Category Archives: Asian Collection Exhibtion

The Bangka island Historic and Travel Informations

Bangka  Historic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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Dreams are illustrations from the book your soul is writing about you. — Marsha Norman

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition


Nature of the Bangka Island

Bangka-Belitung Islands Province was formed as the 31st province by Indonesian Government based on the Act No. 27 year 2000 with Pangkal Pinang as its capital city. It consists of two main islands i.e. Bangka and Belitung Islands and several small islands (see Figure 4), located at 104° 50’ – 109° 30’ E and 0° 50’ – 4° 10’ S.

The total area of Bangka-Belitung Islands Province is about 81,725.14 km2, consisting of land area about 16,424.14 km2 or 20.1 percent of the total area and sea area about 65,301 km2 or 79.9 percent of the total area.


Figure 4. Administrative Map of Bangka-Belitung Islands Province

The hill or mountain lies at the center of Bangka and Belitung Island. The highest level of topography is 675 m at the mountain in the north part of Bangka Island. In general, the slope at the center of Bangka Island ranged from 5% to 40%, while near the coastline, the slope is very gentle.

In terms of the characteristics of the coast line and marine condition in general the seabed has a gentle to slightly steep slope from the coastal line to the sea. The regional bathymetry map is provided in Figure 5.

Bangka and Belitung Islands are located on the area with relatively low seismicity. There are no significant earthquakes in Bangka-Belitung Islands Province. The main earthquake events are along Sumatera Island at the western part as Semangko Fault manifestation (Figure 6). The value of peak ground acceleration on the basement rock for 500 years period is based on SNI 1726-2002 is very small, about 0.03 g.


Figure 5. Topography and Bathymetry Map of Bangka Belitung Region


Figure 6. Earthquake Distribution along 1900 – 2009 (source USGS)

The shortest distance of an active volcano (Bukit Lumut Balai) to Bangka is ± 303 km to the southwest direction. There is no volcano in Bangka-Belitung Islands Province (See Figure 7).


Figure 7. Distribution of Active Volcanoes around Bangka-Belitung Islands Province

Geologically, the main formation in Bangka Island is the Tanjung Genting Formation which is dominated by clastic rocks (sandstone) sedimentation of Triassic age which settled at shallow sea and Klabat Granite which is dominated by intrusive granite of Late Triassic age (see Figure 8).


Figure 8. Geological Map of Bangka Belitung Islands Province

Bangka island lies in Sunda peneplain, which is a part of elevated Sunda land. From geological point of view, distribution of tin ore in Indonesia is a continuation of granitic belt of Jurassic to Cretaceous that extends from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Riau islands (Singkep, Karimun and Kundur islands), Bangka, Belitung to Karimata islands. The belt is also known as the tin belt, a granite containing casiterite series.

There is no significant tsunami effect in Bangka-Belitung Islands Province. The main sources of tsunami are mostly located in Indian Ocean, at the west side of Sumatera Island. The effect of tsunami from this area is retained by Sumatera Island and therefore the Bangka-Belitung Islands was protected from tsunami hazard.

Demographically, the total population of Bangka-Belitung Islands Province in year 2008 was 1,122,526 people (National Socio-economy Survey, SUSENAS 2008) as shown in Table 16, while population in 2000 was 899,095 people (Year 2000 Population Census), therefore the population growth rate is about 1,19 percent.

Population at Bangka-Belitung Islands Province (2008)


Number of Population









Bangka Barat




Bangka Tengah




Bangka Selatan








Belitung Timur
















Interest area

According to literature study and field confirmation, all of the visited areas in Bangka Island are free from exclusions factors and therefore they can be considered as areas which are potential to be developed further.

However, to enable good site survey management, 2 areas with best characteristics in terms of their acceptability (safety, suitability, and construction cost), proximity to Sumatera Island, and other considerations are selected as the preferred areas for the first NPP sites.

The two areas will then be called interest areas. The two interest areas are:

(1) Teluk Manggris-Tanah Merah in Bangka Barat Regency,


(2) Tanjung Berani-Tanjung Krasak in Bangka Selatan Regency (see Figure 9).


Figure 9. Interest Areas in Bangka Island

The interest area 1 can be reached from Pangkal Pinang through Kelapa by paved road of approximately 140 km long, then continued for about 4 to 6 km by unpaved road, of which only 3 km can only be accessed by car and the rest by motorcycle or by 4 wheel-drive vehicle. The unpaved road needs to be repaired before starting the main activity.

The interest area 2 can be reached from Pangkal Pinang through Sungai Selan,

 Bangka Kota, Simpang Rimba, Permis,Village, Rajik Village and Sebakin Village

by paved road of 83.5 km long.

It seems that the unpaved road does not need further improvement before main activities start except for the broken small Sebagin bridge.


Road network

including access road to both interest areas is provided in Figure 10


Figure 10. Access Road to Interest Area 1 and 2 from Pangkal Pinang



The chronicle history Of Bangka

How does the history of tin that originated on the island of Bangka who has been known as the Chinese sailors named the island

Pu-lei since the 3rd century AD.

 Chinese news the 7th century
 mentions that the commodity trade of Shih-li-fo-hell (Srivijaya), among others, is tin.
 In later centuries it Bangka-Billiton including Srivijaya territory.

 Only in the mid-18th century
 the involvement of Chinese people in the Pacific, which generally comes from Hakka region, comes into play, either as a rough power, buyer agents, and entrepreneurs mining itself.
The presence of Chinese mainland origin miners in Bangka Island area of ​​11,704 square kilometers continues to grow.
 Mary F. Somers Heidhues in Bangka Tin and Mentok Pepper explained, thousands of workers from China were imported by the Dutch in bulk and bumpy as contract laborers in the Pacific in 1710.
The Netherlands took over the power of tin mining on Bangka Island from Palembang Sultanate in the 19th century post-fall of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II.
Holland then established tin mining company,
This then became the early presence of PT Timah on the island of Bangka-Belitung until now

Tin mines in Bangka in the open around mid-year 1700
The arrival of the first Hakka is to the Overseer and Montrado, gold mining dikonsesi by Sultan Mempawah and Sambas, Around the beginning of the year 1700, they brought in large numbers through Sarawak.
When the tin mines in Bangka in the open around mid-year 1700, which followed later in the Pacific Islands, hundreds of Hakka people shipped to the Pacific.

Fortress or Citadel Kutopanji Bongkap,
located in the village of Dull. Robustness of the remains of the Citadel building berwaran grayish-black is made from baked clay, which was built around 1700 by
 Kapitan Bong Bong or Khiung Fu

Tin was first excavated in Bangka Island in 1709.

Tin mining continued until mid 1800.
Average Contract Coolie Meixien imported from china and they come without bringing his wife.

 When the contract runs out there are only two choices, go back to China or settle in the vicinity of the mine.
For those who do not return to open settlement in the Pacific, as in Belinyu.

Tan Liong Tjen (80th) was born in Sunghin, near the town of Clay River, West Bangka. Her mother (mama) Ngafa who is the daughter of Jet Tan On which since the 1800’s served as head of the Trench (Mining) Tin in Sunghin in collaboration with the Indian government Belanda.Ibu Ngafa married to his father Tan Mung Jung. The father joined his father’s head trench,
Tjen Liong Tan was born in 1933 in Sung Hin, as a child to-5 of 12 brothers (currently only five people are still alive, in the Pacific there are still two people).

(Tan liong Tjen is dr Iwan Neighbour from bangka)


BTW, aka Winning Banka Tin
As a child participate in sunghin father, a school in sung Hin, elementary school Suek Siauw Sung Hin, and
Papa tan yung story might have a story about mine (trench) Tin.
Tin Mine a lot of Chinese workers by the hundreds, of workers in the screen grab yourself with your own boat from China (Kwantung village, Sichuan)


Special for szechuan etnis I upload some picture from their homeolnad country below




If you fall off the eastern edge of the Himalayan mountains, the first major city (population 4.1 million) that you come to is Chengdu, in China’s Sichuan province. You’ve heard of it from the spicy Chinese food, called “Szechuan” in the west.

Rosemary and I spent 5 or 6 days based around there. A few of those were visiting a Buddhist holy mountain, and the largest Buddha in the world – I’ll write about them in another post.

Chengdu itself was like every other large Chinese city – endless streets with few distinguishing features. My fault for hoping it might be a bit better than that. It has some super parks, but you have to deliberately go to them, you couldn’t stumble upon them by accident.

We saw real Giant Pandas at the breeding centre outside town – they’re super cute, mainly because they have a sixth thumb-like finger so they look like people as they eat bamboo. The Red Pandas are even better. I hope somebody domesticates some soon. They were running round playing, happy like dogs, but cute like cats.

The surprise attraction in Chengdu itself was Du Fu’s “cottage”. Really a whole complex of buildings and gardens (photo right), originally where an 8th century poet lived in a thatched house. There was lots of good bonsai trees, and also calligraphy of Du Fu’s poems. Those are the two arts which I’ve seen that are both still practiced properly in China, and are uniquely Chinese

From google exploration I found information from Szecuan during Dai Nippon Occupation below

Dari eksplorasi Google ditemukan info tentang kampong Szechuan masa perang dunia kedua

Needham Photographs – Wartime China, 1942-1946

Northwest Journey 西北之旅

Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the long expedition to the northwest from Chongqing to Jiayuguan in Gansu province and back, via Chengdu, Lanzhou and many other places. Note that on this journey he travelled beyond Jiayuguan to the Buddhist caves at Qianfodong near Dunhuang in Gansu, the photographs for which are in CFT. The Northwest journey was undertaken from 7th August – 14th December 1943, but there are also a few photographs taken before and after the journey on rolls NW2 and NW6. On the outward leg of the journey to Lanzhou, Needham was accompanied by SBSCO staff members H.T. Huang 黃興宗 and Liao Hongying 廖鴻英, as well as Edward Beltz, an American oil geologist, and a young scientist Chen Zixin 陳自信. In another truck travelled the famous explorer Sir Eric Teichman (1884-1944). From Lanzhou to Qianfodong and back he was accompanied by H.T. Huang (who travelled back to Lanchow separately), Rewi Alley (1897-1987), Sun Guangjun 孫光俊 and Wang Wansheng 王萬盛, two boys from the Lanzhou Bailie School, the painter Wu Zuoren 吳作人, as well as a driver, Kuang Wei 鄺威, and a mechanic from Lanzhou, Yu Dexin 俞德新. The photographs have been rearranged from their original sequence into chronological order.

照片是李约瑟先生在从重庆到甘肃省嘉峪关往返的漫长途中拍摄的,期间他还经过了成都市,兰州市和其它许多地方。需要指出的是在这次旅行中,他还参观了甘肃敦煌的千佛洞,那部分的照片请参看CFT。西北之旅的照片是在194387号到1214号之间拍摄的,但NW2NW6胶卷上也有少量照片是在之前和之后拍摄的。在去兰州旅行的途中,陪同李约瑟先生的有中英科学合作馆的黄兴宗和廖鸿英,还有美国石油质学者 Edward Beltz 和青年科学家陈自信。在另外一个卡车上旅行的有著名的探险家 Eric Teichman 爵士。从兰州到千佛洞往返的途中,陪同的有黄兴宗 (兰州回来时他独自返回),路易艾黎 Rewi Alley (1897-1987),孫光俊和王萬盛, 来自兰州培黎学校的两个男孩, 画家吳作人,司机鄺威,还有来自兰州的机械师余德新。照片已按照年代顺序重新进行排列


<BTitle: H.T. Huang (Huang Hsing-Tsung / Huang Xingzong
黃興宗) outside the guest-house in Lichuang (Lizhuang) 李莊, Szechuan (Sichuan) 四川
Location: Lizhuang
李莊, Sichuan 四川省.
Date: 4 Jun. 1943 – 12 Jun. 1943
Original caption by Joseph Needham:
Photographer: Needham, Joseph.
Classmark: NW2/27

<BTitle: Joseph Needham outside the guest-house in Lichuang (Lizhuang)
李莊, Szechuan (Sichuan) 四川
Location: Lizhuang
李莊, Sichuan 四川省.
Date: 4 Jun. 1943 – 12 Jun. 1943
Original caption by Joseph Needham:
Photographer: Needham, Joseph.
Classmark: NW2/26

Chinese immigrants who worked as coolies in the tin mines of Bangka build such temples in the 1800.


Kwan Ti Miau temple



The history of an old temple in Bangka Island can not be separated from the history of tin mining and Kwan Tie Miau. Big wave arrival of the Chinese to exploit tin in Bangka began in the early 20th century.

 Many trade partnership that stands to mine and sell / purchase of tin, each group or partnership has its own leaders and social structure, they also bring genuine belief from which they originate.

To perform worship according Their religious. Chinese immigrants who worked as coolies in the tin mines of Bangka build such temples in the 1800. would not be surprised if the from end to end of Bangka Island stood so many temple. indeed there is no exact data, but at least there are 200 temples big and small.

Kwan Tie Miau

in Pangkalpinang is one of the oldest temples on the island of Bangka – Formerly called the Temple of Kwan Tie Bio -.



This Kwan Tie Miau  temple is located on the Major Syafrie Rachman Street Pangkal Pinang . This temple is built in 1841 AD (according from the Chinese characters on an iron bell in temple) and built by a group of tin mining in Pangkalpinang,



 Temple Kwan tie Miau inaugurated in 1846.

This proved of congratulations from several associations on a good day a good month year 26 Daoguang which coincided with the year 1846.



Temple of Kwan Tie Miau

There’s Pumpkin fruit garnish (gourd) at the top of the roof of the temple. in front of the temple there is a symbol of Patkwa ( Pakua ) which in the middle there is a black and white circles (Ying and Yang). Patkwa (Pakua) symbolizes good luck, fortune or happiness . Two features of the above shows that the Taoisme still the most important

The main worship of the temple is to Thian (God’s universe) and to Huang Ti (Emperor of Chin dynasty, the famous Shih Huang Ti) is the dominant one in this temple, so they are often called the Cin.

 there are statues of Chui chang on the left and Pien Kuan on right besides Huang Ti.

 In addition to gods and goddesses derived from Confucian beliefs, the worship of Goddess Kwan Im also performed.

This goddess is Awalokiteswara, one God in the pantheon of Mahayana Buddhism is believed to awaken the world from destruction and save humanity from the doom of the Hereafter.

 Every day to 13 months of five calendar days of the Lunar New Year celebration was held the god of the temple deity.




The plague of beri-beri disease (Vitamin B1 deficiency)in the Bangka  around year 1850-


this activity is performed to reject any reinforcements and the plague that struck the public like the plague of beri-beri in the Bangka  around year 1850-1860

The houses in the street Pangkal Pinang is an elite area occupied by employees of mining tin porch, built in 1928

Dutch East indies (Indonesia) send postcards from Belawan (Medan Port) via Dutch Post 18.06.1932 Agent Louth singapore to Bangka Island.
The Dutch post abroad Agent Will showed in the next Indonesia Postal History (Shipmail), Singapore Post british agent never reports, the collections below post still not clear british agent in Indonesia or abroad Straits (Singapore) or Johor cancceled stamps at the port (Singapore or Indonesia) if the letter Pls post the ship arrived at the Port Abroad,. @ Copyright Dr. Iwan S.


 In the city Muntok
 there is also a monument to 21 (twenty one) Australian nurses who died in the bombing of ships Australia by the Japanese army on 16 February 1942.
The nurses were stranded in Muntok after the boat they were riding the SS Vyner Brooke sank in the waters of the Pacific on his way to Singapore.


TAN.’s experience during Dai Nippon Occupation

When the soldiers of Dai Nippon from Pangkal pinang  dating to the Sung Hin village wwhere Tan lived(Tan is Dr Iwan neighbour from Bangka), all the people had to march and salute memebri (beggar), if not the first man will be beaten or put to the sun heated up, their stature official clothing tentara.Semua people are afraid of soldiers met dai Nippon, many who fled into the forest.
During the Japanese occupation of difficult economic times, rice, cassava and apparel is up, people eat cassava and beras.sehingga sack dress of the people starving and many died.
After Japan’s defeat, the Dutch came in and ruled for five years, and the newly independent in 1949.


History of the Pacific after the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia

the role of the Chinese Bangka (Thong Ngin) into the regional administration in the early days of independence and the exile of President Sukarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta on the island of Bangka.

On December 10, 1946
 born of a decision by Lieutenant General Gouverneur Netherlands Indies as an autonomous region makes the Pacific through the Pacific While the Board formation (Voorlopige Bangka Raad).
Bangka Council
While this is the highest government agency in the Pacific, was unveiled February 10, 1947 with co-chaired by
Datuk Masyarif Bendaharo Lelo,
beraggotakan 25orang, 14 people were Indonesia (13 elected, one appointed by the resident), 9 Chinese (8 elected, one appointed by the resident, two Dutch people (one elected, one appointed by the resident). This is the first official government in the Pacific after Republic of Indonesia’s independence proclamation of August 17, 1945.
 Since the initial form of government in Bangka Bangka Chinese people (Thong Ngin Bangka) already involved in it.

 Through July 12, 1947

 decision letter No.7 (Stbl. 1947 # 123) “While the Pacific Council” to the Pacific Council appointed 11 November 1947.

 Until 22 April 1950
 Bangka Council mandate handed to the Governor of South Sumatra Dr. M. Isa, then the Pacific are under a resident named Raden Sumarjo.
Pacific People’s Struggle for Independence against Dutch colonialism was not a bit ranging from civil disobedience to fight the army of the people. Good resistance is sporadic or organized resistance. The spirit of nationalism People Bangka, experienced a peak when
 the arrival of President Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim on February 6, 1949.


This is illustrated in the writings of Abdullah

“… Sunday morning on February 6, 1949 appear in droves flow of people back and forth and in groups waiting in the outskirts of major road, heard the news when and where Bung Karno was going to land. Those who have money or who have private vehicles and or who have a great zest to the coming of the Bung Karno, group after group was headed to the airfield Dul Village, where Bung Karno likely will land, figuring it would be impossible to ship.
After a while they wait, the news gives another, out of nowhere comes the source said Bung Karno and Haji Agus Salim will arrive by plane katalina through …

 From start Jetty Balam Balam arrived at the intersection of Jetty pier environments that are restricted primarily to barbed wire, already crowded people are standing and fro, looking for opportunities to enter the front entrance pelabuhan.Di colonial police guard with his weapon to the rigors. Intermittently they move to block the people who continue to come forward …
In the midst of the throng that crowded the sound of car horns. Three sedans after splitting the stream of people struggling, finally can also go up on the edge of the pier.

From sedans are out the mission of the BFO Anak Agung Gde Agung (NTT), Ateng Karmamiharja, accompanied the delegation, Dr RI. Darma Setiawan, Sujono and Dr. Leimena. Mr. entourage then out again. Moh. Rum … more about Around 10:00 am, the sound of aircraft sounds.

Shortly Katalina them a plane seems closer. All eyes fixed on the door of the plane. Heart thumping. Whether that comes true Bung Karno’s beloved President? Just a moment, but it was a long time. With gray suits, and the famous black cap never cracked the head. No doubt, that he, Bung Karno. Following Haji Agus Salim wearing white suits with gray coat, cane, glasses and cap the pointed beard hitam.Jelas visible and have started to turn white …
when Bung Karno menjejakan foot on the jetty Jetty Balam
, Suddenly came Mat Amin (Alimin) Bung Karno squatting ushered up to his shoulder. Stature as a driver krant Mat Amin was quite stocky coupled with overwhelming enthusiasm. He was like take it easy as getting satisfaction.

Arriving at the gates of the port state was already out of control again … There’s nothing more that could catapult independent cried. Throat feels clogged. Tears of emotion began to flow.

A white Plymouth sedan service vehicles Masyarif BN 2 specifically provided for both the leaders, but the Bung Karno prefer to sit on the front hood of course. Tjong Tjhia Ka (Ka Chia Cong) from Ipphos Fotocorrespondent with his assistants busy looking and waiting for a good snap. 12.30 .. until the vehicle is still at Jetty Balam.

 Arriving at the village Lembawai.

 Car engine is turned off. Car is running slowly, driven by a burly-burly young man … Finally at about 14:00 just got home Masyarif “. Thus the story of Abdullah’s paintings are bright for the events Bung Karno’s exile on the island of Bangka.

People kept coming Bangka Island Old Young, Male Female, Thong Fan Ngin Ngin all united to welcome the arrival of President Sukarno.

There is a sense of unity, togetherness, pride, enthusiasm and euphoria of independence in the Republic of Indonesia welcomed the supreme leader at the time. Then get together with Bung Karno, Bung Hatta who had arrived earlier to exile in deadlock, t

he House of Bangka Tin Mine (CCTs) on Mount Manumbing. Bung Karno, Bung Hatta, Haji Agus Salim and some pertinggi Indonesia at that time under house arrest in landfills, at Mount Manumbing, Mentor, the island of Bangka.

 In landfills is still undergoing funginya Bung Karno as Head of the State with all its limitations. He also met with various leaders of the movement, leaders of Chinese organizations Bangka, the young warrior, and so forth.

Be a deep impression Bung Karno, etched deep in the Pacific People’s hearts at the time. Masyarif, Mat Amin, Tjhia Tjong Ka (Ka Chia Cong), Bung Karno, Bung Hatta, Haji Agus Salim all had gone, but the sense of unity, togetherness, pride, enthusiasm and euphoria of independence still exist in the middle of the Pacific people to kini.MEERDEKAAA

in 1946
Tan in junior high school in Louth Hung Mung Suek Siauw until graduation.

There to learn Mandarin (every day), Malay (1xseminggu), arithmetic, geography, history (Lie Se).
Bangka history learned in junior high, Chinese history, History of the Pacific is studied.
In the Dutch colonial period, there is a dutch in Sung Hin as a supervisor (controleur) and assistant at the Jetty Pinang.Waktu r4esident school in Louth remain in Hin sung every morning at 4:00 am riding a bike to the base of the Areca (the distance is 8 km, taken two hours )

Bung Karno Mentor Mount Manumbing discharged into the Pacific
The place is currently
Pensions Menumbing is a silent witness to the struggle of historic building figures proclaimer of the Republic of Indonesia tens of years ago. This building is one of the houses built by the Dutch exile to limit the space for independence leaders at the time. No data exactly when the guesthouse / guesthouse was built Menumbing. Clearly this building was built by the workers corvee (forced labor) in the Dutch colonial period around the year 1927, while other sources mention of this complex was built in 1890 and other sources mentioned in 1932. This historic building located at the top of Mount Menumbing and the building stood on a height of 450 meters above sea level and directly facing the Bangka Strait. This building is a historical asset that should continue to be preserved, because it became a place of exile of President Sukarno and republican leaders during Dutch colonial rule in 1949.

Over an area of ​​two hectares, this building stands upright diketinggian 445 meters above sea level. Consisting of three buildings, namely the main building comprising 6 rooms and two pavilions comprising 6 rooms and 7 rooms. Here is an idea sparked by the founders of this republic to conduct negotiations with the Dutch. Based on information written and displayed in room 102 House Menumbing, Sukarno and a number of other national leaders brought to this place is divided into three groups or party. The first group, Mohammad Hatta, Mr. A.G. Pringgodigdo, Mr. Assaat and Air Commodore S Suryadarma the exiled December 22, 1948 from Yogyakarta. Then the second group, Mr. Roem and Mr Moh. Sastroamidjojo who was exiled from Yogyakarta to Manumbing on December 31, 1948. And the third group, Bung Karno and Agus Salim also exiled to the Pacific on February 6, 1949 from exile in the city originally Prapat, North Sumatra.

To get into your building free of charge for Rp.2.500/orang. Inside the building visitors can see the old VW car (Volks Wagon) driven by Sukarno’s old to get around Mentor who only lived body (frame) only while the engine already lost. In addition there are also bed as many as two pieces which fitted inside the bathroom, 2 lounge chairs, a wardrobe and so forth fruit. Outside the room there is a room where the writing and reading of Bung Karno.

To reach this location you should proceed first in Post 1 (Entrance) especially if you bring a car. This is because the road is narrow because it only passable by one vehicle only. By driving a car or motorcycle then the time required to reach the location of exile Ir.H Soekarno about 15 minutes. But if you are traveling by foot, it takes about 1 hour trip more meaningful time round trip takes about 2 hours more. Not a short time. I suggest you better ride the vehicle to get to the top unless you want to really feel the cool mountian air.

The President himself did not long been at the Mount Menumbing because of her condition could not stand the cold weather of the mountains. At his request, Bung Karno was placed in the middle of the city of Mentor in a building that is currently named Pesanggrahan Ranggam or Ranggam Pensions. Bung Karno just stay at Pesanggrahan Ranggam, but daily life may be more at Wisma Menumbing. Before coming to the House of Bung Karno Menumbing first inhabited by another character, say Vice President Mohammad Hatta, the Secretary of State Pringgodigdo, Foreign Minister Agus Salim, Minister of Teaching Sastroamidjojo, Mr. Chairman KNIP Assaat, Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Mohammad Roem and Chief of Staff of the Air Force Air Commodore S Suryadarma. Bung Karno himself brought to the Pacific uses the plane type B-25 bomber Sukarno moved from North Sumatra to Bangka. No one knows exactly what kind of atmosphere when the leaders gathered in Menumbing. It’s just a choice to pursue confrontation and negotiations with the Dutch-born Menumbing.

Keeping the spirit of that history is important, because in this region Bung Hatta to make poetry of the importance of the island of Bangka for Indonesia’s independence. Consider the poem that ever engraved on metal plates which today no longer know where missing.

Under the rays of light sparkling weather
Recalled memories bring victory
Bangka, Jogjakarta, London
Living Pancasila, Unity in Diversity.

Hatta wrote memories about Menumbing as part of his gratitude to the people of Bangka the unrelenting show of support to the nation’s leaders during the exile. Unfortunately his gratitude was wasted with no history of Pensions Menumbing terawatnya assets by local governments.

But the history of the Pensions Menumbing that should be the primary concern of government in power today no longer even a pride, Wisma Menumbing ever rented in 1996. Bangka regency government, when it was incorporated with the Province of South Sumatra, the historic building is leased to PT Carmeta for 15 years to be managed as a hotel and restaurant. Pensions Menumbing also changed its name to Hotel Jati Menumbing. I wonder what the reason was time Bangka regency, allow the Pensions Menumbing leased. Too bad assets of the history that was built towers and telecommunication facilities broadcasting television station. Unconsciously the existence of the tower is clearly damaging the overall landscape of the historic site.
But the history of assets is much more valuable. This is where tens of years ago the leaders of Indonesia’s independence penjuang for approximately nine months to finish his time

Indonesian version

Bagaimana sejarah timah itu berawal di Pulau Bangka yang telah dikenal pelaut-pelaut China sebagai pulau bernama

Pu-lei sejak abad ke-3 Masehi.

 Berita China abad ke-7

 menyebutkan bahwa komoditas perdagangan dari Shih-li-fo-sih (Sriwijaya) antara lain adalah timah.

 Pada abad-abad itu Bangka-Belitung termasuk wilayah kekuasaan Sriwijaya.

 Baru pada pertengahan abad ke-18

 keterlibatan orang-orang Tionghoa di Bangka, yang umumnya datang dari wilayah Hakka, mulai berperan, baik sebagai tenaga kasar, agen pembeli, maupun pengusaha pertambangan itu sendiri.

Keberadaan penambang asal daratan Tiongkok di Pulau Bangka seluas 11.704 kilometer persegi terus bertambah.

 Mary F Somers Heidhues dalam Bangka Tin and Mentok Pepper memaparkan, ribuan pekerja asal China didatangkan oleh Belanda secara massal dan bergelombang sebagai kuli kontrak di Bangka pada tahun 1710.

Belanda mengambil alih kuasa penambangan timah di Pulau Bangka dari Kesultanan Palembang pada abad ke-19 pasca-kejatuhan Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II.

Belanda kemudian mendirikan perusahaan pertambangan timah,

Inilah yang kemudian menjadi awal keberadaan PT Timah di Pulau Bangka-Belitung hingga kini



Tambang timah di Bangka di buka sekitar pertengahan tahun 1700

Kedatangan Hakka pertama adalah ke Mandor dan Montrado, pertambangan emas yang dikonsesi oleh Sultan Mempawah dan Sambas, Sekitar awal tahun 1700, mereka didatangkan dalam jumlah besar melalui Serawak.

Ketika tambang timah di Bangka di buka sekitar pertengahan tahun 1700, yang disusul kemudian di Belitung, beratus-ratus orang Hakka dikapalkan ke Bangka.


Benteng Kutopanji atau Benteng Bongkap,

terletak di kampung Kusam. Kekokohan sisa-sisa bangunan Benteng berwaran hitam keabuan—terbuat dari tanah liat yang dibakar—yang dibangun sekitar 1700 oleh

 Kapitan Bong atau Bong Khiung Fu




Timah pertama kali digali di Pulau Bangka pada tahun 1709.



Penambangan Timah terus  berlanjut hingga pertengahan tahun 1800.

Rata-rata Kuli Kontrak cina  didatangkan dari Meixien dan mereka datang tanpa membawa istri.



 Ketika kontrak habis hanya ada dua pilihan, kembali ke Cina atau menetap di sekitar lokasi tambang.

Bagi mereka yang tidak pulang membuka permukiman di Bangka, seperti di Belinyu.



Tan Liong Tjen(80th) lahir di Sunghin,dekat kota Sungai Liat,Bangka Barat. Ibunya(mama)Ngafa yang merupakan putri dari Tan On Jet yang sejak tahun 1800-an menjabat sebagai kepala Parit(Tambang) Timah di Sunghin yang bekerjasama dengan pemerintah Hindia Belanda.Ibu Ngafa menikah dengan ayahnya Tan Mung Jung. Sang ayah ikut ayahnya kepala parit,

Tan Liong Tjen lahir tahun 1933 di Sung Hin,sebagai anak ke-5 dari 12 orang bersaudara(saat ini tinggal lima orang masih hidup, di Bangka masih ada dua orang).


Banka Tin Winning alias BTW





Waktu kecil ikut bapak di sunghin ,sekolah di sung Hin, sekolah SD Sung Hin Suek Siauw, dan

Cerita Papa tan mung yung pernah cerita tentang tambang(parit) Timah.

Tambang Timah banyak pekerjanya dari tiongkok yang jumlahnya ratusan,pekerja di ambil sendiri dengan Kapal Layarnya sendiri dari Tiongkok (kampungnya Kwantung –sichuan)




Rumah-rumah di kawasan jalan Depati Amir itu adalah kawasan elit yang ditempati oleh pegawai teras atas pertambangan timah, dibangun pada tahun 1928



Dutch East indie(Indonesia) postcard send from Belawan (Medan Port) 18.6.1932 via Dutch Post Agent singapore to Pangkal Pinang Bangka Island.

The Dutch post Agent abroad will showed in the next Indonesia Postal History (Shipmail), Singapore british Post Agent never report, the collections below still not clear british post agent abroad in Indonesia or Straits(singapore) or Johor stamps cancceled at the port (Singapore or Indonesia) if the letter post when the ship arrived at the abroad Port,.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.



 Di kota Muntok

 terdapat pula monumen peringatan 21 (duapuluh satu) perawat Australia yang gugur dalam peristiwa pemboman kapal laut Australia oleh tentara Jepang pada tanggal 16 Pebruari 1942.

Para perawat itu terdampar di Muntok setelah kapal yang mereka tumpangi SS Vyner Brooke tenggelam di perairan Bangka dalam perjalanan menuju Singapura.




 Pengalaman masa pendudkan jepang

Apabila tentara Dai Nippon dari Pangkal pinag dating ke Sung Hin,semua rakyat harus berbaris dan memebri hormat(kere),bila tidak kere akan dipukul atau dihukum berdiri dipanas matahari, mereka badannya pendek pakaian dinas  tentara.Semua orang takut ketemu tentara dai Nippon,banyak yang kabur ke Hutan.

Pada masa pendudukan jepang ekonomi sulit,beras ,singkong dan pakaian sudah habis,orang makan singkong dan baju dari karung beras.sehingga rakyat kelaparan dan banyak yang meninggal dunia.

Setelah Jepang Kalah,Belanda masuk dan berkuasa selama lima tahun,dan baru merdeka tahun 1949.



Sejarah Bangka Paska Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia


peranan orang Tionghoa Bangka (Thong Ngin) ke dalam pemerintahan daerah pada masa awal kemerdekaan dan masa pembuangan Presiden Soekarno, Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta di Pulau Bangka.

Pada 10 Desember 1946

 lahirlah sebuah keputusan oleh Letnan Gouverneur General Nederlandsch Indie menjadikan Bangka sebagai daerah otonom melalui terbentuknya Dewan Bangka Sementara (Voorlopige Bangka Raad).

Dewan Bangka

Sementara ini merupakan lembaga pemerintahan yang tertinggi di Bangka, diresmikan 10 Februari 1947 dengan diketuai oleh

Masyarif Datuk Bendaharo Lelo,

beraggotakan 25orang, 14 orang Indonesia (13 dipilih, 1 diangkat oleh residen), 9 orang Tionghoa (8 dipilih, 1 diangkat oleh residen, 2 orang Belanda (1 dipilih, 1 diangkat oleh residen). Ini adalah merupakan pemerintahan resmi pertama di Bangka setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia 17 Agustus 1945.

 Sejak awal pemerintahan di Bangka terbentuk orang-orang Tionghoa Bangka (Thong Ngin Bangka) sudah terlibat didalamnya. Melalui surat keputusan 12 Juli 1947 No.7 (Stbl. 1947 no.123) ”Dewan Bangka Sementara“ menjadi Dewan Bangka yang dilantik 11 November 1947.


 Hingga akhirnya 22 April 1950

 diserahkannya mandat Dewan Bangka ke Gubernur Sumatera Selatan Dr. M. Isa, selanjutnya Bangka berada dibawah seorang residen bernama Raden Sumarjo.

Perjuangan Kemerdekaan Rakyat Bangka melawan penjajahan Belanda tidaklah sedikit mulai dari perlawanan sipil hingga perlawanan tentara rakyat. Baik perlawanan yang sporadis maupun perlawanan yang terorganisir. Semangat nasionalisme Rakyat Bangka, mengalami puncaknya ketika

 kedatangan Presiden Sukarno dan Menteri Luar Negeri Agus Salim pada 6 Februari 1949.


Ini terlukis dalam tulisan Abdullah “…Minggu pagi tanggal 6 Februari 1949 kelihatan berbondong-bondong arus manusia hilir mudik dan berkelompok-kelompok menanti di pinggir-pinggir jalan besar, mendengar berita kapan dan dimana Bung Karno akan mendarat. Mereka yang punya duit atau yang punya kendaraan pribadi dan atau yang punya animo besar terhadap kedatangan Bung Karno tersebut, berkelompok-kelompok sudah menuju ke lapangan udara Kampung Dul, tempat kemungkinan besar Bung Karno akan mendarat, dengan pertimbangan takkan mungkin dengan kapal laut.

Setelah agak lama mereka menunggu, terbetik berita, entah dari mana datang sumbernya mengatakan Bung Karno dan Haji Agus Salim akan tiba dengan pesawat katalina lewat Pangkal Balam…Dari mulai simpang Pangkal Balam sampai di lingkungan dermaga yang dibatasi denan kawat berduri, sudah penuh sesak manusia berdiri dan hilir mudik, mencari kesempatan untuk dapat masuk ke pelabuhan.Di muka pintu masuk polisi kolonial dengan senjatanya berjaga-jaga dengan ketatnya. Sebentar-sebentar mereka bergerak menghalau orang-orang yang terus mau maju…

Di tengah kerumunan manusia yang berjejal tersebut terdengar bunyi klakson mobil. Tiga buah sedan setelah bersusah payah membelah arus manusia, akhirnya dapat juga masuk sampai di pinggir dermaga.

 Dari sedan-sedan tersebut keluar perutusan BFO Anak Agung Gde Agung (NTT), Ateng Karmamiharja, disertai delegasi RI yaitu Dr. Darma Setiawan, Sujono dan Dr. Leimena. Kemudian keluar lagi rombongan Mr. Moh. Roem…Sekitar lebih kurang pukul 10.00 pagi, kedengaran bunyi pesawat udara.

Tak lama antaranya sebuah pesawat Katalina tampak mendekat. Semua mata tertuju ke pintu pesawat. Jantung berdetak keras. Apakah betul Bung Karno yang datang itu Presiden RI tercinta? Hanya sesaat, tapi terasa lama sekali. Dengan stelan abu-abu, dan peci hitamnya yang terkenal tak pernah lekang dari kepala. Tak salah lagi, itu dia, Bung Karno. Menyusul kemudian Haji Agus Salim mengenakan stelan putih dengan mantel abu-abu, bertongkat, berkacamata dan peci hitam.Jelas nampak jenggotnya yang lancip dan sudah mulai memutih…

saat Bung Karno menjejakan kakinya di dermaga Pangkal Balam


, tiba-tiba datang Mat Amin (Alimin) berjongkok menyilakan Bung Karno naik ke pundaknya. Perawakan Mat Amin sebagai supir krant memang cukup kekar ditambah dengan semangatnya yang meluap-luap. Ia seperti santai saja seperti mendapat kepuasan tersendiri. Sampai di gerbang pelabuhan keadaan sudah sudah tidak dapat dikendalikan lagi…Tak ada lagi yang sanggup melontarkan pekik merdeka. Kerongkongan terasa tersumbat. Air mata haru mulai mengalir.

Sebuah sedan Plymouth putih BN 2 kendaraan dinas Masyarif disediakan khusus untuk kedua orang pemimpin, tapi Bung Karno lebih senang duduk diatas kap depannya saja. Tjhia Ka Tjong (Chia Ka Cong) dari Ipphos Fotocorrespondent dengan pembantu-pembantunya sibuk mencari dan menanti snap yang bagus. ..hingga pukul 12.30 kendaraan masih di Pangkal Balam. Sampai di kampung Lembawai. Mesin mobil dimatikan. Mobil berjalan pelan, didorong oleh para pemuda yang tegap-tegap…Akhirnya sekitar pukul 14.00 baru tiba di rumah Masyarif “. Demikian lukisan kisah Abdullah yang terang atas peristiwa pengasingan Bung Karno di Pulau Bangka.

Rakyat Pulau Bangka terus berdatangan Tua Muda, Laki Perempuan, Thong Ngin Fan Ngin semua bersatu menyambut kedatangan Presiden Sukarno. Ada rasa persatuan, kebersamaan, kebanggaan, antusiasme dan euforia kemerdekaan di dalam menyambut pemimpin tertinggi Republik Indonesia kala itu. Kemudian Bung Karno berkumpul dengan Bung Hatta yang sudah tiba lebih dulu untuk diasingkan di mentok, di Wisma Tambang Timah Bangka (TTB) di Gunung Manumbing. Bung Karno, Bung Hatta, Haji Agus Salim dan beberapa pertinggi Indonesia kala itu menjalani tahanan rumah di tempat pembuangan, di Gunung Manumbing, Mentok, Pulau Bangka. Di tempat pembuangan inilah Bung Karno tetap menjalani funginya sebagai Kepala Negera dengan segala keterbatasannya. Ia bertemu pula dengan berbagai pemimpin pergerakan, pemimpin organisasi Tionghoa Bangka, pemuda-pemuda pejuang, dan lain sebagainya. Kesan yang mendalam akan seorang Bung Karno, tergores dalam di hati sanubari Rakyat Bangka kala itu. Masyarif, Mat Amin, Tjhia Ka Tjong (Chia Ka Cong), Bung Karno, Bung Hatta, Haji Agus Salim semua sudah pergi, namun rasa persatuan, kebersamaan, kebanggaan, antusiasme dan euforia kemerdekaan masih ada di tengah-tengah orang-orang Bangka hingga kini.MEERDEKAAA



tahun 1946

Tan sekolah di SMP di Pangkal Pinang Hung Mung Suek Siauw sampai tamat.


Di sana belajar bahasa mandarin(tiap hari),bahasa Melayu(1xseminggu),berhitung,ilmu bumi,sejarah(Lie Se).

Sejarah Bangka yang dipelajari di SMP,sejarah Tiongkok,Sejarah Bangka tidak dipelajari.

Pada Masa Kolonial Belanda, ada belanda di Sung Hin sebagai pengawas(controleur) dan assisten r4esident di Pangkal Pinang.Waktu sekolah Di Pangkal Pinang tinggal tetap di sung Hin tiap pagi jam 4.00 pagi naik sepeda ke pangkal Pinang (jaraknya 8 km,ditempuh dua jam)







Bung Karno dibuang ke Mentok Gunung Manumbing Bangka



Tempat tersebut saat ini


Wisma Menumbing merupakan sebuah bangunan bersejarah saksi bisu perjuangan tokoh-tokoh proklamator Republik Indonesia puluhan tahun silam. Bangunan ini merupakan salah satu rumah pengasingan yang dibangun oleh Belanda untuk membatasi ruang gerak para tokoh kemerdekaan pada saat itu. Tidak ada data pasti kapan wisma/pesanggrahan Menumbing ini dibangun. Yang jelas bangunan ini dibangun oleh para pekerja rodi (pekerja paksa) pada masa penjajahan Belanda sekitar tahun 1927, sementara dari sumber lain menyebutkan komplek ini dibangun pada tahun 1890 dan sumber lainnya menyebut pada tahun 1932. Bangunan bersejarah ini berada di puncak Gunung Menumbing dan bangunannya berdiri di atas ketinggian 450 meter dari permukaan laut dan langsung menghadap selat Bangka. Bangunan ini merupakan aset sejarah yang harus terus dilestarikan, karena menjadi tempat pengasingan Presiden Soekarno dan para tokoh republik pada masa pemerintahan kolonial Belanda di tahun 1949.




Di atas lahan seluas dua hektar, bangunan ini berdiri tegak diketinggian 445 meter dari permukaan laut. Terdiri dari tiga bangunan, yakni bangunan utama yang terdiri 6 kamar dan dua paviliun terdiri 6 kamar dan 7 kamar. Disini lah tercetus ide oleh para tokoh pendiri republik ini untuk melakukan perundingan dengan belanda. Berdasarkan informasi tertulis dan terpajang di ruang 102 Wisma Menumbing, Soekarno dan sejumlah tokoh nasional lainnya dibawa ke tempat ini dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok atau rombongan. Rombongan pertama, Mohammad Hatta, Mr A.G. Pringgodigdo, Mr. Assaat dan Komodor Udara S Suryadarma yang diasingkan 22 Desember 1948 dari Yogyakarta. Kemudian rombongan kedua, Mr. Moh Roem dan Mr. Ali Sastroamidjojo yang diasingkan dari Yogyakarta ke Manumbing pada 31 Desember 1948. Dan rombongan ketiga, Bung karno dan Agus Salim juga diasingkan ke Bangka pada 6 Februari 1949 dari tempat pengasingannya semula di Kota Prapat, Sumatera Utara.




Untuk masuk ke dalam bangunan anda dipungut biaya sebesar Rp.2.500/orang. Di dalam bangunan tua tersebut pengunjung bisa melihat mobil VW (Volks Wagon)tua yang dikendarai Soekarno untuk berkeliling Mentok yang hanya tinggal body (kerangka) saja sedangkan mesinnya udah hilang. Selain itu juga terdapat tempat tidur sebanyak 2 buah yang didalamnya dilengkapi kamar mandi,2 buah kursi santai, 1 buah lemari pakaian dan sebagainya. Di luar kamar terdapat ruangan tempat Bung Karno menulis dan membaca.




Untuk menuju lokasi ini anda harus melapor lebih dulu di Pos 1 (Pintu Masuk) apalagi jika anda membawa mobil. Hal ini dikarenakan jalan yang sempit karena hanya bisa dilewati oleh satu kendaraan saja. Dengan mengendarai mobil atau sepeda motor maka waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai lokasi pengasingan Ir.H Soekarno sekitar 15 menit. Namun jika anda menempuh perjalanan dengan berjalan kaki,  maka dibutuhkan waktu perjalanan sekitar 1 jam lebih berarti waktu perjalanan pulang pergi memakan waktu sekitar 2 jam lebih. Bukan waktu yang singkat. Saya menyarankan lebih baik anda naik kendaraan untuk menuju puncak kecuali jika anda ingin benar-benar merasakan sejuknya hawa pengunungan.




Sang Presiden sendiri tidak lama berada di Bukit Menumbing karena kondisi tubuhnya yang tak tahan cuaca dingin pegunungan. Atas permintaannya, Bung Karno ditempatkan di tengah kota Mentok pada sebuah bangunan yang saat ini bernama Pesanggrahan Ranggam atau Wisma Ranggam. Bung Karno hanya menginap di Pesanggrahan Ranggam, namun kesehariannya boleh jadi lebih banyak di Wisma Menumbing. Sebelum kedatangan Bung Karno ke Wisma Menumbing terlebih dahulu di huni oleh tokoh lain, sebut saja Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta, Sekretaris Negara Pringgodigdo, Menteri Luar Negeri Agus Salim, Menteri Pengajaran Ali Sastroamidjojo, Ketua Badan KNIP Mr Assaat,Wakil Perdana Menteri Mr Moh Roem dan Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara Komodor Udara S Suryadarma. Bung Karno sendiri dibawa ke Bangka menggunakan pesawat pembom jenis B-25 memindahkan bung karno dari Sumatra Utara ke Bangka. Tak ada yang tahu persis seperti apa suasana para tokoh saat berkumpul di Menumbing. Hanya saja pilihan untuk menempuh konfrontasi dan perundingan dengan Belanda lahir di Menumbing.

Menjaga ruh sejarah itu memang penting, sebab di kawasan ini Bung Hatta membuat puisi akan arti penting Pulau Bangka bagi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Simak saja puisinya yang pernah terpahat pada lempeng besi yang sekarang ini tak tahu lagi ke mana rimbanya.

Di bawah sinar gemerlap terang cuaca
Kenang-kenang membawa kemenangan
Bangka, Djokjakarta, Djakarta
Hidup Pancasila, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika.

Hatta menuliskan kenangan tentang Menumbing sebagai bagian dari rasa terima kasihnya kepada masyarakat Bangka yang tak henti-hentinya menunjukkan dukungan kepada para pemimpin bangsa selama dalam pengasingan. Sayang rasa terima kasih itu terbuang sia-sia dengan tak terawatnya aset sejarah Wisma Menumbing oleh pemerintah setempat.



Tapi nilai sejarah Wisma Menumbing yang seharusnya menjadi perhatian utama pemerintah yang berkuasa saat ini malah tak lagi menjadi kebanggaan, Wisma Menumbing pernah di sewakan tahun 1996. Pemerintah Kabupaten Bangka, saat itu masih tergabung dengan Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, menyewakan bangunan bersejarah tersebut kepada PT Carmeta selama 15 tahun untuk dikelola sebagai hotel dan restoran. Wisma Menumbing pun berubah nama menjadi Hotel Jati Menumbing. Entah apa alasan Pemkab Bangka waktu itu, mengizinkan Wisma Menumbing tersebut disewakan. Sayang sekali aset sejarah itu pun dibangun menara sarana telekomunikasi dan stasiun pemancar siaran televisi. Secara tak sadar keberadaan menara itu jelas merusak lanskap keseluruhan situs bersejarah tersebut.
Namun aset sejarah ini jauh lebih berharga. Disinilah puluhan tahun silam para tokoh penjuang kemerdekaan RI itu selama kurang lebih sembilan bulan menghabisi waktunya.



in 1986

Name of the temple has been amended twice. in the Orde Baru era is named Amal Bhakti temple

 the front of the temples kwan tie miap being exposed to widening the road so that the front yard, front door and the wall back several feet. the altar remains intact and in the front is built into 2 floors.

 In 1991

 the back of the temple was changed into place of employee bed and kitchen.

Dated February 22, 1998

a fire destroyed all the buildings except the temple on the left side of the building,

after that the temple was rebuilt by an expert in the temple: Jamal. All restored and finished as the form now and

inaugurated on August 5, 1999

under the name

 Temple of Kwan Tie Miau.

Kwan Tie Miau

near by with the location of Pasar Mambo and Gang Singapur has changed as one of the place attractions the city Pangkalpinang as place of cultural tourism and shopping tourism.

This site attempted to china town (to remind the old faces Pangkalpinang city heavily influenced by the houses and temples china). and also serves as a center for celebrating the Lunar New Year (Imlek), celebrating Cap Go Meh, Sembahyang Rebut activities and activities of Pot Ngin Bun. Pot Ngin Bun activities is the only one ritual in the Temple of Kwan Tie Miau.






Bangka Travelling Informations

Legend story

Tradisi Perang Ketupat di Tempilang, Bangka

Perang Ketupat di Tempilang

Gendang panjang, gendang Tempilang/Gendang disambit, kulet belulang/Tari kamei, tari Serimbang,/Tari kek nyambut, tamu yang datang

Lagu Timang Burong (Menimang Burung) pengiring tari serimbang itu dilantunkan secara lembut.

Lagu itu, diiringi suara gendang dari enam penabuh serta alunan biola, untuk mengiringi gerak lima penari remaja yang menyambut tamu.

Dengan baju dan selendang merah, kelima penari menyita perhatian ribuan pengunjung yang memadati Pantai Pasir Kuning, Tempilang, Bangka Barat, Bangka Belitung.

Tarian yang menggambarkan kegembiraan sekumpulan burung siang menyambut kehadiran seekor burung malam itu merupakan pembukaan dari rangkaian tradisi perang ketupat,

 khas Kecamatan Tempilang, awal September lalu. Tradisi tersebut menggambarkan perang terhadap makhluk-makhluk halus yang jahat, yang sering mengganggu kehidupan masyarakat.

Tradisi itu sebenarnya sudah dimulai pada malam sebelum perang ketupat dimulai. Pada malam hari sebelumnya, tiga dukun Kecamatan Tempilang, yaitu dukun darat, dukun laut, dan dukun yang paling senior, memulai upacara Penimbongan.

Upacara dimaksudkan untuk memberi makan makhluk halus yang dipercaya bertempat tinggal di darat. Sesaji untuk makanan makhluk halus itu diletakkan di atas penimbong atau rumah-rumahan dari kayu menangor.

Secara bergantian, ketiga dukun itu memanggil roh-roh di Gunung Panden, yaitu Akek Sekerincing, Besi Akek Simpai, Akek Bejanggut Kawat, Datuk Segenter Alam, Putri Urai Emas, Putri Lepek Panden, serta makhluk halus yang bermukim di Gunung Mares,

yaitu Sumedang Jati Suara dan Akek Kebudin.

Menurut para dukun, makhluk-makhluk halus itu bertabiat baik dan menjadi penjaga Desa Tempilang dari serangan roh-roh jahat. Karena itu, mereka harus diberi makan agar tetap bersikap baik terhadap warga desa.

Pada upacara Penimbongan itu digelar tari campak, tari serimbang, tari kedidi, dan tari seramo.

Tari campak dilakukan dalam beberapa tahap dengan iringan pantun yang dinyanyikan secara bersahut-sahutan. Tari ini juga biasa digelar dalam pesta pernikahan atau pesta rakyat lainnya.

Tari kedidi lebih mirip dengan peragaan jurus-jurus silat yang diilhami gerakan lincah burung kedidi, sedangkan tari seramo merupakan tari penutup yang menggambarkan pertempuran habis-habisan antara kebenaran melawan kejahatan.

Seusai upacara Penimbongan, para dukun itu kembali mengadakan upacara Ngancak, yakni pada tengah malamnya. Upacara Ngancak dimaksudkan memberi makan kepada makhluk halus penunggu laut.

Diterangi empat batang lilin, dukun laut

 membuka acara itu dengan membaca mantra-mantra pemanggil makhluk halus penunggu laut, di antara bebatuan tepi Pantai Pasir Kuning, Tempilang. Nama-nama makhluk halus itu diyakini tidak boleh diberitahukan kepada masyarakat agar tidak disalahgunakan untuk kepentingan tertentu.

Seperti pada upacara Penimbongan, upacara Ngancak juga dilengkapi sesaji bagi makhluk halus penunggu laut. Sesaji itu dipercaya merupakan makanan kesukaan siluman buaya, yaitu buk pulot atau nasi ketan, telur rebus, dan pisang rejang.

Perang ketupat

Pagi harinya,

 seusai tari serimbang digelar, dukun darat dan dukun laut bersatu merapal mantra di depan wadah yang berisi 40 ketupat.

Mereka juga berdoa kepada Yang Maha Kuasa agar perayaan tersebut dilindungi, jauh dari bencana.

Di tengah membaca mantra, dukun darat tiba-tiba tak sadarkan diri (trance) dan terjatuh. Dukun laut menolongnya dengan membaca beberapa mantra, dan akhirnya dukun darat pun sadar dalam hitungan detik.

Menurut beberapa orang tua di tempat tersebut, ketika itu dukun darat sedang berhubungan dengan arwah para leluhur. Kenyataannya, setelah siuman, dukun darat menyampaikan beberapa hal yang tidak boleh dilakukan (pantangan) warga selama tiga hari, antara lain melaut, bertengkar, menjuntai kaki dari sampan ke laut, menjemur pakaian di pagar, dan mencuci kelambu serta cincin di sungai atau laut.

Setelah semua ritual doa selesai, kedua dukun itu langsung menata ketupat di atas sehelai tikar pandan. Sepuluh ketupat menghadap ke sisi darat dan sepuluh lainnya ke sisi laut.

Kemudian, 20 pemuda yang menjadi peserta perang ketupat juga berhadapan dalam dua kelompok, menghadap ke laut dan ke darat.

Dukun darat memberi contoh dengan melemparkan ketupat ke punggung dukun laut dan kemudian dibalas, tetapi ketupat tidak boleh dilemparkan ke arah kepala. Kemudian, dengan aba-aba peluit dari dukun laut, perang ketupat pun dimulai.

Ke-20 pemuda langsung menghambur ke tengah dan saling melemparkan ketupat ke arah lawan mereka. Semua bersemangat melemparkan ketupat sekeras-kerasnya dan berebut ketupat yang jatuh.

Keadaan kacau sampai dukun laut meniup peluitnya tanda usai perang dan mereka pun berjabat tangan.

Selanjutnya, perang babak kedua dimulai. Prosesnya sama dengan yang pertama, tetapi pesertanya diganti. Perang kali ini pun tidak kalah serunya karena semua peserta melempar ketupat dengan penuh emosi.

Rangkaian upacara itu ditutup dengan upacara Nganyot Perae atau menghanyutkan perahu mainan dari kayu ke laut. Upacara itu dimaksudkan mengantar para makhluk halus pulang agar tidak mengganggu masyarakat Tempilang.


Pergeseran budaya

Kentalnya pengaruh dukun dan dominannya aspek dinamisme dalam tradisi perang ketupat terjadi karena budaya ini merupakan warisan masyarakat asli Pulau Bangka yang belum beragama, atau sering disebut sebagai orang Lom.

Tidak ada yang mengetahui secara pasti kapan dimulainya tradisi ini. Namun, berdasarkan cerita rakyat, ketika Gunung Krakatu meletus pada tahun 1883, tradisi ini sudah ada.

Seiring dengan masuknya pengaruh Islam ke Bangka, tradisi tersebut pun mengalami beberapa perubahan cara dan pergeseran substansi. Meskipun tetap turut menonton perang ketupat, sebagian besar warga yang beragama Islam telah mengubah beberapa ritual menjadi bernuansa islami.

Perayaan yang dulunya difokuskan bagi roh-roh halus, kini sebagian ditujukan untuk mengenang arwah leluhur. Demikian pula dengan sesaji, diubah menjadi kenduri untuk dimakan bersama.

Puteri Malam Cerita Rakyat Bangka

Penggemar cerita rakyat mungkin akan mendapat kesulitan untuk menemukan cerita rakyat Pulau Bangka.

 Berbeda dengan cerita rakyat daerah lainnya seperti: Sunda, Jawa, Batak, Aceh, Sulawesi, yang sudah banyak diterbitkan. Baik dalam suatu kumpulan bersama antara cerita rakyat dari berbagai daerah maupun sendiri-sendiri.
Namun demikian penggemar cerita rakyat Pulau Bangka yang dikenal sebagai penghasil timah itu tidak perlu kecewa karena masih dapat ditolong oleh Proyek Penerbitan Buku Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Pada tahun 1983 Proyek ini pernah menerbitkan buku Puteri Ladang dan Puteri Malam yang ditulis oleh Amiruddin D (Dja’far) berisi cerita rakyat Bangka .

Dalam kata pengantar pengarang kita pun akhirnya mengetahui bahwa buku ini merupakan lanjutan penerbitan sebelumnya yakni Cerita-Cerita Purba dari P. Bangka yang ditulis oleh pengarang yang sama. Mungkin karena penerbitan dengan oplah terbatas kedua buku ini pun sukar ditemukan di tengah masyarakat.
Selanjutnya dalam tulisan ini kita mencoba melihat nilai budaya daerah dalam cerita rakyat Puteri Malam.
Puteri Malam mengisahkan Pak Raje seorang kepala desa yang memiliki sawah dan bertindak sewenang-wenang. Sawah yang ditanami padi yang sedang berbuah itu dimasuki beberapa ekor babi. Pak Raje meminta kepada Sang Penyumpit menjaganya dengan dalih orang tua Sang Penyumpit yang sudah almarhum pernah berutang kepadanya. Demi membayar utang orang tua Sang Penyumpit rela bekerja pada Pak Raje.

 Ketika menjalankan tugasnya Sang Penyumpit mendapat rezeki yang tak diduga sehingga kaya raya. Melihat ini Pak Raje juga ingin mengikuti jejak Sang Penyumpit namun nasibnya sial, Pak Raje mati. Untunglah kemudian Sang Penyumpit mau membantu sehingga Pak Raje pulih kembali. Di akhir cerita Pak Raje insaf akan perbuatannya.

Lalu menikahkan anaknya yang bungsu dengan Sang Penyumpit. Jabatan kepala desa pun diserahkannya kepada menantunya yang baik hati itu.
Tema cerita ini memperlihatkan bahwa orang yang jahat akan mendapat hukuman yang setimpal dan orang yang baik akan mendapat keberuntungan.

Sedang pesan atau amanat cerita adalah sebaiknya jangan berbuat jahat dan sewenang-wenang kepada orang lain.
Perlakuan jahat yang dilakukan Pak Raje pada mulanya ketika sawahnya dimasuki babi.

Dia memaksa Sang Penyumpit untuk mau menjaga. Agar Sang Penyumpit tak dapat menolak Pak Raje mengatakan bahwa pekerjaan ini sebagai ganti membayar utang ayahnya yang sudah almarhum.

Sang Penyumpit tak dapat menolak demi untuk melunasi hutang ayahnya dan inilah tanda ia berbakti kepada orang tua. Sang Penyumpit bekerja keras siang malam demi membela nama baik orang tuanya.
Tutur Amiruddin Ja’far dalam cerita Puteri Malam:
Sampai diladang ia pun membakar kemenyan minta restu dewa-dewanya, tak lupa ia memuja mentemau (dewa babi) agar suka menolongnya supaya babi-babi jangan dilepaskan memakan ladang Pak Raje.

 Jika malam telah menyungkupi alam ini, sunyi senyaplah perladangan itu, merondalah Sang Penyumpit kesegenap pojok ladang.

 Tiga malam belum kejadian apa-apa, demikianlah hingga tujuh malam berlalu. Siang hari ia harus bekerja di ladang menuai padi dan malam hari harus pula jaga hingga tubuhnya merasa lemas dan pucat. Kadang-kadang ingin ia beristirahat tapi mengingat ancaman Pak Raje terpaksa ia terus berjaga-jaga.
Kerja keras Sang Penyumpit diberi imbalan yang baik. Dalam cerita dikisahkan ketika babi memasuki sawah ia sempat menombak dan mengenai seekor babi. Ingin tahu Sang Penyumpit menelusuri ke mana babi itu lari lewat darah yang bercucuran.

 Tiba di sebuah desa dalam rimba itu ia akhirnya mengetahui yang terkena seorang puteri. Ibu puteri itu minta kepada Sang Penyumpit menyembuhkan sakit puteri.

Sang Penyumpit menolong puteri yang sakit. Nilai budaya menolong di sini digambarkan pengarang dalam cerita sebagai berikut:
Didekatinya gadis yang sedang sakit itu, dibukanya selimut yang menutupi kakinya.

Sang Penyumpit meneliti tampak olehnya suatu benda hitam mencuat, sedikit ditelitinya betul-betul nyatalah bahwa itu mata tombak. ”Bik, kuminta agar disediakan buluh seruas panjang sehasta, daun keremunting yang sudah ditumbuk banyaknya secupak”, kata Sang Penyumpit kepada ibu gadis itu……..
……………dicabutnya mata tombak yang terhunus , ….luka bekas cabutan ditutupinya dengan daun keremunting untuk penahan darah yang keluar.
Besok tentu ia sudah bisa berjalan-jalan kembali….
Di sini kita juga diberi informasi bagaimana mengobati orang luka dengan dedaunan obat yang tersedia di daerah itu.
Nilai budaya tolong-menolong dapat ditemukan juga dalam cerita rakyat ini, ketika Sang Penyumpit akan pergi meninggalkan desa puteri itu.

Sang Penyumpit yang telah menolong menyembuhkan puteri yang sakit diberi hadiah. Hal itu digambarkan pengarang sebagai berikut:
……tetapi sebelum anak pulang paman mau menyiapkan oleh-oleh guna kau bawa ke duniamu.
Inilah oleh-oleh dari dunia kami, ini bungkusan kunyit, ini bungkusan buah nyatoh, ini daun simpur, ini buah jering. Tapi kempat bungkusan ini jangan anakku buka sebelum sampai ke rumah. Supaya anak tidak mendapat kesulitan di jalan bakarlah dulu kemenyan ini.
Dalam cerita selanjutnya digambarkan ketika oleh-oleh itu dibuka dirumah Sang Penyumpit ternyata isinya bukan kunyit dan jering tetapi perhiasan emas, pemata intan berlian. Sejak itu tersiar kabar bahwa Sang Penyumpit telah menjadi kaya raya. Hutang ayahnya kepada Pak Raje pun segera dilunasi.
Mendengar pengalaman Sang Penyumpit yang akhirnya menjadi kaya raya, Pak Raje pun ingin meniru.

 Tapi sial ketika Pak Raje mengikuti jejak Sang Penyumpit dalam cerita dikisahkan mati.

Setelah mengobati anak gadis yang kena tombak itu Pak Raje tertidur.

Ketika bangun ia diserang berpuluh-puluh ekor babi yang besar-besar. Tubuhnya disobek-sobek.

Berita ini tersiar di desa Pak Raje. Puteri tua Pak Raje menyampaikan nasib ayahnya kepada Sang Penyumpit. Mendengar kabar ini Sang Penyumpit ingin segera menolong lebih-lebih ia sudah mengenal desa itu.

Sifat menolong dan jujur yang dimiliki oleh Sang Penyumpit merupakan nilai budaya daerah yang khas dalam cerita rakyat Puteri Malam.

 Hal ini tercermin dalam baris-baris yang disusun pengarang Amiruddin Ja’far sebagai berikut:
Dewa Matemau mengetahui bahwa anakku seorang yang jujur. Karena kejujuranmu itu, anakku dianiaya ataupun ditipu oleh sebangsamu di duniamu sendiri.

Sebat itulah Matemau pada mulanya melarang adik-adikmu ke tempat buah-buahan yang enak di ladang Pak Raje, kemudian Matemau memerintahkan supaya adik-adikmu datang lagi ke ladang.

Kami bertanya mengapa Matemau memerintahkan demikian? Katanya cucuku Sang Penyumpit harus ditolong karena dia sendiri ditipu oleh Pak Raje. Bagaimana caranya Sang Penyumpit menolong Pak Raje sehingga tubuhnya tak tersobek-sobek lagi dan hidup kembali?

Dikisahkan Sang Penyumpit menggunakan 7 helai daun. Lalu dia membakar kemenyan lalu menyebut, ada tangan, ada kaki. Semua anggota tubuh Pak Raje disebut. Terakhir diucapkan Pak Raje.
Digambarkan dalam asap mengepul Sang Penyumpit membacakan manteranya lalu tampak Pak Raje berusaha duduk.

Dia tampak menggosok-gosokkan matanya.
Pak Raje yang telah insaf dan mengaku bersalah digambarkan pengarang dengan kalimat sebagai berikut:
” Marilah kita pulang Sang Penyumpit segala kesalahankku kepadamu dan kepada rakyat segera kuminta maaf. Sesudah itu engkau kukawinkan dengan si Bungsu lalu aku akana mengundurkan diri, engkaulah akan menggantiku.

Marilah kita pulang agar kabar gembira ini segera kita laksanakan”.
Sesuai dengan janji Pak Raje pada saat yang telah ditentukan puteri Bungsunya dinikahkannya dengan Sang Penyumpit. Jabatan sebagai kepala desa pun diserahkan kepada menantunya yang baik hati itu.

Selanjutnya kedua insan yang baru menjadi suami isteri ini hidup berbahagia.***

Sekilas Sejarah Rebo Kasan

  1. I.                LATAR BELAKANG
  2. II.            Upacara Rabu Kasan setiap tahun diadakan di desa Air Anyer Kecamatan Merawang Kabupaten Bangka. Upacara ini merupakan tolak balak yang dilaksanakan tiap-tiap hari Rabu di bulan Syafar Tahun Hijriah.

Perkataan Rabu Kasan berasal dari kata Rabu yang terakhir (Bulan Syafar).

Menurut keterangan dari beberapa orang ulama, setiap tahun Allah menurunkan bermacam-macam bala lebih kurang 3.200 macam bala ke muka bumi ini pada hari Rabu terakhir di bulan Syafar, mulai terbitnya fajar sampai siang Rabu tersebut.

Maka setiap penduduk pada hari itu hendaklah hati-hati, karena pada hari itulah yang paling mudah dan paling banyak mendapatkan bala (bahaya).

Oleh sebab itu dianjurkan pada setiap penduduk yang ada berencana untuk mengerjakan pekerjaan yang berat-berat atau akan bepergian jauh sebaiknya diundurkan atau dibatalkan dulu sampai kira-kira pukul 02.00 siang, serta dianjurkan setiap penduduk pada hari itu sebaiknya berkumpul dan bersama-sama membaca do’a agar tersisih dari sekalian bala yang diturunkan Allah S.W.T pada hari itu.

Ada bermacam-macam cara dan pendapat mereka mengadakan upacara tolak bala tersebut.

Pada hari biasanya diadakan di ujung / batas kampung, masyarakat pergi beramai-ramai dan berkumpul di tempat upacara serta membawa makanan-makanan dan yang penting agi adlaah ketupat lepas yaitu ketupat tolak bala dan air wafak.

 Yang dimaksud dengan ketupat tolak balak yaitu ketupat yang dianyam sedemikian rupa yang mudah terlepas apabila bagian ujung dan pangkal daun yang dianyam itu ditarik. Dan ketupat ini tanpa isi.

Demikian juga Air Wafak yaitu air yang telah dicampur dengan air do’a wafak yang diambil dari ayat Al-Qur’an dan do’a ini ditulis di piring porselin yang putih bersih dengan tinta dawer dari Mekkah, kemudian piring yang bertulisan itu diisi dengan air bersih sampai tulisan itu terhapus dan bercampur dengan air tadi.

 Jika kita memerlukan lebih banyak, maka air ini boleh kita tambah sebanyak mungkin.


Pada waktu dahulu upacara ini diadakan di ujung atau perbatasan kampung, di sana mereka berkumpul tua, muda, laki-laki, permepuan setiap yang hadir telah membawa makanan-makanan, dan masing-masing membawa kerupat tolak balak yang telah disediakan masing-masing keluarga. Tetapi sekarang ini telah diadakan di masjid dan yang hadir cukup para lelaki saja, terutama bagi kepala keluarga.



  1. 1.    Sehari sebelum upacara Rabu Kasan diadakan, semua penduduk telah menyiapkan segala keperluan upacara tersebut seperti ketupat tolak balak, air wafak dan makanan untuk dimakan bersama pada hari itu.
  2. 2.  Tepat pada hari Rabu Kasan itu, kira-kira pukul 07.00 WIB semua penduduk yang akan mengikuti upacara telah hadir ke tempat upacara dengan membawa sedulang makanan, ketupat tolak bala sebanyak jumlah keluarga masing-masing. Setelah berkumpul semua sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah ditentukan baru acara segera dimulai.


  1. 1.    Pertama berdirilah seorang di depan pintu masjid dan menghadap keluar lalu mengumandangkan adzan.
  2. 2.  Lalu disusul dengan pembacaan do’a bersama-sama. Selesai berdo’a semua yang hadir menarik/melepaskan anyaman ketupat tolak balak yang terlah tersedia tadi, satu persatu menurut jumlah yang dibawa sambil menyebut nama keluarganya masing-masing.
  3. 3.  Setelah selesai acara melepaskan anyaman ketupat tolak balak tersebut baru mereka makan.
  4. 4.  Setelah makan bersama, lalu masing-masing pergi mengambil air wafak yang telah disediakan termasuk untuk semua keluarganya yang ada di rumah masing-masing.
  5. 5.  Setelah selesai acara ini mereka pulang dan bersilahturahmi ke rumah tetangga/keluarganya.
  6. 6.  Pada akhir-akhir ini banyak yang menggunakan kesempatan ini pada sore-sore harinya terutama bagi muda mudi mencari hiburan di Pantai Air Anyer. Bahkan sekarang ini makin banyak pengunjung yang datang dari luar kampung Air Anyer menyaksikan dan berlibur ke Pantai Air Anyer pada setiap tahun diadakan acara Upacara Rabu Kasan ini.


Demikianlah sinopsi Rabu Kasan ini dibuat, semoga berguna bagi kita untuk mengetahui sejarah kebudayaan yang ada di Pulau Bangka dan kita patut untuk menjaga dan kelestariannya.

Pesona Wista Pekak Liang Bangka




Palau Bangka


We went by dinghy (dinghied does not compute to the spell checker) to the village this morning to deliver a case of clothes kindly donated by Anglicare to the lady and group that Dianne met yesterday.

We included some Rid, Bushman and Insect repellent as one of their children had been suffering from considerable sandfly/bug bites.

Of course they were delighted and returned the favour with freshly cut green coconuts which are great to drink and the soft immature flesh delightful to eat – you really need to go troppo for a while to appreciate the value of the green coconut.

We went shopping at a couple of the ‘shoplets’ for eggs and a few extras and the village group wanted to see Charmar so they followed us back across the bay and came on board. It was great fun and we took and printed photos for them, which they absolutely enjoy, dined on chocolate bars and communicated well without language! Great fun.

On the way back to Charmar we had passed a fishing boat anchored only a short distance behind us and they called us over and presented us with a coconut just turning yellow, so we took them back a bottle of softdrink.

After the first visitors left they signalled they would like to come across so they have been on board for about three hours.

We have been playing with lures and fishing gear and they have taken away some spoons and lures and stainless wire and gear.

The youngest was 15 and there were three of them. They wouldn’t eat lunch but we are not sure whether they were Muslim and Ramaden they do not eat for this season as most people here are Budhist or Christian.

They really enjoyed getting off their rolly boat onto a stable platform for a while. They have a compass on their boat but the elder one and I guess the skipper was fascinated by the GPS Plotter and depthsounder! Winches and things on board generally they all wanted to check out.

There are many Chinese people in this village and one man who was visiting his brother here for holiday said to us it called China Town where we were.

 Of course relations between the Chinese and Indonesian have not always been cordial but here everyone seems to be living in harmony, and why not it is a delightful area with sandy beaches, coral reefs, surf beaches, comfortable accommodation, although the fishing village people were in stilt houses with basic huts and a common well. They were the nicest and most welcoming people.

But it is time for us to press on as Kirsty only has less than a week on her visa! So in an hour or so we will untie the boys on the prau behind us, they are still attached but are back on their boat, pull up a headsail and drift off north in the following breeze to see how far we can get overnight.

Talk to you then!

Behind the beaches
18/09/2008, Palau Bangka


This anchorage at Palau Bangka is great. There are permanent fish traps built in the sea outside this area where they put lights on at night, lower nets, take their catch. It seems people get left out on them to do the work. They are constructed of Bamboo in about 20 metres of water.

Back to the anchorage, palm tree lined beaches, shallow at about 5 metres, and interesting bays, rocky outcrops and long beaches of white sand. AND the beaches are relatively clean about as clean as most Aussie beaches, some thongs, bottles and the odd bit of flotsam but relatively clean.

Yesterday we went about 20 mins by dinghy to the local village. Not much English spoken here but a very large house on the beach and the owner took us through the house block, past the monkeys, chooks etc into the main street of the village.

People came out and spoke with us and one elderly man took us and very proudly showed us around a hotel they are building with accommodation, billiard room, cafe etc. Very interesting. From amongst this group we found out there were no markets in the village, we would have to go to the city! (Parang???) , no bemos or buses and a car was hard to get. One chap volunteered a motorcycle ride so I set off with instructions to buy fresh fruit and veges for both boats.

Off we went along first dirt roads , then bitumen track through villages and settlements across the island and sure enough 30 mins later we were in a significant town with a shopping street, market shops and a supermarket. Papaya, grapes, oranges, melon, lychees, apples, pears, etc were bought at the market shops and we visited the supermarket but didn’t buy, loaded up the scooter and headed back for the beach village.

Stopped at a roadside vendor and bought two pineapples and two cucumbers (much cheaper than the town prices) and headed off again with a very fully loaded scooter bottoming out on all the many bumps and potoholes!

We were back at the village in the hour and half. The boy who took me to town was a mechanic from Djakarta and he didn’t want anything for taking me in. Of course we did provide him a gift – it was great to top up the fruit and vege supplies and the Papaya (although expensive by local standards) are so rich and good to taste and BIG.

The village here is predominantly Budhist, but the boy who took me to town was proudly Christian. Many people appear to be of Chinese extraction. The houses are neat and tidy and well kept and furnished and it appears to be a very pretty and pleasant place to livel.

The village is a fishing village and Dianne and the others had been “talking” with the locals and making friends – we will take a suitcase of clothing back over this morning. We might also be able to buy some fish when the boats come back in this morning – goodness knows we seem to have no possibility of actually catching one here – and no wonder the way we fish is just plain lazy compared to the work they put into it.

There are maybe a hundred or so fishing boats tied up outside the village all fitted with strong lamps etc that go out fishing from here at night.

A very friendly and welcoming place.

Large fires on the island showered us with ash and soot last night which was a great shame as we were so pleased that the heavy rain squalls of a few nights ago had finally washed the last of the Darwin ash and dust off the boat! Now we are back where we started!

Time wise we could have gone up to see the Orang-u-Tans in Kalimantan but we are enjoying the easy days here and have really enjoyed this anchorage and a bit of swimming, snorkelling and exploring.

Late this afternoon we will probably head off for an overnighter to the next destination.





Fishermen and a whole community of people converted into illegal tin ore divers on the coast of Bangka Island, South of Sumatra, Indonesia.







Jalan-Jalan ke Pulau Bangka

Pagi terasa begitu menyenangkan, walaupun lelah telah menderu semalaman. Daypack pun menunggu di samping pintu kamar, tak sabar rasanya ingin lepas dari penatnya rutinitas.

Yeaay, pagi ini saya akan menuju ke Pulau Bangka. Acara tahunan kantor yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah Outing atau Kick-off Meeting.

Tak ingin mengulang kejadian tahun lalu dimana saya harus terburu-buru ditambah dengan perut melilit sepanjang perjalanan, pagi ini saya terpaksa harus berangkat lebih awal.

Di kegelapan pagi, saya bergegas menuju halte kampus UI, deretan Burung Biru siap mengantarkan saya menuju bandara. Beruntung, pak supir cukup sigap menghadapi kemacetan jalan raya. Yaaa.. walaupun telat untuk sarapan pagi bersama, setidaknya roti dan susu yang saya makan di tengah perjalanan, cukup untuk mengganjal perut sesampainya di Bangka.

10.45 CGK – PGK.



Waktu menunjukkan pukul 11.45, cuaca cukup bersahabat ketika kami tiba di

Bandara Depati Amir, Pangkal Pinang.

Rombongan kami yang berjumlah 25 orang disambut dengan hangat oleh pemandu wisata yang siap mengantarkan kami ke beberapa objek wisata di Pangkal Pinang.

Dengan menggunakan minibus, perjalanan wisata kami pun dimulai. Dian, seorang pemandu wisata yang akan memandu kami selama 2 hari kedepan mulai bercerita sepanjang perjalanan mengenai pulau Bangka. Dengan gaya bahasa yang lucu dan sedikit agak narsis,

Dian mulai menjadi sasaran empuk untuk menjadi bahan kecengan selama perjalanan. Lulusan Akuntansi Universitas Padjajaran ini lebih memilih bekerja di pemerintahan daerah dan menjadi pemandu wisata karena kecintaannya akan pulau Bangka. Hmm.. sepertinya kami memliki pemandu wisata yang mumpuni untuk mengenal lebih jauh mengenai pulau ini.

Menempuh waktu selama 30 menit dari bandara Depati Amir, akhirnya kami sampai di tujuan pertama,



 Pantai Pasir Padi.

 Pantai yang berjarak 7 Km dari Pangkal Pinang, ibu kota Propinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung ini merupakan tempat pertama yang kami kunjungi karena lokasinya yang masih berada di kota dan sangat mudah untuk dijangkau.

Hampir semua wisatawan yang tiba dari bandara Depati Umar, pasti mengunjungi Pasir Padi terlebih dahulu sebagai persinggahan pertama.

Keunikan Pantai Pasir Padi  adalah ombak yang tenang dan kontur pasir yang padat, putih dan halus. Kata Dian, saat air laut mengalami pasang surut, pantai ini bisa digunakan sebagai arena lomba balap motor.




Selain Pasir Padi, banyak pantai indah yang dimiliki oleh Pulau Bangka, seperti

 Pantai Parai, Tanjung Pesona, Pantai Matras, Pantai Rebo, Tanjung Ular, Tanjung Kalian, Air Anyir dan Romodong.

Waah.. bakalan nggak cukup 3 hari nih untuk menikmati semua wisata pantai. Istirahat di Pasir Padi kami manfaatkan untuk makan siang di

 Rumah Makan Biru Laut.

Setelah puas makan siang dan berfoto-foto, perjalanan pun kami lanjutkan kembali. Kali ini kami akan mengunjungi

Museum Timah.

Dalam perjalanan menuju Museum, Dian bercerita mengenai kondisi alam di Pulau Bangka yang saat ini kurang mendapat perhatian dari pemerintah daerah. Tampak oleh kami, beberapa tempat di pinggir jalan raya, banyak dijumpai bekas penambangan timah yang sepertinya ditinggal begitu saja.

Letaknya yang strategis di jalan raya Pangkal Pinang, membuat Museum Timah sangat mudah untuk ditemui, ditambah dengan kereta timah yang terpajang di depan gedung Museum, semakin menguatkan identitas dari sebuah Museum.

Sesampainya di Museum Timah, pemandu museum yang ramah dan penuh semangat menjelaskan kepada kami mengenai


sejarah penambangan timah di Pulau Bangka.

Semua peninggalan dan cerita sejarah tersimpan rapih di museum ini.







Museum yang dibuka sejak tahun 1997

ini menempati bangunan bekas rumah karasidenan zaman belanda. Sebelum menjadi museum, rumah ini merupakan rumah tempat tinggal karyawan perusahaan BTW ( Banka Tin Winning).

Dari museum ini kita bisa mengetahui kalau timah pertama kali digali di Pulau Bangka pada tahun 1709.

Pulau Bangka Belitung memang sangat terkenal dengan timahnya. Jadi, kalau anda ke pulau Bangka, anda wajib mengunjungi Museum Timah.


Tak ingin menyia-nyiakan waktu hari ini, kami meyempatkan diri mengunjungi pengrajin kain Ishadi Cual yang menjual pakaian dan kain khas Bangka. Letaknya berada di Jl. Ahmad Yani No. 46. Ishadi merupakan nama dari Isnawati dan Abdul Hadi (telah meninggal Januari 2006). Cual sendiri merupakan kain adat yang sudah berkembang sejak abad XVI di pulau Bangka, hanya saja masyarakat disini lebih mengenal songket palembang karena sebelumnya kepulauan Bangka Belitung masuk ke dalam propinsi Sumatera Selatan. Kain cual pada dasarnya adalah kain tenun seperti songket, dengan warna-warna yang cerah dan menyala, khas kain tradisional Melayu. Tak banyak yang bisa kami lakukan disini selain melihat-lihat beberapa hasil kerajinan kain cual.


Tempat berikutnya adalah

 Otak Otak Amui.

Kata Dian, disini adalah otak-otak terenak di pulau Bangka, walaupun yang saya rasakan sama aja dengan otak-otak yang saya beli di Jakarta, hanya saja variasi otak-otaknya lebih banyak. Sambil ngobrol santai dengan teman, hampir semua mengatakan “yang bikin enak sambelnya”. Yup, rasa otak-otaknya sih sama aja dengan kebanyakan otak-otak, hanya saja sambelnya yang membuat saya tidak bisa berhenti menguyah. Makan otak-otak disini belum lengkap rasanya kalu belum ditemani dengan

 es kacang merah.

 Anyway buswaaay, sepertinya ini tempat terlama yang kami kunjungi sebelum kami menuju ke hotel untuk beristirahat. Rombongan kami pun memesan otak-otak yang diantarkan di hari terakhir sebagai oleh-oleh.



Hanya 2 jam waktu yang bisa kami manfaatkan untuk beristirahat di kamar hotel.

Pada saat keluar hotel, minibus sudah siap mengantarkan kami. Kata Dian, kami akan makan malam di salah satu tempat makan yang wajib dikunjungi di pulau Bangka, namanya

 Rumah Makan Mr. Asui. 

 Mr. Asui terletak di tengah kota Pangkal Pinang, tepatnya di Yang Zubaidah. Dari plang nama yang kami lihat, kami kira rumah makan ini berada di pinggir jalan, ternyata kami harus memasuki sebuah gang untuk menuju tempat makan tersebut.

 Ada tiga rumah makan dalam satu deret rumah yang menyatu.  Mr. Asui berada di rumah kedua.


Lagi-lagi, kami disuguhi makanan laut seperti di Pasir Padi.

Hadir dihadapan saya,

buntut ikan tenggiri bakar, kepiting saus tiram dan cah kangkung. Kombinasi yang pas ditambah dengan cocolan sambal terasi khas bangka.

Makan malam di Rumah Makan Ashuy menjadi tempat wisata terakhir di hari ini. Satu kata untuk hari ini, kenyang


Malam mulai mengusik rasa ingin tahu saya mengenai kehidupan malam di kota Pangkal Pinang.

Setelah mencoba mengendap-ngendap dan mencari tahu dari beberapa pegawai hotel, akhirnya supir hotel mulai mengantarkan kami ke

 tempat karaoke di salah satu hotel

yang letaknya tidak jauh dari tempat kami menginap.

Dari luar, suasana begitu sepi. Tapi siapa sangka, begitu kami masuk, phiuuuhhh.. suara sayup-sayup musik mulai terdengar dan gadis-gadis berpakaian seksi berlalu lalang sambil menatap dengan senyuman nakal. Salah satu wanita mulai mengantarkan kami menyusuri lorong demi lorong. Wooow, belom pernah saya melihat tempat karaoke seperti ini.

Ruangannya lumayan besar dengan sofa kulit memanjang yang terlihat sobek disana sini. Beberapa lantai keramik terlihat pecah. Di pojok ruangan terdapat meja yang sepertinya mirip meja makan dengan beberapa bangku dan kamar mandinya yang jauh dari kesan terawat. Peralatan karaoke pun seadanya, televisi 50 inchi dengan monitor komputer CRT 14 inchi sebagai operator. Ya.. sudahlah.. nikmati saja.

Tidak puas kami mengunjungi Pasir Padi di hari pertama, kali ini kami akan mengunjungi


 Salah satu pantai terindah di Pulau Bangka.

Tapi sebelum menuju kesana, kami harus lebih dulu mengunjungi dua tempat wisata, yaitu

 Desa Gedong dan Phak Kak Liang.

 Perjalanan menuju Desa Gedong kami tempuh selama 2 jam dari Pangkal Pinang. Kendaraan hanya diijinkan untuk masuk sampai dengan Gapura.


Selanjutnya kami harus berjalan kaki untuk menyusuri tempat ini. Desa Gedong merupakan kampung Cina tertua di Pulau Bangka yang saat ini ditetapkan sebagai Desa Wisata.

Letaknya berada di wilayah Lumut, kecamatan Belinyu.

Warga di Desa Gedong adalah generasi penambang terakhir di Pulau Bangka. Kehidupan mereka rata-rata berdagang dan pembuat makanan khas Bangka seperti kerupuk, kemplang dan getas.


Di kampung inilah kami mengunjungi salah satu pembuat

 kerupuk getas,

makanan khas Bangka Belitung yang terbuat dari ikan tenggiri dan kerupuk kricu yang terbuat dari cumi-cumi. Sayang, kami tidak diijinkan untuk melihat langsung pembuatan kerupuk ini dengan alasan rahasia perusahaan.

Dari kampung inilah, kerupuk Getas dan Kricu didistribusikan ke seluruh Bangka. Sambil ngobrol-ngobrol dengan pemilik rumah, mulut ini sepertinya tidak mau berhenti menyicipi ‘kerupuk gratisan’. Alhasil, setiap orang  setidaknya membeli minimal 3 kerupuk untuk dijadikan oleh-oleh.



Tempat kedua yang kami kunjungi masih berhubungan dengan kebudayaan China, namanya Phak Kak Liang.




Phak Kak Liang, Belinyu



Phak Kak Liang merupakan tempat wisata yang dibangun di atas bekas penambangan timah. Lokasinya berada di kecamatan Belinyu.


Untuk menuju Phak Kak Liang, kami harus melewati penambangan timah. Di kanan kiri jalan, terlihat jelas sisa-sisa penambangan timah yang membentuk kubangan besar dan timbunan pasir yang tinggi.


Daya tarik lain bagi wisatawan disini yang tak kalah menariknya adalah ikan air tawar yang berada di danau ini. Pengunjung dapat memberi makan yang telah disediakan oleh penjaga setempat. Menurut cerita yang sampai saat ini masih diyakini, ikan-ikan yang ada di danau ini tidak boleh dipancing atau dimakan.


Perjalanan kami lanjutkan menuju pantai Parai. Perjalanan terasa begitu membosankan. Yang kami lihat sepanjang perjalanan hanya hutan, sesekali terlihat beberapa pemukiman penduduk dan penambangan timah.

 Pemandangan yang monoton membuat kami tertidur sepanjang perjalanan. Suasana yang tadinya riang dan penuh riuh canda, sekejap berubah menjadi sunyi senyap.

 Setelah satu jam kami lalui, tiba-tiba dari kejauhan terlihat pesisir pantai. Ahh.. Parai! Pantainya cukup terlihat indah dengan beberapa batuan yang menjadi tempat favorit kami untuk berfoto-foto. Parai menjadi penutup perjalanan wisata kami di pulau Bangka.





Tidak puas dengan pengalaman malam kemarin, kali ini saya mencoba menyambangi salah satu klub malam dan tempat billiard yang cukup terkenal di Pangkal Pinang. Hahaha… teteuuu. Saya dan teman-teman menghabiskan malam terakhir di tempat ini dan keesokan hari kami harus berkemas kembali dan bersiap menuju Jakarta.



Menariknya dari kegiatan ini begitu kental dengan kegiatan nilai budaya lokal dan pesona wisata yang menakjubkan di pulau Bangka. Tak kurang sekitar 500 peserta dari 31 propinsi dari seluruh Indonesia disuguhiatraksi dan keindahan bumi Sepintu Sedulang (red-sebutan untuk kabupaten Bangka).


Sejak pembukaan acara, peserta sudah disuguhi tari-tari khas daerah Bangka seperti tari Sambut Sepintu Sedulang, tabuhan Rampak Gendang Melayu, dan tari-tarian lain. Setiap hari lidah para peserta dimanjakan dengan makanan khas yang serta seafood. Bahkan ketika melakukan riset lapangan, interaksi dengan masyarakat lokal penambang, masyarakat etnis Tionghoa, dan Melayu menjadi kajian yang menarik untuk ditulis oleh para peserta.


Pengembangan pariwisata sebagai alternatif sumber penghasil selain penambangan pun ikut dicermati oleh para peserta. Lokasi penelitian untuk siswa ditempat di kawasan multi etnis dengan nilai budayalokal yang masih kental. Bahkan ibu bapak guru yang ikut mendampingi para peserta tak luput dari kegiatan workshop guru.


Workshop Guru memberikan pengalaman menarik untukpara tenaga pengajar dari seluruh Indonesia itu untuk melakukan riset sosial atau ilmu pengetahuan alam dengan lokasi di Pantai Matras, Pantai Parai Tenggiri, dan lingkungan multi etnis di perkampungan Pohin (Air Duren) Bangka.


Pantai Matras dan Pantai Parai Tenggiri menjadi representatif pantai-pantai di Bangka yang amat indah dan landai. Terletak disebelah timur laut Pulau Bangka dan berjarak sekitar 40 km dari Pangkalpinang atau 7 km dari kota Sungailiat. Pantai indah ini terkenal dengan nama Pantai Matras karena terletak di desa Matras, Kelurahan Sinar Jaya, Kecamatan Sungailiat, Kabupaten Bangka. Panjang pantai ini mencapai 3 km dan lebar 20-30 m yang dilatar belakangi pepohonan kelapa dan aliran sungai yang jernih dari daratan menuju laut. Sedangkan Pantai Parai Tenggiri karena keelokan pemandangan dan suasananya, sering menyebut pantai ini sebagai Pantai Surga.


Untuk wisata sejarah, field trip di Bangka Barat, tepatnya di Kota Muntok, tentu saja menjadi sangat menarik. Kota ini merupakan tanah tempat pengasingan para pemimpin bangsa di awal-awal kemerdekaan. Sejumlah nama seperti Ir. Soekarno, Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta, Sekretaris Negara Pringgodigdo, Menteri Luar Negeri Agus Salim, Menteri Pengajaran Ali Sastroamidjojo, Ketua Badan KNIP Mr Assaat,Wakil Perdana Menter iMr Moh Roem dan Kepala Staf Angkatan Udara Komodor Udara S Suryadarma pernah di tempatkan di Wisma Ranggam.


Pesanggrahan Muntok adalah nama asli Wisma Ranggam. Kata pesanggrahan diambil dari bahasa Sansekerta yang berartitempat peristirahatan atau penginapan. Wisma Ranggam dibangun pada tahun 1927 oleh Pemerintah Kolonial Belanda. Tempat ini dijadikan sebagai tempat peristirahatan pegawai perusahaan timah milik Belanda.


Didepan Wisma Ranggam berdiri kokoh sebuah tugu yang tak lekang dimakan zaman. Ditugu tersebut terdapat prasasti yang ditandatangani oleh Bung Hatta padatanggal 17 Agustus 1951. Isi tulisan tersebut adalah:

” Kenang-kenang Menoembingdi Bawah Sinar Gemerlap Terang Tjoeatja, Kenang-kenang membawa Kemenangan, Bangka, Djogdjakarta, Djakarta, Hidoep Pancasila, Bhineka Tunggal Ika”.

Lokasi berikutnya adalah sebuah pantai yang terletak di Kelurahan Tanjung,Kecamatan Mentok. Pantai ini terletak ±9 km dari Kota, di sini terdapat menaraatau Mercusuar yang dibangun pada tahun 1862. Dari puncaknya dapat disaksikan seluruh kawasan Pantai Mentok yang indah. Fungsi dari menara itu sendiri untuk melihat keluar masuknya kapal-kapal dari/ke Pelabuhan Mentok.



Bukan hanya itupara peserta pun berkesempatan untuk melihat proses peleburan timah di kawasan PELTIM muntok, bahkan beberapa kelompok berhasil mencapai puncak Menumbing. Menumbing bukan tempat asing dalam sejarah Bangsa ini. Sama seperti Wisma Ranggam, Kompleks Giri Sasana Menumbing menjadi tempat pengasingan tokoh-tokoh bangsa.

Berdasarkan informasi tertulis yang dipajang di ruang 102, Soekarno dan kawan-kawan dibawa ke tempat ini dibagi menjadi tiga kelompokatau rombongan. Rombongan pertama adalah Mohammad Hatta, Mr A.G. Pringgodigdo, Mr. Assaat, dan Komodor Udara S Suryadarma. Mereka datang ke tempat ini tanggal 22 Desember 1948 dari Yogyakarta. Rombongan kedua adalah Mr. Moh Roem dan Mr.Ali Sastroamidjojo, yang dibawa langsung oleh Belanda dari Yogyakarta ke Manumbing pada tanggal 31 Desember 1948 dan rombongan ketiga adalah Bung karnodan Agus Salim didatangkan ke Bangka pada tanggal 6 februari 1949 dari tempat pengasingannya Kota Prapat, Sumatera Utara yang berdekatan dengan Danau Toba. Mereka datang dengan pesawat Catalina yang mendarat di Muara Sungai Pangkalbalam.


Kegiatan perkemahan ilmiah yang berakhir di komplek dengan ketinggian 445 meter dari permukaan laut ini membawa berbagai macam perasaan, mulai dari rasa keperihatinan lingkungan, kekaguman, kebersamaan, dan wawasan baru tentang bumi Indonesia.


Pelabuhan Belinyu



Kapal-kapal dari luar Bangka berlabuh di Pelabuhan Belinyu sejak 2010. Sedangkan seblumnya di



palabuhan sungai Liat


Kota Sungai Liat sudah ada sejak masa hindia Belanda,saat kunjungan terakhir 2012,sempat berkunjung kesana,banyak orang oramg Tiomghoa dengan ekonomi lumayan,pekrjaan tersedia dan disini juga ada timah.Masa Pak harto dilarang tambang timah oleh rakyat, dan masa Gus Dur diizin tambang rakyat.

Tambang timah Rakyat di kota sungai Liat



Tanah disemprot dan dibuat sumur kira-kira empat meter dan ketemu pasir timah, sesudah itu disedot keatas ,dicuci baru ketemu timah dan timah diambil dan air limbah dibuang ketempat lain.

Pasir timah bias dijual pada pedagang antara, satu kg Rp.80.000.- .satu hari bias ditemukan berkisar dua puluh sampai tiga puluh kg.


Alat berat punya pemerintah dapat disewa swasta,satu jam Rp.300.000.-


Dua lelaki tanpa baju menggotong pipa paralon yang disembunyikan dari gubuk di samping kolong (lubang galian tambang). Badan kekar dan kulit coklat kehitaman yang terbakar matahari menandakan aktivitas sehari-hari mereka.

 Aktivitas tambang inkonvensional (TI) dan tambang rakyat (TR) mulai terdengar di Desa Sirna Jaya, Kecamatan Sungai Liat, Kabupaten Bangka, Provinsi Bangka Belitung.

Gemuruhnya makin terdengar ketika ekskavator dan pompa penyemprot air mulai bekerja di tempat pendulangan untuk memisahkan tanah dan menyisakan batu dan pasir timah.

Di tempat lain

di Gedung PT Timah Tbk, Pangkal Pinang,

enam perajin sibuk menggarap berbagai bentuk suvenir yang dibuat dari pewter. Ini adalah bahan olahan dari timah murni (97 persen), dicampur sedikit tembaga (2 persen) dan antimon (1 persen). Dengan alat sederhana, mulai dari gunting, kikir, solder, las, hingga mesin bubut, mereka memoles timah menjadi suvenir yang menarik.


Ke Belinyu , Melihat Kota Tua Timah

Sementara saya menampik tawaran mengunjungi Pantai Tanjung Bunga, Hutan Wisata TuaTunu, Kuburan Cina Sentosa, Katedral ST. Yosef, Kuburan Akek Bandang, Museum Timah Indonesia, Rumah Eks Residen, Perigi Pasem, Tugu Kemerdekaan, Kerhof, yang ditawarkan oleh dinas Pariwisata Bangka-Belitung lewat buklet bagi peserta Temu Sastrawan Indonesia II yang hendak melancong.

Bukan karena tempat itu tidak menarik, tapi saya ingin sesuatu yang beda.

Saya ingin mengunjungi objek wisata yang tidak terpromosikan. Berdasarkan pengalaman saya sebelumnya, tempat seperti itu kadang memiliki pesona yang tersembunyi.

Gayung bersambut!

Kebetulan ada yang  bertandang ke rumah di Belinyu.

Bersama rombongan , saya menumpangi bus Damri yang disediakan oleh dinas Pariwisata negeri Timah itu.

Selama perjalanan dari Pangkalpinang ke Belinyu, saya pergunakan untuk melihat daerah yang dilintasi dari kaca bus yang melaju dalam angin petang.

Beberapa kali saya tertegun, setiap kali melihat bekas-bekas lubang tambang timah yang ditinggalkan dan terbengkalai. Dan pohon-pohon yang tidak seramai laiknya di tepi Lintas Sumatera, berjajar rapat menatap bus yang melintas.

Duh, kegersangan yang menciptakan kesedihan. Tapi saya musti melihatnya.

Melihatnya sebagai pelancong yang hanya bisa bertanya “kenapa?” tanpa menemukan jawaban yang memuaskan. Sebab tidak ada guide dalam rombongan kami selama perjalanan di bus itu.

Diam-diam, kami seperti bersepakat menjadi guide bagi diri kami sendiri. Seperti sengaja menciptakan pertanyaan-pertanyaan bagi diri kami sendiri dan dijawab oleh diri kami sendiri.

Tak terasa lebih kurang 3 jam, bus itu mengantarkan kami ke kota kecamatan Belinyu.

Sebuah kota tua yang didirikan karena pertambangan timah.

Kami disambut deretan bangunan-bangunan tua dan ruko-ruko yang sebagian besar tutup.

Padahal baru jam 5 sore. Lagi-lagi saya didera pertanyaan “kenapa?”
Karena tidak tahan, saya pun bertanya , “Kenapa ruko-ruko di sini tutup?”

“Ternyata di sini orang-orang berdagang cuma sampai jam 4 petang,”

 Lalu ia mengajak saya masuk ke rumahnya, menyusul yang lain. Di depan pintu, saya disambut oleh Mama Sunlie yang berumur sekitar 60-an dan ramah.

 Ia Menyapa saya dalam bahasa Cina Hakka.

Saya cuma bisa memberi senyum, lantaran tidak faham bahasa Hakka itu.

“Mama saya tidak bisa ngomong dengan bahasa Indonesia,” ucap Sunlie.

Di Belinyu sekitar 30 persen penduduknya adalah Cina Hakka.

 Dalam sejarah Cina perantauan (Overseas Chinese) ke Asia Tenggara, setidaknya dikenal 5 kelompok besar yang datang dan menetap, yaitu Hokkian,Hakka, Tiochiu atau Hoklo, Kanton, dan Hailam.


Kelompok Hokkian dan Tiochiu dikenal sebagai kelompok pedagang,

 Kanton sebagai kelompok pengrajin dan tukang kayu.

Hakka sebagai pekerja tambang dan perkebunan.

Dalam sejarah, Hakka adalah kelompok terakhir yang datang ke Indonesia . Mereka datang berombongan untuk dipekerjakan sebagai kuli tambang dan perkebunan.

Kedatangan Hakka pertama adalah ke Mandor dan Montrado, pertambangan emas yang dikonsesi oleh Sultan Mempawah dan Sambas, Sekitar awal tahun 1700, mereka didatangkan dalam jumlah besar melalui Serawak.

Ketika tambang timah di Bangka di buka sekitar pertengahan tahun 1700, yang disusul kemudian di Belitung, beratus-ratus orang Hakka dikapalkan ke Bangka. Dan terus berlanjut hingga pertengahan tahun 1800. Rata-rata didatangkan dari Meixien. Mereka datang tanpa membawa istri. Ketika kontrak habis hanya ada dua pilihan, kembali ke Cina atau menetap di sekitar lokasi tambang. Bagi mereka yang tidak pulang membuka permukiman di Bangka, seperti di Belinyu.

Putusan untuk menetap diikuti dengan mengambil wanita setempat sebagai istri. Arsitektur permukiman mereka telah berbaur dengan budaya setempat. Namun yang masih terlihat menonjol adalah banyaknya tapekong (tempat pemujaan besar kecil dalam permukiman itu).

Berbagai perayaan besar dalam tradisi Cina masih mereka lakukan. Sembahyang Imlek masih dirayakan dengan ketat, seperti pantangan menyapu pada hari Imlek, saling memberi Angpau, perayaan Cengbeng atau Cingming (perayaan bersih kubur leluhur). Begitu pula dengan Cioko atau sembahyang rebut, masih dilakukan.

Yang tak kalah menarik, di Belinyu memiliki tradisi mengadakan pembakaran Taiseja. Dalam perayaan itu juga disertakan berbagai replika alat transportasi seperi kapal laut, kapal terbang, dan sebagainya. Menurut Sunlie, itu disediakan bagi arwah-arwah orang Cina yang hendak pulang ke negeri leluhur. Sayangnya, saya tidak datang pada saat perayaan itu berlangsung.

Namun, jalan-jalan melewati rumah-rumah kuno beraksitektur campuran Melayu-Cina-Belanda, pedagang buah-buahan, martabak Bangka, Sate Madura, Warung Pecel Lele, Bakso Solo, Ampera Padang, Otak-otak Bakar, Mpek-mpek, di bawah cahaya bulan malam itu menciptakan nuansa eksotis. Apalagi kelengangan memberikan kedamaian tersendiri. Jauh dari suasana kota metropolis yang hiruk-pikuk.

Kapitan Bongkap, Benteng Kutopanji, Kelenteng Liang San Phak

Merasakan malam pertama di kota Belinyu dengan listrik yang mati hingga subuh.

Karena listrik bermasalah. Sebagian jaringan Listrik dilayani PT Timah karena PLN kekurangan jaringan. PLTU Mantung dekat pelabuhan Belinyu, yang pernah dibilang terbesar di Asia Tenggara, sudah lama tidak berfungsi.

Pun PLTD di Baturusa, setali tiga uang. Sama saja.

PT Timah akhirnya menjadi pemasok listrik tanpa meteran, dengan sistem borongan. Tapi layanannya masih mengecewakan, listriknya sering padam.

“Bangun! Lihat ke bawah,” ujar Raudal membangunkan saya dari tidur.

Dari beranda lantai atas rumah Sunlie, saya melihat ke bawah. Ada bus-bus umum ngetem di depan rumah Sunlie. Bus-bus itu sangat antik. Bodinya terbuat dari kayu yang dilapisi seng. Ada tangga menuju bagasi berpagar besi di atap bus itu. Saya jadi ingat waktu kecil dulu, bus keluaran tahun 1970-an macam itu pernah saya tumpangi bersama Papa dari Padang ke Bukittingi pertengahan tahun 1980-an.

“Sungguh kota tua yang masih menyimpan masa lalunya,”

bisik saya pada pagi yang mulai menggeliat bersama pedagang-pedagang yang membuka pintu tokonya.

Pukul 10 pagi, saya beserta rombongan melancong ke luar kota dengan mobil rental kijang Inova.

Berdesakan memang, karena mobil itu dinaiki ramai-ramai Tapi suasana riang bikin yang sempit jadi lapang.

Menempuh jarak 2 kilometer dari pusat kota Belinyu, sampailah kami di

Benteng Kutopanji atau Benteng Bongkap,

terletak di kampung Kusam. Kekokohan sisa-sisa bangunan Benteng berwaran hitam keabuan—terbuat dari tanah liat yang dibakar—yang dibangun sekitar 1700 oleh Kapitan Bong atau Bong Khiung Fu , membuat saya terpesona. Meski yang saya jumpai sekarang adalah sisa-sisa dan kisah tentang Kapitan Bongkap, saudagar Cina yang kaya raya dan seorang pelarian politik.

Kami masuk ke dalam benteng, menemukan dua makam dengan arsitektur Cina di bagian paling belakang Benteng itu. Yang terbesar adalah makam Kapitan Bong bertahun 1700 dan dipugar pada tahun 1973, di belakangnya di atas tebing adalah makam pengawalnya. Namun itu adalah replika makam Kapitan Bong, tapi tetap dihormati oleh masyarakat setempat. Karena sebenarnya, Kapitan itu meninggal di Malaysia dan Benteng Kutopanji jatuh ke tangan perompak Moro, Filipina. Kemudian kami singgah ke Kelenteng Liang San Phak yang berdampingan dengan Benteng Kutopanji di sisi barat.

Kelenteng Liang San Phak, sebenarnya merupakan bagian dari Benteng Kutopanji yang juga didirikan oleh Kapitan Bong. Aroma Hio menyambut kami. Nur Zen Hae, Risa Syukria, Kedung Darma Romansah, dan Dahlia, mencoba bergantian mengadu peruntungan dan ramalan nasib dengan membakar Hio di depan patung Thai Pak Kong (Paman Besar) bernama Liang San Phak dan patung istrinya, yang dibawa langsung oleh Kapitan Bong dari negeri leluhurnya. Patung ini pada tanggal 15 bulan ketujuh penanggalan Cina, diarak mengelilingi kota Belinyu sebagai prosesi sembahyang rebut.

“Ini Klenteng Dewa Bumi atau Tapekong.

 Menurut agama Konghucu, Klenteng Tapekong ini untuk tempat bersembahyang dan meminta agar rezeki banyak dan keselamatan,” ujar Fujianto alias Afu (35), salah seorang pengurus Klenteng.

Saya ingin bertanya lebih banyak lagi pada Afu yang ramah itu. Tapi karena waktu yang tidak memungkinkan, perjalanan musti dilanjutkan.

Pha Kak Liang

Setelah melewati jalan tanah berdebu, dan sesekali bertemu pula dengan bekas tambang timah yang ditinggalkan, sampailah kami di gerbang utama Pha Kak Liang yang bernuansa Cina. Makin ke dalam, arsitektur Cina itu makin terasa. Seperti demarga, rumah peristirahatan, gazebo, semuanya berornamen Cina.
Pha Kak Liang adalah sebuah objek wisata tirta yang dibangun di atas bekas tambang timah (kolong). Terletak 10 Kilometer dari kota Belinyu.

Keheningan dan kedamaian begitu terasa di tepi telaga seluas 3,5 hektar yang ditumbuhi pohon cemara dan akasia. Pemiliknya tiga orang etnis Cina bersaudara, dan menjadikannya sebagai villa peristirahatan, yang tetap terbuka untuk umum.

Sayangnya, kurang terawatnya Pha Kak Liang membuat objek wisata degan telaga berisi ribuan ikan emas yang hidup bebas itu tampak sedikit suram.

Tapi bagi pecinta suasana sunyi, Pha Kak Liang memberikan itu. Dan semakin lama akan makin terasa. Namun, lagi-lagi perjalanan musti dilanjutkan.

Pantai Penyusuk

“Lihat pohon-pohon yang memeluk batu itu!” Kalimat Raudal yang puitis itu seperti memberi tahu bahwa kami telah memasuki gerbang pantai Penyusuk.

 Ya, di kiri-kanan jalan memasuki area pantai tampak beberapa batu besar yang di sekilingnya di tumbuhi pohon-pohon.

Hamparan pantai yang landai dan ditumbuhi batu-batu besar menyambut kami. Beberapa perahu nelayan tertambat. Ombaknya tenang karena di depannya ada pulau cukup besar yang menjadi tameng. Sedang pulau kecil di sampingnya, berdiri menara suar yang tampak sebesar pohon nyiur melambai dari tempat saya berdiri.

Amboi! Negeri rayuan pulau kelapa, alangkah eloknya.Saya tidak sabaran ingin menceburkan diri. Mandi-mandi di laut jadi kanak-kanak ria kembali. Hilang sejenak segan pada usia.Namun Risa Syukria meminta saya untuk menemani dia mengambil air wudhu. Inilah perkaranya, ternyata kamar mandi umum dikunci. Penjaganya entah kemana.

Memang pantai Penyusuk sepi, jauh dari pedagang yang mata duitan. Akhirnya, kami menemukan berbungkus-bungkus air minum tergeletak ditinggalkan pemiliknya di atas sebuah batu besar.Jadilah Risa sholat dan saya pun mandi menceburkan diri ke laut menyusul yang lain, yang telah dulu bermain dengan air garam yang jinak itu. Tak lama berselang, Risa pun menyusul.

Cuma Kedung Darma Romansah dan Pak sopir yang tidak mau membasahi tubuhnya dengan air laut di pantai yang tenang itu. Entah kenapa. Setelah puas mandi-mandi. Main pasir pantai yang putih. Duduk-duduk dari satu batu ke lain batu. Rombongan sastrawan itu memutuskan untuk pulang.

Matahari sudah mulai mendekati ubun-ubun laut, beberapa jam lagi bakal angslup. Cuaca cerah. Tentu saja sunset akan terlihat terlihat sempurna di pantai barat ini. Namun apa hendak dikata, pertemuan matahari dan laut yang menciptakan cahaya emas itu, tak bisa saya saksikan.

Kami pun pulang dengan tubuh yang belum dibilas dari air laut karena penjaga kamar mandi umum itu tidak juga datang.

Sesampai di jalan Depati Amir, saya dan Risa Syukria yang juga reporter TV Siak, memutuskan turun dari mobil. Kami ingin berjalan kaki berdua menuju rumah Sunlie di jalan Sriwijaya yang jaraknya sekitar 500 meter dari tempat kami turun. Sedang yang lain terus pulang dengan mobil.

Kami turun dari mobil itu bukan karena ngambek, tapi ingin melihat lebih dekat rumah-rumah arsitektur Belanda yang dihuni pegawai timah di bawah gelimang cahaya senja. Ya, sepanjang

 jalan Depati Amir itu berjajar bangunan-bangunan lama.

 Sayang sebagian sudah tidak terawat lagi. Padahal bangunan-bangunan itu merupakan jejak langkah dari perjalanan kota timah itu.

Menurut Ibrahim (52), salah seorang karyawan pertambangan timah yang kami temui di salah satu rumah kuno itu, dulunya rumah-rumah di kawasan jalan Depati Amir itu adalah kawasan elit yang ditempati oleh pegawai teras atas pertambangan timah, dibangun pada tahun 1928.

Sejak menipisnya cadangan timah di Belinyu, rumah-rumah itu dihuni campur aduk antara karyawan biasa dan pegawai menengah. Bahkan sebagian rumah tidak dihuni lagi dalam kondisi yang mengenaskan, pintu dan jendela yang copot, serta dindingnya kumuh penuh coretan.

“Kota yang aneh. Tidak seperti kota-kota lain yang pernah saya datangi. Selama di sini, belum pernah saya lihat ada ABG nongkrong bersama menghabiskan petang. Bagaimana ya orang-orang hidup dalam kelengangan ini?” ucap Risa, dara rancak asal Minang ini, di jalan menuju ke rumah Sunlie—selepas jalan Depati Amir.

“Kota ini membuat Ngai Oi Ngi!” ujar saya memakai sekerat bahasa Hakka yang saya pelajari dari Sunlie.

“Apa itu Ngai Oi Ngi?” tanya Risa.

“Aku Mencintaimu!”


Matras Beach

The beach is located in Matras Village, Sinar Jaya Urban Village of Sungailiat District, or at the northern east area of Bangka Island. The beach has sloppy beach with white sand beautiful panorama. The beach spand 3 km long and 20-30 m wide. The beach has palm plant background and natural river flow generally called as Heaven’s Beach and is the most visited beach in Bangka Regency.

Tanjung Pesona Beach

Located in Rambak Village, Sungailiat District about 9 km from the city of Sungailiat. The beach is located in between Teluk Uber Beach and Tikus Beach. This beach has open sea panorama over the bay and has also been completed with tourism facilities including 3 stars rated hotel.

Parai Beach Resort

The beach is located in Matras Village , Sinar Jaya Urban Village of Sungailiat District. This beach has been completed with various tourism facilities, including four stars rated hotels and other leisure facilities.

Batu Bedaun Beach

Located in Kampung Bukit Kuala, Sinar Jaya Urban Village of Sungailiat district. This beach is quite unique, situated side by side with Parai Tenggiri Beach marked with a tree grows out of rocks..

Rebo Beach

Some beautiful hills make some tourist from other side come to this beach.

Tikus Beach

Tikus beach is located in Rebo Village, Kenanga Urban Village, Sungailiat District. Tikus beach still preserve its naturality and much visited by tourism. The coast is decorated with smooth white sandand is indeed very attractive for tourist enjoy.

Teluk Uber Beach

Located in Rambak Village, Srimenanti Urban Village of Sungailiat District. The area of this beach reaches 25 ha with beautiful panorama and white sand equipped with hotel facilities.

Romodong Beach

The location is in Belinyu area , north Bangka 77 km from Sungailiat. In this beach the tourists can see a sunset fenomenal. Because this location is face to west. All beach have 4 km distance. If we go to this beach we can see white and soft sand here. this beach have a pure water like crystal.

Penyusuk Beach

The natural and sloppy beach is marked by the clarity of its water surrounded by exotic isles where sea-turtle lays its eggs. The beach is located in Bukit Ketok Village, Belinyu district, about 77 km from Sungailiat

Air Anyir Beach

This sloppy beach decorated with unique rock formation is the center Rebo Kasan Ritual, located in Air Anyir Village, Merawang District about 15 km from Sungailiat.

 the end @ copyright XDr Iwan 2012


Indonesia Colonial Govenor General Historic collections(Gunermur Jendral Kompeni)

Indonesia Colonial Gouvenor General

Historic collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012


  Gouvenuer Gebernur Jenderal Indonesia Masa Kolonial Belanda  

Koleksi bersejarah

Dibuat Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012


Het Paleis het interieur van van de Gouverneur-Generaal di Nederlands Indië-di Buitenzorg

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan tahun-tahun pelayanan mereka

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda mewakili pemerintahan Belanda di Hindia Belanda antara 1610 dan pengakuan Belanda kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1949.

Yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal yang diangkat oleh Belanda East India Company (VOC). Setelah VOC resmi dibubarkan pada tahun 1800, [1] harta teritorial VOC dinasionalisasi di bawah Pemerintah Belanda sebagai Hindia Belanda, sebuah koloni Belanda. Gubernur-Jenderal ditunjuk oleh pemerintah Belanda.

Di bawah kendali Inggris periode (1811-1816), posisi setara adalah Letnan-Gubernur, di antaranya yang paling terkenal adalah Thomas Stamford Raffles. Antara 1942 dan 1945, sementara Hubertus Johannes van Mook nominal Gubernur Jenderal, daerah itu di bawah kontrol Jepang, dan diatur oleh urutan dua gubernur, di Jawa dan Sumatera. Setelah 1948 dalam negosiasi untuk kemerdekaan, posisi setara bernama Komisaris Tinggi Mahkota di Hindia Belanda.

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal
Perusahaan India Timur Belanda

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda (1610-1709)

1610-1614: Pieter Both

Pieter Both
Artikel ini adalah tentang yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Untuk gunung bernama setelah dia, melihat Pieter Both (gunung).

Pieter Both
Potret Pieter Both
1 Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
Di kantor
19 Desember 1610 – 6 November 1614
Didahului oleh
 Tidak ada
Digantikan oleh
 Gerard Reynst
Pribadi rincian
Amersfoort, Belanda Republik
 6 Maret 1615
Samudera Hindia (dekat Mauritius)

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 Maret 1615, Mauritius) adalah Gubernur Jenderal-pertama dari Hindia Belanda.

Tidak banyak yang diketahui dari awal tahun. Pada 1599, Keduanya sudah menjadi admiral di Perusahaan Baru, atau Brabant. Pada tahun itu, ia melakukan perjalanan ke Hindia Timur dengan empat kapal. Ketika Belanda baru didirikan East India Company membentuk pemerintah untuk Hindia Belanda, Pieter Both diundang untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal. Dia memegang posisi itu dari 19 Desember 1610 to 6 November 1614. Selama periode itu ia menyimpulkan kontrak dengan Maluku, menaklukkan Timor, dan mengusir Spanyol dari Tidore.

Setelah ia melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Gerard Reynst, ia berangkat ke Belanda dengan empat kapal. Dua kapal itu terdampar dekat Mauritius, dan Pieter Keduanya tenggelam.

Gunung tertinggi kedua Mauritius bernama Pieter Both setelah dia.


1614-1615: Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst


Potret Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, -? Jakarta, 7 Desember 1615) adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, ayah dari seorang kurator museum, dan kemudian yang kedua Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Semua yang diketahui dari tahun-tahun awal adalah bahwa ia lahir di Amsterdam, putra Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), boiler sabun, dan Sijverts Trijn. Pada 1599 ia menjadi pedagang dan pemilik kapal, serta pendiri-anggota dan administrator dari Nieuwe Compagnie atau Brabantsche yang, pada tahun 1600, menjadi Perusahaan Vereenighde Amsterdam. Perusahaan ini kemudian pada tahun 1602 bergabung ke Belanda East India Company (VOC).

Atas permintaan penatua di perguruan tinggi Heren XVII (17 pria), ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1613 dan meninggalkan dengan 9 kapal. Perjalanan berlangsung 18 bulan, setelah itu ia mengambil alih perintah dari Pieter Both. Dalam perjalanan, dia telah mengirimkan salah satu kapal ke Laut Merah untuk memulai hubungan perdagangan dengan orang Arab di sana. Ia meninggal lebih dari setahun setelah tiba, setelah tertangkap disentri sehingga dia bisa melakukan sedikit di sana, selain beberapa kegiatan kecil yang hanya sesekali berhasil.


1615-1619: Laurens Reael
Laurens Reael


Laurens Reael (1620 ca.)

Dr Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 Oktober 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 Oktober 1637) adalah seorang karyawan dari VOC, Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1616-1617 dan laksamana dari angkatan laut Belanda 1625-27.

[Sunting] Kehidupan awal
Laurens Reael adalah putra Laurens Jacobsz Reael, seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama setelah tanda atau batu atap pelana dari rumahnya / toko Di ruang Gouden Reael (“Di Real Emas”) dan seorang penyair amatir yang dikenal untuk menulis Geuzenliederen (lagu dari geuzen). Lingkungan Amsterdam Gouden Reael dinamai rumah kelahiran itu Laurens Reael, melalui gudang (1648) kemudian dari keluarga Reael pada Zandhoek yang berubah menjadi penginapan populer. Laurens Jr memiliki bakat akademis, yang mahir dalam matematika dan bahasa. Dia belajar hukum di Leiden, di mana ia tinggal di rumah Jacobus Arminius yang telah menikah kakak nya Lijsbet Reael tahun 1590. Laurens menerima gelar doktor pada 1608.

[Sunting] Hindia
Pada Mei 1611 ia meninggalkan sebagai commandeur dari empat kapal untuk Hindia Timur. Dia segera meniti karier untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal ketiga pada tahun 1616, di mana ia ditempatkan di kantor pusat VOC, pada waktu itu di Ternate di Maluku. Tahun itu ia secara pribadi bisa menyambut baik Joris van Spilbergen (Maret 30) dan Le Maire Schouten & (September 12) pada kedatangan masing-masing di Ternate dari Belanda melalui Selat Magellan dan Cape Horn. Dia tidak menyadari bahwa VOC telah memerintahkan kapal Le Maire Schouten & untuk menjadi disita untuk pelanggaran dugaan monopoli perdagangan ke Kepulauan Rempah.

Sudah setelah satu tahun, pada tanggal 31 Oktober 1617, Reael mengundurkan diri menyusul perselisihan dengan pimpinan VOC (XVII Lords) pada pengobatan kedua pesaing Inggris di Maluku dan orang-orang pribumi. Para ahli hukum Reael hanya akan mengambil tindakan melawan Inggris jika hukum internasional akan memungkinkan itu dan telah berulang kali memprotes terhadap serangan terhadap penduduk asli. Dia, seperti Laksamana Steven van der Haghen lokal, berpendapat bahwa tujuan VOC harus dicapai hanya melalui rute komersial dan diplomatik. Dalam laporan resmi kepada Staten Generaal dan Lords VOC XVII sekembalinya ke Belanda dia membuat poin ini lagi sangat jelas.

Ini akan mengambil bagaimanapun sampai 21 Maret 1619 sampai Jan jelas kurang damai Pieterszoon Coen akan menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, sebelum waktu Reael yang telah berperang melawan Spanyol pada tahun 1617 di Teluk Manila, bahasa Inggris di Banten dan di Maluku, dan Kesultanan Mataram di Jepara di Jawa


1619-1623: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
 8 Januari 1587 (1587/01/08)
Hoorn, Belanda, Republik Belanda
 21 September 1629 (1629/09/21) (umur 42)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 Gubernur kolonial

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 Januari 1587 – 21 September 1629) adalah seorang petugas Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada awal abad ketujuh belas, memegang dua istilah sebagai Gubernur Jenderal-nya Hindia Belanda.

Dia sudah lama dianggap sebagai pahlawan nasional di Belanda, untuk memberikan dorongan yang mengatur VOC di jalan untuk dominasi di Hindia Belanda. Sebuah kutipan nya dari 1618 yang terkenal, “adalah Keputusasaan tidak, Anda tidak cadang musuh, karena Allah bersama kita”. Sejak paruh kedua abad ke-20 ia telah melihat dalam cahaya yang lebih kritis, karena beberapa orang sering melihat-Nya berarti kekerasan telah berlebihan.

Coen dikenal pada masanya pada rekening pemerintahan yang ketat dan kritik pedas dari orang-orang yang tidak berbagi pandangan, kadang-kadang diarahkan bahkan pada 17 Penguasa VOC (yang dia ditegur). Coen dikenal sangat ketat terhadap bawahan dan tanpa ampun kepada lawannya. Kesediaannya untuk menggunakan kekerasan untuk mendapatkan tujuannya adalah terlalu banyak bagi banyak orang, bahkan untuk waktu yang relatif kekerasan sejarah. Ketika Saartje Specx, seorang gadis yang telah dipercayakan untuk merawat, ditemukan di sebuah taman dalam pelukan seorang prajurit, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen menunjukkan belas kasihan sedikit dalam memiliki Cortenhoeff dipenggal. Specx hanya lolos dari hukuman mati karena tenggelam karena dia masih di bawah umur.

Selanjutnya tapi tindakan yang lebih luas yang dilakukan atas perintah Coen, yang diceritakan dalam seri televisi dokumenter BBC “Trail Spice” (episode 2: “Pala dan Cengkeh”) [1] Program ini juga berisi rincian tindakan nakal yang dilakukan oleh kehancuran. Belanda di kepulauan rempah-rempah Indonesia Timur, tujuan yang adalah untuk menciptakan kelangkaan hasil bumi untuk mempertahankan tingkat harga


1623-1627: Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier (1586 atau 88 – 5 September 1659) adalah seorang administrator Belanda, atau Flemish, Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan yang menjabat sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal ada 1.623-1.627. Teluk Carpentaria di Australia utara yang bernama setelah dia.



Potret Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier lahir di Antwerp pada 1586 atau 1588, segera setelah pembentukan baru merdeka Republik Belanda (Republik Tujuh Serikat Belanda, atau Provinsi Serikat). Ia belajar filsafat di Leiden, dari 1603. Pada 1616 ia berlayar di kapal berlayar De Getrouwheid ke Indonesia. Di sana ia memiliki sejumlah fungsi, termasuk Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan, Anggota kepada Dewan Hindia, dan anggota Dewan Pertahanan. Dari 1 Februari 1623 sampai September 30, 1627 ia kelima Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia berpartisipasi dalam penaklukan Jakarta dan membantu membangun kota Batavia. Dia berbuat banyak untuk kota, termasuk mendirikan sekolah, Town Hall, dan Rumah Panti Asuhan pertama. Ia juga dirancang struktur gereja-gereja di kota itu.

Pada 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier berlayar dari Hindia Timur sebagai Kepala Armada. Dia tiba di Belanda pada 3 Juni 1628, dengan lima kapal dagang kaya-sarat, dan ini, dikombinasikan dengan fakta bahwa Pemerintah baru saja berhasil melepaskan tiga kapal dari embargo dibebankan pada mereka oleh Inggris tahun sebelumnya, memimpin otoritas untuk menentukan untuk mengirim armada lain dari sebelas kapal ke Timur, yang Jenderal Jacob bintik itu untuk berlayar. Dua kapal dan kapal pesiar yang akan segera siap untuk berlayar, senat mengirim mereka ke Texel sehingga kehilangan waktu. Kapal ini adalah Batavia (di bawah Francisco Pelsaert) di Dordrecht (di bawah Isaac van Swaenswyck) dan Assendelft (di bawah Cornelis Vlack). Mereka meninggalkan Texel untuk tujuan mereka pada 28 Oktober 1628.

De Carpentier dibuat Anggota Dewan Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada Oktober 1629. Paman dari pihak ibu-Nya, Louis Delbeecque, telah menjadi salah satu penggagas VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier menikahi Maria Ravevelt di Middelburg pada tanggal 2 Maret 1630. Dia meninggal pada bulan September 1641 dan dimakamkan di dalam Westerkerk di Amsterdam. De Carpentier meninggal di Amsterdam pada tanggal 5 September 1659, dan juga dimakamkan di Westerkerk tersebut. Mereka memiliki tujuh anak.

Ketika Jan Carstenszoon (atau Carstensz) dan Willem van Coolsteerdt mendarat Pera dan Arnhem di pantai barat Semenanjung Cape York New Holland (sekarang Australia) pada tahun 1623, setelah penemuan pertama oleh Willem Janszoon di Duyfken di 1606, mereka kemudian bernama ‘Teluk Carpentaria’ setelah Gubernur Jenderal Pieter de Carpe


1627-1629: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
1629-1632: Jacques Specx
Jacques Specx


Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (pengucapan Belanda: [ʒɑk spɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 Juli 1652). Adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, yang mendirikan perdagangan di Jepang dan Korea pada 1609 [1] [2] Jacques Specx menerima dukungan dari William Adams untuk memperoleh hak perdagangan ekstensif dari Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu pada tanggal 24 Agustus, 1609 yang memungkinkan dia untuk mendirikan sebuah pabrik perdagangan di Hirado pada tanggal 20 September 1609. Dia adalah gubernur sementara di Batavia antara 1629-1632. Ada Saartje Specx putrinya terlibat dalam skandal. Kembali ke rumah di Belanda Specx menjadi suatu seni-kolektor.

Belanda, yang, daripada “Nanban” disebut “Komo” (Jp:. “Rambut Merah” 红毛, menyala) oleh Jepang pertama tiba di Jepang pada tahun 1600, di papan ukuran rendah tersebut.

Pada 1605, dua awak Liefde yang dikirim ke Pattani oleh Tokugawa Ieyasu, untuk mengundang perdagangan Belanda ke Jepang. Para kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Pattani, Victor Sprinckel, ditolak atas dasar bahwa ia terlalu sibuk berurusan dengan oposisi Portugis di Asia Tenggara.

[Sunting] 1609 misi ke Jepang
Jacques Specx berlayar pada armada kapal yang meninggalkan sebelas Texel pada tahun 1607 di bawah komando Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. Setelah tiba di Banten dua kapal yang dikirim untuk mendirikan hubungan dagang resmi pertama antara Belanda dan Jepang. [3]



“Perdagangan lulus” (Belanda: handelspas) yang dikeluarkan atas nama Tokugawa Ieyasu. Teks perintah: “kapal-kapal Belanda yang diizinkan untuk melakukan perjalanan ke Jepang, dan mereka dapat mendarat di pantai apapun, tanpa reserve Mulai sekarang peraturan ini harus diperhatikan, dan Belanda dibiarkan bebas untuk berlayar di mana mereka ingin seluruh Jepang Tidak ada pelanggaran.. kepada mereka akan diizinkan, seperti pada kesempatan sebelumnya “- tertanggal 24 Agustus 1609 (Keichō 14, hari 25 bulan ke-6), nb, yang goshuin (御 朱 印) mengidentifikasi ini sebagai dokumen resmi bantalan stempel merah sang shogun.

Kedua kapal Specx diperintahkan adalah De Griffioen (yang “Griffin”, 19 meriam) dan Roode Leeuw bertemu Pijlen (yang “singa merah dengan panah”, 400 ton, 26 meriam). Kapal-kapal tiba di Jepang pada tanggal 2 Juli 1609. [4]

Di antara para awak adalah pedagang Kepala Abraham van den Broeck dan Nicolaas Puyck dan di bawah-pedagang Jaques Specx.

Komposisi yang tepat dari delegasi adalah pasti, tetapi itu telah ditetapkan bahwa van den Broeck dan Puyck bepergian ke Pengadilan Shogunal, dan Melchior van Santvoort bertindak sebagai penerjemah misi. Santevoort tiba beberapa tahun sebelumnya naik kapal Belanda De Liefde. Dia telah membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di Nagasaki.



Kristus dalam badai di danau Genesareth; oleh Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. Pada tahun 1990 lukisan itu dicuri dari Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum dan belum pulih, melainkan milik Jacques Specx pada tahun 1651

Shogun diberikan Belanda akses ke semua port di Jepang, dan menegaskan hal ini dalam tindakan yang aman-melakukan, dicap dengan segel merah. (

Pada September 1609 Dewan kapal memutuskan untuk menyewa rumah di Hirado pulau (sebelah barat pulau utama selatan Kiushu). Jacques Specx menjadi yang pertama “Opperhoofd” (Kepala) pabrik Perusahaan yang baru. [5]

Pada 1610, Specx mengirim kapal ke Korea. [6]


1632-1636: Hendrik Brouwer
Hendrik Brouwer


Potret Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (musim semi 1581 – 7 Agustus 1643) adalah seorang penjelajah Belanda, Laksamana, dan administrator kolonial baik di Jepang dan Hindia Belanda.

Ia diperkirakan untuk pertama memiliki berlayar ke Hindia Timur untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada 1606. Pada tahun 1610 ia pergi lagi ke Hindia, sekarang sebagai komandan dari tiga kapal. Pada perjalanan ini ia menciptakan Rute Brouwer, rute dari Afrika Selatan ke Jawa bahwa perjalanan mengurangi durasi dari tahun ke sekitar 6 bulan dengan mengambil keuntungan dari angin barat yang kuat di Forties Roaring (garis lintang antara 40 ° dan 50 ° selatan) . Sampai titik itu, Belanda telah mengikuti rute yang disalin dari Portugis melalui pantai Afrika, Mauritius, dan Srilanka. Dengan 1617, VOC diperlukan semua kapal mereka untuk mengambil rute Brouwer. [1]

Setelah kedatangannya pada tahun 1611 di Hindia Timur, ia dikirim ke Jepang untuk menggantikan Jacques Specx sementara sebagai opperhoofd di Dejima dari 28 Agustus 1612 untuk 6 Agustus 1614. [2] Selama waktu itu ia melakukan kunjungan ke pengadilan Jepang pada Edo. Pada 1613 ia melakukan perjalanan ke Siam yang meletakkan dasar untuk perdagangan Belanda dengan Siam.

Pada awal 1632, dia adalah bagian dari delegasi yang dikirim ke London untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan perdagangan antara perusahaan-perusahaan India Timur Inggris dan Belanda. Setelah itu ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, dan pada tanggal 18 April tahun yang sama ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Timur, Jacques Specx lagi berikut, posisi yang dia pegang sampai 1 Januari 1636. Anthony van Diemen adalah asistennya selama seluruh periode, dan banyak dari eksplorasi Belanda ke Pasifik dilakukan di bawah komando Van Diemen yang diusulkan secara tertulis oleh Brouwer sebelum ia pergi.

Pada tahun 1642, VOC Belanda bergabung dengan Perusahaan Hindia Barat dalam mengorganisir sebuah ekspedisi ke Chili untuk mendirikan basis untuk emas diperdagangkan pada reruntuhan ditinggalkan Valdivia. Armada berlayar dari Belanda Brasil di mana Yohanes Maurice dari Nassau memberikan mereka dengan pasokan. Sementara pembulatan Cape Horn, ekspedisi menetapkan bahwa Staten Island bukan bagian dari tanah yang tidak diketahui Selatan. Setelah mendarat di Pulau Chiloe, Brouwer membuat perjanjian dengan Mapuche (kemudian dikenal sebagai Araucanians) untuk membantu dalam membangun pemukiman di Valdivia. Namun, pada 7 Agustus 1643 Hendrik meninggal (pada usia 62) sebelum tiba, dan digantikan oleh wakil laksamana nya Elias Herckman, yang mendarat di reruntuhan Valdivia pada tanggal 24 Agustus. Brouwer dimakamkan di pemukiman baru, yang bernama Herckman Brouwershaven setelah dia. Herckman dan anak buahnya menduduki lokasi hanya sampai 28 Oktober 1643. Setelah diberitahu bahwa Belanda telah berencana untuk kembali ke lokasi, penguasa Spanyol di Peru dikirim 1000 orang dalam dua puluh kapal (dan 2000 orang dengan tanah, yang tidak pernah berhasil) pada tahun 1644 untuk memukimkan Valdivia dan membentengi itu. Para prajurit Spanyol di garnisun baru disinterred dan membakar tubuh Brouwer. [3] [4]


1636-1645: Anthony van Diemen
Anthony van Diemen

Anthony van Diemen

Potret Anthony van Diemen
Culemborg, Utrecht, Belanda Republik
 19 April 1645 (1645/4/19)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 Explorer, gubernur kolonial

Anthony van Diemen (juga Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), gubernur kolonial Belanda, lahir di Culemborg di Belanda, putra Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen [1] dan Christina Hoevenaar . Pada 1616 ia pindah ke Amsterdam, dengan harapan meningkatkan kekayaannya sebagai pedagang, dalam hal ini ia gagal dan dinyatakan bangkrut. Setelah setahun ia menjadi hamba dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan berlayar ke Batavia (Jakarta), ibukota Hindia Belanda. Pada perjalanan keluar, ke Timur Indiaman Mauritius dia secara tidak sengaja pergi lebih ke selatan ke sebuah pantai yang tidak diketahui Australia. [2]

Gubernur Jan Pieterszoon Coen menemukan van Diemen menjadi pejabat berbakat dan 1626 dia adalah Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan dan anggota Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun 1630 ia menikah Maria van Aelst. Setahun kemudian dia kembali ke Belanda sebagai Laksamana di Deventer kapal. Pada tahun 1632 ia kembali ke Batavia dan pada 1635 ia ditunjuk Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, pengangkatannya diberlakukan pada 1 Januari 1636.

Van Diemen yang sembilan tahun sebagai Gubernur Jenderal yang berhasil dan penting untuk kedua koloni dan keberhasilan komersial dari East India Company. Dia mencurahkan banyak energinya untuk memperluas kekuatan perusahaan di seluruh Asia. Di bawah kekuasaannya pemerintahan Belanda didirikan di Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen diingat adalah terbaik untuk usahanya untuk mendorong eksplorasi “Great South Tanah”, Australia, sehingga dalam “pelayaran Belanda akhir dan paling ambisius abad ini” [3] Pelayaran pertama di bawah pemerintahan energik. Dilakukan dalam waktu tiga bulan kedatangannya di Batavia, mulai dari Cape York kapal-kapalnya untuk memetakan pantai diketahui, tetapi usaha itu berakhir dengan kegagalan, ketika komandan dibunuh oleh penduduk asli di New Guinea, dan kapal kembali. Pada 1639 dia ditugaskan dua perjalanan ke utara, untuk mencari “Kepulauan Emas dan Perak” bahwa laporan Spanyol ditempatkan di Pasifik Utara ke timur Jepang, dan dikirim Maarten Gerritsz Vries untuk mengeksplorasi pantai Korea dan “Tartaria”; ini, dua kembali tanpa hasil [4]. terpengaruh, Van Diemen ditunjuk Frans Visscher untuk menyusun rencana untuk penemuan baru. Visscher dipetakan tiga rute yang berbeda dan van Diemen memutuskan untuk mengirim Agustus 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman, disertai dengan Visscher, mencari Tanah Great South, yang Tasman akan segera menjuluki “Nieuw Holland”.

Pada bulan November 1642, menuju ke timur dari Mauritius pada lintang 44 dan hilang pantai selatan Australia, Tasman melihat daratan (pantai barat pulau Tasmania), dan mengikuti pantai selatan memutar ke pantai timur. Tasman dikirim pesta darat di Blackman Bay, di Semenanjung Tasman, yang ditanam bendera dan ditemui beberapa penduduk asli. Percaya ia telah menemukan sebuah wilayah besar, Tasman menamakannya Tanah Van Diemen dalam menghormati pelindungnya [5]. Van Diemen juga diperingati di Van Diemen Teluk di pantai utara Australia.

Van Diemen menugaskan perjalanan jauh dari Tasman pada 1644.

Anthony van Diemen meninggal pada April 1645 di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Perusahaan diberikan istrinya pensiun besar dan ia pensiun ke Belanda. Namanya diabadikan dalam nama titik barat Pulau Utara Selandia Baru, Cape Maria van Diemen, dinamakan dengan Tasman tahun 1643, dan oleh Maria Island di lepas pantai timur Tasmania.


1645-1650: Cornelis van der Lijn
Cornelis van der Lijn


Potret Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608 -? 27 Juli 1679) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1646 sampai 1650.

Awal karir
Van der Lijn lahir di Alkmaar, mungkin pada 1608. Dia pergi, pada 1627, sebagai Asisten (Belanda: asisten) ke Batavia, Hindia Belanda kapal Wapen van Hoorn. Dari 1632 to 18 Januari 1636 ia Akuntan Jenderal (Belanda: boekhouder-Generaal). Pada 1639 ia menjadi Konselor-Luar Biasa (Belanda: Raad ekstra-oridinair) kepada Dewan Hindia. Setahun kemudian ia diangkat Presiden Schepenrechtbank (pengadilan maritim, tapi dengan berbagai fungsi lainnya). Satu tahun lagi kemudian dia membuat Konselor penuh (Belanda: Raad ordinair) ia mengikuti Philips Lucasz (yang potret dilukis oleh Rembrandt [2]) sebagai Direktur-Jenderal Hindia.

Dewan Hindia
Sesaat sebelum kematiannya pada 19 April 1645, Gubernur Jenderal Antonio van Diemen dipanggil Dewan Hindia (12 April 1645) untuk membangun Cornelis van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Ini tidak sejalan dengan instruksi dari Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), yang telah ditetapkan pada tahun 1617 bahwa segera setelah kematian seorang Gubernur-Jenderal, Dewan harus memilih sementara Gubernur Jenderal. Hanya setelah Seventeen Lords telah sepakat untuk pilihan akan pengangkatan mulai berlaku sebenarnya. Heren XVII pada keputusan pertama dibatalkan Van Diemen, tapi kemudian setelah itu bernama Cornelis yang sama van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Pada 10 Oktober 1646 ia diangkat oleh mereka sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal.




1650-1653: Carel Reyniersz
Carel Reyniersz


Potret Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604-1653) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1650 sampai 1653.

Reyniersz (atau Reiniersz) lahir di Amsterdam pada tahun 1604 (atau mungkin 1602). Ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia tahun 1627 sebagai Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) pada Coromandel Belanda (Karnataka). Dia dipromosikan menjadi Gubernur Pantai Coromandel tahun 1635, meskipun ia telah dituduh terlibat dalam (dilarang) dagang swasta / pribadi. Pada tahun 1636 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinair Raad) Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia kembali ke Amsterdam sebagai Admiral armada kembali pada tahun 1638 dan didirikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di sana. Namun, ia kehilangan seluruh kekayaannya, sehingga kiri lagi, kali ini kapal Salamander itu, untuk India pada tanggal 24 April 1645. Dia tiba di sana pada tanggal 3 Desember 1645. Tahun berikutnya, 1646, ia menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia.

Tugasnya dialokasikan adalah untuk melaksanakan kebijakan baru di Hindia. Yang paling penting, dia, sejauh mungkin untuk menghilangkan sumber-sumber persaingan. Dia mengambil tindakan terhadap perdagangan swasta dan untuk menangani dengan produksi terlalu banyak rempah-rempah dengan memiliki pohon ditebang. Reinier terjebak ketat untuk kebijakan ini, yang menyebabkan banyak konflik di Seram Barat, di mana penduduk tidak akan menerima kehancuran perkebunan mereka. Butuh waktu sampai 1658 untuk wilayah yang akan ditaklukkan.

Empat tahun setelah Reyniersz menjadi seorang Konselor, Gubernur Jenderal Cornelis van der Lijn menerima debit terhormat (sic) dan pada tanggal 26 April 1650, Reyniersz bernama penggantinya, tugas yang sangat nantikan. Empat tahun kemudian dia diberhentikan. Para gubernur dari perusahaan itu tidak senang dengan kelemahan pemerintahannya. Masih ada di Belanda surat pemecatan. Hal ini menunjukkan ia sedang dipecat karena ia tidak mampu untuk melaksanakan tugas kantor, terutama memelihara perdamaian. Surat itu tidak pernah dikirim, karena Reynier sudah ditulis ke Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) meminta untuk dibebaskan dari kantornya dengan alasan kesehatan. Surat ini tiba tepat sebelum surat pemecatan yang akan dikirim. Para Seventeen Lords rela menyetujui permintaan, meskipun ia meninggal sebelum mereka mencapai respon dia, pada malam 18/19 Mei 1653. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia, Hindia Belanda dan berhasil sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Joan Maetsuycker.


1653-1678: Joan Maetsuycker
Joan Maetsuycker


Joan Maetsuycker, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Lukisan oleh Jacob Jansz. Coeman di Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (14 Oktober 1606, Amsterdam – 24 Januari 1678, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1653-1678.

Maetsuycker belajar hukum di Leuven, dan merupakan pengacara pertama di Den Haag, dan kemudian di Amsterdam. Dari 1636, ia tinggal di Hindia Belanda. Pada tahun 1646 ia menjadi Gubernur-Jendral Belanda pertama Ceylon, dan tujuh tahun kemudian, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia tinggal di pos itu selama 25 tahun, yang merupakan periode terpanjang untuk Gubernur Jenderal. Koloni Belanda di Hindia berkembang di bawah Maetsuycker. Di bawah pemerintahannya, Portugis kehilangan Ceylon (1658), pantai Coromandel (1658) dan Malabar (1663); Makassar ditaklukkan (1667), pantai barat Sumatra diduduki, dan ekspedisi pertama ke pedalaman Jawa diadakan.





1678-1681: Rijckloff van Goens
Rijckloff van Goens


Potret Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, 24 Juni 1619 – Amsterdam, 14 November 1682) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1678-1681. Dia menulis panjang lebar tentang perjalanannya ke Sri Lanka dan India.

Tulisannya tentang kunjungan ke istana Sultan Agung dan para penerusnya referensi penting bagi sejarawan dari era Mataram di Jawa






1681-1684: Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman (2 Maret 1628 – 11 Januari 1684) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1681-1684.



Cornelis Speelman, mewakili sekitar 1800.

Cornelis Speelman Janzoon adalah putra seorang pedagang Rotterdam. Ia lahir pada tanggal 2 Maret 1628. Pada tahun ke-16, ia meninggalkan kapal Hillegersberg untuk India. Dia bekerja sebagai Asisten (asisten) dalam pelayanan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada tahun 1645 ia tiba di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1648 dan Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada 1649. Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van Indië). Dia bepergian dengan duta besar Joan Cunaeus ke Persia tahun itu, dan menulis account dari perjalanan. Mereka diterima oleh Syah Abbas II dengan pesta besar. Bahkan sebelum perjalanannya berakhir, pada tahun 1652, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman). Pada kedatangannya ke Batavia, ia ikut mendirikan pos di kantor pembukuan Jenderal (boekhouder-Generaal), ‘untuk siapa ia ditugasi untuk waktu yang lama, dan siapa ia berhasil tahun 1657. Sementara itu, ia telah menikah lima belas tahun Petronella Maria Wonderaer, putri ke-Receiver Umum (ontvanger-Generaal). Pada 1659 dia ditempatkan di jawab staf Perusahaan klerikal dan administrasi (kapitein de compagnie selama pennisten) di Batavia. Pada 1661, ia menjadi schepen van Batavia, (semacam anggota dewan kotapraja pasca terhubung dengan pemerintah lokal di sana).

Pada tanggal 12 Juni 1663, Cornelis Speelman diangkat Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel, tetapi ditangguhkan oleh Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), dituduh memiliki ilegal terlibat dalam perdagangan swasta. Dia telah membeli berlian untuk istrinya dan kemudian dijual kembali karena ia tidak menyukainya. Meskipun protes berat nya, pengadilan di Batavia ingin membuat contoh dari dia dan dia dijatuhi hukuman 15 bulan suspensi dan denda 3.000 gulden. Pada 1666, dia bernama Laksamana dan pengawas dari sebuah ekspedisi ke Makasar. Pada 18 November 1667, ia menyimpulkan Perjanjian yang disebut Bongaais. (Perjanjian Bonggaya [1]) Pada tahun yang sama, ia diangkat Komisaris (commissaris) dari Ambon, Banda dan Ternate. Akibatnya, dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaris raad) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Ia berkelana sekali lagi, pada 1669, sebagai laksamana lain ekspedisi ke Makassar di mana ia benar-benar menaklukkan kerajaan, menerima rantai emas dan medali di tahun ini pengakuan berikut.

Dia menjadi penuh Konselor Hindia pada tanggal 23 Maret 1671. Tahun berikutnya ia laksamana dari sebuah armada dikirim melawan Prancis. Pada bulan Desember 1676, dia memimpin sebuah ekspedisi ke Jawa Tengah, di mana penguasa Mataram dalam kesulitan dan ia diperlukan untuk mendukung aliansi dengan pangeran itu. Di Jawa Timur Pantai, ia pergi ke perang melawan apa yang disebut Toerana Djaja. Butuh beberapa waktu sebelum perdamaian didirikan kembali. Ia dipanggil kembali ke Batavia pada akhir 1677 dan pada 18 Januari 1678 bernama Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia (Raad en Eerste Directeur van Indië-Generaal). Juga pada tahun itu ia diangkat Presiden dari College van Schepenen (hubungannya dengan pemerintah daerah) di Batavia. Pada 29 Oktober 1680 ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah pos dia mengambil pada tanggal 25 November 1681, berhasil Rijckloff van Goens.

Selama masa jabatan sebagai Gubernur Cornelis Speelman Jenderal, Sultan Ternate ditaklukkan. Dia menyerahkan semua tanahnya kerajaannya kepada Perusahaan. Speelman juga menaklukkan kota Banten. Cornelis Speelman meninggal pada 11 Januari 1684 di Istana di Batavia. Jenazahnya disertai dengan kebisingan yang besar dan kemegahan, yang tidak ada nyeri atau uang selamat. Ia dimakamkan di Kruiskerk untuk suara tembakan meriam dari 229. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Johannes Camphuy


1684-1691: Johannes Camphuys
Johannes Camphuys


Potret Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (terdaftar sebagai Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, 18 Juli 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), 18 Juli 1695) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1684-1691 [1].

[Sunting] Jepang
Pada titik ini dalam sejarah Jepang, pos VOC tunggal (atau “pabrik”) adalah pulau Dejima terletak di di pelabuhan Nagasaki di pulau Kyushu bagian selatan. Camphuys tiga kali dikirim ke Jepang sebagai Opperhoofd atau pedagang kepala dan petugas dari pos perdagangan VOC. [2]

22 Oktober 1671-12 November 1672 [2]
29 October1673-19 Oktober 1674 [2]
7 November 1675-27 Oktober 1676 [2]
[Sunting] Legacy
Kehidupan Camphuys diperingati dalam nama jalan di lingkungan Lombok Utrecht, dan ia juga dikenang dalam nama sebuah jalan di Bezuidenhoutquarter Den Haag.


1691-1704: Willem van Outhoorn
Willem van Outhoorn


Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies


List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies and their service years

The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.

The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC). After the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800,[1] the territorial possessions of the VOC were nationalised under the Dutch Government as the Dutch East Indies, a colony of the Netherlands. The Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch government.

Under the period of British control (1811-1816), the equivalent position was the Lieutenant-Governor, of whom the most notable is Thomas Stamford Raffles. Between 1942 and 1945, while Hubertus Johannes van Mook was the nominal Governor-General, the area was under Japanese control, and was governed by a two sequence of governors, in Java and Sumatra. After 1948 in negotiations for independence, the equivalent position was named High Commissioner of the Crown in the Dutch East Indies.

List of Governors-General

Dutch East India Company


Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies (1610–1709)

Pieter Both

This article is about the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. For the mountain named after him, see Pieter Both (mountain).

Pieter Both


Portrait of Pieter Both

1st Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

In office
19 December 1610 – 6 November 1614

Preceded by


Succeeded by

Gerard Reynst

Personal details


Amersfoort, Dutch Republic


6 March 1615
Indian Ocean (near Mauritius)

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 March 1615, Mauritius) was the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

Not much is known of his early years. In 1599, Both was already an admiral in the New, or Brabant Company. In that year, he traveled to the East Indies with four ships. When the newly founded Dutch East India Company set up a government for the Dutch East Indies, Pieter Both was invited to become the Governor-General. He held that position from 19 December 1610 to 6 November 1614. During that period he concluded contracts with the Moluccans, conquered Timor, and drove the Spaniards out of Tidore.

After he relinquished his position as Governor-General to Gerard Reynst, he left for the Netherlands with four ships. Two of the ships were shipwrecked near Mauritius, and Pieter Both drowned.

The second highest mountain of Mauritius is named Pieter Both after him.


Gerard Reynst



Portrait of Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, ? – Jakarta, 7 December 1615) was a Dutch merchant, father of a museum curator, and later the second Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.


All that is known of his early years is that he was born in Amsterdam, the son of Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), soap boiler, and Trijn Sijverts. In 1599 he became a merchant and ship-owner, as well as a founder-member and administrator of the Nieuwe or Brabantsche Compagnie which, in 1600, became the Vereenighde Company of Amsterdam. This company then in 1602 merged into the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

On the request of his elders in the college of the Heren XVII (17 men), he became Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1613 and left with 9 ships. The trip lasted 18 months, after which he took over command from Pieter Both. On the way, he had already sent one of his ships to the Red Sea to start trade relations with the Arabs there. He died more than a year after arrival, having caught dysentery so that he could do little there, besides a few minor activities that were only intermittently successful.


Laurens Reael



Laurens Reael (ca. 1620)

Dr. Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 October 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 October 1637) was an employee of the VOC, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1616-1617 and an admiral of the Dutch navy from 1625-27.

[edit] Early life

Laurens Reael was the son of Laurens Jacobsz Reael, a merchant in Amsterdam named after the sign or gable stone of his house/shop In den gouden Reael (“In the Golden Real“) and an amateur poet known for writing Geuzenliederen (songs of the geuzen). The Amsterdam neighborhood Gouden Reael is named after Laurens Reael’s birth house, via a later (1648) warehouse of the Reael family on the Zandhoek that turned into a popular inn. Laurens Jr. had academic talents, excelling in math and languages. He studied law in Leiden, where he lived in the house of Jacobus Arminius who had married his older sister Lijsbet Reael in 1590. Laurens received his doctorate in 1608.

[edit] East Indies

In May 1611 he left as commandeur of four ships for the East Indies. He quickly worked his way up to become the third Governor-General in 1616, where he was stationed at the VOC headquarters, at that time on Ternate in the Moluccas. That year he could personally welcome both Joris van Spilbergen (March 30) and Schouten & Le Maire (September 12) upon their respective arrivals at Ternate from Holland via the Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn. He was unaware that the VOC had ordered Schouten & Le Maire’s ships to be confiscated for alleged infringement of its monopoly of trade to the Spice Islands.

Already after a year, on October 31 1617, Reael resigned following a dispute with the VOC’s leadership (the Lords XVII) on the treatment of both the English competitors in the Moluccas and of the native people. The jurist Reael would only take action against the English if international law would allow that and had protested repeatedly against the incursions against the natives. He, like the local admiral Steven van der Haghen, was of the opinion that the VOC’s goals should be achieved solely via commercial and diplomatic routes. In his official report to the Staten Generaal and the VOC’s Lords XVII upon his return to Holland he made these points again very clear.

It would take however until March 21, 1619 until the decidedly less pacifistic Jan Pieterszoon Coen would replace him as Governor-General, before which time Reael had fought the Spanish in 1617 in the Bay of Manila, the English at Bantam and in the Mollucas, and the Mataram Sultanate at Japara on Java


Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen



8 January 1587(1587-01-08)
Hoorn, Holland, Dutch Republic


21 September 1629(1629-09-21) (aged 42)
Batavia, Dutch East India




Colonial governor

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was a officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

He was long considered a national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, “Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us”. Since the latter half of the 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people view his often violent means to have been excessive.

Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). Coen was known to be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents. His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl whom he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having Cortenhoeff beheaded. Specx only escaped the death penalty by drowning because she was still under aged.

Further but more extensive actions perpetrated by order of Coen, are recounted in a BBC Television documentary series “The Spice Trail” (episode 2: “Nutmeg and Cloves”).[1] The program also contains details of wanton acts of destruction committed by the Dutch in the spice islands of Eastern Indonesia, the purpose of which was to create scarcity of natural produce in order to maintain price levels


Pieter de Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier (1586 or 88 – 5 September 1659) was a Dutch, or Flemish, administrator of the Dutch East India Company, and who served as Governor-General there from 1623–1627. The Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia is named after him.



Portrait of Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier was born in Antwerp in 1586 or 1588, shortly after the formation of the newly-independent Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, or United Provinces). He studied philosophy in Leiden, from 1603. In 1616 he sailed on board the sailing vessel De Getrouwheid to Indonesia. There he had a number of functions, including Director-General of the Trade, Member to the Council of the Indies, and member of the Council of Defence. From February 1, 1623 to September 30, 1627 he was the fifth Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He participated in the conquest of Jakarta and helped to build the town of Batavia. He did much for the town, including setting up a school, a Town Hall, and the first Orphanage Home. He also designed the structure of the churches in the town.

On 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier sailed from the East Indies as Head of the Fleet. He arrived in Holland on 3 June 1628, with five richly-laden merchant ships, and this, combined with the fact that the Government had recently succeeded in releasing three ships from an embargo laid upon them by the English a year previously, led the authorities to determine to send another fleet of eleven ships to the East, with which General Jacob Specks was to sail. Two ships and a yacht being soon ready to sail, the senate sent them to Texel so as to lose no time. These vessels were the Batavia (under Francisco Pelsaert) the Dordrecht (under Isaac van Swaenswyck) and the Assendelft (under Cornelis Vlack). They left Texel for their destination on 28 October 1628.

De Carpentier was made Member of the Board of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in October 1629. His maternal uncle, Louis Delbeecque, had been one of the initiators of the VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier married Maria Ravevelt in Middelburg on 2 March 1630. She died in September 1641 and was buried on in the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. De Carpentier died in Amsterdam on 5 September 1659, and was also buried in the Westerkerk. They had seven children.

When Jan Carstenszoon (or Carstensz) and Willem van Coolsteerdt landed the Pera and the Arnhem on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula of New Holland (now Australia) in 1623, after the first discovery by Willem Janszoon in the Duyfken in 1606, they then named the ‘Gulf of Carpentaria‘ after the Governor-General, Pieter de Carpe


Jacques Specx



Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʒɑk ˈspɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 July 1652) was a Dutch merchant, who founded the trade on Japan and Korea in 1609.[1][2] Jacques Specx received the support of William Adams to obtain extensive trading rights from the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu on August 24, 1609, which allowed him to establish a trading factory in Hirado on September 20, 1609. He was the interim governor in Batavia between 1629 – 1632. There his daughter Saartje Specx was involved in a scandal. Back home in Holland Specx became an art-collector.

The Dutch, who, rather than “Nanban” were called “Kōmō” (Jp:紅毛, lit. “Red Hair”) by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde.

In 1605, two of the Liefde’s crew were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan. The head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia.

[edit] 1609 mission to Japan

Jacques Specx sailed on a fleet of eleven ships that left Texel in 1607 under the command of Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. After arriving in Bantam two ships which were dispatched to establish the first official trade relations between the Netherlands and Japan.[3]



The “trade pass” (Dutch: handelspas) issued in the name of Tokugawa Ieyasu. The text commands: “Dutch ships are allowed to travel to Japan, and they can disembark on any coast, without any reserve. From now on this regulation must be observed, and the Dutch left free to sail where they want throughout Japan. No offenses to them will be allowed, such as on previous occasions” – dated August 24, 1609 (Keichō 14, 25th day of the 6th month); n.b., the goshuin (御朱印) identifies this as an official document bearing the shogun’s scarlet seal.

The two ships Specx commanded were De Griffioen (the “Griffin”, 19 cannons) and Roode Leeuw met Pijlen (the “Red lion with arrows”, 400 tons, 26 cannons). The ships arrived in Japan on July 2, 1609.[4]

Among the crews were the Chief merchants Abraham van den Broeck and Nicolaas Puyck and the under-merchant Jaques Specx.

The exact composition of the delegation is uncertain; but it has been established that van den Broeck and Puyck traveled to the Shogunal Court, and Melchior van Santvoort acted as the mission’s interpreter. Santevoort had arrived a few years earlier aboard the Dutch ship De Liefde. He had established himself as a merchant in Nagasaki.



Christ in the storm on the lake Genesareth; by Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. In 1990 the painting was stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and has not been recovered; it belonged to Jacques Specx in 1651

The Shogun granted the Dutch the access to all ports in Japan, and confirmed this in an act of safe-conduct, stamped with his red seal. (

In September 1609 the ship’s Council decided to hire a house on Hirado island (west of the southern main island Kiushu). Jacques Specx became the first “Opperhoofd” (Chief) of the new Company’s factory.[5]

In 1610, Specx sent a ship to Korea.[6]


Hendrik Brouwer



Portrait of Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (spring 1581 – August 7, 1643) was a Dutch explorer, admiral, and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies.

He is thought to first have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1606. In 1610 he left again to the Indies, now as commander of three ships. On this trip he devised the Brouwer Route, a route from South Africa to Java that reduced voyage duration from a year to about 6 months by taking advantage of the strong westerly winds in the Roaring Forties (the latitudes between 40° and 50° south). Up to that point, the Dutch had followed a route copied from the Portuguese via the coast of Africa, Mauritius and Ceylon. By 1617, the VOC required all their ships to take the Brouwer route.[1]

After his arrival in 1611 in the East Indies, he was sent to Japan to replace Jacques Specx temporarily as opperhoofd at Dejima from August 28, 1612 to August 6, 1614.[2] During that time he made a visit to the Japanese court at Edo. In 1613 he made a trip to Siam that laid the foundation for the Dutch trade with Siam.

Early in 1632, he was part of a delegation sent to London to solve trade disagreements between the British and Dutch East India companies. Afterwards he left for the Indies, and on April 18 of that same year he was appointed Governor-General of the East Indies, again following Jacques Specx, a position which he held until January 1, 1636. Anthony van Diemen was his assistant during this entire period, and many of the Dutch explorations into the Pacific carried out under Van Diemen’s command were suggested in writing by Brouwer before he left.

In 1642, the VOC joined the Dutch West Indies Company in organizing an expedition to Chile to establish a base for trading gold at the abandoned ruins of Valdivia. The fleet sailed from Dutch Brazil where John Maurice of Nassau provided them with supplies. While rounding Cape Horn, the expedition established that Staten Island was not part of the unknown Southern land. After landing on Chiloe Island, Brouwer made a pact with the Mapuche (then known as the Araucanians) to aid in establishing a resettlement at Valdivia. However, on August 7, 1643 Hendrik died (at the age of 62) before arriving, and was succeeded by his vice-admiral Elias Herckman, who landed at the ruins of Valdivia on August 24. Brouwer was buried in the new settlement, which Herckman named Brouwershaven after him. Herckman and his men occupied the location only until October 28, 1643. Having been told that the Dutch had plans to return to the location, the Spanish viceroy in Peru sent 1000 men in twenty ships (and 2000 men by land, who never made it) in 1644 to resettle Valdivia and fortify it. The Spanish soldiers in the new garrison disinterred and burned Brouwer’s body.[3][4]


Anthony van Diemen


Anthony van Diemen

Portrait of Anthony van Diemen


Culemborg, Utrecht, Dutch Republic


19 April 1645(1645-04-19)
Batavia, Dutch East India




Explorer, colonial governor

Anthony van Diemen (also Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), Dutch colonial governor, was born in Culemborg in the Netherlands, the son of Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen[1] and Christina Hoevenaar. In 1616 he moved to Amsterdam, in hope of improving his fortune as a merchant; in this he failed and was declared bankrupt. After a year he became a servant of the Dutch East India Company and sailed to Batavia (Jakarta), capital of the Dutch East Indies. On the voyage out, to the East Indiaman Mauritius he inadvertently went more south to an unknown coast of Australia.[2]

Governor Jan Pieterszoon Coen found van Diemen to be a talented official and by 1626 he was Director-General of Commerce and member of the Council for the Indies. In 1630 he married Maria van Aelst. A year later he returned to the Netherlands as Admiral on the ship Deventer. In 1632 he returned to Batavia and in 1635 he was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, his appointment taking effect on 1 January 1636.

Van Diemen’s nine years as Governor-General were successful and important for both the colony and the commercial success of the East India Company. He devoted much of his energy to expanding the power of the company throughout Asia. Under his rule Dutch power was established in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen is best remembered for his efforts to foster exploration of the “Great South Land”, Australia, resulting in “the final and most ambitious Dutch voyages of the century”.[3] The first voyage under his energetic administration was undertaken within three months of his arrival in Batavia; starting from Cape York its ships were to chart the unknown coasts, but the venture ended in failure, when its commander was killed by natives in New Guinea, and the ships returned. In 1639 he commissioned two voyages to the north, in search of the “Gold and Silver Islands” that Spanish reports placed in the North Pacific to the east of Japan, and sent Maarten Gerritsz Vries to explore the coasts of Korea and “Tartaria“; these, two returned fruitlessly.[4] Undeterred, Van Diemen appointed Frans Visscher to draw up a plan for new discoveries. Visscher mapped out three different routes and van Diemen decided in August 1642 to send Abel Janszoon Tasman, accompanied by Visscher, in search of the Great South Land, which Tasman would soon dub “Nieuw Holland“.

In November 1642, headed east from Mauritius on latitude 44 and missing the south coast of Australia, Tasman sighted land (the west coast of the island of Tasmania), and followed the southern coastline around to the east coast. Tasman sent a party ashore at Blackman Bay, on the Tasman Peninsula, who planted a flag and encountered a few of the native inhabitants. Believing he had found a large territory, Tasman named it Van Diemen’s Land in honour of his patron.[5] Van Diemen is also commemorated in Van Diemen Gulf on the coast of northern Australia.

Van Diemen commissioned a further voyage from Tasman in 1644.

Anthony van Diemen died in April 1645 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. The company granted his wife a large pension and she retired to the Netherlands. Her name is perpetuated in the name of the westernmost point of the North Island of New Zealand, Cape Maria van Diemen, named by Tasman in 1643, and by Maria Island off the east coast of Tasmania.


Cornelis van der Lijn



Portrait of Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608? – 27 July 1679) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1646 until 1650.

Early career

Van der Lijn was born in Alkmaar, possibly in 1608. He went, in 1627, as Assistant (Dutch: assistent) to Batavia, Dutch East Indies aboard the Wapen van Hoorn. From 1632 to 18 January 1636 he was Accountant-General (Dutch: boekhouder-generaal). In 1639 he became Counsellor-Extraordinary (Dutch: Raad extra-oridinair) to the Council of the Indies. A year later he was appointed President of the Schepenrechtbank (a maritime court, but with various other functions). One further year later he was made a full Counsellor (Dutch: Raad ordinair) he followed Philips Lucasz (whose portrait was painted by Rembrandt [2]) as Director-General of the Indies.

Council of the Indies

Shortly before his death on 19 April 1645, Governor-General Antonio van Diemen called upon the Council of the Indies (12 April 1645) to establish Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. This was not in line with the instructions of the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), who has laid down in 1617 that immediately after the death of a Governor-General, the Council should choose a provisional Governor-General. Only once the Seventeen Lords had agreed to the choice would the appointment come into actual force. The Heren XVII at first cancelled Van Diemen’s decision, but then afterwards named the very same Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. On 10 October 1646 he was named by them as Governor-General.




Carel Reyniersz



Portrait of Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604–1653) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1650 until 1653.

Reyniersz (or Reiniersz) was born in Amsterdam in 1604 (or perhaps 1602). He left for the Indies in 1627 as Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) on the Dutch Coromandel (Karnataka). He was promoted to Governor of the Coromandel Coast in 1635, even though he had been accused of engaging in (forbidden) private/personal trading. In 1636 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He returned to Amsterdam as Admiral of the returning fleet in 1638 and established himself as a merchant there. However, he lost his entire fortune, so left again, this time aboard the Salamander, for India on 24 April 1645. He arrived there on 3 December 1645. The following year, 1646, he became a full Counsellor of the Indies.

His allocated task was to carry out a new policy in the Indies. Most importantly, he was, as far as possible to eliminate sources of competition. He was to take action against private trading and to deal with too much production of spices by having trees cut down. Reinier stuck strictly to this policy, which lead to much conflict in West Ceram, where the population would not accept the destruction of their plantations. It took until 1658 for the area to be pacified.

Four years after Reyniersz become a Counsellor, Governor-General Cornelis van der Lijn received an honorable discharge (sic) and on 26 April 1650, Reyniersz was named his successor, a task he very much looked forward to. Four years later he was dismissed. The governors of the company were not pleased by the weakness of his rule. There still exists in the Netherlands his letter of dismissal. It indicates he was being dismissed because he had been unable to carry out the duties of his office, particularly maintaining peace. The letter was never sent, because Reynier had already written to the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) asking to be relieved of his office on health grounds. This letter arrived just before his dismissal letter was to be sent. The Seventeen Lords willingly agreed to his request, though he died before their response reached him, on the night of 18/19 May 1653. He was buried in Batavia, Dutch East Indies and was succeed as Governor-General by Joan Maetsuycker.


Joan Maetsuycker



Joan Maetsuycker, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Painting by Jacob Jansz. Coeman in the Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (October 14, 1606, Amsterdam – January 24, 1678, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678.

Maetsuycker studied law in Leuven, and was a lawyer first in The Hague, and later in Amsterdam. From 1636, he lived in the Dutch East Indies. In 1646 he became the first Dutch Governor-General of Ceylon, and seven years later, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He stayed on that post for 25 years, which is the longest period for any Governor-General. The Dutch colony in the Indies flourished under Maetsuycker. Under his rule, the Portuguese lost Ceylon (1658), the coast of Coromandel (1658) and Malabar (1663); Makassar was conquered (1667), the west coast of Sumatra was occupied, and the first expedition to the interior of Java was held.





Rijckloff van Goens



Portrait of Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, June 24, 1619 – Amsterdam, November 14, 1682) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1678-1681. He wrote extensively about his travels to Ceylon and India.

His writing about visits to the palaces of Sultan Agung and his successors are important references for historians of the Mataram era in Java






Cornelis Speelman

Cornelis Speelman (2 March 1628 – 11 January 1684) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1681 to 1684.



Cornelis Speelman, represented around 1800.

Cornelis Janzoon Speelman was the son of a Rotterdam merchant. He was born on 2 March 1628. In his 16th year, he left aboard the Hillegersberg for the India. He was employed as an Assistant (assistent) in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1645 he arrived in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1648 and Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1649. He became Secretary (secretaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië). He travelled with the ambassador Joan Cunaeus to Persia that year, and wrote an account of the voyage. They were received by the Shah Abbas II with great festivity. Even before his voyage came to an end, in 1652,he was promoted to Buyer (koopman). On his return to Batavia, he took up a post in the office of the Bookkeeper-General (boekhouder-generaal), ‘for whom he deputised for a long time, and whom he succeeded in 1657. Meanwhile, he had married the fifteen year-old Petronella Maria Wonderaer, daughter to the Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal). In 1659 he was placed in charge of the Company’s clerical and administrative staff (kapitein over de compagnie pennisten) in Batavia. In 1661, he became schepen van Batavia, ( a sort of alderman post connected with local government there).

On 12 June 1663, Cornelis Speelman was appointed Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel, but was suspended by the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), being accused of having illegally engaged in private trading. He had bought a diamond for his wife and later re-sold it because she had not liked it. Despite his strenuous protests, the court in Batavia wanted to make an example of him and he was sentenced to a 15 months suspension and a fine of 3,000 guilders. In 1666, he was named admiral and superintendent of an expedition to Makasar. On 18 November 1667, he concluded the so-called Bongaais Treaty. (Treaty of Bonggaya[1]) In the same year, he was named Commissioner (commissaris) of Amboina, Banda and Ternate. Consequently, he became Counsellor-extraordinary (raad extra-ordinaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. He travelled once again, in 1669, as admiral of another expedition to Makassar where he completely subjugated the kingdom, receiving a gold chain and medallion in recognition of this the following year.

He became a full Counsellor of the Indies on 23 March 1671. The following year he was admiral of a fleet sent against the French. In December 1676, he led an expedition to Central Java, where the ruler of Mataram was in difficulties and he needed to support the alliance with that prince. On Java’s East Coast, he went to war against the so-called Toerana Djaja. It took some time before peace was re-established. He was called back to Batavia at the end of 1677 and on 18 January 1678 named First Counsellor and Director-General of the Indies (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal van Indië). Also in that year he was appointed President of the College van Schepenen (to do with local government) in Batavia. On 29 October 1680 he was named Governor-General, a post he took up on 25 November 1681, succeeding Rijckloff van Goens.

During the term of office of Cornelis Speelman as Governor-General, the Sultan of Ternate was conquered. He ceded all his lands of his kingdom to the Company. Speelman also subdued the city of Bantam. Cornelis Speelman died on 11 January 1684 in the Castle at Batavia. His funeral was accompanied with great noise and splendour, for which no pains or monies were spared. He was buried in the Kruiskerk to the noise of 229 cannon shots. He was followed as Governor-General by Johannes Camphuy


Johannes Camphuys



Portrait of Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (registered as Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, July 18 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), July 18 1695) was the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691.[1]

[edit] Japan

At this point in Japanese history, the sole VOC outpost (or “factory”) was situated on Dejima island in the harbor of Nagasaki on the southern island of Kyushu. Camphuys was three times sent to Japan as Opperhoofd or chief negotiant and officer of the VOC trading post.[2]

  • 22 October 1671–12 November 1672[2]
  • 29 October1673–19 October 1674[2]
  • 7 November 1675–27 October 1676[2]

[edit] Legacy

The life of Camphuys is commemorated in the name of a street in the Lombok neighbourhood of Utrecht; and he is also remembered in the name of a street in the Bezuidenhoutquarter of The Hague.

Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Pada 17 Desember 1690 van Outhoorn diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, mengambil alih dari Johannes Camphuys pada tanggal 24 September 1691. Setelah sepuluh tahun, Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) yang diberikan keinginannya untuk menjadi terhormat dibebaskan dari tugas-tugasnya, tapi itu 15 Agustus 1704 sebelum dia bisa menyerahkan semua fungsi resmi ke penggantinya, Joan van Hoorn.

Dia meminta agar dia diizinkan untuk tetap berada di real nya hanya di luar Batavia. Permintaan seperti itu umumnya tidak diperbolehkan, karena takut akan mengganggu gubernur pensiun dengan karya penerus mereka. Namun, karena dia berada dalam kesehatan yang buruk dan lebih dari 70, dia diperbolehkan untuk tinggal. Ia meninggal pada usia 85 pada tanggal 27 November 1720.

Masa jabatannya tidak ditandai oleh perkembangan penting atau peristiwa. Pada akhir masa jabatannya, Amangkurat II Sultan Mataram meninggal. Karena VOC tidak mengakui anaknya sebagai penggantinya, perang panjang pecah sebelum Van Outshoorn meninggalkan kantor. Pada 1693 Perancis menyerbu Pondicherry. Selama waktu itu, berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk membangun penanaman kopi di Jawa. Panen pertama gagal karena banjir, tetapi panen berikutnya lebih berhasil.

Van Outhoorn bukan penguasa yang sangat kuat. Korupsi dan nepotisme, di mana dia juga terlibat, menjadi lebih mencolok selama waktu. Anak-di-hukum-Nya Joan van Hoorn, menikah dengan putrinya Susanna, mengikutinya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal


1704-1709: Joan van Hoorn
Joan van Hoorn


Zijn portret pintu Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653-1711) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1704 sampai 1709.

Joan (atau Johan) van Hoorn lahir pada tanggal 16 November 1653, anak ke produsen mesiu Amsterdam kaya, Pieter van Hoorn Janszn dan istrinya Sara Bessels, cucu Gerard Reynst. Sebagai perdagangan mesiu tidak lagi melakukannya dengan baik, teman yang berpengaruh punya dia disebut sebagai Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Seluruh keluarga berangkat ke Hindia tahun 1663, termasuk Joan.

Pada tahun 1665, ketika ia masih hanya 12 tahun, Joan van Hoorn sudah U-asisten (Onder-asisten) di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda (VOC). Dari Juli 1666 sampai Januari 1668, ia menemani ayahnya di sebuah misi ke Cina, di mana ia diterima oleh Kaisar Kangxi. Setelah itu, Van Hoorn membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Dia menjadi Asisten (asisten) pada 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada tahun 1673, Pembeli (Koopman) dan Panitera Pertama untuk fungsi sekretaris umum di 1676. Dia dibuat Sekretaris Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering) Hindia pada 1678. Pada 11 Agustus 1682 dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun yang sama ia dikirim pada kunjungan ke Banten. Dia juga bernama Presiden Weeskamer tersebut (mengawasi perkebunan anak yatim, dll). Pada 1684, ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (mencari setelah batas tanah, jalan, dll). Kunjungan lebih lanjut untuk Banten terjadi pada 1685, berikut ini yang dia bernama Konselor penuh (Raad ordinair) Hindia.

Pada 1691 Van Hoorn menikah Anna Struis. Mereka memiliki seorang putri, Petronella Wilhelmina. Dia kemudian menikah Jan Trip, anak Walikota. Sebuah pernikahan kemudian melihat Petronella menikah dengan Adolf Lubbert sangat kaya Torck, Tuhan Roozendael.

Van Hoorn menjadi Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1691. Dalam posting ini, ia benar-benar menata ulang administrasi Perusahaan. Setelah kematian istrinya, ia menikah lagi, pada 1692, kali ini ke Susanna, putri kemudian Gubernur Jenderal van Outhoorn Willem. Dia sendiri bernama, pada tanggal 20 September 1701, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dalam suksesi kepada ayah mertuanya. Namun, ia menolak untuk menerima jabatan sampai tiga pejabat tinggi lainnya (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon dan de Roo), dicalonkan oleh dia, dirawat di Pemerintah Agung Hindia. Dia melakukan ini karena ia tidak memiliki iman yang ada di Dewan. Para Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menyetujui permintaan ini dan pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1704, Joan van Hoorn menerima jabatan Gubernur Jenderal.

Tahun-tahun awal dari istilah Joan van Hoorn di kantor ditandai oleh perang kemudian mengamuk – Perang Suksesi Jawa Pertama (1704-1708). Pada awalnya Perusahaan ingin tetap keluar dari konflik, tetapi akhirnya mereka harus mengambil sisi. Pada tahun 1705, Joan van Hoorn menyimpulkan perjanjian dengan Mataram, yang menyerahkan Jawa Barat kepada Perusahaan. Joan van Hoorn bereksperimen dengan perkebunan kopi. Harga ditentukan oleh pedagang di Mocha sehingga untuk melakukan sesuatu tentang hal ini, Perusahaan mencoba penanaman kopi di daerah lain. Selanjutnya, ada ekspansi besar kopi tumbuh, terutama di dataran tinggi Priangan di dekat Batavia.

Pada tanggal 16 November 1706, setelah kematian Susanna, Van Hoorn kembali menikah, kali ini untuk Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, putri tertua maka Direktur Jenderal van Riebeeck Abraham. Dia juga janda dari Gerard de Heere, yang telah Konselor Hindia dan Gubernur Ceylon. Seorang putra lahir pada 2 Februari 1708, tapi dia meninggal tak lama sesudahnya.

Pada 2 Maret 1708, permintaan Joan van Hoorn untuk meninggalkan pos diberikan. Pada tanggal 30 Oktober 1709, ia menyerahkan posting untuk ayah mertuanya Abraham van Riebeeck nya. Meskipun permintaan lebih lanjut untuk tetap di Hindia, ia dipanggil kembali ke Belanda, sebagai Komandan armada kembali. Dia membeli sebuah rumah yang sangat menyenangkan di Herengracht di Amsterdam. Heren XVII disajikan dengan rantai emas dan medali. Dia meninggal enam bulan setelah kembali pada tanggal 21 Februari 1711. Ia dikuburkan di malam hari, karena kemudian fashion.


1709-1713: Abraham van Riebeeck
Abraham van Riebeeck (18 Oktober 1653 – 17 November 1713) adalah seorang Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia lahir di Cape Colony di Afrika Selatan, dan merupakan anak dari Jan van Riebeeck. Salah satu anak Abraham adalah Johanna Maria van Riebeeck (1679-1759), yang telah menikah pendahulunya Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn. [1] Setelah ia menyelesaikan studi di Belanda pada 1676, ia masuk Belanda East India Company sebagai pedagang.
Dari 1709 sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1713, ia adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia adalah seorang penjelajah yang tajam, yang melakukan lebih kecil dan lebih besar beberapa pelayaran di Hindia

1713-1718: Christoffel van Swol
Christoffel van Swoll
Christoffel van Swoll (1663-12 November 1718) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 17 November 1713 sampai kematiannya.

Ia lahir tahun 1663 di Amsterdam. Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1683, ia berangkat ke Batavia pada papan Anna Juffrouw sebagai asisten dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Dia tiba di Batavia pada tanggal 19 Juni 1664 dan mulai bekerja di Sekretariat Jenderal. Dia dipromosikan secara teratur. Pada 1686 ia dipromosikan menjadi Akuntan, pada tahun 1690 untuk Clerk Pertama kepada Sekretariat Jenderal, dan di 1691 untuk Pembeli. Pada 1696, ia diangkat sebagai Sekretaris kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (de Hoge Regering). Pada 1700 ia menjadi ekstra-ordinair Raad (Atase luar biasa) dan Presiden dari College van Weesmeesteren (orpanage suatu). Pada 1701 dia bernama Raad van Indië ordinair (Atase Penuh Hindia). Pada tanggal 3 Mei 1703 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Schepenen (anggota dewan) di Batavia. Setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Abraham van Riebeeck, Dewan (Raad) memilih van Swoll, oleh mayoritas tipis, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal (pada tanggal 17 November 1713). Proposal ini dikirim ke 17 Penguasa Hindia (de Heren XVII) pada 18 Mei 1714 yang menegaskan janji di 1715, meskipun karakter kesulitannya. Kejujuran adalah faktor penentu dalam waktu-waktu korupsi dan maladministrasi.

Sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menempatkan banyak energi ke dalam berurusan dengan perdagangan, swasta, atau tidak resmi. Dalam hal ini ia tidak benar-benar berhasil. Secara umum, tidak ada yang sangat luar biasa tentang waktunya di kantor. Dia tidak promotor besar pembangunan, seperti memperluas pertanian kopi. Dia juga terhadap memperluas wilayah Perseroan, karena ia pikir itu kemudian akan menjadi ungovernable.He tiba-tiba menjatuhkan harga Cina punya untuk teh oleh sepertiga. Hasilnya adalah bahwa perdagangan dalam teh (dan porselen) runtuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Empat tahun setelah penunjukan sementara sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia meninggal di Batavia pada tanggal 12 November 1718. Ia dimakamkan di Gereja Salib Suci (Kruiskerk). Penggantinya disebut sebagai Hendrick Zwaardecroon.



1718-1725: Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon atau Henricus (26 Januari 1667, Rotterdam – 12 Agustus 1728, Batavia, Hindia Belanda) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1718 sampai 1725.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Zwaardecroon kiri untuk Hindia Timur sebagai kadet kapal Purmer pada Desember 1684 dan tiba di Batavia pada bulan Oktober 1685. Selama perjalanan ia beberapa kali telah digunakan sebagai sekretaris Komisaris Jenderal Van Rheede, yang memungkinkan dia untuk membuat kemajuan cepat dalam karirnya dengan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada 1686 ia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) dan kemudian Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Pada 1694, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman) dan pada 1694 untuk Pembeli Senior (opperkoopman). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat menjadi Komandan (commandeur) di Jafnapatham di Ceylon. Dia Komisaris (commissaris) di Pantai Malabar dan bertindak Gubernur Ceylon pada 1697. Dia menjadi, pada tahun 1703, Sekretaris Pemerintah Hindia Tinggi (Hoge Regering) di Batavia, dan pada 1704, melalui pengaruh dari Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn, anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van de Indië). Melalui keanggotaan itu, dan kemudian karena Gubernur Jenderal Christoffel van Swoll telah mencoba membuatnya dihapus dari Dewan, lebih disukai dengan promosi di tempat lain, butuh waktu sampai 1715 sebelum Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menamainya sebagai anggota penuh (gewoon tutup ).

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda
Hari setelah kematian Christoffel van Swoll, pada tanggal 12 November 1718, bernama Zwaardecroon Gubernur-Jenderal. Hanya pada tanggal 10 September 1720, dia menegaskan di posting ini. Pemberhentian Nya, oleh keinginannya sendiri, datang pada tanggal 16 Oktober 1724, meskipun ia menyerahkan kantor sebenarnya untuk Mattheus de Haan hanya pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Selama masa jabatannya, Zwaardecroon harus berurusan dengan banyak kerusuhan di Batavia, termasuk pembakaran di dermaga dan serangan terhadap toko-toko mesiu. Ini Pieter kaya Eberveld, telah mewarisi beberapa tanah dari ayahnya. Pemerintah mengklaim bagian dari perkebunan ini. Eberveld merencanakan serangan terhadap Belanda tetapi beberapa budaknya memperingatkan pemerintah dan serangan itu digagalkan. Dia mengaku di rak dan dijatuhi hukuman mati, bersama dengan anggota komplotan lainnya. Rumahnya dihancurkan dan tembok didirikan di sekitar tempat itu berdiri [1] Kepalanya terjebak pada. Tombak dan melekat pada dinding. Sebuah batu dengan prasasti didirikan, menunjukkan bahwa tidak pernah lagi akan apa pun dibangun di tempat itu. [2] Hal itu hanya dihapus selama pendudukan Jepang (Perang Dunia II).

Zwaardecrood selalu memiliki minat besar dalam mengembangkan produk baru. Dia mendorong penanaman kopi di Priangan di Jawa sehingga produksi kopi tumbuh dengan cepat. Dari 1723, seluruh hasil panen harus diserahkan kepada Perusahaan. Kemudian Zwaardecroon memperkenalkan produksi sutera ke Jawa serta produksi pewarna sayuran. Produksi sutra tidak begitu sukses. Pada 1772 ia mendirikan kembali perdagangan teh Cina, yang telah terganggu.

Pada 1719, Paku Buwono I dari Kartasura di Jawa Timur meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya, Amangkurat IV. Dua dari saudara-saudaranya tidak mengakui suksesi dan bangkit dalam pemberontakan, menyerang Kartasura. Ini adalah jijik oleh pasukan pendudukan Belanda, tetapi Zwaardecroon merasa dirinya terpaksa untuk mengirim lebih banyak pasukan ke Jawa Timur. Pemberontakan ditumpas oleh 1723, tapi butuh sampai 1752 sampai perdamaian dipulihkan nyata di daerah tersebut. (Perang Suksesi Jawa Kedua 1719-1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon mengambil tindakan terhadap pedagang swasta, dan dengan demikian mendapat hubungan yang lebih baik dengan pemegang saham atas Perusahaan lokal (Bewindhouders). Pada 1726, ia memiliki pelayan Perusahaan 26 dibawa ke Batavia pada tuduhan korupsi.

Zwaardecroon meninggal pada 12 Agustus 1738 di real di Kaduang dekat Batavia. Dia mengatakan dia merasa lebih di rumah dengan warga kota biasa, dan atas permintaannya ia tidak dikuburkan dengan pendahulunya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, tetapi di pemakaman Gereja Portugis Luar Tembok di Batavia (Portugis Buitenkerk) di Batavia, di mana nya makam masih dapat dikunjungi


1725-1729: Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1725-1729. (Potret-Nya dapat dilihat di [1]).

Ia lahir di Dordrecht pada tahun 1663. Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1671 ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, di mana ayahnya telah appoined sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman) di Belanda East India Company (VOC). Dia kemudian cepat-cepat pergi melalui posting di tingkat lebih rendah dari organisasi yang dalam bahasa Belanda Suratte. Ada, pada 1676, ia diangkat menjadi Asisten Sementara (provisioneel asisten), dan pada 1681 ia menjadi asisten. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1683, dan, pada 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer / Undermerchant). Sepuluh tahun kemudian, pada 1695, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli / Merchant (Koopman). Tahun berikutnya ia harus pindah ke Batavia, untuk mengambil posting Pembeli Senior Kedua (Tweede opperkoopman) di kantor pusat Perseroan di sana. Dua tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1698, ia dipromosikan menjadi Senior Pembeli Pertama (Eerste opperkoopman). Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Pemerintah Tinggi Hindia pada tahun 1700 dan, pada 1702, Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Dia membuat Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) Dewan Hindia Belanda pada 1704. Dia kemudian ditunjuk sebagai Presiden College van Schepenen tahun 1705. Lima tahun kemudian, ia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia dan pada tahun 1722 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal. Pada 16 Oktober 1724 ia dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal, mengambil alih dari Henrick Zwaardecroon pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Karakteristik besar waktunya di kantor adalah dorongan oposisi Zwaardecroon nya budidaya sutra. Produksi kopi di wilayah Priangan de (fr Priangan: dataran tinggi Priangan di selatan Batavia) pergi sangat baik dan de Haan merasa bahwa ini akan mengakibatkan penurunan harga kopi di Eropa, sehingga ia menurunkan harga yang dibayarkan kepada para petani kopi . Tanggapan mereka adalah menebang beberapa perkebunan kopi. Ini bukanlah apa yang dimaksudkan, dan De Haan melarangnya. Sementara itu, ada kerusakan lebih lanjut berat untuk produksi kopi. Kopi dari Jawa pergi terutama ke Eropa. Mereka tidak pernah berhasil masuk ke pasar Asia. Kopi dari Mocha melepas sana, seperti halnya kopi Arab dari Inggris. Tidak ada tindakan yang diambil terhadap ini. Orang Inggris juga mulai memainkan peran yang lebih penting dalam kapas dan perdagangan teh.

Setelah istilah yang sangat biasa-biasa saja di kantor (De Haan memiliki semua hidupnya lebih tertarik pada istirahat dari dalam tindakan), Gubernur Jenderal meninggal, setelah terbaring sakit selama tiga hari, pada tanggal 1 Juni 1729. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia dan diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Diederik Durven.


1729-1732: Diederik Durven
Diederik Durven


Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (lahir Delft, 1676, meninggal 26 Februari 1740) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1 Juni 1729 sampai 28 Mei 1732

Durven belajar hukum di Universitas Leiden di mana dia lulus pada 19 Juli 1702. Ia menjadi pembela di Delft pada 1704. Pada 1705, ia dinominasikan sebagai anggota Dewan Hakim di Batavia di Hindia. Dia berangkat ke Batavia pada “Grimmestein” pada 4 Januari 1706. Pada tahun 1706, ia tiba di Batavia. Setelah janji itu pada tahun 1720 kepada Dewan Hindia, ia dikirim, pada tahun 1722 dan 1723, untuk mengawasi emas dan perak-tambang di provinsi Parang. Selanjutnya, ia menjadi (tahun 1723) ketua College van Heemraden (yaitu papan drainase, sebanding dengan papan polder di Republik Belanda), yang bertanggung jawab untuk pengelolaan lahan di luar kota, termasuk pengawasan batas. Ia kemudian menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman – pengadilan tertinggi Belanda di Asia. Pada 1729, Mattheus de Haan meninggal. Diederik Durven menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Ini tidak berlangsung lama, sebagai Direksi Perusahaan India Timur sangat tidak sabar dari kecepatan perubahan di sana. Setelah kenakalan keuangan diduga, meskipun lebih mungkin sebagai kambing hitam, dia diberhentikan pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1731. Diederik Durven meninggal di Belanda pada tanggal 26 Februari 1740. Ia digantikan oleh Dirck van Cloon.


1732-1735: Dirk van Cloon
Dirck van Cloon


Dirck van Cloon sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Hindia

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 Maret 1735) adalah Eurasia Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia meninggal karena malaria pada usia 46.

Ia lahir di Batavia sekitar tahun 1684. Untuk pendidikan dan pelatihan ia dikirim ke Belanda. Dia lulus pada Hukum di Universitas Leiden pada tanggal 1 April 1707.

Dia kembali ia ke Batavia pada clipper ‘Donkervliet’ dan menghabiskan beberapa waktu di Belanda Coromandel. Dia antara lain menjadi penilik kabupaten di Sadraspatnam. Dia terlibat perkelahian dengan Gubernur Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, yang menuduh Van Cloon memberikan barang-barang berkualitas buruk. Pemerintah di Batavia mengirim Van Cloon kembali ke Belanda, tetapi dia membujuk Direksi Belanda East India Company bahwa de Visser tidak bisa dipercaya. Van Cloon itu kembali dan ia berangkat ke Hindia pada 4 November 1719 di papan tulis ‘de van Huis te Assenburg’ sebagai Supercargo. Pada 1720, ia menjadi kepala distrik di Negapatnam. Pada 1723, ia menjadi Gubernur Coromandel Belanda. Pada 1724, ia kembali ke Batavia untuk memberikan nasihat kepada Gubernur Jenderal dan pada tahun 1730, ia menjadi “Raad-ordinair” (penasihat) dari Hindia.

Pada 9 Oktober 1731 Direksi Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang bernama van Cloon Dirck Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia, yang dia sukses pada tanggal 28 Mei 1732, setelah Diederik Durven aib. Dengan 20 Desember 1733 van Cloon meminta untuk mengundurkan diri karena sakit. Dia meninggal di pos, bagaimanapun, dan itu tidak sampai setelah dia meninggal penggantinya mengambil alih. Van Cloon terlibat dalam off berdiri dengan Perusahaan India Timur baru lahir Swedia, tetapi ia diselesaikan itu secara damai. Kurang bahagia adalah sebuah pemberontakan dari pengangguran pekerja perkebunan gula Cina. Hal ini disebabkan oleh runtuhnya pasar gula, karena over-produksi dan penanganan pemerintah.


1735-1737: Abraham Patras
Abraham Patras


Gubernur Jenderal Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 Mei 1671 – 3 Mei 1737) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 11 Maret 1735 sampai 3 Mei 1737. Dia lahir di Grenoble dari keluarga Huguenot pengungsi Prancis. Pada 1685, keluarganya melarikan diri ke Belanda.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Patras pertama mengambil pekerjaan di kantor seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama Nathaniel Gauthier (a Huguenot sesama), tapi ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia kapal Hobree pada 4 Januari 1690, di mana ia digambarkan sebagai seorang prajurit dalam menggunakan cabang Enkhuizen dari Belanda East India Company. Pada 1691, ia mencari perubahan karir dan mendapat posting sementara sebagai agen di Batavia. Pada 1695 ia menjadi asisten / sekretaris administrasi perkebunan-manajemen Cina di Pulau Ambon. Pada 1698 ia dimasukkan ke dalam biaya anak-anak dan hal-hal perkawinan. Dia menikah pada tahun 1699 dengan putri seorang pejabat Dewan Yudisial di Ambon. Istrinya meninggal pada tanggal 16 Desember 1700. Putri satu-satunya juga meninggal muda.

[Sunting] Meningkatnya melalui jajaran
Patras dinominasikan untuk Dewan Kehakiman pada tahun 1700, dan pada tahun 1703, ia pergi untuk bekerja sebagai di bawah sekretaris (onderkoopman) untuk Gubernur Kepulauan Maluku. Pada 1707, ia menjadi Kepala (opperhoofd) dari pos perdagangan di Jambi, di mana markas besarnya diserang. Meskipun terluka parah di bagian belakang, ia selamat. Dia pedagang, kemudian Faktor Kepala di Palembang pada 1711. Pada 1717, ia dipromosikan menjadi Kepala Merchant (opperkoopman) dan pemegang Kantor (gezaghebber) dari pantai barat Sumatera. Itu adalah 1720 yang melihat dia dipromosikan menjadi Inspektur Jenderal Account untuk Hindia Belanda (visitateur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië). Pada 1721, ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Jambi. Pada 1722, ia diangkat deputee-pengawas barang masuk dan keluar dari kastil di Batavia. Pada 1724, ia mendapat posting yang sangat menguntungkan Kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Bengal. Pada 1731, ia diangkat sebagai anggota luar biasa (yaitu terkooptasi) dari Dewan Hindia.

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal
Pada 10 Maret 1735 pada kematian Gubernur Jenderal van Dirck Cloon, Patras sangat mengejutkan dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal. Dia tidak pernah menjadi anggota penuh dari Dewan Hindia, jadi ini adalah pertama, dan itu disebabkan oleh dia tergelincir melalui sebagai calon kompromi menyusul kebuntuan dalam pemungutan suara. Dia tidak ingin mengambil posting dalam keadaan ini, tetapi setuju untuk melakukannya sampai calon yang lebih baik dapat ditemukan. Pada 11 Maret 1735 ia dinominasikan sementara Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah keputusan yang disetujui oleh Direksi dari Perusahaan India Timur.

Selama periode jabatannya yang singkat, tidak ada keputusan signifikan yang dibuat. Meskipun ia adalah seorang pemimpin yang kompeten dan telah membangun banyak pengetahuan praktis dari wilayah, usianya (pada 64) mungkin memastikan bahwa ia tidak sangat kuat Gubernur Jenderal.

Dia meninggal dua tahun setelah janji itu pada malam tanggal 3 Mei 1737. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia pada tanggal 6 Mei 1737. Dia adalah orang saleh dan baik hati yang telah menjalani kehidupan yang sangat sederhana. Gubernur-jenderal diambil alih oleh Adriaan Valckenier. \ \




1737-1741: Adriaan Valckenier
Adriaan Valckenier


Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 Juni 1695, Amsterdam – 20 Juni 1751, Batavia, Hindia Belanda), adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 3 Mei 1737 sampai 6 November 1741 dan terlibat dalam Pembantaian Cina 1740. Valckenier meninggal di penjara di Batavia.

[Sunting] Biografi
Ayah Valckenier, seorang anggota dewan kotapraja dan sekretaris di Amsterdam, adalah pejabat dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang berbasis di Amsterdam. Ia adalah putra untuk Gillis Valckenier, salah satu bupati yang besar Amsterdam selama Golden Age kemudian Belanda. Pada tanggal 22 Oktober 1714, Adriaan kiri pada papan ‘Linschoten’ untuk menjadi asisten pembeli (onderkoopman) di Hindia Belanda, di mana ia tiba di 21 Juni, 1715 di Batavia.

Pada 1726, ia menjadi pedagang dan pembeli kepala (opperkoopman); pada tahun 1727 ia “Akuntan Umum” (boekhouder-Generaal) di Hindia Belanda, pada tahun 1730, ia pertama kali diangkat ke Dewan Hindia (Raad ekstra-oridinair) , dan, tahun 1733, sebagai “Penasehat” penuh. Pada 1736, ia membuat “Konselor Pertama” dan “Direktur Jenderal”, tetapi dipukuli sampai jabatan Gubernur Jenderal oleh Abraham Patras. Pada kematian terakhir itu, ia diangkat oleh Gubernur Jenderal Dewan Hindia pada tanggal 3 Mei 1737.

[Sunting] Pembantaian Cina 1740
Artikel utama: 1740 Batavia pembantaian

Ia selama Adriaan Valckenier aturan bahwa pembantaian terkenal Cina terjadi di Batavia (Pembantaian yang disebut Cina). Seorang Gubernur Jenderal sebelumnya (Henricus Zwaardecroon) telah mendorong banyak orang Cina untuk datang ke Batavia. Sesuatu antara 20% dan 50% dari populasi orang Cina. Mereka bekerja dalam pembangunan rumah dan benteng Batavia dan di perkebunan gula di luar kota. Banyak pedagang Cina juga mengambil, terkemuka jika (dari sudut pandang Belanda) ilegal, peran dalam perdagangan dengan Cina. Dari perdagangan gula 1725 mulai runtuh (sebagian karena persaingan dari Brazil). [Kutipan diperlukan] Pengangguran di pedesaan tumbuh, dan bersama dengan itu, kerusuhan. Ini menyebar ke Batavia sebagai pengangguran Cina meninggalkan desa untuk mencari pekerjaan atau bantuan makanan di sana. Pihak berwenang khawatir ini dan mulai mengeluarkan izin tinggal, dan membutuhkan orang-orang dengan izin untuk tinggal di daerah tertentu. Kerusuhan tumbuh pemberontakan skala penuh di pedesaan pada September 1740, ketika Belanda telah mengusulkan mengangkut menganggur Cina untuk koloni Belanda lainnya di Ceylon dan Afrika Selatan. Sebuah menyebarkan rumor bahwa mereka semua akan dibuang ke laut en rute, dan kerusuhan di pedesaan meledak

Pihak berwenang Belanda takut bahwa Cina dalam Batavia berkolaborasi dengan pemberontakan itu dan, selama 9 Oktober dan 10, pencarian brutal terbuat dari wilayah Cina, di mana ribuan tewas, seringkali setelah ditangkap. Ini “pembantaian” berlangsung tiga hari, diikuti oleh hari lebih banyak penjarahan dan pembakaran, tanpa upaya yang jelas pada bagian pemerintah untuk menghentikan kekerasan. Salah satu perkiraan adalah bahwa antara 5.000 dan 10.000 Cina (pria, wanita dan anak-anak) tewas secara total


1741-1743: Johannes Thedens
Johannes Thedens


Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 Maret 1748, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 6 November 1741 sampai 28 Mei 1743.

Thedens, lahir di sebuah pemukiman besar Belanda di Schleswig-Holstein, berlayar pada 17 Desember 1697 sebagai seorang prajurit kapal””’Unie’ ke Hindia Belanda. Pada 1702 ia diangkat ke pos”’Asisten”’ di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan pada 1719, untuk”’Pembeli”’ (”’Koopman”’). Dia kemudian berkembang (antara 1723 dan 1725) atas melalui jajaran untuk”’Pembeli Kepala”’ (”’opperkoopman”’) kemudian”’Kepala Pos”’ (opperhoofd) di Deshima di Jepang. [ 1]

Pada 1731, ia dikooptasi untuk Dewan Hindia dan di 1736, ia menjadi anggota penuh (”’Raad-ordinair Indie”’). Pada 1740 ia diangkat oleh Direksi sebagai ‘Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal”’ a”Hindia. Pada tanggal 6 November 1741, setelah pemecatan Adriaan Valckenier, (yang ia ditangkap dan ditempatkan di penjara di kastil di Batavia), ia menjadi”’interim”’ Gubernur Jenderal. Dia melanjutkan di kantor sampai dengan 28 Mei 1743, dan mampu mengatasi pemberontakan Cina dan menempatkan perdagangan gula pada pijakan yang lebih baik. Ia digantikan oleh Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff.


1743-1750: Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff
Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff


Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (8 Agustus 1705 Leer-November 1, 1750) adalah Gubernur Ceylon dan kemudian Hindia Belanda bagi Belanda East India Company (VOC Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie-).

[Sunting] Awal tahun
Van Imhoff dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga aristokrat Frisian Timur. Ayahnya, Heinrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Imhoff, datang dari kota Leer di barat laut Jerman, beberapa kilometer dari perbatasan Belanda.

Pada 1725, Van Imhoff masuk ke dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda di Batavia (Jakarta zaman modern), maka modal kolonial Hindia Belanda. Van Imhoff dipromosikan beberapa kali dalam perusahaan sebelum diangkat gubernur kolonial di Ceylon (modern-hari Sri Lanka) pada tanggal 23 Juli 1736.

[Sunting] Sri Lanka
Masa Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon mengakhiri kekacauan yang telah merasuki pemerintahan sebelumnya. Dia menjalin hubungan yang konstruktif dengan raja Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

Raja Narendra menikah dengan seorang putri Tamil Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), dan anak mereka, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha yang menggantikannya setelah kematian Narendra itu pada 24 Mei 1739, dipandang Tamil lebih dari Sinhala (kelompok etnis mayoritas di Ceylon). Imhoff prihatin tentang suksesi ini karena kontak yang lebih dekat antara orang Tamil dari Sri Lanka, di bawah Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, dan Tamil dari India Selatan mungkin membahayakan monopoli komersial Belanda East India Company. Dalam surat-suratnya, Van Imhoff menyatakan terkejut bahwa orang-orang Sinhala telah menerima seperti seorang raja, mengingat sikap angkuh mereka terhadap orang Tamil dari India. Namun, Van Imhoff melihat kesempatan yang menarik dalam peristiwa pergantian. Dia mengusulkan untuk Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, para direktur VOC) bahwa kerajaan Ceylon dibagi dalam dua, tetapi mereka menolak proposisi: perang akan terlalu mahal.

Meskipun produksi rempah-rempah yang menguntungkan, koloni itu selalu dalam keadaan defisit, karena keuntungannya yang dialokasikan untuk VOC pada umumnya, bukan untuk koloni itu sendiri. Praktek ini mencegah Gubernur dari menjadi terlalu boros dalam kebiasaan mereka, seperti yang terjadi di koloni lain.

[Sunting] Batavia
Pada tanggal 12 Maret 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck diganti Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon dan Imhoff kembali ke Batavia, yang ia temukan dalam situasi genting. Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-percaya bahwa populasi Cina di Batavia daerah sekitarnya tumbuh terlalu besar. Dia berusaha untuk merelokasi penduduk ke Ceylon dan Cape Colony (Afrika Selatan), tetapi desas-desus menyatakan bahwa Belanda berencana untuk melemparkan orang-orang Cina kapal di tengah lautan memulai pemberontakan melawan VOC. Vackenier menanggapi dengan membantai sekitar 5000 Cina. Imhoff diperebutkan kebijakan yang brutal, yang menyebabkan penangkapan dan deportasi ke Belanda. Setelah kedatangannya, Lord Seventeen menamainya Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan mengirimnya kembali ke Batavia.

En rute ke Batavia, Imhoff mengunjungi koloni Belanda di Cape Town, di Cape Colony, di mana ia menemukan bahwa warga menembus semakin jauh ke pedalaman dan kehilangan kontak dengan VOC. Imhoff diusulkan untuk meningkatkan pendidikan dan pekerjaan Gereja Protestan di koloni.

Pada bulan Mei 1743, Imhoff mulai masa jabatannya di Batavia yang berada di tengah-tengah perang. Para pangeran Jawa mengambil keuntungan dari situasi kacau berikut tindakan Valckenier untuk memulai perang melawan VOC. Imhoff berhasil membangun kembali perdamaian dan mulai beberapa reformasi. Ia mendirikan sebuah sekolah Latin, kantor pos pertama di Hindia Belanda, rumah sakit dan surat kabar. Dia juga mendirikan kota Buitenzorg dan menekan perdagangan opium. Pada 1746, Imhoff memulai tur Jawa untuk memeriksa kepemilikan perusahaan dan memutuskan beberapa reformasi kelembagaan.

Imhoff masa itu juga ditandai dengan bencana. Sebuah kapal, Hofwegen, disambar petir dan meledak di pelabuhan Batavia bersama dengan enam ton perak, berjumlah sekitar 600.000 florin Belanda.

Pada akhirnya, kebijakan progresif Imhoff membuatnya banyak musuh. Yang Imhoff ingin diplomasi dan kurangnya penghormatan terhadap adat setempat menyebabkan koloni untuk menjadi terlibat dalam perang ketiga suksesi Jawa. Dimasukkan ke dalam posisi tidak bisa dipertahankan oleh musuh-musuhnya, Imhoff ingin mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya, tetapi VOC tidak akan mengizinkannya. Imhoff dipaksa untuk tetap di kantor sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1750, yang datang untuk percaya bahwa sebagian besar karyanya telah dilakukan sia-sia.

Selama tinggal di Batavia, Imhoff tinggal di sebuah rumah kelas tinggi sekarang dikenal sebagai Toko Merah. [1


1750-1761: Yakub Mossel
Yakub Mossel


Yakub Mossel

Yakub Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 Mei 1761) berubah dari seorang pelaut umum untuk menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1750-1761.

Dia kelahiran mulia, lahir di Enkhuizen. Ketika ia 15 ia meninggalkan sebagai pelaut berbadan sehat atas sebuah Fluyt (sejenis kapal kargo berlayar Belanda) disebut de Haringthuyn, menuju Hindia. Seperti keluarganya memiliki lambang, ia mampu memperoleh posisi istimewa, melalui Dirk van Cloon, dan dikirim ke Coromandel Belanda (1721). Pada 30 Maret 1730, ia menikah Adriana Appels, yang anak tiri empat belas tahun dari Adriaan van Pla, Gubernur Belanda Coromandel. Yakub Mossel bekerja dirinya akhirnya kepada Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel.



Willem van Outhoorn



Willem van Outhoorn (4 May 1635 – 27 November 1720) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1691 to 1704. He was born and died in the Dutch East Indies.

[edit] Biography

Willem van Outhoorn (or Oudthoorn) was born on 4 May 1635 at Larike on Ambon Island in Indonesia. His father was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) Buyer (koopman) there. He was sent to the Netherlands to study Law at the University of Leiden. On 28 November 1657 he graduated in Law.

[edit] Government career

In 1659 van Outhoorn returned to the Indies, employed as Underbuyer (onderkoopman). He was to remain in the East for the rest of his life. Even a journey to nearby Bantam was a journey too far for him. In 1662 he became a member of the Council of Justice (Raad van Justitie) in Batavia. In 1672 he became Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal), and in 1673 he became Vice-President of the Council of Justice. In 1678 he was charged with a mission to Bantam and he became an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He was named a full Counsellor, being confirmed in that post in 1681. He became President of the Council of Justice in 1682 and in 1689 President of the College van Heemraden (dealing with estate boundaries, roads, etc.). That same year he was appointed First Counsellor and Director-General of the Dutch East Indies.

On 17 December 1690 van Outhoorn was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, taking over from Johannes Camphuys on 24 September 1691. After ten years, the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) granted his wish to be honourably relieved of his duties, but it was 15 August 1704 before he could hand over all his official functions to his successor, Joan van Hoorn.

He requested that he be allowed to remain on his estate just outside Batavia. Such requests were generally not allowed, for fear that retired governors would interfere with the work of their successors. However, because he was in ill-health and was over 70, he was allowed to stay. He died at age 85 on 27 November 1720.

His term of office was not marked by many important developments or events. At the end of his term, Amangkurat II Sultan of Mataram died. As the VOC did not recognise his son as successor, a long war broke out just before Van Outshoorn left office. In 1693 the French overran Pondicherry. During his time, efforts were made to establish coffee growing in Java. The first harvest failed because of flooding, but the next harvest had more success.

Van Outhoorn was not a very strong ruler. Corruption and nepotism, in which he was also involved, became more blatant during his time. His son-in-law Joan van Hoorn, married to his daughter Susanna, followed him as Governor-General


Joan van Hoorn



Zijn portret door Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653–1711) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1704 until 1709.

Joan (or Johan) van Hoorn was born on 16 November 1653, son to the wealthy Amsterdam gunpowder manufacturer, Pieter Janszn van Hoorn and his wife Sara Bessels, a grandchild of Gerard Reynst. As the gunpowder trade was no longer doing so well, his influential friends got him named as Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. The whole family left for the Indies in 1663, including Joan.

In 1665, when he was still only 12 years old, Joan van Hoorn was already Under-assistant (onder-assistant) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). From July 1666 until January 1668, he accompanied his father on a mission to China, where he was received by the Kangxi Emperor. Thereafter, Van Hoorn made rapid progress in his career. He became Assistant (assistent) in 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1673, Buyer (koopman) and First Clerk to the general secretarial function in 1676. He was made Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering) of the Indies in 1678. On 11 August 1682 he became Counsellor-extraordinary to the Council of the Indies. In that same year he was sent on a visit to Bantam. He was also named President of the Weeskamer (overseeing the estates of orphans, etc.). In 1684, he became President of the College van Heemraden (looking after land boundaries, roads, etc.). A further visit to Bantam took place in 1685, following which he was named full Counsellor (Raad ordinair) of the Indies.

In 1691 Van Hoorn married Anna Struis. They had a daughter, Petronella Wilhelmina. She later married Jan Trip, the Mayor’s son. A later marriage saw Petronella married to the extremely wealthy Lubbert Adolf Torck, Lord of Roozendael.

Van Hoorn became Director-General in 1691. In this post, he completely reorganised the Company’s administration. Following the death of his wife, he remarried, in 1692, this time to Susanna, the daughter of the then Governor-General Willem van Outhoorn. He himself was named, on 20 September 1701, as Governor-General in succession to his father-in-law. However, he declined to accept the post until three other high officials (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon and de Roo), nominated by him, were admitted to the High Government of the Indies. He did this as he had no faith in the existing Council. The Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) acceded to this demand and on 15 August 1704, Joan van Hoorn accepted the post of Governor General.

The early years of Joan van Hoorn’s term of office were marked by the war then raging – the First Javanese War of Succession (1704 – 1708) . At first the Company wanted to stay out of the conflict, but eventually they had to take sides. In 1705, Joan van Hoorn concluded an agreement with Mataram, which ceded West Java to the Company. Joan van Hoorn experimented with coffee plantation. Prices were determined by the merchants at Mocha so to do something about this, the Company tried growing coffee in other regions. Subsequently, there was great expansion of coffee growing, especially in the Priangan uplands near Batavia.

On 16 November 1706, following the death of Susanna, Van Hoorn re-married, this time to Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, oldest daughter of the then Director-General Abraham van Riebeeck. She was also the widow of Gerard de Heere, who had been Counsellor of the Indies and Governor of Ceylon. A son was born on 2 February 1708, but he died shortly afterwards.

On 2 March 1708, Joan van Hoorn’s request to leave post was granted. On 30 October 1709, he handed over the post to his father-in-law Abraham van Riebeeck. Despite his further request to remain in the Indies, he was recalled to the Netherlands, as Commander of the returning fleet. He bought a very pleasant house on the Herengracht in Amsterdam. The Heren XVII presented him with a gold chain and medallion. He died six months following his return on 21 February 1711. He was buried in the evening, as was then the fashion.



Christoffel van Swoll

Christoffel van Swoll (1663 – 12 November 1718) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 17 November 1713 until his death.

He was born in 1663 in Amsterdam. On 19 December 1683, he left for Batavia on board the Juffrouw Anna as an assistant in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He arrived in Batavia on 19 June 1664 and began working in the General Secretariat. He was regularly promoted. In 1686 he was promoted to Accountant, in 1690 to First Clerk to the General Secretariat, and in 1691 to Buyer. In 1696, he was appointed as Secretary to the High Government (de Hoge Regering). In 1700 he became Raad extra-ordinair (Counsellor extraordinary) and President of the College van Weesmeesteren (an orpanage). In 1701 he was named Raad ordinair van Indië (Full Counsellor of the Indies). On 3 May 1703 he became President of the College van Schepenen (Aldermen) at Batavia. Following the death of Governor-General Abraham van Riebeeck, the Council (Raad) chose van Swoll, by a slim majority, as Governor-General (on 17 November 1713). This proposal was sent to the 17 Lords of the Indies (de Heren XVII) on 18 May 1714 who confirmed his appointment in 1715, despite his difficulty character. His honesty was the deciding factor in those times of corruption and maladministration.

As Governor-General, he put a lot of energy into dealing with the private, or unofficial, trade. In this he was not really successful. In general, there was nothing particularly remarkable about his time in office. He was no great promoter of development, such as extending coffee farming. He was also against extending the territory of the Company, because he thought it would then become ungovernable.He suddenly dropped the price the Chinese got for tea by a third. The result was that the trade in tea (and porcelain) collapsed for years.

Four years after his provisional appointment as Governor-General, he died in Batavia on 12 November 1718. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Cross (Kruiskerk). His successor was named as Hendrick Zwaardecroon.



Hendrick Zwaardecroon

Hendrick or Henricus Zwaardecroon (26 January 1667, Rotterdam – 12 August 1728, Batavia, Dutch East Indies) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1718 until 1725.

[edit] Early career

Zwaardecroon left for the East Indies as a midshipman aboard the Purmer in December 1684 and arrived in Batavia in October 1685. During the trip he had several times been employed as secretary to Commissioner-General Van Rheede, which enabled him to make quick progress in his career with the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1686 he became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) and subsequently Underbuyer (onderkoopman). In 1694, he was promoted to Buyer (koopman) and in 1694 to Senior Buyer (opperkoopman). In the same year he was appointed Commander (commandeur) in Jafnapatham in Ceylon. He was Commissioner (commissaris) on the Malabar Coast and acting Governor of Ceylon in 1697. He became, in 1703, Secretary to the High Government of the Indies (Hoge Regering) in Batavia, and in 1704, through the influence of the Governor-General, Joan van Hoorn, an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van de Indië). Through that membership, and later because the Governor-General Christoffel van Swoll had been trying to get him removed from the Council, preferably by promotion elsewhere, it took until 1715 before the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) named him as full member (gewoon lid).

[edit] Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies

The day after the death of Christoffel van Swoll, on 12 November 1718, Zwaardecroon was named Governor-General. Only on 10 September 1720, was he confirmed in this post. His dismissal, by his own desire, came on 16 October 1724, though he handed the actual office to Mattheus de Haan only on 8 July 1725.

During his term of office, Zwaardecroon had to deal with a lot of unrest in Batavia, including arson in the dockyards and an attack on the gunpowder stores. The wealthy Pieter Eberveld, had inherited some land from his father. The government laid claim to a part of this estate. Eberveld planned an attack on the Dutchmen but some of his slaves warned the government and the attack was thwarted. He confessed on the rack and was condemned to death, along with other plotters. His house was destroyed and a wall erected around where it had stood.[1] His head was stuck on a lance and attached to the wall. A stone with an inscription was erected, indicating that never again would anything be built on that spot. [2] It was only removed during the Japanese occupation (World War II).

Zwaardecrood had always had a great interest in developing new products. He encouraged coffee-planting in Priangan in Java so that coffee production grew quickly. From 1723, the whole of the harvest had to be delivered to the Company. Then Zwaardecroon introduced silk production into Java as well as the production of vegetable dyes. Silk production was not so successful. In 1772 he re-established the Chinese tea trade, which had been disrupted.

In 1719, Pakubuwono I of Kartasura in East Java died and was succeeded by his son, Amangkurat IV. Two of his brothers did not recognise his succession and rose in revolt, attacking Kartasura. This was repulsed by the Dutch occupying troops, but Zwaardecroon felt himself compelled to send more troops to East Java. The revolt was put down by 1723, but it took until 1752 until real peace was restored in the area. (Second Javanese War of Succession 1719 – 1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon took action against private traders, and thus got better relations with local Company top shareholders (Bewindhouders). In 1726, he had 26 Company servants brought to Batavia on charges of corruption.

Zwaardecroon died on 12 August 1738 in his estate at Kaduang near Batavia. He said he felt more at home with ordinary townsfolk, and so at his request he was not buried with his predecessors as Governor-General, but in the graveyard of the Portuguese Church Outside the Walls at Batavia (Portuguese Buitenkerk) in Batavia, where his grave can still be visited


Mattheus de Haan

Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1725 to 1729. (His portrait can be seen at [1]).

He was born in Dordrecht in 1663. On 26 October 1671 he left for the Indies, where his father had been appoined as Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He then quickly went through posts in the lower levels of that organisation in Dutch Suratte. There, in 1676, he was made Provisional Assistant (provisioneel assistent), and in 1681 he became assistent. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1683, and, in 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer/Undermerchant). Ten years later, in 1695, he was promoted to Buyer/Merchant (koopman). The next year he had to move to Batavia, to take up the post of Second Senior Buyer (tweede opperkoopman) in the Company’s headquarters there. Two years later, in 1698, he was promoted to First Senior Buyer (eerste opperkoopman). He became Secretary (secretaris) to the High Government of the Indies in 1700 and, in 1702, Vice-President of the Council of Justice. He was made a Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies in 1704. He was then appointed President of the College van Schepenen in 1705. Five years later, he was made full Counsellor of the Indies and in 1722 he became Director-General. On 16 October 1724 he was nominated Governor-General, taking over from Henrick Zwaardecroon on 8 July 1725.

Characteristic of his time in office was his opposition Zwaardecroon’s encouragement of silk cultivation. Coffee production in the de Preanger region (the Priangan fr:Priangan uplands to the south of Batavia) went enormously well and de Haan felt that this would lead to a decline in coffee prices in Europe, so he lowered the prices paid to the coffee farmers. Their response was to chop down some of the coffee plantations. This was not what was intended, and De Haan forbade it. Meanwhile, there was further heavy damage to the production of coffee. Coffee from Java went mainly to Europe. They never managed to get into the Asian market. Coffee from Mocha took off there, as did the Arabic coffee of the English. No action was taken against this. The English also began to play a more important role in the cotton and tea trade.

Following a very unremarkable term in office (De Haan had all his life been more interested in repose than in action), the Governor-General died, after lying ill for three days, on 1 June 1729. He was buried in Batavia and was followed as Governor-General by Diederik Durven.


Diederik Durven



Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (born Delft, 1676, died 26 February 1740) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1 June 1729 until 28 May 1732

Durven studied Law at Leiden University where he graduated in 19 July 1702. He became an advocate in Delft in 1704. In 1705, he was nominated as a member of the Council of Justice at Batavia in the Indies. He left for Batavia on the “Grimmestein” on the 4 January 1706. In 1706, he arrived in Batavia. After his appointment in 1720 to the Council of the Indies, he was sent, in 1722 and 1723, to supervise the gold- and silver-mines in Parang province. Subsequently, he became(in 1723) chairman of the College van Heemraden (i.e. drainage board, comparable to a polder board in the Dutch Republic), which was responsible for the management of land outside the city, including supervision of boundaries. He later become President of the Council of Justice – the supreme court of Dutch Asia. In 1729, Mattheus de Haan died. Diederik Durven succeeded him as provisional Governor-General. This did not last long, as the Directors of the East India Company were very impatient of the speed of change there. Following alleged financial misbehaviour, though more probably as a scapegoat, he was dismissed on 9 October 1731. Diederik Durven died in the Netherlands on 26 February 1740. He was succeeded by Dirck van Cloon.


Dirck van Cloon



Dirck van Cloon as Governor General of the Indies

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 March 1735) was Eurasian Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He died of malaria at the age of 46.

He was born in Batavia sometime in 1684. For his education and training he was sent to the Netherlands. He graduated in Law at Leiden University on 1 April 1707.

He returned he to Batavia on the clipperDonkervliet’ and spent some time in Dutch Coromandel. He was among other things a district overseer in Sadraspatnam. He got into a fight with the governor of Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, who accused Van Cloon of delivering bad quality goods. The government in Batavia sent Van Cloon back to the Netherlands, but he persuaded the Directors of the Dutch East India Company that de Visser was not to be trusted. Van Cloon was reinstated and he left for the Indies on 4 November 1719 on board the ‘van de Huis te Assenburg’ as Supercargo. In 1720, he became district chief at Negapatnam. In 1723, he became Governor of Dutch Coromandel. In 1724, he returned to Batavia to advise the Governor-General and in 1730, he became “Raad-ordinair” (chief advisor) of the Indies.

On the 9th of October 1731 the Directors of the Dutch East India Company named Dirck van Cloon Governor-General of the Indies, to which he succeed on 28 May 1732, following the disgrace of Diederik Durven. By 20 December 1733 van Cloon was asking to resign because of sickness. He died in post, however, and it was not until after he had died that his successor took over. Van Cloon was involved in a stand-off with the nascent Swedish East India Company, but he resolved it amicably. Less happy was an insurrection of unemployed Chinese sugar plantation workers. This was caused by the collapse of the sugar market, due to over-production and government mishandling.


Abraham Patras



Governor General Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 May 1671 – 3 May 1737) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 11 March 1735 until 3 May 1737. He was born in Grenoble of a refugee French Huguenot family. In 1685, his family fled to the Netherlands.

[edit] Early career

Patras first took a job in the offices of an Amsterdam merchant named Nathaniël Gauthier (a fellow Huguenot), but he left for the Indies aboard the Hobree on 4 January 1690, where he is described as a soldier in the employ of the Enkhuizen branch of the Dutch East India Company. In 1691, he sought a change of career and got a temporary post as an agent in Batavia. In 1695 he became assistant/secretary to the Chinese estates-management administration in Ambon Island. In 1698 he was put in charge of children and matrimonial matters. He married in 1699 to a daughter of an official of the Judicial Council in Ambon. His wife died on the 16 December 1700. His only daughter also died young.

[edit] Rising through the ranks

Patras was nominated to the Council of Justice in 1700, and in 1703, he went to work as under-secretary (onderkoopman) for the Governor of the Moluccas Islands. In 1707, he became the Head (opperhoofd) of the trading post at Jambi, where his headquarters were attacked. Although severely wounded in the back, he survived. He was merchant, then Chief Factor in Palembang in 1711. In 1717, he was promoted to Chief Merchant (opperkoopman) and Office holder (gezaghebber) of the west coast of Sumatra. It was 1720 that saw him promoted to Inspector General of Accounts for the Dutch East Indies (visitateur-generaal van Nederlands-Indië). In 1721, he was sent as an envoy to Jambi. In 1722, he was appointed deputee-overseer of goods coming in and out of the castle at Batavia. In 1724, he got the very lucrative post of Head of the Dutch Bengal trading post. In 1731, he was appointed as extraordinary (i.e. co-opted) member of the Council of the Indies.

[edit] Governor-General

On the 10 March 1735 on the death of Governor-General Dirck van Cloon, Patras very surprisingly was nominated Governor-General. He had never been a full member of the Council of the Indies, so this was a first, and was caused by him slipping through as a compromise candidate following a stalemate in the voting. He was not keen to take on the post in these circumstances, but agreed to do so until a better candidate could be found. On 11 March 1735 he was nominated interim Governor-General, a decision which was approved by the Directors of the East India Company.

During his short period of office, no significant decisions were made. Although he was a competent leader and had built up a great deal of practical knowledge of the territories, his age (at 64) probably ensured that he was not a very powerful Governor-General.

He died two years after his appointment during the night of 3 May 1737. He was buried in Batavia on 6 May 1737. He was a pious and good-hearted man who had lived a very modest life. The governor-generalship was taken over by Adriaan Valckenier.\\




Adriaan Valckenier



Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 June 1695, Amsterdam – 20 June 1751, Batavia, Dutch East Indies), was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 3 May 1737 until 6 November 1741 and involved in the Chinese Massacre of 1740. Valckenier died in a prison in Batavia.

[edit] Biography

Valckenier’s father, an alderman and secretary in Amsterdam, was an official of the Dutch East India Company based in Amsterdam. He was the son to Gillis Valckenier, one of the great regents of Amsterdam during the later Dutch Golden Age. On 22 October 1714, Adriaan left on board the ‘Linschoten’ to be assistant buyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East Indies, where he arrived on 21 June 1715 at Batavia.

In 1726, he became merchant and chief buyer (opperkoopman); in 1727 he was “Accountant General” (boekhouder-generaal) of the Dutch Indies; in 1730, he was first appointed to the Council of the Indies (Raad extra-oridinair), and, in 1733, as a full “Councillor”. In 1736, he was made “First Councillor” and “Director-General”, but was beaten to the post of Governor General by Abraham Patras. On the latter’s death, he was named Governor General by the Council of the Indies on 3 May 1737.

[edit] The Chinese Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

It was during the rule of Adriaan Valckenier that the notorious slaughter of Chinese took place in Batavia (the so-called Chinese Massacre). A previous Governor General (Henricus Zwaardecroon) had encouraged many Chinese to come to Batavia. Something between 20% and 50% of the population were Chinese. They worked in the construction of the houses and fortifications of Batavia and on the sugar plantations outside the city. Many Chinese merchants also took a leading, if (from the Dutch point of view) illegal, role in the trade with China. From 1725 the sugar trade began to collapse (partly because of competition from Brazil).[citation needed] Unemployment in the countryside grew, and along with that, unrest. This spread to Batavia as unemployed Chinese left the countryside to seek work or food relief there. The authorities were alarmed at this and began issuing residence permits, and requiring those with permits to live in specific areas. Unrest grew to a full scale insurrection in the countryside in September 1740, when the Dutch had suggested transporting unemployed Chinese to other Dutch colonies in Ceylon and South Africa. A rumour spread that they would all be thrown overboard en route, and riots in the countryside exploded

The Dutch authorities were afraid that the Chinese within Batavia were collaborating with the insurrection and, over the 9 and 10 October, brutal searches were made of Chinese areas, in which many thousands were killed, often after having been arrested. This “massacre” lasted three days, followed by many more days of looting and arson, with no obvious attempt on the government’s part to stop the violence. One estimate is that between 5,000 and 10,000 Chinese (men, women and children) were killed in total


Johannes Thedens



Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 March 1748, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 6 November 1741 until 28 May 1743.

Thedens, born in a largely Dutch settlement in Schleswig-Holstein, sailed on 17 December 1697 as a soldier aboard the ‘’’Unie’’’ to the Dutch East Indies. In 1702 he was appointed to the post of ‘’’Assistant’’’ in the Dutch East India Company and in 1719, to ‘’’Buyer’’’ (‘’’koopman’’’). He then progressed (between 1723 and 1725) up through the ranks to ‘’’Chief Buyer’’’ (‘’’opperkoopman’’’) then ‘’’Head of Post’’’ (opperhoofd) at Deshima in Japan.[1]

In 1731, he was co-opted to the Council of the Indies and in 1736, he was made a full member (‘’’Raad-ordinair of Indie’’’). In 1740 he was appointed by the Directors as a ‘’’First Councillor and Director General’’’ of the Indies. On 6 November 1741, following the dismissal of Adriaan Valckenier, (whom he had arrested and placed in prison in the castle at Batavia), he became ‘’’interim’’’ Governor General . He continued in office up to 28 May 1743, and was able to overcome the Chinese insurrection and put the sugar trade on a better footing. He was succeeded by Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff.


Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff



Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (August 8, 1705 Leer–November 1, 1750) was the governor of Ceylon and then the Dutch East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC-Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie).

[edit] Early years

Van Imhoff was born into an East Frisian aristocratic family. His father, Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr von Imhoff, came from the town of Leer in northwestern Germany, a few kilometers from the Dutch border.

In 1725, Van Imhoff entered into the service of the Dutch East India Company in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta), then colonial capital of the Dutch East Indies. Van Imhoff was promoted several times within the company before being appointed colonial governor in Ceylon (Modern-day Sri Lanka) on July 23, 1736.

[edit] Ceylon

Van Imhoff’s tenure as governor of Ceylon put an end to the chaos that had pervaded the previous administration. He established constructive relations with the king of Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

King Narendra was married to a Tamil princess of Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and their child, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha who succeeded him after Narendra’s death on May 24, 1739, was seen to be more Tamil than Sinhalese (the majority ethnic group in Ceylon). Imhoff was concerned about this succession because closer contact between the Tamils of Ceylon, under Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, and the Tamils of south India might endanger the Dutch East India Company’s commercial monopoly. In his letters, Van Imhoff expressed his surprise that the Sinhalese people had accepted such a king, considering their haughty attitude towards the Tamils of India. However, Van Imhoff saw an interesting opportunity in this turn of events. He proposed to the Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, the directors of the VOC) that the kingdom of Ceylon be divided in two, but they rejected the proposition: a war would be too costly.

Despite the profitable production of spices, the colony was always in a state of deficit because its profits were allotted to the VOC in general, not to the colony itself. This practice prevented the Governors from becoming too extravagant in their habits, as was the case in other colonies.

[edit] Batavia

On March 12, 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck replaced Van Imhoff as governor of Ceylon and Imhoff returned to Batavia, which he found in a precarious situation. Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier believed that the Chinese population in the area surrounding Batavia had grown too large. He attempted to relocate the population to Ceylon and the Cape Colony (South Africa), but a rumor alleging that the Dutch were planning to throw Chinese people overboard in the middle of the ocean started an insurrection against the VOC. Vackenier responded by massacring approximately 5000 Chinese. Imhoff contested this brutal policy, which led to his arrest and deportation to the Netherlands. Upon his arrival, the Lords Seventeen named him governor-general of the Dutch East Indies and sent him back to Batavia.

En route to Batavia, Imhoff visited the Dutch colony in Cape Town, in the Cape Colony, where he discovered that the citizens were penetrating farther and farther into the interior and were losing contact with the VOC. Imhoff proposed to improve education and the work of the Protestant Church in the colony.

In May 1743, Imhoff began his tenure in Batavia which was in the midst of a war. The Javanese princes took advantage of the chaotic situation following Valckenier’s actions to begin a war against the VOC. Imhoff succeeded in reestablishing the peace and began several reforms. He founded a Latin school, the first post offices in the Dutch East Indies, a hospital and a newspaper. He also founded the city of Buitenzorg and suppressed the opium trade. In 1746, Imhoff embarked on a tour of Java to inspect the company’s holdings and decided on several institutional reforms.

Imhoff’s tenure was also marked by catastrophe. A ship, the Hofwegen, was struck by lightning and exploded in the port of Batavia along with six tons of silver, totalling around 600,000 Dutch florins.

Ultimately, Imhoff’s progressive policies made him many enemies. Imhoff’s want of diplomacy and his lack of respect for local customs caused the colony to become embroiled in the third war of Javanese succession. Put in an untenable position by his enemies, Imhoff wanted to resign from his post, but the VOC would not allow it. Imhoff was forced to remain in office until his death in 1750, having come to believe that most of his work had been done in vain.

During his stay in Batavia, Imhoff stayed in a high-class residence today known as Toko Merah.[1


Jacob Mossel



Jacob Mossel

Jacob Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 May 1761) went from being a common sailor to become Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1750 to 1761.

He was of noble birth, born in Enkhuizen. When he was 15 he left as an able-bodied seaman aboard a Fluyt (a type of Dutch sailing cargo vessel) called de Haringthuyn, bound for the Indies. As his family had a coat of arms, he was able to obtain a privileged position, through Dirk van Cloon, and was sent to the Dutch Coromandel (1721). On the 30th of March 1730, he married Adriana Appels, the fourteen-year old stepdaughter of Adriaan van Pla, Governor of Dutch Coromandel. Jacob Mossel worked himself up finally to Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel. In 1740 he got the title of Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies and in 1742 he became a member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië) in Batavia/Jakarta. In 1745, he became the first Director of the Amfioensociëteit, which tried to regulate its monopoly of the trade in opium. In 1747, he was named as the Director-General (the second highest post in the Dutch East Indies). When in 1750, Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff died, Mossel succeeded him as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He remained in post until his own death in 1761.

Jacob Mossel ruled the Indies during a period in which things got steadily worse for the Dutch East India Company. He made may economies and he ended the war in Bantam Province,recognising that his predecessor had handled things badly. The Dutch were threatened by the expansion of the British East India Company. In the battle for Bengal, Mossel lost to the British. Mossel was a supporter of the policy to allow private entrepreneurs to trade for themselves in the territory of the Indies. This concerned small scale trading in which the Company could make no profit. Following that, Batavia/Jakarta underwent a period of growth, which, because of his successors tax regulations, came to nothing. The Company was plagued by corruption and self-interest among its office holders. Jacob Mossel was also involved in this. His great fortune could not in any case have been put together from his official salary. The initiatives he took against corruption were not very effective. To curb exaggerated displays of wealth, in 1754 he brought in a so-called “Regulation against pomp and splendour“, which tried to lay down exactly what wealth an officer could display. These details went from the number of buttonholes they could have to the size of their houses. Of course, the regulations did not apply to himself, and there was great feasting at his daughter’s wedding. After his death at Batavia/Jakarta, from a wasting disease, he was given a magnificent funeral



Petrus Albertus van der Parra

Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 December 1775) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 15 May 1761 to 28 December 1775. (See portrait at [1])

[edit] Biography

Petrus Albertus van der Parra was born in Colombo, the son of a Secretary to the government of Ceylon. His great-grandfather had come to India and the family had lived there ever since. In 1728, he began his career at fourteen years old. As everyone had to start as a soldier, he began as a “soldaat van de penne“, then became an “assistent” in 1731, and “boekhouder” (bookkeeper) in 1732. He had to move house in 1736 to take up a new job as “onderkoopman” (underbuyer/undermerchant), and at the same time “collectionist” (collector) and “boekhouder” to the General Secretary at Batavia/Jakarta. He became “koopman” (buyer/merchant) and “geheimschrijver” (secrets secretary) in 1739. He became Second Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering), becoming First Secretary in 1747. He became Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies later that year (November) and in 1751 became a regular Counsellor. In 1752 he became President of the College van Heemraden (in charge of estate boundaries, roads, etc.). He was later a member of the “Schepenbank” (the local government and court in Batavia), a Regent (a board member) of the hospital and in 1755 he became First Counsellor and Director-General (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

On 15 May 1761, following the death of Jacob Mossel he became Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Confirmation of his appointment by the Heren XVII (the Seventeen Lords, who controlled the Dutch East India Company) came in 1762. He held a lavish inauguration on his birthday on 29 September. Subsequently, his birthday was a national holiday in the Indies. During his time as Governor-General, he overthrew the Prince of Kandy, in Ceylon, though with difficulty, and he conquered the sultanate of Siak in Sumatra. Contracts were entered into with various regional leaders in Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar and Papekat. Apart from that, the rule of Van der Parra can be called weak. He favoured his friends and gave out well-paid posts if he could get anything in return for them. It was said he was a typical colonial ruler, idle, grumpy but generous to those who fawned upon him and recognised his greatness. It was a golden time for the preachers in Batavia, who got gifts, translations of the New Testament and scholarships from Van der Parra. They worshipped and eulogised him. Although the Heren XVII knew about his behaviour, as five Counsellors had written to them about his pretentions to kingly behaviour, they did nothing about it.

In 1770, Captain James Cook had to ask for his help to proceed on his journeys on HMS Endeavour (See s:Captain Cook’s Journal, First Voyage/Chapter 9). At the end of the 19th Century, a steamship, trading to the Indies, was named after him. ([2])

After over fourteen years in power, he died on 28 September 1775 in Weltevreden, the imposing palace built for him outside Batavia/Jakarta. (See images at [3] and [4]). He apparently left a great deal of his fortune to the widows of Colombo and a smaller part to the poor of Batavia ([5]) He was followed as Governor by Jeremias van Riemsdijk



Petrus Albertus van der Parra
Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 Desember 1775) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 15 Mei 1761 to 28 Desember 1775. (Lihat foto di [1])

[Sunting] Biografi
Petrus Albertus van der Parra lahir di Kolombo, anak seorang Sekretaris kepada pemerintah Srilanka. Kakek buyutnya datang ke India dan keluarga pernah tinggal di sana sejak itu. Pada 1728, ia memulai karirnya di empat belas tahun. Seperti semua orang harus mulai sebagai seorang prajurit, ia mulai sebagai “van de penne soldaat”, kemudian menjadi “asisten” di 1731, dan “boekhouder” (pembukuan) pada 1732. Dia harus pindah rumah tahun 1736 untuk mengambil pekerjaan baru sebagai “onderkoopman” (underbuyer / undermerchant), dan pada saat yang sama “collectionist” (kolektor) dan “boekhouder” kepada Sekretaris Jenderal di Batavia / Jakarta. Ia menjadi “Koopman” (pembeli / pedagang) dan “geheimschrijver” (rahasia sekretaris) pada 1739. Dia menjadi Sekretaris Kedua kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering), menjadi Sekretaris Pertama pada tahun 1747. Dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Hindia akhir tahun (November) dan pada 1751 menjadi Konselor biasa. Pada 1752 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (yang bertanggung jawab atas batas-batas perkebunan, jalan, dll). Ia kemudian menjadi anggota dari “Schepenbank” (pemerintah daerah dan pengadilan di Batavia), Bupati (anggota dewan) dari rumah sakit dan pada tahun 1755 ia menjadi Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

Pada tanggal 15 Mei 1761, setelah kematian Yakub Mossel ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Konfirmasi pengangkatannya oleh Heren XVII (yang Seventeen Lords, yang menguasai Belanda East India Company) datang pada tahun 1762. Dia mengadakan pelantikan mewah pada hari ulang tahunnya pada tanggal 29 September. Selanjutnya, ulang tahunnya adalah hari libur nasional di Hindia. Selama waktunya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menggulingkan Pangeran Kandy, di Ceylon, meskipun dengan kesulitan, dan ia menaklukkan Kesultanan Siak di Sumatra. Kontrak yang dimasukkan ke dalam dengan para pemimpin berbagai daerah di Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar dan Papekat. Selain itu, aturan Van der Parra dapat disebut lemah. Dia disukai teman-temannya dan memberi tahu bergaji posting jika ia bisa mendapatkan imbalan apa pun untuk mereka. Konon ia adalah penguasa kolonial yang khas, menganggur, galak tapi murah hati kepada orang-orang yang fawned kepadanya dan diakui kebesarannya. Ini adalah waktu emas bagi para pengkhotbah di Batavia, yang mendapat hadiah, terjemahan Perjanjian Baru dan beasiswa dari Van der Parra. Mereka menyembah dan memuji dia. Meskipun Heren XVII tahu tentang perilaku, seperti lima Konselor telah ditulis untuk mereka tentang pretensi untuk raja perilaku, mereka tidak melakukan apa pun tentang hal itu.

Pada tahun 1770, Kapten James Cook harus meminta bantuan untuk melanjutkan pada perjalanan pada HMS Endeavour (Lihat s: Journal Kapten Cook, Voyage Pertama / Bab 9). Pada akhir abad ke-19, kapal uap, perdagangan ke Hindia, bernama setelah dia. ([2])

Setelah lebih dari empat belas tahun berkuasa, ia meninggal pada tanggal 28 September 1775 di Weltevreden, istana megah dibangun untuknya di luar Batavia / Jakarta. (Lihat gambar di [3] dan [4]). Ia tampaknya meninggalkan banyak kekayaannya untuk para janda dari Kolombo dan bagian yang lebih kecil kepada orang miskin Batavia ([5]) Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jeremias van Riemsdijk oleh

1775-1777: Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 Oktober 1712 – 3 Oktober 1777) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda, dari 28 Desember 1775 to 3 Oktober 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk lahir pada 18 Oktober 1712 di Utrecht, putra untuk Scipio van Riemsdijk, menteri Bunnik dekat Houten, dan Johanna Bogaert. Ia masuk ke dalam layanan dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda sebagai seorang sersan meninggalkan untuk Hindia, kapal van de Proostwijk, pada 25 Februari 1735. Sangat lama setelah kedatangannya di Batavia / Jakarta pada tanggal 14 September 1735, ia masuk dinas (sebagai lawan dari militer) sipil. Jeremias adalah kemenakan masa depan Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-(1737-1741), yang pada waktu itu masih menjadi anggota Dewan Hindia. H karena itu bisa berharap untuk membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Pada tahun 1736 ia menjadi onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant), pada tahun 1738 Koopman (pembeli / pedagang), tahun 1740 Tweede opperkoopman (upperbuyer kedua / uppermerchant) dan di 1742 Eerste opperkoopman (upperbuyer pertama / uppermerchant) di markas kastil di Batavia / Jakarta. Pada 1743 ia menjadi kepala (kapitein) dari perusahaan staf administrasi / menulis (pennisten) dan pada bulan Oktober Jeremias van Riemsdijk bernama Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaier Raad) kepada Dewan Hindia. Pada 1759 ia diangkat Presiden van Sekolah Weesmeesters (berurusan dengan urusan anak yatim, anak di bawah umur, dll). Pada 15 Oktober 1760 ia diangkat Konselor biasa (Raad ordinair) dan pada 17 Agustus 1764 Direktur Jenderal.

Pada tanggal 28 Desember 1775, setelah kematian Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk dipilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia punya pada saat lima pernikahan, untuk wanita Eurasia terkemuka. Dia telah belajar banyak dari sebelas tahun dia telah bekerja dengan pendahulunya, yang besar nafsu untuk uang yang telah diperoleh. Selama masa jabatannya di kantor, ada kekurangan kapal dan personil kapal. Masalah ini dipecahkan dengan bantuan dari tanah air. Namun, tak lama setelah gubernur telah dimulai, Jeremias van Riemsdijk meninggal di Batavia / Jakarta. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Reynier de Klerck

1777-1780: Reinier de Klerk
Reynier de Klerck
Reynier de Klerck (atau Reinier de Klerck) (1710-1780) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 9 Oktober 1778 sampai 1 September 1780.

Tanggal de Klerk yang lahir tidak diketahui tetapi ia dibaptis pada 19 November 1710 di Middelburg. Dia bekerja sebagai taruna kapal Kamer van Zeeland, kapal perang, yang tugasnya adalah untuk melindungi kapal kargo rute pulang terikat. Dia membuat dua perjalanan ke India sebagai pelaut dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Pada bulan Desember 1730, ia meninggalkan secara permanen untuk India kapal t Vliegend Hert.

Antara 1735 dan 1737 ia adalah pilot atas sebuah kapal kecil yang diperdagangkan ke sana kemari antara Batavia dan Padang. Pada 1737 ia menjadi seorang akuntan (boekhouder) dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan begitu mulai baginya kehidupan di darat. Pada tahun 1738, ia onderkoopman dan penduduk (underbuyer / undermerchant dan penduduk) di Lampung. Pada 1741 dia adalah seorang sekretaris dengan tentara di Jawa. Pada 1742 ia menjadi Kepala di Surabaya dan pada 1744 administrateur en koopmand Eerste (pembeli / pedagang dan administrator pertama) di Semarang. Pada 1747, dia bernama opperkoopmand en Tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer / uppermerchant dan kedua bertanggung jawab) dari Pantai Timur Laut Jawa. Pada 1748 ia menjadi Gubernur dan Direktur Banda. Dia pindah ke Batavia / Jakarta pada 1754 ketika ia menjadi presiden dari College van der Boedelmeesteren en Andere Chinesche onchristelijke sterfhuizen (yang tampak setelah Cina dan lainnya non-Kristen fasilitas pemakaman) untuk Batavia. Pada bulan Oktober 1754, Reynier de Klerck dipasang sebagai Konselor-luar biasa dari Hindia, dan pada tahun 1762 diangkat sebagai Konselor di Dewan Hindia Belanda. Pada 1775 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal bertindak, yang bernama aktual Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1776.

Pada tanggal 4 Oktober 1777, sehari setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Jeremias van Riemsdijk, ia dengan suara bulat terpilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia mengambil fungsi resmi pasca satu tahun kemudian, 9 Oktober 1778. Reynier de Klerck adalah seorang gubernur pekerja keras. Dia adalah seorang pembaharu yang kuat, yang bagaimanapun tidak bisa menyadari semua ide-idenya. Dia sangat berkomitmen untuk membawa kebudayaan Belanda ke Hindia. Jadi ia ingin mengganti Portugueseand Melayu dengan Belanda dalam sistem pendidikan. Namun upaya itu gagal karena penduduk setempat tidak menginginkan ini. Selama masa jabatannya, kejadian penting yang terjadi. Sebuah konflik di Sulawesi dibawa ke Gowa berakhir dengan pendudukan, sementara Sultan Banten Landak dan Batjan memberi jalan kepada Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Untuk melestarikan monopoli rempah-rempah, para Pangeran Tidore dan Batjan yang dicopot dan dikirim ke pengasingan ke Batavia. Mereka digantikan oleh boneka Perusahaan.

Masa jabatan van de Klerck Reynier tidak berlangsung lama, karena ia meninggal pada 1 September 1780 di Molenvliet dekat Batavia. Dia diikuti sebagai gubernur Arnold oleh Willem Alting.

Rumah Reynier de Klerck di Batavia lama masih dapat dilihat, sebagai Museum Arsip Nasional di Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.

1780-1796: Willem Arnold Alting
Willem Arnold Alting

Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1780 sampai 1797.

Alting lahir di Groningen pada 11 November 1724. Ia belajar di kota kelahirannya dan lulus dalam hukum.

Dia meninggalkan pada 18 Oktober 1750 untuk Hindia di papan Middelburg de sebagai onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant) untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC). Ia menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di Hindia. Pada 1754 ia menjadi Koopman (pembeli / pedagang) dan Sekretaris Pertama 1759 kepada pemerintah. Pada tahun 1763 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (Buitengewoon Raad) dan pada tahun 1772 Konselor penuh (Raad ordinaris). Pada 1777 ia menjadi Pertama Konselor (Eerste Raad) bernama Direktur Jenderal.

Dari Maret 1780 ia bertindak Gubernur Jenderal, karena penyakit dari pendahulunya, Reynier de Klerck. Setelah kematian de Klerck, pada 1 September 1780 ia dipilih oleh Dewan Hindia Belanda sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Dia membawa pada fungsi ini selama tujuh belas tahun.

De Klerck yang ingin membawa penggunaan Belanda ke dalam sistem pendidikan, tetapi Alting dicabut ini pada 1786, sehingga Melayu dan Portugis sekali lagi digunakan. Jangka Alting dari kantor ditandai dengan penurunan tajam dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan kekuasaan di Hindia. Tiga bulan setelah dia posting, Belanda berperang dengan Inggris (1780 – 1784) dan sebagian besar wilayah Perusahaan India Timur Belanda diduduki oleh Inggris. Pemerintah di Batavia / Jakarta tidak, secara keseluruhan, menawarkan banyak perlawanan. Dengan Damai Paris (1784), Inggris memperoleh hak untuk perdagangan tanpa hambatan di Hindia Timur. Belanda harus menyerahkan Negapatam di India kepada Inggris. Citra Belanda di mata para penguasa lokal secara menyeluruh hancur.

Dari Belanda, tiga Komisaris Jenderal yang dikirim untuk bekerja dengan Alting untuk membenahi. Di perjalanan, salah satu dari mereka meninggal dan Alting berhasil mendapatkan anak-dalam-hukum-Nya Yohanes Siberg untuk mengambil tempatnya. Para Alting / Siberg duo didominasi Komisi dan, dari laporan dari salah satu Komisaris lainnya, tampaknya mereka bekerja sangat keras dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri. Komisi biaya banyak uang, tetapi membawa perbaikan. Pada 1795, menjadi dikenal di Batavia / Jakarta bahwa tanah air mereka (sementara itu telah menjadi Republik Batavia) sekali lagi berperang dengan Inggris.

Pada 17 Februari 1797, Willem Arnold Alting mengundurkan diri sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dan Komisaris Jenderal dan menyerahkan pos kepada Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting tetap sebagai warga negara biasa, tanpa posisi resmi, tinggal di tanah miliknya di Kampung Melajoe dekat Batavia / Jakarta. Ia meninggal di sana pada 7 Juni 1800


Jeremias van Riemsdijk

Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 October 1712 – 3 October 1777) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, from 28 December 1775 to 3 October 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk was born on 18 October 1712 in Utrecht, the son to Scipio van Riemsdijk, the minister of Bunnik near Houten, and Johanna Bogaert. He entered into service with the Dutch East India Company as a sergeant left for the Indies, aboard the van de Proostwijk, on 25 February 1735. Very shortly after his arrival in Batavia/Jakarta on 14 September 1735, he entered the civil (as opposed to military) service. Jeremias was the nephew of the future Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier (1737-1741), who at the time was still a member of the Council of the Indies. H could therefore expect to make rapid progress in his career. In 1736 he became onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant), in 1738 koopman (buyer/merchant), in 1740 tweede opperkoopman (second upperbuyer/uppermerchant) and in 1742 eerste opperkoopman (first upperbuyer/uppermerchant) in the castle headquarters at Batavia/Jakarta. In 1743 he became the chief (kapitein) of the company of clerical/writing staff (pennisten) and in October Jeremias van Riemsdijk was named Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinaier) to the Council of the Indies. In 1759 he was appointed President of the College van Weesmeesters (dealing with the affairs of orphans, minors, etc.). On 15 October 1760 he was named ordinary Counsellor (Raad ordinair) and on 17 August 1764 Director-General.

On 28 December 1775, following the death of Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk was chosen as Governor-General. He had had at the time five marriages, to leading Eurasian ladies. He had learned a lot from the eleven years he had worked with his predecessor, whose great appetite for money he had acquired. During his term in office, there was a shortage of ships and ship personnel. This problem was solved with help from the homeland. However, shortly after his governorship had begun, Jeremias van Riemsdijk died in Batavia/Jakarta. He was followed as Governor-General by Reynier de Klerck


Reynier de Klerck

Reynier de Klerck (or Reinier de Klerck) (1710 – 1780) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 9 October 1778 until 1 September 1780.

De Klerk’s date of birth is not known but he was baptised on 19 November 1710 in Middelburg. He worked as midshipman aboard the Kamer van Zeeland, a warship, whose duty was to protect the routes of homeward bound cargo ships. He made two trips to India as a sailor in the service of the Dutch East India Company. In December 1730, he left permanently for India aboard the t Vliegend Hert.

Between 1735 and 1737 he was the pilot aboard a small ship which traded to and fro between Batavia and Padang. In 1737 he became an accountant (boekhouder) with the Dutch East India Company, and so began for him a life on land. In 1738, he was onderkoopman and resident (underbuyer/undermerchant and resident) in Lampung. In 1741 he was a secretary with the army on Java. In 1742 he became Chief in Surabaya and in 1744 koopmand en eerste administrateur (buyer/merchant and first administrator) in Semarang. In 1747, he was named opperkoopmand en tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer/uppermerchant and second in charge) of Java’s Northeast Coast. In 1748 he became Governor and Director of Banda. He moved to Batavia/Jakarta in 1754 when he was made president of the College van Boedelmeesteren der Chinesche en andere onchristelijke sterfhuizen (which looked after Chinese and other non-Christian burial facilities) for Batavia. In October 1754, Reynier de Klerck was installed as Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies, and in 1762 was appointed as Counsellor in the Dutch Council of the Indies. In 1775 he became acting Director-General, being named actual Director-General in 1776.

On 4 October 1777, the day after the death of Governor-General Jeremias van Riemsdijk, he was unanimously chosen as Governor-General. He took up the official functions of the post one year later, 9 October 1778. Reynier de Klerck was a hardworking governor. He was a powerful reformer, who however could not realise all his ideas. He was very committed to bringing Dutch culture to the Indies. Thus he wanted to replace Portugueseand Malay with Dutch in the education system. His endeavours failed however because the local population did not want this. During his term of office, few important happenings occurred. A conflict in the Celebes was brought to an end by occupying Gowa, while the Sultan of Bantam Landak and Batjan gave way to the Dutch East India Company. To preserve the spice monopoly, the Princes of Tidore and Batjan were deposed and sent into exile to Batavia. They were replaced by puppets of the Company.

The term of office of van Reynier de Klerck did not last long, for he died on 1 September 1780 in Molenvliet near Batavia. He was followed as governor by Willem Arnold Alting.

Reynier de Klerck’s house in old Batavia can still be seen, as the National Archives Museum on Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.


Willem Arnold Alting



Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1780 until 1797.

Alting was born in Groningen on 11 November 1724. He studied in his hometown and graduated in law.

He left on 18 October 1750 for the Indies on board the de Middelburg as an onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant) for the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He spent the rest of his life in the Indies. In 1754 he became koopman (buyer/merchant) and in 1759 First Secretary to the government. In 1763 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Buitengewoon Raad) and in 1772 full Counsellor (Raad ordinaris). In 1777 he became First Counsellor (Eerste Raad) was named Director-General.

From March 1780 he was acting Governor-General, because of the sickness of his predecessor, Reynier de Klerck. Following the death of de Klerck, on 1 September 1780 he was chosen by the Dutch Council of the Indies as provisional Governor-General. He carried on this function for seventeen years.

De Klerck had wanted to bring the use of Dutch into the educational system, but Alting revoked this in 1786, so that Malay and Portuguese were once again used. Alting’s term of office was marked by a steep decline of the Dutch East India Company and its power in the Indies. Three months after he took up post, the Netherlands went to war with Britain (1780 – 1784) and a great part of the territory of the Dutch East India Company was occupied by the British. The government in Batavia/Jakarta did not, on the whole, offer much resistance. By the Peace of Paris (1784), Britain obtained the right to unhindered trade in the East Indies. The Dutch had to cede Negapatam in India to the British. The image of the Dutch in the eyes of the local rulers was thoroughly shattered.

From the Netherlands, three Commissioners-General were sent to work with Alting to reorganise. On the way there, one of them died and Alting managed to get his son-in-law Johannes Siberg to take his place. The Alting/Siberg duo dominated the Commission and, from the reports of one of the other Commissioners, it seems they worked very hard in their own interests. The Commission cost a lot of money but brought no improvement. In 1795, it became known in Batavia/Jakarta that their homeland (in the meantime having become the Batavian Republic) was once again at war with Britain.

On 17 February 1797, Willem Arnold Alting resigned as Governor-General and Commissioner-General and handed the post over to Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting remained as an ordinary citizen, without official position, living on his estate at Kampong Melajoe near Batavia/Jakarta. He died there on 7 June 1800

the end @copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012


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Dedicated to Mr Jim Brown

The Creation of Vietnam

Pre-Dynastic era

The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, and some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province purportedly date back several thousand years. Archaeologists link the beginnings of Vietnamese civilization to the late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Phung Nguyen culture, which was centered in Vĩnh Phúc Province of contemporary Vietnam from about 2000 to 1400 BCE.

By about 1200 BCE, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River plains led to the development of the Dong Son culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Dong-Sonian sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology.

Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Dong-Sonian sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening.

Dynastic era

The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered by many Vietnamese as the first Vietnamese state, known as Văn Lang. In 257 BCE, the last Hùng king lost to Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt tribes with his Âu Việt tribes, forming Âu Lạc and proclaiming himself An Dương Vương. In 207 BCE, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue. In 111 BCE, the Chinese Han Dynasty consolidated Nanyue into their empire.

For the next thousand years, Vietnam was mostly under Chinese rule. Early independence movements such as those of the Trưng Sisters and of Lady Triệu were only briefly successful. It was independent as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lý Dynasty between 544 and 602. By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not independence, under the Khúc family.

In 938 CE, a Vietnamese lord named Ngô Quyền defeated Chinese forces at the Bạch Đằng River and regained independence after a millennium under Chinese control. Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation went through a golden era during the and Trần Dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions. Buddhism flourished and became the state religion.

Following the brief Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was momentarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460–1497). Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion),[10] and it eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.

From the 16th century onwards, civil strife and frequent infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc Dynasty challenged the Lê Dynasty’s power. After the Mạc Dynasty was defeated, the Lê Dynasty was reinstalled, but with no actual power. Power was divided between the Trịnh Lords in the North and the Nguyễn Lords in the South, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s. During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Champa in the central highlands and the Khmer land in the Mekong.

The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both and established their new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn Lords led by Nguyễn Ánh with the help of the French. Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn Dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long.


The history of Vietnam begins around 2,700 years ago. Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 207 BC until 938 when Vietnam regained its independence.Vietnam remained a tributary state to its larger neighbor China for much of its history but repelled invasions by the Chinese as well as three invasions by the Mongols between 1255 and 1285.Emperor Trần Nhân Tông later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflicts. The independent period temporarily ended in the middle to late 19th century, when the country was colonized by France (see French Indochina). During World War II, Imperial Japan expelled the French to occupy Vietnam, though they retained French administrators during their occupation. After the war, France attempted to re-establish its colonial rule but ultimately failed in the First Indochina War. The Geneva Accords partitioned the country in two with a promise of democratic election to reunite the country.

However, rather than peaceful reunification, partition led to the Vietnam War. During this time, the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union supported the North while the United States supported the South. After millions of Vietnamese deaths, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam changed its economic policy and began reforms of the private sector similar to those in China. Since the mid-1980s, Vietnam has enjoyed substantial economic growth and some reduction in political repression, though reports of corruption have also risen.

History of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC
Thục Dynasty 257–207 BC
First Chinese domination 207 BC–39 AD
Triệu Dynasty 207–111 BC
Trưng Sisters 40–43
Second Chinese domination 43–544
Lady Triệu’s Rebellion 248
Early Lý Dynasty 544–602
Triệu Việt Vương  
Third Chinese domination 602–905
Mai Hắc Đế 722
Phùng Hưng 791–798
Autonomy 905–938
Khúc Family 906–930
Dương Đình Nghệ 931–937
Kiều Công Tiễn 937–938
Ngô Dynasty 939–967
The 12 Lords Rebellion 966–968
Đinh Dynasty 968–980
Early Lê Dynasty 980–1009
Lý Dynasty 1009–1225
Trần Dynasty 1225–1400
Hồ Dynasty 1400–1407
Fourth Chinese domination 1407–1427
Later Trần Dynasty 1407–1413
• Lam Sơn Rebellion 1418–1427
Later Lê Dynasty 1428–1788
• Early Lê 1428–1527
• Restored Lê 1533–1788
Mạc Dynasty 1527–1592
Southern and
 Northern Dynasties
TrịnhNguyễn War 1627–1673
Tây Sơn Dynasty 1778–1802
Nguyễn Dynasty 1802–1945
Western imperialism 1887–1945
Empire of Vietnam 1945
Indochina Wars 1945–1975
Partition of Vietnam 1954
Democratic Republic
 of Vietnam
State of Vietnam 1949–1955
Republic of Vietnam 1955–1975
Provisional Revolutionary
Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1976

Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến, 1069-1757). Orange: Before the 11th century. Yellow: 11th century. Light Green: 15th century. Dark Green: 16th century. Purple: 18th century. Lai Chau and Dien Bien (the Northwest): 19th century.

Map of Vietnam showing (roughly) the areas controlled by the Trịnh, Nguyễn, Mac, and Champa about the year 1640. Brown: Trịnh Territory. Yellow: Nguyễn Territory. Green: Champa (under Nguyễn overlordship). Pink (Cao Bang): Mạc Territory.


Map of Văn Lang, 500 BC.
Southeast Asia circa 1010 AD. Đại Việt lands in yellow, Champa in green and Khmer Empire in purple
Trần royal battle standard.

Early kingdoms

Evidence of the earliest established society other than the prehistoric Iron Age Đông Sơn culture in Northern Vietnam was found in Cổ Loa, an ancient city situated near present-day Hà Nội.

According to myth, the first Vietnamese people were descended from the Dragon Lord Lạc Long Quân and the Immortal Fairy Âu Cơ. Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ had 100 sons before deciding to part ways. 50 of the children went with their mother to the mountains, and the other 50 went with their father to the sea. The eldest son became the first in a line of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hùng kings (Hùng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). The Hùng kings called their country, located on the Red River delta in present-day northern Vietnam, Văn Lang. The people of Văn Lang were known as the Lạc Việt.

Văn Lang is thought to have been a matriarchal society, similar to many other matriarchal societies common in Southeast Asia and in the Pacific islands at the time. Various archaeological sites in northern Vietnam, such as Đông Sơn have yielded metal weapons and tools from this age. Most famous of these artifacts are large bronze drums, probably made for ceremonial purposes, with sophisticated engravings on the surface, depicting life scenes with warriors, boats, houses, birds and animals in concentric circles around a radiating sun at the center.

Many legends from this period offer a glimpse into the life of the people. The Legend of the Rice Cakes is about a prince who won a culinary contest; he then wins the throne because his creations, the rice cakes, reflect his deep understanding of the land’s vital economy: rice farming. The Legend of Giong about a youth going to war to save the country, wearing iron armor, riding an armored horse, and wielding an iron staff, showed that metalworking was sophisticated. The Legend of the Magic Crossbow, about a crossbow that can deliver thousands of arrows, showed extensive use of archery in warfare.

Recent research has unlocked the discovery of artificial circular earthworks in the areas of present day southern Vietnam and overlapping to the borders of Cambodia. These archaeological remains are estimated to be economic, social and cultural entities from the 1st millennium BC

By the 3rd century BC, another Viet group, the Âu Việt, emigrated from present-day southern China to the Red River delta and mixed with the indigenous Văn Lang population. In 258 BC, a new kingdom, Âu Lạc, emerged as the union of the Âu Việt and the Lạc Việt, with Thục Phán proclaiming himself “King An Dương Vương”. At his capital Cổ Loa, he built many concentric walls around the city for defensive purposes. These walls, together with skilled Âu Lạc archers, kept the capital safe from invaders for a while. However, it also gave rise to the first recorded case of espionage in Vietnamese history, resulting in the downfall of King An Dương Vương.

In 207 BC, an ambitious Chinese warlord named Triệu Đà (Chinese: Zhao Tuo) defeated King An Dương Vương by having his son Trọng Thủy (Chinese: Zhong Shi) act as a spy after marrying An Dương Vương’s daughter. Triệu Đà annexed Âu Lạc into his domain located in present-day Guangdong, southern China, then proclaimed himself king of a new independent kingdom, Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越, Nan Yue). Trọng Thủy, the supposed crown prince, drowned himself in Cổ Loa out of remorse for the death of his wife in the war.

Some Vietnamese consider Triệu‘s rule a period of Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general. Others consider it an era of Việt independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated to local culture. They ruled independently of what then constituted China’s (Han Dynasty). At one point, Triệu Đà even declared himself Emperor, equal to the Chinese Han Emperor in the north.

Period of Chinese domination (111 BC – 938 AD)

In 111 BC, Chinese troops invaded Nam Việt and established new territories, dividing Vietnam into Giao Chỉ (Chinese: 交趾 pinyin: Jiaozhi, now the Red River delta); Cửu Chân from modern-day Thanh Hoá to Hà Tĩnh; and Nhật Nam, from modern-day Quảng Bình to Huế. While the Chinese were governors and top officials, the original Vietnamese nobles (Lạc Hầu, Lạc Tướng) still managed some highlands.

In 40 AD, a successful revolt against harsh rule by Han Governor Tô Định (蘇定 pinyin: Sū Dìng), led by the noblewoman Trưng Trắc and her sister Trưng Nhị, recaptured 65 states (include modern Guangxi), and Trưng Trắc became the Queen (Trưng Nữ Vương). In 42 AD, Emperor Guangwu of Han sent his famous general Mã Viện (Chinese: Ma Yuan) to quell the revolt. After a torturous campaign, Ma Yuan defeated the Trưng Queen, who committed suicide. To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. The Vietnamese elites would be coerced to assimilate into Chinese culture and politics. However, in 225 AD, another woman, Triệu Thị Trinh, popularly known as Lady Triệu (Bà Triệu), led another revolt which lasted until 248 AD.

During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Châu), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bắc Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. The “History of Later Han” (Hậu Hán Thư, Hou Hanshu) recorded that in 166 AD the first envoy from the Roman Empire to China arrived by this route, and merchants were soon to follow. The 3rd-century “Tales of Wei” (Ngụy Lục, Weilue) mentioned a “water route” (the Red River) from Jiaozhi into what is now southern Yunnan. From there, goods were taken overland to the rest of China via the regions of modern Kunming and Chengdu.

At the same time, in present-day central Vietnam, there was a successful revolt of Cham nations. Chinese dynasties called it Lin-Yi (Lin village). It later became a powerful kingdom, Champa, stretching from Quảng Bình to Phan Thiết (Bình Thuận).

In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phùng Hưng. All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xuân.

Early independence (938 AD – 1009 AD)

Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc family, followed by Dương Đình Nghệ, ruled Giao Châu autonomously under the Tang title of Tiết Độ Sứ, Virtuous Lord, but stopping short of proclaiming themselves kings.

In 938, Southern Han sent troops to conquer autonomous Giao Châu. Ngô Quyền, Dương Đình Nghệ’s son-in-law, defeated the Southern Han fleet at the Battle of Bạch Đằng River (938). He then proclaimed himself King Ngô and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam.

Ngô Quyền’s untimely death after a short reign resulted in a power struggle for the throne, the country’s first major civil war, The upheavals of Twelve warlords (Loạn Thập Nhị Sứ Quân). The war lasted from 945 AD to 967 AD when the clan led by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh defeated the other warlords, unifying the country. Dinh founded the Đinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself First Emperor (Tiên Hoàng) of Đại Cồ Việt (Hán tự: ; literally “Great Viet Land”), with its capital in Hoa Lư (modern day Ninh Bình). However, the Chinese Song Dynasty only officially recognized him as Prince of Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). Emperor Đinh introduced strict penal codes to prevent chaos from happening again. He tried to form alliances by granting the title of Queen to five women from the five most influential families.

In 979 AD, Emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and his crown prince Đinh Liễn were assassinated, leaving his lone surviving son, the 6-year-old Đinh Toàn, to assume the throne. Taking advantage of the situation, the Chinese Song Dynasty invaded Đại Cồ Việt. Facing such a grave threat to national independence, the court’s Commander of the Ten Armies (Thập Đạo Tướng Quân) Lê Hoàn took the throne, founding the Former Lê Dynasty. A capable military tactician, Lê Hoan realized the risks of engaging the mighty Chinese troops head on; thus he tricked the invading army into Chi Lăng Pass, then ambushed and killed their commander, quickly ending the threat to his young nation in 981 AD. The Song Dynasty withdrew their troops yet would not recognize Lê Hoàn as Prince of Jiaozhi until 12 years later; nevertheless, he is referred to in his realm as Đại Hành Emperor (Đại Hành Hoàng Đế). Emperor Lê Hoàn was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa.

Emperor Lê Hoàn’s death in 1005 AD resulted in infighting for the throne amongst his sons. The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. He devised sadistic punishments of prisoners for his own entertainment and indulged in deviant sexual activities. Toward the end of his short life – he died at 24 – Lê Long Đĩnh became so ill that he had to lie down when meeting with his officials in court.

Independent period of Đại Việt (1010 AD – 1527 AD)

When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. This event is regarded as the beginning of a golden era in Vietnamese history, with great following dynasties. The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history. As a high-ranking military commander residing in the capital, he had all opportunities to seize power during the tumultuous years after Emperor Lê Hoàn’s death, yet preferring not to do so out of his sense of duty. He was in a way being “elected” by the court after some debate before a consensus was reached.

Lý Công Uẩn, posthumously referred as Lý Thái Tổ, changed the country’s name to Đại Việt (Hán tự: ; literally “Great Viet”). The Lý Dynasty is credited for laying down a concrete foundation, with strategic vision, for the nation of Vietnam. Leaving Hoa Lư, a natural fortification surrounded by mountains and rivers, Lý Công Uẩn moved his court to the new capital in present-day Hanoi and called it Thăng Long (Ascending Dragon). Lý Công Uẩn thus departed from the militarily defensive mentality of his predecessors and envisioned a strong economy as the key to national survival. Successive Lý kings continued to accomplish far-reaching feats: building a dike system to protect the rice producing area; founding Quốc Tử Giám, the first noble university; holding regular examinations to select capable commoners for government positions once every three years; organizing a new system of taxation; establishing humane treatment of prisoners. Women were holding important roles in Lý society as the court ladies were in charge of tax collection. The Lý Dynasty also promoted Buddhism, yet maintained a pluralistic attitude toward the three main philosophical systems of the time: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương).

The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. The most notable battle took place on Chinese territory in 1075 AD. Upon learning that a Song invasion was imminent, the Lý army and navy totalling about 100,000 men under the command of Lý Thường Kiệt, Tông Đản used amphibious operations to preemptively destroy three Song military installations at Yong Zhou, Qin Zhou, and Lian Zhou in present-day Guangdong and Guangxi, and killed 100,000 Chinese. The Song Dynasty took revenge and invaded Đại Việt in 1076, but the Song troops were held back at the Battle of Như Nguyệt River commonly known as the Cầu river, now in Bắc Ninh province about 40 km from the current capital, Hanoi. Neither side was able to force a victory, so the Lý Dynasty proposed a truce, which the Song Dynasty accepted.

Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông’s young daughter, to become queen. Trần Thủ Độ then arranged the marriage of Chiêu Hoàng to his nephew Trần Cảnh and eventually had the throne transferred to Trần Cảnh, thus begun the Trần Dynasty. Trần Thủ Độ viciously purged members of the Lý nobility; some Lý princes escaped to Korea, including Lý Long Tường.

After the purge most Trần kings ruled the country in similar manner to the Lý kings. Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor.

Mongol invasions

During the Trần Dynasty, the armies of the Mongol Empire under Mongke Khan and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty invaded Vietnam in 1257 AD, 1284 AD, and 1288 AD. Đại Việt repelled all attacks of the Yuan during the reign of Kublai Khan. The key to Đại Việt’s successes was to avoid the Mongols’ strength in open field battles and city sieges – the Trần court abandoned the capital and the cities. The Mongols were then countered decisively at their weak points, which were battles in swampy areas such as Chương Dương, Hàm Tử, Vạn Kiếp and on rivers such as Vân Đồn and Bạch Đằng. The Mongols also suffered from tropical diseases and loss of supplies to Trần army’s raids. The Yuan-Trần war reached its climax when the retreating Yuan fleet was decimated at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288). The military architect behind Đại Việt’s victories was Commander Trần Quốc Tuấn, more popularly known as Trần Hưng Đạo. In order to avoid disastrous campaigns, the Tran and Champa acknowledged Mongol supremacy.


It was also during this period that the Trần kings waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Viets’ long history of southern expansion (known as Nam Tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence from China. Often, they encountered strong resistance from the Chams. Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt’s capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Huế, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Trân to a Cham king.

Ming occupation and the rise of the Lê Dynasty

The Trần dynasty was in turn overthrown by one of its own court officials, Hồ Quý Ly. Hồ Quý Ly forced the last Trần king to resign and assumed the throne in 1400. He changed the country name to Đại Ngu (Hán tự: ) and moved the capital to Tây Đô, Western Capital, now Thanh Hóa. Thăng Long was renamed Đông Đô, Eastern Capital. Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly’s reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, investment in building large warships and cannon, and land reform. He ceded the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương, in 1401 and assumed the title Thái Thượng Hoàng, in similar manner to the Trần kings.

In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. The Hồ Dynasty came to an end after only 7 years in power. The Ming occupying force annexed Đại Ngu into the Ming Empire after claiming that there was no heir to Trần throne. Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. The resistance, under the leadership of Trần Quĩ at first gained some advances, yet as Trần Quĩ executed two top commanders out of suspicion, a rift widened within his ranks and resulted in his defeat in 1413.

In 1418, a wealthy farmer, Lê Lợi, led the Lam son revolution against the Ming from his base of Lam Sơn (Thanh Hóa province). Overcoming many early setbacks and with strategic advices from Nguyễn Trãi, Lê Lợi’s movement finally gathered momentum, marched northward, and launched a siege at Đông Quan (now Hanoi), the capital of the Ming occupation. The Ming Emperor sent a reinforcement force, but Lê Lợi staged an ambush and killed the Ming commander, Liễu Thăng (Chinese: Liu Sheng), in Chi Lăng. Ming troops at Đông Quan surrendered. The Lam son revolution killed 300,000 Ming soldiers. In 1428, Lê Lợi ascended to the throne and began the Hậu Lê dynasty (Posterior or Later Lê). Lê Lợi renamed the country back to Đại Việt and moved the capital back to Thăng Long.

he Lê Dynasty carried out land reforms to revitalize the economy after the war. Unlike the Lý and Trần kings, who were more influenced by Buddhism, the Lê kings leaned toward Confucianism. A comprehensive set of laws, the Hồng Đức code was introduced with some strong Confucian elements, yet also included some progressive rules, such as the rights of women. Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. The Lê Dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt’s history up to the time of Lê Lợi. King Lê Thánh Tông opened hospitals and had officials distribute medicines to areas affected with epidemics.

In 1471, Le troops led by king Lê Thánh Tông invaded Champa and captured its capital Vijaya. This event effectively ended Champa as a powerful kingdom, although some smaller surviving Cham kingdoms still lasted for a few centuries more. It initiated the dispersal of the Cham people across Southeast Asia. With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. However, despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. The city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood. In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos and captured its capital Luang Prabang. He made further incursions westwards into the Irrawaddy River region in modern-day Burma before withdrawing.

Divided period (1528–1802)

The Lê dynasty was overthrown by its general named Mạc Đăng Dung in 1527. He killed the Lê emperor and proclaimed himself emperor, starting the Mạc Dynasty. After defeating many revolutions for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted the Trần Dynasty’s practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, who became Thái Thượng Hoàng.

Meanwhile, Nguyễn Kim, a former official in the Lê court, revolted against the Mạc and helped king Lê Trang Tông restore the Lê court in the Thanh Hóa area. Thus a civil war began between the Northern Court (Mạc) and the Southern Court (Restored Lê). Nguyễn Kim’s side controlled the southern part of Đại Việt (from Thanhhoa to the south), leaving the north (including Đông Kinh-Hanoi) under Mạc control. When Nguyễn Kim was assassinated in 1545, military power fell into the hands of his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm. In 1558, Nguyễn Kim’s son, Nguyễn Hoàng, suspecting that Trịnh Kiểm might kill him as he had done to his brother to secure power, asked to be governor of the far south provinces around present-day Quảng Bình to Bình Định. Hoang pretended to be insane, so Kiem was fooled into thinking that sending Hoang south was a good move as Hoang would be quickly killed in the lawless border regions. However, Hoang governed the south effectively while Trịnh Kiểm, and then his son Trịnh Tùng, carried on the war against the Mạc. Nguyễn Hoàng sent money and soldiers north to help the war but gradually he became more and more independent, transforming their realm’s economic fortunes by turning it into an international trading post.

The civil war between the Lê/Trịnh and Mạc dynasties ended in 1592, when the army of Trịnh Tùng conquered Hanoi and executed king Mạc Mậu Hợp. Survivors of the Mạc royal family fled to the northern mountains in the province of Cao Bằng and continued to rule there until 1667 when Trịnh Tạc conquered this last Mạc territory. The Lê kings, ever since Nguyễn Kim’s restoration, only acted as figureheads. After the fall of the Mạc Dynasty, all real power in the north belonged to the Trịnh Lords.

In the year 1600, Nguyễn Hoàng also declared himself Lord (officially “Vương”, popularly “Chúa”) and refused to send more money or soldiers to help the Trịnh. He also moved his capital to Phú Xuân, modern-day Huế. Nguyễn Hoàng died in 1613 after having ruled the south for 55 years. He was succeeded by his 6th son, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, who likewise refused to acknowledge the power of the Trịnh, yet still pledged allegiance to the Lê king.

Trịnh Tráng succeeded Trịnh Tùng, his father, upon his death in 1623. Tráng ordered Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên to submit to his authority. The order was refused twice. In 1627, Trịnh Tráng sent 150,000 troops southward in an unsuccessful military campaign. The Trịnh were much stronger, with a larger population, economy and army, but they were unable to vanquish the Nguyễn, who had built two defensive stone walls and invested in Portuguese artillery.

The Trịnh-Nguyễn War lasted from 1627 until 1672. The Trịnh army staged at least seven offensives, all of which failed to capture Phú Xuân. For a time, starting in 1651, the Nguyễn themselves went on the offensive and attacked parts of Trịnh territory. However, the Trịnh, under a new leader, Trịnh Tạc, forced the Nguyễn back by 1655. After one last offensive in 1672, Trịnh Tạc agreed to a truce with the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Tần. The country was effectively divided in two.

The Trịnh and the Nguyễn maintained a relative peace for the next hundred years, during which both sides made significant accomplishments. The Trịnh created centralized government offices in charge of state budget and producing currency, unified the weight units into a decimal system, established printing shops to reduce the need to import printed materials from China, opened a military academy, and compiled history books.

Meanwhile, the Nguyễn Lords continued the southward expansion by the conquest of the remaining Cham land. Việt settlers also arrived in the sparsely populated area known as “Water Chenla”, which was the lower Mekong Delta portion of Chenla (present-day Cambodia). Between the mid-17th century to mid-18th century, as Chenla was weakened by internal strife and Siamese invasions, the Nguyễn Lords used various means, political marriage, diplomatic pressure, political and military favors,… to gain the area around present day Saigon and the Mekong Delta. The Nguyễn army at times also clashed with the Siamese army to establish influence over Chenla.

In 1771, the Tây Sơn revolution broke out in Quynhơn, which was under the control of the Nguyễn. The leaders of this revolution were three brothers named Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Lữ, and Nguyễn Huệ, not related to the Nguyễn lords. By 1776, the Tây Sơn had occupied all of the Nguyễn Lord’s land and killed almost the entire royal family. The surviving prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (often called Nguyễn Ánh) fled to Siam, and obtained military support from the Siamese king. Nguyễn Ánh came back with 50000 Siamese troops to regain power, but was defeated at the Battle of Rạch Gầm–Xoài Mút and almost killed. Nguyễn Ánh fled Vietnam, but he did not give up.

The Tây Sơn army commanded by Nguyễn Huệ marched north in 1786 to fight the Trịnh Lord, Trịnh Khải. The Trịnh army failed and Trịnh Khải committed suicide. The Tây Sơn army captured the capital in less than two months. The last Lê emperor, Lê Chiêu Thống, fled to China and petitioned the Chinese Qing Emperor for help. The Qing emperor Qianlong supplied Lê Chiêu Thống with a massive army of around 200,000 troops to regain his throne from the usurper. Nguyễn Huệ proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung and defeated the Qing troops with 100,000 men in a surprise 7 day campaign during the lunar new year (Tết). During his reign, Quang Trung envisioned many reforms but died by unknown reason on the way march south in 1792, at the age of 40.

During the reign of Emperor Quang Trung, Đại Việt was actually divided into 3 political entities. The Tây Sơn leader, Nguyễn Nhạc, ruled the centre of the country from his capital Qui Nhơn. Emperor Quang Trung ruled the north from the capital Phú Xuân Huế. In the South, Nguyễn Ánh, assisted by many talented recruits from the South, captured Gia Định (present day Saigon) in 1788 and established a strong base for his force.

After Quang Trung’s death, the Tây Sơn Dynasty became unstable as the remaining brothers fought against each other and against the people who were loyal to Nguyễn Huệ‘s infant son. Nguyễn Ánh sailed north in 1799, capturing Tây Sơn’s stronghold Qui Nhơn. In 1801, his force took Phú Xuân, the Tây Sơn capital. Nguyễn Ánh finally won the war in 1802, when he sieged Thăng Long (Hanoi) and executed Nguyễn Huệ’s son, Nguyễn Quang Toản, along with many Tây Sơn generals and officials. Nguyễn Ánh ascended the throne and called himself Emperor Gia Long. Gia is for Gia Định, the old name of Saigon; Long is for Thăng Long, the old name of Hanoi. Hence Gia Long implied the unification of the country. The Nguyễn dynasty lasted until Bảo Đại‘s abdication in 1945. As China for centuries had referred to Đại Việt as Annam, Gia Long asked the Chinese Qing emperor to rename the country, from Annam to Nam Việt. To prevent any confusion of Gia Long’s kingdom with Triệu Đà‘s ancient kingdom, the Chinese emperor reversed the order of the two words to Việt Nam. The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long’s reign. Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam.

The Period of Division with its many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier’s Wife (Chinh Phụ Ngâm) by Đặng Trần Côn and Đoàn Thị Điểm, and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xuân Hương.

19th century and French colonization

The West‘s exposure in Vietnam and Vietnam’s exposure to Westerners dated back to 166 BC with the arrival of merchants from the Roman Empire, to 1292 with the visit of Marco Polo, and the early 1500s with the arrival of Portuguese and other European traders and missionaries.[citation needed] Alexandre de Rhodes, a French Jesuit priest, improved on earlier work by Portuguese missionaries and developed the Vietnamese romanized alphabet Quốc Ngữ in Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanam et Latinum in 1651.

Between 1627 and 1775, two powerful families had partitioned the country: the Nguyễn Lords ruled the South and the Trịnh Lords ruled the North. The Trịnh-Nguyễn War gave European traders the opportunities to support each side with weapons and technology: the Portuguese assisted the Nguyễnin the South while the Dutch helped the Trịnh in the North.

Main articles: Gia Long and Minh Mạng

In 1784, during the conflict between Nguyễn Ánh, the surviving heir of the Nguyễn Lords, and the Tây Sơn Dynasty, a French Catholic Bishop, Pigneaux de Behaine, sailed to France to seek military backing for Nguyễn Ánh. At Louis XVI‘s court, Pigneaux brokered the Little Treaty of Versailles which promised French military aid in return for Vietnamese concessions. The French Revolution broke out and Pigneaux’s plan failed to materialize. Undaunted, Pigneaux went to the French territory of Pondicherry, India. He secured two ships, a regiment of Indian troops, and a handful of volunteers and returned to Vietnam in 1788. One of Pigneaux’s volunteers, Jean-Marie Dayot, reorganized Nguyễn Ánh’s navy along European lines and defeated the Tây Sơn at Qui Nhơn in 1792. A few years later, Nguyễn Ánh’s forces captured Saigon, where Pigneaux died in 1799. Another volunteer, Victor Olivier de Puymanel would later build the Gia Định fort in central Saigon.

After Nguyễn Ánh established the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, he tolerated Catholicism and employed some Europeans in his court as advisors. However, he and his successors were conservative Confucians who resisted Westernization. The next Nguyễn emperors, Ming Mạng, Thiệu Trị, and Tự Đức brutally suppressed Catholicism and pursued a ‘closed door’ policy, perceiving the Westerners as a threat, following events such as the Lê Văn Khôi revolt when a French missionary Joseph Marchand encouraged local Catholics to revolt in an attempt to install a Catholic emperor. Tens of thousands of Vietnamese and foreign-born Christians were persecuted and trade with the West slowed during this period. There were frequent uprisings against the Nguyễns, with hundreds of such events being recorded in the annals. These acts were soon being used as excuses for France to invade Vietnam. The early Nguyễn Dynasty had engaged in many of the constructive activities of its predecessors, building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, and exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos. However, those feats were not enough of an improvement in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics, especially when faced with technologically superior European forces exerting strong influence over the region. The Nguyễn Dynasty is usually blamed for failing to modernize the country in time to prevent French colonization in the late 19th century.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011


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