ecuador
Leader of a revolt against the Spanish. 

  1779-1824 In charge of the government Dowager Duchess Anna Caroline von Nassau-Saarbrücken of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksborg (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her first husband, Friedrich Wilhelm, she remained in charge of the Duchy, also after her marriage to Duke Friedrich Karl Ferdinand of Braunschweig-Bevern (d. 1809) in 1782. One year after her death the title of Duke of Glücksborg was inherited by Duke Wilhelm zu Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Beck, whose son became king Christian 9 of Denmark in 1863. She was daughter of Wilhelm Heinrich von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1718-35-68) and Countess Sofie von Erbach, and lived (1751-1824).

  1779-94 Politically Influential Duchess Anna Charlotta Dorothea von Medem of Courland and Semigallia (Latvia)
1794-1821 Lady of Löbichau (Germany)
Due to the Duchy’s political difficulties with the Courland nobility and with the overlord, the King of Poland, her husband Peter Biron, sent her on frequent diplomatic missions to Warsaw, lasting months at a time, as well as shorter trips to Berlin, Karlovy Vary and Saint Petersburg. During these long absences she became alienated fro her husband and after the birth of her youngest daughter Dorothea in 1793 (Dorothea’s biological father was Alexander Batowski, although Peter acknowledged her as his own) she moved permanently to the Palais Kurland in Berlin, where she held an aristocratic salon. In 1794 she acquired the Gutsherrschaft Löbichau in Altenburgischen and spent her summers at the newly-built Schloss there. Inviting poets, philosophers, relatives and friends to Löbichau, it became known as the Musenhof der Herzogin von Kurland. When her youngest daughter, Dorothea married Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord in 1809 she moved to Paris, having an intense relationship with Talleyrand and influenced him to turn against Napoleon. In 1814 she traveled to the Congress of Vienna to confront him with his love-affair with her daughter. 3 of her 4 daughters succeeded to the family titles from 1800 until 1862. She was Reichsgraf Friedrich von Medem, from the old Courland nobility, and Louise Charlotte von Manteuffel, and lived (1761-1821).

  1779-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Gabriela von Schaffmann of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The Freiin von  Schaffmann-Hämmerlewas the last Abbess of the Princely Chapter which was seculized by Emperor Joseph of Austria-Hungary together with all other both male and female convents within his realms. She lived (1724-1802).

  Around 1779-ca. 1793 Abbess Nullius Rosalba Noja of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Another version of her surname is Noya.

  1779-99 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Clara de Oca Sarmiento y Mendoza Zuñiga, IX Condesa de Moctezuma [Mexico]
Also VI Marquesa de Tenebron. Succeeded brother, married to Jose Antonio Marcilla de Teruel, and succeeded by son Jose Antonio Marcilla de Teruel y de Oca 10th Count of Moctezuma. The family lived in Spain for many years. 

  1780 The Ndlovukati Layaka Ndwandwe of Swaziland
As Queen Mother she reigned after the death of her husband. She was from the Ndwandwe I Nxumalo Clan.

  1780-89 Co-Governor-General Princess Maria-Christina Johanna Josefa Antonia von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg)
 1790-91 Gouvernante-General
1791-92 Co-Governor General
Her mother, Empress Maria-Theresia appointed her and her husband Albrecht von Sachsen as Joint Rulers of the Austrian Netherlands. Their reign was difficult with “revolution in Brabant” and the war against the French and had to leave the territory a couple of times. Albrecht inherited her father, Stephan von Lothringen’s possessions in Slesia and was named Duke of Teschen. They spend their last years in Wenen where she died of tyfus. She had no children and lived (1742-98).

  1780-1806 Sovereign Countess Augusta von Sternberg-Blankenheim of Mandercheid-Blankenheim and Gerolstein, Dame of Kronenburg, Jünkerath, Dollendorf, Gerolstein, Erp, Neuerburg, Oberkail, Falkenstein, Bettingen, Manderscheid, Osann-Monzel and Streubesitz (Germany)
After her marriage to Count Christian von Sternberg, from a Bohemian noble family, she took the name Reichsgräfin von Sternberg-Manderscheid after her marriage to Philipp-Christian Graf von Sternberg (1732-98). She mainly lived in Blankenheim, and the inhabitants of her lands were very happy with her rule. In 1794, she fled the county for attacking French forces, which looted the priceless book- and art collection of her family. In 1806, the county was incorporated into Württemberg. Her German title was Regierende Gräfin und Herrin, she was mother of 10 children of whom 6 died in infancy, and lived (1744-1811).

  1780-94 Countess Regnant Marie Isabella von Mansfeld-Vorderort-Bornstedt of Mansfeld, Princess of Fondi (Germany)
The oldest daughter of Heinrich Paul Franz II, Count von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Fürst von Fondi and his second wife Marie Josefa Czerninova z Chudenicz, she was the sole heiress of the Mansfeld-Querfurt Line of the Counts of Mandsfeld. She had married the Bohemian Prince Franz Gundackar von Colloredo, and 1789 the Emperor of Austria granted them the right to merge their name and shields, and they founded the new line of Colloredo-Mansfeld. Anna Maria Isabella Ludmilla Johanna Adalberta Michaela Franziska was mother of nine children, and lived (1750-94).

  Around 1780s Princess Fatafehi Ha’apai, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of H.H. Fatefehi Paulaho, Tu’i Tonga and Tupou Moheofo, 12. Tu’i Konokupolo, and married to Takitakimalohi, 3. Vuna and Tu’i Vava’u, She was mother of Prince Feileua Veasi, Tamaha (the only known male of that rank), and was succeeded as Tu’i Tonga Fefine by sister. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine Princess Nanasipau’u held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers, until the birth of her daughter, who traditionally outranked her.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Micaela Bastidas Puyuchaua in Peru
Another version of her surname is Puyurawa; she was leader of a revolt against the Spanish alongside her husband, Tupac Amaru. She led troops of both men and women in battle.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Cecilia Tupac Amaru in Peru
A member of the Inca Royal Family she was leader of a revolt against the Spanish together with her brother, José. Died in prison.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Huillac Ñusca in Chile
She was a Kolla princess that fought to the Spaniards. She became known by the nickname of ‘The Tyrant’ (La Tirana) because of her mistreatments to prisoners. She rebelled against the Spaniards, but felt in love with Vasco de Almeida (her prisoner) and plead with her people for him. After her father’s death, she became leader of a group of Incas brought to Chile to work in the silver Mines at Huantajaya. In 1780 she lead the rebellions in Amarista and Katarista Rebellion.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Manuela Beltran in Columbia
The first person to publicly challenge the Spanish exploitation. When the Spanish crown increased taxes, Manuela took from the tax collector’s hand the edict and tore it – something previously unseen. She organized a peasant revolt in the main cities of the northeast. The news and success of the revolt served as a catalyst for a revolution throughout the New Granada. But when the word reached the Viceroy, a headhunt for Manuela was organized, resulting in her decapitation. She was the first seed of defiance against the colonizer and became a national martyr.

  1780-1803 Princess-Abbess Marianne Antonia von Donop of Keppel   (Germany)
A Protestant, she was elected as successor to the Catholic Johanna Dorothea von Syberg. The Ecclesiastical Territory was incorporated into Nassau in 1803, but in 1808 Marquise Isabelle de Meslé (1761-1820) was appointed as Abbess by Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon I, but never inaugurated. The Marquise lived in the Chapter until it was abolished in 1812. Marianne Antonia von Donop (d. 1806)

  1780-1828 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain The Baroness Willoughby de Eresby of the kingdom of Great Britain 
Princilla Barbara Elizabeth Burrel née Bertie, succeeded to the title of 20th Baroness upon the death of her brother in 1779, and was admitted to the dignity of Lord Great Chamberlain, by a court decision jointly with her sister Georgiana. The office was conducted by her husband, Sir Peter Burrel of Beckenham, bt., who was appointed Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain of the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge of the palace of Westminster, especially of the House of Lords, and when the sovereign opens parliament in person he is responsible for the arrangements, and walks himself in the procession on the right of the sword of state, a little before it and next to the sovereign.

  1780-1838 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain Georgiana Bertie, Marchioness of Cholmondeley of the kingdom of Great Britain 
After the death of her brother, 4th Duke of Ancaster, the office was split between her and her older sister, and they shared it jointly, appointing a deputy to fulfil its functions when necessary. The office has continued to be split – among more and more candidates – since that time. First her brother-in-law acted as Deputy, and after his death in 1821 her nephew, Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Lord Gwydyr, who succeeded to the office after her death.

  1781-96 Princess-Abbess Friederike Caroline Josephine von Bretzenheim of Lindau (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin was illegitimate daughter of Josepha Seyfert (1748-71) and Elector Karl IV Theodor of Kurpfalz (1742-77) and Elector of Bavaria (1777-79). In 1796 she married Count Maximilian von Westerhold (d. 1854), and 1802 her brother came in possession of the territories of the Chapter after it was secularized. She had a twin-sister, Eleonore Caroline, and lived (1771-1816).

  Around 1781 and 1786 Abbess Nullius Cherubina Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed as ruler in in 1689 in the alternative list of abbesses

  1782-92 Sultan Halimah III of Nzwani (Comoro Islands)
Her name is also spelled Alimah. She was de-factor ruler with Abdallah I until 1788 and in 1792 he again ruled until 1806. The island was formerly known as Anjouan.

  1782 Chief Ntsusa of the amaRharhabe (South Africa)
She was daughter of the Xhosa Chief Rharhabe, who was killed in battle against the Thembu tribe together with his son. Ntsusa’s nephews were both underage, and she was appointed chief by the Xhosa king, while the court quarrelled over who should be chief. A clan with many chiefs had developed under her tutelage, but was accused of theft of some Boer military horses, and therefore a commando group was sent out against the clan, which had been named Ntsusa after her. She (d. 1826). 

  1782-1800 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Nubadha Bai Sahib of Dhar (India)
Also known as Bala Bai, she was reigned in the name of her son, Ananol Rao II Khande, who was born six months after the death of her husband and lived until 1807. She was born as Princess of Baroda. 

  1782-1840 Hereditary Lady Amalie von Hoym of Slawentzitz (Poland)
At the time the Lordship was situated in Germany, today the area is part of Upper Slesia in Poland and known as Sławięcice and had been in her family’s possession since 1714. Countess Amalia von Hoym was married to Friedrich Ludwig, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1746-1818) until their divorce in 1799, and the decendants of one of their their sons, Friederich August II Carl, Prince zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen, lived there until the Second World War. She lived (1763-1840).

  1782-86 Abbess Nullius Fedele Renna of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the few Abbesses in the world to hold semi-episcopal powers and ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

  1782-1810 Abbess Sophie Magdalene af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

Used the titles of Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Slesvig, Hosten, Glücksborg, Stormarn og Ditmarsken, Countess to Oldenborg og Delmenhorst. She was head of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies influenced both Church, shools, roads, bridges, inns, mills, forestry, care of the poor and sick. It was desided not to appoint new Abbesses after her death, and the Dechaness became the leader of the Chapter. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksborg and Henriette Auguste zur Lippe-Detmold. After the death of her brother, Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm of Glücksburg, Plön, Norburg and Rethwisch, his widow, Anna Karoline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, was de-facto regent of Glücksborg for many years. Sophie Magdalene lived (1746-1810).

  1782-86 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte II de Lorraine-Brionne of Remiremont (France)
Coadjutrice 1775-82 and arrived at Remiremont in 1784 and only visited the chapter a few times. She was daughter of Louis III Lorraine-Harcourt-Armagnac,  duc de Lorraine-Harcourt, comte Armagnac and his third wife Louise de Rohan. She lived (1756-86).

  1782-96 President of the Academy of Arts and Science Princess Ekaterina Romanovna Dashkova in Russia
She helped bring Empress Catharina II to power, but she disagreed with her absolutistic tendencies, and therefore spent 20 years travelling in Europe. When she returned home, she was appointed director of the Academy of Arts and Sciences and became it’s first President, and supervised the production of a dictionary, edited a journal and wrote several plays. She fell from favour after Catharine’s death, and forced to retire. She lived (1743-1813).

  1783-85 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen-Dagsburg of a portion of of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim (Germany)
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the lordship jointly with her husband, Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, after her mother, Christinane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim, had resigned the quater of the Lordship of which she was heir of. Charlotte was mother of 1 son and 3 daughters, and lived (1755-85).

  1784  37th Tui’i Tonga Fefine H.H Fatafehi Fuonga of Tonga
One of the most powerful chiefs in the Tongan Islands, she married to the Tu’i Tonga, Fatefehi Paulaho, who received Captain James Cook in 1777, and who was first succeeded by their daughter in 1784 and then by son as Tu’i Tonga. She was daughter of the 7th Tu’i Konkupolo, and lived (1745-93).

  1784 Joint Administrator Princess Natasha Shelikova of the Colony Alaska (Russia)
She was the first white woman to live in Alaska. Married to the first Russian manager of the Alaskan territory, Gregory Shelikof. They grew barley, millet, peas, beans, gourds, parsnips, mustard, beets, potatoes, turnips and rhubarb. They picked berries and hunted. When Natasha’s husband would leave to go on expeditions she was left in charge. Perhaps one could consider her the first woman Governor of Alaska, if not in title, then in action. 

  1784-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Waldburga Anna Truchsess von Zeil-Waldburg of Elten, Abbess of Vreden and St. Urusla in Köln (Germany)
Abbess of of the Chapter of Vreden since 1764 and before that she had been canoness in Buchau 1757-64 She was elected as Abbess because of the support from Preussia, and was succeeded by candidate that was not elected in 1784, Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg. She was was daughter of Count Franz Ernst and Eleonora von Köpnigsegg-Rothensfels and lived (1730-89).

  Ca. 1784-1804 Politically Influential Countess Sophie Magdalene von Gram Krag-Juel-Vind in Denmark
1799-1810 Owner of the tenantcounty of Frijsenborg
Also known as Sophie Magdalene von Gram, to the County of Frijsenborg, she became the centre of “The Danish Party” a circle of high aristocracy and major landowners following the death of her husband, Baron Jens Krag-Juel-Vind of the Baronies to Juellinge and Stensballegård in 1776 (son of Jens Juel-Vind, who inherited the Barony of Juellinge from his mother, and Ida Helle Margrethe Krag to the Barony of Steensballegaard). The party was in opposition to the governing “German Party” lead by A.P. Bernstorff and Ludwig Reventlow. In 1790 she was one of the driving forces behind the united protest of the estate-owners of Jutland against the agricultural reforms. Also in her later years she was viewed as a formidable political force. In 1799 she inherited the county of Frijsenborg from her mother’s sister, Elisabeth Sophie Desmercières, who had inherited the county from her sister, Christine Sophie Frijs-Wedel, who was holder of the Fiefcounty 1763-87. Sophie Magdalene, who was daughter and Birgitte Christine Frijs and Carl Christian von Gram, thereby became the biggest landowner in the country, and belonged to the highest nobility. After her death, her son, Frederik Carl Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs, inherited the tenant county and was granted the title of Fiefcount (Lensgreve), adding Frijs to his name. She lived (1734-1810).

  1785-1800 Queen Simbara of Uukwangali (Namibia)
Succeeded Queen Nankali as head of the kingdom and tribe of Uukwangali. During her reign the Kwangali group moved from Mukukuta in Angola to Karai, still in Angola, opposite Nkurenkuru in present-day Namibia. Queen Simbara was followed by Queen Mate II (ca. 1800-1818).

  1785-ca. 1806 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Anna Elisabeth Auguste Maria von Hillesheim of Hillesheim
1785-ca. 93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Succeeded her brother, Wilhelm-Ernst-Gottfried, Reichsgraf von Hillesheim und Herr zu Reipoltskirchen. The county was occupied by France from 1793 and in 1801 Germany had to give up its territories in Alsace to France. But at the “Reichsdeputationshauptschluss” (“chief inventory of the realm”) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities, she was granted 5.400 Gulden for her part in lordship. Furthermore, the possessions remained in the hands of her descendants by her marriage to Ambrosius Franz Reichsgraf zu Spee. She lived (1725-18..).

  1785-1806 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Charlotte Elisabeth Regina von Hillesheim of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Held the Lordship jointly with her sister, Charlotte Elisabeth Regina, and the Princess Karoline von Isenburg nee von Pfalz-Zweibrücken. She was unmarried, and shortly before her death, she transferred her part of the Hillesheim-inheritance to her brother-in-law against a payment for life. She lived (1728-1807).

  1785-99 Sovereign Lady Clementine Cunigunde von Callenberg of Muskau (Germany)
Her father Georg Alexander Heinrich Hermann Graf von Callenberg, transferred the Standesherschaft to her and her husband, Ludwig von Pückler auf Branitz, they divorced 1799, when she married Curt Friedrich August von Seydewitz. After her first husband’s death, her son, Ludwig Heinrich Hermann, Count and later Prince von Pückler-Muskau, took over as Standesherr von Muskau. She lived (1770-1850).

  1785-87 Possible Regent Dowager Princess Johanna von Hohenzollern-Berg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she might have been the person who was regent for Prince and Count Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, (1762-85-1805-31), her 8th and first surviving son, until her own death. The regency continued for one more year. Also mother of 4 daughters of whom only one survived into adulthood. Daughter of the “Dutch” Count Franz von Hohenzollern-Bergh and Marie Katharina von Waldburg-Zeil, she lived (1727-87).

  1785 Military Leader Kunying Jan in Phuket (Thailand)
After the death of her husband, the Governor of Phuket, she and her sister, Mook, dressed up as men and assembled what forces they could to fend off an attack by the Burmese. After a month-long siege, the Burmese were forced to retreat March 13, 1785. The sisters became local heroines, receiving the honorary titles Thao Thep Kasatri and Thao Sri Sunthon from King Rama I.

  1786-1808 and 1809-23 Rani Regnant Daya Kaur of Kalsia and Ambala (India)
Widow of Gurbakhsh Singh of the Nishanavali principality of the Sikhs who ruled over Ambala, assumed control of the misl and the family estate upon her husband’s death. She ruled over the territory remarkably well for nearly 37 years. Sir Lepel Griffin in his “The Rajas of the Punjab” noted that she was an excellent ruler and her estate was one of the best managed in the protected territory. In November 1808, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ejected her from the city and seized all her property and possessions, and divided the country between Raja Bhag Singh of Jind, his maternal uncle, and Bhag Singh’s friend and ally, Bhai Lal Singh of Kaithal. In 1809, the Sutlej chiefs passed under British protection. She appealed to Colonel David Ochterlony, agent to the Governor-General at the Ludhiana Political Agency, who forced the chiefs of Jind and Kaithal to restore to her the territories which originally belonged to her. After her death her estates and property lapsed to the British government. (d. 1823).

  1786-1800 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Philippine von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Hainau in Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1788-1800 Owner of a fifth of the Margravate of Schwedt in Brandenburg
After her marriage to  Landgrave Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel (1720-1785) as his second wife, she established a seperate court with philosophers and other later statemen. In 1777 she secretly gave birth to a son at the residence of her sister and named him Georg Philippson, she travlled widely in Germany and France. After her husband’s death, she engaged in hard disputes with her stepson, Landgrave Wilhelm IX, which led to diplomatic problems between Hessen-Kassel, Preußen und Russland. In 1788 the last male of the Brandenburg-Schwedt line died out and she and her sisters, two sisters were Friederike Sophie Dorothea, married to Friedrich Eugen von Württemberg (1736-1797) and Anna Elisabeth Luise, married to Ferdinand von Preußen (1738-1820), were allodial heirs together with two cousins of the family possessions. In 1792 she moved to Berlin after the French had occupied Mainz, two years later she married her Oberhofmeister Georg Ernst Levin von Wintzingerode, whom she managed to have named Count of the Realm. In Berlin she first lived with her sister and in 1795 she was given a big Palais by her cousin, King Friedrich Wilhelm II. She made her husband her sole heir, and he inherited  1/5 of the Brandenburg-Schwedt possessions. The daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt, Prinz in Preußen (1700-1771) and Sophie, Prinzessin in Preußen (1719-1765) she lived  (1745-1800).

  1786-90 Princesse-Abbesse Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon-Condé of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France) 
She was the last Princess-Abbess of the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe before the revolution. She had the title of Princesse d’Empire and was ruler of a number of lordships, but did not visit the chapter more than three times during her short term in office. During the revolution she was in exile in Belgium but later returned and founded a religious institution. She was daughter of Louis Joseph de Bourbon-Condé, Prince de Condé et Duc de Bourbon and Charlotte de Rohan-Soubise (1737-1760), and lived (1758-1824).

  1787-99 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane Wilhelmine Louise von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld of Schaumburg-Lippe (Germany)
At the age of 19 she decided to marry the 38 year older widower Graf Philipp Ernst, and after his death, she became regent for her son, Georg-Wilhelm (1784-1860, Count 1787-1807 and thereafter Prince), but initially had to flee the territory because of occupation by Hessen-Kassel, who would have inherited the county had her son not been born. She asked Hannover and Preussia for help and within 2 months the Imperial Court in Vienna decreed that Hessen had to leave the territory, and she took full control of the goverment, dismissing the civil servants who had supported Hessen, settled the huge depts of the County, by cutting down on court life and other expenses, but she still improved the relationship with the farmers by reducing the fees they had to pay, promoted smallpox vaccinations and other social improvements, and continued the tolerance towards the Jewish population of the county that had been begun by her father-in-law. Known as “Fürstin Juliane Wilhelmine Luise zu Schaumburg-Lippe, Vormünderin und Regentin, geborene Landgräfin zu Hessen, Hochfürstliche Durchlaucht”, using the title of Princess because of her princely background in Hessen. Apart from her son, she was mother of one daughter who died within the first year and 2 surviving daughters. She died of a serious cold and her son was under the guardianship of Reichsgraf Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn until 1807. She lived (1761-99). 

  1787-91 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Luise von Salm zu Gaugrehweiler of Ortenburg-Neuortenburg, Tambach, Birkenfeld et cetera  (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Karl Albrecht zu Ortenburg (1743-87) she became regent for son, Joseph Karl, Count and Lord zu Tambach, Lord zu Birkenfeld etc. (1780-1831). She was in charge of the government during the second Napolian war, and she used all of her authority to limit the suffering of her people caused by the troops that marched through the county, and because of her intervention the county was recognized as neutral. Born as Wild- und Rheingräfin zu Gaugrehweiler, she lived (1754-1826).

  1787-1803 Princess-Abbess Sophie Albertine av Sverige of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The last Princess-Abbess or Reichsäbtissin of Quedlinburg, she had been elected Koadjutrix in 1767 and was one of the few to acctually reside in the territory, which at the time covered 102 square kilometers, most of the time – except for a stay in Sweden 1794-99. She found an administrational mess with no clear destinction of which authorlity lay by her and wich by the city. She reformed the educational system and became very popular. In 1801 the Imperial Diet met to reform the governing system in Germany and the number of states were reduced from around 1.500 to a few hundred. When Quedlinburg was incorporated into Prussia she changed her signature from “des kayserlich freyen weltlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Des fürstlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” and her titulature change from “die Durchlauchtigste Fürstein und Frau Sophien Albertinen, Königliche prinzessin von Schweden, der Gothen und Wenden, Erbin von Norwegen, des kayserlinchen freyen Weltlinchn Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Frau Äbtissen königliche Hoheit wie auch dem Fürstlichen Stifts Amte”. She later moved back to Sweden. The Swedish Princess was daughter of Karl XII of Sweden and Lovisa-Ulrika von Preussen, and lived (1753-1808).

  1788-99 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Christine Wilhelmine von Isenburg-Büdingen of Waldeck-Bergheim and a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Josias Wilhelm Leopold von Waldeck-Bergheim, joint heir of Dorothea zu Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, she took possession of the lordship and was hailed as, regent for their 4 surviving children, of whom Josias Wilhelm Karl, Graf zu Waldeck-Bergheim (1774-1802) did not have any chidlren, and the second, Karl, who was Count of Waldeck und Pyrmont and later also of Berghaim (1778-1849), and later bought the remaining parts of his brother and sister’s parts of the portion of the lordship in their hand. Christine Wilhelmine was daughter of the Danish Countess Dorothea Reventlow and Gustav Friederich von Isenburg, and lived (1756-1826)

  1788-1806 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline (II) zu Waldeck-Pyrmont of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Shared the sovereignty with three men and another woman, also named Karoline (I), who reigned from 1774. Karoline (II) was married to Georg of Struckrad. Since 1690 when the four sisters Juliane Charlotte, Juliana Dorothea I, Wilhelmina Christina and Sophia Elisabeth von Limpurg-Gaildorf inherited each a share of the territory a large number of co-heiresses and co-heirs shared the Limpurg inheritance and the seat belonging to the County on the Bench of the Fränkische Gräfen in the Imperial Diet – as the countly Limpurgian Allodial-heirs (Die gräfliche Limpurgischen Allodialerben). In 1806 the country was incorporated into Württemberg. She lived (1782-1820).

  1788-94 Politically Influential Duchess Izabela Czartoryska in Poland
During the debate of the Great Sejm in 1788-92 she was member of Patriotic Party, who supported the political reforms in Poland. In 1794 she supported active the insurrection of Tadeusz Kościuszko. She daughter of Jerzy Flemming and Antonina Czartoryska, married to prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and mother of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and Maria Wirtemberska. She lived (1746-1835).

  1789-97 Kpojito Senume of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Agonglo. During his reign a new the cult of the Christian God was placed alongside the old gods, and a female relative of one of his wifes, Sophie (Afro-Dutch woman) was placed in charge of this new vodun -or faith. 

  1789-1805 Mihrişah Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
The widow of Mustafa III, she became Queen Mother when her son, Selim III (1789-1807), succeeded to the throne. She was a willing protagonist of the reforms of his reign. She was especially preoccupied with the reforms of the military schools and the establishing of a diplomatic corps. She took little part in politics and only on the rare occasions approached her son to beg a favour or an act of mercy. Both she and her son were members of the Mevlana sect of Sufi mystics, the so-called Dancing Dervishes. Her origins are not known, but she lived (ca. 1745-1805).

  1789-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Xaveria von Königsfelden of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Anna Febronia Elisabeth von Speth-Zwyfalten. 

  Until 1789 Princess-Abbess Madeleine Barbe de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
Sold the chapter to her niece during the revolution, who married the Intendent of the Chapter, Keppeler, who became Prefect and Baron of the Empire. The chapter was abolished during the revolution in 1789

  Until 1789 Reigning Abbess Charlotte-Julie le Normant of Faremoutiers (France)
Also known as Madame de Maupéou. Her family were councillors of Louis XV and Louis XVI. She succeeded Françoise de Molé, who reigned at dates not known to me.

  1789-94/99 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia II van Bentinck of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Because of the French Revolution, which also reached Liège, she did not mark her election with an “entry into her lordships”, and her subjects did not pay homage to her, as they had done with as her predecessors. The territory was occupied by the French forces 1792-93, by Imperial Troops 1793-94 and then again by the French. Very few ladies remained in the chapter, and Maria Theresia moved to Gerresheim. The adminsitration was taken over by the Vice-Dechanesses; Beate von Freyberg, who resigned in 1795 and by the 68 year old Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg until the chapter was finally abolished. Maria Theresia was daughter of Freiherr Adrian Konstantin Ferdinand Joseph van Bentinck and Freiin Anna Franziska von Bocholtz, and lived (1739-99).

  1789-92 and 1795-98 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Oruñaof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas, her territory included the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muñó, Candasnos, Cardeñadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontiñena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.

  1789-98 Reigning Abbess Delphine Madeleine Elisabeth de Sabran-Baudinard of Chelles (France)
Daughter of Joseph-Jules-Honoré de Sabran-Baudinard and Marie-Thérèse d’Arlatan de Lauris, and lived (1734-1820).

  Around 1790 Queen Logenge of Bimba (Cameroon)
Her husband, King Kwa of Duala, was co-regent of the Kingdom Bimba until 1792.

  1790-97 and 1814-29 Sovereign Duchess Maria Beatrice III Ricciarda d’Este of Massa, Sovereign Princess of Carrara and di Luniana  (Italy)
1792-1829 7th Duchess di Ajello, Baroness di Paduli and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati
1803-29 Titular Duchess of Modena
Succeeded her mother, Maria-Teresa Cybò-Malpasina di Massa-Carrara and was officially installed with the feudal titles two years after. The territory was occupied by France 1796-1814. She was married to a Archduke of Austria who became Titular Duke of Modena, after the death of her father, Ercole III Rinaldo of Modena in 1803. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda lived (1750-1829).

  1790-95 Ruler Daeng Lela of Mempawah (Indonesia)
Succeeded her husband. Her stepson, Gusti Jati, or Panembahan Suryanata Kusuma/Sultan Muhammad Zainal Abidin was regent for her from 1790-1795 until he became ruler. Her own son became ruler of the Principality in West-Borneo/Kalimantan in 1828. She was member of a Buginese dynasty from Luwu, who intermarried in the local dynasty

  From 1790 Regent Rani Janhabib Bahadur Maha Devi of Tipura (India)
Stand-in for Rajendra who was head of the principality the Chittagong Hills that is characterized by low mountains, hills, and valleys, all covered by dense tropical growth.

  Around 1790s Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Fekitetele, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
In 1793 she married, as his first wife, Vuna Fa’otusia Fakahiku-‘o-‘uiha, 6. Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Haveatungua, 5. Tu’i Ha’ateiho and Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. She was mother of a daughter and was succeeded by sister, Princess Fatafehi Lapaha, as the highest spiritual entity in the country.

  1790/1800 Princess Fatafehi Lapaha, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Married as his second wife, Vuna Fa’otusia Fakahiku-‘o-‘uiha, 6. Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Haveatungua, 5. Tu’i Ha’ateiho and Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. Fatafehi Lapaha’s second husband was Fifitapuku, 2nd Tu’i Ha’angana, son of Fuapau Hikule’o, 1. Tu’i Ha’angana. Succeeded by sister.

  1790-96 Princess-Abbess Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg of Elten and Vreden (Germany)
Brought up in Vienna and after the death of her father in 1755, her uncle, Leopold picked her and her brothers up, and secured her the position as Canoness of Elten, and on the way they visited Dresden, Meissen, Hubertusburg, Bautzen, Naumburg (Saale) and further places. She also received a Präbende Vreden, which was tied to her family. She became Küsterin in Vreden in 1763 even though she did not take oath of office as lady of the chapter until 1765 when she was permitted not to live in the chapter. She held the same office in Elten from 1766 and the same year she became a lady of the chapter of Essen which was considered more prestigious as an Imperial Immediate Secular Chapter (kaiserlich-freiweltliches Stift) than the High Countly Secular Chapter of Vreden (hochgräflich-freiweltliche Stift Vreden) and the Princely Secular Chapter of Elten (fürstlich-freiweltliche Stift). She became Dechantin in Vreden from 1779, in Essen 1782 and in Elten in 1784, but the same year she failed to be elected Abbess, because Prussia supported Walburga Maria Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach, but she succeeded her after her death 6 year later, and also in January she was elected Abbess of Vreden. She was daughter of daughter of Altgraf Karl Anton Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg and countess Maria Franziska de Paula Eleonora Esterhazy, and lived (1731-96).

  1791-95 Datu Daeng Massiki of Sumbawa (Indonesia)
Also known as Safiatuddin, she succeeded her father, Datu Bodi Harunarrasyid II (Datu Jerewe), and married Sultan Abdul Hamid of Bima. A relative succeeded her.

  1791-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary)
4 days after her installation with her princely ecclesiastical rank, she conducted the coronation – assisted by bishops – of her mother, Maria Ludovica de Borbon of Spain, as Queen of Bohemia. She and her husband, Leopold, had already been crowned as Holy Roman Emperor and Empress the previous year. Maria Anna resigned in 1800, and lived (1770-1809).

  Around 1791 Abbess Nullius Giuditta Terami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Kingdom of Napoli joined the first coalition in 1793, the kingdom was occupied by French troops and was declared to be abolished in 1799 and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which only lasted until June and Ferdinando I di Borbone was restored as king.

  1792-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Vogel aus Ummendorf of Heggbach (Germany)
Also known as Marianne, she was elected Abbess in the first round of voting against 5 other candidates. During her reign, the Chapter was marked by the wars with France 1790-1800, and she continued the daily routine of administering her territory with the knowledge that the French regime poised a great danger to the known world order. She secured the most valuable reliquia and sent them to Switzerland. 1793 the first refugees arrived and 1796-97 the French troops laid down quarter and had to be fed. The Reichsdeputation assembled in Rastatt 1793-99 tried to prevent the inevitable and so did the College of Prelates in Ochnhausen in 1798, but when Emperor Franz II of Austria signed off the Left Bank of the Rhine to the French as part of the peace settlement, the fate of the ecclesiastical territories of Swabia was sealed and they were secularised. The nuns were allowed to stay at the chapter, which came in the possession of the Count of Waldbott-Bassenheim. But even though they were granted a pension, they lived in great poverty. 1806 the Abbey became part of the Kingdom of Württemberg, but the financial troubles continued. In 1875 Fürst von Waldburg-Wolfegg bought the building and gave it to the Franciscans in 1884, and it is still a convent today. She lived (1752-1835).

  From 1792 Reigning Coadjutress Gabrielle de Tane of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
When she left with the nuns, the abbey was divided into 34 lots and sold in 1793. The Church, the chapter and the cloister were destroyed, the claustral buildings were transformed into houses along roads cut across the Abbey. But out of the 58 nuns expelled, a few stayed on in the village, succoured by the population. The locals carried the reliquaries, bells and statues of the Abbey to the Parish Church in order to save them from destruction. They even tried to make a request to the Committee for the Protection of the General Public in favour of the sisters. Those who came back discretely to live under the shadow the cloister were they had made profession were welcomed kindly repaying by their services and their example those who helped them. Twenty-six nuns survived in this way, waiting and watching in prayer. They bought back plots of the Abbey and kept a look-out for the eventuality of the revival of conventual life.

  1792-1825 Marchioness María Luisa de Silva y González de Castejón of Lanzarote (Spain)
As the 5th Marquesa de Lanzarote she was feudal lady of the island in the Canary Islands, where the feudal system lasted until 1812, though she lived in Madrid. She was also 15th Countess de Cifuentes, Countess de la Rivera, 5th Marquesa de Albaserrada, 9th Marquesa de Alconchel and de Gramosa in succession to both her parents, Juan de Meneses Silva and María Bernarda González Castejón y Villalonga, Marquesa de Albaserrada and was married to Juan Bautista de Queralt y de Pinós, 7th Count de Santa Coloma, marqués de Besora and mother of a son and a daughter. She lived (1765-1825).

  1792-95 Reigning Abbess-General María Rascón of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.

  1792-96 Guardian Dowager Queen Sofia Magdalena af Danmark of Sweden
After her husband, Gustav III was killed in 1792, her brother-in-law, Duke Karl became regent for her son, Gustav IV Adolf (1778-92-1809-37), but she never tried to take any political role what so ever. She was engaged to Gustav at the age of five, they got married in 1766 and he became king in 1772. She had a very religious and pietistic upbringing which made it difficult for her to cope with the much more vivacious Swedish court. In 1809 her son was deposed and send in exile after Sweden lost Finland to Russia, and she lived to see the arrival of the new Crown Prince Jean Batiste Bernadotte. Sofia Magdalena was the oldest daughter of King Frederik 5. of Denmark and Louise of England and sister of the insane Christian 7. She had one other son, Karl Gustaf (1782-83), and she lived (1746-1813).

  Until 1793 Chiefess Tafa’ifa Tupo o samoa sina of Le-samoa-na-ngalo in Samoa
She succeeded her father Ter’i-marotea, prince of Tahiti who had immigrated to Samoa.  

  1793-1807 Imperial Russian Governor Dowager Duchess Friederike Auguste Sophie von Anhalt-Bernburg of Jever (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Friedrich-August of Anhalt-Zerbst, who had no children, her sister-in-law, Catherine II of Russia, inherited the land of Jever and created a Personal Union with Russia, which gave her a vote in the Imperial German Diet. Catherine appointed Friederike as administrator – kaiserlich russische Statthalterin. She also continued as administrator for her nephew, Czar Paul of Russia. She lived (1744-1827).

  1793-1800 Sovereign Countess Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline von Pückler of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Successor of her mother, Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim, she married Johann-Ludwig von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (d. 1796), who had previously been married to her older sister, Friederike Luise, who died 1772. She was co-regent with Friedrich Graf von Pückler, who was Count and ruler of Limpurg-Speckfeld 1793-1806, and whose wife Friederike-Amöne, was Countess of Limburg-Speckfeld (1757-65). Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline was succeeded by two sons and three daughters; Karoline, Friederike and Luise. She lived (1746-1800).

  1793-1801 Princess-Abbess Maria Violanta von Lerchenfeld-Premberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
She was member of the family of Counts of The Realm of Lerchenfeld-Siessbach-Prennberg.

  1793-1801 Military Commander Princess Bibi Sahib Kaur Ji of Patiala (India)
Commanded numerous battles during the reign of her younger brother, Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala. In 1793 her brother according to some sources entrusted to her the office of prime minister. She was allied with other Sikh commanders and was able to fight off all the enemies. She lived (1771-1801).

  1794-1801 Regent Dowager Princess Johanna Franziska Antonia von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen of Salm-Kyburg (Germany)
Managed the affairs of state in the name of her son, Reichsfürst Friedrich zu Salm-Kyrburg, Fürst zu Ahaus und Bocholt, Wild- und Graf von Renneberg (1789-94-1801-59). She lived (1765-90).

  1795-98 In Charge of the Government Countess Ottoline van Reede-Lynden of Kniphausen and Varel  (Germany)
Her husband – and second cousin – the British-Dutch-German Wilhelm Gustav Bentinck-Rhoon, Count Bentinck, Sovereign Lord of Kniphausen and Varel (1762-1835), who was in the service of the Stadhouder of Holland et cetera, was imprisoned in the Netherlands, and she took over the government until he was released and settled in his German possessions. Mother of one son, who died 1813 and 2 daughters, and lived (1773-99).

  1794-95 Acting Head Beate von Freyberg  of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Soon after she was appointed Vice-Dechaness, she became Acting Head of the Chapter after the Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia van Bentnick had sought refuge in Gerresheim in 1794. She resigned because she did not feel up to the task of running the task during the French occupation.

  Around 1795 Governor Queen Ana Jambakur-Orbeliani of Imerati of Mingrelia (Georgia)
She was widow of King Davit II of Imerati and Amierati (1756-82-92-95), who was forced to abandon his throne when attacked by King Irakli II of Georgia, but returned when the latter faced an invasion by the Turks. Continued in rebellion until 1792, when he retreated into Russia, and was allowed to settle at Akhaltzykh. She abandoned her children, was received with honour at Moscow and appointed as Governor. Daughter of Prince Mamuka Jambakur-Orbeliani and a Princess of Kvenipneveli-Sidamoni of Ksani. Mother of one son and four daughters (1765- 1832).

  1795-98 Acting Head Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Took over as Vice-Dechaness and de-facto Leader of the Chapter after the resignation of Beate von Freyberg as the Princess-Abbess had left the territory. She tried to steer the chapter through the hardship of the French occupation and Presided over the final Gathering of the Chapter before it was closed down. She spend the rest of her life by her family, and lived (1727-1817).

  1795-97 Acting Head Clementine Franziska von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)
As Dechaness, the Landgravine took the reigns after the French occupation, the Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachen, Princess of Poland, stayed in Essen to take care of the insterests of the chapter. In 1796 a bill was passed banning religious establishments with either female or male inhabitants. As Thorn had both canonesses and canons, they argued that the law did not include them. When a law was passed banning all religious establishments, Clementine claimed that Thorn was a secular domain, but the chapter was finally abolished in 1797. Both she and Maria Kunigunde were busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten), leaving the French only in charge of the administration of the chapter, as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was also Abbess of Van Sint Salvator Te Susteren (Süsteren) and Dechaness in Elten. Klementine Franziska Ernestina Leopoldina was daughter of Konstantin von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg and his second wife, Marie Jeannette de Bombelles, and lived (1747-1813).

  1796-18.. Member of the Council of Regency Sardani Sada Kaur of the Sukkarchakkias in Punjab (India)
Ca. 1796-18.. Regent of the Kanhaiya Territory
Widow of a prince of Kanhaiya. Her daughter, Mahitab Kaur was married to Ranjit Singh, leader of the Sukkarchakkias since his father’s death in 1792. His mother, Mai Raj Kaur and the minister both died, and she became the sole regent. After Ranjit came of age, she helped him in his military battles and led the armies side by side with her. Her daughter’s first son, died in infancy, but in 1807 she gave birth to twin sons, but Ranjit Singh’s son with another wife had been named heir apparent. She now opened secret negotiations with the British to secure herself the status of an independent Maharani. Ranjit Singh started making inroads into the Kanhaiya territory. After her grandsons reached majority, Ranjit Singh insisted that she hand over the administration of her estates to him. She refused and threatened to seek the protection of the British in the Cis-Sutlej territory. He then cajoled her into visiting Lahore, where she was kept under strict surveillance. Her territory was sequestered and the wealth of the Kanhaiyas was confiscated. Her grandson Batala was granted as a jagir to Sher Singh while the rest of her estates were placed under the governorship of Sardar Desa Singh Majithia. She died in confinement, having lived (1762-1832).

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Maier of Rottenmünster (Germany)
She was the last Fürstäbtissin of the Imperial Immediate Zisterzienserinnen-Reichsabtei Rottenmünster before the ecclesiastical territory was secularized and became a part of Württemberg in 1803. She lived in the convent until her death and the last lady of the chapter left it in 1850. (d. 1826).

  1796-1810 Princess-Abbess Maria Walburga Theresia von Liebenfels-Worblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1798-1810 Reigning Lady of Worblingen and Beuren an der Aach in Hegau and Co-Lady of Liebburg (Switzerland)
As a result of the end of the old Swiss Confederation (alten Eidgenossenschaft) in 1798, the Fürstliche Reichsstift (The Princely Chapter of the Realm) lost all its feudal rights in 1803 and became part of the Canton of Sankt Gallen. It gradually had to give up its possessions outside the Canton and in 1811 the Grand Council of the canton decided to abolish the chapter. The convent house was sold, and the church of the chapter was taken over by the parish. Her bother was the last male member of the Liebenfels-Worblingen family and she inherited the Lordship of Worblingen and the Liebenfels’sche and the Worblinger Castles after his death in 1798. She was daughter of Christoph Albert zu Worblingen (Hegau) and Maria Anna Josepha Eleonora von Hornstein zu Weiterdingen, and (d. 1810). 

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maximiliana Franziska de Paula zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten (Germany)
King Friederich Wilhelm III von Pressen incorporated the 14 square kilomeres large state with its 1.500 inhabitants in his own lands in 1802. This made it possible for protestants to live in the town, which had not been allowed before. The territory lost it’s independence (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and shortly before the French occupation the Minister of State Count von Schulenburg, withdrew all special rights that belonged to the town through centuries of reign by the Abbess. The lands of the chapter was annexed by the French in 1811, but the ladies of the chapter was given a pension for life. She was daughter of Prince Siegmund zu Salm-Reifferscheid and Countess Eleonora von Walburg zu Zeil und Wurzbach, and lived (1765-1805).

  1796-1828 Politically Influential Tzarina Maria Fyodorovna von Württemberg of Russia
Her husband, Paul I Petrovich, succeeded his mother, Catharina II in 1796. He was unpopular at court and extremely hostile toward his mother. His coronation signalled a break with the stability of Catherine’s reign. Paul I freed those imprisoned by the Privy Council, liberated the Poles, abolished conscription and limited the power of landowners over the serfs. On April 5, 1797, he issued a decree on rights of succession that established procedures for the transfer of power from one monarch to the next. In foreign policy, he performed an abrupt reversal, changing from war with France to union with her. This was probably one of the main reasons for his murder in 1801. She continued to be influential during the reign of her son, Alexander I. Born as Sophie Marie Dorothea, she was mother of 10 children and lived (1759-1828).

  1796 Military Leader of the White Lotus Rebellion Wang Cong’er in China
A leader of the Anti-Manchu uprising that occurred during the Ch’ing dynasty which broke out among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces. It was crushed 1799.

  Until 1797 Queen Regnant Rabehety Andriantompoimrinamandimby Rambolamasoandro of Ambohidratrimo (Madagascar)
Ruled the small principality in the north of Madagascar.

  1797-1818 Kpojito Kentobasin of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Adandozan. The Kpojito were not Queen Mothers, but were elected/appointed by the kings after they ascended to the throne, and were seen as complimentary powers to that of the king. 

  1797-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franziska Susanna Clara Ferdinanda von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
She was the last sovereign Princess-Abbess of Lindau, as the office was vacant until 1803, when the territory became a secular county. The following year it was annexed to Austria, 1805 to Bavaria and finally in 1806 it was incorporated in Württemberg.

  1797-1802 Abbess Wilhelmine Sophie von Cornberg of the Free Worldly Abbey of Elsey (Germany)
In 1802 the Abbey was secularized and incorporated in the possessions of the Count of Bentheim-Tecklenburg and in 1811 in the Grand Duchy of Berg. She was possibly identical with the Freiin (Baroness) Sophie Wilhelmine won Cornberg who married Dietrich von Hövel in 1802, and lived (1771-1819).

  1798 Sovereign Countess Philippine Karoline of Oettingen-Baldern in Dahstuhl (Germany)
As the only remaining member of her branch of the family, she succeeded her uncle, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm Notger Joseph (1725-78-98), since both her older brothers had died in infancy like most of her father’s 15 siblings. French forces occupied the county in 1798. She was married to Rudolf Count and Prince de Colloredo-Mansfeld (1776-1843), daughter of Joseph Anton Damian Albert Graf von Oettingen-Baldern in Dagstuhl (1720-78) and his second wife Maria Antonia Monika v.Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach, mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters, and lived (1776-1842).

  1798-1815 Titular Senior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)
1810-15 Regent of Travancore
At the time of the death of her predecessor there were no eligible male members in the family, however Rani Gowri Lakshmi Bhai’s accession was not easy because a member of the Mavelikara Royal family, a distant cousin, Prince Kerala Varma, staked a claim on the throne. But the British Resident Colonel Munro sided with her and she first reigned alone until the birth of her son, and then she was regent for him until her own death. One of her earliest acts was to dismiss the existing Dewan or Prime Minister, the corrupt Ummini Thampi, who was replaced by Munro. She was the first to permit foreigners to enter the fort of Padmanabhapuram and also broke tradition by appearing personally to receive her foreign guests and Resident. She also made a speech on being installed as Maharani. To end corruption she reformed the administration and judidicy and also initiated social reforms, abolished the purchase and sale of all slaves and granted them independence excepting those attached to the soil for agricultural purposes. She was daughter of Princess Attham, Senior Rani of Attingal of the Travancore Royal Family, sister of Maharajah Balarama Varma, who were adopted into the Travancore family from their natal Palace at Mavelikara which then belonged to Kolathunadu. With her husband, M.R.Ry. Rajaraja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasser, she had a daughter, Maharani Gowri Rukmini Bayi born in 1809, and 2 sons born in 1813 and 1814. She died soon after giving birth to the second son. After her death, her sister Parvathi Bhai, ruled the country till Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was old enough to take over. She lived (1791-1815). 

  1798-1801 Reigning Abbess-General Micaela de Osorio of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her family were Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.

  Until 1798 Politically Influential Queen Darejan of Kakheti and Kakhet (The Kingdom of Georgia)
Among others she influenced her husband, King Irakli II, to altered the line of succession in favour of their sons on the expense of his children by his first two marriages. He was succeeded by the fat, lazy though devout son Giorgi XII. One of Giorgi’s first acts on becoming ruler was to secure the Russian Master’s agreement to recognise his eldest son as Heir Apparent and successor. This left him facing insurrections led by his half-brothers. Prince Farnavazi allied himself to the fearsome Lezgins and devastated parts of the kingdom. His other brothers, ensconced on the large domains assigned to them by their late father, ignored his authority and fermented rebellion. Devoid of stomach for any contest, the dying ruler was persuaded to resign his kingdom to the Russian Master. This he did in return for the recognition of himself and his own heirs as titular Kings of Georgia. However, while his envoys were in Russia still negotiating the terms of the new treaty, Emperor Paul decided to annex the kingdom outright. He issued a manifesto unilaterally annexing the realm to the Russian crown on 18th January 1801

  1798-1806 Politically Influential Princess Amalie Zephyrine von Salm-Kyrburg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in France, Germany and Sigmaringen
Left her husband, Hereditary Prince Anton Aloys of Sigmaringen, after the birth of her son, Karl in 1785, and returned to Paris, where she was born. Here she started an affair with Vicomte de Beauharnais, but she also came close to his wife and children during the French Revolution. 1798 she resumed contact with her Sigmaringen and her son became the centre of her interest. In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government – the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself. At the Peace-congress she acted with great self-confidence and together with her husband she negotiated the terms for the survival of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmarinen as sovereign states, at a time when most minor territories were merged, For instance Württemberg had to hand back the City of Sigmaringen in 1806 which it had been promised as part of the agreements. Her son came to Paris and married Antoinette Murat and in 1808 she returned to Sigmaringen with her son and daughter-in-law. Her husband refused her entrance to the Castle and she build a new residence close by and for the rest of her life she travelled a lot and had many social connections all over Europe. She lived (1760-1841).

  1798-1838 Politically Influential Maharani Data Kaur of Punjab (India)

Took an active part in the affairs of state during the reign of her husband, Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-92-1839), and accompanied her son, Kharak Singh, when he was send on an expedition to Multan in 1818. She (d. 1838).

  1799-1800 and 1802-04 Regent Sri Sri Sri Maharani Raj Rajeshwari Devi of Nepal
When her husband, Shamsher Jang Devanam Sada Samar Vijayinam, abdicated she took charge of the government in the name of her son, Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah Deva (1797-99-1816). When her husband returned from India, where he had been a mendicant under the name and title of Sri Parama Mahanirvana Ananda Swami in 1804, she was imprisoned at Helambu and killed by being forced to kommit sati. Originally named, Sri Vidya Lakshmi Devi, she was granddaughter of Sri Sri Sri Raja Shiva Shah, Raja of Gulmi and (d. 1806).

  1799-1810 H.H. Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri Lakshmi Ammani Devi Avaru of Mysore (Mahisur) (India)
Regent for her adopted grandson, the five-year-old Prince Krishnaraja Wodeyar III who was installed on the throne. She was the eldest daughter of Sardar Kathi Gopalraj Urs, and lived (1742-1810).

  1799-1801 Regent Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of Salm-Grumbach
1801-06 Regent of  Salm-Horstmar (Germany)
First regent for husband Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Theodor (1720-63-99) and then for son Wild- und Rheingraf Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August von Salm zu Horstmar (1799-1865), who was sovereign count of Salm-Grumbach until the territory was occupied by the French in 1801. He was then made count of Salm-Hostmar, and she continued as his regent until the territory was incorporated in Prussia. The counts continued as titular counts. Friederike lived (1767-1849).

  1799-1827 Sovereign Burgravine Luise Isabella von Sayn-Hachenburg of Kirchberg and Sovereign Countess of Sayn-Hachenburg, Lady of Farnrode (Germany)
The Burggräfin von Kirchberg und Erbbräfin zu Sayn-Hachenburg was also known as Burgfräulein Luise Isabella Alexandrina Augusta von Sayn-Kirchberg-Hachenburg. In 1788 she married Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg (1789-1816) and her territory was incorporated into his lands. Their grandson, Adolf, became Grand-Duke of Luxembourg in 1890. She was daughter of Wilhelm-Georg and succeeded Johann-August (1714-77-99). She was mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters and lived (1772-1827).

  1799-1807 Reigning Abbess Maria Johanna Baptista von Zweyer auf Hoenbach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
She had first tried to become a member of the Chapter of Frauenalb but did not have enough funds to pay the fees. Instead she spend a “test year” in Wald and was admitted because of her “special and exceptional abilities. Mentioned as Prioriss 1773-99. The territory was secularied as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss and became part of the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, whose ruler, Prince Anton Aloys, made an agreement with the ladies of the chapter that she would recieve a sum of money for the rest of their lives, but they were not allowed to accept more canonesses into the chapter. In 1806 Hohenzollern annexed the Chapter and Office of Wald (Kloster und Amt) and the Offices of Vernhof and Ennigerloh. She was daughter of Freiherr Karl von Zweyer.

Penguasa Wanita didunia 1740-1770



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1740-80 Empress Maria Theresia, By the Grace of God, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess Moravia and Schlesia, Queen of Croatia and Dalmatia, Princess of Transylvania and Grand Duchess of Siebenbürgen, Duchess of Burgundy, Steyer, Kärnten and Crain, Gelders, Limburg, Jülich, Luxembourg, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Auschwitz and Zator, Princess of Schwaben, Margravine of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Princely Countess of Habsburg, Flanders, Hainault, Kyburg, Görz, Countess d’Artois, Boulonge,  Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d’Eu, Vermandôis, Charolais, Macon, Montbeliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel  and Baroness d’Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine etc.
She was ruler of most of Central Europe, large parts of the Balkans and Belgium and Luxembourg. Her father, Emperor Karl VI, drew up an agreement, the Pragmatic Sanction; in order ensure the succession for Maria Theresia and her husband. Not educated in statecraft, and married to a weak but much beloved husband, Franz Stephan of Lorraine, she succeeded her father in 1740. She fought the war of succession against Friedrich II of Prussia, France, Spain and Bavaria. Between 1737 and 1756 she gave birth to sixteen children. She was healthy and strong and would appear at the opera a few hours before the birth of a child, then be driving through the streets a few hours afterwards. She loved dancing, skating and horse riding, supervised the education of her children and planned internal reforms for her countries. After 1748 Maria Theresia was given time to implement internal reforms. Justice and taxation were centralized, nobles’ privileges abolished and indirect taxation introduced. The reorganized army would later enable Austria to survive the Seven Years’ War. She lived (1717-80)

  1740-41 Regent Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia
Daughter of Catherina Ivanovna of Russia and Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. When her son, Ivan VI, was chosen as successor of her aunt, Tsaritsa Anna, she was given the title of Grand Duchess and was named regent for him until he was deposed by Elisabeth after a year. Mother and son died in prison, and her younger children lived in seclusion in the provincial town of Horsens in Denmark, where her sister in-law, Juliane-Marie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel was Queen and De-facto In Charge of the Government 1772-84. Anna lived (1718-46).

  1740-97 Kpojito Hwanjile of Abomey (Benin)
Also known as Naye Wandjele, she was the reign mate of King Tegbesu, whom she helped gain power after Agaja’s death after a civil war with the designated heir. She – and possibly a successor trough positional succession – was actively involved in Abomey politics for at least 60 years. She was highly skilled in the supernatural, and she is believed to have been responsible for drastically changing the religious life of the kingdom. She enhanced the position of the king, by controlling the people via vodun (woodoo) and establishing a couple of creator gods – and they thereby set up a joint monarchy, which controlled both the spirits and the earthly sphere. In 1797 she was involved in the murder of king Agonglo and she was buried alive.

  1740-91 Administrator Rani Bhawani of the Natore Rajbari Zamindari (Bangladesh)
In charge of the huge estate after the death of her husband and some aspects of local administration. The landed estate of Natore was formed in the early 18th century through grants from Nawab Murshid Quli Khan, the near-independent diwan of Bengal.

  1740-86 “Ceremonial Centre of the Court” Queen Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Prussia and Hohenzollern (Germany)
Her husband, Freiderich II the Great (1712-40-86), preferred to live in his own residence in Potsdam with his circle of male company, and left her in charge of the official court. She received foreign guests; new ambassadors were always officially presented to her and her husband only attended official events from time to time. When he was absent from Berlin for 6 years in a row during the Seven Years War, she accepted real responsibility for the royal family and court, and when the capital was twice occupied, she made the decision to evacuate the court to Magdeburg. She has been become known as the “neglected wife”, and in her own life time she inspired pity rather than respect even though she took upon her the task of maintaining the official face of the court. She did not have any children, and lived (1715-97).

  1740-84 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska II von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected as successor of Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid as the fifth and last consecutive sovereign of that Family in the Reichstift Elten (Chapter of the Realm). 1742 she banned excessive funerals and weddings and the following year she banned private schools.

  1741-62 Imperatitsa Regnant Elisabeth Petrovna of Russia, Empress and Autocrat of All the Russians, Tsarisa of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Poland, Siberia, the Chersonnese Taurics, and Georgia, Lady of Pskov, Grand Duchess of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland, Princess of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bielostock, Carelia, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatks, Bolgaria, and of other lands, Lady and Grand Duchess of Lower Novgorod, Tchernigov, Riasan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Belosero, Oudoria, Obdoria, Condia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the Northern Region, Lady and Sovereign of the lands of Iveria, Cartalinia, Kabardinia and the Provinces of Armenia, Lady of the Circassian and Mountain princes, Lady of Turkestan, Supreme Defender and Guardian of the Dogmas of the (Russian Orthodox) Church
Yelisabeth was daughter of Emperor Peter the Great, and born on before her father’s official marriage to Catherina I. On the night of November 25, 1741, Elizaveta went to the barracks of the Preobrazhenskii regiment and persuaded the soldiers to follow her. The Braunschweig clan and a number of senior officials were arrested and the 32-year-old Elizaveta was proclaimed Empress Regnant. On April 25, 1742, Elizaveta was crowned in the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. During her reign, significant advances were made economically and culturally. She took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740 – 1748) and the Seven Years War (1756-63). Her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She also spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, particularly in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral remain the chief monuments of her reign in St Petersburg. Generally, she was one of the most loved Russian monarchs, because she didn’t allow Germans in the government and not a single person was executed during her reign. She was succeeded by her sister’s son, Peter zu Holstein-Gottorp, and lived (1709-62).

  1741-56 Queen Regnant Ana II of N’Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu)
Known as Ana the Second since Queen Njinga was known as Ana I as the Matamba accepted the Christian names of former rulers and their dynasty. She faced a Portuguese invasion in 1744, one of their largest military operations in the eighteenth century. In the course of their attack, Matamba’s army inflicted a serious defeat on the Portuguese, but in spite of this, a remnant of the army managed to reach the capital of Matamba. In order to avoid a long war and to get them to withdraw, she signed a treaty of vassalage with Portugal which renewed points conceded by her predecssor, Verónica in 1683. While the treaty allowed Portugal to claim Matamba as a vassal, and opened up Matamba to Portuguese trade, it had little effect on the real sovereignty of Matmaba, or indeed in the conduct of trade. Like Verónica I before her, she was interested in developing Matamba as a Christian country, routinely sending letters to the Capuchin prefect of Congo and Angola or the Portuguese authorities requesting missionaries come and establish permanent bases in her country. While the country was visited by missionaries from Cahenda and also from the Barefoot Carmelites, a permanent mission was not established. (d. 1741).

  1741 Regent Dowager Princess Gan of The Volga Kalmuks (Lower Volga Area) (Russia)
In charge of the government during the whole reign of Kandul. She later converted to Christianity and took the name Vera. Originally the Kalmyks lived in Central Mongolia. Reaching the Volga region in 1630. Since the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism has been the Kalmyk’s religion, and they are the only European Buddhist people, living to the northwest of the Caspian area. They live on the northwest shores of the Caspian Sea in the lower regions of the soviet Dagestan. Kalmyks are of the Turkic language group. 

  1741-51 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Sophie Charlotte von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Sangerhausen in Sachsen-Eisenach (Germany)
Second wife of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich von Sachsen-Eisenach–Jena (1691–1741) who did not have any children with either of his wifes. She was daughter of Margrave Albrecht Friedrich von Brandenburg–Schwedt (1672–1731) and Marie Dorothea von Kurland (1684–1743). She lived (1706-51).

  1742-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Karolina von Königsegg-Rothenfels of Buchau, Dame of Strassberg (Germany)
Also used the name, Maria Charlotte, and was daughter of Count Carl Friedel Desiderius von Königsegg-Rothenfels and Maximiliane von Althann. One of her sisters, Anna Wilhelmine, was Abbess of Sankt Ursula in Köln. Like the election of her predecessor, it took place without the participation of the bishop of Konstanz. She lived (1707-74).

  1742-73 Princess-Abbess Maria Alydis Zech of Heggbach (Germany)
According to tradition she swore an oath of allegiance to Pope Benedict XIV in the presence of the representative of the Paternal Abbey of Salem. Prioress Marie Anne Assam claimed that Alydis’ election had not been fair, but resigned from her post after half a year after having asked for forgiveness. She defended her rights as ruler in various – expensive – court cases against the inhabitants of the territory and neighbouring lords. After centuries of disputes with the clerical superiors, the Abbots of Salem, the last mentioned had agreed with the pope to leave the responsibility to another Abbey, much to the disdain and chock to her and the Abbesses of among others Baindt, Gutenzell, Rottenmünster and Wald, who all protested in a joint statement. Because of illness she was not present at the College of the Swabian Prelates (Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium) in 1767. The College had one collective vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench of the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were present. She lived (1713-73).

  1742-53 Reigning Abbess Louise-Claire de Montmorin de Saint-Hérem of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Her family belonged to a cadet branch of a noble family of Auvergne.

  1742-45 Reigning Abbess-General Lucía de Mioño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Abbess she was head of the dependent Parishes of Bercial and Lorilla.

  1742… Reigning Abbess Marie-Charlotte de Béthune of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Elected as successor to her aunt, Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques.

  1742-50 Feudal Duchess Donna Giovanna Maria Teresa Doria of Tursi, Principessa di Avella (Italy)
Daughter of Don Giovanni Andrea II, 3rd Duca di Tursi, Principe di Avella, Grande de Espana of 1st Class 8.4.1712, (1663-1742) and Donna Livia, daughter of Don Marcantonio Grillo, Marchese di Clarafuentes e Signore di Capriata. First married to Don Giovanni Andrea IV Doria Pamphili Landi, until the marriage was annulled in 1741 and secondly with Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753) and mother of Maria Giovanna Doria. She lived (1710-50).

  1742-52 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Hedwig Friederike von Württemberg-Weiltingen of the Administrative Offices and Castles of Roßlau and Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
During her childhood she spend 1693-95 by her mother’s sister in Oels because her family had to flee for the French troops. 1703 the family fled to Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the next year they stayed in Windsbach near Ansbach. 1705 her father died and since her mother had already been mentally unstable since 1696, she was placed under the guardianship of an uncle, but still lived at the large castle of Weiltingen an der Wörnitz until she again fled for the French in 1707. In 1715 she met Fürst Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst and her sister, Juliana Sibylla Charlotte (1690-1735), who had been married to Karl Friedrich von Württemberg-Öls (1690-1761) since 1709, gave the permission to the marriage in the name of their mother.

  1742-60 Politically Influential Princess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of the Pfalz (Germany)
1761-94 “Reigning” Lady of Oggersheim
1777-94 “Mother of the Realm” of the Kurpfalz (Palatine)
Oldest daughter and heir of Pfalzgraf Joseph Karl Emanuel when married cousin Carl Theodor in a double-marriage with her sister, Maria Anna, who married Duke Klemens von Bayern. Since her brother’s had died, she was the prime heiress to the lines of Sulzbach and Neuburg, and after their marriage her husband was elected Kurfürst von Pfalz. She is described as a lively and happy person who engaged in various erotic adventures, and on the political arena she was able to promote her political ideas in the Kurpfalz. Especially in the first years of the Seven Year War she was the centre of the court and was able to promote her interests in the duchies of Jülich and Berg. In the first years of their marriage her husband was described as weak, ill, melancholic and unable to stand up to her, but in 1760 he started to take the affairs of state into his own hands. Her only son died the day after his birth in June 1761, and because of her husband’s numerous affairs, she withdrew to the Schloss Oggersheim in 1768, where she founded her own court and pursued artistic interests and also became well loved among the population as a benefactress. Her husband inherited Bayern in 1777 from the husband of her sister, Maria Anna (see 1745) but they only saw each other for a few times for the rest of their lives. After her husband had moved to München she became Landesmutter (Mother of the Realm) in Kurpfalz, and he concentrated on the upbringing of children of her sister, Maria Franziska and Friedrich Michael von Pfalz-Zweibrücken. The Pfalz remained neutral in the revolutionary wars, but later it was drawn into the fightings and she escaped to Mannheim, her castle was looted and burned down. She lived (1721-94).

  1743-74 In charge of the Government Landgravine Henriette Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld of Hessen-Darmstadt (Germany)
Managed the affairs of state during her husband, Ludwig IX’s involvement in various wars. After their marriage in 1741 she spend a couple of years with her husband at the Prussian Garrison Prenzlau, and of the 32 years of marriage they only spend 14 together but they kept in close contact trough an extensive correspondence, and she used this to exercise a considerable political influence, and became known as “Die Grosse Landgräfin”, the Great Landgravine. She was an efficient administrator and made Darmstadt the cultural centre of the time. Henriette Karoline Christiane Louise was mother of 6 children and lived (1721-74). 

  1743-57 Princess-Abbess Therese Wilhelmine von Pollheim-Winkelhausen of Lindau (Germany)
Her family was in charge of the Lordship of Ottenschlag that became the centre of the Low-Austrian Protestantism in 16th and 17th century.

  1743-74 Princess-Abbess Ursule Antoinette van Berlo de Francdouaire of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Member of a French-Belgian noble family.

  1743-59 Abbess Nullius Irene Margaritonte of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The ancient tradition of the clergy paying public homage to newly elected and inagurated Abbesses was abolished in 1750.

  After 1743 Princess Abbess Marie-Anne de Béringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
At a not known time she was succceded by Claude de Durfort, a member of the family of the Dukes de Duras.

  1744 Governor and Stadholder Anna-Maria von Habsburg of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg) (January-December)
Sister of Empress Maria-Theresa and married to her brother-in-law, Prince Karl von Lothringen, who continued as Governor-General after her death until 1746 and again 1749-80. She died in childbed and lived (1718-44

  1744-46 Titular Queen Regnant Thamar II Bagration of Kartli (Georgia)
7 years after the death of her father, of king Vakhtang VI, she had herself proclaimed ruler jointly with her husband, king Teimuraz II of Kakheti. Their son, Irakli II, became King of Kakheti and Kartli, uniting them into the kingdom of Georgia in 1762. Her mother lived Rusudani of Circassia, and she lived (1697-1746).

  After 1743 Princess Abbess Marie-Anne de Béringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
At a not known time she was succceded by Claude de Durfort, a member of the family of the Dukes de Duras.

  1744-60 Administratrice Hélène de Cléron of Remiremont (France)
Dame Doyenne and Second in Command since ca. 1717 she took over the role of Acting Princess-Abbess after Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine left the territory to take up residence by her brother, Karl von Lothringen, Governor-General of the Low Countries in 1744, and was never to return to her chapter. (d. 1760).

  1745-48 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Erbach-Fürstenau of Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Germany)
Also known as Caroline von Erbach, she took over the regency of the small duchy with high debts after the death of her husband, Ernst Friedrich II (1707-45), for their son, Ernst Friedrich III (1727-45-80). She re-organised the penal system and forbade the sale of fiefs and estates without the approval of the lord of the realm. She was daughter of Count Philipp Karl von Erbach zu Fürstenau und Michelstadt, Lord zu Breuberg and Countess Charlotte Amalie von Kunowitz, mother of 3 sons and 1 daughter and lived (1677–1722).

  1745-47 Overseer of the Crown Lands Elżbieta Lubomirska of Barcice and Rytro (Poland)
Through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta or starościna (for women), who would receive the office from the king and would keep it for life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta.

  1745-90 Politically Influential Duchess Maria Anna von der Pfalz-Sulzbach von Bayern (Germany)
As a leading member of the Anti-Austrian Patriotic Group at the Court of Munich, she played a leading role in the continued existence of the Electorate Bavaria as an unified state. Her husband, Herzog Clemens Franz de Paula, was the nephew of Elector and Emperor Karl Albrecht VII. After the death of the emperor in 1745 Maria Anna entered the political scene. She managed to persuade the new Elector, Maximillian III Joseph, to adopt a policy of neutrality. During the 7 year war, (1756–1763), during which Bavaria sided with France-Austria, she took up contact with Friedrich II von Preußen, and they engaged in a heavy correspondence. After Elector Max III Joseph died in 1777, the Bavarian throne was inherited by the husband of her sister, Elisabeth Auguste (see 1742), Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz. He seemed to be inclined to accept Emperor Joseph II’s claims on parts of the state, but Maria Anna advocated for a continued united Bavaria, and found an ally in Friedrich II, who took part in the succession-war in 1778-79. She was also one of the leading forces of a the Bavarian-Dutch movement for exchange of lands in 1784/85, and she therefore supported Friedrich IIs “Prince-Union Project” of 1785 and was able to secure the continued existence of the united Electorate of Bavaria. She lived (1722-90).

  1745-90 Politically influential Marquise Jeanne Antoinette Poisson Le Normant d’Étioles de Pompadour in France      
Madame de Pompadour was the mistress of King Louis XV of France for about 5 years after 1745, and remained his confidante until her death. Of middle-class origin, she owed her success mainly to her intelligence and capabilities. She urged the appointment of the duc de Choiseul and other Ministers and encouraged the French alliance with Austria, which involved France in the Seven Years War. She favoured Voltaire and other writers of the Encyclopédie. She employed many artists to decorate her residences, and encouraged the manufacture of Sèvres ware. She lived (1721-64).

  1746-70 Sovereign Princess Irdana Bi Erdeni of Khokanda/Khugand or Farghana (Uzbekistan)
Succeeded  ‘Abd al-Karim Khan (1736-46) and succeeded by Sulaiman who reigned for less than a year as Prince of Khokanda, which is a city near Tashkent, now located in a far eastern part of Uzbekistan. Founded in 1732, it stands on the site of the ancient city of Khavakend, obliterated by the Mongols in the 3rd century. It was ruled by the Dzungarian Kalmyks (Kalmucks) until 1758, when it became part of China.

  1746-77 Joint Sovereign Countess Maria Friederike Sophia Charlotte von Hessen-Homburg of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim
1774-77 Reigning Countess of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Gröningen (Germany)
The only surviving daughter of Christiane Magdalena zu Limpurg-Sontheim (1683-1746) and Ludwig Georg von Hessen-Homburg (1693-1728), the inheritance of her mother and 7 other female heirs which had been in dispute since 1713, was not settled until 1774 and she came in possesion of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Gröningen. At the age of 13 she was married to Karl-Philipp-Franz von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (1702-63), who was was judge of the Chamber Court, one of the highest offices in the realm, and was created a Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstin. According to her her granddaughter, Sophie, she was not very happy about her inheritance of the Castle and Lordship of Gröningen, but would have preferred Obersontheim, where she was born. But she soon started modernizing the castle, and in 1776 she took up residence here. As she was catholic she took over the Chapel of the Castle and build a new evangelical church for the inhabitants of the village, and was succeeded by the oldest of her 4 sons, Ludwig Leopold (1777-98-99), and and lived (1714-77).

  1746-60 (†) Councillor of State Queen Maria-Amalia von Sachsen-Poland of The Two Sicilies (Italy)
Became a member of the Council of State after the birth of her first son, after 9 years of marriage. Her older son Carlos became son of Spain, the younger, Fernando, King of Napoli. She lived (1724-60).

  1746-58 De-facto Ruler Queen Bárbara Bragança of Spain and the Indies
Very powerful during the reign of her weak husband, Fernando IV of Spain (1713-46-59), who depended completely upon her and like her mother-in-law, Elisabeth Farnese before her, she excluded him from policy making and kept him out of public affairs. She strongly supported the diplomacy of neutrality. The new conjuncture of peace, reform and good luck placed unprecedented revenue the royal couple’s disposal. She spent much of her time in a state of neurosis. Like her husband, she went about daily in fear of sudden death, which her asthmatic tendency may have encouraged. After her death, her husband relapsed into a manic depression and died shortly after.
The daughter of King João V of Portugal and Maria Ana de Áustria, who was regent of Portugal (1642-50), she was heiress presumptive for the first two years of her life and second-in-line trough out much of her life (1711-58).

  1746 Sultan Mwana Mimi Hadiga of Patta-Pate and Witu (Kenya)
There were 4 sultans that year. Pate is an island of the coast of Kenya.

  1746-79 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia II zu Löwenstein-Wertheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Bertrand-Philipp von Gronsfeld-Diepenbroick, Lord of Wijngaarden and Ruigbroek, Drost of Muiden and president of the Admiralty of Amsterdam and started the first porcelain factory in the Netherlands. She was succeeded by son, Johann Bertrand, though the succession was not undisputed until a final agreement between all the co-heirs in 1775. He was married to Friederike Charlotte, Gräfin von Erbach-Erbach. She lived (1718-79).

  1746-98 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim zu Virneburg of a portion of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany) 
Also known as Caroline Christiane, she was the youngest daughter of Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and married to Karl Christian Wilhelm von Pückler (d. 1786) establishing the line of Limpurg-Pückler. She was succeeded by daughter, Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline and two sons. Karoline Christiane lived (1719-93).

  1746-57 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia von Schönburg-Waldenburg of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedenfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)
Known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she was the daughter of Friederike Auguste zu Limpurg-Sontheim, and first married to her cousin Johann Philipp von Löwenstein-Wertheim, who was son of her mother, Friederike Auguste’s sister, Amöne Sophia I. Secondly married to her relative Friedrich Ernst von Weltz, the son of Albertine von Limburg-Speckfeld. Sophie was succeeded by daughter, Friederike-Amöne, and lived (1712-57).

  1746-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Langensalza in Sachsen-Weißenfels (Germany)
Widow of Johann Adolf II. von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1685-1746). Mother of 4 sons who died as infants and one daughter who died at the age of 10 in 1751. The daughter of Duke Friedrich II von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst, she lived (1715-75).

  1746-47 Rebellion Participant Flora MacDonald in Scotland (United Kingdom)
After the defeat of the Jacobite uprising, and its leader “Bonnie” Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender) at the battle of Culloden in 1746, Charles was forced into hiding and Flora MacDonald helped him escape. Disguised as a woman, Charles Stuart was smuggled off the Isle of Ulst by Flora and Neil MacDonald (another supporter). There were several close calls during the escape; news arrived that General Campbell had landed on the island to search for the fleeing prince. Soon after his escape, she was labelled as a traitor, tracked down and arrested, and imprisoned briefly in the tower of London.  She later married her fiancé, Allan, and mothered a family of seven children. She immigrated to North Carolina in the 1770s, but they later moved to Nova Scotia after they lost everything supporting the British in the War of Independence. Several years later she returned home to the Britain, where she lived until her death. She lived (1722-90). 

  1747-ca.60 Dato’ Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato’ Rambut Panjang, Dato’ Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)
Succeeded by another woman –  Dato’ Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato’ Putri Setiawan II, Dato’ Undang of Luak Johol (1760-90). 

  1747-52 Regent Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Christian August (160-42-47), she was regent for son, Friedrich-August, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. Her daughter later became Catharina II of Russia, and inherited Jever after the death of her brother in 1793. Johanna Elisabeth lived (1712-60). 

  1747-63 Princess Mary Cousaponkeesa Musgrove Bosomworth of Ossaba, Sapelo and Saint Catherine Islands (Creek Indian) (USA)
Mary Musgrove was the daughter of a white South Carolina trader and an Indian Princess – a sister of the “old Brim or Bream,” Emperor of the Creeks. In 1716 she married John Musgrove, and they established a trading post at Yamacraw Bluff in 1732 and   Savannah was founded on this site a year later. The arrival of Oglethorpe and the settlement of Georgia presented an unprecedented opportunity for Mary to advance her fortunes both socially and financially. After her husband’s death in 1734 she married Jacob Matthews, who died in 1742 Three years after she married Thomas Bosomworth and together they secured a grant of Saint Catherine, Sapelo, and Ossaba Islands from the Creeks in addition to a tract of land lying between Savannah and Pipe maker’s Creek. She acted as interpreter between the whites and Indians and was also involved in the Indian wars. She lived (1700-63).

  1747-59 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Gall, Gutenzell (Germany)
In 1753 the Chapter (Stift) came under the protection of von Kaisheim with the approval of the Abbot-General Trouvé.  During 1755-57 Dominikus Zimmermann finished the renovation of the Chapter Church in Baroque style. His daughter, Alexandra, became Princess-Abbess in 1759.

  1748-50/53 Sultan Ratu Sarifah Fatima of Bantam (Bali) (Indonesia)
Appointed sultan after her husband, Mangkubumi was arrested after an uprising against the Dutch occupiers. She was later deposed and banned from the state by the same Dutch regents.  

  1748 Regent The Dowager Rani of Chamba (India)
Known as “The Jammu Princess”, she was widow of Paramanabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Ugra Singh who was deposed in 1734 and died the following year. When her son, Paramanabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Umed Singh Varma Deva succeede (1725-48-64) a cousin, she was in charge of the government. 

  1748-54 De facto co-ruler Queen Udham Bai of the Mughal Empire (India)
Became powerful after the death of her husband, Muhammad Shah (Rawshan Akhtar) (1719-48), who lost the province of Kabul to Persia and during whose reign other provinces became practically independent. Her son, Ahmad Shah Badahur, was no stronger, and she dominated him completely. When The Marathas in Punjab rebelled, her son chose to flee, abandoning her and the other women at court. He was captured, blinded, and deposed and died in confinement in 1775.

  1748-51 and 1754-56Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Carrillo y Ocampoof the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Re-elected to the post of Abbess of the Abbey.

  1748-82 Abbess Louise Sophie Friederike af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)
As all members of her family she used the titles: “Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Schleswig-Holstein, Glücksburg, Stormarn and Ditmarsken”. She processed both secular and ecclesiastical authority in the whole territory of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies, though the founder, Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had secured herself the right of veto for life.  Louise Sophie was daughter of Duke Philipp Ernst of Holstein-Glücksburg and his first wife Christiane of Sachsen-Eisenberg, she was succeeded by her niece, Sophie Magdalene, and lived (1709-82).

  After 1749 Titular Senior Rani Uthradam Tirunal of Attingal in Travancore (India)
Adopted into the Royal House of Travancore in 1749, held the Principality of Attingal as her dowry jointly with sister, and married a Kochi Koil Tampuran of Tattara Kovil. Mother of two sons.

  After 1749 Titular Junior Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)
Together with her sisters, she was adopted into the Royal House of Travancore. She married a Kochi Koil Tampuran of Edathara Matam. Mother of one son and one daughter.

  Around 1750 Queen Kapango of Mbunza (Namibia)
Sister of the Uukwangali Queen Mate I. She ruled around 1750 and settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom.

  Around 1750 Hompa Mate I of Uukwangali (Namibia)
In the Kavango, the earliest recorded Uukwangali Queen was Mate I. She ruled around 1750. She left the Mashi area and settled in present-day Kavango, west of Nkurenkuru in today’s Angola. Her sister, Kapango, settled in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. This resulted in the establishment of the two kingdoms in the western Kavango, the Uukwangali Kingdom and the Mbunza Kingdom. The possible successor of Hompa Mate I was Queen Nankali (between 1750 and 1775).

  1750-75 Hompa Nankali of Uukwangali (Namibia)
The possible successor of Mate I was Nakali.

  Before 1750 Queen Masamba Omubitokati of Bunyoro-Kitara (Uganda)
Olimi III was king (1710-30) and Duhaga I Cwa reigned (1731-82).

  Until 1750 Queen Regnant Ululani of Hilo (Hawai’i)
Daughter of Mokulani, 6th Alii of Hilo, she first married The Hon. Keawe-a-Heulu. Her second husband Keawemauhili became joint chief of Hilo, an island of Hawai’i.

  1750-54 Queen Regnant Bety of Betsimisaraka of Tamatave or Betsimisaraka at the Île de Sainte-Marie (Madagascar)
In the end of the 17th and the beginning 18th centuries, the Island of Saint Marie was frequented by numerous pirates, who had good relations with the local population. Ratsimilaho was son of the English pirate, Thomas Tew White and a daughter of a local chief, set up his own kingdom. After a rule of 30 years he was succeeded by his daughter, Bety or Betty, who married the French pirate Jean Onésime Filet – known as Zanahary. In 1754 her mother, Mamadion, had the French administrator Gosse killed and the rest of the French massacred, because he had profaned the grave of her husband. Bety was blamed, and sent in exile at the Ile de France (Mauritius), where she died. Her husband remained in  power until 1767. She (d. 1872),

  1750 Regent Dowager Countess Karoline Friederike zu Salm-Grumbach of Salm-Dhaun (Germany) 
After the death of her husband, Johann Friedrich (1727-50), she assumed the regency for her son Karl Leopold Ludwig on 27 January and when he died 23 Februray for her second son, Friedrich Wilhelm until his death on 10  June 6, maximum months old. Thereafter the County became part of Salm-Grumbach. Married Karl Friedrich von Wartensleben (d. 1776) in 1756. She was born as Wild- und Rheingräfin in Grumbach, and lived (1733-83).

  Until 1750 Chieftainess Hoho of The Khoikhoi (South Africa)
1713 a smallpox epidemic had decimated the Khoikhoi (previously known as Hottentot) and in 1750 she was defeated by the Xhosa, and the tribe was assimilated into the Xhosa, and the only trace of them today is the click-sound in the Xhosa language.

  Ca. 1750-60 Queen Awura Danse Poukou of Baule (The Ivory Coast)
Successor of Asak Poku, who reigned from the beginning of the century, and was succeeded by a niece, whose name is not known.

  1750-90 Sovereign Duchess Zofia Lubomirska of Opole and Medyka in Lubelszczyzna (Poland)
1754-90 Ruler of Przeworsk and Dobromil 
1754-90 Politically Influential in Poland
Daughter of Aleksander Krasiński and Salomea Trzcińska. Until 1750 she was married to Voivode Jan Tarło of Sandomierz. Since 1754 she was married to Voivode Antoni Lubomirski of Lublin. I 1768-1772 she supported The Confederation of Bar – a military union of nobility, which fought against the Russian domination in Poland and the political reforms of king Stanisław August Poniatowski. In 1788-1792 she supported actively the political reforms of king Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Great Sejm. During the debate of the Great Sejm she supported the Patriotic Party. She wrote the political books about the reforms in Poland, and lived (1718-1790).

  1750-64 Princess-Abbess Hedwig Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Herford (Germany)
Concurrently Pöpstin in Quedlinburg in a personal-union, but resided in Herford, When she took office, she confirmed Johann Moritz v. Oeynhausen zur Grevenburg as tenant of a number of estats of the chapter, using the titulature: “Hedwig Sophia Augusta Herzogin zu Schleswig-Holstein, Äbtissin des Stifts Herford”, and in 1753 Freiderich Ulrich von Oeynhausen took over. She was daughter of Duke Christian August of Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp and Albertine Friederike zu Baden-Durlach. Her sister, Friederike Amalie (1708-32) was a canoness at Quedlinburg. She lived (1705- 1764).

  1750-74 Princess-Abbess Marie Béatrice Breiten de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
Also known as Maria Beatrix von Breitenlandenberg.

  1750-…  2nd Asantehemaa Nana Nkatia Ntem Abamoo of Asante (Ghana)
As Asantehemaa, or Queen mother, during the reign of king Kusi Obodom (1750-64), she was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women. Nana Nkatia was succeeded by Kaua Afriye at a not known time.

  1750-1832  Feudal Duchess Maria Giovanna Doria del Caretto of Tursi, 5. Principessa di Avella, Marchesa di Caravaggio (Italy)
Daughter of of Giovanna Maria Teresa Doria del Caretto, Duchessa di Tursi, Principessa di Avella, etc (1710-42-50) and her second husband, Lazzaro Maria Doria, Marchese di Tizzano, Patrizio Genovese (d. 1753), married to Don Andrea Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio, Conte di Loano, (1738-71) who was son of Bianca Maria von Sinzedorf, Marchesa di Caravaggio (1717.83) and grandson of Johann Wilhelm von Sinzedorf and  Bianca Maria Sforza, Marchesa di Caravaggio. Her only daughter, Donna Bianca Doria (1763-1829),  held the title of Duchess Tursi, a title inherited by her husband and son. She lived (1743-1832).

  1751-66 Regent Dowager Landgravine Ulrike Louise von Solms-Braunfels of Hessen-Homburg (Germany)
Widow of Friedrich IV (1724-46-51), she was confirmed by the Emperor as regent for son Friedrich V (1748-1820) even though Landgraf Ludwig VIII of Hessen-Darmstadt tried to annex the territory and had it occupied for a short while. This led to lenghtly legal battles over the soverignty by the Imperial Court and by the emperor, but she prevailed. She lived (1731-92

  1751-59 Governess Dowager Princess Anne of Great Britain of Friesland, Nassau and Oranje etc. (The Netherlands)
After the death of husband, Willem IV van Oranje-Nassau, she took over the government for her minor son. In government affairs, she at first pleased by her quick actions and decisions; however, she was also tyrannical and unpredictable. Born as daughter of the future King George II of Great Britain, she was Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and from 1727 also Princess Royal. When she died after a long period of consumption, her mother-in-law, Marie-Louise von Hessen-Kassel, became regent for the second time. Anne lived (1709-59).

  1751-71 Political Influential Queen-Consort Lovisa Ulrika von Preussen of Sweden
Engaged in an endless squabble with the Senate and Estates whose powers were unparalleled at the time during the reign of her weak husband, Adolf Frederik. Her goal was to restore royal powers and was in opposition to both the existing parties, the Hatt Partiet (The Hat Party) and the Cap party, which both wanted to maintain status quo. In 1756 she was involved in a failed coup d’état with the newly established Hovpartiet (Court Party). The plan was discovered, and the persons involved where executed or exiled and she received a strong note from the government. After her husband’s death she became a patron of arts and science. The daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm of Preussen and Sofia Dorothea von Hannover, she was Co-Adjutrix (Deputy to the Princess-Abbess with the right of succession) 1740-44 before her marriage. Mother of three sons and a daughter, Sophia Albertina, who became Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg in 1787, and lived (1720-82).  

  1751-58 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine zu Pappenheim of Alt-Leiningen (Germany)
After the her husband Georg Hermann (1679–1751) died after being run down by a heavy carriage, she ruled in the name of Christian Johann, Count zu Leiningen-Westerburg und Altleiningen (1730-51-70), She was born as Reichs-Erbmarschallin und Gräfin zu Pappenheim (Hereditary Marshall of the Realm and Countess), and lived (1708-92).

  From 1751 Payung e-ri Luwu Petta Matinroe ri Kaluku Bodoe of Luwu (Indonesia)
Succeeded another female ruler, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, as the fourth successive women on the throne of Luwu since 1713. It is not known how long her reign lasted.

  1751-68 Princess-Abbess Cäcilia Seitz of Baindt (Germany)
In 1767 she was the last Abbess from the territory to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium – which chose and send representatives to the Imperial Diet. The Princess-Abbess of Gutenzell and Rottenmünster were also present.

  1751-78 Princess-Abbess Maria Henrica von Poppenof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a family of Slesian Barons (Freiiherren), she was highly educated, gifted painter and promoter of arts and culture. At her seal she used the titulature: Marin Henrick Freyin v. Poppen, Äbtissin zu Göss.

  1751-54 and 1759-62 Reigning Abbess-General María Bernarda de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

A relative of hers, Angela, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1771-74.

  After 1751-91 Politically Influential Princess Bibi Rajindar Kaur of Patiala (India)
Following the death of her husband, Chaudhari Tilok Chand, of Phagwara, she took charge and the charge of the family estate, consisting of over two hundred villages, fell to her. In 1778, Raja Amar Singh of Patiala, who was her first cousin, was defeated by Hari Singh of Sialba. She came to his rescue with three thousand soldiers marching through the territories of the chiefs who had fought on the side of Harl Singh. During the reign of the minor Raja Sahib Singh, Rajindar Kaur was again in Patiala to defend the town against Maratha onslaughts. At the head of a strong force she marched as far as Mathura where peace parleys were opened with the Marathas. She died at Patiala after a short illness, and lived (1739-1791).

  Ca. 1752-? Iyoba Ohagha II of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of Akengbua of Benin (1750-1804). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a “wife” with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 

  1752-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Albertine von Sachsen-Hildburghausen of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
1753-62 Reigning Dowager Lady of Mirow
Her son, Adolf Friederich IV (1738-94), succeeded his uncle Adolf Friederich III in December 1752 since her husband, Karl Ludwig Friederich zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz zu Mirow had died in June the same year, and she acted as regent for a year. As guardian for her younger children, she signed the “Succession-agreement” (andesgrundgesetzlichen Erbvergleich (LGGEV)) in 1755, which resulted in a new constitution in the Duchy which consolidated the powers of the nobility (Ritterschaft) and conserved the backward position of the area which lasted until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Her only daughter, Sophie Charlotte, was married to King Georges III of Great Britain. She lived (1713-61).

  1753-56 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Savitri Bai Raje Sahiba of Dewar (Senior) (India)
After the death of her husband Tukaji Rao I Puar she ruled in the name of her adopted son, Krishnaji Rao I Puar (1753-89).

  1753 Nominal Regent Princess Sanfa Rendi Kabafa’anu of the Maldive Islands
Reigned nominally in the name of her brother Hasan Manikufa’anu Sultan al-Ghazi al-Hasan ‘Izz ud-din Baderi, but the de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Manik. She was daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II, who reigned (1721 -50).

  1753-57 Nominal Regent Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu of the Maldive Islands
1757-59 Rani-Sultana
In 1752 her father, H.H. Sultan al-Mukarram Muhammad ‘Imad ud-din III, was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied until it was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. Muleegey Dom Hassam Manik was still de facto in charge. Her father died in captivity in 1757 and she succeeded to the throne. Her sister Amina Kabafa’anu was regent in 1773.

  1753-80 Princess-Abbess Johanna Dorothea von Syberg zu Schwerte of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the chapter in 1718 and was elected as successor of the Protestant Sophie Charlotte v. Bottlenberg gen. Kessel, who had died 1748. Johanna Dorothea Helene Margarethe Katharina von Syberg, who was also known as von Syberg, Freie aus der Hees, Sümmern und Schwerte, was a Catholic and member of an old noble family with branches in Germany, Livonia and Sweden.

  1753-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Helena Francisca von Roggenbach of Säckingen (Germany)
Finished the restauration of the interior of the Chapter Church which was damamged by a fire in 1751. One of her relatives, Franz Joseph Sigismund, was Prince Bishop of Basel (1782-93). She was daughter of Johann Konrad Anton von Roggenbach, Steward of Birseck, and Maria Josepha Zint von Kenzingen.

  1753-65 Reigning Abbess Marie-Louise de Timbrone de Valence of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Another version of her surname is de Thimbrune de Valence.

  1754 and 1761 Governor-Regent Muglani Suraiya Bigum of Lahore (India)
In charge of the government in the name of Muhammad Amin Han, who lived 1751-54 and was governor for the Emperor of the Mongul-Afgan Empire of India in 1754.

  1754 Princess-Abbess Sophie Johanna zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Münsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Chosen by the other Ladies of the Chapter (Stiftdamen) to suceed sister, Christine Eberhardine Friederike. They were daughters of Count Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. Sofie Johanna Friederike lived (1698-1754).

  1754-1804 Joint Sovereign Countess Josine Elisabeth von Rechteren of Rechteren and Limpurg (Germany) 
Also known as Countess von Rechteren Limpurg, she was joint Countess with her brother Friedrich-Ludwig (1748-45-1806-14), Their mother was Countess Amalia Alexandrina Friederike, Countess of Limpurg-Speckfeld, co-heir to a portion of the county, who lived (1689-1754) and was daughter of the last count of the whole county, Volllrath, who died 1712. Josine Elisabeth was married to Prince August Wilhelm zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1720-60), and lived (1738-1804). In 1806 Rechteren was incorporated into Bavaria.

  1754-1771 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Radziwiłłowa of Nowy Targ (Poland)
She lived (1729-1771).

  1754-60 Reigning Lady Mary of Great Britain and Ireland of the County of Hanau (Germnay)
1760-64 Regent of Hanau
When her husband, Landgrave Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel, converted to Catholism, she and her 3 sons were granted the County of Hanau by her father-in-law, Wilhelm VIII, who passed over his son for this part of the inheritance. When Friederich became Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel he made several attempts to reclaim Hanau, but did not succeed because of opposition from Great Britain and the protestant Estates of Hanau. She spend her last years in the Castle of Rupenheim. Also known as Landgräfin Maria von Hessen-Kassel or Maria von Hannover, she was daughter of King Georg II of Hanover of Great Britain and Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and lived (1722-72).

  1754-56 Şehsuvar Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Mother of Osman III (1754-57). Of Russian origin, she lived (1682-1756).

  1755-63 RegentShrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Janaki Bai Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)
After her husband, Shrimant Ramchandra Savant I Bhonsle Bahadur, Sir Desai of Savantwadi, was poisoned by one of his relatives, she ruled in the name of her son, Raja Shrimant Khem Savant III Bhonsle Bahadur.          

  1755-56 Regent Countess Dowager Maria Franziska Esterházy von Galantha of Salm-Reifferscheid zu Bedbur (Germany)
Reigned in the name of Siegmund (1735-55-98) after the death of her husband, Count Karl Anton zu Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur. She lived (1702-78).

  1755-56 Politically Influential Princess Walatta Bersebeh of Ethiopia
Also known as Welete Bersabe, she was influential during the first year reign of her son, Emperor Iyoas or Joa I  (1755-69) after the death of husband, Emperor Jiasu II (Iyasu II) (1730-1755). She engaged in a power struggle with her mother-in-law Empress Mentewab. She was born as Woizero Wobit, daughter of Amitzo, of Kawallo, of the Edjaw clan of the Toluma Galla, but changed her name to Bersebeh, after her christening after the marriage. (d. 1756).

  1755-1822 Ghigua Nancy Ward of the Cherokee in Tennessee(USA)
Originally known as Nanye-hi, and in 1755 her husband, Kingfisher, was killed in battle and Nanye-hi filled his place in the battle. She took his rifle and rallied the warriors to victory. She was bestowed with the title of Ghigua – Beloved Woman of the Cherokee – and thereby became Head of the Council of Women and held a voting seat in the Council of Chiefs. The Ghigua was given the responsibility of prisoners and would decide their fate. She later married Bryant Ward, a white trader. Nancy Ward was a respected woman among the Cherokees and the white settlers. She was an outspoken supporter of peace, and participated in several treaty negotiations and even spoke at the Treaty of Hopewell in 1785 where she spoke about her hopes for a continued peace. But the numerous treaties that agreed to honour Cherokee land rights were broken, and in 1819 the Hiwassee Purchases forced Nancy to abandon her home in Chota and settle further south on the Ocoee River. She lived (1738-1822).

  1755-87 Princess-Abbess Anna Amalia von Preussen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Her election as Coadjutrix (Coadjutorin) in 1744 was met with some secepticism as she was member of the reformed faith and the Chapter was Lutheran. During the first year of her reign, the territory suffered from passing armies and war-taxes to Austrian and French troops during the Seven Year War. She was interested in science and an able composer. She named able men to clerical positions and as teachers, reduced the number of holidays and allowed the members of the Reformed Church to hold a church service twice a year.
She had an affair with Freiherr Friedrich von der Trenck, an aide-de-champ of her brother, Friedrich the Great, who was imprisoned, later freed and spend the rest of his life travelling in Europe. After her brother’s death they met in 1786, she was blind and very ill at the time and died shortly after. She lived most of her life in Berlin and did only rarely visit her territory. She was daughter of Wilhelm I of Preußen and Princess Sophie von Hannover, and lived (1723-87).

  1755-1806 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Hornstein-Göffingen of Säckingen (Germany)
In 1785 her forceful intervention at the Imperial Court in Vienna had saved the Princely Ladies Chapter (Fürstliche Damenstift) from becoming a Worldly Ladies’ Chapter under the sovreignty of the Austrian Government and without cannons during the ecclesiastical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. She modernized the financial management and the juridical system. 1793 Johanna Caroline von Oettingen-Spielberg was appointed Administrator. During the Peace of Pressburg (Bratislava) the Austrian “Vorlande” was separated between Baden and Württemberg, and the territory of Säckingen became part of Baden. In September 1806 the convent was abolished, but she remained there until her death. Among her possessions was a carriage with room for all of the 16 noble ladies who inhabited the convent. The last Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Freiherr Franz von Hornstein und Zumarschausen and Maria Anna Sophia Karoline von Sickingen, and lived (1723-1809).

  1755-56 Princess-Abbess Maria Carolina von Leerodt von Born of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
A candidate for the post of Abbess in 1728. As Dechaness she had been in charge of the administration of the chapter in the absence of the Abbess from around 1747, but in spite of this, the representative of the Prince-Bishop of Liège tried to prevent her election and only 6 canonesses and 4 canons took part – with 5 abstentions. The disputes within the chapter continued but she died after only 17 months in office, and lived (ca. 1700-56).

  1756-ca. 58 Queen Regnant Verónica II of N’Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu)
Ascended to the throne after the death of Queen Ana II, but she was overthrown sometime after 1758.

  1756-63 Rani Regnant Canna Virmmaji of Bednur (East and South Dekkan) (India)
Succeeded her husband and was succeeded by her adopted son. 

  1756-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Wilhelmina von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand 
1778-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim
First inherited the parts of her mother, Marina Margarethe von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, the daughter fo Juliana Dorothea I.  received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the Lordship after the death of her father, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, but was in dispute over the inheritance with a relative, Johann Ernst Carl von Solms-Rödelheim. She married Fürst Friedrich Wilhelm zu Leiningen and was mother of 3 daughters and a son; Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen (1753-92) married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen (1755-85) married to Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, Caroline Sophie Wilhelmine zu Leiningen (1757-1832) married to Friedrich Magnus I, Graf zu Solms-Laubach-Wildenfels and Emich Carl, Fürst zu Leiningen (1763-1814), who was married to Sophie Henriette Reuss-Ebersdorf and Viktoria von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. She lived (1736-1803).

  1756-71 Princess-Abbess Antonietta Regina Sofie Francisca von und zu Elz-Kempenich of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
After the death of Fürstäbtissin Maria Carolina, she won the election to the position of Princess-Abbess against the Dechaness Sophia Helena von Stadion, who remained in opposition to the new head of the territory and allied herself with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who still tried to assert his authority over the Princess-Abbess. After her election she had started rebuilding the residence of the Abbess that had been destroyed earlier. French troops passed through the territory in 1758 during the Seven Year War between France and Austria on one side and England and Preussia on the other. During the last year of her reign, she was seriously ill and had to hand over the adminsitrator to Sophia Helena. She was daughter of Karl Anton Count and Noble Lord (Graf und Edler Herr) von und zu Eltz-Kempenich, gennant Faust von Stromberg, who was created Reichsgraf and became Hereditary Marshal of Trier in 1733,  and Helene Katharina Freiin Wambolt von Umstadt, and lived (1700-71).

  1756-59 Reigning Abbess-General Josefa Claudia de Verrio, The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As ruler of the territory, she used the title of “Noble lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the said royal abbey, and of all the contents, churches, and hermitages of its filiations, of the villages and places under its jurisdiction, seigniory, and vassalage, in virtue of Bulls and Apostolical concessions, with plenary jurisdiction, privative, quasi-episcopal, nullius diacesis.”

  1756-70 Royal County Sheriff Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene zu Brandenburg-Kumblach of Denmark of Hørsholm Len, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Christian 6, she became administrator of the fief of Hørsholm, but the system of fiefholders (County Sheriffs or Lensmand) as local administrators had been abolished, and she was the last Dowager Queen to be given a dowry, which also included several other lands, including the County of Vallø, which she transformed into a chapter for noble ladies in 1735. She lived (1700-70).

  1757-65 Sovereign Countess Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg of Welz and Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedelfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)
Also known as the Countess von Welz-Limpurg, she succeeded her mother, Sophia von Schönburg-Waldenburg, and married her cousin Friedrich von Pückler, who was son of her father’s sister Karoline Christiane. He was Count and regent of Limpurg-Speckfeld 1793-1806, and co-ruler in Pückler with Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline, until her death in 1800.  Juliane Maria Friederike Amöne was succeeded was succeeded in the standesherrschaft (State County) by her daughter, Karoline Sophie Louise Maria Henriette Leopolde, and lived (1739-65).

  1757-74 Joint Sovereign Countess Dorothea Sophie Wilhelmine von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Second daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she had received the provisorial homage as heir of her mother together with her 2 sisters and one brother. She was married to Josias von Waldeck-Bergheim (d. 1763), and succeeded by son and daughter, Karoline, she lived (1698-1774).

  1757-78 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Luise von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Also known as Gräfin Sophia Christiana Louisa, she was the third daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Friedrich Ludwig von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, co-heir of Sontheim. They had no children.

  1757-62 Joint Sovereign Countess Eleonora Friederika von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Also known as Gräfin Eleonora Friderica Juliana von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz, she was the fourth daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was married to Karl-Friedrich von Isenburg und Büdinge in Meerholtz, was succeeded by son and daughter, Christine, and lived (1703-62).

  1757-72 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Christina von Solms-Assenheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Youngest daughter of Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf. All the daughters took necessary steps to secure their inheritance together with  their brother, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim, who inherited the lordship jointly. She was unmarried. [Might have died before 1757]

  1757-66 Captain-Donatary Joana Tomásia da Câmara of São Miguel, The Azores (Portugal)
Succeeded  her father, José da Câmara Teles, 13. capitão do donatário, to  the title of the capitania and married to Guido Augusto da Câmara and they executed the office jointly until it was abolished by the king. Also Countess of da Ribeira Grande, mother of several children and lived (1730-?)

  1757-71 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margarethe von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)
Member of the freiherrliche family von Gemmingen, Lords of Burg Guttenberg abowe the Neckar for at least 300 years from around 1500. She lived (1711-71)

  1757-68 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Katharina von Dücker-Hasslen-Urstein-Winkel of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the Freiherrliche family of von Dücker.


Around 1758 Queen Regnant Ana III of N’Dongo and Matamba (Ngola and Mbundu) During the civil war  she came on the throne after Verónica II was deposed, but she was her self overthrown by Kalwete ka Mbandi, a military leader. Kalwete won the war, and was baptized as Francisco II upon taking the throne. However, two of her daughters, Kamana and Murili escaped the civil war, took refuge in the ancient capital of Ndongo on the Kindonga islands and successfully resisted Francisco II’s attempts to oust them.


After 1758 Queen Regnant Kamana of N’Dongo (Ngola and Mbundu) When her mother, Ana III was deposed, she created a rival kingdom, and in 1767 tried unsuccessfully to obtain Portuguese help against her rival. While the Portuguese governor of the time, Francisco Innocencio de Sousa Coutinho granted her asylum and instructed his officials to respect her and her position, he did not favor direct intervention in affairs in the eastern part of the Portuguese zone. her son and successor did manage to end the division of the country by successfully recovering the capital and being crowned as king of Matamba in around 1810.

  1758-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Ernst August II. Constantin, she managed to secure the regency for her one-year-old son, Carl Augusts (1757-58-1828), even though she was only 19 and legally still a minor. 4 months later she gave birth to her second son, Friedrich Ferdinand Konstantin (1758-93). She began her reign with limiting expenditures to fight the consequences of the Seven Years War. She renovated the city, introduced social reforms, but her most important contribution was her promotion of art and science. She was a well known intellectual, composer, collected one of the largest book-collections of her time with around 100.000 volumes (Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek), opened a theatre and assembled the most important philosophers and writers at her court, among others Johann Wolfgang Goethe. She and lived (1739-1807).  

  1758-82 Regent-in-Opposition H.H. Raniji Ba Shri Jijibai Kunverba Sahib of Halvad (later known as Dhrangadgra) (India)
Her son, Maharana Sriraj Jaswantsinhji II, was named as Maharana Raj Sahib in opposition to his father, Maharana Sriraj Gajsinhji II, who ruled until his death in 1782. Her son succeeded him and  moved the capital to Dhrangadhra in 1783. He died 1801. She was daughter of  the Thakore Sahib of Varsoda.

  Around 1758 Regent Donna….of Larantuka (Indonesia)
Reigned in the name of Raja Don Gaspar I DVG, the head of Roman Catholic dynasty (Dias Vierra Godinho). This principality was quite powerful with influence over parts of the islands of Lembata (Lomblem), Adonara, Solor, Flores, etc. and also with ruling pretensions over the principalities of Sikka, Nita, KanagaE (area), Lio-area and sometimes even claiming influence over the whole island of Flores until maybe Manggarai. The Dutch wanted her to marry a Dutch noble in order to make her a political allied against the Portugese, who were the actual “rulers” over Flores-East at that time.

  1759-65 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Maria-Rebekka Josepha von Hohenems of Honhenems (Austria)
1759-66 and 1786-1806 Sovereign Countess of Lustenau
Inherited the lands of her family after the death of her father, Franz Wilhelm III, Reichgraf von Hohnenems, the last male member of the Hohenems-family. She was given the fief-rights over some of the lands of the family while other parts went to Austria – Emperor Karl I gave Hohnenems as a fief to his wife, Empress Maria-Theresia, who in 1765 had the imhabitants of Lustenau pay her homage as ruler. After a long civil process she managed to retain control over Lustenau in 1786, and in 1790 she signed a treaty with Austria and she continued as Reichsgräfin and the territory remained indpendent, though in close cooperation with Austria, and it kept it’s position even after the German Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Mediatisation). Her only daughter by her husband, Graf Franz Xaver von Harrach-Rohrau-Kunewald  (d. 1781), Maria Waldburga von Harrach-Hohenems-Rohrau, and her husband, Klemens von Waldburg-Zeil, inherited the possessions after Maria Rebekka’s death Lustanau continued as an independent entity within the County of Waldburg-Zeil-Lustenau Hohenems. Reichsgräfin Maria-Rebekka von Harrach-Hohenems lived (1742-1806).

  1759-62 Datu Karaeng Bontoa of Sumbawa (Indonesia)
Succeeded her husband, Sultan Muhammad Kaharuddin I alias Mappasusu (Musa Larie Alesi), but was later deposed. Her first husband was Karaeng Bontolangkasa of Gowa, who died 1739. She lived (1705-62).

  1759-76 Princess-Abbess Alexandra Zimmermann of Gutenzell (Germany)
As part of her “dowry” her father, building master Dominikus Zimmermann, had finished the renovation of the Church of the Chapter, a work that he finished in 1757. 10 years later, she was the last Abbess from Gutenzell to personally participate in the Schwabische Reichsprälatkollegium – which send representatives to the Imperial Diet. Also present were the Princess-Abbesses of Baindt and Rottenmünster. The Princess-Abbess of Heggbach was not present because she was ill. From 1768 the Fürstäbtissin exercised her right as Lady of the Court of her Office in the territory.

  1759/63 Abbess Nullius Floralba Maurelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among her privileges was those of selecting and approving confessors for the laity and authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  From 1760 Queen of Baule (Ashanti-Brong) (Cote d’Ivoire)
Succeeded her aunt, Awura Danse Poukou. Since then the kingdom has been ruled by kings, who inherit their position along matrilineal lines. There are various subchiefs in charge of the kings’ local populations, and all the chiefs rely on political advisors who help in the decision making process. 

  1760-90 Dato’ Johan Pahlawan Lele Perkasa Setiawan Dato’ Putri Setiawan II, Dato’ Undang of Luak Johol (Malaysia)
Took over as ruler after the death of Dato’ Johan Pahlawan Lela Perkasa Setiawan Dato’ Rambut Panjang, who ascended the throne in 1747. The succession the state normally passed via the eldest sister of the previous titleholder.

  1760-73 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  
Jijibai ruled in the name of her adopted son, since her husband H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760) only had a posthumously born daughter with one of his seven wifes. He was Raja of Satara (with his mother as regent) and then of the newly created state, Kolhapur. She lived (1716-73).

  1760-61 “Heiress” H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati …Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  
There was no female succession, but no other heir was appointed until after her death. She lived (1760-61). 

  1760-73 Administratrice Hyacinthe Céleste de Briey de Landres of Remiremont (France)
Elected as successor of Hélène to the post of Dame Doyenne and Head of the Chapter for the absent Princesse Abbesse Anne Charlotte de Lorraine, who lived in Austria and Mons. Hyachinthe Céleste lived (1713-89).

  1760-72 Politically Influential Princess Dowager Augusta zu Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha of Wales in United Kingdom of Great Britain 
When her husband, Prince Frederick of Wales, died in 1751 she was named ‘Prospective Regent’ and she exercised some influence over her son when he came to the throne 9 years later as King Georg III (1738-60-1820) among others trough her close friend, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and Georg’s closest advisor and sometime Prime Minister. She was mother of 9 children, and lived (1719-72).

  1761-79 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Gahena Bai Sahib of Dhar (India)
Reigned in the name of her son Raja Shrimant Khande Rao I Yeshwant Rao Puar (1758-82).

  1761-83 Temporary Administrator Joanna von Stein zu Juttingen–Lubomirska of Rzeszów (Poland)
In charge of the domain during the absence of her son, Franciszek Lubomirski. After the death of her husband, Jerzy Ignacy Lubomirski (1687-1753) she had become the favourite of minister Heinrich Bruehl. She joined the Bar Confederation – the association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against aggression by the Russian Empire and against King Stanisław August Poniatowski and Polish reformers who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth’s magnates. She lived (1723-1783).

  1761-79 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Irmgard Reventlow von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Norborg and Plön (Germany/Denmark)
Since there were no male heirs the Duchies returned to the Danish king after the death of her husband, Frederik Carl (1706-61), but she remained in residence at the lands as her dowry. She was mother of four daughters. The only one to marry was Charlotte Amalie Vilhelmine (1744-70), who entered into matrimony with Prince Frederik Christian von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1721-94). Another, Sophie Magdalene, became Abbess of the noble Chapter of Vallø from 1782. Christine Ermegaard lived (1711-79).

  1762-96 Imperatitsa Catharina II the Great of Russia
1762-81 Queen of Siberia (Sibirskoye Tsartvo)
1763-73 Regent of Hostein-Gottorp (Germany)
1673-96 Countess of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (Germany)
1793-96 Princess of Jever (Germany)
Also known as Yekaterína II Alekséyevna or Екатерина II Алексеевна, she was born as Princess Sophia Augusta zu Anhalt-Zerbst. Her refinement and love of study contrasted with her husband, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp’s vulgarity and intemperance; neglected by him, she ingratiated herself with some of the nobles. Her intrigues were discovered by Peter and, on ascending the throne in 1762, he threatened to repudiate her, whereupon she imprisoned him and had him strangled. The subsequent murder of Ivan, the next heir, left Catherine in undisputed possession of the throne. She supported progressive ideas, such as reforms in law, education, and provincial and municipal administration, but she ruled as an autocrat and suppressed Polish nationalists, which led to Poland’s partition, and took the Crimea and parts of the Black Sea coast from Turkey. In 1762 Siberia was created a separate Kingdom in a Personal union with Russia until it was incorporated in the Empire. She was also famous for her long succession of young lovers. 1773 she exchanged the Russian claims to Holstein-Gottorp with the Counties of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and in 1793 she inherited Jever from brother and appointed her sister-in-law as administrator. Catharina lived (1729-96).

  1762-71 Go-Sakuramachi Tennō of Japan
1771-80 Titular Empress-Regent
1780-89 The Guardian of the Young Lord
後桜町天皇 was the 117th imperial ruler of Japan. She was the second daughter of Emperor Sakuramachi, and ascended the throne by a special decree by her brother, Emperor Go-Momozono, as his son, Prince Hidehito, was only 5 years old at the time, but nine years later she abdicated in his favour, but remained empress-regent (without political power. When he died in 1779, she consulted with the senior courtiers and Imperial Guards and finally decided to adopt Prince Morohito, sixth son of Prince Kan’in-no-miya Sukehito, who then became Emperor Kōkaku. After the throne had switched to the new branch of the imperial line, she, in her role as Retired Emperor, came to be referred to as “the Guardian of the Young Lord”. In this role, in 1789, during a scandal involving an honorary title, she admonished the Emperor. When she died, she left behind a book called Kinchū-nenjū no koto, roughly “Matters of Years in the Imperial Court”, consisting of poems, imperial letters, imperial chronicles, and so forth, excelling in literary merit. Her personal name was Toshiko, and her original title was Isa-no-miya, later Ake-no-miya, and she lived (1740-1813).

  1762-77 High Chiefess Purea Te-ha’apapa I Te-i’oa-tua Teri’i-tari’a of Bora-Bora (Porapora) (French Polynesia)       
First married Rohi-a-nu’u, High Chief of Huahine and after his death, married to his brother Mato Teri’i Tepoara’i, High Priest of Ra’iatea and Huahine. In 1768 she met Captain James Cook during one of his trips around the world.

  1762-1802 Sovereign Countess Christine zu Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
After the death of her mother, Eleonora Friederika von Solms-Assenheim, she received homage as co-heir and co-regent of the County together with her brother. The County was divided among a number of heirs. She was married to Georg-Friedrich-Ludwig von Waldeck-Bergheim, and was succeeded by daughter, Countess Louise. Christine lived (1762-1802).

  1762-65, 1768-71 and 1783-86 Reigning Abbess-General María Benita de Oñate of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Many members of her family were Governors in various parts of the New World (Southern America)

  1763-68 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Antonia of Bavaria of Sachsen (Germany)
Her husband, Elector Friedrich Christian died 10 weeks after ascending to the throne and she became regent for their son, Kurfürst and later king Friedrich-August. She was in charge of the treasury and took part in the most important government decisions, and her brother-in-law was only regent concerning the “electoral affairs” (jura electoralia). She was a composer, poet and painter under the pseudonym ETPA (Ermelinda Talea Pastorella Arkadia- that was her secret name as member of the Roman Academy of the Arcadians. After her brother, Maximillian II Joseph died in 1777 she claimed the Bavarian Palatinate, but the title was inherited by a very remote relative. She was daughter of Elector Karl of Bayern who later became Emperor Karl VII. She lived (1724-80).

  1763-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld of Sachsen-Meiningen und Hildburghausen (Germany)
1769 Director of the Commission of Dephts
1775-79 Joint Regent of the Duchy

After the death of her husband, Anton Ulrich (1687-1743-63), she took over the reins in the name of her son, For August Friedrich (1754-63-82). The relatives in Gotha had hoped to get part of the Meissen-inheritance but the emperor installed her as Sole Regent and Chief Guardian of her children (Regentin und Obervormünderin). The duchy was totally bankrupt as she took over the regency. Both the failed harvests, the 7 years war and the many warfares of her husband’s family had ruined the state.  She began financial reforms, reorganised the army, humanised the juridical system, introduced religious tolerance, created a modern school system, and promoted the cultural life. She appointed young and able Ministers and also reformed the administration. In 1769 Emperor Joseph II appointed her director of a Commission to handle the depths of the Saxon Duchies together with some other relatives. She also took care of her husband’s 10 and her own 8 children, though most of them died in infancy. After her oldest son came of age, she continued officially as co-regent until the second came of age in 1779. She used the titulature; “Durchlauchtigsten Fürstin und Frau, Charlotten Amalien verwittibten Herzogin zu Sachsen, Jürlich, Clebe und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgräfin in Thüringen, Markgräfin zu Meissen, gefürstete Gräfin zu Henneberg, Gräfin zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Frau zu Ravenstein zu der gebohrnen Landgräfin zu Hessen, Fürstin zu Hersfeld, Gräfin zu Catzenelnbogen, Diez, Ziegenhain, Nidda, Schaumburg und Hanau, auch Sayn und Witgenstein, Obervormünderin und Landesregentin”, and lived (1730-1801).

  1763-66 Regent Dowager Princess Christiane Henriette von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld of Waldeck-Pyrmont (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Karl August (1704-63) she was regent for son Friedrich I, Fürst zu Waldeck and Graf von Pyrmont (1743-63-1812). She was born as Pfalzgräfin von Birkenfeld, and lived (1725-1816).

  1763-96 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Anastasia von Eptingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1782 she renovated the chapter and its church in Rococo style. She was daughter of the noble Konrad Anton von Eptingen and Katharina Jacobea von Ramschwag.

  1763 De facto Acting Premierminister Maria Amalia von Brühl Mniszchowa of Sachsen (Germany)
Her father, Heinrich Graf von Brühl, intrusted her with the running of the government during his illness, which lead to his death on 28 October 1763. She was politically influential from 1752 and as the wife of the Polish Court Marshall Jerzy August Mniszech she also became an influential opponent of King Stanisław August Poniatowski of Poland from 1764.  She was well educated and known as a good politician and a good intriguer. In 1770 she created with Teresa Ossolińska a union called “quintumvirate”. The members were their husbands and other very powerful polish aristocrates: Wessel, Radziwiłł and Zamoyski and they initiated the declaration of the act of interregnum in Poland. She lived (1736-1772).

  1763 Rebellion Leader María Josefa Gabriela Cariño Silang in The Philippines
After her husband, Diego Silang, was assassinated, she took over the leadership of the revolt against the Spanish in Ilocos. In 1762, after the British invasion of the Philippines, her husband had been able to expel the Spanish provincial governor from Vigan and won some skirmishes. A strong force was sent against her. This time, she was forced to retreat to Abra. Riding a fast horse, Gabriela led her troops towards Vigan, but she was driven back. She fled again to Abra, where she was captured and executed together with about 100 followers. Lived (ca. 1730-63).

  1764-1800 Sovereign Duchess Anna Jabłonowska of Siemiatycze, Kock, Wysock, Wołyń, Strzelin, Kukiz, Mariampol and Jezupol (Poland)
1764-1800 Politically Influential in Poland
Her husband, Voivode Jan Kajetan Jabłonowski of Bracław died in 1764 and 1768-72 she was important and unofficial member of leadership of The Confederation of Bar, the military union of nobility. In 1794 she supported active the insurrection of Tadeusz Kościuszko. After the third partition of Poland in 1795 she contacted with Central Assembly, patriotic organisation, who prepared the military fight against Russian domination in Poland. In her properties she implemented administrative and economic reforms. She was Daughter of Kazimierz Karol Sapieha and Karolina Radziwiłł, and lived (1728-1800).

  1764-65 Joint Sovereign Lady Charlotte Murray of Man and the Isles (British Crown Dependency)
Also 8th Baroness Strange of Knockyn, she descended from the Counts of Derby and was married to her first cousin, John Murray, and he should have been heir to the dukedom, but he was ineligible since his father had fought in the Jacobite Rising, but the House of Lords deemed John as the rightful heir to his uncle’s title and he succeed him as 3rd Duke of Atholl, whereupon Charlotte became Duchess of Atholl. She alos inherited the sovereignty of the Isle of Man passed but she, quickly bowed to pressure to confirm sale of regalities of Island to English crown, an agreement that had been agreed to by her father, and in 1765 she sold regalities for 70,000 pounds but kept many other rights including that of nominating the Bishop. She was mother of 7 sons and 4 daughters, and lived (ca. 1731-1805).


1764-1785/88 Overseer of the Crown Lands Urszula Elżbieta Moszkowska of Barcice and Rytro

Appointed by the king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1764-1817 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophie Caroline von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)
Second wife of Margrave Markgraf Friedrich and after his death she moved to the Castle of Erlangen, and funded a baroque court, and gave the small University Town the air of a Residential City for more than half a century. She did not have any children, and lived (1737-1817).

  1764-1802 Princess-Abbess Friedrike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise zu Brandenburg-Schwedt of Herford (Germany)
The Royal Princess of Preusia had been Koadjutorin from 1755. When she took office, she confirmed Friderich Ulrich Grafen von Oeynhausen as tenant of a number of estates of the chapter, using the titulature of Friederica Charlotta Leopoldina Louise Prinzessin in Preußen und Markgräfin zu Brandenburg, Äbtissin zu Herford. She was the last sovereign ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory which was incorporated into Prussia in 1802 as part of the rearrangement of the German Realm after the Napolionic wars. She remained in the Chapter until shortly before she died after years of ilness. She was daughter of Margrave Friedrich Heinrich von Preußen of Brandeburg-Schwedt and Leopoldine zu Anhalt-Dessau. Her grandmother, Johanna Charlotta von Anhalt-Dessau had been Princess-Abbess of Herford (1729-50) before her marriage. lived (1745-1808).      

  1764-83 Princess of the Realm Maria Theresa Josepha d’Hornes of Hornes (Belgium)
Her father, Prince Maximilian Emanuel zu Salm-Kyburg, Count of Baucignies and Prince d’Hornes (1695-163)had named her as sole heiress of his principalities, counties, baronies, lands and manors situated in the Austrian and Dutch Brabant and in the Belgian Flanders and Artois provinces. Her sister Princess Elisabeth Philippine Claude of Hornes and Dowager Princess of Stolberg-Gedern had accepted the new will and testament in the presence of her sister and irrevocably transferred and relinquished by notorized document to the Serene Princes of Salm-kyrburg and Hornes, all rights to said claims. With this document and agreement the dispute over the paternal inheritance regarding properties, but not over the titles of nobility, is deemed to have been finalized. She lived (1725-83)

  1765-95 Rani Ahalaya Bay of Maratha (or Marathen) (India)
Her son, Mali Rao succeeded his grandfather, Malhar Rao Molkar, but died after 9 months, where after she succeeded him.

  1765-67and 1777-91 Regent Dowager Rani Sagvanabai Aisaheb of Phaltan (India)
Aisaheb reigned alone after the death of Naik Mudhojirao Nimbalkar III in 1765 until Naik Sayajirao Nimbalkar came on the throne in 1767. He was succeeded by Malojirao Nimbalkar II and when he died in 1777 she became regent for Naik Janrao Nimbalkar II (1777-1827).

  1765-66 Governess Princess Carolina of Oranje-Nassau of Friesland (The Netherlands)
Her parents’ third, but first surviving child, and in 1747 it was decreed that females could inherit the position of Stadholder, however her brother, the future Willem V, was born the following year. Her brother became Stadholder in 1755, aged three, first with their mother, Anna of Hanover and then with their grandmother, Marijke Meu as regents. After the death of the grandmother, Carolina became regent in the Northern Provinces. She had 15 children with her husband, Prince Karl of Nassau, Count of Saarbrücken and Saarwerden, Herr of Lahr, Mahlberg, Wiesbaden and Idstein. She lived (1743-87).

  1765-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Josepha von Freudenberg of Obermünster Regensburg (Germany)
As Princess of the Holy Roman Realm, she was member of the Bench of Swabian Prelates in the Diet of the Realm (Reichstag), who was able to cast a collective vote – a so-called curiate (Kuriatstimme). The same was the case for the Westphalian counts in the College of Princes (Fürstenkolleg), where only the major Princes had their own votes. The Princess-Abbesses normally voted via representatives (by proxy) as did many of the other princes.

  1765-92 Reigning Abbess Julie Sophie Charlotte de Pardaillan d’Antin of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Julie-Sophie-Gillette de Gondrin de Pardaillan d’Antin was driven from her monastery by the Revolution; her fate is unknown. Towards the end of the eighteenth century there were 230 nuns and 60 monks at Fontevrault, and at the Revolution there were still 200 nuns, but the monks were few in number and only formed a community at the motherhouse. In the course of his preaching journeys through France, Robert d’Arbrissel had founded a great number of houses, and during the succeeding centuries others were given to the order. In the seventeenth century the Fontevrist priories numbered about sixty in all and were divided into the four provinces of France, Bretagne, Gascone, and Auvergne. The order never attained to any great importance outside France though there were a few houses in Spain and England. (d. 1797).

  1765-68 Reigning Abbess-General Rosalía de Chaves of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Among the many dignities and high offices held by the abbess of Las Huelgas was that of the title of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile dating from 1189, which gave her the privilege of convoking a general chapter at Burgos each year.

  1765-87 Sovereign Countess Karoline Sophie Luise Maria Henriette Leopolde von Pückler of Weltz and Limpurg-Sontheim-Schmiedelfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)
The unmarried daughter and successor of Friederike Amöne von Löwenstein-Wertheim. After her death, her half-brother, Friedrich (son of her father in his second marriage), inherited her part of the possessions. She lived (1765-87). 

  1766-1806 Sovereign Lady Luise von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg of Broich (Germany)
1806-15 Lady of Broich
Unlike her father, she was interested in her posession in Broich, in and often stayed there. She was marrried to Georg-Wilhelm zu Hessen-Darmstadt(d. 1782), the brother of the Reigning Landgrave, Ludwig IX, and as he spend most of his time, she was in charge of the representation of the state in Darmstadt after the death of his wife in 1774. Her possessions were mediatized and she lost the sovreignty and immidiate status, but kept some politcial and juridical rights, until the territories were finally annexed by Preussen in 1815. The daughter of Count Christian Karl Reinhard zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenberg und Hildesheim (169-1766) and Katharina Polyxena zu Solms-Rödelheim (1702-65), Maria Luise Albertine was mother of 9 children, and  lived (1729-1818).

  1766-79 In charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Henriette Auguste von Lippe-Detmold of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Denmark and Germany)
Her son, Frederik Henrik Vilhelm of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg was 19 when he succeeded his father, Frederik of Glücksborg, and continued in Danish military service. She lived (1725-77).

  1766-77 Princess-Abbess Therese Natalie von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The attempt to have her married to an Austrian Archduke or French Prince stranded on the fact that she did not want to convert to Catholicism. Instead she became Canoness inHerfordand in the last years of the 1740’s she was designated as successor of Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie von Sachsen-Meiningen in Gandersheim, and after her death, she was elected. She spent a lot of time at the court in Braunschweig and the chapter fell apart. She was daughter of Ferdinand Albrecht of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette Amalie of Braunschweig-Blankenberg. Her sister was the de-facto regent Queen Juliane-Marie ofDenmark(1729-72-84-96). Therese Natalie lived (1728-78).

  1766-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Noble Convent at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn))
Her mother, Empress Maria Theresia, had founded the convent in 1755. As abbess she enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income. The Archduchess was member of a number of Imperial Academies of Art and was interested in science and music. In 1781 she resigned and moved to Klagenfurt where she lived close to the he Elizabethan Convent the rest of her life. She lived (1738-89).

  1766-68 Hereditary Duchess Marie Leszczyńska of Lorraine (France)
Daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski (1677-1766), who was King of Poland (1704-09) and 1733-36), Administrator of Zweibrücken (1709-16) and then resided at Wissembourg until he became Duke of Lorraine (1737-66). After the death, she inherited the Duchy which became included in the domains of her husband, King Louis XV. She was a very quiet, gentle, and extremely religious person, held her own court in her chambers, receiving guests and carrying out ceremonial function and did not become involved in court intrigues and lived a quiet, peaceful existence. She lived (1703-68). 

  1767-95 Regent Dowager Maharani Ahalya Bai of Indore (Andaur) (India)
The daughter in-law of Malhar Rao Holkar (1694-1766), she became ruler after his death. She governed the state from a palace fort at Maheshwar on the northern bank of the Narmada river. She established several religious edifices remarkable in architecture. She died at Maheshwar where a large mausoleum stands in her memory. Her son Malle Rao Holkar became Maharaja after her death.    

  1767-77 Sitti Saleh I of Tallo (Indonesia)
Born as Princess of Taeng she succeeded Abdul Kadir II. She (d. 1778).

  1767-77 Dowager Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Christine Wilhelmine von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
1767-1803 Lady of Ober- und Niederbronn
Her husband Philipp Andreas von Ellroth, died after 18 months of marriage. He had bought part of the Lordship by the von Löwenhaupt-owners. But the Elector of Pfalz-Zweibrücken took possession of the territory. In 1777 she sold her part of the lordship to the Princess Karoline von Isenburg, the natural daughter of Elector Karl Theodor. In 1803 she, the “verwittweten Gräfin von Löwenhaupt”, was granted 11.300 Gulden for her share in the Lordships of Ober- und Niederbronn at the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Principal Conclusion of the Extraordinary Imperial Delegation) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities.

  1767-1805/08 Royal Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Royal Chapter in Innsbruck (Austria-Hungary)
The chapter was founded by her mother, Empress Maria Theresia of Austria-Hungary with the purpose of praying for her father Emperor Franz I Stefan, who died the same year. She had been hit by smallpox in 1767 and she became Abbess of the Worldly Chapter for noble ladies. She became the centre of the town-life because of her extrovert personality. In 1805 she fled the Napoleonic troops and three years later the convent was dissolved by Bavaria. She lived (1743-1808).

  1767-70 Princess_Abbess Maria Augusta Josepha von Fürstenberg-Stühlingen of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Granted the right to become canoness in Buchau from 1741 but it is not known is she acctually took up the position. 1767 Empress Maria Theresia confirmed her election “Maria Theresia, Kömische Kayserin, Wittib“ bestätigt die „nach tödtlichem Hintritt der Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg“ erfolgte Wahl der „Maria Josepha aus dem fürstlichen Hauß von Fürstenberg“ zur Aebtissin von St. Georg”. She was daughter of Joesph Wilhelm Ernst von Fürstenberg and Maria Anna von Waldstein. (d. 1770).

  1768-78 Regent Dowager Rani Chandawatiji Maharani Sahiba of Janipur (India)
In charge of the government in the name of son H.H. Saramad-i-Raja-i-Hindustan, Raj Rajeshwar Shri Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Sawai Shri Prithvi Singh II Bahadur, who lived (1763-78). He was married to several wifes, and was succeeded by brother. 

  1768-83 Regent Dowager Baroness Marie Katharina van Tuyll van Serooskerken of Knyphausen (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Christian Frederik Bentinck (1734-1768) (Son of Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg und Knyphausen and Willem Bentinck, Count Bentinck from 1732), she was regent for their son, the sovereign baron, Wilhelm II Gustav van Bentinck (1762-35), who reigned 1768-1810, 1813 and 1818-35. The territory was annexed to the Netherlands in 1810 and occupied by Russia 1813-18. She lived (1743-98).

  1768-92 Sovereign Duchess Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan of Rambouillet (France)
After the death of her husband, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, prince de Lamballe she was granted the Duchy for life, since they did not have any children. She was a devoted friend and favourite of Queen Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinette. She was extremely unpopular and was killed by a mob during the French Revolution in the September massacres (1792), and her head was displayed on a pike under the queen’s windows. She lived (1749–92).

  1768-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda von Markdorf of Baindt (Germany)
In 1797 the convent reached its peak with 37 noble ladies, but in 1803 it was abolished. Maria Bernarda’s family had been Lords of Markdorf, by the Bodensee, since the 11th century.

  Until 1768 Reigning Abbess Françoise de Dion de Wandonne of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Wanndonne, Couplelle, Louvigny and La Viélville.

  1768-90 Reigning Abbess Marie Hosephe Camille de Coupigny d’Hénu of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The French Council of State confirmed the original provision, that the canonesses had to be of noble families from the Low Countries or Artois, who could trace back noble origin from both sides of their family for at least 4 quarters (generations). She wasaughter of the Lord of Hénu, Warlincourt and Marie Héricourt.

  1768-1806 De-facto ruler, Queen Consort Maria Caroline von Habsburg-Lorraine of The Two Sicilies (Italy)
1777-1806 Councillor of State
Daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Ferdinando di Borbone who became King of Napoli when his father succeeded as king of Spain. When she gave birth to a male heir in 1777, she became a member of the Council of state.  Under Maria’s influence Ferdinando joined her brother in opposing the French Revolution, which resulted in the invasion of Naples. Ferdinando escaped to Sicily leaving his kingdom to become a Republic controlled by France. By June 1799 he had gathered his forces and returned to crush the opposition and regain his throne. In 1806 Naples was captured by Napoleon, and he installed his brother, Joseph, as King. This forced Ferdinando to abdicate and leave once more for Sicily. He returned to Naples again after Napoleon’s downfall. In 1816 Naples and Sicily were united when the kingdom of the Two Sicilies was formed. By 1820, dissatisfaction with the monarchy resulted in an uprising, which Ferdinando quelled by reluctantly agreeing to a new constitution. However, in 1821 he called on Austrian forces to overthrow the reactionary government. She lived (1752-1814).

  1769-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Febronia Elisabeth Speth von Zwyfalten of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Her family were Freiherren – Barons – in Hohenzollern, and also known as von Speth-Zwyfalten.

  1769-1802 Politically Influential Duchess Maria Amalia von Habsburg-Lorraine of Parma and Piacenza (Italy)
Daughter of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria and very influential during the reign of her husband, Fernando de Borbone, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, and showed her abilities as politician during the Napoleonic wars, which meant that Parma was occupied by France in 1796. After her husband’s death in 1802, she moved to Prague. And though the marriage was very unhappy, she gave birth to four children, and lived (1746-1802).

  1769-74  Politically Influential Countess Jeanne du Barry in France 
Her unpopularity contributed to the decline of the prestige of the crown in the early 1770s. She was born Marie-Jeanne Bécu, the illegitimate daughter of lower-class parents. After a convent education, she was a shop assistant in a fashion house in Paris. While there she became the mistress of Jean du Barry, who introduced her into Parisian high society, and her beauty captivated a succession of nobly born lovers before she attracted Louis XV’s attention in 1768. Du Barry arranged a nominal marriage between Jeanne and his brother, Guillaume du Barry, and in April 1769 she joined Louis XV’s court. She immediately joined the faction that brought about the downfall of Louis XV’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Duke de Choiseul, in 1770; and she then supported the drastic judicial reforms instituted by her friend the chancellor René-Nicolas de Maupeou, in 1771. On the accession of Louis XVI, Madame du Barry was banished to a nunnery; from 1776 until the outbreak of the Revolution she lived on her estates with the Duke de Brissac. In 1792 she made several trips to London, probably to give financial aid to French émigrés. Condemned as a counter-revolutionary by the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris in December 1793, she was guillotined, and lived (1743-93).

Penguasa Wanita Di dunia 1700-1740



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1700-01 Leading Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Queen María Ana de Baviera-Neoburgo y Hessen-Darmstadt of Spain and the Indies
Considered herself to be the “principal minister” of her husband, Carlos II (1665-1700), after their marriage in 1691, and she was politically very influential. After her husband’s death, she was member of The Governing Board from 1.-16. November. The Board had no formal chairman, but she had the “preferred vote”.  In 1700 Felipe V of Bourbon became king – he was great-grandson of Felipe IV, who reigned (1621-65), and became king after a war of succession between the Habsburg and Bourbon heirs to the throne. She was confined to Toledo and from 1706 she lived in exile in France until she returned to Spain one year before she died. Born as Maria Anna von der Pfalz-Neuburg, she lived (1667-1740).

  1700-33 Sovereign Princess Ippolita I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Princess of Venosa, Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and       Castelvetere (Italy)
Ippolita succeeded sister Olimpia as Principessa sovrana, and married to Gregorio II Boncompagni, Duke of Sora and Acre, Marquess of Vignola et cetera, who was co-prince until his death in 1707. She was daughter of Niccolò I and his third wife Costanza Pamphili, and was succeeded by the oldest of her six daughters, Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi, who reigned 1733-45. Ippolita lived (1663-1724).

  1700-07 Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj (Sita Bai Ali Sahib) of Satara (India)
In 1714 her son, H.H Kshatrtiya-Kulawatasana Sinhasanadhishwar Shrimant Raja Shahu Sambahaji II Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1698-1760), became ruler of Kolhapur. Tara Bai lived (1675-1761).

  1700 Regent The Rajawat Maharani Sahiba of Bikander (in Punjab India)
Widow of Maharaja Sri Anup Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and regent for son, who succeeded half-brother.

  Until ca. 1700 Queen Regnant Keakealani of Hawai’i (USA)
20th Alii Aimoku of Hawaii, she succeeded her mother, Keakamahana. First married to her cousin, Kanaloakapulehu, secondly to her half-brother, Kaneikauaiwilani. Succeeded by son, Keawe-i-Kekahiali’iokamok. (d. ca. 1700).

  1700-17.. Sultan Aisa of Ma’yuta (Mayotte, today a French Possession)
At a not known date, she was succeeded by daughter, Sultan Monavo.  

  Around 1700 Adatuang Adi We Rakkia Karaeng Kanjenne of Sidenreng (Indonesia)
Succeeded father, Adatuang La Mallewai as ruler of the Bugis state in South-Western Celebes/Sulawesi.

  Ca. 1700-07/41 Regent Princess Tara Bona of Marato (India)
Deposed by a rival Faction of the family but continued the fight until she was finally beaten in 1741.

  1700-ca. 1750 1st Asantehemaa Nana Nyarko Kusi Amoa of Asante (Ghana)
There are different interpretations of the role of the Queen Mother of the Asante, but it seems that she held the important office of “ohemaa” – the second highest political position in the state. Theoretically an Ashanti Queen Mother was next to the king in the sense that she automatically took upon the king’s responsibilities should a condition arise which made it later for the latter to administer. She was a full member and co-President of the governing body and she took part in all-important decisions. She was de facto royal co-ordinator and possessed traditional legitimacy in determining the right successor to the stool of the Ashanti King. She exercised a general supervisory authority over women but did not in fact represent the overall interest of the women. Nyaaako was mother of king Opoku Ware I (1720-50) and the 4th Asantehemaa Konadu Yaadom I, who was in office (Ca.1778-1809).

  1700-10 Regent Dowager Rani Tarabai of Kolhapur (India)
After the death of her husband, she assumed control of the government in the name of her son Shambhaji II. A truce was sought which was promptly rejected by the emperor. A new assault by the Marathas in Malwa and the ransacking of Hyderabad further frustrated the octogenarian emperor. Tarabai and the Marathas always aggravated Aurangzeb, which eventually drained all his strength and resolve. He had spent more than two decades pursuing an evasive and crafty enemy and his extreme old age left him frail and weak until his death in 1707.After the emperor’s death, her nephew, Shahuji Shivaji II was released by Emperor Bahadur Shah, and immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged her and her son Shambhaji II. A power struggle ensued and finally with the help of a skilful Brahmin, Balaji Vishwanath, Shahuji Shivaji II was able to consolidate his power. She lived (1675-1761).

  Around 1700 Moäng Ratu Dona Ines Ximenes da Silva of Flores (Indonesia)
Followed her brother Moäng Ratu Don Simao (Samaoh) as ruler, and was later succeeded by the grandson of a brother of her mother Moäng Ratu Don Siku Koru as ruler of the Roman Catholic principality at the island of Flores. The Ximenes da Silva-dynasty ruled until 1952 and continued as civil rulers until 1960 over Sikka.

  Ca. 1700-40 Queen Alemba of Sambi (Angola)
Reigned jointly with Ului Nonudu. Sambi or Sambu was one of the large clusters of Ovimbundu States, which was founded at various times from around 1600.

  1700-12 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena Sohler of Heggbach (Germany)
A forceful and energetic administrator and was engaged in various disputes with neighbouring nobles. The chapter was hit by heavy taxes during the War of the Spanish Succession and the continued passage thorough the territory of foreign troops. From around 1705 her epileptic attacks increased and she was unable to perform her duties.

  1700-11 Princesse-Abbesse Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle de Lorraine of Remiremont (France)
Her father, Duke Léopold of Lorraine, tried to impose her as Coadjutrice with the right of succession. The Princess-Abbess Dorothée asked the Professors at Sorbonne for advice, but they didn’t answer before her death 2 years later, so King Louis XIV imposed Élisabeth as sovereign of the territory. She lived (1700-11).

  1700-52 Territorial Landowner Countess Christina Piper Törnflycht of the estates of Krageholm, Sturefors and Högestad in Skåne and Ängsö in Västmanland and Toppeladugård, Ugglarp, Björnstorp, Östra Torup, Assarstorp, Baldringe, Viggebyholm, Sturefors
1747-52 Owner of the fideicommis of Christinehovs with Andarums, Torups, Högestads and Baldringe säterier (Sweden)
Very influential locally and known as “Queen Christina at Christinehov”. She was left in charge of the family’s wast estates from the the time her husband, Royal Councillor Baron and Count (Friherre and greve), Carl Piper (1647 – 1716) went with King Karl XII at war in Skåne, Poland and Russia 1700. He was taken prisoner in 1709 and died 5 years later. In the beginning it included at least 20.000 and she expanded it. 1725 she bought the estate of Andrarums wich included an mine of the chemical compound of Alum and a factory with a total of 900 employees which she also expanded. It was in function until 1912. She founded the fideicommis of Sturefors with Viggbyholm in 1747 for her daughter-son Nils Adam Bielke, which included a large number of estates and farms in Hanekinds, Bankekinds, Åkerbo, Kinda and the shires of Hammarkinds in Östergötlands län. She also created 2 other fideicommis of Engsö for her son Carl Fredrik and Söderby with Gerstaberg for the family of Counts of Löwen. Of her 8 children 1 son and 4 daughters survived. She was daughter of the Mayor Stockholm, Olof Hansson Törnflycht (1640-1713), and lived (1673-1752).

  1700-16 Throne Claimer Princess Pedi Wangmo of Sikkim (India)
Claimed the throne from her young half-brother, Muwong Chador Namgyal (b. 1686) because she was the oldest. Her mother was a Bhutanese and who invited a force from Bhutan to assassinate him, and he was carried off to Lhasa where he distinguished himself in Buddhist learning and Tibetan literature. Meanwhile, Bhutanese forces had captured the Rabdentse Palace and after eight years of occupation the Deb Raja of Bhutan eventually withdrew the Bhutanese expedition upon the mediation of the Tibetan Government. Chador Namgyal then returned and started to consolidate his kingdom, driving out the Bhutanese forces. Bhutan made another invasion and though many of the areas under Bhutanese occupation were cleared, what are today Kalimpong and Rhenock were lost. In 1716, while the king was at Ralung hot springs, she conspired with a Tibetan doctor to arrange bloodletting from a main artery and thus caused the king’s death. The doctor was eventually executed at Namchi and she strangled to death with a silk scarf.

  1700s Shin Rani Guwari of Gilgat (Dardistan)  (India)
Dardistan is a mountainous region in the Ladakh area in Northern India, inhabited by indigenous tribes. 

  1700s Chieftainess Kaipkire of the Herero Tribe (Namibia)
Led her people in battles against British slave traders. There are records of Herero women fighting German soldiers as late as 1919.

  1700s Rani Anubai of Ichalkarnji (India)
Reigned the principality which is situated in present day’s Maharashtra.

  17… Queen Regnant Ramananandrianjaka Rambolamasoandro of Ambohidratrimo (Madagascar)
Priviously known as Princess Ravorambato or Ravormbato, she deposed her uncle King Andrianbelanonona. Her granddaugther, Princess Rembolamasoandro was married to the king of Madagascar.

  17… Sultan Nyau wa Faume of Ngazidja (Comoro Islands)
The island is also known as Grande Comore. 

  17… Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana Malaka of Berau (Indonesia)
Berau is a scarcely populated area in the Island of Borneo.  

  17… Ratu Mas of Tanah Bumbu (Indonesia)
Succeessor of her father, Pangeran Dipati Tuha, and married to Daeng Malewa, Pangeran Dipati who succeeded her. Their daughter Ratu Intan became Ratu of the Cantung and Batulicin statelettes and married Sultan Anom of Pasir, also known as Sultan Dipati Anom Alamsyah Aji Dipati (1768-99).

  Ca. 17… Amanyanabo Kambasa of Okolo-Ama (Nigeria)
Ruler of a city-state known to the Europeans as Bonny. The first ruler whose reign is dated reigned from 1759 some generations after Kambasa.

  17… Inas Embun Serin of Undang Luak (Malaysia)
The state was one of nine minor states that joined in the Negeri Sembilan Confederation.

  17… Queen Logenge of Bimba (Cameroon)
She succeeded father Mbimbi and her husband King Kwan of Duala was co-regent to 1792.

  17… Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Fatafehi Tu’ipulatu-i-Langi Tu’oteau [Tu’ipulatu II], Tu’i Tonga (who died 1770) and his third wife, Latutama. Her oldest daughter became the Tamaha, the younger Tu’i Tonga Fefine. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine Princess Nanasipau’u held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers, and she was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take the lovers she wanted.

  17… Amira Ghaliyy al-Whhabiyya in Saudi Arabia
A Hanibali from Tarba, she led a military resistance movement to defend Mecca against foreign take over in the beginning of the 18th century. She was given the title of Amira, the female equivalent of the title of Amir – military leader. 

  17…/18... The Omukama of The Bashambo Dynasty in Mpororo (Uganda)
Queen Mother Regnant of the kingdom, which was founded circa 1650. It covered much of the Kigezi region of Uganda and what is now northern Rwanda.

  1701 and 1704-05 Regent Infanta Caterina de Bragança of Portugal
Stepped in as leader of the government during the illness of her brother Dom Pedro II (1648-83-1706). had held the title of Princess da Beira 1653-62 (Hereditary Princess) until her marriage to Charles III of England, Scotland ind Ireland (1660-85)and remained in England, living at Somerset House, through the reign of her brother-in-law, James II and his deposement in the Glorious Revolution by Mary II and William III, but her position deteriorated as the practice of her religion led to misunderstandings and increasing isolation and she returned to Portugal in 1692. She had at least 2 miscarriages and lived (1638-1705).

  1701-02 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Sophia von Brandenburg of Livonia and Courland and Semgallen (Courland/Kurzeme) (Latvia)
Reigned in the name of her son, Friedrich Wilhelm (1692-98-1711), who had first been under regency of his uncle Ferdinand, who became Duke in 1711. The region is also known as Livland and Kurland or Kurzmene. Elisabeth Sophia lived (1674-1770).

  Ca. 1701-1754 Queen Alliquippa of the Seneca tribe (USA)
A politician and a member of the Seneca tribe, one of the Iroquois Indian nations. The first records of her were her saying goodbye to William Penn in Delaware, New Jersey in 1701. She warned the Pennsylvania government officials in 1747 that the French were trying to take over the area as they came from Ohio. She found this out apparently as she was making a trip across the state. In 1753 as George Washington traveled through Logstown, he stopped to see her and gave her gifts of a watch coat. She was a key ally of the British during the French and Indian War. Together with her son Kanuksusy, and warriors from her band of Mingo Seneca, she traveled to Fort Necessity to assist George Washington but did not take an active part in the Battle of the Great Meadows on 3-4 July 1754. She lived (1680/85-1754).

  1701-11 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
Received the Papal Nuntius, Vincenzo Bichi in the chapter in the last year of her reign. Two other members of her family were Fürstäbtissin of the territory, the first from 1664 and the second from 1735. She was daughter of Hans Wilhelm zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Beatrix Reich von Reichenstein.

  1701-14 Politically Influential Marie-Anne de la Trémoille, Princess des Ursins in Spain
Her first husband, Adrien Blaise de Talleyrand, Prince de Chalais fled to Spain after having involved in a duel in 1663 and died shortly after. She moved to Spain and married Flavio Orsini, duke of Bracciano in 1675. After his death in 1701 she sold his estates, assumed the title of Princesse des Ursins, a corruption of Orsini, and became Mistress of the Robes of Queen Maria Luisa de Savoia, who, together with her husband Felipe V of Spain (Philippe d’Anjou), was completely under her influence. She ensured that he dismissed his French advisors and relied on native Spanish aides. In 1704 her enemies at the French court secured her recall, but she still had the support of Madame de Maintenon. The following year she returned to Spain, with a free hand, and with what was practically the power to name her own ministry. During the worst times of the war of the Spanish Succession she was the real head of the Bourbon party, and was well aided by the spirited Queen. She did not hesitate to quarrel even with such powerful personages as the Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo, Portocarrero, when they proved hostile. After Maria Luisa’s death, Felipe married Elisabetta Farnese who dismissed her. She spent the rest of her life in Rome. The daughter of the Duc de Noirmontier and Renée Julie Aubri, she lived (1642-1722).

  1701-ca. 17 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Fausta Domenga Sarmiento de Vallardares y Moctezuma, IV Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
Followed her mother, Maria Jeronima Tesifon de Moctezuma as Head of the former Indian dynasty and was succeeded by her sister, Doña Melchora Juana, and lived (ca. 1693-ca. 1717).

  1702-14 H.M. Anne Stuart, Queen of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland
1708 Lord High Admiral of England (United Kingdom)
Ascended the throne after the death of her brother-in-law, William, who had been joint ruler with her sister, Mary II and on 1 May 1707 she presided over the union of the Parliaments of Scotland and England, creating the parliament of Great Britain. She was married to Danish Prince Jørgen (George), she experienced 18 pregnancies between 1683 and 1700, but only five children were born alive and only one survived infancy – William, Duke of Gloucester, who died in 1700 at the age of 12. She refrained from politically antagonizing Parliament, but was compelled to attend most Cabinet meetings to keep her half-brother, James the Old Pretender, under heel. She was the last sovereign to veto an act of Parliament. The most significant constitutional act in her reign was the Act of Union in 1707, which created Great Britain by finally fully uniting England and Scotland. Her relative, Electress Sophia of Hanover was appointed heir in 1701, but she died a few months before Anne, and her son therefore became king Georg I. She died after a lifelong battle with the blood disease porphyria after having lived (1665-1714).

  1702-08 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
Married to Friedrich of Slesvig-Holstein-Gottorp (1671-1702) in 1698. She stayed in Gottorp for about one year and in 1700 her only child, Karl Friedrich (1700-39), was born, and two years later her husband was killed in battle. She was proclaimed regent while the guardianship was given to her brother, Karl. XII.  She was Hereditary Princess of Sweden until her death, and her son stayed in Sweden until 1718, and was generally considered to be heir to the throne – instead his aunt, Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was chosen as reigning Queen, after the death of her brother, Karl XII. Karl Friedrich’s son Carl Peter Ulrich later became Czar Peter of Russia. Hedvig Sofia was daughter of Karl XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Older, and lived (1681-1708). 

  1702 Governor, Lieutenant General and Administrator Queen Maria Luisa Gabriala de Saboya of Spain
Appointed regent during her husband, Felipe V’s campaign in Italy. Mother of four sons, two of whom died in infancy and two others became the kings Luis I Felipe of Spain (1707-1724) and Fernando IV (1713-46-59). She was influential during his whole government together with The Princesse des Ursine, and the three conducted the government business together – as the “Council of Three”. Her father, Duke Vittorio Amedeo II, was duke of Savoia and became King of Sicily in 1713, which he exchanged with Sardinia in 1718. She lived (1688-1714).

  1702-06 Regent Dowager Countess Amalia Regina von Zinzendorff und Pottendorf of Ortenburg (Germany)
In  charge of the government during the ilness of husband, Georg Philipp von Ortenburg (1655-1702), and after his death, she took over the regency for their only surviving son, Johan George (1686-1725) with the approval of Emperor Leopod I. She reformed the school-system and introduced compulsory primary education for children aged 5-12, and managed to keep the county out of the upheaveals of the War of the Spanish Succession 1701-14, except from a minor incident in 1703, and she send her son to Great Britain for his education to keep him out of the Austrian army. She also promoted the Evangelican church of the state lived (1663-1709).

  1702-09 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhage (Denmark and Germany)
Married Christian Adolf von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Franzhage in 1676. In 1668 King Frederik III had removed him from the duchy because his heavy dephts. She travelled to Copenhagen to try to persuade the king to hand back the territories, but instead they settled in Franzhagen. After her husband’s death, she was in charge of the government because of her sons had married below their staus. Leopold Christian (d. 1707) and Ludwig Carl (d. 1708). She lived (1646-1709).

  1702-11 Politically Influential The Duchess of Marlborough in Great Britain
Sarah Jennings was a childhood friend of Princess Anne. In 1677 she married John Churchill, later 1st duke of Marlborough. On Anne’s marriage in 1683 she was appointed Lady of the bedchamber and became a close confidante. Although temporarily out of favour (1692–94) owing to the political disgrace of her husband, Sarah maintained a close relationship with the Queen. No king’s mistress had ever wielded the power granted to the duchess, but she became too confident in her position. She developed an overbearing demeanour towards Anne, and berated the Queen in public. Around 1705 they began to quarrel over Whig cabinet appointments. Until then Sarah had wielded considerable influence at court, but gradually Abigail Masham, a kinswoman both of Sarah herself and of the Tory leader Robert Harley, replaced her in Anne’s affections. Finally dismissed in 1711, she and her husband went abroad in 1713. After his death in 1722 she supervised completion of the building of Blenheim Palace, quarrelling bitterly with its architect, Sir John Vanbrugh, and with most of her relatives. She lived (1660–1744). 

  1702-10 Administratrice Christine de Salm-Salm of Remiremont, Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
In 1684 her sister, Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm, had her named as Second-in-Command against the ancient tradition where the Doyenne was the Deputy to the Abbess, and named Secréte, the third-in-command, after the death of Anne de Malain de Lux by the Pope, but never-the-less the ladies of the chapter elected Elisabeth-Gabrielle-Françoise Rouxel de Médavy to the post, but Christina von Salm continued as her sister’s de-facto deputy, and she was Acting Princess-Abbess during the minority of Élisabeth-Charlotte. She lived (1653-?).

  1703-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of king Ewuakpe of Benin (1700-12). His successor Ozuere only reigned for one year and did not appoint his mother Iyoba of Uselu since this traditionally happened after three years of reign by the king.

  1703-11 Postmistress General Dorothea Kragh in Denmark
In 1694 she married the 63-year-old gehejmestatsminister (Minister of State) and chief of the Admiralty, baron Jens Juel til Juelinge (d. 1700). Her second husband was the king’s natural son, Count Christian Gyldenløve of Samsø, whom she followed toItaly, where he was in command of a battalion, and gave birth to their first son, Christian Danneskiold-Samsøe there. The second son, Frederik, was born in 1703, four month’s after Christian’s death. Already while pregnant she negotiated with Frederik 4. about taking over the income from the Danish postal service, which her husband had had since 1689. She was appointed Generalpostmester, and much to the surprise of most people, she took over the management herself with the help of a number of representatives. 1705 she made new and detailed instructions to the local postmasters, and when her contract ended in 1711 the post service was a good business with a surplus. In 1715 she married, gehejmeråd (Privy Councillor), Count Hans Adolf Ahlefeldt, and lived (1675-1754).

  1704-05 Regent Princess Palatine Therese Kunigunde Sobieska of Bavaria (Germany)
1695 she became the second wife of Kurfürst Maximilian II Emmanuel (1662-1726). In 1683 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor at Vienna in the battle against the Turks. In 1691 he became governor of the Spanish Netherlands. And apparently she was in charge of the government in a period when he was away from the Electorate. Among their children was Karl VII Albert elector of Bavaria, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1742. Daughter of King Jan III of Poland Sobieski, and lived (1676-1730).

  1704-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Gisela Agnes vonRath of Anhalt-Köthen (Germany)
1715-40 Reigning Dowager Lady of the  City, Land and Castle of Nienburg
Her husband, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), had designated her as heir for their son Leopold (1694-1704-28). She promoted the Lutheran faith and founded a Chapter for Noble ladies, das Adlige Damenstift Gisela-Agnes-Stift, and also promoted the composer Johan Sebastian Bach. Her family was of lower nobility and in 1694 Emperor Leopold I had named her Countess of the Realm, Reichsgräfin von Nienburg and 1699 her son handed over the City, Land and Castle of Nienburg (Saale) to her, and she reigned it as her dowry when she handed over the government to her son. She lived (1670-1740).

  1704-08 Reigning Princess Tassi Hangbe of Abomey (Benin)
She does not appear in the official king’s lists but it is generally agreed that she reigned after her brother Akaba (1685-1704) and was followed on the throne by another brother, Agaja, and became one of Abomey (or Dahomey)’s most important rulers, who reigned until 1740. 

  1704 Regent Princess Fatima of the Maldive Islands
When the news of the possible drowning of her husband, Isdu King Siri Muthei Ranmani Loka/ Sultan Ibrahim Mudhiruddine who after his abdication was known as Isdu Ibrahim Bodu Kilegefan, while returning from the Hajj pilgrimage reached Malé in 1704, she attempted to usurp the throne in her own right. Her rival and brother-in-law, Admiral-in-chief Hussain was banished to Naifaru. She was however displaced from the Eterekoilu – the residence of the Sultans – by the Prime Minister Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan who was crowned as King Siri Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Sasthura – Sultan Mudzhaffar Mohamed Imaduddine II.

  1704-06 Head of the Guardian Government Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Marie Sofie von Schleswig-Holstein-Nordburg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Denmark and Germany)
1706-67 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ahrensbök
As her husband, Adolf August had died 4 days before his father, Hans Adolf, she became regent for 2 year old son, Leopold August, but he died at the age of 4 and an interregnum followed for a number of years, and she moved to her dowry in Ahrensbök. 1710 she married Duke August Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1662-1731) as his third wife, though he was gay and had no children in any of his marriages. Also known as Elisabeth von Holsten-Nordborg, she lived (1683-1767).

  1704-43 Princess of the Realm Ursula Katharina zu Altenbockum of Teschen 
1705-43 Dame of the Castle and City of Hoyerswerd (Germany)
After her divorce from Prince Georg Dominicus Lubomirski she became the maitresse of August the Strong of Sachsen, and gave birth to a son, after which she was named Reichsfürstin. She was involved in the fall of the Saxon Chancellor Beichlingen. She later married Prince Friedrich Ludwig von Württemberg, who died 1734. Shortly before her death, she sold the Lordship of Hoyerswerda to August III. She was born in Lithuania and lived (1680-1743).

  1704-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Luise Elisabeth von Württemberg-Bernstadt of the Castle of Jahnschen in Forst in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)
Her husband, Philipp Sachsen-Merseburg zu Lauchsätt (1657-90), was killed at Fleurus. During her residence, the city of Forst experienced its last feudal period of economic growth. All her 3 children died in infancy, and she lived (1673-1736).

  1704-07 and 1711-14 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Josefa de Lanuza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The Abbess of the chapter had the right to hold her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synod.

  1704-42 Reigning Abbess Louise-Françoise de Rochechouart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Succeeded her aunt Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart.

  1704-18 Acting Princess-Abbess Marie Aurora von Königsmarck of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Her father, General Graf Konrad Christoph von Königsmarck, fell in battle and she went with her mother, the Swedish Baroness Maria Christina von Wrangel af Lindeberg, to Sweden. After her death in 1691 she lived with her sister in Hamburg. 1696-97 she was the mistress of Elector Friedrich August II of Sachsen. Afterwards she retired to Quedlinburg where she became second-in-command as Pröpstin, but lived in Berlin, Dresden and Hamburg. 1702 she went on a diplomatic mission to the Swedish army in Narwa. After the Peace of she retired to Quedlinburg and was the Acting Sovereign as no Princess-Abbess was elected. She was in dispute with the other ladies of the chapter, Dechaness Eleonora Sophie von Schwarzenburg and her sister Maria Magdalena and various attempts to reconciliate the three failed even though the King of Prussia and the Emperor intervened. She spoke various languages, was a virtuous player of Lute and Viola da Gamba, and composed various operas, lieder and cantata. She lived (1662-1728).

  1704-09 and 1735-36 Politically Influential Queen Katarzyna Leszczyńska of Poland
Involved in politics during the reign of husband, king Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland and afterwards Duke of Lorraine and Bar. Her daughter, Maria Leszczyńska, was Queen of France and Duchess of Lorraine. Katarzyna lived (1680-1747).

  1705-48 Sovereign Duchesse Elisabeth de Lorraine-Lillebonne of Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl (France)
Also known as Princess Elisabeth de Elboeuf she bought the Duchy in 1705 from Marie of Orleans sold it to Elizabeth of Lorraine-Lillebonne, widow of Louis de Melun, prince of Epinoy, and their daughter married the prince of Rohan-Soubise, who thus became count of St Pol. In 1724 she transferred it to her son Louis de Melun, prince of Epinoy, and when he died it was inherited by her daughter, the Princesse de Soubise.   She was daughter of François-Marie de Lorraine-Lillebon and Anne de Lorraine-Vaudemont and her sister, Beatrix de Lorraine-Lillebonne was Abbess at Retiremont. She lived (1664-1748).

  1705-17 Joint Sovereign Countess Albertine zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of a Portion of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)
Oldest daughter and heiress (erbtochter) of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, whose brother of Volrath zu Limpurg-Sponheim left five daughters as co-heirs after his death in 1712, with whom she and her sisters and cousins co-reigned the territories from 1713. She was married to Friedrich von Welz, and succeeded by son, Friedrich Ernst. 

  1705-65 Joint Sovereign Countess Christine zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of a Portion of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)
When the last male member of the family died in 1713, she and 9 other female heiresses (erbtöchter) took over the reign. She was second daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, and had no children with her husband Victor-Sigismund von Grävenitz.

  1705-54 Joint Sovereign Countess Amalia Alexandra Friederike zu Limpurg-Speckfeld of a Portion of Limpurg-Speckfeld (Germany)
Together with her sisters and cousins she took over the reign in 1713. She was third daughter of daughter of Georg-Eberhard Lord zu Limpurg-Speckfeld, she was first married to Johann Georg von Wolframsdorf and secondly to Count Joachim von Rechteren (d. 1715) and was succeeded first by oldest son Count Friedrich-Ludwig von Rechteren-Limburg, who again was succeeded by his son Adolf Friedrich who reigned until 1819, until he was succeeded by Amalia’s youngest son, Friedrich-Reinhald. Amalia, whose daughter, Josine-Elisabeth was also co-heiress, lived (1689-1754).

  1705-06 Sovereign Lady Dowager Duchess Mauricienne Fébronie de La Tour-d’Auvergne von Bayern of Schwabeck (Germany)
Also known as Mauritia Febronia, Princess d’Évreux, she was daughter of Frédéric Maurice de la Tour d’Auvergne, Duke de Bouillon (d. 1652) and Eleonore Katharina von Berg (d. 1657), she grew up under the protection of King Louis XIV, and married Duke Maximilian Philipp of Bayern, Landgraf von Leuchtenberg (1638-1705), who acted as regent 1679-80 for his nephew, making her the first Lady of the electorate. After her husband’s death she reined the lordship. It was during the War of the Spanish Succession. Her husband had received Letters of Protection from both the Habsburg Emperor and the King of France to prevent the lordship from being looted, and she vehemently secured that the foreign soldiers lived up to the letters. She had no children, and lived (1652-1706)

  1705-1711 Politically Influential Empress Wilhelmine Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of The Holy Roman Empire
During the reign of her husband Josef I von Habsburg, she sided with her mother-in-law, Eleonora Magdalena von der Pfalz-Neuburg, and they even founded their own little court party. After her husband’s death, she was no longer involved with politics, except for the promotion of her two daughters. Her brother-in-law, Emperor Karl VI, proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which placed his own daughters before those of his deceased brother, Emperor Josef. At first she fought against this and counted on the support of their two sons-in-law, the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, but gave up when the Austrian court did not support her. In 1740, after the sudden death of Emperor Karl VI, both her sons-in-law decided to claim the Imperial office. At first they had the support of Wilhelmine Amalie but, when the Bavarians started to prepare for war, she sided with her niece, Maria Teresa. She founded a convent, where she spent the rest of her life, having lived (1673-1742).  

  1705-33 Politically Influential Wilhelmine von Grävenitz in Württemberg (Germany)
Known as “Die Grävenitz”, she was the mistress and from 1706 the official Maitresse of Duke Eberhard Ludwig and she gained control of the whole administration and employed a “secret police” in order to maintain her position. She surrounded the Duke with her protégés and confidants, became the centre of a court party and sold court offices, and had her brother, Wilhelm Friederich, appointed as Prime Minister. In 1707 she had married Eberhard Ludwig married to the left hand, but the marriage was dissolved because of pressure from the Emperor. She went in exile in Switzerland followed by the Duke until they both returned in 1710 after she had been married to the Landhofmeister Graf von Würben. When Eberhard Ludwig’s only son died in 1731 he returned to his wife, Johanna Elisabeth von Baden-Durlach with the hope of producing a new heir, but he died of a stroke two years later. After his death she fled to Berlin and was prosecuted by his nephew and successor, but a compromise was reached. Christine Wilhelmine Friederike lived. (1686-1744).

  1705-14 Politically Influential Lady Abigail Masham in United Kingdom of Great Britain 
In 1704 she became Lady of the Bedchamber Queen Anne through the influence of her cousin Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. In 1707 she married Samuel Masham (later a baron), a groom to Anne’s husband, Prince Jørgen (George) of Denmark. Abigail Masham gradually supplanted the Duchess of Marlborough in the Queen’s affection and became the instrument through which Robert Harley, her kinsman, exerted his influence on Anne. In 1714, however, they quarrelled with and she, secured his dismissal as lord treasurer, and assured Viscount Bolingbroke (Henry St. John) of supreme political power. After Anne’s death (1714), she lived in retirement until her death in 1734.     

  1706-54 Temporary in charge of the Government Princess Anna Louise Föse of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)
Generally known as Annelise, she was married to Leopold I (1676-93-1747), who spend much of his reign away as officer in the army of Brandenburg, and she was left in charge of the government and reigned with insight and intelligence. She was daughter of a chemist and against the opposition of his mother, Henriëtte Catharina; they had married in 1698, when he took over the government after his mother’s regency, which had lasted from 1693. In 1701 years she was given the rank of a Countess of the Realm (Reichsgräfin) legitimizing their children. When her son, Leopold II died in December 1751, his wife, Gisela Agnes von Anhalt-Köten had already died a few months earlier, and her younger son, Dietrich, took over for her 11 year old grandson, Leopold III, with her continuing to be in charge when Dietrich was away with the Preussian army where he was Field Marshal like his father and  brothers. The mother of 10 children, she lived (1677-1754).

  1706-29 Reigning Princess Marianna Lubomirska of Jaroslaw and Ostróg (Ukraine and Poland)
The Ukrainian Principality of Jaroslaw which was repeatedly pillaged by Russian, Saxon and Swedish armies during the Great Northern War of 1700-21, causing the town to decline further. She was daughter of Prince Jozef Karol, Great Crown Marshal of Poland, (1661-1702) and Princess Teofila Ludwika Zaslawska (d. 1709)  and married to Prince Pawel Karol Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (1682-1750), she had no children and lived (1693-1729).

  1706-before 1723 Sovereign Lady Juana de Moura y Aragón of las Islas Terceras in the Azores (Portugal)
Succeeded her sister, Leonor as 5th Marchioness de Castelo Rodrigo, 4th Countess of Lumiares, 34rd Duchess of Nocera from 1675 and Governor of Sicily in 1677.  She was daughter of Francisco de Moura y Melo and Anna María d’Aragona and married to Gilberto Pius, Prince of San Gregorio. The couple had four children the eldest of whom born in 1672 succeeded her as 6th Marquess.

  1706-17 Princess-Abbess Anna Juliana Helene von Manderscheid-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1708-17 Princess-Abbess of Elten and Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
During her reigh the principality ended it’s long lasting disputes with the Republic of the Netherlands with a treaty in 1715, which defined the rights of the abbey and the Staten Generaal – the Dutch parliament. In Elten she was succeeded by Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid.

  1706-24 Princess-Abbess Marie Françoise Josephine de Berghes of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Daughter of Philipp Franz, Prince de Berghes, Count de Grimberghe etc, who was Governor of Hainault and later of Brussels and Marie Jacqueline de Lalaing, Baroness de Gaesbeek, and lived (1678-1724).

  1706-37 Princess-Abbess Maria Mechtildis Berchtoldof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family.

  1706-53 Princess and Abbess Marie Gertrude von Berlepsch of the Stift zu den Engeln in Prag (Chapel of Angels in Prague) in Austria-Hungary
After husband, Wilhelm Ludwig von Berlepsch (1639-76), died of the wounds he received by the siege of Philippsburg, she became responsible for her two sons, Sittich Herbold (1673-1712) and the posthumously born, Peter Philipp Josef (1676-1721). As she chose to have her second son baptised by an Evangelican priest in 1680, the Prince-Abbot of Fulda sieged her castle Eichenzell and fined her 200 gulden, but she refused to bow. The same year the Emperor took her under his protection and in 1684 she was named Hofmeisterin (Mistress of the Court) in the Court of the first wife of the Pfalzgraf Johann Wilhelm von Pfalz Neuburg, and after her death in 1689, Marie Gertrude continued in office as Oberhofmeisterin (Chief Mistress) by the first wife of the Pfalzgraf and Elector Karl Philipp nach Neuburg an der Donau. 1690 she was appointed Oberhofmeisterin of Marie Anna who married king Carlos II of Spain, and during her time in Spain, she had a decisive influence on the politics of the country and thereby also in the rest of Europe. She worked for the interests of Austria and was very influential when it came to appointment to important offices and became very rich. In 1695, the Emperor raised her and her sons to the positions of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafenstand), but in the meantime the opposition against the German influence on the Queen-Regent grew, and Marie Gertrude left Spain in 1700. She bought back the part of the Estate of Eichenzell that had been taken as security by the Abbot of Fulda in 1680, and in 1699, she bought the Lordship of the Realm of Mylendok (Reichsherrschaft), and lived her to her death. 1706 she became the first Abbess of the newly founded Ladies Chapel in Prague (englischen weltlichen Fräulein-Stift in der Neustadt Prag) and she was appointed Princess of the Empire (Reichsfürstenstand). Born as Wolf von Gudenberg, she lived (1654-1723).

  1706-08 Abbess Nullius Onofria Tarsi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Elected in the presence of Bishop of Monopoli.

  1707-27 Regent Dowager Margravine Sibylla Augusta von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Baden-Baden (Germany)
1728-33 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City and Castle of Ettlingen et cetera
Barely 15 as she became the wife of “Türkenlouis”, Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden (1655-1707). She became regent for her only surviving son, August Georg Simpert (1706-1707-1771) in the middle of the war of the Spanish Succession, under difficult circumstances. She used lots of energy in the rebuilding of Baden, and reviving the finances, which had stressed heavily during the two wars. She used her personal incomes from Bohemia but also granted privileges and tax advantages for the rebuilding-efforts. She build various manors, castle and churches and she was a grand promoter of the arts. Already when she assumed the regency she started to limit the influence of the co-regents, Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz and Duke Leopold Josef von Lothringen, and she managed to persuade the French marshal Villars to half his war-taxes and she was successful in persuading Emperor Leopold to fulfil parts of his promises of vast financial contributions to her late husbands. After her son assumed the government, she withdrew totally to her dowries. She was daughter of Duke Julius Franz von Sachsen-Lauenburg and Maria Hedwig Augusta von Pfalz-Sulzbach, and had inherited vast lands and lordships, mainly in Bohemia; she gave birth to nine children, and lived (1675-1733).

  1707-? Soledatu We Adda of Soppeng (Indonesia)
Succeeded brother, La Tenrisenge Towes, as ruler of the Buginese state in South Western Celebes/Sulawesi. Married to Arung Palakka of Bone.

  1707-14 Sovereign Duchess Maria Clara Angelica van Egmond of Gavre, Princess of Steenhuis, Marchioness di Renty, Countess van Egmond and Berlaymont, Baroness of Hierège, Lalaing and Lens and Lady of Fiennes and Floyon (The Netherlands)
Her father Filip II was Vice-roy of Sardegna her mother Maria Fernanda de Croy, was heir to the Margravate of Renthy. She succeeded her brother, Filip. She was married to Nicolo Pignatelli, Duke di Bisaccia, Count di (1658-1719), and her son, Propocio, held the titles. She lived (1661-1714).

  1708-09 Regent Queen Louise von Mecklenburg-Güstow of Denmark and Norway
The government of the realm was in her hands during the journey of her husband, Frederik 4 to Italy. She had been married the later king since 1695. Her husband was first married to the “left hand” with Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg and after her death to Comtesse Anna Sophie Reventlow. The Queen became more and more engaged in her pietistic faith. She was mother of two surviving children and three other children who all died as infants, and lived (1667-1721).

  1708-23 Sovereign Princess Anna Henrietta Julia zu Pfalz-Simmern of Arches-Charleville (France)
Also known as Anne-Henriette de Bavière, she inherited the principality after the death of her grandfather, the last duke of Mantua Carlos III, who used the title of “Carolus Gonzaga dux Nivernensis et Rethelensis, Dei gratia princeps supremus Archensis”. She was daughter of Anna Maria of Gonzaga, and married to the Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé and mother of 10 children. Arches was considered part of the kingdom in 1789 when the Estates General were called, and its residents elected a representative to what became the National Assembly. She lived (1648-1723).

  Around 1708 Army Leader Mai Bhago Ju in Punjab (India)
A member of a high-ranking Sikh-family, she led troops in battle in favour of the Sikh faith. She was seriously wounded, and thereafter stayed on with Guru Gobind Singh as one of his personal guard. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded in 1708, she retired further south. She settled down at Jinvara, 11 km from Bidar in Karnataka where, immersed in meditation, she lived to attain a ripe old age. 

  1709-15 Joint Regent Dowager Queen Anna Irubakidze of Kakheti (Georgia)
After the death of her husband, Irakli I, King of Kakheti (1675-1676, 1703-1709) and Kartli (1688-1703), she was regent  with her younger son, Teimuraz (future king Teimuraz II of Kakheti)  for her absent elder son David II (Imam Quli-Khan) from 1709-15. The kingdom was under the protection of the Safavid dynasty of Iran. The daughter of Prince Shirmazan Irubakidze of Sacholokao, she (d. after 1716).

  1709 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Barbara Dorothea von Winterfeldt of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhage (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her mother-in-law, Eleonore Charlotte von Sachsen-Lauenburg, she tried to continue running the estates of the small duchy, but she had to give up and moved to Hamburg where she died in powerty. Her husband, Ludwig Carl von Holstein-Sønderborg in Franzhage had died in 1708. She (d. 1739).

  1709-14 Regent Dowager Sovereign Lady Ursula Regine Marie von Friesen of Muskau (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Curt Reinicke von Callenberg (165-1709) she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, Johann Alexander Graf von Callenberg. She lived (1658-1714).

  1709-51 Reging Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christiane Emilie Antonie Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Mirow in Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Duke Adolf Friedrich II von Mecklenburg-Strelitz she reigned in her dowry. She was mother of 2 children; Sophie Christine Louise von Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1706-08) and Karl Friedrich Ludwig Herzog zu Mecklenburg, Prinz zu Mirow (1708-52). She lived (1681-1751).

  1709-39 Reigning Abbess Maria Antonia Constantina Scholastika von Falkenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Built the large baroque chapter-complex in the years 1721–27. 5 of her sisters were nuns in Unterlinden in Colmer, 1 in Günterstal and 3 possibly in Alspach beiKeysersberg, her brother, Adalbert became Bishop of Csanád in Hungary, another was a cleric and the last married a former nun in Wald. She was daughter of Freiherr von Falkensten and Anna Franziska Ursula von Mercy, and lived (1666-1739).

  1710-19 Raja Devi P’ra-Chao of Patani (Thailand) 
Raja Mas Jayam reigned the merciant Malayan state in the south of Thailand 1707-10 and 1724-26.

  Ca. 1710-ca. 60 Queen Regnant Asea Poku of Baule (Ashante-Brong) (Cote d’Ivoire)
The Baule belong to the Akan peoples who inhabit Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. During the Asante rise to power the Baule Queen, Aura Poku, was in direct competition with the Asante king. When the Asante prevailed, the Queen led her people away to the land they now occupy. The male descendant of Aura Poku still lives in the palace she established. Succeeded by niece.

  1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Marie Hedwig zur Lippe zu Brake of Bentheim-Tecklenburg Steinfurt and Limpurg, Lady of Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Hereditary Guardian of Cöllin (Germany)
Second wife of Friedrich Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1653-1710) and regent for son her only son Moritz Kasimir I (1701-68). In official documents, she used the title “wittiben Grafin zu Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfurt und Limburg, Frau zu Linge, Rheda, Wefflinghoffen, Hoya Alpen und Helffenstein, Erb Voigtin Zu Cölln, gebohren Gräfin und Edle Fraue Zur Lippe, Confirmirte Vormünderin und Regentin pp.” She lived (1669-1738).

  1710-18 Regent Dowager Countess Christine von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Stolberg-Wernigerode, Hohnsteinschen Forst, Gedern and Schwarza (Germany)
As her husband Ludwig Christian zu Stoberg-Gedern-Schwarza und Hohnstein and brother-in-law Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode died soon after each other, her 3 surviving sons, hristian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern and Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza, each inherited parts of the counties. In Wernigerode she was regent for her oldest son, Christian Ernst, with confirmation of Emperor Joseph until 1714 and for the youngest until 1718. In spite of the fact that her duties as regent meant that she had to travel a lot, she also collected a large library and was in close contact with her relatives inDenmark,Brandenburgand various Saxon lines. In order to prevent the citizen getting drunk and engaging in fights, she issued a decree closing all inns on holidays. King Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Preußen protested against this in 1713, but she managed to persuade him to accept her decision. She maintained an extensive correspondence with several of the influential Pietistic theologians of the time. She gave birth to 23 children with in 21 years: Gustav Adolf (born and dead January 1684), a daughter (born and dead in 1684), Gustav Ernst (1685-89), Friederike Charlotte zu Solms-Laubach (1686-1739), Emilie Auguste zu Stolberg-Rossla (1687-1730), Christine Luise (1688- August 1691), Albertine Antonie (1689-August 1691), Karl Ludwig (1689- August 1691), Gustave Magdalene (1690-March 1691), Christian Ernst zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (1691-1771), Christine Eleonore zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Büdingen (1692-1745), Friedrich Karl zu Stolberg-Gedern (1693-1767), Ernestine Wilhelmine zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Wächtersbach (1695-1759), Ludwig Adolf (1697-98), Heinrich August zu Stolberg-Schwarza (1697-1748), Friederike Luise (1696-97), Sophie Christiane (1698-1771), Ferdinande Henriette zu Erbach-Schönberg (1699-1750) Rudolf Lebrecht (1701-02), Ludwig Christian (September-November 1701), Auguste Marie (1702-68) (a Canoness in Heford, created Fürstin in 1742), Karoline Adolfine (1704-07) and Philippine Luise zu Isenburg-Philippseich (1705-44). She was the 5th daughter of Duke Gustav Adolf zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Magdalene Sibylle von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and lived (1663-1749).

  1710-28 Sovereign Marchioness Marie Anne Henriette Leopoldine de La Tour d’Auvergne of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)
Also known as Marie Henrëtte, she succeeded father, Francois Egon de La Tour d’Auvergne, Count d’Auvergne et d’Oliergues and from 1722 she reigned jointly with husband Prince Johann Christian Joseph von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, who was succeeded by their son, Karl Phillip Theodor, Pfalzgraf and Kurfürst von der Pfalz in 1742 and Kurfürst of Bayern in 1777. He was as under the regency of her mother, Maria Anna van Arenberg. She lived (1708-28). 

  1710-22 Guardian and Administrator Dowager Marchioness Maria Anna van Arenberg of Bergen op Zoom and Walhain  (The Netherlands)
After the death of her husband, she acted as regent for her daughter, Maria Henriëtte de la Tour d’Auvergne. According to some sources Maria Anna’s mother acted as regent for Maria Henrietta’s son Karel Philip Theodoor van Sulzbach from 1728. She was daughter of Philippe Charles François d’Arenberg, 3rd Duke of Arenberg, Duke d’Aerschot and Donna Maria Enrietta del Caretto, Marchesa di Savona y Grana (Marie-Henriette d’Alcaretto, marquise de Grana e Savona), and lived (1689-1736).

  1710-32 Sovereign Countess Christiane Luise von Ostfriesland-Rietberg-Cirsena of Criechingen, Lady of Rollingen et cetera (Germany)
Only little more than one month old when her father, Count Friedrich Ulrich of Rietberg, died. He had succeeded his brother three years earlier, who again had succeeded their mother, Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen in 1705. Christine Louise’s mother was Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland (1689-1761). She later married Johann Ludwig von Wied zu Runkel (1705-1762) and died after giving birth to her second child, and first son, Christian Ludwig, who survived and had children with his wife, Charlotte Sophie Auguste von Sayn-Wittegenstein. She lived (1710-32).

  1710-26 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Charlotte von Ostfriesland  of Criechingen, Rollingen et cetera (Germany)
Regent for her daughter Christiane Louise (1710-32) until she married Prince Johann Ludwig von Wied-Runkel. She was 3rd of the 10 children of Christian Eberhard I von Ostfriesland and Eberdine Sofie von Oettingen-Oettingen, she lived (1689-1761) .

  1710-38 Princesse-Abbesse Béatrix Hiéronyme de Lorraine-Lillebonne of Remiremont (France)
Known as the “Mademoiselle de Lillebonne”, she had lived in the entourage of the Grand Dauphin at Versailles, before she was named coadjutrice in 1705-11. She was daughter of Charles IV de Lorraine and Béatrix de Cusance. She built a Hospital for the sick, poor and orphans, and  lived (1662-1738).

  1710-17 Guardian Dowager Countess Erdmuthe Benigna zu Solms-Laubach of Reuss zu Ebersdorf (Germany)
She was guardian for son, Heinrich XXIIX after the death of her husband, Heinrich X. Some male relatives were regents. She lived (1670-1732).

  1710-25 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Dorothea Renata von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf of Castell-Remlingen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Graf Wolfgang Dietrich zu Castell-Remlingen, she was joint guardian for son, Ludwig Friedrich Graf und Herr zu Castell-Remlingen (1707-10-72). She was the aunt of the founder and leader of the Herrnhuts Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760). His guardian was Graf Friedrich Eberhard zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, and lived (1669-1743).

  1710-11 and 1718-20 Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her full title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the royal abbey”.

  1711-37 Sovereign Duchess Anna Ivanovna in Livonia of Kurland and Semigallia (Latvia)
1730-40 Imperatitsa Regnant Anna Ivanovna of Russia
Her husband, Friedrich-Wilhelm of Kurland, died after two months of marriage in 1711, leaving her as reigning Duchess. 19 years later the Privy Council offered her the Russian throne on certain conditions, which reduced the autocratic powers, but unrest ensued and she was made to repudiate the restrictions. Having become a full autocratic Empress, she dissolved the supreme privy council. She had patience and common-sense but preferred to sign official documents unread and leave the ruling to two Germans, Field Marshall Muennich and Count Ostermann. However, these were soon eclipsed by the Empress’s lover, Ernst Buehren, or Biron, whom she brought to Russia. She had a taste for guns and enjoyed shooting through windows at birds in her garden. Lazy and easily bored, she surrounded herself with gossiping women, dwarfs and hunchbacks. Zarina or Zaritsa Anna lived (1693-1740).

  1711-33 Governess Dowager Princess Maria Louise von Hessen-Kassel of Friesland, Groningen, Drente and Gelderland (The Netherlands)
1732-65 Baroness of IJsselstein
1759-65 Governess of Friesland
Her husband Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau, had been non-hereditary Stadholder of the Netherlands, and she was in charge of the government as Acting Stadholder in parts of the country first son, Willem IV, Price of Oranje and Nassau and then for Grandson Willem V, after the death of his mother, Princess Anne. Her regency took place during the Twenty Years War, and she was very popular in Friesland and known as warm and friendly and was involved in social work.
The barony of IJsselstein was part of the Oranje-Nassau inheritance but the Staten-Generaal challenged the inheritance, but she managed the barony and was later given it as a present. Known as Marijke Meu (Aunty Marijke), she was the sister of Friedrich, who became king of Sweden in 1720 after the abdication of his wife, Queen Ulrika Eleonora, and lived (1688-1765).

  1711 Regent Dowager Empress Eleonora-Magdalena von der Pfalz-Neuburg of Austria and Hungary et cetera
The widow Emperor Leopold I (1640-57-1705), she was regent for son Karl VI until his arrival from Spain, where he reigned as Carlos III, in order to succeed his brother, Joseph I, whose two daughters, Maria Josefa and Maria Amalia, were passed over in the succession but later contested the succession of Karl’s daughter Maria-Theresia in 1740. Eleonora lived (1655-1720).

  1711-14 Stadholder and General-Captain Elisabeta Cristina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Aragón, Catalunya and Valencia (Spain)
1735 Politically Influential in Austria
1708 she married Carlos III of Spain, who was only in control of Aragón, Cataloña and Valencia during the succession-war between the Habsburgs and Borbons, and acted as regent during his absences. In 1711 he succeeded his brother, Josef I as Emperor Karl VI, and left for Austria. After the victory of the Bourbons she joined her husband. In 1716 she gave birth to a son, who died soon after. The following year the later Empress Maria Theresia was born and two other daughters followed. It was only in 1735 that she gained political influence, forming a party against the Spanish Council in Vienna, but also her daughter kept her away from the government. She lived (1691-1750).

  1711Abbess Nullius Giuditta Pascale of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in the alternative list of Abbesses. 1709 the ancient ceremony where the clergy paid public homage to the Abbess was modified and toned down.

  1711-13 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Rosa von Römerstal of Schänis (Switzerland)
1712 she fled from troops to Zürich into exile into the interior of Switzerland, and in the meantime Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg acted as Regent. The daughter of Johann Wilhelm von Römerstal, Chief Forester of the Bishop of Basel, and Klara Margarethe von Reinach, and the French version of her name was Marie Eve Rose de Rombeveaux.

  1712 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Margaretha von Wessenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)
As the only one to remain in the chapter when the Fürstäbtissin and the other canonisses fled from the troops from Zürich she acted as Stadholder (Statthalterin) from May to August.

  1712-24 Acting Governor Hannah Callowhill Penn of The Colony of Penn (British Possession in the USA)
The King of England gave her husband the lands in 1693. In 1712 he was paralyzed and she became acting governor or Proprietor of the Colony of Penn. He died in 1718 but his son (her stepson) did not “take power” until 1724. The last of the Penn-family to rule the state of Pennsylvania was deposed in 1776. She lived (1671-1727).  

  1712-72 Hereditary Duchess Maria Theresia von und zu Liechtenstein of Troppau (Czech Republic)
1769-72 Head of the Herzoglich Savoyschen Damenstiftes in Wien (Austria)
Also known as Maria Teresa Anna Felicita di Liechtenstein, Marie-Thérèse de Savoie or  Marie Terezie Savojská vévodkyně z Lichtenštejna, she became heir of the Duchy of Troppau through her father, Fürst Johann Adam Ulrich von und zu Liechtenstein (1662-1712), who purchased the Counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg, the core of the present day’s principality. Both her 2 brothers died young  she married Tommaso Emanuele de Savoie-Carignan (Savoia-Carignano), Count of Soissons, Governor of Antwerben (1687-1729) and after his death she took up residence at her family’s castle in Bohemia, Škvorec and 1769 she founded the The Duchal Savoyan Ladies’ Chapter in Vienna  Her son, Eugene Jean François de Soissons was Duke of Troppau (1714-29-34), and married Duchess Maria Teresa di Massa e Carra, but he died before they ever met. After his death, her sister-in-law, Marie Anne Victoria, became heiress of Soissons, and Troppau reverted to the Princely family of Liechtenstein. She lived (1694-1772)

  1712-14 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Margravine Elisabeth Sophie von Brandenburg of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)
Had been given the domain by her husband, Margrave Christian Ernst in 1703 and was very influential in the design of the castle, the garden and the Orangerie, until she married a second time in 1714, and lived (1674-1748).

  1712-30 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Friederike Elisabeth von Sachsen-Eisenach of the Castle and Office of Dryburg in Langensalza in Sachsen-Weissenfels-Querfurt (Germany)
Secured strong social accents to the reforms of her husband, Johann Georg of Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt (1677-97-1712). Her only son and 3 oldest daughters died as infants. Only Johanna Magdalene (1708-60), survived into adulthood and married Ferdinand Kettler, Duke of Kurland and Semgallen, but they did not have any children. The youngest daughter, Friederike Amalia, was born 2 weeks before her father passed, died at the age of 2. She was Daughter of Duke Johann Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and Countess Johanetta von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, and lived (1669-1730)

  1712-36 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Charlotte Wilhelmine von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld of the Office and Caste of Babenhausen in Hanau-Münzenberg (Germany)
Administered her dowey after the death of her husband, Count Philipp Reinhard von Hanau-Münzenberg (1664−1712), but after the death of the last Count of Hanau and the the incorporation of the County into Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt, she took up residence in a palais in the Old City of Hanau. She did not have any children, and lived (1685-1767).

  1712-21 Titular Duchess Anna Sophie Reventlow of Slesvig, Countess of Vallø (Denmark)
Married to the “left hand” to king Frederik (1671-99-1730) and the day after the death of his first wife, Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow in 1721, they got legally married and she was crowned Queen – as the only non-royal so far in Denmark. She was given different estates and lands, among other the County of Vallø, but after the king’s death she was sent in internal exile at Clausholm Castle, her dowry, by her stepson, Christian VI. She was mother of six children who all died in infancy and lived (1693-1743).


1712-13 Princess-Abbess Marie Elisabeth zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim  (Germany)

Was Regent of the Chapter of Rühn in Mecklenburg 1705-12 and held the office of Dechaness of Gandersheim before becoming its Sovereign. She was daughter of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg (1616-1665). Her oldest sister, Sophie Agnes was Regent of Rühn 1654-94, another, Christine was Princess-Abbess of of Gandersheim 1681-93 and Juliane Sibylle was also Regent of Rühn 1695-1701. She lived (1646-1713).

  1712-42 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia II Constanza Schmid of Heggbach (Germany)
Paid off most of the heavy depths of the chapter, but the production buildings were hit by lightening and all the stock burned down to the ground. She wrote to a large number of neighbouring convents – including Gutenzell and Buchau and received plenty of donations. 1713 Emperor Karl VI of Austria confirmed the privileges of the chapter, but the following year she wrote to the Abbesses of Baindt, Gutenzell and Rottenmünster threatening to withdraw from the College of Prelates of the Realm (Reichsprälatenkollegium) if it would bear only financial obligations and no advantages to stay member, and she continued the disputes with the cities and other inhabitants of the territory, because of the taxes imposed by the Realm, and she feared for her position as Princess of the Realm. At the time of her reign the territory covered around 50 square kilometres and 1.718 inhabitants. She lived (1671-1742).

  1713-24 Regent Dowager Countess Isabella Justina von Hoorn of Bentheim und Steinfurt (Germany)
The widow of Count Ernst (1661-93-1713), she was regent for Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), and she was addressed as Highborn Countess of the Realm, Graciously Reigning Countess and Lady (Hochgeborene Reichsgräfin! Gnädigst regierende Gräfin und Frau). 1716 she ended the long dispute with the Bishop of Münster, who finally recognized the sovereignty of the County in present day’s Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony). She had inherited the Lordships of Bratenburg, Kessel, Bicht, Oedekirchen in from her father in 1694 in the Netherlands. She lived (1661-1734).

  1713-19 Payung e-ri Luwu Fatima Batara Tongke of Luwu (Indonesia)
Succeeded father, Muhammad Muizuddin To Palaguna, and was succeeded by the daughter of her father’s sister, Batari Toja. After Batari Toris death, Fatima’s own daughter, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, succeeded to the throne.

  1713-22 Regent Dowager Countess Sophia Eleonora von Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schmiedelfeld of Limpurg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Vollrath Schenk of Limpurg, she became regent against her own will. Four days after his death a representative of the Prussian king claimed the lands, since only 5 daughters had survived. Troops were placed in the county, which withdrew after pressure from Emperor Karl VI. Apart from Volrath’s 5 daughters, their 3 cousins were co-heirs of the Schenken von Limpurg (since 1705), but they could not claim their inheritance because of the Prussian claims until 1746/48, and it was not until 1775 their grandchildren agreed on a division of the lands in ten new lines: Limpurg-Gröningen, Limpurg-Obersontheim, Limpurg-Michelbach Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld, Limpurg-Gaildorf, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Wurmbrand, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim, Limpurg-Gaildorf-Rechteren and Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schönburg-Waldenburg. Sophia Eleonora (d. 1722).

  1713-35 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Oldest daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim and married to Graf Rudolf von Prösing (d. 1718), and succeeded by daughter, Juliane Franziska. 1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane-Magdalena zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim [-Gröningen] (Germany)
Second daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Ludwig-Georg von Hessen-Homburg, and succeeded by daughter, Maria.

  1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Magdalena zu Limburg-Sontheim of a portion of Limpurg-Sontheim – the Lordship of Limpurg Gröningen (Germany)
Second daughter of Vollrath von Limpurg-Sontheim and married to Georg von Hessen-Homburg, and succeeded by daughter, Maria Friederike.

  1713-38 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Third daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, a number of acts exists from her administration of her fiefs. She was married to Friedrich-Karl von Erbach (d. 1731) and succeeded by two daughters Sophia Christine and Friederike. She lived (1695-1738).

  1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Amöne Sophia I zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Fourth daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Heinrich-Friedrich zu Löwenstein-Wertheim, and was succeeded by a number of sons among others Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath and Friedrich-Ludwig, who married the daughters of her sister Sophia Eleonora: Friederike and Sophia-Christine. Her two daughters, Amöne Sophia II and Karoline Christiane also shared the inheritance. Amöne Sophia I lived (1684-1746). 

  1713-46 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike Auguste zu Limpurg-Sontheim of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim – the Lordship of Limpurg-Schmeidenfeld-Speckfeld (Germany)
Fifth daughter of daughter of Vollrath, Lord zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Christian-Heinrich von Schönburg-Waldenburg (d. 1753) and succeeded by daughter, Sophia. The County of Limpurg-Sontheim had one vote in the Bench of the Fränkische Gräfen (Frankish Counts), which had a joint vote in the Council of Princes in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), which became known as the “Seat of the countly Limpurgian Allodial-heirs”.

  1713-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sophie Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office and Castle of Bützow in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
When her husband, Friedrich Wilhelm von Mecklenburg-Grabow-Schwerin (1688-1713) died, she set up a court in her dowry, which formed a small German Reformed congregation, which survived after her death. She lived (1678-1749).

  1713-48 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Friederike Philippine von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg of Neustadt an der Orla in Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt (Germany)
Widow of Friedrich Heinrich von Sachsen-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt and joint guardian for her son Moritz Adolf Karl (1702-59), who chose to become a catholic cleric and was first bishop of Königgrätz and then of Leitmeritz, and he resigned from the Duchy. It seems that she continued to be in charge of the City and Office of Neustadt. She was daughter of Duke Philipp Ludwig von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg and Anna Margaretha von Hessen-Homburg. (1665-1748).

  1713-66 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie zu Sachsen-Meiningen of Gandersheim (Germany)
During her reign the Chapter of the Realm (Reichsabtei), experienced a revival. She had set up her permanent residence in the Stift and used her funds on expanding the church and other institutions and she was a great sponsor of arts and science and baroque culture. She also collected a large library and built a number of baroque buildings. She defended the independence of the chapter against the interventions of the duke of Braunschweig and his use of “Our Chapter” or “Princely Chapter” stressing that Gandersheim was an “ancient Imperial Free Worldly Chapter.” She was daughter of Duke Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen and his second wife Elisabeth Eleonore von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, and lived (1681-1766).

  1713-35 Princess-Abbess Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach of Schänis (Switzerland)
Because of a serious mental inless a Reigning Coadjutorin was installed 1722 until she resigned from office. The Daughter of Johann Franz von Roggenbach, of a noble Austrian family living in the Diocese of Basel, and Maria Jacobe Münch von Rosenberg. She lived (1668-1736).

  1713-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sofia Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel of the Administrative Office of Bützow in Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Friederich Wilhelm zu Mecklenburg in Schwerin, she took over her dorwy, the Amt Bützow-Land, where she set up a court, which formed a small German Reformed congregation that survived after her death. She did not have any children but her husband had at least 9 with different mistresses. She was daughter of Landgraf Karl von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1678-1749).

  1713-19 Politically Influential Marianna Bielińska Denhoff Lubomirska in Poland
During her time as Maitresse of king Augustus II the Strong, she cooperated close with the French Ambassador Jean Besenval and persuade Augustus to conclude an alliance with Ludwik XIV in 1714. Her first marriage to Bogusław Ernest Dönhoff ended in divorce in 1719 and later she married George Ignatius Lubomirski. She was daughter of Grand Marshal Crown Kazimierz Louis Bieliński (d. 1713), the head pro-french party in Poland, and lived (Circa 1685-1730) .

  1714-1715, 1720, 1724-1738 and 1741-1749 H.H. Bata-ri Toja Daeng Talaga Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din, Arumpone of Bone 
1715 and 1728-1738 Datu of Soppeng
1719-20 Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father, H.H. La Patau Paduka Sri Sultan Idris. Styled Datu Chita and Arung Timurang before her accession and during the times she had vacated the throne. First abdicated in favour of her brother. After his deposition she again became ruler, but abdicated immediately in favour of her eldest half-brother. Restored for the third time on his deposition, in 1724. Married to Sultan Muharram Harun ar-Rashid of Sumbawa, Prince Pabukajuwa of Bone and Datu Ulaweng, Arung Zallieng, Adatuwang of Sidenreng, who was Regent of Bone 1724-1725, and finally to Daeng Mamuntuli, Arung Kayu, Regent of Bone 1726-1728. All but the third marriage ended in Divorce. Her ceremonial name was MatinroE-ri Tipuluna had no children, and she was succeeded by a female relative, Siti Nafisha, and lived (1687-1749).

  1714-41 Member of the Council of State Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
1714 Regent of Sweden
1718-20 By the Grace of Good, Sweden’s, the Goths and Wend’s Queen, Grand Duchess of Finland, Duchess of Skåne, Estonia, Livonia, Carelia, Bremen, Behrden, Stettin, Pommerania, Casüben and Wenden, Princess of Rügen, Lady over Ingermanland and Wissmar
1731 and 1738 Regent of Sweden et cetera
Generally known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, she was in charge of the government a number of times during the reign of her brother Karl XII. After his death, she had his confidante, the unpopular Baron Goertz arrested, and – after accepting a number of conditions – she was proclaimed Queen by the estates. These conditions limited royal power; they are regarded being a contract between sovereign and people. Actually, power shifted to the Rigsråd (Council of the Realm), which was responsible to the estates. The privileges obtained by the estates limited royal power so far, that Sweden in fact became an aristocratic republic. She abdicated in favour of her husband, Friedrich von Hessen (1676-1720-51), because she came at odds with the Parliament. She acted as regent both for brother and later for husband, who was succeeded by a son of a sister of hers. She lived (1688-1741).

  1714-21 Governor Ann Andros of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency)
Followed her father George Andros on the post. He had succeeded his uncle, Sir Edmund Andros, who had been granted Alderney for 99 years at an annual rent of about 13 pounds in 1683, then year before. Sir Edmund then delegated his powers to Thomas Le Mesurier to whom he was related by marriage as he had been appointed Governor of New York. According to one source, the island passed to his two daughters and when they both died by 1721 to his sister Anne. Other sources report that John Le Mesurier became Governor in 1714 in the right of his wife, and when he died in 1722 the island passed to Peter Le Mesurier. Anne Le Mesurier died in 1729 and her eldest son Henry became Governor. She lived (1684-1721)

  1714-46 De-Facto Joint Ruler Queen Isabel Farnesio of Spain
1759 Regent Dowager Queen
Born as Elisabetta Farnese di Parma, Elizabeth Farnese was regent until her son, Carlos III, arrived in Spain from The Two Sicilies after the death of her stepson Fernando III (1713-46-59). In 1714 she had married Philip V of Spain (1683-1746) who was was afflicted by fits of manic depression and increasingly fell victim to a deep melancholia, and she quickly obtained complete influence over him. The Triple Alliance thwarted her plans to recover the ancient Italian possessions of Spain, and at length in 1720 the allies made the banishment of Cardinal Alberoni a condition of peace. Sicily also had to be evacuated. And finally, all her entreaties failed to prevent the abdication of Philip, who in 1724 gave up the throne to his son by his first wife, Louis, who however died after seven months and he was recalled to the throne. During his later years, when he was nearly imbecile, she directed the whole policy of Spain so as to secure thrones in Italy for her sons. In 1736 her son Don Carlos became king of the Two Sicilies. Her second son, Philip, inherited the Duchy of Parma via her after the death of her father, Odoardo II of Parma. The mother of 7 children, she lived (1692-1766). 

  1714-41 Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Sofie Amalie Ahlefeldt possibly of Sønderborg in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (Denmark and Germandy)
After the death of her husband, Frederik Vilhelm of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (1668-1714), she administered her dowry, possibly Sønderborg Castle, where she died. She was daughter of Frederik Ahlefeldt, Count of Langeland and Maria Elisabeth Gräfin zu Leiningen-Daghesburg-Hardenburg, and lived (1668-1741)

  1714-35 Major Landowner Princess Sophie Hedevig af Danmark
The daughter of King Christian 5. (1646-99) she inherited a number of estates from her mother, Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Kassel (1650-1714). She exchanged the estates of Gjorslev and Erikstrup for Dronninglund, Dronninggård and Børglumkloster in Jutand. Went into internal “exile” at the estate of Vemmetofte in the south of Denmark in 1721 when her brother, Frederik 4., married Anne-Sophie Reventlow the day after his first wife died. Together with her other brother Carl she set up a court with at least 70 members. When Carl died in 1729 she also inherited Vemmetofte, Højstrup and Charlottenborg, but also his large depths, which she managed to pay off. The following year, her nephew, Christian 6. Succeeded to the throne and gave her an appange and Sorgenfri Slot with among others Frederiksdal. Her religious and social engagement manifested itself by opening schools for the peasants at her estates. As a child she was engaged to Electoral Prince Johann Georg von Sachsen, but he broke it off and attempts to arrange a marriage to Carl XII and later again to Emperor Joseph I also failed, the latter because she would not convert to Catholism. There are rumours that she entered a secret marriage with her long-time companion Count C.A. von Plessen, but officially she never married. In her will she stipulated that Vemmetofte and Højstrup with surrounding estates should become a chapter for noble ladies in one of the three first classes (Adeligt Jomfrukloster). She lived (1677-1735).

  1715 Regent Queen Brhat Maha Kshatriyi of Cambodia 
Born as Princess Brhat Maha Kshatriyi and granted the title of Akka Maha Sri in 1700, she was elder daughter of King Jaya Jatha IV. In charge of the government during the reign of her husband Ang Em (1674-1731), who was in office 1699-1701 and 1710-22.

  1715-22 Regent Johanna Katharina von Montfort of the County of Bergh (The Netherlands)
In 1712 the family of Van den Bergh (‘s-Heerenberg) died out and the county was inherited by the family of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, through her mother-in-law, Marie Klara van den Bergh (1635-1715), the wife of Prince Maximillian von Hohenzollern. Johanna’s younger son, Franz Wilhelm Nikolaus, was granted the title and after the death of her husband, Prince Meinrad II Karl Anton, (1673-1715), she took over the reins. In 1718, she granted the Prussian Commissar of War, Dozem zu Kleve, several manorhouses as fief. Her oldest son was Prince Josef Franz Ernst Meinhard Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1702-69). Johanna von Montfort lived (1678-1759).

  1715-28 Princess-Abbess Lambertina Cécilia de Renesse d’Elderen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
After the death of her predecessor, Anna Leonora, she quickly took the reigns and was elected abbess the following year. She also used the title of Princess, but unlike earlier, the Prince-Bishop of Liège did not protest, perhaps because her brother, Maximiliaan Hendrik van Renesse, was Grand-Bailiff of the County of Loon, Head of the nobility of Liège and Secretary and Advisor of the Prince-Bishop. The internal disputes between different factions within the chapter continued in spite of the difficult financial situation. She was daughter of Georg Frederik de Renesse and Anna Margarethe von Bocholtz, and lived 1670-1728).

  1715-18 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Baradán de Oxinalde of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.

  1715-29 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Emilie Agnes Reuß zu Schleiz of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels and Fürstlich Drehna and Vetschau in Brandenburg (Germany)
After the death of her second husband, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), she took up residence at the Castle of Dahme – that had been given to her husband as a younger son in the Weissenfels-family – it had previously been held as dorwy of his mother,  Johanna Walpurgis of Leiningen-Westerburg. Later she also used the Lordships of Drehna and Vetschau from her first marriage to Count Balthasar Erdmann von Promnitz (1656-1703). She did not have any children in her second marriage. She was daughter of Heinrich I Reuss zu Schleiz and Countess Esther von Hardegg auf Glatz und im Machlande, and lived (1667-1729).

  1715-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of Akenzua I of Benin (1713-35). As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a “wife” with the title of Amoda, she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and had a whole court of officeholders. 

  1716 and 1742-50 Regent Queen Mariana de Austria of Portugal
In 1742 her husband, Joâo V (1689-1709-50) was hit by a stroke and assisted by advisors, she was in charge of the government until his death eight years later, during a period of economic stagnation and decay of the state institutions. She was daughter of Emperor Leopold I of Austria, was mother of five children, and lived (1683-1754).

  1716-35 Datuk We Pattekketana Faeng Tanisanga of Tanette (Indonesia)
Succeeded, father Mappajanci Daeng Matayan (ca. 1677-1716), and married Muhammad Muizuddin of Luwu (1704-1713), who was succeeded as Datu of Luwu by their daughter. We Pattekketana was succeeded by their daughters grandson, who in 1747 was again succeeded by sister, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin, ruler of Luwu from 1734.

  1716-22 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Sybille von Ahlefeld of Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim (Germany)
As guardian (vormundschaftliche Regentin) for her son, Lothar Wilhelm Ernst (1703-22) she filed a case at the Reichskammergericht against her brother-in-law Ludwig Heinrich over the inheritance of the territories of the Lorship of Cratz von von Scharffenstein in 1718, 2 years after the death of her husband, Georg Ludwig. The case closed when Lothar died in an accident and she reached a settlement with Ludwig for her and her 2 daughters, the Countesses Catharina Polyxena epousé zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg ((1702-65) and Maria Sophia Eleonora Wilhelmina epouse zu Wartenberg, got financial compensation, but they did not sell their part of the Cratz-inheritance to Rödelheim until a few years later. She was daughter of Friederich von Ahlefeld-Rixingen and Maria-Elisabeth zu Leiningen and lived (1672-1726).

  After 1716 Pretender Elena of the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)
After the restoration of the kingdom in 1709, and King Pedro IV’s power sharing scheme, the Kinlaza shared power with the other branches. Its northern branch, founded by her brother, João II, who Mbula or Lamba 1680-1716, made a claim on the throne, but the branch of this family that supported Pedro IV and opposed her claim to the throne in the 1710s. And this branch eventually becake kings of the reunited Kingdom of Kongo when Garcia IV came to power in 1743.

  Ca. 1716-40 Kpojito Adonon of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of the kings Akaba and Agaja. She appears to have been the first Kpojito, a title which is translated as Queen Mother, but it literally means “the one who helped the Leopard”, and her role was to serve as compliment to the king and in some aspects as his double, not the least in the spiritual world. The woman elected to this office was normally not related to the king. She was widow of king Wegbaja. She also served as priest for Aligbonon – mother of Akaba and Agaja, and thereby helped legitimizing the rule of their lineage.

  1717-27 Member of the Regency Council Dowager Maharani of Tehri Garhwal (India)
After the death of her husband, Maharaja Upendra Shah Sahib Bahadur, she reigned together with Puran Pal/Puriya Naithani for her son  Maharaja Pradip Shah Sahib Bahadur (1709-17-72).

  1717-31 Governor Violante Beatrice di Bavière of the City and State of Siena (Italy)
Following the death of her husband, Ferdinando de’ Medici, Hereditary Prince of Toscana (in 1713), she was appointed Governatrice of the city, while his brother, Gian Gastone succeeded his father, Cosimo III as Grand Duke of Toscana in 1723 – he was the last male member of the de’ Medici-family. She was engaged in the revival of the cultural and economical life of Sienna. Born as Beatrix of Bayern, she was daughter of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and Adelaide Henriette of Savoia, and lived (1673-1731).

  1717-76 Princess-Abbess Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeersel (The Netherlands)
1726-76 Princess-Abbess of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
After 1718 the principality of Thorn engaged with a long lasting conflict with the Westphalian Circle. The States (Parliament) was not willing to pay fees to the Circle, during the Austrian Succession war, where Thorn paid a fee to Empress Maria-Theresia. In 1726 Franziska Christine was elected as successor to Bernhardina-Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg in Essen she mainly stayed in Essen, where she founded an orphanage – Fürstin-Fransika-Christine-Stiftung.  She was daughter of Count Theodor of Pfalz-Sulzbach of the House of Wittelsbach and Maria Eleonora von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, and used the titulature
ihrer Allerfürstlichsten Hoheit, Franziska Christina von Pfalz-Sulzbach, von Gottes Gnaden Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin der Kaiserlichen Freiweltlichen Stifter Essen und Thorn, in Baiern, zu Jülich-Kleve-Berg Herzogin, Fürstin zu Moers, Gräfin zu Veldenz, Sponheim, der Mark und Ravensberg, Frau zu Ravenstein, Breisig, Huckarde et cetera. She lived (1696-1776).

  1717-27 Princess-Abbess Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected to succeed her relative, Anna Juliana von Manderscheid, who was Abbess of Thorn, Elten and Vreden. After her death another relative, Countess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid was elected Abbess in Elten. In 1719 big parts of the town of Elten was destroyed in a big fire.

  1717-48 Princess-Abbess Sophie Charlotte von Bottlenberg gen. Kessel of Käppel  (Germany)
A Protestant, she succeeded the Catholic Anna Elisabeth von der Hees. A successor was not elected until 1753 because of disputes between the Catholic and Protestant parties after the succession of a new “lord-protector” (Schirmherr) of the Chapter, the Catholic Fürst Wilhelm Hyacinth of Nassau-Siegen.                      

  Ca. 1717-34 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Melchora Juana Sarmiento Valladares y Moctezuma, V Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
Succeeded her sister, Doña Fausta Domenga, married Ventura Fernandez de Cordova, and was succeeded by a distant cousin Doña Teresa Nieto, who lived in Spain. She lived (1697-1734).

  1717-58 18th Hereditary Lord High Constable and Knight Marischal of Scotland, The 14th Countess of Erroll (United Kingdom)
Mary Hay was the Senior Great Officer Royal Office of Scotland and Chief of the King’s Household in Scotland. She succeeded to the title in 1717 when she also became Lady Hay and Baroness of Stain, 23rd Chief of the Hays (since 1171) and Mac Garaidh Mhar (a Celtic title). In 1727 she nominated Johns Duke of Roxburgh, to act as Her Deputy and walk in the procession for the coronation of George II. In 1745 she Raised an army of Buchan men who Stood for “Bonny Prince Charlie” – Prince Charles Edward Stuart. At this time Mary was a practicing Episcopalian and as this faith was persecuted by the Hanoverians she fitted out a grain store as a place of worship. This was known in Cruden Bay as ‘Countess Mary’s Girnal’. It was burnt to the ground in 1746 by English Dragoons. She succeeded her brother, Charles Hay, and was succeeded by grandnephew Lord John Boyd- the grandson of her late sister Margaret. She lived (before 1704-58).

  After 1718 Titular Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)
The family follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. The two senior Princesses of the Royal House, the mother of the Maharaja and her sister, received the principality of Attingal in appanage, and were styled the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal.

  1718-34 Regent Dowager Princess Charlotte Amalia von Nassau-Dillenburg of Nassau-Usingen (Germany)
1735-38 (†) Reigning Dowager Lady of Saarbrücken
After the death of her husband, Fürst Wilhelm Heinrich (1684-1702-18) she assumed the regency for son sons, Karl (1712-18-75) and Wilhelm Heinrich (1718-68). She turned the principality into a “modern” state, by reforming the administration. She created a national archive in the Castle of Idstein, which forms the core of the Archives of Hessen and she created a library that founds the basis for the National Library of Hessen today. She also introduced schools, but she limited the rights of the Jewish community. In spite of her abilities, she was not able to give the Principality a “suitable” place in the Empire, and even allowed her sons to split up the country, which weakened the state a lot. 1734 Karl was declared to be of age by Emperor Karl VI but she continued as regent for Wilhelm Heinrich, who became Fürst of Saarbrücken, Ottweiler, Jugenhein and Wöllstein in 1735/42. She lived (1680-1738).

  1718…. Sovereign Princess Marie-Françoise de Bournonville of Poix (France)
Widow of Jean-François, marquis de Noailles, she bought the Principality from Charles-Belgique-Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars. The principality then stayed in the Noailles family, where it became the title of the second son. Mother of 21 children.

  1718-39 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anastazja Jordan of Barcice and Rytro (Poland)
Jointly in charge of the administration of the territory with her husband Michał Stefan Jordan.

  1718-24 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of the Administrative Office and Castle of Coswig in Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
Widow of  Carl Wilhelm (1652-1718) and mother of Johann August von Anhalt-Zerbst. She lived (1654-1724) .

  1718-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Amalia von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Bertholdsburg in Schleusingen in Sachsen-Zeitz (Germany)
When her second husband, Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Zeitz, von Sachsen-Zeitz died, she moved to her dowry. 1 son and 2 daughters died as infants, the Hereditary Prince at the age of 10 and only Dorothea Wilhelmine survived and married Wilhelm VIII von Hessen-Kassel. Maria Amalia had first been married to Herditary Princes Karl von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, who died the same day their only child was born and died. She lived (1670-1739).

  1718-55 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Her time in office was marked by the disputes with King Friederich Wilhelm I of Prussia, the Guardian of the Chapter, who anexed parts of her lands. Her protests to the Emperor did not have any effect, and the situation did not normalize until Friederich I came on the throne. She rebuilt and expanded the residential castle of the chapter (Stiftsschloss). She was daughter of Duke Christian Albrecht zu Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp and Princess Frederikke Amalie of Denmark, and lived (1678-1755).

  1718-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)
Reached an agreement with Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Basel about the rights to the estate of Schliengen. The reconstruction of the church was finished 1727. The daughter of Johann Franz von Liebenfels zu Worblingen and Maria Margarethe Schindelin von Unter-Reitnau, she lived (1666-1730).

  1718-47 Princess-Abbess Bernardina von Donnersberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
The Princess-Abbess of the Chapter had been a member of the Swabian Circle of the Imperial Diet since 1521.

  1718-20 Governor Ines de Osio y Mendoza of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Acted in the place of the Reigning Abbess.

  1718-30 Politically Influential Princess Hatice Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey and the Middle East)
Her father, Sultan Ahmed III largely left the affairs of state to her husband, Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, and she had great influence over both. Some sources regard her as the real ruler of the later Tulip era (1703-1730), at least during the 1720s. She was to have assisted Marquis de Villeneuve in a Pro-French politic during the war between France and Russia. Some historians see her as the last de facto female ruler of the Ottoman Empire.

  1719-34 Payung e-ri Luwu Batari Toja of Luwu (Indonesia)
Followed her relative Fatima as ruler, and since she had no children, she was succeeded by Fatima’s daughter, We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin.

  1719-65 Princess-Abbess Anna Magdalena Franziska von Dondorff of
Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
All candidates for the chapter had to undergo a comprehensive education in religion, writing, calculation, history and foreign languages. The 12 canonesses lived a religious life but did not take “Oath” as nuns, did not wear nun-habibits and lived a secular life. Only the Abbess had to be celebate, the other canonisses could marry, and the higly educated ladies were freuquent guests at the court of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis and of the highranking clerics and envoys to the Diet of the Realm in Regensburg. Her family was noble and originated from Thüringen.

  1719-34 Reigning Abbess Louise Adélaïde d’Orléans of Chelles (France)
Also the abbesse of the Val-de-Grâce, a church built under the auspices of her maternal great-grandmother, Anne of Austria, the wife of King Louis XIII. Originally titled Mademoiselle de Chartres, she became Mademoiselle d’Orléans in 1710 after her older sister married Charles, duc de Berry and was known as Madame d’Orléans 1719-34. Died from smallpox at the Convent de la Madeleine de Traisnel in Paris. Daughter of The Regent of France, Philippe II d’Orléans, duc de Chartres, heir to the House of Orléans, and Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, a legitimised natural daughter of Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. She lived (1698-1743).

  1720-30 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Hundbiss von Waltrams of Lindau  (Germany)
1728 the territory of the Chapter was destroyed in a fire and it was rebuild in baroque stile. Fürstäbtissin Maria Franzisca was member of a noble family from Württemberg, which also spells its name as Hundpiß von Waltrams.

  1720-22  Princess-Abbess Rosina Clara Schlindlin von Hirschfeld of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, issued a decree confirming her election as Princely Abbess, “fürstliche Abbatißin zu St. Georg”.

  1720-23 and 1726-29 Reigning Abbess-General of the Royal Monastery María Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Vaca of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
In a decree she wrote: “We, Doña Mará Magdalena de Villarroel Cabeza de Baca, by the grace of God and the Holy Apostolic Sea, Abbess of the Royal Monestary of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas, the of the City of Burgoes, the Cistercian Order,…., Mother and Legitimate Superior of the Hospital of the King and its compounds  and the convents, churches, erimitages and places with their trust and obidience with omnimodial jurisdiction, privativa, Quasi Episcopal, Nillius, et cetera…”

  Until 1720Abbess Nullius Luigia Tarsia of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
A group of Cistercian Nuns took over the chapter which had existed as a male convent since 889 and also took over the direct papal protection. As Abbess she held semi-episcopal powers until 1806.

  1720 and 1730Abbess Nullius Daniela La Forzaof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also Prioress.

  1720-39 Leader Nanny of the Maroons in the Blue Mountains in Eastern Jamaica
Head of the Windward or Eastern Jamaican Maroons – Africans – and the struggle against the British colonial empire and its institution of slavery in Jamaica. The Maroons themselves and the British settlers too, all recognized her as an outstanding military leader. She was particularly skilled in organizing the guerrilla warfare carried out by the Eastern Maroons to keep away the British troops who attempted to penetrate the mountains to overpower them. And, she was especially important to the free Africans in their fierce fight with the British during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. She was also a spiritual leader, a Priestess, for her people.  Despite relentless pursuit by the British forces, the Windward Maroons continued raiding plantations for food and supplies; survived and thrived in the mountainous jungle terrain; communicated using the famous abeng (cow horn); and kept the location of their mountain secret for at least ten years.

  1721-22/26 In Charge of the Government Countess Charlotte Luise von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Homburg of Rantzau Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg (Germany)
In 1721 her husband, Reichsgraf Wilhelm Adolf von Rantzau-Breitenberg, was accused of being responsible for the murder of his brother Christian Detlev, who had been arrested, perhaps on charges of “sodomy” (homosexuality) in 1715. Wilhelm Adolf took over the government and even paid king Friedrich Wilhelm I. of Preussen to keep Christian Detlev in prison, but he returned in 1720 and was killed the following year. Wilhelm Adolf travelled to Copenhagen to ask King Frederik VI of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, to confirm him as holder as the fief; he suggested that he would accuse him of the murder of his brother. Wilhelm Adolf escaped but caught in 1722, the county was occupied by troops from Holstein, and in 1726 he was convicted as an accomplice of the murder of his brother, convinced to life imprisonment and a fine of 20.000 reichstalern. He died in 1734 without heirs, and the County reverted to the Duke of Holstein – the king of Denmark. Charlotte Luise was daughter of Count Christian and Christine Christiane Magdalena von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg.

  Until 1721 Reigning Lady Maria Anna Franziska von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)
Half of the Bavarian citizen were not direct subjects of the King but of “lords of the manor” – in either secular or clerical Hofmarks, which posessed lower juridstiction and other privilleges. She and her sisters inherited the territory from their mother, .Maria Anna von Haimhausen auf Tutzing.

  1721-30 Reigning Lady Maria Ursula Sabrina von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)
Female “Lords of the Manor” – Hofmarksherscherinnen was not usual, but it was not unheard of since the land was hereditary within the gentred nobility. Among her duties was to exercise the lower civil and penal juridisction through a “ritter”, to collect taxes in the name of the king and to supply men to the army. She also held a trade monopoly and managed the estate and agricultural aspects

  1721-38 Reigning Abbess Rosina Susanna Catharina Philippina von Venningen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The chapter was founded by Amalia Elisabeth won Mentzingen, geb. von Bettendorf, from the inheritance from her parents for Evangelical unmarried ladied from the Ritterkanton Kraichgau (Knights Canton) in Baden, and in 1725 it was granted the status it was granted “reichsfreiheit” incorporated into the Knight’s Canton of Kraichgau, but placed under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. Took over the management of the Chapter in 1718, was inagurated as Abbess in 1721 and got the status of “reigning abbess” or princess-abbess 4 years later.

  1721-33 Reigning Abbess Charlotte Armande de Rohan of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Succeeded aunt, Anne Marguerite de Rohan. Daughter of Hercule Meriadec, Duc de Rohan-Rohan, Prince de Soubise et de Maubuisson, etc, Governor of Champagne and Brie and his first wife, Anne Genevieve de Levis-Ventadour, and lived (1696-1733).

  Around 1721 Reigning Princess Anna Pinelli-Ravaschieri of Belmonte, Marquise of Galatone and Countess of Copertino (Italy)
Married Antonio Pignatelli, Marquis of San Vincenzo in 1721.


1721-35 Joint Leader of the Mission Gertrud Rask in Greenland (Denmark)

Her 13 years younger husband, Hans Egede (1686-1759), had managed to convince the king of Denmark and Norway to make an expedition to Greenland with the purpose of introducing Lutheranism among the descendants of the Norsemen who left for Greenland around year 900 whom it was expected would still be Catholics. He found no such descendants, instead he became missionary among the indigenous population, the Inuits. He thought Danish among the Inuits, and tried to introduce his own very dogmatic and righteous version of the Christian faith, something that was not received well among the Inuits. Some Christian Inuits were sent to Copenhagen but died of smallpox, and those who returned brought the illness back, which drastically diminished the population in Greenland, and among other caused her own death. She was mother of four children and lived (1673-1735).

  1722-43 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie Charlotte von Bothmer of Reuss zu Obergreiz (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Heinrich II, she acted as regent for two sons Heinrich X (1718-22-23) and Heinrich XI (1722-23-1800-09), who was created Fürst in 1778. In 1723 she married Count Georg Wilhelm zu Erbach-Erbach and had two daughters with him. After her death he married Leopoldine Sophie Wilhelmine, Wild- und Rheingräfin in Grumbach and had a son by her. Sophie Charlotte was daughter of  Johann Caspar Graf von Bothmer and Gisela Erdmuthe von Hoym, and lived  (1686-1757).

  1722-29 (†) Governor Ann Le Mesurier of Alderny (United Kingdom Crown Dependency in the Channel Islands)
Sister of George Andros, who held the office of Governor 1713-14, and was succeeded by his daughter Anne Andros and her husband, John Le Mesurier. According to another source, John was succeeded by his son Peter. After Anne’s death, her son her eldest son Henry apparently became Governor. She lived (d. 1729)

  1722 Regent Dowager Duchess Juliane Luise von Ostfriesland of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Germany)
Also known as Juliana Louise. When her husband, Joachim Friedrich Herzog von Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Pløn on 25. January, she was pregnant and became regent awaiting the birth of a heir, but the day after she gave birth to a still-born daughter on 28. May, the Danish king entered the Castle of Plön and took it into posession. Her husband had 4 daughters with his first wife, 2 of whom were Canonisses in Gandersheim but died at Plön and Augustenburg. She died in Harzgerode, the former residential town of the family of late mother-in-law Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode (1647-1723), and lived (1698-1740).

  1722-45 Politically Influential Electress Maria Amalia von Habsburg of Bavaria (Germany)
1743-45 Influential in the Holy Roman Empire 
Married to elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria, and was a passionate hunter, loved parties and politics. She was daughter of Emperor Josef I and Amalie Wilhelmine von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and even though she had accepted the Pragmatic Solution, she did claim parts Habsburg Inheritance after the death of her uncle in 1740, but her cousin, Maria Theresia refused this. Maria Amalia’s husband was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, though, in 1742, as Karl VII. Maria Amalia supported her husband in the Austrian Succession-war, but after his death, she advised her son, Maximilian III Josef to make peace and compromise with Vienna. Her sister, Maria Josepha, was very influential as Queen of Poland from 1733. Maria Amalia lived (1701-56).

  1722-? Princess-Abbess Isidora Constantia Raudnitzkin von Brzesnitz of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Mentioned as “fürstlichen Abbatißin” in a contemporary decree.

  1722-35 Reigning Coadjutorix Maria Anna Eleonore Reichlin von Meldegg of Schänis (Switzerland)
Elected Koadjutorin with right of succession in 1722 because of the meltan illness of Fürstäbtissin Maria Clara Salomé von Roggenbach, who had been in office since 1713. She managed to get the confirmation of the new statutes by the Bishop and the Papal Nuntius Domenico Passionei in 1732. She concluded an agreement with the community of Schänis about the maintainance of the church. After a stroke in March 1735 she died in January the following year, before Maria Clara Salomé. She lived (1682-1735).

  1722-23 Princess-Abbess Anna X Haug of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had the right of a vote in the College of Prelates in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1723-51 Princess-Abbess Magdalena von Dürrheim of Baindt (Germany)
The privilege of lower court of justice that had originally been granted in 1437 was confirmed twice during her reign; in 1734 and 1741. Magdalena’s family were lords of Dürreheim near Stuttgart, Freiberg in Schwarzwald in Bavaria and had possessions in Zürich.

  1723-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Katharina Helena von Aham auf Neuhaus of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Another version of her surname is von Aham-Neuhaus. The seat of the chapter was situated in the centre of the city of Regensburg, which was the seat of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag), but the chapter had numerous possessions outside the city.

  1723-26 and 1729-32 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María Helguero y Albarado of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (possibly her sister), Clara Antonia was Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1732-35.

  1723-47 Dato’ Putri Siti Awan Setiawanm I of Johol (Malaysia)
The first ruler of the state of Luak Johol, which is one of the component states of the Negri Sembilan Federation and she was one of the four traditional electors of the Yang di-Pertuan (Ruler) of the Federation. She was married to Dato’ Johan Pahlawan Lelei Perkasa Setia Wan.

  1723-31 Bor Raj Pramateswari Devi of Ahom (India)
Married to Bor Raj/Chief king Siva Singha (1714-1744), who took on the Ahom name of Sutanpha. He became a Shakti worshipper, as he was initiated in the tenets of the Shakti cult by Krishnaram Bhattacharya, who was later on installed as head priest of Kamakhya temple, which is situated atop the Nilachal Hills. Siva Singha was a weak person who relied heavily on astrologers, and when an astrologer told him that he was in danger of being dethroned, he installed his Queen Phuleswari, who assumed the name Pramateswari, as “chief king”. She was an orthodox Shakti worshiper who persecuted the Moamoria Mahantas by forcibly making them to take prasad of Durga worship and anointing their foreheads with sacrificial blood. This resulted in the Moamoria rebellion. After Phuleswari died in 1731, Siva Singha married her sister Drupadi or Deopadi and made her the next Bor Raja, with the name Ambika.

  1723-29 Chief Guardian and Regent of the Realm Dowager Princess-Margravine Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg-Winnental of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
1723-29 Reigning Dowager Lady of Crailsheim
Since their marriage in 1709 she was an energetic aide of her cousin and husband, Margrave Wilhelm Friedrich, and after his death, she became “Obervormünderin und Landsesregentin” for son Fürst Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, Margrave von Ansbach (1712-23-57). She reformed the administration jointly with her Privy Councillors. In foreign affairs and defence the co-guardians; the Margrave von Bayreuth and Landgrave Ernst Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt assisted her. In order to reduce the depths of the state, she reduced the civil service and the court. She promoted commerce and industry. At the same time she expanded the residence city and her own castle with her own funds. The social provisions and hospitals were also reformed. But she was not successful in her endeavours to found an university in Ansbach. In official documents she used the titulature: “Der Durchleuchtigsten Fürstin und Frauen, Frauen Christianen Charlotten, verwittibten Markgräfin zu Brandenburg, Herzogin in Preußen, zu Magdeburg, Stettin, Pommern, der Casuben und Wenden, zu Mecklenburg, auch in Schlesien und zu Crossen, Burggräfin zu Nürnberg, Gräfin zu Hohenzollern und Schwerin, Frauen der Lande Rostock und Stargard p.p., geborene Herzogin zu Württemberg und Teck, Gräfin zu Mömpelgard und Frauen zu Heidenheim p.p., Obervormunderin und Landesregentin, unserer gnädigsten Fürstin und Frauen”. She lived (1694-1729).

  1723-24 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Eleonore Juliana von Hohenzollern of Württemberg-Winnental in Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Duke Friedrich Carl of Württemberg-Winnental in 1698 she moved back to Ansbach, where her daughter, Christiane Charlotte von Württemberg, had married her cousin, Margrave Willem Friedrich. She became very influential, especially during her daughter’s regency until her own death. She lived (1663-1724).

  1723-25 Politically Influential Agnès Berthelot de Pléneuf, Marquise de Prie in France
La Marquise de Prie became notable for her intriguing during the reign of Louis XV. At the age of fifteen she was married to Louis, Marquis de Prie, and went with him to the court of Savoy at Turin, where he was ambassador. She was twenty-one when she returned to France, and was soon became the mistress of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon. During his ministry (1723-1725) she was in several respects the real ruler of France, her most notable triumph being the marriage of Louis XV of France to Marie Leszczynska instead of to Mlle de Vermandois. But when, in 1725, she sought to have Bourbon’s rival Fleury exiled, her ascendancy came to an end. After Fleury’s recall and the banishment of Bourbon to Chantilly, she was exiled to Courbepine, where she committed suicide the next year Daughter of Étienne Berthelot, and lived (1698-1727).

  1724-37 and 1741-45 Regent Dowager Princess Dharmapala of The Volga Kalmyks (Lower Volga Area in Russia and Kazakstan)
The first time she was regent for Cerlu Donduk, who reigned (1725-35) until he was deposed, the second time was after the death of Donduk Ombu, Prince of the Kalmykians. (d. 1741).

  1724-28 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophia Albertine von Erbach-Erbach of Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Germany)
After the death of her husband Ernst Friederich I (1681-1715-24) she stepped in for their Ernst Friedrich II (1707-24-45) in the small Duchy which consisted the Office of City of Hildburghausen, Office and City of Eisfeld, the Offices of Veilsdorf, Königsberg, Sonnefeld and Behrungen and parts of Sachsen-Römhild. She was able to half the taxes imposted by her husband, by reducing costs drastically, and attacked the Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen in order to get back the Office of Schalkau, that her husband had sold in 1723. She was mother of 10 children, most of whom died as infants, but her daughter Elisabeth Albertine was regent in Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1752-53. She lived (1683-1742).

  1723Abbess Nullius Berardina Accolti of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana.

  1724-27 Abbess Nullius Marcellina Capulli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.

  1724-44 Countess of the Realm Maria Anna Katharina Theresia von Tilly of Breitenegg (Germany)
Inherited the lordship after the death of the last male of the family, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver, Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg. She promoted trade and crafts and brought prosperity to the area. Her husband, Duke Anton Sebastian von Montfort, had died in 1706 and since she had no children, she was succeeded by her cousin, Ignaz Joseph Freiherrn von Gumppenberg of the immediate Reichsgrafschaft Breitenegg, who sold it to Palatine Karl Theodor of Bavaria 1792, but the County remained “Reichsunmittelbar” (an Imperial Immediacy) in a personal union with Bavaria until 1804. Also known as Reichsgräfin Maria Anna von Tilly-Montfort.

  1724-38 Soledatu Batari Toja of Soppeng (Indonesia)
Succeeded brother, La Pad and succeeded by another brother, La Mappasossong.

  1724 Politically Active Empress Uelete Rufael of Ethiopia
Also known as Woizero Walatta Rufael, she engaged in a succession-struggle in favour of her son Susnyjos, whose father was Dejazmatch Wolde Giyorgis, Governor of Semien (d. 1706). She was daughter of Emperor Iyasu the Great and sister of Emperor Adbar Sagad II Bakaffa (1721-30).

  1724-43 Princess-Abbess Caroline Charlotte de Berlaimont of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Member of a noble family originating from Northern France.

  1725-27 Imperatitsa Regnant Catharina I of Russia
Zarina Yekatarina was born as Marta Skavronskaya in Lithuania. In 1701 she married a Swedish dragoon, who soon afterwards went with his regiment to Riga, and never returned. After the capture of Marienburg by the Russians, she became the mistress first of General Bauer, with whom she lived at Moscow, then of Prince Menschikoff, and finally of Peter the Great, who first married her privately near Warsaw, and later publicly in 1712 at St. Petersburg. She then embraced the Eastern Orthodox religion, and became partner-in-power with her husband, who became Emperor in 1721 and she got the title of Imperatritsa (or Tsesareva). After his death, she was placed on the throne by the guard’s regiments. Real power, however, remained in the hands of Menshikov and the Supreme Privy Council. She died of intemperance, and lived (ca. 1684-1727).

  1725-41 Governor General Archduchess Maria-Elisabeth von Habsburg of the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium-Luxembourg)
Her brother, Emperor Karl V, appointed her as landvoogdes of the Southern Netherlands, a Federation of Brabant, Flanders, Hainault, Namur, Limburg and Luxembourg, each of which had its own tradition, laws and identity. The Austrian administration pursued a Mercantilist policy intending to improve the economy. But the Habsburg dynasty interests outweighed those of the southern Netherlands and Austrian diplomacy never achieved the lifting of the blockade of Schelde, and in 1731 the charter of the Oostende East India Company, which had been founded in 1722, was lifted in return for recognition by Great Britain and the Dutch Republic of the Pragmatic Sanction, making her niece, Maria-Theresia the heir of Austria and Hungary. Maria-Elisabeth was daughter of Emperor of Leopold I, unmarried and lived (1680-1741)

  1725-35 Regent Dowager Countess Marie Albertine von Nassau-Saarbrücken in Usingen of Ortenburg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg, she took over the  government in the name of her  10 year old son, Karl III. (1715-76). She tried to strenghten the position of the inhabitants of the county, which was isolated between the Electorate of Bavaria and the Immediate Abbey of Passau, and asked for the right of citizenship first by the Elector and then by the government of Landshut, which was positive, but it was never realized. Of her 3 sons 1 survived into adulthood and so did 5 of her 6 daughters. She lived (1686-1768).

  1726-39 Regent Countess Dowager Margrethe Christiane Augusta Danneskiold-Laurvig of Neu-Leiningen (Germany)
Also known as Margareta, she was widow of Karl-Ludwig of Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg and regent for her two sons Georg Karl I August Ludwig (1717-26-87) and Georg Ernst Ludwig (1718-26-59-65) who were joint rulers. She was daughter of Count Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Lord of Knyphausen, Doorenwerth and Herzborn (natural son of king Frederik III of Denmark), and Countess Antoniette Augusta von Altenburg (natural line of the Counts of Oldenburg). She lived (1694-1761).

  1726-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Sophia von Sachsen-Weißenfels of Neustadt Erlangen in Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Georg Wilhelm, she caused a number of scandals during her 8 years at her dowry until she married the Count Hoditz and moved to Slesia. Of her 5 children only one daughter, Christiane Sophie Wilhelmina survived into adulthood (1701-49), but she was unmarried. Sophia lived (1684-1752).

  Around 1726 Princess-Abbess Carolina Margaretha van Renesse van Elderen of Burtscheid (Germany)
The Baroness was mentioned in 1726 when she commissioned the restoration of the two towers of the Chapter Church. She was member of a Dutch noble family.

  Until 1726 Reigning Abbess Louise Charlotte Eugénie de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
One of 9 children of Jacques Louis de Beringhen, Marquis de Beringhen (1651-1723) and Marie-Madeleine Elisabeth Fare d’Aumont. One of her sisters, Anne Marie Madeleine de Beringhen, was abbess du Pré au Mans aorund 1730.

  1726-43 Reigning Abbess Olympe Félicité de Beringhen of Faremoutiers (France)
Succeeded her sister, Louise Charlotte as head of the abbey, which enjoyed the attention of several French kings and was an important economic factor within its vast territory in Brie.

  1726 Claimant Katharina Hedwig von Rantzau-Breitenburg of the Reichsgafschaft Rantzau Breitenburg and Parts of Pinneberg (Germany)
Also known as Catharina Hedvig. After the life imprisonment of her brother, she claimed the county and after a lengthily process against the king of Denmark, she was allowed to keep 3 firefly estates, but had to pay the 230.000 reichstalern costs of the process, an enormous amount. She was married to Johann Friederich, Count and Lord zu Castell-Ruedenhausen, she was the mother of one daughter, Countess Friederike Eleonore zu Castell-Ruedenhausen, Heiress of Breitenburg (1701-60), who married Carl Friederich Count zu Castell-Remlingen and through her, Breitenburg came back to the line of Rantzau auf Ahrensburg

  1727 Regent Countess Dowager Anna Franziska von Thurn und Taxis of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Franz Ernst, Altgraf von Salm-Reifferscheidt zu Dyck (1659-1727), she reigned in the name of her son, August Eugen Bernhard (1706-27-67). She lived (1683-1776).

  1727-ca. 54 De facto ruler Dowager Sultana Hinata binti Bakar al-Gul of Morocco
Also known as Khnata bent Bakkar, she acted as First Minister and Secretary for her husband Sultan Mulay Ismail as-Samin, who reigned (1672-1729). After his death followed a period of internal turmoil, where she remained the de-facto ruler, during the reign of her husband’s 10 sons with various wifes, but who were all deposed, but she managed to lead the country out of the disastrous situation.

  1727-40 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid of Elten (Germany)
Elected as successor of her relative Maria Eugenia von Manderscheid and was followed by Eleonora Maria von Manderscheid.

  1727 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

  1727-30 Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Ferdinanda Pascal was elected as her successor in November 1730 but renonuced.

  1728-32 Rani Harrabichi Kadavube Ali Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
The Arakkal family followed a matriarchal system of descent. The elder most member of the family, male or female, was its head and ruler. While male rulers were called Ali Rajah, female rulers were known as Arakkal Beevis.

  Ca. 1728-34 Regent Dowager Queen Nor-dzin bde-legs dbang-mo of Mustang (Nepal)
Took over the reins for her son, Amgon bSod-nams bsTan-‘dzin dbang-rgyal (Ca. 1717-28-50), after the death of her husband, A-ham bKra-shis rnam-rgyal, Lo rGyal-po (King of Lo or Mustang), who had reigned since 1723. She was daughter of Nyi-ma rnam-rgyal, King of Ladakh. (d. after 1735).

  1728-60 Reigning Princess Lucrezia Pignatelli of Strogoli, 4th Duchessa di Tolve and 4th Contessa di Melissa (Italy)
Inherited the fiefs and territories in the Calabria region from her father, the 2nd Prince. In 1719 she married Ferdinando Pignatelli Knight of the Toson d’Or, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Tolve, Grandee of Spain. She was succeeded by her son Salvatore (1730-1792).

  1728-54 Princess-Abbess Christine Eberhardine Friederike von Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Like her predecessors, she was in dispute with the Prince-Bishop of Liège over her right to use the title of “Princess of the Holy Roman Empire”. After a lengthily court-case Emperor Karl VI issued a statement in 1734 demanding that the bishop stopped putting obstacles in the way of the Princess-Abbess and let her conduct her duties as sovereign, and the Emperor later confirmed her title as Princess of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The war of the Austrian Succession 1741-48 brought further hardship and devastation. From around 1747 she stayed in Wenen and tried to secure the interests of the chapter at the Imperial Court and the Dechaness Maria Carolina Leerodt von Born was left in charge of the administration of the chapter. The ladies of the chapter protested against her prolonged absence, and after the death of her sister, Sofia, in early 1754 they even tried to depose her, but she died soon after. She was daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm (1663-1735), and Louise von Sinzendorf. She was succeeded as Princess-Abbess by sister, Sofie Johanna Friederike. Christine lived (1695-1754).

  1728-42 Guardian and Administrator Maria Enrietta del Caretto de Savona y Grana von Arenberg og Bergen-op-Zoom (The Netherlands)
After the death of Philippe Charles François de Ligne, 3rd Herzog von Arenberg, Duc d’Aerschot, (1663-91) she might have been the person who was regent for son Leopold Philippe, Duke of Arenberg, Duc d’Aerschot (1691-54), who married Donna Maria Francesca Pignatelli, Duchessa di Bisaccia, Countess van Egmond (1696-1766). Apparently she acted as regent for her great-grandson Karel Philip Theodoor van Sulzbach (b.1724) after the death of her grand-daughter, Maria Henriëtte de la Tour d’Auvergne and was known as “the Dowager van Arenberg” during this period. Karl Philip became elector of Bavaria in 1777. He died in 1799 as the last Marquis of Bergen op Zoom. She was also known as Maria Enrichetta, and was Daughter of Ottone Enrico, Field Marshal of the Empire, Governor and General Captain of the Netherlands from 1682, and succeeded him to the titles of Titluar Marchesa di Savona y Grana, Countess of Millesimo, Lady and Co-Lady of Roccavignale, Co-Lady of Cosseria, Dame  di Casaleggi in 1685, and lived (1671-1744).

  1729, 1732, 1735 and 1736-1737 Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and His Majesty’s Lieutenant within the same during His Majesty’s absence Queen Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach of United Kingdom of Great Britain, Co-Heiress of Sayn-Altenkirchen
The power behind the throne during the whole reign of her husband, Georg II (1727-37). She acted as regent on during his trips to Hannover. She aided the career of the British statesman Robert Walpole. Caroline was joint heiress of Sayn-Altenburg, trough her mother, Eleonore Erdmuthe Louise von Sachsen-Eisenach (d. 1696), whose mother, Johanette had reigned as Countess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen 1636-1701. In 1741 Caroline’s nephew, Carl Wilhelm Friedrich inherited the county, but in 1783 his son, Alexander, and her son, Georg III decided to share the inheritance. Caroline lived (1683-1737).  

  1729… Regent Duchess Elisabeth Charlotte d’Orléans of Lorraine (France)
1737- 44 Sovereign Princess of Commercy
The Madame Royale was born as Princess of France, Mademoiselle de Chartres and married Leopold Joseph, Duke of Lorraine (1679-1729). Most of her at least 13 children died within a few weeks, but her son, François-Etienne, was among those who survived. He later married Maria-Theresia of Austria and became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the dynasty of Habsburg-Lothringen. Elisabeth Charlotte was later created Duchess de Commercy and after her death the duchy her brother-in-law, Stanislav. She lived (1676-1744).

  1729-31 Reigning Princess Maria Zofia Czartoryska Sieniawska of Jarosław (Ukraine), Bukaczowce, Brzeżany, Jarosław, Oleszyce and Sieniawa (Red Ruthenia), Krzeszowice, Międzyrzec Podlaski and Puławy (Little Poland), Granów, Międzyburz, Mikołajów, Stara Sieniawa and Zinkowice (Podolia), Klewań and Żuków (Volhynia) and Stołpce, Szkłów and Wołożyn (Lithuania)
After the death of her husband, the Lithuanian magnate and Marshal of the Sejm, Stanislaw Denhof, she became in possession of his wast domains and estates until her marriage to Prince Alexander Augustus Czartoryski, a Russian Duke and Major-General. She was the daughter of Adam Nicholas Sieniawski and Elizabeth Sieniawska and her baptism was held by Peter I the Great, King Augustus the Strong II and Prince Rakoczy in the presence of 15 thousand soldiers. ShHe lived (1699-1777).

  1729-50 Princess-Abbess Johanna Charlotte von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)
Continued the disputes of her predecessor, Charlotte Sophie, with king Friederich Wilhelm I of Preusia over the continued drafts of soldiers for the ongoing wars – the City of Herford was only an Imperial Immediacy (reichsunmittelbar) on paper, in reality it was treated like a Preusian provincial town and she tried to protect its interests. When she took office, she confirmed the tenantcies of local nobles who held the fiefs of the chapter, using the titulature, Johann Charlotta verwitwete Prinzessin in Preußen, postulierte Äbtissin des Stifts Herford. She was daughter of Johann Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau (1627-60-93) and Henriette Katherine of Nassau-Oranje, and widow of Margrave Philipp Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt (1669-1688-1711). Mother of 6 children, and in 1764 her granddaughter Friederike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise became the last reigning abbess of the territory. Johanna Charlotte lived (1682-1750).

  1730-33 Sovereign Dame Susan Le Gros Le Pelley of Sark (English Crown Dependency)
Also known as La Dame du Serq, she bought the fief after the death of the former owner, the Englishman James Milner, from his executor. She was daughter of the former Judge, Jean Le Gros, and widow of Nicolas Le Pelley, her cousin who had died in 1719. Her purchase that was an indication of the wealth derived from her late husband’s privateering ventures, initiated a line of Le Pelley Seigneurs that lasted for some 120 years until 1852. As the Le Pelley family had long been prominent in the public and commercial life of Guernsey, their acquisition of the fief further strengthened Sark’s association with Guernsey, and the consequent weakening of the ties with Jersey. The new Dame decided to remain in the Le Gros family house at La Perronerie, which was extensively rebuilt as the new Seigneurie, and a Colombier (Pigeon-house), the exclusive privilege of the owner of a fief hubert, was erected in the grounds to mark the house’s newly acquired status. In the winter of 1731 the island suffered its worst outbreak of smallpox. Constituting about ten percent of the whole population. She was succeeded by her son Nicholas who died childless in 1742, and the Seignory passed to his younger brother Daniel who died in 1752. She lived (1668-1733).

  1730-56 Regent Dowager Empress Berhan Mugasa Mentewab of Ethiopia
After the death of her husband the Emperor Bakaffa, Empress Mentewab scrambled to ensure the succession of her underage son Eyasu II, and had herself crowned as co-ruler to help him govern. She played a leading role during his reign, and following his murder, in the reign of his son Eyoas I as well. After the murder of her grandson Eyoas I, her influence decreased considerably, but she remained a deeply respected figure. Although she had been involved in raging disagreements with her grandson during his life, the murder of Emperor Eyoas I on the orders of her son-in-law, Ras Michael Sehul, horrified her, and was to cause her life-long sorrow, she refused to return to the capital. She lived to see two more Emperors on the throne, and officials continued to pay respectful visits to her although she retired from political activity. Her second husband was Gerazmatch Iyasu, with whom she had three daughters before he was killed on the orders of her son. She lived (ca. 1710-73).

  1730-95 De facto Ruler Begum Mamola Bai of Bhopal (India)
1777 Regent of Bhopal
Exercised a dominant influence during the reign of her husband, Yar Mohammad Khan (1728-42) after their marriage. After his death, she was de facto ruler during the reign of her stepson Faiz Mohammad Khan, who concentrated on religious contemplation. After his death she acted as regent and quickly proclaimed Faiz’ brother, Hayat, as Nawab, but Faiz’ widow, Bahu Begum, lead a revolt and set up an alternative government which lasted until 1780. Also during Hayat’s reign she was the effective ruler, and it was she who took decisions on military campaigns and all other administrative affairs. She was born as a Hindu Rajput Princess, and lived (1715-95).

  1730-39 Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
After the death of Ahmed III a revolt of the Janissaries put her son with Mustafa II, Mahmud I (1750-54) on the throne, and she became Sultan Valide and in some aspects considered joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Affairs of state were largely in the capable hands of the Nubian Agha Beshir (1653–1746), who was the power behind a number of successive grand viziers At the tune Ottoman Empire was involved in wars with Persia. 1737 Emperor Karl IV entered the war with Russia on Russian side, but by the separate peace of Belgrade (1739) he restored North Serbia to Turkey. Mahmud was succeeded by his brother, Osman III. Saliha lived (1680-1739).

  1730-43 Princess-Abbess Anna-Margarete von Gemmingen of Lindau (Germany)
Her family were Lords of Gemmingen, Bad Rappenau et cetera in present day’s Baden-Württemberg.

  1730-34 Princess-Abbess Maria Magdalena von Hallwyl of Säckingen (Germany)
The city was under occupation by French Troops during the Polish Succession War 1733-35. She got permission from Prince-Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Bern for the canonisses to wear a special order of the chapter (Ordenszeichen). The daughter of Johann Joseph von Hallwyl, Lord of Blidegg and Zihlschacht and Maria Julia Katharina von Schönau-Oeschgen, she lived (1692-1734).

  1730-62 Titular Duchess Dowager Princess Dorothea Christine von Aichelburg of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Reinfeld in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg (Germany)
Her son  Friedrich Carl (1706-61) was born 3 months after the death of her husband, Prince Christian Carl von Holstein-Nordborg (1674-1706). The king of Denmark granted him the name of Schleswig-Holstein-Nordborg-Carlstein. Her brother-in-law Joachim Friedrich (1668-1722), inherited the Duchy of Plön from a relative later in 1706, but since his daughters could not inherit the title, it went to Friedrich Carl, after a decree from the Danish king, who determined that her marriage to Christian Carl had been “equal” and not Morganatic and occupied the territory on his behalf. The next in line, the duke of Holstein-Rethwisch sued, her son counter-sued, and the matter dragged on for years until the Rethwisch-line died out in 1729 and her son inherited Rethwisch as well. 1730 her son married Christiane Irmgard Reventlow, the nice of Anne Sofie Rventlow, the morganatic wife of King Frederik of Denmark, and finally in 1731 the Emperor determined the case in the favour of her son, who was invested with the title and she was then grated the Administrative office of Reinfeld as her dowry. Another version of her surname is von Eichelberg, and she lived (1674-1762).

  1730-31 Reigning Lady Maria Adelheid Maximiliana von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)
Resigned in favour of her sister Maria Theresia Cäcilia and continued to live with her and her daughter until she got married in 1738. When her husband died already 1743 she returned.

  1731-47 Reigning Lady Maria Cäcilia Theresia Violanda von Götzengrien auf Tutzing of the Hofmark of Tutzing with Ober- und Unterzeismering, Traubing, Monatshausen and Diemendorf and a number of outlying areas in Bavaria (Germany)
Returned to her family’s possessions after the death of her husband, Freiherr Ferdinand Joseph von Vieregg, whom she had married  in 1710. He was father of 5 surviving children aged 24 to 1½ years from 2 earlier marriages. She gave birth to 9 children between 1711 and 1723. Only the oldest daughter, Maria Christina Adelheit and 4 sons survived. Back in Tutzing she agreed with her 2 surviving sisters that she would take over the administration of the Hofmark. Her sons went to university and her daughter helped her with the duties in the territory which had a total of 80 inhabitants. Her pharmaceutical knowledge was of great help to the villagers. She was deeply involved in the daily life of her subjects and the ecclesiastical life of the territory. She experienced financial problems during the Bavarian war with Austria during the succession-war 1742-45. During the end of her reign she left more and more of the administration to her daughter and left the Hofmark to one of her sons and retired to the Ladies Chapter in Moosburg. Her oldest son, Matheus Karl Anton, received the Estate of Tutzing with Starnberg and Rösselberg and 1748 he married Maria Theresa Renata Chlotildis Baronin de Spontin, her younger son, Maximilian Ernst von Götzengrien, married the daughter and only heir of Hans Albrecht Viehbeck von und zu Haimbhausen

  1731 Sovereign Princess Louise-Hippolyte Grimaldi of Monaco, Princesse de Château-Porcien, Marquise de Les Baux, Chilly and Guiscard, Comtesse de Carladès Baroness of Calvinet and Buis-les-Baronnies and Massy, Sovereign Dame of Mentone and Roccabruna, Dame de Saint-Rémy de Province
In January she succeeded her father, Antonio I and in December she died in childbed giving birth to her third child, and successor Honore. Jacques IV de Goyon de Matignon, Duke of Estouteville, Valentinois, Count of Thorigny, Lord of Matignon, Baron of Saint-Lô, Hambye and La Luthumière, Heditary Governor of Cherbourg, Granville the Island of Chausey, who assumed the surname of Grimaldi and succeeded his wife, but abdicated two years later in favour of their son Honoré III, and continued as his regent for some years. She lived (1697-1731).

  1731-90 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Theresa Cybo-Malaspina of Massa e Carrara, Sovereign Princess of Carrara, 6th Duchess of Ajello, Baroness di Paduli, Sovereign Lady of Moneta and Avenza and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati (Italy)
Succeeded father, Alderamo Cybo Malaspina (1690-1731). She first married Eugene de Savoia, Count of Soissons and Duke of Troppau, by proxy but never in person because he died in 1734. Four years later she married Ercole III Rinaldo d’Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio (1727-1803). 1744 she received her imperial investiture and took over command of her state and reigned with energy and competence. She was known as a nice and sensible person, who had been well educated by her mother, with the emphasis on clemency, moderation and patience. She reformed the laws, built a hospital and promoted art, culture and architecture, in 1787 she transferred the fief of Ajello to her brother-in-law, the Prince of without any feudal prerogatives, and was succeeded by her only daughter, Maria Beatrice d’Este. The surname is also spelled Cibo-Malaspina. She lived (1725- 90).

  1731-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Ricciarda Gonzaga di Novellara of Massa e Carrara (Italy)
Named “custode e tutrice” of her oldest daughter, Maria Teresa, in the will of her husband, Alderano I, and received the Imperial Diploma in 1732. 1728 she had succeeded her brother, Filippo Alfonso, as Countess Regnant di Novellara-Bagnolo, but in 1731 county was given in dowry to Maria Teresa and included in the Duchy Modena. Ricciarda was mother of three daughters, and lived (1698-1768).

  1731 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Duchess Enrichetta Maria d’Este of Parma e Piacenza (January-December) (Italy)
Co-regent for grandnephew, Felipo Carlo of Spain, who succeeded her husband, Antonio Farnese, who had been duke of Parma e Piacenza since 1727.  

  1731-35 Member of the Council of Regency Dowager Duchess Dorothea Sofia von der Pfalz-Neuburg of Parma e Piacensa (Italy)
In 1690 she was married to hereditary-prince Odoardo Farnese, who died 1693. Three years later she married his half-brother, Francesco, who had been duke since 1694. He was succeeded by another brother, Antonio, in 1727. After his death in 1731 Dorothea Sofia’s daughter-son, Felipo Carlo de Borbone became duke of Parma. He was son of her daughter with Odoardo, Elisabetta Farnese – Queen Isabel of Spain – and Dorothea Sofia became co-regent. She lived (1670-1748).

  1731-38 Bor Raj Regnant Ambika Devi of Ahom (India)
Originally named Drupadi or Deopadi, she married the widower of her sister, Bor Raj Pramathesvari Devi, the former king Siva Singha, who made her the next Bor Raja, with the name Ambika. She constructed the Shiva Dol (temple) at Sibsagar, which is the highest Shiva dol in Assam. Gauri Sagar tank and Sibsagar tank were dug at the instruction of ‘Bor Raja’ Phuleswari and Ambika respectively. She was succeeded by Savesvari Devi. 

  1731-34 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Henrietta Charlotte von Nassau-Idstein of the Castle and Administrative Office of Delitzsch in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Merseburg (1688-1731), she reigned her dowry until her own death. Their only daughter died at birth. She lived (1693-1734).

  Until 1731 Princess-Abbess Maria Augusta von Fürstenberg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
The daugher of Reichsfürst Wenzel von Fürstenberg and Maria Josepha Truchess Trauchburg Friedberg, her German title was gefürstete Äbtissin d. Benediktinerklosters zu Stankt Georg auf den Hradschin zu Prag (Sv. Jiri in Prag). It was theoldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. During the reign of Josef II the convent was abolished in 1782. Maria Augusta (d. 1731).

  1731-32 Abbess Nullius Serafina Girondiof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Also the Abbesses of Aguileia, Brescia, Brindisi, Fucecchio and Goleto held semi episcopal authority.

  After 1732-.. Queen Regnant Ramanandrianjaka II Ravorombato of Imarovatana (Madagascar)
Daughter of Princess Rabodofilankanina, daughter of King Andriamananimerina I of Imarovatana, and expelled her uncle, king Andriantomponimerina II (ruled from 1732). Her second husband was Rabezaka, of Anosinimerina, of the Andriamasinavalona caste of nobility and she was mother of 4 sons and 4 daughters.

  1732-45 Rani Junumabe Adi Raja Bibi I of Cannanore (India)
Also known as Junumma Beevi Arakkal Ali Raja, she was head of the only muslim ruling house in what is now Kerala resided in the Arakkal Palace, located 3 km from Kannur (Cannanore). A daughter of hers was one of the wifes of Prince Shahzada ‘Abdu’l-Khaliq Sultan Sahib of
Khdadad, who was surrendered to Lord Cornwallis in 1792 and returned to his father 2 years later. Exiled to Vellore in 1799, and deported to Calcutta with his brothers and the rest of his family in 1806.

  1732-36 Rani Regnant Minakshi Ammal of Madrai (India)
Also known as Meenakshi, she reigned on behalf of a young boy she had adopted as the heir of her late husband,  Vijayaranga Chokkanatha, to rule the state which was also known as Trichinapali.  Vangaru Thirumala , the father of her adopted son, started a rebellion against her after a few years, and representatives of the Mughal emperor of Delhi took the opportunity to attack the kingdom. The invaders took Tanjore by storm and, leaving the stronghold of Trichinopoly untouched, swept across Madurai and Tinnevelly and into Travancore. Vangaru Thirumala was declared king, but Minakshi did not give up, and made a pact with the emperial representative, Chanda Sahib. Vangaru was given an other principality. But in 1736 Chanda Sahib returned and made himself master of the kingdom. She was soon was little but a puppet: she had fallen in love with Chanda Sahib and so let him have his own way unhindered, but after defeating Vangaru he locked her up in her palace, and proclaimed himself ruler of her kingdom. She then committed suicide.

  1732-42 Co-Regent Sri Sri Rani Chandrapavati of Gorkha (Nepal)
Widow of Bhupal Shah, Raja of Gorkha and co-regent with stepson. She was daughter of the Raja of Palpa.

  1732-67 Political Advisor Duchess Luise Dorothea zu Sachsen-Meiningen of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (Germany)
Participated frequently in the meetings of the Privy Council and was very politically influential during the reign of her husband, Friedrich III (1699-1732-72). She was a friend of Friedrich the Great, was in close contact with Diderot, Rousseau and Voltaire, who visited her in 1753. She was daughter of Duke Ernst Ludwig I. of Sachsen-Meiningen and Dorothea Maria von Sachsen-Gotha und Altenburg, mother of several children, and  lived (1710-67).

  1732-40 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Magdalena Augusta von Anhalt-Zerbst of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
Widow of Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732), of their 18 children 7 sons and 2 daughters survived. She lived (1679-1740).

  1732-35 Princess-Abbess Aloysia von Widmann of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Karl 6 of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

  1732-35 Reigning Abbess-General Clara Antonia de Helguero y Albarado of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (possibly sister), Ana María, was Abbess-General 1723-26 and 1729-32.

  1732-43 Official Representative of the Herrnhut Bretheren Countess Erdmut Dorotea von Zinzendorf (Germany)
From the time of her marriage to Reichsgraf Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf she had been in charge of all the financial and economic aspects of his attempt to create a pietistic community and she administered all the estates and manors. After he had been banned from Sachsen she took over the leadership (Ortsherrschaft) of Berthelsdorf and Herrnhut were officially transferred to her, she was lady of the estate of Oberlausitz and “House Mother” of the “Pilgergemeine” which lived in exile with her husband. As the Official Representative she travelled to Denmark, Estonia (Livonia) and Russia. 1743 she withdrew to the private life because of health-problems. Born as Countess Reuß aus Ebersdorf, and lived (1700-56)

  1733-38 Regent Dowager Countess Luise von Nassau-Ottweiler of Salm-Dhaun (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl (1697-1717-33) she ruled in the name of their third and only surviving son, Johann Philipp III (1723-33-42), who was succeeded by his unmarried uncle, Christian Otto, who died 1748, then by a cousin, Johann Friedrich, who died 1750 and his two sons, who died later that year at the age of 2 and a few months old. She was also mother of 10 daughters. She lived (1686-1773).

  1733-38 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Franziska Charlotte zur Lippe-Detmold of Bentheim-Steinfurt and Alpen (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Friedrich Belgicus Karl (1703-13-33), she was regent for son Karl von Bentheim-Steinfurt, Count of Steinfurt and Alpen. After her death the regency was taken over by some of her late husband’s relatives. She lived (1703-33).

  1733-45 Sovereign Princess Maria Eleonora Boncompagni Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Princess of Venosa and Countess of Conza, Lady di Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli e Palmaiolan (Italy)
The oldest of six sisters, she succeeded her mother Ippolita Ludovisi who had died in 1724, and married her uncle Don Antonio I Boncompagni, who became Prince of Piombino by the right of his wife (1658-1721), and lived (1686-1745).

  1733-35 Regent Dowager Duchess Karoline von Nassau-Saarbrücken of Pfalz-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Herzog Christian III, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, Bischweiler und Rappoltstein from 1717 and Duke of Zweibrücken 1731, she became regent for their son, Christian IV (1722-35-75). One of her daughters, Karoline Henriette Christine, became known as the Grand Countess of Hessen-Darmstadt (die große Landgräfin) during her marriage to Ludwig IX. Her mother-in-law was Catharina Agathe, Sovereign Countess von Rappoltstein from 1676. Caroline was mother of 2 daughters and another son, and lived (1704-74).

  1733-40 Sovereign Princess Hélène de Courtenay-Chevillon of Courtenay, Comtesse de Cézy, Dame de Bléneau (France)
Her brother, Charles-Roger de Courtenay, died in 1730 and was succeeded by their father’s unmarried uncle, Roger (1647-1733). After his death she inherited the claim to the title as the last member of the line of the Capet-family. In 1712 she had married Louis-Bénigne de Bauffremont, Marquis of Listenois, and the family has used the prince de Courtenay, as well as a number of other princely titles. Their title of prince of the Holy Roman Empire conferred in 1757 was authorized in France the same year. She lived (1689-1740).

  1733-38 Reigning Abbess Anne Therese de Rohan of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Charles III de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon, Pr de Guéméné, etc, and his second wife Charlotte Elizabeth de Cochefilet. One sister was a nun at the chapter and two of her sisters were also abbesses, Marie Anne Benigne, at Panthemont and Angelique Eleonore at Preaux and Marquette. She lived (1684-1738).

  1733-57 Politically influential Queen Maria Josefa von Habsburg of Poland and Sachsen
When her husband, Elector Friederich August II von Sachsen or King August III of Poland (16961733-63) was in Poland she functioned as his representative, if not as an official regent in Sachsen. Ministers and ambassadors reported to her and she maintained a large network of correspondence. She was a powerful personality, who exercised great influence over her husband, and whose authority was recognised by all members of the court. She also participated actively in the negotiations in the Reichstag (Assembly). All of her surviving 11 children made good marriages, but this alignment with Austria and the rest of Catholic Europe provoked the aggression of Prussia, and led to the Seven Years War, which began in 1756, when Sachsen was occupied by King Friederich II. Her husband escaped to Poland, but she chose to stay back and organised the defence together with her son, Friederich Christian and his wife, Maria Antonia, and she used her big international network to do her best to save the electorate from total destruction. As there were no male Habsburg Heirs to the Austrian Empire she and her sister Maria Amalia (influential in Bavaria since 1722), had been given precedence in the succession in the secret “Pactum Mutuae Successions”, but later her uncle, Karl VI, paved the way for the succession of his daughter, Maria-Theresia in 1740 through the Pragmatic Sanction. Instead she tried to have her husband Holy Roman Emperor after the death of Karl VI and his successor, Karl VII, in 1744. She lived (1699-1757).

  1734-47 Regent Dowager Princess Johanette Wilhelmine von Nassau-Idstein-Wiesbaden of Lippe-Detmold (Germany)
Widow of Simon Henrich Adolf, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son, Simon August (1727-34-82). She was daughter of Duke Georg August Samuel and Dorothea von Öttingen.

  1734-51 Payung e-ri Luwu We Tenrileleang Aisyah Bahjatuddin of Luwu
1747-76 Datuk of Tanette (Indonesia)
The daughter of Fatima, who ruled 1713-19, she succeeded a relative, Batari Toja, and was succeeded by another female ruler, Petta Matinroe ri Kaluku Bodoe. In Tanette she succeeded her brother, La Odanriu Daeng Mattiri Ysuf Fakhruddin. She married La Mappaselli Aru Patojo (died 1732) and then Tolaowe Sapirie, the Datu of Mario ri Awa, and the daughter from this marriage, We Panang-areng, became Datu of Mario ri Wawo.

  1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein-Wertheim of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Succeeded her mother, Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and married to Heinrich I von Reuss zu Schleitz (d. 1744), and succeeded by daughter, Luise. She lived (1694-1734).

  1734-73 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Second daughter of Juliana Dorothea I, she was married to Christian-Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1748) and Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha (d. 1767), and succeeded by a daughter from each marriage, and lived (1726-73).

  1734-56 Joint Sovereign Countess Maria Anna Margaretha von Wurmbrand-Stuppach of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf  [-Wurmbrand] (Germany)
Third daughter of Juliana Dorothea I (1677-1734), and also known as Mariana gebohrne Gräfin von Wurmbrand regierende Gräfin zu Limpurg-Gaildorf (Née Countess von Wurmbrand, reigning Countess of  of Limpurg-Gaildrof), she married her cousin Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim, the son of her maternal aunt, Wilhelmine Christine, who inherited a fifth of his mother’s half of Limpurg in 1758. They were succeeded by their daughter Christiane Wilhelmina, and lived (1702-56).

  1734-35 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Teresa Nieto de Silva y Moctezuma, VI Condesa de Moctezuma de Tultengo [Mexico]
A descendant of a sister of the 2nd Conde/Condesa. She was also Grandesa de Epaña and III. Marquesa de Tenebron, Vizcondesa de Ilucán, and was married to Don Gaspar Antonio de Oca Sarmiento. She lived (1669-1701).

  1734-53 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Regina von Liebenfels of Säckingen (Germany)
The territory was raided during riots in 1741, the so-called ‘Salpetererunruhen auf dem Hotzenwald’ – peasents riots – and afterwards she allowed the County of Havenstein to pay off the serfs and reached an agreement with the Town of Säckingen about the contracts of priests. The church with had been rebuild in Baroque Style in 1740, was destroyed by another fire already in 1751 and she ordered that it should be rebuild in the new Rococo style. The daughter of Heincich Christoph von Liebenfels, Lord zu Worblingen and Maria Rosa Freiin Vogt von Altensumerau und Prasberg, and lived (1700-53).

  1734-35Abbess Nullius Rosa Caporossi of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Exercised, through a vicar, amost episcopal jurisdiction in the abbital fief of Castellana. Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory.

  1734-89 Reigning Abbess Anne de Clermont-Chaste of Chelles (France)
Former Canoness at Saint-Cyr, Abbess of Saint Paul de Beurepaire en Vienne in 1725 and later of Chelles. A large number of her relatives were bishops, abbesses and abbots. (b. 1697-1789).

  1735-58 Co-Reigning Margravine Wilhelmine zu Preussen of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Germany)
The sister of Friedrich the Great of Prussia she was de-facto joint regent with her husband, Friedrich von Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She emulated the musical and cultural standards Frederick had achieved at the Prussian Court. The most lasting monument from her time there is the superb Baroque opera house. It’s not clear how much Wilhelmine wrote, as most of it is lost; however her compositions include the opera Argenore and several arias. She lived (1709-58).

  1735-75 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana-Franziska von Prösing of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Also known as Countess von Prösing von Limburg, she was daughter of Wilhelmina-Sofia zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she was married to Rheingraf Karl-Vollrath zu Solm-Grumbach (d. 1768), and succeeded by son, Karl-Ludwig, who married Elisabeth-Christine von Leiningen, Co-Heiress von Gaildorf and then to Friederike von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein, co-heiress von Sontheim (1767-1849). Juliana-Franziska lived (1709-75).  

  1735-57 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Elisabetha von Baden-Durlach of Kirchheim in Württemberg (Germany)
She was also known as Johanne Elisabethe, and lived alone in the Alte Schloss in Stuttgart after her husband, Eberhard Ludwig had left her. She spent most of her energy fighting for her position as consort. After 1711 she boycotted all court-functions attended by her husband’s mistress Christina Wilhelmina von Grävenitz. Her only son, Friedrich Ludwig died in 1731, and when her husband died 4 years later, she took up residence in the Castle of Kirchheim. She lived (1680-1757).

  1735-47 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Luise von Oettingen-Oettingen of Blankenburg in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)
During her first years of marriage she resided together with her husband, Duke Ludwig Rudolf von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, in Blankenburg, which he had been given to him by his father as apanage and 1707 Emperor Joseph I elevated the Lordship to a Principality. They held an elaborate court and she was influential with  regards to political affairs and appointments to state offices. Afater his death she returned to Blankenburg where she promoted culture and art and expanded the castle. She was daughter of Albrecht Ernst I. zu Oettingen-Oettingen (1642–1683) and Christine Friederike von Württemberg (1644–1674), mother of 4 daughters, of whom 3 survived, and lived (1671-1747).


  1735-63 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
Her aunt, Maria Anna Susana zu Rhein, had been ruler of the territory 1701-11. The daughter of Johann Franz Ludwig zu Rhein zu Mortzwiller and Maria Sibylla von Roggenbach, she lived (1684-1763).

  1735-.. Princess-Abbess Anna Scholastica Paulerin von Hohenburg of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Emperor Karl 6 confirmed her election. “Carl der Sechste, Römischer Kayser”, bestätigt die neugewählte Äbtissin von St. Georg”

  1735-38 and 1741-42 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa Baradán de Oxinalde of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
She exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages and held her own courts.

  1736-38 Regent Rani Sijana Bai of Tanjore (India)
Governed the principality after the death of her husband H.H. Meherban Shrimant Raja Ekoji II [Baba Sahib] Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj, Raja of Tanjore. (1694-1736). She was succeeded by Sawai Shahji, who reigned in 1738.

  1736-51 Regent Dowager Countess Friederike zu Ortenburg of Castell-Castell (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Wolfgang Georg II (1694-1736) she was regent for her son, Count Christian Friederich Karl von Castell-Castell (1730-73), and lived (1712-58).

  1736-63 Titular Countess Anna Vittoria di Savoia-Carignano of Soissons (France)
Inherited the wast estates, castles, 2 Million Guilders, a library and a enormous collection of paintings from her unmarried uncle, Prince Eugen von Savoyen (Eugenio di Savoia). Her father, Prince Luigi Tommaso di Savoia-Soisson, Count of Soissons (1657-1702) had been been disinherited because of his unequal marriage to Urania de la Cropte (1655–1717). Together with her silibings, she grew up with their grand-mother, Marie de Bourbon-Condé, Countess of Soisson 1641-92, and she lived in a convent until she took over her uncles possessions and married the 20 year younger Prince   Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, who was given 300.000 Guilders in cash and the Castle of Schloss Hof in Niederösterreich. They seperated in 1752 and she lived the rest of her life in Torino. She was known as Countess of Soissons, but the title was incoroprated into the title of the Savoian Kings of Sardegna. The Princess lived (1683-1763).

  1737 Regent Princess Benedetta Maria Ernestina d’Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)
After the death of her father, Rinaldo III, she acted as regent together with sister for their brother Francesco III, who was a General in the Imperial Army and whose wife, Princess Charlotte Aglaë d’Orléans, lived in Paris. Benedetta was unmarried and lived (1697-1777).

  1737 Regent Princess Anna Amalia Giuseppina d’Este of Modena and Reggio (Italy)
Married to the Marchese de Villeneuf, a French adventurer, and lived (1699-1778).

  1737-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Maria Augusta von Thurn und Taxis of Württemberg (Germany)
Her claims to the regency were good. Her husband, Karl Aleksander (1684-1737), had entrusted her with the regency of the Duchy during his planned absence, and he named her as regent for their son, Carl Eugen, in her will. But the Privy Council and Estates overturned the will and appointed the senile Carl-Rudolph of Württemberg-Neuenstadt as sole regent among others because she was a catholic, and her three sons, with Carl Eugen, Ludwig Eugen and Friedrich Eugen became virtual prisoners in Berlin. She fought the Estates and all other obstacles and managed to be named Co-regent in 1737, a situation approved by the Emperor the following year. 1739 she was rumoured to be pregnant with her lover and exiled to Brussels from 1740. But she manoeuvred her back into a position of considerable influence in 1744; she broke the regent’s policy of dependency of Prussia by having her son declared of age. Her influence declined as her son grew more impendent after 1749, but she continued to speak her mind until she was confined to her dower hose at Göppngen, where she died in 1756. She was Daughter of Fürst Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis and Maria Ludovica von Lobkowitz, Duchess of Sagan (1683-1750), and lived (1706-56).

  1737-51 Princess-Abbess Maria Antonia Überacker of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of an Austrian Countly family.

  1737-43 “Hereditary Grand Duchess” Anna Maria Luisa De’ Medici of Toscana (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Johann Wilhelm of Sachsen in 1716, she moved back to Toscana. Her father, Cosimo III had her named heiress in 1714 supported by the major powers. In  1723 her brother Gian Gastone succeeded to the throne and in 1731 he accepted Charles de Bourbone (who had claims through his mother) as heir, provided that she was reserved a right to play a role in the Cabinet. But in 1735 the Grand Duchy was occupied by Spain and a treaty was concluded making Franz Stephan von Lothringen (husband of Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn)) heir in 1737. Her brother died soon after, and she inherited the family’s enormous possessions and soon after concluded a “Treaty or Convention of the Family”, with her successors, the Grand Dukes of Lorraine in 1737, by which all the art treasures belonging to the Medici family became property of the city of Florence museums for the enjoyment of people from all over the world. The title had been transferred to Franz Stephan von Lothringen, who descended from a female member of the De’ Medici family. She did not have any children, and lived (1667-1743).

  1738-42 Regent Dowager Margravine Magdalene Wilhelmine von Württemberg of Baden-Hochberg zu Durlach (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Margrave Karl II Wilhelm (1679-38) she took over the regency for her grandson, Karl Friedrich (1728-1811), together with another regent. Karl Friedrich who later became Elector of Baden and then Grand Duke was son of her second son, Friedrich (1703-32) and Anna Charlotte Amalie von Nassau-Dietz (1710-77). Magdalene Wilhelmine lived (1677-1742).

  1738-41 H.H. I-Danraja Siti Nafisah Karaeng Langelo, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)
Succeeded Sultana Zainab Zakiat ud-din. She was second daughter of H.H. I-Mappainga Karaeng Lempangang Paduka Sri Sultan Safi ud-din, Sultan of Tallo, by his first wife, H.H. I-Tanitaja Siti Amira Maning Ratu, Arung Palakka and Heir Apparent of Bone, whose father was sultan 1720-21. Siti Nafisah died unmarried and lived (1729-41).

  1738-44 Bor Raja Regnant Sarvesvari Devi of Ahom (India)
The third consecutive Queen or “Chief king” in succession to Ambika Devi. Like her two predecessors, she was possibly also married to the ex-king Siva Singha (1714-1744), who had abdicated because an astrologer told him that he was in danger of being dethroned.

  1738-1800 Hereditary Countess Charlotte Sophie of Aldenburg (Germany)
1738-54 Lady of the Free Lordship of Knyphausen and Noble Lady of Varel, Lady of Sengwarden, Fedderwarden and Accum (Germany), Lady of Doorwerth (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Anton II von Aldenburg and Baroness Anna von Inn- und Knyphausen (1690-1718) and succeeded her father as Head of the Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Kniphausen (semi-independent territory) and to the titles Frau of the Freie Herrlichkeit of Knyphausen and the Noble Lordship of Varel. She reigned jointly with her husband the Dutch Count Wilhelm van Bentnick und Altenburg (1704-74) until their divorce in 1754. Since the age of 14 she had been love with Count Albrecht Wolfgang zu Schaumburg-Lippe, and they maintained their connection, which ended in a major scandal. She lived (1715-1800).

  1738-… Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Maria von Hessen-Homburg of Aldenburg and Knyphausen et cetera (Germany)
The year after Count Anton III (1681-1738) died, Count Albrecht Wolfgang von Schaumburg-Lipe-Bückeburg was confirmed as co-guardian for her daughter on her request. She was daughter of Friederich von Hessen-Homburg and Luise Elisabeth von Kurland, mother of one daughter, and lived (1678-1770).

  1738-41 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Christine zu Erbach-Erbach of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Daughter of Sophia-Eleonora zu Limpurg-Sontheim, she married Friedrich Ludwig von Löwenstein, joint heir of Spontheim, trough his mother Amöne Sofie I. They had one daughter, Sophie Charlotte, who lived (1739-42), and after her death, he took posession of the Lordship of Limpurg-Sontheim-Michelbach in her name. Friedrich-Ludwig remarried with Sophie Luise zu Solms Assenheim. Sophia Christine lived (1716-41). 

  1738-86 Joint Sovereign Countess Friederike zu Erbach-Erbach of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Sister of Sophia Christine, she was married to Johann-Ludwig-Vollrath von Löwenstein-Wertheim, brother of Friedrich Ludwig. They were succeeded by son, Johann Karl, who had two sons. Friederike lived (1722-86).

  1738-? The Iyoba Ede of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of King Eresonyen of Benin (1735-50), who successfully fought the rebellious chiefs and restored power and legitimacy to the Benin Monarchy. As Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process.

  1738-41 and 1745-48 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel Rosa de Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Several members of her family was elected to the office of Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas.

  1738-73 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte I de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame de Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)
1754-73 Secular Abbess of Sainte-Waudru in Mons (Belgium)
1756-73 Coadjutrix of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1757-73 Coadjutrix of Essen (Germany)
Daughter of Duke Léopold I Joseph of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d’Orléans, and moved to the Low Countries where sister-in-law, Anna-Maria was Governor-General in 1744 and her brother, Karl, continued in office after his wife’s death until 1746 and then again 1749-80. Her other brother, Franz Stephan, married Anna-Maria’s sister, Empress Maria-Theresia of Austria-Hungary. Anne Charlotte became her brother's close advisor and very influential. From 1760 with the title of Dame instead of Demoiselle. In 1766 Lorraine was incorporated in France after having belonged to the Holy Roman Empire for centuries and lived (1714-73).

  1738-70 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Sybilla von Mentzingen of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
Member of an old local noble family, which held high administrative and ecclesiastical offices throughout the centuries. No successor was appointed until 1775.

  1738-92 Reigning Abbess Catherine-Henriette de Montmorin of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Doubled the Monastery buildings. One of the wings, the porch of the actual rue Montmorin and the chaplain’s residence is still the major part of the Abbey. From 1790, the lands of the Abbey were confiscated by the revolutionary Committee, the buildings were put up for sale and the expulsion order was promulgated in 1792. This event was to be the death of the Abbess. She passed away on September 27th.

  1738-40Abbess Nullius Giuseppa Bassiof the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
There was also Abbesses with semi-episcopal authority in France and Spain.

  1738-43 Abbess Friederike von Wurttemberg-Neuenstadt of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)
Danish Dowager Queen Sofie Magdalene had decided to turn the County of Vallø, which was part of her dowry, into a Lutheran chapter for unmarried ladies of the high nobility. The abbesses had authority in the Stift and possessed jus vocandi – the right to appoint the priests in the 17 churches within its territory, and were also in charge of the secular administration. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich August von Württemberg-Neuenstadt and Sofie Esther Gräfin von Eberstein. Her seven brothers died in infancy and only her two sisters survived, and after the death of their uncle, Carl Rudolf, she took up residence at the Castle of Neuenstadt together with one of them, Eleonore Wilhelmine Charlotte (1894-1751). She lived (1699-1781)

  1739-72 Reigning Abbess Maria Dioskora Maura von Thurn und Valsassina of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
A member of the Taxis-family that were divided into the lines of Counts von Thurn und Valsassina, Princess of Thurn und Taxis and the Spanish line of Tassis and held the offices of Postmaster General in the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and other territories. She lived (1702-72).

  1739-96 Politically Influential Nawab Aliya Sadrunissa Begum, Nawab Begum of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)
Oldest daughter of Burhan-ul-Mulk, Subedar of Avadh and married to her cousin and father’s successor Mirza Muhammad Muqim (Safdar Jung) (1739-64) in around 1724. When her father died in 1839, Nadir Shah plundered Delhi in 1739, and the Avadh landlords and small chiefs who had been effectively subdued by her father, raised their heads and arms in the attempt to secure their individual independence. In his capacity as the Nawab of Avadh, her husband was hesitant to face them despite his superior military strength. Had it not been for Nawab Begum’s forceful promptings, which eventually culminated in success, there may have been no further history of Avadh. Her court and courtiers maintained the peace and pomp of Faizabad. Her son, Shuja-ud-daula’s, died in 1775, and together with her daughter-in-law, Bahu Begum she secured the continued existence of the capital of Avadh, Faizabad. Imprisoned in 1781 by grandson together with daughter-in-law. She lived (Ca. 1712-96).

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Penguasa wanita Di Dunia 1670-1700



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1670-91 Regent Dowager Princess Anna Eleonore von Stolberg-Wernigerode of Anhalt-Köthen (Germany)
Her husband, Emanuel (1631-50-70), died after only 7 months of marriage, and she became joint regent with Johan Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau, for her posthumously born son, Emmanuel Albrecht (1671-1704), and got Imperial confirmation as regent in 1671. She lived (1651-91).

  Around 1670 Queen Suzana de Nóbrega of the Lovota District in Southern Soyo in the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)
Head of a Kimpanzu lineage, to which kings as kings Afonso II, Afonso III and Daniel I, belonged. Described as a powerful queen who sanctioned the rule of  Manuel de Nóbrega, brother of King Daniel I (ruled 1674-1678) over Mbamba Lovata.

  1670-85 Reigning Dowager Lady Queen Dowager Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of Lolland-Falster and the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
Received the fief in 1660 as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648. She was mother of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85).

  1670-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Bernarda Östringer of Heggbach (Germany)
Continued the building and renovation works of her predecessor, but marked by illness during the whole of her short reign. She lived (1650-75).

  1670-1704 Reigning Abbess Gabrielle de Rochechouart de Mortemart of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)
Marie-Madeleine-Gabrielle was the sister of the Marquise de Montespan, she is said to have translated all the works of Plato from the Latin version of Ficino. The children of the highest nobility frequented the abbey school, and her successors were entrusted with the education of the daughters of Louis XV.

  1670/71 Abbess Nullius Faustina Sforza of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses she is listed as ruler 1663-70, 1675 and 1683.

  1670-73 Politically Active Queen Eleonora Maria Josefa von Habsburg of Poland 
1690-97 Politically Active Dowager Duchess of Lorraine (France)
Politically active during reign of her first husband, king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki of Poland, and in 1673 she prevented the civil war in the country. After the death of her second husband, Karl IV Leopold, she tried to fulfil his last wishes by placing all of her energy into the return of Lorraine to her children. At the German Reichstag in Regensburg she presented an offer for the restoration of the duchy and established the rights of her eldest son, Leopold Joseph. In 1697 at the Treaty of Rijswijk she achieved her aims, but died only a few weeks after. Mother of 5 children with second husband, and lived (1653-97).

  1671-96 Rani Regnant Chennamma of Keladi (or Bednur) (India)
Also known as Chennammaji, she succeeded her husband Somashekara Nayak I at a very young age but managed to take over the throne in spite of scheming councillors and external dangers. Apparently she was skilled with the sword as well. Several ministers and the commander-in-chief unsuccessfully plotted to remove her from power. A member of the royal family who felt he should have succeeded to the crown made alliance with the Wodeyer ruler of Mysore, but the she defeated him in battle and forced a treaty on Mysore. Taking advantage of the situation the chieftains of Sodi, Sirsi and Vanavasi declared war but they too were crushed. Other leaders in the kingdom also revolted but she banished them. Rajaram, son of Chatrapati Shivaji came to her while fleeing from Aurangazeb and she granted him safe passage. This led to war with the Mughal Empire in which her troops destroyed a major part of the Mughal army led by Aurangazeb’s son, they captured several Mughal captains and ultimately a treaty was signed. She was succeeded by adopted son, Asavappa Nayakka I.

  1671-ca. 73 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön (Denmark and Germany)
Her son, Hans Adolf von Holsten-Pløn (1634-71-1704) participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor, and left the government in her hand and then in the hand of her daughter-in-law, Dorothea Sophia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. Dorothea Auguste was widow of Joachim Ernst of Plön, the areas of Kenfeld and Ahrensbök, during whose reign the armies of Wallenstein went through the Duchy in 1627, the Swedes looted in 1643 and the Danish-Swedish war 1657-60 devastated the state. She lived (1602-82).

  1671-98 Sovereign Marchioness Henriëtte Francisca zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen of Bergen op Zoom, Countess of Walhain (The Netherlands)
One year after the death of her mother, Maria Elisabeth II van der Bergh s’-Heerenberg, she was given the Marchionate as a fief, but was not inaugurated until 1781. She married Frédéric Maurice de La Tour, Comte d’Auvergne et d’Oliergues, and had nine children. During the war between the United Republic of the Netherlands and France, Bergen op Zoom was given two times to the King-Stadholder Willem IIII (1672-78 and 1788-97). She was succeeded by son, Francois Egon. Also known as Franziska Henriette, she lived (1642-98). 

  Ca. 1671-76 Squaw Sachem Awashonks of Sakonnet in Rhode Island (United States of America)
Also known as Awashunckes, she was a Sachem or Suncksqua of very high standing and a major player in events leading up to the native King Philip’s (Metacomet’s) War (1675-76). Repeatedly, we hear of her negotiating war and peace at the council fire, backed by her war leaders, most of who were her sons and she was among those signing the “submission” after the Native American army was defeated. She was contemporary with three other women sachems of the period Weetamoo and Potok Magnus and an unnamed woman leader from Concord in Massachusetts.

  1671-75 Abbess Nullius Maria Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Member of the family that ruled Conversano and a number of other territories in Italy.

  1671-85 Politically Influential Duchess Louise Renée de Kéroualle of Portsmouth in England (United Kingdom)
French mistress of Charles II of England. She exerted a powerful influence over the king in favour of France until his death in 1685. She was made Duchess of Portsmouth and d’Aubigny in 1673 and was the mother by the king, of Charles Lennox, duke of Richmond. Many English hated her as a French-Catholic menace; she stayed mostly in France after 1685, and lived (1649–1734).

  1672-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Louise von Anhalt-Dessau of Liegnitz and Brieg in Slesia (Schlesien-Liegnitz-Brieg) (Poland)
1672-75 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Wołów
1672-80 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Ohlau (Oława)
Also known as Ludwika Anhalcka. After the death of her husband, Christian von Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (1664-72), also known as Duke of Slesia in Liegnitz or Duke of Legnica-Brzeg-Wołów-Oława, who inherited Legnica and Brzeg from his older brothers, she became regent for their son, George Wilhelm. She was tolerant and assisted the Catholics, which made the Protestant people of the Duchy accelerate the declaration of age of her son, and against her protests Emperor Leopold I declared him ruler of his Duchy (14 March 1675). One of his first acts was to strip her of Wołów, part of her Dowry. But he died after 8 month’s rule of smallpox. She then retired to Oława, where she spend her last years in the construction of the Baroque Silesian Piast mausoleum at the church of St. Johannes the Baptist in Legnica, also called Piasteum, where she translated the remains of her husband, son and some of their ancestors. Her daughter, Charlotte von Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau (1652-1707) (or Karolina Piastówna) apparently explored the possibilities of succeeding to the territories, but Emperor Leopold objected to this and the lands were taken over by the Habsburgs. She was married to Duke Friederich von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg (1652–1724) until their divorce in 1680. Their only child, Leopold (1674–1744), remained in the custody of her ex-husband, she was given and annual salary of 6,000 talers during her lifetime as compensation for the Slesian lands and she lived in Wrocław, the old city of her ancestors for the rest of her life. Louise was daughter of Duke Johan Kasimir von Anhalt-Dessau and Agnethe von Hessen-Kassel, and lived (1631-80).

  1672-74, 1679-82 and 1699-1707 Sovereign Princess Marie de Orléans-Longueville of Neuchâtel and Valangin (Switzerland)
The daughter of Henri II d’Orléans, Duke de Longueville, and his first wife, Louise de Bourbon-Soissons, Marie lost her mother at age 12, and in 1642 came under the authority of her stepmother, the celebrated intriguer of the Fronde, Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé. Raised in a strict, studious atmosphere, Marie came to have little in common with her scandalous stepmother and eventually fled to Dieppe and then to Flanders in 1651 upon the renewed outbreak of the wars of the Fronde. For a time she was considered a possible bride for the Duke of York and even for Charles II of England, who had asked her hand. In 1657 she married Henri II, Duke de Nemours, a near invalid, who died two years later, leaving her childless. The rest of her life was spent in a cruel, arduous legal battle with her stepmother’s relatives, trying to establish her own inheritance. In 1698 she lost her case as far as the French property was concerned, but she did establish her right to the sovereign principality of Neufchatel the following year. In her Memoirs she dealt with the Fronde, writing with sympathy toward her father and with particular hatred for her stepmother and other Condés. She lived (1625-1707). 

  1672-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Cleopha Schenkin von Castell of Säckingen (Germany)
Had to flee for the rench troops during the Dutch Wwar in 1678. Säckingen was looted and a large part of the city burned down, including the church. Ten years later the territory was again attacked during the War of the Palatine (Pfälzischen Krieg) and she moved her residence to Etzgen. She was an able financial administrator and defended the seigniorial rights of the chapter in Hornussen and Stein in Switzerland and ended disputes with the Lord of Grandmont over the rights within the Lordship of Laufenburg. Daughter of Ulrich Christoph Schenk von Castell and Maria Cleophe von Wolfurt. Various male members of her family were Prince-Bishops of Eichstätt. She lived (1639-93).

  1672-88 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Sauther of Baindt (Germany)
As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she sat on the Ecclesiastical Bank in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1663 the Diet sat indefinitely and became known as the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag). From now on emperor was represented by a prince of the empire as his commissioner; a jurist was appointed as Subcommissioner; and the elector of Mainz, Archchancellor of the empire, had charge of the business of the meetings of the Diet. This assembly of representatives without legislative power disappeared when the realm collapsed under Napoleon’s attack in 1806.

  1672-88 Reigning Abbess Catherine II de Bernemiscourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Since the chapter was under the direct protection of the Pope, he or his personal representative was the only one who could conduct visitations to the chapter (control visits).

  1672 Reigning Lady Regina Katharina von Galler von Purgstall of  Riegersburg in der Steiermark (Austria)
The daughter of Katharina Elisabeth Wechsler, Lady of Riegersburg 1648-72, and Lord Hans Wilhelm von Galler. She married Johann Ernst Graf von Purgstall, and the Lordship remained in the possession of this family until 1817, when the possessions was divided among 17 persons.

  1672-75 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Sophia von Sachsen-Altenburg of Altenburg (Germany)
In 1672 her unmarried cousin Duke Friedrich Wilhelm III, died, and she inherited Altenburg against the claims of Friederich Wilhelm’s sister Johanna Magdalena- and her husband, Duke Ernst I of Sachsen-Gotha (1601-75) added Altenburg to his title. He was already in charge of Tenneberg, Waltershausen, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg, Tonndorf, Heldburg, Eisfeld, Salzungen, Frauenbreitungen, Wasungen, Kranichfeld, and from 1672 also of Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Krainburg, Eisenberg, Stadtroda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Grafenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonneberg, Haldburghausen, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen and Römhild. When he died in 1675, their oldest son Friedrich I became Duke of Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg etc. Elisabeth Sofie had already inherited the Saxon claim to Jerusalem when her father, Johann Philipp, died in 1629. She was mother of 18 children, and lived (1619-80).

  1673-83 Sovereign Countess Katharina Agathe von Rappoltstein of Rappoltstein and Hohenach, Lady zu Geroldseck am Wasichin (Germany)
Oldest daughter of Johann Jacob (1598-1673), and through an old Imperial privilege it was possible for women to inherit the title.  She was married to Christian II, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Duke von der Pfalz-Birkenfeld und Bischweiler and was succeeded by their oldest son, Christian III. The descendants of her aunt, Anna Elisabeth von Rappoltstein, the Princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont later assumed the title of Count of Rappoltstein, but never perused their claim. Catharina Agathe lived (1648-83).

  1673 Regent Duchess Isabelle Angélique de Montmorency of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
Appointed by her husband, Christian Ludwig I, during his absence in the war against theNetherlands. They had married in 1664 but she had remained inFrancewhere she was deeply involved in the political affairs, but her pro-French and her relationship with Kammerjunker Bernstorff and she soon returned toFrance. She had been married to the Hugenot Gaspard IV. de Coligny, Duke de Châtillon, who was killed in a duel after a few years. Her posthumously born son, Gaspard, died in 1657. During the Fronde she supported the Prince de Condé, who was finally defeated by Cardinal Mazarin, which ended the independent position of the nobility. King Louis XIV considered her as expert in German Affairs and sent her at a diplomatic mission to Braunschweig where she managed to recruitHannoveras French allied. She was daughter of François III de Montmorency-Boutteville, Comte de Luxé and Elisabeth Angélique de Vienne and lived (1627-95).

  1673-1702 In Charge of the Government Duchess Dorothea Sophia zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön
1704-06 Member of the Guardian Government
1704-22 Titular Duchess of Reinfeld and Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Office
After her marriage to Hans Adolf, Of the Grace of God, Heir of Norway, Duke to Schleswig-Holstein (1634-71-1704), who participated in various wars in the service of the German Emperor and spend very little time in Plön, she took over the government from her mother-in-law Dorothea Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp. After his death she became member of the guardian government for her grandson, Leopold August, who died after 2 years at the age of 4. She was given the title of titular duchess and Castle of Reinfeld as her dowry. She lived (1653-1722).

  1674-79 Sovereign Princess Anne Genevieve de Bourbon-Condé of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)
Born in the prison of Vincennes, into which her father Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and mother Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, had been thrown for opposition to Marshal D’Ancre, the favourite of the Regent, Marie de’ Medici. In 1642 she was married to the Duc de Longueville, governor of Normandy, a widower twice her age. After Richelieu’s death her father became chief of the council of regency during the minority of Louis XIV. She became of political importance in 1646 when her husband was the chief envoy during the drafting of the Treaty of Westphalia, where she was addressed as the ” goddess of peace and concord.” She maintained a long liaison with the duc de La Rochefoucauld and joined him as a leader of the Fronde. A determined enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, she obtained the assistance of her brother Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti, during the first Fronde, and that of the Vicomte de Turenne and her brother, the Great Condé, The king pardoned her and she became the great protectress of the Jansenists. As her health failed she hardly ever left the convent of the Carmelites in which she had been educated. On her death in 1679 her brother buried her with great splendour, and her heart, as she had directed, was sent to the nuns of the Port Royal des Champs. She lived (1619-79).

  1674-89 Acting Patroon Maria van Cortland van Rensselaer of the Patroonship of Rensselaerswijk in New Amsterdam (USA)
After the death of her husband, Jeremias van Rensselaer, who was the Third Director, Fourth Patroon, and Second Lord of the Manor of Rensselaerwyck, she acted stand-in for son. The Dutch colonized the area, which later became New York after it was sold to the British. She was daughter of Oloff Stevensen Van Cortlandt, a wealthy Manhattan merchant, and Anna Lookerman, mother of 6 children, and lived (1645-89). 

  1674-76 Overseer of the Crown Lands Helena Zielęcka of Bydgoszcz (Poland)
Appointed by the king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1674-98 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Maria Dorothea Sophie von Oettingen-Oettingen of Nürtingen and Kirchheim in Württemberg-Stuttgart (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Eberhard III (1617-74), she took over her dowry and resided there until her death. After Kirchheim burned down in 1690 she moved to Nürtingen and lead the reconstruction of the city. She was his second wife, and had no children. She lived (1636-98).

  1674-95 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Johanna Dorothea von Anhalt-Dessau of Gronau in Bentheim-Tecklenburg (Germany)
Widow of Moritz zu Bentheim-Tecklenburg (1615-74), and she lived (1612-95).

  1674-96 Politically Influential Queen Maria Kazimiera d’Arquien of Poland
1679-98 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica
Also known as Marysieńka, she was very political influential during the reign of her husband, king Jan III Sobieski (1629-74-96). Since 1699 she lived in Rome and from 1714 in France. She lived (1641–1716).

  1674-93 Political Advisor Katarzyna Sobieska in Poland
During the reign of her brother, King of Poland Jan III Sobieski, she was politically influential. First married to Władysław Dominik Zasławski and secondly to Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł on June 13, 1658. She lived (1634-1694).

  1675-77 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-‘Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
Granddaughter of Sultan ‘Ali Mughayat II Ri’ayat Shah, who ruled 1604-07, and married Laksamana ‘Abdu’r Rahman bin Zainal Abidin, Orang Kaya Kaya Maharaja Lela Melayu, son of Zainal Abidin bin Daim Mansur, Tengku of Ribee. Perhaps mother of Sultan ‘Ala ud-din Ahmad Shah Johan Badr Berdaulat, but she was succeeded by Sultana Zaqiyat. Her Throne-name Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-‘Alam Shah means Light of the world, Purity of the Faith. (d. 1677).

  1675-96 Sovereign Duchess Elisabeth d’Orléans of Alençon and Angoulême (France)
Daughter of Gaston, Duc d’Orléans, son of king Henri IV of France and Marie de Bourbon. She was half sister of Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier and full sister of Anne, Duchess of Montpensier, Marguerite Louise, married to Cosimo III of Toscana, and  Françoise Madeleine, wife of Charles Emmanuel II, duke of Savoia. She was married to Louis Joseph, duke of Guise (1650–1675), but since their only son died as a child, the duchy reverted to the crown at her death. She lived (1646-1696).

  1675-88 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Lorraine of Guise et de Joyeuse, Princess de Joinville (France)
She was daughter of Henriette-Catherine, Princesse de Joyeuse (1585-1608-56), and succeeded a grandnephew. In 1686 she left Guise and Joinville to Charles de Stainville, Comte de Couvonges, with a remainder to the younger sons of the duke of Lorraine’s younger sons and their heirs male. She also left Joyeuse by an act of 1688 to Charles Francois de Lorraine, prince de Commercy. The Parlement de Paris voided the donation of 1686 in 1689, and Anna Henrietta Julia of Bavaria, second daughter of the prince Palatine, distant cousin of the deceased, inherited Guise and Joinville. Marie de Lorraine lived (1615-1688).

  16751704 Sovereign Duchess Marie Madeleine Thérèse de Vignerot of Aiguillon, Demoiselle d’Agénois et Baronne de Saujon (France)
Succeeded aunt, Marie-Madeleine Vignerot. She became a nun, and at her death her nephew Louis-Armand, marquis De Richelieu, inherited the title. Marie-Thérèse lived (1635-1705).

  1675-98 Sovereign Duchess Marie-Anne de Bourbon of Vallière (France)
Her mother, Louise-Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc, resigned in her favour. In 1698 she gave the duchy to her cousin, Charles-François de La Baume Le Blanc. She had no children in her marriage with Prince Louis-Armand I de Bourbon-Conti, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon (1661-85). Also known as Marie-Anne de Blois, she was daughter of King Louis XIV, and lived (1666-1739).

  1675-87 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Anna Theresia von Haslang of Breitenegg (Germany)
In charge of the government in the Tillyschen Reichsgrafschaft (Tillyian Imperial Immediate County) during the minority of her son, Ferdinand Lorenz Franz Xaver, Reichsgraf von Tilly und Breitenegg (d. 1724), who was succeeded by his daughter, Maria Anna Katharina Theresia Reichsgräfin von Tilly. The County of the Realm had received a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet in 1654.

  1675-78 Joint Gardian Dowager Countess Christiane Elisabeth von Sayn-Wittgenstein of Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)
When her husband, Friedrich von Nassau-Weilburg (1640-75), died after a fall from a horse, her sons, Johann Ernst and Friedrich Ludwig (1665-84), were placed under guardianship with her and Johann von Nassau-Idstein and after his death in 1679 Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Ottweiler, and her sons lived with him in Ottweiler until they came of age. She lived (1646-78).

  1675-87 Princess-Abbess Maria Cäcilia I Vöhlerin of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1686 she changed the common sleeping hall for the ladies of the chapter with cells for each one of them. During her reign the bad harvests returned (in 1682 and 1685), but she started a number of commercial activities and opened a mill and a saw. Another version of her surname was Vöhlin, and she was born Freifrau von Frickenhausen, Illertiseen und Neuburg.

  1675-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of the noble family of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgrafen) von Muggenthal in Bavaria.

  1675-1708 Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska I von Manderscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
After she had her election approved, she had her right to appoint and dismiss the clerics of the territory confirmed by the Pope, and she managed to curb the attempts by her General Vicar, who was her assistant in her exercise of her quasi episcopal authority, to become her superior. She founded convents and schools in the Catholic enclave partly on German, partly on Dutch ground. And in 1700 she issued a law which clearly divided the secular and clerical courts.

  1675-95 Abbess Nullius Guiseppina Cedrella of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Alternative reign 1679-80.

  Ca. 1676-ca. 1711 Sultan Alimah II of Nzwani, Comoro Islands
Arabic-style sultanates developed in Nzwani as early as the sixteenth century with different areas of the island first ruled by chiefs known as Fani. Later, the chiefs were involved in conflicts and appealed to Europeans to intercede on their behalf. Eventually, in 1886, the island became a French protectorate and was formally annexed by France to its possessions in 1909.

  1676-1715 Sovereign Countess Magdalena Christina von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Sayn-Hachenburg (Germany)
Succeeded brother, who had succeeded their mother, Countess Ernestine von Sayn, who was co-ruler of the county. She was married to Burgrave Georg Ludvig von Kirchberg and in 1799 the counties were inherited by Burgravine Luise of Kirchenberg, Countess of Sayn-Hardenburg and Lady of Farnrode and trough her, by the Dukes of Nassau-Weilburg – the present ruling family of Luxembourg. She lived (1658-1715).

  1676-88 Regent Dowager Duchess Ilona Zrinyi of Munkacs (Hungary)
After the death of her first husband, Francis I Rakoczy (Rákóczi Ferenc), and mother-in law, Sophia Báthory, she inherited the immense property of the family. She married Imre Tököly and helped her husband with organising the “kuruc” uprising. After her husband had been defeated she defended fortress Munkach against the Habsburgs. In 1688 she was forced to give up. She was kept imprisoned in a cloister in Vienna. Later her husband changed her for Habsburg emperor’s officers. She followed her husband to his political exile. Her first husband had been designated as successor of his father, George I of Transylvania in 1652 by the Diet, but he was never recognized. The city of Munkacs is situated in Transcarpathian Ruthenia (Zakarpatskaya Oblast) and its population was a mixture of Hungarian-, Slovak-, Ukrainian-, Ruthenian-, and German-speaking elements; it also boasted one of the most culturally significant Jewish communities in Eastern Europe.  She died in Nikodemia, and lived (1645-1703)

  1676-1702 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eleonora Charlotte zu Württemberg-Mömpelgard of Twardogóra in Oleśnica (Poland)
In Polish she is known as Elonora Karolina, and she held the territory after her marriage to her father’s cousin, Prince Sylvius Friederich zu Württemberg-Oels or Sylwiusz Fryderyk of Oleśnica (1651-97)) as her dorwy. Its German name was Festenburg. Her husband was son of Duke Sylvius Nimrod von Württemberg-Juliusburg, and Elisabeth Marie von Münsterberg-Öls and she was daughter of Duke Georg II von Württemberg-Mömpelgard and Anne de Coligny (1624-80), did not have any children, and (1656-1743).

  1676-88 County Sheriff Anne Ottesdatter von Blome of the Counties of Riberhus and Møgeltønderhus, Denmark
1648 Anne von Blome married Hans Schack, who had been a soldier in Danish, German and French armies. They then lived at his estates Gültzow and Rosenthal in Sachsen-Lauenborg before her husband was appointed Commander of Hamburg. He became Lieutenant General and County Sheriff of Riberhus and Møgeltønderhus, (now Schackenborg Slot) in 1658 and he played a crucial role in the Danish-Swedish war as Governor of Copenhagen which was put under siege and he was one of the most important commanders during the war. 1660 he became supreme commander and continued to hold even higher offices until he was appointed Count in 1671, 5 years before his death. She was daughter of Otto Blome zu Kaltenhof, mother of several sons, and lived (1632-1688).

  1676-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Rosina Brümsi von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)
The Abbess of Lindau became Princess of the Empire with the title of Princess-Abbess (Reichsäbtissin to Lindau) in the 15th Century.

  1677-84 Regent Sri Rani Aswathi Thriunal Umayamma Rani of Travancore (India)
As the senior Princess of the Royal House, she was already Rani of Attingal, which was given to her as her personal appanage, when she succeeded on the death of Raja Aditya Varma after defeating a rival contender to the throne, Nedumangattu Kerala Varma in battle. Around this time, the British first came to Kerala. In 1684, she facilitated the construction of god owns for the British near Attingal. She adopted Kottayam Kerala Varma, who became a famous personality. Unfortunately, his popularity came at the cost of making powerful enemies, who had him assassinated on his return from an audience with the Queen. She was mother of six sons, five of them drowned at Manakad while bathing. After the death of her last son, Raja Ravi Vama, Raja, she adopted an entire family from the House of Kolatbunad, the Koil Tampurans of Kilimanur – three men and three women. Ummayamma Rani  (d. 1684/90).

  1677 Governor Leonor de Moura y Aragón of Sicily (Italy)
Acting Vice-Reine of Sicily after death of her first husband, Anielo de Guzmán who was vice-rey for King Carlos III of Spain as King of Sicilia and Napoli. Her second husband was Pedro Homodei y Pacheco, 2nd Marquess of Almonacid de los Oteros. She succeeded her father, Francisco de Moura y Melo as 4th Marchioness de Castelo Rodrigo, 1675-1706 3th Countess de Lumiares, 2nd Duchess de Nocera in Portugal in 1675. She had no children and was succeeded by her sister, Juana, who also held the position of Lady of las Islas Terceras in the Azores from 1706. She lived (ca. 1630-1706).

  1677-93 Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Magdalene Sibylle von Hessen-Darmstadt of Württemberg (Germany)
1677-1712 Reigning Dowager Lady of Leonberg
Following the death of her husband, Duke Wilhelm Ludwig, she reigned in the name of their son Eberhard Ludwig (1676-77-1733) together with some co-regents, among other her brother-in-law, Friedrich-Karl. She formed a form of alternative government against the administrator; she initiated intrigues and changed side as she saw her own advantages. When Friederich-Karl was captured by the French, Emperor Leopold outmanoeuvred her by declaring her son of prematurely of age. She held the Castle and Landscape of Leonberg as her dowry. The daughter of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt, she grew up in Sweden, and lived (1652-1712).

  Around 1677 Queen of Wayonaoake in Virginia (USA)
Mentioned as one of the signateurs of the treaty between the Indian tribes and the British colonisers.

  1677-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonore Clara von Hohenlohe-Gleichen of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany)
After her husband, Gustav Adolf von Nassau-Saarbrücken, fell in battle at Kochersberg, she was regent for son, Ludwig Kraft von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1663-77-1713). During her reign, she abolished the serfdom in the county in a proclamation with the titulature: “Wir Eleonore Clara, Verwittibte Gräfin und Vormünderin zu Nassau Saarbrücken und Saarwehrden, Frau zu Lahr und Wiesbaden und Jdstein, geb. Gräfin von Hohenlohe u. Gleichen, Frau zu Laneenburg u. Granichfeld. She lived (1632-1709).

  1677-1700 Burgravine Amalia von Dohna-Vianen, Sovereign Lady and Heiress of Vianen and Ameiden, Hereditary Burgravine of Utrecht (The Netherlands)
The “Souveräne Frau und Erbin von Vianden und Erbburggräfin von Uetrecht” was daughter of Christian Albrecht (1621-77) and Sophie Theodore von Brederode. Succeeded her father all of her 5 brothers and 2 sisters predeceased her. She was married to Count Simon Heinrich zur Lippe-Detmold (1649-99), mother of 16 children and lived (1644-1700).

  1677-1723 Territorial Princess Giovanna II Aragona Pignatelli Cortes of Castelvetrano, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, Machioness of Avola, Duchess of Terranova and Countess of Borghetto, etc. (Italy)
Daughter of Andrea Fabrizio (?-1677) Duke of Monteleone. Married to Ettore Pignatelli, Marquis del Vaglio. Succeeded by son Prince Diego, Marquis of Valle Oaxaca later Duke of Terranova and Monteleone. She and her husband acquired extensive feudal properties in Southern Italy, in central and western Sicily, in Spain and Mexico. She lived (1666-1723).

  1677-99 Countess Sophie Amalie Moth of the County of Samsøe (Denmark)
Official Maitresse of King Christian V, and appointed Lensgrevinde til Samsø til Gevskabet Samsøe (Fiefcountess of Samsoe to the County of Samsoe), and her children with the king were given the surname of Gyldenløve and they became the ancestors of the Danneskiold-Samsøe counts. She lived (1754-99).

  1677-1701 Princess-Abbess Maria Eva Schenkin von Castell of Schänis (Switzerland)
Reached a compromise with the parish of Benken in the dispute over the right to appoint the local priest (Kollaturstreit). Her Cousin, Countess Maria Cleopha, was Princess-Abbess of Säckingen (1672-93). The daughter of Johann Erhard Schenk von Castell, Chief Steward of Delsberg and Maria Elisbeth von Rotberg, she lived (1640-1701).

  1678-88 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zaqiyat ud-din ‘Inayat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Mahmud Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
The mercantile oligarchs elected her as successor to sultana Naqiat – the second female ruler of the state. The rule of women was not simply a weak version of male monarchy; it also partook of some of the attributes that women were expected to show in Southeast Asian societies. Women were entrusted with the handling of money, the buying and selling of goods, the promotion of the family as a business and the making of deals. Sultan Zaqiyat was daughter of Raja Mahmud Shah bin Raja Sulaiman Shahand and married to a great-grandson of Sultan Mukmin, who reigned 1579. Succeeded by her sister-in-law, Sultana Zinat. (d. 1688).

  1678 Sovereign Duchess Isabella I Gonzaga of Gaustalla (Italy)
When she married Ferdinando Carlo IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova in 1670, they were promised the succession to the Duchy after her father, Ferrante III, but when he died in 1678, the Duchy was placed under administration and in 1692, Emperor Leopold declared the arrangement illegitimate and granted the feud to her father’s cousin, Vincenzo I Gonzaga, who married her younger sister Maria-Vittoria (1659-1707) in 1679. Anna Isabella had no children, and lived (1655-1703).

  1678-88 Regent Dowager Landgravine Elisabeth Dorothea von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg of Hessen-Darmstadt (Germany)
1688-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Butzback
Took over as regent for son, Ernst Ludwig (1667-78-1739) after the death of her stepson Ludwig V, who died 18 weeks and 4 days after succeeding her husband, Ludwig IV (1630-61-78). The Imperial Court (Reichskammergericht) demanded that she should reign jointly with a College of Councillors, but she prevented that they could take their oath and they therefore remained subordinate “advisors” to her. During her term in office she only called the Estates (Landtag) 2 times. She worked hard on consolidating the economic and industrial situation of the Landgrave and after she took over the government in her dowry, she advised her son to do the same, but he refused her interference. She also promoted music and culture, and lived (1640-1709).      

  1678-93 Regent Countess Dowager Ernestine Barbara Dorothea Sibylle zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Altgraf Erich Adolf, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Altgraf Franz Wilhelm I von Salm Reifferscheid zu Bedbur (1672-78-1734). She lived (1654-98).


1678-98 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna Dorothea von Ruppa of Reuss zu Untergreiz  (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Heinrich IV, she was guardian for son, Heinrich XIII (1672-1733), who was under the regency of a male relative. She lived (1651-98).


1678-81 Princess-Abbess Christine Sofie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)

Resigned in order to marry her cousin Duke August Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1662-1731), who did not have any children with his two next wives, Sophie Amalie von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (1670–1710) and Elisabeth Sophie Marie von Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (1683–1767), as he preferred men. She was daughter of Duke Rudolf August of Christiane Elisabeth, Gräfin von Barby, and lived (1654-95).


1678-1733 Overseer of the Crown Lands Marie Anne de la Grange d’Arquien of Nowy Targ (Poland)

The sister of Queen Maria Kazimiera, she was in charge of the administration of the territory jointly with her husband Jan Wielopolski. (d. 1733).

  1679-96 Feudal Marchioness Beatrice Acquaviva d’Aragona of Sant Emiliano, Melpignano Botrugno, Trepuzzi and Vaste (Italy)
Daughter of Francesco, she died without heirs, and the Marchese di Trepuzzi don Geronimo Acquaviva inherited the feudal lands.

  1680-83 Queen of Lai Kha (Myanmar-Burma)
Succeeded her husband, King Saw ne Ya, who reigned the Shan Kingdom (1650-80).

  Ca. 1680-ca. 85 Sultan Nur al-Azam of Sulu (Philippines)
Also known as Pangian Ampay II, she was originally named Siti Cabil or Sittie Kabira, and chosen as the successor by her maternal grandfather, Sultan Muawil Wasit. Not much is known about her reign, Kabira’s name remains in an extended prayer for the Prophets and their descendants and followers in a traditional mosque in Maimbung. Her name is included in the Dalrymple’s list of sultans but is not included in the Sulu genealogy, probably because she was a woman.

  1680-1701 Regent Dowager Countess Charlotte Amélie de la Trémoïlle of Aldenburg and the Barony of Kniphausen (Germany)
1680-1732 Lady of Doorwerth (The Netherlands)
After her father, Henri Charles, Duke de La Tremoille, demanded that they converted to Catholism, she fled together with her mother, Emilie von Hessen-Kassel. She ended up in Denmark, where her cousin, Charlotte-Amalie, was married to King Christian V. Here she married Count Anton I von Aldenburg und Kniphausen, the illegitimate son of Count Anton Günther von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Elisabeth von Ungnad, who had been created Reichsgraf. He had 6 daughters by his first wife, Auguste Johanna von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1638-66). When he died after 5 months of marriage, she became regent for her unborn child. Her son, Anton II, was born at 26th of June 1681, and was Baron of the semi-independent Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Kniphausen until his death in 1738, when he was succeeded by his daughter, Charlotte-Sophie von Aldenburg. After he came of age, she spent the rest of her life in the castle of Doorwerth in the Netherlands, and lived (1652-1732).

  1680 Governor Lady Elizabeth de Carteret of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
1680-82 Lady Proprietrix of East Jersey (in New Jersey, USA)

In charge of her late husband’s fiefs in the Channel Islands and America. Her husband – and cousin – Sir Georges de Carteret, was son of Helier de Carteret of St Ouen and in 1643 he succeeded his uncle, Sir Philip Carteret, to the post of bailiff of Jersey, and was appointed by the king lieutenant-governor of the island. After subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned a vice-admiral of Jersey and “the maritime parts adjacent”. Parliament branded him as a pirate and excluded him specifically from future amnesty. Prince Charles created him a knight and baronet and in 1650 he was granted “a certain island and adjacent islets near Virginia, in America,” which were to be called New Jersey; but no settlement upon this grant was made. After the Restoration in 1660, he was granted the fief of Alderney and he held many other offices at court. His fourth cousin, Philip Carteret, was sent to New Jersey as governor in 1665. The patent of Alderney, she sold to Sir Edmund Le Breton, whom Charles II later appointed Governor of New York, and two years later she sold the land of East Jersey in 1682 to Quakers. She was daughter of Philippe de Carteret, 3rd Seigneur of St. Owen, and Anne Dowse, and lived (1616-96).

  1681-82 Sometime Acting Governor Elizabeth Smith of New Jersey (USA)
After the death of her first husband, William Lawrence (1622-80), she became the administratrix of the families’ estates in Flushing and guardian of their 7 children. She then married Sir Philip Carteret, son of Helier Carteret, Attorney General of the Isle of Jersey, and governor of New Jersey (1665-82). She acted as governor during his absence in Europe, and many of the important acts of that period were “passed under her administration.” And the city of Elizabeth in New Jersey, is named after her. Three years later she married Colonel Richard Townley (d. 1711). She was daughter of Richard Smith and Sarah Hammond, and lived (1643-1712).

  1680-86 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III Albertina von Anhalt-Dessau of Herford (Germany)
Her father, Duke Johann Georg II. von Anhalt-Dessau, had her elected as Reichsäbtissin in order to secure her an income and to influence the Herfordian part of vote in the Bank of Prelates of the Rhine. After she she resigned in order to marry Heinrich von Sachsen-Wissenfels-Barby, she brought a large number of artists and merchants with her to Barby. Of her 8 children, only Georg Albrecht reached adulthood (but had no heirs), 3 were still-born, 3 died as infants, one son at the age of 19. Her sister Johanna Charlotta was Princess-Abbess from 1729. Elisabeth Albertina lived (1665-1706). 


1680-83 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt of Quedlinburg (Germany) 

The Landgravine had been second in command of the Abbey-State since 1656 with the title of Pröpstin and Coadjutorin from 1678. Her sister, Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene, was married to the Catholic Count Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Neuburg and after she converted to this faith, she tried to persuade Anna-Sophia to do the same, but she remained a staunch protestant. 1658 she published the prayer book ‘treue Seelenfreund Jesus Christus’ (Faithful soulmate of Jesus Christus) with her own texts and songs. She was daughter of Landgrave Georg III von Hessen-Darmstadt, and lived (1638-83).

  1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylle II. von Brandenburg-Ansbach of the and Administrative Unit of Freiberg-Colditz and the fore work zu Fischersdorf in Sachsen  (Germany)
Widow of the Elector Johann Georg II as his second wife, daughter of Christian zu Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1581-1655) Ermuth Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, mother of 3 children, and lived (1612-87).


1680-87 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Johanna Walpurgis von Leiningen-Westerburg of the Administrative Office and Castle of Dahme in Sachsen-Weissenfels-Querfurt  (Germany)

Second wife of August von Sachsen-Weißenfels-Querfurt who died in 1680, who had 8 surviving children by his first wife, Anna Maria von Ostfriesland, and 3 who died as infants. She herself had 1 son who died at the age of 19, one stillborn son and a surviving son, Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Weissenfels-Dahme (1673-1715), who was given the Office of Dahme as his Dukedom when he reached adulthood. She lived (1647-87).

  1681-1721 Queen Verónica I Guterres Kangala Kingwanda of N’Dongo and Matamba (Angola and Congo)
Also known as Cangala Quinguanda, she was daughter of King João Guterres Ngola Kanini I. Her brother was killed during a battle that Matamba won against the Portuguese. Nevertheless she decided to treat for peace, signing the agreement with Portugal in 1683. But in 1689 she attacked the Portuguese in Cahenda in the Dembos Region, which was disputed between Ndongo, Kongo, and Portugal. Around 1701, Luca da Caltanisetta, the prefect of the Capuchin mission in Angola wrote to her asking to re-establish the mission which had fallen vacant, but she answered by expressing her concern that “it pained her to see her children die without baptism” but that she was “disgusted with the whites, and she would “not see any of them in her court with the missionaries.” She sought once again to expand the kingdom into Portuguese domains in 1706, and it was probably for this reason that she had ambassadors in the court of Kongo’s King Pedro IV that year. But her attempts to do this were thwarted, as Portuguese forces were too strong and she abandoned the attempt. Nevertheless, a state of constant low level conflcit between her army and the Portuguese at Ambaca and Cahenda led to the virtual depopulation of the country to the west of Matamba, as the people either fled or were captured and deported to the Americas. Those captured by the Portuguese tended to be sent to Brazil, those captured by her were often sold to Vili merchants, based in the Kingdom of Loango to the north, and subsequently sold to English, Dutch, or French merchants who frequented that coast. She was succeeded by her son, Afonso I Álvares de Pontes. She (d. 1721).


1681-93 Princess-Abbess Christine zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Gandersheim (Germany)

16th child of Duke Adolf Friedrich I and the second daughter of his second wife, Marie Katharina von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. After her death, her, Marie Elisabeth, was elected as Fürstäbtissin and ruler of the Ecclesiastical territorial. Christine lived (1639-93).

  1681-1709 Reigning Abbess Maria Jakobe von Bodman of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Elected 6 April, confirmed by the Abbot of Salem at 5 August, received the customary homage by the inhabitants 25 January 1700 with participation of the Abbot, and was inagurated 29 June 1701. She rebuild the church of the chapter in baroque style. 2 of her sisters were nuns in Heiligenkreutz and Rottenmünster and her brother Johann Rupert Sigismund was Prince-Abbot of Kempten and another Prior in Hofen. She was related to several canonesses in Wald. She was daughter of Johann Siegmund von Bodman zu Wiechs und Steisslingen.

  1682 and 1689-94 Regent Dowager Empress Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina of Russia
After the death of her husband, Alexis, she became regent for her stepson, Fyodor III, and held power from 27th of April to the 26th of May, but soon his mother Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya pushed Peter and the Naryshkin circle aside. When Fyodor died childless in 1682, a fierce struggle for power ensued between the Miloslavskys and the Naryshkins: the former wanted to put Fyodor’s brother, the delicate and feebleminded Ivan V, on the throne; the Naryshkins stood for the healthy and intelligent Peter. Representatives of the various orders of society, assembled in the Kremlin, declared themselves for Peter, who was then proclaimed tsar, and Natalya became regent again 29th of May until the 29th of June; but the Miloslavsky faction exploited a revolt of the Moscow streltsy, or musketeers of the sovereign’s bodyguard, who killed some of Peter’s adherents, including Matveyev. Ivan and Peter were then proclaimed joint tsars with Ivan’s 25-year-old sister Sophia as regent. After Sophia was deposed, Natalya became regent again. Her name is also transcribed Natal’ya Kirillovna Naryškina, and she lived (1651-94).

  1682-86 Tzarevna Regnant Sofiya Aleksyevna Romanova of Russia
1686-89 Autocrat
Grand Duchess Sophia (Царевна Софья Алексеевна Романова) was the daughter of Tsar Alexis and his first wife, Maria Iliyanova Miroslavkaya. She was well educated and noted for her intelligence, energy and ambition. After the death of her brother, Feodor III, she led a group of Miloslavskii boyars in a struggle for power with her stepmother, Natalia Naryshkaina. She was extremely active in internal and foreign policy. Russia concluded “The Eternal Peace” with Poland in 1686, and the Nerchinskii Treaty with China in 1689. There were also two military expeditions to the Crimea. In 1687, the first educational establishment opened in Russia: the Academy of Slavic, Greek and Latin Studies. In 1689 she attempted to seize the Russian throne for herself, but this was repulsed by Peter, and exiled to the Novodevichii Monastery. After an uprising in her name by the guard regiments in 1698 she was forced to become a nun under the name of Susanna and she was put under heavy guard. She lived (1657-1704).  

  1682-1717 Queen Regnant Nony Sonbait of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)
Reigned under a number of regents; in the period 1699-1708 the regent of the kingdom in Eastern Timor was Ama Baki. Nony Sonbait lived (ca. 1666-1717).

  1682-1705 Regent Dowager Rani Mangammal of Madura (Trichinapali) (India)
Regent for King Mutti Vriappa III (1682/5-89 and Chokkanatha II (1689-1731).

  1682-85 Sovereign Lady Anna Elisabeth von Daun-Falkenstein of Falkenstein (Germany)
As her brother, Carl Alexander had been shot by Moritz von Limburg-Styrum, in 1659, she succeeded her father, Wilhelm Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. She was widow of Count Georg Wilhelm von Leiningen-Dagsburg (1636-72), and was succeeded by son, Count Johann Karl August von Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenstein (1662-98). Also mother of a son who died in infancy and a daughter. She lived (1636-85)

  Around 1682-1714 Queen Ana Afonso de Leão of Nkondo (Mucondo) and Territories at Lemba and Matari, and along the Mbidizi River in the Kingdom of Kongo (Angola)
During the Kongo Civil War (1665-1709) that waged between the House of Kinlaza against the House of Kimpanzu, she established a regional principality within the kingdom. She was the matriach of the Kilanza Clan and was engaged in battles against Manuel I of another branch in 1682, 1696, 1702 and 1714. Her lands came to be called the “Lands of the Queen”.

  1682-1700 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Clara Augusta von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of the Office of Weißenhof bei Weinsberg in Württemberg-Neuenstadt (Germany)
Also known as Klara Auguste, she moved to her dowry – one of the Offices of the Duchy – after the death of her husband, Herzog Friedrich. They had 12 children, but only 3 sons survived into adulthood. Her sister, Marie Elisabeth was Politically Influential in Sachsen-Coburg 1681-87. Clara Augusta lived (1632-1700)

  1683-1719 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia von Sandizell of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
In charge of a territory that included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. 1704 she started the modernization and rebuilding of the Church and the Abbey-buildings in Baroque style.

  1683-84 Designate Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Named as successor of Anna Sophie II von Hessen-Darmstadt, but Anna-Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar , who had been named Pröbstin and promished the right of succession in 1681, protested and her cousin,  Johann Georg III of Saxony,  helped Anna Dorothea von Sachsen to elected Abbess in 1684 and the Saxon Princess recived Imperial confirmation the following year. She was daughter of Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Gottorp (1616-59) and Marie Elisabeth zu Sachsen (1610-84), daughter of Elector Johann Georg I of Sachsen. She lived (1640-1713).

  1683-86 Reigning Abbess-General Felipa Bernada Ramírez de Arellano of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As abbess of the convent she was privileged to confirm Abbesses of convents within her jurisdiction, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.

  1684/90-85/91 Titular Senior Rani of Attingal in Travancore (India)
The family follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. The two senior Princesses of the Royal House, the mother of the Maharaja and her sister, received the principality of Attingal in appanage, and were styled the Senior and Junior Rani of Attingal.

  Around 1684/90-after 1718 Titular Junior Rani Kartika Tirunal of Attingal in Travancore (India)
Sister of the Senior Rani.

  1684-1704 Princess-Abbess Anna Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)
1681-84 she was Provost (Pröpstin) of the Chapter. When Anna Sophie II. died in 1683, Anna Dorothea von Holstein-Gottorp was named as her successor, but Anna Dorothea von Sachsen had her relative, Elector Johann Georg III of Saxony help her be elected Abbess in 1684. She was confirmed by Emperor Leopold I. the following year. 1698 the city was occupied by troops from Brandenburg, and the Elector of Sachsen sold the guardianship for 300.000 Taler to the Electorate of Brandenburg, which made her protest to the Emperor about the fact that she had not been consulted about the sale. She was daughter of Duke Johann Ernst of Sachsen-Weimar and Elisabeth zu Holstein-Sønderborg (1657-1704).

  1684-1704 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Sofia von Mecklenburg-Schwerin of Bierutów-Radziejów in the Silesian Pricipality of Oleśnica (Poland)
After the death of her husband, Fürst Julius Siegmund zu Württemberg-Oels – or Juliusz Zygmunt of Oleśnica (1653-84), she took over the regency in his parts of the principality for their son, Karol – or Karl Friederich zu Wurttemberg (1681-1725). She lived (1647-1726).

  1684-1706 Religious Leader and Prophet Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita in Congo
Portuguese forces had defeated the Kongo, the Christianity of Afonso I had fallen into syncretism, a mix of Christian and African traditional religions, and three ruling families contended for power. Into this political and cultural vacuum a number of messianic prophets arose to proclaim their socio-religious visions. The most important of these was Kimpa Vita, a young girl who believed herself possessed by the spirit of St. Anthony of Padua, a popular Catholic saint and miracle worker. She began preaching in the Congolese city of San Salvador, which she said God wished restored as the capital. Her call to unity drew strong support among the peasants, who flocked to the city, which Kimpa identified as the biblical Bethlehem. She told her followers that Jesus, Mary and other Christian saints were really Congolese.Kimpa conspired with the general of Pedro IV, one of the contenders for the throne, but she was captured. Both Kimpa and her baby – conceived by her “guardian angel” – were burned at the stake for heresy, at the instigation of Capuchin missionaries.The Antonian movement, which Kimpa began, outlasted her. The Kongo king Pedro IV used it to unify and renew his kingdom. She was burned at the stake in 1706.

  1684-1700 Politically Active Electress Sophie Charlotte von Hannover in Brandenburg (Germany)
During most of her marriage she sought to influence her husband, Electoral Prince Friedrich III (King of Preußen in 1701), even though the couple grew apart over the years. She was a vivacious woman, who loved the court life, entertaining, parties, music, acting, philosophical and cultural salons where as her husband was strongly pietistic and did not enjoy the court life. She is thought to have been instrumental in the downfall of the Oberpräsident (Head President) Eberhard von Danckelmann in 1697. After her husband became King of Preussen and she was crowned as Queen in 1701 she did not seek political influence any more but continued her splendid life at court until her death. The daughter of Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who later became Elector of Hannover and Sophie von der Pfalz, who was named heir to the British throne in 1701, she was mother of two sons, and lived (1668-1705).

  1685-97 Regent the Bendahara Paduka Raja of Johor (Malaysia)
Widow of H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Ibrahim Shah ibni al-Marhum Yam Tuan Muda Raja Bajau, Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga and regent for son H.H. Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim Shah, Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga (1685-99) until her own death in 1697.

  1685-91 Princess-Abbess Agathe Juliane von Steprodt of Keppel (Germany)
Since it had been re-opened in 1650 as double-domination chapter, it had been ruled by a succession of Protestant and Catholic Abbesses. She therefore succeeded the Catholic Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen.

  Around 1685 Princess-Abbess Marie Cunégonde von Beroldingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
In 1686 she made a treaty with Louis XIV who agreed to respect the freedom of the canonesses to chose their own abbess and confirmed her title as princesse d’empire, even though the Chapter was no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire since both France-Comté and Alsace/Alsass had been incorporated into France at the time.

  1685 Abbess Nullius Gabriela Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed as ruler in the alternative list of abbesses.

  1686-1709 Sovereign Duchess Anne de Rohan-Chabot of Rohan-Porhoët and León (France)
Daughter of Marguerite de Rohan-Frontenay, sovereign Duchess of Rohan from 1638, and Henri Chabot, who was created Duke of Rohan in 1648. Married to François de Soubise. 

  1686-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Reuss zu Gera (Germany)
The widow of Heinrich IV, she was joint regent with another relative, Heinrich I of Reuss zu Schleiz, during the minority of Heinrich XVIII. She was mother of 8 sons, all named Heinrich as all males in the Reuss-family: Heinrich XIII, (1673-74), Heinrich XIV (1674) Heinrich XVI (1676-77), Heinrich XVIII, Graf Reuss von Gera (1686-1735) (167-1735), Heinrich XX (1678-89), Heinrich (1680-1731) (whose son, Heinrich XXIV succeeded Heinrich XVIII in 1735) and of Heinrich XXVII (1683-1706), and she lived (1645-1716). 

  1686-88 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV zu Hessen-Kassel of Herford (Germany)
 11th child of Wilhelm of Hessen-Kassel and Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münsterberg, and lived (1634-88).

  1686-1715 Princess-Abbess Anne Leonore d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Elected as successor of her aunt, Isabella Hendrika d’Aspremont-Lynden, she was an ambitious and despotic woman, and used royal symbols in her seal and engaged in disputes with the Prince-Bishop of Liège, who forbade her to use the title of Princess and forbade the inhabitants in her territory to accept her as sovereign Lady. As a result she forbade them to pay taxes to the bishop and in 1713 she denied Austrian troops the right to collect supplies, and she also refused to accept the emperor’s demand that she acknowledge the bishop as her overlord. She was daughter of Count Ferdinand d’Aspremont-Lynden and Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. (d. 1715).

  1686-89 and 1695-96 Reigning Abbess-General Melchora Bravo de Hoyos of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative of hers (possibly her brother), Gabriel Rodríguez Bravo de Hoyos, was Governor of Nicaragua 1689-93.

  1686-1715 Politically influential Marchioness Françoise de Maintenon in France
In 1652 Françoise d’Aubigne married Scarron and entered the Literary Salons of Paris. In 1669 she became governess to the children of Louis XIV by Madame de Montespan, much to the dissatisfaction of the king, who did not like the extreme gravity and reserve of the young widow. Françoise’s talents and wisdom soon attracted Louis’ attention, and she became his confidant and adviser, and was made a marchioness. She refused to become his mistress, and in 1686 she married Louis to the “left hand”, and exercised a disastrous influence on him, encouraging a reactionary politics. She lived (1635-1719).

  1686-1728 Politically influential Duchess Elżbieta Sieniawska in Poland
Daughter of Stanisław Lubomirski and Zofia Opalińska. Since 1686 she was married to Voivode Adam Hieronim Sieniawski of Belz. After the death of king Jan III Sobieski in 1696 she was the leader of the pro-France party in Poland. She also fought for her the Hungarian Throne for her lover prince Franiszek II Rakocsy. She was sometimes called  “The First Lady of the Republic of Poland”. She lived (1667-1728).

  1687-89 Regent Dowager Duchess Christine von Hessen-Eschwege of Braunschweig-Bevern (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Ferdinand Albrecht I von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern  (1636-87), she was in charge of the regency in the name of her son Ferdinand Albrecht II (1680-1735), who married Antoniette Amalia, the daughter of his cousin, Ludwig Rudolph Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671-1735), and succeeded him shortly before his own death. She was mother of 9 children and lived (1648-1702).

  1687-91 Regent Dowager Sultana Mariyam Kaba’afa’anu Rani Kilege of the Maldive Islands
After the having poisoned her husband, Iskander Ibrahim, she became regent for their infant son, Sultan Muhammad I. She was killed off Dunidu Island when a spark from a victory salute blew up a powder magazine, destroying the royal vessel in which she was sailing. Her son died shortly after of the wounds he received in the explosion that killed his mother.

  1687-1707 Sovereign Princess Marguerite de Créquy of Poix (France)
Only daughter of Charles de Créquy, who had Poix raised to a duchy under the name of Créquy in 1652, but the title died with him in 1687. Poix became a principality again and passed through to Charles-Belgique-Hollande de La Trémoïlle, duc de Thouars, who sold Poix in 1718 to the widow of Jean-François, marquis de Noailles.

  1687-89 Saliha Dilaşub Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire(Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Her full title as mother of the sultan was Daulatlu Ismatlu Mahfiruzl Validi Sultan ‘Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, and in some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. Mother of Süleiman II (1687-91), she lived (1627-89).

  1687-1700 Princess-Abbess Maria Barbara IV Hager of Heggbach (Germany)
In 1689 the major part of the chapter fled for the passing French troops led by General Mélac. But she managed to renovate church of the chapter in baroque style, even though it lead to an economical crisis in the territory. During a number of years Prioress Maria Antonia Motz lead an internal opposition against her and she was forced to resign. (d. 1715).

  1687-1725 Princess-Abbess Maria Williburg Frey of Rottenmünster (Germany)
Rebuilt the main building of the chapter.

  1688-99 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Zinat ud-din Kamalat Shah binti al-Marhum Raja Umar of Aceh Dar us-Salam (Indonesia)
The last of four consecutive female rulers, she succeeded her sister-in-law, sultana Zaqiyat. At the time of her election, Islamic opposition increasingly made common cause with dynastic and anti-commercial factors, and in the 1690s a mission was sent to Mecca to obtain a fatwa against female rule. The opposition to the established system became politically stronger as the trade wealth of the merchant-aristocrats diminished with Aceh’s gradually less central role as enter-port. The eventual beneficiaries from the upheavals of 1699, however, were not the Panglima Polem family but a Hadramaut Arab dynasty. Its advent inaugurated a time of grave instability for Aceh, which never recovered the orderly reputation the queens had given it. She was born as Putri Raja Setia and was great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin, who ruled 1579. She was deposed by Sayyid Ibrahim Habib who married her and assumed the Sultanate. They had two sons who both became sultans.

  1688 Regent Queen Li Samdach Brhat Bhagavathi Sri Parama Chakrapati Kshatriyi of Cambodia
Born as H.H. Princess (Brhat Anak Anga) Li, daughter of H.M. Brhat Bat Machas Brhat Dharmanath Prabhunatha Maha Upayuvaraja Parama Raja – also known as king Paramaraja VIII. First married her half brother King Pramaraja IX, who was killed in 1672, and secondly married to her nephew, King Jaya Jatha III. She was granted the rank of Queen with the title of Samdach Brhat Bhagavathi Sri Parama Chakrapati Kshatriyi in 1688, when she acted as regent for husband.

  1688-1722 Princess-Abbess Anna IX Tanner of Baindt (Germany)
In the year she was elected as head of the ecclesiastical territory, the ladies of the chapter fled the approaching French troops and sought refuge by the Bodenzee, but returned not long after.

  1688-1728 Princess-Abbess Charlotte Sophia von Kurland of Herford (Germany)
The stewards of the City of Herford, the Electors Brandenburg, had occupied the city since 1647 and deprived it of its position of a City of the Realm, but in 1695 Elector Friederich III recognized this position for the Chapter of Herford and King Friederich I confirmed this in 1705. 1702 she send a messenger to King Karl XII of Sweden at the seige of Thorn in the Netherlands to get the money that her brother, Duke Ferdinand owed her. She was engaged in deep disputes with the other members of the Chapter and in 1703 she moved to the Chapter of Vreden, where she resided until her death. She was the youngest daughter of Jakob von Kettler, Duke of Courland and Livonia (Livland) (1640-82), and Luise Charlotte von Brandenburg (1617-76), and lived (1651-1728).

  1688-89 Acting Princess-Abbess Maria Franziska Truchsess von Walburg-Trauchburg of Essen (Germany)
Had hoped to become Princess-Abbess in 1689 but was not a candidate in the elections that Anna Salome II won over Bernhardine Sophia von Ostfriesland. Maria Franziska was Pröbstin until her death in 1693.

  1688-95 Reigning Abbess Marie-Anne d’Assigny of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of Lord Haghedoorne de Wasnes.

  1689-94 HM Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Supreme Head on Earth of the Church of England and Ireland (United Kingdom)
Her father, James III, had converted to Catholism and had been banned from the country various times. After his succession in 1685 he became increasingly absolutistic and favoured Catholics. In 1688 his first surviving son was born after 15 years of marriage to Maria Beatrice d’Este of Modena. The new Prince of Wales, James Francis Edward was baptized in the Catholic rites, and soon a riot followed and Mary’s husband, Willem III van Oranje, the Stadholder of the Netherlands, invaded the country. James III fled the country and the Parliament excluded Catholics from the succession and elected Mary and Willem as joint sovereigns. They accepted a Declaration of Rights (later a Bill), drawn up by a Convention of Parliament, which limited the Sovereign’s power, reaffirmed Parliament’s claim to control taxation and legislation, and provided guarantees against the abuse of power. While her husband was directing military campaigns in Ireland and on the Continent, Mary administered the government in her own name, but she relied entirely on his advice. In the periods when he was in England she willingly retired from politics. She was, however, actively concerned with ecclesiastical appointments. Mary became sterile following complications after her first pregnancy ended in an abortion. She died of smallpox, and was succeeded by her husband, who later was succeeded by her sister, Anne. Mary lived (1662-94).

  1689-1705 Regent Dowager Rani Mangammal of Madrai (India)
When her son, Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak died, her daugter-in-law was pregnant, and when she committed sati (was burned), Mangammal became regent for her regent grandson, Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha, who was crowned at the age of 3 months, ruling with an Advisory Council. She was a popular administrator and is still widely remembered as a maker of roads and avenues, and a builder of temples, tanks and choultries with many of her public works still in use. She is also known for her diplomatic and political skills and successful military campaigns. She was widow of king Chokkanatha, and (d. 1705).

  1689-1723 Sovereign Duchess Anna Henrietta Julia de Bavière of Guise, Princesse de Joinville  (France)
Succeeded a distant cousin, Marie de Lorraine, who by an act of 1686 had left Guise and Joinville to Charles de Stainville, comte de Couvonges, but this donation was voided by the Parlement de Paris in 1689, and Anna Henrietta Julia, second daughter of the prince Palatine, succeeded to the title. She was married to prince Henri-Jules de Bourbon-Condé, and the duchy was raised to the peerage again for them and their descendants in 1704. Anne Henriette Julie von Bayern was member of the Pfalz-Simmeren-sideline, and father became Kurfürst of Bavaria. She lived (1648-1723).   

  Until 1689 Captain-General Mariana de Lencastre Vasconcelos e Camara of Funchal in Maidera (Portugal)
Also 2nd Condessa de Castelo Melhor, and daughter of Simão Gonçalves da Camara, 3rd. conde da Calheta and Hereditary Captain-General (Governor) and Margarida de Menezes Vasconcelos. She succeeded brother, João V Gonçalves da Câmara, who died without issue. She was married João Rodrigues de Vasconcelos, senhor de Valhelhas, was a lady-of-the court of Queen Maria Francisca de Sabóia, and was succeeded by son, Luís de Vasconcelos e Câmara. Mother of 8 children, and lived (1615-89).

  1689-1720 Princess-Abbess Maria-Magdalena von Hallwyl von Herblingen of Lindau (Germany)
Member of a family of Counts of the Realm (Reichsgraf), which originated in Aargau in Switzerland, but settled both in Germany and Sweden among others. 

  1689-92 and 1696-98 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa Orense of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than 60 lordships and villages, held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.

  1689-98 Possible Regent Dowager Princess Marie Klara von Berg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Maximilian von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she might have been the person who was regent for their son Prince and Count Meinrad II Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1673-1715). Her second grandson, Franz Wilhelm Nikolaus, was created Count zum Bergh und Hohenzollern in 1712, with his mother, Johanna Katharina von Montfort as regent until 1722. Marie Klara lived (1635-1715).

  1690-1758 Sovereign Countess Maria Ernestine Franziska von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Rietberg (Germany)
Her father Count Ferdinand Maximillian died in July 1687 and she was born one month later. Firstly her father’s older brother, Franz Adolf Wilhelm took over the government. He had resigned in 1690 after three years of regency, having willed the county to his niece. Emperor Leopold I appointed the Prince-Bishops of Münster and Paderborn as her guardians. 1692 Her mother, Joannette Franziska von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, received the renewal of the fief in her name, but the same year she married Count Arnold Moritz Wilhelm von Bentheim-Steinfurt, and Maria Ernestine Franziska grew up in Düsseldorf. She married Count Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz, and lived most of her life in Austria. She left the government in the hands of her husband and after his death in the hands of her son, Wenzel Anton Graf von Kaunitz (1711-94), who later succeeded her as Count of Rietberg. Mother of 13 children and lived (1687-1758).

  1690-1734 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliana Dorothea I von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
According to the will of her father, Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf , she inherited parts of the county jointly with her sisters. 1707 she and her surviving sister Wilhelmina Christina decided to divide their half of the Town of Gaildorf and other possessions. But it was not until after the death of the last male member of the family that they were able to take up their inheritance in 1713. They also managed to protect their claims from theKing of Prussia who had been named heir to by the brother of the last  Schenk Vollrat, after a long court case before the Reichshofrat. No one disputed the right of the King to the Imperial Fiefs (Reichslehen) of Limpurg or those of the two sisters in the other fiefs, lands, estates and rights, the dispute was about the right to a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet and Circles (Reichs- and Kreistagen) as well as the “Reichsstandschaft” and sovereignty (Landesherrschaft). The two sisters were not content with just administering the estates and lands; from the beginning they saw themselves as “Reigning Countesses of the Realm in Limpurg (Regierende Reichsgräfinnen) with all the attached rights, including the right to be present at the Imperial Diet and theFrankish Circle.Prussia disputed this and had the vote of Limpurg suspended. Both the Countesses and Emperor protested and in1721 a settlement was reached which granted them the right to sit in the two assemblies. She married Eucharius Kasimir von Löwenstein-Wertheim (d. 1698) and Johann-Wilhelm von Würmbrand-Stuppach, the President of the Council of the Court of the Realm (Reichshofratspräsident) and Advisor of the Austrian Emperor. She was succeeded by her daughters, Juliana Dorothea II von Löwenstein (1794-1734) and Maria Margaretha Leopoldine von Wurmbrand (1702-56), who married her cousin, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Assenheim. Juliana Dorothea lived (1677-1734).

  1690-1757 Joint Sovereign Countess Wilhelmina Christina von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Second daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf, she was only able to take full possession of her inheritance after a lengthly battle with some male members of the family. 1700 she transferred the government of her Gaildorf Lands to her husband, Ludwig Heinrich, who from then on named himself Count Solms-Assenheim und Limpurg-Gaildorf. But she named a number of conditions, among others that she was to have full rights to the incomes of the Estate of Augustusburg and that her lands were to revert to her in the event of his death – and not be incorporated into the lands of Solms. In this way she took over the reigns again in 1728, at the same time as she became guardian for the two youngest sons Johann Ernst Karl von Solms-Assenheim (1714-90) and Karl Christian Heinrich(1716-45), which led to many years of dispute over the rights to the territories with the oldest Wilhelm Karl Ludwig zu Solms-Rödelheim (1699-1778) which resulted in a number of court-cases. In 1732 her heirs received a provisorial homage for the Lordship of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim, and after her death, her children, Wilhelm Karl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim, Gräfin Dorothea Sophia Wilhelmina von Waldeck-Pyrmont, Gräfin Eleonora Friderica Juliana von Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz and Gräfin Sophia Christiana Louisa von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, took the necessary steps to secure their inheritance. She gave birth to a total of 15 children and lived (1679-1757).

  1690-99 Joint Sovereign Countess Juliane Charlotte von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Also known as Juliana Charlotta, she was youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf and Elisabeth Dorothea von Limburg-Gaildorf. Unmarried and never able to fully take up her inheritance as it was disputed by the last male member of the family until 1713. She lived (1685-99).

  1690-1705 Joint Sovereign Countess Sophia Elisabeth von Limpurg-Gaildorf of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Youngest daughter of Count Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf. A source describes the homage of the condomial lordship of Wurmbrand and Solm-Assenheim after the death of her sister, Juliane Charlotte and herself (Erbhuldigung auf die Kondominalherrschaften von Wurmbrand und von Solms-Assenheim nach dem Tode der Gräfinnen Juliana Charlotta und Sophia Elisabetha von Limpurg-Gaildorf). She lived (1688-1705).

  1690-93 Member of the Council of State Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark of Sweden
Married to Karl XII and mother of 7 children. 1685 three of the sons died and in 1687 she had a miscarriage. In 1690 her husband appointed her head of an eventual regency government, but she died three years later. Her youngest daughter, Ulrika Eleonora the younger, was reigning Queen 1718-20 in succession to her oldest brother, Karl (1682-97-1718), who first reigned under a council of regency. Ulrika Eleonora the Older lived (1656-93).

  1690-1706 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Ferdinand Karl von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort and Countess Anna Maria von Fürstenberg, and lived (1653- 1706).

  1690-1759 Hereditary Countess Maria von Limburg of Bronckhorst (The Netherlands)
She was daughter of Count Albrecht Georg von Limburg und Bronckhorst (1661-90) and Elisabeth Philippine van den Boetzelaer (1663-92), in 1714 married to Landgrave Philipp von Hessen-Philippsthal (1686-1717), and lived (1689-1759).

  1691-1726 Princess-Abbess Bernhardina Sophia von Ostfriesland und Rietberg of Essen (Germany)
Reigned her ecclesiastical small state, an independent enclave within Prussia, as a very confident sovereign, who advocated a doctrinarian absolutism, and limited the influence of the Estates. She also promoted the Order of the Contregatio Baetae Mariae Virginis. She was daughter of Johann IV, Count of Ostfriesland und Rietberg and Anna Catharina von Salm-Reifferscheid. Her niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska, was Sovereign Countess vonOstfriesland and Rietberg (1690-1758). Bernhardina Sophia lived (1654-1726).

  1690-1709 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Elisabeth Amalie Magdalene von Hessen-Darmstadt of Neuburg an der Donau in Pfalz (Germany)
Her marriage to Elector Philipp Wilhelm von der Pfalz was a happy one. She had secretly converted to the Catholic faith before the marriage and the couple promoted culture and art in Düsseldof before they withdrew to Neuburg, where she remained in charge after her husband’s death. Her 23 pregnancies resulted in 9 sons and 8 daughters who made important marriages to the Emperor of Austria, Kings of Spain, Portugal and Poland and the Duke of Parma. She lived (1635-1709).

  1691 Regent Dowager Countess Susanna Sophia von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (Germany)
During the process of her confirmation as regent, the city of Speyer was destroyed and the next agnate (male member of the family), Count Eucharius Casimir von Löwenstein asked to become co-guardian of her son, Heinrich Friedrich (1682-1721), but she had designated Albrecht Wolfgang von Hohenloe-Langenburg as the co-guardian, and he was confirmed by the Court of the Realm (Reichsgericht). She was widow of Friedrich Eberhard zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1629-83), and her son was married to the joint sovereign Countess Amöne Sophie von Limpurg (1684-1746). Susanna lived (1646-91).

  1691-1717 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Anna Sophie af Danmark of Castle and Administrative Unit of Lichtenberg auf bei Prettin in Sachsen (Germany)
A very staunch protestant, she supported her daughter-in-law Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in her decision not to convert to Catholism and join her son, Friederich August, who had converted in order to become King of Poland. She been given castle at the time of her marriage in 1666, and her sister, Wilhelmina Ernestina (1650-1706), the widow of Kurfürst Karl II of Hannover (1651-85), lived here from 1685 until her death. They were daughters of King Frederik 3. of Denmark and Norway and Sofie-Amalie of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and was mother of two sons, and lived (1647-1717).

  1691-1705 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Christine Friederike Baden-Durlach of Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (Germany)
Married Duke Friedrich I (1646-1691) as his 2nd wife in 1681. She had been married to Albrecht V Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1634-67) as his 3rd wife and might have reigned a dowry 1667-81, possibly Crailsheim. She did not have any children and lived (1645-1705).

  1691-1710 Regent Dowager Duchess Dorotea Acquaviva d'Aragona of the Duchies of Nardò and Noci and the Counties of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano  (Italy)
Her husband Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano died in January 1691 and her son, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva, was born a few months after and she was in charge of the feuds during his minority. She was daughter of Giosia Acquaviva d'Aragona, 14 duke d' Atri (1631-79). She (d. 1714).

  Around 1691 Princess-Abbess Anna Mechtildis Schönwiesin von Eckstein of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Leopold von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire issued a decreee in 1691 allowing her “Abbtissin Bey S. Georgen auf (Vnserm) Schloß zu Prag” to rebuild a church that burned down in 1688.

  1692-? The Iyoba of Uselu in Benin (Nigeria)
Mother of Oreoghenen, who ruled 1689-1700. And as Queen Mother she was a senior town chief. She lived in her own palace outside the capital.  She did not appear in public and did not have an official role in the political system, but she was always “consulted” by important political decisions, and her vote was necessary in the political decision process. As widow of the former king and mother of the present, she was given semi-male status. She had a “wife” with the title of Amoda; she was surrounded by Amada, naked boys and has a whole court of officeholders. 

  1692-97 Administrator Dowager Hereditary Princess Charlotte Friedrike von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken in Landsberg (Germany) 
Also known Charlotte Friedericke, she was the widow of Hereditary Prince (Erbprinz) Wilhelm Ludwig of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Landsberg (1648-75), whose father, Friederich Ludwig died in 1681, and she was appointed administrator of the territory of Landsberg by King Karl XI of Sweden, who was of the line of Pfalz-Kleeburg. She was daughter of Friederich, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter who all died in infancy, and lived (1653-1712).

  1692-1701 Reigning Dowager Lady Christiane von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg of the Castle and Administrative Units of Delitzsch and Sangerhausen in Sachsen-Merseburg (Germany)
Another version of her title was Holsten-Glücksborg, and she administered the castle as her dowry after the death of her husband, Christian I von Sachsen-Merseburg (1615-57-91). When she moved to the castle with her court, she initiated the creation of a modern baroque-garden. She lived (1634-1701)

  1692-1719 Politically Influential Princess Anne Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé in France
The wife of, the Duke of Maine, the natural son of Louis XVI, she was both intelligent and energetic, and very influential at court. She took part of the conspiracies in 1718 organized by the Cardinal of Polignac against the Regent with the aim of placing Philippe V of Spain on the throne of France and the Duc du Maine regent in his absence. (1676-1753).

  1692-1717 Princess-Abbess Anna Elisabeth von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)            
A Catholic, she was elected as successor to the Protestant Agathe Juliane von Steprodt as head of the Chapter of Käppel, which was founded around 1390. The abbess was Reichsfürstin and a one of the joint members of the Ecclesiastical Bank of the Diet of the Empire.

  1692-93 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska II Truchsess von Zeil-Wurzach of Buchau (Germany)
Daughter of Johann Jakob von Zeil-Wurzach and Johanna von Wolckenstein-Trostburg, and elected as Fürstäbtissin at 14.10.1692, proclaimed at 4.11 and confirmed by the bishop at 10.11, at a time when she was already 62 years old. She had been canoness in both Buchau, Essen and Sankt Ursula in Köln, since 1648. She did not participate in the election of her predecessor Maria-Theresia I, but excused herself. In 1673 she was refused when she wanted to take over her job in Buchau – in the meantime she had also become Deaconess in Essen – because all positions had already been filled, and the difficult financial situation in the Chapter did not permit any additional office-holders. She then stayed in Essen and became Archdeacon (Pröbstin), but was denied the right to run for the post of Fürstäbtissin there in 1689 because she was not member of a Swabian noble family. She lived (1630-93).

  1692-95, 1701-04, 1707-10 and 1714-15 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Jerónima Guerrero y Contreras of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Re-elected as temporal and secular ruler of the territory 3 times.

  1692-1721 Reigning Abbess Anne Marguerite de Rohan of Jouarre (France)
Daughter of Francois de Rohan, Comte de Rochefort, Prince de Soubise, Governor of Champagne, Berry and Brie and his scond wife Anne-Julie de Rohan-Chabot, Dame de Soubise, and lived (1664-1721).

  1693-1742 Princess-Abbess Maria-Theresia II von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
A former Lady of the Chapel of Essen, she was a master builder, and consolidated the position of the territory. She changed the liturgy of the service in her church and defended her own ecclesiastical position and head of the clergy of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz. She was listed among the Worldly Princes and Stifts in the Swabian Circle – 1793, 1796, 1799 and also mentioned as the 12th ranking prelate. The daughter of Count Johann VIII von Montfort-Tettnang and Anna Katharina von Sulz, she lived (1663-1742).

  1693-1713  Princess-Abbess Henriette Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim (Germany)
Resigned after having given birth to a child the year before, converted to the Catholic faith and became a nun in a convent in Roermond. She was daughter of Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Elisabeth Juliane von Holstein-Norburg, and lived (1669-1753).

  1693-1718 Princess-Abbess Maria Regina von Ostein of Säckingen (Germany)
In spite of the high contributions that the chapter had to pay in the succession wars of the Palentine and Spain, she continued the rebuilding of the church that had burned down in 1678. Daughter of Johann Jakob von Ostein, Councillor of the Prince-Bishop of Basel and Anna Maria von Kippenhem, and lived (1643-1718).

  1693-97 Princess-Abbess Regina Recordin von Rein und Hamberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Maria Theresia von Muggenthal. 

  1693-98 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Catharina van Oranje-Nassau of Anhalt-Dessau (Germany)
1798-1708 Temporary in charge of the Government
Also known as Henriette Katharina, she was widow of Fürst Johann Georg III (1627-60-93) and governed in the name of her son, Leopold I (The old Dessauer) (1676-93-1747), she continued his financial and fiscal reforms. Like her husband, Leopold entered the army of Brandenburg and spend most of his time away from the Principality leaving her in charge of the government. She founded a number of charitable foundations, and lived (1637-1708).

  1693 Regent Dowager Countess Anna Katharina von Nassau-Saarbrücken-Ottweiler of Salm-Dhaun (Germany)
In charge of the government in the name of her son, Wild- und Rheingraf Karl (1693-1733). She lived (1653-1731).

  1693-1702 Joint Administrator Princess Friederike von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg in Sachsen-Gotha (Germany)
After the death of her father, Duke Friedrich I. (1646-91), she moved to the Castle of Altenburg, where her step-mother, Christine Friederike Baden-Durlach, had her dowry. But when her brother, Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha (1676-1732) took over the government in 1693, she moved back to Friedenstein to assist him with the government affairs. 1702 she married Johann August of Anhalt-Zerbst and also became a strong support to him until she died. Her mother was  Magdalena Sibylla von Sachsen-Weißenfels (1648-81), did not have any children and lived (1675-1709).

  1694-1705 Regent Dowager Countess Hedwig Sophie zu Lippe-Brake of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Germany) 
After the death of her husband, Count Ludwig Franz (1660-1694), she took over the regency for son, Casimir (1687-1741) with her brother, Count Rudolf zur Lippe-Brake, as co-guardian. She was dominated by Pietistic Protestantism, and she used much energy rebuilding the country that was still devastated by the consequences by the Thirty Years War. She lived (1669-1738).

  1694-1712 Regent Dowager Duchess Erdmuthe Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz of Sachsen-Merseburg
1712-20 Reigning Dowager Lady of Bündorf in Sachsen
When her husband, Duke Christian II (1653-94) died, she was leader of the regency government during the minority of her sons, Christian III. Moritz (1680-94), who died one month after his father, and then Moritz Wilhelm (1688-1731), who was the 5th born son (2-4th son died young), the 6th son died 1714 and the youngest child, a daughter lived 1 year. Chief Guardian was the Elector of Saxony, Friedrich August I and his uncle, August von Sachsen-Merseburg-Zörbig. She lived (1661-1720).

  1695-1705 Regent Dowager Princess Bilas Devi of Guler (India)
For Dalip Singh who was ruler of the Hill State in the Punjab.

  1695 Queen Anne Totopotomoi of the Pamuken Tribe, Virginia (USA)
The second female native chief in USA.

  1695-96 In charge of the Government Electress Christiane Eberhardine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth of Sachsen (Germany)
1697-1727 Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Pretzsch in Sachsen
The year after her marriage to Friederich August II, he succeeded his brother as Kurfürst. From 1695 he spend two years in Hungary fighting the Turks as Imperial Commander-in-Chief. She remained a Protestant after the court became Catholic and refused to join her husband for his coronation as King August II of Poland, but withdrew to her dowry Pretzsch. She did return to Dresden for a number of official occasions during the years, but her husband was seldom in Sachsen – he was in Poland 1697-99, 1700-03, 1706, 1710, 1713, 1714-17 and 1720 and away in the Empire for most of 1705 and 1711 when he functioned as regent. He was also engaged in war with Sweden, and in 1704 he resigned as King of Poland. Never the less the Swedes occupied Sachsen in 1706. He was king again 1709-33. The Protestants gave her the honorary name of the Praying-Pillar. Her husband had at least 13 known maitresses and a substantial number of children. She was mother of one son, Friederich August (1696-1763), who succeeded his father as Elector and King of Poland. She lived (1671-1727).

  1695-1706 Princess-Abbess Katharina Benedicta von Stürgkhof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Head of the only Austrian chapter with the status of an Imperial Immediacy.

  1695-99 Abbess Nullius Isabella Tommasa Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Alternative rule until 1705.

  1695-98 Reigning Abbess Marie-Françoise Adornes de Ronsele of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Ronsele.

  Ca. 1695-1704 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Frederikke Amalie af Denmark of Holstein-Gottorp (Germany)
1695-1704 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Kiel
She must have had some kind of political influence after the death of her husband Duke Christian Albrecht of Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp in 1695 and not the least after her son; Friedrich  (1671-1702) married Princess Hedvig Sofia of Sweden in 1698 and spend some time in her country. Federikke Amalie also visited her sister, Queen Ulrike Eleonora in Stockholm. After her son was killed in battle, Hedvig Sofia became regent, but stayed in Sweden. Frederikke was daughter of king Frederik 5 of Denmark, mother of two sons and one daughter, Marie Elisabeth, who was been Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg until her death in 1755, and lived (1649-1704).

  1695-1715 Mah-Para Rabia Gülnüş Ümmetüllah Ummetulla Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
After the death her of her husband, Mehmet IV in 1687, she was confined to the Old Seray, but when her sons Mustafa II (1695-1703) and Ahmed III (1703-30) came to the throne she became Queen Mother. She did not play any major role during their reigns, but she was asked to approve and authorize the replacement of Mustafa by Ahmed, which she did. As the senior representative of the dynasty, her approval was considered to be imperative. Either of Cretan origin or daughter of the Venetian Retimo Verzizzi, she lived (1647-1715). 

  From 1695 Extraordinary Representative Teresa z Gosiewskich Słuszkowa to Bavaria (Germany)
As “Extraordinary representative” she had the plenipotentiaries to represent the King Jan III Sobieski and Queen Maria Kazimiera on the Bavarian Court. The former governess of Therese Kunigunde Sobieska – later regent of Bavaria – and very close political ally of Queen Maria Kazimiera d’Arquien of Poland. A Polish magnate, she was first married to Józef Bogusław Słuszka and secondly to Kazimierz Jan Sapieha. (d. 1708).

  1696-1708 Regent Dowager Princess Henriëtte Amalia Maria von Anhalt-Dessau of Nassau in Diez (Germany)
1696-1708 Governess-General of Friesland, Groningen and Drente (The Netherlands)
Following the death of her husband, Hendrik Casimir II, she acted as regent for son, Johan Wilhelm Friso (1697-1711). She was daughter of Johan Georg II von Anhalt-Dessau and Henriette Catharina van Oranje-Nassau, who had acted as regent for her brother. She lived (1666-1726).    

  1696-98 De facto Royal Representative mTsho-skyes rDorje of Bhutan
Succeeded rGyal-thab bsTan-‘dz Rabs-rygas, who was royal representative 1651-95/96 in succession to her grandfather, who had been ruler 1616-51. She was succeeded by rGyal-s’ras sPrul-sku Kul-gd-‘a rGyal-mtshan (1689-98-1712-13).

  1696-1713 Sovereign Duchess Françoise de Nargonne of Angoulême (France)
The widow of Charles de Valois, Duc d’Angoulême (1573-1650) and took over the Duchy after the death of his son Louis Emanuel and granddaughter, Marie Françoise de Valois. Françoise lived (1621-1713).

  1696-1718 Princess-Abbess Viktoria Hochwind of Gutenzell (Germany)
As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshallate of Swabia until 1717.

  1696-1701 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Maria Geronima Tesifon de Moctezuma y Jofre, III. Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
Married to Don Jose Sarmiento Valladares, Viceroy of Mexico (1643-97-1701) and after her death, King Carlos II gave him the right to use the title of Conde de Moctezuma de Tultengo. Succeeded by two daughters, Fausta and Melchora.

  1697-1717 Sovereign Margravine Bianca-Maria Gonzaga of Caravaggio, Countess of Galliate (Italy)
Married J.J. von Zinzendorf (Giovanni Guglielmo) and was succeeded by her daughter, Bianca Maria von Sinzendorff, 10th Marchesa di Caravaggio e Contessa di Galliate (1717-83), who married Don Filippo Domenico Doria Sforza Visconti, Marchese Doria, Marchese di Caravaggio e Conte di Galliate maritali nomine, Patrizio Genovese, Cavaliere dell’Ordine del Tosone d’Oro 1753, Generale delle Armate Imperiali.

  1697-1717 Regent Dowager Countess Henriette Amalie von Friesen of Reuss-Obergreiz and Reuss-Dölau (Germany)
Reigned in the name of Heinrich I (1693-97-1714) and Heinrich II (1696-97-1722) who also became Joint Counts of Reuss-Dölau in 1698. After her husband’s death she moved to Dresden and lead a successful “Political Salon” which some contemporary sources considered to have been more important than the the Saxon ministries, and some of the mistresses of August II, Aurora von Königsmarck, the Princess of Teschen were fequent guests. She is supposed to have had a relationship to the Stadholder of Dresden, Prince Anton Egon von Fürstenberg. She was daughter of Freiherrn Heinrich von Friesen and Gräfin Maria Margaretha von Luetzelburg geboren. She lived (1668-1732).

  1697-1723 Princess-Abbess Johanna Franziska Sibylla von Muggenthal of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Chosen as successor of Regina Recordin von Nein-Hamberg. 

  1698-1700 Regent The Sisodia Maharani Sahiba of Bikander (India)
Widow of Maharaja Sri Anup Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and regent for her son who became ruler of the Punjabi principality. 

  1698-1715 Regent Dowager Countess Johanna Magdalena von Hanau-Lichtenberg of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim and Broich (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Karl August, she was in charge of the government for their surviving son, Christian Karl Reinhard, (1695-1766). She was mother of 3 daughters, of whom 2 survived, and 3 sons, of whom also 2 survived. The daugher of  Johann Reinhard II von Hanau and Anna Magdalena von Pfalz-Bischweiler, she lived (1660-1715).

  1698-1720 Sovereign Duchess Marie Anne de Bourbon-Condé Conti of Bourbon (France)
Daughter of François-Louis de Condé, Duke of Conti and Marie-Therese de Bourbon-Conti. She was 4th in line for the Stuart-throne of England and Scotland, and lived (1666-1732).

  1698-1701 and 1710-11 Reigning Abbess-General Ana Inés de Osio y Mendoza of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Temporal and secular leader of vast territories in Castilla and Léon.

  1698-1742 Reigning Abbess Madeleine-Eugenie de Béthune des Placques of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
A large number of her relatives had been bishops and abbesses of various dioceses and institutions since around 1200. Succeeded by niece, Marie-Charlotte de Béthune, and lived (1696-1742).

  1698-1714 Politically Active Dowager Electress Sophia von Hanover in Great Britain
1701-14 Heiress Apparent to the British Throne
Since the ‘glorious revolution’ in 1689 and the accession to the British throne of her cousins Mary II and Anne she has been presumed heir to the kingdom even though about 50 Catholic relatives with superior hereditary claims, she was the closest protestant member of the family as the daughter of Elizabeth Stuart (1596-1662) and Elector Friedrich V of Pfalz-Simmeren – known as the ‘Winter King’ of Bohemia. She grew up in the Netherlands and in Heidelberg in Pfalz after her father’s Electorate was restored. She married Ernst August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who was prince-bishop of Osnabrück from 1661, Duke of Lüneburg-Calenberg from 1679, and first elector of Hannover. During his lifetime she was not politically active and concentrated on intellectual and cultural endeavours and the establishment of large Baroque gardens. She also became the good friend and confidant of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the court Librarian and Privy Counsellor, who by then also had a world-wide reputation as philosopher, physicist, theologian, and mathematician, who among others advocated her case in London for a clear settlement of her as heir to the British throne, and through the Act of Settlement, which declared that the English crown would settle upon “the most excellent princess Sophia, Electress and duchess-dowager of Hanover” and “the heirs of her body, being Protestant.” As the Heir Presumptive she was also active in English politics for the remaining years of her life, but she died only a few weeks before Queen Anne, who was succeeded by her son, George. Sophia’s sister Elisabeth von der Pfalz, was Princess-Abbess of Herford from 1667, she was mother of 5 surviving sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1630-1714).

  1699-1700 Regent Dowager Princess Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari of Elba and Piombino, Populonia, Venosa, Conza etc.  (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Don Giovanni Battista I Luduvici (1647-99), Principe regnante di Piombino e dell’Isola d’Elba etc, she was regent for her son, Niccolò, and after his death in 1699 for her sister-in-law Olimpia, who remained in the convent until her death in November 1700 and was succeeded by her sister, Ippolita. Anna-Maria died one month later. She was daughter of Don Paolo Arduino e Patti, Principe di Palizzi, Marchese della Floresta, Barone di Placabaiana e Signore di Grassura. She (d. 1700).

  1699-1700 Sovereign Princess Olimpia I Ludovisi of Elba and Piombino, 8th Marchioness of Populonia, 8th Princess of Venosa, 13th Countess of Conza and Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d’Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola and Castelvetere (Italy)
Following the death of her nephew, Niccolo, she succeeded to the principality but remained in the Convent of ongregazione di Santa Francesca Romana under the name of Sister Anna, and her sister-in-law,  Anna-Maria Arduino e Furnari, remained regent until her sister, Ippolita took over as Sovereign Princess. Their oldest half-sister, Donna Lavinia (1627-34), succeeded her mother, Donna Isabella Gesualdo, as 5th Principessa di Venosa, 10th Contessa di Conza, Signora di Frigento, Montefusco, Auletta, Boiaro, Boninventre, Caggiano, Cairano, Calitri, Calvi, Caposele, Castelvetere, Castiglione, Contursi, Cossano, Fontanarosa, Gesualdo, Milone, Montefredano, Palo, Paterno, Salvia, Salvitelle, San Nazzaro, San Nicola di Calitri, San Pietro Indelicato, Sant’Agnese, Santa Menna, Sant’Angelo a Cancello, Sant’Angelo all’Esca, Sant’Angelo le Fratte, Santa Paolina, Taurasi, Teora e Torreleoncelle, Nobile Romana e Patrizia Veneta in 1629.
Olimpia lived (1656-1700).

  1699-1708 Regent Ama Baki of Sonbait of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)
Followed Ama Bobo as regent for Queen Nony Sonbait.

  1699-1723 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth Charlotte von Anhalt-Harzgerode of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Nordburg (Germany)
Widow of Duke August of Slesvig-Holsten-Nordborg (1635-99), she was mother of 8 children. Her husband’s father, Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1699-1722) and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Plön (1706-22), had three daughters by his first wife Magdalene Juliane von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1686-1720) and a stillborn child by his second wife, Juliane Luise von Ostfriesland (1698-1740), who apprently did not occupy Østerholm, who was taken over by the King of Denmark in 1729 and torn down 4 years later. She lived (1647-1723).

  1699-1714 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Charlotte Amalie zu Hessen-Kassel of Denmark of Lolland-Falster with the Castle of Nykøbing
Widow of Christian 5 (1646-70-99). Though her husband was Head of the Lutheran Church she resisted the pressure to give up her Reformed faith, and was a major sponsor of Reformed and Calvinist communities in Copenhagen, which she helped establish as “permitted faith” in 1685. When the Swedes attacked Copenhagen in 1700 while her son, Frederik 4, was in Slesvig-Holsten, she remained in town and “opfordrede” to resistance. Her father-in-law, Frederik 3, had granted her the estates of Frederiksdal, Bagsværd and Gentoftegård for life and she gathered the papermill by the Strandvej, the estate of Vemmetofte and almost of the whole of the Shire of Stavens and Børglumkloster, Dronninglund and Dronninggård in Jutland. Mother of 7 children of whom 4 survived infancy, she lived (1650-1714).

  1699-1711 Abbess Nullius Giacoma Palmieri of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
During her reign, the Regent of the County of Conversano was  Dorotea Acquaviva d'Aragona, who administered the fief in the name of her postumously born son, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva during the years1691-1710 Regent, after the death of her husband, Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, Duke of Nardò and Noci, Count of Castellana, Conversano and San Flaviano.

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Penguasa Wanita Di dunia 1640-1670



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  Around 1640 Queen Regnant Pea of Morning (Myanmar-Burma)
Today Morning is a village in the Caching State, in northern or “upper” Burma, inhabited by an ethnic Thai people.

  Ca. 1640-46 Sawbaw Saw Nin Mein of Wuntho (Myanmar-Burma)
She was daughter of the former Prince of the Sharen state, married Thankin Kaw Nyo, Prince of a Karen State, around 1616 and reigned after his death.

  Ca. 1640-ca.60 Moäng Ratu Dona Maria Ximenes da Silva of Sikka (Indonesia)
Succeeded her brother Moäng Ratu Pitang (alias Kapitan) as ruler of the Roman Catholic principality on the island of Flores. She was a daughter of the first Moäng Ratu or King of Sikka, Don Alesu da Silva (or Alexius Ximenes da Silva) who had converted to Christianity after meeting the Portuguese in Malacca. He established the principality around 1580. She was succeeded by her full cousin Moäng Ratu Don Simao (Samaoh), who was the son of her father’s sister Lise.

  1640-44 Regent Queen Isabel de Borbón of Spain
In charge of the government when her husband, Felipe IV was engaged in the Catalan Revolt supported the Duke of Nochera against the Count-Duke of Olivares in favour of an honourable withdrawal. Of her 6 daughters, 5 died in infancy and her son died in 1646 at the age of 16. Therefore her husband was succeeded by his son, Carlos II, by his second wife and niece, Mariana d’Austria, who was regent from 1665. After Carlos’ death in 1700, the son of her daughter, Marie-Therese (1638-84), Queen of France, became King of Spain after a war of Succession. Born as Élisabeth de Bourbon, she was eldest daughter of King Henri IV of France and Queen Marie de’ Medici, and lived (1602-44).





1640-46 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth zur Lippe-Alverdissen of Schaumburg with the Administrative Offices of Stadthagen, Bückeburg, Arensburg and Hagenburg (Germany)
Succeeded her son, Count Otto von Holstein-Schaumburg, who died 1640 without issue. In 1643 she transferred her rights to her brother Count Philip zur Lippe-Alverdissen, and ruled with him as co-regent till her death three years later. His descendants assumed the name Schaumburg-Lippe. (d. 1643).

  1640-49 Princess-Abbess Sedonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Sidonie, she joined the representative of the city in the protests against Brandenburg’s occupation of the City during the 30 Years War, but the troops stayed. She resigned in 1649 and married Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck (1612-27-75), whose second wife was Marie Sibylle von Nassau-Saarbrücken und Ottweiler (1628-99). Sedonia was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Danneberg, and her sister, Katherine Elisabeth, was sovereign of Gandersheim (1625-49). She lived (1611-50). 

  1640-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Johanna von Kollonitsch of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter and it’s art, which is still famous.

  1640-53 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufviller of Reuss zu Schleiz (Germany)
After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III, she was guardian for their son, Count Heinrich I (1639-92), while some male members of the family were regents. She had first been married to Heinrich IV von Reuss-Obergreiz and had 2 sons and 2 daughters with him. She was born as Wild- und Rheingraf zu Salm, and lived (1602-53).

  1641-75 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Ratu Safiat ud-din Taj ul-‘Alam Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu’llahi fi’l-‘Alam binti al-Marhum Sri Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh (North Sumatra) (Indonesia)
Her father Sultan Iskandar Muda extended Aceh’s sway to most of the Malayan Peninsula and the coastal regions of the northern half of Sumatra. Internally he was a scourge to the mercantile elite, concentrating power, property and trade in his own hands by a series of tyrannical devices. Her husband was adopted as his heir and succeeded as Sultan Iskandar Thani 1637-41. After his death, some days of dispute among the leading factions in the capital led to her elevation to the throne. Under her rule the state was orderly and prosperous, with a climate favourable to foreign commerce. Four of the principal merchant-aristocrats formed a kind of executive council, which took many decisions, and her authority was partly derived from a careful balancing of the two major factions at the court. Land grants to the Sultan’s loyal war leaders, which had been at the king’s pleasure under the two previous male rulers, became hereditary under Safiyyat ad-Din. She in fact resolved one major dispute by ruling that only grants of land made by her father would be recognised as valid in perpetuity, thus invoking his name to support a policy he would never have approved. Born as Raja Permusairi Putri Sri ‘Alam, her throne name was Safiat ud-din Taj ul-‘Alam Shah, which means “Purity of the Faith, Crown of the World”, and she was succeeded by Sultana Nagiat.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak of Keureuto in Aceh (Indonesia)
Also known as Tjut Njak Asiah or Cut Nyak Karti she was one of the several female Heads of Autonomous Regions, equivalent to an European duke. The principality was also known as Keureutau or Keureutu.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak Fatimah of the a settlement in West Aceh (Indonesia)
Acehnese women served as sultanas, Regional rulers – Uleebalang, parliament members, and or Uleeblang (Commanders). Sultan Safiyat expanded the role of the Legislative Council which was comprised of 73 people of whom 16 were women.

  1641-94 Sovereign Duchess Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé of Fronsac (France)
Daughter of the Marshall of France, Urbain de Maillé, marquis of Brézé, and Nicole du Plessis, who was insane and died in 1635. She succeeded her uncle, Cardinal Richelieu, Premier Minister of France the same year she married Louis II de Bourbon-Condé, Duke d’Enghien, Prince de Condé (1621-86), but like her mother, she was mentally instable, a condition inherited by her son, Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé, who married Anne de Bavière, Duchesse de Guise and Joyeuse. Claire-Clémence lived (1628-94).

  1641-92 Sovereign Princess Marie de Bourbon-Condé of Condé-en-Brie, Countess of Soissons (France)
After the death of her brother, Louis de Bourbon (1604-1641) his inheritance (including Soissons and Condé) was divided between and her niece Marie d’Orléans-Longueville, heiress of her sister Louise (1603-37) and Henri II d’Orléans-Longueville. She was married Tommaso Francesco di Savoia (Thomas-François de Savoie-Carignan) (1596-1656), who held the title by the right of his wife. 2 of her sons and a grandson also held the title from 1646 and her granddaughter, Anna Vittoria di Savoia-Carignano, was titular Countess from 1736. She was daughter of Charles de Bourbon-Condé, comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié, dame de Lucé, and lived (1606-92).

  Until 1641 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg und Bronckhorst of Elten (Germany)
Daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg.

  1641-86 Princess-Abbess Isabella Henrietta d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Received papal dispense because she was under 30 when elected amidst protest from her opponent, the Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. The chapter had survived the Thirty Years War, but towards the end it was occupied by the unemployed troops of Duke Karl  of Lorraine in 1656. After the death of her brother, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden in 1665, she was named guardian for his 16 children together with Prince-Bishop Frans Egon von Furstenberg of Liege, the brother of her sister-in-law, Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. The county can be passed down both in the male and in the female line. In 1671 the troops of King Louis XIV of France passed through the territory, making life difficult and several ladies left the chapter. The Dechaness stayed in Liège 1677-79, but after her return the old disputed was revived.  She was daughter of Ernst d’Aspremont and Anna de Gouffier, and lived (1615-86).

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Beaumont y Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a sideline of royal family of Navarra, which descended from Don Louis de Navarra, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger (d. 1372). King Felipe IV confirmed the rights of the scribes of the monastery to act as magistrates (judges) in 1643.

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess Isabelle III de Héricourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Appointed as Abbess by King Felipe IV of Spain, who as Count of Flanders and Artois, was head of the Southern Low Countries, after the canoness had been unable to elect as successor to Marie IV for 6 months.

  1641-60 Reigning Abbess Maria Margarethe Schenk von Castell of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Prioress in 1638. It is not known if she received the costmary homage by the inhabitants of Wald and the other territories in 1641 or not until 1651 because of the continued warfare. She was daughter of Hans Maz Schenk von Castell zu Gattburg and Eva Blarer von Wartensee zu Wartegg.

  1641-51 Joint County Sheriff Leonora Christine Christiansdatter Countess af Slesvig og Holsten of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1643-64 Politically Influential
in Denmark 
In 1641 her father, King Christian 4 granted her the tenantcy for life jointly with her husband, Corfitz Ulfeldt. Two years later he was appointed Chancellor of the Realm (Rigskansler), and since there was no Queen, she was de-facto first-Lady at the court. The death of her father in 1648 was followed by a power-struggle, which she and her husband lost. Her half-brother, Frederik 3, was elected king, but she and her husband continued to provoke the reigning couple. In 1651 they left the country and stayed by Queen Christina of Sweden until 1654, and then in Germany. In 1657 her husband sided with the Swedes during the war with Denmark, which Denmark lost. In 1659 her husband was charged with treason against the Swedish king, he was hit by a stroke, and she was in charge of his defence. They escaped to Denmark, where they were held in captivity until they were freed in 1662, after signing a number of humiliating declarations. Later the same year they were permitted to go abroad for treatment of Corfitz Ulfeldt, who had never recovered from the stroke, and during their travels, he made all kinds of plans against his brother-in-law. In 1663 she went to king Charles II to claim an old loan, but he gave her up to the Danes, she was transferred to Copenhagen and was put in prison in Blåtårn at the Royal Castle of Copenhagen, where she spend 22 years, while her husband died already in 1664. She was not freed until the death of her sister-in-law, Queen Sophie-Amalie, in 1685. During her time in Blåtårn, she wrote “Jammersmide” (Memory of Lamenting), one of the first Danish autobiographies by a woman, which was not published until 1869, though. She spent the rest of her life at the castle, Maribo Kloster. She was the mother of 10 children, and lived (1621-98).

  1641-42 Acting County Sheriff Maren Eriksdatter Skram of Mariæ Kirkes Domprovsti (Oslo), Norway
After the death of her husband, Hartvig Huitfeldt til Skjelbred, Maren Skram was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway, and Mariæ Kirke is the Cathedral of Oslo. Secondly married to Balthasar Gebhard v. Obelitz. Her step-daughter, Margrethe Huitfeldt, who willed her estates to the Gymnasium of Göteborg upon her death in 1683. Marien Skram was the daughter of Erik Skram til Rammegaard og Anne Vind and (d. 1675).

  Around 1642 Ruler Karenga I Pucu of Sanrabone (Indonesia)
Her brother Tumenanga ri Buttana was ruler of the Makkasarese state in South Western-Celebes/Sulawesi until 1647.

  1642-4.. Lieutenant-Governor Madame Colles of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
During the English Civil War the Parliamentarians held the island, and she took over after the death of William Colles (1639-42). Peter Le Febvre, surier de L’Epine was pretender from November 1643.

  1642 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Jørgensdatter Lunge of the County of Ålholm with the Shire of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Lisbeth Lunge was the third wife of Palle Rosenkrantz and lived (1610-59).

  1642-43 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Sophie Breidesdatter Rantzau of the County of Hindsgaul with the Shire of Vend, Denmark
Lisbeth Sophie Rantzau was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She lived (1587-1652).



1643-51 Regent Dowager Queen Anne d’Austrice of France
1646-54 Governor of Aunis
1647-66 Governor of Bretagne
Had been Governor of Paris 1636-49. She was Infanta of Spain and the eldest daughter of Felipe III of Spain, and married Louis XIII, King of France, in 1615.  After some political manoeuvring she attained full powers as Regent and as such she placed the well being of France before anything else. She ignored the representatives of the Catholic party and made Cardinal Mazarin Prime Minister. Both continued the policies laid out by Richelieu, which decided against a peace treaty with Germany and The Netherlands. At one stage, Anne even went to war against her brother, King Felipe IV of Spain, and in negotiations refused to make any compromises. In 1648 the revolution called “the Fronde” began and would last until 1653. This rebellion started in Paris and was supported by the higher nobility as well as by the common people who had had enough of war and the ever-increasing taxes. The rebels blamed Mazarin and not only demanded his removal but also wanted him expelled from France. In 1661 Mazarin died and Louis XIV took over control of the country. From then on Anna was given only representative roles. In 1666 she died of cancer, after having lived (1601-66). 

  1643-51 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Calenberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Georg of Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Calenberg and Celle (1582-1636-41), she was regent for oldest son Duke Christian Ludwig (1624-65), who was Duke of Calenberg (1641-48), Duke of Celle (1648-65) of Harburg (1651-65). Her second son, Georg II Wilhelm was Duke of Calenberg (1648-1703), of Celle (1665-1703), of Dannenberg (1773-1703), her third son, Johann Friedrich of Braunchweig-Lüneburg zu Hannover (1665-79), the fourth Ernst August of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Hannover (1679-92) and Elector from 1698. His wife, Sophie von Pfalz-Simmen became Heir to the Throne of United Kingdom in 1702. One of Leonora’s daughters, Sofie Amalie, married Frederik III of Denmark. Anna Leonora lived (1601-59).

  1643-76 Hereditary High Sheriff Lady Anne Clifford of Westmoreland (United Kingdom)
Third and only surviving child of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, and his wife Margaret Russell and heiress of the Baronies of Clifford, Westmoreland and Vesci. When she was 15, her father died, and his brother inherited the vast estate, and from that moment her mission in life was to regain her inheritance. She married and had five children, but her husband was obstructive to her claim for the inheritance. Six years later he died, and she married Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who did support her claim. Eventually she did inherit the estate in 1643 in the middle of the Civil War raging. She was now 60 years old, and spent the next 26 years rebuilding churches and castles. Skip ton, Pen dragon, Appleby, Borough and Brougham Castles were restored to their former glory. As a devout Christian she built and restored churches and almshouses. She lived (1590-1676).

  1643 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Hansdatter Arnfeldt of Koldinghus with Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Holmans, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt Herred, Denmark
Ingeborg Arnfeldt til Gundetved was widow Ernst Normand til Selsø.

  Around 1643 Princess-Abbess Henrica Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first member of the family started her reign in 1618, but it is not known for how long or when Henrica took over the reigns of the state. But in 1643 she built the Monnikenhof in the Chapter. Next abbess is mentioned in 1649.

  1643-53 Abbess Nullius Girolama Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her reign ends 1644.

  1643-62 Reigning Abbess Anne de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers
Daughter of François, Count de L’Hôpital and Rosnay and Charlotte des Essarts, the Maitresse of King Henri. Possibly succeeded by Marguerite de Gonzague. She (d. 1662).

  1643-87 Politically Influential Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen of China
Widow of Hong Tajii, took part in the affairs of state during the reign of her son, Shunzhi Emperor Thuận Trị (1643-61). And in 1669 she urged her 13 grandson, Kamgxi, who had been on the throne since 1661 to depose his regents, and she continued to be influential. She took charge of his upbringing after the death of his mother. When Oboi was posing a threat to Kang Xi’s rule, she helped the young emperor to get rid of Oboi. Born as Bumbutai, she was a daughter of a prince of Borjigit, the Khorchin Mongols, prince Jaisang, thus was a descendant of Chinggis Khan, known as Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu in Manchu, and lived (1613-87).

  1643-65 Political Advisor Abbess María Fernández Coronel of Agreda in Spain
Also known as Sor Maria de Jesus de Agreda, she was the political advisor of spanish king Felipe IV. Having survived the Spanish Inquisition, she preached Christianity in the American Southwest, mainly in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. She wrote a book, ‘Mary, Mystical City of God’, in which she also described her own spiritual visions. She lived (1602– 65).

  1644-ca. 57 Queen Regnant Cockacoeske of the Pamunkey in Virginia (USA)
Possibly known as Queen Betty to the Colonists, she is described as diplomat and suzeraine, she shrewdly used her connections with the Virginia colonist to rebuild her tribe’s primacy over the neighbouring tribes. She seems to have directly succeeded her Opechancanough, who might have come to power after having been Prince-Consort to a previous reigning Queen – Cockacoeske’s mother “Cleopatra”, the daughter of King Powhatan. Succeeded by her niece, Queen Anne Totopotomoi.

  1644-53 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Weglin of Baindt (Germany)
Around 1649 the ladies of the chapter resumed the life in the convent after the lootings during the Thirty Year War.

  1644-45 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María de Salinas of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Died within the first year of her three-year election period.

  1644-46 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jacobsdatter Bech of the County of Laholm in Halland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Bech til Førslev was in charge of the administration after the death of her husband Christian von Bülow til Engelstad. She was daughter of Jacob Bech and Helle Marsvin, and lived (1607-64).

  1644-55 Politically Influential Olimpia Maidalchini in The Vatican
At the age of 20 she married her second husband, Pamphilio Pamphilj. When her brother-in-law a few years later became Pope Innocent X, she exerted a strong influence upon him, and soon becoming the only person whose advice the pope fully relied on. For this reason ambassadors, artists, tradesmen, politicians, and any important person in Rome presented her with rich gifts, to gain her favour and be well introduced to the Pope. When he died, the new pope, Alexander VII, exiled her to San Martino al Cimino – a small village just north of Rome – and asked to give back the gold she had taken away. She refused and died of plague four years later. She lived (1592-1657).

  1645 Regent Dowager Empress Yudokia Lukyamanova Stresneva of Russia
Евдокия Лукьяновна Стрешнёва in Russian, her name is also transcribed as Eudoxia or Evdokia Lukianova Streschneva. Following the death of her husband, Mikhail I Fedorovich Romanov, in February 1645, she acted as regent for son Alexei Mikhailovich until her own death in July. Her situation at the royal court was difficult. It appears that the tsaritsa totally depended on her mother-in-law Marfa Ivanovna, whose firm grip had been felt in their everyday life, and who accompanied her daughter-in-law during all of her visits to monasteries and other places. She also chose tutors for her grandchildren. It also appears that Eudoxia Streshneva had no influence over Mikhail I even after the death of Marfa. She was daughter of Lukian Stepanovich Streshnev and Princess Anna Konstantinovna Volkonskaya, she was mother of 10 children and she lived (1608-45).

  1645-47 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Elisabeth Amalia von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen, Countess of Falkenstein (Germany)
After the death of her father, Steino, she was joint heiress to the lordship, which became a co-lordship (Erbgemeinschaft or Ganerbschaft) when the male line had died out. She was daughter of the Swedish Count Steno von Löwenhaupt, Graf zu Rasburg and Falkenstein (1586-1645), who was the son of Axel Lewenhaupt af Raseborg and Sidonia von Daun, Gräfin von Falkenstein, and Magdalena von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1574-1639). She was married to Count Philipp Dietrich von Manderscheid-Kail and they united the Manderscheid-lines. She lived (1607-47).

  1645-54 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Sivertsdatter Grubbe of the County of Hven (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Regize Grubbe was widow of Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve til Vindinge (1615-45), son of Karen Andersdatter and Christian 4, who was given the fief Kronborg for life in 1641, and apparently took over as acting fiefholder of Hven from his mother in 1640. She did not have any children, and lved (1618-1689).

  1645-67 Politically Influential Electress Luise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau of Brandenburg (Germany), Heiress of the Counties of Lingen and Moers (The Netherlands)
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-40-88), and enhanced the relationship between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Netherlands. She initiated commercial and economic reforms and helped revive the state after the devastations of the Thirty Years War. She was also a patron of culture and learning. Her father, Stadholder Frederik Hendrik van Oranje had stipulated in his will that she was to inherit the Counties of Lingen and Moers in the case that her brother, Willem III, should die with out issue. When this happened in 1702, her son, King Friedrich I. von Prussia, too over the regency and in 1707 it was united with Tecklenburg. She lived (1627-1667).

  1645-48 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a side-line of the former royal house of Navarra.

  1645-80 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie I von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Pfalzgraf Georg Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein and Gräfin Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde. She lived (1619-80).

  1645-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
Considered the second founder as she started rebuilding the chapter, a small Catholic Territory partly in Germany, partly within the Protestant Netherlands. 1664 she asked the Pope for confirmation and expansion of her ecclesiastical rights, using the example of her colleague in Essen, noting that her predecessors since ancient times had exercised episcopal authority leaving only the right to confirm the election of a new Abbess to the Bishop of Utrecht. The Papal Nuntius in Kölln recommended that the Pope confirmed her quasi-episcopal powers and that she appointed a General Vicar as her temporal substitute. The pope granted her theise rights in 1669 and confirmed them in 1675. In 1669 she founded a fond in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen, and lived lived (1620-74).

  1645-63 Reigning Abbess Catherine de Beauffremez of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
At her election, the Prior, the Chaplaine, the Treasurer, the lady of the refectory, the Matron of the novices, 2 ladies of the sacritsty, 2 canonesses and 6 other ladies, whose occupation is not mentioned, took part. She was daughter of Lord d’Esnes and Haily. The Abbey became part of France 1659.

  1646-62 Regent Dowager Countess Ämilie Antonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Germany)
1663-70 Reigning Dowager Lady of Könitz
Alternatively known as Amalia Antonia, she acted as regent for son Albrecht Anton (1641-1710), after the death of her husband, Count of the Realm (Reichsgraf) Ludwig Günther. When her son came of age, she took over the administration of Könitz as the last feudal ruler. Her son became the first Prince (Fürst) of the state in 1697. Her two sisters were Princesses-Abbesses; Catharina Elisabeth of Gandersheim (1625-49), and Sedonia of Herford (1640-49). Ämilie Antonia lived (1614-70).

  Ca. 1646-1664 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili of Solor (Indonesia)
Also known as Nyai Pertawi, she reigned after the death of her husband, Kaicil Partana alias Sultan Sili Pertawi. Western travellers called her a pagan Queen. Succeeded by daughter, Nyai Cili Muda.

  Around 1646 Countess Regnant Maria Cristina di Altemps of Altemps (Italy) 
She was daughter of Angelica de’ Medici and Count Gianpetro di Altemps and married Ipollito, Duke Lante delle Rovere.

  1646-before 1654 Captain-Donatary Branca da Gama Freire of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
Daughter of Luis da Gama Pereira and Violante Freire and married to Vasco da Gama, capitão de Chaul. The captains-donataries were similar to governors and had full control over their domain. They held the office of judge. They could make land grants. They also monopolized the gristmills, public baking ovens, and salt sales. She was mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters, one of whom was Joana de Menzeses, who succeeded to the Captainship in 1665.

  1646-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Maria Johanna von Helfenstein of Wernberg in Leuchtenberg (Germnay)
After the death of her husband, Maximilian Adam von Leuchtenberg (1607-46), she reigned the territory as her dowry as their only son had died by birth, and even though the husband of their late daughter, Mechthilde von Leuchtenberg, Duke Albrecht VI. von Bayern held the title of Landgrave until he gave the territory to his brother, Elector Maximilian I (1573-1651). Together with her sisters, Isabella Eleonore (d. 1678) and Franziska Karoline (d. 1641) she inherited a third of the County of Wiesensteig and the Lordships of Gomegnies, Meßkirch, Wildenstein, Wiesensteig and Wellenheim after the death of her father, Count Rudolf III von Helfenstein-Wiesensteig (1607-27).

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Lunge of the Countyof Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre and Sønderhals and Østerlisbjerg, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jost Høg til Gjorslev (or Just Høeg), Anne Lunge administered the the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled with the King and the a new Lensmand could be appointed. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe.

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Hartvigsdatter Lützow of the County of Dronningborg with the Shires of Galten, Gjerlev, Houlberg, Nørrehald, Onsild, Rugsø, Støvring and Sønderlyng, Denmark
Kirstine Lützow’s father, Hartvig von Lützow, was a noble from Mecklenburg who became the Lord Chamberlain of the Court of Danish Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg. After the death of her first husband, Knud  Jakobsen Ulfeldt, she was in charge of the tenantcy. She inherited the estate of Hellerup (Vindinge Herred) from him, who had inherited it from his first wife, Anne Lykke. She was Lady of the Chamber of Danish Hereditary Princess Magdalena Sibylla von Sachen when she married Johan Christoph von Kørbitz (1612-82), who was in the service of Danish Hereditary Prince Christian and after his death Lord Chamberlain of Princess Magdalena Sibylla until she married Duke Friederich Wilhelm von Sachsen-Altenburg in 1652. Upon their marriage he became recognised as a Danish noble. She did not have children, and lived (1615-93)

  1646-88 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome I von Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Essen, Lady of Bresig etc. (Germany)
1640-74 she was also Dechantess of Thorn and Lady of the Chapter (Stiftfrau) in Elten and St. Ursula (Köln). She was able to assert the princely sovereignty against the protestant city, and thereby secured the continued existence of the Damenstift (Ladies Chapter). Since 1661 she used the title “Des heiligen römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen” (Princess and Abbess of the Holy Roman Realm of Essen, Lady of Breisig etc). Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich von Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. One sister, Maria Sophie, reigned as Fürstäbtissin of Elten another, Anna Katharina of Thorn. A fourth, Sidonia Elisabeth, was Lady of the Chapter in Thorn, Essen and St. Ursula before she married Hartmann Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein in 1640, and became mother of 24 children. Anna Salome lived (1622-88).

  1646-47 Princess-Abbess Anna Catharina zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1660-68 Regent Dowager Countess of Rietberg (Germany)
Resigned in order to marry Count Johann IV von Rietberg, and after his death she was regent for son Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-77) who fell by Straßburg, and was succeeded by his brothers Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-80) and ( 1687-88) and Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), who were both Diachons and Domherrs of the Cathedral Straßburg, and Anna Catharina remained the virtual ruler of the territory. Ferdinand Maximilian was succeeded by his niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska. Anna Catharina’s older sister, Maria Sophie (1620-74) was Abbess in Elten and the other Anna Salome (1622-88) in Elten. They were daughters of Altgraf Ernst Friedrich, (1583-1639) and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen (†1649). Anna Catharina’s daughter, Bernhardine Sophia was Fürstäbtissin of Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina lived (1624-91).

  1647-90 Princess-Abbess Anna Salomé von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1689-91 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome II of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Had to raise taxes in the principality because of the ongoing wars, and worked closely together with her sister, Clara Elisabeth, who was her second-in-command. In 1688 Anna-Salome was elected Fürstäbtissin of Essen. She was daughter of Ernst Friedrich von Manderscheid-Blankenheim and Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. Her sister, Marie Sofie (1620-74), was Abbess in Eltern. Anna Salomé and lived (1622-91).

  1647-58 Regent Dowager Countess Barbara Magdalena von Mansfeld-Hinterort of Mansfeld-Eisleben (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, took over the regency for his oldest son Hoyer Christoph II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, (1636-53) from his marriage to Barbara Maria zu Stolberg in Schwarza (1596-1636). Barbara Magdalena became regent for her own son, Johann Georg III, when he succeeded older half-brother at the age of 13.She was daughter of Count David von Mansfeld zu Schraplau (1573-1628) and his second wife, Juliane Marie Reuss zu Gera (1598-1650). She later married Anton von Werthern, Georg Andreas Schwab von Lichtenberg and Georg Albert von Mansfeld-Vorderort (1642-96/97), and lived (1618-96).

  1647… Sovereign Countess Louise de Béon of Brienne (France)
Succeeded mother, Louise de Luxembourg, who inherited the County in 1608. She held the title jointly with her husband, Henri-Auguste de Loménie, who died 1666.

  1647-51 Executrix and Acting Lord Proprietor Margaret Brent of Maryland (USA)
1648 she appeared before the State Assembly and requested 2 votes as a landowner and as Lord Baltimore’s attorney. Together with two brothers and a sister, she had arrived from England to Maryland 10 years before. She became a substantial landowner and she was named jointly with Governor Leonard Calvert as joint guardian for Mary Kittamaquund, daughter of the chief of the Piscataways. Her continuing unmarried state was unusual in a settlement where the male/female ratio was about six to one. Governor Calvert died during an attack on the settlement and on his deathbed, exhorting her to “Take all and pay all,” he appointed her as his executor, a testimony to his faith in her abilities. The most pressing problem was paying Leonard Calvert’s soldiers, who were on the verge of a mutiny. She averted that disaster by having the assembly transfer to her Calvert’s power of attorney for his brother Lord Baltimore. Because his estate was not sufficient, she sold some of Lord Baltimore’s cattle to pay the soldiers. 1651 she and her family relocated to Virginia by 1651, where she set up a large plantation. She lived (1610-71).

  1647-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Hereditary Princess Magdalene Sibylla von Sachsen of Denmark of Lolland-Falster, Royal County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of Falster and the County of Ålholm, Denmark
After her husband, Hereditary Prince Christian died, she withdrew to her dowry in the south of Denmark until she married Duke Friedrich Wilhelm II zu Sachsen-Altenburg (d. 1669) in 1652 ans had her first child, Johanna Magdalene, in 1656 and the second, Friedrich Wilhelm II, in 1658. She lived (1617-68).

  1647-86 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Marie of Münsterberg-Oels (Ziębice-Oleśnica) (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
1664-72 Regent Dowager Duchess of Württemberg-Oels (Germany)
Also known as Elżbieta Maria Podiebrad, she was the only child of the Slesian Duke Karl Friedrich, she was married Silvius Nimrod von Württemberg (1622-64), and after her father’s death, he was granted the Duchy by emperor Ferdinand III and he founded the line of Württemberg-Oels, the first Slesian line, and after his death, she was regent for two sons, Silvius Friederich (1651-97) and Christian Ulrich (1652-1702), who were declared prematurely of age by the Emperor against her protests. She lived (1625-86).

  1648-51 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane von Hessen of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1651-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Burg Berum and the Estate of Westerhof bei Osterode am Harz
The widow of Count Ulrich II, she governed in the name of her son, Enno Ludwig, 1st Prince of Ostfriesland. Her reign was marked by the Thirty Years War and plague, but she managed to bring the territory trough the worst ordeals. Her son was declared “of age” before time and she withdrew to her dowry. She lived (1606-59).

  1648-56 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Effern of Holzappel
Reigning Lady of Schaumburg, Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, who had gained the position of Imperial Immidiate in 1643 from Emperor Ferdiand III (Freien Reichsunmittelbaren Grafschaft Holzappel), she was able to expand the territory in 1656 by aquireing the Castle and Lordship of Schaumburg bei Balduinstein. After her death, the castle of Schaumburg was inherited by her daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg. She (d. 1656.). 

  1648-1707 Reigning Lady Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg of Schaumburg, Countess of Holzappel and Lady of Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Another version of her title is Gräfin von Holzapfel, in Schaumburg, Holzapfel und Laurenburg. After the death of her mother, Agnes von Effert, gennant Hall, who had been in charge of the government since the death of her father, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, she took over the reigns, with great vigour and intelligence. She allowed Hugenots and Waldenses from France to settle in her territory, abolished the serfdom, gave city and trade-rights to Holzappel and founded the village of Charlottenburg. She married Prince Adolf Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-76), who added Schaumburg to his princely title. After her death, her son-in-law, Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym added Schaumburg to his title. He was the widower of her youngest daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (d. 1700), and their son, Victor Amadeus Adolf became Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, the son of her youngest daughter, and in 1812 his great-granddaughter, Hermine, inherited the Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel. She was married to Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), and died giving birth to twins in 1817. Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1640-1707).

  1648-1652 Regent Dowager Countess Luise Juliane of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenberg and Altenkirchen (Germany)
Her father-in-law, Count Wilhelm zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn died in 1623, and since her husband, the Hereditary Count Ernst (1593-1641), had already died, the Archbishop of Köln occupied the county, but she continued to fight for her rights. In the Peace-treaty of Westphalia in 1648 both her own and her two surviving daughters (Johanette and Ernestine) right to rule the county was confirmed. She continued to act as regent for her two daughters who split the County among them, until she withdrew from Hachenburg Castle to Friedenwald Castle. She was mother of 5 daughters of whom 3 died as infants and a son, who died at the age of 9. She lived (1603-70).

  1648-61 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Ernestine Salentine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Hachenburg (Germany)
Initially Reichsgräfin Ernestine was co-ruler with sister, Johanette, but they split up the county in 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia confirmed their right to the inheritance and her part became known as Sayn-Hachenburg for short. She was married to count Salentin Ernst von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, Kirchenberg and the Nassau-Weilburg families, and is now one of the titles of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. She was first succeeded by son, Maximilian zu Manderscheid-Blankenheim (1655-75) and then by her daughter, Magdalena-Christina (1657-1715). She lived (1626-62).

  1648-1701 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Johanette zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (Germany)
Reichsgräfin Johanette’s part of the County is normally known as Sayn-Altenkirchen. She was married to Johannes-Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and was succeeded by son Duke Wilhelm Heinrich, who in 1741 was succeeded by his nephew Margrave Carl Wilhelm Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach, the son of her daughter, Eleonore Erdmute Louise (d. 1696). She lived (1632-1701).

  1648-83 Khadija Turhan Hadice Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
1651-56 Regent Naib-i-Sultanat of the Empire
When her son, Mehmed IV (1648-51-87), became sultan, she would normally have become regent, but instead her mother-in-law, Kösem was appointed to rule the empire, because she was considered too young. Turhan Sultan used the next years gathering support to undermine Kösem. The imperial guards revolted and Kösem decided to have Mehmet overthrown, but the plot was thwarted and Kösem strangled, and Turhan became regent, exercising her power through a series of twelve Grand Viziers over the next five years. She took her responsibilities very seriously and tried to make up for her inexperience by learning everything there was to know about her job. She also took part in the deliberations in the Imperial Diet seated behind a curtain; she authorized all appointments and cooperated closely with the Grand Vizier as “The Guardian and Representative of the Sultan”. She was sister of Yusuf Agha, of Russian origin, and lived (1627-83).

  1648-84 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de Rohan-Frontenay of Rohan, Duchess de Porhoët-León et Soubize, Princess de León, Countess de Porhoët and Lorges, Marquise de Blain and La Garnache, etc (France)
In 1645 Louis XIV allowed her to keep her status and dignity of Princess if she married Henri Chabot, Seigneur de Sainte-Aulaye, who was created Duke de Rohan in 1648. Their children got the surname Rohan-Chabot. Succeeded first by son and then by daughter, Anne in 1686. Marguerite lived (1617-84).

  1648-72 Reigning Lady Katharina Elisabeth Wechsler von Galler of Riegersburg in der Steiermark (Austria)
Also known as Freifrau von Gallen, Herrin auf der Riegersburg and in the folklorist tradition as “Schlimme Lisl” (Bad Lissy). She inherited the vast possessions of her family after the death of her uncle, Sigismund Wechsler, the last male member of the family. She has made a prenuptial agreement with her first husband, Freiherr Hans Wilhelm von Galler, that she would keep the right to determine over her own possessions, but they engaged in a dispute over the details of the agreement. After his death, she became the undisputed ruler of the territories. In 1660 Colonel Freiherr Detlef von Kapell, but he died in the battle against the Turkish in 1664. This marriage lead to a dispute with her only daughter, Regina Katharina, her son-in-law Freiherr Johann Ernst Graf von Purgstall and the Marshall of the Castle.  In 1666 she married the 25-year-old Hans Rudolf von Stadl, owner of the Castle of Kornberg, but she asked for a divorce 3 years later, but they came to an agreement, where she gave him one of her castles. She renovated the castle and rebuilt the economic foundations of the lands. In 1653 she was given the Patronage of the Pastorate of Regensburg, but the clerics did not recognize this right and they engaged in a long lasting battle, but again she entered into an agreement and gave up her rights in 1661 but was compensated economically. She was succeeded by dauther, and lived (ca. 1607-72).

  1648-57 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II d’Alençon of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elisabeth-Marguerite d’Orléans, Mademoiselle d’Alençon was 2 years old when she was elected as sovereign of the chapter, and therefore her parents, Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, Duke d’Anjou, d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d’Alençon, comte de Blois, Monthéry et de Limours, baron d’Amboise, Seigneur de Montargi and Marguerite de Lorraine, reigned for her. In 1657 Elisabeth-Marguerite left the Abbey and married Duke Louis Joseph de Guise (1650-71) with whom she had one child François Joseph de Guise (1670-75). The former Princess-Abbess lived (1646-96).

  Around 1648 Princess-Abbess Justina Anna Etlin von Rosenfels of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave the “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St. Georgen auf dem königl. Schloß zu Prag” dispensation from the war-tax because of the disasterous economic situation of the chapter.

  1648-51 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Góngora of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her ancestors were first mentioned as courtiers of the kings of Pamplona in the 700s and held many high offices through out the centuries.

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Ramel of the County of Kristianssand in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) and of the County of Bøvling with the Shires Skodsborg, Vandfuld, Hind and Ulvborg, Denmark  
Anna Ramel (or Rammel) til Vandås og Maltesholm took over the fief after the death of her husband, Malte Juel til Gjesinggård, County Sheriff of Kristiansstad. She had inherited a number of estates from her family. She (d. 1702).

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Jørgensdatter Lunge Dyre of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt, Denmark
Margrethe Lunge was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Mogens Bille til Tirsbæk (1617-48). Their only son, Jørgen Lunge Bille, was born and died the same year. 1649 she married Christen Skeel, with whom she had a son the following year. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge Dyre and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe, and lived (1616-53).

  1648-51 Acting County Sheriff Christence Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark
After the death of her second husband, Claus Alexandersen Sehested til Højgaard, Christence Lindenov til Tim and Ørslev, held the fief, that he had granted after returning to Denmark after a period as Lord Marshall of the Prince Bishop of Bremen in 1643. She had first been married to Axel Gyldenstjerne til Tim, Ørslevkloster og Strandet. They did not have any children. (d. 1681).

  1649-67 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Louise Juliane von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Herford (Germany)
She was daughter of Johann II, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken and Luise Juliane von Simmeren, and lived (1613-67).

  1649-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Salis of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss noble family, which was first recorded in 1202 as Salici zu Como and later held influential positions in the administration of Switzerland and other countries.

  Around 1649 Princess-Abbess and Steward Baroness Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
Apparently the Freiin (Baroness) was elected as the successor of Fürstäbtissin Henrica, who was mentioned in 1643, but of whom not much more is known. The last of the baronial (Freiherrliche) family of Raitz von Frentz to govern the territory was in office until 1669.

  1649 Abbess Nullius Antonia Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in an alternative chronology of Abbesses of the chapter. Sister of the Abbesses Donata and Mariana – all daughters of the Count and Countess of Conversano, Caterina Acquavia d’Aragona and Giulio Acquavia d’Aragona.

  1649-50 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Regitze Urne was widow of Jost Frederik von Pappenheim til Søholt. Mother of 4 children, she lived (1608-79).

  1649-71 Overseer of the Crown Lands Elżbieta Słuszczanka of Warka (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1649-ca. 55 Feudal Baroness Giulia Bardi Pignatelli Centelles Spatafora of Calcusa (Italy)
Married to Giulio Pignatelli.

  1649-67 Politically Influential Electress Louise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau in Brandenburg (Germany)
1650-67 In charge of the Administrative Unito of Bötzow (Oranienburg)
Given the Amt of Bötzow for life by her husband, Kurfürst Friederich Wilhelm ,and renamed it Oranienburg in 1652. She was strongly interested in politics and her influence cannot be underestimated. In spite of her bad health, she joined her husband on his journeys, sometimes even in warfare. During the Swedish-Polish war, she advocated a truce with Poland and Habsburgs. She was daughter of Frederik Hendrik van Oranje-Nassau (1584-1647) and Amalia von Solms (1602-72) and heir to the title of Princess of Oranje and the Prince of Preussen still uses this title today. She died one year after the birth of her 6th child. Her husband later married Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg (see 1665). Louise Henriette von Oranien lived (1627-67).

  Around 1650 Queen Mwabwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Head of the Lozi Tribe, which migrated from Katanga in the Congo and were ruled by a long line of female rulers until their settlement on the Bulozi flood plain. She was theearliest of these rulers and was succeeded by her daughter, Mbuymamwambwa. According to legend they both married Nyambe, the “maker of the world, the forests, the river, the plains, all the animals, birds and fish”. In reality, they, probably both bore children by several different consorts.

  Around 1650 Queen Mbuyambwambwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Succeeded mother and abdicated in favour of son, Mwanasolundwi Muyunda Mumbo wa Mulonga aka Mboo, who became the first Litunga or king. He appointed a female parallel chief, as his co-ruler, who was in charge of the southern parts of the territory.

  Ca. 1650-80 Queen Regnant Ama Tuan of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)
Head of the kingdom or rather empire in Eastern Timor. Timor was one big empire ruled by the divine Maromak Oan, who was based in the Belu area.

  1650-57 Captain-Donatary Dame Beatriz Mascarenhas of the Islands of Flores and Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)
The Capitana Donataria and 3rd Condessa de Santa Cruz was daughter of Don Martinho Mascarenhas, 2nd conde de Santa Cruz and Joana de Vilhena and married her relative João Mascarenhas (Ca. 1600-68). Las Ilhas das Flores e Corvo are remote part of the Azores. Beatriz was mother of 4 sons and 2 daughters, and lived (Ca. 1610-57).

  1650-63 Lady Landgravine Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of the Administrative Unit and Fief of the Castle Bingenheim in Hessen (Germany)
When she married Prince Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg (1625-81) in 1650, her father transferred and Administrative Unit and Fief of Schloss Bingenheim to them, and as her husband preferred Bingenheim for Homburg, he was mainly known as the Landgrave zu Bingenheim, since his younger brother, Friederich II succeeded their father, Friederich I as Landgrave of Homburg. Wilhelm Christoph and Sofie Eleonore had 8 sons and 4 daughters, who all died before their father, who married in a second childless marriage Anna Elisabeth von Sachsen-Lauenburg. She lived (1634-63).

  1650-60 Politically Active and Guardian, Dowager Princess Mary Stuart of England of Oranje-Nassau in The Netherlands
Her son Willem III was born 8 days after the death of her husband, Willem II, and she acted as his guardian and worked actively for his reinstatement as Governor-Stadholder of the Netherlands. Willem was married to Mary’s niece, Mary, and they later became king and Queen of England. Mary lived (1630-60).

  1650-60 Joint Guardian Dowager Princess Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels of Oranje-Nassau (The Netherlands)
1660 Guardian
Her husband Frederik Hendrik of Oranje and Nassau was succeeed by their son, Willem II, in 1647, but he died suddenly in 3 years later, and the Estates desided not to appoint a new Stadholder. 8 days after her son’s death, his heir, Willem III was born, and she was appointed joint guardian with her son-in-law the Prince Palantine of Brandenburg on one side and her daughter-in-law, Mary Stuart, on the other by the High Council (Hoge Raad) of Holland and Zeeland, and after Mary’s death in 1660, she became the sole Guardian (Voogd). She was very influential and had an important role in her grandson’s appointment as Stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland en Overijssel and Captain-General of the Union in 1672. He later became King of England as the husband of Queen Mary II. Her sister, Ursula von Soms, was Governor of Oranje 1637-48. Amalia lived (1599-1672), and Amalia herself had been Lady of Turnhout since 1648. She lived (1602-75).

  1650-65 Princess-Abbess Maria Sabina zu Solms-Lich of Gandersheim (Germany)
Since her predecessor, Fürstäbtissin Katharina Elisabeth did not reside in the chapter, she had to promise to stay there in order to get elected. Daughter of Count Ernst II zu Solms-Lich and Countess Anna von Mansfeld, she lived (1600-65).

  1650-69 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska I von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Before she became Canoness she was probably Lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Claudia von Tirol. Soon after her election she began rebuilding the chapter and bring the economic situation back on track. She managed to retrieve the “treasuer of the church”. When she became seriously ill the College of the Counts of Swabia tried to influence the election of her sucessor. Listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1650 and 1669 and she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) in 1664. She used the title of “Reverend and Illustrius Lady, Princess Abbess of the Holy Roman Empire of Buchau, nee Countess of Montfort, and was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort, Councillor of the Bavarian-Palatinate and Imperial Council and Chamber, and Euphrosina Truchsess von Waldburg-Wolfegg, and lived (Ca. 1622-69).

  1650-51 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Styggesdatter Høeg of the County of Århusgård with the Shires of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg, Denmark
Another version of her name was Jutte Høg, and she acted as administrator of the fief after the death of her husband, Niels Krag til Trudsholm. She lived (1589-1659).

  1650 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Frandsdatter Rantzau af Lunde Sankt Peders Kloster , Denmark
Kirsten Rantzau was widow of Falk Lykke til Skovgård, Bollerup og Gersnæs. She did not have any children.

  1651-57 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Anna von Habsburg of Bavaria (Germany)
1654-65 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen
Second wife of Kurfürst Maximillian I von Bayern she was very interested in politics and well instructed about developments. She was not bound to the Habsburgs, but rather completely advocated the Bavarian standpoint. Additionally, she conducted lively exchanges of opinion with high officials of the Munich court and took part in meetings of the cabinet. After Maximillian’s death she was regent for their son, Kurfürst Ferdinand Maria (1636-51-79). Generally described as clever, cautious, energetic, stern, frugal, and experienced in matters of financial administration, she was daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna von Bayern (1574-1616), mother of two sons, and lived (1610-65).

  1651-80 County Sheriff Queen Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1651-58 County Sheriff of Hven
1670-85 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster
with the Castle of Nykøbing
received the tenantcy of Hørsholm as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard and build Sophie-Amalienborg. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648 and supported his curbing of the nobility and was a leading force in the defence of Copenhagen from the attacks of the Sweden in 1659. She was mother of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85).

  1651-59 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Szumińska of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Held the office of starościna niegrodowa jointly with her husband.

  1651-53 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Osorio y Leyva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of the family of Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.

  1651-61 County Sheriff Anne Predbjørndsatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark
Anne Gyldenstierne was married to Jørgen Brahe to Hvedholm (1585-1661), she was daughter of Predbjørn Gyldenstjerne (1548-1616) and Mette Hardenberg (1569-1629), mother of a number of children, and lived (1596-1677).

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Jensdatter Bielke of the County of Bakke Kloster, Norway
After the death of her husband, Daniel Bildt til Morland (1601-51), Dorothea Bielke continued as the official local representative of King Frederik III of Denmark-Norway. She later arried Gabriel Rosenskold. The daughter of Daughter of Chancellor Jens Bielke, she lived (1612-74),

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hartvigsdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Dragsmark Kloster, Norway
Margrethe Huitfeldt continued the tenantcy, after her husband, Thomas Dyre til Sundsby (1605-51). As she had no children, she gave two of her estates Sundsby and Aaby in Baahus Len to students at Gøteborgs Gymnasium. She lived (1608-83).

  1652-97 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

  1652 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)
She was widow of Kraft VII zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (1582-1615-41) and in charge of the government in the name of Count Johann Friedrich I von Hohenlohe in Öhringen etc., the oldest son of her 14 children. She was daughter of Karl I, Pfalzgraf und Herzog von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, and lived (1593-1676).

  1652-76 Chiefess Wetamoo of the Wampanoag Tribe (USA)
Daughter of the Sachem Corbitant of Pocasset, which was located in and around present day Rhode Island. When Chief Corbitant died, Wetamoo became the Squaw Sachem. When her brother-in-law died mysteriously, she became convinced that the English had poisoned him. This belief led to a hatred of the whites that dominated her life. During the great war of the northeast against the Pilgrims/Puritans/English, Wetamoo joined forces with the great Wampanoag Sachem, Chief Philip. Since the whites could not understand the concept of tribal living, or the role of the chief, Philip became “King Philip” to them, and the resulting war lives in history as “King Philip’s War”. She was known for her great beauty and for diplomatic skills as well as her skills as a warrior. She was ever the fighter for her people against the unfairness of white rule. She was a powerful and regal Sachem and, at the height of her tenure, she commanded some 300 warriors. The Plymouth colonists hunted Wetamoo and her warriors continually during King Philip’s War, but they always were successful in evading the enemy. However, during one escape down the Fall River, Wetamoo lost her footing and drowned. The Pilgrims promptly cut off her head, and displayed it on a pike in the town of Taunton.

  1652-64 Princess-Abbess Maria Caecilia von Greuth of Schänis (Switzerland)
The bishop leter know that she had to use the Court of the Diocese in court cases. A relative of hers, Agnes III, was Fürstäbtissin of Säckingen 1621-58. Maria Caecilia was daughter of Hugo Theodorich von Greuth, of Klingenau, and Apollonia von Altendorp.

  1652-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Margarethe von Sigertshofen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a family of Lords of a territory in Schwaben in Germany.

  1652-54 Acting County Sheriff Anna Margrethe von Götzen of the County of Abrahamstrup with Hornsherred, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Schult til Finstrup, she was in charge of the County and the Wapentake (County Subdivision). She owned different estates, among others Leiholm, that she sold to her son-in-law, Niels Banner, who was married to her daughter, Anna Cathrine Schult (d. 1675). She (d. 1684).

  1652-57 Acting County Sheriff Karen Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Søbygaard with the Shire of Løve, Denmark
Karen Lange acted after the death of her husband, Kristoffer Gøye til Assendrup (1584-1652), as the tenantcy had been granted them jointly for their lifetimes. She was daughter of Gunde Lange til Søfde and Anne Hansdatter Basse, and (d. 1657).

  1652-…  County Sheriff Elsbet of the County of Kullegaard (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
It is not known how long she was in charge of the fief. She was widow of Thomas Jakobsen.

  1653 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna zu Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her husband, Hans Christian, she was regent for her 12 year old son, Christian Adolf of Holsten-Sønderborg in very difficult times, as the territory was marked by the wars between Denmark and Sweden. After her son came of age, she witdrew to her dowry, Gammelgård. She was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. Both her brothers died young and unmarried, one sister, Katharine Elisabeth, was Abbess of Gandersheim and two of her sister’s, Clara and Sidonie, married a relative of her sister, Duke August Philipp of Holstein-Beck. She lived (1605-68).

  1653-96 Sovereign Duchess Marie Françoise de Valois of Angoulême (France)
Succeeded father, Louis Emmanuel, because all her brother died before her, except Antoine Charles, who was illegitimate. Her great-grandfather was illegitimate son of Charles IX. Her husband, Louis de Lorraine, Duke de Joyeuse was joint ruler until his death in 1654 and since she did not have any children, the Duchy was inherited by her step-grandmother Françoise de Nargonne. Marie Françoise lived (1632-96).

  1653-80 De-facto Regent Princess Augusta Sophie von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Sternstein and Neustadt an der Waldnaab (Germany)
Her father, August von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, died in 1632, and her mother Hedwig sent her to Sweden to live with her great-aunt, Queen Hedwig-Eleonore zu Holstein-Gottrop. Augusta Sophie married Prince Wenzel Eusebus Lobkowitz of Neustadt, who as Chancellor of the Emperor was away most of the time and left the administration of the semi-independent principality to her and in 1673 he officially appointed her regent. A few years after his death in 1677 moved to Nürnberg. Mother of four children, and lived (1624-82).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Skeel of of the County Stege, Denmark
Margrethe Skeel acted after the death of her husband, Henrik Rammel. She was daughter of Birgitte Lindenov and Otto Skeel. Mother of 2 children, and (d. 1651).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Ide Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Ide Grubbe was widow of Frederik Barnewitz til Rugbjerggård and sister of Mette Grubbe. She (d. 1702).

  1653-72 Princess-Abbess Maria-Scholastica Klocker of Baindt (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was a member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis, and as Imperial Prelate she held a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The Diet of Regensburg in 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag).

  1653-56 Reigning Abbess-General Antonia Jacinta de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Duke Felipe of Navarre de la Cueva y de Salazar and Mariana de Mendoza. Her grandfather was Pedro batard de Navarra, whose sister Isabel was Abbess from 1665. Antonia Jacinta became a nun at Las Huelgas and was later elected abbess. She is said to have received the stigmata and was later declared venerable – during the investigation and process leading to canonization as a saint. She lived (1602-56).

  1653-65 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her first reign ended 1656 and the second lasted 1660-62.

  1654-68 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV d’Oyenbrugge of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Her surname was also spelled d’Oyenbrughe.

  1655-59 Princess-Abbess Johannetta Stephana von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)
According to the Westphalian Peace, which followed the Thirty Years War, the ecclesiastical territories, chapters and convents should revert to the situation prior to 1624. And at that time the convent was protestant but two years later Prince Johann of Nassau reintroduced Catholism, and therefore it was decided that Keppel should be a double-denomination chapter (stift), and the post of Abbess should alternate between Protestants and Catholics. Johanetta therefore succeeded the Protestant Maria von Effern. She resigned from the convent in order to marry, and was succeeded by another protestant.

  1655-92 Reigning Abbess Henriette II de Guise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Henriette de Lorraine, she was niece of Jehanne and during her reign, the Abbey became powerful, because of privilege of exemption, acquired in the 13th century. However this Abbess, too sure of her prerogatives, had disputes and a lawsuit with Bossuet, the bishop of Meaux. The “Eagle of Meaux”, as he was known, interfered violently. Henriette lost the case and resigned. However, Bossuet could be gentle too as his letters to the nuns testify. He wrote to them in 1695: “God loves Jouarre”. Daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse, Prince de Joinville and Marie Aimée de Rohan, Mademoiselle de Montbazon. Her oldest sister was, Anne Marie, Abbess of Pont-aux-Dames, and she lived (1631-93).

  1655-92 Regent Dower Landgravine Eleonora Katharina bei Rhein of Hessen-Eschwege, the Principality of Hersfeld and the Counties of Catzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc (Germany)
Her husband, Friedrich von Hessen-Eschwege, Landgraf zu Hessen, Fürst zu Hersfeld, Graf zu Katzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc. (1617-55) fell during the first year of the war between Sweden and Poland, and after his death, she administered the lands given to him by the Swedes. She was born as Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, and her brother became King Karl X Gustaf of Sweden, after the abdication of Queen Kristina. 

  1655-63 and 1673-75 Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Juliana von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg of Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld and Gaildorf (Germany)
After the death of her her first husband, Schenk Johann Wilhelm Limpurg zu Schmiedelfeld, she was in charge of the affairs of state in the name of her children, Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf (1652-90) and Sophia Eleonora (1655-1722) together with the counts Wolfgang Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Waldenburg and Heinrich Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg. 1758 she signed an agreement with Barbara Dorothea von Öttingen-Öttingen after the death of Schenk Wilhelm Ludwig von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and 1663 she married Franz von Limpurg zu Speckfeld, who took over her membership in the Regency Council, until he died 10 years later. She lived (1623-95).

  1655-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Maria Eleonore von Brandenburg of the Wadgasserhof in Kaiserslautern in Pfalz-Lautern (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Palatine Ludwig-Philipp zu Pfalz-Simmern-Kaiserslautern, she took over the government in her dowry. Her 4 oldest sons died as infants, the 5th, Ludwig Heinrich Moritz, survived to succeed his father and also her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Marie Charlotte (1638-64), survived and married Georg III of Liegnitz (1611-64). She lived (1607-75).

  1655-67 Hereditary Vice-Reine Geronima Colonna of Aragona, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 5th Duchess of Monteleone, Countess of Borrello (Italy) 
She was daughter of Ettore III, IV Duca di Monteleone (1572–1622), Viceroy of Catalogna and Caterina Caracciolo Countess of S. Angelo dei Lombardi and married to Fabrizio Pignatellli V Marchese di Cerchiara e III Principe di Noja. She lived (1599-1667).

  1655-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Rohan-Montbazon of Chevereuse (France)
Marie-Aimée was first married to Charles d’Albert, Duke de Luynes, the favourite of King Louis XIII and the most influential man in France. After his death she married Claude de Lorraine, Duke de Chevereuse (1578-1657) and bought the Duchy from him. In 1625 she pawed the way for a liaison between Queen Anne and the English Duke of Buckingham. The following year she was involved in a plot to kill Cardinal Richelieu together with her lover the Marquis de Chalais. When the plot was discovered Chalais executed and she send in exile in Poitou. She withdrew to Lorraine and won over Duke Charles IV for the anti-French coalition of Buckingham. 1628 she was allowed to return to France but in 1633 she was banned again after her lover Marquis de Châteauneuf betrayed state secrets to Spain, as it was discovered that the Queen corresponded with her Spanish relatives, Marie had to flee to Spain in 1637 and was only able to return after the death of the king and the Cardinal. Her relationship with the Queen did not survive her friendship with Cardinal Mazarin. She was again exiled after her involvement in the plot to kill but returned at the beginning of the Fronde and joined the party of the Prince de Condé. 1652 she was reconciled with the Queen and finally left the political stage. She left the Duchy to her grandson by her fist marriage, Charles Honoré d’Albert de Luynes, and lived (1600-79).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Eggersdatter Abildgaard of the County of Antvorskov, Denmark
Dorthe Abildgård held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Wentzel Rothkirch til Tjæreborg. She lived (1597-1657).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Clausdatter Daa of the County of Akershus, Norway
Dorthe Daa married the Councillor of State, Gregers Krabbe til Torstedlund, who was appointed Stadholder of Norway and exchanged the tenantcy of Riberhus with Akershus Len in 1651. After his death, she continued to act as the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. She had inherited the Estate of Espe from her father, Claus Daa, in 1641, and lived (1617-75).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Mette Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Harre, Hindborg, Nørre and Rødding, Denmark
Mette Grubbe was sister of Ide Grubbe and widow of Ebbe Jakobsen Ulfeldt til Urup, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt. They did not have any children, and she lived (1615-83).

  1656-58 Regent Dowager Maharani Gangadhara Lakshimi of Cochin (India)
After the death of Rama Varma, The Velliama Thampuran (the Senior Female member of the royal family) took over the regency, as there was no successor. The Portuguese then commanded her to adopt five Thampurans from Aroor and Vettath. She resigned in favour of Rama Varma (1658-61) who was killed when Dutch attacked Cochin and the Rani was sent to prison. Gangadharalakshmi was an honorary name and her original name is still unknown.

  1656-70/71 Regent Khunza Humayun Sultana of Ahmadnagar (India)
Today Ahmadnagar is a city in the State of Maharashtra in Western India. 

  1656-62 Regent Dowager Queen Luísa Perez de Guzmão e Gómes de Sandovial of Portugal
Following the death of her husband, João IV, she became regent for son, Afonso VI (1643-56-67-75), who was mentally deficient. In 1658 the Dutch conquered Portugal’s last colony in Sri Lanka, in 1661 Portugal gave up of Bombay and Tangier to England as dowry her daughter, Catherine of Braganza who had married King Charles II of England and the same year English mediation saw The Netherlands acknowledge Portuguese rule of Brazil in return for uncontested control of Sri Lanka. Afonso was deposed by his brother, Pedro II in 1667. She was daughter of the Duke of Medina Sedona and lived (1613-66).

  1656-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore Sofie von Holstein-Sonderburg of Ballenstedt in Anhalt (Germany)
Her son 6th and first surviving son, Viktor Amadeus, was almost 20 when he took as Reigning Prince over from her husband, Christian II von Anhalt-Bernburg (1630-56) and she took charge of her dowry. The 23rd child of Duke Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön (1564-1622), by his second wife, Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt, she was mother of a total of 15 children, and lived (1603-75).

  1656-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylla von Preussen of and Administrative Unit of Colditz, The Estate of Krakau in and Administrative Unit of Grossenhain, and Administrative Unit of Lichtenwalde and the fore works of Frankenberg, Sachsenburg, Neusorge, Zadel and Baselitz in Sachsen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg I von Sachsen (1585-1656), she took over her dowry of Colditz – the other possessions she already acquired during their marriage, but she resided in Dresden. She was mother of 10 children and lived (1586-1659).

  1656-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Juliana Sophia von Barby-Mühlingen of the Administrative Office of Pewsum in Ostfriesland (Germany)
Her husband, Enno Ludwig I, Graf and Fürst von Ostfriesland, transferred the Office to her as her dowry. She was daughter of Count Albrecht Friedrich von Barby and Sophia Ursula of Oldenburg in Delmenhorst, and mother of 2 daughters. She lived (1636-77).

  1656-59 County Sheriff Dorothea Christensdatter Sehested of the Counties of Halsnø Kloster and Hardanger, Norway
Also known as Dorthe Sehested, she was given control over the fief for two years following the death of her husband, Lensmand Peder Juel (1623-56, who had been Envoy to the Netherlands and Resident in Sweden until 1655, where he had to keep an open eye at Corfits Ulfeldt who was plotting against the Danish king. His first wife, Margethe Jensdatter Juel had died in 1651 and they married in 1656, and when he died shortly after, she acted as the local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway in the Counties of Halsnøy and Hardanger, and lived (1637-64).

  1656-58 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jørgensdatter Friis of the County of Nyborg, Denmark
Sidsel Friis acted as administrator of the fief after her husband, Mogens Kaas til Støvring, had died. Mother of 3 sons.

  Ca. 1657-ca. 1715 Queen Anne Totopotomoi of the Pamunkey Tribe, Virginia (USA)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Cockacoeske. Her husband, the chief Totopotomoi was killed during the battle in which he supported the English against other Indian warriors. Her appearance at the Colonial Council, in which she scornfully rejected the request to furnish warriors for the Whites on the grounds that her people had been neglected for the past 20 years, in spite of their friendship to the Whites, was a dramatic confrontation between Indian and White. 1677 she signed “on behalfe of herselfe, & the severall Indians under her Subjection” a treaty between the Indians and the Virginia colonisers. It was only after strong promises of better treatment by the colonists that she agreed to provide the needed assistance. Following the end of the Rebellion, King Charles II of United Kingdom, presented her with a silver headband, or coronet, inscribed Queen of Pamunkey. Little more is heard about her following this period, beyond an appearance in 1715, when she visited the colonial authorities to request fair treatment for her people. She lived (ca. 1650-ca. 1725).

  1657 Regent Dowager Marchioness Anna Maria Carafo of Sant Emiliano, Botrugno and Melpignano (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Carlo Castriota Acquaviva d’Aragona, she became administrator of the feudal marchionate for her son Francesco, who was succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice in 1679.

  1657-95 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta Schrattenbachof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document from 1660, she is named as Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach and in the Topograhy of the Duchy of Steiermark from 1681, the entry about the chapter is called “Das Hoch Adeliche Iungfraw Closter Göss.

  1657-87 Princess-Abbess Ursula Scherlin of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The territory had been virtually abandoned during the Thirty Years War and the convent was severely damaged by the many passing troops that had made camp in the city of Rottweiler, the convent was put on fire, looted etc. Ursula started the rebuilding in 1662 and managed to bring the territory back in working condition.

  1657-60 Princesse-Abbesse Marie-Anne de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elected Abbess at the age of 11, she was daughter of Nicolas François, who resigned as Cardinal in 1634 to become Duke of Lorraine (1634-61), and Claude de Lorraine (1612-1648). She lived (1648-61).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Axelsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Mariager, Denmark
Øllegaard Gyldenstjerne til Bidstrup was widow of Christian Friis til Lyngbygård, with whom she had a daughter, Sophie Amalie Friis (1651-98). In 1660 she married a second time, to Cai Lykke, who was forced to flee the country after being convicted for Lèse majesté, and lived (ca. 1630-97).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Edel Jacobsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Landskrona in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Edel Rosenkrantz took over the administration of the tenancy after the death of her husband, Knud Ulfeldt til Svendstrup (1609-57), who had been in the service of the Danish army for many years. He had first been married to Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk til Østergaard, widow of Otte Lindenovs (1608-45), and her first husband was Gabriel Laxmand. She (d. 1684).

  1657 Acting County Sheriff Anna Elisabeth von der Groeben of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Lålands Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
In charge after the death of her husband, Flemming Ulfeldt til Oreby. She (d. 1690).

  1658/1661-65 (†) Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Maria Catharina von Braunschweig-Danneberg of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
When her husband, Adolf-Friederich I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628-58), died, she became regent for her newborn son, Adolf-Friederich II, who became Duke of Strelitz (1658-1708). On 14.02.1661 she and her stepsons got imperial confirmation of the regency (reichshofrätliche Bestätigung). Her oldest stepson was Christian Ludwig I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1623-92) the other Karl von Mecklenburg-Mirow. Her oldest son was Friederich von Mecklenburg-Grabow (1638-58-88). Of her 11 children, her daughters Christine (1639-93) and Marie Elisabeth (1646-1713) were Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim. She lived (1616-65).

  1658-81 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (Denmark and Germany)
The castle of Østerholm was built by Duke Hans in 1592 and she took in possession as her dowry after the death of her husband Friedrich of Slesvig-Holsten-Norborg (1581-1624-58), who was succeed by his only child by first his wife, Johann Bogislaw of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1629-58-69-79), who was deposed. Among her 5 children was Dorothea Hedwig, who was Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim (1665-78) until she married Count 1678 Gf Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld. She lived (1608-81).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Elisabeth Avgusta Christiansdatter of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
Frøken (Miss) Elisabeth Augusta was daughter of King Christian 4. of Denmark and Kirstine Munk. According to contemporary sources she gambled a lot and was not a good “housewife”, and therefore she had to sell the estates of Boller and Rosenvold, which she inherited from her mother in 1658 in order to pay off her debts. She administered the fief for the remaining part of the year after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm (Rigsråd) Hans Hansen Lindenov, til Fovslet, Allingkloster, Hundslund, Gavnø, Oregaard and Borgeby. Like her sisters, she was sometimes known as Christansdatter and held the title of Countess of Holsten. Her only daughter, Sophie Amalie Lindenov (1649-88), inherited the estates and bought a number of new ones. Her husband, Claus Då til Krængerup, Vedtoftegård og Dåsborg, was murdered in 1678, apparently on her command. 1681 she had Dåsborg named a Free-lordship (Barony) of Lindenborg with her nephew, Christian Gyldenløve, as heir, since her only child had died as an infant. Elisabeth Augusta lived (1623-77).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Vind of the County of Kronborg and the Shires of Holbro and Lynge, Denmark
Anne Vind took over as holder of the fief after the death of her husband, Arent von der Kuhla (1599-1658). She was owner of Løitved, and lived (1622-74).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Arnfeldt of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Låland, Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
Karen Arnfeldt was widow of Frederik Urne, and lived (1598-1673).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Helvig Nielsdatter Skinkel of the County of Dalum, Denmark
Helvig Skinkel med Lilje was Widow of Iver Vind til Nørholm. She lived (1602-67).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Else Friis of Trønsberg Len and St. Olavs Kloster, Norway
She had been granted year of residence and income of the tenantcy (nådsens år) when her husband, Vincents Bildt til Sem Kongsgård, Verne Kloster et cetera, had been granted the fief by the king of Denmark-Norway in 1658, but she got a financial compensation and handed it over to Johan Brockenhuus soon after her husband’s death. She (d. 1677).

  1658-59 Governor Marie Bonnard du Parquet of Martinique (French External Territory)
After the death of her husband, governor Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1635-46 and 1647-58), she took action to secure the island for her sons, Jean-Jacques Dyel d’Esnambuc (8 years old) and Louis Dyel du Parquet (5 years). She called an Island Council and got the support of the church. Father Feuillent then embarked on a journey to Paris to secure the succession by the king. At his departure, she was appointed regent for her son, and on 22 July 1658 she presided over a session of the Conseil de la Martinique, during which Gourselas was confirmed as Acting Governor. In August another Council, presided over by Gourselas, deposed her, and she was imprisoned and interrogated by one of the leaders of the revolt, de Plainville. In September the French king named her brother-in-law Adrien Dyel de Vaudroques, joint governor with her until the majority of the boys. In October she was again recognised as the head of the Island Council after a contra-revolution. Leaving the government to Gourselas, she departed for France, but she died on the way.

  1658-72 Princess-Abbess Francisca von Schauenburg of Säckingen (Germany)
Her reign marked a period of rebuilding after the devastations of the Thirty Year War. She was daughter of Hans Bernhard von Schauenburg, of the Luxembourg Line, and Elisabeth von Schönau, and lived (1588-1672).

  1658-70 Abbess NulliusMarianna Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list, she is listed as ruler 165..-56, 1671-72 and 1675. She was daughter of the Count of Countess of Conversano, Giulio Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 2nd Duke di Noci and Caterina Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 6th duchessa di Nardò. Her sister-in-law, Isabella Filomarino, was regent of the County 1655-65.

  1658-76 Sachem and Chiefess Quaiapen of the Narragansett Tribe (USA)
The word sachem, of Algonquian origin, was used among some northeastern tribes to refer to their leaders. In contrast to chiefs, who were chosen for their skill in battle or oratory, sachems held hereditary, civil positions and ruled by consensus. Their responsibilities included the distribution of land, the dispensation of justice, the collection of tribute, the reception of guests, and sometimes the direction of war or the sponsoring of rituals. Among the Narragansetts, sachems held sway over villages, which formed the basic political, territorial unit of the society. Most sachems were men, but many women are known to have been sachems as well. She was the most famous of the female sachems, also known as Magnus or Matantuck. In addition to establishing her own sachemdom after she was widowed in 1658, she was the sister, wife, and mother of several other Narragansett sachems. Rumors among white colonists of her marriage in 1649 to the sachem Mixanno aroused fear of an Indian conspiracy. That fear took on a new form in 1675, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony went to war against the Wampanoag sachem Metacom, whom white called King Philip. I. She was killed in battle.

  1658-76 Politically Influential Electress Henriette Adelheid de Savoie of Bavaria (Germany)
Had a strong influence over her husband Ferdinand Maria (1636-79), which lead to the alliance between Bavaria and France against the Habsburgs. She was mother of 7 children, and lived (1636-76).

  1659-86 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Giovanna-Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours of Aumale
1675-84 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy and Piemont (Italy)
1652 her father, Charles-Amédé de Savoie, Duke of Nemours, Aumale and Genevois, was killed in duel with his brother-in-law and her mother, Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme secured the income of the Lands of Nemours for her two daughters, Nemours was inherited by another member of the family, Geneve was re-incorporated into Savoy and she inherited Aumale, which she later sold. She was first married to Charles de Lorraine, but the marriage was never consummated and declared void. She became engaged in politics soon after her marriage to Carlo-Emmanuelle II of Savoia, who named her “reggente con il potere assoluto” on his deathbed. As regent she manoeuvred between the super-powers at the time and remained in close contact to her only sister, Queen Isabel Luisa Josefa of Portugal. When his son Victor-Amedeo reached his majority at the age of 14, he asked her to continue as regent. She had several young lovers, but neither they nor their relatives gained long-term political influence. She said no to becoming temporary regent when her son became king of Sicily in 1713, but she was probably played an important role in the government, as her grandson, Vittorio-Amedeo was only 14. She became an important promoter of art and architecture in her later years as a widow. Originally named Marie Jeanne, she lived (1644-1724).

  1659-63 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Theodora Vogtin von Elspe of Keppel (Germany)
She was a Protestant and like her Catholic predecessor, she resigned in order to enter into a marriage.

  1659-60 Possible Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Sachsen of Holstein-Gottorp
1660-84 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp (Denmark and Germany)
At the time of the death of her husband, Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, her 5th and oldest surviving son, Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp, was just 18 and she might have been his guardian for the first year. At least she did not move to her dowry, the Schuss vor Husum (The Castle outside Husum) until 1660. She expanded her residence and promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. Mother of a total of 16 children, and lived (1610-84).

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of Stjernholm Len with Bjerge, Hatting and Nim
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of the County of Stjernholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1660-61 and 1668 De Facto Ruler Princess Nestan-Darejan of Imerati (Georgia)
After the death of her second husband, King Aleksandri III (1639-60), she engineered the deposition of her stepson, King Bagrat IV, who reigned 1660-61, 1664-68 and 1679-81, whom she had ordered to be seized and blinded when he refused to marry her. She then married an insignificant nobleman Vakhtang Jujuniashvili, and had him proclaimed as king in 1660. They were deposed and exiled to Akhaltsikhe the following year. In 1668 the Turkish Pasha of Akhaltsikhe restored them but soon they were both killed. She was first married to Duke Zurab Sidamoni of Aragvi. She was daughter of King Taimuraz I, King of Kartli and Kakheti (Also known as Taimurazi Khan) and Princess Khwarashan of Kartli.

  Ca. 1660-17.. Queen Regnant Nana …. of Nsuta (Ghana)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Nana Yita.

  1660-72, 1697-98 and 1700-13 President of the Guardian Government Dowager Queen of the Realm Hedvig-Eleonora von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1660-1715 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Counties of Gripsholms, Eskilstuna, Strömsholms and Vadstena
1654 she married king Karl X Gustav (1622-54-60), and the following year she gave birth to her only child, the later Karl XI. After her husband’s death, she became Reigning Dowager Queen of the Realm (Riksänkedrottning) with two votes in the guardian-government for her son. Even after her son married Ulrika Eleonora the older of Denmark (1656-93), she kept the position as the leading Lady in the realm. After her son’s death she was again Regent grandson Karl XII. and finally she acted as regent during the Great Northern War. After her retirement she put all her energy in her dowries, and became very rich, build elaborate castles and promoted arts and culture. After her death her fiefs reverted to the Crown, but had a separate administration until 1719. The following year a ban on distributing dowries in the form of Counties and lands was introduced. She lived  (1636-1715).

  1660-71 Politically Influential Duchess Barbara Villiers of Cleveland in England
Became mistress of Charles II at Breda in 1660 and returned with him to England at the Restoration. The king made her husband, Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine. She was the archenemy of the Earl of Clarendon, the lord chancellor, and her glee at his downfall in 1667. She was made Duchess in 1670, but by 1671 had been supplanted in Charles’s affections by Louise de Kéroualle (the future Duchess of Portsmouth). She bore the king several children, and lived (1641–1709).

  1660-1702 Princesse-Abbesse Dorothée-Marie de Salm of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
Elected Coadjutrice with the right of succession as a child, and when Marie-Anne died, she was elected Abbess. 1677 she moved to the chateau of some relatives, Neuviller-sur-Moselle, 3 days of travelling from Remiremont, where she took up the fight for her position against the Administratrice, Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre, The territory was hit by an earthquake in 1688. 1691 she travelled to Paris to plead her case before the king and the ladies of the chapter send Madame de Bourdonné as their envoy. 1693 the king confirmed the seigniorial rights over the town of Remiremont and continued to share the rights of high, middle and low court with the town. Originally named Dorothea Maria zu Salm, she was daughter of Prince Leopold Philipp Karl zu Salm and Countess Maria Anna von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, Heiress of Anholt, who died in Remiremont in 1661, and lived (1651-1702)

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Hélène d’Anglure of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
As Dame Doyenne she was Second-in-Command. She protested against the election of Dorothée de Salm as Abbess, since she was below the required age of 25 at the age of her election, but the Pope dispended for the rule, and she became Acting Princess-Abbess of the Chapter, but remained in dispute with Dorothée after she came of age until her own death. (d. 1666).

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre

of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
1666-77 Administratrice
1666-84-1704-? Doyenne

Held the office of Dame Sonière and acted as administrator together with the Dame Doyenne, Hélène d’Anglure, for the under-age Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm. After she was elected as Madame d’Anglure’s successor she continued the power struggle with the Abbess, who named her sister, Christine, as  “Second-in-Command” in 1700 and it was her who acted as Regent for the minor Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle Lorraine from 1700 and 11 years onwards, not Bernarde. (d. after 1704)

  1660-81 Reigning Abbess Maria Salome von Bernhausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Oberbursiererin in 1639. In 1680 the main building of the chapter burnt down. She was related to a large number of the canonisses and was daughter of Hans Wilhelm von Bernhausen zu Eppishausen und Moos and Margarethe Blarer von Wartensee. She lived (1593-1681).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Christence Frandsdatter Lykke of the County of København with the Shires of Smørrum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke, Denmark
Christence Lykke was in charge after the death of her husband, Franz Brockenhuus. The English version of København is Copenhagen, the Capital of Denmark. Her second husband was Frederik von Arenstorf. She lived (1636-67).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Hald, Denmark
Dorthe Urne held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Ove Brostrupsøn Gjedde, who was in office from 1658. She was daughter of Knud Urne and Margrethe Eilersdatter Grubbe, mother of 4 children, and lived (1600-67).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Cathrine Caisdatter Sehested of the County of Dragsholm, Denmark
Cathrine Sehested acted after the death of her husband, Sivert Knudsen Urne til Raarup. The same year she married Hans von Ahlefelt. She was a close friend of the Danish Queen, and lived (1625-70).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Frederiksdatter Reedtz of the County of Århusgård, Denmark
After her husband, Malte Sehested til Ryhave og Boller, had died. She (d. 1697).

  1661-67 Ret Abudok nya Bwoc of Shilluk (Sudan)
The Shilluks have a divine king who symbolizes the whole realm, and they created life-sized representations of their first king, Nyikang. They also made clay pipe bowls, hyena figurines, and masks. The Shilluk are agriculturalists and herdsmen. They raise cattle, sheep, and goats. The men hunt, herd the animals, and milk the livestock. Both sexes take part in the agricultural work. Historically they were unified under one King or Reth chosen from the sons of previous kings. Abudok was the only female ruler of the people.

  1661-1701 Sovereign Duchess Madeleine Charlotte de Clermont-Tonnerre of Piney-Luxembourg, Princesse de Tigny, Countess de Piney and Baroness de Dangu (France)
Her mother, Marguerite Charlotte de Luxembourg, had been Duchess since 1616 and in 1661 she resigned in favour of her son by the first marriage, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg. Later the same year, he resigned in Madeleine’s favour in order to become a deacon (known as L’Abbe de Luxembourg). She was born in her mother’s second marriage with Charles Henri de Clermont-Tonnerre, and when she married Francois-Henri de Montmorency, who became known as the Duc de Piney-Luxembourg. Luxembourg. Madeleine-Charlotte-Bonne-Thérèse de Clermont “called de Luxembourg” lived (1635-1701).

  1661 Claimant to the Duchy of Piney Marie Charlotte de Luxembourg  (France)
Claimed the duchy, upon the resignation of her relative, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg, and simultaneously resigned it to her Madeleine and her son-in-law, François-Henri de Montmorency, comte de Luxe (1628-95), whose family used the title of duke of Montmorency-Luxembourg, after a prolonged legal battle, but this peerage was never considered to have been created. 

  1661-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie Catherine de La Rochefoucauld-Randan of Randan (France)
Heiress of the County of Randan and was created Duchess, with a remainder to her daughter, Marie Claire de Bauffremont-Sennecey and her male children with Jean-Baptiste Gaston de Foix de Candale, Comte de Fleix. They both resigned in 1663 in favour of Marie Claire’s son, who was known as duc de Foix. Marie Catherine (d. 1677).

  1661-62 Overseer of the Crown Lands Teofila Rej of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  Around 1661 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta von Schwarzenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document, she is named as “Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach.”

  1661-70 Politically Influential Princess Henriette-Anne Stuart of England in France
The wife of Duke Philippe d’Orléans, who was gay, she became involved in a love affair with her brother-in-law King Louis XIV. She played an important political role, and acted as an envoy to the signing of the Treaty of Douvres in 1670 between England and France. She was daughter of King Charles I Stuart of England and Henriette-Marie of France, mother of five children, and lived (1644-70).

  1662-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Laura Martinozzi of Modena e Reggio (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Alfonso IV d’Este, she acted as regent for their son two-year-old son Francesco II. Her daughter Maria Beatrice d’Este became Queen of England. Laura was the nice of Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France, and lived (1639-87).

  1662-67 Regent Dowager Fatima Sultan Saiyia Burhan of Kasimov/ Borjegin-Sibi (Russia)
1677-81 Sultan Regnant
Also known as Sultana Sayyidovna, she was first regent or Saiyia Burhan, before becoming ruler of the Ilkhan Kingdom of Qasim in Central Asia in her own right and had the Khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate rule. She was a descendant of the Tatars Golden Horde and said to be the last Mongol sovereign. The state was annexed by the Russian 1681 and she died the same year.  

  1662 De-facto Ruler Imperial Princess Raushanara Begum of the Indian Mongul Empire
Seized the power during the illness of her brother, Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707). Like her influential sister, Jahanara Begum Sahib, she was unmarried, and lived (1617-71).

  1662-65 and 1677-80Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)A relative (probably her sister), Magdalena, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1669-72 and 1680-83.

  1663-66 Queen Regnant Barbara of N’dongo and Matamba (Congo and Angola)When her sister, Queen Nijinga, became Queen in 1623, she was appointed as Member of the Council of Government. Before her christening, she had been named Mukambu, Makumba). Her sister had tried to marry her off to her close ally João Guterres, but the Portuguese protested since he was already married. Her reign was marked by civil war and she was killed by forces loyal to the general Njinga Mona. João succeeded 1669-70 but was also killed. She lived (1584-1666).

  1663–67 Queen Regnant Tuan Puteri Saadong binti Raja Loyor of Jembal, Puteri Vijaya Mala, Raja of Jembal (Malaysia)Also known as Puteri Saadong or Mariam, she succeeded her adopted mother, Chek Siti Wan Kembang (1610-63) and her father, Raja Loyor bin Raja Sakti, as Raja of Jembal in 1663. Married to her cousin, Raja Abdullah bin al-Marhum Sultan Samiruddin, Raja of Kelantan-Selatan (Jembal). She was captured by the Siamese and forced to become a concubine of King Narai of Thailand in order to spare her husband’s life. He vowed to wait for her return and never to remarry. However, after several years he gave up and remarried, and when she returned, she is supposed to have killed her with her hair pin, before leaving the Kingdom. According to some legends her mother was Raja Hijau or the Green Queen of Pattani.

  1663-77 Regent Dowager Landgravine Hedwig Sophie von Brandenburg of Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1677-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of Schmalkalden etc.
After the death of her husband, Landgrave Wilhelm VI von Hessen-Kassel (1629-63), she first became regent for their firstborn son, Wilhelm VII (1663-70) and after his death shortly before he was about to come age, she automatically continued as regent for the second son, Karl (1670-1730). She saw herself as the sole Head of Government Affairs (alleinige Leiterin der Regierungsgeschäfte) even though she ruled together with a Regency College, whose meetings she chaired almost daily. During her time in office she also called and chaired 6 Meetings of the Estates  (Landrat). She managed to remain more or less neutral during the disputes between Protestants and Catholics in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War. She did not abdicate the regency until her son was 23, even though decrees, laws and coins were issued in his name from the time he turned 18, but he seems to have been happy with the arrangement and even after she took over the government in her dowry, she remained influential in the Landgravate. Her third surviving son, Philipp, became Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal. Mother of another son who died as an infant and three daughters, and lived (1623-83)

  1663-66 Dowager Reigning Duchess Anna Sophie von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Parchwitz in Slesia (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Widow of Ludwig IV. in Liegnitz and daughter of Duke Johann Albert II. zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow. (d. 1666).

  1663-77 Overseer of the Crown Lands Konstancja Kos of Brodnica (Poland)
Through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta or starościna (for women), who would receive the office from the king and would keep it for life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta.

  1663-70 Princess-Abbess Maria Appolonia Schweizer of Heggbach (Germany)
She continued the building activities and at the same time paid back substantial parts of the chapter’s depths. Born in Ulm, she lived (1604-70).

  1663-96 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshalate of Swabia from 1685.

  1663-85 Princess-Abbess Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the Chapter in 1655, and 11 years later she became Catholic.

  1663-72 Reigning Abbess Anne Séverine de Warlzel of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The privilege was confirmed in 16666 that the Abbey was under direct authority of the Pope and not the local Bishop. She was daughter of Lord of Warluzel and Rombrin.

  1664-69 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella Clara von Habsburg of Mantova and Monferrato (Italy)
Widow of Carlo II Gonzaga and regent for their only child, Carlo III. Also known as Isabella Clara d’Asburgo, she was daughter of Leopold of Tirol, she lived (1629-85).

  1664-79 Regent Dowager Princess Albertina Agnes van Oranje-Nassau of Nassau in Diez and Friesland, Groningen and Drente (Germany and the Netherlands)
1679-96 Reigning Dowager Lady of Oranienburg (Germany)
Her husband, Prince Willem Frederik von Nassau-Dietz, Stadholder of Drente and Groningen, died from the wounds he got when he shot himself by cleaning his gun. She then took over the government in Friesland, Groningen and Drente for son Hendrik Casimir II of Nassau-Diez. In 1665 England and the Bishop of Münster declared war on The Netherlands. As the main provinces of The Netherlands, Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht had been without a Stadholder since 1650; their armies had been neglected, as the fleet was favoured. Count Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen was put in charge of the army but still the Bishop’s army could not be stopped. Even the strongly defended city of Groningen was threatened and to give moral support, Albertine Agnes hurried to the besieged city. Pressure by King Louis XIV of France, then an ally, forced the Bishop of Münster to withdraw. Six years later, Louis XIV changed his mind and attacked the south of The Netherlands himself, while the Bishop of Münster together with the Bishop of Köln attacked the North. Albertine Agnes arranged the defence and suggested opening the dykes to flood the lands. Her moral support kept Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen going; and at last her nephew, Prince Willem III of Orange became Stadholder. She was born as Countess van Nassau-Katzenelnbogen and lived (1634-96).

  1664-86 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili Muda of Solor (Indonesia)
Succeeded mother, Nyai Cili, and was followed by son of her sister, Sengaji Cili.

  1664-77 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
One of her relatives, Johann Jakob zu Rhein von Morschwiller (1643-90), was Domherr and Scholasticus of the Prince Bishop of Basel, where her family had been influential since the 12th century. The next of her family to reign the territory took office in 1701. She was daughter of Lorenz zu Rhein, of a Ministerial family (Civil Servant Nobility), and Maria Agnes von Rosenbach.

  1665-75 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Ana de Austria y Austria of Spain and The Indies
Widow of Felipe IV and regent for son Carlos V (b. 1661). Her reign was hampered by her dependence upon her Jesuit advisors and her preference for her Austrian advisors. She was preoccupied with combating Louis XIV of France’s attacks on the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands. Court nobles, lead by Don Juan José de Austria gained the upper hand, and eventually forced her to resign. After his death in 1679 she again gained political influence. She lived (1635-96). 

  1665-90 Regent Dowager Princess Christine Charlotte von Württemberg-Stuttgart of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1690-99 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office of Pewsum and Breum in Ostfriesland
She was pregnant when her husband, Georg Christian, suddenly died after 3 years of marriage, and she reigned in the name of Christian Eberhard, who was born a few months later. after his father. She tried to change the Principality into an absolute state and she was engaged in disputes with the Estates for much of her time in office and almost resulted in civil war a couple of times. But the Emperor gave his support to the existing constitution and declared her son to be of age before time. In 1690 the Estates pressured her to hand over the government to her son, and she withdrew to her dowries. She was daughter of Duke Eberhard III and Anna Dorothea von Salm-Kyrburg, and lived (1645-1699).

  1665-76 Sovereign Archduchess Clara Filicitas von Habsburg of Tirol and Vorlaberg (Austria)
Daughter of Karl von Habsburg and Anna de’ Medici. Married to Emperor Leopold I of Austria, and mother of two daughters: Anna Maria Sophia (Born and dead 1674) and Maria Josefa Klementina (1675-76). The territory was incorporated into the Austrian-Hungarian Realm after her death. Claudia-Felicitas lived (1653-76).

  1665-ca. 67 Captain-Donatary Joana de Menezes of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
She was daughter of Branca da Gama Freire, Capitana Donataria from 1646, and married to Jorge Mascarenhas. She was mother of 2 children. Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, Conde de Castelho Melhor was Captain-Donatary from 23rd of May 1667 until 1720.

  1665-72 Reigning Princess Gryzelda Wiśniowiecka of Zamość (Poland)
Gryzelda Konstancja z Zamoyskich Wiśniowieckabecame the owner of the great hereditary property of ordynacja zamoyska (Zamość) after her brother’s death. In 1669 she managed to secure the Polish throne for her only son, Michał Korybut. She was the daughter of Tomasz Zamoyski, Voivode of Kiev and Katarzyna. 1638-1651 she was married to Duke Jeremi Wiśniowiecki of Wiśniowiec and Łubnie, and lived (1623-72).

  1665-1705 Sovereign Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen of Criechingen (Germany)
Succeeded her brother, Ernst Kasimir (1640- 65) and married to Count Edzard Ferdinand von Ostfriesland-Rietberg. She was succeeded by two sons, Edzard Eberhard Wilhelm, who died two years later, and Friedrich Ulrich, who were succeeded by his infant daughter, Christiane Luise, in 1710. The daughter of Albrecht Ludwig von Criechingen (1610-51) and Altgräfin Agathe zu Salm-Kyburg, she lived (ca. 1645-1705)

  After 1665-88 Lady Anna-Elisabetha von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Philippseck bei Butzbach in Hessen-Homburg (Germany)
After Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg’s first wife Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt died giving birth to their 12th child, they got married, but their marriage soon failed. Her husband tried unsuccessfully to divorce her, but she was “exiled” to the Castle of Philippseck bei Butzbach, where she became a loved “mother of the realm” (Landesmutter) who cared for the young and the poor and among others founded several schools. She lived (1624-88).

  1665-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg of Castle and Administrative Unit of Herzberg am Harz in Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle (Germany)
1668-88 Political Advisor in Brandenburg
1671-89 Lady of the Lordship of Schwedt and the Castle of Caputh in Brandenburg
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Unit of Potsdam
Her first husband, Duke Christian Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, died after 12 years of not very happy and child-less marriage and she lived at her dowry until her marriage to Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 3 years later. She took over the care of his 3 minor sons and had 7 children from 1669 to 1677, and all but one reached adulthood. She also became his close political advisor. She was given the Amt Potsdam and the Castle of Potsdam became her favourite residence and later her dowry. From 1671 she also owned Caputh and she later bought the Lordship of Schwedt, which became the basis for the Margravate of her son Philipp Wilhelm, who founded the line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. From 1673 she built the Neustadt/Dorotheenstadt in Berlin which were given city rights in 1674. She was daughter of Duke Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg, mother mother of 4 sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1636-89).

  1665-69and 1672-77 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Don Pedro batard de Navarra and his mistress Beatriz Morales and granddaughter of Pedro II de Navarra, 3. Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión. Her aunt, Jeronima de Navarra, succeeded her father in 1556 as 2nd Marquesa de Cortes, 7th Vizcondesa de Muruzábal de Andión. She was married twice but had no children. Another aunt was Antonia Jacinta, who had been Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1653-56.

  1665-78 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Hedwig zu Slesvig-Holsten-Nordburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her full title was Heiress to Norway, Duchess of Slesvig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarsken, Countess of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst, and she had been Dechaness since 1652 and lived a very free life for a Fürstäbtissin. Converted to Catholisism and married Count Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625-96), and Pope Innocentius XI sent a personal congratulation on occasion of their wedding. After some years she went on a a journey to Vienna, where she paid her respect to Emperor Leopold. In Rome she moves in the circles of her far away cousin the ex-queen Christina of Sweden. In 1681 she gives birth to a son, Alexander Leopold Anthon, whose  sponsors are queen Christina of Sweden, the German Emperor Leopold and her brother-in-law, Duke Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig. Returned to Schleswig in 1682. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Norborg and his second wife Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst, and lived (1636-92).

  1666 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Piotrowska of Szadek (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1666-89 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Marie-Magdalene zu Pfalz-Birkenfeld of Auleben in Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Germany)
Widow of Count Anton Günther I von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1620-42-66). The Pfalzgräfin was mother of 11 children and lived (1622-89).

  166683 Politically Influential Queen Maria Francisca de Savoie-Namour of Portugal
Known as Maria Francisca de Sabóia, she was married to Afonso VI of Portugal and Afonso VI of Portugal in 1666. He was an ill young man paralyzed of the left side of his body and mentally unstable. In Lisbon she fomented a palace coup that ended the government of Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor and the following year she conducted a revolt together with her brother-in-law Pedro, forcing the king to abdicate his powers and consent to a practical exile in Terceira in the Azores. She also managed to get an annulment of the marriage, by invoking the supposed impotence of the king, and only months afterwards she married Prince Pedro, now the Prince Regent. Afonso died in 1683, and her husband became king and she was Queen until her death in December of the same year. Marie Françoise de Nemours was daughter of Charles Amédée of Savoy, 6th Duke of Nemours and Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendome and mother of Isabel Luísa Josefa of Braganza, Princess of Beira. She lived (1646-83).

  1666 Possible Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan, the II Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
The gender of the second holder of the Countly tilte is not known.

  1667, 1672 and 1678 Regent Queen Marie-Thérèse d’Austrice of France
Did not have any part in political affairs except when she acted as regent during the campaign of her husband Louis XIV in the Netherlands. She was daughter of King Felipe IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France, Heiress to the Throne, and it was through her, that her husband (the Sun King) claimed the Spanish inheritance for their sons after the death of her half-brother Carlos II in 1700. Of her six children only one survived her, the dauphin Louis, who died in 1711. She lived (1638-83).

  1667-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1778-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Coswig
Both she and her daughter, Sophia Augusta, survived the smallpox but her husband, Johann, died. She was named regent for their son, Carl Wilhelm, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, but the following year she suffered a number of strokes and fevers and had to endure months of suffering before she died. The mother of 14 children of whom 5 survived into adulthood, she lived (1630-80).

  1667-75 Sovereign Duchess Louise-Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc of Vallière (France)
Given the duchy in 1667, but eight years later she resigned in favour of her daughter, Marie-Anne de Bourbon, whose father was King Louis XIV, upon entering the Carmelite order as Louise de la Miséricode. She lived (1644-1710). 

  1667-85 Joint Ruler Princess Francesca Maria Cristina di Simiana of Masserano and Crevacuore (Italy)
Reigned together with her second husband, Sovereign Prince Francesco Ludovico Ferrero Fieschi of Masserano, Sovereign Marchese of Crevacuore, Principe del Sacro Romano Impero sulla Contea di Lavagna, Conte Palatino del Sacro Romano Impero, etc, etc. (1638-1685). The state involved several small territories in northwestern Italy near the Pennine Alps. She was first married to Francesco Valperga Conte di Masino. Her second son, Carlo Besso (1662-1720) succeeded his father. Her niece, Maria Irene Delfina di Simiana succeeded her brother as Princess di Montafia etc. in 1706. Francesca lived (1640-1716).

  1667-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von der Pfalz of Herford (Germany)
The Pfalzgräfin was daughter of Elector Friederich V von der Pfalz and King of Bohemia (The Winter-king) and Elizabeth Stuart. She was in close contact with many of the philosophers and scientists of the day. In 1661 was she elected Coadjutorin of the Abbess of the “reichsunmittelbaren” chapter (Imperial Immediate Territory) for Noble ladies and in 1667 she was elected as Princess-Abbess. She gave freedom of faith and shelter to a number of protestant churches, which were not allowed elsewhere – among others the Quaker. Her sister, Sophia von Hanover, was named Heiress to the British throne in 1701. Elizabeth lived (1618-80).

  1667-96 In charge of parts of the County Dowager Countess Sophia Katharina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg of Oldenburg (Germany)
After her husband, Anton Günther von Oldenburg (1583-1667) died, his inheritance was split up because they had no children and his natural son, Reichsgraf Anton I zu Aldenburg did not have any rights of inheritance. The King of Denmark inherited the county; she remained in charge of parts of it as her dowry and resided at the Castle of Neuenburg. She was daughter of Duke Alexander of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg and Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and lived (1617-96).

  1668 Regent Vicereine Ana de Borja y Doria of the Vice-Kingdom of Peru (June-November)
Her Spanish title was “Virreina Gobernadora” and she was appointed regent by her husband and cousin, Pedro Fernandez de Castro Andrade y Portugal, Count of Lemos, Marquis of Sarria and Duke of Taurisano, who was Viceroy of Peru 1666-72, when he went on a military campaign and during his absence she issued a number decrees and her authority was recognized by the Audiencia of Lima. She met with them and other officials on 5 July 1668. She was the daughter of Francisco Diego Pascual de Borja de Aragón y Centelles, 8th duque de Gandía, and of Artemisa María Ana Teresa Gertrudis, princesa de Doria de Melfi, and mother of 5 children. She was a niece of Francisco de Borja y Aragón, poet and viceroy of Peru (1615-1621) and related to other famous members of the House of Borgia, including Pope Calixtus III, Pope Alexander VI, and Saint Francis Borgia.  (1640-1706).

  1668-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Sophie Juliana zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach of Obersulzbürg in Castell-Remlingen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Wolfgang Georg I von Castell-Remlingen (1610-68). Mother of 2 daughters and a son, and lived (1620-98).


1668-71 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Eisenach
1681-87 Politically Influential of Sachen-Coburg

Her 5th and only surviving son, Wilhelm August,, was born 3 months after the death of her first husband, Adolf Wilhelm, and her brother-in-law,  Johann Georg I,  became regent and took over the whole Duchy when her son died at the age of 3. She was influential during the reign of her second husband, Duke Albrecht III (1648-81-99). Their only son died within the first year of his life in 1678. Her sister, Clara Augusta, Reigned Weisshof as Dowager Duchess of Württemberg from 1682. Marie Elisabeth lived (1638-87).

  1668-1705 Princess-Abbess Madeleine-Thérèse de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was the second member of the de Noyelle-family to rule the territory. The first, Marguerite V was in office 1561-69. 

  1669-95 Sovereign Duchess Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kedainiai (Lithuania)
Also known as Charlotte von Radziwill-Birze, she was a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as the last agnatic-line member of the most prominent Calvinists of Lithuania, and a descendant of the Gediminids and Jagiellons. She spent most of her life in Berlin and Königsberg, but laid much attention to her lands in the grand duchy. Like her father, she funded the issue of books in the Lithuanian language, and supported education and Calvinist parishes. She established scholarships for Lithuanian students of theology in the universities of Königsberg, Frankfurt an der Oder, and Berlin. She was sued by King John III Sobieski for the alleged breach of the prenuptial agreement with his son, Jakub Ludwik Sobieski, with the intention to seize her estates. The case was lost, since it was proven that the agreement was falsified. She first married Margrave Louis of Brandenburg and after his death, Elector Palatine Charles III Philip von der Pfalz, with whom she had 3 daughters; Leopoldyna Eleonora, Maria Anna and Elizabeth Augusta Sophie, but only the latter’s issue survived. She was daughter of Bogusław Radziwiłł/Boguslavas Radvila, Duke of Dubingiai, Governor of Prussia (1620-69) and Princess Anna Maria Radziwiłł/Ona Marija Radvilaitė, Heiress of Birzhai and Kedainiai (1640-67), and lived (1667-95).

  Before 1669-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
In 1669 she created a foundation in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line. Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen. She lived lived (1620-74).

  Until 1669 Princess-Abbess Freiherrin Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The last of 4 members of the family who reigned the territory from 1618. And like the case with her predecessor, her first name is not known.

  1669-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia I von Sulz of Buchau, Lady of Strassberg (Germany)
After her election the inhabitants of Strassberg paid homage to her(Erbhüldigung) and later her other subjects paid her the customary homage. After her inauguration, she stressed her right to appoint the Priest of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz and she tried to attempted to reintroduce serfdom in Strassberg. She was listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1672, 1675, 1690 and 1692. She left the College of the Counts of the Realm (Reichgrafen) because of there ever stronger attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of the chapter. The chapter never fully recovered from the devastations during the Thirty Years War and had sell a number of lordships and take up heavy loans to survive. She was daughter of Ludwig Ernst, Count von Sulz and Landgrave im Klettgau and Countess Maria Elisabeth von Hohenzollern, and lived (1634-92).

  1669-72 and 1680-83Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (probably her sister), Inés, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1662-65 and 1677-80.

Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia 1600-1650




Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  Until 1600 Queen Nganja of Kalembe (Angola)
Kalembe was part of a large cluster of Ovimbundu States, founded a various times from around 1600 – today the principality is situated on the border to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Ikuro of Nsuta (Ghana)
Followed by Nana Yita as head of the Akan speaking people, which is closely related to the Asante (Ashanti) royal family. In 1701 it was one of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Ankeyeo Nyame of Kokofu (Ghana)
Succeeded by Nana Aberewa Ampen as head of the Akan speaking people, which was another of the founding states of the Asante Confederation.

  Around 1600 Queen Nana Adifa of Dwaben (Ghana)
Ruler of an Akan-speaking people, closely related to the Asante (Ahanti) royal family, and alto took part in the founding, of the Asante Confederation 100 years later.

  Around 1600 Aru We Cella of Alitta (Indonesia)
Inherited the principality after her father, Adatuang/Raja La Cellemata of Sawito, who founded the Buginese principality in Southwest-Sulawesi. She was succeeded by her son La Masora. She was married to the Adatuang of Sidenreng (La Pancaitana). La Masora was in his turn succeeded by his daughter We Tenrilekke, who married to the Aru of Rappang, La Tone(e).

  Around 1600 Datuk Tosappae (Indonesia)
Reigned until the beginning of the 1600s. Married a distant relative, and was succeeded by another distant relative Prince La Pancaitana.

  Around 1600 Datuk We Passulle of Supa (Indonesia)
Ruled in the beginning of the 1600s. She succeeded her father, La Pancaitana, married La Patiroi and was succeeded by her son La Tenrisessi.

  Around 1600 Military Leader Shen Yunying in China
Took over her father’s command when he was killed in battle. Later by special decree she was made a second captain so that she could legitimately succeed her father and command troops. Approximately 90 years later Chin Liang-Yu fought at her husband’s side and after his death continued to lead her army to many victories in a civil war. 

  1600-24 Regent The Dowager Begum of Maler (India)
After the death of her husband, Khan Sahib Fath Muhammad Khan, Rais of Maler (1566-1600) she was regent for their son, Nawab Muhammad Bayazid Khan Bahadur (1593-1600-59), who later changed the state’s name to Malerkolta. She was born in Rupar in Afghanistan.

  1600-23 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Erdmute von Brandenburg of the Administrative Office of Stolp and the Office and Castle of Schmolsin in Pommern-Wolgast (At the time Germany, now Poland)
Her late husband, Johann Friedrich had become Bishop of Cammin at the age of 14 in 1557 and held the office until 1674, was Duke of Pommern-Wolgast under the regency of his mother from 1560, and in 1569, he and his brother’s devided the Duchy of Pommern among them, and he received Stettin. He died 1600). They did not have any children, she lived (1561-1623).

  1600-15 Princess-Abbess Ursula Giel von Gielsberg of Säckingen (Germany)
A nun at Tämkon until she was allowed to move to Säckingen, where she was elected Princess by the Chapter consisting of 3 canonisses and 3 canons in the presence of representatives of the Bishop and the Government of Vorderöasterreich. Her brother, Gabril was Prince-Abbot of Murback 1573 and another relative, Roman Giel von Gielsberg, was Prince-Abbot of Kempten (1639-73). She was daughter of CHristoph Giel von Gielsberg zu Glattburg, Diocesian Steward of Klingenau (Bischöflichen Vogts) and Barbara Muntprat von Spiegelberg and (d. 1615).

  1600-03 Reigning Abbess Barbe II de Bailleul of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord d’Eecke and Steenvoorde.

  1600-36 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Werdenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Kustorin 1597, reformed the chapter 1607 and in 1632 the canonisses escaped to Konstanz, Überlingen and Pfullendorf. She lived (1557-1638).

  1600-01 Acting County Sheriff Mette Gregersdatter Ulfstand of the County Sølvitsborg with the Shires of Medelsta, Vester or Bregne and Lister in Blekinge and the Counties of Högby and Vefre in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
1601-02 Acting County Sheriff of the County of Lykå in Blekinge and Dragsmark Kloster in Norway
Following the death of her husband, Knud Grubbe til Alslev (1542-1600), Mette Ulfstand took over as County Sheriff – Lensmand, and acted as the King of Denmark’s representative in the fiefs also in the landscapes of Blekinge and Skåne. 1620 she handed over Lykå to her son-in-law, Siverd Grubbe. She lived (1554-1602).

  1600-12 County Sheriff Mette Johansdatter Urne of Vemb Skibrede Len, Norway
Mette Urne til Højsgaard administered the fief in her own name after the death of her husband, Alexander Durham, until she passed away herself, as was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. He was a Scottish nobleman who moved to during the Seven Year War and held various fiefs in Denmark and Norway. She was daughter of Johan Urne and Mette Rønnow and had no children. (d. 1612).

  16…. Queen Regnant Keakamahana of Hawai’i
19th Alii Aimoku of Hawai’i. Succeeded on the death of her father, Keakealanikane. She married her Iwakakualii, son of Makakaualii. She had issue, a daughter and was succeeded by her only daughter, Keakealani who reigned until the year 1700.

  16… Sultan Adji di Kurin-dana-Malaka of Berau (Borneo) (Indonesia)
Succeeded father Adji di Kotoh, as ruler of the large sparely inhabited area, located in the northwestern and quite isolated part of the East Kalimantan province in Central Java. 

  16…. Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of ‘Uluakimata I Tele’a, Tu’i Tonga and Mata’ukipa, Ma’itaki. She married Tapu’osi, from Fiji. Her son, Fonomanu, married Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga. Her daughter was the Tamaha Princess Fonokimoana. In the Tongan system the Tui’i Tonga by his title and religious significance was considered the highest authority in the land, but he was by no means the person of highest rank. That honour belonged to his eldest sister, the Tu’i Tonga Fefine (Female King) and her eldest daughter, the Tamaha (or sacred child). But although they held the highest rank they had no political authority, but were considered through their privileges of rank to be quite powerful.

  16…. Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga
The daughter of the Tui’i Tonga Fefine, Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, she held the title of Tamaha, and was considered the highest spiritual entity in the kingdom, and both her mother and grandfather paid homage to her.

  16… Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
She was daughter of Fatafehi, Tu’i Tonga and Kaloafutonga, Ma’itaki and married Fonomanu, son of Tapu’osi, from Fiji, and Sinaitakala-‘i-Langileka, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, daughter of Uluakimata Tele’a, Tu’i Tonga and was mother of five children. Her daughter, Princess Tu’imala, became the Tamaha. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine she held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers. She was considered to be abowe marriage, but could take lovers as she wanted.

  16….  Princess Tu’imala, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of  Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine and married to Mataeletu’apiko, 3rd Tu’i Kanokupolu.

  16… Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Lotunofo, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of ‘Uluakimatata II, Tu’i Tonga and Toa, Ma’itaki. Married to Tungimana’ia, 2nd Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Fakatakatu’u, 1st Tu’i Ha’ateiho. Mother of two daughters of whom the oldest became the Tamaha.

  16… Princess Simuoko, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Lotunofo, Tu’i Tonga Fefine.

  16… Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of Fakana’ana’a, Tu’i Tonga and Tongotea, Moheofo. Her son, Latunipulu’i-teafua, 2nd Tu’i Lakepa, was first married to Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine.

  16…  Princess Fonokimoana, Tamaha, Tonga
Daughter of Princess Sinaitakala-‘i-Fanakavalilangi, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. Her brother Fonomanu married Princess ‘Ekutingapipiki, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. It is not known when she held office, but it must have been towards the end of the century.

  1601-10 Princess-Abbess Maria von Sachsen-Weimar of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The 31st Fürstäbtissin was daughter of Duke Johann Wilhelm and Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein Dorothea Susanna, she lived (1571-1610).

  1601-04 Princess-Abbess Anne Marguerite de Namur of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was daughter of Philippe de Namur, Seigneur de Trivieres and Jacqueline van Liedekerke. The paternal lordship was inherited by her sister, Marie (d. 1603), who was married to Jacques de la Hamayde.

  1601-04 Reigning Abbess-General María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
The abbess of the Abbey held quasi-episcopal powers.

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Turesdatter Trolle of the County of Dalby in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Lisbeth Trolle was in charge after her husband, Gabriel Sparre til Svanholm, had died. Owner of the Estate of Knabstrup. (d. 1611).

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Else Andersdatter Lindenov of the County of Dalum, Denmark
Else Lindenov was widow of Absalon Gøye til Kærstrup. His name was also written as Absolon Gøe or Absalonn Gøie.

  1601-02 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Axelsdatter Viffert of the County of Hanherred, Denmark
Margrethe Viffert til Gammel Wiffertsholm was in charge of the tenantcy after the death of her second husband, Jørgen Urne. She had first been married to Evald Sehested. After her death, her son Axel Urne inherited the estate, but he sold it to his sister, Anne Jørgensdatter Urne epousé Seefeld in 1643. Margrethe lived (1562-1622).

  1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Agathe Jakobsdatter Seefeld of the County of Bygholm, Denmark
Agathe Seefeld or Sefeld took over the administration of the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Niels Skram til Urup together with stepdaughter, Elsebe Skram til Urup. She secondly married to Verner Parsberg til Eskær og Lynderup and had two children by him. She was daughter of Jakob Enevoldsen Seefeld and Sophie Pederdatter Bille, and lived (1579-?).

  1601-02 Joint Acting County Sheriff Elsebe Nielsdatter Skram of the County of Bygholm, Denmark
Elsebe Skram acted together with her stepmother, Agate Seefeld. Inherited a number of estates from her father, Niels Skram, who had first been married to Kirsten Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz. She was married to Eske Bille til Svanholm.

  1602-11 Arumpone We Tenri Tuppu of Bone (Indonesia)
Succeeded cousin of grandfather La Patawang (1595-1602) and was succeeded by her son, La Tenriruwe.

  1602-27 Sovereign Countess Magdalena von Neuenahr-Alpen of Neuenahr und Limburg, Hereditary Marshall of the Diocese of Köln, Lady of Alpen, Helpenstein and Linnep 
1610-12 Regent of Bentheim-Steinfurt  (The Netherlands and Germany)
Inherited Helpenstein, Linnep, Erbvogtei Köln, Alpen and Hackenbroich from her brother, Anton, in 1589, and the following year she gave her half-sister, Amalia, the right of use to the lordships. On the basis of the inheritance-settlement (erbvertrag) from 1575 she inherited Limburg after the death of Amalia in 1602. The Archbischopcy Köln had occupied Limburg since 1584, but gave it back to her in 1610. She installed her son, Konrad Gumprecht, as Commissioner and resigned Limburg and Linnep in his favour in 1616. The territory of her husband was also occupied by troops from Köln, and it was not until four years after the death of her husband, Arnold III, that she was able to take over the regency for her son, Konrad Gumprecht von Bentheim-Steinfurt (1585-1618), and after his death she installed his widow, Johanette Elisabeth, as regent in Limburg and transferred Linnep to her as dowry. Magdalena was daughter of Gumbrecht II von Neuenahr-Alpen of Limburg and Amöna von Dhaun, and remained influential to her death. She lived (1551-1627).

  1602-05 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Maria von Anhalt-Dessau of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg)
1602-05 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Ohlau (Oława) (At the time Germany, now Poland)
Also known as Anna Maria Anhalcka. After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Joachim Friederich von Liegnitz und Brieg, she governed in the name of their son and at the same time she held Ohlau as her dowry. She was daughter of Duke Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau and Agnes von Barby, mother of 6 children, and lived (1561-1605).

  1602-08 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Amalia von Leiningen-Westerburg of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Born as Gräfin zu Falkenstein she inherited the Lordship after the death of her relative, Count Johann III von Hohenfels-Reipoltskirchen. According to her will the sons of her sister Sydonia zu Falkenstein; Casimir and Steino von Löwenhaupt inherited the Lordship. Steino’s daughter, Elisabeth Amalia, married Count Philipp von Manderscheid whose family thereby inherited parts of the lordship. Amalia lived (1546-1608).

  1602-55 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Elisabeth of Hesse-Darmstad of the Lordship of Wehen in Nassau-Weilburg (Germany)
The first years, she resided at the Castle of Wehen together with her mother-in-law, Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, and after her death in 1616, she took over the reign of the lordship. She was widow of a younger son, Count Johann Kasimir von Nassau-Gleiberg (1593-1602), who died the year after their marriage.  Her only daughter, Anna Eleonore, was born 6 months after her husband’s death and later married Duke Ludwig Friedrich of Württemberg-Mömpelgard (1586-1631). Elisabeth lived (1579-1655)

  1602-43 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Anna Marie von Pfalz-Neuburg of Dornburg an der Saale in Sachsen–Altenburg (Germany)
Widow of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm I. von Sachsen–Altenburg (1562–1602) and mother of the next four Dukes of Altenburg: Johann Philipp (1597–1639), Friedrich (1599–1625), Johann Wilhelm (1600–1632) and Friedrich Wilhelm II. (1603–1669). The daughter of Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg (1547–1614) and Anna von Jülich–Cleve–Berg (1552–1632), she lived (1575-1643).

  1602 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Munthe of the County of Sorø, Denmark
Acted after the death of her husband, Headmaster of Sorø Akademi, Hans Mikkelsen.

  1602 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eriksdatter Kaas of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred
Anne Kaas was widow of Preben Bild til Aggersborg and Lindholm.

  1602-11 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)
Resigned in favour of Catherine de Lorraine ad received a large pension. She was daughter of Friedrich I de Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf in Dhaun et Neuviller-sur-Moselle, of the French branch of the family, and Franziska zu Salm. Around 1605 the copper production in the mines at Thillot reached its maximum. She lived (ca. 1570-1611).

  1602-10 Princess-Abbess Regina von Schrattenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Member of a noble family in Niederösterreich.

  Until 1602 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Manderscheid
-Blankenheim-Gerolstein of Eltern and Vreden (Germany)
Her sister, Elisabeth, was Fürstäbtissin of Essen (1575-78) until she abdicated in order to marry Count Wirich von Daun-Falkenstein. They were daughters of Count Arnold and Margaretha von Wied. Fürstäbtissin Margaretha lived (1539-1602).

  1602-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg-Styrum und Bronckhorst of Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst and Borghorst (Germany)
1640 Hereditary Countess of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen
In 1619 she gave the Vredener Hungertuch (Cloth of Hunger) to the city of Vreden, which depicts 11 passion-pictures and an inscription in Latin stating: “Agnes, by the Grace of God, Abbess to Elten, Vreden, Freckenhorst und Borghorst, Countess von Limburg und Bronckhorst, has given this ornament in the honour of the sufferings of Christ…” In 1635 her sister’s son; Jobst-Hermann von Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen, Count of Bückeburg, died unmarried. He was first succeeded by his cousin, Otto, but he died after four years, and she managed to secure the inheritance of Gemen for herself against the claims of the Holstein-Schaumburg-family, and then ceded the lordship to her nephew, Count Hermann-Otto I von Limburg-Styrum. She was daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg, and lived (1563-1645).

  1603-11 Sovereign Lady Isabella Appiano d’Aragona of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1611-24 Sovereign Princess of Piombino, Marchioness of Populonia, Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano and the Islands of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli and Palmaionla 
Succeeded her brother, Cosimo Jacopo VII, Lord and Prince of Piombino, Margrave of Populonia, who died 1603, but was deposed by the Spanish, and in 1634 her grandson, Niccolò Luduvici, son of her daughter, Hereditary Princess Polissena (d. 1642), became Prince. She was daughter of Alessandro, Lord of Piombino and Isabel de Mendoza dei Conti di Binasco (1577-1661), who had been regent 1590 and was first married to Giorgio de Mendoza, Count di Binasco, and secondly to Paolo Giordano II Orsini, Duke of Bracciano. She lived (1577-1661).

  1603-05 Handan Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
Her full title was Daulatlu Ismatlu Hansam Validi Sultan ‘Ahiyat us-Shan Hazratlari, during the reign of her son Ahmed Khan I (1613-17), but she never attained the prominence and power of her predecessors Nurbanu and Safie, because she has little influence on her son, but in some aspects the Valide Sultan was still considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. She lived (1576-1605).

  1603-20 Reigning Abbess Jacqueline de Lannoy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Daughter of the Lord of Hautmont.

  1603-16 Acting County Sheriff Vibeke Arildsdatter Griis of the County of Sandby in Skåne
1608-40 County Sheriff of the County of Hörje in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Vibeke Griis was widow of Peder Mund til Sandbygård, and held the fief of Hørjre for life and was in the service of Queen Anna Cathrine of Denmark. Her surname means “Pig”. Skåne was conquered by Sweden in 1658. She (d. ca. 1640).

  1603-04 Acting County Sheriff Anne Mortensdatter Brok of the County of Onsø, Norway
Following her husband, Erik Mortensen (Mormand) til Bramsløkke, Anne Brok was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. (d. after 1625).

  1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Eilersdatter Rønnow of the County of Hagenskov with Bogherred and the County of Eskebjerg, Denmark
1604….  County Sheriff of the County of Strynø, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Erik Hardenberg (1529-1604), Anne Rønnow was in charge of the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled, and was also appointed fief-holder  in her own right. She was known to suffer of periods of depressions and her daughter, Anne Hardenberg, also suffered from mental ilnesses and conducted cases against witches, and Mette Hardenberg, who was County Sheriff (Lensmand) of Bøvling Len from 1616 also had mental problems. 6 of their 9 children died, including the 3 sons. She lived (1541-1609).

  1604-05 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Lykke of the Counties of Lundegård and Jegindø, Denmark
Anne Lykke took over the adminsitration of the fief after the death of her husband, Mourids Hansen Stygge til Holbækgård. She lived (1554-1623).

  Until 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima I of Bullom (Sierra Leone)
Followed her husband as ruler of the area near the Atlantic Ocean.

  From 1604 Paramount Chiefess Fatima II of Bullom (Sierra Leone)
Succeeded her sister-in-law.

  1604-21 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth von Manderscheid-Schleiden of Virneburg in the Eifel (Germany)
Her mother, Magdalene von Nassau-Wiesbanden, had inherited the country from her brother-in-law Dietrich IV von Manderscheid-Scheleiden-Virneburg in 1593. Elisabeth took over the inheritance after her mother’s death, and her husband, Count Christoph Ludwig (1568-1618) assumed the name of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg, and their descendants reigned as Counts co-regnant of the immediate County of Wertheim. In 1613 the emperor confirmed the title for her son, Count Friedrich-Ludwig zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1598-1657), who lost his entire estates 1622 for siding with the Elector Palatine, but was reinstated by the Treaty of Westpahlia 1648. Elisabeth lived (1569-1621).

  1604-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands Princess Anna Vasa of Brodnica
1611-25 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Golub, Poland
The sister of Sigismund III Vasa of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania, she received the administration of Brodnica and Golub when she had to leave the court because she insisted on staying Lutheran. Never the less she was her brother’s political advisor and acted as protector for the exiled Swedish loyalists and Protestants. She also became very respected because of her great learning and was interested in litterature, music, gardening and medicine. She was a specialist in medicinal herbs and kept her own apothecary. She lived (1568-1625).

  1604-21 Princess-Abbess Felicitas II von Eberstein of Herford (Germany)
The Countess had apparently been Abbess of Gerresheim until 1585, and in 1603 she is named as Koadjutorin of Herford. 1609 the War of Succession for the territory of Jülich-Berg-Kleve-Ravensberg which lasted until 1647 and laid great strains on the chapter.

  1604-31 Princess-Abbess Anna von der Marck of Thorn (The Netherlands)
Daughter of Johann II von der Marck and Margareta van Wassenaer, she succeeded her sister, Josiana, as sovereign, and she managed to keep the principality relatively unharmed in spite of the 30th year war. Anna lived (1551-1631).

  Ca. 1604-23 Princess-Abbess Marguerite VI de Haynin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
Took over as head of the chapter and ruler of the city from Anne-Marguerite van Namur, who died 1604.

  1604-08 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Villamízar Cabeza de Vac of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a family of explorers of the new world and governors in South America.



Ca. 1604-1614 Countess Báthory Erszébet of Transylvania (Hungary)
Known as the Blood-Countess or The Vampire, she began killing young virgins after her husband, Count Ferencz Nasdasdy, had died, because she thought their blood would keep her young. She was member of one of the oldest and wealthiest families in Transylvania, who counted – a cardinal, princes, and a cousin who was Prime minister of Hungary. The most famous Bathory was King Stephan of Poland. 1575-86. Her husband spent a great deal of time away from home fighting, and while he was away, and she surrounded herself with people claimed to be witches, sorcerers, seers, wizards, alchemists, and others who practiced the most depraved deeds in league with the Devil. Her deeds were discovered and her castle was raided. Erzsébet was put under house arrest. A trial was held in 1611, but she refused to plead guilty or innocent and never appeared at the trial. A complete transcript of the trial was made at the time and it survives today in Hungary. Johannes Ujvary, major-domo, testified that about 37 unmarried girls has been killed and Erzsébet’s old nurse testified that about 40 girls had been tortured and killed. Erzsébet was never convicted of any crime, but the windows and doors of the bedchamber were walled up with only a small hole through which food could be passed. King Mathias II demanded the death penalty for her but because of her cousin, the Prime minister, he agreed to an indefinitely delayed sentence, which really meant solitary confinement for life. She was mother of three daughters and a son, and lived (1560-1614).

  1605 (†) Regent Dowager Tsarina Maria Grigorevna Skuratova-Bel’skaya of Russia
Her husband, Boris Godunov, had been the real power behind the throne since the succession of his brother-in-law, Fedor II, who was mentally deficient, and after his death in 1598 Boris was elected Tsar. It was a period with widespread famine 16-03, and during the ensuing discontent, a man emerged who claimed to be Dmitriy, Ivan IV’s son who had died in 1591. This pretender to the throne, who came to be known as the first False Dmitriy, gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow, gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. In 1605 Boris died and Maria became regent for her son, Tsar Fedor II, who was murdered and Dmitriy was crowned tsar Maria was also murdered. She lived (ca. 1560-1605).

  1605 Regent Queen Christina von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1611-22 Regent of Värmland and other Duchies
1611-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of Norrköping, Gotland, Öland, Ösel, Wolgast and the Pommerian lands, Poel and Neukloster in Mecklenburg (Sweden and Germany)
1612-25 Reigning Dowager Lady of the
Estate and County of Veckholms and Tynnelsö, The Town and Caste of Gävle and Gästrikland, Örbyhus with the Parishes of Tierps and Tolfta, the Shire of Vendel, the Parishes of Älvkarleby and Västlands and the Right and Income from the Salmon Fishery of Älvkarleby
First acted as regent during the absence of her husband, king Karl IX (1550-1611). After his death her brother-in-law. Duke Johan av Östergötland became regent for her son Gustav Adolf, and she instead took over the regency for her younger son Karl Filips in his Dukedom until his death in 1622. She was daughter of Adolf of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. (1573-1625).

  1605-14 Regent Dowager Queen Ketevan of Kakheti and Kakhet  (The Kingdom of Georgia)
Both her father-in-law, King Alexander II of Kakhetia (1577 – 1605) and her husband, Crown Prince David were assassinated by her brother-in-law, Constantine the Accursed, who had adopted Islam, on the instigation of Shah Abbas I of Persia. She took up arms against Constantine, and together with a multitude of Persian warriors, he suffered an ignominious death. Under her wise rule, peace and justice settled in Kakhetia, and Shah Abbas I returned her son Teimuraz to her. Later, making threats that he could decimate Georgia, Shah Abbas forced the Kakhetian vassals to give up some important hostages, and she volunteered to be one them. 2 of her grandsons were also held hostage, they were castrated and tortured to death or insanity. She spent ten years in her “honorary” imprisonment in Iran in the house of Imam-Kuli-Khan Undiladze, a Georgian who had accepted Islam. Her body became exhausted through fasting, prayer, and nights spent on cold stone floors, but she remained vigorous and cheerful, taking care of her small flock of about twenty Georgians. Finally, Shah Abbas decided to force her to renounce Christ and accept Islam. He even offered her to become a member his harem, but she refused and was tortured. She became a saint and is known as Holy Great-martyr Ketevan. She was of the royal house of Bagration, and (d. 1624).

  1605-14 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IX van Berge-s’Heerenberg of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Her election to the post of abbess took place under dubious circumstances. At the time, the Chapter only consisted of three protestant Ladies of the Chapter, and according to the regulations the abbess had to be elected among the three. But the Archbishop of Köln gave dispensation so that she could be elected. She was catholic and reintroduced Catholicism to the Chapter. She was daughter of Count Willem van Berg-s’Heerenberg and Maria van Oranje-Nassau, and lived (1581-1616).

  1605-10 Princess-Abbess Veronica von Freyberg of Heggbach (Germany)
1605 and 1606 heavy “Turk Taxes” were imposed on the territory, which was also hit by the plague. The right of High Court was transferred from the Chapter to the Paternal Abbey of Salem during her reign and in 1610 the nuns and other inhabitants of the convent fled for the plague to Biberach and Weitenau. She resigned because of bad health. (d. 1613)

  1605-16 Princess-Abbess Eva von Uhrhausen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The chapter was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany and it was granted royal protection and, immunity in 1002. In 1494 the Fürstäbtissin was granted a seat in the College of Swabian Prelates who had a joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Diet and in 1521 she was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm.

  Until 1605 Reigning Abbess Françoise de la Châtre of Faremoutiers (France)
Succeeded her sister, Anne, who reigned at a not known time. They were members of the family of the barons de Montfort. (d. 1605).

  1605-35 Joint County Sheriff Else Kristendatter Munk of  the County of Løndborg Bispegård, Denmark
Else Munk was given the teantcy for life jointly with her husband, Kristoffer Gersdorf, as security for lones.

  1606 De-Facto Ruler Tsarina Marina Mniszech of Russia (18.-25. May)
In 1605 the ‘False Dmitri I’, Russian pretender, married her, in a failed attempt to establish a firm foothold in Moscow. She was the first crowned Zarina in Russian history, but the fact that she was catholic and her husband’s favoritism toward Poland aroused the opposition of the boyars, led by Prince Vasily Shuiski. Dmitri was killed, and Shuiski was crowned czar as Vasily IV. In 1607 another Dmitri appeared. Aided by the Poles after Marina identified him as her husband, he marched on Moscow and had some success, but in 1610 he was killed. She even produced an heir, Ivan Dmitrievich. Then she was married to ataman Ivan Zarudzki. After 1610 she fought for Russian throne. She was probably killed in Russian jail, was daughter of Jerzy Mniszech, Voivode of Sandomierz in Poland. lived (around 1588-1614).

  1606-08 Hereditary/Sovereign Countess Anna Elisabeth von Sayn of Sayn-Sayn (Germany)
Heiress to her uncle, Count Heinrich IV. von Sayn, Lord Herr zu Homburg, Montclair und Meinsberg (1539-1606), who was the last Count von Sayn-Sayn of the male line of Sayn-Sponheim. He inherited the county jointly with her father, Hermann after death of their uncle Sebastian II, and after her father’s death in 1588, he reunited the County. In 1605 he transferred the government to her husband, who asumed the title of Count Wilhelm III von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn, because of ilness, and had him make a guarantee that he would support the Lutheran confession, but he soon replaced the Lutheran priests with Reformed.  After her death, the county was in dispute and some territories were occupied by foreign powers. Wilhelm was succeeded by their oldest son, Ernst in 1626. She lived (1572-1608).

  1606-39 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Dorothea Maria von Württemberg of Hilpoltstein in Pfalz-Neuburg (Germany)
As the Protestant line of Duchy of Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg place their “surplus sons” in the Church, they began to secure them an income through small parts of lands, which they held for life and reverted to the Duchy of Pfalz-Neuburg. She was widow of Duke Otto Heinrich II von Pfalz-Neuburg of Hilpoltstein, Heideck, Allersberg and Sulzbach.

  1606-31 Politically Influential Queen Konstancja Austriaczka of Poland
1625-1631 Overseer of the Crown Lands of Brodnica and Golub in Poland
Archduchess Konstanze von Habsburg was the second wife of king Zygmunt III Waza (1566-87-1632), and political influential during his reign. She was a daughter of Archduke Karl von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1588–1631). 

  1606-07 Acting County Sheriff Adel Hansdatter of the County of Sorø, Denmark</