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Indonesia Colonial Govenor General Historic collections(Gunermur Jendral Kompeni)

Indonesia Colonial Gouvenor General

Historic collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

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  Gouvenuer Gebernur Jenderal Indonesia Masa Kolonial Belanda  

Koleksi bersejarah

Dibuat Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

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Het Paleis het interieur van van de Gouverneur-Generaal di Nederlands Indië-di Buitenzorg

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan tahun-tahun pelayanan mereka

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda mewakili pemerintahan Belanda di Hindia Belanda antara 1610 dan pengakuan Belanda kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1949.

Yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal yang diangkat oleh Belanda East India Company (VOC). Setelah VOC resmi dibubarkan pada tahun 1800, [1] harta teritorial VOC dinasionalisasi di bawah Pemerintah Belanda sebagai Hindia Belanda, sebuah koloni Belanda. Gubernur-Jenderal ditunjuk oleh pemerintah Belanda.

Di bawah kendali Inggris periode (1811-1816), posisi setara adalah Letnan-Gubernur, di antaranya yang paling terkenal adalah Thomas Stamford Raffles. Antara 1942 dan 1945, sementara Hubertus Johannes van Mook nominal Gubernur Jenderal, daerah itu di bawah kontrol Jepang, dan diatur oleh urutan dua gubernur, di Jawa dan Sumatera. Setelah 1948 dalam negosiasi untuk kemerdekaan, posisi setara bernama Komisaris Tinggi Mahkota di Hindia Belanda.

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal
Perusahaan India Timur Belanda
 

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda (1610-1709)

1610-1614: Pieter Both


Pieter Both
Artikel ini adalah tentang yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Untuk gunung bernama setelah dia, melihat Pieter Both (gunung).

Pieter Both
 
  
Potret Pieter Both
 
1 Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 
Di kantor
19 Desember 1610 – 6 November 1614
 
Didahului oleh
 Tidak ada
 
Digantikan oleh
 Gerard Reynst
 
Pribadi rincian
 
Lahir
 1568
Amersfoort, Belanda Republik
 
Meninggal
 6 Maret 1615
Samudera Hindia (dekat Mauritius)
 

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 Maret 1615, Mauritius) adalah Gubernur Jenderal-pertama dari Hindia Belanda.

Tidak banyak yang diketahui dari awal tahun. Pada 1599, Keduanya sudah menjadi admiral di Perusahaan Baru, atau Brabant. Pada tahun itu, ia melakukan perjalanan ke Hindia Timur dengan empat kapal. Ketika Belanda baru didirikan East India Company membentuk pemerintah untuk Hindia Belanda, Pieter Both diundang untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal. Dia memegang posisi itu dari 19 Desember 1610 to 6 November 1614. Selama periode itu ia menyimpulkan kontrak dengan Maluku, menaklukkan Timor, dan mengusir Spanyol dari Tidore.

Setelah ia melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Gerard Reynst, ia berangkat ke Belanda dengan empat kapal. Dua kapal itu terdampar dekat Mauritius, dan Pieter Keduanya tenggelam.

Gunung tertinggi kedua Mauritius bernama Pieter Both setelah dia.

 

1614-1615: Gerard Reynst


Gerard Reynst
 

 

Potret Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, -? Jakarta, 7 Desember 1615) adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, ayah dari seorang kurator museum, dan kemudian yang kedua Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Biografi
Semua yang diketahui dari tahun-tahun awal adalah bahwa ia lahir di Amsterdam, putra Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), boiler sabun, dan Sijverts Trijn. Pada 1599 ia menjadi pedagang dan pemilik kapal, serta pendiri-anggota dan administrator dari Nieuwe Compagnie atau Brabantsche yang, pada tahun 1600, menjadi Perusahaan Vereenighde Amsterdam. Perusahaan ini kemudian pada tahun 1602 bergabung ke Belanda East India Company (VOC).

Atas permintaan penatua di perguruan tinggi Heren XVII (17 pria), ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1613 dan meninggalkan dengan 9 kapal. Perjalanan berlangsung 18 bulan, setelah itu ia mengambil alih perintah dari Pieter Both. Dalam perjalanan, dia telah mengirimkan salah satu kapal ke Laut Merah untuk memulai hubungan perdagangan dengan orang Arab di sana. Ia meninggal lebih dari setahun setelah tiba, setelah tertangkap disentri sehingga dia bisa melakukan sedikit di sana, selain beberapa kegiatan kecil yang hanya sesekali berhasil.

 

1615-1619: Laurens Reael
Laurens Reael
 

 

Laurens Reael (1620 ca.)

Dr Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 Oktober 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 Oktober 1637) adalah seorang karyawan dari VOC, Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1616-1617 dan laksamana dari angkatan laut Belanda 1625-27.

[Sunting] Kehidupan awal
Laurens Reael adalah putra Laurens Jacobsz Reael, seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama setelah tanda atau batu atap pelana dari rumahnya / toko Di ruang Gouden Reael (“Di Real Emas”) dan seorang penyair amatir yang dikenal untuk menulis Geuzenliederen (lagu dari geuzen). Lingkungan Amsterdam Gouden Reael dinamai rumah kelahiran itu Laurens Reael, melalui gudang (1648) kemudian dari keluarga Reael pada Zandhoek yang berubah menjadi penginapan populer. Laurens Jr memiliki bakat akademis, yang mahir dalam matematika dan bahasa. Dia belajar hukum di Leiden, di mana ia tinggal di rumah Jacobus Arminius yang telah menikah kakak nya Lijsbet Reael tahun 1590. Laurens menerima gelar doktor pada 1608.

[Sunting] Hindia
Pada Mei 1611 ia meninggalkan sebagai commandeur dari empat kapal untuk Hindia Timur. Dia segera meniti karier untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal ketiga pada tahun 1616, di mana ia ditempatkan di kantor pusat VOC, pada waktu itu di Ternate di Maluku. Tahun itu ia secara pribadi bisa menyambut baik Joris van Spilbergen (Maret 30) dan Le Maire Schouten & (September 12) pada kedatangan masing-masing di Ternate dari Belanda melalui Selat Magellan dan Cape Horn. Dia tidak menyadari bahwa VOC telah memerintahkan kapal Le Maire Schouten & untuk menjadi disita untuk pelanggaran dugaan monopoli perdagangan ke Kepulauan Rempah.

Sudah setelah satu tahun, pada tanggal 31 Oktober 1617, Reael mengundurkan diri menyusul perselisihan dengan pimpinan VOC (XVII Lords) pada pengobatan kedua pesaing Inggris di Maluku dan orang-orang pribumi. Para ahli hukum Reael hanya akan mengambil tindakan melawan Inggris jika hukum internasional akan memungkinkan itu dan telah berulang kali memprotes terhadap serangan terhadap penduduk asli. Dia, seperti Laksamana Steven van der Haghen lokal, berpendapat bahwa tujuan VOC harus dicapai hanya melalui rute komersial dan diplomatik. Dalam laporan resmi kepada Staten Generaal dan Lords VOC XVII sekembalinya ke Belanda dia membuat poin ini lagi sangat jelas.

Ini akan mengambil bagaimanapun sampai 21 Maret 1619 sampai Jan jelas kurang damai Pieterszoon Coen akan menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, sebelum waktu Reael yang telah berperang melawan Spanyol pada tahun 1617 di Teluk Manila, bahasa Inggris di Banten dan di Maluku, dan Kesultanan Mataram di Jepara di Jawa

 

1619-1623: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
 
  
Lahir
 8 Januari 1587 (1587/01/08)
Hoorn, Belanda, Republik Belanda
 
Meninggal
 21 September 1629 (1629/09/21) (umur 42)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 
Kebangsaan
 Belanda
 
Pendudukan
 Gubernur kolonial
 

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 Januari 1587 – 21 September 1629) adalah seorang petugas Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada awal abad ketujuh belas, memegang dua istilah sebagai Gubernur Jenderal-nya Hindia Belanda.

Dia sudah lama dianggap sebagai pahlawan nasional di Belanda, untuk memberikan dorongan yang mengatur VOC di jalan untuk dominasi di Hindia Belanda. Sebuah kutipan nya dari 1618 yang terkenal, “adalah Keputusasaan tidak, Anda tidak cadang musuh, karena Allah bersama kita”. Sejak paruh kedua abad ke-20 ia telah melihat dalam cahaya yang lebih kritis, karena beberapa orang sering melihat-Nya berarti kekerasan telah berlebihan.

Coen dikenal pada masanya pada rekening pemerintahan yang ketat dan kritik pedas dari orang-orang yang tidak berbagi pandangan, kadang-kadang diarahkan bahkan pada 17 Penguasa VOC (yang dia ditegur). Coen dikenal sangat ketat terhadap bawahan dan tanpa ampun kepada lawannya. Kesediaannya untuk menggunakan kekerasan untuk mendapatkan tujuannya adalah terlalu banyak bagi banyak orang, bahkan untuk waktu yang relatif kekerasan sejarah. Ketika Saartje Specx, seorang gadis yang telah dipercayakan untuk merawat, ditemukan di sebuah taman dalam pelukan seorang prajurit, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen menunjukkan belas kasihan sedikit dalam memiliki Cortenhoeff dipenggal. Specx hanya lolos dari hukuman mati karena tenggelam karena dia masih di bawah umur.

Selanjutnya tapi tindakan yang lebih luas yang dilakukan atas perintah Coen, yang diceritakan dalam seri televisi dokumenter BBC “Trail Spice” (episode 2: “Pala dan Cengkeh”) [1] Program ini juga berisi rincian tindakan nakal yang dilakukan oleh kehancuran. Belanda di kepulauan rempah-rempah Indonesia Timur, tujuan yang adalah untuk menciptakan kelangkaan hasil bumi untuk mempertahankan tingkat harga

 

1623-1627: Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier (1586 atau 88 – 5 September 1659) adalah seorang administrator Belanda, atau Flemish, Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan yang menjabat sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal ada 1.623-1.627. Teluk Carpentaria di Australia utara yang bernama setelah dia.

 

 

Potret Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier lahir di Antwerp pada 1586 atau 1588, segera setelah pembentukan baru merdeka Republik Belanda (Republik Tujuh Serikat Belanda, atau Provinsi Serikat). Ia belajar filsafat di Leiden, dari 1603. Pada 1616 ia berlayar di kapal berlayar De Getrouwheid ke Indonesia. Di sana ia memiliki sejumlah fungsi, termasuk Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan, Anggota kepada Dewan Hindia, dan anggota Dewan Pertahanan. Dari 1 Februari 1623 sampai September 30, 1627 ia kelima Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia berpartisipasi dalam penaklukan Jakarta dan membantu membangun kota Batavia. Dia berbuat banyak untuk kota, termasuk mendirikan sekolah, Town Hall, dan Rumah Panti Asuhan pertama. Ia juga dirancang struktur gereja-gereja di kota itu.

Pada 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier berlayar dari Hindia Timur sebagai Kepala Armada. Dia tiba di Belanda pada 3 Juni 1628, dengan lima kapal dagang kaya-sarat, dan ini, dikombinasikan dengan fakta bahwa Pemerintah baru saja berhasil melepaskan tiga kapal dari embargo dibebankan pada mereka oleh Inggris tahun sebelumnya, memimpin otoritas untuk menentukan untuk mengirim armada lain dari sebelas kapal ke Timur, yang Jenderal Jacob bintik itu untuk berlayar. Dua kapal dan kapal pesiar yang akan segera siap untuk berlayar, senat mengirim mereka ke Texel sehingga kehilangan waktu. Kapal ini adalah Batavia (di bawah Francisco Pelsaert) di Dordrecht (di bawah Isaac van Swaenswyck) dan Assendelft (di bawah Cornelis Vlack). Mereka meninggalkan Texel untuk tujuan mereka pada 28 Oktober 1628.

De Carpentier dibuat Anggota Dewan Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada Oktober 1629. Paman dari pihak ibu-Nya, Louis Delbeecque, telah menjadi salah satu penggagas VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier menikahi Maria Ravevelt di Middelburg pada tanggal 2 Maret 1630. Dia meninggal pada bulan September 1641 dan dimakamkan di dalam Westerkerk di Amsterdam. De Carpentier meninggal di Amsterdam pada tanggal 5 September 1659, dan juga dimakamkan di Westerkerk tersebut. Mereka memiliki tujuh anak.

Ketika Jan Carstenszoon (atau Carstensz) dan Willem van Coolsteerdt mendarat Pera dan Arnhem di pantai barat Semenanjung Cape York New Holland (sekarang Australia) pada tahun 1623, setelah penemuan pertama oleh Willem Janszoon di Duyfken di 1606, mereka kemudian bernama ‘Teluk Carpentaria’ setelah Gubernur Jenderal Pieter de Carpe

 

1627-1629: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
1629-1632: Jacques Specx
Jacques Specx
 

 

Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (pengucapan Belanda: [ʒɑk spɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 Juli 1652). Adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, yang mendirikan perdagangan di Jepang dan Korea pada 1609 [1] [2] Jacques Specx menerima dukungan dari William Adams untuk memperoleh hak perdagangan ekstensif dari Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu pada tanggal 24 Agustus, 1609 yang memungkinkan dia untuk mendirikan sebuah pabrik perdagangan di Hirado pada tanggal 20 September 1609. Dia adalah gubernur sementara di Batavia antara 1629-1632. Ada Saartje Specx putrinya terlibat dalam skandal. Kembali ke rumah di Belanda Specx menjadi suatu seni-kolektor.

Belanda, yang, daripada “Nanban” disebut “Komo” (Jp:. “Rambut Merah” 红毛, menyala) oleh Jepang pertama tiba di Jepang pada tahun 1600, di papan ukuran rendah tersebut.

Pada 1605, dua awak Liefde yang dikirim ke Pattani oleh Tokugawa Ieyasu, untuk mengundang perdagangan Belanda ke Jepang. Para kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Pattani, Victor Sprinckel, ditolak atas dasar bahwa ia terlalu sibuk berurusan dengan oposisi Portugis di Asia Tenggara.

[Sunting] 1609 misi ke Jepang
Jacques Specx berlayar pada armada kapal yang meninggalkan sebelas Texel pada tahun 1607 di bawah komando Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. Setelah tiba di Banten dua kapal yang dikirim untuk mendirikan hubungan dagang resmi pertama antara Belanda dan Jepang. [3]

 

 

“Perdagangan lulus” (Belanda: handelspas) yang dikeluarkan atas nama Tokugawa Ieyasu. Teks perintah: “kapal-kapal Belanda yang diizinkan untuk melakukan perjalanan ke Jepang, dan mereka dapat mendarat di pantai apapun, tanpa reserve Mulai sekarang peraturan ini harus diperhatikan, dan Belanda dibiarkan bebas untuk berlayar di mana mereka ingin seluruh Jepang Tidak ada pelanggaran.. kepada mereka akan diizinkan, seperti pada kesempatan sebelumnya “- tertanggal 24 Agustus 1609 (Keichō 14, hari 25 bulan ke-6), nb, yang goshuin (御 朱 印) mengidentifikasi ini sebagai dokumen resmi bantalan stempel merah sang shogun.

Kedua kapal Specx diperintahkan adalah De Griffioen (yang “Griffin”, 19 meriam) dan Roode Leeuw bertemu Pijlen (yang “singa merah dengan panah”, 400 ton, 26 meriam). Kapal-kapal tiba di Jepang pada tanggal 2 Juli 1609. [4]

Di antara para awak adalah pedagang Kepala Abraham van den Broeck dan Nicolaas Puyck dan di bawah-pedagang Jaques Specx.

Komposisi yang tepat dari delegasi adalah pasti, tetapi itu telah ditetapkan bahwa van den Broeck dan Puyck bepergian ke Pengadilan Shogunal, dan Melchior van Santvoort bertindak sebagai penerjemah misi. Santevoort tiba beberapa tahun sebelumnya naik kapal Belanda De Liefde. Dia telah membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di Nagasaki.

 

 

Kristus dalam badai di danau Genesareth; oleh Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. Pada tahun 1990 lukisan itu dicuri dari Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum dan belum pulih, melainkan milik Jacques Specx pada tahun 1651

Shogun diberikan Belanda akses ke semua port di Jepang, dan menegaskan hal ini dalam tindakan yang aman-melakukan, dicap dengan segel merah. (Inv.nr.1a.).

Pada September 1609 Dewan kapal memutuskan untuk menyewa rumah di Hirado pulau (sebelah barat pulau utama selatan Kiushu). Jacques Specx menjadi yang pertama “Opperhoofd” (Kepala) pabrik Perusahaan yang baru. [5]

Pada 1610, Specx mengirim kapal ke Korea. [6]

 

1632-1636: Hendrik Brouwer
Hendrik Brouwer
 

 

Potret Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (musim semi 1581 – 7 Agustus 1643) adalah seorang penjelajah Belanda, Laksamana, dan administrator kolonial baik di Jepang dan Hindia Belanda.

Ia diperkirakan untuk pertama memiliki berlayar ke Hindia Timur untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada 1606. Pada tahun 1610 ia pergi lagi ke Hindia, sekarang sebagai komandan dari tiga kapal. Pada perjalanan ini ia menciptakan Rute Brouwer, rute dari Afrika Selatan ke Jawa bahwa perjalanan mengurangi durasi dari tahun ke sekitar 6 bulan dengan mengambil keuntungan dari angin barat yang kuat di Forties Roaring (garis lintang antara 40 ° dan 50 ° selatan) . Sampai titik itu, Belanda telah mengikuti rute yang disalin dari Portugis melalui pantai Afrika, Mauritius, dan Srilanka. Dengan 1617, VOC diperlukan semua kapal mereka untuk mengambil rute Brouwer. [1]

Setelah kedatangannya pada tahun 1611 di Hindia Timur, ia dikirim ke Jepang untuk menggantikan Jacques Specx sementara sebagai opperhoofd di Dejima dari 28 Agustus 1612 untuk 6 Agustus 1614. [2] Selama waktu itu ia melakukan kunjungan ke pengadilan Jepang pada Edo. Pada 1613 ia melakukan perjalanan ke Siam yang meletakkan dasar untuk perdagangan Belanda dengan Siam.

Pada awal 1632, dia adalah bagian dari delegasi yang dikirim ke London untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan perdagangan antara perusahaan-perusahaan India Timur Inggris dan Belanda. Setelah itu ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, dan pada tanggal 18 April tahun yang sama ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Timur, Jacques Specx lagi berikut, posisi yang dia pegang sampai 1 Januari 1636. Anthony van Diemen adalah asistennya selama seluruh periode, dan banyak dari eksplorasi Belanda ke Pasifik dilakukan di bawah komando Van Diemen yang diusulkan secara tertulis oleh Brouwer sebelum ia pergi.

Pada tahun 1642, VOC Belanda bergabung dengan Perusahaan Hindia Barat dalam mengorganisir sebuah ekspedisi ke Chili untuk mendirikan basis untuk emas diperdagangkan pada reruntuhan ditinggalkan Valdivia. Armada berlayar dari Belanda Brasil di mana Yohanes Maurice dari Nassau memberikan mereka dengan pasokan. Sementara pembulatan Cape Horn, ekspedisi menetapkan bahwa Staten Island bukan bagian dari tanah yang tidak diketahui Selatan. Setelah mendarat di Pulau Chiloe, Brouwer membuat perjanjian dengan Mapuche (kemudian dikenal sebagai Araucanians) untuk membantu dalam membangun pemukiman di Valdivia. Namun, pada 7 Agustus 1643 Hendrik meninggal (pada usia 62) sebelum tiba, dan digantikan oleh wakil laksamana nya Elias Herckman, yang mendarat di reruntuhan Valdivia pada tanggal 24 Agustus. Brouwer dimakamkan di pemukiman baru, yang bernama Herckman Brouwershaven setelah dia. Herckman dan anak buahnya menduduki lokasi hanya sampai 28 Oktober 1643. Setelah diberitahu bahwa Belanda telah berencana untuk kembali ke lokasi, penguasa Spanyol di Peru dikirim 1000 orang dalam dua puluh kapal (dan 2000 orang dengan tanah, yang tidak pernah berhasil) pada tahun 1644 untuk memukimkan Valdivia dan membentengi itu. Para prajurit Spanyol di garnisun baru disinterred dan membakar tubuh Brouwer. [3] [4]

 

1636-1645: Anthony van Diemen
Anthony van Diemen
.

Anthony van Diemen
 

Potret Anthony van Diemen
 
Lahir
 1593
Culemborg, Utrecht, Belanda Republik
 
Meninggal
 19 April 1645 (1645/4/19)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 
Kebangsaan
 Belanda
 
Pendudukan
 Explorer, gubernur kolonial
 

Anthony van Diemen (juga Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), gubernur kolonial Belanda, lahir di Culemborg di Belanda, putra Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen [1] dan Christina Hoevenaar . Pada 1616 ia pindah ke Amsterdam, dengan harapan meningkatkan kekayaannya sebagai pedagang, dalam hal ini ia gagal dan dinyatakan bangkrut. Setelah setahun ia menjadi hamba dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan berlayar ke Batavia (Jakarta), ibukota Hindia Belanda. Pada perjalanan keluar, ke Timur Indiaman Mauritius dia secara tidak sengaja pergi lebih ke selatan ke sebuah pantai yang tidak diketahui Australia. [2]

Gubernur Jan Pieterszoon Coen menemukan van Diemen menjadi pejabat berbakat dan 1626 dia adalah Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan dan anggota Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun 1630 ia menikah Maria van Aelst. Setahun kemudian dia kembali ke Belanda sebagai Laksamana di Deventer kapal. Pada tahun 1632 ia kembali ke Batavia dan pada 1635 ia ditunjuk Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, pengangkatannya diberlakukan pada 1 Januari 1636.

Van Diemen yang sembilan tahun sebagai Gubernur Jenderal yang berhasil dan penting untuk kedua koloni dan keberhasilan komersial dari East India Company. Dia mencurahkan banyak energinya untuk memperluas kekuatan perusahaan di seluruh Asia. Di bawah kekuasaannya pemerintahan Belanda didirikan di Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen diingat adalah terbaik untuk usahanya untuk mendorong eksplorasi “Great South Tanah”, Australia, sehingga dalam “pelayaran Belanda akhir dan paling ambisius abad ini” [3] Pelayaran pertama di bawah pemerintahan energik. Dilakukan dalam waktu tiga bulan kedatangannya di Batavia, mulai dari Cape York kapal-kapalnya untuk memetakan pantai diketahui, tetapi usaha itu berakhir dengan kegagalan, ketika komandan dibunuh oleh penduduk asli di New Guinea, dan kapal kembali. Pada 1639 dia ditugaskan dua perjalanan ke utara, untuk mencari “Kepulauan Emas dan Perak” bahwa laporan Spanyol ditempatkan di Pasifik Utara ke timur Jepang, dan dikirim Maarten Gerritsz Vries untuk mengeksplorasi pantai Korea dan “Tartaria”; ini, dua kembali tanpa hasil [4]. terpengaruh, Van Diemen ditunjuk Frans Visscher untuk menyusun rencana untuk penemuan baru. Visscher dipetakan tiga rute yang berbeda dan van Diemen memutuskan untuk mengirim Agustus 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman, disertai dengan Visscher, mencari Tanah Great South, yang Tasman akan segera menjuluki “Nieuw Holland”.

Pada bulan November 1642, menuju ke timur dari Mauritius pada lintang 44 dan hilang pantai selatan Australia, Tasman melihat daratan (pantai barat pulau Tasmania), dan mengikuti pantai selatan memutar ke pantai timur. Tasman dikirim pesta darat di Blackman Bay, di Semenanjung Tasman, yang ditanam bendera dan ditemui beberapa penduduk asli. Percaya ia telah menemukan sebuah wilayah besar, Tasman menamakannya Tanah Van Diemen dalam menghormati pelindungnya [5]. Van Diemen juga diperingati di Van Diemen Teluk di pantai utara Australia.

Van Diemen menugaskan perjalanan jauh dari Tasman pada 1644.

Anthony van Diemen meninggal pada April 1645 di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Perusahaan diberikan istrinya pensiun besar dan ia pensiun ke Belanda. Namanya diabadikan dalam nama titik barat Pulau Utara Selandia Baru, Cape Maria van Diemen, dinamakan dengan Tasman tahun 1643, dan oleh Maria Island di lepas pantai timur Tasmania.

 

1645-1650: Cornelis van der Lijn
Cornelis van der Lijn
 

 

Potret Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608 -? 27 Juli 1679) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1646 sampai 1650.

Awal karir
Van der Lijn lahir di Alkmaar, mungkin pada 1608. Dia pergi, pada 1627, sebagai Asisten (Belanda: asisten) ke Batavia, Hindia Belanda kapal Wapen van Hoorn. Dari 1632 to 18 Januari 1636 ia Akuntan Jenderal (Belanda: boekhouder-Generaal). Pada 1639 ia menjadi Konselor-Luar Biasa (Belanda: Raad ekstra-oridinair) kepada Dewan Hindia. Setahun kemudian ia diangkat Presiden Schepenrechtbank (pengadilan maritim, tapi dengan berbagai fungsi lainnya). Satu tahun lagi kemudian dia membuat Konselor penuh (Belanda: Raad ordinair) ia mengikuti Philips Lucasz (yang potret dilukis oleh Rembrandt [2]) sebagai Direktur-Jenderal Hindia.

Dewan Hindia
Sesaat sebelum kematiannya pada 19 April 1645, Gubernur Jenderal Antonio van Diemen dipanggil Dewan Hindia (12 April 1645) untuk membangun Cornelis van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Ini tidak sejalan dengan instruksi dari Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), yang telah ditetapkan pada tahun 1617 bahwa segera setelah kematian seorang Gubernur-Jenderal, Dewan harus memilih sementara Gubernur Jenderal. Hanya setelah Seventeen Lords telah sepakat untuk pilihan akan pengangkatan mulai berlaku sebenarnya. Heren XVII pada keputusan pertama dibatalkan Van Diemen, tapi kemudian setelah itu bernama Cornelis yang sama van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Pada 10 Oktober 1646 ia diangkat oleh mereka sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal.

 

 

 

1650-1653: Carel Reyniersz
Carel Reyniersz
 

 

Potret Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604-1653) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1650 sampai 1653.

Reyniersz (atau Reiniersz) lahir di Amsterdam pada tahun 1604 (atau mungkin 1602). Ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia tahun 1627 sebagai Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) pada Coromandel Belanda (Karnataka). Dia dipromosikan menjadi Gubernur Pantai Coromandel tahun 1635, meskipun ia telah dituduh terlibat dalam (dilarang) dagang swasta / pribadi. Pada tahun 1636 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinair Raad) Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia kembali ke Amsterdam sebagai Admiral armada kembali pada tahun 1638 dan didirikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di sana. Namun, ia kehilangan seluruh kekayaannya, sehingga kiri lagi, kali ini kapal Salamander itu, untuk India pada tanggal 24 April 1645. Dia tiba di sana pada tanggal 3 Desember 1645. Tahun berikutnya, 1646, ia menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia.

Tugasnya dialokasikan adalah untuk melaksanakan kebijakan baru di Hindia. Yang paling penting, dia, sejauh mungkin untuk menghilangkan sumber-sumber persaingan. Dia mengambil tindakan terhadap perdagangan swasta dan untuk menangani dengan produksi terlalu banyak rempah-rempah dengan memiliki pohon ditebang. Reinier terjebak ketat untuk kebijakan ini, yang menyebabkan banyak konflik di Seram Barat, di mana penduduk tidak akan menerima kehancuran perkebunan mereka. Butuh waktu sampai 1658 untuk wilayah yang akan ditaklukkan.

Empat tahun setelah Reyniersz menjadi seorang Konselor, Gubernur Jenderal Cornelis van der Lijn menerima debit terhormat (sic) dan pada tanggal 26 April 1650, Reyniersz bernama penggantinya, tugas yang sangat nantikan. Empat tahun kemudian dia diberhentikan. Para gubernur dari perusahaan itu tidak senang dengan kelemahan pemerintahannya. Masih ada di Belanda surat pemecatan. Hal ini menunjukkan ia sedang dipecat karena ia tidak mampu untuk melaksanakan tugas kantor, terutama memelihara perdamaian. Surat itu tidak pernah dikirim, karena Reynier sudah ditulis ke Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) meminta untuk dibebaskan dari kantornya dengan alasan kesehatan. Surat ini tiba tepat sebelum surat pemecatan yang akan dikirim. Para Seventeen Lords rela menyetujui permintaan, meskipun ia meninggal sebelum mereka mencapai respon dia, pada malam 18/19 Mei 1653. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia, Hindia Belanda dan berhasil sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Joan Maetsuycker.

 

1653-1678: Joan Maetsuycker
Joan Maetsuycker
 

 

Joan Maetsuycker, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Lukisan oleh Jacob Jansz. Coeman di Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (14 Oktober 1606, Amsterdam – 24 Januari 1678, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1653-1678.

Maetsuycker belajar hukum di Leuven, dan merupakan pengacara pertama di Den Haag, dan kemudian di Amsterdam. Dari 1636, ia tinggal di Hindia Belanda. Pada tahun 1646 ia menjadi Gubernur-Jendral Belanda pertama Ceylon, dan tujuh tahun kemudian, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia tinggal di pos itu selama 25 tahun, yang merupakan periode terpanjang untuk Gubernur Jenderal. Koloni Belanda di Hindia berkembang di bawah Maetsuycker. Di bawah pemerintahannya, Portugis kehilangan Ceylon (1658), pantai Coromandel (1658) dan Malabar (1663); Makassar ditaklukkan (1667), pantai barat Sumatra diduduki, dan ekspedisi pertama ke pedalaman Jawa diadakan.

 

 

 

 

1678-1681: Rijckloff van Goens
Rijckloff van Goens
 

 

Potret Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, 24 Juni 1619 – Amsterdam, 14 November 1682) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1678-1681. Dia menulis panjang lebar tentang perjalanannya ke Sri Lanka dan India.

Tulisannya tentang kunjungan ke istana Sultan Agung dan para penerusnya referensi penting bagi sejarawan dari era Mataram di Jawa

 

 

 

 

 

1681-1684: Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman (2 Maret 1628 – 11 Januari 1684) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1681-1684.

 

 

Cornelis Speelman, mewakili sekitar 1800.

Cornelis Speelman Janzoon adalah putra seorang pedagang Rotterdam. Ia lahir pada tanggal 2 Maret 1628. Pada tahun ke-16, ia meninggalkan kapal Hillegersberg untuk India. Dia bekerja sebagai Asisten (asisten) dalam pelayanan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada tahun 1645 ia tiba di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1648 dan Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada 1649. Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van Indië). Dia bepergian dengan duta besar Joan Cunaeus ke Persia tahun itu, dan menulis account dari perjalanan. Mereka diterima oleh Syah Abbas II dengan pesta besar. Bahkan sebelum perjalanannya berakhir, pada tahun 1652, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman). Pada kedatangannya ke Batavia, ia ikut mendirikan pos di kantor pembukuan Jenderal (boekhouder-Generaal), ‘untuk siapa ia ditugasi untuk waktu yang lama, dan siapa ia berhasil tahun 1657. Sementara itu, ia telah menikah lima belas tahun Petronella Maria Wonderaer, putri ke-Receiver Umum (ontvanger-Generaal). Pada 1659 dia ditempatkan di jawab staf Perusahaan klerikal dan administrasi (kapitein de compagnie selama pennisten) di Batavia. Pada 1661, ia menjadi schepen van Batavia, (semacam anggota dewan kotapraja pasca terhubung dengan pemerintah lokal di sana).

Pada tanggal 12 Juni 1663, Cornelis Speelman diangkat Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel, tetapi ditangguhkan oleh Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), dituduh memiliki ilegal terlibat dalam perdagangan swasta. Dia telah membeli berlian untuk istrinya dan kemudian dijual kembali karena ia tidak menyukainya. Meskipun protes berat nya, pengadilan di Batavia ingin membuat contoh dari dia dan dia dijatuhi hukuman 15 bulan suspensi dan denda 3.000 gulden. Pada 1666, dia bernama Laksamana dan pengawas dari sebuah ekspedisi ke Makasar. Pada 18 November 1667, ia menyimpulkan Perjanjian yang disebut Bongaais. (Perjanjian Bonggaya [1]) Pada tahun yang sama, ia diangkat Komisaris (commissaris) dari Ambon, Banda dan Ternate. Akibatnya, dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaris raad) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Ia berkelana sekali lagi, pada 1669, sebagai laksamana lain ekspedisi ke Makassar di mana ia benar-benar menaklukkan kerajaan, menerima rantai emas dan medali di tahun ini pengakuan berikut.

Dia menjadi penuh Konselor Hindia pada tanggal 23 Maret 1671. Tahun berikutnya ia laksamana dari sebuah armada dikirim melawan Prancis. Pada bulan Desember 1676, dia memimpin sebuah ekspedisi ke Jawa Tengah, di mana penguasa Mataram dalam kesulitan dan ia diperlukan untuk mendukung aliansi dengan pangeran itu. Di Jawa Timur Pantai, ia pergi ke perang melawan apa yang disebut Toerana Djaja. Butuh beberapa waktu sebelum perdamaian didirikan kembali. Ia dipanggil kembali ke Batavia pada akhir 1677 dan pada 18 Januari 1678 bernama Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia (Raad en Eerste Directeur van Indië-Generaal). Juga pada tahun itu ia diangkat Presiden dari College van Schepenen (hubungannya dengan pemerintah daerah) di Batavia. Pada 29 Oktober 1680 ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah pos dia mengambil pada tanggal 25 November 1681, berhasil Rijckloff van Goens.

Selama masa jabatan sebagai Gubernur Cornelis Speelman Jenderal, Sultan Ternate ditaklukkan. Dia menyerahkan semua tanahnya kerajaannya kepada Perusahaan. Speelman juga menaklukkan kota Banten. Cornelis Speelman meninggal pada 11 Januari 1684 di Istana di Batavia. Jenazahnya disertai dengan kebisingan yang besar dan kemegahan, yang tidak ada nyeri atau uang selamat. Ia dimakamkan di Kruiskerk untuk suara tembakan meriam dari 229. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Johannes Camphuy

 

1684-1691: Johannes Camphuys
Johannes Camphuys
 

 

Potret Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (terdaftar sebagai Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, 18 Juli 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), 18 Juli 1695) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1684-1691 [1].

[Sunting] Jepang
Pada titik ini dalam sejarah Jepang, pos VOC tunggal (atau “pabrik”) adalah pulau Dejima terletak di di pelabuhan Nagasaki di pulau Kyushu bagian selatan. Camphuys tiga kali dikirim ke Jepang sebagai Opperhoofd atau pedagang kepala dan petugas dari pos perdagangan VOC. [2]

22 Oktober 1671-12 November 1672 [2]
29 October1673-19 Oktober 1674 [2]
7 November 1675-27 Oktober 1676 [2]
[Sunting] Legacy
Kehidupan Camphuys diperingati dalam nama jalan di lingkungan Lombok Utrecht, dan ia juga dikenang dalam nama sebuah jalan di Bezuidenhoutquarter Den Haag.

 

1691-1704: Willem van Outhoorn
Willem van Outhoorn
 

 

Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

 

List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies and their service years

The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.

The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC). After the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800,[1] the territorial possessions of the VOC were nationalised under the Dutch Government as the Dutch East Indies, a colony of the Netherlands. The Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch government.

Under the period of British control (1811-1816), the equivalent position was the Lieutenant-Governor, of whom the most notable is Thomas Stamford Raffles. Between 1942 and 1945, while Hubertus Johannes van Mook was the nominal Governor-General, the area was under Japanese control, and was governed by a two sequence of governors, in Java and Sumatra. After 1948 in negotiations for independence, the equivalent position was named High Commissioner of the Crown in the Dutch East Indies.

List of Governors-General

Dutch East India Company

 

Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies (1610–1709)

Pieter Both

This article is about the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. For the mountain named after him, see Pieter Both (mountain).

Pieter Both

 

Portrait of Pieter Both

1st Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

In office
19 December 1610 – 6 November 1614

Preceded by

None

Succeeded by

Gerard Reynst

Personal details

Born

1568
Amersfoort, Dutch Republic

Died

6 March 1615
Indian Ocean (near Mauritius)

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 March 1615, Mauritius) was the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

Not much is known of his early years. In 1599, Both was already an admiral in the New, or Brabant Company. In that year, he traveled to the East Indies with four ships. When the newly founded Dutch East India Company set up a government for the Dutch East Indies, Pieter Both was invited to become the Governor-General. He held that position from 19 December 1610 to 6 November 1614. During that period he concluded contracts with the Moluccans, conquered Timor, and drove the Spaniards out of Tidore.

After he relinquished his position as Governor-General to Gerard Reynst, he left for the Netherlands with four ships. Two of the ships were shipwrecked near Mauritius, and Pieter Both drowned.

The second highest mountain of Mauritius is named Pieter Both after him.

 

Gerard Reynst

 

 

Portrait of Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, ? – Jakarta, 7 December 1615) was a Dutch merchant, father of a museum curator, and later the second Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

Biography

All that is known of his early years is that he was born in Amsterdam, the son of Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), soap boiler, and Trijn Sijverts. In 1599 he became a merchant and ship-owner, as well as a founder-member and administrator of the Nieuwe or Brabantsche Compagnie which, in 1600, became the Vereenighde Company of Amsterdam. This company then in 1602 merged into the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

On the request of his elders in the college of the Heren XVII (17 men), he became Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1613 and left with 9 ships. The trip lasted 18 months, after which he took over command from Pieter Both. On the way, he had already sent one of his ships to the Red Sea to start trade relations with the Arabs there. He died more than a year after arrival, having caught dysentery so that he could do little there, besides a few minor activities that were only intermittently successful.

 

Laurens Reael

 

 

Laurens Reael (ca. 1620)

Dr. Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 October 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 October 1637) was an employee of the VOC, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1616-1617 and an admiral of the Dutch navy from 1625-27.

[edit] Early life

Laurens Reael was the son of Laurens Jacobsz Reael, a merchant in Amsterdam named after the sign or gable stone of his house/shop In den gouden Reael (“In the Golden Real“) and an amateur poet known for writing Geuzenliederen (songs of the geuzen). The Amsterdam neighborhood Gouden Reael is named after Laurens Reael’s birth house, via a later (1648) warehouse of the Reael family on the Zandhoek that turned into a popular inn. Laurens Jr. had academic talents, excelling in math and languages. He studied law in Leiden, where he lived in the house of Jacobus Arminius who had married his older sister Lijsbet Reael in 1590. Laurens received his doctorate in 1608.

[edit] East Indies

In May 1611 he left as commandeur of four ships for the East Indies. He quickly worked his way up to become the third Governor-General in 1616, where he was stationed at the VOC headquarters, at that time on Ternate in the Moluccas. That year he could personally welcome both Joris van Spilbergen (March 30) and Schouten & Le Maire (September 12) upon their respective arrivals at Ternate from Holland via the Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn. He was unaware that the VOC had ordered Schouten & Le Maire’s ships to be confiscated for alleged infringement of its monopoly of trade to the Spice Islands.

Already after a year, on October 31 1617, Reael resigned following a dispute with the VOC’s leadership (the Lords XVII) on the treatment of both the English competitors in the Moluccas and of the native people. The jurist Reael would only take action against the English if international law would allow that and had protested repeatedly against the incursions against the natives. He, like the local admiral Steven van der Haghen, was of the opinion that the VOC’s goals should be achieved solely via commercial and diplomatic routes. In his official report to the Staten Generaal and the VOC’s Lords XVII upon his return to Holland he made these points again very clear.

It would take however until March 21, 1619 until the decidedly less pacifistic Jan Pieterszoon Coen would replace him as Governor-General, before which time Reael had fought the Spanish in 1617 in the Bay of Manila, the English at Bantam and in the Mollucas, and the Mataram Sultanate at Japara on Java

 

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

 

Born

8 January 1587(1587-01-08)
Hoorn, Holland, Dutch Republic

Died

21 September 1629(1629-09-21) (aged 42)
Batavia, Dutch East India

Nationality

Dutch

Occupation

Colonial governor

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was a officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

He was long considered a national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, “Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us”. Since the latter half of the 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people view his often violent means to have been excessive.

Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). Coen was known to be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents. His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl whom he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having Cortenhoeff beheaded. Specx only escaped the death penalty by drowning because she was still under aged.

Further but more extensive actions perpetrated by order of Coen, are recounted in a BBC Television documentary series “The Spice Trail” (episode 2: “Nutmeg and Cloves”).[1] The program also contains details of wanton acts of destruction committed by the Dutch in the spice islands of Eastern Indonesia, the purpose of which was to create scarcity of natural produce in order to maintain price levels

 

Pieter de Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier (1586 or 88 – 5 September 1659) was a Dutch, or Flemish, administrator of the Dutch East India Company, and who served as Governor-General there from 1623–1627. The Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia is named after him.

 

 

Portrait of Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier was born in Antwerp in 1586 or 1588, shortly after the formation of the newly-independent Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, or United Provinces). He studied philosophy in Leiden, from 1603. In 1616 he sailed on board the sailing vessel De Getrouwheid to Indonesia. There he had a number of functions, including Director-General of the Trade, Member to the Council of the Indies, and member of the Council of Defence. From February 1, 1623 to September 30, 1627 he was the fifth Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He participated in the conquest of Jakarta and helped to build the town of Batavia. He did much for the town, including setting up a school, a Town Hall, and the first Orphanage Home. He also designed the structure of the churches in the town.

On 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier sailed from the East Indies as Head of the Fleet. He arrived in Holland on 3 June 1628, with five richly-laden merchant ships, and this, combined with the fact that the Government had recently succeeded in releasing three ships from an embargo laid upon them by the English a year previously, led the authorities to determine to send another fleet of eleven ships to the East, with which General Jacob Specks was to sail. Two ships and a yacht being soon ready to sail, the senate sent them to Texel so as to lose no time. These vessels were the Batavia (under Francisco Pelsaert) the Dordrecht (under Isaac van Swaenswyck) and the Assendelft (under Cornelis Vlack). They left Texel for their destination on 28 October 1628.

De Carpentier was made Member of the Board of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in October 1629. His maternal uncle, Louis Delbeecque, had been one of the initiators of the VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier married Maria Ravevelt in Middelburg on 2 March 1630. She died in September 1641 and was buried on in the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. De Carpentier died in Amsterdam on 5 September 1659, and was also buried in the Westerkerk. They had seven children.

When Jan Carstenszoon (or Carstensz) and Willem van Coolsteerdt landed the Pera and the Arnhem on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula of New Holland (now Australia) in 1623, after the first discovery by Willem Janszoon in the Duyfken in 1606, they then named the ‘Gulf of Carpentaria‘ after the Governor-General, Pieter de Carpe

 

Jacques Specx

 

 

Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʒɑk ˈspɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 July 1652) was a Dutch merchant, who founded the trade on Japan and Korea in 1609.[1][2] Jacques Specx received the support of William Adams to obtain extensive trading rights from the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu on August 24, 1609, which allowed him to establish a trading factory in Hirado on September 20, 1609. He was the interim governor in Batavia between 1629 – 1632. There his daughter Saartje Specx was involved in a scandal. Back home in Holland Specx became an art-collector.

The Dutch, who, rather than “Nanban” were called “Kōmō” (Jp:紅毛, lit. “Red Hair”) by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde.

In 1605, two of the Liefde’s crew were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan. The head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia.

[edit] 1609 mission to Japan

Jacques Specx sailed on a fleet of eleven ships that left Texel in 1607 under the command of Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. After arriving in Bantam two ships which were dispatched to establish the first official trade relations between the Netherlands and Japan.[3]

 

 

The “trade pass” (Dutch: handelspas) issued in the name of Tokugawa Ieyasu. The text commands: “Dutch ships are allowed to travel to Japan, and they can disembark on any coast, without any reserve. From now on this regulation must be observed, and the Dutch left free to sail where they want throughout Japan. No offenses to them will be allowed, such as on previous occasions” – dated August 24, 1609 (Keichō 14, 25th day of the 6th month); n.b., the goshuin (御朱印) identifies this as an official document bearing the shogun’s scarlet seal.

The two ships Specx commanded were De Griffioen (the “Griffin”, 19 cannons) and Roode Leeuw met Pijlen (the “Red lion with arrows”, 400 tons, 26 cannons). The ships arrived in Japan on July 2, 1609.[4]

Among the crews were the Chief merchants Abraham van den Broeck and Nicolaas Puyck and the under-merchant Jaques Specx.

The exact composition of the delegation is uncertain; but it has been established that van den Broeck and Puyck traveled to the Shogunal Court, and Melchior van Santvoort acted as the mission’s interpreter. Santevoort had arrived a few years earlier aboard the Dutch ship De Liefde. He had established himself as a merchant in Nagasaki.

 

 

Christ in the storm on the lake Genesareth; by Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. In 1990 the painting was stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and has not been recovered; it belonged to Jacques Specx in 1651

The Shogun granted the Dutch the access to all ports in Japan, and confirmed this in an act of safe-conduct, stamped with his red seal. (Inv.nr.1a.).

In September 1609 the ship’s Council decided to hire a house on Hirado island (west of the southern main island Kiushu). Jacques Specx became the first “Opperhoofd” (Chief) of the new Company’s factory.[5]

In 1610, Specx sent a ship to Korea.[6]

 

Hendrik Brouwer

 

 

Portrait of Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (spring 1581 – August 7, 1643) was a Dutch explorer, admiral, and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies.

He is thought to first have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1606. In 1610 he left again to the Indies, now as commander of three ships. On this trip he devised the Brouwer Route, a route from South Africa to Java that reduced voyage duration from a year to about 6 months by taking advantage of the strong westerly winds in the Roaring Forties (the latitudes between 40° and 50° south). Up to that point, the Dutch had followed a route copied from the Portuguese via the coast of Africa, Mauritius and Ceylon. By 1617, the VOC required all their ships to take the Brouwer route.[1]

After his arrival in 1611 in the East Indies, he was sent to Japan to replace Jacques Specx temporarily as opperhoofd at Dejima from August 28, 1612 to August 6, 1614.[2] During that time he made a visit to the Japanese court at Edo. In 1613 he made a trip to Siam that laid the foundation for the Dutch trade with Siam.

Early in 1632, he was part of a delegation sent to London to solve trade disagreements between the British and Dutch East India companies. Afterwards he left for the Indies, and on April 18 of that same year he was appointed Governor-General of the East Indies, again following Jacques Specx, a position which he held until January 1, 1636. Anthony van Diemen was his assistant during this entire period, and many of the Dutch explorations into the Pacific carried out under Van Diemen’s command were suggested in writing by Brouwer before he left.

In 1642, the VOC joined the Dutch West Indies Company in organizing an expedition to Chile to establish a base for trading gold at the abandoned ruins of Valdivia. The fleet sailed from Dutch Brazil where John Maurice of Nassau provided them with supplies. While rounding Cape Horn, the expedition established that Staten Island was not part of the unknown Southern land. After landing on Chiloe Island, Brouwer made a pact with the Mapuche (then known as the Araucanians) to aid in establishing a resettlement at Valdivia. However, on August 7, 1643 Hendrik died (at the age of 62) before arriving, and was succeeded by his vice-admiral Elias Herckman, who landed at the ruins of Valdivia on August 24. Brouwer was buried in the new settlement, which Herckman named Brouwershaven after him. Herckman and his men occupied the location only until October 28, 1643. Having been told that the Dutch had plans to return to the location, the Spanish viceroy in Peru sent 1000 men in twenty ships (and 2000 men by land, who never made it) in 1644 to resettle Valdivia and fortify it. The Spanish soldiers in the new garrison disinterred and burned Brouwer’s body.[3][4]

 

Anthony van Diemen

.

Anthony van Diemen


Portrait of Anthony van Diemen

Born

1593
Culemborg, Utrecht, Dutch Republic

Died

19 April 1645(1645-04-19)
Batavia, Dutch East India

Nationality

Dutch

Occupation

Explorer, colonial governor

Anthony van Diemen (also Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), Dutch colonial governor, was born in Culemborg in the Netherlands, the son of Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen[1] and Christina Hoevenaar. In 1616 he moved to Amsterdam, in hope of improving his fortune as a merchant; in this he failed and was declared bankrupt. After a year he became a servant of the Dutch East India Company and sailed to Batavia (Jakarta), capital of the Dutch East Indies. On the voyage out, to the East Indiaman Mauritius he inadvertently went more south to an unknown coast of Australia.[2]

Governor Jan Pieterszoon Coen found van Diemen to be a talented official and by 1626 he was Director-General of Commerce and member of the Council for the Indies. In 1630 he married Maria van Aelst. A year later he returned to the Netherlands as Admiral on the ship Deventer. In 1632 he returned to Batavia and in 1635 he was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, his appointment taking effect on 1 January 1636.

Van Diemen’s nine years as Governor-General were successful and important for both the colony and the commercial success of the East India Company. He devoted much of his energy to expanding the power of the company throughout Asia. Under his rule Dutch power was established in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen is best remembered for his efforts to foster exploration of the “Great South Land”, Australia, resulting in “the final and most ambitious Dutch voyages of the century”.[3] The first voyage under his energetic administration was undertaken within three months of his arrival in Batavia; starting from Cape York its ships were to chart the unknown coasts, but the venture ended in failure, when its commander was killed by natives in New Guinea, and the ships returned. In 1639 he commissioned two voyages to the north, in search of the “Gold and Silver Islands” that Spanish reports placed in the North Pacific to the east of Japan, and sent Maarten Gerritsz Vries to explore the coasts of Korea and “Tartaria“; these, two returned fruitlessly.[4] Undeterred, Van Diemen appointed Frans Visscher to draw up a plan for new discoveries. Visscher mapped out three different routes and van Diemen decided in August 1642 to send Abel Janszoon Tasman, accompanied by Visscher, in search of the Great South Land, which Tasman would soon dub “Nieuw Holland“.

In November 1642, headed east from Mauritius on latitude 44 and missing the south coast of Australia, Tasman sighted land (the west coast of the island of Tasmania), and followed the southern coastline around to the east coast. Tasman sent a party ashore at Blackman Bay, on the Tasman Peninsula, who planted a flag and encountered a few of the native inhabitants. Believing he had found a large territory, Tasman named it Van Diemen’s Land in honour of his patron.[5] Van Diemen is also commemorated in Van Diemen Gulf on the coast of northern Australia.

Van Diemen commissioned a further voyage from Tasman in 1644.

Anthony van Diemen died in April 1645 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. The company granted his wife a large pension and she retired to the Netherlands. Her name is perpetuated in the name of the westernmost point of the North Island of New Zealand, Cape Maria van Diemen, named by Tasman in 1643, and by Maria Island off the east coast of Tasmania.

 

Cornelis van der Lijn

 

 

Portrait of Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608? – 27 July 1679) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1646 until 1650.

Early career

Van der Lijn was born in Alkmaar, possibly in 1608. He went, in 1627, as Assistant (Dutch: assistent) to Batavia, Dutch East Indies aboard the Wapen van Hoorn. From 1632 to 18 January 1636 he was Accountant-General (Dutch: boekhouder-generaal). In 1639 he became Counsellor-Extraordinary (Dutch: Raad extra-oridinair) to the Council of the Indies. A year later he was appointed President of the Schepenrechtbank (a maritime court, but with various other functions). One further year later he was made a full Counsellor (Dutch: Raad ordinair) he followed Philips Lucasz (whose portrait was painted by Rembrandt [2]) as Director-General of the Indies.

Council of the Indies

Shortly before his death on 19 April 1645, Governor-General Antonio van Diemen called upon the Council of the Indies (12 April 1645) to establish Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. This was not in line with the instructions of the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), who has laid down in 1617 that immediately after the death of a Governor-General, the Council should choose a provisional Governor-General. Only once the Seventeen Lords had agreed to the choice would the appointment come into actual force. The Heren XVII at first cancelled Van Diemen’s decision, but then afterwards named the very same Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. On 10 October 1646 he was named by them as Governor-General.

 

 

 

Carel Reyniersz

 

 

Portrait of Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604–1653) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1650 until 1653.

Reyniersz (or Reiniersz) was born in Amsterdam in 1604 (or perhaps 1602). He left for the Indies in 1627 as Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) on the Dutch Coromandel (Karnataka). He was promoted to Governor of the Coromandel Coast in 1635, even though he had been accused of engaging in (forbidden) private/personal trading. In 1636 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He returned to Amsterdam as Admiral of the returning fleet in 1638 and established himself as a merchant there. However, he lost his entire fortune, so left again, this time aboard the Salamander, for India on 24 April 1645. He arrived there on 3 December 1645. The following year, 1646, he became a full Counsellor of the Indies.

His allocated task was to carry out a new policy in the Indies. Most importantly, he was, as far as possible to eliminate sources of competition. He was to take action against private trading and to deal with too much production of spices by having trees cut down. Reinier stuck strictly to this policy, which lead to much conflict in West Ceram, where the population would not accept the destruction of their plantations. It took until 1658 for the area to be pacified.

Four years after Reyniersz become a Counsellor, Governor-General Cornelis van der Lijn received an honorable discharge (sic) and on 26 April 1650, Reyniersz was named his successor, a task he very much looked forward to. Four years later he was dismissed. The governors of the company were not pleased by the weakness of his rule. There still exists in the Netherlands his letter of dismissal. It indicates he was being dismissed because he had been unable to carry out the duties of his office, particularly maintaining peace. The letter was never sent, because Reynier had already written to the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) asking to be relieved of his office on health grounds. This letter arrived just before his dismissal letter was to be sent. The Seventeen Lords willingly agreed to his request, though he died before their response reached him, on the night of 18/19 May 1653. He was buried in Batavia, Dutch East Indies and was succeed as Governor-General by Joan Maetsuycker.

 

Joan Maetsuycker

 

 

Joan Maetsuycker, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Painting by Jacob Jansz. Coeman in the Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (October 14, 1606, Amsterdam – January 24, 1678, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678.

Maetsuycker studied law in Leuven, and was a lawyer first in The Hague, and later in Amsterdam. From 1636, he lived in the Dutch East Indies. In 1646 he became the first Dutch Governor-General of Ceylon, and seven years later, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He stayed on that post for 25 years, which is the longest period for any Governor-General. The Dutch colony in the Indies flourished under Maetsuycker. Under his rule, the Portuguese lost Ceylon (1658), the coast of Coromandel (1658) and Malabar (1663); Makassar was conquered (1667), the west coast of Sumatra was occupied, and the first expedition to the interior of Java was held.

 

 

 

 

Rijckloff van Goens

 

 

Portrait of Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, June 24, 1619 – Amsterdam, November 14, 1682) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1678-1681. He wrote extensively about his travels to Ceylon and India.

His writing about visits to the palaces of Sultan Agung and his successors are important references for historians of the Mataram era in Java

 

 

 

 

 

Cornelis Speelman

Cornelis Speelman (2 March 1628 – 11 January 1684) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1681 to 1684.

 

 

Cornelis Speelman, represented around 1800.

Cornelis Janzoon Speelman was the son of a Rotterdam merchant. He was born on 2 March 1628. In his 16th year, he left aboard the Hillegersberg for the India. He was employed as an Assistant (assistent) in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1645 he arrived in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1648 and Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1649. He became Secretary (secretaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië). He travelled with the ambassador Joan Cunaeus to Persia that year, and wrote an account of the voyage. They were received by the Shah Abbas II with great festivity. Even before his voyage came to an end, in 1652,he was promoted to Buyer (koopman). On his return to Batavia, he took up a post in the office of the Bookkeeper-General (boekhouder-generaal), ‘for whom he deputised for a long time, and whom he succeeded in 1657. Meanwhile, he had married the fifteen year-old Petronella Maria Wonderaer, daughter to the Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal). In 1659 he was placed in charge of the Company’s clerical and administrative staff (kapitein over de compagnie pennisten) in Batavia. In 1661, he became schepen van Batavia, ( a sort of alderman post connected with local government there).

On 12 June 1663, Cornelis Speelman was appointed Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel, but was suspended by the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), being accused of having illegally engaged in private trading. He had bought a diamond for his wife and later re-sold it because she had not liked it. Despite his strenuous protests, the court in Batavia wanted to make an example of him and he was sentenced to a 15 months suspension and a fine of 3,000 guilders. In 1666, he was named admiral and superintendent of an expedition to Makasar. On 18 November 1667, he concluded the so-called Bongaais Treaty. (Treaty of Bonggaya[1]) In the same year, he was named Commissioner (commissaris) of Amboina, Banda and Ternate. Consequently, he became Counsellor-extraordinary (raad extra-ordinaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. He travelled once again, in 1669, as admiral of another expedition to Makassar where he completely subjugated the kingdom, receiving a gold chain and medallion in recognition of this the following year.

He became a full Counsellor of the Indies on 23 March 1671. The following year he was admiral of a fleet sent against the French. In December 1676, he led an expedition to Central Java, where the ruler of Mataram was in difficulties and he needed to support the alliance with that prince. On Java’s East Coast, he went to war against the so-called Toerana Djaja. It took some time before peace was re-established. He was called back to Batavia at the end of 1677 and on 18 January 1678 named First Counsellor and Director-General of the Indies (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal van Indië). Also in that year he was appointed President of the College van Schepenen (to do with local government) in Batavia. On 29 October 1680 he was named Governor-General, a post he took up on 25 November 1681, succeeding Rijckloff van Goens.

During the term of office of Cornelis Speelman as Governor-General, the Sultan of Ternate was conquered. He ceded all his lands of his kingdom to the Company. Speelman also subdued the city of Bantam. Cornelis Speelman died on 11 January 1684 in the Castle at Batavia. His funeral was accompanied with great noise and splendour, for which no pains or monies were spared. He was buried in the Kruiskerk to the noise of 229 cannon shots. He was followed as Governor-General by Johannes Camphuy

 

Johannes Camphuys

 

 

Portrait of Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (registered as Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, July 18 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), July 18 1695) was the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691.[1]

[edit] Japan

At this point in Japanese history, the sole VOC outpost (or “factory”) was situated on Dejima island in the harbor of Nagasaki on the southern island of Kyushu. Camphuys was three times sent to Japan as Opperhoofd or chief negotiant and officer of the VOC trading post.[2]

  • 22 October 1671–12 November 1672[2]
  • 29 October1673–19 October 1674[2]
  • 7 November 1675–27 October 1676[2]

[edit] Legacy

The life of Camphuys is commemorated in the name of a street in the Lombok neighbourhood of Utrecht; and he is also remembered in the name of a street in the Bezuidenhoutquarter of The Hague.

Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Pada 17 Desember 1690 van Outhoorn diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, mengambil alih dari Johannes Camphuys pada tanggal 24 September 1691. Setelah sepuluh tahun, Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) yang diberikan keinginannya untuk menjadi terhormat dibebaskan dari tugas-tugasnya, tapi itu 15 Agustus 1704 sebelum dia bisa menyerahkan semua fungsi resmi ke penggantinya, Joan van Hoorn.

Dia meminta agar dia diizinkan untuk tetap berada di real nya hanya di luar Batavia. Permintaan seperti itu umumnya tidak diperbolehkan, karena takut akan mengganggu gubernur pensiun dengan karya penerus mereka. Namun, karena dia berada dalam kesehatan yang buruk dan lebih dari 70, dia diperbolehkan untuk tinggal. Ia meninggal pada usia 85 pada tanggal 27 November 1720.

Masa jabatannya tidak ditandai oleh perkembangan penting atau peristiwa. Pada akhir masa jabatannya, Amangkurat II Sultan Mataram meninggal. Karena VOC tidak mengakui anaknya sebagai penggantinya, perang panjang pecah sebelum Van Outshoorn meninggalkan kantor. Pada 1693 Perancis menyerbu Pondicherry. Selama waktu itu, berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk membangun penanaman kopi di Jawa. Panen pertama gagal karena banjir, tetapi panen berikutnya lebih berhasil.

Van Outhoorn bukan penguasa yang sangat kuat. Korupsi dan nepotisme, di mana dia juga terlibat, menjadi lebih mencolok selama waktu. Anak-di-hukum-Nya Joan van Hoorn, menikah dengan putrinya Susanna, mengikutinya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal

 

1704-1709: Joan van Hoorn
Joan van Hoorn
 

 

Zijn portret pintu Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653-1711) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1704 sampai 1709.

Joan (atau Johan) van Hoorn lahir pada tanggal 16 November 1653, anak ke produsen mesiu Amsterdam kaya, Pieter van Hoorn Janszn dan istrinya Sara Bessels, cucu Gerard Reynst. Sebagai perdagangan mesiu tidak lagi melakukannya dengan baik, teman yang berpengaruh punya dia disebut sebagai Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Seluruh keluarga berangkat ke Hindia tahun 1663, termasuk Joan.

Pada tahun 1665, ketika ia masih hanya 12 tahun, Joan van Hoorn sudah U-asisten (Onder-asisten) di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda (VOC). Dari Juli 1666 sampai Januari 1668, ia menemani ayahnya di sebuah misi ke Cina, di mana ia diterima oleh Kaisar Kangxi. Setelah itu, Van Hoorn membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Dia menjadi Asisten (asisten) pada 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada tahun 1673, Pembeli (Koopman) dan Panitera Pertama untuk fungsi sekretaris umum di 1676. Dia dibuat Sekretaris Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering) Hindia pada 1678. Pada 11 Agustus 1682 dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun yang sama ia dikirim pada kunjungan ke Banten. Dia juga bernama Presiden Weeskamer tersebut (mengawasi perkebunan anak yatim, dll). Pada 1684, ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (mencari setelah batas tanah, jalan, dll). Kunjungan lebih lanjut untuk Banten terjadi pada 1685, berikut ini yang dia bernama Konselor penuh (Raad ordinair) Hindia.

Pada 1691 Van Hoorn menikah Anna Struis. Mereka memiliki seorang putri, Petronella Wilhelmina. Dia kemudian menikah Jan Trip, anak Walikota. Sebuah pernikahan kemudian melihat Petronella menikah dengan Adolf Lubbert sangat kaya Torck, Tuhan Roozendael.

Van Hoorn menjadi Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1691. Dalam posting ini, ia benar-benar menata ulang administrasi Perusahaan. Setelah kematian istrinya, ia menikah lagi, pada 1692, kali ini ke Susanna, putri kemudian Gubernur Jenderal van Outhoorn Willem. Dia sendiri bernama, pada tanggal 20 September 1701, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dalam suksesi kepada ayah mertuanya. Namun, ia menolak untuk menerima jabatan sampai tiga pejabat tinggi lainnya (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon dan de Roo), dicalonkan oleh dia, dirawat di Pemerintah Agung Hindia. Dia melakukan ini karena ia tidak memiliki iman yang ada di Dewan. Para Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menyetujui permintaan ini dan pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1704, Joan van Hoorn menerima jabatan Gubernur Jenderal.

Tahun-tahun awal dari istilah Joan van Hoorn di kantor ditandai oleh perang kemudian mengamuk – Perang Suksesi Jawa Pertama (1704-1708). Pada awalnya Perusahaan ingin tetap keluar dari konflik, tetapi akhirnya mereka harus mengambil sisi. Pada tahun 1705, Joan van Hoorn menyimpulkan perjanjian dengan Mataram, yang menyerahkan Jawa Barat kepada Perusahaan. Joan van Hoorn bereksperimen dengan perkebunan kopi. Harga ditentukan oleh pedagang di Mocha sehingga untuk melakukan sesuatu tentang hal ini, Perusahaan mencoba penanaman kopi di daerah lain. Selanjutnya, ada ekspansi besar kopi tumbuh, terutama di dataran tinggi Priangan di dekat Batavia.

Pada tanggal 16 November 1706, setelah kematian Susanna, Van Hoorn kembali menikah, kali ini untuk Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, putri tertua maka Direktur Jenderal van Riebeeck Abraham. Dia juga janda dari Gerard de Heere, yang telah Konselor Hindia dan Gubernur Ceylon. Seorang putra lahir pada 2 Februari 1708, tapi dia meninggal tak lama sesudahnya.

Pada 2 Maret 1708, permintaan Joan van Hoorn untuk meninggalkan pos diberikan. Pada tanggal 30 Oktober 1709, ia menyerahkan posting untuk ayah mertuanya Abraham van Riebeeck nya. Meskipun permintaan lebih lanjut untuk tetap di Hindia, ia dipanggil kembali ke Belanda, sebagai Komandan armada kembali. Dia membeli sebuah rumah yang sangat menyenangkan di Herengracht di Amsterdam. Heren XVII disajikan dengan rantai emas dan medali. Dia meninggal enam bulan setelah kembali pada tanggal 21 Februari 1711. Ia dikuburkan di malam hari, karena kemudian fashion.

 

1709-1713: Abraham van Riebeeck
Abraham van Riebeeck (18 Oktober 1653 – 17 November 1713) adalah seorang Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia lahir di Cape Colony di Afrika Selatan, dan merupakan anak dari Jan van Riebeeck. Salah satu anak Abraham adalah Johanna Maria van Riebeeck (1679-1759), yang telah menikah pendahulunya Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn. [1] Setelah ia menyelesaikan studi di Belanda pada 1676, ia masuk Belanda East India Company sebagai pedagang.
Dari 1709 sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1713, ia adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia adalah seorang penjelajah yang tajam, yang melakukan lebih kecil dan lebih besar beberapa pelayaran di Hindia
 

1713-1718: Christoffel van Swol
Christoffel van Swoll
Christoffel van Swoll (1663-12 November 1718) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 17 November 1713 sampai kematiannya.

Ia lahir tahun 1663 di Amsterdam. Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1683, ia berangkat ke Batavia pada papan Anna Juffrouw sebagai asisten dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Dia tiba di Batavia pada tanggal 19 Juni 1664 dan mulai bekerja di Sekretariat Jenderal. Dia dipromosikan secara teratur. Pada 1686 ia dipromosikan menjadi Akuntan, pada tahun 1690 untuk Clerk Pertama kepada Sekretariat Jenderal, dan di 1691 untuk Pembeli. Pada 1696, ia diangkat sebagai Sekretaris kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (de Hoge Regering). Pada 1700 ia menjadi ekstra-ordinair Raad (Atase luar biasa) dan Presiden dari College van Weesmeesteren (orpanage suatu). Pada 1701 dia bernama Raad van Indië ordinair (Atase Penuh Hindia). Pada tanggal 3 Mei 1703 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Schepenen (anggota dewan) di Batavia. Setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Abraham van Riebeeck, Dewan (Raad) memilih van Swoll, oleh mayoritas tipis, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal (pada tanggal 17 November 1713). Proposal ini dikirim ke 17 Penguasa Hindia (de Heren XVII) pada 18 Mei 1714 yang menegaskan janji di 1715, meskipun karakter kesulitannya. Kejujuran adalah faktor penentu dalam waktu-waktu korupsi dan maladministrasi.

Sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menempatkan banyak energi ke dalam berurusan dengan perdagangan, swasta, atau tidak resmi. Dalam hal ini ia tidak benar-benar berhasil. Secara umum, tidak ada yang sangat luar biasa tentang waktunya di kantor. Dia tidak promotor besar pembangunan, seperti memperluas pertanian kopi. Dia juga terhadap memperluas wilayah Perseroan, karena ia pikir itu kemudian akan menjadi ungovernable.He tiba-tiba menjatuhkan harga Cina punya untuk teh oleh sepertiga. Hasilnya adalah bahwa perdagangan dalam teh (dan porselen) runtuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Empat tahun setelah penunjukan sementara sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia meninggal di Batavia pada tanggal 12 November 1718. Ia dimakamkan di Gereja Salib Suci (Kruiskerk). Penggantinya disebut sebagai Hendrick Zwaardecroon.

 

 

1718-1725: Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon atau Henricus (26 Januari 1667, Rotterdam – 12 Agustus 1728, Batavia, Hindia Belanda) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1718 sampai 1725.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Zwaardecroon kiri untuk Hindia Timur sebagai kadet kapal Purmer pada Desember 1684 dan tiba di Batavia pada bulan Oktober 1685. Selama perjalanan ia beberapa kali telah digunakan sebagai sekretaris Komisaris Jenderal Van Rheede, yang memungkinkan dia untuk membuat kemajuan cepat dalam karirnya dengan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada 1686 ia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) dan kemudian Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Pada 1694, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman) dan pada 1694 untuk Pembeli Senior (opperkoopman). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat menjadi Komandan (commandeur) di Jafnapatham di Ceylon. Dia Komisaris (commissaris) di Pantai Malabar dan bertindak Gubernur Ceylon pada 1697. Dia menjadi, pada tahun 1703, Sekretaris Pemerintah Hindia Tinggi (Hoge Regering) di Batavia, dan pada 1704, melalui pengaruh dari Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn, anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van de Indië). Melalui keanggotaan itu, dan kemudian karena Gubernur Jenderal Christoffel van Swoll telah mencoba membuatnya dihapus dari Dewan, lebih disukai dengan promosi di tempat lain, butuh waktu sampai 1715 sebelum Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menamainya sebagai anggota penuh (gewoon tutup ).

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda
Hari setelah kematian Christoffel van Swoll, pada tanggal 12 November 1718, bernama Zwaardecroon Gubernur-Jenderal. Hanya pada tanggal 10 September 1720, dia menegaskan di posting ini. Pemberhentian Nya, oleh keinginannya sendiri, datang pada tanggal 16 Oktober 1724, meskipun ia menyerahkan kantor sebenarnya untuk Mattheus de Haan hanya pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Selama masa jabatannya, Zwaardecroon harus berurusan dengan banyak kerusuhan di Batavia, termasuk pembakaran di dermaga dan serangan terhadap toko-toko mesiu. Ini Pieter kaya Eberveld, telah mewarisi beberapa tanah dari ayahnya. Pemerintah mengklaim bagian dari perkebunan ini. Eberveld merencanakan serangan terhadap Belanda tetapi beberapa budaknya memperingatkan pemerintah dan serangan itu digagalkan. Dia mengaku di rak dan dijatuhi hukuman mati, bersama dengan anggota komplotan lainnya. Rumahnya dihancurkan dan tembok didirikan di sekitar tempat itu berdiri [1] Kepalanya terjebak pada. Tombak dan melekat pada dinding. Sebuah batu dengan prasasti didirikan, menunjukkan bahwa tidak pernah lagi akan apa pun dibangun di tempat itu. [2] Hal itu hanya dihapus selama pendudukan Jepang (Perang Dunia II).

Zwaardecrood selalu memiliki minat besar dalam mengembangkan produk baru. Dia mendorong penanaman kopi di Priangan di Jawa sehingga produksi kopi tumbuh dengan cepat. Dari 1723, seluruh hasil panen harus diserahkan kepada Perusahaan. Kemudian Zwaardecroon memperkenalkan produksi sutera ke Jawa serta produksi pewarna sayuran. Produksi sutra tidak begitu sukses. Pada 1772 ia mendirikan kembali perdagangan teh Cina, yang telah terganggu.

Pada 1719, Paku Buwono I dari Kartasura di Jawa Timur meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya, Amangkurat IV. Dua dari saudara-saudaranya tidak mengakui suksesi dan bangkit dalam pemberontakan, menyerang Kartasura. Ini adalah jijik oleh pasukan pendudukan Belanda, tetapi Zwaardecroon merasa dirinya terpaksa untuk mengirim lebih banyak pasukan ke Jawa Timur. Pemberontakan ditumpas oleh 1723, tapi butuh sampai 1752 sampai perdamaian dipulihkan nyata di daerah tersebut. (Perang Suksesi Jawa Kedua 1719-1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon mengambil tindakan terhadap pedagang swasta, dan dengan demikian mendapat hubungan yang lebih baik dengan pemegang saham atas Perusahaan lokal (Bewindhouders). Pada 1726, ia memiliki pelayan Perusahaan 26 dibawa ke Batavia pada tuduhan korupsi.

Zwaardecroon meninggal pada 12 Agustus 1738 di real di Kaduang dekat Batavia. Dia mengatakan dia merasa lebih di rumah dengan warga kota biasa, dan atas permintaannya ia tidak dikuburkan dengan pendahulunya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, tetapi di pemakaman Gereja Portugis Luar Tembok di Batavia (Portugis Buitenkerk) di Batavia, di mana nya makam masih dapat dikunjungi

 

1725-1729: Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1725-1729. (Potret-Nya dapat dilihat di [1]).

Ia lahir di Dordrecht pada tahun 1663. Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1671 ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, di mana ayahnya telah appoined sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman) di Belanda East India Company (VOC). Dia kemudian cepat-cepat pergi melalui posting di tingkat lebih rendah dari organisasi yang dalam bahasa Belanda Suratte. Ada, pada 1676, ia diangkat menjadi Asisten Sementara (provisioneel asisten), dan pada 1681 ia menjadi asisten. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1683, dan, pada 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer / Undermerchant). Sepuluh tahun kemudian, pada 1695, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli / Merchant (Koopman). Tahun berikutnya ia harus pindah ke Batavia, untuk mengambil posting Pembeli Senior Kedua (Tweede opperkoopman) di kantor pusat Perseroan di sana. Dua tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1698, ia dipromosikan menjadi Senior Pembeli Pertama (Eerste opperkoopman). Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Pemerintah Tinggi Hindia pada tahun 1700 dan, pada 1702, Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Dia membuat Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) Dewan Hindia Belanda pada 1704. Dia kemudian ditunjuk sebagai Presiden College van Schepenen tahun 1705. Lima tahun kemudian, ia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia dan pada tahun 1722 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal. Pada 16 Oktober 1724 ia dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal, mengambil alih dari Henrick Zwaardecroon pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Karakteristik besar waktunya di kantor adalah dorongan oposisi Zwaardecroon nya budidaya sutra. Produksi kopi di wilayah Priangan de (fr Priangan: dataran tinggi Priangan di selatan Batavia) pergi sangat baik dan de Haan merasa bahwa ini akan mengakibatkan penurunan harga kopi di Eropa, sehingga ia menurunkan harga yang dibayarkan kepada para petani kopi . Tanggapan mereka adalah menebang beberapa perkebunan kopi. Ini bukanlah apa yang dimaksudkan, dan De Haan melarangnya. Sementara itu, ada kerusakan lebih lanjut berat untuk produksi kopi. Kopi dari Jawa pergi terutama ke Eropa. Mereka tidak pernah berhasil masuk ke pasar Asia. Kopi dari Mocha melepas sana, seperti halnya kopi Arab dari Inggris. Tidak ada tindakan yang diambil terhadap ini. Orang Inggris juga mulai memainkan peran yang lebih penting dalam kapas dan perdagangan teh.

Setelah istilah yang sangat biasa-biasa saja di kantor (De Haan memiliki semua hidupnya lebih tertarik pada istirahat dari dalam tindakan), Gubernur Jenderal meninggal, setelah terbaring sakit selama tiga hari, pada tanggal 1 Juni 1729. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia dan diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Diederik Durven.

 

1729-1732: Diederik Durven
Diederik Durven
 

 

Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (lahir Delft, 1676, meninggal 26 Februari 1740) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1 Juni 1729 sampai 28 Mei 1732

Durven belajar hukum di Universitas Leiden di mana dia lulus pada 19 Juli 1702. Ia menjadi pembela di Delft pada 1704. Pada 1705, ia dinominasikan sebagai anggota Dewan Hakim di Batavia di Hindia. Dia berangkat ke Batavia pada “Grimmestein” pada 4 Januari 1706. Pada tahun 1706, ia tiba di Batavia. Setelah janji itu pada tahun 1720 kepada Dewan Hindia, ia dikirim, pada tahun 1722 dan 1723, untuk mengawasi emas dan perak-tambang di provinsi Parang. Selanjutnya, ia menjadi (tahun 1723) ketua College van Heemraden (yaitu papan drainase, sebanding dengan papan polder di Republik Belanda), yang bertanggung jawab untuk pengelolaan lahan di luar kota, termasuk pengawasan batas. Ia kemudian menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman – pengadilan tertinggi Belanda di Asia. Pada 1729, Mattheus de Haan meninggal. Diederik Durven menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Ini tidak berlangsung lama, sebagai Direksi Perusahaan India Timur sangat tidak sabar dari kecepatan perubahan di sana. Setelah kenakalan keuangan diduga, meskipun lebih mungkin sebagai kambing hitam, dia diberhentikan pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1731. Diederik Durven meninggal di Belanda pada tanggal 26 Februari 1740. Ia digantikan oleh Dirck van Cloon.

 

1732-1735: Dirk van Cloon
Dirck van Cloon
 

 

Dirck van Cloon sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Hindia

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 Maret 1735) adalah Eurasia Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia meninggal karena malaria pada usia 46.

Ia lahir di Batavia sekitar tahun 1684. Untuk pendidikan dan pelatihan ia dikirim ke Belanda. Dia lulus pada Hukum di Universitas Leiden pada tanggal 1 April 1707.

Dia kembali ia ke Batavia pada clipper ‘Donkervliet’ dan menghabiskan beberapa waktu di Belanda Coromandel. Dia antara lain menjadi penilik kabupaten di Sadraspatnam. Dia terlibat perkelahian dengan Gubernur Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, yang menuduh Van Cloon memberikan barang-barang berkualitas buruk. Pemerintah di Batavia mengirim Van Cloon kembali ke Belanda, tetapi dia membujuk Direksi Belanda East India Company bahwa de Visser tidak bisa dipercaya. Van Cloon itu kembali dan ia berangkat ke Hindia pada 4 November 1719 di papan tulis ‘de van Huis te Assenburg’ sebagai Supercargo. Pada 1720, ia menjadi kepala distrik di Negapatnam. Pada 1723, ia menjadi Gubernur Coromandel Belanda. Pada 1724, ia kembali ke Batavia untuk memberikan nasihat kepada Gubernur Jenderal dan pada tahun 1730, ia menjadi “Raad-ordinair” (penasihat) dari Hindia.

Pada 9 Oktober 1731 Direksi Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang bernama van Cloon Dirck Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia, yang dia sukses pada tanggal 28 Mei 1732, setelah Diederik Durven aib. Dengan 20 Desember 1733 van Cloon meminta untuk mengundurkan diri karena sakit. Dia meninggal di pos, bagaimanapun, dan itu tidak sampai setelah dia meninggal penggantinya mengambil alih. Van Cloon terlibat dalam off berdiri dengan Perusahaan India Timur baru lahir Swedia, tetapi ia diselesaikan itu secara damai. Kurang bahagia adalah sebuah pemberontakan dari pengangguran pekerja perkebunan gula Cina. Hal ini disebabkan oleh runtuhnya pasar gula, karena over-produksi dan penanganan pemerintah.

 

1735-1737: Abraham Patras
Abraham Patras
 

 

Gubernur Jenderal Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 Mei 1671 – 3 Mei 1737) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 11 Maret 1735 sampai 3 Mei 1737. Dia lahir di Grenoble dari keluarga Huguenot pengungsi Prancis. Pada 1685, keluarganya melarikan diri ke Belanda.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Patras pertama mengambil pekerjaan di kantor seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama Nathaniel Gauthier (a Huguenot sesama), tapi ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia kapal Hobree pada 4 Januari 1690, di mana ia digambarkan sebagai seorang prajurit dalam menggunakan cabang Enkhuizen dari Belanda East India Company. Pada 1691, ia mencari perubahan karir dan mendapat posting sementara sebagai agen di Batavia. Pada 1695 ia menjadi asisten / sekretaris administrasi perkebunan-manajemen Cina di Pulau Ambon. Pada 1698 ia dimasukkan ke dalam biaya anak-anak dan hal-hal perkawinan. Dia menikah pada tahun 1699 dengan putri seorang pejabat Dewan Yudisial di Ambon. Istrinya meninggal pada tanggal 16 Desember 1700. Putri satu-satunya juga meninggal muda.

[Sunting] Meningkatnya melalui jajaran
Patras dinominasikan untuk Dewan Kehakiman pada tahun 1700, dan pada tahun 1703, ia pergi untuk bekerja sebagai di bawah sekretaris (onderkoopman) untuk Gubernur Kepulauan Maluku. Pada 1707, ia menjadi Kepala (opperhoofd) dari pos perdagangan di Jambi, di mana markas besarnya diserang. Meskipun terluka parah di bagian belakang, ia selamat. Dia pedagang, kemudian Faktor Kepala di Palembang pada 1711. Pada 1717, ia dipromosikan menjadi Kepala Merchant (opperkoopman) dan pemegang Kantor (gezaghebber) dari pantai barat Sumatera. Itu adalah 1720 yang melihat dia dipromosikan menjadi Inspektur Jenderal Account untuk Hindia Belanda (visitateur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië). Pada 1721, ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Jambi. Pada 1722, ia diangkat deputee-pengawas barang masuk dan keluar dari kastil di Batavia. Pada 1724, ia mendapat posting yang sangat menguntungkan Kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Bengal. Pada 1731, ia diangkat sebagai anggota luar biasa (yaitu terkooptasi) dari Dewan Hindia.

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal
Pada 10 Maret 1735 pada kematian Gubernur Jenderal van Dirck Cloon, Patras sangat mengejutkan dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal. Dia tidak pernah menjadi anggota penuh dari Dewan Hindia, jadi ini adalah pertama, dan itu disebabkan oleh dia tergelincir melalui sebagai calon kompromi menyusul kebuntuan dalam pemungutan suara. Dia tidak ingin mengambil posting dalam keadaan ini, tetapi setuju untuk melakukannya sampai calon yang lebih baik dapat ditemukan. Pada 11 Maret 1735 ia dinominasikan sementara Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah keputusan yang disetujui oleh Direksi dari Perusahaan India Timur.

Selama periode jabatannya yang singkat, tidak ada keputusan signifikan yang dibuat. Meskipun ia adalah seorang pemimpin yang kompeten dan telah membangun banyak pengetahuan praktis dari wilayah, usianya (pada 64) mungkin memastikan bahwa ia tidak sangat kuat Gubernur Jenderal.

Dia meninggal dua tahun setelah janji itu pada malam tanggal 3 Mei 1737. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia pada tanggal 6 Mei 1737. Dia adalah orang saleh dan baik hati yang telah menjalani kehidupan yang sangat sederhana. Gubernur-jenderal diambil alih oleh Adriaan Valckenier. \ \

 

 

 

1737-1741: Adriaan Valckenier
Adriaan Valckenier
 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 Juni 1695, Amsterdam – 20 Juni 1751, Batavia, Hindia Belanda), adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 3 Mei 1737 sampai 6 November 1741 dan terlibat dalam Pembantaian Cina 1740. Valckenier meninggal di penjara di Batavia.

[Sunting] Biografi
Ayah Valckenier, seorang anggota dewan kotapraja dan sekretaris di Amsterdam, adalah pejabat dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang berbasis di Amsterdam. Ia adalah putra untuk Gillis Valckenier, salah satu bupati yang besar Amsterdam selama Golden Age kemudian Belanda. Pada tanggal 22 Oktober 1714, Adriaan kiri pada papan ‘Linschoten’ untuk menjadi asisten pembeli (onderkoopman) di Hindia Belanda, di mana ia tiba di 21 Juni, 1715 di Batavia.

Pada 1726, ia menjadi pedagang dan pembeli kepala (opperkoopman); pada tahun 1727 ia “Akuntan Umum” (boekhouder-Generaal) di Hindia Belanda, pada tahun 1730, ia pertama kali diangkat ke Dewan Hindia (Raad ekstra-oridinair) , dan, tahun 1733, sebagai “Penasehat” penuh. Pada 1736, ia membuat “Konselor Pertama” dan “Direktur Jenderal”, tetapi dipukuli sampai jabatan Gubernur Jenderal oleh Abraham Patras. Pada kematian terakhir itu, ia diangkat oleh Gubernur Jenderal Dewan Hindia pada tanggal 3 Mei 1737.

[Sunting] Pembantaian Cina 1740
Artikel utama: 1740 Batavia pembantaian

Ia selama Adriaan Valckenier aturan bahwa pembantaian terkenal Cina terjadi di Batavia (Pembantaian yang disebut Cina). Seorang Gubernur Jenderal sebelumnya (Henricus Zwaardecroon) telah mendorong banyak orang Cina untuk datang ke Batavia. Sesuatu antara 20% dan 50% dari populasi orang Cina. Mereka bekerja dalam pembangunan rumah dan benteng Batavia dan di perkebunan gula di luar kota. Banyak pedagang Cina juga mengambil, terkemuka jika (dari sudut pandang Belanda) ilegal, peran dalam perdagangan dengan Cina. Dari perdagangan gula 1725 mulai runtuh (sebagian karena persaingan dari Brazil). [Kutipan diperlukan] Pengangguran di pedesaan tumbuh, dan bersama dengan itu, kerusuhan. Ini menyebar ke Batavia sebagai pengangguran Cina meninggalkan desa untuk mencari pekerjaan atau bantuan makanan di sana. Pihak berwenang khawatir ini dan mulai mengeluarkan izin tinggal, dan membutuhkan orang-orang dengan izin untuk tinggal di daerah tertentu. Kerusuhan tumbuh pemberontakan skala penuh di pedesaan pada September 1740, ketika Belanda telah mengusulkan mengangkut menganggur Cina untuk koloni Belanda lainnya di Ceylon dan Afrika Selatan. Sebuah menyebarkan rumor bahwa mereka semua akan dibuang ke laut en rute, dan kerusuhan di pedesaan meledak

Pihak berwenang Belanda takut bahwa Cina dalam Batavia berkolaborasi dengan pemberontakan itu dan, selama 9 Oktober dan 10, pencarian brutal terbuat dari wilayah Cina, di mana ribuan tewas, seringkali setelah ditangkap. Ini “pembantaian” berlangsung tiga hari, diikuti oleh hari lebih banyak penjarahan dan pembakaran, tanpa upaya yang jelas pada bagian pemerintah untuk menghentikan kekerasan. Salah satu perkiraan adalah bahwa antara 5.000 dan 10.000 Cina (pria, wanita dan anak-anak) tewas secara total

 

1741-1743: Johannes Thedens
Johannes Thedens
 

 

Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 Maret 1748, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 6 November 1741 sampai 28 Mei 1743.

Thedens, lahir di sebuah pemukiman besar Belanda di Schleswig-Holstein, berlayar pada 17 Desember 1697 sebagai seorang prajurit kapal””’Unie’ ke Hindia Belanda. Pada 1702 ia diangkat ke pos”’Asisten”’ di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan pada 1719, untuk”’Pembeli”’ (”’Koopman”’). Dia kemudian berkembang (antara 1723 dan 1725) atas melalui jajaran untuk”’Pembeli Kepala”’ (”’opperkoopman”’) kemudian”’Kepala Pos”’ (opperhoofd) di Deshima di Jepang. [ 1]

Pada 1731, ia dikooptasi untuk Dewan Hindia dan di 1736, ia menjadi anggota penuh (”’Raad-ordinair Indie”’). Pada 1740 ia diangkat oleh Direksi sebagai ‘Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal”’ a”Hindia. Pada tanggal 6 November 1741, setelah pemecatan Adriaan Valckenier, (yang ia ditangkap dan ditempatkan di penjara di kastil di Batavia), ia menjadi”’interim”’ Gubernur Jenderal. Dia melanjutkan di kantor sampai dengan 28 Mei 1743, dan mampu mengatasi pemberontakan Cina dan menempatkan perdagangan gula pada pijakan yang lebih baik. Ia digantikan oleh Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff.

 

1743-1750: Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff
Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff
 

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (8 Agustus 1705 Leer-November 1, 1750) adalah Gubernur Ceylon dan kemudian Hindia Belanda bagi Belanda East India Company (VOC Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie-).

[Sunting] Awal tahun
Van Imhoff dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga aristokrat Frisian Timur. Ayahnya, Heinrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Imhoff, datang dari kota Leer di barat laut Jerman, beberapa kilometer dari perbatasan Belanda.

Pada 1725, Van Imhoff masuk ke dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda di Batavia (Jakarta zaman modern), maka modal kolonial Hindia Belanda. Van Imhoff dipromosikan beberapa kali dalam perusahaan sebelum diangkat gubernur kolonial di Ceylon (modern-hari Sri Lanka) pada tanggal 23 Juli 1736.

[Sunting] Sri Lanka
Masa Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon mengakhiri kekacauan yang telah merasuki pemerintahan sebelumnya. Dia menjalin hubungan yang konstruktif dengan raja Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

Raja Narendra menikah dengan seorang putri Tamil Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), dan anak mereka, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha yang menggantikannya setelah kematian Narendra itu pada 24 Mei 1739, dipandang Tamil lebih dari Sinhala (kelompok etnis mayoritas di Ceylon). Imhoff prihatin tentang suksesi ini karena kontak yang lebih dekat antara orang Tamil dari Sri Lanka, di bawah Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, dan Tamil dari India Selatan mungkin membahayakan monopoli komersial Belanda East India Company. Dalam surat-suratnya, Van Imhoff menyatakan terkejut bahwa orang-orang Sinhala telah menerima seperti seorang raja, mengingat sikap angkuh mereka terhadap orang Tamil dari India. Namun, Van Imhoff melihat kesempatan yang menarik dalam peristiwa pergantian. Dia mengusulkan untuk Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, para direktur VOC) bahwa kerajaan Ceylon dibagi dalam dua, tetapi mereka menolak proposisi: perang akan terlalu mahal.

Meskipun produksi rempah-rempah yang menguntungkan, koloni itu selalu dalam keadaan defisit, karena keuntungannya yang dialokasikan untuk VOC pada umumnya, bukan untuk koloni itu sendiri. Praktek ini mencegah Gubernur dari menjadi terlalu boros dalam kebiasaan mereka, seperti yang terjadi di koloni lain.

[Sunting] Batavia
Pada tanggal 12 Maret 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck diganti Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon dan Imhoff kembali ke Batavia, yang ia temukan dalam situasi genting. Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-percaya bahwa populasi Cina di Batavia daerah sekitarnya tumbuh terlalu besar. Dia berusaha untuk merelokasi penduduk ke Ceylon dan Cape Colony (Afrika Selatan), tetapi desas-desus menyatakan bahwa Belanda berencana untuk melemparkan orang-orang Cina kapal di tengah lautan memulai pemberontakan melawan VOC. Vackenier menanggapi dengan membantai sekitar 5000 Cina. Imhoff diperebutkan kebijakan yang brutal, yang menyebabkan penangkapan dan deportasi ke Belanda. Setelah kedatangannya, Lord Seventeen menamainya Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan mengirimnya kembali ke Batavia.

En rute ke Batavia, Imhoff mengunjungi koloni Belanda di Cape Town, di Cape Colony, di mana ia menemukan bahwa warga menembus semakin jauh ke pedalaman dan kehilangan kontak dengan VOC. Imhoff diusulkan untuk meningkatkan pendidikan dan pekerjaan Gereja Protestan di koloni.

Pada bulan Mei 1743, Imhoff mulai masa jabatannya di Batavia yang berada di tengah-tengah perang. Para pangeran Jawa mengambil keuntungan dari situasi kacau berikut tindakan Valckenier untuk memulai perang melawan VOC. Imhoff berhasil membangun kembali perdamaian dan mulai beberapa reformasi. Ia mendirikan sebuah sekolah Latin, kantor pos pertama di Hindia Belanda, rumah sakit dan surat kabar. Dia juga mendirikan kota Buitenzorg dan menekan perdagangan opium. Pada 1746, Imhoff memulai tur Jawa untuk memeriksa kepemilikan perusahaan dan memutuskan beberapa reformasi kelembagaan.

Imhoff masa itu juga ditandai dengan bencana. Sebuah kapal, Hofwegen, disambar petir dan meledak di pelabuhan Batavia bersama dengan enam ton perak, berjumlah sekitar 600.000 florin Belanda.

Pada akhirnya, kebijakan progresif Imhoff membuatnya banyak musuh. Yang Imhoff ingin diplomasi dan kurangnya penghormatan terhadap adat setempat menyebabkan koloni untuk menjadi terlibat dalam perang ketiga suksesi Jawa. Dimasukkan ke dalam posisi tidak bisa dipertahankan oleh musuh-musuhnya, Imhoff ingin mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya, tetapi VOC tidak akan mengizinkannya. Imhoff dipaksa untuk tetap di kantor sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1750, yang datang untuk percaya bahwa sebagian besar karyanya telah dilakukan sia-sia.

Selama tinggal di Batavia, Imhoff tinggal di sebuah rumah kelas tinggi sekarang dikenal sebagai Toko Merah. [1

 

1750-1761: Yakub Mossel
Yakub Mossel
 

 

Yakub Mossel

Yakub Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 Mei 1761) berubah dari seorang pelaut umum untuk menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1750-1761.

Dia kelahiran mulia, lahir di Enkhuizen. Ketika ia 15 ia meninggalkan sebagai pelaut berbadan sehat atas sebuah Fluyt (sejenis kapal kargo berlayar Belanda) disebut de Haringthuyn, menuju Hindia. Seperti keluarganya memiliki lambang, ia mampu memperoleh posisi istimewa, melalui Dirk van Cloon, dan dikirim ke Coromandel Belanda (1721). Pada 30 Maret 1730, ia menikah Adriana Appels, yang anak tiri empat belas tahun dari Adriaan van Pla, Gubernur Belanda Coromandel. Yakub Mossel bekerja dirinya akhirnya kepada Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel.

 

 

Willem van Outhoorn

 

 

Willem van Outhoorn (4 May 1635 – 27 November 1720) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1691 to 1704. He was born and died in the Dutch East Indies.

[edit] Biography

Willem van Outhoorn (or Oudthoorn) was born on 4 May 1635 at Larike on Ambon Island in Indonesia. His father was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) Buyer (koopman) there. He was sent to the Netherlands to study Law at the University of Leiden. On 28 November 1657 he graduated in Law.

[edit] Government career

In 1659 van Outhoorn returned to the Indies, employed as Underbuyer (onderkoopman). He was to remain in the East for the rest of his life. Even a journey to nearby Bantam was a journey too far for him. In 1662 he became a member of the Council of Justice (Raad van Justitie) in Batavia. In 1672 he became Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal), and in 1673 he became Vice-President of the Council of Justice. In 1678 he was charged with a mission to Bantam and he became an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He was named a full Counsellor, being confirmed in that post in 1681. He became President of the Council of Justice in 1682 and in 1689 President of the College van Heemraden (dealing with estate boundaries, roads, etc.). That same year he was appointed First Counsellor and Director-General of the Dutch East Indies.

On 17 December 1690 van Outhoorn was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, taking over from Johannes Camphuys on 24 September 1691. After ten years, the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) granted his wish to be honourably relieved of his duties, but it was 15 August 1704 before he could hand over all his official functions to his successor, Joan van Hoorn.

He requested that he be allowed to remain on his estate just outside Batavia. Such requests were generally not allowed, for fear that retired governors would interfere with the work of their successors. However, because he was in ill-health and was over 70, he was allowed to stay. He died at age 85 on 27 November 1720.

His term of office was not marked by many important developments or events. At the end of his term, Amangkurat II Sultan of Mataram died. As the VOC did not recognise his son as successor, a long war broke out just before Van Outshoorn left office. In 1693 the French overran Pondicherry. During his time, efforts were made to establish coffee growing in Java. The first harvest failed because of flooding, but the next harvest had more success.

Van Outhoorn was not a very strong ruler. Corruption and nepotism, in which he was also involved, became more blatant during his time. His son-in-law Joan van Hoorn, married to his daughter Susanna, followed him as Governor-General

 

Joan van Hoorn

 

 

Zijn portret door Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653–1711) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1704 until 1709.

Joan (or Johan) van Hoorn was born on 16 November 1653, son to the wealthy Amsterdam gunpowder manufacturer, Pieter Janszn van Hoorn and his wife Sara Bessels, a grandchild of Gerard Reynst. As the gunpowder trade was no longer doing so well, his influential friends got him named as Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. The whole family left for the Indies in 1663, including Joan.

In 1665, when he was still only 12 years old, Joan van Hoorn was already Under-assistant (onder-assistant) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). From July 1666 until January 1668, he accompanied his father on a mission to China, where he was received by the Kangxi Emperor. Thereafter, Van Hoorn made rapid progress in his career. He became Assistant (assistent) in 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1673, Buyer (koopman) and First Clerk to the general secretarial function in 1676. He was made Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering) of the Indies in 1678. On 11 August 1682 he became Counsellor-extraordinary to the Council of the Indies. In that same year he was sent on a visit to Bantam. He was also named President of the Weeskamer (overseeing the estates of orphans, etc.). In 1684, he became President of the College van Heemraden (looking after land boundaries, roads, etc.). A further visit to Bantam took place in 1685, following which he was named full Counsellor (Raad ordinair) of the Indies.

In 1691 Van Hoorn married Anna Struis. They had a daughter, Petronella Wilhelmina. She later married Jan Trip, the Mayor’s son. A later marriage saw Petronella married to the extremely wealthy Lubbert Adolf Torck, Lord of Roozendael.

Van Hoorn became Director-General in 1691. In this post, he completely reorganised the Company’s administration. Following the death of his wife, he remarried, in 1692, this time to Susanna, the daughter of the then Governor-General Willem van Outhoorn. He himself was named, on 20 September 1701, as Governor-General in succession to his father-in-law. However, he declined to accept the post until three other high officials (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon and de Roo), nominated by him, were admitted to the High Government of the Indies. He did this as he had no faith in the existing Council. The Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) acceded to this demand and on 15 August 1704, Joan van Hoorn accepted the post of Governor General.

The early years of Joan van Hoorn’s term of office were marked by the war then raging – the First Javanese War of Succession (1704 – 1708) . At first the Company wanted to stay out of the conflict, but eventually they had to take sides. In 1705, Joan van Hoorn concluded an agreement with Mataram, which ceded West Java to the Company. Joan van Hoorn experimented with coffee plantation. Prices were determined by the merchants at Mocha so to do something about this, the Company tried growing coffee in other regions. Subsequently, there was great expansion of coffee growing, especially in the Priangan uplands near Batavia.

On 16 November 1706, following the death of Susanna, Van Hoorn re-married, this time to Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, oldest daughter of the then Director-General Abraham van Riebeeck. She was also the widow of Gerard de Heere, who had been Counsellor of the Indies and Governor of Ceylon. A son was born on 2 February 1708, but he died shortly afterwards.

On 2 March 1708, Joan van Hoorn’s request to leave post was granted. On 30 October 1709, he handed over the post to his father-in-law Abraham van Riebeeck. Despite his further request to remain in the Indies, he was recalled to the Netherlands, as Commander of the returning fleet. He bought a very pleasant house on the Herengracht in Amsterdam. The Heren XVII presented him with a gold chain and medallion. He died six months following his return on 21 February 1711. He was buried in the evening, as was then the fashion.

 

 

Christoffel van Swoll

Christoffel van Swoll (1663 – 12 November 1718) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 17 November 1713 until his death.

He was born in 1663 in Amsterdam. On 19 December 1683, he left for Batavia on board the Juffrouw Anna as an assistant in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He arrived in Batavia on 19 June 1664 and began working in the General Secretariat. He was regularly promoted. In 1686 he was promoted to Accountant, in 1690 to First Clerk to the General Secretariat, and in 1691 to Buyer. In 1696, he was appointed as Secretary to the High Government (de Hoge Regering). In 1700 he became Raad extra-ordinair (Counsellor extraordinary) and President of the College van Weesmeesteren (an orpanage). In 1701 he was named Raad ordinair van Indië (Full Counsellor of the Indies). On 3 May 1703 he became President of the College van Schepenen (Aldermen) at Batavia. Following the death of Governor-General Abraham van Riebeeck, the Council (Raad) chose van Swoll, by a slim majority, as Governor-General (on 17 November 1713). This proposal was sent to the 17 Lords of the Indies (de Heren XVII) on 18 May 1714 who confirmed his appointment in 1715, despite his difficulty character. His honesty was the deciding factor in those times of corruption and maladministration.

As Governor-General, he put a lot of energy into dealing with the private, or unofficial, trade. In this he was not really successful. In general, there was nothing particularly remarkable about his time in office. He was no great promoter of development, such as extending coffee farming. He was also against extending the territory of the Company, because he thought it would then become ungovernable.He suddenly dropped the price the Chinese got for tea by a third. The result was that the trade in tea (and porcelain) collapsed for years.

Four years after his provisional appointment as Governor-General, he died in Batavia on 12 November 1718. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Cross (Kruiskerk). His successor was named as Hendrick Zwaardecroon.

 

 

Hendrick Zwaardecroon

Hendrick or Henricus Zwaardecroon (26 January 1667, Rotterdam – 12 August 1728, Batavia, Dutch East Indies) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1718 until 1725.

[edit] Early career

Zwaardecroon left for the East Indies as a midshipman aboard the Purmer in December 1684 and arrived in Batavia in October 1685. During the trip he had several times been employed as secretary to Commissioner-General Van Rheede, which enabled him to make quick progress in his career with the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1686 he became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) and subsequently Underbuyer (onderkoopman). In 1694, he was promoted to Buyer (koopman) and in 1694 to Senior Buyer (opperkoopman). In the same year he was appointed Commander (commandeur) in Jafnapatham in Ceylon. He was Commissioner (commissaris) on the Malabar Coast and acting Governor of Ceylon in 1697. He became, in 1703, Secretary to the High Government of the Indies (Hoge Regering) in Batavia, and in 1704, through the influence of the Governor-General, Joan van Hoorn, an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van de Indië). Through that membership, and later because the Governor-General Christoffel van Swoll had been trying to get him removed from the Council, preferably by promotion elsewhere, it took until 1715 before the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) named him as full member (gewoon lid).

[edit] Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies

The day after the death of Christoffel van Swoll, on 12 November 1718, Zwaardecroon was named Governor-General. Only on 10 September 1720, was he confirmed in this post. His dismissal, by his own desire, came on 16 October 1724, though he handed the actual office to Mattheus de Haan only on 8 July 1725.

During his term of office, Zwaardecroon had to deal with a lot of unrest in Batavia, including arson in the dockyards and an attack on the gunpowder stores. The wealthy Pieter Eberveld, had inherited some land from his father. The government laid claim to a part of this estate. Eberveld planned an attack on the Dutchmen but some of his slaves warned the government and the attack was thwarted. He confessed on the rack and was condemned to death, along with other plotters. His house was destroyed and a wall erected around where it had stood.[1] His head was stuck on a lance and attached to the wall. A stone with an inscription was erected, indicating that never again would anything be built on that spot. [2] It was only removed during the Japanese occupation (World War II).

Zwaardecrood had always had a great interest in developing new products. He encouraged coffee-planting in Priangan in Java so that coffee production grew quickly. From 1723, the whole of the harvest had to be delivered to the Company. Then Zwaardecroon introduced silk production into Java as well as the production of vegetable dyes. Silk production was not so successful. In 1772 he re-established the Chinese tea trade, which had been disrupted.

In 1719, Pakubuwono I of Kartasura in East Java died and was succeeded by his son, Amangkurat IV. Two of his brothers did not recognise his succession and rose in revolt, attacking Kartasura. This was repulsed by the Dutch occupying troops, but Zwaardecroon felt himself compelled to send more troops to East Java. The revolt was put down by 1723, but it took until 1752 until real peace was restored in the area. (Second Javanese War of Succession 1719 – 1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon took action against private traders, and thus got better relations with local Company top shareholders (Bewindhouders). In 1726, he had 26 Company servants brought to Batavia on charges of corruption.

Zwaardecroon died on 12 August 1738 in his estate at Kaduang near Batavia. He said he felt more at home with ordinary townsfolk, and so at his request he was not buried with his predecessors as Governor-General, but in the graveyard of the Portuguese Church Outside the Walls at Batavia (Portuguese Buitenkerk) in Batavia, where his grave can still be visited

 

Mattheus de Haan

Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1725 to 1729. (His portrait can be seen at [1]).

He was born in Dordrecht in 1663. On 26 October 1671 he left for the Indies, where his father had been appoined as Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He then quickly went through posts in the lower levels of that organisation in Dutch Suratte. There, in 1676, he was made Provisional Assistant (provisioneel assistent), and in 1681 he became assistent. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1683, and, in 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer/Undermerchant). Ten years later, in 1695, he was promoted to Buyer/Merchant (koopman). The next year he had to move to Batavia, to take up the post of Second Senior Buyer (tweede opperkoopman) in the Company’s headquarters there. Two years later, in 1698, he was promoted to First Senior Buyer (eerste opperkoopman). He became Secretary (secretaris) to the High Government of the Indies in 1700 and, in 1702, Vice-President of the Council of Justice. He was made a Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies in 1704. He was then appointed President of the College van Schepenen in 1705. Five years later, he was made full Counsellor of the Indies and in 1722 he became Director-General. On 16 October 1724 he was nominated Governor-General, taking over from Henrick Zwaardecroon on 8 July 1725.

Characteristic of his time in office was his opposition Zwaardecroon’s encouragement of silk cultivation. Coffee production in the de Preanger region (the Priangan fr:Priangan uplands to the south of Batavia) went enormously well and de Haan felt that this would lead to a decline in coffee prices in Europe, so he lowered the prices paid to the coffee farmers. Their response was to chop down some of the coffee plantations. This was not what was intended, and De Haan forbade it. Meanwhile, there was further heavy damage to the production of coffee. Coffee from Java went mainly to Europe. They never managed to get into the Asian market. Coffee from Mocha took off there, as did the Arabic coffee of the English. No action was taken against this. The English also began to play a more important role in the cotton and tea trade.

Following a very unremarkable term in office (De Haan had all his life been more interested in repose than in action), the Governor-General died, after lying ill for three days, on 1 June 1729. He was buried in Batavia and was followed as Governor-General by Diederik Durven.

 

Diederik Durven

 

 

Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (born Delft, 1676, died 26 February 1740) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1 June 1729 until 28 May 1732

Durven studied Law at Leiden University where he graduated in 19 July 1702. He became an advocate in Delft in 1704. In 1705, he was nominated as a member of the Council of Justice at Batavia in the Indies. He left for Batavia on the “Grimmestein” on the 4 January 1706. In 1706, he arrived in Batavia. After his appointment in 1720 to the Council of the Indies, he was sent, in 1722 and 1723, to supervise the gold- and silver-mines in Parang province. Subsequently, he became(in 1723) chairman of the College van Heemraden (i.e. drainage board, comparable to a polder board in the Dutch Republic), which was responsible for the management of land outside the city, including supervision of boundaries. He later become President of the Council of Justice – the supreme court of Dutch Asia. In 1729, Mattheus de Haan died. Diederik Durven succeeded him as provisional Governor-General. This did not last long, as the Directors of the East India Company were very impatient of the speed of change there. Following alleged financial misbehaviour, though more probably as a scapegoat, he was dismissed on 9 October 1731. Diederik Durven died in the Netherlands on 26 February 1740. He was succeeded by Dirck van Cloon.

 

Dirck van Cloon

 

 

Dirck van Cloon as Governor General of the Indies

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 March 1735) was Eurasian Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He died of malaria at the age of 46.

He was born in Batavia sometime in 1684. For his education and training he was sent to the Netherlands. He graduated in Law at Leiden University on 1 April 1707.

He returned he to Batavia on the clipperDonkervliet’ and spent some time in Dutch Coromandel. He was among other things a district overseer in Sadraspatnam. He got into a fight with the governor of Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, who accused Van Cloon of delivering bad quality goods. The government in Batavia sent Van Cloon back to the Netherlands, but he persuaded the Directors of the Dutch East India Company that de Visser was not to be trusted. Van Cloon was reinstated and he left for the Indies on 4 November 1719 on board the ‘van de Huis te Assenburg’ as Supercargo. In 1720, he became district chief at Negapatnam. In 1723, he became Governor of Dutch Coromandel. In 1724, he returned to Batavia to advise the Governor-General and in 1730, he became “Raad-ordinair” (chief advisor) of the Indies.

On the 9th of October 1731 the Directors of the Dutch East India Company named Dirck van Cloon Governor-General of the Indies, to which he succeed on 28 May 1732, following the disgrace of Diederik Durven. By 20 December 1733 van Cloon was asking to resign because of sickness. He died in post, however, and it was not until after he had died that his successor took over. Van Cloon was involved in a stand-off with the nascent Swedish East India Company, but he resolved it amicably. Less happy was an insurrection of unemployed Chinese sugar plantation workers. This was caused by the collapse of the sugar market, due to over-production and government mishandling.

 

Abraham Patras

 

 

Governor General Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 May 1671 – 3 May 1737) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 11 March 1735 until 3 May 1737. He was born in Grenoble of a refugee French Huguenot family. In 1685, his family fled to the Netherlands.

[edit] Early career

Patras first took a job in the offices of an Amsterdam merchant named Nathaniël Gauthier (a fellow Huguenot), but he left for the Indies aboard the Hobree on 4 January 1690, where he is described as a soldier in the employ of the Enkhuizen branch of the Dutch East India Company. In 1691, he sought a change of career and got a temporary post as an agent in Batavia. In 1695 he became assistant/secretary to the Chinese estates-management administration in Ambon Island. In 1698 he was put in charge of children and matrimonial matters. He married in 1699 to a daughter of an official of the Judicial Council in Ambon. His wife died on the 16 December 1700. His only daughter also died young.

[edit] Rising through the ranks

Patras was nominated to the Council of Justice in 1700, and in 1703, he went to work as under-secretary (onderkoopman) for the Governor of the Moluccas Islands. In 1707, he became the Head (opperhoofd) of the trading post at Jambi, where his headquarters were attacked. Although severely wounded in the back, he survived. He was merchant, then Chief Factor in Palembang in 1711. In 1717, he was promoted to Chief Merchant (opperkoopman) and Office holder (gezaghebber) of the west coast of Sumatra. It was 1720 that saw him promoted to Inspector General of Accounts for the Dutch East Indies (visitateur-generaal van Nederlands-Indië). In 1721, he was sent as an envoy to Jambi. In 1722, he was appointed deputee-overseer of goods coming in and out of the castle at Batavia. In 1724, he got the very lucrative post of Head of the Dutch Bengal trading post. In 1731, he was appointed as extraordinary (i.e. co-opted) member of the Council of the Indies.

[edit] Governor-General

On the 10 March 1735 on the death of Governor-General Dirck van Cloon, Patras very surprisingly was nominated Governor-General. He had never been a full member of the Council of the Indies, so this was a first, and was caused by him slipping through as a compromise candidate following a stalemate in the voting. He was not keen to take on the post in these circumstances, but agreed to do so until a better candidate could be found. On 11 March 1735 he was nominated interim Governor-General, a decision which was approved by the Directors of the East India Company.

During his short period of office, no significant decisions were made. Although he was a competent leader and had built up a great deal of practical knowledge of the territories, his age (at 64) probably ensured that he was not a very powerful Governor-General.

He died two years after his appointment during the night of 3 May 1737. He was buried in Batavia on 6 May 1737. He was a pious and good-hearted man who had lived a very modest life. The governor-generalship was taken over by Adriaan Valckenier.\\

 

 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 June 1695, Amsterdam – 20 June 1751, Batavia, Dutch East Indies), was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 3 May 1737 until 6 November 1741 and involved in the Chinese Massacre of 1740. Valckenier died in a prison in Batavia.

[edit] Biography

Valckenier’s father, an alderman and secretary in Amsterdam, was an official of the Dutch East India Company based in Amsterdam. He was the son to Gillis Valckenier, one of the great regents of Amsterdam during the later Dutch Golden Age. On 22 October 1714, Adriaan left on board the ‘Linschoten’ to be assistant buyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East Indies, where he arrived on 21 June 1715 at Batavia.

In 1726, he became merchant and chief buyer (opperkoopman); in 1727 he was “Accountant General” (boekhouder-generaal) of the Dutch Indies; in 1730, he was first appointed to the Council of the Indies (Raad extra-oridinair), and, in 1733, as a full “Councillor”. In 1736, he was made “First Councillor” and “Director-General”, but was beaten to the post of Governor General by Abraham Patras. On the latter’s death, he was named Governor General by the Council of the Indies on 3 May 1737.

[edit] The Chinese Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

It was during the rule of Adriaan Valckenier that the notorious slaughter of Chinese took place in Batavia (the so-called Chinese Massacre). A previous Governor General (Henricus Zwaardecroon) had encouraged many Chinese to come to Batavia. Something between 20% and 50% of the population were Chinese. They worked in the construction of the houses and fortifications of Batavia and on the sugar plantations outside the city. Many Chinese merchants also took a leading, if (from the Dutch point of view) illegal, role in the trade with China. From 1725 the sugar trade began to collapse (partly because of competition from Brazil).[citation needed] Unemployment in the countryside grew, and along with that, unrest. This spread to Batavia as unemployed Chinese left the countryside to seek work or food relief there. The authorities were alarmed at this and began issuing residence permits, and requiring those with permits to live in specific areas. Unrest grew to a full scale insurrection in the countryside in September 1740, when the Dutch had suggested transporting unemployed Chinese to other Dutch colonies in Ceylon and South Africa. A rumour spread that they would all be thrown overboard en route, and riots in the countryside exploded

The Dutch authorities were afraid that the Chinese within Batavia were collaborating with the insurrection and, over the 9 and 10 October, brutal searches were made of Chinese areas, in which many thousands were killed, often after having been arrested. This “massacre” lasted three days, followed by many more days of looting and arson, with no obvious attempt on the government’s part to stop the violence. One estimate is that between 5,000 and 10,000 Chinese (men, women and children) were killed in total

 

Johannes Thedens

 

 

Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 March 1748, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 6 November 1741 until 28 May 1743.

Thedens, born in a largely Dutch settlement in Schleswig-Holstein, sailed on 17 December 1697 as a soldier aboard the ‘’’Unie’’’ to the Dutch East Indies. In 1702 he was appointed to the post of ‘’’Assistant’’’ in the Dutch East India Company and in 1719, to ‘’’Buyer’’’ (‘’’koopman’’’). He then progressed (between 1723 and 1725) up through the ranks to ‘’’Chief Buyer’’’ (‘’’opperkoopman’’’) then ‘’’Head of Post’’’ (opperhoofd) at Deshima in Japan.[1]

In 1731, he was co-opted to the Council of the Indies and in 1736, he was made a full member (‘’’Raad-ordinair of Indie’’’). In 1740 he was appointed by the Directors as a ‘’’First Councillor and Director General’’’ of the Indies. On 6 November 1741, following the dismissal of Adriaan Valckenier, (whom he had arrested and placed in prison in the castle at Batavia), he became ‘’’interim’’’ Governor General . He continued in office up to 28 May 1743, and was able to overcome the Chinese insurrection and put the sugar trade on a better footing. He was succeeded by Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff.

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

 

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (August 8, 1705 Leer–November 1, 1750) was the governor of Ceylon and then the Dutch East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC-Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie).

[edit] Early years

Van Imhoff was born into an East Frisian aristocratic family. His father, Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr von Imhoff, came from the town of Leer in northwestern Germany, a few kilometers from the Dutch border.

In 1725, Van Imhoff entered into the service of the Dutch East India Company in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta), then colonial capital of the Dutch East Indies. Van Imhoff was promoted several times within the company before being appointed colonial governor in Ceylon (Modern-day Sri Lanka) on July 23, 1736.

[edit] Ceylon

Van Imhoff’s tenure as governor of Ceylon put an end to the chaos that had pervaded the previous administration. He established constructive relations with the king of Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

King Narendra was married to a Tamil princess of Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and their child, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha who succeeded him after Narendra’s death on May 24, 1739, was seen to be more Tamil than Sinhalese (the majority ethnic group in Ceylon). Imhoff was concerned about this succession because closer contact between the Tamils of Ceylon, under Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, and the Tamils of south India might endanger the Dutch East India Company’s commercial monopoly. In his letters, Van Imhoff expressed his surprise that the Sinhalese people had accepted such a king, considering their haughty attitude towards the Tamils of India. However, Van Imhoff saw an interesting opportunity in this turn of events. He proposed to the Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, the directors of the VOC) that the kingdom of Ceylon be divided in two, but they rejected the proposition: a war would be too costly.

Despite the profitable production of spices, the colony was always in a state of deficit because its profits were allotted to the VOC in general, not to the colony itself. This practice prevented the Governors from becoming too extravagant in their habits, as was the case in other colonies.

[edit] Batavia

On March 12, 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck replaced Van Imhoff as governor of Ceylon and Imhoff returned to Batavia, which he found in a precarious situation. Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier believed that the Chinese population in the area surrounding Batavia had grown too large. He attempted to relocate the population to Ceylon and the Cape Colony (South Africa), but a rumor alleging that the Dutch were planning to throw Chinese people overboard in the middle of the ocean started an insurrection against the VOC. Vackenier responded by massacring approximately 5000 Chinese. Imhoff contested this brutal policy, which led to his arrest and deportation to the Netherlands. Upon his arrival, the Lords Seventeen named him governor-general of the Dutch East Indies and sent him back to Batavia.

En route to Batavia, Imhoff visited the Dutch colony in Cape Town, in the Cape Colony, where he discovered that the citizens were penetrating farther and farther into the interior and were losing contact with the VOC. Imhoff proposed to improve education and the work of the Protestant Church in the colony.

In May 1743, Imhoff began his tenure in Batavia which was in the midst of a war. The Javanese princes took advantage of the chaotic situation following Valckenier’s actions to begin a war against the VOC. Imhoff succeeded in reestablishing the peace and began several reforms. He founded a Latin school, the first post offices in the Dutch East Indies, a hospital and a newspaper. He also founded the city of Buitenzorg and suppressed the opium trade. In 1746, Imhoff embarked on a tour of Java to inspect the company’s holdings and decided on several institutional reforms.

Imhoff’s tenure was also marked by catastrophe. A ship, the Hofwegen, was struck by lightning and exploded in the port of Batavia along with six tons of silver, totalling around 600,000 Dutch florins.

Ultimately, Imhoff’s progressive policies made him many enemies. Imhoff’s want of diplomacy and his lack of respect for local customs caused the colony to become embroiled in the third war of Javanese succession. Put in an untenable position by his enemies, Imhoff wanted to resign from his post, but the VOC would not allow it. Imhoff was forced to remain in office until his death in 1750, having come to believe that most of his work had been done in vain.

During his stay in Batavia, Imhoff stayed in a high-class residence today known as Toko Merah.[1

 

Jacob Mossel

 

 

Jacob Mossel

Jacob Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 May 1761) went from being a common sailor to become Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1750 to 1761.

He was of noble birth, born in Enkhuizen. When he was 15 he left as an able-bodied seaman aboard a Fluyt (a type of Dutch sailing cargo vessel) called de Haringthuyn, bound for the Indies. As his family had a coat of arms, he was able to obtain a privileged position, through Dirk van Cloon, and was sent to the Dutch Coromandel (1721). On the 30th of March 1730, he married Adriana Appels, the fourteen-year old stepdaughter of Adriaan van Pla, Governor of Dutch Coromandel. Jacob Mossel worked himself up finally to Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel. In 1740 he got the title of Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies and in 1742 he became a member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië) in Batavia/Jakarta. In 1745, he became the first Director of the Amfioensociëteit, which tried to regulate its monopoly of the trade in opium. In 1747, he was named as the Director-General (the second highest post in the Dutch East Indies). When in 1750, Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff died, Mossel succeeded him as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He remained in post until his own death in 1761.

Jacob Mossel ruled the Indies during a period in which things got steadily worse for the Dutch East India Company. He made may economies and he ended the war in Bantam Province,recognising that his predecessor had handled things badly. The Dutch were threatened by the expansion of the British East India Company. In the battle for Bengal, Mossel lost to the British. Mossel was a supporter of the policy to allow private entrepreneurs to trade for themselves in the territory of the Indies. This concerned small scale trading in which the Company could make no profit. Following that, Batavia/Jakarta underwent a period of growth, which, because of his successors tax regulations, came to nothing. The Company was plagued by corruption and self-interest among its office holders. Jacob Mossel was also involved in this. His great fortune could not in any case have been put together from his official salary. The initiatives he took against corruption were not very effective. To curb exaggerated displays of wealth, in 1754 he brought in a so-called “Regulation against pomp and splendour“, which tried to lay down exactly what wealth an officer could display. These details went from the number of buttonholes they could have to the size of their houses. Of course, the regulations did not apply to himself, and there was great feasting at his daughter’s wedding. After his death at Batavia/Jakarta, from a wasting disease, he was given a magnificent funeral

 

 

Petrus Albertus van der Parra

Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 December 1775) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 15 May 1761 to 28 December 1775. (See portrait at [1])

[edit] Biography

Petrus Albertus van der Parra was born in Colombo, the son of a Secretary to the government of Ceylon. His great-grandfather had come to India and the family had lived there ever since. In 1728, he began his career at fourteen years old. As everyone had to start as a soldier, he began as a “soldaat van de penne“, then became an “assistent” in 1731, and “boekhouder” (bookkeeper) in 1732. He had to move house in 1736 to take up a new job as “onderkoopman” (underbuyer/undermerchant), and at the same time “collectionist” (collector) and “boekhouder” to the General Secretary at Batavia/Jakarta. He became “koopman” (buyer/merchant) and “geheimschrijver” (secrets secretary) in 1739. He became Second Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering), becoming First Secretary in 1747. He became Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies later that year (November) and in 1751 became a regular Counsellor. In 1752 he became President of the College van Heemraden (in charge of estate boundaries, roads, etc.). He was later a member of the “Schepenbank” (the local government and court in Batavia), a Regent (a board member) of the hospital and in 1755 he became First Counsellor and Director-General (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

On 15 May 1761, following the death of Jacob Mossel he became Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Confirmation of his appointment by the Heren XVII (the Seventeen Lords, who controlled the Dutch East India Company) came in 1762. He held a lavish inauguration on his birthday on 29 September. Subsequently, his birthday was a national holiday in the Indies. During his time as Governor-General, he overthrew the Prince of Kandy, in Ceylon, though with difficulty, and he conquered the sultanate of Siak in Sumatra. Contracts were entered into with various regional leaders in Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar and Papekat. Apart from that, the rule of Van der Parra can be called weak. He favoured his friends and gave out well-paid posts if he could get anything in return for them. It was said he was a typical colonial ruler, idle, grumpy but generous to those who fawned upon him and recognised his greatness. It was a golden time for the preachers in Batavia, who got gifts, translations of the New Testament and scholarships from Van der Parra. They worshipped and eulogised him. Although the Heren XVII knew about his behaviour, as five Counsellors had written to them about his pretentions to kingly behaviour, they did nothing about it.

In 1770, Captain James Cook had to ask for his help to proceed on his journeys on HMS Endeavour (See s:Captain Cook’s Journal, First Voyage/Chapter 9). At the end of the 19th Century, a steamship, trading to the Indies, was named after him. ([2])

After over fourteen years in power, he died on 28 September 1775 in Weltevreden, the imposing palace built for him outside Batavia/Jakarta. (See images at [3] and [4]). He apparently left a great deal of his fortune to the widows of Colombo and a smaller part to the poor of Batavia ([5]) He was followed as Governor by Jeremias van Riemsdijk

 

 

Petrus Albertus van der Parra
Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 Desember 1775) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 15 Mei 1761 to 28 Desember 1775. (Lihat foto di [1])

[Sunting] Biografi
Petrus Albertus van der Parra lahir di Kolombo, anak seorang Sekretaris kepada pemerintah Srilanka. Kakek buyutnya datang ke India dan keluarga pernah tinggal di sana sejak itu. Pada 1728, ia memulai karirnya di empat belas tahun. Seperti semua orang harus mulai sebagai seorang prajurit, ia mulai sebagai “van de penne soldaat”, kemudian menjadi “asisten” di 1731, dan “boekhouder” (pembukuan) pada 1732. Dia harus pindah rumah tahun 1736 untuk mengambil pekerjaan baru sebagai “onderkoopman” (underbuyer / undermerchant), dan pada saat yang sama “collectionist” (kolektor) dan “boekhouder” kepada Sekretaris Jenderal di Batavia / Jakarta. Ia menjadi “Koopman” (pembeli / pedagang) dan “geheimschrijver” (rahasia sekretaris) pada 1739. Dia menjadi Sekretaris Kedua kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering), menjadi Sekretaris Pertama pada tahun 1747. Dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Hindia akhir tahun (November) dan pada 1751 menjadi Konselor biasa. Pada 1752 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (yang bertanggung jawab atas batas-batas perkebunan, jalan, dll). Ia kemudian menjadi anggota dari “Schepenbank” (pemerintah daerah dan pengadilan di Batavia), Bupati (anggota dewan) dari rumah sakit dan pada tahun 1755 ia menjadi Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

Pada tanggal 15 Mei 1761, setelah kematian Yakub Mossel ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Konfirmasi pengangkatannya oleh Heren XVII (yang Seventeen Lords, yang menguasai Belanda East India Company) datang pada tahun 1762. Dia mengadakan pelantikan mewah pada hari ulang tahunnya pada tanggal 29 September. Selanjutnya, ulang tahunnya adalah hari libur nasional di Hindia. Selama waktunya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menggulingkan Pangeran Kandy, di Ceylon, meskipun dengan kesulitan, dan ia menaklukkan Kesultanan Siak di Sumatra. Kontrak yang dimasukkan ke dalam dengan para pemimpin berbagai daerah di Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar dan Papekat. Selain itu, aturan Van der Parra dapat disebut lemah. Dia disukai teman-temannya dan memberi tahu bergaji posting jika ia bisa mendapatkan imbalan apa pun untuk mereka. Konon ia adalah penguasa kolonial yang khas, menganggur, galak tapi murah hati kepada orang-orang yang fawned kepadanya dan diakui kebesarannya. Ini adalah waktu emas bagi para pengkhotbah di Batavia, yang mendapat hadiah, terjemahan Perjanjian Baru dan beasiswa dari Van der Parra. Mereka menyembah dan memuji dia. Meskipun Heren XVII tahu tentang perilaku, seperti lima Konselor telah ditulis untuk mereka tentang pretensi untuk raja perilaku, mereka tidak melakukan apa pun tentang hal itu.

Pada tahun 1770, Kapten James Cook harus meminta bantuan untuk melanjutkan pada perjalanan pada HMS Endeavour (Lihat s: Journal Kapten Cook, Voyage Pertama / Bab 9). Pada akhir abad ke-19, kapal uap, perdagangan ke Hindia, bernama setelah dia. ([2])

Setelah lebih dari empat belas tahun berkuasa, ia meninggal pada tanggal 28 September 1775 di Weltevreden, istana megah dibangun untuknya di luar Batavia / Jakarta. (Lihat gambar di [3] dan [4]). Ia tampaknya meninggalkan banyak kekayaannya untuk para janda dari Kolombo dan bagian yang lebih kecil kepada orang miskin Batavia ([5]) Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jeremias van Riemsdijk oleh

1775-1777: Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 Oktober 1712 – 3 Oktober 1777) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda, dari 28 Desember 1775 to 3 Oktober 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk lahir pada 18 Oktober 1712 di Utrecht, putra untuk Scipio van Riemsdijk, menteri Bunnik dekat Houten, dan Johanna Bogaert. Ia masuk ke dalam layanan dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda sebagai seorang sersan meninggalkan untuk Hindia, kapal van de Proostwijk, pada 25 Februari 1735. Sangat lama setelah kedatangannya di Batavia / Jakarta pada tanggal 14 September 1735, ia masuk dinas (sebagai lawan dari militer) sipil. Jeremias adalah kemenakan masa depan Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-(1737-1741), yang pada waktu itu masih menjadi anggota Dewan Hindia. H karena itu bisa berharap untuk membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Pada tahun 1736 ia menjadi onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant), pada tahun 1738 Koopman (pembeli / pedagang), tahun 1740 Tweede opperkoopman (upperbuyer kedua / uppermerchant) dan di 1742 Eerste opperkoopman (upperbuyer pertama / uppermerchant) di markas kastil di Batavia / Jakarta. Pada 1743 ia menjadi kepala (kapitein) dari perusahaan staf administrasi / menulis (pennisten) dan pada bulan Oktober Jeremias van Riemsdijk bernama Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaier Raad) kepada Dewan Hindia. Pada 1759 ia diangkat Presiden van Sekolah Weesmeesters (berurusan dengan urusan anak yatim, anak di bawah umur, dll). Pada 15 Oktober 1760 ia diangkat Konselor biasa (Raad ordinair) dan pada 17 Agustus 1764 Direktur Jenderal.

Pada tanggal 28 Desember 1775, setelah kematian Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk dipilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia punya pada saat lima pernikahan, untuk wanita Eurasia terkemuka. Dia telah belajar banyak dari sebelas tahun dia telah bekerja dengan pendahulunya, yang besar nafsu untuk uang yang telah diperoleh. Selama masa jabatannya di kantor, ada kekurangan kapal dan personil kapal. Masalah ini dipecahkan dengan bantuan dari tanah air. Namun, tak lama setelah gubernur telah dimulai, Jeremias van Riemsdijk meninggal di Batavia / Jakarta. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Reynier de Klerck

1777-1780: Reinier de Klerk
Reynier de Klerck
Reynier de Klerck (atau Reinier de Klerck) (1710-1780) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 9 Oktober 1778 sampai 1 September 1780.

Tanggal de Klerk yang lahir tidak diketahui tetapi ia dibaptis pada 19 November 1710 di Middelburg. Dia bekerja sebagai taruna kapal Kamer van Zeeland, kapal perang, yang tugasnya adalah untuk melindungi kapal kargo rute pulang terikat. Dia membuat dua perjalanan ke India sebagai pelaut dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Pada bulan Desember 1730, ia meninggalkan secara permanen untuk India kapal t Vliegend Hert.

Antara 1735 dan 1737 ia adalah pilot atas sebuah kapal kecil yang diperdagangkan ke sana kemari antara Batavia dan Padang. Pada 1737 ia menjadi seorang akuntan (boekhouder) dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan begitu mulai baginya kehidupan di darat. Pada tahun 1738, ia onderkoopman dan penduduk (underbuyer / undermerchant dan penduduk) di Lampung. Pada 1741 dia adalah seorang sekretaris dengan tentara di Jawa. Pada 1742 ia menjadi Kepala di Surabaya dan pada 1744 administrateur en koopmand Eerste (pembeli / pedagang dan administrator pertama) di Semarang. Pada 1747, dia bernama opperkoopmand en Tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer / uppermerchant dan kedua bertanggung jawab) dari Pantai Timur Laut Jawa. Pada 1748 ia menjadi Gubernur dan Direktur Banda. Dia pindah ke Batavia / Jakarta pada 1754 ketika ia menjadi presiden dari College van der Boedelmeesteren en Andere Chinesche onchristelijke sterfhuizen (yang tampak setelah Cina dan lainnya non-Kristen fasilitas pemakaman) untuk Batavia. Pada bulan Oktober 1754, Reynier de Klerck dipasang sebagai Konselor-luar biasa dari Hindia, dan pada tahun 1762 diangkat sebagai Konselor di Dewan Hindia Belanda. Pada 1775 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal bertindak, yang bernama aktual Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1776.

Pada tanggal 4 Oktober 1777, sehari setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Jeremias van Riemsdijk, ia dengan suara bulat terpilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia mengambil fungsi resmi pasca satu tahun kemudian, 9 Oktober 1778. Reynier de Klerck adalah seorang gubernur pekerja keras. Dia adalah seorang pembaharu yang kuat, yang bagaimanapun tidak bisa menyadari semua ide-idenya. Dia sangat berkomitmen untuk membawa kebudayaan Belanda ke Hindia. Jadi ia ingin mengganti Portugueseand Melayu dengan Belanda dalam sistem pendidikan. Namun upaya itu gagal karena penduduk setempat tidak menginginkan ini. Selama masa jabatannya, kejadian penting yang terjadi. Sebuah konflik di Sulawesi dibawa ke Gowa berakhir dengan pendudukan, sementara Sultan Banten Landak dan Batjan memberi jalan kepada Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Untuk melestarikan monopoli rempah-rempah, para Pangeran Tidore dan Batjan yang dicopot dan dikirim ke pengasingan ke Batavia. Mereka digantikan oleh boneka Perusahaan.

Masa jabatan van de Klerck Reynier tidak berlangsung lama, karena ia meninggal pada 1 September 1780 di Molenvliet dekat Batavia. Dia diikuti sebagai gubernur Arnold oleh Willem Alting.

Rumah Reynier de Klerck di Batavia lama masih dapat dilihat, sebagai Museum Arsip Nasional di Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.

1780-1796: Willem Arnold Alting
Willem Arnold Alting
 

Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1780 sampai 1797.

Alting lahir di Groningen pada 11 November 1724. Ia belajar di kota kelahirannya dan lulus dalam hukum.

Dia meninggalkan pada 18 Oktober 1750 untuk Hindia di papan Middelburg de sebagai onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant) untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC). Ia menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di Hindia. Pada 1754 ia menjadi Koopman (pembeli / pedagang) dan Sekretaris Pertama 1759 kepada pemerintah. Pada tahun 1763 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (Buitengewoon Raad) dan pada tahun 1772 Konselor penuh (Raad ordinaris). Pada 1777 ia menjadi Pertama Konselor (Eerste Raad) bernama Direktur Jenderal.

Dari Maret 1780 ia bertindak Gubernur Jenderal, karena penyakit dari pendahulunya, Reynier de Klerck. Setelah kematian de Klerck, pada 1 September 1780 ia dipilih oleh Dewan Hindia Belanda sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Dia membawa pada fungsi ini selama tujuh belas tahun.

De Klerck yang ingin membawa penggunaan Belanda ke dalam sistem pendidikan, tetapi Alting dicabut ini pada 1786, sehingga Melayu dan Portugis sekali lagi digunakan. Jangka Alting dari kantor ditandai dengan penurunan tajam dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan kekuasaan di Hindia. Tiga bulan setelah dia posting, Belanda berperang dengan Inggris (1780 – 1784) dan sebagian besar wilayah Perusahaan India Timur Belanda diduduki oleh Inggris. Pemerintah di Batavia / Jakarta tidak, secara keseluruhan, menawarkan banyak perlawanan. Dengan Damai Paris (1784), Inggris memperoleh hak untuk perdagangan tanpa hambatan di Hindia Timur. Belanda harus menyerahkan Negapatam di India kepada Inggris. Citra Belanda di mata para penguasa lokal secara menyeluruh hancur.

Dari Belanda, tiga Komisaris Jenderal yang dikirim untuk bekerja dengan Alting untuk membenahi. Di perjalanan, salah satu dari mereka meninggal dan Alting berhasil mendapatkan anak-dalam-hukum-Nya Yohanes Siberg untuk mengambil tempatnya. Para Alting / Siberg duo didominasi Komisi dan, dari laporan dari salah satu Komisaris lainnya, tampaknya mereka bekerja sangat keras dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri. Komisi biaya banyak uang, tetapi membawa perbaikan. Pada 1795, menjadi dikenal di Batavia / Jakarta bahwa tanah air mereka (sementara itu telah menjadi Republik Batavia) sekali lagi berperang dengan Inggris.

Pada 17 Februari 1797, Willem Arnold Alting mengundurkan diri sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dan Komisaris Jenderal dan menyerahkan pos kepada Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting tetap sebagai warga negara biasa, tanpa posisi resmi, tinggal di tanah miliknya di Kampung Melajoe dekat Batavia / Jakarta. Ia meninggal di sana pada 7 Juni 1800

 
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Jeremias van Riemsdijk

Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 October 1712 – 3 October 1777) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, from 28 December 1775 to 3 October 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk was born on 18 October 1712 in Utrecht, the son to Scipio van Riemsdijk, the minister of Bunnik near Houten, and Johanna Bogaert. He entered into service with the Dutch East India Company as a sergeant left for the Indies, aboard the van de Proostwijk, on 25 February 1735. Very shortly after his arrival in Batavia/Jakarta on 14 September 1735, he entered the civil (as opposed to military) service. Jeremias was the nephew of the future Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier (1737-1741), who at the time was still a member of the Council of the Indies. H could therefore expect to make rapid progress in his career. In 1736 he became onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant), in 1738 koopman (buyer/merchant), in 1740 tweede opperkoopman (second upperbuyer/uppermerchant) and in 1742 eerste opperkoopman (first upperbuyer/uppermerchant) in the castle headquarters at Batavia/Jakarta. In 1743 he became the chief (kapitein) of the company of clerical/writing staff (pennisten) and in October Jeremias van Riemsdijk was named Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinaier) to the Council of the Indies. In 1759 he was appointed President of the College van Weesmeesters (dealing with the affairs of orphans, minors, etc.). On 15 October 1760 he was named ordinary Counsellor (Raad ordinair) and on 17 August 1764 Director-General.

On 28 December 1775, following the death of Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk was chosen as Governor-General. He had had at the time five marriages, to leading Eurasian ladies. He had learned a lot from the eleven years he had worked with his predecessor, whose great appetite for money he had acquired. During his term in office, there was a shortage of ships and ship personnel. This problem was solved with help from the homeland. However, shortly after his governorship had begun, Jeremias van Riemsdijk died in Batavia/Jakarta. He was followed as Governor-General by Reynier de Klerck

 

Reynier de Klerck

Reynier de Klerck (or Reinier de Klerck) (1710 – 1780) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 9 October 1778 until 1 September 1780.

De Klerk’s date of birth is not known but he was baptised on 19 November 1710 in Middelburg. He worked as midshipman aboard the Kamer van Zeeland, a warship, whose duty was to protect the routes of homeward bound cargo ships. He made two trips to India as a sailor in the service of the Dutch East India Company. In December 1730, he left permanently for India aboard the t Vliegend Hert.

Between 1735 and 1737 he was the pilot aboard a small ship which traded to and fro between Batavia and Padang. In 1737 he became an accountant (boekhouder) with the Dutch East India Company, and so began for him a life on land. In 1738, he was onderkoopman and resident (underbuyer/undermerchant and resident) in Lampung. In 1741 he was a secretary with the army on Java. In 1742 he became Chief in Surabaya and in 1744 koopmand en eerste administrateur (buyer/merchant and first administrator) in Semarang. In 1747, he was named opperkoopmand en tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer/uppermerchant and second in charge) of Java’s Northeast Coast. In 1748 he became Governor and Director of Banda. He moved to Batavia/Jakarta in 1754 when he was made president of the College van Boedelmeesteren der Chinesche en andere onchristelijke sterfhuizen (which looked after Chinese and other non-Christian burial facilities) for Batavia. In October 1754, Reynier de Klerck was installed as Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies, and in 1762 was appointed as Counsellor in the Dutch Council of the Indies. In 1775 he became acting Director-General, being named actual Director-General in 1776.

On 4 October 1777, the day after the death of Governor-General Jeremias van Riemsdijk, he was unanimously chosen as Governor-General. He took up the official functions of the post one year later, 9 October 1778. Reynier de Klerck was a hardworking governor. He was a powerful reformer, who however could not realise all his ideas. He was very committed to bringing Dutch culture to the Indies. Thus he wanted to replace Portugueseand Malay with Dutch in the education system. His endeavours failed however because the local population did not want this. During his term of office, few important happenings occurred. A conflict in the Celebes was brought to an end by occupying Gowa, while the Sultan of Bantam Landak and Batjan gave way to the Dutch East India Company. To preserve the spice monopoly, the Princes of Tidore and Batjan were deposed and sent into exile to Batavia. They were replaced by puppets of the Company.

The term of office of van Reynier de Klerck did not last long, for he died on 1 September 1780 in Molenvliet near Batavia. He was followed as governor by Willem Arnold Alting.

Reynier de Klerck’s house in old Batavia can still be seen, as the National Archives Museum on Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.

 

Willem Arnold Alting

 

 

Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1780 until 1797.

Alting was born in Groningen on 11 November 1724. He studied in his hometown and graduated in law.

He left on 18 October 1750 for the Indies on board the de Middelburg as an onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant) for the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He spent the rest of his life in the Indies. In 1754 he became koopman (buyer/merchant) and in 1759 First Secretary to the government. In 1763 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Buitengewoon Raad) and in 1772 full Counsellor (Raad ordinaris). In 1777 he became First Counsellor (Eerste Raad) was named Director-General.

From March 1780 he was acting Governor-General, because of the sickness of his predecessor, Reynier de Klerck. Following the death of de Klerck, on 1 September 1780 he was chosen by the Dutch Council of the Indies as provisional Governor-General. He carried on this function for seventeen years.

De Klerck had wanted to bring the use of Dutch into the educational system, but Alting revoked this in 1786, so that Malay and Portuguese were once again used. Alting’s term of office was marked by a steep decline of the Dutch East India Company and its power in the Indies. Three months after he took up post, the Netherlands went to war with Britain (1780 – 1784) and a great part of the territory of the Dutch East India Company was occupied by the British. The government in Batavia/Jakarta did not, on the whole, offer much resistance. By the Peace of Paris (1784), Britain obtained the right to unhindered trade in the East Indies. The Dutch had to cede Negapatam in India to the British. The image of the Dutch in the eyes of the local rulers was thoroughly shattered.

From the Netherlands, three Commissioners-General were sent to work with Alting to reorganise. On the way there, one of them died and Alting managed to get his son-in-law Johannes Siberg to take his place. The Alting/Siberg duo dominated the Commission and, from the reports of one of the other Commissioners, it seems they worked very hard in their own interests. The Commission cost a lot of money but brought no improvement. In 1795, it became known in Batavia/Jakarta that their homeland (in the meantime having become the Batavian Republic) was once again at war with Britain.

On 17 February 1797, Willem Arnold Alting resigned as Governor-General and Commissioner-General and handed the post over to Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting remained as an ordinary citizen, without official position, living on his estate at Kampong Melajoe near Batavia/Jakarta. He died there on 7 June 1800

the end @copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012

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THE VIETNAM HISTORIC COLLECTIONS PRA COLONIAL(BEFORE 19TH CENTURY)

Dedicated to Mr Jim Brown

The Creation of Vietnam

Pre-Dynastic era

The area now known as Vietnam has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, and some archaeological sites in Thanh Hóa Province purportedly date back several thousand years. Archaeologists link the beginnings of Vietnamese civilization to the late Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Phung Nguyen culture, which was centered in Vĩnh Phúc Province of contemporary Vietnam from about 2000 to 1400 BCE.

By about 1200 BCE, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River and Red River plains led to the development of the Dong Son culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums. The bronze weapons, tools, and drums of Dong-Sonian sites show a Southeast Asian influence that indicates an indigenous origin for the bronze-casting technology.

Many small, ancient copper mine sites have been found in northern Vietnam. Some of the similarities between the Dong-Sonian sites and other Southeast Asian sites include the presence of boat-shaped coffins and burial jars, stilt dwellings, and evidence of the customs of betel-nut-chewing and teeth-blackening.

Dynastic era

The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered by many Vietnamese as the first Vietnamese state, known as Văn Lang. In 257 BCE, the last Hùng king lost to Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt tribes with his Âu Việt tribes, forming Âu Lạc and proclaiming himself An Dương Vương. In 207 BCE, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue. In 111 BCE, the Chinese Han Dynasty consolidated Nanyue into their empire.

For the next thousand years, Vietnam was mostly under Chinese rule. Early independence movements such as those of the Trưng Sisters and of Lady Triệu were only briefly successful. It was independent as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lý Dynasty between 544 and 602. By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not independence, under the Khúc family.

In 938 CE, a Vietnamese lord named Ngô Quyền defeated Chinese forces at the Bạch Đằng River and regained independence after a millennium under Chinese control. Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation went through a golden era during the and Trần Dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions. Buddhism flourished and became the state religion.

Following the brief Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was momentarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. Vietnam reached its zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460–1497). Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion),[10] and it eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.

From the 16th century onwards, civil strife and frequent infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc Dynasty challenged the Lê Dynasty’s power. After the Mạc Dynasty was defeated, the Lê Dynasty was reinstalled, but with no actual power. Power was divided between the Trịnh Lords in the North and the Nguyễn Lords in the South, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s. During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Champa in the central highlands and the Khmer land in the Mekong.

The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers defeated both and established their new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn Lords led by Nguyễn Ánh with the help of the French. Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn Dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long.

History

The history of Vietnam begins around 2,700 years ago. Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 207 BC until 938 when Vietnam regained its independence.Vietnam remained a tributary state to its larger neighbor China for much of its history but repelled invasions by the Chinese as well as three invasions by the Mongols between 1255 and 1285.Emperor Trần Nhân Tông later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflicts. The independent period temporarily ended in the middle to late 19th century, when the country was colonized by France (see French Indochina). During World War II, Imperial Japan expelled the French to occupy Vietnam, though they retained French administrators during their occupation. After the war, France attempted to re-establish its colonial rule but ultimately failed in the First Indochina War. The Geneva Accords partitioned the country in two with a promise of democratic election to reunite the country.

However, rather than peaceful reunification, partition led to the Vietnam War. During this time, the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union supported the North while the United States supported the South. After millions of Vietnamese deaths, the war ended with the fall of Saigon to the North in April 1975. The reunified Vietnam suffered further internal repression and was isolated internationally due to the continuing Cold War and the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia. In 1986, the Communist Party of Vietnam changed its economic policy and began reforms of the private sector similar to those in China. Since the mid-1980s, Vietnam has enjoyed substantial economic growth and some reduction in political repression, though reports of corruption have also risen.

History of Vietnam
Hồng Bàng Dynasty prior to 257 BC
Thục Dynasty 257–207 BC
First Chinese domination 207 BC–39 AD
Triệu Dynasty 207–111 BC
Trưng Sisters 40–43
Second Chinese domination 43–544
Lady Triệu’s Rebellion 248
Early Lý Dynasty 544–602
Triệu Việt Vương  
Third Chinese domination 602–905
Mai Hắc Đế 722
Phùng Hưng 791–798
Autonomy 905–938
Khúc Family 906–930
Dương Đình Nghệ 931–937
Kiều Công Tiễn 937–938
Ngô Dynasty 939–967
The 12 Lords Rebellion 966–968
Đinh Dynasty 968–980
Early Lê Dynasty 980–1009
Lý Dynasty 1009–1225
Trần Dynasty 1225–1400
Hồ Dynasty 1400–1407
Fourth Chinese domination 1407–1427
Later Trần Dynasty 1407–1413
• Lam Sơn Rebellion 1418–1427
Later Lê Dynasty 1428–1788
• Early Lê 1428–1527
• Restored Lê 1533–1788
Mạc Dynasty 1527–1592
Southern and
 Northern Dynasties
1533–1592
TrịnhNguyễn War 1627–1673
Tây Sơn Dynasty 1778–1802
Nguyễn Dynasty 1802–1945
Western imperialism 1887–1945
Empire of Vietnam 1945
Indochina Wars 1945–1975
Partition of Vietnam 1954
Democratic Republic
 of Vietnam
1945–1976
State of Vietnam 1949–1955
Republic of Vietnam 1955–1975
Provisional Revolutionary
 Government
1975–1976
Socialist Republic of Vietnam from 1976

Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến, 1069-1757). Orange: Before the 11th century. Yellow: 11th century. Light Green: 15th century. Dark Green: 16th century. Purple: 18th century. Lai Chau and Dien Bien (the Northwest): 19th century.

Map of Vietnam showing (roughly) the areas controlled by the Trịnh, Nguyễn, Mac, and Champa about the year 1640. Brown: Trịnh Territory. Yellow: Nguyễn Territory. Green: Champa (under Nguyễn overlordship). Pink (Cao Bang): Mạc Territory.

 

Map of Văn Lang, 500 BC.
Southeast Asia circa 1010 AD. Đại Việt lands in yellow, Champa in green and Khmer Empire in purple
Trần royal battle standard.

Early kingdoms

Evidence of the earliest established society other than the prehistoric Iron Age Đông Sơn culture in Northern Vietnam was found in Cổ Loa, an ancient city situated near present-day Hà Nội.

According to myth, the first Vietnamese people were descended from the Dragon Lord Lạc Long Quân and the Immortal Fairy Âu Cơ. Lạc Long Quân and Âu Cơ had 100 sons before deciding to part ways. 50 of the children went with their mother to the mountains, and the other 50 went with their father to the sea. The eldest son became the first in a line of early Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hùng kings (Hùng Vương or the Hồng Bàng Dynasty). The Hùng kings called their country, located on the Red River delta in present-day northern Vietnam, Văn Lang. The people of Văn Lang were known as the Lạc Việt.

Văn Lang is thought to have been a matriarchal society, similar to many other matriarchal societies common in Southeast Asia and in the Pacific islands at the time. Various archaeological sites in northern Vietnam, such as Đông Sơn have yielded metal weapons and tools from this age. Most famous of these artifacts are large bronze drums, probably made for ceremonial purposes, with sophisticated engravings on the surface, depicting life scenes with warriors, boats, houses, birds and animals in concentric circles around a radiating sun at the center.

Many legends from this period offer a glimpse into the life of the people. The Legend of the Rice Cakes is about a prince who won a culinary contest; he then wins the throne because his creations, the rice cakes, reflect his deep understanding of the land’s vital economy: rice farming. The Legend of Giong about a youth going to war to save the country, wearing iron armor, riding an armored horse, and wielding an iron staff, showed that metalworking was sophisticated. The Legend of the Magic Crossbow, about a crossbow that can deliver thousands of arrows, showed extensive use of archery in warfare.

Recent research has unlocked the discovery of artificial circular earthworks in the areas of present day southern Vietnam and overlapping to the borders of Cambodia. These archaeological remains are estimated to be economic, social and cultural entities from the 1st millennium BC

By the 3rd century BC, another Viet group, the Âu Việt, emigrated from present-day southern China to the Red River delta and mixed with the indigenous Văn Lang population. In 258 BC, a new kingdom, Âu Lạc, emerged as the union of the Âu Việt and the Lạc Việt, with Thục Phán proclaiming himself “King An Dương Vương”. At his capital Cổ Loa, he built many concentric walls around the city for defensive purposes. These walls, together with skilled Âu Lạc archers, kept the capital safe from invaders for a while. However, it also gave rise to the first recorded case of espionage in Vietnamese history, resulting in the downfall of King An Dương Vương.

In 207 BC, an ambitious Chinese warlord named Triệu Đà (Chinese: Zhao Tuo) defeated King An Dương Vương by having his son Trọng Thủy (Chinese: Zhong Shi) act as a spy after marrying An Dương Vương’s daughter. Triệu Đà annexed Âu Lạc into his domain located in present-day Guangdong, southern China, then proclaimed himself king of a new independent kingdom, Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越, Nan Yue). Trọng Thủy, the supposed crown prince, drowned himself in Cổ Loa out of remorse for the death of his wife in the war.

Some Vietnamese consider Triệu‘s rule a period of Chinese domination, since Triệu Đà was a former Qin general. Others consider it an era of Việt independence as the Triệu family in Nam Việt were assimilated to local culture. They ruled independently of what then constituted China’s (Han Dynasty). At one point, Triệu Đà even declared himself Emperor, equal to the Chinese Han Emperor in the north.

Period of Chinese domination (111 BC – 938 AD)

In 111 BC, Chinese troops invaded Nam Việt and established new territories, dividing Vietnam into Giao Chỉ (Chinese: 交趾 pinyin: Jiaozhi, now the Red River delta); Cửu Chân from modern-day Thanh Hoá to Hà Tĩnh; and Nhật Nam, from modern-day Quảng Bình to Huế. While the Chinese were governors and top officials, the original Vietnamese nobles (Lạc Hầu, Lạc Tướng) still managed some highlands.

In 40 AD, a successful revolt against harsh rule by Han Governor Tô Định (蘇定 pinyin: Sū Dìng), led by the noblewoman Trưng Trắc and her sister Trưng Nhị, recaptured 65 states (include modern Guangxi), and Trưng Trắc became the Queen (Trưng Nữ Vương). In 42 AD, Emperor Guangwu of Han sent his famous general Mã Viện (Chinese: Ma Yuan) to quell the revolt. After a torturous campaign, Ma Yuan defeated the Trưng Queen, who committed suicide. To this day, the Trưng Sisters are revered in Vietnam as the national symbol of Vietnamese women. Learning a lesson from the Trưng revolt, the Han and other successful Chinese dynasties took measures to eliminate the power of the Vietnamese nobles. The Vietnamese elites would be coerced to assimilate into Chinese culture and politics. However, in 225 AD, another woman, Triệu Thị Trinh, popularly known as Lady Triệu (Bà Triệu), led another revolt which lasted until 248 AD.

During the Tang dynasty, Vietnam was called Annam (Giao Châu), until the early 10th century AD. Giao Chỉ (with its capital around modern Bắc Ninh province) became a flourishing trading outpost receiving goods from the southern seas. The “History of Later Han” (Hậu Hán Thư, Hou Hanshu) recorded that in 166 AD the first envoy from the Roman Empire to China arrived by this route, and merchants were soon to follow. The 3rd-century “Tales of Wei” (Ngụy Lục, Weilue) mentioned a “water route” (the Red River) from Jiaozhi into what is now southern Yunnan. From there, goods were taken overland to the rest of China via the regions of modern Kunming and Chengdu.

At the same time, in present-day central Vietnam, there was a successful revolt of Cham nations. Chinese dynasties called it Lin-Yi (Lin village). It later became a powerful kingdom, Champa, stretching from Quảng Bình to Phan Thiết (Bình Thuận).

In the period between the beginning of the Chinese Age of Fragmentation to the end of the Tang Dynasty, several revolts against Chinese rule took place, such as those of Lý Bôn and his general and heir Triệu Quang Phục; and those of Mai Thúc Loan and Phùng Hưng. All of them ultimately failed, yet most notable were Lý Bôn and Triệu Quang Phục, whose Anterior Lý Dynasty ruled for almost half a century (544 AD to 602 AD) before the Chinese Sui Dynasty reconquered their kingdom Vạn Xuân.

Early independence (938 AD – 1009 AD)

Early in the 10th century, as China became politically fragmented, successive lords from the Khúc family, followed by Dương Đình Nghệ, ruled Giao Châu autonomously under the Tang title of Tiết Độ Sứ, Virtuous Lord, but stopping short of proclaiming themselves kings.

In 938, Southern Han sent troops to conquer autonomous Giao Châu. Ngô Quyền, Dương Đình Nghệ’s son-in-law, defeated the Southern Han fleet at the Battle of Bạch Đằng River (938). He then proclaimed himself King Ngô and effectively began the age of independence for Vietnam.

Ngô Quyền’s untimely death after a short reign resulted in a power struggle for the throne, the country’s first major civil war, The upheavals of Twelve warlords (Loạn Thập Nhị Sứ Quân). The war lasted from 945 AD to 967 AD when the clan led by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh defeated the other warlords, unifying the country. Dinh founded the Đinh Dynasty and proclaimed himself First Emperor (Tiên Hoàng) of Đại Cồ Việt (Hán tự: ; literally “Great Viet Land”), with its capital in Hoa Lư (modern day Ninh Bình). However, the Chinese Song Dynasty only officially recognized him as Prince of Jiaozhi (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương). Emperor Đinh introduced strict penal codes to prevent chaos from happening again. He tried to form alliances by granting the title of Queen to five women from the five most influential families.

In 979 AD, Emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and his crown prince Đinh Liễn were assassinated, leaving his lone surviving son, the 6-year-old Đinh Toàn, to assume the throne. Taking advantage of the situation, the Chinese Song Dynasty invaded Đại Cồ Việt. Facing such a grave threat to national independence, the court’s Commander of the Ten Armies (Thập Đạo Tướng Quân) Lê Hoàn took the throne, founding the Former Lê Dynasty. A capable military tactician, Lê Hoan realized the risks of engaging the mighty Chinese troops head on; thus he tricked the invading army into Chi Lăng Pass, then ambushed and killed their commander, quickly ending the threat to his young nation in 981 AD. The Song Dynasty withdrew their troops yet would not recognize Lê Hoàn as Prince of Jiaozhi until 12 years later; nevertheless, he is referred to in his realm as Đại Hành Emperor (Đại Hành Hoàng Đế). Emperor Lê Hoàn was also the first Vietnamese monarch who began the southward expansion process against the kingdom of Champa.

Emperor Lê Hoàn’s death in 1005 AD resulted in infighting for the throne amongst his sons. The eventual winner, Lê Long Đĩnh, became the most notorious tyrant in Vietnamese history. He devised sadistic punishments of prisoners for his own entertainment and indulged in deviant sexual activities. Toward the end of his short life – he died at 24 – Lê Long Đĩnh became so ill that he had to lie down when meeting with his officials in court.

Independent period of Đại Việt (1010 AD – 1527 AD)

When the king Lê Long Đĩnh died in 1009 AD, a Palace Guard Commander named Lý Công Uẩn was nominated by the court to take over the throne, and founded the Lý dynasty. This event is regarded as the beginning of a golden era in Vietnamese history, with great following dynasties. The way Lý Công Uẩn ascended to the throne was rather uncommon in Vietnamese history. As a high-ranking military commander residing in the capital, he had all opportunities to seize power during the tumultuous years after Emperor Lê Hoàn’s death, yet preferring not to do so out of his sense of duty. He was in a way being “elected” by the court after some debate before a consensus was reached.

Lý Công Uẩn, posthumously referred as Lý Thái Tổ, changed the country’s name to Đại Việt (Hán tự: ; literally “Great Viet”). The Lý Dynasty is credited for laying down a concrete foundation, with strategic vision, for the nation of Vietnam. Leaving Hoa Lư, a natural fortification surrounded by mountains and rivers, Lý Công Uẩn moved his court to the new capital in present-day Hanoi and called it Thăng Long (Ascending Dragon). Lý Công Uẩn thus departed from the militarily defensive mentality of his predecessors and envisioned a strong economy as the key to national survival. Successive Lý kings continued to accomplish far-reaching feats: building a dike system to protect the rice producing area; founding Quốc Tử Giám, the first noble university; holding regular examinations to select capable commoners for government positions once every three years; organizing a new system of taxation; establishing humane treatment of prisoners. Women were holding important roles in Lý society as the court ladies were in charge of tax collection. The Lý Dynasty also promoted Buddhism, yet maintained a pluralistic attitude toward the three main philosophical systems of the time: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. During the Lý Dynasty, the Chinese Song Dynasty officially recognized the Đại Việt monarch as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao Chỉ Quận Vương).

The Lý Dynasty had two major wars with Song China, and a few conquests against neighboring Champa in the south. The most notable battle took place on Chinese territory in 1075 AD. Upon learning that a Song invasion was imminent, the Lý army and navy totalling about 100,000 men under the command of Lý Thường Kiệt, Tông Đản used amphibious operations to preemptively destroy three Song military installations at Yong Zhou, Qin Zhou, and Lian Zhou in present-day Guangdong and Guangxi, and killed 100,000 Chinese. The Song Dynasty took revenge and invaded Đại Việt in 1076, but the Song troops were held back at the Battle of Như Nguyệt River commonly known as the Cầu river, now in Bắc Ninh province about 40 km from the current capital, Hanoi. Neither side was able to force a victory, so the Lý Dynasty proposed a truce, which the Song Dynasty accepted.

Toward the end of the Lý Dynasty, a powerful court minister named Trần Thủ Độ forced king Lý Huệ Tông to become a Buddhist monk and Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Huệ Tông’s young daughter, to become queen. Trần Thủ Độ then arranged the marriage of Chiêu Hoàng to his nephew Trần Cảnh and eventually had the throne transferred to Trần Cảnh, thus begun the Trần Dynasty. Trần Thủ Độ viciously purged members of the Lý nobility; some Lý princes escaped to Korea, including Lý Long Tường.

After the purge most Trần kings ruled the country in similar manner to the Lý kings. Noted Trần Dynasty accomplishments include the creation of a system of population records based at the village level, the compilation of a formal 30-volume history of Đại Việt (Đại Việt Sử Ký) by Lê Văn Hưu, and the rising in status of the Nôm script, a system of writing for Vietnamese language. The Trần Dynasty also adopted a unique way to train new kings: as a king aged, he would relinquish the throne to his crown prince, yet holding a title of August Higher Emperor (Thái Thượng Hoàng), acting as a mentor to the new Emperor.

Mongol invasions

During the Trần Dynasty, the armies of the Mongol Empire under Mongke Khan and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty invaded Vietnam in 1257 AD, 1284 AD, and 1288 AD. Đại Việt repelled all attacks of the Yuan during the reign of Kublai Khan. The key to Đại Việt’s successes was to avoid the Mongols’ strength in open field battles and city sieges – the Trần court abandoned the capital and the cities. The Mongols were then countered decisively at their weak points, which were battles in swampy areas such as Chương Dương, Hàm Tử, Vạn Kiếp and on rivers such as Vân Đồn and Bạch Đằng. The Mongols also suffered from tropical diseases and loss of supplies to Trần army’s raids. The Yuan-Trần war reached its climax when the retreating Yuan fleet was decimated at the Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288). The military architect behind Đại Việt’s victories was Commander Trần Quốc Tuấn, more popularly known as Trần Hưng Đạo. In order to avoid disastrous campaigns, the Tran and Champa acknowledged Mongol supremacy.

Champa

It was also during this period that the Trần kings waged many wars against the southern kingdom of Champa, continuing the Viets’ long history of southern expansion (known as Nam Tiến) that had begun shortly after gaining independence from China. Often, they encountered strong resistance from the Chams. Champa troops led by king Chế Bồng Nga (Cham: Po Binasuor or Che Bonguar) killed king Trần Duệ Tông in battle and even laid siege to Đại Việt’s capital Thăng Long in 1377 AD and again in 1383 AD. However, the Trần Dynasty was successful in gaining two Champa provinces, located around present-day Huế, through the peaceful means of the political marriage of Princess Huyền Trân to a Cham king.

Ming occupation and the rise of the Lê Dynasty

The Trần dynasty was in turn overthrown by one of its own court officials, Hồ Quý Ly. Hồ Quý Ly forced the last Trần king to resign and assumed the throne in 1400. He changed the country name to Đại Ngu (Hán tự: ) and moved the capital to Tây Đô, Western Capital, now Thanh Hóa. Thăng Long was renamed Đông Đô, Eastern Capital. Although widely blamed for causing national disunity and losing the country later to the Chinese Ming Dynasty, Hồ Quý Ly’s reign actually introduced a lot of progressive, ambitious reforms, including the addition of mathematics to the national examinations, the open critique of Confucian philosophy, the use of paper currency in place of coins, investment in building large warships and cannon, and land reform. He ceded the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương, in 1401 and assumed the title Thái Thượng Hoàng, in similar manner to the Trần kings.

In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Trần Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded Đại Ngu and captured Hồ Quý Ly and Hồ Hán Thương. The Hồ Dynasty came to an end after only 7 years in power. The Ming occupying force annexed Đại Ngu into the Ming Empire after claiming that there was no heir to Trần throne. Almost immediately, Trần loyalists started a resistance war. The resistance, under the leadership of Trần Quĩ at first gained some advances, yet as Trần Quĩ executed two top commanders out of suspicion, a rift widened within his ranks and resulted in his defeat in 1413.

In 1418, a wealthy farmer, Lê Lợi, led the Lam son revolution against the Ming from his base of Lam Sơn (Thanh Hóa province). Overcoming many early setbacks and with strategic advices from Nguyễn Trãi, Lê Lợi’s movement finally gathered momentum, marched northward, and launched a siege at Đông Quan (now Hanoi), the capital of the Ming occupation. The Ming Emperor sent a reinforcement force, but Lê Lợi staged an ambush and killed the Ming commander, Liễu Thăng (Chinese: Liu Sheng), in Chi Lăng. Ming troops at Đông Quan surrendered. The Lam son revolution killed 300,000 Ming soldiers. In 1428, Lê Lợi ascended to the throne and began the Hậu Lê dynasty (Posterior or Later Lê). Lê Lợi renamed the country back to Đại Việt and moved the capital back to Thăng Long.

he Lê Dynasty carried out land reforms to revitalize the economy after the war. Unlike the Lý and Trần kings, who were more influenced by Buddhism, the Lê kings leaned toward Confucianism. A comprehensive set of laws, the Hồng Đức code was introduced with some strong Confucian elements, yet also included some progressive rules, such as the rights of women. Art and architecture during the Lê Dynasty also became more influenced by Chinese styles than during the Lý and Trần Dynasty. The Lê Dynasty commissioned the drawing of national maps and had Ngô Sĩ Liên continue the task of writing Đại Việt’s history up to the time of Lê Lợi. King Lê Thánh Tông opened hospitals and had officials distribute medicines to areas affected with epidemics.

In 1471, Le troops led by king Lê Thánh Tông invaded Champa and captured its capital Vijaya. This event effectively ended Champa as a powerful kingdom, although some smaller surviving Cham kingdoms still lasted for a few centuries more. It initiated the dispersal of the Cham people across Southeast Asia. With the kingdom of Champa mostly destroyed and the Cham people exiled or suppressed, Vietnamese colonization of what is now central Vietnam proceeded without substantial resistance. However, despite becoming greatly outnumbered by Kinh (Việt) settlers and the integration of formerly Cham territory into the Vietnamese nation, the majority of Cham people nevertheless remained in Vietnam and they are now considered one of the key minorities in modern Vietnam. The city of Huế, founded in 1600 lies close to where the Champa capital of Indrapura once stood. In 1479, King Lê Thánh Tông also campaigned against Laos and captured its capital Luang Prabang. He made further incursions westwards into the Irrawaddy River region in modern-day Burma before withdrawing.

Divided period (1528–1802)

The Lê dynasty was overthrown by its general named Mạc Đăng Dung in 1527. He killed the Lê emperor and proclaimed himself emperor, starting the Mạc Dynasty. After defeating many revolutions for two years, Mạc Đăng Dung adopted the Trần Dynasty’s practice and ceded the throne to his son, Mạc Đăng Doanh, who became Thái Thượng Hoàng.

Meanwhile, Nguyễn Kim, a former official in the Lê court, revolted against the Mạc and helped king Lê Trang Tông restore the Lê court in the Thanh Hóa area. Thus a civil war began between the Northern Court (Mạc) and the Southern Court (Restored Lê). Nguyễn Kim’s side controlled the southern part of Đại Việt (from Thanhhoa to the south), leaving the north (including Đông Kinh-Hanoi) under Mạc control. When Nguyễn Kim was assassinated in 1545, military power fell into the hands of his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm. In 1558, Nguyễn Kim’s son, Nguyễn Hoàng, suspecting that Trịnh Kiểm might kill him as he had done to his brother to secure power, asked to be governor of the far south provinces around present-day Quảng Bình to Bình Định. Hoang pretended to be insane, so Kiem was fooled into thinking that sending Hoang south was a good move as Hoang would be quickly killed in the lawless border regions. However, Hoang governed the south effectively while Trịnh Kiểm, and then his son Trịnh Tùng, carried on the war against the Mạc. Nguyễn Hoàng sent money and soldiers north to help the war but gradually he became more and more independent, transforming their realm’s economic fortunes by turning it into an international trading post.

The civil war between the Lê/Trịnh and Mạc dynasties ended in 1592, when the army of Trịnh Tùng conquered Hanoi and executed king Mạc Mậu Hợp. Survivors of the Mạc royal family fled to the northern mountains in the province of Cao Bằng and continued to rule there until 1667 when Trịnh Tạc conquered this last Mạc territory. The Lê kings, ever since Nguyễn Kim’s restoration, only acted as figureheads. After the fall of the Mạc Dynasty, all real power in the north belonged to the Trịnh Lords.

In the year 1600, Nguyễn Hoàng also declared himself Lord (officially “Vương”, popularly “Chúa”) and refused to send more money or soldiers to help the Trịnh. He also moved his capital to Phú Xuân, modern-day Huế. Nguyễn Hoàng died in 1613 after having ruled the south for 55 years. He was succeeded by his 6th son, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, who likewise refused to acknowledge the power of the Trịnh, yet still pledged allegiance to the Lê king.

Trịnh Tráng succeeded Trịnh Tùng, his father, upon his death in 1623. Tráng ordered Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên to submit to his authority. The order was refused twice. In 1627, Trịnh Tráng sent 150,000 troops southward in an unsuccessful military campaign. The Trịnh were much stronger, with a larger population, economy and army, but they were unable to vanquish the Nguyễn, who had built two defensive stone walls and invested in Portuguese artillery.

The Trịnh-Nguyễn War lasted from 1627 until 1672. The Trịnh army staged at least seven offensives, all of which failed to capture Phú Xuân. For a time, starting in 1651, the Nguyễn themselves went on the offensive and attacked parts of Trịnh territory. However, the Trịnh, under a new leader, Trịnh Tạc, forced the Nguyễn back by 1655. After one last offensive in 1672, Trịnh Tạc agreed to a truce with the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Tần. The country was effectively divided in two.

The Trịnh and the Nguyễn maintained a relative peace for the next hundred years, during which both sides made significant accomplishments. The Trịnh created centralized government offices in charge of state budget and producing currency, unified the weight units into a decimal system, established printing shops to reduce the need to import printed materials from China, opened a military academy, and compiled history books.

Meanwhile, the Nguyễn Lords continued the southward expansion by the conquest of the remaining Cham land. Việt settlers also arrived in the sparsely populated area known as “Water Chenla”, which was the lower Mekong Delta portion of Chenla (present-day Cambodia). Between the mid-17th century to mid-18th century, as Chenla was weakened by internal strife and Siamese invasions, the Nguyễn Lords used various means, political marriage, diplomatic pressure, political and military favors,… to gain the area around present day Saigon and the Mekong Delta. The Nguyễn army at times also clashed with the Siamese army to establish influence over Chenla.

In 1771, the Tây Sơn revolution broke out in Quynhơn, which was under the control of the Nguyễn. The leaders of this revolution were three brothers named Nguyễn Nhạc, Nguyễn Lữ, and Nguyễn Huệ, not related to the Nguyễn lords. By 1776, the Tây Sơn had occupied all of the Nguyễn Lord’s land and killed almost the entire royal family. The surviving prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh (often called Nguyễn Ánh) fled to Siam, and obtained military support from the Siamese king. Nguyễn Ánh came back with 50000 Siamese troops to regain power, but was defeated at the Battle of Rạch Gầm–Xoài Mút and almost killed. Nguyễn Ánh fled Vietnam, but he did not give up.

The Tây Sơn army commanded by Nguyễn Huệ marched north in 1786 to fight the Trịnh Lord, Trịnh Khải. The Trịnh army failed and Trịnh Khải committed suicide. The Tây Sơn army captured the capital in less than two months. The last Lê emperor, Lê Chiêu Thống, fled to China and petitioned the Chinese Qing Emperor for help. The Qing emperor Qianlong supplied Lê Chiêu Thống with a massive army of around 200,000 troops to regain his throne from the usurper. Nguyễn Huệ proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung and defeated the Qing troops with 100,000 men in a surprise 7 day campaign during the lunar new year (Tết). During his reign, Quang Trung envisioned many reforms but died by unknown reason on the way march south in 1792, at the age of 40.

During the reign of Emperor Quang Trung, Đại Việt was actually divided into 3 political entities. The Tây Sơn leader, Nguyễn Nhạc, ruled the centre of the country from his capital Qui Nhơn. Emperor Quang Trung ruled the north from the capital Phú Xuân Huế. In the South, Nguyễn Ánh, assisted by many talented recruits from the South, captured Gia Định (present day Saigon) in 1788 and established a strong base for his force.

After Quang Trung’s death, the Tây Sơn Dynasty became unstable as the remaining brothers fought against each other and against the people who were loyal to Nguyễn Huệ‘s infant son. Nguyễn Ánh sailed north in 1799, capturing Tây Sơn’s stronghold Qui Nhơn. In 1801, his force took Phú Xuân, the Tây Sơn capital. Nguyễn Ánh finally won the war in 1802, when he sieged Thăng Long (Hanoi) and executed Nguyễn Huệ’s son, Nguyễn Quang Toản, along with many Tây Sơn generals and officials. Nguyễn Ánh ascended the throne and called himself Emperor Gia Long. Gia is for Gia Định, the old name of Saigon; Long is for Thăng Long, the old name of Hanoi. Hence Gia Long implied the unification of the country. The Nguyễn dynasty lasted until Bảo Đại‘s abdication in 1945. As China for centuries had referred to Đại Việt as Annam, Gia Long asked the Chinese Qing emperor to rename the country, from Annam to Nam Việt. To prevent any confusion of Gia Long’s kingdom with Triệu Đà‘s ancient kingdom, the Chinese emperor reversed the order of the two words to Việt Nam. The name Vietnam is thus known to be used since Emperor Gia Long’s reign. Recently historians have found that this name had existed in older books in which Vietnamese referred to their country as Vietnam.

The Period of Division with its many tragedies and dramatic historical developments inspired many poets and gave rise to some Vietnamese masterpieces in verse such as the epic poem The Tale of Kieu (Truyện Kiều) by Nguyễn Du, Song of a Soldier’s Wife (Chinh Phụ Ngâm) by Đặng Trần Côn and Đoàn Thị Điểm, and a collection of satirical, erotically charged poems by the female poet Hồ Xuân Hương.

19th century and French colonization

The West‘s exposure in Vietnam and Vietnam’s exposure to Westerners dated back to 166 BC with the arrival of merchants from the Roman Empire, to 1292 with the visit of Marco Polo, and the early 1500s with the arrival of Portuguese and other European traders and missionaries.[citation needed] Alexandre de Rhodes, a French Jesuit priest, improved on earlier work by Portuguese missionaries and developed the Vietnamese romanized alphabet Quốc Ngữ in Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanam et Latinum in 1651.

Between 1627 and 1775, two powerful families had partitioned the country: the Nguyễn Lords ruled the South and the Trịnh Lords ruled the North. The Trịnh-Nguyễn War gave European traders the opportunities to support each side with weapons and technology: the Portuguese assisted the Nguyễnin the South while the Dutch helped the Trịnh in the North.

Main articles: Gia Long and Minh Mạng

In 1784, during the conflict between Nguyễn Ánh, the surviving heir of the Nguyễn Lords, and the Tây Sơn Dynasty, a French Catholic Bishop, Pigneaux de Behaine, sailed to France to seek military backing for Nguyễn Ánh. At Louis XVI‘s court, Pigneaux brokered the Little Treaty of Versailles which promised French military aid in return for Vietnamese concessions. The French Revolution broke out and Pigneaux’s plan failed to materialize. Undaunted, Pigneaux went to the French territory of Pondicherry, India. He secured two ships, a regiment of Indian troops, and a handful of volunteers and returned to Vietnam in 1788. One of Pigneaux’s volunteers, Jean-Marie Dayot, reorganized Nguyễn Ánh’s navy along European lines and defeated the Tây Sơn at Qui Nhơn in 1792. A few years later, Nguyễn Ánh’s forces captured Saigon, where Pigneaux died in 1799. Another volunteer, Victor Olivier de Puymanel would later build the Gia Định fort in central Saigon.

After Nguyễn Ánh established the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, he tolerated Catholicism and employed some Europeans in his court as advisors. However, he and his successors were conservative Confucians who resisted Westernization. The next Nguyễn emperors, Ming Mạng, Thiệu Trị, and Tự Đức brutally suppressed Catholicism and pursued a ‘closed door’ policy, perceiving the Westerners as a threat, following events such as the Lê Văn Khôi revolt when a French missionary Joseph Marchand encouraged local Catholics to revolt in an attempt to install a Catholic emperor. Tens of thousands of Vietnamese and foreign-born Christians were persecuted and trade with the West slowed during this period. There were frequent uprisings against the Nguyễns, with hundreds of such events being recorded in the annals. These acts were soon being used as excuses for France to invade Vietnam. The early Nguyễn Dynasty had engaged in many of the constructive activities of its predecessors, building roads, digging canals, issuing a legal code, holding examinations, sponsoring care facilities for the sick, compiling maps and history books, and exerting influence over Cambodia and Laos. However, those feats were not enough of an improvement in the new age of science, technology, industrialization, and international trade and politics, especially when faced with technologically superior European forces exerting strong influence over the region. The Nguyễn Dynasty is usually blamed for failing to modernize the country in time to prevent French colonization in the late 19th century.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

THE THAILAND HISTORIC COLLECTIONS 1400-1686

THE THAILAND HISTORIC COLLLECTIONS 1400-1686

Goal of 625 Posts Completed.Congratulation!

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Dreams are illustrations from the book your soul is writing about you. — Marsha Norman

Introductions

the structure of Sukhothai architecture which is the same as Siamese temple and royal palace even Siamese traditional house.
Sukhothai begin 1238-1583
Sukhothai temple
[



Siamese Thai house

Siamese can pass their culture and wisdom to their offspring although that stone structure left only pole

The Varman dynasty was abolished by a slave revolt
The Varman and their people, the ancient Khmer, were referred to by the local people (mostly slaves) at Angkor back then as Siamese.
When the local people were successful in killing/expelling the Siamese off Angkor they re-named the city as Siamreap, meaning Extinction of Siamese.
The Varman relatives fled Angkor to establish Sri Ayodhaya, which later became the capital of the kingdom of Siam.

I will try to support the proposed theories with evidences, reasons, historical contexts as well as common senses.

1) The Varman dynasty had been ruling the magnificent Angkor Empire for around 500 years (since around 900 AD.) but it had disappeared abruptly in 1336 AD.

2) The new king after that was “Trosok Pream” which in Cambodian means “sweet melon.” The traditional suffix “Varman” has never appeared in Cambodian kings’ names again ever since.

3) A most accepted theory for the disappearance of Angkor has been that of its sacking by the invading Siamese Army. Little is known that the spiritual destruction of Angkor had preceded its physical destruction long before that — and it began in 1336 AD. , the year of the killing field in a sweet melon plantation. This article will propose a new theory and will propose further that Cambodians are not the same group of people as the ancient Khmer who built Angkor.

4) According to the first Chronicle of Cambodia, authored by one of the greatest kings of Cambodia “Nak-Ang-Eng” or Narairacha III (around 1800 AD) –purely Cambodian in his conduct –without as yet any influence of France–Cambodia’s ancestors are this King Sweet-Melon and his son named Nippean-bot.

5) King Sweet-Melon, according to the Chronicle, was formerly a farmer in the royal palace. He grew such a sweet melon that the king gave him a sacred spear in order to fend off thieves who might come to steal the precious melon. One night, the king had been so craving for the melon that he walked onto the melon field to pick one for himself. Mr. Sweet-melon mistook the king for a thief and speared him to death. After that, he took the princess as his wife and ascended the throne.

6) Later Chronicles that were influenced by the ruling French Colony had extended the Cambodian origin up to that of the Varman itself, the Varman whom the Cambodian legendary forefather had erased from the face of Angkor’s history. The extensions were of interest to the French colonialism which was expanding to take more and more territory from Siam, by claiming that these lands were historically linked to the Khmer-Varman empire.

7) Meanwhile sometime later than 1336 AD. at SriAyodhya, along the rim of the Chaophraya river in nowadays Thailand, King U-thong had been busying building his capital from scratches. This city would later become one of the greatest cities on earth, superseding Angkor and even Paris and London, at least in terms of numbers of population.

8) There had been numerous theories proposing the origin of this legendary King of nowadays Thailand. Among others are: He was a son of a Chinese Emperor, He was a rich Chinese merchant from Petchaburi province (Van Vlit’s Chronicles), He was a son of a king from ChiangSaen, A Sultan from Malaya, etc. In this article I am proposing yet another theory that: He was the leader of the Siamese people who were fleeing the “killing field” at Angkor. The killing field ensued from a revolt by the slaves who formed a huge majority at Angkor. And the leader of the slaves was Trosok Pream.

9) The city of Angkor has long been referred to by the Cambodians as “Seamreab”, meaning “annihilation of the Siamese people”. (Seam = siam, reab = flat, no more in existence) This insult ironically and indirectly becomes a strong evidence that the Siamese must have once heavily populated Angkor. ..they were killed and/or expelled away by the dominant slaves in 1336 AD., led by King Sweet Melon, in accordance with the 1st Cambodian Chronicle.

10) According to the record of the now-famous Zhou Da Guan, a China’s commercial envoy member, in 1296 AD., only 40 year before the killing field incident, the city of Angkor was dominated by “slaves”. ……“Most families have more than 100 slaves, some have 20, only the poorest families have none” , he wrote. It is not hard to estimate then that, out of about 1 million population of Angkor, 7 out of 10 were slaves. The rest of them were the King and his royal families, nobles, officials and their families, soldiers and their families, priests, Chinese merchants.

11) SriAyodhya was completed in 1350 AD., 14 years after the killing field incident. This was a very reasonable time span to build a city to accommodate around 2-300 thousand population. (This number was estimated by numerous scholars from various historical evidences and in my opinion is credible on historical contexts, for example in 1352 AD., only 2 years afterward, U-thong invaded Angkor; he must have had a large population base to form his army to fight the huge Cambodian army back then.)

12) The most relevant question to be asked is that: where did these 2-300 thousands come from? The most popular theory which held that they migrated from the nearby city of U-thong has now proved to be flawed since the city had been voided 2-300 hundred years before that. Even if so, U-thong city would have been too small to accommodate 300,000 population. In fact there was no other cities in the vicinity of 300 kilometers of SriAyodhya to have such number of population, except Angkor.

13) Zhou Da Guan writes further that the local people speak a “different language” from those of officials and scholars; …their skins are very dark but you can find people whose skins are as white as jade among the nobles; …they don’t know how to produce silk; ..nor do they know how to stitch and darn with a needle and thread.

14) Let’s pause and think — How could the majority of people who did not know how to weave elaborated clothing with a loom, did not know how to stitch and darn with a needle and thread, would know how to dig, move and carve immense stones to erect the magnificent Angkor? The only logical answer is that the stone temple of Angkor was designed and managed by another tribe of people who held more advanced technology. And within the vicinity around Angkor there were only the Chamese and the Siamese.

15) Given that the Chamese were traditional enemy and that Angkor Wat, Bapuan, Bayon were built in the same style as Phimai castle in Phimai which was completed some 50 years before Angkor. I am now proposing a new theory that: the people who conceived, designed and managed all the building of the stone temples of Angkor was the Siamese from Phimai (who had been blamed by most western scholars as, ironically, the one who demolished the greatness of Angkor.)

16) But these Siamese then were not totally the same people as the present day Thai. In fact they were referred to by the northern Thais as Khom. But apparently the Cambodian people of Ankor back then called them by the name of Siam (pronounced as seam in single syllable).

17) Zhou Da Guan, continued on his record: “The Siamese women did know how to weave silk with loom as well as stitch and darn with a needle. They brought silk worms and mulberry trees from the land of Siam.”

18) The Siamese had not been well known to be keen on mercantilism . But why did they appear at Angkor in such a number, so many so that Zhou had noticed their weaving ability? The answer is perhaps that they went there to accompany their families who were the ruling elites of Angkor, officials, scholars, soldiers and perhaps even some merchants. Some of them were also ‘as white as jade’ since the Siamese, then as is now, were of mixed races.

19) The connections of the ruling elites at Angkor and the Siamese are numerous, indicating that Lopburi, Pimai and Angkor were related not only by interests but also by blood. To mention just a few:

19.1 Suryavarman I is believed to be a Buddhist . Where did he get Buddhism idea from, other than Phimai? His origin was unknown either. But he had fought hard in battle for some years for the throne. It is very possible that Phimai, a predominantly Buddhist culture, sent an armed forces to establish him as a buddhist king? That was why he built Phimai castle at Pimai, not at Angkor.

19.2 Chayavarman VI is now widely accepted as coming from the Korat plateau’s city of Pimai. He built a 220 kilometer super-highway which linked Pimai and Angkor. He also finished the building of Pimai stone temple which was initiated by S-I.

19.3 Most important thing in connection with C-6 is that he claimed to have descended from his mythical father named “Kambhu Svayambhuva” and a mother named “Mera.” These two words, one was his first name and the second was his second name, had perhaps been transformed into two of the most confusing words, namely, those of Kambhuja and Syam (Siam)

19.4 Svayambhuva, was in fact another name for Bhraman. Morever this name had appeared in Pallava, Sanskrit, Pali -stone inscriptions all over the “Land Zhenla” area from wat Pu to Ubonrajatani to Srithep since about the 6th AD. I am thus inclined to believe that C-6 had ascended the throne with the help of Pimai’s army. Phimai troops must have remained in Angkor for a long time to assure stability, so much so that families members from Pimai came to accompany them, bringing silk weaving technology along with them (Pimai has been famous for her supreme silk weaving technology even nowadays.) To accommodate the extreme hardship of family migrations then C-6 ordered the building of the super-highway. The Pimai soldiers and their families were then honorably referred to by the local people as the “Swayam” (descendants of Swayambhuva) which later shortened to “Syam” and later as “Seam” to suit the tongues of the local Cambodians.

19.5 Some analyst even conclude that C-6 spent most of his time at Pimai, not at Angkor.

19.6 Suryavarman II is believed to have come from Lopburi. His name and suffix “II” indicates some relations to S-I, hence Phimai. The fact that he is the only Varman king to worship Vishnu rather than Shiva is still a puzzle to historians. IMO this, too, could be linked to the influence of Lopburi’s and Phimai’s Buddhism. S-I had testified before him that Buddhism would not work out well in the predominantly hindu society, so S-II learned from S-I’s mistakes and employed a new subtle tactic. One should realize that the Buddha was also believed by the Hindu to be the 9th reincarnation of Vishnu. So by adopting Vishnu S-II could win over the minds of both beliefs and that was what making him one of Angkor’s greatest kings, second perhaps only to Chayavarman VII.

20) Here comes accounts of the greatest king of them all—Chayavarman VII. Inscriptions about his origin were vague. Some speculated that he spent his early life in Champa; but I beg to be different for I think that he was from Pimai. The evidences for this are numerous, mostly contextual:

20.1He came from nowhere to expel away the Cham invaders who had occupied Angkor for 4 years. Had he come from Champa, where would he recruit his huge army to recapture Angkor in 4 years?; from the Cham itself?

20.2Only logical answer is : he came from Pimai. As in the case of C-6, Pimai , again, helped him to expel Champa , most likely with support from Lopburi, as is evident by the bas relief on Angkor walls, depicting Lopburi and “Syam Kuk” soldiers side by side.

20.3Do not forget also that C6, S2 and C7 are linked by blood through the Mahendhrapura dynasty and that the founder is C6 who was from Phimai.

20.4 C-7 became a most devout Buddhist. Whose influence was that?, Champa? No way. Because Champa’s culture back then was dominantly hinduistic with some initial Islamic influences. It was impossible for C-7 to have been nurtured in such environments and later became a devout Buddhist.

20.5 After his ascent to greatness, he rewarded Phimai with a renovation of the super-highway, several hundreds of mini-hospitals and rest areas (arokaya-sala) were erected along the highway. His stone monuments were found deep under grounds, not surprisingly in both Angkor and Pimai. These renovations were to facilitate more migration of the Svayamese from Pimai to reunite with their relatives (soldiers, officers, nobles) in Angkor.

20.6 All of the mentioned evidences point to the fact that C-7 was from Pimai. He was also a grand son of the great forefather “Svayam”.

21) One of the most amazing thing that have been hitherto looked over is that the Cambodian people today still count their numbers the same way as recorded by Zhou Da Guan: They count only to 5. For 6 they pronounce it as 5-1, 7 as 5-2 and so on. Counting system and its pronunciation, in my opinion, is the strongest evidence of a cultural linkage. The fact that the ancient Varman and the U-thong people of Ayodhaya used the same counting system and the alphabets from 1-10 were exactly the same, based on a base 10 numerals, at least confirms that they were of different tribes from the Cambodian.

22) The Dhevaraja (God-King) concept is the most prominent feature of the Varman dynasty. King Sweet-Melon , being ascended from a slave class by killing off the Varman, certainly wouldn’t dare claim to be one of such a highly prestigious origin. Turning a crisis into an opportunity, he established himself as a new truly Cambodian king who is “in touch” with the people. That was why he was highly regarded as the legendary forefather of the Cambodia race, as later chronicled by King Nag-Ong-Eng.

23) The dhevaraja traditions, however, had been long rooted in Khmer culture and should not be as easily abolished by a mere spearing of a Varman king. Its seed had been brought to and sprouted again at SriAyodhya. The royal name for King U-Thong is “Rama-I” who was “King of Ayodhya”. According to the Ramayana Epic of India, Rama was none other than the 8th reincarnation of Vishnu, a mythical king of a mythical heavenly city named Ayodhya.

24) Raja-supth (The royal language) is required for any Thai to address their King. This tradition has not been changed much since the time of early SriAyodhya. The language is very refined: mostly a mixture of Sanskrit and Khom (ancient Khmer ). This is another strong evidence that king U-Thong was from Angkor. He was a Khom (ancient khmer), what other languages would we expect him to speak to his people? So he spoke Khom to them. Later, the language was used by the court as the sacred language of the dhevaraja; this was a good strategy in governing the kingdom.

25) Early SriAyudhya literatures had been recorded with a mixture of Thai, Khom, Pali, Sanskrit. These are evident in the books of “Ong-karn-Chaeng-Nam” and the “Li-lit-yuan-paii”, for examples. These are additional evidences that the early Ayodhayians were originally from Angkor but later mixed with the affluence of the Thai- (and mon-, and laos-) speaking people and transform into the present-day Thai people.

26) The first Westerner to discover the ruin of Angkor were not the French, but the Portuguese, in around 1600 AD. They recorded that the local people testified that Angkor had been built by foreigners and the Portuguese concluded that these foreigners were the ones who built SriAyodhya.

27) The naming of the various Prasats at Angkor are very interesting for they are very Siamese; signifying that the kings who named them must have had strong links with the Siamese or perhaps the Siamese themselves.

1 First of all Angkor Wat: Angkor is a variation of Nakara in Sanskrit but Wat is simply “temple” in Siamese. Angkor Wat is then “temple city.”
2 Angkor Thom: most scholars translate Thom as ‘big’; but I think Thom here is rather a variation of Tham, a siamese rendition of Dhamma in Pali. So Angkor Thom is really “the city of Dhamma.” It is unthinkable that a Dhammic king like C-7 who built such a magnificent city would have named his city by a ‘little’ name such as ‘big city.” Moreover, the spelling of Thom is also exactly the same spelling of Tham in Pali. (note that only the Siamese used Pali.)
3 NeakPean (NakPan in Siamese) : It means “coiled by Naka (a mythical snake)” The shortening of Sanskrit words such as Naka into “Nak” was a typical Siamese style founded all over in their language. (Raja= Raj, Rama=Ram, Kasatriya=Kasat, Parama= Borom, etc.)
4 PhimeanAkas: (PimanAkas in Siamese ) the word Piman was a pali rendition of Vimana in Sanskrit. Akas was also a shortening of a formerly longer word (perhaps Akasa : thin air, heaven ). The change of V in Sanskrit to P was also unique in Siamese—a Pali influence.
5 Prea….. (Phra… in Siamese): Here again the word Phra is uniquely very Siamese: a prefix for something sacred. This was a Siamese rendition of Vra in Sanskrit. There are so many prasarts beginning with Phra such as PreaKand, PreaPalilay, PreaRup – some are understood readily in Siamese.
6 Ta…(Ancestor, or Eye) : such as TaProm, TaKeaw
7 PakSiJamKrong: (Bird in cage) : Paksi is bird in Sanskrit but JamKrong is Siamese.
8 TepPanom (Respecting Angel): very Siamese, especially Tep is a siamese rendition of Teva in Sanskrit. Here we have both the shortening style and the P in place of V style.
9 ChauSayTevada (Linage of angel): all Siamese
10 Even Bayon might be related since Ba is Learned One in Isan-siamese and Yon is Looking. So Bayon could mean LearnedOne Looking. LearnedOne here is the Buddha whose 216 giant stone faces are Looking all over.
11 Most names of the prasarts at Angkor wat and Angkor thom are very related to Siamese language. Only a few are not readily discernable; like panom-bakeng, Thomanon.

There are still several more evidences in recorded history, contexts, archaeological artifacts, arts, cultures, languages as well as plain common senses to help us to conclude that the ancient Khmer people who built the great Angkor stone temples are not of the same tribe as the present day Cambodians (2011 AD). Quite to the opposite, these mysterious group of people were evidently exterminated by the revolting slaves who formed the majority in Angkor population by a margin of 7:3. I am certain that there would be many more evidences to support my proposed theory coming forth in the future as our minds are no longer blocked by a curtain of pre-conception.

I am also well aware that it is difficult to accept this new theory about Angkor’s past because the French scholastic machine, sponsored by her colonial wealth, had planted quite a strong scholastic root that already grew so deep.

As to the Cambodian people I do not mean to insult their pride; but historical facts sometimes are hard to swallow. We should learn from it constructively in order to not repeating its past cruelty in our present time.

bangkok nakhom pnthom

, there are ancient destinations too proximate and too grand to ignore, such as Nakhom Pathom, which is merely 56 kilometers west of Bangkok or an hour away by bus. this oldest city in Thailand is an opportunity to get amazed by the 127-meter Phra Pathom Chedi, the world’s tallest Buddhist monument.

The comparative of  Khmer architecture and culture
 Khmer Angkor with Siamese


Siamese architecture

Your Apsara

Simese Thai

Your god’s face

Sukhothai Buddha face


See the different?

Khmer is Siam’s territory for many hundred year it ‘s Siam to teach your siamese culture after Angkor fall.

Ayutthaya

is another worthy catch.Only 80 kilometers north or two hours away by bus, a day stroll along the ruins of this golden city can give you glimpse of how illustrious this city once was. For over 400 years, it was once the country’s capital, starting in 1351 when King Ramathibodi I founded the kingdom of Ayutthaya in an island in the middle of Chao Phraya, and ending in 1767 when it was sacked by the Burmese.

At the zenith of its glory days, Ayutthaya was the most fabulous city in the orient. A series of magnificent palaces, gilded Buddhist temples and pagodas, and towering Buddha statues were placed all over the kingdom. Hundreds of thousands of people lived and worshipped within its protected sphere. After more than 200 years since it was abandoned, and after its structures were exposed to unforgiving elements of nature and endless pillaging of dastardly humans, the ruins of these great artistic and engineering feats are now the only mute witnesses to remind humanity that there once was, in the early dawn of civilization, a kingdom so strong and powerful, and a community of rulers and people so devoted to a faith.

In Ayutthaya, you must visit Wat Maha That (Temple of the Great Relic) built between 1374 and 1395. It has a sitting Buddha with his hands in the bhumisparsha, or “calling the earth to witness” position. Wat Thammikkarat (Temple of the Pious Monarch) and its stone lions; Wat Rarburana (Temple of the Royal Restoration); the huge reclining buddha of the Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon (Temple of the Great Victory); the three stupas of Wat Phra Si Sanphet, where remains of King Ramathibodhi II and some of his family members are interred; and the large Buddha statue of Wat Monkhon Bophit (Tempple of Auspicious Kings)

The Kingdom of Siam in Ayutthaya, which gave troubled Chiang Mai
for centuries, was eventually destroyed by the Burmese

The history of Chiang Mai can be traced back to 1296, when King Mangrai established his new capital there. It was in fact the third time he built a capital, having founded Chiang Rai and Wiang Kum Kam in 1262 and 1288 respectively.

The choice of site for Chiang Mai was not done by chance. The king delved into geomancy and mysticism to find the most auspicious site. Before selecting where to place his capital, he spent many nights camped out in the fields “seeking a dream”. The place was inhabited by the Lawa tribe. One day, he saw two hog-deer confronting a pack of hunting dogs (or in some documents, wolves). The shamans from the Lawa tribe told him to take that as an auspicious sign. With that in consideration, King Mangrai decided upon the location of his new capital. The site in question is said to be somewhere around present-day Wat Chiang Man.

To plan out his capital, King Mangrai roped in his pals, King Ramkamhaeng of Sukhothai and King Ngam Muang of Phayao, with whom he had formed alliances. They advised him on the dimension he should built, but Mangrai wanted it on a grander scale. Eventually he settled upon a rectangular fortress city measuring 1000 wa by 400 wa, which corresponds to 2000 meters by 800 meters. This measurement, as chronicled in historical records, bears no resemblence to the medieval walls of Chiang Mai, which measures 1800 meters by 2000 meters. So far, there is no explanation available for the glaring difference.

The site chosen for Chiang Mai is deemed to be auspicious for many reasons, some of which related to water supply. The Ping river was to the east, allowing for ease of transportation, drainage and irrigation. The hills to the west are regarded as sacred and believed to be the dwelling of the Amithaba Buddha. Today there are a few forest wats here.

The city itself was planned to align almost exactly to the cardinal directions, albeit slightly off. In this regard, it follows the layout similar to that of Angkor Thom, which was built by King Jayavarman VII in 1811. The positioning of the royal palace in the northern part of the city also followed that of Angkor Thom while the placement of lak muang, or city pillar, at the centre of Chiang Mai, to represent Mount Meru, the centre of the universe, also had a precedent in Angkor Thom, where the temple of Bayon, also representing Mount Meru, is sited at the very heart of Angkor Thom.

With Chiang Mai as his capital, King Mangrai ruled over a kingdom known as Lanna, which translates variously as “a thousand rice fields”, “ten thousand rice fields”, and “a million rice fields”. By 1298, the year King Ramkamhaeng of Sukhothai died, the Lanna Kingdom had included Lampang, Lamphun, Tak, Pai Valley in the west, Muang Nai, Keng Tung and Jing Hong. With the death of King Ramkamhaeng, Sukhothai went into decline, and before long, the town of Phayao, previously controlled by Sukhothai, passed to Lanna.

King Mangrai died suddenly in 1317, causing a succession dispute for his throne. His second son, Prince Chai Songkhram, ascended the throne briefly. Then he went into retirement in Chiang Rai, and passed the throne to his son, Prince Saen Phu, in 1318. King Mangrai’s youngest son wanted the throne for himself. When his father died, he was a ruler of Muang Nai. Now he returned and seized the throne from his nephew, forcing King Saen Phu to join his father in retirement in Chiang Rai. The usurper ruled for three years before being ousted by King Saen Phu’s brother, Prince Nam Thuam. King Saen Phu then returned to rule for another decade, until he died in 1334.

Succeeding King Saen Phu was his son Prince Kham Fu, who ruled for only three years before he too died, and passed the throne to his son, Pha Yu. King Pha Yu moved the capital to Chiang Rai, where it stayed for just about three years, before being moved back to Chiang Mai, this time for good.

The founding of the Kingdom of Siam in 1347 spelled trouble for Chiang Mai. This new and aggressive kingdom, with its capital in Ayutthaya wasted no time in acquire new land. Within a few short years, most of the Malay peninsula was under its rule. In 1349, Sukhothai became a vassal state to Ayutthaya, and was formally annexed in 1438. From 1380s onwards, Chiang Mai was suffering from repeated attacks from the Siamese. And as if one was not enough, along came confrontation from Burma as well. Despite the political headache, Chiang Mai continued to prosper during that time.

The Lanna Kingdom reached its cultural golden age when King Tilokaraj ascended the throne in 1441. He managed to push back Siamese forces, capturing Nan in 1449, Si Satchanalai in 1459 and Sukhothai in 1461. With this mighty show of force, King Tilokaraj managed to hold back Ayutthaya aggression for the following three decades.

Within a few years of King Tilokaraj’s death in 1487, Chiang Mai was back on the battlefield with Siam. This time, Ayutthaya pushed north as far as Lampang. However, the aggressiveness of Siam soon proved disastrous, not only for Chiang Mai, but for Ayutthaya itself. At that time, the southern Burmese Kingdom of Pegu (present-day Bago) was growing powerful. When Ayutthaya challenge it, Pegu responded forcefully. And Chiang Mai found itself caught in the middle.

Another round of succession dispute again weakened Chiang Mai. It began in 1538 when King Chettarat was deposed by his son. He got back the throne in 1543, only to be assassinated two years later. To fill the power vacuum, Prince Setthathirat of Luang Prabang was invited over to be king. He reigned for just two year when the death of his father compelled him to return to Luang Prabang, plunging Chiang Mai into a civil war. When the Burmese decided to attack, Chiang Mai was in no position to fend for itself. By 1558, Chiang Mai as well as the whole of Lanna was under Burmese suzerainty. Being under Burmese occupation was no bed of roses, for the Burmese used Chiang Mai as the base to attack Ayutthaya.

In 1578, the Mangrai dynasty came to an end with the death of Princess Wishutthithewi. The Burmese king installed his son on the Chiang Mai throne. In 1598, it was captured by Ayutthaya, but when Chiang Rai launched a rebellion against the Burmese, Burma sent an offensive that captured not only Chiang Rai, but Chiang Mai as well. This time Burmese aggression moved south towards Ayutthaya. In 1767, under the powerful King Alaungpaya, the Burmese ransacked Ayutthaya, burning it to the ground.

The Siamese fled Ayutthaya and regrouped downriver, in Thonburi, and then, having stabilized their position, started building their new capital in Bangkok. Under King Rama I, the Siamese launched a counterattack on Burma, defeating them in 1774 in Lampang. Siamese offensive continued northwards, capturing Chiang Mai in 1776 and Chiang Rai in 1786. Chiang Saen was the last Lanna city to fall under the Siamese, in 1804. No independence came to Lanna; just as the Burmese were thrown out, they were replaced by the Siamese. After all those years of warfare, Chiang Mai had become nothing more than a broken down city. The Siamese installed Prince Chao Kawila of Lampang as the ruler of Chiang Mai. To expedite the city’s recovery, Chao Kawila raided nearby villages and forced their population to resettle in Chiang Mai. So through forced resettlement, the towns of Lanna Kingdom were given a new lease of life, Chiang Mai in 1796,

The Kingdom of Siam,

 The Art of Central Thailand,

1350 – 1800

The Kingdom of Siam: The Art of Central Thailand, 1350–1800 is the world’s first major exhibition of art from Thailand’s lost kingdom of Ayutthaya, which outlived China’s Ming dynasty and shone with similar brilliance.

The exhibition, featuring rare artworks borrowed from collections in Thailand, Europe, and the United States, showcases the superb but little known arts of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya—one of the largest and most important kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The art works—many on view for the first time in the West—include stone and bronze Buddha images, sculptures of Hindu deities, figural and decorative wood carvings, temple furnishings, illuminated manuscripts, jewelry and textiles. Among the highlights are gold ceremonial objects from a temple crypt sealed in 1424; a full-sized temple pediment; and sections of royally-commissioned temple doors with inlaid mother of pearl. .

While nearly all aspects of the art of culture of China, Japan, and India have been extensively studied, notably less research currently exists on the cultural contributions of Southeast Asia.

The kingdom of Ayutthaya, founded in 1351,

flourished for more than 400 years—longer than China’s Ming dynasty. It was a major trading center with diplomatic ties with China, Japan, Persia, the Ryukyu kingdom (Okinawa), and, from the 17th century on, with Great Britain, France, Holland, and Portugal. In contrast to neighboring kingdoms, including perpetual rival Burma, Ayutthaya was cosmopolitan and outward–looking. The 1600s and early 1700s were a period of great prosperity and cultural accomplishment for the kingdom.

1767 

Despite its strengths, increasing pressures from Burma eventually weakened the kingdom, and it was devastated by a Burmese invasion in 1767. As a result, many of Ayutthaya artifacts, especially those made of fragile materials, were destroyed.

The Kingdom of Siam will provide  audiences with the unique opportunity to see some of the finest surviving works.

‘Kingdom of Siam’ reveals a culture absorbed with Buddha’s path to perfection

 

  • Metal head is one of several representing the Buddha?s previous lives. Photo courtesy of the Asian Art Museum
    Metal head is one of several representing the Buddha?s previous lives. Photo courtesy of the Asian Art Museum

Recent events give added immediacy to several objects in “The Kingdom of Siam: the Art of Central Thailand, 1350-1800″

A 16th century

 copper Buddha stands with both hands raised waist high, palms forward, in a symbolic gesture or mudra known as “restraining the ocean. ” It evokes the legend that the Buddha Shakyamuni once turned back encroaching flood waters by spiritual force alone.

Alas, no such gesture, or anything else, availed against the tsunami that hit South Asia in December, claiming an estimated 8,000 lives in Thailand. That knowledge may enable us who felt none of the tsunami’s direct effects to connect with this show of relics — the first of its kind — from a distant and long-gone culture

The Kingdom of Siam

The Kingdom of Siam: The Art of Central Thailand, 1350–1800 and its accompanying catalogue will make an important contribution to the body of knowledge in the field of Southeast Asian art—especially the crucial period of 1400 to 1800.

6

 

7

8

 

19

2o

21

22

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51

52

  19.  Hermit, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloy with traces of gilding.  Click here for description under Wat Phra Si Sanphet.
  20.  Head of a brahman, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; bronzeThe significance of the four incised horizontal lines on the forehead of this object is uncertain. In India, worshipers of Shiva sometimes paint three horizontal lines on their foreheads, but it is not known if a reference to this tradition is intended here.A brahman is a member of the priestly caste of India. The Buddha took many forms in his previous lives, including that of a brahman. National Museum, Bangkok,
  21.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyChao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya, 11/06
  22.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyThe meaning of the half-circular motif on the forehead of this figure is not known.Chao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya,
  23. Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyChao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya,
  24.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyClick here for description under Wat Phra Si Sanphet.
  6.  Seated Buddha, approx. 1400–1450; wood with traces of lacquer and gildingThis sculpture, carved from a single piece of wood, is one of the most elaborate and complete wooden sculptures surviving from early Ayutthaya.An unusual feature is the pair of parrot-like birds at the sides of the arch. No other examples of Buddha images from Thailand with a pair of birds positioned in this way are known, and in fact birds are seldom associated with Buddha images.  Rather similar pairs of birds do, however, appear in a few other contexts, such as on a ceramic roof ornament from Sukhothai, and a mural painting in the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana. Given the extreme rarity of pairs of birds being shown on the arch over the head of a Buddha image, it is startling to note their appearance on the U-shaped arch of a Buddha image from Sri Lanka found in the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana.  It appears that the pair of birds (together, perhaps, with the U-shaped arch) are another of the motifs adopted in Ayutthaya from Sri Lanka. (See the discussion in M. L. Pattaratorn’s catalog essay of the likely presence in Ayutthaya in about 1424 of Sri Lankan, Thai, and Cambodian Buddhist monks who had recently arrived from Sri Lanka.)   But few other Sri Lankan sculptures seem to have such birds, so their parentage is not easy to trace. The ultimate source must be the art of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara in today’s Pakistan.

 

 

Artistic styles in Ayutthaya were a complex mix. The images below suggest the range of styles and geographically distributed influences shaping the arts of Ayutthaya.

           
19 20 21 22 23 24

19. through 24. Images of the Buddha-to-be in his previous lives  (see below for individual descriptions)

The stories of the five hundred or more previous lives of the Buddha to- be – the jatakas – were well known and important in much of the Buddhist world. In 1458 Ayutthaya’s King Borommatrailokkanat (Supreme Lord of the Three Worlds) commissioned a set of bronze figures to represent them, showing the Buddha-to-be in such guises as a hermit, a prince, or a deer. What strikes the eye immediately is how varied in style they are. Three representative crowned heads, cat. nos. 21, 22, and 24, are so different in their modeling, their proportions, and the treatment of their crowns, that it may be difficult to imagine their being made for the same project. It nevertheless seems likely that they were.

The best explanation seems to be that casting five hundred or more bronze figures was a big task, and must have been divided among workshops in various cities of the kingdom. If this is the case, no so-called national style had developed (as used to be suggested) in Siam in the mid-fifteenth century, and various regional traditions continued strong. Some work shops would have worked in styles recalling those of Angkor (nos. 23 and 24), and others in styles recalling those of Sukhothai (no. 22). This variation in styles must not have been unacceptable to the king.

The king’s motivation probably had to do with the arrival of the year 2000 of the Buddhist era. Old prophecies suggested that humankind’s understanding of the Buddha’s teachings would decay over time, and the arrival of a millennial anniversary would bring further grievous losses. A great Buddhist king would take steps to halt or reverse the decay by building temples, supporting the monkhood, commissioning didactic artworks such as the jataka statues, and perhaps even entering the monkhood himself – all of which Borommatrailokkanat is said to have done. 1 Several whole figures and more than thirty heads almost surely from the king’s jataka set have survived. 2 One figure and five heads are included in the exhibition.

1 The history of Borommatrailokkanat’s period, his possible motivations, the significance of the jatakas in Ayutthaya, and the sculptures representing them are discussed at lengthin McGill, “Jatakas, Universal Monarchs.”

2 In addition to the article mentioned in note 1, see Woodward, Sacred Sculpture

  19.  Hermit, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloy with traces of gilding.  Click here for description under Wat Phra Si Sanphet.
  20.  Head of a brahman, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; bronzeThe significance of the four incised horizontal lines on the forehead of this object is uncertain. In India, worshipers of Shiva sometimes paint three horizontal lines on their foreheads, but it is not known if a reference to this tradition is intended here.A brahman is a member of the priestly caste of India. The Buddha took many forms in his previous lives, including that of a brahman. National Museum, Bangkok,
  21.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyChao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya, 11/06
  22.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyThe meaning of the half-circular motif on the forehead of this figure is not known.Chao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya,
  23. Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyChao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya,

 

  24.  Crowned head, from a set of figures representing the Buddha in his previous lives, probably 1458; copper alloyClick here for description under Wat Phra Si Sanphet.
  6.  Seated Buddha, approx. 1400–1450; wood with traces of lacquer and gildingThis sculpture, carved from a single piece of wood, is one of the most elaborate and complete wooden sculptures surviving from early Ayutthaya.An unusual feature is the pair of parrot-like birds at the sides of the arch. No other examples of Buddha images from Thailand with a pair of birds positioned in this way are known, and in fact birds are seldom associated with Buddha images.  Rather similar pairs of birds do, however, appear in a few other contexts, such as on a ceramic roof ornament from Sukhothai, and a mural painting in the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana. Given the extreme rarity of pairs of birds being shown on the arch over the head of a Buddha image, it is startling to note their appearance on the U-shaped arch of a Buddha image from Sri Lanka found in the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana.  It appears that the pair of birds (together, perhaps, with the U-shaped arch) are another of the motifs adopted in Ayutthaya from Sri Lanka. (See the discussion in M. L. Pattaratorn’s catalog essay of the likely presence in Ayutthaya in about 1424 of Sri Lankan, Thai, and Cambodian Buddhist monks who had recently arrived from Sri Lanka.)   But few other Sri Lankan sculptures seem to have such birds, so their parentage is not easy to trace. The ultimate source must be the art of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara in today’s Pakistan. National Museum, Bangkok

The Buddha itself relates to other early Ayutthaya Buddha images of the oval-faced type such as cat. nos. 4 and 5 and fig. 117. 1 Its surrounding, a U-shaped arch above which rises a tree with symmetrically down-curving branches, recalls that of votive tablets like those found in the 1424 crypt of Wat Ratchaburana. 2 Cat. no. 10 is a similar example, although it may not be not from that location.

Some of the decorative motifs of this sculpture, such as the row of rosettes with bars in the base and the triangular pendants below the capitals of the pilasters on either side of the Buddha have been discussed by Dr. Santi in the context of the evolution of such motifs in the early Ayutthaya period. 3

1 See Woodward, Sacred Sculpture, 176–177.

2 See also Phraphuttharup lae phraphim, figs. 278, 279, 284, 294, 299, 306, 357.

3 Santi, Early Ayudhya Period, figs. 125, 282.

 

  7.  Head of a Buddha image, approx. 1400–1450; copper alloyThis head, with its sense of gravity and meditative repose, embodies many of the ideals of Ayutthaya’s early sculpture. It would have been part of an image approximately like no. 5 on the Wat Rachaburana page.. As postulated by Hiram Woodward, generally similar images were made simultaneously in two modes. 1 One mode hearkened back to the Cambodian-related traditions of Lopburi and had a rather square face and straight hairline; the other, the more oval face and widow’s peak common in Sukhothai and later Thai traditions. 1 Woodward, Sacred Sculpture, 176–177.Chao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya, 16/14CH 
  38. A Hindu deity, probably Parvati (Uma), the wife of Shiva, approx. 1500–1600; copper alloy with gildingThis image has a number of features that relate it to the sculpture of South India. Among these are:

  • its gently swaying posture. Siamese sculptured figures of the Buddha and Hindu deities usually stand upright and straight.
  • its tall hairdress and the lengths of hair (or garlands) along its shoulders. Siamese sculptures almost never have such arrangements of the hair.
  • its large, round earplugs. Ear ornaments, if any, on Siamese sculptures are usually in the form of heavy pendants hanging from the lobes.
  • the disk-shaped ornament projecting from the back of the head. This type of ornament is common in South Indian sculptures but hardly ever used in Siamese sculpture.
  • the proportions of its body. In Siamese sculptures there is rarely such a marked contrast between the narrow waist and swelling hips.

Many other features of the sculpture, however, especially the modeling of the face and feet, make clear that it was created in Siam rather than imported.

National Museum, Bangkok,

Jean Boisselier, the renowned French scholar of Southeast Asian art, proclaimed this bronze image of Uma (Parvati), wife of the Hindu god Shiva, the finest of its kind: “a work of genuine artistry” that “stands out distinctly from the rest of Ayutthaya sculpture.” 1

Why a Siamese artist would have given this sculpture such a recognizably South Indian appearance is not known. Some guesses can be made. While the overwhelming majority of Siamese were Buddhists, images of Hindu deities were commissioned by kings for use in royal ceremonies. Brahmans were sometimes hired from India to officiate at these ceremonies. Perhaps an Indian brahman brought with him a South Indian statuette of a goddess, and he and the king agreed that sculptors should be directed to make a large copy of it.

The remarkably South Indian appearance of this sculpture – reflected in the swaying posture, style of dress, tall rounded headdress, and large circular ear ornaments, for example – is what makes it unique among Ayutthaya’s bronzes. That there must have been an Indian model, whether directly or indirectly available to the artist, seems to be beyond doubt. The gentle outward thrust of Uma’s right hip, her relaxed left leg, and her extended right arm are all features associated with the classic posture known in India as the tribhanga, or triple-bend, pose. Few other bronze sculptures from the Ayutthaya period, or earlier, make use of this particular stance. 2 Instead, most depict the deities standing or sitting in a rigidly frontal pose, with arms – frequently holding attributes – extended in front of the body or to the sides. 3

The Indian bronze traditions among which this image finds its closest parallels are those associated with the late Chola and Vijayanagara empires, which effectively encompassed much of southern India from the eleventh through the mid-sixteenth centuries. 4 That no more precise identification of the stylistic source can be made indicates the long duration of certain iconographic types in South Indian ritual bronze traditions as well as the transformative abilities of, in this case, Siamese artists. The process by which Southeast Asian artists received and translated foreign forms into ones uniquely their own is a vexing one. Of the numerous sculptures found in Southeast Asia that indicate some contact with Indian artistic and architectural forms, many appear so thoroughly localized in appearance that their exact Indian sources remain speculative.

South Indian images were known in the peninsular area of Thailand from perhaps as early as the fi fth century. 5 A long history of contact with South Indian artistic forms is indicated by such finds as the three eighth- to ninth-century Hindu sculptures from Takua Pa, 6 two tenth- to eleventh century sculptures, one of Vishnu and one of Shiva, discovered at Wiang Sa, 7 and, as late as the seventeenth to eighteenth century, a small bronze statue, identified as Uma, which was found at a Hindu shrine in Nakhon Si Thammarat. 8

The images from Takua Pa are stylistically close to South Indian images of the Pallava dynasty (early fourth to late ninth century), whose power was centered in the region of South India now known as Tamil Nadu state. So close is it, in fact, that Stanley O’Connor suggested “we may assume either that it was made in India, or that it was made at Takuapa by an Indian artist.” 9 Whether the Wiang Sa sculptures were made in India, or in Thailand by an Indian or Southeast Asian artist, is equally unclear. The bronze Uma, now in the Nakhon Si Thammarat Museum, is thought to have been made in Thailand though it is virtually indistinguishable from contemporary South Indian bronzes. 10 Was an earlier image of this type – imported into the Ayutthaya kingdom from India or produced in Thailand by an Indian artist – used as a model for the National Museum’s South Indian-style bronze goddess?

The sheer size of this sculpture, which stands over five feet tall, indicates that it was made for an important – probably royal – patron. That it should depict a Hindu deity is not surprising as Hindu-derived rituals played a vital role in Thai royal ceremonies and continue to do so today. Historical records of various dates indicate the presence at the Thai court of Hindu brahmans able to perform these important services. 11 A family that became prominent among Ayut thaya’s nobility in the late seventeenth century traced its lineage to an Indian brahman who had arrived in Siam during the reign of King Prasat Thong (reigned 1629–1656). 12 It is not known if he came from South India, but other Hindu ritual specialists did. In the early nineteenth century, a priest at the so-called Brahman Temple in Bangkok is reported to have informed a member of the British embassy that he was the fifth-generation descendent of a brahman who originally came from the pilgrimage center of Rameshvaram, in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu. 13

No large bronzes comparable to this one, with its numerous South Indian-style features, are known from the Ayutthaya period. However, a bronze Buddha image cat. no. 42, dedicated in the year 1541, is stylistically similar in the treatment of the facial features and may provide an approximate date for its manufacture. 14 Other large Hindu bronzes were certainly made in the Ayutthaya kingdom, as indicated by an impressive group of fourteen images from the Brahman Temple in Bangkok that have been documented by Prince Subhadradis. None – especially the single goddess image in the group – is close to this sculpture in appearance. 15

The goddess in the exhibition has a curvaceous shape – accentuated by a small waist and full, rounded breasts – that recall late Chola and Vijayanagara period bronzes (fig. 157). 16 The sensuous figure of the image is quite different from the Brahman Temple Uma, which is thicker through the waist and has smaller, flatter breasts. Clothing and ornament are also dramatically different. The lower garment clings to the legs of this goddess in a fashion quite unlike that of the heavy flared skirt worn by the Brahman Temple Uma and, indeed, by most other Ayutthaya Hindu bronzes. 17 This clinging drapery, with the fluttering panels along the sides of the skirt, again finds parallels in South Indian bronzes of the Chola period and later. The sweeping tiered panels along the front length of the skirt seem to be an Ayutthaya innovation, encountered in various permutations across a range of sculptures. The ornamental designs on the waistband, headband, necklace, and skirt are found on several other Ayutthaya-period bronzes. 18

The wheel-like attachment behind the head of the goddess is certainly derived from South India, where these halo devices also served an ornamental function, concealing the knot of the headband. 19 No other Hindu bronzes of the Ayutthaya period have this disk. Other features that appear in South Indian sources include the large round earrings, which are unlike the heavy pendants typically encountered in the Ayutthaya period. 20 The wavy extensions of hair indicated along the shoulders and upper arm are also found on several Chola- and Vijayanagara-period bronzes, as is the tall, rounded headdress. The latter is a marked departure from the flaring diadem and peaked crown of the Angkor-related headdress more commonly encountered on Ayutthaya images.

Nothing is known about the origins of this image and very little is known of its history. Even its identification is not certain; the image has been thought by some to represent Lakshmi, consort of the Hindu god Vishnu. 21 In Chola- and Vijayanagara-period bronzes, which provide the closest models, long-established visual conventions were used to distinguish among deities. When depicted individually, Lakshmi and Uma can appear rather similar in appearance. Lakshmi, however, almost always wears a breastband and is thus differentiated from her Shaivite counterpart. Uma is not the only Hindu goddess to be depicted without a breastband in South Indian bronzes, but of these goddesses – including Bhudevi and Sita – she was the one most frequently depicted in Thailand. For lack of an identifying inscription or companion image, and due to the fact that specific Indian iconographic features may not always have been followed in Southeast Asia, the identification of this sculpture remains tentative. 22 Nonetheless, within the corpus of known Ayutthaya period bronzes, it is another remarkable reminder of the diverse sources that were brought to bear on the art of the Ayutthaya kingdom.

1 Boisselier, Heritage, 178. 2 Two bronze images of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi that were published in the nineteenth century by Lucien Fournereau stand in the swaying posture with their right arms similarly extended along the sides of their bodies. They differ, however, in several details from this bronze image. (Fournereau, Le Siam ancien, pls. XVIII, XXIX.) 3 Some bronze sculptures of Hindu goddesses, while adhering to such frontality, are depicted with one arm extended downward in a manner similar to this image. Perhaps the most well-known of these is the large Uma in the National Museum, Bangkok (SK 17), discussed later in this entry as part of the so-called Brahman Temple group.

4 The Chola empire was founded in the ninth century and ended in 1279. After a period during which competing groups claimed power, the Vijayanagara empire was established and lasted from approximately 1350 to 1565.

5 Stanley J. O’Connor was the first to suggest that a well-known image of the Hindu god Vishnu, found in Chaiya in peninsular Thailand, has its closest parallels in third- to fourth-century sculptures from the region of South India corresponding to present-day Andhra Pradesh state. Previously thought to be an eighth-century work, the South Indian material suggested to O’Connor that the Chaiya Vishnu dated from as early as 400 CE (Hindu Gods of Peninsular Siam, 37–39, fig. 1). Although several scholars have questioned O’Connor’s dating, the Chaiya Vishnu and other sculptures clearly indicate a long pattern of contact between South India and Thailand. (For an alternate opinion about the dating of the Chaiya image, see Woodward, Review, 210–211.) The artistic and cultural links between India and Southeast Asia have been a subject of academic interest for the past several decades. For a consideration of early artistic relationships between Cambodia and India, including South India, see Bénisti’s Rapports. Studies investigating the connections between early mainland Southeast Asia and South India, specifically, include Filliozat’s Kailasaparampara and Wright’s Sacred Gable.

6 O’Connor, Hindu Gods of Peninsular Siam, 52–55, fi gs. 28–31.

7 O’Connor, Hindu Gods of Peninsular Siam, 60–63, fi gs. 32–33.

8 Natthapatra and Saengchan, eds., Nakhon Si Th ammarat National Museum, 95. As discussed later in this entry, the fact that this image wears a breastband indicates that it may not, in fact, represent the goddess Uma, who is conventionally depicted without a breastband in South Indian bronzes.

9 O’Connor, Hindu Gods of Peninsular Siam, 55.

10 Piriya Krairiksh identifies this Uma (13/2515) as a product of peninsular Thailand showing southern Indian influence (Baep sinlapa, 188). The Nakhon Si Thammarat National Museum Visitor’s Guide credits it to the “Southern school of art under Southern Indian influence” (Natthapatra and Saengchan, eds., Nakhon Si Thammarat National Museum, 95).

11 For example, mention of brahman participation in various ceremonies is scattered throughout the Ayutthayan Royal Chronicles; see, to highlight only a few references to brahmans performing ritual and ceremonial functions, Cushman, Royal Chronicles, 6, 8, 10, 21, 26, 59, 92–93, 101–102.

12 Wyatt, Thailand, 129; see also, idem, “Family Politics in Nineteenth-Century Thailand,” in Studies in Thai History, 106–130.

13 Crawfurd, Journal of an Embassy, 119.

14 This Buddha image was discussed by Prince Subhadradis in his Hindu Gods, 104–106, figs. 57A–57B; and his “Dated Crowned Buddha Image.” The bronze Uma was not considered in either work.

15 Most of the fourteen sculptures are close in size to this bronze Uma. Four are larger, and of those, two are considerably larger (Subhadradis, Hindu Gods, figs. 1–14, illustrated on a foldout between pp. 5 and 6). Subhadradis first published his study of these bronzes in a Thai publication of 1966.

16 Identifying a narrower range of possible source imagery is difficult. A number of innovations were steadily introduced into the South Indian bronze tradition, though many images show a conscious continuation of earlier types. Compare, for instance, a pre-Chola period image of the Hindu goddess Durga (Sivaramamurti, South Indian Bronzes, fig. 11b) with examples of the tenth century and thirteenth century (Dehejia, The Sensuous and the Sacred, 134–137, cat. nos. 19–20). With respect to Uma images, which are more pertinent to this discussion, compare the following bronzes: tenth century (Sivaramamurti, South Indian Bronzes, fi g. 17a), twelfth century (Sivaramamurti, South Indian Bronzes, fi g. 26), fourteenth century (Pal, Indian Subcontinent, 233, cat. no. 170d), and sixteenth century (Sivaramamurti, South Indian Bronzes, fi g. 80a).

17 Compare, for instance, the clinging drapery of this figure to the dress of the Hindu bronzes illustrated in Subhadradis’s Hindu Gods and Fournerou’s Le Siam Ancien.

18 Listopad, Phra Narai, 428–429.

19 Dehejia, The Sensuous and the Sacred, 92.

20 The image of Satyabhama, wife of the Hindu god Krishna, in fig. 157, does not wear rounded earrings of this type. However, heavy round earrings are documented in numerous surviving male and female bronzes of the Chola and Vijayanagara periods.

21 The National Museum identifies the goddess as Lakshmi, as did Boisselier, who used the goddess’s alternate appellation, Shri (Heritage, 178).

22 The bronze image of Satyabhama (fi g. 157) is part of a group of images that were intended to form a set. Had the bronze been found without these accompanying figures, it could easily be misidentified as an image of another female – such as Uma or Bhudevi – for whom the same figural, clothing, and headdress conventions are used. 

 

  8.  Walking Buddha, probably 1375; stoneThe walking Buddha is often associated with the kingdom of Sukhothai, where sculptors produced a number of superb examples. Walking Buddhas appear fairly frequently in the arts of Ayutthaya as well, however, though seeming to become rarer century by century. Hiram Woodward has pointed out that the walking Buddha is found in central Thailand by the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 1 The crypt of Wat Ratchaburana in Ayutthaya, sealed in 1424, held dozens of the type – mostly in relief on votive tablets, but also in the round, and even painted on a wall. 2 Also, a number of temple buildings in central Thailand that have been attributed to the late fourteenth or fifteenth centuries have representations of the walking Buddha in stucco relief. 3 The representation of the walking Buddha in this exhibition is extremely unusual because it is carved in high relief in stone. 4 Stone sculptures in the round (at least Buddha images) 5 were common in early Ayutthaya, but stone reliefs seem to have been rare.The characteristics of this walking Buddha are similar enough to those of a freestanding bronze example from the crypt of Wat Ratchaburana to suggest a fourteenth- or fifteenth-century date. 6 The pointed frame around the head of the Buddha in the stone relief, with its upcurving flourishes at the shoulders, can be compared to related frames in stucco reliefs mentioned earlier. 7 The nose of the sculpture has been inexpertly restored.Chantharakasem National Museum, Ayutthaya,

The image had long ago been fixed against a wall in one of the museum’s storerooms. When the image was removed to be prepared for inclusion in this exhibition, a twenty-line inscription was noticed on the back. In June 2004, the Thai Inscription Survey Department of the National Library of Thailand recorded, deciphered, and registered the inscription. According to Kong­kaew Weeraprachak, “the Buddha image and the inscription were likely carved about the same time.”

She continues: “The inscription begins with a date: 1918 of the Bud­dhist Era (1375 CE). Khun Soramut, his wife and children, and others made donations to support the construction of monks’ dwellings, a preaching hall, and Buddha images. They also planted bo trees and demarcated the temple grounds. The inscription ends with Bud­dhist blessings for those who made merit through these donations, and indicates their hope to be reborn in the era of the future Buddha, Mai­treya. The inscription notes that those attempting to obstruct these donations are bound for hell with no hope of seeing the Buddha.

“A study of the shapes of the letters in the inscription suggests that they belong to the Thai-Ayutthaya form of the twentieth century of the Buddhist Era (1358–1457 CE) and had evolved out of the Thai-Sukhothai form. . . .

“Knowledge gained from this inscription will shed new light on other Thai inscription studies. Very few inscriptions have been recovered that contain Thai-Ayutthaya letter shapes, especially from the early Ayutthaya period. Thus, the discov­ery of the dated inscription on the back of the walking Buddha image is an invaluable discovery for histo­rians of this time period. Before this finding, researchers had compiled an incomplete alphabet of the Thai-Ayutthaya letter shapes. Thanks to this finding they now have the complete Thai-Ayutthaya alphabet. This finding also helps to verify the accuracy of the existing identification system of Thai-Ayutthaya letters from the late fourteenth century CE.”

(Adapted from a translation by Chureekamol Onsuwan Eyre)

1 Woodward, Sacred Sculpture, 138.

2 For votive tablets, see Bowie, ed., Sculpture of Thailand, cat. no. 56; and Phraphuttharup lae phraphim, for example, figs. 137–154, 219–237; for images in the round, see Piriya, Sacred Image, 196–197; for painting, see Chittrakam lae sinlapawatthu, 9.

3 Buildings at Wat Kai Tia, Suphanburi; Wat Mahathat, Lopburi; and Wat Song Phinong, Chinat, all illustrated in Santi, Early Ayudhya Period, 192–193; southeast corner stupa at Wat Phra Ram, Ayutthaya, illustrated in No. Na Paknam, Lai punpan, fig. 57 (mislabeled Wat Mahathat, Ayutthaya).

4 Only one other large stone relief of the walking Buddha from central or north-central Thailand is known, and its proportions and style are quite diff erent from the example in this exhibition; see Stratton and Scott, Sukhothai, fig. 61.

5 For a discussion of the head of this image in relation to a number of other Ayutthaya stone heads, see Prathip, “Baep phraphak,” 83–86.

6 See note 2 above. For possible examples of sixteenth-century Ayutthaya representations of the walking Buddha, see Woodward, Sacred Sculpture, 244–245.

7 Especially those of Wat Kai Tia, Suphanburi; see note 3 above. Another such frame surrounded the head of a standing Buddha in relief on the prang of Wat Phra Ram, Ayutthaya; No. Na Paknam, Ha duan, 170.

 

  51.  Miniature temple building, approx. 1700–1800; terrsa cotta; aid to have been found at Wat BuaThis miniature building may have served as a “spirit house,” a little shrine for offerings to the spirits of the land.  Large rectangular windows such as those on this miniature building are usually thought to have become common in Siamese architecture during the reign of King Narai (reigned 1656–1688) probably due to Western influence.Its large rectangular windows suggest a date later than that of cat. no. 50. Details such as its half-cylindrical tiles covering the roof and the brackets projecting from the side walls to support the eaves (which would be of elaborately carved wood on a real building) are painstakingly represented.Chao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya,

 

  52.  Miniature pavilion, approx. 1700–1800; wood with paint, lacquer, gilding, and mirror inlay The upper corners of the roof of this miniature building would have been decorated with gracefully curved projecting elements; only stubs of these now remain. Along the roof ridge would have been a full row of decorative spines, only some of which have survived. These decorative elements would have given a real building the prickly silhouette characteristic of later Ayutthaya period architecture.Chao Sam Phraya National Museum, Ayutthaya, 243/2542

The Thailand Historic Collections 1686-1939

 

THE THAILAND HISTORIC COLLLECTIONS 1686-1939

Goal of 625 Posts Completed.Congratulation!

100%

Dreams are illustrations from the book your soul is writing about you. — Marsha Norman

Thai king Rama

native costum

1687

 The embassy

Depiction of the Siamese embassy in Versailles, in a 1687 French almanac.

Kosa Pan presents King Narai’s letter to Louis XIV at Versailles, September 1, 1686

The embassy with Louis XIV.

The embassy left for France in 1686, accompanying the return of the 1685 French embassy to Siam of Chevalier de Chaumont and François-Timoléon de Choisy on two French ships.[2] The embassy was bringing a proposal for an eternal alliance between France and Siam and stayed in France from June 1686 to March 1687. Kosa Pan was accompanied by two other Siamese ambassadors, Ok-luang Kanlaya Ratchamaitri and Ok-khun Sisawan Wacha,[3] and by the Jesuit Father Guy Tachard.

Kosa Pan’s embassy was met with a rapturous reception and caused a sensation in the courts and society of Europe. The mission landed at the French port of Brest before continuing its journey to Versailles, constantly surrounded by crowds of curious onlookers.

The “exotic” clothes as well as manners of the envoys (including their kowtowing to Louis XIV during their visit to him on September 1, 1686), together with a special “machine” that was used to carry King Narai’s missive to the French monarch caused much comment in French high society. Kosa Pan’s great interest in French maps and images was commented upon in a contemporary issue of the Mercure Galant.[4]

 Presents

The embassy brought vast amounts of present to Louis XIV. Among them were gold, tortoise shells, fabrics, carpets, more than 1,500 pieces of porcelain, as well as lacquer furniture.[5] Two silver Siamese cannons were given as present to Louis XIV, and by a strange twist of fate these cannons would be seized by French revolutionaries in 1789 to be used in the Storming of the Bastille.[6]

 Purchases

The embassy ordered vast amounts of French products to be shipped to the Siamese court: 4,264 mirrors similar to those of the Galerie des Glaces were ordered to decorate Narai’s palace, through Colbert to the factory of Saint Gobain. Among other orders were 160 French cannons, telescopes, glasses, clocks and various velvet pieces and crystal decorative elements. They also ordered two geographical globes, inscribed in Thai by French artisans, as well as seven carpets from the Savonnerie manufactory.[7]

 Influences

Siamoise flammée textile, derived from Thai Ikat, French manufacture, 18th century.

Woman in dress made of Siamoise (“Siamese”) textile, 1687.

The Siamese Embassy to France in 1686 had brought to the Court samples of multicolor Thai Ikat textiles. These were enthusistically adopted by the French nobility to become Toiles flammées or Siamoises de Rouen often with checkered blue-and-white designs.[8] After the French Revolution and its dislike for foreign luxury, the textiles were named “Toiles des Charentes” or cottons of Provence.[9]

A fragmentary Siamese account of the mission compiled by Kosa Pan was re-discovered in Paris in the 1980s.[10] The embassy’s encounter with Louis XIV is depicted in numerous paintings of the period.

The embassy of Kosa Pan was soon followed by another one, led by Ok-khun Chamnan in 1688.

1686

The 1686 Siamese embassy, accompanied by their translator, Abbot Artus de Lionne. Painted by Jacques Vigouroux Duplessis (c.1680-1732).

1700

THE KINGDOM OF SIAM
THE ART OF CENTRAL THAILAND
 

22. The sage Vidhura
approx. 1700– 1750
Pigments on cloth
H: 31.4 cm; W: 24.8 cm
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Gift of Dr. Sarah Bekker, F2002.8.3
AAM Siam 72

The sage Vidhura is carried through the air holding the tail of a demon’s flying horse;
a scene from one of the last ten previous lives of the Buddha.
Photograph by Kaz Tsuruta

Manuscript chest with mythical animals
approx. 1650–1700
Lacquered and gilded wood with iron handle
H: 57 cm; W: 74.5
National Museum, Bangkok, NCH709
AAM Siam 59

Photograph by Kaz Tsuruta

1800

the Asian Art Museum showcases EMERALD CITIES:

Arts of Siam and Burma, 1775–1950,

the first exhibition of its kind to use a systematic approach to present artworks from this region and period. The exhibition features more than 140 artworks drawn exclusively from the museum’s collection, which is one of the largest and most important collections of nineteenth-century Siamese and Burmese art outside of Southeast Asia. On view are ornately carved furniture, lavishly decorated miniature shrines, gilded statues, elaborately illustrated manuscripts, colorfully detailed paintings, and mirrored and bejeweled ritual objects. The Asian Art Museum organized Emerald Citiesand serves as the exhibition’s exclusive venue.

picture-3

The museum’s holdings in Southeast Asian art increased dramatically in 2002 from a generous donation of artworks – including many rare sculptures, paintings, and decorative arts – from Doris Duke’s Southeast Asian Art Collection. Before being distributed to organizations such as the Asian Art Museum, Doris Duke’s Southeast Asian Art Collection included more than 400 museum-quality objects and 1,800 other items. Together, these objects have represented one of the most important collections of later Southeast Asian art outside Asia. The collection was housed at Duke Farms – Doris Duke’s principal residence in Hillsborough, New Jersey – where for many years it remained largely unknown both to the public and specialists. Over two-thirds of the artworks on view in Emerald Cities are from this collection. The museum spent more than five years to complete an extensive conservation project to preserve and stabilize these very fragile artworks. Emerald Cities provides the opportunity for their public debut.

doris-duke
DORIS DUKE

“All of the artworks on view in Emerald Cities originate from the museum’s extensive collection, demonstrating the quality and depth of the museum’s holdings from Thailand and Burma,” says Jay Xu, Director of the Asian Art Museum. “Through the efforts of Forrest McGill, the museum’s Chief Curator, and M.L. Pattaratorn Chirapravati, co-curator of the exhibition, Emerald Cities and its accompanying catalogue contribute both to scholarship and public appreciation of the rich and varied artistic traditions of Southeast Asia.”

“A feast for the eyes awaits visitors to Emerald Cities,” says Forrest McGill. “The writings and religious thought at the time emphasized the gorgeous, flowering, bejeweled, heavenly city of the gods. This view of a luxurious and fantastical Eden is evident through the artworks on view in the galleries which originate from the three great cities of the time—Bangkok, Mandalay and Rangoon.”

picture-11

The artworks in Emerald Cities are presented by region, divided into three distinctive geographical areas: Burma; the highlands of Northern Thailand and Shan State, Burma; and Central Thailand. Within each geographical region, artworks are further categorized by their functions: Religious Art – including Buddhist manuscripts, sculpture, and objects for ritual use such as offering containers and ceremonial begging bowls; Mythology – including theatrical masks, costumes and puppets used for the dramatic productions of the epic of Rama; and Luxury Goods – including gold and silver vessels, furniture, and textiles.

picture-5

The exhibition opens in Lee Gallery with three videos introducing important facets of the exhibition: Doris Duke and her Southeast Asian art collection; the conservation efforts undertaken in preparation for the exhibition; and a general introduction to Siam and Burma.
Artworks are presented in Hambrecht Gallery with the focus on Burmese art. One of the highlights is a lacquered and gilded Buddhist manuscript depicting scenes from the life of the Buddha (catalogue #3). This type of manuscript was often given to a monastery at the time when a family relation was preparing to enter the monkhood. Even up to the present day, it is customary for young men to become monks for as little as three months in order to bestow merit on their families. The manuscript on view depicts the scene of Prince Siddhartha (the Buddha-to-be) leaving his family to embark on his spiritual pursuit, a seemingly appropriate subject for the circumstances. The scene is placed in what would have been a contemporary Burmese royal court, with added embellishments that give it a fantastical quality.

picture-6

Another highlight in the Burmese section is a rare, sequined, nearly-six-meter-long hanging that portrays the scenes of the legend of Rama (catalogue #19). Although its purpose is unknown, one explanation is that this narrative textile may have served as a backdrop for puppet performances. The royal costumes portrayed in this artwork are echoed throughout the exhibition, through actual costumes and those that appear on puppets and in other paintings. Hambrecht Gallery also features artworks from Northern Thailand and Shan State, Burma. One of the first of these is a lavishly decorated miniature shrine almost two meters high from the highlands of Northern Thailand (catalogue #34). Made of lacquered and gilded wood, the shrine is adorned with mirrored glass and topped by several tiers of tapering roofs with prickly finials and a tiered parasol finial. Its structure is based on architectural forms of the time and demonstrates the tendency towards the elaborate and ornate.

picture-46

The exhibition continues in Osher Gallery with a section devoted to artworks solely from Central Thailand, which accounts for more than two-thirds of the artworks on view in the exhibition. On the wall to the left of the gallery is a head of a Buddha image in stucco (catalogue #45) displayed alongside other Buddha images. In the 1790s the first monarch of the new kingdom of Siam had hundreds of Buddha images from other parts of his realm brought to Wat Phra Chettuphon, a new temple built in Bangkok under his reign. To make the styles of the images uniform, he had them covered with layers of stucco coated in gilded lacquer. In the 1950s when this style had gone out of fashion, the stucco was removed from these temple images and most fragments were presumably discarded. The stucco Buddha image on view is only one of two that was known to survive.

On an opposite wall in the gallery, a complete set of thirteen paintings – each reflecting one of the thirteen chapters that recount the next-to-last story of the previous lives of the Buddha (catalogue #71-83) – is on display. This sacred story is often recited at religious festivals. In each painting a chapter of the sacred story is depicted in the middle of the composition with other narratives depicted along the edges.  The stories often add soap operatic visual elements depicting everyday dramas that perhaps kept the story interesting and relevant to the audience. A complete set of thirteen paintings telling this story is extremely rare. Having served its purpose, a set of such paintings after a recitation at a festival may have been put away with no provisions in place for their preservation, or dispersed individually or in smaller sets.

picture-7

A popular wedding gift from the royal Thai family was a gold bowl (catalogue #121). The ornate example on view in Emerald Cities was presented to the daughter of Hamilton King, a U.S. diplomat in Siam, by Rama VI on the occasion of her wedding in 1921. It was personally delivered by a Siamese envoy to the King family in the U.S. It is decorated with three alternating motifs: a mythical eagle with human attributes, stylized foliage, and a celestial being with the hand gesture of adoration. The presentation of a traditional Siamese gift to a westerner indicates a strong sense of national identity and pride.

Emerald Cities closes by showcasing shadow puppets used for the enactment of the Rama epic, head dresses worn by dancers portraying Rama and Sita in classical Siamese dance, and wooden statues of mythical creatures that are half-bird, half human and inhabited an Eden-like forest in Buddha legend. Of these, the opulent and bejeweled head dresses particularly reinforce the sumptuous aesthetic found in artworks from Siam and Burma around the 19th century. This aesthetic in different variations is echoed throughout most of the artworks on view in Emerald Cities.

picture-2

 

 

Isan (Isarn/Isaan/Esan) and Lanna Kingdom?Isan was dominated by the Lao LanXang Kingdom in the 13th thru 17th century.

The conflicts between LaneXang and Siam in the 18th thru 19th century;

 

Kanomkai 

When the Portuguese arrived in what was then the Kingdom of Ayudhya (the predecessor to the Kingdom of Siam, which is Thailand now) in the early 1800′s, they brought with them many culinary techniques that would remain until today in Thai cuisine. Perhaps the strongest influence was in dessert making, where Foy Thong, Thong Yip, Thong Yod, and other desserts made with egg yolks cured or cooked in syrup remain in the forms recognizable even in today’s traditional desserts in Portugal and some parts of Spain.

Playing Cards in Thailand

Officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam

The Portuguese were the first Westerners to trade with Ayutthaya in Thailand in the 16th century. Thus European playing cards could have been used alongside any locally produced cards and hybrid varieties evolved. Traders also arrived from India, Japan, the Arab world, England, Holland as well as France and often they had their own quarters or village communities. Chinese Money cards are produced in Thailand with Thai indices. The cultural heritage resulting from the presence of foreign cultures in Thailand still exists nowadays.

During the nineteenth century Belgian manufacturers (eg Brepols, Van Genechten) produced “Chinese” cards for South-East Asian countries including Java, the Celebes, Thailand and possibly China as well. Van Genechten was the first to print this kind of playing card in Turnhout: he was also one of the last, having managed to keep a firm hold on his markets. It is recorded that 111 tons of playing cards were exported from Belgium to Thailand in 1938.

Chinese cards exported to Far Eastern countries by Belgian manufacturers

Left: typical example of ‘Chinese’ cards exported to Far Eastern countries by Belgian manufacturers.

For a story about gambling in Thailand, click here.

The state-controlled Thai Playing Cards Manufacturing Factory, Bangkok, produces about 400,000 decks per month, including cards similar to the ones shown left   more →

 

“Learn Thai” Playing Cards, 2009

A set of cards aimed at the foreign adult learner of the Thai language is published by Lanna Innovation Co. Ltd. Their website states that “Adults learn language differently than children and adolescents. Our approach is one of engaged, problem-driven learning which seeks to leverage effective language learning tools and teaching methods.”

Learn Thai playing cards

Above: cards from 44-card “Learn Thai” cards, described as an easy to use innovative system to learn faster through visual memory. Published by Lanna Innovation Co. Ltd, 2009. Instructions to using the cards

1844

1844

Chiang Rai in 1844 and Chiang Saen in 1881.

By the late 19th century, Siam had to deal with a new aggression – colonial powers in the form of the British in Burma and French in Indochina. The Siamese dealt with the British by allowing them to trade in teak. This resulted in the import of Burmese laborers from British-occupied Burma into the main cities of Lanna Kingdom. With the French, Siam had to part with two large pieces of land which were formerly part of Lanna Kingdom: a section on the east bank of the Mekong, in 1893, and another on the west bank, in 1893

Franco-Siamese treaties of 1893, 1904 and 1907; made Isan a final frontier between Laos and Siam. Isan covers 62,000 square miles (160,000 square km) from Mekong river to Khorat plateau. Today, there are more than 22 million Lao Isan people in Thailand (In 1997, Isan’s population was 21,086,501 million people, about 1/3 of Thailand’s total population) and most of the population is of Lao origin. The main spoken language of the region is Lao Isan language which is similar to Lao.

1884

Siamese Cat Appearance In Ancient Illustrations

In the late 1700’s, in Russia, engravings of a cat that looked very similar to the Siamese cat were found. Illustrations of the Siamese cats among others were also present in an ancient text called the Cat-Book Poems. These are the earliest recorded Siamese cat history writings in the world.

Siamese Cat History

Siamese Beginnings In The United Kingdom

Siamese cat history became clearer when in the year 1884 a British Consul general brought home a pair of Siamese cats from Siam. Legend has it that the pair of breeding cats that the British Consul General Gould brought with him was a gift from the royal family of Siam. The pair of cats gave birth to 3 kittens, which when displayed in the United Kingdom they captured the hearts of many. Their fame brought about the importation of several other pairs of Siamese cats and the rest is Siamese cat history.

 

 

Two Main Kinds Of Siamese Cats 

 

Today, there are two kinds of Siamese cat breeds, the traditional and the modern. The traditional breed has upheld the old characteristics and traits of the original cats brought from Siam while the modern Siamese breed has elongated the build of the cat and made it more svelte with longer legs and a smaller head. Siamese cat history now has two different breeds to take note of. 

 

The traditional breed is less popular than the modern breed but many traditional breed fanciers still strive to maintain and uphold the original standards. Other traits that modern Siamese breeds have gotten rid of are the usually kinks on the tail of the cats and their tendency to have a cross-eyed appearance. The story relating to the kinks on the cats’ tails is among the many legends associated with Siamese cat history. 

 

The many variations of the Siamese cat colors and length of coat has also made the breed very diverse and the only common things among the breeds are the points in the extremities and the blue color of the cat’s eyes.

1890

 THAILAND (SIAM) RAMA V ATT 1890 UNC RED/BR ★SPLENDID★

 

KINGDOM OF SIAM (Thailand), Rama V (Phra Maha Chulalongkorn, 1868 – 1910), ATT, 1890. 5.65g, 19mm, Bronze. Y# 22. Red & Brown Uncirculated. Splendid example.

1899

Siam: Tax in Time and Labor

 
Library of Congress Prints and Photos Collection
 
1895, by William Henry Jackson

Up until 1899, the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) used to tax its peasants through a system of corvee labor. Each farmer had to spend three months of the year or more working for the king, rather than earning money for his own family.

At the turn of the last century, Siam’s elites realized that this forced labor system was causing political unrest. They decided to allow the peasants to work for themselves all year, and levy income taxes in money instead.

 

Source: Tarling, Nicholas. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000

1904.

King Rama VII, the last absolute ruler of Siam, was the first ever Siamese king to visit Lanna.

1931

When a coup in 1931 ended the absolute monarchy, Chiang Mai was reduced to become a province of present-day Thailand, and the Kingdom of Lanna which King Mangrai founded over six hundred years earlier, was swept into the pages of history

1939

Bangkok’s Democracy Monument, commissioned in 1939 to commemorate the 1932 Siamese coup d’état which led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in what was then the Kingdom of Siam.

the end @ copyright dr Iwan Suwandy 2012