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The Australia Historic Collections(KOLEKSI SEJARAH AUSTRALIA) 1788-1829

THE AUSTRALIA HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Kedatangan Orang Inggris ke Australia
1788-1829
oleh
Ida Lee (Mrs Charles Bruce Marriott)
LIMA PULUH LIMA DENGAN ILUSTRASI
DAN PENDAHULUAN OLEH HON KANAN.
Marquis dari Linlithgow, P.C., K.T.
Pertama Gubernur Jenderal Persemakmuran
LONGMANS, HIJAU, DAN CO
39 PATERNOSTE R ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK DAN BOMBAY
1906

The Coming of the British to Australia
1788 to 1829

by

Ida Lee (Mrs. Charles Bruce Marriott)

WITH FIFTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS
AND A PREFACE BY THE RIGHT HON.
THE MARQUIS OF LINLITHGOW, P.C., K.T.
First Governor-General of the Commonwealth

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY
1906


Monumen Kapten Cook di Sydney

Monument to Captain Cook at Sydney


 

PREFACE.PENGANTAR.
Australia telah mencapai tahap yang menarik dalam sejarahnya. Dia telah menyelesaikan lima tahun pertama kehidupan sebagai seorang Persemakmuran, periode yang cukup lama baginya untuk mendapatkan kesadaran tugas dan nasib sebagai bangsa yang bersatu. Volume sejarah nya sampai 1 Januari, 1901 saat dia masih terdiri dari Koloni terpisah, selesai. Tetapi tidak tertutup dan dilakukan dengan. Sebaliknya, bab-bab awal telah memperoleh makna baru dan nilai. Australia harus melihat, mundur serta maju. Mereka akan menemukan dalam catatan penemuan dan penyelesaian bimbingan dan inspirasi negara mereka untuk masa depan. Mereka akan memahami lebih jelas bagaimana lahan mereka dan orang telah dicetak dan dibentuk dalam bentuk yang sekarang oleh iklim, tanah dan keadaan. Mereka juga akan mengingatkan, yang harus diperlukan, berapa lama dan dekat dan intim adalah ikatan yang mengikat mereka ke Ibu Negara.

Narasi dari Colony Hari Tua, yang penulis telah disiapkan, akan ditemukan menarik dalam gaya, akurat dalam pernyataan, dan adil dalam penilaian. Kisah penemuan pertama dan penyelesaian Australia adalah salah satu perintis romansa panjang. Kami berbagi antusiasme pelayar awal, karena mereka menelusuri garis-garis besar benua pulau. Kita membaca dari kesan pertama dibuat pada pikiran Dampier dan Cook oleh flora fauna aneh atau negara, dan oleh penampilan tidak kurang tunggal dan adat istiadat kaum pribumi. Kemudian kita diperkenalkan kepada para Gubernur awal, semua dari mereka pelaut atau tentara. Bagi mereka Australia berutang banyak, karena mereka meletakkan dalam dan lebar dasar Persemakmuran masa depan.

Mrs Marriott menggambarkan dasar dari kekayaan awal dari beberapa pemukiman yang lebih tua, dan awal dari Victoria dan Queensland, Australia Barat, Australia Selatan dan Tasmania. Dia memiliki catatan pada gereja-gereja pertama, resimen pertama, yang bushrangers dan polisi dari masa lalu yang baik. Dia memberi sketsa yang kuat dari fitur fisik, dan kehidupan hewan dan nabati negara.

Untuk Australia, volume harus menarik menyerap, untuk warga negara lain dari Kekaisaran, banyak kesenangan dan keuntungan harus datang dengan teliti itu, dan, sebagai sebuah karya pendidikan bagi generasi muda, harus paling berharga, seperti yang muncul secara khusus diadaptasi untuk membaca buku-di sekolah.

Higginsfield, Cheshire, April 1906.

(Tertanda) Linlithgow

 
 

 

Australia has reached an interesting stage in her history. She has completed the first five years of her life as a Commonwealth, a sufficiently long period for her to gain a consciousness of her duties and her destinies as a united nation. The volume of her annals up to the 1st of January, 1901, while she was still composed of separate Colonies, is finished. But it is not closed and done with. On the contrary, its early chapters have acquired a new meaning and value. Australians should look, backwards as well as forwards. They will find in the records of the discovery and settlement of their country guidance and inspiration for the future. They will understand more clearly how their land and people have been moulded and fashioned in their present shape by climate, soil and circumstances. They will also be reminded, should that be necessary, how old and close and intimate are the ties that bind them to the Mother Country.

The narrative of the Old Colony Days, which the author has prepared, will be found fascinating in style, accurate in statement, and fair in judgment. The tale of the first discovery and settlement of Australia is one long romance of pioneering. We share the enthusiasm of the early voyagers, as they trace the outlines of the island continent. We read of the first impressions made on the mind of Dampier and of Cook by the peculiar flora or fauna of the country, and by the not less singular appearance and customs of the aborigines. Then we are introduced to the early Governors, all of them sailors or soldiers. To them Australia owes much, for they laid deep and wide the foundations of the future Commonwealth.

Mrs. Marriott describes the foundation of the early fortunes of some of the older settlements, and the beginnings of Victoria and Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. She has notes on the first churches; the first regiments; the bushrangers and the police of the good old times. She gives a vigorous sketch of the physical features, and of the animal and vegetable life of the country.

To Australians, the volume should be of absorbing interest; to other citizens of the Empire, much pleasure and profit should come by a perusal of it; and, as an educational work for the rising generation, it should be most valuable, as it appears to be specially adapted for a reading-book in schools.

Higginsfield, Cheshire, April 1906.

(Signed) LINLITHGOW


CONTENTS. PREFACE BAB I. KOLONISASI AUSTRALIA Australia-negara mengecewakan untuk pertama penjelajah Kapten-nya Arthur Phillip-armada-Botany Bay pertama-Pertama pertemuan dengan pribumi-Penghapusan ke Port Jackson-Pendiri Kedatangan Sydney-La Perouse-Phillip Bay-perjalanan ke Penanaman Patah yang pertama butiran-Deskripsi kanguru-Karakter aborigin-mereka dan modus Kehidupan-Serangan pada Pertemuan berburu-Fly-opossum madu asli metode memancing-Kano-Pribumi senjata-Rock Lukisan-Pribumi keyakinan-Percobaan serangan terhadap Bencana penyelesaian- untuk H.M.S. Wali-Gubernur Phillip terluka-Matthew Flinders dan Kapten George Vancouver Bass-dikunjungi-Tasmania-Bass mencapai Pelabuhan Barat-Penemuan Gunung Keira coalfield-Flinders dan Bass mengelilingi Tasmania
BAB II. GUBERNUR YANG AWAL.

Arthur Phillip-Nya awal karir-Diangkat oleh Tuhan Sydney Tuhan Howe
surat-Sukses-Membuktikan perjalanan menjadi sangat baik penguasa-Francis
Grose-William Paterson-John Hunter-Nya sebelumnya karir-Mendorong
eksplorasi-Nya berburu dari ternak liar Philip Gidley Raja-Nya
kesulitan dengan New South Wales Korps-William Bligh Nya-
kompeten sebagai penguasa-Penuntutan Kapten Macarthur-Gubernur
dicopot dan dikirim keluar dari koloni-George Johnston-Joseph
Foveaux-William Paterson lagi bertindak sebagai gubernur-Lachlan Macquarie-Nya
menguasai cara-cara dan kebijakan-Nya tercerahkan upaya untuk reformasi
mata-Thomas Makdougall Brisbane-Nya karir dibedakan sebagai
tentara-Nya pengabdian untuk astronomi-mendirikan Parramatta
Mendorong observatorium-imigrasi-Meningkatkan berkembang biak
kuda-Kesulitan dengan mata uang-William Stewart, bertindak
Gubernur-Sayang-Nya Ralph masalah dengan pers-Mendorong
eksplorasi-Diserang oleh pidato Wentworth-Peter Cunningham dari Darling

BAB III. SYDNEY pada abad kedelapan belas.

Situs kota-Its jalanan sempit-Parramatta-Tanah pertama
hibah-pertama pemukim-Kawanan ternak dan mulai berkembang-yang
cetak pertama kali digunakan-Arsitektur-Ruang penyimpanan dan
pabrik-Peron itu deskripsi tayangan Sydney Froude yang

BAB IV. THE LADY NELSON, EXPEDITION Baudin'S, dan peneliti.

Lady Nelson-Dibangun dengan centreboards-nya pelayaran di bawah James
Hibah-Jejak pantai utara barat untuk beberapa jarak Barat
Port-Memerintahkan untuk melanjutkan eksplorasi-nya John Murray diangkat ke
perintah-Penemuan Port Phillip-Perancis-ekspedisi Napoleon
benda-Petualangan Géographe dan Naturaliste-Flinders mencapai
Australia Penyidik-Survei pantai dari Cape Leeuwin
timur-Pertemuan dengan Perancis di Teluk Encounter-Tiba di
Sydney-Sails untuk survei pantai timur dan utara-Kembali ke
Sydney-rusak di perjalanan pulang-Kembali ke Sydney pada perahu-nya
Sekali lagi bangunan-sendiri mulai untuk Inggris dan dipenjara di
Mauritius-Prancis mengklaim penemuan itu untungnya dibantah oleh
sebelum publikasi

BAB V. CROSSING Blue Mountains.

Gunung-gunung ini dijelaskan-banyak upaya untuk lintas mereka-Phillip-Tench
dan Arndell-Dawes-Tench dan Dawes-Tench-Paterson-Hacking-Bass-
Caley-Lawson, Blaxland dan Wentworth akhirnya berhasil-Evans mencapai
yang Bathurst Plains

BAB VI. MEMBUAT JALAN, PENDIRIAN Bathurst, EKSPLORASI LEBIH LANJUT.

Jalan-pembuatan kebijakan-Nya Macquarie metode kontras dengan yang lama
cara kolonial-The Great Western Jalan-The Great Southern Jalan-The
Great North Road-Macquarie memilih situs untuk kota
Bathurst-Evans diperintahkan untuk survei Macquarie Sungai-Oxley yang
ekspedisi-Temukan Lembah-Nya Wellington kedua ekspedisi-Nya
deskripsi pemakaman asli tanah-Allan Cunningham utara
Bathurst-Oxley mengeksplorasi Brisbane Sungai-Sturt dan Hume menemukan
Sayang Sungai-Sturt mengeksplorasi Murrumbidgee dan mencapai Danau
Alexandrina-Mitchell eksplorasi

BAB VII. PEMUKIMAN BARU.

Lama paroki-Para Sapi Pastura-Sungai Hunter dan Newcastle-The
Hawkesbury banjir-Macquarie kotapraja-Liverpool-Campbell
Kota-Goulburn-Parramatta-Bathurst sebagai pusat
eksplorasi-Gubernur Darling kunjungi pada tahun 1829-Wellington-Barat
Port-Tasmania-Tasmania asli The-Nyamuk, asli
bushranger-Gubernur Arthur berusaha untuk melokalisasi
skema luar biasa pribumi-Robinson berhasil-Hume dan yang Hovell
Kedua penemuan-upaya untuk mencapai Port Phillip oleh laut-Raja Philip
perjalanan ke North-Western Australia-Port Essington-Melville
Pulau-Voyages dari Mermaid-A sangat banyak kapal-karam
pelaut-Australia Barat-Pulau Norfolk

BAB VIII. Para pionir DAN PRIBUMI Dalam Negeri.

Para pemukim-awal mereka rumah dan perkebunan-Serangan di rumah Campbell
di Goimbla-Sebuah peternakan di semak-Penduduk asli dari Bathurst
kabupaten-keyakinan mereka-mereka primitif kecerdasan dan
karakter Perselisihan dengan pemukim untuk kepemilikan
Sapi lahan mencuri-Pribumi metode memasak kambing-Para pemimpin di
Bathurst-Para Corroboree berkabung kebiasaan-Pribumi mode
penguburan-asli lagu-Kano-A komisaris Crown Lands melintasi
sungai Penduduk asli sebagai pemburu

BAB IX. PERTAMA resimen, YANG BUSHRANGERS DAN POLISI.

Marinir-The New South Wales Korps-73-The The Veteran Kerajaan
Korps-46-The The 48-The Buff's-The 40-Kematian ke-57-dari
Kapten Logan-The 39-Bushrangers-Perburuan ternak-Bush
polisi-polisi-Mounted Penunjukan Kapten Forbes

BAB X. GEREJA PERTAMA.

Yang pertama pendeta-Richard Johnson-Membangun gereja-Hal pertama adalah
dibakar-Jasa Layanan diadakan di sebuah toko yang diadakan di Yatim
Sekolah-Samuel Marsden tiba-Gedung St Philip's-pertama
gereja di Parramatta-Henry Fulton-Marsden kunjungan Inggris-William
Cowper-Robert Cartwright-Marsden sebagai petani-Marsden mendirikan sebuah
stasiun misi di Selandia Baru-St. Philip di Sydney membesar-St.
Matius, Windsor-Gereja Kristus, Newcastle-Gereja-gereja pertama di
Castlereagh, di Hawkesbury, di Campbelltown, di Port Macquarie, di
Bathurst-St. James, Sydney-Archdeaconry of New South Wales
dibentuk-Uskup Heber-Thomas Hobbes Scott ditunjuk pertama
diakon agung-Jumlah dan karakter dari gereja-Tokoh
Kapten awam-Wallis-Sir Edward Parry explorer-Nya Arktik kehidupan
di Port Stephens-Lady Sayang-gereja Katolik Roma-Presbyterian
gereja-Dr. Lang-The Ajaran Wesley

BAB XI. FITUR FISIK AUSTRALIA; HEWAN DAN HIDUP nabati.

Pandangan umum benua-Jejak vulkanik aksi-Its pelabuhan
dan pedalaman lembah, karena laut penggundulan-Snow on the
gunung-Bush kebakaran-Gandum dan gulma-Alat-Gardens di Port
Jackson-Pohon-Rumput-Wildflowers-kuda dan yang
Menghimpun pengendara-ternak-Berburu-The dingo-Buah-kelelawar dan mereka
devastations-Burung-Familiar nama asing spesies-Kesimpulan

LAMPIRAN. Daftar kota dan stasiun dan jarak dalam mil dari Sydney

INDEKS
 
 
 

CHAPTER I. THE DAWN OF AUSTRALIAN COLONISATION.

Australia—The country disappointing to its first explorers—Captain
Arthur Phillip—The first fleet—Botany Bay—First meeting with the
natives—Removal to Port Jackson—Founding of Sydney—Arrival of La
Perouse—Phillip's voyage to Broken Bay—The planting of the first
grain—Description of the kangaroo—The aborigines—Their character and
mode of Life—Attack on the Fly—Opossum hunting—Gathering
honey—Native method of fishing—Canoes—Native weapons—Rock
Paintings—Native beliefs—Attempted attack on the settlement—Disaster
to H.M.S. Guardian—Governor Phillip wounded—Matthew Flinders and
George Bass—Captain Vancouver—Tasmania visited—Bass reaches Port
Western—Discovery of the Mount Keira coalfield—Flinders and Bass
circumnavigate Tasmania

CHAPTER II. THE EARLY GOVERNORS.

Arthur Phillip—His early career—Appointed by Lord Sydney—Lord Howe's
letter—Success of the voyage—Proves to be an excellent ruler—Francis
Grose—William Paterson—John Hunter—His previous career—Encourages
exploration—His hunt of the wild cattle—Philip Gidley King—His
difficulties with the New South Wales Corps—William Bligh—His
incompetence as a ruler—Prosecution of Captain Macarthur—The governor
deposed and sent out of the colony—George Johnston—Joseph
Foveaux—William Paterson again acts as governor—Lachlan Macquarie—His
masterful ways and enlightened policy—His attempts to reform the
currency—Thomas Makdougall Brisbane—His distinguished career as a
soldier—His devotion to astronomy—Founds Parramatta
observatory—Encourages immigration—Improves the breed of
horses—Difficulties with the currency—William Stewart, acting
governor—Ralph Darling—His troubles with the press—Encourages
exploration—Attacked by Wentworth—Peter Cunningham's eulogy of Darling

CHAPTER III. SYDNEY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

Site of the city—Its narrow streets—Parramatta—The first land
grants—The first settlers—Flocks and herds begin to flourish—The
printing press first used—Architecture—Storehouses and
factories—Péron's description of Sydney—Froude's impressions

CHAPTER IV. THE LADY NELSON, BAUDIN'S EXPEDITION, AND THE INVESTIGATOR.

The Lady Nelson—Built with centreboards—Her voyage out under James
Grant—Traces the north coast for some distance west of Western
Port—Ordered to continue his explorations—John Murray appointed to the
command—Discovery of Port Phillip—The French expedition—Napoleon's
objects—Voyage of the Géographe and Naturaliste—Flinders reaches
Australia in the Investigator—Surveys the coast from Cape Leeuwin
eastwards—Meeting with the French in Encounter Bay—Arrives at
Sydney—Sails to survey the eastern and northern coasts—Returns to
Sydney—Wrecked on the voyage home—Returns to Sydney in a boat of his
own building—Again starts for England and is imprisoned at
Mauritius—The French claims to his discoveries fortunately disproved by
prior publication

CHAPTER V. CROSSING THE BLUE MOUNTAINS.

The mountains described—The many attempts to cross them—Phillip—Tench
and Arndell—Dawes—Tench and Dawes—Tench—Paterson—Hacking—Bass—
Caley—Lawson, Blaxland and Wentworth at last succeed—Evans reaches
the Bathurst Plains

CHAPTER VI. MAKING THE ROADS, FOUNDING OF BATHURST, FURTHER EXPLORATION.

Macquarie's road-making policy—His methods contrasted with the old
colonial ways—The Great Western Road—The Great Southern Road—The
Great North Road—Macquarie selects the site for the town of
Bathurst—Evans ordered to survey the Macquarie River—Oxley's
expedition—Discovers the Wellington Valley—His second expedition—His
description of a native burial ground—Allan Cunningham north of
Bathurst—Oxley explores the Brisbane River—Sturt and Hume discover the
Darling River—Sturt explores the Murrumbidgee and reaches Lake
Alexandrina—Mitchell's explorations

CHAPTER VII. THE NEW SETTLEMENTS.

The old parishes—The Cow Pastures—The Hunter River and Newcastle—The
Hawkesbury floods—Macquarie's townships—Liverpool—Campbell
Town—Goulburn—Parramatta—Bathurst as a centre of
exploration—Governor Darling's visit in 1829—Wellington—Western
Port—Tasmania—The Tasmanian natives—Mosquito, the native
bushranger—Governor Arthur's attempt to localise the
natives—Robinson's remarkable scheme succeeds—Hume and Hovell's
discoveries—Second attempt to reach Port Phillip by sea—Philip King's
voyage to North-Western Australia—Port Essington—Melville
Island—Voyages of the Mermaid—A very much ship-wrecked
mariner—Western Australia—Norfolk Island

CHAPTER VIII. THE PIONEERS AND THE NATIVES OF THE INTERIOR.

The early settlers—Their houses and estates—Attack on Campbell's house
at Goimbla—A cattle station in the bush—The natives of the Bathurst
district—Their primitive beliefs—Their intelligence and
character—Disputes with the settlers as to ownership of the
land—Cattle stealing—Native method of cooking mutton—The chiefs at
Bathurst—The corroboree mourning customs—Native modes of
burial—Native songs—Canoes—A commissioner of Crown Lands crosses a
river—The natives as hunters

CHAPTER IX. THE FIRST REGIMENTS, THE BUSHRANGERS AND THE POLICE.

The Marines—The New South Wales Corps—The 73rd—The Royal Veteran
Corps—The 46th—The 48th—The Buff's—The 40th—The 57th—Death of
Captain Logan—The 39th—Bushrangers—Poaching of cattle—Bush
constables—Mounted police—Appointment of Captain Forbes

CHAPTER X. THE FIRST CHURCHES.

The first chaplain—Richard Johnson—Builds the first church—It is
burnt down—Services held in a store—Service held at the Orphan
School—Samuel Marsden arrives—Building of St. Philip's—The first
church at Parramatta—Henry Fulton—Marsden visits England—William
Cowper—Robert Cartwright—Marsden as a farmer—Marsden founds a
mission station in New Zealand—St. Philip's at Sydney enlarged—St.
Matthew's, Windsor—Christ Church, Newcastle—The first churches at the
Castlereagh, at the Hawkesbury, at Campbelltown, at Port Macquarie, at
Bathurst—St. James's, Sydney—Archdeaconry of New South Wales
formed—Bishop Heber—Thomas Hobbes Scott appointed first
archdeacon—Number and character of the churches—Prominent
laymen—Captain Wallis—Sir Edward Parry the arctic explorer—His life
at Port Stephens—Lady Darling—Roman Catholic churches—Presbyterian
churches—Dr. Lang—The Wesleyans

CHAPTER XI. AUSTRALIA'S PHYSICAL FEATURES; ITS ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE LIFE.

General view of the continent—Traces of volcanic action—Its harbours
and inland valleys, due to marine denudation—Snow on the
mountains—Bush fires—Grain and the weeds—Gardening—Gardens of Port
Jackson—Trees—Grasses—Wildflowers—The horse and its
riders—Mustering cattle—Hunting—The dingo—Fruit-bats and their
devastations—Birds—Familiar names of unfamiliar species—Conclusion

APPENDIX. List of towns and stations and the distance in miles from Sydney

INDEX

DAFTAR ILUSTRASI. 01 Monumen untuk Kapten Cook di Sydney 02 William Dampier 03 William Dampier mencapai Australia 04 Kapten Cook 05 Para Dikenal Gambar Pertama dari Australia. Bangkai Belanda Kapal Batavia dekat Geraldton, Australia Barat, pada tahun 1628 06 tanah Captain Cook di New South Wales. (Dari cetak lama, 1807) 07 Kepala Sydney 08 Pribumi memancing di Port Jackson 09 Sydney Pribumi memanjat Pohon 10 Menjiplak dari Rudal Mesir yang seharusnya oleh beberapa Penulis tua untuk Boomerang yang menyerupai 11 Pribumi Australia merokok keluar opossum yang 12 Pribumi memancing dengan FIZ-pertunjukan 13 Kapten Phillip menemukan ukiran pada Rocks di Sydney. (Dari tua cetak, 1807) 14 Gua Menggambar ditemukan oleh Sir George Grey di Australia Barat 15 Gua Menggambar ditemukan oleh Sir George Grey di Australia Barat 16 Count de La Perouse, Navigator Prancis yang mencapai Botany Bay Enam Hari setelah Kapten Phillip telah berlabuh di sana, dan setelah mendarat di Tasmania 17 Arthur Phillip, Kapten-Jenderal dan Komandan-in-Chief of New South Wales 18 Bennilong, salah satu yang didampingi Gubernur Pribumi Phillip untuk Inggris 19 Kapten John Hunter 20 Kapten Philip Gidley Raja Kapten William Bligh 21. (Dengan izin dari Tuan H Graves dan Co, Ltd) 22 Mayor Jenderal Lachlan Macquarie 23 Sir Thomas Brisbane 24 Sir Ralph Sayang 25 Sydney Cove. (Dari sebuah lukisan awal) 26 Sydney. (Seperti Peron melihatnya) 27 Lady Nelson. (Dengan izin dari Messrs Longmans, Hijau, dan Co) 28 Sebuah Partai Menjelajahi dengan Phillip dan Hunter. (Dari sketsa oleh Kapten Hunter) 29 Parrots menusuk Australia Pribumi di Blue Mountains 30 Sketsa Peta Barat Negara Blue Mountains. (Ditemukan oleh G. W. Evans) 31 Seorang Kepala asli Bathurst. (Dari "Explorasi Oxley itu") 32 Perangkat dipahat oleh Pribumi di Pohon di Wellington 33 Lachlan River di Condobolin 34 Tank Stream, Sydney 34a Sebuah Jalan melalui Hutan di Tasmania 35 Kapten Cook mendarat di Petualangan Bay, Tasmania. (Dengan R. Caton Woodville) 36 Lempeng Vlamingh yang Memberikan Prasasti Lempeng Hartog yang Ditemukan oleh-Nya pada Dirk Hartog Island, dan juga Prasasti Kedua Sendiri. 37 Pribumi Australia di Pengadilan 38 Tanah Pemakaman asli dekat Wellington, NS Wales. (Dari "Oxley yang Explorasi ") 39 Pribumi menusuk yang Kanguru 40 Resimen ke-3 pada tahun 1823 Buffs Pemerintah 40a Perhatikan kembali Bushrangers 41 St Filipus Gereja, Sydney 42 St John Church, Parramatta 43 Windsor Gereja 44 Holy Trinity Church, Kelso (Old Bathurst) 45 Richmond Gereja 46 Uskup Reginald Heber, Uskup dari Calcutta, di mana Lihat Keuskupan yang New South Wales ditempatkan oleh Royal Charter pada tahun 1823 47 Gereja St Leonard 48 Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry 49 Gereja Skotlandia, Parramatta 50 opossum ini 51 Vampire Bebek-52 Platypus ditagih 53 Para Wonga-Wonga Pigeon 54 Para Kingfisher Raksasa 55 Para Emu
 
 
 
 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

01 Monument to Captain Cook at Sydney

02 William Dampier

03 William Dampier reaches Australia

04 Captain Cook

05 The First Known Pictures of Australia. Wreck of the Dutch
Ship Batavia near Geraldton, West Australia, in 1628

06 Captain Cook lands in New South Wales. (From an old print, 1807)

07 Sydney Heads

08 Natives fishing at Port Jackson

09 Sydney Natives climbing Trees

10 Tracing of an Egyptian Missile which was supposed by some old Writers to
resemble the Boomerang

11 Natives of Australia smoking out the Opossum

12 Natives fishing with the Fiz-gig

13 Captain Phillip finds the Carvings on the Rocks at Sydney. (From an old
print, 1807)

14 Cave Drawing discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

15 Cave Drawing discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

16 Count de la Pérouse, the French Navigator who reached Botany Bay Six
Days after Captain Phillip had anchored there, and afterwards landed in
Tasmania

17 Arthur Phillip, Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief of New South
Wales

18 Bennilong, one of the Natives who accompanied Governor Phillip to
England

19 Captain John Hunter

20 Captain Philip Gidley King

21 Captain William Bligh. (By kind permission of Messrs. H Graves
and Co., Ltd.)

22 Major-General Lachlan Macquarie

23 Sir Thomas Brisbane

24 Sir Ralph Darling

25 Sydney Cove. (From an early painting)

26 Sydney. (As Péron saw it)

27 The Lady Nelson. (By kind permission of Messrs. Longmans, Green,
and Co.)

28 An Exploring Party with Phillip and Hunter. (From a sketch by Captain
Hunter)

29 Australian Natives spearing Parrots in the Blue Mountains

30 Sketch Map of the Country West of the Blue Mountains. (Discovered by G.
W. Evans)

31 A Native Chief of Bathurst. (From "Oxley's Explorations")

32 Devices carved by the Natives on the Trees at Wellington

33 Lachlan River at Condobolin

34 The Tank Stream, Sydney

34a A Road through the Forest in Tasmania

35 Captain Cook landing at Adventure Bay, Tasmania. (By R. Caton Woodville)

36 Vlamingh's Plate Giving an Inscription of Hartog's Plate Found by Him on
Dirk Hartog Island, and also a Second Inscription of His Own.

37 Natives of Australia on Trial

38 Native Burial Ground near Wellington, N. S. Wales. (From "Oxley's
Explorations")

39 Natives spearing the Kangaroo

40 The 3rd Regiment of Buffs in 1823

40a Government Notice re Bushrangers

41 St. Philip's Church, Sydney

42 St. John's Church, Parramatta

43 Windsor Church

44 Holy Trinity Church, Kelso (Old Bathurst)

45 Richmond Church

46 Bishop Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, under which See the Diocese
of New South Wales was placed by Royal Charter in 1823

47 St. Leonard's Church

48 Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry

49 The Scotch Church, Parramatta

50 The Opossum

51 The Vampire

52 The Duck-billed Platypus

53 The Wonga-Wonga Pigeon

54 The Giant Kingfisher

55 The Emu

BAB I. DAWN OF AUSTRALIA Kolonisasi.
Kolonisasi Australia telah seluruhnya karya dari Inggris, Apapun mungkin telah kewarganegaraan dari penemu pertama, pembangunan selanjutnya telah berada di bawah bendera Inggris saja.

Thevet, ahli geografi Prancis, sejauh kembali sebagai 1550, bercerita tentang penemuan sebuah Tanah Austral oleh seorang pilot Inggris, tetapi yang pilot itu, tidak mudah untuk menegaskan, juga tidak ada belum bukti positif bahwa Tanah itu Austral Australia. Sejauh yang diketahui orang Inggris pertama yang mengunjungi benua itu William Dampier yang tiba di pantai utara-barat di Cygnet diperintahkan oleh Swan, bajak laut, pada Januari, 1688.

Mengikutinya setelah interval panjang, pada tahun 1770, datang Kapten James Cook, di HMS Endeavour, yang, sebagaimana telah diberitahu begitu sering dan dengan begitu banyak detail, setelah mengelilingi Selandia Baru, meneliti seluruh pantai timur Australia dan memberinya nama New South Wales dari kemiripan seharusnya Wales Selatan Inggris .

Australia muncul, bagaimanapun, telah mengecewakan penemunya pertama. Tidak hanya itu jauh lebih kecil daripada yang telah dibayangkan oleh ahli geografi, tapi itu ditemukan ingin di produksi alam yang diperlukan untuk kesejahteraan Eropa. Dibandingkan dengan poin pertama tanah mencapai di Amerika, itu tandus dan tidak berbuah. Belanda tidak akan mengabaikan penemuan mereka di pantai barat itu mereka tidak percaya bahwa deskripsi dari pelaut mereka, yang berbicara tentang “tandus, pantai berpasir dan liar, pantai berkarang yang dihuni oleh orang kulit hitam telanjang, jahat dan kejam”. Selain batu-batu dan bukit pasir tandus tampaknya telah sedikit bagi Belanda untuk menggambarkan; rincian lain dalam jurnal-jurnal lama hanya memberitahu kecelakaan untuk kapal mereka, dan kesulitan menemukan air segar.

Rekening Dampier adalah lebih menarik. Di dalamnya kita memperoleh sekilas “tanah tinggi acuh tak acuh dengan lembut banyak terbit tidak curam atau tinggi dengan pasir putih di dekat pantai, tapi lebih jauh ke pedalaman merah, yang memproduksi rumput pada jumbai yang besar, dengan kesehatan dan semak-semak sekitar sepuluh kaki tinggi yang memiliki mereka puncak ditutupi dengan daun … dan semak macam penyelam dengan bunga kuning, atau bunga, beberapa biru dan sebagian putih-kebanyakan dari mereka dengan bau yang sangat harum “[*]. Deskripsi ini jawaban banyak tempat di pantai barat. Namun baik Inggris maupun Belanda (setelah 1628) berusaha untuk menjajah itu.

[* Trigonella suavissima. "Tepat menyerupai jerami dipotong baru dalam parfum yang memberikan keluar bahkan di negara segar kehijauan Ketika di laut dari Tanjung Leuwin pada September, 1827, setelah pelayaran tiga bulan saya masuk akal parfum dari pantai." (Lihat Mitchell timur Australia, vol. ii, 65 hlm.).]

 
 
 
 

 

CH

 

CHAPTER I. THE DAWN OF AUSTRALIAN COLONISATION.

The colonisation of Australia has been entirely the work of the British, Whatever may have been the nationality of its first discoverer, its subsequent development has been under the British flag alone.

Thevet, the French geographer, as far back as 1550, tells us of the discovery of an Austral Land by an English pilot, but who the pilot was, is not easy to affirm, nor is there as yet positive proof that the Austral Land was Australia. So far as is known the first Englishman to visit the continent was William Dampier who arrived on the north-western coasts in the Cygnet commanded by Swan, the buccaneer, in January, 1688.

Following him after a long interval, in 1770, came Captain James Cook, in H.M.S. Endeavour, who, as has been told so often and with so much detail, after circumnavigating New Zealand, examined the whole of the eastern coast of Australia and gave it the name of New South Wales from a supposed resemblance to the South Wales of Great Britain.

Australia appears, however, to have been disappointing to its first discoverers. Not only was it much smaller than had been imagined by geographers, but it was found wanting in the natural productions necessary for the welfare of Europeans. Compared with the first points of land reached in America, it was barren and unfruitful. The Dutch would not have neglected their discoveries on the west coast had they not believed the descriptions of their seamen, who spoke of the “barren, sandy shores and wild, rocky coasts inhabited by naked black people, malicious and cruel”. Besides these rocks and barren sand hills there seems to have been little for the Dutch to describe; the other details in the old journals only tell of mishaps to their ships, and the difficulty of finding fresh water.

Dampier’s account is more interesting. In it we obtain glimpses of “the land of indifferent height with many gentle risings neither steep nor high—with white sand near the shore, but further inland red,—producing grass in great tufts, with heath and shrubs about ten feet high having their tops covered with leaves…and bushes of divers sorts with yellow flowers, or blossoms, some blue and some white—most of them with a very fragrant smell”[*]. This description answers to many a spot on the western coast. Yet neither the English nor the Dutch (after 1628) attempted to colonise it.

[* Trigonella suavissima. "Exactly resembling new mown hay in perfume which it gives out even in the freshest state of verdure. When at sea off Cape Leuwin in September, 1827, after a three months' voyage I was sensible of a perfume from the shore" (see Mitchell's East Australia, vol. ii., p. 65).]

William Dampier.

William Dampier mencapai Australia.

Dalam log Cook pelayaran pertamanya telah memberitahu kami sederhana dan setia dalam bahasa pelaut apa pantai timur menampakkan diri kepadanya. Dia melihat pantai yang panjang rendah “semua putih dengan pasir” dibatasi dengan surfing berbusa dan lebih jauh dari Blue Mountains, bagian dari Great Dividing Range, yang karena mereka roll kembali dari gelombang bergerak, muncul lautan biru yang lebih baik meskipun mereka lebih kaya sini “melihat keluar pada massa terbesar dan terdalam dari air di dunia-Laut Tasman dan Pasifik Selatan”. Tidak sampai dua puluh delapan tahun setelah Cook dan Bank telah melihat dan tertulis sehingga baik pada tanah yang baru ditemukan bahwa Pemerintah Inggris berusaha untuk memanfaatkan penemuan mereka.

Hilangnya koloni-koloni Amerika diinduksi pihak berwenang untuk mengalihkan perhatian mereka untuk harta benda yang jauh. Usulan pertama, yang dibuat oleh Mr Matra, konsul Inggris di Tangier sesudahnya, untuk membentuk sebuah pemukiman sebagai rumah bagi Amerika setia yang, selama Perang Kemerdekaan, telah kehilangan kekayaan mereka dalam mendukung menyebabkan raja, disukai oleh Tuhan Sydney . Yang terakhir, bagaimanapun, melihat kegunaannya untuk tujuan lain, dan menyarankan sebagai wilayah yang cocok untuk penerimaan penjahat dikutuk untuk transportasi, kelas sebelumnya dikirim ke perkebunan Amerika

 
 
 

William Dampier reaches Australia.

In the log of his first voyage Cook has told us simply and faithfully in sailor language what the eastern coast appeared to him. He saw its long low shores “all white with sand” fringed with foaming surf and farther off the Blue Mountains, part of the Great Dividing Range, which as they roll back from the moving waves, appear a finer sea of richer blue although they here “look out upon the greatest and deepest mass of water on the globe—the Tasman Sea and South Pacific”. It was not until twenty-eight years after Cook and Banks had seen and written so favourably upon the newly discovered land that the British Government attempted to make use of their discoveries.

The loss of the American colonies induced the authorities to turn their attention to these distant possessions. The first proposal, made by Mr. Matra, afterwards British consul at Tangiers, to form a settlement as a home for the loyal Americans who, during the War of Independence, had lost their fortunes in supporting the king’s cause, was favoured by Lord Sydney. The latter, however, saw its usefulness for another purpose, and suggested it as a suitable region for the reception of criminals condemned to transportation, a class formerly sent to the American plantations.

James Cook.

Para Dikenal Gambar Pertama dari Australia. Bangkai Kapal Belanda Batavia dekat Geraldton, Australia Barat, pada tahun 1628.

Prancis, pada saat ini, juga mempersiapkan untuk membentuk pemukiman di Pasifik. Karena aktivitas mereka, skema Sydney adalah lebih mudah diterima dan, pada bulan Agustus, 1786, perintah diberikan untuk melengkapi ekspedisi. Kapten Arthur Phillip, RN, dipilih oleh Tuhan Sydney untuk perintah, dan diangkat “gubernur dan komandan-in-chief dari wilayah New South Wales dan kapal Mulia dan kapal di pantai itu”. Tidak ada waktu yang hilang dan armada meninggalkan Inggris pada tahun 1787, terdiri dari HMS Sirius, [*] frigat. Kapten John Hunter, dan H.M.S. Pasokan, lembut, di bawah Letnan Bola, dengan tiga kapal menyimpan dan enam transport membawa tahanan, membuat sekitar 1.163 orang. H.M.S. Anjing hutan menanggung perusahaan kapal untuk beberapa jarak sedikit, kembali ke Inggris dengan Despatches dari Kapten Phillip, sementara armada, menyentuh untuk persediaan di Teneriffe, Rio de Janeiro dan Tanjung Harapan Baik, diarahkan saja ke New South Wales.

[* Sirius awalnya Para Berwick dan dimaksudkan untuk East India Company. Pertemuan dengan kecelakaan api dia dibeli oleh Pemerintah dan namanya berubah. Dia sekitar 520 ton beban.]

Pada tanaman Rio dan benih, antara lain, kopi, pisang kapas,, jeruk, lemon, jambu biji, asam, pir nanas, berduri dan ipecacuanha diperoleh. Pada benih Cape lain dan pohon ara, gula-tongkat, bambu, alang-alang Spanyol, berbagai pohon anggur, apel, pir, quince dan ek-pohon, semak dan tanaman stroberi murad ditempatkan di kapal, dan dalam ruang dari bulan 500 hewan domestik, terutama sapi dan kuda, dibawa di kapal

 
 
 

The First Known Pictures of Australia. Wreck of the Dutch Ship Batavia near Geraldton, West Australia, in 1628.

The French, at this time, were also preparing to form settlements in the Pacific. Owing to their activity, the Sydney scheme was the more readily accepted and, in August, 1786, orders were given to equip an expedition. Captain Arthur Phillip, R. N., was selected by Lord Sydney for the command, and appointed “governor and commander-in-chief of the territory of New South Wales and of his Majesty’s ships and vessels on that coast”. No time was lost and a fleet left England in 1787, consisting of H.M.S. Sirius,[*] frigate. Captain John Hunter, and H.M.S. Supply, tender, under Lieutenant Ball, with three store ships and six transports carrying the prisoners, making about 1,163 persons. H.M.S. Hyaena bore the vessels company for some little distance, returning to England with despatches from Captain Phillip, while the fleet, touching for supplies at Teneriffe, Rio de Janeiro and the Cape of Good Hope, directed its course to New South Wales.

[* The Sirius was originally The Berwick and intended for the East India Company. Meeting with an accident by fire she was purchased by the Government and her name changed. She was of about 520 tons burden.]

At Rio plants and seeds, amongst others, of coffee, cotton, banana, orange, lemon, guava, tamarind, prickly pear, pineapple and ipecacuanha were obtained. At the Cape other seeds and fig-trees, sugar-canes, bamboos, Spanish reeds, various grape vines, apple, pear, quince and oak-trees, myrtle shrubs and strawberry plants were placed in the ships, and in the space of a month 500 domestic animals, chiefly cattle and horses, were taken on board.

Kapten Cook mendarat di New South Wales.
(Dari cetak lama, 1807.)]

Pada tanggal 25 ketika delapan puluh liga timur dari Tanjung, Kapten Phillip meninggalkan Sirius, dan pergi di papan Supply, membawa bersamanya Letnan King dan Dawes dari Marinir, dengan semua insinyur terbaik dan artificers, buru-buru dan pilihlah tempat untuk penerimaan armada. Tiga kapal tercepat diikuti di belakangnya, sementara Hunter, di Sirius, mengambil alih mengangkut tersisa.

Sejak Masak meluncur pantai timur tidak ada kapal telah mengunjungi bagian dari Australia. Penduduk asli mungkin sudah lupa semua tentang kedatangan orang kulit putih di Endeavour sampai, pada suatu pagi musim panas, pada 18 Januari 1788, Supply tiba.

Kesan pertama dari tempat itu mengecewakan. Padang rumput hijau yang dijelaskan oleh Bank ditemukan rawa tandus dan pasir steril, karena pasti ke kekeringan yang menimpa negeri; dan teluk itu sendiri, meskipun luas, terkena sapuan penuh angin timur yang bertiup keras dan berguling suatu berat laut dengan ombak yang pecah yang luar biasa terhadap pantai.

Karena banyak yang dangkal Supply terpaksa jangkar agak jauh dari tanah. Beberapa empat puluh pribumi sedang memancing di dekat pantai selatan. Ketika mereka melihat kapal mereka berlari sepanjang pantai dan tampak sangat ketakutan. Menyeret kano mereka keluar dari air, pria menempatkan mereka pada punggung mereka dan lari bersama mereka ke dalam semak-semak, sementara para wanita melihat bahwa tidak satupun dari anak-anak kecil atau memancing tertinggal. Sebuah roh berani tersisa sedikit dan berani turun ke tepi air, mengacungkan tombak panjang luar biasa, klub, tongkat dan pommellers kayu berat yang luas, dan dalam sikap mengancam berteriak “Warra, warra,” “Warra, warra” – “Pergilah, pergilah “-pada orang-orang di kapal, persis kata-kata yang sama yang Kapten Cook telah mendengar pribumi menggunakan tahun sebelum ketika Endeavour berlabuh di Botany Bay, kata-kata yang baik dia maupun Tupia bisa mengerti.

Di sisi utara teluk hanya enam atau tujuh pribumi yang diamati, sehingga berada di titik itu, pada siang hari, Kapten Phillip dengan Ball Lieutenants, King dan Dawes dari Marinir, bersiap mendarat. Sebagai konsekuensi dari permusuhan dari band kecil kulit hitam yang terus serangan terus-menerus dengan batu, para pelaut, untuk menghindari pertengkaran, mendayung sepanjang pantai untuk beberapa jarak sedikit sampai kapal datang ke tempat di mana Phillip mengira dia akan menemukan air . Pencarian tidak berhasil, dan tentang matahari terbenam pesta ulang memulai dan mendayung kembali ke bagian dari pantai yang berlawanan Supply telah berlabuh.

Pribumi lebih, bersenjatakan tombak dan waddies, telah berkumpul di sana dan menatap heran pada kapal. Phillip memanggil mereka dan dengan tanda-tanda memberitahu mereka bahwa dia ingin air, tetapi mereka masih menatap pada. Phillip sabar Tumbuh melompat keluar dari perahu, menyerahkan senapannya kepada orang yang terdekat dia dan, tanpa menunjukkan rasa takut sedikit pun, berjalan menuju orang-orang hitam, menawarkan hadiah untuk menunjukkan niat mereka yang ramah. Melihat pada akhirnya bahwa gubernur sering melambaikan tangan ke pesta sendiri untuk pensiun, salah satu kulit hitam tertua maju dan memberikan tombak kepada seorang pria muda yang maju sendirian.

Ketika pribumi mengerti apa Phillip ingin mereka menempatkan tombak mereka dan klub atas tanah dan memimpin gubernur dan partai untuk sebuah anak sungai air segar. Ini partai kulit hitam cenderung muncul damai, tetapi pada Phillip kembali ke pantai pribumi lainnya ditemukan berkumpul yang tampaknya membenci pendaratan kuat, dan untuk mencapai perahu itu menjadi perlu untuk menembakkan pistol, yang dengan cepat membubarkan mereka.

Pada hari berikutnya, 19 Januari, tiga mengangkut, yang telah outsailed Supply, tiba, dan melaporkan bahwa jerami untuk ternak di kapal itu hampir habis. Sebuah partai kecil akibatnya dikirim untuk memotong rumput bagi hewan dan Kapten Phillip membuat tur ke selatan teluk, kunjungannya hari sebelum harus berkunjung ke sisi utara. Dalam ekspedisi kedua gubernur melihat penduduk lagi dan maju sendirian untuk menemui mereka. Sebuah cabang hijau digunakan oleh kedua belah pihak sebagai tanda persahabatan, dan kulit hitam juga melemparkan tombak mereka untuk menunjukkan bahwa mereka secara damai dibuang. Sementara para pelaut memberi potongan flanel asli berwarna, merah kain tebal dr wol kasar, kertas dipotong seperti bintang, dan manik-manik, dengan mana mereka segera menghiasi diri mereka sendiri, mengikat kain tebal dr wol kasar putaran kepala mereka dan menyebabkan hiburan yang cukup besar untuk rekan-rekan mereka. Mereka menunjukkan bahwa mereka meniru yang sangat baik dan bisa mengambil dari marinir untuk kesempurnaan. Suara seruling senang mereka, tetapi ketika drum dimainkan mereka buru-buru melarikan diri ke hutan dan tidak akan kembali sampai berhenti. Tutup kepala dari orang asing sepertinya juga untuk menyenangkan mereka, dan beberapa topi dicuri dari pemiliknya kepala ‘, dan setiap kali seorang Inggris melepas topinya teriakan mereka memberi persetujuan.

Gubernur ditampilkan energi besar dalam upayanya untuk berdamai dengan Australia dan untuk menjelajahi negara ini. Dengan dua perahu ia meluncur di sepanjang pantai selama dua belas atau empat belas mil dan menemukan dua sungai, satu berjalan di arah utara-timur, yang lain sepertinya tren ke selatan-barat. Ketika ia naik aliran untuk beberapa mantan enam angka mil penduduk asli terlihat, beberapa wisatawan memancing ikan di kano mereka, yang lain mengeringkan ikan di bank. Seekor ikan besar (kakap), tergantung di pohon. Penduduk asli lari seperti Inggris mendekat, dan membuat suara yang aneh karena mereka bersembunyi di hutan. Untuk pertama kalinya itu menyadari bahwa mereka memiliki anjing ditutupi dengan rambut shaggy panjang. Sebagai perahu menyusuri sungai kembali kulit hitam muncul kembali di bank, berlari dan berteriak “Warra, warra” seperti sebelumnya. Ada beberapa gubuk menyedihkan di sebelah selatan-barat, dan negara luar tampaknya sangat bergunung-gunung.

“Berat di awan datang pada hari” (Januari 20) dari kedatangan Hunter di Sirius dengan sisa armada. “Bagi kami,” tulis Kapten Tench, “itu hari besar dan penting dan saya berharap akan menandai dasar … sebuah kekaisaran.”

 

Captain Cook lands in New South Wales.
(From an old print, 1807.)]

On 25th November when eighty leagues eastward of the Cape, Captain Phillip left the Sirius, and went on board the Supply, taking with him Lieutenants King and Dawes of the Marines, with all the best engineers and artificers, to hurry on and choose a place for the reception of the fleet. The three fastest vessels followed in his wake, while Hunter, in the Sirius, took charge of the remaining transports.

Since Cook coasted the eastern shores no ships had visited that part of Australia. The natives had probably forgotten all about the coming of the white men in the Endeavour until, early one midsummer morning, on 18th January, 1788, the Supply arrived.

The first impressions of the place were disappointing. The green meadows described by Banks were found to be barren swamps and sterile sands, owing doubtless to a drought that had befallen the country; and the bay itself, although extensive, was exposed to the full sweep of easterly winds which blew violently and rolled a heavy sea that broke with tremendous surf against the shore.

Owing to the many shallows the Supply was compelled to anchor a little distance from land. Some forty natives were fishing near the south shore. When they saw the ship they ran along the beach and appeared to be greatly frightened. Dragging their canoes out of the water, the men placed them upon their backs and ran off with them into the bush, while the women saw that none of the little children or any fishing tackle was left behind. A few bolder spirits remained and ventured down to the water’s edge, brandishing spears of amazing length, clubs, sticks and wooden pommellers of a vast weight, and in threatening attitudes shouted “Warra, warra,” “Warra, warra”—”Begone, begone”—at those in the ship, exactly the same words that Captain Cook had heard the natives use years before when the Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay, words which neither he nor Tupia could understand.

On the north side of the bay only six or seven natives were observed, so it was at this point that, during the day, Captain Phillip with Lieutenants Ball, King and Dawes of the Marines, prepared to land. In consequence of the hostility of the small band of blacks who kept up a continuous attack with stones, the sailors, to avoid a quarrel, rowed along the shore for some little distance until the boat came to a spot where Phillip thought he would find water. The search was unsuccessful, and about sunset the party re-embarked and rowed back to that part of the beach opposite which the Supply had anchored.

More natives, armed with spears and waddies, had gathered there and gazed in wonder at the ship. Phillip beckoned to them and by signs told them that he wanted water; but they still gazed on. Growing impatient Phillip sprang out of the boat, handed his musket to the man nearest him and, without showing the slightest fear, walked towards the black men, offering presents in order to show them his friendly intentions. Seeing at last that the governor frequently waved his hand to his own party to retire, one of the oldest blacks came forward and giving his lance to a younger man advanced alone.

When the natives understood what Phillip wanted they placed their spears and clubs upon the ground and led the governor and his party to a rivulet of fresh water. This party of blacks appeared peaceably inclined, but on Phillip’s return to the beach other natives were found gathered who seemed to resent the landing strongly, and to reach the boat it became necessary to fire off a gun, which quickly dispersed them.

On the following day, 19th January, three transports, which the Supply had outsailed, arrived, and reported that the hay for the cattle on board was almost exhausted. A small party was consequently sent to cut grass for the animals and Captain Phillip made a tour of the south of the bay, his visit of the day before having been to the northern side. In this second expedition the governor saw the inhabitants again and advanced alone to meet them. A green branch was used by both parties as a sign of friendship, and the blacks also threw down their lances to show they were amicably disposed. Meanwhile the sailors gave the natives pieces of coloured flannel, red baize, paper cut like stars, and beads, with which they promptly adorned themselves, binding the baize round their heads and causing considerable amusement to their comrades. They showed that they were excellent mimics and could take off the marines to perfection. The sound of the fife delighted them; but when the drum was played they hastily fled into the woods and would not return until it ceased. The headgear of the strangers seemed also to please them, and several hats were stolen from their owners’ heads, and whenever an Englishman took off his hat they gave shouts of approval.

The governor displayed great energy in his attempts to conciliate the Australians and to explore the country. With two boats he coasted along the shore for twelve or fourteen miles and found two rivers, one running in a north-easterly direction, the other seeming to trend to the south-west. As he was going up the former stream for some six miles numbers of natives were seen, some fishing in their canoes, others drying the fish on the banks. A few large fish (snapper), were hanging from the trees. The natives ran away as the British approached, and made a curious noise as they hid themselves in the wood. For the first time it was noticed that they possessed dogs covered with long shaggy hair. As the boat returned down the river the blacks reappeared on the banks, running and shouting “Warra, warra” as before. There were some miserable huts to the south-west, and the country beyond appeared to be very mountainous.

“Heavy in clouds came on the day” (20th January) of the arrival of Hunter in the Sirius with the remainder of the fleet. “To us,” wrote Captain Tench, “it was a great and important day and I hope will mark the foundation…of an empire.”

Aliran air tawar di sisi utara teluk yang pribumi telah menunjukkan Phillip terbukti cukup baik satu, tetapi pendekatan itu begitu sempit dan ditutupi dengan semak-semak itu dengan susah payah perahu bisa dipaksa bersama. Bank-bank terbukti lembut dan berespon dan tidak layak untuk membangun operasi. Titik Sutherland, dimana air terbaik adalah harus memiliki, itu didekati oleh kapal. Untuk alasan ini dan lainnya Phillip bertekad untuk menemukan tempat pendaratan yang lebih baik dan lebih nyaman. Didampingi oleh Collins dan Hunter, ia berangkat dari Botany Bay pada tanggal 21 Januari, dalam tiga kapal terbuka untuk survei pantai lebih tinggi. Membuka ditandai Port Jackson pada grafik Cook pemberitahuan menarik pertama, dan gubernur bertekad untuk menjelajahinya. Cuaca ringan dan jelas, dan kapal berlayar dekat dengan tanah sampai mereka mencapai dua tanjung berbatu yang menjaga pintu masuk. Kedua tanjung sangat curam, laut memecah di batu dengan kekuatan yang besar dan mengirim hujan semprot ke udara. Jeritan liar dari pribumi di tebing di atas terdengar sebagai orang kulit putih masuk pelabuhan.

Isyarat dan berteriak penduduk asli mengikuti perahu untuk jarak tertentu. Tetapi membengkak berat panjang laut mereda dan teriakan dari orang kulit hitam dan deru ombak memekakkan telinga tumbuh redup sebagai pelaut menemukan diri mereka menyeberangi air bersih halus dan melihat di depan mereka pelabuhan yang paling indah di sekitar yang dengan teluk dan teluk pasir kuning dan poin berbatu, banyak dari mereka ditutupi dengan dedaunan hijau lembut ke tepi air. Lebih jauh adalah bukit di mana tumbuh pohon yang tinggi dengan daun hijau samar seperti melihat sepanjang pantai luar. Gubernur terkesan dengan keindahan pemandangan, dan karena ia telah menemukan sebuah pelabuhan yang aman dan baik kayu dan air ia memutuskan untuk membuat situs pemukiman itu. Tempat yang dipilih adalah di kepala teluk dekat sebuah mata air yang diam-diam mencuri melalui kayu tebal, keheningan yang untuk pertama kalinya pecah oleh suara kapak.

Teluk itu diberi nama Sydney untuk menghormati Thomas Townshend, Tuhan Sydney, kemudian Home Menteri dalam pemerintahan Pitt. Baginya Phillip menulis: “Kami masuk ke Port Jackson di awal sore hari dan memiliki kepuasan menemukan pelabuhan terbaik di dunia di mana berlayar ribuan baris dapat naik keamanan yang paling sempurna”. Dia menyebut aliran air tawar Tank, yang dikenal kemudian sebagai Tank Stream.

Tiga hari dihabiskan dalam survei Port Jackson dan banyak kaum pribumi tumbuh dengan baik dibuang terhadap orang kulit putih, sementara kepala, yang pergi bersama dengan Phillip untuk memeriksa kamp tempat para pria mendidih daging untuk makan malam, memberikan bukti dari kedua kecerdasan dan keberanian . Pada saat lain pihak dua puluh pribumi mengarungi ke dalam air untuk menerima hadiah yang ditawarkan mereka, dan menunjukkan trustfulness jantan seperti dalam pelaut Inggris yang kemudian gubernur memberi tempat nama Manly Cove.

Pada malam 23 Phillip kembali ke Botany Bay dan arahan diberikan untuk mempersiapkan diri melanjutkan ke Port Jackson. Pada pagi berikutnya ada muncul dalam dua kapal teluk aneh kedatangan yang di tanah yang jauh menyebabkan kejutan besar. Mereka tidak, karena beberapa di pikiran pertama, kapal-kapal Belanda atau kapal toko, tapi dua pria Perancis-of-perang, Boussole dan Astrolab bawah Perouse Count de la, kemudian pada perjalanan penemuan. Phillip teringat bahwa mereka telah meninggalkan Perancis pada 1785, sekitar dua tahun sebelum armada Inggris telah berlayar. La Perouse tahu pemukiman di Pelabuhan Jackson dimaksud dan mengatakan Phillip bahwa ia telah mendengar tentang itu di Kamchatka dan diharapkan untuk menemukan sebuah kota yang dibangun, dan pasar yang didirikan. Kunjungan ditukar, dan Inggris siap untuk pindah ke Sydney, sementara Perancis tetap di Botany untuk perbaikan kapal-kapal mereka dan mengambil air dan ketentuan sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan mereka. Mereka terakhir meninggalkan Samoa mana di pulau Maouna mereka telah kehilangan De l’Angle, komandan Astrolab, dengan beberapa petugas lainnya pelaut dan kedua perahu panjang mereka dalam sebuah serangan yang dilakukan oleh penduduk asli ketika mencari air. La Perouse telah berlayar dari situ ke Botany Bay dipandu oleh grafik Cook, yang terletak di depannya di binnacle, dan dalam perjalanannya telah berlabuh di Pulau Norfolk tetapi tidak mendarat di rekening ombak.

Selama tinggal mereka, Prancis tidak menganggur. Para petugas mendirikan tenda di pantai, mendirikan observatorium kecil, dan mengumpulkan frame dari dua kapal besar yang mereka bawa dari Eropa. Pendeta mereka, Pere Receveur, yang bertindak sebagai naturalis mereka, tak lama setelah mendarat meninggal karena luka diterima di tangan Samoa. Mereka memaku dua potong papan untuk pohon sebagai peringatan, dan ketika di waktu ini terjatuh, Phillip menggantinya dengan pelat tembaga yang, pada gilirannya, memberikan tempat untuk monumen ini, biaya yang sebagian dibiayai pada 1825 oleh petugas Perancis di bawah ekspedisi De Bougainville.

Setelah tinggal tujuh hari di Botany Bay, Phillip berlayar dalam Persediaan ke Port Jackson. Kapten Hunter diikuti hari berikutnya, dan bagian itu mengambil hanya beberapa jam, konvoi masuk pelabuhan pada malam yang cerah dan indah dan berlabuh di dekat air dalam ke kepala Sydney Cove, Pada hari berikutnya, 27 Januari, pendaratan dilakukan.

Yang pertama adalah melakukan untuk membersihkan tanah dan rumah-rumah tegak, kerangka yang telah dibawa dari Inggris. Sementara itu pemukim berkemah di tenda dan di bawah pohon “di negara bagian mirip kayu dari sebuah taman rusa di Inggris”, dan, untuk mulai dengan, ada banyak kebingungan bercampur dengan hiburan pada pengalaman baru. Di satu tempat adalah “sebuah partai menebang kayu, yang lain menyiapkan menempa, sepertiga menyeret beban ketentuan, di sini berdiri seorang petugas pitching tenda, dengan pasukannya memamerkan di satu sisi dia dan api juru masak menyala marah pada lain “. Pada hari Minggu setelah kebaktian diadakan pendaratan di bawah naungan sebuah pohon besar di mana Rev Richard Johnson, pendeta untuk pemukiman, diresmikan.

Pada 7 Februari, advokat hakim membaca sebelum seluruh masyarakat proklamasi dan menguasai koloni New South Wales dalam nama Inggris dan diangkat Kapten Phillip gubernur-in-chief dengan Ross Mayor sebagai Letnan Gubernur, pada saat yang sama waktu surat paten dikeluarkan untuk mendirikan pengadilan peradilan perdata dan pidana dan pengadilan wakil-admiralty untuk percobaan pelanggaran yang dilakukan di laut lepas.

Phillip, setelah melihat bahwa perintahnya sedang dilakukan, mulai untuk menjelajahi negara ini sepanjang pantai, dan, pada bulan Maret, dengan perahu panjang dan pemotong, membuat ekspedisi ke Teluk Patah, tetapi hujan dan kesulitan bekerja di antara yang mendalam gumuk pasir lumpur dan mencegah dia dari membuat survei rinci. Tanah ada tampaknya lebih tinggi daripada di Port Jackson, sebuah pelabuhan yang baik ditemukan, dan beberapa wawancara dengan penduduk asli terjadi. Pada 10 Maret, di tengah penyesalan seluruh masyarakat, kapal-kapal berlayar Prancis; tentu saja mereka membawa mereka ke Tasmania dan berakhir dalam keberadaan mereka rusak pada terumbu karang di Vanikoro, utara New Hebrides, di mana jasad mereka ditemukan pada tahun 1826, nasib mereka telah misteri selama hampir empat puluh tahun.

Salah satu pesanan pertama Kapten Phillip memberi, segera setelah lahan cukup sudah dibereskan, adalah untuk tanaman padi, gandum dan barley dibeli di Rio dan Tanjung, tanah pertama kali dibudidayakan berada di Farm Cove. Panen buruk, dan tidak ada tanaman yang lebih besar throve atau datang hingga jatuh tempo. Rumput itu begitu tipis dan miskin yang dari empat puluh empat ekor domba mereka, tiga puluh empat meninggal sebelum kapal yang telah membawa keluar ekspedisi meninggalkan Sydney, dan ternak, jauh berkurang selama perjalanan, tidak sedikit lebih baik. Enam dari kawanan, melalui mengabaikan penjaga mereka, tersesat ke dalam semak-semak pada bulan Juni. Lima ratus orang dikirim dalam mengejar untuk beberapa lima belas mil, namun tidak ada jejak ternak dapat ditemukan dan pendapat umum adalah bahwa pribumi telah mendorong mereka jauh sampai ke negara itu.

Semua saham itu disimpan pada Ridge Timur teluk. Penduduk asli mengambil minat yang marak di debarkasi mereka dan berseru “Kangaroo!” lagi dan lagi ketika mereka melihat domba-domba itu. Babi-babi tampaknya berkembang lebih baik daripada hewan lain, dan dikalikan sangat; dua puluh delapan awalnya mendarat, tetapi lima hal tersebut, yang berada di pena bawah pohon besar, segera setelah dibunuh oleh petir. Badai sangat sering di tahun ini (1788) dan efek dari petir terlihat di setiap bukit yang paling mengejutkan. Selama enam bulan pertama tiga gempa yang terasa, paling parah terjadi pada tanggal 22 Juni, di pagi hari, ketika pemukiman itu berkabut di uap belerang untuk beberapa waktu setelah shock.

Pada 4 Juni 1788, bagian dari penyelesaian berbaring antara titik utara Patah. Bay dan titik selatan Botany Bay, dan barat memperluas ke Lansdowne dan Carmarthen Hills bernama daerah dari Cumberland. Pada saat yang sama untuk menghormati ulang tahun raja yang biasa hormat dipecat, dan, karena ada banyak kayu, api unggun dibuat di malam hari, menurut adat Inggris kuno, untuk merayakan kesempatan itu.

Dari waktu ke waktu burung besar banyak muncul di pelabuhan, dan coklat elang ekor baji dari interior dipandang serta burung beo dan lainnya plumaged cerah, tetapi semua dari mereka terus dengan baik dari bahaya. Dekat Sydney, ikan lokal yang dikenal sebagai ikan air tawar dan mackerel yang biasa tertangkap, dan mereka membentuk pasokan makanan utama.

Untuk Inggris ketika mereka pertama kali tiba di New South Wales, untuk Dampier ketika ia mengunjungi pantai barat, binatang yang paling luar biasa adalah kanguru, dgn aneh digambarkan sebagai “binatang berkaki empat yang besar sebagai domba, leher, kepala dan bahu kecil di proporsi sisa tubuh, ekor panjang dan pergi ke suatu titik … The kedepan-kaki delapan inci hanya mengukur panjang dan disimpan membungkuk dekat di bawah payudara dan tampaknya hanya digunakan untuk menggali tanah, untuk hewan tidak pernah berjalan tapi melompat seperti katak dalam postur tegak; kaki belakang yang dekat dua puluh dua inci panjang dan melayani untuk membuat kursi bagi hewan yang selalu ditemukan dalam postur saat ia tidak melompat sepanjang kulit ini. abu-abu, dari warna mouse, telinga seperti orang-orang dari kelinci, dan daging seperti daging rusa hanya dengan rasa payau. ” Abu-abu besar kanguru, yang terbaik dari kelompok, mungkin adalah demikian dijelaskan. Ini feed pada rumput asli dan daun semak, memiliki rasa pendengaran akut, dan sangat cepat dalam musim semi; yang lebih tua yang sangat waspada, dan itu adalah jarang bahwa “orang tua” kangguru diambil. Kulit, ketika kecokelatan, adalah berharga untuk elastisitas dan kelembutan. Para walabi batu lebih kecil, yang hanya sekitar tiga meter panjangnya, sedangkan tikus kangguru adalah sekitar dua kali ukuran dari sebuah mol air Inggris.

Kita belajar dari catatan awal bahwa aborigin Australia di Sydney Cove bervariasi di ketinggian sekitar lima meter empat inci sampai lima kaki sembilan inci, namun beberapa akan mengukur enam kaki. Orang-orang itu dari membangun sedikit dan dibuat dengan cukup baik, para wanita jarang sangat tinggi. Secara umum mereka memiliki alis memproyeksikan, hidung lebar, mulut lebar dan bibir tebal yang menyebabkan para kolonis untuk membandingkan mereka ke negro, tetapi rambut dan janggut pendek dan keriting, bukan wol, mata mereka cokelat gelap, dan kulit mereka deepish suatu cokelat. Mereka muncul untuk berlatih upacara penasaran seperti memukul keluar dua gigi depan pada sisi kanan rahang atas laki-laki, dan amputasi sendi jari ‘kecil dari tangan kiri gadis yang ditunjuk untuk menangkap ikan untuk suku, sedangkan luka pada tubuh tampaknya dianggap hias.

Dalam perjalanan waktu para kolonis berkenalan dengan karakter dan gaya hidup orang asli Australia di Port Jackson. Mereka tidak berusaha untuk mengolah tanah, tetapi bergantung untuk makanan sepenuhnya pada, akar buah dan hewan negara yang dihasilkan. Memancing, memang, sepertinya menempati sebagian besar waktu mereka, mungkin karena menghasilkan makanan utama mereka, dan juga karena mereka diberikan olahraga. Mereka jarang makan makanan mentah kecuali ditekan oleh rasa lapar, dan panggang daging, ikan dan sayuran, banyak dari yang terakhir beracun untuk orang kulit putih. Penduduk asli tampaknya merasa dingin akut, dan ketika tidak bulat api berlindung diri dalam cuaca buruk di antara gua-gua dan batu. Di musim dingin mereka tidur di pondok-pondok bundar terbuat dari ranting dan kulit kayu sekitar empat meter dan terbuka di satu sisi saja.

Banyak pertengkaran terjadi antara pemukim dan kulit hitam, dan orang-orang putih akan, mungkin, telah lebih parah pada pribumi untuk penghancuran mereka tidak dihukum beberapa pemukim pada tahun 1800 atas pembunuhan seorang anak pribumi. Sebelum Eropa tahun itu di Sungai Hawkesbury telah gubuk mereka dibakar, saham mereka dicuri, dan ladang jagung mereka tercemar oleh anggota suku. Para pemukim terpaksa menggunakan senjata api dan hadiah ditawarkan untuk kepala kepala suku ini, dan kemudian diklaim jika kepalanya dibawa ke Sydney.

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Sydney Heads

The stream of fresh water on the north side of the bay which the natives had shown Phillip proved a fairly good one, but the approach was so narrow and covered with undergrowth that it was with difficulty the boat could be forced along. The banks proved soft and spongy and unfit for building operations. Point Sutherland, where the best water was to be had, was unapproachable by the ships. For these and other reasons Phillip determined to find a better and more convenient landing spot. Accompanied by Collins and Hunter, he set out from Botany Bay on 21st January, in three open boats to survey the coast higher up. An opening marked Port Jackson on Cook’s chart first attracted notice, and the governor determined to explore it. The weather was mild and clear, and the boats sailed close to the land until they reached the two rocky headlands which guard the entrance. Both the headlands were very steep, the sea breaking on the rocks with great force and sending showers of spray into the air. The wild cries of the natives on the cliffs above were heard as the white men entered the harbour.

Gesticulating and shouting the natives followed the boats for some distance. But the long heavy swell of the ocean subsided and the shouts of the blacks and the deafening roar of the surf grew fainter as the sailors found themselves crossing smooth clear water and beheld in front of them a most beautiful harbour around which were bays and coves with yellow sands and rocky points, many of them covered with soft green foliage to the water’s edge. Farther away were hills on which grew tall trees with leaves of faint green like those noticed along the outer coasts. The governor was struck with the loveliness of the scene, and as he had found a safe harbour and both wood and water he decided to make it the site of his settlement. The spot chosen was at the head of the cove near a spring which stole silently through a thick wood, the stillness of which was for the first time broken by the sound of an axe.

The cove was given the name of Sydney in honour of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, then Home Secretary in Pitt’s government. To him Phillip wrote: “We got into Port Jackson early in the afternoon and had the satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world in which a thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security “. He called the stream of fresh water the Tanks, known later as the Tank Stream.

Three days were spent in surveying Port Jackson and many of the aborigines grew well disposed towards the white men, while a chief, who went along with Phillip to inspect the camp where the men were boiling meat for dinner, gave evidence of both intelligence and courage. At another point a party of twenty natives waded into the water to receive the gifts offered them, and showed such manly trustfulness in the British sailors that the governor afterwards gave the spot the name of Manly Cove.

On the evening of the 23rd Phillip returned to Botany Bay and directions were given to prepare to proceed to Port Jackson. On the following morning there appeared in the bay two strange vessels the arrival of which in this far-off land caused great surprise. They were not, as some at first thought, Dutch ships or store ships, but two French men-of-war, the Boussole and Astrolabe under the Count de la Pérouse, then on a voyage of discovery. Phillip recollected that they had left France in 1785, some two years before the English fleet had sailed. La Pérouse knew of the intended settlement at Port Jackson and told Phillip that he had heard of it at Kamchatka and expected to find a town built, and a market established. Visits were exchanged, and the British prepared to move on to Sydney, while the French remained at Botany to overhaul their ships and take in water and provisions before continuing their voyage. They had last left Samoa where at the island of Maouna they had lost De l’Angle, commander of the Astrolabe, with several other officers and seamen and both their long boats in an attack made by natives while searching for water. La Pérouse had sailed thence to Botany Bay guided by Cook’s chart, which lay before him on the binnacle, and on his way had anchored off Norfolk Island but had not landed on account of the surf.

During their stay the French were not idle. The officers pitched their tent on shore, set up a small observatory, and put together the frames of two large boats which they had brought from Europe. Their chaplain, Pere Receveur, who had acted as their naturalist, shortly after landing died of wounds received at the hands of the Samoans. They nailed two pieces of board to a tree as a memorial, and when in time these fell off, Phillip replaced them with a plate of copper which, in turn, gave place to the present monument, the expense of which was partly defrayed in 1825 by the French officers in the expedition under De Bougainville.

After a stay of seven days at Botany Bay, Phillip sailed in the Supply to Port Jackson. Captain Hunter followed next day, and the passage taking only a few hours, the convoy entered the harbour on a bright and beautiful evening and anchored in deep water close to the head of Sydney Cove, On the following day, 27th January, the landing was effected.

The first undertaking was to clear the ground and erect houses, the framework of which had been brought from England. Meanwhile the settlers encamped in tents and under the trees “in a country resembling the woody parts of a deer park in England”; and, to begin with, there was a good deal of confusion mingled with amusement at the novel experiences. In one place were “a party cutting down wood, another setting up a forge, a third dragging a load of provisions; here stood an officer pitching his tent, with his troops parading on one side of him and a cook’s fire blazing furiously on the other “. On the Sunday after landing divine service was held under the shade of a large tree at which the Rev. Richard Johnson, chaplain to the settlement, officiated.

On 7th February, the judge advocate read before the whole community the proclamation and took possession of the colony of New South Wales in the name of Great Britain and appointed Captain Phillip governor-in-chief with Major Ross as lieutenant-governor; at the same time letters patent were issued for establishing courts of civil and criminal judicature and a vice-admiralty court for the trial of offences committed on the high seas.

Phillip, having seen that his orders were being carried out, started to explore the country along the coast, and, in March, with a long boat and cutter, made an expedition to Broken Bay; but the rain and the difficulty of working among deep mud and sandbanks prevented him from making a detailed survey. The land there appeared to be higher than at Port Jackson; a fine harbour was discovered, and some interviews with the natives took place. On 10th March, amid the regrets of the whole community, the French ships sailed; their course took them to Tasmania and ended in their being wrecked on the coral reef off Vanikoro, north of the New Hebrides, where their remains were found in 1826, their fate having been a mystery for nearly forty years.

One of the first orders Captain Phillip gave, as soon as land enough had been cleared, was to plant the rice, wheat and barley purchased at Rio and the Cape, the first land cultivated being at Farm Cove. The harvest was bad, and none of the larger plants throve or came to maturity. The pasture was so thin and poor that of their forty-four sheep, thirty four died before the ships which had brought out the expedition left Sydney, and the cattle, much reduced during the voyage, did little better. Six of the herd, through the neglect of their keepers, strayed into the bush in June. Five hundred men were sent in pursuit for some fifteen miles, but no trace of the cattle could be found and the general opinion was that the natives had driven them farther up into the country.

All the stock were kept upon the East Ridge of the cove. The natives took a lively interest in their disembarkation and cried out “Kangaroo!” again and again when they saw the sheep. The pigs seemed to thrive better than the other animals, and multiplied exceedingly; twenty-eight were originally landed, but five of these, which were in a pen beneath a large tree, were soon afterwards killed by lightning. Thunderstorms were very frequent in this year (1788) and the effect of the lightning visible on every hill was most startling. During the first six months three earthquakes were felt, the most severe happening on 22nd June, in the forenoon, when the settlement was clouded in sulphurous vapour for some time after the shock.

On 4th June, 1788, that portion of the settlement lying between the northernmost point of Broken. Bay and the southernmost point of Botany Bay, and extending westwards to the Lansdowne and Carmarthen Hills was named the county of Cumberland. At the same time in honour of the king’s birthday the usual salutes were fired, and, as there was plenty of timber, bonfires were made in the evening, according to the old English custom, to celebrate the occasion.

From time to time many large birds appeared in the harbour, and brown wedge-tailed eagles from the interior were seen as well as parrots and other bright plumaged birds, but all of them kept well out of danger. Near Sydney, the fish locally known as bream and mackerel were commonly caught, and they formed the chief food supply.

To the British when they first arrived in New South Wales, as to Dampier when he visited the western coast, the most remarkable animal was the kangaroo, quaintly described as “a quadruped as large as a sheep, the neck, head and shoulders small in proportion to the remainder of the body, the tail long and going off to a point…The fore-legs only measure eight inches long and are kept bent close under the breast and seem to be only used for digging in the ground, for the animal never walks but leaps like a frog in an erect posture; the hind legs are near twenty-two inches long and serve to make a seat for the animal which is always discovered in that posture when he is not leaping along. The skin is grey, of a mouse colour, the ears are like those of a hare, and the flesh is like venison only with a brackish taste.” The great grey kangaroo, the finest of the group, is probably the one thus described. It feeds upon the native grasses and the leaves of shrubs, possesses an acute sense of hearing, and is wonderfully swift in its spring; the older ones are very wary, and it is seldom that an “old man” kangaroo is taken. The skin, when tanned, is valuable for its elasticity and softness. The rock wallaby is smaller, being only about three feet in length, while the kangaroo rat is about twice the size of an English water mole.

We learn from the earliest records that the Australian aborigines at Sydney Cove varied in height from about five feet four inches to five feet nine inches, but some would measure six feet. The men were of slight build and fairly well made, the women scarcely so tall. Generally speaking they had the projecting brows, broad noses, wide mouths and thick lips which led the colonists to compare them to the negro; but their hair and beards were short and curly, not woolly, their eyes dark hazel, and their skin a deepish brown. They appeared to practise curious ceremonies such as punching out the two front teeth on the right side of the upper jaw of the men, and the amputation of the joints of the’ little finger of the left hand of the girls who were appointed to catch fish for the tribe; while scars upon the body seemed to be considered ornamental.

In course of time the colonists became acquainted with the character and mode of life of the Australian natives at Port Jackson. They made no attempt to cultivate the ground, but depended for food wholly on the fruits, roots and animals the country produced. Fishing, indeed, seemed to occupy most of their time, probably because it yielded their chief sustenance, and also because it afforded them sport. They seldom ate food raw unless pressed by hunger; and broiled their meat, fish and vegetables, many of the last being poisonous to white men. The natives appeared to feel the cold acutely, and when not round the fire sheltered themselves in bad weather among the caves and rocks. In winter they slept in round huts constructed of boughs and bark about four feet high and open on one side only.

Many quarrels occurred between the settlers and the blacks, and the white men would, perhaps, have been more severe upon the aborigines for their depredations had not several settlers been convicted in the year 1800 of the murder of a native boy. Before that year Europeans at the Hawkesbury River had their huts burned, their stock stolen, and their cornfields despoiled by members of the tribe. The settlers were compelled to use their firearms and a reward was offered for the head of the chief of this tribe, and was afterwards claimed when his head was brought into Sydney.

Pribumi Memancing di Port Jackson

Pada bulan April, 1808, Fly, sebuah kapal Pemerintah, mencari perlindungan di Teluk Bateman dari cuaca buruk, dan tiga krunya yang mendarat untuk mencari air, itu diatur bahwa dalam kasus bahaya senapan harus dipecat. Para pria telah meninggalkan perahu mereka ketika pantai tiba-tiba menjadi memadati dengan penduduk asli. Senapan itu sesuai habis, dan para pelaut, mencapai perahu, yang menunda ketika mereka diserang oleh penerbangan tombak. Ketiga pria malang jatuh kembali mati dari dayung mereka. Perebutan-perahu orang-orang liar pergi di dalamnya bersama-sama dengan beberapa perahu untuk menyerang kapal, dan mereka begitu banyak sehingga awak memotong kabel Fly dan dibuat untuk laut terbuka.

Setelah pribumi tumbuh terbiasa dengan kehadiran orang Eropa, mereka memberi lebih sedikit kesulitan di Sydney. Tindakan utama mereka adalah untuk permusuhan mengusir orang kulit putih dari daerah tangkapan ikan yang mereka adil diyakini milik mereka sendiri. Tanaman kadang-kadang dibakar, mungkin lebih karena ketidaktahuan dari kedengkian. Seorang pemukim di Parramatta sekaligus melihat melewati kepala terlalu dekat tumpukan jerami-nya dengan penghasut menyala. Ia memanggilnya dan berbicara kepadanya tentang bahaya kebakaran, tetapi kepala dengan tenang menjawab: “Negara ini milik kita, kita harus memiliki api kami, sehingga Anda harus mengurus jagung Anda”.

Ketika Cook melihat takik di pepohonan ia mungkin tidak tahu bahwa mereka dibuat oleh penduduk asli ketika mencari makanan. Metode berburu hanya dipraktekkan oleh Aborigin Australia. Para opossum, tikus kangguru, tupai terbang dan hewan lain yang hidup di batang-batang pohon berlubang diperoleh dengan cara ini. Kebanyakan dari mereka, sedang malam hari dalam kebiasaan mereka, tidur di siang hari, dan karenanya menjadi mangsa mudah untuk pemburu, yang dapat memberitahu dengan kesegaran goresan pada batang pohon ketika binatang itu naik itu. Apa pendaki ahli aborigin yang dapat ditebak dengan tinggi pohon, permen karet biru, mengukur kadang-kadang lebih dari enam puluh meter dalam satu poros halus. Unslinging kapak batu dari sabuknya asli siap untuk memanjat pohon, pemotongan takik saat dia naik. Takik pertama dan kedua dipotong saat dia berdiri di tanah, takik tingkat pertama yang dengan paha di sisi kiri, yang kedua sebaliknya bahu kanan; dua potongan dibuat dengan kapak untuk membentuk takik masing-masing, satu miring, horizontal lainnya. Ke dalam jempol kaki masing-masing kaki dimasukkan, sementara pendaki, peregangan putaran lengannya pohon, membuat pendakian ke stopkontak paling atas, di mana dia menunggu sampai sisa partainya telah membakar rumput kering atau alang-alang yang memenuhi lebih rendah bagian dari bagasi. Kemudian hewan itu, dalam Surat Endeavour untuk melarikan diri dari asap, bergegas naik batang berongga melalui, lubang di bagian atas, untuk segera dibunuh oleh menonton asli untuk dia. Ketika memotong takik seluruh berat pendaki beristirahat di jari kaki, dan dalam bergerak ke atas ia memegang kapak di antara giginya. Para kapak digunakan sebelum kedatangan orang kulit putih terbuat dari batu, tapi yang terjadi kemudian besi mereka

 
 

Natives Fishing at Port Jackson

In April, 1808, the Fly, a Government vessel, sought refuge at Bateman’s Bay from bad weather, and three of her crew were landed to search for water; it was arranged that in case of danger a musket should be fired. The men had left their boat when the seashore became suddenly thronged with natives. The musket was accordingly discharged, and the sailors, reaching the boat, were putting off when they were assailed by a flight of spears. The three unfortunate men fell back dead from their oars. Seizing-the boat the savages went off in it together with several canoes to attack the ship; and they were so numerous that the crew cut the cable of the Fly and made for the open sea.

Once the natives grew familiar with the presence of the Europeans, they gave less trouble in Sydney. Their principal acts of hostility were to expel the white men from the fishing grounds which they justly believed to be their own property. Crops were sometimes set on fire, possibly more through ignorance than malice. A settler at Parramatta once noticed a chief passing too near his haystacks with a lighted firebrand. He called to him and spoke to him about the danger of fire, but the chief calmly replied: “The country is ours, we must have our fire, so you must take care of your corn”.

When Cook saw notches in the trees he probably did not know that they were made by the natives when searching for food. This method of hunting is only practised by the Australian aborigines. The opossum, kangaroo rat, flying squirrel and other animals which live in the trunks of hollow trees were obtained in this manner. Most of them, being nocturnal in their habits, sleep during the day, and therefore become an easy prey to the hunter, who can tell by the freshness of the scratches on the stem of the tree when the animal ascended it. What expert climbers the aborigines were may be guessed by the height of the trees, the blue gum, measuring sometimes over sixty feet in one smooth shaft. Unslinging his stone hatchet from his belt the native prepared to climb the tree, cutting notches as he ascended. The first and second notches were cut as he stood on the ground, the first notch being level with the thigh on the left hand, the second opposite the right shoulder; the two cuts were made with the hatchet to form each notch, one slanting, the other horizontal. Into these the big toe of each foot was inserted while the climber, stretching his arm round the tree, made the ascent to the uppermost outlet, where he waited until the rest of his party had set fire to the dried grass or reeds which filled the lower part of the trunk. Then the animal, in its Endeavour to escape from the smoke, rushed up the hollow trunk through, the hole at the top, to be promptly killed by the native watching for him. When cutting the notches the whole weight of the climber rested on the toe, and in moving upwards he held the hatchet between his teeth. The hatchets used before the coming of the white men were of stone, but afterwards iron ones took their place.

Sydney Natives Climbing Trees

 Pribumi Sydney memanjat Pohon

Dari semua hasil bumi hutan tidak ada-orang pribumi suka lebih baik daripada madu liar, dan di melintasi hutan, mata mereka hampir selalu memandang ke pohon-pohon dalam pencarian itu. Ini madu hampir hitam adalah menghasilkan dari lebah bersengat kecil yang dibuat sarang dalam pohon berlubang. Ini diperoleh dalam banyak cara yang sama seperti oposum, tetapi ketika lebah membuat sarang mereka di cabang-cabang yang ramping gin (atau wanita) menjadi lebih ringan pendaki biasanya melakukan pekerjaan. Dia akan meninggalkan angin lengannya putaran tubuh bagasi, memegang kapak di antara giginya, dan akan, jika dia bisa mencapai sarang, sarang lebah tempat dalam putaran tersampir semacam labu lehernya, tetapi jika tidak dia akan memangkas off cabang, membiarkannya jatuh di kaki suaminya. Penduduk asli makan madu saat mereka menemukannya dan membuat minuman dari sisir menolak disebut “banteng” yang memiliki sifat memabukkan.

Sepanjang New South Wales melemparkan tongkat dan tombak melayani tujuan busur dan panah dari bangsa lain. Penduduk asli di Sydney juga membawa perisai, dicat merah dan putih, oval atau bentuk segitiga, terbuat dari kayu keras di luar, kulit yang ditinggalkan di, membuat mereka hampir tak bisa ditembus. Senjata yang paling terkenal adalah bumerang yang ada beberapa macam, beberapa untuk melempari burung-burung atau hewan, beberapa untuk perang, sehingga dibikin beberapa yang setelah berputar-putar di udara selama beberapa meter mereka akan kembali ke pelempar jika mereka tidak menyerang apapun dalam kursus mereka. Beberapa penulis telah tinggal pada kesamaan antara bumerang dan rudal yang digunakan oleh orang Mesir kuno untuk membunuh bebek seperti diwakili di dinding di Thebes. Ilustrasi menganeksasi dari rudal ini karena itu mungkin menarik untuk menunjukkan bahwa kemiripan, jika ada, agak jauh.

Sydney Natives Climbing Trees

Sydney Natives Climbing Trees

Of all the natural produce of the forest there was nothing-the natives liked better than wild honey, and in traversing the woods, their eyes were almost always looking up into the trees in search of it. This almost black honey was the produce of a small stingless bee which made its hive in the hollow trees. It was obtained in much the same fashion as the opossums, but when the bees made their hives in the slender branches the gin (or woman) being the lighter climber usually did the work. She would wind her left arm round the body of the trunk, holding the hatchet between her teeth, and would, if she could reach the hive, place the honeycomb in a sort of calabash slung round her neck, but if not she would lop off the branch, letting it fall at her husband’s feet. The natives ate the honey as they found it and made a beverage of the refuse comb called “bull” which possessed intoxicating properties.

Throughout New South Wales the throwing stick and spear served the purposes of the bow and arrow of other nations. The natives at Sydney also carried shields, painted red and white, oval or triangular in shape, made of the outside of hard wood, the bark being left on, making them almost impenetrable. The best known weapon was the boomerang of which there were several kinds, some for throwing at birds or animals, some for war, some so contrived that after circling through the air for several feet they would return to the thrower if they did not strike anything in their course. Some writers have dwelt on the similarity between the boomerang and a missile used by the ancient Egyptians for killing ducks as represented on the walls at Thebes. The annexed illustration of this missile may therefore be of interest as showing that the resemblance, if any, is somewhat distant.

Tracing of an Egyptian Missile which was Supposed by Some Old Writers to Resemble a Boomerang

Menelusuri dari Rudal Mesir yang Seharusnya oleh Beberapa Penulis Lama ke Menyerupai Boomerang suatu

Ketika hanya seorang anak kecil hitam Australia belajar untuk melihat tapak samar di rumput, atau pada tanah gundul, dari batu terbalik atau dari daun kering rusak, untuk mengetahui berapa banyak pria telah berlalu dan berapa lama sejak. Sebagai seorang anak ia diajarkan untuk menangkap lebah asli di tepi sungai, untuk melampirkan ke bulu putih lembut kecil atau kelopak bunga dan ketika ia menetapkan itu bebas untuk mengikuti, berjalan dengan cepat untuk menemukan sarang. Menyembunyikan ‘di rumput atau alang-alang yang terletak menunggu dengan sabar selama berjam-jam untuk kayu merpati atau kuas kangguru, sementara laki-laki dari suku menyebarkan diri dalam lingkaran di kejauhan, tersembunyi oleh dahan pohon, sampai mereka bisa dengan tombak kepastian yang berkantung, ketika anak itu bergegas untuk membantu menangani luka yang parah itu. Di sungai-sungai di mana ikan besar kilau hitam anak belajar untuk berenang dan menyelam dan kadang-kadang tombak ikan, mengambil tujuannya dari batu-batu putih di tengah sungai

Tracing of an Egyptian Missile which was Supposed by Some Old Writers to Resemble a Boomerang

Tracing of an Egyptian Missile which was Supposed by Some Old Writers to Resemble a Boomerang

When only a small child the Australian black learns to notice the faintest tread on the grass, or on the bare soil, from a stone upturned or from the broken dry leaves, to know how many men have passed and how long since. As a child he is taught to catch a native bee at the waterside, to attach to it the soft tiny white feather or thistledown and when he sets it free to follow, running swiftly to find the hive. Hiding’ in the grass or reeds he lies waiting patiently for hours for the wood pigeon or brush kangaroo, while the men of the tribe spread themselves in a circle at some distance, hidden by the boughs of the trees, until they can with certainty spear the marsupial, when the boy rushes in to help deal the deathblow. In the rivers where the large fish gleam the black boy learns to swim and dive and sometimes spears a fish, taking his aim from the white boulders in the middle of the stream.

Natives of Australia smoking out the Opossum.

Pribumi Australia merokok keluar opossum tersebut.

Penduduk asli, menurut laporan yang lama, menangkap ikan mereka dalam beberapa cara, pertama dengan hook dan garis, di mana olahraga perempuan juga bergabung, satu gadis di setiap keluarga yang dipercayakan dengan tugas, kedua dengan jaring atau pukat, dan ketiga dengan cara weirs. Kait terbuat dari tiram mutiara-shell, memotong atau tanah untuk bentuk yang diperlukan, dan garis-garis yang dibuat dari kulit pohon, dipukuli sampai itu berserat, ketika string terbaik ditarik keluar dan memutar ke helai dari setiap panjang. Kulit terbaik untuk tujuan ini adalah bahwa dari pohon currajong (Sterculia diversifolia). Dari kulit kayu berserat yang sama jaring dibangun, para jerat yang tersimpul seperti, dan kadang-kadang cukup sebagai rapi seperti, orang-orang dari nelayan Eropa. Penduduk asli juga memancing dengan pertunjukan FIZ-atau ikan-pertunjukan, tombak bersendi yang dapat dibuat setiap panjang dari tiga sampai dengan lima belas meter, dan dipersenjatai dengan dua, tiga atau empat garpu, masing-masing duri dengan shell atau tulang ikan.

Sampan-sampan penduduk asli terbuat dari kulit kayu di selatan, dan batang pohon berlubang di utara; orang-orang kulit telah berakhir aman diikat dengan trailings anggur dan disemen dengan resin kuning; mereka membentang dengan lebar yang tepat, kadang-kadang memiliki rusuk kecil kayu atau thwarts untuk menjaga mereka terbuka. Kadang-kadang mereka dibuat cukup besar untuk membawa empat orang, dan dua dayung kecil yang digunakan dalam mendorong mereka. Kano ini jarang terlihat di daerah pemancingan tanpa terbakar api, tumpukan rumput laut atau selembar kulit kayu basah dan lumpur ditempatkan pada salah satu ujung perahu melayani tujuan sebuah perapian.

Berburu kanguru adalah olahraga kepala pribumi di sekitar Port Jackson. Hewan-hewan liar yang begitu itu hanya dengan kesulitan besar para pemburu mampu mendekati mereka. Sejumlah pribumi akan, oleh karena itu, mengelilingi beberapa menghantui terkenal, dan dipersenjatai dengan tombak mencoba untuk drive dalam kanguru yang akan pergi melompat off, terikat setelah terikat, 10-20 meter pada satu waktu, dan dengan membersihkan semak-semak banyak mampu melarikan diri. Jika para pemburu cukup beruntung untuk menangkap mereka, mereka diberikan sebuah pesta mewah. Kanguru sikat adalah spesies yang paling diburu oleh pribumi di pedalaman, di mana, iklim yang kurang ringan, itu dihargai tidak hanya sebagai makanan tapi juga untuk kulitnya.

Tombak dibuat terutama dari tunas muda dari akar gusi kuning, dipilih dengan hati-hati; mereka yang paling mudah dibuat berasal dari buluh atau batang pohon rumput. Tombak dari suku masing-masing dari pola khusus dikenali oleh suku-suku lainnya. Beberapa hanya menunjuk, beberapa yang berduri enam atau tujuh inci dari titik dengan dari setengah lusin untuk belasan bit yang tajam dari batu, shell, atau tulang seperti pertunjukan ikan, yang lainnya memiliki bintang yang digunting dari tulang ikan di akhir. Para penduduk asli penembak jitu ahli dan jarang gagal untuk memukul benda mereka sekitar lima puluh atau enam puluh di meter. Dengan bantuan dari womerah atau melempar-tongkat, yang merupakan sepotong pendek kayu 24-30 inci panjang dengan ujung yang sedikit bengkok seperti titik jarum rajutan untuk masuk ke dalam cekungan yang terbentuk di dasar tombak , kecepatan tinggi diberikan kepada senjata. Para womerah itu umumnya dihiasi deras, belakang dan depan, dan diadakan horizontal di tangan kanan, akhir kekar itu melewati antara jari pertama dan kedua, sementara jari dan ibu jari didukung tombak dalam garis di atasnya. Tangan kiri disesuaikan elevasi, dan tujuannya adalah seketika, tombak yang sedang habis dengan sentakan tiba-tiba. Salah satu senjata paling sederhana adalah Australia nulla-nulla, dalam bentuk seperti mainan anak, dengan putaran tepi yang tajam akhir kenop, kayu dari mana itu dibuat menjadi salah Myall atau murad. Daun-daun ara liar yang digunakan untuk memoles melempar-tongkat, titik tombak dan senjata lainnya; daun seperti menggigit kayu hampir sama tajam sebagai mencukur rumput digunakan oleh joiner di Eropa. Setelah banyak dari bebatuan di sekitar Sydney dan di Teluk Patah adalah contoh dari upaya artistik kaum pribumi. Angka laki-laki, burung, ikan, dll, dipotong atas mereka, tapi desain yang pada umumnya sangat miskin dan kasar, yang terbaik, mungkin, karena beberapa yang menunjukkan pribumi baik menari atau berkelahi. Gubernur menyebutkan dalam berita Phillip nya satu gambar, yaitu kanguru dan tokoh seakan mulai berdansa jarang dilakukan dengan baik, dan Bennett menyebutkan representasi dari paus sperma di sebuah batu di seberang Baterai Dawes di Port Jackson. Angka tersebut dipotong pada permukaan halus batu-batu besar dan representasi dari diri mereka sendiri, kano, ikan dan hewan yang lumayan gambar yang baik. Di tempat lain hanya ada satu tangan di atas batu, “tangan putih” yang paling sering bertemu dengan itu, penduduk asli menyatakan, dieksekusi dengan campuran abu, kerang dibakar atau pipa tanah liat, “tangan merah” menunjukkan tangan besar dan bata-merah dengan jari-jari secara luas diperpanjang, pigmen, sebagai aborigin tua itu menjelaskan, menjadi campuran darah dan abu. Mr Westall, artis yang dengan Kapten Flinders, melihat gambar kasar sama mewakili kura-kura, kanguru, dll, dan tangan manusia di pantai utara dekat Cape York dan pulau-pulau dekat. Sir George Gray menemukan orang lain di Australia Barat yang seharusnya telah ditarik oleh pelaut terdampar, sebagai salah satu wajah adalah bahwa dari Eropa dan sosok yang berpakaian sebagai seorang imam.

Pribumi Memancing dengan FIZ-pertunjukan

Captain Phillip finds the Carvings on the Rocks at Sydney. (From an old print, 1807.)

Kapten Phillip menemukan ukiran pada Rocks di Sydney.
(Dari cetak lama, 1807.)

Orang pribumi pertama kali dilihat oleh orang kulit putih tahu apa-apa tentang asal-usul lukisan-lukisan ini penasaran, dan mengatakan bahwa mereka adalah pekerjaan “orang-orang tua,” yang berarti orang-orang dari ras punah sebelum kedatangan orang Eropa, dan mungkin hancur dalam perang awal atau diusir ke negara lain. Ada kemungkinan bahwa para seniman asli mencelupkan tangan mereka pertama di pigmen merah, kemudian ditempatkan mereka terhadap batu dan meninggalkan kesan di sana. “Tangan Merah” yang biasanya ditemukan di gua-gua kering atau tempat penampungan batu di antara pelabuhan Port Jackson dan Botany Bay. Berbagai hewan seperti emu, kanguru, Dingos [*] dan possum, serta ikan (kakap dan menyengat-ray), senjata perang, lingkaran suci, tarian dan dewa terbentuk cerita gambar dalam tempat penampungan batu. Mereka diambil sebagai aturan pada pasir halus yang diberikan peluang bagus. Ini tempat penampungan batu umumnya jauh dari pohon atau semak; ukiran kadang-kadang ditemukan pada bagian atas tebing dekat laut, dan jika di pedalaman, di antara pegunungan bukit di Tablelands yang lebih tinggi. Kadang-kadang, bagaimanapun, telanjang mulus birai batu di sisi gunung atau batu loncatan di tempat tidur sungai digunakan oleh seniman atasnya untuk menampilkan keterampilannya.

[* Yang satunya hewan domestik yang dimiliki orang adalah anjing yang dalam bahasa mereka disebut dingo (lihat Phillip, Sejarah New Holland).]

Cave Drawings Discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

Cave Drawings Discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

Gua Gambar Ditemukan oleh Sir George Grey di Australia Barat

Dalam gambar di luar ruangan akan tampak seolah-olah objek (dalam kasus seorang pria atau wanita) telah ditelusuri pada bayangannya, batu ditinju atau ditusuk dengan lubang kecil dari satu sampai tiga inci terpisah di sepanjang garis dan kemudian alur dipotong dari lubang ke lubang. Dalam gambar batu pasir, batu yang berpori, arang dan oker merah tampaknya telah paling sering digunakan, gambar putih yang langka. Garis berada di kali ditarik warna coklat dan cukup luas, sisa angka yang diisi dengan arang atau garis merah pada warna hitam atau merah solid. Sulit untuk sampai pada usia gambar-gambar ini, tingkat kerusakan yang berbeda dalam batuan yang berbeda dan daerah berbeda, tetapi ratusan tahun telah berlalu sejak diragukan lagi mereka dibuat, dan bahan pewarna harus memiliki memiliki kekuatan mana waktu tidak bisa membinasakan; dalam hal ini gambar-gambar batu Amerika dan Australia yang sama.

Banyak penduduk asli dicat tubuh mereka dengan pipeclay dan dihiasi rambut mereka yang berminyak dan kusut, Sebuah cara yang aneh untuk menjaga kalender oleh aborigin di bagian selatan New South Wales ke nomor hari-hari di pigmen merah pada tubuh seorang manusia. Dimulai dengan jari telunjuk tangan kanan, tanda itu melewatkan seluruh panjang lengan dan atas kepala, kemudian sepanjang lengan kiri ke ujung jari telunjuk tangan kiri, dan itu adalah tugas kalender ini hidup untuk menjaga suku informasi dari selang hari.

Karakter suku aborigin di Sydney setelah mereka datang dalam kontak dengan Eropa adalah dengan tidak berarti menarik. Mereka unprepossessing penampilan mereka indolen kebiasaan-mereka licik dan bermuka memberi mereka posisi sosial terdegradasi dari yang pertama, sejarah mereka tidak menarik, dan mereka tidak punya catatan yang ke Eropa tampaknya layak studi. Telah menegaskan bahwa tidak ada negara belum ditemukan tanpa jejak agama, tapi rupanya penduduk asli New South Wales merupakan pengecualian. Mereka tidak menyembah matahari atau bulan, atau bintang-bintang, juga ada bisa ditemukan, kata seorang penulis tua, setiap objek yang mendorong mereka untuk berbuat baik atau menghalangi mereka dari kejahatan melakukan. Orang, bagaimanapun, belajar bahwa mereka memiliki beberapa ide sebuah negara masa depan, dari kepercayaan lama di antara mereka bahwa ketika seorang rekan hitam meninggal, “Dia,” karena mereka menyatakan itu, “jatuh ke seorang pria kulit hitam, tetapi melompat satu putih “. Kolonel Collins, sejarawan kita yang paling awal, menceritakan bagaimana dalam rangka untuk mendapatkan wawasan yang lebih dalam teori-teori mereka pada mata pelajaran agama, dia mempertanyakan Bennilong, seorang pribumi yang melakukan perjalanan ke Inggris dengan Gubernur Phillip, untuk ide-ide orang kulit hitam ‘tentang kematian, dan eksistensi lain . Bennilong menjawab bahwa, “Orang hitam datang dari awan dan kembali ke awan,” namun lebih jauh dari jawaban-jawaban ini tampaknya telah diberikan kepuasan Collins kecil.

Ketika penduduk asli melihat bahwa orang kulit putih telah mengambil tempat tinggal permanen di tanah mereka, perilaku mereka berubah. Mereka menarik diri sama sekali dari pemukiman, dan sepertinya untuk menyerahkan diri untuk memancing, mungkin karena mereka punya begitu banyak pertengkaran dengan PVench selama tinggal dari La Perouse. Selama lima bulan berikutnya mereka hanya dibayar satu kali kunjungan ke Sydney, ketika, menurut Kapten Tench, di tengah malam penjaga di Ridge Timur khawatir dengan suara aborigin di dekat pos mereka, dan perintah diberikan untuk mengambil diperlukan tindakan pencegahan. Ketika lonceng kapal di pelabuhan dikejutkan dan penjaga memanggil “Semua itu Nah” penduduk asli diamati hening untuk beberapa menit, meskipun beberapa saat sebelum mereka telah berbicara dengan kesungguhan, dan segera setelah itu diam-diam berangkat, setelah jelas menduga bahwa pemukiman ini dipersiapkan untuk serangan.

Port Jackson sangat makmur di bawah pemerintahan bijaksana dari Phillip. Pada awalnya tidak ada upaya serius pada pertanian bisa dibuat, dan bencana besar melalui ketentuan ingin lebih dari sekali terancam. Sudah diatur bahwa penyelesaian tidak boleh dibiarkan tanpa ketentuan dua belas bulan, namun HMS Guardian, sebuah kapal empat puluh empat senapan diperintahkan oleh Letnan Riou, dikirim dari Inggris di musim gugur dari 1789 toko membawa, narapidana, “dan sebuah taman lengkap untuk koloni, disusun di bawah arah Sir Joseph Banks,” hampir hancur setelah meninggalkan Tanjung Harapan Baik. Komandan giat nya pada malam Natal bertemu dengan gunung es dari mana ia memutuskan untuk mengisi watercasks, tapi sayangnya kapal menghantam salah satu dari promontories yang terendam dan mulai bocor begitu berat untuk berada dalam bahaya tenggelam. Riou dikirim hari berikutnya beberapa perahu untuk mencoba dan mencapai Teluk Meja, tetapi hanya salah satu dari mereka selamat. Ini dijemput oleh seorang dagang Prancis, Princess of Brittany, yang membawa pasukan, dan mendarat di Cape pada 18 Januari 1790. Dengan ilmu pelayaran terampil Riou membawa Guardian hampir tak berdaya dalam melihat daratan, dan pada 21 Februari dua kapal paus keluar dari Tabel Bay dan ditarik dia masuk pelestarian-nya disebabkan oleh tong di terus menekan dek bawah, hatchways dari yang caulked turun, sehingga dia nyaris menjadi rakit. Dengan mereka yang tetap di papan adalah Mr Pitt, setelah Tuhan Camelford, untuk yang pengaruhnya komandannya mungkin berutang promosi, ia menjadi “baik Riou gagah berani” HMS Amazon, disebutkan dalam puisi Campbell, yang terbunuh di Kopenhagen dan dikuburkan di St Paul.

Sementara itu orang-orang di Sydney mencapai ambang kelaparan, dan hanya menjaga diri hidup dengan menembak dan memancing. Kapal yang dikirim ke Batavia untuk persediaan, dan Sirius dikirim ke Cape, tetapi seluruh saham hidup yang berharga yang telah dibawa ke koloni dengan biaya begitu banyak harus dibunuh untuk mempertahankan populasi. Itu tidak sampai 3 Juni bahwa bantuan datang, dan keselamatan pemukiman terjamin.

Tiga bulan kemudian Kapten Phillip hadir di pesta paus di pelabuhan, dan sementara Bennilong adalah menghadiahinya beberapa aborigin lainnya, gubernur terluka oleh salah satu dari mereka yang membayangkan dia sedang ditawan. Tombak yang masuk di atas tulang selangka dan datang melalui di sisi lain segera rusak oleh Mr Waterhouse, dan meskipun urusan terjadi sekitar lima mil dari Sydney, dalam dua jam Phillip sudah kembali di rumahnya di mana tombak diekstrak . Dalam sepuluh hari ia telah benar-benar pulih, dan mendengar dari Bennilong bahwa pria menyerangnya dari rasa takut Phillip mengampuni penyerangnya dan membuat hadiah kepada penduduk asli sebagai tanda niat baik.

Hunter kembali ke Sydney pada perintah Reliance, mendarat pada 7 September 1795. Dengan dia adalah Matthew Flinders, taruna, dan George Bass, ahli bedah, yang peringkat di antara yang paling mampu dan berani navigator Australia. Dalam waktu satu bulan setelah mereka tiba di Port Jackson, mereka dilengkapi sebuah perahu, hanya delapan meter panjangnya, yang disebut Tom Thumb, di mana mereka berlayar dan menjelajahi Sungai George untuk jarak dua puluh mil di luar survei Pemerintah Kapten Hunter. Pada bulan Maret, 1796, mereka kembali dimasukkan ke laut di Tom Thumb, dengan seorang anak untuk menanggungnya perusahaan, dan memperoleh pengetahuan menit dari pantai selatan Botany Bay. Mereka dieksplorasi Hacking Port dan bertemu dengan banyak petualangan, jatuh dengan beberapa suku liar yang tak terlihat sebelumnya, tapi peralatan miskin memaksa mereka untuk mengurangi perjalanan mereka. Bahaya mereka melarikan diri itu banyak. Saat perahu cahaya mereka terlempar di darat, senapan mereka berkarat dan bubuk basah mereka, Flinders cerdik Penggeli pribumi, yang cenderung bersikap bermusuhan, dengan menjepit jenggot mereka sementara Bass kering bubuk dan dibaringkan di toko air segar. Untungnya mereka tidak tahu apa bubuk itu, tapi mereka menjadi begitu gembira ketika pengunjung mereka mulai membersihkan senapan mereka bahwa senapan harus dibiarkan seperti mereka.

Tahun berikutnya, 1797, Letnan Shortland, juga dari Reliance, sementara dalam mengejar beberapa run-aways, tiba di sebuah sungai yang tidak diketahui sekitar seratus mil sebelah utara dari Port Jackson, yang ia memberi nama Hunter, dan juga pelabuhan mana, di tebing, sebuah strata batubara ditemukan. Berikut penyelesaian dibentuk bernama Newcastle-setelah itu, tapi hanya untuk waktu, dikenal sebagai Kingstown.

Sementara itu penemuan lebih lanjut dari benua Australia yang dibuat oleh Kapten Vancouver, yang berlayar dari Inggris pada Desember, 1790, dalam perintah HMS Penemuan dan Chatham, dan mencapai pantai selatan Australia Barat. Dia mengambil kepemilikan dari Suara Raja George. Setelah berlabuh pada peringatan ulang tahun Putri Charlotte dia disebut tempat Putri Raja Harbour. “Untuk memperingati kunjungan kami,” tulisnya, “di dekat tunggul salah satu pohon kami ditebang, di tumpukan Stones mengangkat untuk menarik apapun Eropa, yang tersisa botol disegel perkamen berisi bertuliskan nama-nama kapal dan mereka komandan dengan nama yang diberikan kepada suara dan tanggal kedatangan dan keberangkatan mereka. botol lain diendapkan di bagian atas Seal Island dan staf didirikan untuk yang terpasang medali dari 1789 tahun. “

Pada tahun 1789 Kapten Cox pada Merkurius penjara telah memasuki beberapa teluk di Tasmania, dan pada rekening banyak tiram yang bernama salah satu dari mereka Oyster Bay. Kapten Bligh, di Bounty, pada perjalanannya ke Tahiti juga menyentuh di Tasmania, anchoring dan menanam pohon buah di dekat Petualangan Bay, yang ia mengunjungi lagi di 1792.

Tasmania adalah yang berikutnya dikunjungi oleh Perancis dalam pencarian dari La Perouse, ekspedisi yang telah dikirim keluar dalam Bruni d’Entrecasteaux di recherche, dan Esperance, untuk tujuan pembelajaran nasib Boussole, dan Astrolab, dan membuat penemuan lebih lanjut. Laksamana berlabuh di Storm Bay di 1792, dan menemukan sungai Derwent yang disebut Riviere du Nord, memberi nama sendiri untuk saluran antara Bruni Pulau-juga disebut setelah dia-dan Tasmania. Labillardiere, ahli botani untuk ekspedisi, dalam Voyage dalam Mencari La Perouse menyebutkan ketinggian luar biasa dari pohon, beberapa menjadi seratus lima puluh meter, dan mengatakan bahwa selama sebuah ekspedisi darat pohon-pohon buah yang ditanam adalah Bligh telah melihat, seperti serta nama dan tanggal ekspedisi, potong pohon-pohon hutan, tetapi hanya satu asli terlihat. Mereka menemukan tidak ada jejak kapal hilang atau kru mereka, tetapi pada tahun 1809 ketika Kapten Bunker dari Venus dimasukkan ke Teluk Petualangan di Pulau Bruni ia melihat tunggul pohon diukir dengan kata-kata Prancis yang ia diuraikan cukup untuk mendorong dia untuk menggali tanah di bawah. Di sana ia menemukan sebuah botol yang tertutup rapat yang berisi tiga surat yang ditinggalkan oleh La Perouse-satu ke Pemerintah Perancis, yang lain hanya menyebutkan pelayarannya, ketiga menjadi tanggal satu bulan setelah keberangkatan mereka dari Sydney pada 1788.

Count De La Pérouse, The French Navigator who reached Botany Bay Six Days after Captain Phillip had anchored there, and afterwards landed in Tasmania.

Pangeran De La Perouse, Navigator Perancis yang mencapai Botany Bay Enam hari setelah Kapten Phillip telah berlabuh di sana, dan setelah mendarat di Tasmania.

Pada bulan Desember, 1797, sementara Flinders absen di Norfolk Island, Bass dibuat lain perjalanan petualang. Mendapatkan izin untuk mengambil perahu paus berawak dengan delapan relawan dari Reliance ia meluncur bersama ke selatan dan melihat Shoalhaven, Jervis Bay dan dua Bay, Melanjutkan saja ia menemukan pantai lebih terbuka, dan menjadi yakin bahwa ada saluran antara daratan dan Tanah Van Dieman itu (Tasmania), Dia menyentuh di Promontory Wilson [*] dan Port Barat, namun, meskipun ikan, burung, dan segel diperoleh untuk kru, ingin ketentuan memaksanya untuk kembali dari survei yang “sangat pelabuhan baik “yang telah ditemukan, kalau tidak ia akan mencapai Port Phillip (Melbourne). Dia kembali pada Februari berikutnya, dan mendekati salah satu pulau kecil di sudut tenggara New South Wales terkejut menemukan tujuh narapidana yang melarikan diri dari Sydney, dua di antaranya, karena mereka menderita sakit, ia membawa rumah dengan dia, yang lain diberikan ketentuan dan senjata api untuk membantu mereka dalam perjalanan mereka kembali ke pemukiman.

[* Mr William Wilson dari H.M.S. Reliance adalah salah satu kru dalam ekspedisi ini. Setelah melewati selat dinamai untuk menghormati Dr Bass, sebuah tanjung dari benua Australia itu terlihat, dan Bass dan Wilson pergi dalam perahu ayam-untuk menjelajahi pantai. Ketika mereka sampai di pantai kecil di sisi utara Wilson melompat darat pertama dan titik itu selanjutnya disebut Promontory Wilson.]

Sementara itu koloni di Sydney jauh tertarik pada penemuan-penemuan lain yang mereka dengar. Mr Clark, supercargo dari Indiaman Timur dari Bengal ke Sydney Cove bernama The Sydney, yang mendarat di Pulau Pelestarian, salah satu dari Grup Furneaux, berusaha dengan sebagian dari awak untuk mencapai Sydney dalam perahu panjang. Mereka hancur di Cape Howe, sekitar tiga ratus mil dari Port Jackson, dan dipaksa untuk berjalan ke tujuan mereka. Beberapa tewas dengan cara, beberapa yang dipotong oleh penduduk asli, dan hanya tiga, dijemput oleh kapal nelayan, mencapai Sydney, meskipun orang lain kemudian diselamatkan. Tiga yang pertama tiba mengatakan dari sejumlah mereka telah menyeberangi sungai dalam perjalanan mereka di sepanjang pantai, satu atau dua dari yang mereka punya untuk mengeksplorasi untuk jarak beberapa pedalaman dalam rangka untuk menyeberang mereka. Mereka juga melaporkan bahwa sementara berusaha untuk menyalakan api pada suatu malam mereka menemukan batubara antara batu-batu di pantai. Ini merupakan penemuan penting, dan akhirnya menyebabkan pembukaan apa yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Gunung Keira coalfield.

Perjalanan Bass, hanya disebut, diperpanjang sepanjang tiga ratus mil dari pantai, dan, untuk menyelesaikan eksplorasi, dia dan berangkat bersama-sama Flinders awal Oktober,, 1798 dalam sebuah kapal kecil sekitar dua puluh lima ton, dibangun dari Norfolk pinus dan bernama Norfolk. Menyentuh pertama di dua Bay, di mana mereka berlindung dari badai, mereka disurvei, dan berjalan ke selatan melihat banyak dari utara pulau-pulau kecil di Tasmania kemudian dikenal sebagai Kelompok Kent. Berlayar di sepanjang pantai utara Tasmania mereka menemukan Pelabuhan Dalrymple, dan mulut dari Tamar. Didorong kembali oleh angin kencang untuk Furneaux Island pada 21 November, mereka pergi lagi untuk selatan pada 3 Desember, dan pada 6 Edaran Kepala menemukan, di mana mereka melihat wombat untuk pertama kalinya dan jumlah petrels. Pada tanggal 9, sementara lewat selatan Pulau Tiga gundukan, membengkak lama dianggap datang dari selatan-barat, dan Flinders menyambutnya sebagai “penyelesaian jangka berharap-untuk penemuan kami suatu bagian ke Samudera Hindia Selatan” .

Pada hari di mana Cape Grim terlihat dan dinamai tanah itu diamati dicuci dengan pemutus laut, yang membuktikan bahwa saluran navigasi terbuka Australia dan Tasmania dipisahkan. Saluran tersebut masih dikenal sebagai Selat Bass. Setelah pantai barat pertama untuk Selatan-Barat dan masa lalu Cape Tenggara Cape mereka melihat pembukaan dari Storm Bay dan sungai ditemukan oleh D’Entrecasteaux dan disebut oleh dia Riviere du Nord yang pada 1794 Kapten Hayes bernama Derwent tersebut. Bass dan Flinders berlayar ke hulu sungai ini, penahan di mulut pada 21 Desember. Pada 3 Januari 1799, mereka kembali eksplorasi mereka dari pantai timur, dan Tasmania benar-benar mengelilingi.

Mereka mencapai Sydney pada 12 Januari setelah perjalanan lima bulan, di mana mereka telah memperoleh banyak informasi tentang pulau. Jejak penduduk yang diamati, dan fakta-fakta penting yang dikumpulkan tentang fauna. Dr Bass memberi seperti deskripsi menyanjung negara itu secara resmi diambil alih oleh Letnan Bowen di 1803 dan pemukiman didirikan di sana pada 1804.

Kemudian di tahun Flinders lagi ditetapkan dari Sydney untuk menjelajahi pantai timur. Dia meninggalkan pada 8 Agustus untuk berlayar ke Moreton Bay utara, dinamakan demikian oleh Cook, tapi kapalnya bocor melompat beberapa hari setelah meninggalkan Port Jackson dan dia terpaksa untuk dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah teluk di mana banyak pribumi terlihat dari fisik yang lebih halus daripada di Sydney. Mereka ternyata nelayan ahli, tinggal di desa-desa yang terdiri dari pondok-pondok melingkar, kerangka dari masing-masing yang terbuat dari tunas pohon anggur menyeberang dan terikat atas dengan rumput untuk menahan angin dan hujan. Bay rumah kaca dan Harvey Teluk juga dieksplorasi. Setelah kembali ke Sydney dari Flinders ekspedisi berlayar untuk Inggris segera, mencapai rumah pada akhir 1800. Grafik dari penemuannya diterbitkan, dan otoritas rumah, untuk eksplorasi lebih lanjut dari Australia, keluar dilengkapi sebuah kapal tua 334 ton, Xenophon, membeli ke angkatan laut beberapa tahun sebelumnya, dan mengubah nama nya Penyidik ​​menunjuk dia untuk perintah nya .

 
 
 Natives of Australia smoking out the Opossum.

Natives of Australia smoking out the Opossum.

The natives, according to the old reports, caught their fish in several ways; first by the hook and line, in which sport the females also joined, one girl in each family being entrusted with the duty; secondly with a net or seine; and thirdly by means of weirs. The hooks were of pearl oyster-shell, cut or ground to the required shape, and the lines were made from the bark of trees, beaten until it was fibrous, when the finest strings were drawn out and twisted into strands of any length. The best bark for this purpose was that of the currajong tree (Sterculia diversifolia). From the same fibrous bark the nets were constructed, the meshes being knotted like, and sometimes quite as neatly as, those of European fishermen. The natives also fished with the fiz-gig or fish-gig, a jointed spear which could be made any length from three up to fifteen feet, and was armed with two, three or four prongs, each barbed with shell or fish bone.

The canoes of the natives were made of bark in the south, and of hollow tree-trunks in the north; those of bark had the ends securely lashed together with vine trailings and were cemented with yellow resin; they were stretched to the proper width, sometimes having small ribs of wood or thwarts to keep them open. Occasionally they were made large enough to carry four persons, and two small paddles were used in propelling them. These canoes were seldom seen on the fishing grounds without a fire burning, a heap of seaweed or a sheet of wet bark and mud placed at one end of the canoe serving the purpose of a hearthstone.

Hunting the kangaroo was the chief sport of the natives around Port Jackson. The animals were so wild that it was only with great difficulty the hunters were able to approach them. A number of natives would, therefore, surround some well-known haunt, and armed with spears try to drive in the kangaroos which would go springing off, bound after bound, from ten to twenty feet at a time, and by clearing the bushes many were able to escape. If the hunters were fortunate enough to catch them they afforded a sumptuous feast. The brush kangaroo was the species most hunted by the aborigines of the interior, where, the climate being less mild, it was prized not only as food but also for its skin.

The spears were made chiefly from young shoots from the root of the yellow gum, selected with great care; those most easily made were from the reed or stalk of the grass tree. The spears of each tribe were of a special pattern recognisable by other tribes. Some were simply pointed; some were barbed six or seven inches from the point with from half a dozen to a dozen sharp bits of stone, shell, or bone like a fish-gig; others had a star cut out of a fish bone at the end. The natives were expert marksmen and rarely failed to hit their object at fifty or sixty yards. By the aid of the womerah or throwing-stick, which was a short piece of wood twenty-four to thirty inches long with the end a little hooked like the point of a crochet needle to fit into a hollow formed at the base of the spear, great velocity was given to the weapon. The womerah was generally ornamented profusely, back and front, and was held horizontally in the right hand, the stout end of it passing between the first and second fingers while the finger and thumb supported the spear in a line above it. The left hand adjusted the elevation, and the aim was instantaneous, the spear being discharged with a sudden jerk. One of the simplest Australian weapons was the nulla-nulla, in shape like a child’s rattle, with a sharp rim round the end of the knob, the wood from which it was made being either myall or myrtle. The leaves of the wild fig were used for polishing the throwing-sticks, the points of lances and other weapons; such leaves biting the wood almost as keenly as the shave grass used by joiners in Europe. Upon many of the rocks around Sydney and at Broken Bay were examples of the artistic efforts of the aborigines. Figures of men, birds, fishes, etc., were cut upon them, but the designs were in general extremely poor and rude, the best, perhaps, being some which showed the natives either dancing or fighting. Governor Phillip mentions in his dispatches one drawing, that of a kangaroo and a figure as if beginning to dance as uncommonly well done, and Bennett mentions the representation of a sperm whale on a rock opposite Dawes Battery at Port Jackson. The figures were cut on the smooth surface of large stones and representations of themselves, canoes, fish and animals were tolerably good drawings. In other places there was only a single hand upon a rock; the “white hand” most often met with was, the natives declared, executed with a mixture of ashes, burnt shells or pipe-clay; the “red hand” showed the hand large and brick-red with the fingers widely extended, the pigment, as an old aboriginal explained, being a mixture of blood and ashes. Mr. Westall, the artist who was with Captain Flinders, saw similar rude drawing representing turtles, kangaroos, etc., and human hands on the north coast near Cape York and the islands close by. Sir George Grey found others in West Australia which are supposed to have been drawn by shipwrecked mariners, as one face is that of a European and a figure is garbed as a priest.

Natives Fishing with the Fiz-gig

Captain Phillip finds the Carvings on the Rocks at Sydney. (From an old print, 1807.)

Captain Phillip finds the Carvings on the Rocks at Sydney.
(From an old print, 1807.)

The first aborigines seen by the white men knew nothing of the origin of these curious paintings, and said that they were the work of “old people,” meaning people of a race extinct before the arrival of Europeans, and perhaps destroyed in early wars or driven out to another country. It is possible that these native artists dipped their hands first in red pigment, then placed them against a rock and left the impression there. “Red hands” were usually found in dry caves or rock shelters among the harbours of Port Jackson and Botany Bay. Various animals such as emus, kangaroos, dingos[*] and opossums, as well as fishes (snapper and sting-ray), weapons of war, sacred circles, dances and deities formed picture stories in these rock shelters. They were drawn as a rule on the fine-grained sandstone which afforded excellent opportunities. These rock shelters were generally far from trees or undergrowth; the carvings were sometimes found upon the tops of cliffs near the sea, and, if in the interior, among the ridges of hills on the higher tablelands. Occasionally, however, the bare smooth ledge of a rock on the mountain side or the stepping-stones in the bed of a river were used by the artist whereon to display his skill.

[* The only domestic animal the people possess is a dog which in their language is called dingo (see Phillip, History of New Holland).]

Cave Drawings Discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

Cave Drawings Discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

Cave Drawings Discovered by Sir George Grey in West Australia

In these outdoor pictures it would seem as though the object (in the case of a man or woman) had been traced on its shadow, the stone being punched or pricked with small holes from one to three inches apart along the outline and then a groove cut from hole to hole. In the sandstone drawings, the stone being porous, charcoal and red ochre seemed to have been most frequently used, white pictures being rarer. The outlines were at times drawn in a brown tint and fairly broad, the rest of the figure being filled in with charcoal or red lines on solid black or red colour. It is difficult to arrive at the age of these drawings, the rate of decay differing in different rocks and different localities, but many hundreds of years have undoubtedly elapsed since they were made, and the colouring matter must have possessed some power which time could not destroy; in this respect the rock pictures of America and Australia are alike.

Many of the natives painted their bodies with pipeclay and adorned their hair which was greasy and matted, A curious way of keeping a calendar by the aborigines in the southern portion of New South Wales was to number the days in red pigment upon the body of a man. Beginning with the forefinger of the right hand, the marks were passed up the whole length of the arm and over the head, then along the left arm to the tip of the forefinger of the left hand, and it was the duty of this living calendar to keep the tribe informed of the lapse of days.

The character of the aborigines at Sydney after they came in contact with Europeans was by no means attractive. Their unprepossessing appearance—their indolent habits—their cunning and duplicity gave them a degraded social position from the first; their history was uninteresting, and they had no records which to Europeans seemed worthy of study. It has been asserted that no country yet discovered is without some trace of religion, but apparently the natives of New South Wales are an exception. They worship neither the sun nor the moon, nor the stars, nor could there be found, says an old writer, any object that impelled them to do good or deterred them from committing evil. People, however, learned that they possessed some idea of a future state, from the old belief among them that when a black fellow died, “He,” as they expressed it, “tumbled down a black man, but jumped up a white one “. Colonel Collins, our earliest historian, tells how in order to gain more insight into their theories upon religious subjects, he questioned Bennilong, a native who had journeyed to England with Governor Phillip, as to the black fellows’ ideas about death, and another existence. Bennilong replied that, “The black fellow came from the clouds and returned to the clouds,” but further than this his answers appear to have afforded Collins little satisfaction.

When the natives saw that the white people had taken up a permanent residence in their land, their behaviour changed. They withdrew altogether from the settlement, and seemed to give themselves up to fishing, probably because they had had so many quarrels with the PVench during the stay of La Pérouse. During the following five months they paid only one visit to Sydney, when, according to Captain Tench, in the middle of the night the sentinels on the East Ridge were alarmed by the voices of aborigines near their post, and orders were given to take necessary precautions. When the bells of the ships in the harbour were struck and the sentinels called out “All’s Well” the natives observed a dead silence for some minutes, though a moment before they had been talking with earnestness, and soon afterwards quietly departed, having evidently guessed that the settlement was prepared for an attack.

Port Jackson prospered greatly under the wise rule of Phillip. At first no serious attempts at agriculture could be made, and grave disaster through want of provisions more than once threatened. It had been arranged that the settlement should never be left without twelve months’ provisions, but H.M.S. Guardian, a forty-four-gun ship commanded by Lieutenant Riou, despatched from England in the autumn of 1789 carrying stores, convicts, “and a complete garden for the colony, prepared under the directions of Sir Joseph Banks,” was nearly wrecked after leaving the Cape of Good Hope. Her enterprising commander on Christmas Eve met with an iceberg from which he determined to fill his watercasks, but unfortunately the ship struck one of its submerged promontories and began to leak so heavily as to be in danger of sinking. Next day Riou sent away some of his boats to try and reach Table Bay, but only one of them survived. This was picked up by a French merchantman, the Princess of Brittany, carrying troops, and landed at the Cape on 18th January, 1790. By skilful seamanship Riou brought the almost helpless Guardian within sight of land, and on 21st February two whale boats came out from Table Bay and towed her in. Her preservation was attributed to the casks in the hold pressing down the lower deck, the hatchways of which were caulked down, so that she practically became a raft. With those who remained on board was Mr. Pitt, afterwards Lord Camelford, to whose influence her commander probably owed his promotion, he being “the gallant good Riou” of H.M.S. Amazon, mentioned in Campbell’s poem, who was killed at Copenhagen and buried in St. Paul’s.

In the meantime the people at Sydney reached the verge of starvation, and only kept themselves alive by shooting and fishing. Vessels were despatched to Batavia for supplies, and the Sirius was sent to the Cape; but the whole of the valuable live stock which had been brought to the colony at so much expense had to be killed to sustain the population. It was not until the 3rd of June that relief came, and the safety of the settlement was assured.

Three months afterwards Captain Phillip was present at a whale feast in the harbour, and whilst Bennilong was presenting to him some other aborigines, the governor was wounded by one of them who imagined he was being taken prisoner. The spear which entered above the collar-bone and came through on the other side was immediately broken by Mr. Waterhouse, and though the affair took place some five miles from Sydney, in two hours Phillip was back in his house where the spear was extracted. In ten days he had completely recovered, and hearing from Bennilong that the man attacked him from fear Phillip forgave his assailant and made a present to the natives as a token of goodwill.

Hunter returned to Sydney in command of the Reliance, landing on 7th September, 1795. With him were Matthew Flinders, midshipman, and George Bass, surgeon, who rank among the most able and daring of Australian navigators. Within a month after they arrived at Port Jackson they fitted up a boat, only eight feet in length, called the Tom Thumb, in which they set sail and explored George’s River for a distance of twenty miles beyond Captain Hunter’s Government survey. In March, 1796, they again put to sea in the Tom Thumb, with a boy to bear them company, and gained a minute knowledge of the coast south of Botany Bay. They explored Port Hacking and met with many adventures, falling in with some savage tribes unseen before, but their poor equipment forced them to curtail their journey. The dangers they escaped were many. When their light boat was tossed on land, their muskets rusty and their powder wet, Flinders cleverly amused the natives, who were inclined to be hostile, by clipping their beards while Bass dried the powder and laid in a store of fresh water. Fortunately they did not know what the powder was, but they became so excited when their visitors began to clean their muskets that the muskets had to be left as they were.

The next year, 1797, Lieutenant Shortland, also of the Reliance, while in pursuit of some run-aways, came upon an unknown river about one hundred miles north of Port Jackson, to which he gave the name of the Hunter, and also a harbour where, in the cliffs, a stratum of coal was found. Here a settlement was formed named Newcastle—afterwards, but only for a time, known as Kingstown.

Meanwhile further discoveries of the Australian continent were made by Captain Vancouver, who had sailed from England in December, 1790, in command of H.M.S. Discovery and Chatham, and reached the south coast of Western Australia. He took possession of King George’s Sound. Having anchored on the anniversary of Princess Charlotte’s birthday he called the place Princess Royal Harbour. “To commemorate our visit,” he writes, “near the stump of one of the trees we had felled, in a pile of Stones raised to attract any European, was left a bottle sealed containing parchment inscribed with the names of the vessels and their commanders with the name given to the Sound and the date of their arrival and departure. Another bottle was deposited at the top of Seal Island and a staff erected to which was attached a medal of the year 1789.”

In 1789 Captain Cox in the brig Mercury had entered several bays in Tasmania, and on account of its numerous oysters named one of them Oyster Bay. Captain Bligh, in the Bounty, on his voyage to Tahiti had also touched at Tasmania, anchoring and planting fruit trees near Adventure Bay, which he visited again in 1792.

Tasmania was next visited by the French in search of La Pérouse, an expedition having been sent out under Bruni d’Entrecasteaux in the Recherche, and Esperance, for the purpose of learning the fate of the Boussole, and Astrolabe, and making further discoveries. The admiral anchored in Storm Bay in 1792, and discovered the river Derwent which he called Riviere du Nord, giving his own name to the channel between Bruni Island—also called after him—and Tasmania. Labillardiere, the botanist to the expedition, in his Voyage in Search of La Pérouse mentions the prodigious height of the trees, some being one hundred and fifty feet, and says that during an expedition inland the fruit trees that Bligh had planted were noticed, as well as the name and date of the expedition, cut into the forest trees, but only one native was seen. They found no trace of the lost ships or of their crews, but in the year 1809 when Captain Bunker of the Venus put into Adventure Bay in Bruni Island he noticed the stump of a tree carved with French words which he deciphered sufficiently to induce him to dig in the ground beneath. There he found a sealed bottle containing three letters left by La Pérouse—one to the French Government, the others merely mentioning his voyage, all three being dated a month after their departure from Sydney in 1788.

Count De La Pérouse, The French Navigator who reached Botany Bay Six Days after Captain Phillip had anchored there, and afterwards landed in Tasmania.

Count De La Pérouse, The French Navigator who reached Botany Bay Six Days after Captain Phillip had anchored there, and afterwards landed in Tasmania.

In December, 1797, while Flinders was absent at Norfolk Island, Bass made another adventurous voyage. Gaining permission to take a whale boat manned with eight volunteers from the Reliance he coasted along to the south and saw Shoalhaven, Jervis Bay and Twofold Bay, Continuing his course he found the coast more exposed, and became convinced that a channel existed between the mainland and Van Dieman’s Land (Tasmania), He touched at Wilson’s Promontory[*] and Port Western, but, in spite of the fish, birds, and seals obtained for the crew, want of provisions compelled him to turn back from surveying the “very good harbour” which he had found, otherwise he would have reached Port Phillip (Melbourne). He returned in the following February, and on approaching one of the small islands at the south-east angle of New South Wales was surprised to find seven convicts who had escaped from Sydney, two of whom, as they were suffering from illness, he brought home with him, the others being given provisions and firearms to help them on their way back to the settlement.

[* Mr. William Wilson of H.M.S. Reliance was one of the crew in this expedition. After passing the straits named in honour of Dr. Bass, a headland of the Australian continent was sighted, and Bass and Wilson went off in the cock-boat to explore the coast. When they reached the small beach on its northern side Wilson jumped ashore first and the point was henceforth called Wilson's Promontory.]

Meanwhile the colonists in Sydney were much interested in other discoveries of which they had heard. Mr. Clark, supercargo of an East Indiaman from Bengal to Sydney named The Sydney Cove, which was ashore on Preservation Island, one of the Furneaux Group, attempted with a portion of the crew to reach Sydney in the long boat. They were wrecked at Cape Howe, some three hundred miles from Port Jackson, and were compelled to walk to their destination. Several perished by the way, some being cut off by the natives, and only three, picked up by a fishing boat, reached Sydney, although others were afterwards rescued. The three who first arrived told of a number of rivers they had crossed on their way along the coast, one or two of which they had had to explore for some distance inland in order to cross them. They also reported that while endeavouring to light a fire one night they found coal among the stones on the beach. This was an important discovery, and eventually led to the opening up of what is now known as the Mount Keira coalfield.

The voyage of Bass, just referred to, extended along three hundred miles of coast; and, to complete the exploration, he and Flinders set off together early in October, 1798, in a small schooner of some twenty-five tons, built of Norfolk pine and named the Norfolk. Touching first at Twofold Bay, where they took refuge from a storm, they surveyed it, and running south saw many of the small islands north of Tasmania afterwards known as the Kent Group. Sailing along the northern shores of Tasmania they discovered Port Dalrymple, and the mouth of the Tamar. Driven back by gales to Furneaux Island on 21st November, they left again for the south on 3rd December, and on the 6th discovered Circular Head, where they saw the wombat for the first time and numbers of petrels. On the 9th, while passing south of Three Hummock Island, a long swell was perceived to come from the south-west, and Flinders hailed it as “the completion of our long-wished-for discovery of a passage into the Southern Indian Ocean”.

On the day on which Cape Grim was seen and named the land was observed to be washed by ocean breakers, which proved that a navigable open channel separated Australia and Tasmania. The channel is still known as Bass Straits. Following the west coast first to South-West Cape and past South-East Cape they saw the opening of Storm Bay and the river discovered by D’Entrecasteaux and called by him Riviere du Nord which in 1794 Captain Hayes had named the Derwent. Bass and Flinders sailed up this river, anchoring at its mouth on 21st December. On 3rd January, 1799, they resumed their exploration of the eastern shores, and Tasmania was completely circumnavigated.

They reached Sydney on 12th January after a voyage of five months, during which they had obtained much information about the island. Traces of inhabitants were observed, and important facts were gleaned about the fauna. Dr. Bass gave such a flattering description of the country that it was formally taken possession of by Lieutenant Bowen in 1803 and a settlement was established there in 1804.

Later in the year Flinders again set forth from Sydney to explore the east coast. He left on 8th August to sail north to Moreton Bay, so named by Cook, but his ship sprang a leak a few days after leaving Port Jackson and he was compelled to put into a bay where many aborigines were seen of finer physique than those at Sydney. They turned out to be expert fishermen, living in villages consisting of circular huts, the framework of each being made of vine shoots crossed and bound over with grass to keep out wind and rain. Glasshouse Bay and Harvey Bay were also explored. After his return to Sydney from this expedition Flinders sailed for England almost immediately, reaching home at the end of 1800. The charts of his discoveries were published, and the home authorities, for the further exploration of Australia, fitted out an old ship of 334 tons, the Xenophon, bought into the navy some years before, and renaming her the Investigator appointed him to her command.

BAB II. GUBERNUR YANG AWAL.
Setelah dinding banyak bangunan publik di Sydney dan di berbagai ruangan di Gedung Pemerintah ini dapat melihat potret gubernur pertama dari Australia. Salah satu melirik foto-foto lama akan menunjukkan bahwa gubernur pertama baik pelaut atau tentara dan dibawa dari geladak seorang pria-perang-atau dari kepala resimen. Menjadi sedikit dibebani dengan dewan administratif atau komite penasehat, banyak yang tentu harus diserahkan kepada kebijaksanaan mereka dan karena itu sketsa singkat dari karir dan karakter setiap petugas akan membantu kita untuk lebih memahami nasib koloni. Empat yang pertama, Phillip, Hunter, King dan Bligh adalah perwira angkatan laut, mungkin karena posisi maritim Sydney membuatnya pada saat itu baik titik awal atau kepala perempat untuk setiap perjalanan ke belahan bumi selatan apakah bahasa Inggris atau Perancis. Macquarie, Brisbane dan Darling adalah tentara, dan diangkat ketika perhatian berubah dari survei pesisir untuk eksplorasi interior.

Kapten Arthur Phillip lahir di London di mana ayahnya, yang berasal dari Frankfort, mengajarkan bahasa Jerman. Pilihannya profesi dan keberhasilan awal yang mungkin karena pengaruh ibunya yang telah janda dari Kapten Herbert dari Royal Navy. Dididik di Greenwich, ia bergabung dengan fregat Buckingham dan melihat layanan pertama di bawah bendera Byng Laksamana. Pada 1776 dia menawarkan jasanya ke Portugal, tapi permusuhan melanggar di antara Inggris dan Perancis ia kembali ke Inggris untuk berjuang untuk negaranya sendiri, dan dibuat komandan dan master Basilisk pada September, 1779. Pada 1781 ia dipromosikan ke peringkat pasca-kapten, dan pada 1786 ia menjadi Gubernur New South Wales.

Arthur Phillip, Kapten-Jenderal dan Komandan-in-Chief of New South Wales.

Tuhan Sydney, yang memilih dia, jelas menganggapnya orang mampu, tetapi janji tampaknya telah mengejutkan Lord Howe yang menulis ke Sydney surat penasaran berisi sesuatu seperti bantahan: “Saya tidak bisa mengatakan bahwa sedikit pengetahuan saya Kapten Phillip akan telah membawa saya untuk memilih dia untuk melayani sifat rumit, tapi pasti Anda tahu lebih dari kemampuannya, “Tuhan dll Sydney, bagaimanapun, tidak memiliki kesempatan untuk menyesali pilihannya. Tidak lama setelah Phillip diangkat dari dia mulai persiapan untuk ekspedisi, dan mendesak admiralty untuk memberikan jatah yang diperlukan dan obat-obatan dan untuk memberikan akomodasi yg diperlukan sehingga armada mungkin mencapai tujuan dengan sakit sedikit atau hilangnya nyawa. Pelayaran terbukti sukses wajar tanpa pengecualian, dan para komandan dan perwira juga memperoleh kredit itu membawa mereka. Belum pernah begitu besar armada telah diambil setengah putaran sehingga terampil dunia ke pantai hampir tidak dikenal. Kedatangan aman pada saat yang sama penghargaan kepada mistar Kapten Cook, dengan grafik yang dipandu Phillip.

Dari tindakan pertama gubernur itu marah dengan kebijaksanaan, keteguhan dan kebaikan. Pada hari ia mendarat, tanpa risiko pribadi kecil, dia mendapatkan persahabatan dari kulit hitam, yang tetap sepanjang masa tinggal di koloni itu.

Selama tahun-tahun kelaparan energi lega para pemukim dan membantu koloni untuk mengatasi bencana sampai bantuan datang. Collins meyakinkan kita: “Gubernur dari sebuah motif yang tidak menghormatinya abadi di musim kesusahan menyerah tiga ratus-berat Jam yang milik pribadi saat ia tidak ingin lebih di mejanya daripada yang diterima secara umum dari toko publik “, untuk resolusi ini ia benar-benar dipatuhi agar” inginkan tidak harus unfelt di Gedung Pemerintah “dan kaya dan miskin sama-sama dirawat, dan pada berbagai kesempatan saat etiket didirikan diberikan perlu bahwa ia harus mengundang pejabat koloni dan istri mereka untuk makan bersamanya di Gedung Pemerintah, ia biasanya memberitahu tamunya bahwa mereka harus membawa roti mereka sendiri karena ia tidak untuk cadangan. Hal ini menceritakan bagaimana ia bercanda menulis atas undangan untuk Kapten dan Mrs Macarthur, “Ada akan selalu menjadi roll untuk Mrs Macarthur “.[*]

[* Lihat Rusden.]

Koloni bawah Phillip adalah dimensi relatif kecil, namun kedatangan segar, sebagian besar tahanan, mengharuskan pembentukan permukiman baru, yang sampai Blue Mountains telah menyeberangi umumnya dekat pantai. Pada 1790 dan tahun-tahun berikutnya bala bantuan besar mencapai koloni, dan gubernur telah instruksi untuk membuat hibah bebas dari lahan untuk marinir habis dan orang lain yang bersedia untuk tinggal di sana secara permanen. Kekuasaan yang diberikan kepadanya jarang jika pernah dianugerahkan kepada yang lain di wilayah kekuasaan Inggris. Dia bisa kalimat, baik, maafkan mereka yang di bawah tanggung jawabnya karena ia pikir cocok, dia bisa mengatur bea cukai dan perdagangan, memberikan uang atau tanah, menciptakan monopoli, semua toko, hibah, tempat kehormatan atau keuntungan, dan bahkan keadilan itu sendiri ditempatkan dalam bukunya tangan. Nada ramah kepada Kapten Phillip kiriman menunjukkan kepercayaan yang berwenang ditempatkan di rumah gubernur kolonial.

Pada 1792 kesehatan Phillip, yang telah banyak mencoba selama masa jabatan, memberi jalan, dan dia meminta Pemerintah Home untuk diizinkan pulang ke rumah. Tinggalkan diberikan dengan berat hati dan dia meninggalkan Sydney di Atlantik pada 11 Desember 1792, dan dibawanya ke Inggris, selain kanguru dan hewan asli lainnya, burung indah, dan berbagai spesimen pengerjaan asli. Dua pribumi yang menemaninya diterima dengan baik di antara semua kelas masyarakat. Di London Bennilong, berpakaian dalam pakaian peradaban, adalah favorit besar. Pada kembali ke Sydney dengan Gubernur Hunter, bagaimanapun, sambil menjaga pada hal yang baik dengan Inggris, ia dibuang pakaiannya dan mengambil kembali ke semak-semak tempat dia tinggal dengan sukunya. Kapten Phillip dipromosikan ke peringkat laksamana belakang, dan meninggal wakil laksamana pada bulan September, 1814, di Bath, di ketujuh puluh tujuh tahun itu.

Bennilong, salah satu yang didampingi Gubernur Pribumi Phillip ke Inggris.

Antara kepergian Kapten Phillip dan kedatangan gubernur kedua, Kapten Hunter, ada selang waktu sekitar dua tahun dan sembilan bulan selama pemukiman diberikan berturut-turut oleh petugas senior dari New South Wales Korps. Yang pertama ini adalah Mayor Francis Grose, putra sulung dari barang kuno yang terkenal dengan nama yang sama. Dia melanjutkan di kantor sampai Desember,, 1794 ketika, menemukan bahwa otoritas di antara para pemukim itu melemah, ia mengundurkan diri dan berlayar untuk Inggris. Penggantinya sebagai Letnan Gubernur adalah Kapten William Paterson yang populer dengan semua kelas. Dalam kehidupan awal dengan resimen 98 ia melihat layanan di India dan telah di pengepungan Caroor, setelah menjadi seorang letnan di kaki 73. Dia telah tiba di Sydney tiga tahun sebelum dan karena itu kenal baik dengan kondisi dan keinginan koloni pada saat pensiun Grose itu. Yang terakhir itu praktis ditekan pemerintah sipil dan sebagai gantinya mendirikan sebuah sistem di mana administrasi keadilan dipercayakan kepada para perwira New South Wales Korps. Paterson tidak berusaha reformasi kesalahan ini, tetapi ia melakukan pekerjaan berguna dalam menjelajahi wilayah segar dan juga dalam melindungi pemukim di sekitar Port Jackson dan di Sungai Hawkesbury dari razia penduduk asli.

Transaksi komersial telah, bagaimanapun, menjadi rumit. Ketika pembuluh tiba dengan toko-toko yang semua setter bebas harus memiliki akses pada istilah yang sama, para pejabat, memiliki kontrol bea cukai, mudah diperoleh keuntungan atas sisa masyarakat. Monopoli ini disebabkan jahat luas.

Pada hari-hari itu koin langka, bukan hanya karena para pemukim miskin, tetapi karena, sesuai dengan terkenal prinsip ekonomi, sulit dalam situasi untuk menyimpan uang dalam sirkulasi atau bahkan untuk mempertahankan itu di koloni itu. Hal penggunaan sehari-hari, dan properti bahkan mendarat, karena itu dihargai dan dibayar dalam roh dan komoditas lainnya. Begitulah keadaan ketika pada 7 September 1795, Kapten John Hunter tiba dan otoritas diasumsikan sebagai gubernur.

Hunter, putra seorang kapten di layanan merchant, lahir di Leith pada tahun 1738. Orang tuanya dimaksudkan dia untuk Gereja, tetapi, bagaimanapun, ia dimasukkan pada buku-buku dari sekoci Grampus, dan kemudian bertugas di Neptunus sebagai kadet di bawah Jervis, kemudian Tuhan St Vincent. Setelah berbagai pengalaman dia diangkat ke perintah frigat Sirius, dengan pangkat kapten pasca, tetapi ketika kapal yang ditugaskan untuk Kapten Phillip untuk ekspedisi ke New South Wales, Hunter, untuk waktu, kedua perintah. [* ]

[* Ketika koloni itu mendarat ia kembali jabatannya sebagai kapten HMS Sirius, dan memegang janji itu sampai kapal itu karam di Norfolk Island di 1790. Setelah itu ia kembali ke Inggris dalam kapal Belanda, namun pada awal 1795 kembali berlayar ke New South Wales. Kali ini ia pergi di Reliance, di dewan yang keponakannya, Letnan Kent.]

Setelah asumsi gubernur Kapten Hunter instruksi untuk mengembalikan jabatan hakim sipil; untuk mengarahkan advokasi hakim untuk melaksanakan tugas-tugasnya relatif terhadap administrasi peradilan dan untuk Endeavour untuk menekan lalu lintas gelap. Tapi gubernur segera menemukan bahwa, meskipun pejabat menerima dia dengan hormat, mereka bertekad dalam hati bahwa peraturan perdagangan yang telah menjadi umum di koloni tidak boleh diubah secara material. Perintah-Nya tidak selalu dilakukan. Reformasi dia mencoba untuk memperkenalkan sering menentang. Ia memahami bahwa pengaruh tidak sesuai dengan pandangannya sendiri bekerja melawan dia dan dengan sukses. Ini menjadi jelas bahwa tindakan itu sengaja tersumbat oleh oposisi militer, dan di salah satu rumah kiriman ia menulis, “Tidak ada saya yakin antipati cemburu terhadap pemerintah angkatan laut”, dan dia menyarankan bahwa New South Wales Korps harus terbebas dari mereka tugas dan tempat mereka diambil oleh marinir.

Sementara itu nasib tanah mulai membaik; hutan dibersihkan dan dibudidayakan, gandum tumbuh jagung diperpanjang dan India ditemukan sangat produktif. Populasi putih meningkat dengan pesat, untuk skema imigrasi merekomendasikan kepada otoritas oleh Phillip sedang dilakukan dan pemukim baru membuat rumah mereka di distrik Sungai Hawkesbury di Head Portland. Hunter membuat perjalanan eksplorasi sepanjang pantai, perjalanan ke negara itu, ditandai kabupaten, dan mendorong penemuan lebih lanjut. Dia mengambil bunga terbesar dalam perjalanan dari Shortland, Flinders dan Bass. Dia memuji kayu keras koloni. Satu dia pikir mirip dengan jati India, dan sebagian besar pohon-pohon karet yang ia nyatakan tidak hanya cocok untuk kapal kayu, tapi untuk blok, kereta pistol atau apa pun tunduk pada gesekan yang besar. Dia sendiri mengangkat kerangka kapal 160 ton dari yang untuk ingin kekuatan dia tidak bisa menyelesaikan, “tapi dia berdiri di atas kerangka dua tahun terkena cuaca, tampaknya tanpa pembusukan terkecil”. Ia merekomendasikan rami asli, nila, yang tumbuh “secara spontan,” dan kulit zat pohon “juga diadaptasi untuk penyamakan”. Dia menduga bahwa tungku akan segera didirikan untuk peleburan bijih besi-berlimpah dengan cara yang sama batubara berlimpah.

Kapten John Hunter.

Lima tahun berlalu, dan menjadi masih tidak puas dengan hasil pemerintahannya dan cara di mana keinginannya dilakukan Hunter bertekad untuk kembali ke Inggris dan mewakili secara pribadi kepada Pemerintah negara koloni. Dia berlayar di Buffalo pada September, 1800, meninggalkan pemerintahan di tangan Kapten Raja, yang, ketika Hunter tidak kembali dari Inggris, diangkat untuk menggantikannya. Kapten Hunter kemudian naik ke peringkat wakil laksamana. Dia menghabiskan tahun-tahun menurun di Leith, tempat masa kecilnya, dan, dalam kenikmatan diri universal, meninggal di London delapan puluh ketiga tahun nya.

Kapten Philip Gidley Raja.

Gubernur baru. Kapten Philip Gidley Raja, adalah penduduk asli dari Cornwall yang telah melewati sebagian besar dari karir angkatan laut di bawah Kapten Phillip. Dia pertama kali menjabat di bawah dia di Hindia Timur sejauh 1783 di mana dia telah letnan dari Eropa, dan disertai Phillip di perjalanannya ke New South Wales; Phillip telah mengutusnya untuk membuat pemukiman pertama di Norfolk Island, telah menunjuk dirinya komandan di sana pada 1788, dan telah dikirim sebagai utusan khusus ke Inggris untuk meletakkan sebelum Pemerintah Home kebutuhan pulau itu, dengan pujian sebagai “seorang perwira yang sangat stabil”.

Pada asumsi kantor sebagai gubernur. Kapten Raja menemukan dirinya dalam posisi yang sulit. Dia jujur ​​berkeinginan mempengaruhi perbaikan, namun kondisi yang diperlukan kebijaksanaan dan keterampilan, dan Raja berjalan dengan tangan yang tinggi. Dia membuat peraturan ketat dan setiap mengabaikan mereka dihukum. Para monopolis itu marah pada apa yang mereka dianggap sebagai gangguan dengan hak-hak mereka, tetapi ketidakpuasan mereka tidak meledak keluar sampai aturan penggantinya, Kapten Bligh.

Gubernur Raja memiliki sebuah pemarah yang terkadang cenderung untuk menempatkan dia di posisi yang kurang menguntungkan. Pada satu kesempatan Pendeta Samuel Marsden kebetulan hadir ketika kekerasan terjadi perselisihan antara Raja dan komisaris jenderal. Mr Marsden tidak bisa meninggalkan ruangan, tetapi pensiun untuk istirahat di jendela agar tidak untuk menyaksikan badai. Dalam panas gairah gubernur menyita komisaris oleh kerah mantel-dan komisaris pada gilirannya mendorongnya pergi, “Apakah Anda melihat bahwa, Sir?” Raja berteriak kepada si pendeta. “Saya melihat apa-apa,” kata Marsden dengan nada serius, masih melihat melalui jendela. Untungnya kata-kata itu diterima oleh kedua pihak yang berselisih sebagai bantahan yang bermartabat, humor yang baik dipulihkan, dan insiden itu ditutup.

Raja memberikan dorongan banyak eksplorasi yang dilakukan selama masa kemajuan besar jabatannya, dan sementara John Franklin, perwira muda yang bertanggung jawab atas Kapten Flinders ‘observatorium, berada di Sydney, menghabiskan banyak waktu dalam membantu dirinya dengan pengalaman yang luas dan pengetahuan. Dia bergurau dibaptis Franklin Tycho Brahe. Kapten Raja pensiun dari gubernur pada Agustus, 1806, dan meninggal di Inggris dua tahun kemudian.

Gubernur baru, Kapten William Bligh, tiba di Agustus, 1806. Seperti Kapten Raja ia adalah seorang Cornishman, dan telah melihat layanan di berbagai belahan dunia. Dia telah berjuang dengan perbedaan dalam dua pertempuran angkatan laut, dan namanya menjadi terkenal sehubungan dengan pemberontakan dari awak karunia, yang telah dikirim di bawah komandonya dalam misi semi ilmiah ke Pasifik Selatan. Para pemberontak telah mengirim dia dan sekitar dua puluh perwira dan pelaut terapung di perahu panjang, dan keterampilan dan kecerdikan yang ditampilkan dalam menavigasi kerajinan ini lebih dari 3.500 mil lemah laut ke pulau Timor memperoleh reputasi dirinya cukup. Untuk Pemerintah Inggris tampaknya ia menjadi orang yang sangat untuk pilot penyelesaian dari laut Australia atas masalah ke perairan yang tenang, dan ia dimasukkan pada tugas-tugas baru di bawah naungan yang paling penuh harapan.

Kapten William Bligh.
(Dengan izin dari Tuan H. Graves dan Co, Ltd)

Tetapi untuk berhasil dalam tugas yang diperlukan dan bijaksana temperamen yang tidak ia miliki. Saat ia telah kehilangan komando atas pemberontak dari Bounty, jadi dia segera mengacak-acak pejabat militer di Sydney menjadi keributan yang ia tidak bisa mengendalikan, dan sebagian besar pemukim terlibat dalam pekerjaan praktis dari koloni itu, dalam mengolah tanah dan menuai panen, benar atau salah berpihak pada faksi militer terhadap gubernur. Namun dia adalah teman mereka.

Ketika pemukim telah memproduksi untuk membuang tidak ada pasar bagi mereka kecuali di Sydney, tidak ada pembeli kecuali dealer di sana, dan tidak ada harapan pembayaran dalam mata-uang sterling. Dalam pertukaran untuk gandum dealer berikan, dengan keuntungan besar untuk dirinya sendiri, teh, gula, atau barang lain yang diperlukan petani, dan rum lebih sering, sumber berbuah kerusakan. Bligh berkeliling di antara koloni mempelajari apa komoditas dan berapa banyak mereka yang diperlukan untuk mereka gunakan sendiri, dan juga apa yang memproduksi mereka akan mampu memasok ke toko Pemerintah kembali. Dia kemudian tetap tarif di mana berbagai produksi itu harus ditukar dengan kebutuhan-kebutuhan yg diperlukan. Di antara kelas-kelas masyarakat miskin ini dilakukan proses perbaikan, tetapi di tempat lain mereka membangkitkan kebencian.

Pada Januari, 1805, gesekan besar antara militer dan gubernur menyebabkan penangkapan atas tuduhan sepele Kapten Macarthur dari New South Wales Korps. Resimen alami memihak Macarthur. Langsung setelah persidangan, dengan asumsi keliru bahwa Gubernur Bligh dimaksudkan untuk menyisihkan pengadilan pidana sama sekali dan untuk berinvestasi para hakim dengan kewenangannya, Kolonel George Johnston menempatkan segel untuk tindakan revolusi dan diasumsikan gubernur. Perintah diberikan untuk membentuk resimen di alun-alun barak dan, dengan band bermain mengudara bela diri, para tentara berbaris ke Gedung Pemerintah di mana gubernur ditangkap. Johnston kemudian mengambil kendali sebagai Letnan Gubernur dan segera setelah diangkat menjadi sekretaris Macarthur kolonial.

Gubernur Bligh disimpan dalam rumah sendiri selama dua belas bulan oleh penjaga militer, putrinya Ny Putland, janda dari Letnan Putland, RN, yang tersisa dengan dia. Ketika Letnan Kolonel Joseph Foveaux tiba di koloni pada 28 Juli, dalam perjalanan untuk mengambil gubernur Pulau Norfolk, ia belajar peristiwa gilirannya telah diambil, dan menjadi pejabat senior diasumsikan gubernur. Dia pada gilirannya digantikan oleh Kapten Paterson, yang tiba dari Tasmania, di mana ia telah bertindak sebagai komandan. Jika beberapa perubahan dibuat dalam urusan administrasi umum.

Tiga perwira. Johnston, Foveaux. dan Paterson, tampaknya telah berusaha untuk mematuhi instruksi yang ditemukan dalam berita-berita dari Sekretaris Negara. Bligh, bagaimanapun, telah simpatisan yang ingin untuk kembali, dan Paterson pada tahun 1809 memutuskan untuk mengirim dia serta Johnston dan Macarthur ke Inggris untuk account ke pihak berwenang untuk apa yang telah terjadi. Sesuai dengan yang Bligh berharap dia ditempatkan di HMS Lumba-lumba sekoci-of-perang yang ia mengambil perintah, dan di mana ia berjanji untuk melanjutkan langsung ke Inggris. Tapi bukannya melakukannya, ia mendarat di Sungai Derwent di Tasmania dan masih di Bay Petualangan di koloni yang ketika Gubernur Macquarie tiba di Sydney, pada 28 Desember 1809.

Macquarie telah diperintahkan untuk mengirim pulang Johnston untuk percobaan dan untuk mengembalikan Bligh selama dua puluh empat jam, urutan yang terakhir dia tidak bisa, tentu saja, melaksanakan, sejak mantan Gubernur tidak ada di sana. Tuhan Castlereagh, Sekretaris Negara untuk Koloni, informasi Bligh dengan surat bahwa penangkapan ini telah bersemangat sensasi yang kuat antara para menteri Mulia nya dan ia diberdayakan untuk membawa pulang ke Inggris dengan dia semua orang seperti dia harus berpikir diperlukan untuk memperkuat kasusnya. Bligh diterima oleh Inggris dengan tangan terbuka, dan meninggal di London-wakil-laksamana-pada tahun 1817.

Kolonel Paterson meninggalkan koloni pada tahun 1810. Dia adalah salah satu yang paling dikenal dan paling populer dari letnan gubernur, namun kebaikan hatinya sering mencegah dia dari melakukan pekerjaan yang berguna karena takut menyinggung perasaan. Ketika dia meninggalkan Sydney sepuluh perahu yang penuh sesak dengan orang-orang mengikuti perahu untuk kapal “menghiburnya sepanjang jalan”. Dia meninggal selama perjalanan pulang.

Lachlan Macquarie, gubernur baru, datang dari keluarga Skotlandia yang lama menetap di Ulva, ayahnya menjadi enam belas, dan terakhir, kepala klan, dan kecenderungan untuk memerintah dan menegakkan ketaatan adalah bagian dari warisan alam yang muda Lachlan. Ia masuk tentara pada tahun 1777, dan melihat layanan di Amerika dan di India, di mana dia hadir di Cananore dan kedua pengepungan dari Seringapatam, dan ia di Mesir di Alexandria pada tahun 1800. Dia kembali dari India ke Inggris pada tahun 1807 untuk mengambil alih komando dari 73 dan pada tahun 1809 menerima pesanan untuk melanjutkan ke New South Wales dengan resimen, promosi lebih lanjut untuk besar-jenderal mengambil tempat sementara ia memegang gubernur.

Mayor Jenderal Lachlan Macquarie.

Langkah pertamanya adalah untuk mengeluarkan tiga pernyataan yang ia telah dibebankan oleh menteri Mulia nya. Yang pertama adalah untuk menyatakan ketidaksenangan raja di proses akhir di koloni. Kekosongan diberikan kedua semua tindakan gubernur interim. Ketiga menginvestasikan gubernur dengan kekuatan untuk bertindak atas kebijakannya sendiri berkaitan dengan masa lalu dan masa depan. Gubernur telah demikian tangan bebas dan sarana yang memadai melaksanakan langkah-langkah yang dianggap bijaksana.

Urusan koloni telah banyak diabaikan, perdagangan berada di tahap paling awal, ada pendapatan tidak; beberapa kabupaten terancam dengan kelaparan, dan Sydney terganggu oleh fraksi. Bangunan publik dalam keadaan kebobrokan; beberapa jalan dan jembatan hampir dilewati. Seluruh penduduk tertekan oleh kemiskinan, ada baik kredit umum atau keyakinan pribadi; moral massa penduduk yang direndahkan; ibadah umum telah ditinggalkan. Memang tidak ada yang lebih buruk dalam kisah Australia, dan itu adalah menyegarkan untuk membaca bagaimana, di bawah bimbingan Macquarie mampu, negara dimulai pada karier yang sama sekali baru dan ditingkatkan. Lingkup energinya ditemukan di berbagai arah. Dia menemukan kota Sydney terdiri dari rumah-rumah rata-rata atau pondok-pondok yang tersebar tentang atau meringkuk bersama-sama pada ada rencana tertentu. Di bawah tangannya itu mulai menjadi kota adil dengan baik memerintahkan jalan-jalan dan bangunan umum tampan. Ia ditujukan pada pembentukan permukiman pertanian, tidak begitu banyak oleh pengenalan kolonis bebas oleh hibah tanah untuk laki-laki layak sudah menetap di sana. Hibah ini adalah dari tingkat yang kecil, tiga puluh atau empat puluh hektar hutan harus dibersihkan dan diduduki oleh orang-orang kepada siapa mereka dialokasikan.

Pangan masih menjadi media pertukaran. Kesulitan ekonomi yang belum diatasi; koin itu langka sehingga tenaga kerja yang dibayar, setidaknya sejauh setengah upah mereka, komoditas, sistem boros ke pekerja dan merugikan seluruh masyarakat. Ada hampir tidak bisa dikatakan koin yang beredar, namun shilling Inggris dan koin tembaga satu ons berat badan yang kadang-kadang tersedia. Uang dalam koloni itu baik bahasa Inggris, Spanyol, Portugis, Belanda atau India, setiap koin memiliki nilai resmi. Tidak ada ekspor barang dagangan di hari-hari, dan tidak ada impor koin kecuali di kapal Pemerintah. Pembayaran mulai dilakukan dengan cara promissory notes yang lolos dari tangan ke tangan. Ini adalah mudah dipalsukan, dan pada tahun 1810 Macquarie mengeluarkan proklamasi yang mengharuskan untuk promissory notes dari lima pound dan menurut bentuk cetakan harus digunakan. Langkah selanjutnya Gubernur terhadap sebuah mata uang adalah pengenalan, tahun 1813, dari 10.000 dolar dari India untuk retensi yang dalam koloni tindakan pencegahan rumit harus diambil. Sepotong melingkar kecil perak dipukul dari pusat dari masing-masing koin, koin kemudian dicap di satu sisi dengan kata-kata “Lima Shillings” di bawah yang merupakan cabang dari salam, di sisi lain adalah “New South Wales, “dan di bawahnya tanggal, 1813. Koin ini dikenal sebagai “dolar berlubang”. Potongan kecil tersingkir dari pusat itu ditangani dengan cara yang sama. Ini terkesan dengan kata-kata “Pence Lima belas,” dengan nama koloni dan tanggal. Nama populer adalah “dump”.

Ini akan sulit dalam ruang pendek untuk memerankan karakter atau melakukan keadilan untuk pekerjaan Gubernur Lachlan Macquarie. Dia telah menerima, mungkin, lebih banyak pujian dan menyalahkan lebih dari setiap gubernur kolonial sebelum atau sejak. Dia bahkan telah disamakan dengan Napoleon dalam metode, dan telah disebut sempit dengan satu dan broadminded oleh yang lain. Tapi tidak ada yang bisa membaca korespondensi dengan pihak berwenang rumah tanpa mengakui bahwa dia memiliki bakat untuk berkuasa, dan bahwa ia menggunakan karunia dengan bijak dan baik untuk tanah nasib yang harus panduan. Passionate, cermat, keras kepala ia mungkin telah, tapi dia kuat dan mampu; kejelian seorang pria yang menggunakan sarana terbaik dalam kekuasaannya untuk mendapatkan objek, bahkan jika dalam berbuat demikian ia terkena kutukan dirinya. H adalah bertujuan selalu tinggi, dan dia selalu set sebelum dia kebaikan rakyat. Industri terutama menarik hatinya. Jika seorang pria rajin dan berusaha untuk hidup jujur, apa pun dia, Macquarie akan menghadiahi dia dan menaikkan dia dalam menghadapi semua oposisi. Tidak ada yang lebih murah hati atau liberal dalam pujian kepada mereka yang pantas, lebih waspada terhadap penjahat, tetapi semua orang yang berusaha melarikan diri dari apa yang dianggap sebagai tugas mereka, atau pekerjaan khusus mereka, untuk membayar hukuman atas kejahatan-kejahatan mereka. Dalam pidato terakhirnya di Sydney ia secara terbuka menyatakan keterikatan yang kuat untuk pemukiman.

Gubernur-Nya, yang diperpanjang selama dua belas tahun, adalah lebih penting untuk koloni dari itu dari setiap penerusnya. Dia meninggal di London, dua setengah tahun setelah kepergiannya dari Sydney pada Desember, 1821, dan dimakamkan di rumah tua di antara Hebrides Argyllshire.

Penerus Macquarie adalah Scot lain, tetapi dari jenis yang sama sekali berbeda. Ilmiah, manusiawi dan seorang perwira yang berpengalaman, Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, meskipun mungkin dia memiliki kebaikan negara sebanyak di hati, tidak memiliki karakteristik yang menang untuk Macquarie mencintai orang-orang dan pada saat yang sama dipandu koloni keluar dari kesulitannya. Dia adalah putra Thomas Brisbane Brisbane House, Ayrshire, yang telah bertempur di Culloden. Dikukuhkan dengan resimen ke-38 pada tahun 1789 ia dikirim ke Irlandia di mana dia bertemu Arthur Wellesley dan dua menjadi teman seumur hidup. Selama Perang Semenanjung-Wellington meminta jasanya, dan ia memegang perintah dengan divisi Picton itu. Dia membuat dirinya berguna selama kampanye dengan mengambil pengamatan yang teratur dengan saku sekstan, dan, sebagai Wellington berkomentar, “terus waktu tentara”.

Sir Thomas Brisbane.

Sementara mahasiswa di Edinburgh dia telah membedakan dirinya dalam matematika dan astronomi, dan ketika ia kembali dari Hindia Barat pada tahun 1805 ia mengabdikan waktu luangnya untuk membangun sebuah observatorium di Brisbane House, sedikit berpikir bahwa ia ditakdirkan untuk membangun lain di sisi lain dunia. Pada tahun 1821 ia diangkat Gubernur New South Wales. Segera setelah ia tiba di koloni itu ia membangun observatorium di Parramatta atas biaya sendiri, memperoleh instrumen berharga untuk itu, dan layanan terampil Bapak, Runker dan Dunlop. Itu dibuka pada 1822. Berikut Sir Thomas menghabiskan sebagian besar waktu luangnya dan Parramatta segera mulai disebut di Eropa “Greenwich dari belahan bumi selatan”.

Tapi kesukaan Brisbane untuk ilmu pengetahuan favoritnya agak berkurang popularitasnya dengan orang-orang yang, karena telah terbiasa melihat Gubernur Macquarie begitu banyak di antara mereka, menganggap bahwa ia mengabaikan kepentingan mereka. Dr Lang menggambarkan Brisbane “sebagai orang dari niat terbaik tapi kekurangan energi”. Keuangan koloni menjadi terlibat dan pendapatan berkurang. Namun banyak perbaikan dibuat, dan lembaga yang kemudian membentuk dasar dari pemerintahan sendiri didirikan selama pemerintahannya.

Di bawah South Wales Baru Peradilan Act, yang menerima persetujuan kerajaan pada tahun 1823, pengadilan tertinggi, masing-masing dengan keadilan kepala dan jika perlu dua hakim lainnya, diciptakan untuk kedua New South Wales dan Tasmania. Dewan Legislatif kemudian dilembagakan adalah terdiri dari lima, enam, atau tujuh anggota dicalonkan oleh Crown atas rekomendasi dari Kantor Kolonial, gubernur ditinggalkan dengan kekuatan untuk bertindak sebagai dia pikir terbaik, terlepas dari saran dari dewan, dan kesulitan serius atau ketidaksepakatan antara gubernur dan dewan adalah untuk dirujuk ke Inggris.

Salah satu tindakan pertama Brisbane telah menerima rasa terima kasih dari kolonis terhitung jumlahnya. Dia tetap ke batu di tempat yang sangat di mana Kapten Cook pertama kali mendarat di Botany Bay tablet kuningan dalam rangka memperingati penemuan bahwa navigator dari pantai timur Australia. Ini menanggung prasasti berikut: “AD 1770 Di bawah naungan Inggris Ilmu-pantai ini ditemukan oleh James Cook dan Joseph Banks-Columbus dan Maecenas waktu mereka tempat ini pernah melihat mereka bersemangat dalam mengejar pengetahuan; sekarang untuk.. memori mereka tablet ini telah tertulis dalam tahun pertama Philosophical Society Australasia Sir Thomas Brisbane, KCB, sesuai anggota Institut Prancis, AD 1821. “.

Sir Thomas Brisbane juga didorong imigrasi, dan populasi 23.000 orang yang ia temukan setibanya di koloni itu meningkat menjadi 36.000 ketika ia berangkat ke Inggris. Dia paling sukses dalam memajukan industri-industri baru. Dia mempromosikan budidaya tembakau, tebu dan anggur. [*]

[* Dia membuat beberapa tur ke pedalaman, dan pada 1822, didampingi oleh Mayor Goulburn dan Bapak H. Grattan-Douglas, menyeberangi Blue Mountains. Daerah dari Roxburgh dan desa Kelso di tepi Macquarie menerima nama mereka untuk menghormati rumah Lady Brisbane di Skotlandia.]

Penulis biografi Sir Thomas Brisbane menulis bahwa Sir Thomas selalu dianggap dua tindakan di New South Wales dengan “kepuasan besar”. Ini adalah peletakan batu fondasi gereja Presbyterian pertama di Sydney, dan, di 1824, menghapus dari sensor terhadap pers. Brisbane juga memuji negara. Dia sendiri melihat batu buah persik ditempatkan di tanah dan dalam tiga tahun telah memakan buah matang dari itu-ia telah melihat bidang yang diproduksi tanaman putih selama dua puluh delapan tahun berturut-turut tanpa pupuk buatan atau stimulan. Kuda pemilik di New South Wales berutang banyak kepadanya, karena pada saat kedatangan-Nya, menemukan berkembang biak kuda rendah, ia mengambil langkah-langkah untuk mengimpor, atas biaya sendiri, orang Arab dibesarkan terbaik yang bisa mendapatkan di Mocha dan Kalkuta.

Eksplorasi penting juga dilakukan. Dataran Monaro tercapai, Rute Bursa Besar ke Queensland didirikan, perjalanan darat ke Port Phillip pertama tercapai, dan Sungai Goulburn, Brisbane dan Murrumbidgee ditemukan.

Brisbane meninggalkan Sydney pada Desember, 1825. Selama interval tiga minggu yang berlalu antara keberangkatan dan kedatangan Darling, Kolonel William Stewart dari Buffs bertindak sebagai gubernur koloni. Setelah kembali ke Skotlandia Brisbane tinggal terutama di rumahnya di Ayrshire dan meninggal pada usia matang delapan puluh tujuh di ruang yang sangat di mana dia dilahirkan.

Sir Ralph Darling.

Jenderal Ralph Darling bergabung dengan resimen ke-45 setelah bertugas di resimen yang lain, dan di perintah dari ke-51 ketika itu merupakan bagian dari pasukan Sir John Moore di Lugo dan berjuang di pertempuran Corunna. Setelah pengalaman administrasi banyak staf ia menjadi letnan jenderal Mei, 1825, dan mengikuti Agustus ditunjuk Gubernur New South Wales.

Dia tiba di Sydney pada 18 Desember, dan mendarat di negara pada hari berikutnya, jalan-jalan yang dipenuhi dengan tentara dari Wharf Raja, maka titik embarkasi kepala, ke gerbang Gedung Pemerintah.

 
 

CHAPTER II. THE EARLY GOVERNORS.

Upon the walls of many of the public buildings in Sydney and in various rooms at Government House may be seen the portraits of the first governors of Australia. One glance at these old pictures will show that the first governors were either sailors or soldiers and were taken from the quarterdeck of a man-of-war or from the head of a regiment. Being little encumbered with administrative councils or advisory committees, much had necessarily to be left to their discretion and therefore a short sketch of the career and character of each officer will help us to better understand the fortunes of the colony. The first four, Phillip, Hunter, King and Bligh were naval officers, possibly because the maritime position of Sydney made it at that time either the starting point or the head-quarters for every voyage to the southern hemisphere whether English or French. Macquarie, Brisbane and Darling were soldiers, and were appointed when attention was turned from the surveying of the coast to the exploration of the interior.

Captain Arthur Phillip was born in London where his father, a native of Frankfort, taught the German language. His choice of a profession and his early success are perhaps due to the influence of his mother who had been the widow of Captain Herbert of the Royal Navy. Educated at Greenwich, he joined the frigate Buckingham and saw service first under the flag of Admiral Byng. In 1776 he offered his services to Portugal, but hostilities breaking out between Great Britain and France he returned to England to fight for his own country, and was made commander and master of the Basilisk in September, 1779. In 1781 he was promoted to the rank of post-captain; and in 1786 he became governor of New South Wales.

Arthur Phillip, Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief of New South Wales.

Arthur Phillip, Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief of New South Wales.

Lord Sydney, who selected him, evidently thought him a capable man, but the appointment seems to have surprised Lord Howe who wrote to Sydney a curious letter containing something like a remonstrance: “I cannot say that the little knowledge I have of Captain Phillip would have led me to have selected him for service of this complicated nature, but doubtless you know more of his abilities,” etc. Lord Sydney, however, had no occasion to regret his choice. No sooner was Phillip appointed than he began preparations for the expedition, and urged the admiralty to grant the necessary rations and medicines and to provide the needful accommodation so that the fleet might reach its destination with little sickness or loss of life. The voyage proved an unqualified success, and the commanders and officers well earned the credit it brought them. Never before had so large a fleet been taken so skillfully half round the globe to an almost unknown shore. Its safe arrival was at the same time a tribute to the draftsmanship of Captain Cook, by whose charts Phillip was guided.

From the first the governor’s actions were tempered with discretion, firmness and kindliness. On the day he landed, at no little personal risk, he secured the friendship of the blacks; which he retained throughout his stay in the colony.

During the years of famine his energy relieved the settlers and helped the colony to tide over calamities until relief came. Collins assures us: “The governor from a motive that did him immortal honour in this season of distress gave up three hundred-weight of Hour which was his private property as he did not wish for more at his table than was received in common from the public store”; to this resolution he strictly adhered in order that “want should not be unfelt at Government House” and rich and poor alike were cared for, and upon those occasions when the established etiquette rendered it necessary that he should invite the officers of the colony and their wives to dine with him at Government House, he usually informed his guests that they must bring their own bread as he had none to spare. It is told how he jokingly wrote upon the invitations to Captain and Mrs. Macarthur, “There will always be a roll for Mrs. Macarthur”.[*]

[* See Rusden.]

The colony under Phillip was of comparatively small dimensions, but fresh arrivals, mostly prisoners, necessitated the formation of new settlements, which until the Blue Mountains had been crossed were generally near the coast. In 1790 and subsequent years large reinforcements reached the colony, and the governor had instructions to make free grants of land to discharged marines and others who were willing to reside there permanently. The powers entrusted to him have seldom if ever been conferred upon any other in the British dominions. He could sentence, fine, pardon those under his charge as he thought fit; he could regulate customs and trade, bestow money or land, create monopolies; all stores, grants, places of honour or profit, and even justice itself were placed in his hands. The friendly tone of the dispatches to Captain Phillip showed the confidence which the home authorities placed in the colonial governor.

In 1792 Phillip’s health, which had been much tried during the term of office, gave way, and he asked the Home Government to be allowed to return home. Leave was granted with much reluctance and he left Sydney in the Atlantic on 11th December, 1792, and took with him to England, besides kangaroos and other native animals, many beautiful birds, and numerous specimens of native workmanship. Two natives who accompanied him were well received among all classes of society. In London Bennilong, clothed in the garb of civilisation, was a great favourite. On returning to Sydney with Governor Hunter, however, while keeping upon good terms with the British, he discarded his clothes and took again to the bush where he lived with his tribe. Captain Phillip was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral, and died a vice-admiral in September, 1814, at Bath, in his seventy-seventh year.

Bennilong, one of the Natives who accompanied Governor Phillip to England.

Bennilong, one of the Natives who accompanied Governor Phillip to England.

Between the departure of Captain Phillip and the arrival of the second governor, Captain Hunter, there was an interval of about two years and nine months during which the settlement was administered successively by the senior officers of the New South Wales Corps. The first of these was Major Francis Grose, eldest son of the well-known antiquary of the same name. He continued in office till December, 1794, when, finding that his authority among the settlers was weakening, he resigned and sailed for England. His successor as lieutenant-governor was Captain William Paterson who was popular with all classes. In early life with the 98th regiment he had seen service in India and had been at the siege of Caroor, afterwards becoming a lieutenant in the 73rd foot. He had arrived in Sydney three years before and was therefore well acquainted with the condition and the wants of the colony at the time of Grose’s retirement. The latter had practically suppressed civil government and in its place set up a system under which the administration of justice was entrusted to the officers of the New South Wales Corps. Paterson made no attempt to reform these errors, but he did useful work in exploring fresh territory and also in protecting the settlers around Port Jackson and on the Hawkesbury River from the raids of the natives.

Commercial dealings had, however, become complicated. When vessels arrived with stores to which all the free setters should have had access on equal terms, the officials, having the control of the customs, easily obtained advantages over the rest of the community. This monopoly caused widespread evil.

In those days coin was scarce, not only because the settlers were poor, but because, in accordance with well-known economic principles, it was difficult in the circumstances to keep money in circulation or even to retain it in the colony. Things of daily use, and even landed property, were therefore valued and paid for in spirits and other commodities. Such was the state of affairs when on 7th September, 1795, Captain John Hunter arrived and assumed authority as governor.

Hunter, the son of a captain in the merchant service, was born at Leith in 1738. His parents intended him for the Church, but, nevertheless, he was entered on the books of the sloop Grampus, and subsequently served in the Neptune as a midshipman under Jervis, afterwards Lord St. Vincent. After various experiences he was appointed to command the frigate Sirius, with the rank of post-captain, but when that vessel was assigned to Captain Phillip for the expedition to New South Wales, Hunter was, for the time, second in command.[*]

[* When the colonists were landed he resumed his post as captain of H.M.S. Sirius, and held that appointment until the vessel was wrecked at Norfolk Island in 1790. Afterwards he returned to England in a Dutch ship, but early in 1795 again voyaged to New South Wales. This time he went in the Reliance, on board of which was his nephew, Lieutenant Kent.]

Upon assuming the governorship Captain Hunter had instructions to reinstate the civil magistracy; to direct the judge advocate to discharge his duties relative to the administration of justice and to Endeavour to suppress the illicit traffic. But the governor soon discovered that, although the officials received him with great respect, they were inwardly determined that the regulations of trade which had become common in the colony should not be materially altered. His orders were not always carried out. Reforms he tried to introduce were often opposed. He perceived that influences not in accord with his own views were working against him and with success. It became clear that his action was deliberately clogged by military opposition, and in one of his dispatches home he wrote, “There exists I believe a jealous antipathy against naval government”; and he advised that the New South Wales Corps should be relieved of their duties and their place taken by marines.

In the meantime the fortunes of the land began to improve; the forests were cleared and cultivated, wheat-growing extended and Indian corn was found to be wonderfully productive. The white population increased by leaps and bounds, for the immigration scheme recommended to the authorities by Phillip was being carried out and new settlers made their home in the Hawkesbury River district at Portland Head. Hunter made voyages of exploration along the coast, travelled into the country, marked out districts, and encouraged further discoveries. He took the greatest interest in the voyages of Shortland, Flinders and Bass. He praised the hard woods of the colony. One he thought similar to Indian teak, and most of the gum trees he declared to be not only fit for ship’s timber but for blocks, gun carriages or anything else subject to great friction. He himself raised the frame of a vessel of 160 tons which for want of strength he could not finish, “but she stood in the frame upwards of two years exposed to the weather, apparently without the smallest decay”. He recommended the native flax, the indigo, which grew “spontaneously,” and the astringent bark of trees “well adapted for tanning”. He presumed that furnaces would soon be erected for smelting-the abundant iron ore by means of the equally abundant coal.

Captain John Hunter.

Captain John Hunter.

Five years passed, and being still dissatisfied with the results of his rule and the way in which his wishes were carried out Hunter determined to return to England and represent in person to the Government the state of the colony. He sailed in the Buffalo in September, 1800, leaving the administration in the hands of Captain King, who, when Hunter did not return from England, was appointed to succeed him. Captain Hunter subsequently rose to the rank of vice-admiral. He spent his declining years at Leith, the scene of his boyhood, and, in the enjoyment of universal esteem, died in London in his eighty-third year.

Captain Philip Gidley King.

Captain Philip Gidley King.

The new governor. Captain Philip Gidley King, was a native of Cornwall who had passed a considerable portion of his naval career under Captain Phillip. He first served under him in the East Indies as far back as 1783 where he had been lieutenant of the Europe; and accompanied Phillip in his voyage to New South Wales; Phillip had sent him to make the first settlement in Norfolk Island, had appointed him commandant there in 1788, and had despatched him as special envoy to England to lay before the Home Government the needs of that island, with commendation as “a very steady officer “.

On assuming office as governor. Captain King found himself in a difficult position. He was honestly desirous of effecting improvement, but the conditions required sagacity and skill, and King proceeded with a high hand. He made strict regulations and any disregard of them was punished. The monopolists were enraged at what they considered an interference with their rights, but their discontent did not burst out until the rule of his successor, Captain Bligh.

Governor King possessed a fiery temper which sometimes tended to put him at a disadvantage. On one occasion the Rev. Samuel Marsden happened to be present when a violent dispute occurred between King and the commissary-general. Mr. Marsden could not leave the room, but retired to a recess at a window so as not to witness the storm. In the heat of passion the governor seized the commissary by the coat-collar and the commissary in turn thrust him away, “Did you see that, sir?” King shouted to the chaplain. “I see nothing,” said Marsden in solemn tones, still looking through the window. Fortunately the words were accepted by both disputants as a dignified remonstrance, good humour was restored, and the incident closed.

King gave much encouragement to exploration which made great advance during his term of office, and while John Franklin, the youthful officer in charge of Captain Flinders’ observatory, was at Sydney, spent much time in assisting him with his wide experience and knowledge. He jokingly christened Franklin Tycho Brahe. Captain King retired from the governorship in August, 1806, and died in England two years afterwards.

The new governor, Captain William Bligh, arrived in August, 1806. Like Captain King he was a Cornishman, and had seen service in various parts of the world. He had fought with distinction in two naval engagements, and his name had become famous in connection with the mutiny of the crew of the Bounty, which had been despatched under his command on a semi-scientific mission to the South Pacific. The mutineers had sent him and about twenty officers and sailors adrift in the long boat, and the skill and resourcefulness which he displayed in navigating this frail craft over 3,500 miles of ocean to the island of Timor gained him considerable reputation. To the British Government he seemed to be the very man to pilot the Australian settlement out of its sea of troubles into quiet waters, and he entered on his new duties under the most hopeful auspices.

Captain William Bligh. (By kind permission of Messrs. H. Graves and Co., Ltd.)

Captain William Bligh.
(By kind permission of Messrs. H. Graves and Co., Ltd.)

But to succeed in this task required tact and a temperament which he did not possess. As he had lost command over the mutineers of the Bounty, so he very soon ruffled the military officials at Sydney into a commotion which he could not control, and most of the settlers engaged in the practical work of the colony, in tilling the soil and reaping the harvests, rightly or wrongly sided with the military faction against the governor. Yet he was their friend.

When the settlers had produce to dispose of there was no market for them except in Sydney, no purchaser except the dealers there, and no hope of payment in sterling coin. In exchange for wheat the dealer gave, with immense profit to himself, tea, sugar, or other goods which the farmer required, and oftener rum, a fruitful source of mischief. Bligh went round among the colonists learning what commodities and how much they required for their own use, and also what produce they would be able to supply to the Government stores in return. He then fixed the rates at which the various productions were to be exchanged for the needful necessaries. Among the poorer classes of the community these proceedings effected some improvement, but in other quarters they stirred up resentment.

In January, 1805, the great friction between the military and the governor led to the arrest on a trifling charge of Captain Macarthur of the New South Wales Corps. The regiment naturally sided with Macarthur. Directly after the trial, erroneously assuming that Governor Bligh intended to set aside the criminal court altogether and to invest the magistrates with its powers, Colonel George Johnston put the seal to the act of revolution and assumed the governorship. Orders were given for the regiment to form in the barrack square and, with the band playing martial airs, the soldiers marched to Government House where the governor was arrested. Johnston then took the reins as lieutenant-governor and soon afterwards Macarthur was appointed colonial secretary.

Governor Bligh was kept within his own house for twelve months by a military guard, his daughter Mrs. Putland, widow of Lieutenant Putland, R.N., remaining with him. When Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Foveaux arrived in the colony on 28th July, on his way to take up the governorship of Norfolk Island, he learned the turn events had taken, and being senior officer assumed the governorship. He in turn was succeeded by Captain Paterson, who arrived from Tasmania, where he had been acting as commandant. Otherwise few changes were made in the general administration of affairs.

The three officers. Johnston, Foveaux. and Paterson, appear to have endeavoured to obey the instructions found in the dispatches from the Secretary of State. Bligh, however, had sympathisers who wished for his reinstatement, and Paterson in 1809 decided to send him as well as Johnston and Macarthur to England to account to the authorities for what had happened. In accordance with Bligh’s wish he was placed on H.M.S. Porpoise a sloop-of-war of which he took command, and in which he promised to proceed direct to England. But instead of doing so, he landed at Derwent River in Tasmania and was still at Adventure Bay in that colony when Governor Macquarie arrived at Sydney, on 28th December, 1809.

Macquarie had been instructed to send Johnston home for trial and to reinstate Bligh for twenty-four hours, the latter order he could not, of course, carry out, since the ex-governor was not there. Lord Castlereagh, Secretary of State for the Colonies, informed Bligh by letter that this arrest had excited a strong sensation among his Majesty’s ministers and he was empowered to carry home to England with him all such persons as he should think necessary to strengthen his case. Bligh was received by England with open arms, and died in London—a vice-admiral—in 1817.

Colonel Paterson left the colony in 1810. He is one of the best known and most popular of the lieutenant-governors, but his kindliness of heart often prevented him from doing useful work for fear of giving offence. When he left Sydney ten boats crowded with people followed his pinnace to the ship “cheering him all the way”. He died during the homeward voyage.

Lachlan Macquarie, the new governor, came of the old Scottish family settled at Ulva, his father being the sixteenth, and last, chief of the clan, and a tendency to rule and enforce obedience was part of young Lachlan’s natural inheritance. He entered the army in 1777, and saw service in America and in India, where he was present at Cananore and both sieges of Seringapatam, and he was in Egypt at Alexandria in 1800. He returned from India to England in 1807 to take command of the 73rd and in 1809 received orders to proceed to New South Wales with that regiment, his further promotion to major-general taking place while he held the governorship.

Major-General Lachlan Macquarie.

Major-General Lachlan Macquarie.

His first step was to issue three proclamations with which he had been charged by his Majesty’s ministers. The first was to declare the king’s displeasure at the late proceedings in the colony. The second rendered void all acts of the interim governors. The third invested the governor with power to act at his own discretion with regard to the past and future. The governor had thus a free hand and adequate means of carrying out the measures he deemed expedient.

The affairs of the colony had been much neglected; commerce was in its earliest stage; there was no revenue; several districts were threatened with famine; and Sydney was distracted by faction. Public buildings were in a state of dilapidation; the few roads and bridges were almost impassable. The whole population was depressed by poverty; there was neither public credit nor private confidence; the morals of the mass of the population were debased; public worship had been abandoned. Indeed there is nothing more dismal in the story of Australia, and it is refreshing to read how, under Macquarie’s able guidance, the country started upon an entirely new and improved career. His energies found scope in many directions. He found the town of Sydney composed of mean houses or huts scattered about or huddled together on no particular plan. Under his hand it began to be a fair city with well-ordered streets and handsome public buildings. He aimed at the formation of agricultural settlements, not so much by the introduction of free colonists as by grants of land to deserving men already settled there. These grants were of small extent, thirty or forty acres of forest to be cleared and occupied by the men to whom they were allotted.

Food stuffs were still a medium of exchange. The economic difficulty had not been overcome; coin was scarce so that workman were paid, at least to the extent of half their wages, in commodities, a system wasteful to the workman and injurious to the whole community. There could hardly be said to be any coin in circulation, but English shillings and copper coins an ounce in weight were sometimes available. The money within the colony was either English, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch or Indian, every coin having an official value. There was no export of merchandise in those days, and no import of coin except in Government ships. Payments began to be made by means of promissory notes which passed from hand to hand. These were easily forged, and in 1810 Macquarie issued a proclamation requiring that for promissory notes of five pounds and under printed forms should be used. The governor’s next step towards a currency was the introduction, in 1813, of 10,000 dollars from India for the retention of which within the colony elaborate precautions had to be taken. A small circular piece of silver was struck from the centre of each of the coins; the coin was then stamped on one side with the words “Five Shillings” under which was a branch of laurel; on the other side was “New South Wales,” and beneath it the date, 1813. This coin became known as “the holey dollar”. The small piece knocked out of its centre was dealt with in a similar manner. It was impressed with the words “Fifteen Pence,” with the name of the colony and the date. Its popular name was “the dump”.

It would be difficult in a short space to portray the character or do justice to the work of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. He has received, perhaps, more praise and more blame than any colonial governor before or since. He has even been likened to Napoleon in his methods, and has been called narrow by one and broadminded by another. But no one can read his correspondence with the home authorities without admitting that he possessed an aptitude for ruling, and that he used the gift wisely and well for the land the destinies of which he had to guide. Passionate, punctilious, obstinate he may have been, but he was strong and capable; a man of foresight who used the best means in his power to obtain his object, even if in so doing he exposed himself to condemnation. H is aims were always high, and he always set before him the good of the people. Industry particularly appealed to him. If a man were industrious and endeavouring to live honestly, whatever he was, Macquarie would reward him and raise him in the face of all opposition. No one was more generous or liberal in praise to those who deserved it, more watchful for miscreants; but all who endeavoured to escape from what he considered to be their duty, or their particular work, paid the penalty for their misdeeds. In his last speech at Sydney he openly stated his strong attachment to the settlement.

His governorship, which extended over twelve years, was of greater importance to the colony than that of any of his successors. He died in London, two and a half years after his departure from Sydney in December, 1821, and was buried at his old home among the Argyllshire Hebrides.

Macquarie’s successor was another Scot, but of an entirely different type. Scholarly, humane and an experienced officer, Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, although perhaps he had the good of the country as much at heart, lacked those characteristics which won for Macquarie the people’s love and at the same time guided the colony out of its difficulties. He was a son of Thomas Brisbane of Brisbane House, Ayrshire, who had fought at Culloden. Gazetted to the 38th regiment in 1789 he had been sent to Ireland where he met Arthur Wellesley and the two became lifelong friends. During-the Peninsular War Wellington asked for his services, and he held a command with Picton’s division. He made himself useful during the campaign by taking regular observations with his pocket sextant, and, as Wellington remarked, “kept the time of the army”.

Sir Thomas Brisbane.

Sir Thomas Brisbane.

While a student at Edinburgh he had distinguished himself in mathematics and astronomy; and when he returned from the West Indies in 1805 he devoted his leisure to building an observatory at Brisbane House, little thinking that he was destined to build another on the other side of the world. In 1821 he was appointed governor of New South Wales. Soon after he arrived in the colony he built the observatory at Parramatta at his own expense, obtaining valuable instruments for it, and the skilled services of Messrs, Runker and Dunlop. It was opened in 1822. Here Sir Thomas spent most of his spare time and Parramatta soon began to be called in Europe “the Greenwich of the Southern Hemisphere”.

But Brisbane’s fondness for his favourite science somewhat lessened his popularity with the people who, having been accustomed to seeing Governor Macquarie so much among them, considered that he was neglecting their interests. Dr. Lang described Brisbane “as a man of the best intentions but deficient in energy”. The finances of the colony became involved and the revenues diminished. Yet many improvements were made, and institutions which afterwards formed the basis of self-government were founded during his governorship.

Under the New South Wales Judicature Act, which received the royal assent in 1823, the supreme courts, each with a chief justice and if necessary two other judges, were created for both New South Wales and Tasmania. The Legislative Council then instituted was to consist of five, six, or seven members nominated by the Crown on the recommendation of the Colonial Office, the governor being left with powers to act as he thought best, irrespective of the advice of the council, and any serious difficulty or disagreement between the governor and his council was to be referred to England.

One of Brisbane’s first actions has earned the gratitude of numberless colonists. He had fixed to the rock on the very spot where Captain Cook first landed at Botany Bay a brass tablet in commemoration of that navigator’s discovery of Australia’s eastern shores. It bore the following inscription: “A.D. 1770. Under the auspices of British Science—these shores were discovered by James Cook and Joseph Banks—the Columbus and Maecenas of their time. This spot once saw them ardent in their pursuit of knowledge; now to their memory this tablet is inscribed in the first year of the Philosophical Society of Australasia. Sir Thomas Brisbane, K.C. B., corresponding member of the Institute of France, A.D. 1821.”

Sir Thomas Brisbane also encouraged immigration, and the population of 23,000 people which he found upon his arrival in the colony had increased to 36,000 when he left for England. He was most successful in advancing new industries. He promoted the cultivation of tobacco, sugar-cane and the grape.[*]

[* He made several tours into the interior, and in 1822, accompanied by Major Goulburn and Mr. H. Grattan-Douglas, crossed the Blue Mountains. The county of Roxburgh and the village of Kelso on the banks of the Macquarie received their names in honour of Lady Brisbane's home in Scotland.]

The biographer of Sir Thomas Brisbane writes that Sir Thomas always regarded two acts of his in New South Wales with “great gratification”. These were the laying of the foundation stone of the first Presbyterian church in Sydney, and, in 1824, the removing of the censorship of the press. Brisbane also praised the country. He had himself seen the stone of a peach placed in the ground and in three years had eaten ripe fruit from it—he had seen fields which produced white crops for twenty-eight years successively without any artificial manure or stimulant. Horse owners in New South Wales owe much to him, for on his arrival, finding the breed of horses inferior, he took measures to import, at his own expense, the best bred Arabs he could obtain at Mocha and Calcutta.

Explorations of importance were also carried out. The Monaro plains were reached, the Great Stock Route to Queensland was established, the first overland journey to Port Phillip was accomplished, and the Goulburn, Brisbane and Murrumbidgee Rivers were discovered.

Brisbane left Sydney in December, 1825. During the three weeks’ interval which elapsed between his departure and Darling’s arrival, Colonel William Stewart of the Buffs acted as governor of the colony. On his return to Scotland Brisbane lived principally at his home in Ayrshire and died at the ripe age of eighty-seven in the very room where he was born.

Sir Ralph Darling.

Sir Ralph Darling.

General Ralph Darling had joined the 45th regiment after serving in other regiments, and was in command of the 51st when it formed part of Sir John Moore’s army at Lugo and fought at the battle of Corunna. After much administrative experience on the staff he became lieutenant-general in May, 1825, and in the following August was appointed governor of New South Wales.

He arrived at Sydney on 18th December, and landed in state on the following day, the streets being lined with soldiers from the King’s Wharf, then the chief point of embarkation, to the gates of Government House. His rule was unfortunately full of unpleasantnesses—the greatest troubles that he experienced being occasioned by the freedom of the press. For the heavy punishment meted out to deserters popular feeling was excited against him. The accusations became so persistent that they were eventually brought to the notice of the House of Commons and discussed in England, where the governor was pronounced free from blame by the committee appointed to investigate the charges, and he was afterwards knighted.

At the head of the opposition was William Wentworth,[*] then a young man whose ability had already won for him a prominent position in the colony. It was probably due to his influence and power that General Darling was recalled.

[* He was born at Norfolk Island, and was the son of D'Arcy Wentworth, an Irish gentleman who had arrived in the colony in 1790, a scion of the great Yorkshire family of Wentworth. When he was only twenty he joined Gregory Blaxland and William Lawson in their exploration of the Blue Mountains. Each of the three was presented by Governor Macquarie with a grant of a thousand acres of land as a reward for their success. But even before this Macquarie had been struck with young Wentworth's capacity and had actually made him deputy provost-marshal. In 1816 Wentworth, who had as a boy been sent home to school at Greenwich, returned to England and spent several years at Cambridge, where in 1823 he competed for the Chancellor's Medal for the poem on Australia, the prize for which was awarded to Winthrop Mackworth Praed, Wentworth being placed second out of twenty-five competitors. He was called to the English Bar in 1823, afterwards returning to Sydney, where in 1828-29 he concentrated his energies on overthrowing the governor.]

General Darling is often described as a rigid disciplinarian, exacting in trifles, exclusive and reserved. But on the other hand we are told that to the people with whom he came in contact he was a firm friend—”a just and good man”—and gave most liberally to the needy. He embarked for England on 21st October, 1831. Neither joy nor regret was manifest at his departure. The six years of his rule were, however, rich in geographical discoveries, due not only to the energy of Captain Sturt who was his military secretary, but to Darling’s active support and patronage.

Darling encouraged the explorations of Sturt. He visited many of the settlements, made journeys through the different districts and inspected many of the homes of the colonists. He was always deeply interested in the improvement of land, the increase of cattle and sheep, and the beautiful fruit and flowers grown in the gardens.

In 1827, in company with Captain Rous[*] of H.M.S. Rainbow, he made a tour of the settlements in the north, and instituted much-needed reforms and improvements in order to attract European settlers. Captain Rous discovered the Richmond and Clarence Rivers in 1829. Ipswich (in Queensland), Stradbroke Island and the county of Rous were named in his honour, he being a son of the first Lord Stradbroke and a native of Suffolk.

[* This was the Rous who brought H.M.S. Pique across the Atlantic without a rudder, and afterwards, as Admiral Rous, became so well known in English racing circles. Even in those early years he showed interest in the turf and became a member of the Parramatta Jockey Club. One horse which he imported to Sydney named The Emigrant or (Rous's Grey Emigrant) is still famous in Australian sporting annals.]

Dr. Peter Cunningham’s eulogy in the preface of his work is perhaps one of the most flattering the governor ever received. “I have,” says Cunningham, “travelled over the greater part of the colony and resided there for two years, so that I may claim some acquaintance with the manners, pursuits, etc., of the various classes resident in Sydney. The justice of the laws governing the colony and the wisdom displayed in their administration have greater influence upon the prosperity of an infant state than even the resources of climate and soil. The admirable system pursued by the present governor must be encouraging to those who purpose to emigrate…I found my opinions almost solely upon the official orders promulgated by him, to which every one has access, but it is only individuals who know how much his efficient reforms were wanted by whom their value can be appreciated…In New South Wales…as yet immature…although destined perhaps to become the seat of a powerful empire we require a governor possessed of ability to discern and activity to awaken its dormant energies; and although Lord Bathurst conferred many benefits upon the colony during the period of his holding office, a greater could not have been conceded by him than the appointment of General Darling.”

III. SYDNEY pada abad kedelapan belas.
Dalam pengaturan bukit dan lembah, di kepala bentangan megah air, Sydney adalah diberkati oleh alam dengan semua persyaratan dari sebuah pelabuhan besar. Bila Phillip disebut pelabuhan, “yang terbaik di dunia,” pujian agak bahwa seorang pelaut amati air surga besar, daripada memuji penemu situs dari sebuah kota masa depan. Memperluas pedalaman untuk jarak sekitar dua belas atau tiga belas kilometer dari Kepala yang menjaga pintu masuk, sekitar pantainya lebih dari seratus teluk dan teluk, berpotongan dengan baik berhutan ramping promontories affording tempat berlindung dari angin setiap.

Dari Kepala ke situs yang dipilih untuk kota ini jarak sekitar empat mil dengan luas rata-rata sekitar tiga mil, tapi air dilayari memperpanjang sembilan mil di luar teluk ke Sungai Parramatta.

Pepatah lama, “Di mana alam memberi yang paling, manusia paling tidak,” tidak berlaku untuk keberadaan awal Sydney. Meskipun keindahan tempat pertama membuatnya terkenal di Eropa, pekerjaan penjajah segera menjadi dikenal dan dihargai. Jalur, dipotong pada pantai untuk bagian kayu, dikembangkan ke jalan-jalan; pondok para penebang kayu itu digantikan oleh rumah-rumah, dan pembangunan kota berjalan sesuai dengan rencana yang dirancang di Inggris, dengan bahan dibawa ke koloni untuk tujuan itu, dilengkapi dengan asli hutan. Pihak dikirim untuk memeriksa tanah, menemukan bumi dari batu bata yang dapat dibuat dan napal kering dan kapur yang menghasilkan kapur. Dari beberapa fireclay dikirim ke Inggris, Wedgwood menyebabkan medali akan dimodelkan mewakili Seni Harapan mendorong dan Buruh di bawah pengaruh Perdamaian, dalam kiasan yang medali Erasmus Darwin menulis terkenal baris yang dimulai dengan: -

Dimana Sydney Cove jernih nya membengkak payudara.

Sebuah rumah kanvas portabel untuk tempat tinggal gubernur, dengan kerangka semua siap untuk diperbaiki, dibangun di sisi timur teluk, dan pada beberapa tanah dekat ditanam pohon-pohon buah yang telah dikumpulkan di Rio dan Tanjung Harapan. Kota, yang dibangun di tepi Sungai Tank, tersebar di ruang di lembah antara dua pegunungan berbaring ke timur dan barat. Pada awalnya rumah dirancang kasar dan tidak memiliki keteraturan, namun jalan-jalan sempit disimpan dalam rangka baik dan cukup bersih. Jalan utamanya adalah dua puluh meter lebarnya dan bernama George Street setelah Raja George III. Lain disebut Pitt Row setelah Mr Pitt. George Street diperpanjang dari laut sepanjang cekungan antara dua pegunungan dan agak lebih dari satu mil panjang, jalan-jalan lain baik berpotongan itu pada sudut kanan dan membentang hingga bukit-bukit, atau sejajar dengan hal itu, sehingga air hujan mengalir ke Tank Stream.

Bagian dari kota dibangun di atas punggungan timur dekat tepi air yang terkandung sebagian besar bangunan sekolah dan tempat tinggal. Saham hidup telah dihapus ke kepala teluk sebelah, disebut Farm Cove, yang telah dibersihkan untuk tujuan pertanian. Punggungan barat disebut Rocks, dan di sini banyak para tahanan hidup, tempat koloni pertama mendarat dikenal sebagai Camp. Bagian yang lebih berharga dari tanah itu yang dekat dengan pelabuhan, dan banyak dicari dan erat dibangun di atas [*].

[* Mr Alt, yang datang ke koloni dengan Phillip dan sesudahnya Mr Grimes, penggantinya, adalah surveyor kepala dan arsitek bangunan pertama Sydney.]

Sementara itu penyelesaian dibuat di Parramatta pada 1788. Pada 2 November gubernur dan tiga perwira dengan partai marinir mengunjungi tempat dan menamakannya Rosehill setelah George Rose, kemudian Sekretaris Treasury dan teman dekat Pitt. Pada tahun yang sama tanah gubernur di Farm Cove, yang telah ditaburi dengan biji, hanya menghasilkan dua puluh lima gantang gandum. Tahun 1790, sebagaimana telah terkait, saham ketentuan dari Inggris gagal. Begitu besar kecemasan bahwa tiang bendera didirikan di South Head harus siap untuk membuat dikenal orang penampilan pertama kapal dari rumah. Bendera sinyal, bagaimanapun, kemudian dicuri oleh penduduk asli, yang menggunakan mereka sebagai penutup untuk kano mereka.

Sydney segera menjadi kepala-perempat dari perlombaan bahasa Inggris di belahan bumi selatan. Situ, sementara kota itu belum dalam masa pertumbuhan, ekspedisi menjelajahi Phillip. Hunter, Bass, Flinders, Murray dan Shortland oleh laut, dari Tench, Dawes, Caley. Wentworth, Blaxland dan Lawson melalui darat, maju ke depan, banyak dari mereka dengan hanya peralatan kasar seperti koloni dapat memberikan. Di sini juga, di observatorium kecil yang didirikan dan diberikan ke charge-nya oleh sepupunya Matthew Flinders, para taruna muda. John Franklin, bekerja di luar masalah-masalah sulit navigasi yang kemudian membantunya selama perjalanan nya Arktik. Di sini juga datang ekspedisi Napoleon dengan Baudin dan De Freycinet di Géographe dan Naturaliste untuk mencari perlindungan dan ketentuan untuk cuaca yang dikenakan mereka kapal, dan untuk mendapatkan pengetahuan dari benua baru yang begitu banyak yang dibuat dalam jurnal mereka.

Telah dikatakan dari Inggris bahwa dia memberikan ke Australia hanya terburuk di hari-hari awal, tetapi ibu negara juga memberikan beberapa negara muda yang sangat terbaiknya sebagai perbuatan kesaksian beruang pionir. Jarang dalam sejarah dapat ditemukan jenis laki-laki lebih sabar dari Phillip, lebih heroik dari Bass atau lebih gigih dari Flinders. Tidak ada yang lebih cerah dalam penemuan maritim dari kisah ini beberapa pelaut Inggris di negeri yang jauh, penanaman bendera Inggris atas sebagian besar kerajaan hadiahnya. Apa pun kemudian ingin di pemukiman itu jelas bukan semangat perusahaan atau loyalitas berani untuk tanah air, dan itu di antara adegan tersebut dan dalam waktu aduk sedemikian rupa sehingga benih sejarah pertama Australia ditaburkan.

Langkah pertama untuk membuat Sydney mandiri telah memberikan tanah kepada pemukim untuk kepemilikan pertanian. Pada bulan Desember, 1792, ketika Phillip kiri, ada enam puluh tujuh pemukim yang memegang 3470 hektar, yang berada di bawah 417 budidaya, namun sebagian besar (sekarang tentu saja dalam kota) sedih terbukti mandul. Ini pemukim pakaian dan makanan dari toko-toko umum, dilengkapi dengan peralatan pertanian, dengan gandum untuk menabur tanah mereka, dan dengan saham tersebut sebagai gubernur melihat cocok untuk memberi mereka-binatang muda mengangkat dari saham harus ditawarkan dalam kembali ke kewenangan Pemerintah pada harga pasar. Setiap orang juga memiliki gubuk yang didirikan di ladang-Nya dengan mengorbankan publik. Setelah kedatangan Hunter perpanjangan lahan untuk budidaya oleh pemukim di sepanjang tepi kaya Sungai Hawkesbury dibuat, dan kabupaten ini menjadi salah satu yang pertama, jika tidak pertama, untuk menghasilkan hasil yang baik, itu menjadi subur sehingga menjadi dikenal sebagai lumbung New South Wales.

Kambing domba dan ternak juga mulai berkembang. Pada 1796 Kapten John Macarthur diperoleh dari keponakan gubernur, Kapten William Kent, RN, delapan domba yang telah dibawa dari Tanjung Harapan Baik dalam Persediaan dan Reliance tersebut. Mereka adalah bagian dari denda-bulus domba-domba milik janda dari Kolonel Gordon, seorang pria yang sebelumnya tinggal Scotch di Cape Town. Saham yang asli telah disajikan oleh Raja Spanyol kepada Pemerintah Belanda, yang telah mengirim mereka keluar untuk koloni mereka di Afrika Selatan. Pada tahun yang sama seekor domba dan lain-lain bahasa Inggris beberapa dari Bengal disilangkan dengan ini, hasil menjadi peningkatan besar dalam berkembang biak. Macarthur, yang bersusah payah terbatas untuk membentuk umatnya, demikian pendiri perdagangan wol Australia, untuk domba-domba dibawa keluar oleh Phillip telah dimakan selama kelaparan.

Rumah-rumah terutama terpisah cottage Freestone putih atau bata diplester berakhir. Mereka dibangun satu atau dua lantai yang tinggi dan dikelilingi oleh beranda, dalam banyak kasus mereka telah kebun terawat tertutup oleh palings kayu atau hedges. Jalan-jalan belum beraspal, tapi pada malam hari dengan baik diterangi dengan lampu. Government House, di batu bata dan plester, juga dibangun, taman dan shrubberies memperluas lebih dari empat hektar. Di kebun adalah pohon pinus besar awalnya dibawa dari Pulau Norfolk, dan tiang bendera yang digunakan untuk sinyal: antara pantai dan orang-orang-of-perang di jangkar di teluk. Jalan tinggi untuk Parramatta dipimpin melalui Barrack Square. Langsung di bawah barak, yang dibangun dengan baik, adalah sebuah gudang besar dan kediaman Mr Simeon Tuhan, yang dikenal sebagai Gedung Putih.

Pada tahun 1801 berbagai gudang selesai di tepi Sungai Parramatta, dan yang lainnya dimulai dekat dermaga di Sydney, Ini sangat diperlukan, karena kebanyakan dari gudang pemerintah dibangun begitu jauh dari tepi sungai untuk membuat bongkar muat dari beban dan mahal kapal. Sebuah pabrik telah didirikan tahun ini untuk menyelimuti wol kasar, karpet, dan kain linen yang disebut drugget yang banyak dibeli oleh para pemukim, tetapi kemajuan industri ini dihambat oleh kehancuran dari gedung oleh api.

Sydney Cove
(Dari sebuah lukisan awal)

Kulit terbuat dari kulit sapi, kanguru dan segel, dan kecokelatan dengan kulit pohon pial terbukti baik. Beberapa keramik didirikan, dan banyak artikel pecah-belah diproduksi. Garam diambil dalam kelimpahan dari air garam, panci berada di Rose Bay dan Newcastle. Selama gubernur Hunter mesin cetak pertama kali digunakan, dan surat kabar yang disebut Lembaran Sydney dilembagakan.

Pekerjaan dilakukan oleh pemukim pertama di New South Wales telah banyak tulisan, mungkin keadilan terbaik dapat dilakukan penjajah dengan mengutip dari seorang penulis yang melihat Sydney segera setelah pekerjaan mereka telah dimulai dan tahu sifat kesulitan mereka: “Sebuah sekejap sudah cukup untuk menunjukkan bahwa bukit-bukit di atas pantai selatan pelabuhan, sekarang ditutupi dengan rumah-rumah dan menara, sekali harus telah hutan suram Tenaga kerja dan kesabaran yang dibutuhkan dan kesulitan-kesulitan yang dihadapi para pemukim pertama pasti tak terhitung.. Namun keberhasilan telah lengkap – kemenangan yang sangat keterampilan manusia dan industri lebih dari Alam sendiri ladang jagung dan kebun tersebut telah menggantikan rumput liar dan semak belukar, sebuah menara kota berkembang atas reruntuhan hutan, melenguh ternak telah menggantikan teriakan liar dari liar, dan keheningan pantai sibuk sekali sekarang rusak oleh dengungan sibuk perdagangan. “

Francois Peron, naturalis dari Géographe, di Voyages yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1824, dijelaskan Sydney dan pelabuhan, dan meskipun ia adalah anggota dari sebuah ekspedisi saingan, account-nya sama sekali tidak memihak. Ia tinggal pada posisi yang menyenangkan dan indah di kota, kelebihan alam, pertahanan, rumah sakit, gudang, gedung-gedung publik dan taman. “Jembatan kayu di bagian bawah lembah,” katanya kita. “Telah dihapus untuk memberikan ruang bagi jembatan batu baru, pada saat yang sama sebuah pabrik air telah dibangun di tempat ini oleh Pemerintah, dan pintu air yang kuat telah dibuat untuk menahan air tawar dan menahan serangan air pasang yang digunakan untuk aliran jarak yang cukup jauh hingga lembah luar dan menuju bagian bawah port dermaga disebut Dock Pemerintah pada rekening yang yang secara eksklusif dialokasikan untuk kapal Pemerintah.. Dermaga sebelah dermaga ini secara alami lereng dengan cara seperti itu tanpa kerja atau beban pada bagian dari kapal terbesar Inggris dapat diletakkan tanpa bahaya Dekat Dock Pemerintah tiga gudang.. Dalam satu artikel disimpan diperlukan untuk penggunaan domestik, seperti periuk dan mebel, milik Pemerintah Inggris, yang berurusan dengan artikel ini untuk tujuan penyediaan pemukiman dengan harga menyatakan, beberapa yang bahkan kurang dari yang diberikan untuk artikel yang sama di rumah ceret,. pertanian peralatan, dll, disimpan di sini. Para gudang kedua berisi pakaian, berlayar- kain, dll, untuk kapal Pemerintah ketiga adalah. dimana tahanan diajarkan perdagangan. Di balik ini berdiri Gedung Pemerintah, dibangun dengan gaya Italia, dikelilingi oleh barisan tiang dan memiliki di depan sebuah perkebunan yang sangat indah yang lereng ke pantai. Dalam perkebunan ini adalah berbagai macam pohon Sebuah Pulau Norfolk pinus dan Columbia yang luar biasa yang melihat sisi tumbuh berdampingan dengan bambu di Asia. Lebih jauh lagi jeruk Portugal dan ara dari Canary matang di bawah naungan pohon apel dari. tepi sungai Seine. Tidak jauh dari teluk tetangga, di tempat yang disebut oleh penduduk asli Woolloomooloo, adalah rumah dari Mr Palmer, komisaris-umum. Jalan besar untuk Parramatta melewati tengah brickfield mana jumlah ubin, batu bata, dan kotak yang dibuat ini juga dilintasi sebuah anak sungai kecil sebelum jatuh ke dalam ujung teluk tetangga.. Antara desa dan Sydney Town adalah tanah pemakaman umum .[*]… Di pelabuhan kapal kami melihat beberapa dari perempat berbeda dari dunia, mayoritas ditakdirkan untuk perjalanan baru dan berbahaya. Berikut adalah beberapa dari tepi Sungai Thames atau Shannon siap untuk melanjutkan ke pantai Selandia Baru, dan lain-lain setelah pengiriman mendarat sekitar untuk berlayar ke Sungai Kuning China;.. beberapa sarat dengan batubara ditujukan untuk Tanjung Harapan Baik dan India Banyak kapal kecil siap untuk berangkat ke Selat Bass untuk mengumpulkan bulu dan kulit, yang diperoleh oleh orang-orang kiri di pulau yang berbeda untuk menangkap segel yang membuat mereka resor mereka Lainnya dari beban yang lebih besar yang dimaksudkan untuk pantai barat Amerika Lain lagi sibuk pas keluar sebagai toko-kapal untuk Navigator atau Kepulauan Ramah dan Kepulauan Masyarakat untuk membawa kembali daging babi untuk koloni.. Pada saat yang sama Kapten Flinders sedang mempersiapkan untuk melanjutkan nya besar pelayaran putaran New Holland. Ini kumpulan operasi, gerakan konstan dari pengiriman terkesan pantai ini dengan kegiatan yang jauh dari kami mengharapkan di negara sehingga akhir-akhir ini dikenal ke Eropa, dan ketertarikan kami meningkat kekaguman kami. “

[* Dimana Town Hall sekarang berdiri.]

Sydney, (Sebagai Peron melihatnya.)

Sangat menarik untuk membandingkan dengan deskripsi Sydney pada awal kali, ditulis oleh seorang Prancis, tayangan Froude delapan puluh tahun kemudian. Dia dengan cepat menemukan rahasia pesona Sydney untuk bangsanya. “Satu matahari terbenam malam di kebun raya indah, hangat dengan aroma bunga tropis, kapal di jangkar di teluk, spar mereka hitam terhadap langit malam, dengan panji-panji panjang terkulai di masthead, Nelson di tengah-tengah seperti ratu dengan bendera putih admiral terbang di atas buritan, dan uap meluncurkan meluncur di atas air gelas yang merah muda dengan refleksi dari matahari terbenam, “memandang, ia pada pelabuhan, dan jelas terpesona dengan keindahannya, sementara perahu membawa dari perwira dan orang-orang laki-laki-perang-yang telah cuti di pantai mengingatkannya pada tatanan lama dan disiplin di tanah yang baru kebebasan-”perisai yang sendiri di belakang kebebasan kebanggaan adalah mungkin”. Dan ia menemukan alasan mengapa pembalap Inggris dari utara tertarik ke kota di selatan. “Ini adalah asosiasi rumah … kita antara orang-orang kita sendiri;. Di negeri yang bapak-bapak kami telah memenangkan untuk kita”

Dalam taman laut yang tenang-yang mungkin lebih seperti rumah ke Inggris daripada tempat lain di belahan bumi selatan-adegan mereka mengajar para pemuda Australia pelajaran lain. Kita yang telah menyaksikan mereka, yang telah menyaksikan matahari terbenam sebagai Froude menyaksikan dan melihat cahaya merah tercermin dalam perairan dan menyebarkan atas daun lebar dan rumput hijau, jangan lupa mereka ketika di tanah air kita menatap pada adegan serupa di tua pelabuhan Portsmouth, Plymouth atau Harwich, dan ketika kita berpikir tentang negara kita menahan diri kembali gema Froude itu: “Kami adalah salah kita sendiri orang-kita di tanah Bapa kami”.

 
 

III. SYDNEY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

In a setting of hill and valley, at the head of a magnificent stretch of water, Sydney is endowed by nature with all the requirements of a great port. When Phillip called the harbour, “the finest in the world,” his praise was rather that of a sailor beholding the waters of a great haven, than of a discoverer commending the site of a future city. Extending inland for a distance of some twelve or thirteen miles from the Heads that guard the entrance, around its shores are over a hundred bays and coves, intersected by slender well-wooded promontories affording shelter from every wind.

From the Heads to the site chosen for the city is a distance of about four miles with an average breadth of some three miles, but the navigable waters extend nine miles beyond the cove to the Parramatta River.

The old saying, “Where nature gives most, man does least,” does not apply to Sydney’s early existence. Although the beauty of the spot first made it famous in Europe, the work of the colonist soon became known and appreciated. Lanes, cut on shore for the passage of timber, developed into streets; the woodmen’s huts were replaced by houses; and the building of the town proceeded according to the plan designed in England, with materials brought to the colony for that purpose, supplemented with native woods. Parties sent out to examine the soil, found earth from which bricks could be made and dry marl and chalk which yielded lime. From some fireclay sent to England, Wedgwood caused a medallion to be modelled representing Hope encouraging Art and Labour under the influence of Peace; in allusion to which medallion Erasmus Darwin wrote the well-known lines beginning with:—

Where Sydney Cove her lucid bosom swells.

A portable canvas house for the governor’s residence, with the framework all ready to be fixed, was erected on the east side of the cove, and upon some ground near were planted fruit trees which had been collected at Rio and the Cape of Good Hope. The town, built on the banks of the Tank Stream, spread over the space in the valley between the two ridges lying to the east and west. At first the houses were rudely designed and lacked regularity, but the narrow streets were kept in good order and fairly clean. The chief street was twenty feet in breadth and was named George Street after King George III. Another was called Pitt Row after Mr. Pitt. George Street extended from the sea along the hollow between the two ridges and was rather more than a mile long, the other streets either intersecting it at right angles and extending up the hills, or else running parallel to it, so that rain water drained into the Tank Stream.

The portion of the town built upon the eastern ridge near the water’s edge contained most of the principal buildings and residences. The live stock had been removed to the head of the adjoining cove, called Farm Cove, which had been cleared for farming purposes. The west ridge was called the Rocks, and here many of the prisoners lived; the place where the colonists first landed was known as the Camp. The more valuable portion of the ground was that close to the harbour, and was much sought after and closely built on.[*]

[* Mr. Alt, who came to the colony with Phillip and afterwards Mr. Grimes, his successor, were the chief surveyors and architects of Sydney's first buildings.]

Meanwhile a settlement was made at Parramatta in 1788. On the 2nd of November the governor and three officers with a party of marines visited the spot and named it Rosehill after George Rose, then Secretary to the Treasury and the intimate friend of Pitt. The same year the governor’s land at Farm Cove, which had been sown with seed, produced only twenty-five bushels of barley. In 1790, as already related, the stock of provisions from England failed. So great was the anxiety that a flagstaff was erected at the South Head to be ready to make known to the people the first appearance of a vessel from home. The signal flags, however, were afterwards stolen by the natives, who used them as coverings for their canoes.

Sydney soon became the head-quarters of the English race in the southern hemisphere. Thence, while the city was yet in its infancy, the exploring expeditions of Phillip. Hunter, Bass, Flinders, Murray and Shortland by sea, of Tench, Dawes, Caley. Wentworth, Blaxland and Lawson by land, went forth, many of them with only such rude equipment as the colony could provide. Here, too, in the small observatory established and given into his charge by his cousin Matthew Flinders, the young midshipman. John Franklin, worked out those difficult problems of navigation which afterwards helped him during his arctic voyages. Here also came Napoleon’s expedition with Baudin and De Freycinet in the Géographe and Naturaliste to seek refuge and provisions for their weather-worn ships, and to gain the knowledge of the new continent of which so much is made in their journals.

It has been said of England that she gave to Australia only her worst in those early days; but the mother country also gave the young country some of her very best as the deeds of the pioneers bear testimony. Rarely in history can be found types of men more patient than Phillip, more heroic than Bass or more persevering than Flinders. There is nothing brighter in maritime discovery than the story of these few British seamen in a distant land, planting the flag of Great Britain over a large portion of her present empire. Whatever else was then wanting at the settlement it certainly was not the spirit of enterprise or courageous loyalty to the motherland; and it was among such scenes and in such stirring times that the seed of Australia’s first history was sown.

The first step to render Sydney self-supporting had been to grant land to settlers for agricultural holdings. In December, 1792, when Phillip left, there were sixty-seven settlers who held 3,470 acres, of which 417 were under cultivation, but the greater part (now of course within the city) proved miserably barren. These settlers were clothed and fed from the public stores, furnished with farming implements, with grain to sow their land, and with such stock as the governor saw fit to give them—the young animals raised from this stock having to be offered in return to the Government authorities at market prices. Every man also had a hut erected on his farm at the public expense. After Hunter’s arrival an extension of land for cultivation by settlers along the rich banks of the Hawkesbury River was made, and this district became one of the first, if not the very first, to yield a good return, it being so fertile that it became known as the granary of New South Wales.

Flocks and herds also began to flourish. In 1796 Captain John Macarthur obtained from the governor’s nephew, Captain William Kent, R. N., eight sheep which had been brought from the Cape of Good Hope in the Supply and the Reliance. They were part of a fine-fleeced flock belonging to the widow of Colonel Gordon, a Scotch gentleman who formerly resided in Cape Town. The original stock had been presented by the King of Spain to the Dutch Government, who had sent them out to their South African colonists. In the same year a few English sheep and others from Bengal were crossed with these, the result being a great improvement in the breed. Macarthur, who took infinite pains to form his flock, was thus the founder of the Australian wool trade, for the sheep brought out by Phillip had been eaten during the famine.

The houses were mainly detached cottages of white freestone or brick plastered over. They were built one or two storeys high and surrounded by verandahs; in many instances they had well-kept gardens enclosed by wooden palings or hedges. The streets were as yet unpaved, but at night were well lighted with lamps. Government House, in brick and plaster, was also built, its gardens and shrubberies extending over four acres. In the garden was a huge pine tree originally brought from Norfolk Island, and a flagstaff used for signalling: between the shore and the men-of-war at anchor in the cove. The high road to Parramatta led through the Barrack Square. Immediately below the barracks, which were well built, were a large warehouse and the residence of Mr. Simeon Lord, known as the White House.

In 1801 a range of storehouses was completed on the banks of the Parramatta River, and another was commenced close by the wharf at Sydney, These were urgently required, as most of the Government warehouses were built so far from the waterside as to render the unloading of ships burdensome and expensive. A factory had been established this year for coarse woollen blanketing, rugs, and a linen called drugget which was much bought by the settlers; but the progress of this industry was retarded by the destruction of the building by fire.

Sydney Cove (From an early painting)

Sydney Cove
(From an early painting)

The leather made from the skins of cattle, kangaroos and seals, and tanned with the bark of the wattle tree proved good. Several potteries were established, and many articles of crockery manufactured. Salt was taken in abundance from the salt water, the pans being at Rose Bay and Newcastle. During Hunter’s governorship the printing press was first used, and the newspaper called The Sydney Gazette was instituted.

Of the work accomplished by the first settlers in New South Wales much has been written; perhaps justice can best be done the colonists by quoting from an author who saw Sydney soon after their work had commenced and knew well the nature of their hardships: “A single glance is sufficient to show that the hills upon the southern shore of the port, now covered with houses and spires, must once have been gloomy woods. The labour and patience required and the difficulties which the first settlers encountered must have been incalculable. But the success has been complete—-a very triumph of human skill and industry over Nature itself The cornfield and the orchard have supplanted the wild grass and the brushwood, a flourishing town towers over the ruins of a forest, the lowing of herds has succeeded the wild whoop of the savage, and the stillness of the once busy shore is now broken by the busy hum of commerce.”

Francois Péron, the naturalist of the Géographe, in his Voyages published in 1824, described Sydney and the harbour, and though he was a member of a rival expedition, his account is entirely impartial. He dwells on the pleasant and picturesque position of the town, its natural advantages, defences, hospital, warehouses, public buildings and gardens. “The wooden bridge at the bottom of the valley,” he tells us. “has been removed to make room for a new stone bridge; at the same time a water mill has been constructed at this spot by the Government, and strong sluices have been made to keep back the fresh water and to restrain the incursions of the tide which used to flow a considerable distance up the valley. Beyond and towards the bottom of the port is a dock called the Government Dock on account of its being exclusively appropriated for Government vessels. The wharf adjoining this dock naturally slopes in such manner that without any labour or expense on the part of the English the largest vessel can be laid up without danger. Near the Government Dock are three warehouses. In one are stored articles required for domestic use, such as crockery and furniture, the property of the English Government, who deal in these articles for the purpose of supplying the settlement at stated prices, some being even less than those given for the same articles at home. Kettles, farming utensils, etc., are kept here. The second storehouse contains clothing, sail-cloth, etc., for Government ships. The third is where prisoners are taught trades. Behind these stands the Government House, built in the Italian style, surrounded by a colonnade and having in front a very beautiful plantation which slopes to the seashore. In this plantation are a great variety of trees. A Norfolk Island pine and the superb Columbia are seen growing side by side with bamboos of Asia. Farther on the orange of Portugal and the fig of the Canaries ripen beneath the shade of apple-trees from the banks of the Seine. Not far from a neighbouring cove, at a spot called by natives Woolloomooloo, is the residence of Mr. Palmer, the commissary-general. The great road to Parramatta passes through the middle of a brickfield where numbers of tiles, bricks and squares are made. This is also crossed by a small rivulet before its fall into the end of a neighbouring cove. Between this village and Sydney Town is the public burial ground.[*]…In port we saw several vessels from different quarters of the world, the majority destined for new and hazardous voyages. Here were some from the banks of the Thames or the Shannon ready to proceed to the shores of New Zealand, and others after landing freight about to sail for the Yellow River of China; some laden with coal intended for the Cape of Good Hope and India. Many small vessels were ready to depart for Bass Strait to collect furs and skins, obtained by men left on different islands to capture the seals which made them their resort. Others of of greater burden were intended for the western shores of America. Others again busily fitting out as store-ships for the Navigator or Friendly Islands and Society Islands to bring back pork for the colony. At the same time Captain Flinders was preparing to resume his great voyage round New Holland. This assemblage of operations, this constant movement of shipping impressed these shores with an activity which we were far from expecting in a country so lately known to Europe, and our interest increased our admiration.”

[* Where the Town Hall now stands.]

Sydney, (As Péron saw it.)

Sydney, (As Péron saw it.)

It is interesting to compare with this description of Sydney in the early times, written by a Frenchman, Froude’s impressions eighty years afterwards. He quickly found the secret of Sydney’s charm for his countrymen. “One sunset evening in the exquisite botanical gardens, warm with the scent of tropical flowers, the vessels at anchor in the cove, their spars black against the evening sky, with their long pennants drooping at the masthead, the Nelson in the midst like a queen with the admiral’s white flag flying over the stern, and steam launches gliding over the glassy waters which were pink with the reflection of the sunset,” he looked upon the harbour, and was evidently fascinated by its beauty, while the boats bringing off the officers and men of the men-of-war who had been on leave on shore reminded him of the old order and discipline in the new land of liberty—”the shield behind which alone the vaunted liberty is possible”. And he found the reason why the Briton of the north is attracted to this city of the south. “These are the associations of home…we are among our own people; in a land which our fathers have won for us.”

In that quiet sea garden—which is perhaps more like home to the Englishman than any other spot in the southern hemisphere—those scenes are teaching the youth of Australia another lesson. We who have witnessed them, who have watched the sunset as Froude watched it and seen the red glow reflected in the waters and spreading over the broad leaves and green grass, do not forget them when in the motherland we gaze on similar scenes in the old harbours of Portsmouth, Plymouth or Harwich, and as we think of our country re-echo Froude’s refrain: “We are among our own people—we are in the land of our Fathers”.

IV. THE LADY NELSON, EXPEDITION Baudin’S, dan peneliti.
Berita yang telah diterima dari maksud dari Perancis untuk mengirim sebuah ekspedisi ke Laut Australia sambil Penyidik ​​sedang disiapkan untuk perjalanan itu, Angkatan Laut dengan cepat keluar dilengkapi Nelson Lady, sebuah penjara enam puluh ton, yang berbeda dari pembuluh menjelajahi lain di memiliki sebuah keel centreboard. Ini adalah penemuan Laksamana John Schank, orang Skotlandia cerdik yang telah mengajukan ide untuk Admiralty setelah mencapai peringkat kapten pada tahun 1783, dan sangat baik apakah itu berpikir bahwa dua kapal serupa telah dibangun untuk angkatan laut, satu dengan centreboard dan satu tanpa agar pengadilan mungkin dilakukan. Hasilnya sangat sukses bahwa Cynthia, sekoci, Trial, pemotong pendapatan, dan kapal yang lain dibangun pada rencana baru, salah satunya Lady Nelson, yang dipilih untuk layanan ini karena tiga nya centreboards geser memungkinkan rancangan dia menjadi berkurang saat di perairan dangkal.

Dia meninggalkan Portsmouth pada 18 Maret,, dia komandan Letnan James Grant memiliki perintah untuk berlayar melalui selat yang baru ditemukan antara Australia dan Tasmania. 1800 Nelson Lady mencapai pantai Australia pada pagi hari 3 Desember 1800. Hibah berlayar sepanjang pantai dan melihat dua jubah yang bernama Bank Cape setelah Sir Joseph Banks, dan Cape Northumberland, setelah adipati yang kemudian memerintahkan tentara. Dia juga melihat dan bernama Mount Gambier setelah Laksamana Gambier, dan Gunung Schank, setelah penemu centreboard itu; lebih jauh ke timur bernama Cape Bridgewater, Portland Teluk dan Cape Otway. Dia melewati sepanjang malam dari Cape Otway untuk Liptrap Cape tanpa menggali Port Phillip meskipun ia menggambarkan tanah sebagai menjalankan utara dan dinilai untuk menjadi sebuah teluk yang bernama setelah Gubernur Raja. Setelah ditelusuri pantai dari 141 ° E. bujur ke Port Barat ia melanjutkan perjalanannya ke Port Jackson, dan tiba di sana pada malam 16 Desember 1800.

Saat melewati Selat Bass dia membuat tanah 4 ° lebih jauh ke barat dari Flinders dan Bass. Para komandan dua kapal lainnya, Kapten John Black Harbinger, dari Tanjung Harapan, dan Pembeli Kapten di Margaret, yang tiba dari Inggris tak lama setelah Nelson Lady, juga melihat daratan pada pelayaran mereka melalui Selat Bass; dan gubernur, yakin tentang perlunya sebuah eksplorasi menyeluruh dari pantai selatan, sekarang memerintahkan Grant untuk kembali dan hati-hati survei teluk antara Cape Otway dan Cape Schank, selain tanah yang telah dilihat oleh Kapten Black dan Pembeli, kemudian berlayar ke Raja George Sound dan, dalam kembali, untuk menjelajahi pantai selatan secara keseluruhan untuk Promontory Wilson, pergi ke setiap kepala teluk atau masukan sejauh mungkin. Mr Caley, ahli botani, dan Ensign Barrallier dari New South Wales Korps, salah satu ajudan Gubernur-de-camp, pergi dengan ekspedisi. Bee, sebuah perahu dihiasi lima belas ton dan sebelumnya meluncurkan kapal, juga dilengkapi keluar untuk menemani Nelson Lady, namun, tidak mampu mengimbangi dan membuktikan laik laut, dikirim kembali sebelum meninggalkan New South Wales.

Para “Lady Nelson”.
(Dengan izin dari Messrs Longmans, Green, dan Co)

Nelson Lady kembali Mei, 1801, setelah perjalanan sekitar dua bulan, setelah gagal untuk mengeksplorasi Bay Gubernur Raja. Letnan Hibah lama kemudian pensiun dan kembali ke Inggris, dimana Letnan John Murray, kedua Grant di perintah, mantan Letnan HMS Lumba-lumba, mengambil alih Lady Nelson, dan pada bulan Oktober, 1801, diperintahkan untuk membuat eksplorasi yang belum selesai Grant. Dia diperintahkan untuk mengikuti pantai antara Cape Schank dan Cape Otway, untuk mengambil sounding dan membuat catatan dari segala sesuatu yang dilihatnya. Portland Bay, bernama oleh Grant, adalah untuk dieksplorasi, dan tampilan-out disimpan untuk Flinders dari siapa instruksi lebih lanjut akan diambil. Kapal-kapal Perancis Géographe dan Naturaliste kemudian diketahui berada di perairan ini, dan Murray telah diperingatkan bagaimana bertindak jika dia jatuh dengan mereka.

Nelson Lady meninggalkan Sydney pada 12 November, 1801 dan sementara kapal itu di Port Barat pada 7 Desember, mencari perlindungan dari angin kencang berat, pribumi ditemui. Seorang pemimpin aborigin tua menghasut para pengikutnya untuk menunjukkan perlawanan, tetapi pada tembakan ditembakkan mereka bubar. Di pintu masuk ke Port Phillip pada 5 Januari teluk dalam bisa dilihat dengan jelas, tetapi sebagai gelombang pecah tinggi pada batuan yang dianggap bijaksana untuk mengambil penjara keluar ke laut lagi. Hari berikutnya, bagaimanapun, Pulau Raja itu dieksplorasi dan, pada tanggal 31, Murray kembali ke Port Barat dan berlabuh di sana.

Akhirnya, pada tanggal 1 Februari, Murray dikirim Mr Bowen, pasangannya, dengan lima laki-laki-dalam paus perahu-survei pelabuhan Port Phillip. Perahu kembali pada tanggal 4 dan Bowen melaporkan bahwa ia telah melihat “selembar paling mulia air,” tapi tidak ada kaum pribumi, meskipun beberapa pondok diperiksa, dan ia begitu sangat memuji penemuan baru bahwa Letnan Murray menulis dalam log: “Ini akan terampuni dalam diriku untuk tidak memberikan ini pelabuhan baru perbaikan ketat”. Pada 15 Februari ia sendiri masuk dalam Nelson Lady dan mencatat bahwa ia telah menamakannya “Pelabuhan Raja,” untuk menghormati Gubernur, PG Raja, “yang di bawah perintah saya bertindak,”-nama yang gubernur berubah ke Port Phillip .

Pertemuan dengan penduduk asli berlangsung pada 17 Februari. Para pelaut dalam mereka berusaha untuk membuat kesan yang baik dan dalam rangka untuk mencari tahu di mana air tawar bisa diperoleh, membuat banyak tawaran ke kulit hitam, tetapi mereka sepenuhnya memusuhi dan melemparkan tombak pada pelaut, sehingga Murray memerintahkan tembakan kecil untuk dipecat di antara mereka. Mereka diyakini dari suku yang sama yang telah mengancam Bowen di Western Port, tetapi tidak bertemu dengan mereka lagi meski api sering terlihat. Pada 9 Maret Murray mengibarkan bendera Inggris, dan mendarat di bawah debit dari tiga tembakan menguasai pelabuhan dalam nama Raja George III.

Pada 11 Maret Nelson Lady membongkar sauh, dan tiba di Sydney tiga belas hari sesudahnya. Pada 29 Maret Gubernur Raja dikirim dari laporan tentang penemuan yang dibuat oleh Murray untuk Angkatan Laut, dan pada hari itu ada tiba di Pelabuhan Barat kapal-kapal Prancis yang proses sekarang mengklaim perhatian kita.

Ketika Napoleon mengubah mata kerinduan pada Australia minatnya di negara baru segera menjadi dikenal di Inggris. Dikatakan bahwa ia membawa bersamanya ke Mesir volume baru diterbitkan dari Voyages Cook, dan, segera setelah ia menjadi Konsul Pertama, ia memberi perintah untuk peralatan dari sebuah ekspedisi untuk mengeksplorasi dan mengklaim untuk Perancis bagian belum diketahui dari New Holland. Teks lengkap dari skema tidak pernah diketahui, tetapi peta menyertai volume pelayaran Prancis, diterbitkan oleh Pers Imperial di Paris, mengaku cukup setengah Benua Australia untuk Perancis.

Dua kapal Prancis meninggalkan Havre pada 19 Oktober 1800. Para Géographe, diperintahkan oleh Kapten Nicholas Baudin, adalah sebuah korvet pemasangan tiga puluh senjata, dan Naturaliste, Kapten Hamelin, sebuah kapal khusus cocok dalam setiap cara untuk tugasnya. Mereka mencapai Cape Leeuwin di Australia Barat dengan cara Canary dan Mauritius pada 27 Mei 1801. Di sini mereka mendarat dan menjelajahi bagian dari pantai, mengunjungi dan memberi nama untuk Géographe Bay. Kapal-kapal berpisah pada Juni 8, dalam badai. Géographe itu pergi ke utara ke Tanah Eendracht dan memasuki Teluk hiu. Naturaliste memasuki Sungai Swan dan menunggu tiga minggu untuk pendampingnya, kemudian melanjutkan kursus utara dia juga menanggung untuk Bay hiu, hilang Géographe dengan satu hari. Kapal-kapal bertemu dan musim dingin di Timor, dari mana mereka berlayar ke Tasmania, yang mereka lihat pertama pada 13 Januari 1802. Di sini mereka menghabiskan waktu tiga bulan, namun berpisah di Pilar dari Cape angin.

Peron menulis bahwa pada tanggal 6 Maret kapal terbesar dari Géographe itu, dikirim ke survei selatan dan timur pantai Tasmania dan, timbul badai, kapal itu tertiup ke laut. Para Naturaliste oleh badai kekerasan dipisahkan dari Géographe selama malam hari antara 7 dan 8; Kapten Baudin sedang sakit pada saat De Freycinet, letnan pertamanya, mengambil alih perintah, dengan perintah untuk mengejar mencari perahu yang hilang yang dengan awaknya akhirnya dijemput bukan oleh Prancis, tetapi oleh Mr Campbell dari penjara di Harrington, yang kemudian bertemu Naturaliste di Bank Selat dari utara-timur Tasmania.

Naturaliste yang menunggu Géographe di Bank Selat, tetapi tidak akan bertemu dengannya berlayar ke Port Jackson, di mana akhirnya dua kapal bertemu. Para Géographe pada gilirannya telah, setelah berpisah-perusahaan dengan Naturaliste, masuk Selat Bass, menyeberang ke pantai Australia, dan ditelusuri sejauh Teluk Encounter dengan harapan menemukan bahwa benua itu dibagi oleh selat panjang berjalan dari utara ke selatan. Bila tidak ada indikasi ini ditemukan Géographe berubah ke arah timur dan tiba di Sydney pada 20 Juni 1802.

Para perwira Prancis muncul senang dengan Sydney, dan Peron, kepada siapa kita berhutang sejarah perjalanan mereka, yang menyukai perusahaan baru, kagum bahwa tidak ada ekspedisi baru beingplanned untuk menjamin menyeberangi pegunungan. Sebelum tinggal dekat dia diinduksi Gubernur Raja untuk mengeluarkan perintah yang lain perjalanan eksplorasi, perintah yang diberikan kepada Barrallier, seorang perwira Inggris ekstraksi Perancis dan seorang insinyur ahli. Peron, bagaimanapun, tidak diberikan izin untuk menemani para penjelajah, yang terbukti tidak lebih berhasil daripada pendahulu mereka.

Pertanyaan Baudin, sebelum dia meninggalkan Sydney, untuk sejauh mana klaim Inggris di Pasifik sangat menunjukkan bahwa mereka menimbulkan dari Gubernur Raja pernyataan yang pasti bahwa seluruh Tasmania dan Australia wilayah Inggris. Raja juga diberitahu Pemerintah Rumah tindakan mencurigakan dari Perancis, dan ketika mereka meninggalkan Sydney pada tanggal 17 November, 1802 untuk menjelajahi pantai selatan dan barat, sebuah kapal dikirim untuk menonton proses mereka.

Para Géographe disertai dengan tender Casuarina, yang telah dibangun di New South Wales, tiba di Selat Bass pada 7 Desember dan berlabuh di Pulau Kino. Orang Inggris ada warna mengangkat mereka selama tinggal di kapal Prancis, dan warna-warna ini adalah memberi hormat setiap hari sebagai tanda kepemilikan sebelumnya, alasannya karena komandan Perancis mengatakan kepada Gubernur Raja bahwa Pemerintah telah ada desain pada Tasmania, tetapi berharap untuk paus perikanan di Selat Bass, dan ia tidak tahu apa rencana mereka sehubungan dengan Pulau Raja. Itu adalah saat melihat bendera Inggris terbang di pulau ini yang Baudin dikatakan telah diamati “bahwa bahasa Inggris itu lebih buruk daripada Paus, untuk sementara dia menggenggam separuh dunia Inggris mengambil seluruh hal itu”.

Petunjuk yang diberikan ke Flinders adalah untuk memeriksa pantai selatan Australia dan kemudian melanjutkan utara-barat dan survei Teluk Carpentaria dan Torres Strait. Dia meninggalkan Spithead pada Juli 18, 1801 disertai dengan Westall, pelukis lanskap, dan di antara perwira tidak kurang dari delapan taruna, salah satunya adalah sepupunya John Franklin.

Penyidik ​​tiba di Cape Leeuwin on 7th Desember. Flinders berlabuh di Suara Raja George, di mana ia tinggal untuk miring kapalnya. Ia mencari botol berisi perkamen dilaporkan telah ditinggalkan oleh Vancouver, tapi tidak melihat jejak itu, meskipun ia menemukan selembar tembaga merekam kunjungan Elligood kapal di 1800. Penyidik ​​itu dibawa ke sebuah teluk kecil yang disebut Putri Raja Harbour untuk memperbaiki, mana Flinders berusaha untuk mengeksplorasi interior tetapi dihentikan oleh sebuah rantai rawa. Banyak kanguru, emu dan kadal terlihat, mirip dengan yang dijelaskan oleh Dampier. Meninggalkan Suara Raja George pada 5 Januari 1802, ia berlayar bersama Pieter Nuyt Tanah, yang juga telah meluncur oleh D’Entrecasteaux, dan sesekali mengisi kelalaian dalam grafik nya. Dari Fowler Bay (bernama setelah pertama Robert Letnan Merrick Fowler) Flinders berjalan di sepanjang pantai selatan, kadang-kadang di darat maupun oleh air, dan dieksplorasi dan bernama Spencer dan St Vincent jurang (setelah Lords Spencer dan St Vincent dari Angkatan Laut ), bernama Gunung Lofty, dekat Adelaide yang sekarang berdiri, dan menyangkal keberadaan selat seharusnya membagi Australia dari utara ke selatan. Demikian ia menganeksasi seluruh Australia Selatan untuk negaranya.

Setelah membuat penemuan ini menarik dan penting ia bertemu Géographe di bawah Baudin. Pertemuan pada 8 April, 1802 terjadi di Teluk Encounter, sebelah timur Pulau Kanguru, dinamakan demikian karena jumlah kanguru cokelat gelap yang terlihat di sana. Flinders memuji kapal Perancis dan bertanya apakah dia salah satu berita dari yang berangkat dari Prancis telah mencapai New South Wales. Dia kemudian pergi ke kapal, memberi hormat kepada komandan Perancis, dan memberikan informasi mengenai bagian-bagian dari negara yang disurvei oleh dia, dan pelayaran Bass di perahu terbuka. Seluruh pantai dari Cape Leeuwin ke tempat di mana Géographe dan Investigator bertemu telah dieksplorasi oleh Kapten Flinders, dan Prancis tidak membuat penemuan geografis di negara mereka disebut Napoleon Tanah. Ini harus diingat, seperti Flinders ditemukan tahun kemudian dia kembali ke Eropa bahwa grafik Perancis telah diterbitkan oleh Pemerintah Napoleon, menganggap semua penemuan tentang ini pantai ke Baudin. “Saya Kangaroo Island,” katanya, “sebuah nama yang diadopsi secara terbuka mereka dalam ekspedisi itu, telah diubah di Paris ke L’Isle Décres; Spencer Teluk bernama Golfe Buonaparte, Teluk St Vincent, Golfe Josephine, dan sebagainya sepanjang pantai Cape seluruh Nuyts, bahkan pulau terkecil ditinggalkan tanpa cap serupa penemuan Prancis. ” Pada wawancara, Kapten Baudin dikonversi dalam bahasa Inggris pada penemuan-penemuan baru, dan memberitahu Flinders bahwa ia telah meluncur bersama dari Port Barat dan tidak menemukan apa pun yang masuk, dan letnan pertamanya, De Freycinet, kemudian pergi sejauh untuk berkomentar ke Flinders ketika mereka bertemu di Government House di Sydney: “Jika kita tidak terus mengambil kerang dan menangkap kupu-kupu di Tanah Van Diemen itu, kapten, Anda tidak akan menemukan pantai selatan di depan kita”.

Setelah meninggalkan Kapten Baudin, perhatian komandan Inggris itu berubah menjadi pelabuhan halus yang ia temukan di dekat pintu masuk barat Selat Bass. Ia membayangkan itu pada awalnya menjadi Pelabuhan Barat, dikelilingi oleh negara yang indah dan luas yang cukup untuk mengakui armada terbesar, namun terdeteksi kesalahannya, untuk port yang terakhir bisa dilihat di sebelah selatan-timur dari perbukitan putaran pantai; dia kemudian menyadari bahwa Letnan John Murray di Nelson Lady melihatnya sepuluh minggu sebelumnya. Nama Flinders makam ke perbukitan berbagai; Murray Bluff Gunung, lebih dari 1.000 kaki tingginya, ia menamai Kursi Arthur, karena ia membayangkan hal itu menyerupai bukit dekat Edinburgh, dan ia menempatkan nama kapalnya atas tumpukan batu di bagian atas apa yang bernama Stasiun Peak. Dia ditinggalkan di 3 Mei, dan mencapai Sydney Cove pada tanggal 9 bulan itu.

Pada 22 Juli 1802, Penyidik, dengan Nelson Lady, meninggalkan Sydney survei pantai timur dan utara New South Wales, dan melaksanakan instruksi yang telah menerima Flinders sebelum meninggalkan Inggris. Pada 7 Agustus, Pelabuhan Curtis ditemukan dan di Pelabuhan 21 Bowen, namun Nelson Lady telah menjadi begitu tidak layak untuk layanan yang pada tanggal 17 Oktober ia harus dikirim kembali ke Sydney. Flinders Tanjung York dan berlayar sepanjang pantai seluruh Teluk Carpentaria. Di Jalan Melayu, selat di sekelompok pulau yang disebut Kepulauan Perusahaan Inggris itu, ia melihat beberapa proas Melayu. Setelah berhenti di Cape Wessel untuk memperbaiki kapalnya, ia kembali ke Sydney dengan cara pantai barat, menelepon pada Timor, dan mencapai Port Jackson pada 9 Juni 1803, di mana Penyidik ​​dikutuk sebagai laik laut.

Kapten Flinders menginginkan untuk meletakkan grafik sebelum Admiralty memulai Agustus 10, 1803 untuk Inggris pada HMS Lumba-lumba, diperintahkan oleh Letnan Fowler, yang telah letnan pertamanya. Pada saat yang sama Cato dari London dan Bridgewater, sebuah kapal milik East India Company, di bawah Kapten Palmer, meninggalkan Sydney, semua tiga kapal berlayar utara. Setelah seminggu di laut, ketika 200 mil dari daratan lepas pantai utara-timur Australia, Porpoise, diikuti oleh Cato, tetapi dua kabel jauh, memukul pada terumbu karang yang disebut sesudahnya Merusak Terumbu, Bridgewater hanya kliring bahaya . Para Cato turun di air dalam, tetapi Porpoise hanya bertumit dan untungnya sebagian terumbu karang, meskipun hanya beberapa meter di atas laut, pasir kering dan diberikan tempat istirahat bagi awak. Flinders hampir langsung setelah kapal menghantam dimulai pada pertunjukan untuk menginformasikan kapten Bridgewater dari penderitaan mereka, tetapi melihat bahwa tidak mungkin untuk mencapai kapal ia kembali ke bangkai kapal dan menemukan bahwa Porpoise masih dipegang bersama-sama, sehingga ia dapat untuk papan nya.

Sulit untuk mengatakan apakah Kapten Palmer dari Bridgewater melihat apa yang telah terjadi dengan dua kapal. Flinders percaya bahwa dia melihat mereka menyerang karang, dan bahwa ia menanggung pergi tanpa mencoba untuk memberikan bantuan kepada kru hancur atau bekerja sampai mereka di air yang tenang, dan orang-orang dari Cato juga berpikir bahwa ia tidak bersedia untuk membantu mereka, untuk kapalnya dibuat langsung dari dalam pelayaran ke Batavia, dan, seperti Flinders bernubuat, Kapten Palmer melaporkan hilangnya Porpoise dan Cato setibanya di India. Flinders tidak orang itu, namun, untuk duduk diam dan menunggu untuk melewati pembuluh untuk menolongnya, tapi langsung mulai bekerja untuk membangun cutter keluar dari pembuluh dinonaktifkan. Cutter diluncurkan pada 26 Agustus, dan bernama Hope. Pada hari itu lambang dengan Uni bawah, yang telah berkibar di contoh pertama sebagai sinyal distres Kapten Palmer, diturunkan dan segera kembali mengangkat dengan Uni di kanton atas.

Flinders berlayar di Harapan ke Sydney, membawa bersamanya seorang perwira muda bernama FitzDaniel dan pelaut tiga belas, mereka tiba dengan selamat di Port Jackson pada 8 September, setelah perjalanan indah dari 800 mil di kerajinan kecil. Untuk bantuan dari orang-orang karam Gubernur Raja dikirim kapal dan dua perahu layar Rolla, Cumberland dan Francis. Flinders Reef mencapai Wreck dalam delapan hari, dan kru diambil pada papan kapal.

Francis dengan beberapa laki-laki kembali ke Sydney, dan Cumberland dan berlayar bersama-sama Rolla dari karang, yang terakhir pergi ke Cina, sementara Cumberland, dengan Flinders di kapal, tentu saja diarahkan ke Torres Selat. Letnan Fowler dan Flinders (saudara komandan) dan John Franklin telah memulai di Rolla. Mereka kemudian mengambil bagian mereka dari China untuk Inggris di Camden Earl suatu Indiaman Timur, dan ketika Komodor Tari jatuh dengan Laksamana Prancis, Linois, Fowler mengambil komando dek atas ketika muda Franklin bertanggung jawab dari sinyal, dan mereka tidak diragukan lagi memberikan kontribusi bagi keberhasilan yang diperoleh oleh Inggris atas Prancis [*].

[* Keberhasilan itu sangat dihargai di Inggris. Kapten Tari dianugerahi gelar bangsawan. Fowler disajikan dengan £ 300 oleh Perusahaan India Timur untuk pembelian sepotong piring dan Masyarakat Patriotik disajikan kepadanya dengan pedang kehormatan.]

Flinders, Sementara itu, pada pelayaran ke Inggris, melalui negara bocor Cumberland itu, pada 17 Desember, dipaksa untuk dimasukkan ke dalam di Mauritius mana ia disimpan tawanan oleh Prancis selama tujuh tahun, perlakuan yang ia terima dari Decaen, Gubernur , membentuk sebuah kontras yang tajam dengan perhotelan ditunjukkan untuk Baudin dan perwira saudaranya di Sydney. Dia terus komandan Inggris dua jam di jalan-jalan menunggu penonton, berpura-pura bahwa ia kafir petugas bernama di paspor, dan menyita kapal dan semua buku-bukunya, grafik, manuskrip, dll, dan mengirim mereka ke Prancis. Dikatakan bahwa beberapa perwira Perancis diterapkan untuk pembebasannya dan bahwa instruksi dikirim keluar ke Mauritius dengan efek yang Decaen diabaikan, tetapi, bagaimanapun, melakukan markasnya disetujui di Paris, dan motifnya segera menjadi jelas. Masalah Voyage Perancis Discovery didorong ke depan, dan Napoleon diberikan jumlah yang besar untuk mempercepat publikasi. Nama Prancis diberikan kepada semua penemuan bahasa Inggris, tapi untungnya Flinders berhasil mengirimkan duplikat dari grafik dan kertas untuk Inggris sebelum mencapai Mauritius, dan penipuan seluruh terkena. Flinders meninggal di Inggris pada bulan Juli, tahun 1814, empat tahun setelah dibebaskan dari penjara panjang yang mempercepat ajalnya dan beberapa minggu sebelum publikasi Voyage Terra Australis untuk, yang memegang tempat terkemuka dalam sejarah eksplorasi Australia.

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V. CROSSING Blue Mountains.
Gubernur pertama segera menemukan bahwa meskipun ia telah terbenam di sebuah negara yang luas hanya ada satu jalur sempit dalam genggamannya. Dalam beberapa mil dari Sydney Cove berlari ada berbagai pegunungan di tempat-tempat naik hampir tegak lurus ke ketinggian dari 4.000 hingga 5.000 kaki. Melengkung di atas Teluk Patah di sebelah utara dan di bawah Botany Bay di selatan, dalam bentuk sabit, mereka benar-benar dikelilingi pemukiman dan memotong semua maju ke interior. Dari ketinggian Sydney pada hari yang cerah sekilas dapat diperoleh garis tingkat kobalt. Mereka membentuk bagian dari rantai dari Great Dividing Range yang berjalan dengan hampir tidak istirahat di sisi timur benua dari Cape York paling utara point-to Promontory Wilson di ujung selatan. Terlihat di kejauhan gunung-gunung ini menyajikan penampilan tirai kebiruan terangkat tetapi sedikit di atas cakrawala; dua puluh lima mil lebih dekat, KTT telanjang mereka tampak kurang teratur, dan pada interval satu puncak sedikit yang dirasakan. Tingkatan yang berbeda meningkat tinggi karena mereka surut lebih ke negara luar. Cook dan mereka dengan dia di Endeavour melihat sekilas bukit-bukit melalui atmosfer jelas ketika kapal mereka berbaring terhenti lepas pantai di utara perjalanan.

Blue Mountains memiliki pesona yang indah untuk para kolonis, batu, tebing, dan gosok tebal bisa mengusir mereka, tapi ketika hari cerah dengan sinar matahari yang berkilauan torrents terungkap dan dataran hijau halus antara rentang, keinginan untuk menjelajahi mereka menjadi tak tertahankan. Waktu setelah waktu ekspedisi meninggalkan Sydney untuk menembus ke dalam hutan, meningkatkan jumlah sebagai pembuluh segar tiba membawa lebih pemukim berkeinginan menjadi petani. Batas-batas koloni diperbesar sampai maksimal mereka untuk mempertahankan kambing domba dan lembu yang meningkat dengan kecepatan luar biasa dan dari pantai laut di timur ke sungai Nepean di sebelah barat, jarak antara empat puluh dan lima puluh mil dari ibukota, sedikit atau lahan tidak tetap untuk tujuan merumput. Ladang-ladang gandum, lucerne, dan semanggi berbatasan satu bank dari Nepean, di sisi lain berdiri pegunungan.

Air, serta rumput, menjadi sulit untuk menemukan. Dimana tidak ada hujan jatuh, kekuatan dari matahari hampir tropis dan sifat berpasir tempat tidur sungai kekeringan diberikan tak terelakkan dan pemukim terpaksa melihat melampaui garis pantai sempit untuk rezeki. Banyak dan beragam adalah spekulasi mengenai apa yang berbaring di sisi lain dari rentang. Beberapa percaya bahwa penyelesaian putih akan ditemukan di sana, yang lain bahwa terdapat suatu laut pedalaman, atau tidak layak huni negara, dan beberapa mengutuk semua proyek eksplorasi sebagai bodoh. Beberapa hanya itu berpendapat bahwa negara rumput terbuka akan ditemukan cocok untuk padang rumput. Tidak ada peringatan bisa mencegah para kolonis dari mencoba untuk memaksa suatu bagian ke semak-semak yang tidak diketahui. Banyak tewas dalam berusaha. Kadang-kadang seorang tahanan melarikan diri untuk mencari kebebasan, kadang-kadang seorang visioner atau explorer terlalu bersemangat, mulai tanpa peralatan yang tepat, menghilang untuk selamanya dalam labirin hutan, tetapi hilangnya mereka disebabkan kejutan kecil, dan Plains Bathurst tetap belum ditemukan.

Ini diadakan sebagai fakta bahwa tidak ada istirahat atau lulus di pegunungan dan untuk mengatasi punggungan terputus mereka tampak hampir tidak praktis. Ada sebuah legenda yang menyatakan bahwa terpidana dibebaskan benar-benar menembus penghalang dan menemukan Sungai Lachlan, setelah belajar jalan dari sesama kulit hitam, tetapi Cunningham mengatakan bahwa “kaum pribumi pertama yang diketahui menyatakan bahwa tidak ada melewati pegunungan, dan memegang tradisi yang ganas roh tinggal di sana “.

Upaya pertama untuk mengeksplorasi Blue Mountains dibuat jauh sebelum oleh Gubernur Phillip yang pada 15 April, 1788 berangkat dengan ketentuan selama empat hari, dihadiri oleh beberapa perwira dan partai kecil marinir. Dalam tiga hari mereka melewati rawa-rawa dan rawa-rawa di dekat pelabuhan dan menemukan diri mereka di negara tandus berbatu, perbukitan yang ditutupi dengan scrub, tetapi semak-semak padat batu dan membuat turun naik sulit dan sering mustahil. Lima belas mil dari pantai memiliki Phillip pemandangan indah negara dan ia memberi nama untuk beberapa gunung, menyebut paling utara Hills Carmarthen, mereka ke selatan Hills Lansdowne, dan satu di antara Richmond Hill.

Sebuah Partai Menjelajahi dengan Phillip dan Hunter.
(Dari sketsa oleh Kapten Hunter.)

Pada 22 ia mulai lagi, membawa bersamanya beberapa perahu kecil untuk menyeberangi sungai, dan menemukan negara yang baik, padat berhutan, tapi setelah menghabiskan hampir satu hari dalam upaya sia-sia untuk membuat jalan melalui itu, dia berkewajiban untuk kembali. Berangkat lagi keesokan harinya, partai dengan menjaga dekat dengan tepi sungai kecil ke arah barat melanjutkan program mereka selama tiga hari berikutnya. Pada hari kelima mereka naik sebuah bukit kecil mana mereka melihat Carmarthen dan Lansdowne Hills, titik terjauh mencapai dipanggil Belle Vue oleh mereka, tapi bahkan ada mereka masih tampak tiga puluh mil dari pegunungan yang telah mereka untuk mengunjungi objek. Setelah makanan hanya enam hari ‘dengan mereka, mereka diwajibkan untuk kembali, sepenuhnya terbukti memiliki kesulitan yang luar biasa menembus ke interior. Penundaan tak terduga dari jurang yang dalam dan hambatan lain telah sering memaksa wisatawan dari kursus langsung, dan bingung untuk setiap perhitungan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melewati dari satu titik ke titik lain. Jarak yang ditempuh oleh ekspedisi itu tidak lebih dari tiga puluh mil, dan butuh lima hari. Kembali lebih mudah, melacak yang dibuat dan pohon-pohon yang ditandai, sehingga penjelajah mencapai perahu dalam satu hari dan setengah.

Pada bulan Juni, 1789, Kapten Watkin Tench dan Mr Arndell, ahli bedah, tiba di tepi sungai “hampir seluas Thames di Putney” yang gubernur memberikan nama Nepean, tapi tidak sampai bulan Desember bahwa Phillip memutuskan serius untuk melakukan eksplorasi lebih lanjut. Dawes Letnan itu dikirim dengan satu detasemen pasukan dan stok ketentuan selama sepuluh hari, tetapi setelah banyak bahaya kelelahan dan banyak ia kembali ke Port Jackson, setelah menembus hanya sembilan mil lebih.

Delapan bulan kemudian, pada Agustus, 1790, Tench dan Dawes berangkat dengan pengawalan yang kuat, membawa tali dan peralatan lainnya untuk mencoba untuk melewati gunung-gunung, dan mereka gagal. Berikutnya Juni Tench pergi ke barat untuk mencari tahu apakah Hawkesbury dan Nepean adalah satu sungai. Dua puluh satu orang yang dari partai, termasuk gubernur dan Dawes. Menurut Tench: “Setiap manusia kecuali gubernur membawa ransel (yang berisi ketentuan-ketentuan selama sepuluh hari), pistol, selimut dan kantin: ini beratnya tidak kurang dari £ 40 tersampir ke ransel adalah ketel memasak dan kapak. untuk memotong kayu untuk menyalakan api malam dan membangun gubuk malam. Setiap orang yang berpakaian menyeret melalui morasses, merobek semak belukar, sungai dan batuan ford skala. ” Perjalanan dimulai saat matahari terbit dan dihentikan satu setengah jam sebelum matahari terbenam dengan hanya sesekali jeda. Persiapan itu kemudian dibuat ke kamp untuk bermalam. Metode bepergian adalah untuk mengarahkan oleh kompas, mencatat arah yang berbeda diambil sebagai partai berjalan, dan menghitung jumlah langkah, “yang 2.200 di tanah yang baik,” kata Tench, “diizinkan untuk mil. Pada malam hari, saat semua sedang beristirahat, program ini secara terpisah cor dan bekerja dengan tabel melintasi dengan cara yang perhitungan kapal disimpan, sehingga dengan mengamati tindakan pencegahan ini kita selalu tahu persis di mana kami berada dan seberapa jauh dari rumah-keuntungan yang tak terkatakan dalam baru negara di mana satu bukit dan satu pohon yang begitu seperti yang lain. ” Ini tugas yang berat itu dialokasikan untuk Dawes dan ia tampil dengan presisi indah. Setiap kali Colber, seorang kulit hitam yang telah diambil dengan partai, ditanya nama-nama suku-suku yang tinggal di pedalaman ia akan menjawab dengan gelengan kepala, “Boorooberongal,” dan menambahkan dalam bahasa Inggris “buruk”; “mana” tambahnya utamanya, “kita menduga bahwa mereka kadang-kadang membuat perang terhadap mereka di pantai laut”. Ekspedisi ini terbukti berhasil, karena Tench dipastikan bahwa Nepean adalah makmur Hawkesbury.

Untuk beberapa waktu sedikit yang dilakukan untuk skala penghalang, tetapi pada Kapten William Paterson dari New South Wales Korps memanggil perhatian Pemerintah Home untuk Blue Mountains, dan untuk kebutuhan yang lebih mendesak padang rumput, dia ditempatkan memimpin sebuah ekspedisi baru yang dilengkapi dengan banyak perawatan. Rencananya adalah untuk naik Sungai Hawkesbury sejauh mungkin, sehingga ia bisa mencapai kaki jangkauan, dan ia mengambil dengan dia dua kapal dan pengawalan tentara yang kuat. Di antara mereka adalah Highlanders banyak yang, seperti dirinya Paterson, yang terbiasa dengan perbukitan Skotlandia. Beberapa penduduk asli bertindak sebagai panduan, dan ia berpikir bahwa Paterson, yang luas perjalanan di Afrika Selatan telah membawa dia ketenaran, akan berhasil. Para Grose sungai, sehingga dinamai setelah Grose Mayor, ditemukan dan ditelusuri pada persimpangan dengan Hawkesbury di atas Richmond Hill, dan memajukan kemudian dibuat atas sungai, namun tidak melanjutkan jauh di rekening katarak banyak, salah satunya jatuh semata bawah sekitar 420 meter, dan tanah terjal membuat kemajuan lebih lanjut mustahil.

Pada 1794 Hacking Intendans dari Sirius dengan beberapa sahabat mulai dengan ide memaksa cara ke penghalang. Mereka menghabiskan sepuluh hari dalam mencari lulus, dan akhirnya perjalanan dua puluh mil melampaui segala upaya sebelumnya, tetapi tingkatan hutan dan belukar memaksa mereka kembali. Selama perjalanan mereka melihat kanguru merah dan juga salah satu pribumi, yang, menangkap melihat orang kulit putih, melarikan diri dengan tergesa-gesa.

Dua tahun kemudian Tuan, Bass, penemu Selat Bass, membuat usaha berikutnya, dengan beberapa pria pada keberanian dan keterampilan yang ia bisa bergantung. Pada ekspedisi ini ia menggunakan besi perahu-kait di tangan dan kaki dalam mendaki sisi curam dari batu, dan ketika dihentikan oleh jurang yang disebabkan dirinya diturunkan dengan tali, tapi setelah lima belas hari dari bahaya dan kelelahan dia juga kembali ke Sydney, menyatakan gunung-gunung tunggal yang akan dilewati.

Pada 1805 ahli botani Pemerintah, Mr George Caley, kemudian di Sydney mengumpulkan tanaman baru dan biji untuk Sir Joseph Banks, yang diculik dengan keinginan untuk mengeksplorasi rentang barat dan diterapkan izin untuk Gubernur King, yang memberinya empat orang terkuat di koloni untuk membantu dia memotong jalan melewati semak belukar.

 

IV. THE LADY NELSON, BAUDIN’S EXPEDITION, AND THE INVESTIGATOR.

News having been received of the intention of the French to send an expedition to the Australian Seas while the Investigator was being prepared for her voyage, the Admiralty quickly fitted out the Lady Nelson, a brig of sixty tons, which differed from other exploring vessels in having a centreboard keel. This was the invention of Admiral John Schank, the ingenious Scotsman who had submitted his idea to the Admiralty after attaining captain’s rank in 1783, and so well was it thought of that two similar boats had been built for the navy, one with a centreboard and one without in order that a trial might be made. The result was so successful that the Cynthia, sloop, Trial, revenue cutter, and other vessels were constructed on the new plan, one of them being the Lady Nelson, which was chosen for the service because her three sliding centreboards enabled her draught to be lessened when in shallow waters.

She left Portsmouth on 18th March, 1800, her commander Lieutenant James Grant having orders to sail through the newly discovered straits between Australia and Tasmania. The Lady Nelson reached the shores of Australia on the morning of 3rd December, 1800. Grant sailed along the coast and saw two capes which he named Cape Banks after Sir Joseph Banks, and Cape Northumberland, after the duke who then commanded the army. He also noticed and named Mount Gambier after Admiral Gambier, and Mount Schank, after the centreboard’s inventor; farther east he named Cape Bridgewater, Portland Bay and Cape Otway. He passed during the night from Cape Otway to Cape Liptrap without exploring Port Phillip although he described the land as running northward and judged it to be a bay which he named after Governor King. Having traced the coast from 141° E. longitude to Western Port he continued his voyage to Port Jackson, and arrived there on the evening of 16th December, 1800.

While passing through Bass Strait he made land 4° farther to the westward than Flinders and Bass. The commanders of two other vessels, Captain John Black of the Harbinger, from the Cape of Good Hope, and Captain Buyers in the Margaret, which arrived from England shortly after the Lady Nelson, had also sighted land on their voyage through Bass Strait; and the governor, convinced of the need of a thorough exploration of the south coast, now ordered Grant to return and carefully survey the bay between Cape Otway and Cape Schank, besides the land which had been seen by Captains Black and Buyers, then to sail to King George’s Sound and, in returning, to explore the whole south coast to Wilson’s Promontory, going to the head of every bay or inlet as far as possible. Mr. Caley, the botanist, and Ensign Barrallier of the New South Wales Corps, one of the governor’s aides-de-camp, went with the expedition. The Bee, a decked boat of fifteen tons and formerly a ship’s launch, was also fitted out to accompany the Lady Nelson, but, being unable to keep pace with her and proving unseaworthy, was sent back before leaving New South Wales.

The Lady Nelson

The “Lady Nelson“.
(By kind permission of Messrs. Longmans, Green, and Co.)

The Lady Nelson returned in May, 1801, after a voyage of about two months, having failed to explore Governor King’s Bay. Lieutenant Grant retired shortly afterwards and went back to England, whereupon Lieutenant John Murray, Grant’s second in command, a former Lieutenant of H.M.S. Porpoise, took over the Lady Nelson, and in October, 1801, was ordered to make the explorations which Grant had left unfinished. He was instructed to follow the coast between Cape Schank and Cape Otway, to take soundings and make notes of everything he saw. Portland Bay, named by Grant, was to be explored, and a look-out was to be kept for Flinders from whom further instructions would be taken. The French ships Géographe and Naturaliste were then known to be in these waters, and Murray was warned how to act if he fell in with them.

The Lady Nelson left Sydney on 12th November, 1801, and while the vessel was at Western Port on 7th December, seeking refuge from the heavy gales, natives were encountered. One old aboriginal leader incited his followers to show resistance, but on a shot being fired they dispersed. At the entrance to Port Phillip on 5th January the bay within could be plainly seen, but as the waves broke high on the rocks it was thought wise to take the brig out to sea again. Next day, however, King’s Island was explored and, on the 31st, Murray returned to Western Port and anchored there.

Eventually, on 1st February, Murray sent Mr. Bowen, his mate, with five men—in a whale boat—to survey Port Phillip harbour. The boat returned on the 4th and Bowen reported that he had seen “a most noble sheet of water,” but nothing of the aborigines, although some huts were examined; and he so highly praised the new discovery that Lieutenant Murray wrote in the log: “It would be unpardonable in me not to give this new harbour a strict overhaul”. On 15th February he himself entered it in the Lady Nelson and recorded that he had named it “Port King,” in honour of the governor, P. G. King, “under whose orders I act,”—a name which the governor changed to Port Phillip.

A meeting with the natives took place on 17th February. The sailors in their endeavour to make a good impression and in order to find out where fresh water could be obtained, made many overtures to the blacks; but they were thoroughly hostile and threw spears at the sailors, so that Murray ordered small shot to be fired among them. They were believed to be of the same tribe which had threatened Bowen at Western Port, but were not met with again though their fires were frequently seen. On 9th March Murray hoisted the British flag, and landing under a discharge of three volleys took possession of the port in the name of King George III.

On 11th March the Lady Nelson weighed anchor, and arrived at Sydney thirteen days afterwards. On 29th March Governor King sent off his report on the discoveries made by Murray to the Admiralty, and on that day there arrived at Port Western the French ships whose proceedings now claim our attention.

When Napoleon turned longing eyes upon Australia his interest in the new country soon became known in England. It is said that he took with him to Egypt the newly published volumes of Cook’s Voyages, and, soon after he became First Consul, he gave orders for the equipment of an expedition to explore and claim for France the yet unknown portions of New Holland. The full text of his scheme was never made known; but the map accompanying the volume of French voyages, published by the Imperial Press at Paris, claimed quite half the Australian Continent for France.

Two French vessels left Havre on 19th October, 1800. The Géographe, commanded by Captain Nicholas Baudin, was a corvette mounting thirty guns, and the Naturaliste, Captain Hamelin, a ship specially suited in every way for her task. They reached Cape Leeuwin in Western Australia by way of the Canaries and Mauritius on 27th May, 1801. Here they landed and explored part of the coast, visiting and giving its name to Géographe Bay. The ships parted company on 8th June, in a storm. The Géographe went north to Eendracht’s Land and entered Shark’s Bay. The Naturaliste entered Swan River and waited three weeks for her consort, then continuing a northerly course she also bore for Shark’s Bay, missing the Géographe by one day. The ships met and wintered at Timor, whence they sailed to Tasmania, which they saw first on 13th January, 1802. Here they spent three months, but parted in a gale off Cape Pillar.

Péron writes that on 6th March the largest boat from the Géographe, was sent off to survey the south and east coasts of Tasmania and, a storm arising, the ship was blown out to sea. The Naturaliste by violent squalls was separated from the Géographe during the night between the 7th and 8th; Captain Baudin being ill at the time De Freycinet, his first lieutenant, took over the command, with orders to pursue the search for the lost boat which with its crew was eventually picked up not by the French but by Mr. Campbell of the brig Harrington, who afterwards met the Naturaliste in Banks Strait off the north-east of Tasmania.

The Naturaliste awaited the Géographe in Banks Strait, but not meeting her sailed to Port Jackson, where eventually the two ships met. The Géographe in turn had, after parting-company with the Naturaliste, entered Bass Strait, crossed to the Australian coast, and traced it as far as Encounter Bay in the hope of finding that the continent was divided by a long strait running from north to south. When no indication of this was discovered the Géographe turned eastwards and arrived at Sydney on 20th June, 1802.

The French officers appeared delighted with Sydney, and Péron, to whom we are indebted for the history of their voyage, who liked new enterprises, marvelled that no new expeditions were beingplanned to ensure the crossing of the mountains. Before the close of his stay he induced Governor King to issue orders for another journey of exploration, the command of which was given to Barrallier, an English officer of French extraction and an expert engineer. Péron, however, was not granted permission to accompany the explorers, who proved no more successful than their predecessors.

Baudin’s inquiries, before he left Sydney, as to the extent of the British claims in the Pacific were so pointed that they elicited from Governor King the definite statement that the whole of Tasmania and Australia was British territory. King also notified the Home Government of the suspicious actions of the French, and when they left Sydney on 17th November, 1802, to explore the southern and western coasts, a ship was sent to watch their proceedings.

The Géographe accompanied by the tender Casuarina, which had been built in New South Wales, arrived in Bass Strait on 7th December and anchored at Kino’s Island. The English there hoisted their colours during the stay of the French ships, and these colours were saluted daily as a sign of prior possession, the reason being that the French commander told Governor King that his Government had no designs upon Tasmania, but wished for a whale fishery in Bass Strait, and he did not know what their plans were with regard to King’s Island. It was upon seeing the British flag flying at this island that Baudin is said to have observed “that the English were worse than the Pope, for whereas he grasped half the world the English took the whole of it”.

The instructions given to Flinders were to examine the southern coast of Australia and then proceed north-west and survey the Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Straits. He left Spithead on 18th July, 1801, accompanied by Westall, the landscape painter, and among his officers were no less than eight midshipmen, one of whom was his cousin John Franklin.

The Investigator arrived at Cape Leeuwin on 7th December. Flinders anchored in King George’s Sound, where he stayed to careen his ship. He searched for a bottle containing the parchment reported to have been left by Vancouver, but saw no trace of it, although he found a sheet of copper recording the visit of the ship Elligood in 1800. The Investigator was taken into an inlet called Princess Royal Harbour to refit, whence Flinders attempted to explore the interior but was stopped by a chain of marshes. Many kangaroos, emus and lizards were seen, similar to those described by Dampier. Leaving King George’s Sound on 5th January, 1802, he voyaged along Pieter Nuyt’s Land, which had also been coasted by D’Entrecasteaux, and filled up occasional omissions in his charts. From Fowler’s Bay (named after his first lieutenant Robert Merrick Fowler) Flinders proceeded along the south coast, sometimes on land as well as by water, and explored and named Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs (after Lords Spencer and St. Vincent of the Admiralty), named Mount Lofty, near which Adelaide now stands, and disproved the existence of the supposed strait dividing Australia from north to south. He thus annexed the whole of South Australia for his country.

After making these interesting and important discoveries he met the Géographe under Baudin. The meeting on 8th April, 1802, took place in Encounter Bay, east of Kangaroo Island, so named because of the numbers of dark brown kangaroos that were seen there. Flinders hailed the French ship and inquired if she was one of those the news of whose departure from France had reached New South Wales. He afterwards went on board, paid his respects to the French commander, and gave information regarding portions of the country surveyed by him, and of Bass’s voyage in the open boat. The whole coast from Cape Leeuwin to the place where the Géographe and Investigator met had been explored by Captain Flinders, and the French made no geographical discovery in the country they called Napoleon Land. This should be borne in mind, as Flinders found years afterwards on his return to Europe that French charts had been published by the Government of Napoleon, ascribing all his discoveries on this coast to Baudin. “My Kangaroo Island,” he says, “a name which they openly adopted in the expedition, had been converted in Paris to L’Isle Décres; Spencer Gulf is named Golfe Buonaparte, the Gulf of St. Vincent, Golfe Josephine, and so along the whole coast to Cape Nuyts, not even the smallest island being left without some similar stamp of French discovery.” At the interview, Captain Baudin conversed in English upon the new discoveries, and informed Flinders that he had coasted along from Port Western and found no inlet whatever; and his first lieutenant, De Freycinet, afterwards went so far as to remark to Flinders when they met at Government House in Sydney: “If we had not been kept picking up shells and catching butterflies in Van Diemen’s Land, captain, you would not have discovered the south coast before us”.

After leaving Captain Baudin, the English commander’s attention was turned to a fine harbour which he found near the western entrance of Bass Strait. He imagined it at first to be Port Western, surrounded by beautiful country and capacious enough to admit the largest fleet, but detected his error, for the latter port could be seen to the south-east from the hills round the coast; he was then unaware that Lieutenant John Murray in the Lady Nelson had seen it ten weeks before. Flinders grave names to the various hills; Murray’s Bluff Mount, more than 1,000 feet high, he named Arthur’s Seat, because he fancied it resembled the hill near Edinburgh, and he placed the name of his ship upon a pile of stones at the top of what he named Station Peak. He left on 3rd May, and reached Sydney Cove on the 9th of that month.

On 22nd July, 1802, the Investigator, with the Lady Nelson, left Sydney to survey the eastern and northern coasts of New South Wales, and carry out the instructions which Flinders had received before leaving England. On 7th August, Port Curtis was discovered and on the 21st Port Bowen, but the Lady Nelson had become so unfit for service that on 17th October she had to be sent back to Sydney. Flinders rounded Cape York and sailed along the shores of the whole of the Gulf of Carpentaria. In Malay Roads, a strait in a group of islands called the English Company’s Islands, he saw several Malay proas. After stopping at Cape Wessel to repair his ship, he returned to Sydney by way of the west coast, calling at Timor, and reaching Port Jackson on 9th June, 1803, where the Investigator was condemned as unseaworthy.

Captain Flinders desiring to lay his charts before the Admiralty embarked on 10th August, 1803, for England in H.M.S. Porpoise, commanded by Lieutenant Fowler, who had been his first lieutenant. At the same time the Cato of London and the Bridgewater, a vessel belonging to the East India Company, under Captain Palmer, left Sydney, all three vessels sailing northwards. After being a week at sea, when 200 miles from land off the north-east coast of Australia, the Porpoise, followed by the Cato, but two cables away, struck on a coral reef called afterwards Wreck Reef, the Bridgewater just clearing the danger. The Cato went down in deep water, but the Porpoise only heeled and fortunately a portion of the reef, although only a few feet above the sea, was dry sand and afforded a resting place for the crew. Flinders almost directly after the ship struck started in the gig to inform the captain of the Bridgewater of their plight, but seeing that it was impossible to reach the vessel he returned to the wreck and found that the Porpoise still held together, so he was able to board her.

It is difficult to say whether Captain Palmer of the Bridgewater saw what had happened to the two ships. Flinders believed that he did see them strike the reef, and that he bore away without attempting to render aid to the wrecked crews or work up to them in smooth water, and those of the Cato also thought that he was unwilling to help them, for his ship made straight off on her voyage to Batavia; and, as Flinders prophesied, Captain Palmer reported the loss of the Porpoise and Cato upon his arrival in India. Flinders was not the man, however, to sit still and wait for passing vessels to rescue him, but immediately set to work to build a cutter out of the disabled vessels. The cutter was launched on 26th August, and named the Hope. On that day the ensign with the Union downwards, which had been hoisted in the first instance as a signal of distress to Captain Palmer, was lowered and immediately re-hoisted with the Union in the upper canton.

Flinders sailed in the Hope to Sydney, taking with him a young officer named FitzDaniel and thirteen seamen; they arrived safely at Port Jackson on 8th September, after a wonderful voyage of 800 miles in the tiny craft. For the relief of the shipwrecked men Governor King despatched the ship Rolla and two schooners, the Cumberland and Francis. Flinders reached Wreck Reef in eight days, and the crews were taken on board the vessels.

The Francis with some of the men returned to Sydney, and the Cumberland and Rolla sailed together from the reef, the latter going to China, while the Cumberland, with Flinders on board, directed her course to Torres Straits. Lieutenants Fowler and Flinders (brother of the commander) and John Franklin had embarked in the Rolla. They afterwards took their passage from China for England in the Earl Camden an East Indiaman, and when Commodore Dance fell in with the French Admiral, Linois, Fowler took command of the upper deck while young Franklin was in charge of the signals, and they undoubtedly contributed to the success gained by the British over the French.[*]

[* The success was highly appreciated in England. Captain Dance was knighted. Fowler was presented with £300 by the East India Company for the purchase of a piece of plate and the Patriotic Society presented him with a sword of honour.]

Flinders, meanwhile, on his voyage to England, through the leaky state of the Cumberland was, on 17th December, forced to put in at Mauritius where he was kept prisoner by the French for seven years, the treatment he received from Decaen, the Governor, forming a striking contrast to the hospitality shown to Baudin and his brother officers at Sydney. He kept the English commander two hours in the streets waiting an audience, pretended to disbelieve that he was the officer named in the passport, and seized his vessel and all his books, charts, manuscripts, etc., and sent them to France. It is said that several French officers applied for his release and that instructions were sent out to Mauritius to that effect which Decaen disregarded; but, anyhow, his base conduct was approved in Paris, and the motive soon became apparent. The issue of the French Voyage of Discovery was pushed forward, and Napoleon granted a considerable sum to hasten its publication. French names were given to all the English discoveries, but fortunately Flinders had succeeded in sending a duplicate of his charts and papers to England before reaching Mauritius, and the whole imposture was exposed. Flinders died in England in July, 1814, four years after his release from the long imprisonment which hastened his end and a few weeks before the publication of his Voyage to Terra Australis, which holds a foremost place in the history of Australian exploration.


V. CROSSING THE BLUE MOUNTAINS.

The first governor soon discovered that though he had been set over a vast country there was only a narrow strip within his grasp. Within a few miles of Sydney Cove there ran a range of mountains rising in places almost perpendicularly to a height of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. Curving above Broken Bay on the north and below Botany Bay on the south, in the form of a crescent, they completely hemmed in the settlement and cut off all advance into the interior. From the heights of Sydney on a clear day glimpses could be obtained of their level line of cobalt. They formed part of the chain of the Great Dividing Range which runs with scarcely a break down the eastern side of the continent from Cape York—the most northerly point—to Wilson’s Promontory at the southern extremity. Seen at a distance these mountains present the appearance of a bluish curtain raised but a little above the horizon; twenty-five miles nearer, their bare summits appear less regular, and at intervals a few peaks are perceived. The different tiers rise in height as they recede deeper into the country beyond. Cook and those with him in the Endeavour caught glimpses of these hills through the clear atmosphere when their ship lay becalmed off the coast on her way northwards.

The Blue Mountains had a wonderful charm for the colonists; the rocks, precipices, and thick scrub might repel them; but when days bright with sunshine revealed gleaming torrents and smooth green plains among the ranges, the desire to explore them became irresistible. Time after time expeditions left Sydney to penetrate into the forest, increasing in number as fresh vessels arrived bringing more settlers desirous of becoming farmers. The boundaries of the colony were enlarged to their utmost to sustain the flocks and herds which increased with marvellous rapidity and from the sea coast on the east to the river Nepean on the west, a distance of between forty and fifty miles from the capital, little or no land remained for grazing purposes. Fields of wheat, lucerne, and clover bordered one bank of the Nepean; on the other stood the mountains.

Water, as well as grass, became hard to find. Where no rain had fallen, the power of an almost tropical sun and the sandy nature of the river beds rendered drought inevitable and the settlers were compelled to look beyond the narrow coast line for sustenance. Many and various were the speculations as to what might lie on the other side of the ranges. Some believed that a white settlement would be found there, others that there existed an inland sea, or a country unfit for human habitation, and some condemned all projects of exploration as foolhardy. A few only were of opinion that open grass country would be discovered suitable for pasture. No warnings could prevent the colonists from trying to force a passage into the unknown bush. Many perished in the attempt. Sometimes an escaped prisoner in search of freedom, sometimes a visionary or too ardent explorer, starting without proper equipment, disappeared for ever in the labyrinth of forest; but their disappearance caused little surprise, and the Bathurst Plains remained undiscovered.

It was held as a fact that there was no break or pass in the mountains and to surmount their unbroken ridge seemed almost impracticable. There is a legend to the effect that a freed convict really penetrated the barrier and discovered the Lachlan River, having learnt the way from a black fellow; but Cunningham says that “the first known aborigines declared that there was no pass over the mountains, and held a tradition that malignant spirits resided there “.

The first attempt to explore the Blue Mountains was made long before by Governor Phillip who on 15th April, 1788, set out with provisions for four days, attended by several officers and a small party of marines. In three days they passed the swamps and marshes near the harbour and found themselves in a rocky barren country, the hills of which were covered with scrub, but the rocks and dense bush made ascending and descending difficult and often impossible. Fifteen miles from the coast Phillip had a fine view of the country and he gave names to several mountains, calling the most northerly the Carmarthen Hills, those to the south the Lansdowne Hills, and one between Richmond Hill.

An Exploring Party with Phillip and Hunter. (From a sketch by Captain Hunter.)

An Exploring Party with Phillip and Hunter.
(From a sketch by Captain Hunter.)

On the 22nd he started again, taking with him some small boats in order to cross the river, and found good country, densely wooded, but after spending nearly a day in fruitless attempts to make his way through it, he was obliged to return. Setting out afresh on the morrow, the party by keeping close to the banks of a small creek continued their course westward for three succeeding days. On the fifth day they ascended a small eminence whence they saw the Carmarthen and Lansdowne Hills, the farthest point reached being called by them Belle Vue, but even there they were still apparently thirty miles from the mountains which it had been their object to visit. Having only six days’ food with them they were obliged to return, having fully proved the extraordinary difficulty of penetrating into the interior. Unexpected delays from deep ravines and other obstacles had frequently forced the travellers from the direct course, and baffled every calculation as to the time required for passing from one point to another. The distance covered by the expedition was not more than thirty miles, and it took five days. The return was easier, the track being made and the trees marked, so that the explorers reached the boats in a day and a half.

In June, 1789, Captain Watkin Tench and Mr. Arndell, the surgeon, reached the bank of a river “nearly as broad as the Thames at Putney” to which the governor gave the name of Nepean, but it was not until the month of December that Phillip resolved seriously to undertake further exploration. Lieutenant Dawes was despatched with a detachment of troops and a stock of provisions for ten days; but after much fatigue and many dangers he returned to Port Jackson, having penetrated only nine miles more.

Eight months later, in August, 1790, Tench and Dawes set out with a strong escort, carrying ropes and other appliances for the attempt to pass the mountains; and they failed. Next June Tench went westward to find out whether the Hawkesbury and Nepean were one river. Twenty-one persons were of the party, which included the governor and Dawes. According to Tench: “Every man except the governor carried a knapsack (which contained his provisions for ten days), a gun, a blanket and canteen: these weighed not less than forty pounds. Slung to the knapsack was a cooking kettle and a hatchet to cut wood to kindle the nightly fire and build the nightly hut. Every man was garbed to drag through morasses, tear through thickets, ford rivers and scale rocks.” The march began at sunrise and halted an hour and a half before sunset with only an occasional pause. Preparations were then made to camp for the night. The method of travelling was to steer by compass, noting the different directions taken as the party proceeded, and counting the number of paces, “of which 2,200 on good ground,” says Tench, “were allowed to a mile. At night, when all were resting, these courses were separately cast up and worked by a traverse table in the manner that a ship’s reckoning is kept, so that by observing this precaution we always knew exactly where we were and how far from home—an unspeakable advantage in a new country where one hill and one tree is so like another.” This arduous task was allotted to Dawes and he performed it with wonderful precision. Whenever Colber, a black fellow who had been taken with the party, was asked the names of the tribes who lived inland he would answer with a shake of the head, “Boorooberongal,” and add in English “bad”; “whence” adds his chief, “we conjectured that they sometimes made war upon those on the sea coast”. The expedition proved successful, for Tench ascertained that the Nepean was an affluent of the Hawkesbury.

For some time little was done to scale the barrier, but on Captain William Paterson of the New South Wales Corps calling the attention of the Home Government to the Blue Mountains, and to the pressing need of more pasturage, he was placed in charge of a new expedition which was fitted out with much care. His plan was to ascend the Hawkesbury River as far as possible, so that he might reach the foot of the range, and he took with him two boats and a strong escort of soldiers. Among them were many Highlanders who, like Paterson himself, were accustomed to the Scottish hills. Some natives acted as guides, and it was thought that Paterson, whose extensive travels in South Africa had brought him fame, would succeed. The river Grose, so named after Major Grose, was discovered and traced to its junction with the Hawkesbury above Richmond Hill, and the advance was then made up the river, but did not continue far on account of the numerous cataracts, one of which fell sheer down some 420 feet, and the precipitous ground made further progress impossible.

In 1794 Quartermaster Hacking of the Sirius with some companions started with the idea of forcing a way over the barrier. They spent ten days in searching for a pass, and eventually travelled twenty miles beyond any previous attempt, but tiers of forest and thicket compelled their return. During the journey they saw a red kangaroo and also one of the natives, who, catching sight of the white men, fled in haste.

Two years afterwards Mr, Bass, the discoverer of Bass Strait, made the next attempt, with a few men on whose courage and skill he could depend. On this expedition he used iron boat-hooks on his hands and feet in climbing the steep sides of the rocks, and when stopped by ravines caused himself to be lowered by ropes, but after fifteen days of danger and fatigue he also returned to Sydney, declaring these singular mountains to be impassable.

In 1805 the Government botanist, Mr. George Caley, then in Sydney collecting new plants and seeds for Sir Joseph Banks, was seized with a desire to explore the western ranges and applied for permission to Governor King, who provided him with the four strongest men in the colony to help him cut a passage through the bush. He succeeded in gaining a footing on the dividing range at Woodford, as the place is now called, close to the spot where the railway passes, and after very trying experiences his party reached Mount Banks twelve days after they had left Richmond. Caley here looked westward, “I saw no large valleys,” he says, “except the one close to us from which the ground rose gradually as far as the eye could reach. In a few places there appeared swamp, in others no trees and very scrubby ground. By these appearances the country might be imagined easy to travel over, provided the inaccessible valley close at hand was crossed, yet there is no doubt others of a similar nature would present themselves as I am too well conversant now with their rugged impassable state which at every step becomes a ha-ha.”

It took him several days to cut a path from the spot where he had left a pile of stones, now known as “Caley’s Repulse,” to the Hawkesbury River, a distance of less than nineteen miles. Deep gorges were frequent. Sometimes upright walls of rock would suddenly confront him; at others, the ground under his feet would crumble away. In despair, he at last returned to Sydney, where Governor King sympathetically stated that in his opinion the idea of attempting to cross such “a confused and barren assemblage of mountains with impassable chasms between was as chimerical as useless,” and that “nothing but enthusiasm could have enabled Caley, well equipped as he was, and with the strongest men in the colony to assist him, to perform the journey “.

The route taken by Caley across the mountains was in 1813 chosen by a fresh band of explorers to whom his experiences were doubtless of great advantage. On his return to England, he gave it in evidence before a committee appointed by the House of Commons that New South Wales was bounded on the west by a range that was impassable. Lieutenant William Lawson of the Veteran Company was in London at the time, and frequently discussed with him the possibilities of finding a pass through the barrier. Lawson soon afterwards returned to Sydney, and evidently did not forget these conversations.

In the year 1813, three years after Governor Macquarie arrived, a severe drought such as Australia has since, unfortunately, too often known, carried off numbers of sheep and cattle, and the scarcity of grass threatened to ruin the settlers. This induced Lawson, with William Charles Wentworth and Gregory Blaxland as companions, to follow up the efforts of Bass, Barrallier, Dawes and Caley. and before the marks cut by them had disappeared from the tree trunks, to try once again to find fresh country.

Starting at four o’clock of the afternoon of 11th May, 1813, from Blaxland’s homestead at South Creek, near Penrith, with four servants, five dogs, and four pack-horses, the explorers crossed the Nepean at Emu Island, some thirty-six miles west of Sydney, to find a way between the Western River and the Grose. Passing a large lagoon full of coarse rushes and some thick scrub they were soon entangled among intricate gullies and deep ravines. “Narrow, gloomy and profound, these rents in the bosom of the earth (as Count Strzelecki describes them) are enclosed between gigantic walls of sandstone rock—sometimes receding from and sometimes overhanging the dark bed beneath with its black, silent eddies or its foaminor torrents of water.”

In one of the gullies was found a dead kangaroo which had just been killed by an eagle. Numbers of the brown wedge-tailed species made their nests in these mountains whose rocky ledges with overhanging foliage sorely tried the patience of the men. When through the gullies, good grass country, extending apparently as far as Grose Head, made a pleasant change in the travelling. Europeans had evidently marked the trees, and here and there were native huts. But two miles farther on a deep impassable precipice compelled them to turn back to the spot where they had left the thick brush-wood.

It seemed then as if the expedition were doomed to fail when fortunately Lawson thought of a method which had never yet been tried. While gazing despondently around him he noticed that the spine of the mountains trended westward and believed that if only his party could gain the top of the ridge and push their way along it, success would ultimately attend their efforts. He at once decided to try; but the small party were then worn out with the exertions of the morning and it was thought wise to encamp at four o’clock and rest for the night.

Lawson pondered over the direction their path should take on the morrow, and thought it best to cut a road to what he believed was the Main Dividing Range, and, if possible, ascend it near the Grose River, keeping in sight the heads of the gullies which were supposed to empty into the Western or Warragumba River on the left hand and into the Grose River on the right. There were, however, other difficulties, and what troubled the explorer most was the way in which the horses travelled. From the first they had stumbled continually, and, so far, the start had to be postponed each morning on their account until nine o’clock when the dew was well off the grass. And he knew that the rocky hillsides, difficult enough for the men to climb, would prove still more trying for the animals. Next day he finally decided to leave them, as well as the provisions and five muskets in charge of two men, while the rest of the party (taking with them only two muskets) cut a way through the bush.

The work was unflinchingly got through, although there was not a man who was not wearied, nor a hand that was not blistered and sore. On this memorable day, Friday, 14th May, a path extending for five miles was completed, wide enough to allow the pack-horses to pass, and at five o’clock the explorers returned to camp. On the following day, leaving the camp as before in charge of the men, they cleared two more miles, but as there was no sign of grass for the horses they returned again at five o’clock. On Sunday they rested.

The whole party pushed on and encamped on a narrow mountain ridge between two very deep gullies, where some of the men descended a precipice to a depth of 600 feet to look for water, but none could be found. On the 18th, two miles farther on, their path became buttressed on both sides with precipices. Creeping along the narrow edge of the ridge, the men removed some of the larger pieces of rock, and eventually got over in safety, but in the evening returned to the camp tired and out of spirits.

Next day, on their leaving camp and looking back from the second ridge, a distant view of the settlement now a minute speck beneath them, met their eyes. Not far from this spot, while busily cutting trees along a narrow ridge, they came upon a cairn of stones, shaped like a pyramid. One side of it had been opened and the stones scattered around, evidently by natives. Lawson thought then that it had been built by Bass to mark the end of his tour and that they were following in his tracks; but Governor Macquarie explained afterwards that this pile of stones was Caley’s work, and called it Caley’s Repulse.

As they gazed around them the three leaders might well have been overawed by the task that they had set themselves. What lay beyond Caley’s Repulse was mystery! Possibly the explorers remembered the old stories of the blacks at Port Jackson who said it was the abode of evil spirits who hurled thunder, floods,[*] and burning winds upon them, or the pleasanter fables that a white people dwelt there upon the banks of a great lake, a people who dressed like the English and had large towns with houses built of stone.

[* The blacks held a tradition that once long ago the floods had overtopped the Blue Mountains and that only two men of the tribe there had escaped alive in a "Koboa Noe" or large ship.]

Yet all was not mountain and forest. In the midst of what was to English eyes perhaps weird and strange there occasionally opened amid the transparent atmosphere scenes which would have lent grace to many a garden in a civilised land. In parts of these mountains, both in the deep gullies and upon the high slopes, ferns and rare plants are to be seen growing in their native state. Groups of tall tree ferns flourish beneath the shadow of massive rocks, their rough brown trunks contrasting strangely with their delicate green fronds and deeper tinted leaves; and numerous species of maidenhair fern hang down over the pale-faced sandstone or creep round the bronze-green moss which covers the dripping ledges. Here is also to be seen growing upon the heights of the mountains the waratah, or native tulip. The crimson colour of the flower gives the plant its name of “Telopia,” meaning “seen at a distance”. The trunks and branches of the eucalyptus trees are often overgrown with creepers, and many descriptions of palms fill the crevices among the rocks, and give an almost tropical appearance to these bush scenes. Such scenes, after journeying over tracts of uneven country, after scrambling up and down stony hillsides and cutting paths through the scrub, must have often appeared a restful sight to the first explorers.

From Caley’s Repulse the travellers were able to advance four or five miles a day, and soon noticed with delight that the ridge was widening before them. New birds, parrots of varied plumage, attracted them. Emus were heard calling, and once the sound of a native chopping wood near at hand excited their curiosity, and told them, although they could not catch sight of the black fellow, that the mountains were inhabited. The next day, 25th May, the track of a wombat was seen; later they saw the smoke of fires curling upwards through distant trees and apparently thirty natives moving about, but so far off that it was impossible to ascertain with certainty anything regarding them.

Australian Natives Spearing Parrots in the Blue Mountains

Australian Natives Spearing Parrots in the Blue Mountains

On Friday, 28th May, to the explorers’ joy, they beheld grass country in the valley below them. It was clear of trees and covered with loose white pebbles and stones. At first it looked barren and sandy, but they soon perceived that it really was grass of a light straw colour, and in the evening they descended the mountain which was high and steep in order to examine it more closely.

On Saturday, 29th May, at seven o’clock in the morning they began the descent of the valley through a passage in the rocks, thirty feet wide, which they had discovered the day before. A low slanting trench had to be cut with a hoe along the mountain side for the horses to walk in as there was no sort of foothold for them. The grass proved to be green underneath, and there was also a clear and rapid stream of water. The natives were evidently still moving before them, as smoke was again seen to the west; on the 31st remains of their old fires were found and traces where they had been sharpening their spears, and from the marks on the trees they did not appear to climb like the blacks at Sydney.

There were two streams here and the explorers encamped by the faster flowing one at a short distance from the High Hill. This high mountain was afterwards called Mount York by Governor Macquarie, although it became more familiarly known to travellers as the “Big Hill”. It rose sharply 798 feet from the valley below, which Macquarie named the Vale of Clwyd. The passage was afterwards given the name of Cox’s Pass, but Blaxland in a letter to Governor Macquarie, dated 15th June, 1815, stated that the passage was actually discovered through a suggestion of Wentworth’s, and that the river was found by Lawson, while the others were bringing the horses down the mountains.

After once more surveying the newly found pasture the explorers, now sorely in need of provisions prepared to return to Sydney, For a time they satisfied their hunger by eating the flowers of the honeysuckle tree which are shaped like a bottle brush and are full of honey. The natives still camped a little distance away, evidently possessing no huts, and would not allow the white men to approach them. On Tuesday, 1st June, the party again ascended the mountain ridge and started homewards, carefully marking the trees to show each mile of the road, and reached their home on Sunday, 6th June, 1813, with all their party well. There may still be seen on the Old Bathurst Road the tree called the “Explorer’s Tree” upon which Lawson, Blaxland and Wentworth carved the initials L.B.W. Standing on a high point of the mountain it is plainly visible from the windows of the railway carriage.

Thus the mystery concerning the Blue Mountains was solved, and the discovery of the new territory soon led to important results. On 20th November, 1813, acting on instructions from Governor Macquarie, George Williams Evans set out from Emu Island to make a survey of the road, and to explore the country from the point where Lawson’s party had turned back. On the fifth day he reached the valley containing the rapid stream, the limit of Lawson’s expedition. On 27th November he discovered another valley with fine grass. Leaving his horses in this valley with some of the party, Evans set out to select a track where they could more easily ascend the mountain.

Curious high ranges to the south were seen from one point, the pasture covering their tops and sides being very green, but no better road was found, and the party again set forth over hills as steep and stony as the others. Some small clear streams and grassy valleys were passed, and from a high hill Evans perceived a peculiar mist in the distance, so unlike smoke that he believed a river would soon be reached. From this point a clear view of country for forty miles to the west was obtained, and the travellers began to meet with good sport. Each day many ducks were shot and the fish in the streams were both large and plentiful. Other high hills appeared, and on 1st December he reached a remarkable mountain with a stone on the top like a sugar-loaf or as some have described it an Indian fort, which was called after the discoverer Evans’s Crown. He walked to its summit and looked down upon the western landscape for a distance of some fifty miles. The trees grew farther apart but the pasturage was thick and the soil looked fertile; the wide expanse still farther off afterwards gave rise to the story that, when he first saw it, he believed that he was gazing upon a vast inland sea. That his pleasure was very great is evident in his writings. “I am more pleased with the country every day,” he says, “it far surpasses in fertility and beauty any I have yet seen.”

His first sight of the river almost inspired him to be poetical. “The river winds through fine flats and round the points of small ridges which gradually descend towards it. They are covered with the finest grass intermixed with the white daisy as in England. It is a most picturesque spot with gentle rising hills and dales well watered. The distant hills, which are about five miles south, appear as grounds laid out, divided into fields by hedges. There are few trees on them and the grass is quite green. I still keep near the river, and at times I walk a few miles south or north as seems to me requisite; I now find the mimosa in clusters on the banks. The country continues good, in some places overrun with the shrub among the grass the same as on the cow pasturage at Stone Quarry Creek. I shall not name the river until I am certain of its real course.”

At this time Evans had met with no natives, although he had observed their tracks. On 4th December the night was very wet and the party suffered much discomfort from the rain, the thin leaves of the eucalyptus trees affording little shelter. After a violent thunderstorm the clouds dispersed and a fresh westerly wind blew throughout the day. The horses benefited by the good pasturage, but their backs showed signs of soreness, as the saddles had not been lined and the straw stuffing in them was so hard that the party were forced to use their blankets as saddle cloths.

Evans called the first track of clear land O’Connell Plains alter the lieutenant-governor. Here numbers of wild geese were seen, and the discoverer writes: “This place is worth speaking of as ‘Good and beautiful’ it surpasseth Port Dalrymple (Tasmania) and the clear land occupies about a mile on each side of the river”. Farther on he found another plain still more pleasing and very extensive which he named Macquarie Plains. In this region he saw numbers of wild geese and fish were abundant and easily caught. This river Evans named the Fish River. It flows westward from the Clarence Range. He wished to cross it, but it was too deep, and as he could see no signs of a ford he contrived a bridge. The diary states that “By driving two forked logs into the mud as far as we dared venture and by laying a piece of wood in the forks we formed a gallows: a party swam across the stream and did the same on the opposite side. We then felled trees as large as six of us could carry and rolled them down the bank. As soon as one end of the trees was in the water the current sent it round and the ropes which had been made secure round it prevented it being carried too far down. We lifted two of these trees up, which reached from one fork to another, and placed two more trees from the banks on either side to join the forks, over which we passed our necessaries and then swam the horses, first tying ropes to them and drawing them to the opposite bank; otherwise the force of the water might have carried them a great distance down the stream as it did some of the men who swam over.”

Sketch Map of the Country West of the Blue Mountains (Discovered by G W Evans)

Sketch Map of the Country West of the Blue Mountains
(Discovered by G W Evans)

At sunset they reached another stream which Evans called the Campbell. The two streams soon joined and formed what he called the Macquarie. It flowed across an extensive plain which he describes as “excellent good land overgrown with the best grass I have seen in any part of New South Dales. It might be mowed, it is so thick and long. These plains I called the Bathurst Plains.”

Soon afterwards Evans decided to return to Sydney. His party were then almost barefoot, for the stones and grass had cut their shoes to pieces, and the horses’ backs were in a bad condition. Little else claimed their notice. Emus were very numerous, one day forty-one were counted, and on 21st December they met two native women and four children, the first natives spoken to by white men on that side of the Blue Mountains. They fell down in fright on seeing the white people, and though they received several presents could not be induced to impart any information, or even to remain.

The sketch map of this journey (see p. 134) is in the British Museum, and was taken from an original draft probably in the possession of the Colonial Office either in London or Sydney.


VI. MAKING THE ROADS, FOUNDING OF BATHURST, FURTHER EXPLORATION.

 VI. MEMBUAT JALAN, PENDIRIAN Bathurst, EKSPLORASI LEBIH LANJUT.Koloni telah membuat sedikit kemajuan selama beberapa tahun pertama abad kesembilan belas, tetapi energi Macquarie membawa perubahan. Karya-karya publik yang ia memerintahkan, perbaikan kota, cara di mana ia mendorong eksplorasi interior, dan mengunjungi pemukiman setiap kali hal itu mungkin untuk melakukannya, yang dibuat setiap tahun penting. Lingkup kegiatannya ditemukan dalam banyak proyek yang tidak dapat disebutkan di sini, namun pembuatan jalan dari ibukota ke pemukiman remote tidak harus pergi disebutkan. Tidak ada pelopor di negara yang tidak dalam hatinya terima kasih kepada Pemerintah Inggris untuk menempatkan orang seperti itu di kepala koloni bayi. Wawasan Macquarie mengatakan kepadanya bahwa jalan dan jembatan menjadi saluran alami dari sebuah negara baru harus mendahului daripada mengikuti kolonisasi, dan jika dibuat pada skala moderat akan merupakan modal dalam bentuk terbaik untuk kepentingan negara. Apakah ia tidak diakui kebutuhan mereka di New South Wales kemajuan akan lambat.Sebelum datang jalan-membuat nya putaran Sydney adalah dari jenis sederhana. Jalan mana pun yang diinginkan, pohon-pohon berlekuk, dan pohon-pohon ditandai menjabat sebagai panduan bagi semua yang diinginkan untuk melakukan perjalanan seperti itu. Kuda dan gerobak berlalu bersama dan dalam waktu singkat semak-track menjadi terlihat. Rumput segera diinjak-injak dan menghilang. Jika sungai terjadi untuk menyeberangi trek, cabang-cabang terpotong pohon-pohon yang tumbuh di bank dan meletakkan di atasnya. Pada mereka log yang lebih kecil ditempatkan dengan keteraturan sedikit lebih, dan ketika cukup menutupi bumi dilemparkan atas mereka, membentuk sebuah gorong-gorong kasar atau jembatan.Jalan yang dibuat dalam cara ini tidak disetujui oleh Macquarie, meskipun mereka telah dianggap cukup baik oleh beberapa pendahulunya. Nya pada rencana yang berbeda. Pertama rute itu ditandai dengan garis kompas dan oleh survei hati-hati untuk kanan dan kiri dari “kebakaran” tua di pohon dalam rangka untuk memastikan bahwa arah terpendek dan terbaik telah diperoleh. Kemudian anak sungai dan parit-parit yang diukur; rawa-rawa dikeringkan, semak belukar yang dibuka untuk memungkinkan ruang untuk tiga gerobak untuk lulus dan memberikan cahaya dan udara atas tunggul pohon tumbang, meninggalkan bumi sesedikit mungkin rusak; tanah berbahaya diisi, dan persiapan dibuat untuk jembatan. Ketika seluruh jalan tingkat dan macadamised dipotong dengan cara kuno itu berserakan dengan kerikil dari deskripsi terbaik dan paling mengikat dan berguling baik.

Metode ini begitu sukses sehingga banyak jalan dibuat selama pemerintahan Macquarie masih mengenakan baik. Di Sydney pelatih email segera mulai untuk menjalankan atas mereka dan suara tanduk pasca terdengar di jalanan sebagai kendaraan yang dibuat cara mereka membawa pasca-tas dan penumpang ke interior. Kemudian keindahan tanah menjadi dikenal kepada mereka yang mengikuti jejak para pelatih dan drays dan sekilas menangkap dari mereka pemandangan besar yang kemuliaan Australia-hari, bayangan di perbukitan, gulungan dari lembah, air terjun-Katoomba , Leap-dan Govett di adegan lain yang kemudian diturunkan kepada mata orang kulit putih.

The Great Western, Northern Besar dan Jalan Great Southern adalah yang pertama harus dibuat. Dari Barat Agung sejauh Parramatta yang tertua di koloni, meskipun selama dua puluh lima tahun Blue Mountains membentuk penghalang untuk memajukan nya. Pada tahun 1814 Road Great Southern ke Liverpool dibuka, dan itu kemudian terus Camden dan Goulburn. Pada tahun 1823 Mayor Morrisett melakukan perjalanan darat pertama dari Newcastle ke Sydney atas apa yang akhirnya menjadi Great North Road, mencapai Windsor di sembilan hari setelah perjalanan 169 mil. Mayor Mitchell diperintahkan oleh Gubernur Sayang survei ini melacak dan bagian pertama, yang mencapai ke dalam enam mil dari Parramatta Ferry, dibuka pada bulan Juli, 1829. Ini membuat penghematan lima belas mil dari utara jalan dengan cara Windsor. The Great baru Road Utara, seperti yang disebut, dibuat dalam rangka untuk membentuk komunikasi langsung dengan tanah dengan bagian tengah dan atas dari Sungai Hunter, termasuk Morpeth, dan kota dari Maitland, tetapi itu tidak sepenuhnya selesai sampai 1832 .

The Great Western, di sisi lain, diperpanjang dari Emu Plains ke Bathurst segera setelah kembali Evans dari ekspedisi pertama ke interior. Butuh waktu hanya enam bulan untuk membuat, pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh Mr William Cox, JP, Windsor. Dua ratus lima puluh tujuh mil dari semak-semak tebal dibersihkan, lima puluh delapan yang membentang luasnya Blue Mountains; viaducts dibangun bebatuan raksasa bulat, jurang-jurang yang dijembatani dan kesulitan mengatasi dengan cara yang bahkan hingga hari akan dianggap yang luar biasa. Karena setiap bagian dari jalan itu siap, sekelompok kecil pemukim istimewa [*] diikuti untuk membuat rumah mereka di negara baru. Jalan turun oleh zigzag ke lembah berjalan sejajar dengan apa yang kemudian disebut Sayang Causeway.

[* Macquarie direkomendasikan bahwa jumlah pemukim terbatas pada lima puluh, dengan keluarga kecil, masing-masing untuk menerima lima puluh sampai seratus hektar tanah, dan bahwa tidak ada orang lain adalah untuk pergi untuk dua tahun.]

Itu selesai pada 21 Januari 1815. Pada 25 April, gubernur, disertai oleh Mrs Macquarie dan suite banyak, di antaranya Kapten dan Letnan Antill Watts, ADC., Dan Messrs Oxley, Redfern, Evans, Lewin, Meehan, dan Campbell meninggalkan Sydney pada mereka tur ke pemukiman baru. Rute yang mereka ambil tidak bahwa yang sekarang diikuti oleh jalur kereta api, tetapi lebih tua yang dikenal sebagai Jalan York Gunung yang ditinggalkan demi sebuah keturunan mudah dengan Gunung Victoria kemudian dieksekusi oleh Sir Thomas Mitchell, jalan oleh Gunung York begitu curam yang lembu driver yang digunakan untuk menebang pohon dan melampirkannya ke drays mereka sebagai pengganti drag. Kita diberitahu bahwa Jenderal dan Mrs Macquarie mampu mendorong semua jalan ke Bathurst dalam mereka pasca-kursi.

Setelah mencapai Crown Evans dan tanah tinggi di atas Bathurst gubernur itu sangat senang dengan pemandangan sungai dan Campbell Ikan, dan Macquarie, yang dikenal penduduk asli sebagai Wambool atau Sungai Berkelana dari jalurnya berkelok-kelok. Sepanjang tepi sungai hillocks sedikit gelap atau Knolls dan cincin peri aneh yang kadang-kadang terlihat. Memanjang secara teratur ditandai dataran. Alur-alur yang luar biasa, dan di negara-negara beradab akan diambil untuk pegunungan bajak, dan itu layak disebutkan bahwa di New South Wales di kedua sisi rentang membagi mereka melestarikan arah yang sama dari utara ke selatan-timur-barat.

Program dari Macquarie bisa dilacak untuk mil oleh pohon oak yang tumbuh tegak tinggi pada bank. Kambing domba dan ternak berkeliaran di saat Plains Bathurst, dan pos dan rel pagar tandai dengan keteraturan perkebunan penduduk liar dan pemukim, yang rumahnya yang dikelilingi oleh pohon dari Eropa dan Amerika, dan kebun, kebun-kebun anggur dan ladang-ladang gandum dan jagung. Tapi ketika Gubernur Macquarie pertama kali melihat dataran mereka hanya bentangan rumput melambai. Sekilas pertama dari bank-bank yang tinggi dari Sungai Ikan memberinya gagasan bahwa sungai adalah besarnya cukup besar, tetapi, karena cuaca kering, nyaris air apapun berlari dan sungai mungkin lebih tepat digambarkan sebagai sebuah rantai kolam . Dalam mencapai ada sejumlah besar bahwa hewan penasaran para duckbill atau air-mol, dan pada bank-bank tumbuh berbagai jenis semak-semak, rumput aneh dan rami dengan manis beraroma ungu dan putih bunga-bunga bakung dari anak-anak Australia untuk -hari.

Pada jarak tujuh mil dari jembatan yang telah dibuat lebih dari Sungai Campbell sedikit ke selatan dari persimpangan dengan Sungai Ikan, melihat kembali dikagumi. Gelombang pada gelombang rumput laut mencapai seperti ombak sejauh mata bisa melihat, berbisik kemakmuran dan menghalau keraguan yang disarankan oleh daerah tandus rock alternatif dan belukar. Kita tidak perlu heran bahwa jenderal secara terbuka mengungkapkan kesenangan ketika ia melihat negeri. Tahun setelah itu tertulis tentang Dia bahwa “dia membangun jalan seperti Colossus dan menutupi Blue Mountains dengan jagung”, tetapi saat ini karyanya hanya awal dan dia tahu sedikit interior.

Daerah terbuka dimulai dan berakhir rentang, seolah-olah, di dinding biru padat sekitar lautan rumput. Sungai Macquarie menunjukkan untuk keuntungan. Pandangan perairan dan tentu saja berliku dari puncak bukit bernama setelah Letnan Kolonel O’Connell adalah luas; beberapa pohon yang bertitik di sini dan di sana, terutama eucalyptus putih tinggi, yang paling indah dari pohon-pohon karet, salju putih yang panjang batang dan cabang dapat dibedakan pada jarak beberapa; pohon-pohon lain yang tumbuh di sepanjang tepi sungai menjadi Wattle atau mimosa dan ek rawa, suatu spesies Casuarina, tinggi dan indah seperti pinus, daun gelap membuat Tentu saja sungai dengan mudah dibedakan.

Pada 4 Mei pesta berkemah di sebuah ruang terbuka di tepi kiri Sungai Macquarie mana gubernur membuat kunjungan di kedua bank dan melihat banyak pribumi. Dia memiliki potret kepala pribumi digambar untuk dia, dan dalam salah satu suratnya kepada Pemerintah Depan dijamin nya menjadi rupa yang sangat baik.

Pada Minggu, 7 Mei, dia tetap pada sebuah situs yang cocok untuk pendirian sebuah kota yang ia memberi nama Bathurst untuk menghormati Henry, Earl ketiga dari Bathurst, maka Sekretaris Negara Koloni [*]. Dalam jarak sepuluh mil ada tidak kurang dari lima puluh ribu hektar polos, cukup setengah dari yang cocok untuk budidaya. Situs dirancang untuk kota itu ditemukan, dengan pengamatan diambil di staf bendera yang dipilih, dua puluh tujuh setengah mil utara dan sembilan puluh empat setengah mil barat Government House, Sydney. Pada 11 Mei gubernur dan rombongan berangkat dari Bathurst dan mencapai Sydney pada tanggal 19.

[* Para pemukim awal yang membentuk inti dari populasi tinggal di pertama dalam apa yang dikenal sebagai county Roxburgh dan membangun gereja mereka di sana, tempat yang sekarang disebut Kelso, tetapi ketika terendam banjir berat bank ini dari Macquarie mereka pindah ke tanah yang lebih tinggi di seberang sungai dekat ke mana kota Bathurst sekarang berdiri.]

Sebuah Kepala asli Bathurst
(Dari “Explorasi Oxley itu”.)

Seperti Sungai Macquarie mengalir dengan arus kuat seperti masa lalu dan volume pemukiman baru Evans dikirim untuk melacak dan menjelajahi negara di sebelah barat dan selatan-barat. Dia dan Appledove pria setia meninggalkan Bathurst pada 13 Mei 1815, melewati lembah bernama Ratu Charlotte Vale dan menemukan anak sungai kecil dan kemudian yang lebih besar satu yang disebut Limestone Evans Creek. Pada 25 ia jatuh dengan bantalan sungai selatan, bergabung dengan air-kursus terbit di arah utara-timur. Itu kering. Tapi bank tujuh puluh sembilan kaki terpisah, dan ek rawa besar yang tumbuh di kedua sisinya membuatnya jelas bahwa itu adalah tempat tidur sebuah sungai besar. Evans menamainya Lachlan untuk menghormati Gubernur Macquarie dan mendirikan sebuah depot militer di suatu tempat yang disebut Creek Byrne. Ia menemukan banyak bukit atau saat ia menggambarkan mereka “Pics kerucut” dan dinamakan Gunung tertinggi mereka Lachlan, Gunung Molle dan Gunung Lewin. Banyak emu dan kanguru terlihat, dan ada sisa-sisa terbakar api asli, sekitar beberapa yang ia menghitung tak kurang dari dua puluh tiga tumpukan besar bulu emu. Beberapa hari sebelum pulang dia bertemu tiga orang pribumi, seorang pria, wanita dan anak; orang itu lari dan memanjat pohon, wanita dan bayinya tetap takut saat melihat orang kulit putih. Evans berhasil mendapatkan hubungan baik dengan anak, tapi pria di pohon menangis begitu keras bahwa ia mungkin telah mendengar setengah mil jauhnya. Pada 1 Juni, Evans setelah ukiran nama dan tanggal pada pohon, meninggalkan Sungai Lachlan pada kembali ke Bathurst di mana ia tiba pada tanggal 12 Juni.

Pada 1817 Oxley Letnan dikirim untuk melacak jalannya Lachlan dan Macquarie. Dia mengambil Evans dengan dia dan juga Allan Cunningham, ahli botani raja, yang telah dikirim untuk mengumpulkan tanaman untuk Kebun Kerajaan di Kew, Frazer, kolonial ahli botani, dan Parr, mineralog. Meninggalkan Sydney pada 6 April mereka mencapai Bathurst pada, 14 paket-kuda dengan ketentuan dan dua perahu yang telah dikirim terlebih dahulu ke sebuah depot yang sudah mapan di Lachlan tersebut. Hujan deras partai ditahan selama lima hari, tetapi mereka mencapai Lachlan pada 25 April. Menemukan bahwa tanah menjadi datar, sungai yang hanya 600 meter di atas permukaan laut, Oxley menelusuri aliran utama dari Lachlan untuk 150 mil, penamaan Gunung Amyot, Gunung Melville, Gunung Cunningham dan Gunung Maude-sampai air yang hilang di antara alang-alang dan rawa-rawa menetes. Dia melewati gunung-gunung lain, bertemu beberapa suku yang berbeda pribumi, dan tiba di sebuah tanah pemakaman penasaran, tetapi meskipun ia menemukan banyak rawa, air minum sangat langka, dan percaya bahwa Lachlan berakhir di rawa ia berbalik kembali ke utara-timur pada 18 Mei, untuk memastikan apa yang menjadi Macquarie.

Pada awalnya tampaknya ada sedikit harapan untuk menemukan kayu, rumput atau air, dan pada 21 Juni, Oxley menulis bahwa ia sekarang tanah melewati itu didiami manusia beradab, tapi kemudian ia tiba-tiba datang pada negara kaya disiram oleh Lachlan Bawah, terjauh nya titik yang lintang 33 ° 57 ’30 “bujur S. dan 144 · 31′ 15″ E.

Dari sini ia kembali untuk mencari Macquarie, dan menemukan sebuah danau yang disebut Danau Campbell. Setelah beberapa eksplorasi yang sulit dia mencapai aliran bersih dari air berjalan melalui lembah di tengah bebatuan, yang ia percaya harus mengalir ke Macquarie, dan pada 25 Agustus ia menemukan sebuah sungai yang jauh lebih besar dari timur tenggara yang sebenarnya terbukti sungai yang . Arus kecil yang disebut Sungai Bell setelah Bell Mayor, dan ia bernama lembah yang indah melalui yang mengalir Wellington Valley.

Oxley kembali ke Bathurst pada 29 Agustus. Meskipun sedikit dipastikan menghormati jalannya sungai, Gubernur Macquarie merasa dibenarkan dalam despatching dia di ekspedisi kedua ke interior. Kali ini ia didampingi oleh Dr Harris. Meninggalkan Mei, 1818, mereka menelusuri Macquarie, melintasi sungai pada 11 Juli Oxley yang disebut oleh Erskine. Mereka berlayar turun di kapal luar Wellington kemajuan lebih lanjut sampai dihentikan oleh rawa-rawa dan alang-alang yang tinggi. Di sini, di tepi utara Macquarie, Oxley mengamati sebuah bukit, 210 meter tingginya, tampaknya awal dari kisaran. Dari bukit ini, yang diberi nama Gunung Harris, partai melanda di arah timur untuk pantai laut, sementara Evans pergi sendirian di rute yang agak lebih ke utara-timur, di seberang sungai yang dikenal sebagai Ponds Wallis dan Ponds Morrisett, perahu yang tertinggal di Gunung Harris. Pada 27 Juli, Oxley menyeberang dan bernama Castlereagh empat puluh lima mil dari Macquarie, dan kemudian jatuh dengan berbagai bukit yang disebut Rentang Arbuthnot. Dia sekarang tiba di sungai kecil dan dataran yang indah sebagian besar, bergantian dengan rantai dan hutan pegunungan rendah, dengan hutan-hutan cemara dan eucalyptus, dan Myall (pendula Acacia) dalam bunga penuh. Ada pribumi terlihat, pihak pertama dari mereka, sekitar dua puluh jumlahnya, dekat Wellington, terbukti paling ramah. Dari perilaku mereka itu mengira bahwa mereka dulunya bertemu orang kulit putih dari Bathurst. Banyak juga fitur dan beberapa dari mereka adalah laki-laki gemuk besar. Penasaran ingin tahu modus di mana mereka mengubur mayat kerabat mereka, Oxley membuka sebuah kuburan yang berbeda dari orang-orang dari penduduk asli di pantai. Ini ditemukan setelah tanah itu dihapus bahwa empat lapisan kayu didukung tumpukan berbentuk kerucut di atas bumi. “Kemudian datang berbagai lembaran kulit kayu kering, di bawah yang tubuh dengan kaki ditekuk terhadap kepala dan lengan ditempatkan di antara paha. Ini berbaring ke arah timur dan dibungkus dalam kulit opossum, mengenakan korset dan juga jaring tentang kepala dengan cara biasa dengan pribumi. Sisi-sisi dua pohon menghadap makam ini menyalak dan memiliki karakter penasaran dipotong atas mereka.

Perangkat dipahat oleh Pribumi di Pohon di Wellington.

Bagian lembah di mana ini penguburan-tanah itu berbaring indah terletak di bagian terpencil di hutan, “di dekat tepi kaya dari Macquarie sungai”. Sebuah jalan panjang, lurus pohon sekitar satu mil panjangnya mengarah ke hal itu, pohon-pohon itu diukir pada setiap sisi dengan berbagai perangkat, sebagian besar yang tampaknya dimaksudkan untuk mewakili ular dalam sikap yang berbeda. Pada ekstremitas jalan ada lima puluh kuburan dan tanah itu ditandai dengan cara penasaran. Satu kuburan memiliki cincin 300 kaki di lingkar, satu berada dalam cincin lima puluh kaki, di tengah yang naik tumpukan besar bumi di mana banyak mayat telah dikuburkan. Dekat pusat cincin itu lubang kecil, dan jalur, dihasilkan oleh peternakan bumi yang sangat kompak di setiap sisi, yang dipimpin langsung melalui tanah pemakaman-. Pada akhir dua kuburan itu dipagari oleh tongkat dan diikat dengan tali kulit. Sekitar 100 pohon di lingkungan memiliki batang ditandai sesuai dengan totem yang berbeda dari suku-suku. Sejumlah besar tombak, waddies, wome-rahs, nulla-nullas, dll, berserakan di tanah.

Oxley melintasi pegunungan untuk 100 mil dari perjalanan dan dari Gunung Exmouth, titik pusat Rentang Arbuthnot, pihaknya menemukan dan menyilangkan Liverpool Plains dan banyak hutan dan lembah, dan pada 2 September menemukan Sungai Peel. Perjalanan seluruh negeri tandus kasar mereka melewati sungai dan pegunungan lainnya, dan penjelajah itu dipimpin untuk percaya bahwa kisaran tersebut dibagi drainase perairan timur dan barat. Sekali lagi mengikuti rute timur Oxley bertemu sungai lain, yang disebut oleh dia, setelah Gubernur Jenderal India, Hastings, yang ditemukan juga mengambil kursus timur dan akhirnya dikosongkan karena dirinya sendiri di pantai timur di sebuah tempat bernama Port Macquarie. Bergerak sepanjang pantai partai menemukan perahu [*] yang laki-laki dilakukan untuk sembilan puluh mil dari satu inlet yang lain. Karena ada banyak dari, itu terbukti dari layanan besar. Mereka tidak punya konflik dengan penduduk asli pedalaman, tetapi mereka di pantai terbukti berbahaya dan merepotkan. Perjalanan berakhir di mana Stephens Pelabuhan partai disampaikan ke Newcastle dan dari situ ke Sydney.

[* Perahu ini milik sebelumnya untuk sebuah kapal dari Sungai Hawkesbury milik Mr Mills yang hilang. Berikut sebuah kapak dan sebuah gubuk yang dibangun oleh orang Eropa terlihat. Tempat itu dekat Cape Hawke.]

Evans, yang telah dipisahkan dari Oxley untuk beberapa bagian dari perjalanan, melaporkan bahwa Castlereagh sungai mengalir melalui ilalang yang menghentikan kemajuannya di utara-timur. Dari informasi ini Oxley disimpulkan bahwa tiga sungai, Lachlan, Macquarie dan Castlereagh, diakhiri di rawa-rawa dan perairan mereka bersatu membentuk sebuah laut pedalaman.

Pada tahun 1826 Allan Cunningham melintasi interior ke utara Bathurst, dan sekali lagi pada tahun 1827 diperoleh banyak pengetahuan berharga negara. Dia memukul di arah utara menuju apa yang sekarang Queensland. Rute Crossing Oxley dari 1818 dan mendorong menyeberangi Sungai Peel (juga ditemukan oleh Oxley) ia jatuh dengan aliran yang disebut Gwydir yang bergabung lain yang disebut Dumaresq [*]; terus masih utara ia berpaling sedikit lebih ke timur dan menemukan Downs Sayang, salah satu tanah padang rumput terbaik di Australia. Masih ke utara sepanjang sisi barat rentang yang melintasi pantai timur ia menemukan lulus, yang dikenal setelah itu karena Gap Cunningham, yang menyebabkan laut dan memberikan cara komunikasi dari interior ke distrik pantai Moreton Bay. Sementara itu telah disiapkan Oxley ekspedisi melalui laut, telah berlayar ke Moreton Bay, menjelajahi Sungai Brisbane dan belajar bahwa itu mengalir dari sisi timur rantai besar yang memotong pegunungan pantai timur dari Downs Darling.

[* Mayor Sir Thomas Mitchell menemukan bahwa kedua sungai, Gwydir dan Dumaresq Allan Cunningham bergabung dan membentuk Sungai Sayang dari Sturt.]

Pada 7 Desember, 1828, bertindak dibawah instruksi dari Sayang Gubernur, selama ketidakhadiran Cunningham, Kapten Sturt (disertai oleh Hamilton Hume, penjelajah yang didampingi Hovell ke Victoria pada tahun 1824) berangkat dari Wellington Lembah ke interior, toko mereka ditarik oleh lembu jantan . Pada 22 Desember mereka mulai dari Buddha Danau, penguburan-tanah dari kulit hitam, dekat dengan tepi selatan Macquarie, dan menelusuri sungai sampai, pada 17 Januari 1829, mereka menemukan diri mereka di bawah bukit bernama oleh Rentang Oxley Tahun Baru , yang pertama adalah ketinggian Gunung Harris. Dari puncak gunung ini Sturt terlihat aliran air dan sesuai pergi ke arah itu dan memberinya nama Creek Tahun Baru. Ini sungai Mayor Mitchell setelah menyeberang, menyebutnya dengan nama asli, Bogan tersebut.

Pada meninggalkan sungai Sturt melihat permen-pohon di sekelilingnya dan anakan tinggi di tempat yang oleh Negara daun yang lebih rendah tunduk pada banjir jelas. Partai segera setelah mereka berangkat tiba-tiba menemukan diri mereka di sisi sungai yang mulia bank yang berdiri setidaknya empat puluh lima kaki lebih tinggi daripada tingkat sungai. Saluran adalah 70-80 meter luas, dan tertutup lembar un-patah harfiah air ditutupi dengan unggas liar, jalan dari pribumi di kedua sisi itu seperti juga diinjak-jalan, pohon-pohon yang menjorok pertumbuhan raksasa. Bank-bank itu terlalu curam untuk ternak untuk turun ke air, tapi orang-orang bergegas turun untuk memuaskan kehausan mereka yang meningkat setiap saat di bawah panas matahari yang kuat. Sturt menulis:.! “Aku tidak akan melupakan teriakan takjub dan cemas yang mengikuti air itu garam, dan tidak cocok untuk minum cawan sukacita itu melesat keluar dari tangan kita seperti yang terangkat ke bibir kami juga akan kuda-kuda minum itu, meskipun mereka berdiri di sungai tercakup di dalamnya selama berjam-jam dengan hanya hidung mereka terkena atas air Tongkat ditempatkan untuk memastikan apakah ada kenaikan atau penurunan pasang, tetapi tidak ada kesimpulan yang memuaskan itu tiba di;. namun seperti yang saya berdiri di atas bank-bank saat matahari terbenam, sementara tidak menghirup udara yang ada untuk memecahkan keheningan air di bawah saya, permukaan mereka disimpan dalam agitasi konstan oleh ikan melompat, saya ragu apakah sungai bisa menyediakan sendiri dengan seperti abundancy air, dan membayangkan bahwa volume besar, yang kehadiran pelikan tampaknya mengindikasikan adalah konstan, agak karena beberapa laut Mediterania atau danau. Di luar batas yang sangat terbatas dari tanah aluvial antara bank-bank dalam dan luar sungai, dataran dari Regangkan interior jauh di kejauhan. Tidak ada kehidupan di hamparan luas dan keheningan memerintah kematian di sikat dan di padang belantara nya, “

Hubungan antara Darling, karena ia bernama sungai ini, dan rawa-rawa Sungai Macquarie dipastikan dalam perjalanan kembali Sturt itu. Dia menulis: “Hasil dari perjalanan kami sampai sungai terutama memuaskan baik untuk diri saya dan Mr, Hume, karena dibersihkan setiap keraguan tentang penghentian sebenarnya dari Macquarie dan memungkinkan kita untuk menghubungkan aliran air pada begitu menarik titik Perairan. setelah mengalir melalui ilalang dari rawa membentuk sungai kecil yang membawa dari bagian berlebihan dari mereka ke dalam rantai Morrisett dari tambak yang kemudian jatuh lagi ke Sungai Castlereagh pukul delapan mil ke Baratdaya dan ketiga bergabung Darling dalam W. oleh N, arah di lintang 30 ° 52 ‘S., dan bujur E. 157 ° 8′ sekitar sembilan puluh mil ke Baratdaya, Gunung Harris, “

Kapten Sturt, karena dengan demikian menemukan outlet dari Rawa-Rawa Macquarie, berbalik pulang. Pada 16 April 1829, ia menulis kepada Gubernur Sayang: “Penyebab pengembalian kita adalah semata-mata untuk dikaitkan dengan ingin air Lagoons telah mengering di jalan kami dan kami telah kehabisan kolam hampir sebelum kita bisa menemukan lain untuk memungkinkan kita. untuk bergerak maju … Penduduk asli yang mengembara di padang gurun … burung duduk terengah-engah di pepohonan dan cukup tipis, anjing liar prowls tentang di siang hari tidak mampu untuk menghindari kita, dan adalah sebagai ramping karena ia dapat berada dalam hidup negara, sementara vegetasi minor mati dan pohon-pohon yang terkulai sangat … Saya mengamati matahari tidak kehilangan kekuasaannya ketika mengatur juga tidak udara mulai dingin sampai lama setelah dia telah menghilang Thermometer 137 ° di bawah sinar matahari., 116 ° dalam naungan dan 102 ° pada pukul 7 malam “

Pada 1829 Sturt ditugaskan oleh Pemerintah untuk mengeksplorasi Murrumbidgee tersebut. Hume juga diminta untuk pergi, tapi sudah waktunya panen dan ia tidak bisa meninggalkan rumah. Sturt, disertai dengan M’Leay, dimulai pada 3 November 1829, dari Liverpool, akan situ ke Yass, mendorong di sepanjang tepi kanan sungai sampai ia mencapai titik dekat persimpangan dengan Lachlan tersebut. Di sini ia mendirikan depot sekitar 450 mil selatan-barat Sydney; dan meletakkan bersama kerangka-kerja sebuah perahu terbuka yang dia bawa dengan dia, diluncurkan pada aliran baru ditemukan dan berlayar ke bawah melewati mulut Lachlan tersebut. Di bawah persimpangan yang mereka lihat di Februari 1830, sebuah sungai yang sudah ditemukan oleh Hume, yang Sturt disebut Murray untuk menghormati Sir George Murray, kemudian Sekretaris Negara.

Dia sangat curiga bahwa ini adalah sungai air atas yang dia sendiri dieksplorasi tiga tahun sebelumnya, dan hati-hati ditelusuri saja untuk beberapa hari, tetapi ia tidak mencapai tempat di mana ia sebelumnya menyentuh dan karena itu tidak dapat negara dengan kepastian apakah sungai air tawar yang bergabung dengan Murray di bujur 141 E. ‘itu identik dengan Darling, air yang payau. Melewati persimpangan dengan Darling dia berlayar menyusuri Murray sampai memasuki Danau Alexandrina [*] setelah perjalanan 1.950 mil, berlangsung selama tiga puluh dua hari. Dari situ ia menyeberangi danau ke pantai selatan dan meskipun ia tidak menemukan jalan keluar praktis untuk laut, dia dipastikan tak terbantah bahwa ia telah mencapai pantai selatan Australia pada suatu titik lebih jauh ke arah barat dari Hume telah disentuh pada. Titik yang sekarang bagian dari koloni Australia Selatan pada Encounter Bay. Setelah menemukan tempat Murrumbidgee, Murray dan Darling, bersatu dalam satu sungai, dan di mana mereka habis air mereka, Sturt kembali pada 26 Mei 1830, dalam keadaan kesulitan besar. Penemuan yang berharga dan cara berani di mana ia membawa mereka keluar, karena ia dikelilingi oleh suku-suku beradab banyak, Sturt tempat di peringkat terkemuka penjelajah Australia.

[* Nama asli, menurut Sir Thomas Mitchell untuk Lake Alexandrina adalah Kayinga, yang berarti danau dengan outlet ke laut. Ini adalah dua puluh tujuh mil panjang dan dua puluh tiga yang luas.]

Lachlan River di Condobolin

Mayor Mitchell dalam ekspedisi pertamanya di 1831-32, dipastikan bahwa sungai ditemukan oleh Cunningham adalah semua sumber Darling, dan akibatnya bahwa Dividing Range yang memisahkan air yang mengalir ke selatan dari yang mengalir ke utara harus terletak lebih jauh ke utara daripada yang telah diperkirakan. Dalam kursus ke utara, di balik Range Lindsay mencari sungai misterius yang disebut oleh Kindur pribumi (yang Gwydir) ia mencapai suatu aliran yang dianggap Gwydir ditemukan oleh Cunningham saat di perjalanan ke Moreton Bay. Bank-bank yang rendah, tempat tidur dikontrak dan berlumpur. Menyeberangi sungai ini dan perjalanan-ling utara, Mitchell dalam lintang 29 ° 2 ‘datang atas sungai terbesar bahwa dia belum melihat, ditunjuk oleh Karaula pribumi (yang Dumaresq). Menelusuri ke bawah ia menemukan bahwa bergabung Gwydir hanya delapan mil di bawah titik di mana ia telah menyeberangi sungai yang terakhir.

Langsung di bawah persimpangan ini, yang dalam S. lintang 29 ° 30 ’27 “, E. bujur 148 ° 13′ 2″, sungai mengambil kursus selatan-barat langsung ke tempat Kapten Sturt menemukan Sayang Sungai, dan Mitchell tidak ada yang bisa diragukan lagi bahwa ini adalah sungai yang sama. Karena itu ia memutuskan untuk mengeksplorasi utara-bangsal, “karena hasil yang diperoleh membuktikan bahwa pembagian air jatuh ke arah pantai utara dan selatan Australia tidak seperti yang telah dukungan yang diajukan dalam arah Liverpool dan Warra-bangle Rentang, tetapi meluas antara Cape Byron di pesisir timur Pulau Dirk Hartog arah di barat … Tampaknya, karena itu, bahwa semua sungai interior kita tahu ke utara dari Murrumbidgee adalah milik cekungan dari Karaula yang mengalir ke selatan, dan maka hilangnya Macquarie dan sungai lainnya yang lebih rendah dapat dipahami, karena semua sepanjang tepi Karaula, Gwydir dan Nammoy, negara, meskipun tidak berawa, beruang tanda yang sering banjir-banjir sehingga disebabkan oleh sungai-sungai ini bersatu penutup negeri dan menerima Macquarie, sehingga tidak ada saluran tanda nya saja. “

Mitchell partai untuk 300 mil di bawah Bogan (Creek Tahun Baru Sturt) tidak ada air minum selain dari Darling di tempat hanya ada arus sedikit, cukup untuk mengubah penggilingan. Air itu setransparan musim semi murni baik dan kehilangan semua rasa payau yang bawah titik ekstrim Range Dunlop. Mitchell dipastikan, bagaimanapun, bahwa outlet utama rawa-rawa dari Macquarie bukan Sturt satu dibayangkan, oleh Ponds Morrisett dan Sungai Castlereagh ke utara, tetapi oleh Duck Creek jauh jauh ke barat, dan Mitchell juga menemukan bahwa Duck Creek menyampaikan Surplus perairan Macquarie untuk Darling, saluran yang terpisah sama sekali, di sebelah barat rawa-rawa. Duck Creek, dengan demikian, praktis Macquarie muncul kembali dan mengejar saja untuk Darling setelah melewati rawa-rawa.

Program dari semua sungai utama New South Wales pertama utara lalu ke utara-utara-barat dan akhirnya selatan-barat. Mereka menggambarkan kurva yang menambah besar terhadap panjang mereka, dan gulungan panjang mereka memungkinkan mereka untuk air tingkat yang sangat jauh lebih besar dari negara daripada jika mereka lebih langsung. Seluruh lereng barat dikeringkan oleh Darling dan affluents nya. Sungai ini disebut Barwon ketika memasuki New South Wales di 29 ° S. lintang dan bujur 149 ° E.. Ini menerima ke arah selatan-barat McIntyre, Gwydir, Nammoy, Castlereagh dan Macquarie. Yang berikutnya adalah pengumpan yang Bogan di sebelah kiri dan Warrego di sebelah kanan. Dari yang terakhir bernama sungai itu tidak menerima anak sungai lainnya sampai Murray bergabung, di mana secara alami meningkat dalam volume dengan jumlah sungai yang mengalir di bagian selatan lereng barat New South Wales. Dari jumlah tersebut yang Lachlan dan Murrumbidgee yang paling penting.

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The colony had made little progress during the first few years of the nineteenth century, but Macquarie’s energy brought about a change. The public works which he ordered, the improvements of the city, the manner in which he encouraged the exploration of the interior, and visited the settlements whenever it was possible to do so, made each year noteworthy. His activity found scope in many projects which cannot be enumerated here, but the making of the roads from the capital to the remote settlements must not go unmentioned. There was not a pioneer in the country who did not in his heart thank the British Government for placing such a man at the head of the infant colony. Macquarie’s insight told him that roads and bridges being the natural ducts of a new country should precede rather than follow colonisation, and if made upon a moderate scale would constitute capital in the best form for the country’s interests. Had he not recognised their necessity in New South Wales progress would have been slow.

Before his coming road-making round Sydney was of the simplest kind. Wherever a road was wanted, the trees were notched, and the marked trees served as a guide to all who desired to travel that way. Horses and carts passed along and in a short time a bush-track became visible. The grass was soon trodden down and disappeared. If a stream happened to cross the track, branches were lopped off the trees growing on the banks and laid across it. On them smaller logs were placed with a little more regularity, and when a sufficient covering of earth was thrown over them, formed a rough culvert or bridge.

Roads made in this fashion were not approved by Macquarie, though they had been thought good enough by some of his predecessors. His were on a different plan. First the route was marked by the compass-line and by a careful survey to the right and left of the old “blazes” on the trees in order to make certain that the shortest and best direction had been obtained. Then the creeks and gullies were measured; the swamps drained; the brushwood cleared to allow space for three carts to pass and to give light and air overhead Tree stumps were uprooted, leaving the earth as little broken as possible; dangerous ground filled in; and preparations made for bridges. When the whole road was cut level and macadamised in the old-fashioned way it was strewn with gravel of the best and most binding description and well-rolled.

These methods were so successful that many roads made during Macquarie’s rulership are still wearing well. At Sydney mail coaches soon began to run over them and the sound of the post-horn was heard in the streets as the vehicles made their way carrying post-bags and passengers into the interior. Then the beauty of the land became known to those who followed the tracks of the coaches and drays and caught glimpses of those grand vistas which are Australia’s glory to-day, the shadows on the hills, the windings of the valleys, the waterfalls—Katoomba, Govett’s Leap—and other scenes which were then revealed to the eyes of the white people.

The Great Western, the Great Northern and the Great Southern Roads were the first to be made. Of these the Great Western as far as Parramatta was the oldest in the colony, although for twenty-five years the Blue Mountains formed a barrier to its advance. In 1814 the Great Southern Road to Liverpool was opened, and it was afterwards continued to Camden and Goulburn. In 1823 Major Morrisett made his first overland journey from Newcastle to Sydney over what eventually became the Great North Road, reaching Windsor in nine days after travelling 169 miles. Major Mitchell was ordered by Governor Darling to survey this track and the first section, which reached to within six miles of Parramatta Ferry, was opened in July, 1829. It made a saving of fifteen miles of road northwards by way of Windsor. The new Great North Road, as it was called, was made in order to form a direct communication by land with the central and upper parts of the Hunter River, including Morpeth, and the township of Maitland; but it was not wholly completed until 1832.

The Great Western, on the other hand, was extended from Emu Plains to Bathurst immediately after Evans’s return from his first expedition to the interior. It took only six months to make, the work being carried out by Mr. William Cox, J.P., of Windsor. Two hundred and fifty-seven miles of thick bush were cleared, fifty-eight of which spanned the breadth of the Blue Mountains; viaducts were built round giant rocks, chasms were bridged and difficulties overcome in a fashion that even to-day would be considered remarkable. As each section of the road was ready, a small band of privileged settlers[*] followed to make their homes in the new country. The road descended by zigzags into the valley running parallel to what was afterwards called Darling Causeway.

[* Macquarie recommended that the number of settlers be limited to fifty, with small families, each to receive fifty to a hundred acres of land, and that no others were to go for two years.]

It was completed on 21st January, 1815. On 25th April, the governor, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie and a numerous suite, among whom were Captain Antill and Lieutenant Watts, A.D.C.’s., and Messrs. Oxley, Redfern, Evans, Lewin, Meehan, and Campbell left Sydney on their tour to the new settlement. The route they took was not that which is now followed by the railway line, but the older one known as the Mount York Road which was abandoned in favour of an easy descent by Mount Victoria executed later by Sir Thomas Mitchell, the road by Mount York being so steep that bullock drivers used to cut down trees and attach them to their drays as a substitute for a drag. We are told that General and Mrs. Macquarie were able to drive all the way to Bathurst in their post-chaise.

Upon reaching Evans’s Crown and the high lands above Bathurst the governor was greatly pleased with the view of the rivers Fish and Campbell, and the Macquarie, which was known to the natives as the Wambool or Wandering River from its winding course. Along the banks of the rivers little dark hillocks or knolls and peculiar fairy rings were occasionally seen. Long furrows at regular intervals marked the plains. The furrows were remarkable, and in civilised countries would have been taken for plough ridges; and it is worthy of mention that in New South Wales on either side of the dividing range they preserve the same direction from north-east to south-west.

The course of the Macquarie could be traced for miles by the tall upright oaks that grew upon the banks. Flocks and herds now roam across the Bathurst Plains, and post and rail fences mark with regularity the estates of the squatters and settlers, whose homes are encircled by trees from Europe and America, and by orchards, vineyards and fields of wheat and maize. But when Governor Macquarie first saw the plains they were simply an expanse of waving grass. The first glimpse of the high banks of the Fish River gave him the idea that the stream was of considerable magnitude, but, owing to the dry weather, scarcely any water was running and the river might have been more properly described as a chain of pools. In the reaches there were great numbers of that curious animal the duckbill or water-mole, and upon the banks grew many different kinds of shrubs, strange grasses and flax with its sweet-scented purple and white flowers—the lilies of the Australian children to-day.

At a distance of seven miles from the bridge which had been made over Campbell’s River a little to the south of its junction with the Fish River, the view was again admired. Waves upon waves of grass reaching like ocean billows as far as eye could see, whispered of prosperity and dispelled any doubts suggested by the barren regions of alternate rock and thicket. We need not wonder that the general openly expressed his pleasure when he saw the country. Years after it was written of him that “he constructed roads like a Colossus and covered the Blue Mountains with corn”; but at this time his work was only beginning and he knew little of the interior.

The open country began and the ranges ended, as it were, in a dense blue wall around a sea of grass. The Macquarie River showed to advantage. The view of its waters and winding course from the crest of the hill named after Lieutenant-Colonel O’Connell was extensive; a few trees were dotted about here and there, chiefly the tall white eucalyptus, the most beautiful of the gum-trees, whose snow-white trunks and long branches could be distinguished at some distance; the other trees growing along the river banks being the wattle or mimosa and the swamp oak, a species of Casuarina, tall and picturesque as the pine, its dark foliage making the course of the river easily distinguishable.

On 4th May the party encamped on an open space on the left bank of the River Macquarie whence the governor made excursions along both banks and saw many of the natives. He had the portrait of the native chief drawn for him, and in one of his letters to the Home Government vouched for its being an excellent likeness.

On Sunday, 7th May, he fixed on a suitable site for the erection of a town to which he gave the name of Bathurst in honour of Henry, third Earl of Bathurst, then Secretary of State for the Colonies.[*] Within a distance of ten miles there were not less than fifty thousand acres of plain, quite half of which was fit for cultivation. The site designed for the town was found to be, by observation taken at the selected flag staff, twenty-seven and a half miles north and ninety-four and a half miles west of Government House, Sydney. On 11th May the governor and his party set out from Bathurst and reached Sydney on the 19th.

[* The earliest settlers who formed the nucleus of the population lived at first in what is known as the county of Roxburgh and built their church there; the spot is now called Kelso, but when a heavy flood submerged this bank of the Macquarie they moved to higher ground on the opposite side of the river nearer to where the town of Bathurst now stands.]

A Native Chief of Bathurst (From 'Oxley's Explorations'.)

A Native Chief of Bathurst
(From “Oxley’s Explorations”.)

As the Macquarie River flowed with such strong current and volume past the new settlement Evans was despatched to trace it and explore the country to the west and south-west. He and his faithful man Appledove leaving Bathurst on 13th May, 1815, passed through the valley called Queen Charlotte’s Vale and discovered a small tributary and then a larger one which Evans called Limestone Creek. On the 25th he fell in with a creek bearing south, joining a water-course rising in a north-easterly direction. It was dry. But the banks were seventy-nine feet apart, and large swamp oaks growing on either side made it evident that it was the bed of a large river. Evans named it the Lachlan in honour of Governor Macquarie and established a military depot at a spot which he called Byrne’s Creek. He discovered many hills or as he describes them “conical pics” and named the highest of them Mount Lachlan, Mount Molle and Mount Lewin. Many emus and kangaroos were seen, and there were remains of burnt-out native fires, around some of which he counted no less than twenty-three large heaps of emu feathers. A few days before his return he met three natives, a man, woman and child; the man ran off and climbed a tree, the woman and her infant remained terrified at the sight of the white man. Evans succeeded in getting on good terms with the child, but the man in the tree cried so loudly that he might have been heard half a mile away. On 1st June, Evans after carving his name and the date upon a tree, left the Lachlan River on his return to Bathurst where he arrived on 12th June.

In 1817 Lieutenant Oxley was sent to trace the course of the Lachlan and Macquarie. He took Evans with him and also Allan Cunningham, the king’s botanist, who had been sent to collect plants for the Royal Gardens at Kew, Frazer, colonial botanist, and Parr, mineralogist. Leaving Sydney on 6th April they reached Bathurst on the 14th, pack-horses with provisions and two boats having been sent beforehand to a depot already established on the Lachlan. Heavy rain detained the party for five days, but they reached the Lachlan on 25th April. Finding that the land became flatter, the river being only 600 feet above sea-level, Oxley traced the main stream of the Lachlan for 150 miles,—naming Mount Amyot, Mount Melville, Mount Cunningham and Mount Maude—until the waters were lost among reeds and trickling marshes. He passed many other mountains, met several different tribes of natives, and came upon a curious burial ground; but though he found many swamps, drinking water was scarce, and believing that the Lachlan ended in marsh he turned back to the north-east on 18th May, to ascertain what became of the Macquarie.

At first there seemed little hope of finding wood, grass or water, and on 21st June, Oxley wrote that the land he now passed through was uninhabitable for civilised man, but then he suddenly came upon rich country watered by the Lower Lachlan, his farthest point being latitude 33° 57′ 30″ S. and longitude 144° 31′ 15″ E.

From here he returned to seek the Macquarie, and discovered a lake which he called Lake Campbell. After some difficult exploration he reached a clear stream of water running through a valley amid rocks, which he believed must flow into the Macquarie; and on 25th August he found a much larger stream from the east south-east which actually proved to be that river. The smaller stream he called the Bell River after Major Bell, and he named the beautiful valley through which it flowed Wellington Valley.

Oxley returned to Bathurst on 29th August. Although little was ascertained respecting the course of the rivers, Governor Macquarie felt justified in despatching him on a second expedition into the interior. This time he was accompanied by Dr. Harris. Leaving in May, 1818, they traced the Macquarie, crossing a stream on 11th July called by Oxley the Erskine. They sailed down in boats beyond Wellington until further progress was stopped by swamps and high reeds. Here, on the north bank of the Macquarie, Oxley observed a hill, 210 feet high, apparently the beginning of a range. From this hill, to which was given the name of Mount Harris, the party struck in an easterly direction for the sea-coast, while Evans went off alone on a route rather more to the north-east, across the stream known as Wallis Ponds and Morrisett Ponds, the boats being left behind at Mount Harris. On 27th July, Oxley crossed and named the Castlereagh forty-five miles from the Macquarie, and then fell in with a range of hills which he called Arbuthnot’s Range. He now came upon many small streams and beautiful plains of great extent, alternating with chains and ridges of low forest, with woods of cypress and eucalyptus, and myall (Acacia pendula) in full flower. There were natives seen, the first party of whom, about twenty in number, near Wellington, proved most friendly. From their behaviour it was thought that they had formerly encountered white people from Bathurst. Many were well featured and some of them were big stout men. Curious to know the mode in which they buried their dead, Oxley opened a grave which differed from those of the natives on the coast. It was found after the soil was removed that four layers of wood supported the conical pile of earth above. “Then came numerous sheets of dry bark, beneath which was the body with the feet bent towards the head and the arms placed between the thighs. It lay towards the east and was wrapped in opossum skin, wearing a girdle and also a net about the head in the manner usual with the natives. The sides of two trees facing this tomb were barked and had curious characters cut upon them.

Devices carved by the Natives on the Trees at Wellington.

Devices carved by the Natives on the Trees at Wellington.

The portion of the valley where this burial-ground lay was beautifully situated in a secluded part of the forest, “near the rich banks of the river Macquarie”. A long, straight avenue of trees about a mile in length led up to it; the trees were carved on each side with various devices, most of which were apparently intended to represent serpents in different attitudes. At the extremity of the avenue there were fifty graves and the ground was marked in curious ways. One grave had a ring 300 feet in circumference; one was in a ring of fifty feet, in the centre of which rose a large pile of earth where many bodies had been buried. Near the centre of the ring was a small opening; and a pathway, made by raising the earth very compactly on each side, led directly through the burial-ground. At the end of it were two graves fenced in by sticks and tied with ropes of bark. About 100 trees in the neighbourhood had the trunks marked according to the different totems of the tribes. A great number of spears, waddies, wome-rahs, nulla-nullas, etc., were scattered on the ground.

Oxley traversed the mountains for 100 miles of the journey and from Mount Exmouth, the central point of Arbuthnot’s Range, his party discovered and crossed Liverpool Plains and many woods and valleys, and on 2nd September found the Peel River. Travelling over rough desolate country they passed other streams and mountains, and the explorer was led to believe that these ranges divided the drainage of the eastern and western waters. Again following an easterly route Oxley met another river, called by him, after the Governor-General of India, the Hastings, which he found also took a due easterly course and finally emptied itself on the east coast at a spot named Port Macquarie. Moving along the coast the party found a boat[*] which the men carried for ninety miles from one inlet to another. As there were many of these, it proved of great service. They had no conflicts with the natives of the interior, but those on the coast proved treacherous and troublesome. The journey ended at Port Stephens whence the party were conveyed to Newcastle and thence to Sydney.

[* This boat belonged formerly to a vessel from the Hawkesbury River the property of Mr. Mills which was lost. Here an axe and a hut built by Europeans were seen. The spot was near Cape Hawke.]

Evans, who had been separated from Oxley for some part of the journey, reported that the river Castlereagh flowed through reeds which stopped his progress to the north-east. From this information Oxley inferred that the three rivers, the Lachlan, Macquarie and Castlereagh, terminated in swamp and that their united waters formed an inland sea.

In 1826 Allan Cunningham traversed the interior to the north of Bathurst, and again in 1827 obtained much valuable knowledge of the country. He struck out in a northerly direction towards what is now Queensland. Crossing Oxley’s route of 1818 and pushing across the Peel River (also discovered by Oxley) he fell in with a stream which he called the Gwydir which joined another called the Dumaresq[*]; continuing still north he turned slightly more to the east and found the Darling Downs, one of the best pasture lands in Australia. Still going north along the western side of the ranges which traverse the eastern coast he discovered a pass, known afterwards as Cunningham’s Gap, which led to the sea and provided a way of communication from the interior to the coast district of Moreton Bay. Oxley had meanwhile prepared an expedition by sea, had sailed to Moreton Bay, explored the Brisbane River and learned that it flowed from the eastern side of the great chain of mountains which cut off the east coast from the Darling Downs.

[* Major Sir Thomas Mitchell found that these two rivers, the Gwydir and the Dumaresq of Allan Cunningham joined and formed the Darling River of Sturt.]

On 7th December, 1828, acting under instructions from Governor Darling, during Cunninghams’s absence, Captain Sturt (accompanied by Hamilton Hume, the explorer who accompanied Hovell to Victoria in 1824) set out from Wellington Valley into the interior, their stores being drawn by bullocks. On 22nd December they proceeded from Buddah Lake, the burial-ground of the blacks, close to the south bank of the Macquarie, and traced the river until, on 17th January, 1829, they found themselves under the hills named by Oxley New Year’s Range, of which the first elevation is Mount Harris. From the summit of this mountain Sturt sighted a stream of water and accordingly went towards it and gave it the name of New Year’s Creek. This creek Major Mitchell afterwards crossed, calling it by its native name, the Bogan.

On leaving the creek Sturt noticed gum-trees around him and tall saplings in places that by the State of the lower leaves were evidently subject to floods. The party soon after they set out suddenly found themselves by the side of a noble river the banks of which stood at least forty-five feet higher than the level of the stream. The channel was seventy to eighty yards broad, and enclosed an un-broken sheet of water literally covered with wild fowl; the paths of the natives on either side of it were like well-trodden roads, the overhanging trees being of gigantic growth. The banks were far too steep for the cattle to descend to the water but the men scrambled down to quench their thirst which increased every moment under the heat of a powerful sun. Sturt writes: “I shall not forget the cry of amazement and dismay that followed! The water was salt, and not fit to drink! The cup of joy was dashed out of our hands as it was raised to our lips. Nor would the horses drink of it, although they stood in the stream covered in it for hours with only their noses exposed above the water. Sticks were placed to ascertain if there was a rise or fall of tide, but no satisfactory conclusion was arrived at; yet as I stood upon the banks at sunset, while not a breath of air existed to break the stillness of the waters below me, their surface kept in constant agitation by the leaping fish, I doubted if the river could supply itself with such an abundancy of water, and imagined that the great volume, which the presence of pelicans seemed to indicate was constant, was rather due to some mediterranean sea or lake. Beyond the extremely limited extent of alluvial soil between the inner and outer banks of the river, the plains of the interior Stretch far away in the distance. There is no life on this vast expanse and the stillness of death reigns in its brushes and over its wildernesses,”

The connection between the Darling, as he named this river, and the marshes of the Macquarie River was ascertained on Sturt’s return journey. He writes: “The result of our journey up the creek was particularly satisfactory both to myself and Mr, Hume, since it cleared up every doubt regarding the actual termination of the Macquarie and enabled us to connect the flow of water at so interesting a point. The waters after trickling through the reeds of the marshes form a small creek which carries off a superfluous part of them into Morrisett’s chain of ponds which latter falls again into the Castlereagh River at eight miles to the W. N.W. and all three join the Darling in a W. by N, direction in latitude 30° 52′ S., and E. longitude 157° 8′ at about ninety miles to W.N.W, of Mount Harris,”

Captain Sturt, having thus discovered an outlet from the Macquarie Marshes, turned homewards. On 16th April, 1829, he wrote to Governor Darling: “The cause of our return is solely to be attributed to the want of water. Lagoons have dried up in our path and we have exhausted pools almost before we could find another to enable us to move forward…The natives are wandering in the desert…birds sit gasping in the trees and are quite thin, the wild dog prowls about in the daytime unable to avoid us, and is as lean as he can be in a living state, while minor vegetation is dead and the very trees are drooping…I observe the sun does not lose his power when setting nor does the air begin to cool until long after he has disappeared. Thermometer 137° in the sun, 116° in the shade and 102° at 7 p.m.”

In 1829 Sturt was commissioned by the Government to explore the Murrumbidgee. Hume was also asked to go, but it was harvest time and he could not leave home. Sturt, accompanied by M’Leay, started on 3rd November, 1829, from Liverpool, going thence to Yass, pushing along the right bank of the river until he reached a point near its junction with the Lachlan. Here he established a depot some 450 miles south-west of Sydney; and putting together the frame-work of an open boat which he had brought with him, launched it on the newly discovered stream and sailed down past the mouth of the Lachlan. Below the junction they saw in February, 1830, a river already found by Hume, which Sturt called the Murray in honour of Sir George Murray, then Secretary of State.

He strongly suspected that this was the river the upper waters of which he had himself explored three years before, and carefully traced its course for some days, but he did not reach the spot at which he had previously touched and was therefore unable to state with certainty whether the fresh-water river which joined the Murray in 141′ E. longitude was identical with the Darling, the waters of which were brackish. Passing the junction with the Darling he sailed down the Murray till it entered Lake Alexandrina[*] after a journey of 1,950 miles, lasting over thirty-two days. Thence he crossed the lake to its south shore and although he found no practicable outlet to the sea, he ascertained beyond dispute that he had reached the southern coast of Australia at a point much farther westward than Hume had touched at. That point is now the portion of the colony of South Australia on Encounter Bay. Having discovered where the Murrumbidgee, Murray and Darling, united in one river, and where they discharged their waters, Sturt returned on 26th May, 1830, under circumstances of great difficulty. His valuable discoveries and the courageous way in which he carried them out, surrounded as he was by many uncivilised tribes, place Sturt in the foremost rank of Australia’s explorers.

[* The native name, according to Sir Thomas Mitchell for Lake Alexandrina is Kayinga, meaning a lake with an outlet to the sea. It is twenty-seven miles long and twenty-three broad.]

Lachlan River at Condobolin

Lachlan River at Condobolin

Major Mitchell in his first expedition in 1831-32, ascertained that the rivers discovered by Cunningham were all sources of the Darling, and consequently that the Dividing Range which separates the waters flowing to the southward from those flowing to the north must be situated much farther to the north than had been supposed. In his course northward, on turning the Lindsay Range in search of the mysterious river called by natives Kindur (the Gwydir) he reached a stream which he considered to be the Gwydir discovered by Cunningham when on his journey to Moreton Bay. The banks were low, the bed contracted and muddy. Crossing this river and travel-ling northward, Mitchell in latitude 29° 2′ came upon the largest river that he had yet seen, named by the natives Karaula (the Dumaresq). Tracing it downwards he found that it joined the Gwydir only eight miles below the point where he had crossed the latter stream.

Immediately below this junction, which is in S. latitude 29° 30′ 27″, E. longitude 148° 13′ 2″, the river took a south-westerly course directly to where Captain Sturt discovered the River Darling, and Mitchell could no longer doubt that this was the same river. He therefore decided to explore north-ward, “since the results obtained proved that the division of the waters falling toward the northern and southern shores of Australia is not as has been sup-posed in the direction of the Liverpool and Warra-bangle Range, but extends between Cape Byron on the eastern shore towards Dirk Hartog’s Island on the west…It appears, therefore, that all the interior rivers we know of to the northward of the Murrumbidgee belong to the basin of the Karaula which flows southward, and hence the disappearance of the Macquarie and other lower rivers may be understood, as all along the banks of the Karaula, the Gwydir and the Nammoy, the country, though not swampy, bears marks of frequent inundations—thus the floods occasioned by these united rivers cover the country and receive the Macquarie, so that no channel marks its course.”

Mitchell’s party for 300 miles below the Bogan (the New Year’s Creek of Sturt) drank no other water than that of the Darling in places where there was only a slight current, enough to turn a mill. The water was as transparent as the purest spring well and lost all its brackish taste below the extreme point of the Dunlop Range. Mitchell ascertained, however, that the principal outlet of the marshes of the Macquarie was not the one Sturt imagined, by Morrisett Ponds and the Castlereagh River to the northward, but by Duck Creek considerably farther west, and Mitchell also found that Duck Creek conveyed the surplus waters of the Macquarie to the Darling, a separate channel altogether, to the west of the marshes. Duck Creek was, therefore, practically the Macquarie reappearing and pursuing its course to the Darling after passing through the marshes.

The courses of all the principal rivers of New South Wales are first northerly then north-north-westerly and finally south-westerly. They describe curves which add greatly to their length, and their long windings enable them to water a very much greater extent of country than if they were more direct. The whole of the western slope is drained by the Darling and its affluents. This river is called the Barwon when it enters New South Wales at 29° S. latitude and 149° E. longitude. It receives towards the south-west the McIntyre, Gwydir, Nammoy, Castlereagh and Macquarie. The next of its feeders are the Bogan on the left and the Warrego on the right. From the last-named river it receives no other tributaries until the Murray joins it, where it is naturally increased in volume by the number of streams which drain the southern portion of the western slope of New South Wales. Of these the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee are the most important.


CHAPTER VII. THE NEW SETTLEMENTS.

BAB VII. PEMUKIMAN BARU.
Buku pertama yang pernah dicetak di Australia, Tata Tertib Umum New South Wales,, 1802 menyatakan bahwa Sydney dan Parramatta, atau Rosehill, pertama kali dibagi menjadi dua paroki, Sydney disebut Paroki St Filipus untuk menghormati Gubernur Phillip, dan Parramatta Paroki St Yohanes dalam menghormati Kapten John Hunter. Sydney Paroki termasuk Petersham, Bulanaming, Concord dan Liberty Plains (bernama pada tahun 1793), sedangkan Parramatta Paroki termasuk Bank Town, Prospek Hill, Toongabbie, Seven Hills, Castle Hill, Timur Farm, Lapangan Mars (nama yang diberikan oleh Phillip lahan yang diberikan oleh dia untuk delapan marinir) Batas, Utara, The Ponds, dan Kissing Point. Masing-masing tempat itu sedikit lebih dari dusun, dan terdiri dari sebuah rumah pemukim beberapa ‘.

Hawkesbury atau Paroki St George dibuat paroki ketiga koloni baru selama pemerintahan Grose Mayor pada 1794. Di daerah ini ternak yang, seperti telah kita lihat, tersesat pada hari-hari awal koloni telah berusaha mundur, dan di sini mereka, atau keturunan mereka, ditemukan pada tahun 1795. Negara di mana mereka berkisar menjadi dikenal dengan nama Pastura Sapi, dan tidak hanya membentuk tanah-senang berburu untuk gubernur, namun memasok mereka dengan kemewahan yang langka daging segar. Pada Greenhills, kota utamanya, kembali bernama Windsor di 18 10, Kapten John Hunter membangun sebuah kursi negara di 1800, dan di sini ia tampaknya telah menghabiskan banyak waktunya. Ada sebuah sketsa lama dari Pastura Sapi dikenal sebagai “Bagan John Hunter” yang ditunjukkan sebuah laguna dengan nama “Black Swan Lake,” dan di beberapa jarak dari “Gunung Taurus” di mana banteng dibunuh, prasasti berbagai macam sebagai “banteng sini terlihat,” atau “negara yang indah”-semua menyampaikan gagasan bahwa grafik ini tidak dibuat untuk kepentingan geografi saja.

Stream Tank, Sydney

Sungai Hunter, juga dikenal sebagai Sungai Batubara, yang ditemukan dan dinamai oleh Mr Shortland pada 19 September 1797, mengalir ke pelabuhan di Newcastle, dan pada tahun 1801 Gubernur menyatakan bahwa kayu dan batubara adalah properti eksklusif dari Crown. Newcastle, port kedua di New South Wales, didirikan oleh Gubernur Raja pada 1804, Menzies Letnan ditunjuk komandan, dan dilantik sebagai seorang hakim untuk mengontrol kerja tambang batubara di Sungai Batubara. “Tambang batubara di Newcastle,” menyatakan buku tua, “telah digali dalam cara yang paling memalukan, tanpa meninggalkan alat peraga, yang disebabkan banyak tenaga kerja untuk memperbaiki kerusakan yang disebabkan oleh mengabaikan, dan komandan diarahkan bukan untuk memungkinkan batubara harus bekerja oleh individu. ” Terbukti sampai saat ini rakyat Newcastle diperoleh batubara dengan tenaga yang sangat sedikit.

Situs kota dan sekitarnya telah disurvei pada bulan Juni dan Juli, 1801 oleh Ensign Barrallier di salah satu pelayaran Nelson Lady di bawah Letnan Hibah; Kolonel Paterson dan Mr John Harris menjadi partai. Barrallier, dalam sebuah catatan yang ditulis pada chart nya, menggambarkan masuknya Hunter River dan pelabuhannya, “pasang surut yang sangat kuat tetapi di pelabuhan ada tempat berlindung yang baik dari semua angin dan banyak ruang untuk lebih dari 100 berlayar pengiriman”. Newcastle sekarang ekspor batubara dalam jumlah besar ke banyak bagian dunia dan memasok Royal Navy di beberapa stasiun di belahan bumi selatan. Hunter adalah 300 mil panjang dan menguras 8.000 mil persegi. Hal ini dilayari oleh kapal-kapal uap untuk jarak tiga puluh lima mil dari laut, bagian bawah dibagi oleh sejumlah pulau menjadi dua aliran, yang kembali bersatu di dekat mulutnya.

Barrallier survei terhadap Hunter tidak memperpanjang jauh di atas Gunung Hibah-bernama, tentu saja, setelah komandan-Nelson Lady “kemajuan yang dihentikan oleh kaskade atau jatuh sekitar empat kaki, setelah sungai berlari ke NE”

Dalam salah satu surat rumah Macquarie, ia mengatakan: “Sebuah penjara kecil dari India tenggelam di pintu masuk pelabuhan New-castle sekitar 1815 dan bank pasir akumulasi dan mempengaruhi kedalaman saluran, render navigasi tidak aman untuk alasan ini”. Setelah survei pribadi pelabuhan, ia memutuskan untuk membangun pemecah ombak yang besar batu bekerja untuk menutup pasang mengalir dan menghentikan pengeluaran air Hunter oleh saluran sempit antara tanah utama-dan batu yang disebut Nobby s Island , dimana menjelajahi arus di saluran lain mungkin menghilangkan deposit pasir disebabkan oleh brig cekung, pekerjaan itu dilakukan di bawah komando berturut-semut pelabuhan.

Tapi Newcastle adalah sebagai terkenal di hari-hari awal untuk pasokan perusahaan kayu sebagai untuk batubara. Ini sangat bergizi bawah Kapten Wallis yang komandan sana dari Juni, 1816 sampai Desember, 1818 dan gubernur menulis rumah untuk Earl Bathurst merekomendasikan bahwa harus dibuat sebuah pemukiman gratis di rekening kesuburan negara dan situasi yang nyaman untuk koleksi memproduksi dan angkut dengan laut ke Sydney. “Dataran dekat Newcastle sepanjang sumber utama Sungai Hunter berharga karena jumlah besar kayu jatuh di sana untuk konsumsi di tempat ini,” tulis Macquarie, yang mengunjungi Newcastle tiga kali dan pada bulan November, 1821, berlayar ke Hunter untuk tujuh puluh atau delapan puluh mil.

Gubernur Macquarie hampir sama aktif dalam membentuk pemukiman karena ia dalam membuat jalan baru. Banjir besar telah terjadi pada interval seluruh koloni dan di distrik Hawkesbury pada khususnya. Yang pertama terjadi pada tahun 1796. Selama banjir lagi pada tahun 1806 air naik dekat kota Windsor, tujuh puluh meter di atas tingkat umum, orang-orang berlindung di puncak rumah, cerobong asap, lumbung, tumpukan jerami, dll Dalam banyak kasus tidak ada perahu untuk pergi kepada mereka , dan, ketika mereka bisa pergi, air mengalir berputar putaran sering rumah-rumah dan kendala lainnya di jalan, sehingga perahu dibanjiri dan terbalik sebelum penyelamatan dapat dilakukan. Kuda, sapi dan domba hilang dalam jumlah besar dan gemuruh air bisa terdengar hingga bermil-mil.

Ini banjir Hawkesbury mempercepat pembangunan kota baru. Sebuah pemberitahuan tua penasaran, Gedung Pemerintah tanggal, 15 Desember 1810-berjalan sebagai berikut: “Genangan sering Hawkesbury sungai dan Nepean memiliki sampai sekarang di-cenderung dengan efek yang paling bencana berkaitan dengan tanaman yang tumbuh di sekitar mereka dan dalam konsekuensi dari cedera paling serius terhadap subsisten diperlukan koloni gubernur itu telah dianggap bijaksana untuk mendirikan kota-kota tertentu di tempat tinggi yang paling berdekatan dan memenuhi syarat untuk keamanan yang lebih baik dari para pemukim yang pertanian yang terkena banjir “. Lima kota-kota, satu untuk distrik Greenhills, disebut Windsor, satu untuk Richmond Hill kabupaten, disebut Richmond, satu untuk distrik Nelson, diberi nama Pitt Kota, satu untuk distrik Phillip, disebut Wilberforce, dan satu untuk Nepean atau Evan kabupaten, disebut Castlereagh, ditandai oleh gubernur. Sebuah rencana rumah yang tersisa dengan setiap polisi distrik, dan pemukim itu diharapkan agar sesuai dengan pengukuran ketika bangunan. Pesanan mengingat bahwa tempat tinggal itu harus dari batu bata atau papan cuaca, untuk memiliki cerobong asap batu bata dan atap sirap, dan bahwa tidak ada rumah yang kurang dari sembilan meter tingginya. Macquarie jelas memiliki pikiran progresif dari titik masa kini pandang, karena kami menemukan bahwa aturan ini juga dilakukan di beberapa distrik interior. Hut meskipun pemikiran dan kerusakan yang banjir telah dilakukan, para pemukim Hawkesbury tidak bisa dibujuk untuk meninggalkan rumah lama mereka untuk bank-bank seberang sungai. Dalam Wilberforce dan Richmond mereka lebih masuk akal dan mengambil kepemilikan rumah baru.

Kota Liverpool didirikan pada tahun 1810. Untuk beberapa waktu setelahnya namanya harus ditunjukkan oleh posting dengan tulisan, “Ini adalah Liverpool,” tapi ketika pada 22 Februari 1814, jalan dibuka, kabupaten mulai tumbuh menjadi penting dan dalam dua puluhan itu ” sebuah kota kecil yang cantik negara dibangun di atas hijau dengan arus dingin yang meluncur di antara bank-bank miring yang mendalam “.

Pada tahun 1813 Macquarie ditandai dan diberi nama Campbell Kota untuk menghormati ayah mertuanya. Pada 1818 Goulburn Plains ditemukan dan dinamai Sekretaris Kolonial, nama asli untuk mereka adalah Mulwarree setelah salah satu sungai yang mengalir melalui mereka, dan dasar kota sekarang terkenal Goulburn dibaringkan.

Lahan yang luas pastoral dalam bagian selatan koloni itu dieksplorasi. Goulburn di selatan, seperti Bathurst di barat, menjadi titik awal dari banyak ekspedisi. Gubernur Macquarie dan suite-nya meninggalkan Liverpool, maka daratan terdekat kota, pada 16 Oktober 1820, untuk mengunjungi situs kota masa depan Goulburn. Di rekening sejarah awal tempat ini kita diberitahu bahwa partai tidur pada malam hari di daerah terbuka dan terganggu oleh suara ternak, mungkin ternak liar dari padang rumput sapi dan bahwa “ada banyak kanguru”. Pada 18 Negara Throsby yang (disebut setelah Mr Charles Throsby, seorang pemukim yang telah menemukan dan yang memiliki bahkan pada hari-hari awal kawanan lembu jantan indah 500) tercapai. Gubernur dipanggil Mr, Throsby, pergi ke domain di Throsby Park, dan sangat tertarik dalam kelompok yang besar. Pada tanggal 22 partai mencapai dataran terbuka dinamai oleh Hume Goulburn Plains, dan lain-lain Plains Breadalbane, yang bernama gubernur, dan pada tanggal 23 mereka tiba di Danau Bathurst. Pada perjalanan selama Goulburn Plains alami kerutan atau pegunungan disilangkan mirip dengan yang di Hunter dan di Bathurst. Di sini mereka disebut “tanah dibajak”, Macquarie juga membentuk setengah lusin perusahaan pertanian atau peternakan pemerintah, tetapi mereka terdiri dari sedikit lebih dari beberapa bangunan pertanian dan pondok-pondok untuk para pria.

Para gubernur pertama negara mereka-kursi di Parramatta, delapan belas mil dari Sydney. Ini adalah tempat yang sangat penting, khususnya selama masa Sir Thomas Brisbane kantor. Di sana ia membangun observatorium terkenal dan menghabiskan begitu banyak waktu untuk ilmu pengetahuan favoritnya bahwa ia disebut astronom pertama di Australia. Ia tampaknya telah hidup sama sekali di negara-kursi, mempelajari langit, dan pergi dari Sydney untuk waktu yang lama. Seorang penulis lama mengatakan bahwa “Sir Thomas Brisbane begitu banyak diduduki dalam mencari bintang-bintang yang ia jarang melihat bumi di bawah kakinya”. Ketiadaan ini mungkin telah dimaafkan pada rekening operasi bangunan yang sedang dilakukan di Gedung Pemerintah, Sydney.

Penyelesaian Bathurst segera menempati posisi terkemuka, karena kebanyakan dari eksplorasi di barat koloni mulai dari sini.

Arti pentingnya dapat disimpulkan dari luasnya luas wilayah yang merupakan kepala administrasi perempat, yang kemudian disebut Distrik Bathurst. Stasiun dan keluar-posting yang bertitik seluruh negeri selama ratusan mil, dan, dalam beberapa arah, batas-batas distrik itu hanya batas-batas geografis koloni.

Lapangan Barron, seorang teman dari Charles Lamb, telah meninggalkan deskripsi Bathurst pada 1822. “Aku hampir tak percaya bahwa aku berada di New Holland hari ini,” tulisnya: “begitu berbeda, sehingga bahasa Inggris adalah karakter dari pemandangan-down, Meads dan sungai di flat-ada adegan sisi kayu putih tapi aster putih tanah itu, [*] Anda dapat melihat sejauh mata bisa mencapai. pengurus domba dengan sapi dan domba kadang-kadang muncul pada cakrawala seperti di Belanda lama-sebuah Potter Paulus atau efek Cuyp jarang terjadi di New Holland. Pada saat matahari terbenam kami melihat bukit berhutan menampilkan di kejauhan biru emas atau ungu yang pelukis lanskap cinta … asap dari desa kecil Bathurst terlihat untuk mil dari seperti yang tidak ada kota lain di Australia terlihat pada saat ini. “

[* Dikutip dari Evans yang, menurutnya, harus memiliki berarti spesies Gnaphalium atau Aster.]

Itu terjadi setelah kunjungan Sir Thomas Brisbane pada tahun yang sama bahwa perintah untuk membagi dataran ke distrik-distrik atau kabupaten, seperti yang muncul pada peta awal, diberikan. Tapi mungkin kunjungan Sayang Gubernur adalah lebih penting, karena menandai kemajuan kolonisasi di pedalaman. Dalam perusahaan dengan saudara iparnya, Kolonel Dumaresq dan Letnan de la Condamine, Sayang Umum kiri Parramatta pada 4 November 1829. Gubernur menghabiskan malam pertama di Regentville dengan Sir John Jamieson, dan pada hari berikutnya dieksplorasi tepi Nepean dan lembah Mulgoa. Mulgoa tampak baginya sangat indah. “Air terjun yang meluap setelah hujan indah, dan pemandangan itu tampak kaya melampaui deskripsi Lebih jauh di sepanjang, gelap-hijau pohon jeruk yang sarat dengan buah emas..” Pada Senin, November 9, ia mencapai Bathurst.

Mayor Macpherson, dengan Letnan Browne di perintah dari Kepolisian Mounted, dan Letnan Moore dari resimen ke-39, berkuda awal untuk menjadi yang pertama untuk mengucapkan selamat datang, dan kita diberitahu bahwa tiga mil di luar kota empat puluh dari pemukim menunggang kuda disusun sesuai di kedua sisi jalan untuk membentuk penjaga kehormatan. Mereka memberi hormat umum saat ia berlalu dan kemudian bergabung dalam prosesi untuk Domain Pemerintah dimana beberapa suku asli telah dirakit dan disajikan sebuah “tontonan baru dan menarik”.

Pada hari berikutnya pada siang hari alamat yang disajikan kepadanya oleh utusan yang terdiri dari: -

John Street, J. P. George Suttor. A. K. Mackenzie, J. P. William Lee. Thomas F, Hawkins, John William J. P. Gosling.

Lembaran Sydney memberikan salinan itu-itu berlari sebagai berikut: -

“Untuk Mulia Letnan Jenderal Ralph Sayang, Kapten-Jenderal, Gubernur-in-Chief, dll

“Semoga itu silahkan Mulia, Kami yang bertanda pemilik tanah di Kabupaten Bathurst mohon meninggalkan hormat untuk mendekati Yang Mulia dengan ungkapan terima kasih tulus ikhlas kita dalam memanggil kedatangan aman Mulia di Penyelesaian ini, dan akal kita bersyukur bahwa perhatian untuk kemakmurannya yang telah mendorong Mulia di ketidaknyamanan pribadi banyak untuk memberikan kepada dataran Bathurst kehormatan dibedakan kehadiran Anda.

“Kita bersukacita oleh jatuhnya hujan terakhir dan provident Mulia diaktifkan untuk melihat padang rumput kami berpakaian dengan warna hijau dan tanah kami dibudidayakan penuh dengan prospek yang masuk akal panen yang berlimpah.

“Kami memanfaatkan diri dari kesempatan ini diterima untuk menyampaikan kepada Yang Mulia Anda pengakuan khusus kami untuk keuntungan yang Kabupaten ini berasal dari negara berkembang cepat dari Mountain Road kita, dan untuk pengerahan tenaga tekun yang telah diarahkan di bawah naungan Mulia terhadap penyelesaian dari suatu usaha di mana kenyamanan kita dan kesejahteraan jadi pada dasarnya tergantung Kami berharap dengan kepuasan dan kebanggaan untuk periode mendekati saat Kabupaten kita tidak akan hanya memiliki jalan yang relatif baik untuk Sydney tetapi juga memori indah dan tetap bersemangat bahwa kecemasan yang Anda. Mulia selalu diwujudkan untuk mempromosikan kepentingan negara kita mengadopsi.

“Kami menginginkan lebih jauh untuk menawarkan kepada Yang Mulia terima kasih yang tulus kami untuk lembaga Pengadilan lokal Sesi Quarter dan Permintaan, disertai dengan harapan kami yang sederhana meskipun yakin bahwa pengaturan ini mungkin berharga ini cepat diperpanjang Kabupaten padat penduduk dan penting.

“Kami akhirnya memohon izin untuk menjamin Mulia bahwa kita tidak insensible dari keamanan yang kita peroleh baik secara pribadi dan properti dari pengerahan tenaga manjur dan gabungan Pendirian Polisi Sipil dan Militer kita, untuk menambah keinginan kami yang paling hangat untuk kesehatan dan kebahagiaan Anda , dan untuk berlangganan diri kita dengan setiap sentimen rasa hormat dan harga diri,

“Yang Mulia sangat wajib dan taat hamba”
(Di sini ikuti tanda tangan dari para pemukim). Jawaban Gubernur adalah sebagai berikut: -

“Untuk pemilik tanah dari Kabupaten Bathurst,
“Tuan-tuan,

“Saya menerima dengan kepuasan sejati ini ekspresi semacam sentimen Anda kesetiaan Anda untuk Raja Anda diperlukan bukti.. Niat baik Anda untuk saya tidak bisa dicontohkan dalam cara yang lebih bagus daripada yang telah menandai penerimaan saya di Kabupaten Anda.

“Saya telah lama berharap untuk kesempatan untuk meyakinkan Anda pribadi minat saya ambil kesejahteraan Anda, dan sangat menyenangkan untuk saya telah mengunjungi Anda pada saat setelah percobaan yang parah yang Anda telah mengalami sebuah Providence berlimpah telah berjanji untuk mengisi lumbung Anda dengan buah dari panen yang berlimpah kenyamanan pribadi Anda dan keamanan properti Anda adalah obyek yang tidak kepentingan bersama kepada Pemerintah,. dan Anda mungkin tidak puas sejauh berarti izin Pemerintah bahwa benda-benda tidak akan diabaikan. aku tidak bisa, Tuan-tuan, dekat jawaban saya ke Alamat Anda tanpa berusaha untuk mengekspresikan kepuasan saya merasa dalam mengamati bagian yang kelahiran asli Australia telah mengambil kesempatan ini. Ini adalah bukti bahwa mereka tidak menderita diri disesatkan oleh seni yang telah digunakan untuk prasangka mereka terhadap pemerintah. Mereka mungkin bergantung pada jaminan kudus bahwa kemakmuran mereka dan kebahagiaan yang terhubung dengan objek pertama perawatan dan perhatian.

“Berharap, seperti yang saya lakukan dengan tulus, bahwa prospek cerah sekarang-membuka untuk melihat Anda dapat dikonfirmasi oleh tahun banyak dimahkotai dengan kedamaian dan kebahagiaan, saya mohon, Tuan-tuan, untuk memastikan Anda kolektif dan individual, dari harga diri saya dan menganggap tulus ikhlas.

“Saya mendapat kehormatan untuk tetap, Tuan-tuan,
“Anda yang paling setia dan wajib,
“Ralph Darling.
“Bathurst, 10 November 1829.”

“Selama tinggal Mulia nya,” kata Lembaran Sydney, “memberi Mayor McPherson, komandan distrik, sebuah ‘pesta makan malam’ setiap hari, sehingga gubernur memiliki kesempatan pertemuan semua hakim tetangga dan bangsawan, selain mengunjungi perkebunan dari Messrs Icely, Rankin, Jalan, McKenzie, Jemmett-Browne, Hawkins, Perrier, Lee dan banyak lainnya, pada semua yang Mulia nya diterima dengan keramahtamahan maksimal dan setiap demonstrasi rasa hormat yang tulus. kami orang kota tua, Kapten Piper, mendapat kehormatan bersantap dengan Gubernur, yang kemudian dibayar kapten kunjungan di real di Alloway Bank … Yang seragam dari perjalanan itu ditanggung oleh gubernur jarang juga, meskipun ia berjalan sebagian besar jalan-jalan gunung yang curam . “

Sejak hari-hari Bathurst telah sangat berubah. Sebuah kota besar yang berkembang sekarang terlihat balik atas dataran terbuka. Tapi tidak ada perubahan telah datang atas pegunungan biru tak bersuara yang selama bertahun-tahun menahan pengetahuan tentang keberadaan bahwa lahan dan begitu parah dikenakan pajak kekuasaan penjelajah.

Pemukiman di Wellington, yang Wellington di New South Wales, dibentuk Maret, 1823, dan Letnan Percy Simpson ditunjuk perintah-semut. Ini telah sampai untuk kemudian menjadi sebuah depot militer. Negara antara Bathurst dan Wellington adalah relatif mudah untuk dijalankan di atas, dan kita diberitahu dengan kepuasan oleh para penulis kontemporer yang Letnan Simpson, dalam membuat perjalanannya yang pertama untuk mengambil tugas di sana, “bisa mendorong cara keseluruhan dalam pertunjukan itu, “dan memberitahu Gubernur bahwa” hanya satu jembatan yang akan diperlukan untuk jalan antara kedua pemukiman “.

Kata “distrik,” kata Macquarie yang sudah identik dengan kota, lebih tepat menggambarkan divisi pertama dari interior dari istilah teritorial “negara” dan “paroki” yang para pejabat memberi mereka. Distrik Sydney, Parramatta, [*] Hawkesbury, Hunter River, Bathurst, Argyle atau Goulburn, dan Illawarra atau Lima Kepulauan adalah yang terbaik dikenal. Selain itu, ada dataran dan surut, dan sifat penggembalaan atau stasiun, bernama setelah pemiliknya, atau setelah diinjak sungai mereka berdiri, nama-nama beberapa di hari-hari kemudian telah sepenuhnya menghilang. Nama-nama lama muncul dalam Pemberitahuan Pemerintah direproduksi di akhir buku ini. Dalam hal ini wartawan kecil dari nama-nama sungai atau stasiun adalah nama asli asli, beberapa dari mereka untungnya masih dilestarikan. Nama-nama bahasa Inggris yang tepat pada waktu yang akan membingungkan untuk pendatang baru di koloni itu. Sementara traveler, misalnya, tidak mungkin keberatan dengan melewati Penrith untuk mencapai Kelso ia mungkin komentar pada absurditas mengambil perahu ke Newcastle untuk mencapai Twickenham. Beberapa nama asli untuk sungai-sungai telah lama mengungsi.

[* Penulis modern menyatakan bahwa Parramatta dimaksud dalam bahasa asli tempat belut, namun seorang sejarawan lama mengatakan: "Parramatta merupakan kata majemuk yang berarti kepala sungai". Nama asli untuk Sungai Hawkesbury itu Deerubbun, dan untuk Murray, Millewa. Bagian utama dari Hunter disebut Coquun dan Dooribang cabang pertama (Williams Sungai), cabang lain Yimmang tersebut (Paterson). Warragamba adalah nama Wollondilly dan Cox Sungai bergabung sebelum mereka bertemu Nepean tersebut. Darling bernama oleh kulit hitam Calle-watta atau Watta, Macquarie, Wambool atau Berkelana. Molong itu kembali bernama Bell. Murrumbidgee, yang berarti "sungai yang indah," mempertahankan nama asli, Lachlan adalah dalam bahasa asli Colare tersebut. Sebagian dari Darling diketahui penduduk asli sebagai Barwan tersebut.]

VICTORIA dan Tasmania.

Koloni baru memiliki alasan praktis untuk menjelajahi tanah yang telah mendapatkan pijakan, untuk, seperti ibu negara, itu keinginan tak tertahankan untuk ekspansi, dan, tidak puas untuk bekerja dalam batas-batas yang telah ditetapkan Masak di atas grafik nya dan peta, mereka mencari daerah untuk penyelesaian segar dimanapun tanah dihuni ditemukan. Kami telah menyebutkan penemuan Port Barat pada tahun 1798, dan Port Phillip pada tahun 1802, meskipun pelabuhan ini baik tidak kemudian sepenuhnya dieksplorasi. Pada tahun 1803 Mr Grimes, surveyor-general New South Wales, mengunjungi wilayah itu dan menemukan “sebuah sungai kecil jatuh ke kepala pelabuhan utara” yang mungkin merupakan sungai Yarra Yarra. Nama itu berarti air terjun dalam bahasa asli, dan Yarra umumnya dianggap sebagai salah satu aliran konstan Australia. Melbourne sekarang berdiri pada tepinya.

Upaya pertama untuk membentuk pemukiman di sini dibuat oleh Pemerintah pada tahun 1803 Rumah, ketika HMS Calcutta di bawah Kapten Woodriff disertai oleh kapal Samudera membawa beberapa tiga atau empat ratus orang (termasuk narapidana) dari Inggris. Kolonel Collins, mantan oditur New South Wales, berada di komando ekspedisi dalam kapasitas Letnan Gubernur. Sebuah pendaratan dilakukan pada jalur sempit sekarang disebut Sorrento, sekitar lima mil dari pintu masuk ke pelabuhan, tapi Collins, setelah persinggahan beberapa bulan ‘, tidak menemukan air segar atau situs yang cocok untuk sebuah kota, dikirim sebuah perahu terbuka ke Sydney , kepada Gubernur Raja, meminta izin untuk menemukan situasi yang lebih baik. Segera setelah-bangsal seluruh partai, kecuali beberapa tahanan yang melarikan diri, dipindahkan ke Tasmania. Di antara tahanan yang ditinggalkan adalah seorang tentara bernama William Buckley yang tahun kemudian melakukan pelayanan yang baik kepada bangsanya dalam wawancara pertama mereka dengan kulit hitam.

Buckley adalah asli dari Macclesfield, dan tamtama di Cheshire Milisi. Dia kemudian memasuki Resimen Pemilik Raja, tetapi jatuh ke dalam aib dikirim ke Australia di Calcutta dan merupakan salah satu narapidana mendarat di Sorrento pada tahun 1803. Dengan dua sahabat ia melarikan diri ke semak-semak. Dipisahkan dari mereka ia berjalan sendiri melalui negara selama satu tahun. Dia tinggal di sebuah gua yang masih disebut gua Buckley. Suatu hari ketika dekat tinggal primitif, ia melihat tiga orang pribumi menatap ke bawah kepadanya dengan heran dari bukit di atas. Dia berusaha untuk menyembunyikan dari mereka dalam celah batu tetapi mereka dengan cepat ditelusuri dia keluar. Sejak saat itu Buckley hidup sebagai salah satu dari mereka. Dia mungkin berhutang kepada pelestarian kekaguman dari pribumi di perawakannya yang luar biasa, menjadi 6 ft 5 in Mereka memandang dia sebagai semangat kembali. Ketika ditemukan oleh pihak Batman pada bulan Juni, 1835, dia hampir lupa bahasanya sendiri dan dalam penampilan mirip seorang pria kulit hitam, tubuhnya yang dicat dengan oker merah dan pigmen. Dia kemudian kembali berpaling ke Tasmania.

Pantai selatan Tasmania kasar seperti yang di Tierra del Fuego menyajikan depan berbatu berani untuk Pasifik. Pesisir utara muncul seperti pantai dalam dari sekelompok pulau yang luar bagian telah memisahkan diri oleh ombak. Pantai selatan di sisi lain penuh dengan puncak dan pegunungan, celah dan fisura. Ketika Bass dan Flinders masuk Cove penggembala dan berlayar ke Derwent dalam perahu kecil mereka melihat asap yang timbul di belakang salah satu bights yang mengatakan kepada mereka bahwa daratan itu dihuni. Sungai, 230 meter lebarnya dan sekitar tiga depa dalam, berbaring antara tinggi perbukitan hijau berumput yang turun di lereng curam lurus di kedua sisinya. Hanya ada beberapa tingkat patch tanah yang cocok untuk budidaya tampak di sana-sini di tengah mencemarkan dan di tepi air. Sebagai penjelajah menarik ke pantai, suara manusia tiba-tiba memberi hormat kepada mereka dari bukit-bukit.

Mengambil dengan mereka salah satu angsa hitam yang baru saja mereka menembak (yang kemudian singkat ketentuan) mereka mendarat dan mulai mendaki lereng bukit, dan hampir mencapai puncak, ketika mereka melihat di beberapa agak jauh dua perempuan aborigin bercakap-cakap bersama-sama. Di mata orang kulit putih setiap menyambar keranjang kecil dan berlari pergi buru-buru. Mereka berdua mengenakan short-covering yang tergantung lepas dari bahu mereka.

Tak lama kemudian seorang rekan hitam terlihat. Dia berdiri diam dan mengawasi Bass dan pendekatan Flinders dengan ketidakpedulian, tapi ketika mereka menawarkan angsa, muncul senang. Dokter dan letnan mencoba untuk berkomunikasi dengan dia, tapi dia mengerti tidak ada dialek penduduk asli New South Wales atau bahkan kata-kata yang paling umum dari Kepulauan Laut Selatan. Dengan susah payah petugas memintanya untuk menunjukkan kepada mereka jalan ke rumahnya. Dia menunjuk atas bukit dan pergi sebelum mereka, tetapi berjalan sangat lambat dan berhenti begitu sering bawah kepura-puraan karena kehilangan jalur bahwa mereka mencurigai ia tidak bersedia memberikan mereka keinginan mereka.

Mengingat bahwa mereka tidak harus kehilangan air pasang untuk membawa mereka kembali ke kapal mereka, mereka berpisah dengan dia dan mengucapkan selamat tinggal dengan sebagai besar menunjukkan persahabatan seperti yang mungkin. Pria itu bertubuh pendek, agak gemuk dan kurang seperti seorang negro dari pada mereka yang mereka telah menangkap melihat tempat lain. Wajahnya menghitam, dan bagian atas kepalanya diplester dengan tanah merah. Rambutnya pendek dan keriting, dan dia membawa dua tombak-agak parah dibuat-dari kayu solid. Ini adalah orang pertama kepada siapa Bass dan Flinders telah berbicara di Tasmania dan mereka mendukung dengan kemampuan-terkesan. Banyak gubuk asli yang diamati, buruk dibangun dan seperti Port Dalrymple, tetapi dengan lebih sedikit tumpukan kerang-kerang di sekitar mereka, seolah-olah ada pribumi terutama pada oposum, bajing, tikus kanguru, dll, tulang-tulang kecil banyak yang berserakan di sekitar sepi kebakaran. Tidak ada perahu terlihat. Kanguru abu-abu dan merah dan bandicoots dan angsa hitam, yang di atasnya Inggris-manusia hidup, banyak, dan ada beberapa ular berbisa lebih. Ada ular hitam khusus yang menyerupai tongkat sehingga bakaran bahwa suatu hari Dr Bass melangkah lebih dari satu dan akan berlalu tanpa menyadarinya, telah ular tidak mengangkat sendiri dan mendesis keras. Dokter bertekad untuk mencoba dan mengambil hidup untuk melihat apa itu milik spesies dan dalam kontes reptil bit itu sendiri. Dr Bass berpikir pada awalnya bahwa ia telah membunuh dan bertanya-tanya mengapa begitu besar ular harus mati begitu mudah, karena ia memukul sangat ringan dengan ranting busuk. Tiga jam kemudian dalam rangka untuk mengetahui penyebab sebenarnya dari kematian dia menanggalkan kulitnya. Ini jelas telah diakhiri hidupnya sendiri, untuk putaran daging tanda tusukan ditemukan meradang dan berubah warna.

Penemuan Selat Bass segera membawa kapal Inggris dalam perjalanan mereka ke Sydney melewati pantai utara Tasmania bukan melalui rute lagi putaran ujung selatan pulau. Salah satu kapal pertama yang berlayar melalui Selat adalah Margaret, dalam komando Kapten Byers atau Pembeli, dengan Mr Turnbull di papan tulis. Pria ini bertugas kargo berharga dikirim sebagai sebuah spekulasi perdagangan ke laut selatan. Kapal, setelah memanggil di Port Jackson, yang rusak di Tahiti. (Lihat Voyages Turnbull) pembuluh Asing diikuti.

Dalam volume keempat Quarterly Review, diterbitkan pada bulan Agustus, 1810, kita membaca bahwa beberapa bulan sebelum pensiun dari Mr Pitt dan suksesi Mr Addington pada bulan Juni,, 1800 Monsieur Otto, komisaris penduduk untuk tahanan Perancis perang, memperoleh paspor diperlukan untuk Géographe dan Naturaliste untuk dimasukkan ke salah satu port Mulia dalam kasus stres cuaca, atau untuk mendapatkan bantuan untuk memungkinkan mereka untuk menuntut putaran perjalanan mereka dunia. Seperti telah disebutkan, ekspedisi mencapai Cape Leeuwin pada 27 Mei 1801. Seluruh pantai barat New Belanda dieksplorasi dan grafik dibuat memberikan berbagai nama Prancis baru. Setelah mencapai N.W. Cape, Kapten Baudin di Gographe berdiri untuk Timor di mana ia tiba di 18 Agustus, 1801. Para Naturaliste, yang telah berpisah dari Géographe di pantai Tanah Leeuwin, di Sementara itu, sebelum bergabung dengan Géographe di Coupang, telah memeriksa Swan River, ditemukan oleh Vlamingh pada 1697, dan di antara penemuan zoologi lainnya bertemu dengan tiram mutiara di cukup kuantitas di pantai Endracht. Kedua kapal meninggalkan Timor pada 13 November 1801, dibuat Cape Leeuwin Januari, 1802, dan terus ke ujung selatan Tanah Van Diemen itu, Di sini mereka mengeksplorasi teluk dan pelabuhan Storm Bay dan D’Entrecasteaux Channel. M. Peron menulis selat ini: “Sesak pada permukaan tanah terlihat di setiap sisi mereka mimosa yang indah, mereka correas luar biasa akhir-akhir tidak diketahui sampai ke negara kita tapi sekarang menjadi kebanggaan shrubberies kami Dari tepi laut. ke puncak-puncak gunung tertinggi dapat diamati eucalyptus-orang perkasa banyak pohon-pohon raksasa yang mengukur 160-180 meter tingginya. Banksia dari berbagai jenis dengan tanaman merambat membentuk putaran sabuk mempesona rok hutan. Di sini cemara pameran bentuk yang indah, ada yang melempar exocarpus elegan menjadi seratus tempat yang berbeda cabang lalai yang mana bermunculan semak yang menyenangkan, semua sama-sama menarik baik dari bentuk anggun mereka, warna hijau dedaunan yang indah atau karakter benih mereka.. ” Setelah memeriksa saluran Perancis melanjutkan putaran titik selatan Pulau Maria dan berlabuh di Oyster Bay. Peron di sini pikir pribumi buas dan ganas dan tidak seperti yang bertemu dengan di D’Entrecasteaux Channel. Penemuan tulang manusia dalam bentuk abu memunculkan banyak spekulasi tentang asal-usul kebiasaan membakar mati.

Sebuah jalan melalui hutan di Tasmania

Tetapi kembali ke Collins, wilayah yang dipilih oleh dia untuk penyelesaian baru di selatan Tasmania di tepi sungai Derwent. Untuk memastikan bahwa Perancis tidak harus mengantisipasi mereka, sebuah perusahaan kecil telah dikirim dari Sydney pada Agustus, 1803 menduduki tempat itu. Para kolonis dari Port Phillip mencapai tujuan baru mereka dalam dua berkapal-kapal, satu di Februari, dan yang lainnya di Juni, 1804, dan menemukan ada pemukim dari Sydney yang telah datang dengan Letnan Bowen, RN, di tempat mereka telah disebut Risdon [*] (atau Restdown). Nama itu tak lama kemudian berubah ke Hobart.

The first book ever printed in Australia, The General Standing Orders of New South Wales, 1802, states that Sydney and Parramatta, or Rosehill, were first divided into two parishes, Sydney being called the Parish of St. Philip in honour of Governor Phillip, and Parramatta the Parish of St. John in honour of Captain John Hunter. Sydney Parish included Petersham, Bulanaming, Concord and Liberty Plains (named in 1793); while Parramatta Parish included Banks Town, Prospect Hill, Toongabbie, Seven Hills, Castle Hill, Eastern Farm, Field of Mars (the name given by Phillip to land granted by him to eight marines), Northern Boundary, The Ponds, and Kissing Point. Each of these places was little more than a hamlet, and consisted of a few settlers’ houses.

The Hawkesbury or St. George’s Parish was made the third parish of the new colony during the rule of Major Grose in 1794. In this region the cattle which, as we have seen, strayed in the early days of the colony had sought a retreat, and here they, or their descendants, were discovered in the year 1795. The country over which they ranged became known under the name of the Cow Pastures, and it not only formed a happy hunting-ground for the governors, but supplied them with the rare luxury of fresh meat. At Greenhills, its principal town, re-named Windsor in 18 10, Captain John Hunter built a country seat in 1800, and here he seems to have spent much of his time. There exists an old sketch of the Cow Pastures known as “John Hunter’s Chart” on which is shown a lagoon with the name “Black Swan Lake,” and at some distance from “Mount Taurus” where the bull had been killed, various inscriptions such as “here a bull was seen,” or “beautiful country “—all conveying the idea that this chart was not made for the benefit of geographers alone.

The Tank Stream, Sydney

The Tank Stream, Sydney

The Hunter River, also known as the Coal River, which was discovered and named by Mr. Shortland on 19th September, 1797, flows into the harbour at Newcastle, and in 1801 the governor declared that its timber and coals were the exclusive property of the Crown. Newcastle, the second port in New South Wales, was founded by Governor King in 1804, Lieutenant Menzies being appointed commandant, and sworn in as a magistrate to control the work of the coal mines at Coal River. “The coal mines at Newcastle,” the old book states, “have been dug in the most shameful manner, without leaving props, which has occasioned much labour to remedy the mischief caused by these neglects, and the commandant is directed not to allow coal to be worked by individuals.” Evidently until this time the people of Newcastle obtained coal with very little exertion.

The site of the town and its environs had been surveyed in June and July, 1801, by Ensign Barrallier in one of the Lady Nelson’s voyages under Lieutenant Grant; Colonel Paterson and Mr. John Harris being of the party. Barrallier, in a note written on his chart, describes the entrance of Hunter River and its harbour, “the tides very strong but in the harbour there is good shelter from all winds and plenty of room for more than 100 sail of shipping”. Newcastle now exports large quantities of coal to many parts of the globe and supplies the Royal Navy at several stations in the southern hemisphere. The Hunter is 300 miles in length and drains 8,000 square miles. It is navigable by sea-going steamers to a distance of thirty-five miles from the sea, the lower part being divided by a number of islands into two streams, which re-unite near its mouth.

Barrallier’s survey of the Hunter did not extend much above Mount Grant—named, of course, after the Lady Nelson’s commander—”progress being stopped by a cascade or fall of about four feet, after which the stream ran to the N.E.”

In one of Macquarie’s letters home, he says: “A small brig from India sank in the entrance of New-castle harbour about 1815 and a sand bank accumulated and affected the depth of the channel, rendering navigation insecure for this reason “. After a personal survey of the harbour, he decided on building a breakwater of massive stone-work to shut out the flowing tide and stop the discharge of the waters of the Hunter by the narrow channel between the main-land and the rock called Nobby’s Island, whereby the scour of the current in the other channel might remove the sand deposit caused by the sunken brig; the work was carried out under successive command-ants of the port.

But Newcastle was as famous in early days for its supplies of wood as for its coal. It Nourished exceedingly under Captain Wallis who was commandant there from June, 1816, until December, 1818—and the governor wrote home to Earl Bathurst recommending that it should be made a free settlement on account of the fertility of the country and its convenient situation for the collection of produce and its conveyance by sea to Sydney. “The plains near Newcastle along the principal sources of the Hunter River are valuable because of the large quantities of timber fallen there for consumption at this place,” wrote Macquarie, who visited Newcastle three times and in November, 1821, sailed up the Hunter for seventy or eighty miles.

Governor Macquarie was almost as active in forming settlements as he was in making new roads. Great floods had occurred at intervals throughout the colony and in the Hawkesbury district in particular. The first took place in 1796. During another flood in 1806 the water rose near the town of Windsor, seventy feet above the ordinary level; the people took refuge on the tops of houses, chimneys, barns, haystacks, etc. In many cases there were no boats to go to them; and, when they could go, the rushing water frequently swirled round the houses and other obstacles in its path, so that the boats were swamped and overturned before a rescue could be effected. Horses, cattle and sheep were lost in great numbers and the roar of the waters could be heard for many miles.

This Hawkesbury flood hastened the building of many new towns. A curious old notice, dated Government House, 15th December, 1810—runs as follows: “The frequent inundations of the rivers Hawkesbury and Nepean having hitherto been at-tended with the most calamitous effects with regard to the crops growing in their vicinity and in consequence of the most serious injury to the necessary subsistence of the colony the governor has deemed it expedient to erect certain townships on the most contiguous and eligible high ground for the better security of the settlers whose farms are exposed to the floods”. Five townships, one for the Greenhills district, called Windsor; one for Richmond Hill district, called Richmond; one for the Nelson district, to be named Pitt Town; one for the Phillip district, to be called Wilberforce; and one for the Nepean or Evan district, to be called Castlereagh, were marked out by the governor. A plan of a house was left with each constable of the district, and the settler was expected to conform with its measurements when building. Orders were given that the dwellings were to be of brick or weather-board; to have brick chimneys and shingled roofs, and that no house was to be less than nine feet high. Macquarie evidently possessed a progressive mind from a present-day point of view, as we find that this rule was also carried out in some of the districts of the interior. Hut in spite of his forethought and the damage that the floods had done, the Hawkesbury settlers could not be induced to leave their old homes for the opposite banks of the river. In Wilberforce and Richmond they were more sensible and took possession of the new houses.

The town of Liverpool was founded in 1810. For some time afterwards its name had to be indicated by a post with the inscription, “This is Liverpool,” but when on 22nd February, 1814, the road was opened, the district began to grow into importance and in the twenties it was “a pretty little country town built on a green with a cool stream gliding between deep sloping banks”.

In 1813 Macquarie marked out and named Campbell Town in honour of his father-in-law. In 1818 the Goulburn Plains were discovered and named after the Colonial Secretary, the native name for them was Mulwarree after one of the rivers which ran through them, and the foundation of the now well-known town of Goulburn was laid.

Large tracts of pastoral land within the southern portion of the colony were explored. Goulburn in the south, like Bathurst in the west, became the starting-point of many of these expeditions. Governor Macquarie and his suite left Liverpool, then the nearest inland town, on 16th October, 1820, to visit the site of the future town of Goulburn. In the account of the early history of this place we are told that the party slept at night in the open country and were disturbed by the noise of cattle, probably the wild cattle of the cow pastures and that “there were many kangaroos “. On the 18th Throsby’s Country (so called after Mr. Charles Throsby, a settler who had discovered it and who possessed even in those early days a splendid herd of 500 bullocks) was reached. The governor called upon Mr, Throsby, went over his domain at Throsby Park, and was greatly interested in his large herd. On the 22nd the party reached open plains named by Hume the Goulburn Plains, and others the Breadalbane Plains, which the governor named, and on the 23rd they arrived at Lake Bathurst. On the journey over the Goulburn Plains natural furrows or ridges were crossed similar to those on the Hunter and at Bathurst. Here they were called “the ploughed land”, Macquarie also formed half a dozen agricultural establishments or Government farms, but they consisted of little more than a few farm buildings and huts for the men.

The first governors had their country-seat at Parramatta, eighteen miles from Sydney. It was a place of great importance, especially during Sir Thomas Brisbane’s tenure of office. There he built his famous observatory and devoted so much time to his favourite science that he was called the first astronomer of Australia. He seems to have lived altogether at this country-seat, studying the heavens, and was away from Sydney for long periods. One old writer says that “Sir Thomas Brisbane was so much occupied in looking up at the stars that he seldom saw the earth beneath his feet”. This absence may have been excusable on account of the building operations which were being carried out at Government House, Sydney.

The Bathurst Settlement soon occupied a prominent position, as most of the explorations in the west of the colony started from here.

Its importance may be inferred from the vast extent of territory of which it was the administrative head-quarters, which was then called the Bathurst District. Stations and out-posts were dotted over the country for hundreds of miles, and, in some directions, the boundaries of the district were simply the geographical limits of the colony.

Barron Field, a friend of Charles Lamb, has left a description of Bathurst in 1822. “I could hardly believe that I was in New Holland this day,” he wrote: “so different, so English is the character of the scenery—downs, meads and streams in the flat—no side scenes of eucalyptus but the white daisy of the sod,[*] you may see as far as the eye can reach. Stockmen with cattle and sheep occasionally appear upon the horizon as in old Holland—a Paul Potter or Cuyp effect rare in New Holland. At sunset we saw wooded hills displaying in the distance the golden blue or purple which landscape painters love…the smoke of the little village of Bathurst is seen for miles off as that of no other town in Australia is seen at this time.”

[* Quoted from Evans who, he thinks, must have meant a species of Gnaphalium or Aster.]

It was after Sir Thomas Brisbane’s visit in the same year that the order to divide the plains into districts or counties, as they appear on the early maps, was given. But perhaps the visit of Governor Darling is more noteworthy, as it marked the progress of the colonisation in the interior. In company with his brother-in-law Colonel Dumaresq and Lieutenant de la Condamine, General Darling left Parramatta on 4th November, 1829. The governor spent the first night at Regentville with Sir John Jamieson, and on the following day explored the banks of the Nepean and the vale of Mulgoa. Mulgoa seemed to him particularly beautiful. “The waterfalls were overflowing after the splendid rain, and the landscape looked rich beyond description. Farther along, the dark-green orange trees were laden with golden fruit.” On Monday, 9th November, he reached Bathurst.

Major Macpherson, with Lieutenant Browne in command of the Mounted Police, and Lieutenant Moore of the 39th regiment, rode out early in order to be first to bid him welcome, and we are told that three miles outside the town forty of the settlers on horseback were drawn up in line on either side of the road to form a guard of honour. They saluted the general as he passed and then joined in the procession to the Government Domain where several native tribes had assembled and presented a “novel and interesting spectacle”.

On the following day at noon an address was presented to him by a deputation consisting of:—

John Street, J.P. George Suttor. A. K. Mackenzie, J.P. William Lee. Thomas F, Hawkins, J.P. John William Gosling.

The Sydney Gazette gives a copy of it—it ran as follows:—

“To His Excellency Lieutenant General Ralph Darling, Captain-General, Governor-in-Chief, etc.

“May it please your Excellency, We the undersigned Landed Proprietors of the District of Bathurst beg leave respectfully to approach your Excellency with the expression of our unfeigned gratitude in hailing the safe arrival of your Excellency at this Settlement, and of our grateful sense of that solicitude for its prosperity which has prompted your Excellency at much personal inconvenience to confer upon the Plains of Bathurst the distinguished honour of your presence.

“We rejoice by the fall of recent and provident rains your Excellency is enabled to view our pastures clothed with verdure and our cultivated lands teeming with a reasonable prospect of an abundant harvest.

“We avail ourselves of this acceptable opportunity to convey to your Excellency our special acknowledgment for the advantage which this District is deriving from the rapidly improving state of our Mountain Road, and for the persevering exertions which have been directed under your Excellency’s auspices towards the completion of an undertaking upon which our comfort and welfare so essentially depend. We look forward with satisfaction and pride to the approaching period when our District will not only possess a comparatively good road to Sydney but also a splendid and permanent memory of that zealous anxiety which your Excellency has always manifested to promote the interests of our adopted country.

“We desire further to offer to your Excellency our sincere thanks for the institution of local Courts of Quarter Sessions and Requests, accompanied by our humble though confident hope that these valuable arrangements may be speedily extended to this populous and important District.

“We finally entreat permission to assure your Excellency that we are not insensible of the security which we derive both in person and property from the effectual and combined exertions of our Civil and Military Police Establishment, to add our most cordial wishes for your health and happiness, and to subscribe ourselves with every sentiment of respect and esteem,

“Your Excellency’s very obliged and obedient servants”
(here follow the signatures of the settlers). The Governor’s reply was as follows:—

“To the Landed Proprietors of the District of Bathurst,
“Gentlemen,

“I receive with the truest satisfaction this kind expression of your sentiments. Your loyalty to your King required no proof. Your goodwill to me could not have been exemplified in a manner more flattering than that which has marked my reception in your District.

“I have long wished for an opportunity of assuring you personally of the interest I take in your welfare, and it is particularly gratifying to me to have visited you at this time when after the severe trials to which you have been subjected a bountiful Providence has promised to replenish your granaries with the fruits of an abundant harvest. Your personal comfort and the security of your property are objects of no common interest to the Government, and you may be satisfied as far as the means of Government permit that these objects will not be neglected. I cannot, Gentlemen, close my reply to your Address without endeavouring to express the satisfaction I feel in observing the part which native-born Australians have taken on this occasion. It is a proof that they have not suffered themselves to be misled by the arts which have been used to prejudice them against the Government. They may depend on my solemn assurance that their prosperity and happiness are connected with the first objects of its care and solicitude.

“Hoping, as I sincerely do, that the bright prospect now-opening to your view may be confirmed by years of plenty crowned with peace and happiness, I beg, Gentlemen, to assure you collectively and individually, of my unfeigned esteem and regard.

“I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen,
“Your most faithful and obliged,
“Ralph Darling.
“Bathurst, 10th November, 1829.”

“During his Excellency’s stay,” says The Sydney Gazette, “Major McPherson, the commandant of the district, gave a ‘dinner-party’ every day, so that the governor had an opportunity of meeting all the neighbouring magistrates and gentry, besides visiting the estates of Messrs. Icely, Rankin, Street, McKenzie, Jemmett-Browne, Hawkins, Perrier, Lee and many others, at all of which his Excellency was received with the utmost hospitality and every demonstration of sincere respect. Our old townsman, Captain Piper, had the honour of dining with the governor, who afterwards paid the captain a visit at his estate at Alloway Bank…The fatigues of the journey were borne by the governor uncommonly well, although he walked up most of the steep mountain roads.”

Since those days Bathurst has greatly altered. A large thriving town now looks forth over the open plains. But no change has come over the silent blue mountains which for so many years held back the knowledge of that land’s existence and so severely taxed the powers of the explorers.

The settlement at Wellington, that is Wellington in New South Wales, was formed in March, 1823, and Lieutenant Percy Simpson appointed command-ant. It had up to then been a military depot. The country between Bathurst and Wellington was comparatively easy to travel over, and we are told with satisfaction by contemporary writers that Lieutenant Simpson, in making his first journey to take up his duties there, “was able to drive the whole way in his gig,” and informed the governor that “only one bridge would be required for the road between the two settlements “.

The word “district,” which Macquarie said was synonymous with town, more aptly described the first divisions of the interior than the territorial terms “counties” and “parishes” which the officials gave them. The districts of Sydney, Parramatta,[*] Hawkesbury, Hunter River, Bathurst, Argyle or Goulburn, and Illawarra or Five Islands were the best known. Besides these, there were plains and downs, and grazing properties or stations, named after their owners, or after the rivers whereon they stood, the names of some in these later days have entirely disappeared. These old names appear in the Government Notice reproduced at the end of this volume. In this small gazetteer many of the names of rivers or stations are the original native names; some of them fortunately are still preserved. The English names were apt at times to be bewildering to new arrivals in the colony. While a traveller, for instance, might not object to pass through Penrith to reach Kelso he might remark on the absurdity of taking a boat to Newcastle in order to reach Twickenham. Some of the native names for the rivers have long been displaced.

[* Modern writers state that Parramatta meant in aboriginal language the place of eels, but an old historian says: "Parramatta is a compound word meaning the head of the stream". The native name for the Hawkesbury River was Deerubbun, and for the Murray, Millewa. The main portion of the Hunter was called the Coquun and its first branch Dooribang (Williams River), another branch the Yimmang (Paterson). Warragamba is the name of the Wollondilly and Cox Rivers joined before they meet the Nepean. The Darling was named by the blacks Calle-watta or Watta; the Macquarie, the Wambool or Wandering. The Molong was re-named the Bell. Murrumbidgee, meaning "beautiful river," retained its native name; the Lachlan is in the native language the Colare. A portion of the Darling is known to the natives as the Barwan.]

VICTORIA AND TASMANIA.

The new colony had practical reasons for exploring the land on which it had gained a foothold, for, like the mother country, it had an irrepressible desire for expansion, and, not content to work within the limits which Cook had set down on his charts and maps, it sought regions for fresh settlement wherever habitable land was found. We have already mentioned the discovery of Western Port in 1798, and of Port Phillip in 1802, though this fine harbour was not then fully explored. In 1803 Mr. Grimes, the surveyor-general of New South Wales, visited the region and found “a small river falling into the north head of the harbour” which was probably the river Yarra Yarra. The name means waterfall in the native language, and the Yarra is generally regarded as one of the constant streams of Australia. Melbourne now stands upon its banks.

The first attempt to form a settlement here was made by the Home Government in 1803, when H.M.S. Calcutta under Captain Woodriff accompanied by the ship Ocean brought some three or four hundred persons (including convicts) from England. Colonel Collins, formerly judge advocate of New South Wales, was in command of the expedition in the capacity of lieutenant-governor. A landing was made on the narrow strip now called Sorrento, about five miles from the entrance to the harbour, but Collins, after a few months’ sojourn, finding no fresh water nor a suitable site for a town, despatched an open boat to Sydney, to Governor King, asking permission to find a better situation. Soon after-wards the whole party, except some prisoners who had escaped, were transferred to Tasmania. Among the prisoners left behind was a soldier named William Buckley who years afterwards did good service to his countrymen in their first interviews with the blacks.

Buckley was a native of Macclesfield, and enlisted in the Cheshire Militia. He afterwards entered the King’s Own Regiment, but falling into disgrace was sent to Australia in the Calcutta and was one of the convicts landed at Sorrento in 1803. With two companions he escaped into the bush. Being separated from them he wandered alone through the country for a whole year. He lived in a cave which is still called Buckley’s cave. One day while near his primitive dwelling he saw three natives gazing down upon him in astonishment from the hill above. He endeavoured to hide from them in a cleft rock but they quickly traced him out. From that time forth Buckley lived as one of them. He probably owed his preservation to the awe of the natives at his remarkable stature, being 6 ft. 5 in. They looked upon him as a returned spirit. When discovered by Batman’s party in June, 1835, he had almost forgotten his own language and in appearance resembled a black man, his body being painted over with red ochre and pigment. He afterwards re-turned to Tasmania.

Tasmania’s rugged southern shores like those of Tierra del Fuego present a bold rocky front to the Pacific. The northern coasts appear like the inner shore of a cluster of islands whose outer parts have been broken away by the waves. The southern coast on the other hand abounds with peaks and ridges, gaps and fissures. When Bass and Flinders entered Herdsman’s Cove and sailed up the Derwent in a small boat they saw smoke arising at the back of one of the bights which told them that the mainland was inhabited. The river, 230 yards in breadth and about three fathoms deep, lay between high grassy green hills that descended in steep straight slopes on either side. There were just a few level patches of land which looked fit for cultivation here and there amid the defiles and at the edges of the water. As the explorers drew to the shore, a human voice suddenly saluted them from the hills.

Taking with them one of the black swans which they had just shot (being then short of provisions) they landed and started to climb the hillside, and had nearly reached the summit, when they saw at some little distance away two aboriginal women conversing together. At the sight of the white men each snatched up her small basket and scampered off hastily. They both wore a short covering which hung loose from their shoulders.

Shortly afterwards a black fellow was seen. He stood still and watched Bass and Flinders approach with indifference, but when they offered him the swan, appeared delighted. The doctor and lieutenant tried to converse with him, but he understood none of the dialects of the natives of New South Wales nor even the most common words of the South Sea Islanders. With some difficulty the officers asked him to show them the way to his home. He pointed over the hill and went on before them, but walking so slowly and stopping so often under pretence of having lost the track that they suspected he was unwilling to grant them their wish.

Remembering that they must not lose the tide to carry them back to their ship they parted with him and said farewell with as great a show of friendship as was possible. The man was short of stature, slightly built and less like a negro than those whom they had caught sight of elsewhere. His face was blackened, and the top of his head plastered with red earth. His hair was short and curly, and he carried two spears—rather badly made—of solid wood. This was the first man to whom Bass and Flinders had spoken in Tasmania and they were favour-ably impressed. Many native huts were observed, badly constructed and like those of Port Dalrymple, but with fewer heaps of mussel-shells around them, as if the natives existed chiefly upon opossums, squirrels, kangaroo rats, etc., many small bones being strewn around the deserted fires. No canoes were seen. The grey and red kangaroo and bandicoots and the black swans, upon which the English-men lived, were numerous, and there were some rather venomous snakes. There was a special black snake which so resembled a burnt stick that one day Dr. Bass stepped over one and would have passed on without noticing it, had the snake not raised itself and hissed loudly. The doctor determined to try and take it alive in order to see to what species it belonged and in the contest the reptile bit itself. Dr. Bass thought at first that he had killed it and wondered why so large a snake should die so easily, for he had hit it very lightly with a rotten twig. Three hours afterwards in order to find out the true cause of death he stripped off its skin. It had evidently terminated its own life, for the flesh round the marks of the puncture was found to be inflamed and discoloured.

The discovery of Bass Straits soon brought English ships on their way to Sydney past the northern shores of Tasmania instead of by the longer route round the southern extremity of the island. One of the first ships to sail through the Straits was the Margaret, in command of Captain Byers or Buyers, with Mr. Turnbull on board. This gentleman was in charge of a valuable cargo sent as a mercantile speculation to the south seas. The ship, after calling at Port Jackson, was wrecked at Tahiti. (See Turnbull’s Voyages) Foreign vessels followed.

In the fourth volume of the Quarterly Review, issued in August, 1810, we read that a few months before the retirement of Mr. Pitt and the succession of Mr. Addington in June, 1800, Monsieur Otto, the resident commissary for French prisoners of war, obtained the necessary passports for the Géographe and Naturaliste to put into any of his Majesty’s ports in case of stress of weather, or to procure assistance to enable them to prosecute their voyage round the world. As already stated, the expedition reached Cape Leeuwin on 27th May, 1801. The whole of the west coast of New Holland was explored and charts made giving it a variety of new French names. Having reached N.W. Cape, Captain Baudin in the Gographe stood for Timor where he arrived on 18th August, 1801. The Naturaliste, which had parted from the Géographe on the coast of Leeuwin’s Land, in the meantime, before joining the Géographe at Coupang, had examined Swan River, discovered by Vlamingh in 1697, and among other zoological discoveries met with the pearl oyster in considerable quantity on the coast of Endracht. The two ships left Timor on 13th November, 1801, made Cape Leeuwin January, 1802, and proceeded to the southern extremity of Van Diemen’s Land, Here they explored the coves and harbours of Storm Bay and D’Entrecasteaux Channel. M. Peron writes of this strait: “Crowded on the surface of the soil are seen on every side those beautiful mimosas, those superb correas unknown till of late to our country but now become the pride of our shrubberies. From the banks of the ocean to the summits of the highest mountains may be observed the mighty eucalyptus—those giant trees many of which measure from 160 to 180 feet in height. Banksia of different kinds with creeping plants form an enchanting belt round the skirts of the forest. Here the casuarina exhibits its beautiful form, there the elegant exocarpus throws into a hundred different places its negligent branches. Everywhere spring up delightful thickets, all equally interesting either from their graceful shape, the lovely verdure of their foliage or the character of their seeds.” After examining the channel the French proceeded round the southern point of Maria Island and anchored in Oyster Bay. Peron here thought the natives were savage and ferocious and unlike those met with at D’Entrecasteaux Channel. The discovery of human bones in the form of ashes gave rise to many speculations on the origin of the custom of burning the dead.

A road through the forest in Tasmania

A road through the forest in Tasmania

But to return to Collins, the locality chosen by him for the new settlement was in the south of Tasmania on the banks of the river Derwent. To make sure that the French should not anticipate them, a small company had been despatched from Sydney in August, 1803, to occupy the place. The colonists from Port Phillip reached their new destination in two shiploads, one in February, and the other in June, 1804, and found there settlers from Sydney who had come with Lieutenant Bowen, R.N., at a spot they had called Risdon[*] (or Restdown). The name was shortly afterwards changed to Hobart.

[* This place was called Risdon Cove by Mr. Hayes, Commander of the ship Duke, in 1793. See Flinders, Observation on the Coasts of Van Diemens Land, p. 5.]

Collins made a survey of different parts of the country; and chose a spot called Sullivan’s Cove as the best site for his head-quarters. He also named his little camp “Hobart Town” in honour of Lord Hobart, who was then Secretary of State, transferring the name Hobart from Risdon to Sullivan’s Cove, and acting as governor of both settlements until he died. Such was the first formation of the community in the southern portion, which, in a few years, was to become the capital of Tasmania.

It was thought unwise to leave the northern shores of the island unpeopled and open to the designs of other nations, so after a survey of the entrance of the Tamar, executed by Lieutenant Simmons, a settlement was made at Port Dalrymple. Colonel Paterson was appointed commandant and in October, 1804, landed at George Town on the Tamar. Thence he removed to York Town, whence in 1806 he shifted his camp to the site of the present city of Launceston. From these early settlements at Hobart and Launceston Tasmania was colonised. Before re-turning to Sydney, Simmons surveyed King’s Island and the islands of the Kent Group, and also took soundings in Bass Straits.

Great privations were experienced at Hobart Town, particularly in the years 1806 and 1807. When Norfolk Island was evacuated in February and March, 181 3, most of the settlers, who numbered 145, were with their stock transferred to Tasmania, the tract of land given them being called Norfolk Plains. The cattle of Tasmania like those of New South Wales were at first inferior, being mostly of the Bengal breed; but English shorthorns were afterwards imported at Port Dalrymple. In 1807 sheep were first introduced in considerable numbers.

The west coast of Tasmania was explored in 1815 by Captain James Kelly who left Hobart in a whale-boat and sailed to George Town, and on his way round named Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour. The discovery of the whale fisheries to the south of Tasmania increased its importance, and Hobart be-came the principal port of call for the whaling ships. During the governorship of Colonel Sorrell merino sheep were introduced from New South Wales and wool became one of the principal sources of the wealth of the colony.

Bass and Flinders learnt that the Australian blacks were better armed than the Tasmanian natives; the latter had neither the boomerang nor the womerah and they climbed the trees in a somewhat different way from the Australians. The women especially had a peculiar method—instead of cutting holes for the thumbs or the great toe as in New South Wales (excepting where the bark is rough and loose at the base of the trees), a rope formed of a twisted strip of kangaroo skin or grass twice as long as was necessary to encompass the tree was thrown round it. Later explorers found that their only weapons were spears and waddies and probably at no time of their existence did they exceed 8,000[*] in number. They were divided into tribes, many of whom resembled the African negroes. Mr. Leigh, the missionary, de-scribing the natives of Tasmania, says: “Both men and women are of low stature, of better appearance than those of New South Wales. They have woolly heads, their limbs are small, and the thinness of their bodies arises from the poorness of food, which consists of fish, chiefly mussels, fern root, and ‘native bread’—the fungus which grows round the roots of large trees. Their skin is as black as that of the African negro. Their hair is kept short by cutting it frequently with large shells. In winter they dress in skins and in summer cast off their clothing. They believe in two spirits—one governs the day which is the good spirit, the bad spirit governs the night. They possess musical voices, far more so than the Australians.” Many people, including Flinders, believed that the Tasmanian native sprang from an entirely different race from that upon the continent of Australia, and that his ancestors had been blown there in canoes—but Dr. Anderson, who was with Captain Cook at Adventure Bay, thought that both races came from the north and mentions as one reason that the kangaroo[**] was called by the same name in both Australia and Van Diemen’s Land. (In West Australia it is Yangore or Yangory.) He also thought that all people in that portion of the globe from the shores of New Holland to Easter Island sprang from one source, for example, the word “cold” was almost the same in far distant portions, in New Zealand being “Mak kareede,” in Tahiti “Marreede,” and in Tasmania “Mallareede”.

[* Historians disagree as to the numbers, some giving 8,000 and others 3,000.]

[** The kangaroo, however, seems to have been called different names by different tribes as were other birds and animals, etc.]

In 1824 the Tasmanian blacks were as trouble-some to the settlers of that island as their dark brothers were in New South Wales. They appear to have broken laws, taken lives, and plundered the white people oh every possible occasion, much after the same fashion as their neighbours. But until then they seem to have been a rather more peace-able race than the natives of Port Jackson. Quaint stories are told of the thefts that they committed, before the spirit of revenge had so completely asserted itself that Governor Arthur was compelled to make stringent laws for the protection of the settlements. One relates to the loss of a valuable horse, which after it had been taken from the stable was not seen until one day a native black girl, perhaps the first of her race ever to mount a horse, rode the animal at full speed, without bridle or saddle and with only a rope halter round its neck, down the valley in front of Allen Vale House the home of the owner. A servant was immediately despatched on horseback to demand possession of his master’s property, but the girl continued to gallop onward urging the animal along so fast that, hard as the groom rode, he found that it was impossible to come up with her, Although a reward was afterwards offered for its recovery, the horse does not appear to have been returned.

Captain Cook landing at Adventure Bay, Tasmania. (By R. Caton Woodville.)

Captain Cook landing at Adventure Bay, Tasmania.
(By R. Caton Woodville.)

A Sydney native named Mosquito became a daring leader of one of the Tasmanian tribes. His history is curious. Transported from New South Wales for some offence he was made a stockkeeper, and then Governor Arthur employed him to assist in capturing the bushrangers. He thus became instrumental in bringing many criminals to justice. No sooner was this accomplished than the friends of the bushrangers jeered at him for the services which he had rendered their enemies—the soldiers. Such a life to such a wild creature was insufferable, and he took to the bush and became chief of a tribe which were described as harmless and inoffensive—”the most peaceable creatures in the universe”—until they were corrupted by Mosquito, the Sydney black. They then grew violent, hunted the country for plunder, and every white person was counted an enemy.

The colonists became alarmed. The police force was inadequate and the military only consisted of a few detachments, the greater part of which were stationed in Hobart and Launceston. The audacity of the blacks increased until at last a raid was made upon a sheep run at a place called Grindstone Bay. This sheep run was in charge of a white stock keeper named Radford and it belonged to Mr. Silas Gatehouse. When Mosquito’s black tribe arrived, Radford had with him two men, a fellow-servant named Mammoa, a native of Tahiti and a white stockman named William Hollyoak, servant to Mr. George Meredith at Swan Port, who was returning home from the colonial hospital, and, being weak and only able to travel slowly, had begged to be allowed to remain a day or two at Radford’s. He arrived on a Wednesday, and on the following Saturday Mosquito with his tribe, numbering some sixty-five blacks, reached the place. Some were armed with spears and waddies while others had sticks; the spears were from six to twelve feet long. The sticks in some instances had wooden heads carved like an axe. At first Mosquito merely begged provisions, planting his blacks upon the opposite side of the creek which divided the sheep-yard from the stock-yard. He interviewed the men in the hut and said he was going to Oyster Bay, and that he would not kill their sheep. In the hut were a small fowling-piece and a musket, which evidently attracted Mosquito. At dawn on Sunday morning, when Radford looked out of the door of his hut, the blacks had lighted their camp fire in the sheep-yard and some were sitting round it eating breakfast, while others were running about playing games.

An hour later they came over the creek. Radford with Mammoa walked out to watch their sports, and Hollyoak afterwards joined them. Unfortunately he forgot to fetch the firearms as Radford had desired him to do should he leave the hut. Shortly afterwards Mosquito walked in the direction of the hut. Radford noticed this and, remembering the guns, ran quickly to the dwelling, only to find that in his short absence the firearms had been stolen and that a number of blacks had crept round unseen to the back and others were joining them there.

The white men and Mammoa now stood un-armed among the armed natives. The black leader first proceeded to untie several sheep dogs that were tied to a tree at a little distance away. When the men asked him to leave them alone he made no answer, but took the dogs with him to the sheep-yard. Meanwhile the blacks raised their spears menacingly. Radford cried to Hollyoak to seek a place of refuge, but the weapons began to fall thickly around the two men and both were speared. Stopping to pluck out the spear which had wounded his companion Radford raised him, urging him to hasten, but Hollyoak was doubtless weak and unable to keep up, and when Radford next looked round he saw that a considerable number of natives had closed upon the fallen man. Radford was lucky enough to elude his pursuers. He hid for ten days in the bush, then cautiously made his way back to his home and found that both Hollyoak and Mammoa the Tahitian had been killed. Mosquito was soon captured by a native named Teague near Grindstone Bay. He was charged with killing Hollyoak and executed on 24th February, 1824.

Some years afterwards the blacks were still troublesome, and more than once martial law was proclaimed. Sir George, then Colonel, Arthur at last resolved to drive all the natives to Tasman’s Peninsula and keep them there. They were to be told that they could do as they liked within this peninsula, which was to be regarded as their own territory, but they were never again to set foot on the rest of the island. The governor and suite with the settlers and 300 soldiers arranged to form a cordon and drive the natives before them to their new territory. The enterprise failed; the natives knew the woods and mountains better than the whites and their dark forms easily escaped through the trees at night without being seen, and they eluded their pursuers, so that upon the arrival of the governor and his troops at Tasman’s Peninsula, the natives were found to be behind, and not in front of them. The expedition cost the colony £36,000 in direct expenses alone and only two natives were captured. Wild and foolish as the scheme appeared to all who were familiar with the rugged mountains and deep defiles of that part of the country, what seemed a more foolish proposition was made to the governor. Mr. George Augustus Robinson, a builder residing at Hobart, offered to go out alone and bring in all these blacks single-handed, on condition that they should be forgiven the murders and robberies which they had committed and be allowed to settle somewhere outside the Island of Tasmania. The governor smiled at the proposal, and both governor and the general public regarded the scheme as that of a visionary enthusiast, but as there could be no harm done in gratifying his strange request the governor consented. Mr. Robinson, with Messrs. John Batman and Cotterell set out with a few pack horses laden with a tent and provisions while a few friendly natives accompanied them for a part of their journey. Scarcely a soul expected to see them return alive considering the exasperated temper of the whole black population at that period.

Time passed and to the astonishment of the community Robinson and his party returned sound and well, leading with them whole tribes of blacks numbering 250 in all. Mr. Robinson’s good opinion of these people had proved correct. He knew that everything that violence and hostility could do had been tried, and he had a profound faith in the power of kindness. The secret of his success lay in the patient and persuasive arguments used by him and his few companions.

In the first place he knew the native language and went boldly among them without a single weapon of any sort. Then he told them that if they persisted in their present warfare against the white man they would be exterminated, for if they killed the whole of the white men, ten times as many more would come, as in their native land in the north they were innumerable. He also told them how he had come almost alone to them; how he had en-treated the governor to offer them an island absolutely for themselves and had asked for food for them. Lastly he told them that if they were afraid of being ill-treated they might keep him among them as a pledge for their own safety. These persuasive endeavours succeeded, although the winning over of the whole of the blacks was not effected with-out many other dangers, and many tiring journeys into the bush—where Mr. Robinson was often menaced by death and the utter failure of his scheme.

At length all obstacles were surmounted and the day was won. Every native man, woman and child was brought in peacefully, and conveyed to Flinders Island which was given up exclusively to the black population. Some sixty natives joined the party later, making 316 in all who were removed to their new home. The achievement is unique of its kind. Robinson was appointed their preceptor and instructor and they were taught Christianity. Un-fortunately in spite of all the kindness shown them, they began to dwindle rapidly, as all the native tribes in the southern continent seemed to do wherever the white man appeared. They numbered only forty-five when the settlement was removed to Oyster Bay. Their protector later on returned to England and died at Bath in 1866.[*]

[* The Tasmanian blacks are now extinct. The last man, William Lanne, died in 1869 and the last woman in 1876. She was called Truganini and was the daughter of a chief named Mangana.]

On 30th April, 1824, a public meeting was held in Hobart, when it was resolved to petition his Majesty that the island should be made a separate colony from New South Wales and be allowed to administer its own affairs. The request was complied with in a proclamation, dated Carlton House, 14th June, 1825, and published on 3rd December, announcing that Van Diemen’s Land and the islands thereunto adjacent were to be independent of the Government of New South Wales.[*]

[* After the death of Colonel Collins, the Government was administered until 1813 by three commandants, viz.: Lieutenant Edward Lord, Captain William Murray and Colonel Andrew Geils.

Captain Thomas Davey, the second governor of Tasmania, arrived on the 4th of February, 1813, and held the office until 9th April, 1817.

Colonel William Sorrell succeeded Colonel Davy. He was sworn in on Wednesday, the 9th April, and continued in office until 14th May, 1824.

Colonel George Arthur, the fourth lieutenant-governor, succeeded Governor Sorrell on 14th May, 1824.]

In the year 1813 when Evans journeyed over the Blue Mountains, Alexander Hamilton Hume, the native Australian explorer, born at Parramatta, a youth of seventeen, was exploring to the south-west of Sydney around Bong Bong and Berrima. In 1819, with Mr. Meehan, the Government surveyor, he reached the Goulburn Plains and the country of Argyle as far south as Lake Bathurst.

In 1824, accompanied by Captain Hovell, he left his home at Appin, thirty miles from Sydney, to march overland to the southern shores of the continent. Six convicts were of the party, and two bullock drays carried the provisions. They traversed Yass Plains to the Murrumbidgee which they crossed with difficulty. Unable to make a raft because the trees would not float, they took the axle, wheels and shafts from a cart, and used the body covered with a tarpaulin, as a punt. Hume, taking between his teeth a small line to which was attached a tow-line, swam with one of his men, and in this way the boat made its first trip across the stream. The bullocks and horses were induced to swim and all got safely over. For days they traversed dense forests—through which they caught glimpses of snow-clad mountain peaks. On 16th November they discovered the beautiful river now known as the Murray. It was 240 feet in breadth with a current of about three miles an hour, and of clear water. Again they had to improvise boats to cross. The banks were clothed with long grass to the water’s edge. On each side of the river there was a succession of lagoons within elbows formed by its windings, most frequently in the shape of a crescent with an inlet from the river and an outlet into it. The spaces between the lagoons and the main stream were sometimes more than a mile in breadth but irregular, the ground between being partly swamped, sandy and unsafe for cattle, thickly wooded with blue gum-trees, and overgrown with vines of various kinds, ferns, flax and currajong. The natives made fishing lines and nets from the flax.

Hume really first discovered this river although both he and Hovell had looked for it, and not far from the spot where the explorer first struck the stream Hovell carved his name upon a tree thus: “Hovell, November 17, 1824″. This was seen eleven years after by the first party taking cattle overland to Port Phillip. It is near the crossing place at Albury, the border town between New South Wales and Victoria, and a monument to Hume is placed close by.

On the 2ist they reached another river, no feet wide, naming it the Ovens after the governor’s secretary, Major Ovens, and on 3rd December another which they called the Goulburn after the Colonial Secretary. Continuing the journey they noticed snow-peaked mountains forming part of a high range trending to the left, while in front there lay open country with a sward of fine grass, like English rye grass, mixed with lucerne and clover.

After many miles of travel they came to a lofty mountain, which the two leaders ascended, hoping for a view of the sea from the summit, but they saw nothing of the kind and therefore christened it Mount Disappointment. On 16th December, they proceeded south-west by south and noticed at a great distance what looked like water. They thought at first that it was smoke, but upon nearer approach it proved to be the ocean. Hovell decided that the spot was Western Port but Hume maintained that it was Port Phillip. The place really reached was Corio Bay, near which Geelong now stands. The surroundings were almost clear of timber and they described the water near the shore as covered with wild fowl and looking like a large lake in a beautiful park. On 18th December, after cutting their initials on a tree to mark the end of their journey, they started homewards across Iramoo Downs near the Werribee River and recrossed the Goulburn on Christmas Day. Twelve years afterwards people travelled in their gigs all the way to Port Phillip—”the long journey being so little obstructed by impediments”.

French ships, fitted out to all appearances for the purposes of exploration but also suspected of the intention of forming a settlement, were met off the south coast in 1826. Governor Darling, therefore, gave orders for a second attempt to reach Port Phillip by sea in that year. The narrative of the expedition which was under Captain Wright of the Buffs, Captain Wetherall and Mr. Hovell, is interesting, as it describes the Victorian coast in much the same manner as Cook did the eastern coast. But Wright’s failure lay in his mistake in landing at Phillip Island, near the entrance of Western Port, instead of at Port Phillip itself.

The expedition left Sydney Harbour on 9th November, 1826, in H.M.S. Fly, followed by the colonial brig Dragon freighted with provisions and stores for Western Port, and the brig Amity with colonists who intended to settle at King George’s Sound.[*] The weather outside the heads being rough the Dragon lost sight of the Fly on the third day and did not see her again until the 23rd, when the two ships entered Western Port in company. The Amity was lost sight of on the 18th when the other vessels were off the Kent Group, and she was not seen again by either of the ships. After this stormy voyage the two vessels found a refuge behind Phillip Island which forms a natural barrier across the mouth of the harbour. When the ships drew close to the shore, men dressed in seal-skins with a number of dogs appeared from several rude conical huts, half hidden among a profusion of honeysuckle, mimosa, and gay-coloured myall which had evidently sprung up and bloomed unhindered and untended. The men were sealers who had come from Port Dalrymple and were about seven in number; they stated that they had lived there two or three years.

[* Major Lockyer was appointed commandant at King George's Sound. He abandoned this settlement and removed to Swan River in 1830.]

The vessels anchored to the north of Phillip Island after passing a wide stretch of sandy beach Thick woods on one side trended towards a shallow lagoon of salt water, where flocks of ducks and sea fowl skimmed and swami, and on the other side the shore boldly sloped to the east until shut out by a swamp of mangroves. A great part of the Dragon’s freight was landed on a sandy point about a mile from the ships, and two soldiers and a prisoner were left in charge. Near this spot the country was covered with long coarse grass. There were a few trees and a hut which had been built there some time before, besides a well dug and used by the sealers, A survey party cleared four acres of the high land opposite to the landing, a flagstaff was raised, and two long six-pounders were dragged up the steep sides of the hill and mounted facing the harbour. On Sunday, 3rd December, the British flag fluttered on the hill amid the smoke and thunder of a salute; and after further clearance of the wood on the hill-sides a sort of glacis was formed, and the battery was named Fort Dumaresq.

On the eastern side of the harbour and on Phillip Island the military party, prisoners, Government stock, and provisions were landed under Captain Wright. Home wheat and maize were sown; a vegetable garden was made and did well. Here also Captain Wetherall erected a flagstaff to communicate with that on the north-western side of the island and, when the guns were landed the settlement had an appearance of being defended. Soldiers and prisoners built huts on Phillip Island; the officers and men of the Fly encamped near Fort Dumaresq; roads were cut and wells sunk. The sealers claimed to have thoroughly explored the island and believed that a stream of water was hidden behind the range of hills which looked out to sea. The soil seemed fertile; there were honey trees, beef-wood or red-wood, and several species of mimosa. In the woods were many wallabies, king-fishers, lories, paroquets, black cockatoos, and quail were also said to be numerous; cranes and pelicans and black swans lived on the mud flats. On the appearance of the boat the swans flew off in different directions and could only be pursued two at a time. As it was moulting season the birds flew indifferently; but by paddling against the wind and dodging, immersing their bodies so that the water overbridged between their necks and backs, some escaped from the sailors. They flapped and swam alternately. Bass once made a rough calculation of the number of swans on the opposite side of the straits and estimated them at 300, all swimming within the space of a quarter of a mile square, and heard, says Collins, “the dying song of some scores; that song, so celebrated by poets of former times, exactly resembled the creaking of a rusty alehouse sign on a windy day”. The seine brought ashore sting-ray, dog-fish, mullet, sword-fish, trumpet eels and a beautiful fish resembling a sea leopard which Captain Wetherall skinned and preserved as a curiosity. Lizards were plentiful and brown snakes were seen, one of which bit a soldier who recovered after treatment by Dr. White, though a bitten pig soon died.

Mr. Hovell intended to explore the distant ranges which stretch north of French Island into Argyle and horses had been brought from Sydney in the Dragon for his use. These ranges he named the Australian Alps. At Phillip Island from a height, where a rustic hut of palisades woven together with wicker-work had been set up, the view was magnificent, extending over the scarcely ruffled surface of Western Port, the blue waters of which sparkled in the sun or in the moonlight, the background lost in rising wood while the bold profile of the mainland opposite broke in between the sea and sky.

After a careful examination Captain Wright wrote to the New South Wales Government: “I selected the site for a settlement, the only one possessing requisite advantages, viz., good anchorage and fresh water. Rich open ground to the west of a line passing from Bass’s River due north to the east arm of this port, some five miles square, is of excellent quality, well watered by lagoons and small streams. On the north shores of this square, two miles east of Kangaroo Point on which a battery of two QTuns has been constructed, the settlement is now established. By the master of the Dragon I have sent specimens of coal produced by Mr. Hovell from Cape Paterson.”

In spite of the flattering accounts by the two leaders of the expedition, the disadvantages subsequently discovered led to the settlement’s abandonment.

The aborigines of the country where Melbourne now stands consisted of only two tribes, about 200 in each tribe. They were not unfriendly and lived on opossum and kangaroo and birds such as the quail and bronze-wing pigeon, as well as water-fowl, and fish, which seemed to be obtained in great quantities.

In 1818 Captain Phillip King, son of the late governor of New South Wales, sailed in the cutter Mermaid, with Mr. Cunningham. With them went Boongaree[*] who had accompanied Captain Flinders.

[* Boongaree's grave is at Rose Bay, Sydney. Governor Macquarie gave him a brass medal engraved to the effect that he was chief of the Broken Bay Tribe. He always wore it hanging from his neck.]

NORTH AND NORTH-WEST COAST.

Their object was to examine the unexplored coast of North-West Australia where Flinders had left oft. King was particularly instructed to explore the archipelago about the Rosemary Island of Dampier, as an idea existed that the river Macquarie might discharge its waters there. He touched at Twofold Bay and sailed through Bass Straits to King George’s Sound, where he began his survey of the coast. He looked first for Vlamingh’s Plate and the more recent French one said to have been placed on Dirk Hartog Island, but found neither, and learned afterwards that they had been taken back to Paris by M. de Freycinet. Leaving North-West Cape he examined Exmouth Gulf and passed the Dampier Archipelago and Rosemary Island.

He surveyed Port Essington on the north side of the Coburg Peninsula on the northern coast. The port at its entrance is seven miles wide: the southern end forms three spacious harbours each extending for three miles with a width of about two miles. “There is no harbour except Port Jackson,” says an old writer, “to compare to it in Australia. It may be approached in all seasons and would make a convenient place of call for vessels proceeding from Sydney through Torres Straits to Java, Singapore and India.” Its one serious disadvantage is the scarcity of fresh water. The soil is excellent on the low flats and hollows and near swampy places on either side of the port. The trees are clear of undergrowth and the grass even in a dry season is good. The natives subsist chiefly on nuts, roots and seeds of a water-lily which abounds in the vicinity of the lagoons. This port is—as it were—”the friendly hand of Australia stretched out towards the north and openly inviting the scattered islanders of Java and the Malayan, Celebean, and China Seas to take rest and shelter in its waters, to bring to it the productions of their inter-tropical isles for barter and exchange for such European goods as are known to be prized by the inhabitants of those far-off countries.”

Vlamingh's Plate Giving an Inscription of Hartog's Plate Found by Him on Dirk Hartog Island, and also a Second Inscription of His Own

Vlamingh’s Plate Giving an Inscription of Hartog’s Plate Found by Him on Dirk Hartog Island, and also a Second Inscription of His Own

The following is a translation: “1616: On the 25 October came here the ship Eendraght of Amsterdam. Chief Merchant Gilles Miebais of Luck; Skipper Uirck Hatichs of Amsterdam. On the 27th ditto sailed for Bantam under Merchant Jan Stins; Upper Steersman Pieter Dookes of Bil. Anno, 1616.”

In English Vlamingh’s inscription runs: “1697: On the 4th of February arrived here the ship Geelvinck of Amsterdam, Commander and Skipper Willem de Vlamingh of Vlielandt; Assistant Joannes Bremer of Copenhagen; Upper Steersman Michil Bloem van Esticht, Bremen the hooker of the Nyptangh. Skipper Gerrit Colaart of Amsterdam; Assistant Theodoris Heirmans of ditto; Upper Steersman Gerrit Geritsen of Bremen; the Galliot, the Weeseltie, Master Cornehs de Vlamingh of Vlielandt; Steersman Coert Gerritsen of Bremen. Sailed from here with our fleet on the 12th to explore the south land and afterwards bound for Batavia.”

Vlamingh’s plate was discovered by Baudin’s Expedition in 1801, and it was said the French Commander replaced it by another. It was for this plate Captain Phillip King searched but without success.]

The north coast of Australia was, strange to say, never inhabited as were the Malay Islands close to its borders. The wild people in the north of Australia strongly resembled the Malays, and most likely the lands were peopled from the same source. But those who settled in the islands dwelt in a fruitful land, while those who settled in Australia in their poverty developed into wild men and became a terror to the islanders who visited the Australian trepang fishing grounds, where on calm days they searched for the sea slug. If the water is shallow they bring the fish to the surface with a sort of eel spear. They also fish in the moonlight when the fish come out to feed, looking like huge caterpillars crawling in and out the sandy rifts in the coral.

King ascended Alligator River in a boat for forty miles, and after seven months’ voyaging returned to Sydney with interesting collections of plants and animals. He next spent two months surveying the Tasmanian coast, and then, accompanied by Oxley in the Lady Nelson, followed the track of Flinders through Torres Straits and discovered Liverpool River on the north coast, up which he sailed between the mangrove covered banks for forty miles, and found many remarkable fish and birds. After touching at the Island of Savu, King turned homewards and reached Sydney in January, 1820. On his third voyage he sailed from Sydney in the Mermaid in June the same year, but the vessel proved unseaworthy and he had to return in the following September without finishing his exploration. In 1821, however, Governor Macquarie fitted out a vessel named the Bathurst, or Earl Bathurst it is sometimes called, 170 tons, especially for him, and sailing by way of Torres Straits he again visited the north-west coast and established Port Cockburn settlement in Western Australia.

Two experimental settlements were formed on the north coast between the years 1824 and 1828. One was placed at Apsley Strait on Melville Island and the other in Rafiles Bay, the latter being abandoned in 1829. In 1824 Captain (afterwards Sir James) Gordon Bremer left England in the Tamar for New South Wales. He sailed from Sydney to establish settlements on the outlying portions of the Australian coast, and on 21st October, 1824, he landed some guns and fixed up houses at Port Dundas, the settlement being placed in charge of Captain Barlow. Major Campbell succeeded Captain Barlow, but the settlement was afterwards abandoned owing to the hostility of the natives and the privations caused by the loss of the Lady Nelson.[*] She had been sent by Captain Bremer to fetch supplies from the island of Timor and was taken by pirates off the west coast of that island on her outward voyage. This was the last heard of the little brig which was perhaps more closely connected with the exploration of Australia than any other vessel.[**]

[* Another settlement was made in 1831.]

[** The Lady Nelson was built at Deptford in 1799, but, for ten years before King took her over, was used as a coal ship. In the Sydney Gazette a writer states that "When leaving Fort Dundas for the last time those on board the Lady Nelson were warned to avoid an island called Babba. This order was not obeyed. Every one in the ship was massacred, and the hull of the vessel was seen some time afterwards with the name painted on her stern."]

QUEENSLAND.

In 1823 Oxley in the cutter Mermaid explored the shores of Moreton Bay. He had sailed as far north as Curtis Bay, had examined its coasts and then turned south, reaching Moreton Bay in December. Here he rescued four colonists who had left Sydney in an open boat to fetch cedar from Illawarra (a harbour about fifty miles to the south). They had been driven out of their course and, after much hardship, from which one member of their party died, had been wrecked on Moreton Island where they would have perished had they not been aided by friendly natives who supplied them with fish and dingowa, or fern root. From Pamphlet and Finnegan, two of the rescued men, Oxley received information inducing him to ascend a river which discharged into the bay. The river was of large size, flowing through beautiful scenery, alternately hilly and level. Oxley ascended to a distance of about seventy miles and found the land covered with brushwood, cedar, tulip-wood, and bamboo, with timber of great height, the most noticeable trees being Cupressus australis and the pine now known as Araucaria cunninghamii, having from fifty to eighty feet of trunk without a branch. He named the river the Brisbane and chose a site for a settlement at Redcliff Point on the north side of the entrance to Moreton Bay.[*] Taking with him the two rescued men Oxley returned to Sydney on 13th December.

[* This was Oxley's last expedition—he died at Kirkham near Sydney on 25th May, 1828.]

In 1825 Major Lockyer in the Mermaid[*] made further researches on the Brisbane River. The first commandant appointed from Sydney at Redcliff was Lieutenant Millar. He was followed by Captain Bishop and then by Captain Logan, after whom the Logran River was named and in whose time the massive barracks were built and cotton cultivated with success. In 1830, after Logan had been killed by the natives, it was decided to do away with convict labour at this settlement, and not long afterwards a settlement was made at a more suitable place on the Brisbane River where Captain Clunie was appointed commandant. This new offshoot from Sydney became so prosperous that it developed into the capital of Queensland.

[* The Mermaid, colonial cutter, so well known in maritime exploration, and a vessel in which Captain King took many voyages, was finally wrecked in 1829. This wreck constituted the first of what was according to an article printed in the Sydney Gazette, "a record of mishaps which overtook one ship-wrecked mariner". Captain Nolbrow left Sydney in the Mermaid in 1829 for Port Raffles or Raffles Bay, a settlement which as has been already stated was evacuated in 1829. On entering Torres Straits the Mermaid ran ashore and was lost. All on board were saved, and in three days the ship Siviftsure hove in sight and took Captain Nolbrow and his crew on board. In three days she too ran ashore and the crew were saved and taken on board by the ship Governor Ready which was hailed by the ship-wrecked people. Within a few days the Governor Ready ran ashore. All were again saved and the ship Comet soon afterwards took the crews of the lost ships on board, but in a few days she was wrecked. Again every one was saved. At last the ship Jupiter came in sight and taking the now numerous crews on board steered for Raffles Bay. At the entrance of the port this vessel also ran ashore and received damage. Captain Nolbrow here, however, found the Government brig Amity and, strange to say, this vessel was nearly wrecked in Gage's Roads. One must bear in mind that the passage where most of the ships ran ashore is one of the most intricate waterways in the world; and ships at that time—when so few ports existed, and there were no docks near at hand to allow them to be cleaned or repaired—often put to sea in a very unseaworthy condition.]

WEST AUSTRALIA.

King George’s Sound was found by both Vancouver and King to be a very good harbour, and in 1826 a small settlement, under the command of Major Lockyer was made there by New South Wales. Flinders Land, as part of South Australia was then called, extended in a south-easterly direction to Grant’s Land, which now forms part of Victoria.

One of the most important expeditions to Western Australia was that which sailed from Sydney in 1827 under Captain Stirling in H.M.S. Success, Mr. Frazer, the colonial botanist at Sydney, being a member of the party. The country along both sides of the Swan River on which Perth and Fremantle now stand was carefully explored for some sixty miles and the Canning or Moreau[*] was also surveyed for forty miles. Captain Stirling reported that he had found a beautiful country where he had seen many turtles and kangaroos and myriad black swans, besides cockatoos different from any met with elsewhere. In returning to Sydney the Success touched at Rottnest or Rat’s Nest Island, on 6th March; it was found to be barren, with the Horseshoe Reefs on either side nearly connecting it with the mainland. On receiving Captain Stirling’s account of the west coast the New South Wales Government despatched him to England to advise that a settlement should be made there. Captain Fremantle of the Challenger was afterwards sent from the Cape of Good Hope to take formal possession of the country; his ship anchored off the Swan River on 2nd May, 1829. On 2nd June, 1829, the ship Parmelia under Captain Luscombe arrived with Lieutenant-Governor Stirling and his family, a small detachment of the 63rd regiment and some sixty-nine settlers, and thus began the settlement of another colony of Australia. The governor’s commission, however, limited the boundaries of the new colony to the Meridian of 129° E., thus leaving a gap in the interior between 129° and 135°. This portion of Australia was Noman’s Land until 1855 when it was included in the boundaries of the parent colony.

[* The Canning River was taken by the French to be an outlet which they called Moreau.]

The population of the Swan River Colony in December, 1829, numbered 800 people, including a detachment of sixty soldiers under the command of Captain Owen and Lieutenant Peddar, The latter officer afterwards was appointed A.D.C. to Lieutenant-Governor Arthur in Tasmania. The large grant of land, 250,000 acres, which had been allotted Mr. Peel was, it was thought, to be thrown open to small settlers on 2nd November, 1829, as that gentleman had not arrived from England to take possession of it according to the terms under which it was granted to him. It was stated that his expedition to West Australia had been countermanded by the British Government because an outcry had been raised and questions asked in Parliament by Mr. Joseph Hume as to the legality of granting away such large tracts of territory. Several cartoons appeared in the London papers representing Mr. Peel with a black swan under his arm while he plucked feathers from its tail and underneath was printed “Cousin Tom feathering his nest”. These undesirable caricatures brought forth a speech from the Secretary of State for the Colonies disclaiming any participation in the proceedings of his fifty-third cousin, or, as Mr. Hume called it, the Peel Colony. However an understanding was come to between Mr. Peel and the Government, and he arrived in the ship Gilmore in December, 1829, with a large establishment of 170 people, and settled at Clarence or Peel Town, a harbour on the coast twenty-five miles south of Swan River. The grant of 250,000 acres was made to Mr. Peel on condition that he took out 400 emigrants to the colony. The first governor, Captain James Stirling, received a grant of 100,000 acres from the Home Government as a reward for his services in exploring West Australia, and he settled at Isle Buache.

NORFOLK ISLAND.

Governor Phillip before leaving England had been instructed to occupy Norfolk Island and on 6th March, 1788, Lieutenants King and Ball with a party of twenty-three landed in the Supply and took possession. The settlement in October of that year had sixty-two inhabitants and continued to increase by additions from Port Jackson. On Sydney Bay on the south side of the island log huts were built and thatched with bulrushes and flags. The cabbage palm and flax plant were found growing in great quantities. In January, 1790, the population had increased to 149 persons. Governor Ross, who arrived in the Sirius and Supply with a large body of marines and convicts, was ordered to take command in March, 1790, and Lieutenant King, after visiting the governor at Sydney, returned to England to give such information to his Majesty and Ministers respecting the settlement as could not be conveyed by letter. The Sirius, after landing the passengers from Port Jackson, was blown upon the rocks and became a complete wreck[*] and only a little of the cargo was saved. In 1791 Lieutenant King returned to the island as governor, and in 1796, Captain Townson succeeded him. An order for the evacuation of the island was issued by the authorities in 1803. The settlers were to have been removed to Tasmania and to Sydney but the fulfilment of this purpose was long delayed. It was partly carried out in 1803, in 1813 and in 1825, but the island was used as a penal settlement down to the year 1855. Lord Howe Island was surveyed and named in March, 1788, by Lieutenant King.

[* The anchor of the Sirius was discovered in 1905, and has been placed in the museum at Sydney.]


VIII. THE PIONEERS AND THE NATIVES OF THE INTERIOR.

VIII. Para pionir DAN PRIBUMI Dalam Negeri.
Ketika menjadi dikenal di Inggris bahwa orang kulit putih bisa hidup di New South Wales, dan bahwa negara itu subur, emigran dan modal mulai mengalir ke sana, meskipun perlahan pada awalnya. Bahkan di hari-hari awal, berikut saat kunjungan dari La Perouse, orang asing itu datang ke sana, dan Spanyol, kapal-kapal Rusia dan lainnya perang menjatuhkan jangkar di Teluk Netral, nama yang diberikan ke tempat yang indah disisihkan untuk kapal bangsa asing di Port Jackson, Tapi, setelah disilangkan Blue Mountains dan interior yang luas mulai dieksplorasi, pertumbuhan nyata dari Australia mulai. Tidak hanya tahanan dan tentara dan pelancong mengisi kapal yang melewati kepala Port Jackson, namun petani kokoh dengan istri mereka dan keluarga tersenyum dari dek dan menatap heran pada penyelesaian terurai sebagai pembuluh menarik ke Sydney Cove. Beberapa tampaknya menyesali menulis surat-surat kepada Tuhan Bathurst yang masih dapat dibaca, bersama dengan rekomendasi yang menyertainya dari orang-orang berpengaruh di kota-kota atau desa, memohon bahwa pelamar mungkin diijinkan untuk menetap di New South Wales. Benteng mahkota bukit, kincir angin batu yang tinggi, menara gereja kecil St Filipus dengan berwajah persegi clock; barak dalam baris putih panjang, di mana pada 9:00 setiap malam terdengar pemukulan drum, diikuti oleh suara dari terompet dan teriakan simultan “Semua baik-baik” dari sentinel, dan, di bawahnya, jembatan satu-lengkung mencakup sungai, semua mengatakan dengan jelas bahwa mereka termasuk orang-orang dari kebangsaan mereka sendiri. Sementara jarak yang cukup dekat, diselimuti oleh pepohonan dan dibedakan oleh bendera nasional, berdiri vila kecil yang sederhana yang disebut Government House di mana penguasa koloni tinggal di negara.

Sebelum lama pemukiman baru mulai menjadi konten; semangat patriotisme lokal terhadap negara baru mereka terbangun dalam diri mereka, dan sementara mereka tetap setia kepada mereka tanah air mereka belajar untuk mencintai rumah mereka di selatan.

Para pemukim pertama dan keluarganya, hamba-Nya, jika ia cukup beruntung untuk memiliki apapun, kuda-kudanya, penggembalaan ternak di padang penggembalaan (kecuali yang pertama beberapa dibawa ke koloni), bunga-bunga, di antaranya ungu manis, mawar , para gadis yg duduk tanpa berdansa dan banci itu, di taman yang baru dibuat entah Inggris atau keturunan Inggris. Kecil banyak hal dari mereka, tapi mereka memainkan bagian mereka dalam membantu pada peradaban dan memberikan warna pada pikiran anak-anak di tanah jauh. Para pemukim pelopor yang membuka barat, selatan dan utara, mereka yang mengikuti Wentworth, Evans, Oxley dan Cunningham, Sturt dan Mitchell, dan kemudian, Burke dan Wills, disimpan sibuk bekerja. Pekerjaan mereka dalam memuluskan jalan bagi generasi muda, dan meletakkan dasar kota-kota masa depan dan masyarakat, layak, dan mungkin suatu hari akan memperoleh, pengakuan lebih lengkap daripada yang belum diberikan untuk itu.

Nama-nama dari beberapa pionir sekarang didengar dalam mart wol besar, mereka membedakan banyak dari ternak di belahan bumi selatan, dan dibicarakan di Randwick atau Flemington ketika perwakilan dari salah satu stud kolonial lama wrests kemenangan dari keturunan dari beberapa ras Inggris.

Untuk pemukim awal dan penghuni liar pendudukan pastoral itu dilanda dengan kesulitan. Selain insiden milik pribadi untuk cara hidup mereka, mereka harus berbaring account mereka dengan kekeringan, musim yang buruk, dan fluktuasi harga ternak dan wol. Mereka tidak jarang bersaing dengan masalah keuangan, hutang karena bank atau kepada Pemerintah, dan, sementara itu, w-seperti kepada mereka bahwa penduduk di Sydney mencari pasokan makanan mereka.

Memang benar bahwa pada hari-hari awal hibah tanah [*] adalah bebas diberikan, dan kadang-kadang orang-orang yang tidak bisa atau tidak akan mengubah properti itu ke rekening menguntungkan, tapi menjual hak mereka pada ridiculously harga rendah. Jadi pada waktu saluran lebar akan berada di tangan sedikit, dan fakta ini telah menunjuk sebagai menyakitkan bagi kepentingan masyarakat, meskipun tidak ada alasan untuk mengandaikan bahwa pemilik asli baik hibah besar atau kecil bisa saja berubah mereka ke account yang lebih baik. Dari pertama, tanah telah berpindah tangan secara bebas, meskipun perubahan tidak selalu lebih baik, tetapi pemukim yang telah menempel ke peternakan mereka dan rumah-rumah tampaknya telah menjadi tulang punggung dari koloni itu, mengamankan oleh kehati-hatian mereka dan industri kesejahteraan dari mereka yang tergantung pada mereka, dan dengan demikian memajukan kesejahteraan umum. Di New South Wales ada keluarga yang, setelah seratus tahun keberuntungan baik dan jahat, masih memegang tanah diberikan kepada mereka di hari-hari dari Macquarie dan Brisbane, dan dengan pandangan ke depan mereka dan tenaga kerja tak henti-hentinya telah meningkatkan sumber daya tidak hanya mereka sendiri lahan tetapi negara lain.

[* Lihat Negara Pertanian di New South Wales, oleh H. Dangar. 1828.]

Rumah pertama dari pemukim desain sangat sederhana. Jika pemukim itu orang kaya, rumah weatherboard dibagi menjadi empat atau lima kamar di lantai dasar dengan dinding kayu dan langit-langit dan lantai, dan putaran beranda berjalan, dianggap layak kekayaan atau posisi, tapi sebagian besar rumah dibangun dari lembaran kayu dengan atap dari rumbia atau dari kulit kayu, sebuah bangunan kecil untuk melayani sebagai dapur yang kadang-kadang ditambahkan. Beberapa meter dari sebuah gubuk ke rumah pria berguna.

Kemudian tempat penyimpanan ternak dan pagar membuat penampilan mereka, dan seperti kambing domba meningkat, wol gudang-sederhana, yang sebagai kecil dibandingkan dengan gudang to-hari sebagai bangunan kuno adalah yang pertama dilingkari Sydney Cove dibandingkan dengan gudang besar yang sekarang mengelilingi Circular Quay. Namun ini kecil dan kambing domba gudang tersebar dan ternak adalah awal dari sheepfolds luas dan tempat penyimpanan ternak dari benua selatan. Gaya rumah segera ditingkatkan. Ketika tanah dari batu bata yang bisa dibuat ditemukan, dan pembangun dan pekerja tiba dari Inggris, arsitektur menjadi indah dan nyaman. Banyak kemiripan ke kelas yang lebih baik dari rumah-rumah pertanian di Inggris, atau dibangun dalam mode India disetujui setelah cara sebuah bungalow besar. Semua tanpa kecuali memiliki beranda yang teduh lebar yang berlari hampir bulat rumah. Dan menaiki tiang kayu mawar dan tanaman rambat hati-hati dilatih, dan sebagai Australia adalah negara tumbuh-kembang dari peringkat pertama mereka meminjamkan kecantikan tambahan untuk lanskap.

Di bagian negara bunga favorit adalah mawar-mawar bulanan lama tumbuh dengan sempurna-dan hampir tidak salah satu rumah tua itu tanpa bunga mereka merah atau putih. Mereka membuntuti di atas atap rendah panjang dan menyebar ke seluruh rumah putih-depan dan sepanjang pagar pendek dan dipintal benangnya antara pagar duri [*] melampirkan taman. Para Banksia kuning dan putih, dan lumut putih atau merah muda mawar beraroma udara. Kebun Australia-hari dipenuhi dengan bunga-bunga terpilih yang bisa diperoleh di Eropa yang berkembang dengan cara yang menempatkan wakil-wakil mereka malu di negara-negara yang lebih tua, tetapi tidak ada terlihat lebih cantik daripada rumah-rumah tua di waktu “mawar” .

[* Baik Whitethorn dan blackthorn pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Mr Nicholas Bayly di Bayly Park.]

Banyak dari rumah-rumah tua sekarang bobrok. Nah dibangun karena beberapa dari mereka, matahari dan semi-tropis terik hujan telah menghancurkan atap sirap dan dinding diplester putih. Mereka adalah reruntuhan pertama di Australia. Berbeda karena mereka berasal dari istana dan rumah-rumah bangsawan yang kemuliaan dan kebanggaan Inggris, penduduk liar tua yang tinggal di dalamnya mencintai mereka sebagai mahal dan membela mereka dengan semangat sebanyak feodal di masa lalu membela rumah mereka. Barangsiapa telah membaca serangan di Goimbla dekat Forbes di New South Wales, ketika David Campbell menentang seperangkat bajingan dari deskripsi terburuk, yang, gentar dengan sikap berani liar itu, tinggalkan serangan mereka di rumahnya dan membakar kandang , akan mengakui kebenaran pernyataan ini. Ditembak untuk menembak, peluru untuk peluru dikembalikan oleh penghuni liar, sementara istrinya di sampingnya, loading dan loading kembali senjatanya, dan dengan hidupnya terbuka terkena bahaya, mendorong dia dalam perlawanan itu. Benteng kayu beranda tua itu masih menanggung tanda-tanda memimpin mana pecah kayu atau berbaring tertanam di dalamnya. Pemilik merasa kecewa Goimbla saat ia menyaksikan sorotan kandang nya terbakar, tetapi hampir kewalahan ketika dia melihat kuda favoritnya membayar kehilangan dengan kehidupan untuk berani sendiri. Ruang antara kandang dan gudang membentuk segi empat yang. Berputar-putar kandang ini, hewan ini berlari, berusaha sia-sia untuk melepaskan diri dari panas terik, sementara salah satu bushrangers berdiri melihat dari atas pagar pagar untuk menertawakan atas hasil hasil karyanya. Tapi Mr Campbell adalah seorang ahli dan ditembak di malam api unggun itu sejelas hari. Salah satu sudut di ujung rumah dekat dengan tempat bushranger menyaksikan kuda, berbaring dalam bayangan. Meninggalkan barikade nya liar merayap putaran beranda. Api melompat cerah ketika ia menandai orang itu. Sebuah laporan yang tajam berdering melalui udara. Liar itu tahu bahwa ia tidak melewatkan tujuannya, untuk tiba-tiba palings diasumsikan garis lurus lagi dan bushranger itu lenyap. Itu tersenyum pada penderitaan makhluk bodoh itu adalah tindakan terakhir dan penobatan ketidakmanusiawian nya. Di pagi hari, ketika bantuan datang, tubuhnya ditelusuri ke tempat itu telah diseret oleh teman-temannya, jauh di bidang gandum tumbuh, matang dan siap panen.

Bagaimana bahkan wisma kecil dapat memperbaiki lahan baru telah digambarkan oleh Sir Thomas Mitchell dalam kisah ekspedisi pertama ke pedalaman Australia selama tahun 1832-35. Kembali setelah perjalanan panjang di lelah barat, di tengah-tengah semak-semak padat di bagian unsurveyed Sungai Bogan, partai menjelajahi tiba-tiba melihat asap mengepul dari cerobong asap di antara pohon-pohon dan, pertemuan suku kulit hitam, diberitahu bahwa mereka dekat peternakan di mana dua orang kulit putih tinggal. Mereka bergegas menuju tempat tinggal orang-orang ini, dan penampilan simetris dari pagar tempat penyimpanan ketika pertama kali tertangkap mata begitu lama terbiasa dengan garis-garis alam yang sederhana, senang mereka sebagai tidak melihat cerobong asap. Kedua pengurus domba, bagaimanapun, untuk seperti orang kulit putih terbukti, tampaknya telah cukup untuk melakukan dalam menjaga pribumi dalam humor yang baik dan mengamankan keselamatan mereka sendiri. Dari pengurus domba Mitchell pertama kali mendengar berita otentik dari pembunuhan oleh orang kulit hitam Mr Cunningham, salah satu partainya.

Mayor Mitchell [*] melanjutkan dengan menceritakan bahwa stasiun sapi diduduki oleh pengurus domba dan ternak dari Mr William Lee dari Bathurst yang mengikuti dia di perjalanan keluar nya. Sir John Jamieson memiliki stasiun pada Nammoy tersebut; dan Mr Pyke memiliki satu juga pada Bogan tersebut. Ini adalah pelopor pertama yang mengikuti kemana Mitchell telah memimpin jalan.

[* Lihat Tiga Ekspedisi ke Interior New South Wales,, 1832-35 oleh Mayor Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, vol. i., hal 331; Eksplorasi Australia Favenc, hlm 109.]

Sementara pemukim pertama kali bekerja menebang pohon, bangunan rumah dan meletakkan tempat penyimpanan itu, kelompok-kelompok kecil pribumi datang dari retret mereka untuk menatap pada transformasi. Penduduk asli di luar Blue Mountains berbeda dalam banyak hal dari orang kulit hitam Sydney, meskipun mereka menyerupai mereka secara pribadi. Mereka mengenakan jubah persegi kulit kangguru dijahit bersama-sama dengan otot dari emu dan dipakai longgar di atas bahu, beberapa berpaling ke dalam bulu samping dengan perangkat penasaran pada sisi luar. Dalam upaya ornamen mereka terlihat lebih maju dari pribumi pantai, perangkat ini yang pertama ditelusuri dengan memotong atau meningkatkan garis pada kulit dengan alat yang tajam dan kemudian atas-menjahit dengan benang dari otot-otot emu. Gubernur Macquarie dijelaskan satu untuk Tuhan Bathurst yang katanya menanggung “secara teratur membentuk salib St George sebagai bisa dibuat”.

Bathurst kulit hitam yang ceria dan baik hati dan tidak suka perang. Tombak mereka berat dan canggung dan bisa dilempar hanya jarak pendek, seperti yang dari Maori, mereka diburu kanguru dengan anjing yang sebagai aturan baik hitam atau putih dengan bintik-bintik merah. Mereka berbicara bahasa yang berbeda dari saudara-saudara mereka di Sydney, dan yang asli Macquarie mengambil dengan dia pada tahun 1815, berharap, bahwa ia akan digunakan sebagai penerjemah, tidak bisa memahami mereka sama sekali. Orang ini sangat gelisah ketika ia melihat orang kulit hitam aneh yang pada awalnya gugup juga, terutama saat melihat kuda-kuda, tapi segera menjadi ramah dan tampak bangga dari setiap artikel sedikit yang diberikan mereka.

Penduduk asli pedalaman, seperti pantai, memiliki beberapa ide tentang masalah agama. Mereka tidak punya padanan kata untuk kata Tuhan dalam arti yang kita gunakan, tetapi mereka menganugerahkan Piame nama, Baiamai atau Byamy pada semangat yang baik dari orang-orang hitam di Lachlan tersebut. Dia dianggap oleh mereka sebagai bapak ras mereka, dan diyakini telah tinggal sebagai orang asing di antara mereka. Mudjegong atau Coppeer atau Mannai (semua tiga nama yang digunakan) adalah roh jahat, sebuah suku Wellington mengatakan bahwa ia, setelah keberadaannya berasal dari Piame, mengumumkan perang kepadanya, dan sekarang berusaha dengan segala kuasa-Nya untuk menggantikan dirinya. Keturunan dari Piame yang banyak kata mereka, tetapi secara keseluruhan, kecuali dua, dihancurkan oleh Mudjegong, yang dikonversi mereka menjadi binatang liar yang berbeda. Sejumlah perangkat diukir oleh orang kulit hitam di pohon itu dimaksudkan untuk mewakili transmigrations ini; seperti ular, yang opossum, yang emu, kanguru, yang cockchafer, dll, sementara yang lain mengatakan untuk menunjukkan petir bercabang, senjata dan bintang jatuh. Roh jahat tampaknya dijelaskan dalam bentuk elang-elang, tiruan eyrie nya membentuk objek mencolok dalam penguburan-alasan mereka. Penduduk asli tentang Bathurst dan Wellington, ketika dekat sungai, sering membuat lingkaran dengan womerahs mereka dan, duduk sendiri di tanah, masing-masing pada gilirannya melemparkan batu ke dalam air, mengatakan, “Itu adalah untuk menenangkan murka Yang Jahat” . Terkadang mereka akan membuat lingkaran di dataran terbuka dan saat mereka berkata “mencoba untuk alasan dengan Roh Jahat”.

Mereka tidak memiliki simbol untuk angka di atas lima; di atas jumlah itu hanya digunakan kata berarti banyak dan mungkin berarti sepuluh atau dua puluh atau seribu. Dalam semua yang berkaitan dengan ide-ide abstrak mereka kekurangan, tetapi dalam daya pemahaman mereka lebih sangat berbakat, fakta membuktikan tidak hanya pada manusia atau binatang pelacakan mereka, tetapi juga dalam perkenalan mereka dengan benda-benda alam. Asli tahu setiap bunga, tanaman, atau pohon, burung setiap, serangga atau reptil, dia tampaknya memandang mereka sebagai sendiri dan menganggap mereka dengan bunga terbesar. Ketika ditanya nama bunga atau kupu-kupu dia bisa menjawab dengan segera, dan, dalam menggambarkan mereka, akan memanggil salah satu baik dan yang lain buruk, akan memberitahu apakah itu langka atau umum, dan menyebutkan banyak fakta tentang itu, menunjukkan bahwa ia mencintai dan tahu alam sekelilingnya.

Terlihat dalam keadaan alami mereka di semak-semak rekan-rekan hitam muncul untuk keuntungan terbesar; orang-orang di Bathurst adalah ras, sederhana takhayul, ingin menunjukkan keterampilan mereka dan tidak berterima kasih untuk kebaikan. Mereka memang dalam banyak hal yang sebaliknya dari beberapa buffoons sengsara yang harus dipenuhi di jalan-jalan kota Sydney. Namun, seperti semua ras biadab, orang-orang semak yang pendendam dan semangat balas dendam di dalamnya tidak mudah ditundukkan.

Pertengkaran dengan penduduk asli pedalaman dapat dikatakan telah dimulai pada hari-hari gubernur pertama. Serangan pertama pada kulit putih yang telah disebutkan yang meletus pada Hawkesbury. Di Sungai Nepean pada 1816 sebuah band dari tiga puluh dijarah rumah pemukim dan tujuh laki-laki kulit putih yang mengikuti perampok disergap dan dibunuh. Kulit hitam, gembira dengan kesuksesan mereka, menyerang setiap rumah di lingkungan itu dan merampok tim melewati sepanjang Jalan Besar di Barat dalam perjalanan mereka ke Bathurst dengan ketentuan. Secara bertahap meningkatkan dalam jumlah dana untuk sembilan puluh atau seratus mereka tumbuh lebih berani, dan menutup putaran pemukim terpencil dekat Sydney, sampai Gubernur Macquarie disebut pertemuan pribumi pantai ramah, menawarkan hadiah untuk cincin-pemimpin suku menjijikkan, dan dalam cara ini, dengan bantuan dari tentara, ketertiban dipulihkan.

Di sisi barat pegunungan pemukim berada di luar jangkauan perlindungan tersebut, dan, sebelum 1824, dua puluh Inggris telah meninggal di tangan orang kulit hitam di wilayah itu. Pada bulan Agustus, tahun 1824, lebih dari 600 penduduk asli berkumpul untuk menyatakan permusuhan mereka kepada orang kulit putih. Tidak diragukan lagi mereka telah menerima provokasi, bagi para hamba pemukim, bukannya berusaha untuk mendamaikan mereka, bertindak seolah-olah mereka adalah “tuan tanah”. Penduduk asli alami membenci ini dan berpendapat bahwa meskipun hal-hal yang orang kulit putih telah membawa atas gunung-gunung milik orang kulit putih, negara itu sendiri dan binatang liar, burung, tanaman asli, dan semua yang ada di sana sebelum orang asing datang milik sesama hitam. Sayangnya mereka tidak mempertimbangkan bahwa hasil tanah dikerjakan dan ditaburi oleh orang kulit putih milik pemukim, dan mereka membuat serangan sering pada tanaman muda. Setelah penilik yang datang tiba-tiba pada suku kulit hitam mundur dengan jala mereka penuh dengan tongkol jagung-muda kelezatan hijau besar yang mereka suka pemanggangan di api mereka. Kesal melihat kehancuran ladang jagung dan keberanian terbuka mereka, pria itu menembaki mereka. Pistol itu sarat dengan tembakan kecil, yang orang kulit hitam dingin diterima pada perisai persegi panjang mereka dan dengan ejekan mengejeknya sebagai tembakan yang buruk. Pada hari berikutnya orang yang sama menemukan mereka lagi menyerobot lapangan dan menembaki mereka, kali ini melukai sesama hitam. Lama kemudian, ketika orang sudah lupa pertengkaran itu, tubuh pria itu ditemukan ditombak, dan ada sedikit keraguan untuk biang keladinya.

Pada tahun 1824 penduduk asli diburu sapi menjadi semak-semak dan, ketika terdeteksi, mendesak sebagai alasan bahwa orang kulit putih telah diusir kanguru dan possum, dan bahwa pria kulit hitam sekarang harus punya daging sapi. Cara di mana mereka membunuh ternak dan kadang-kadang berusaha untuk menghindari deteksi, mengatakan kertas Sydney, cerdik. Mereka berhasil melubangi tengkorak hewan dengan tombak, membuat lubang seukuran bola senapan. Ketika bangkai hewan itu ditemukan, dan mereka ditangkap, mereka dengan tenang menjawab bahwa binatang itu telah dibunuh oleh seorang pria kulit putih, pada saat yang sama menunjuk ke tempat di mana mereka mengatakan bola itu masuk. Mereka membunuh domba dan dimasak dalam lubang besar yang mereka menggali keluar dari bumi, membuat kebakaran dan meletakkan daging yang dicincang-atas pembakaran kayu, kemudian beberapa lembar kulit kayu tersebut ditempatkan di atas daging dan ditutup dengan tanah, sehingga membentuk oven.

Kepala yang paling terkenal di Bathurst adalah sesama kulit hitam bernama Sabtu yang merupakan orang yang sangat kuat, tinggi dan berotot. Ditolong oleh seorang kepala yang dikenal sebagai Minggu, yang juga dibangun dengan baik tetapi lebih tebal ditetapkan, ia sangat sulit untuk para pemukim, dan perampokan yang begitu sering bahwa polisi menerima perintah untuk menangkapnya, 500 hektar tanah yang ditawarkan oleh Pemerintah untuk penangkapan nya. Lembaran Sydney menceritakan bahwa kekuatannya begitu menakjubkan sehingga butuh enam orang untuk mengamankan dirinya. Ia dianugerahi penjara satu bulan, dan segera setelah itu, pada tanggal 28 Desember, 1824, ia membuat pengajuan untuk Sir Thomas Brisbane di Parramatta, naik ke kota pada kepala sukunya, bantalan cabang pohon sebagai korban perdamaian .

Ada lagi kepala sama-sama merepotkan dikenal sebagai Blucher, yang dengan sukunya membuat razia pada stasiun ternak liar di Clarendon, dekat Mudgee, Mengemudi dari semua saham yang mereka bisa menemukan orang kulit hitam telah berlangsung jauh sebelum Chamberlane, pengawas , dengan dua laki-laki datang dengan mereka. Mereka bertemu di bagian padat berhutan dari semak-semak. Melihat bahwa ia diikuti dengan tiga puluh orang kulit hitam Blucher berbalik dan menyerang para penunggang kuda itu. Sebuah mandi tombak menembus semak-semak dan bumerang meluncur melalui cabang-cabang, salah satu yang terakhir terluka kuda pengawas buruk, yang begitu marah orang yang menggambar pistol ia berbalik di pelana dan menembak antara orang kulit hitam, pada saat yang sama desakannya laki-laki untuk mundur. “Tiga kali,” kata penulis Sydney, “retrograded dia dan menghadapi serangan sengit dari kulit hitam, dan akhirnya orang kulit putih melarikan diri.” Blucher, bagaimanapun, ditembak dalam keributan di tempat umum. Setelah mendengar ini Morrisett Mayor pertemuan dengan pihak besar tentara dan pemukim berangkat dari Bathurst untuk menahan serangan dari pribumi.

Terlepas dari kecenderungan mencuri mereka, orang kulit hitam bermanfaat untuk orang kulit putih. Mereka memancing dan berburu, dan perempuan-perempuan diajarkan tugas-tugas domestik oleh istri-istri para pemukim. Kekuatan mereka yang luar biasa mimikri diberikan hiburan, dan mereka bisa menyanyikan sebuah lagu atau mengulangi frase dalam bahasa Inggris dengan kecepatan yang mengagumkan setelah mendengar hanya sekali atau dua kali, tapi seperti burung beo tanpa menangkap maknanya.

Corroboree mereka, atau tarian perang utama, dilakukan seluruh negeri dalam banyak cara yang sama, yang biasanya ditarikan pada malam hari, dan sebagai aturan di bawah sinar bulan. Untuk beberapa waktu sedikit sebelum penonton duduk menunggu di baris setengah lingkaran, tiga atau empat dalam. Sebuah kebakaran besar dinyalakan dan ruang disimpan jelas oleh laki-laki terbungkus kulit opossum, sementara nyanyian monoton atau lagu dimainkan oleh memukul tongkat pada perisai dibuat baik permen-pohon kulit atau kayu solid. Para musisi biasanya adalah perempuan, tersembunyi di antara semak belukar tersebut. Mayat para penari dicat putih di berbagai perangkat, yang umumnya diperpanjang dari bahu ke pinggul, dan wajah mereka biasanya merah atau putih. Angka-angka, perlahan-lahan maju dari ketidakjelasan dari pohon ke nyala api, datang pada pertama dengan dua-dua dan melakukan gerakan penasaran, satu persatu orang lain bergabung dan menari akan mempercepat secara bertahap menjadi semacam cap pendek belakang dan ke depan, meningkatkan kekuatan sampai akhirnya tanah tampak goyang, dan melompat Corroboree atau musim semi itu tercapai. Memegang senjata dan mengangkat lengan mereka pada tinggi pribumi kemudian akan miring kepala dari salah satu bahu yang lain, menjaga setiap melompat dan kecenderungan dalam waktu yang sempurna dengan ketukan dan suara para penyanyi. Meskipun pada awalnya para penari terus ke satu baris panjang dan melompat hanya enam inci samping, sebagai garis dua kali lipat, tiga kali lipat, atau empat kali lipat, mereka bervariasi pembentukan mereka dan baris pertama akan melompat ke kiri, yang kedua ke kanan, dan yang ketiga dan keempat ke kiri dan kanan bergantian. Setelah hampir melelahkan diri mereka sendiri mereka akan berhenti secara bersamaan dan, tenggelam pada lutut mereka dengan semacam ratapan yang suram, membungkuk ke depan sendiri ke bumi, dan bubar.

Sir Thomas Mitchell mengamati bahwa penduduk asli di Sungai Sayang dinyatakan permusuhan dengan melemparkan debu dengan jari-jari kaki mereka, dan tidak suka dengan meludah, tindakan-tindakan simbolis menyerupai orang-orang dipraktekkan di Timur. Di wilayah ini banyak kuburan ditandai dengan gips putih gipsum dibakar, mungkin disimpan oleh para janda dari orang-orang terkubur di dalamnya. Para janda dari suku-suku tertentu pada Darling dan di Fort Bourke di New South Wales diplester kepala mereka, memperbaharui plester selama enam atau tujuh bulan, dan tidak akan menikah lagi selama tujuh bulan setelah gips telah memudar. Para pria mengenakan sekeliling kepala perban rapi tempa atau fillet memutih dengan pipeclay sebagai tanda berkabung untuk orang mati. Pipeclay sangat sangat dihargai oleh mereka dan penduduk asli Darling menyimpannya di sebuah gubuk khusus terpisah untuk penyimpanan.

Pribumi Australia di Pengadilan

Penduduk asli menguburkan mereka yang mati di sungai yang berbeda berbeda. Pada Bogan kuburan tertutup seperti kita sendiri dan dikelilingi dengan berjalan-jalan melengkung dan dihiasi tanah. Di Sungai Lachlan Macquarie dan mereka gundukan tinggi dengan kursi sekitar mereka. Pada Murrumbidgee dan Murray mereka ditutupi dengan pondok beratap jerami yang mengandung rumput kering tertutup seperti bagian dalam perahu paus. Di Darling mereka dalam gundukan ditutupi dengan cabang dan dikelilingi oleh parit dan kadang-kadang pagar. Penduduk asli Sungai Macquarie membuat kuburan selalu dari timur ke barat dengan kepala ke timur. Kapten Bligh adalah dipukul dengan kustom serupa di Tahiti ketika kuburan digali oleh penduduk asli untuk salah satu pejabat yang telah meninggal di sana. Kepala bertanya apakah itu dibuat sesuai dengan keinginan sang kapten, karena, katanya, menunjuk pertama ke timur dan kemudian ke barat, “Ada matahari terbit dan ada itu set”. Kapten Bligh kemudian berpikir bahwa kebiasaan mungkin telah belajar dari orang-orang Spanyol yang mengubur kapten kapal mereka di pulau pada 1774, tetapi jelas bahwa asli Australia tahu apa-apa kebiasaan setiap orang kulit putih. Para tumulus Oxley melihat pada Macquarie adalah dalam bentuk setengah lingkaran yang tiga baris kursi diduduki satu setengah, kursi kuburan dan lebih setengah lainnya terbentuk Kursi segmen lingkaran lima puluh, empat puluh lima dan empat puluh kaki masing-masing dan telah parit di antara mereka. Di tengah adalah makam lima meter tingginya, dan sembilan kaki panjang, membentuk kurva.

Para pribumi tentu tidak musik, meskipun suara mereka pada waktu yang lembut dan menyenangkan. Lagu-lagu mereka, seperti yang diterjemahkan, umumnya berisi pengulangan banyak. Menurut Ibu Meredith, penulis awal, mereka umumnya dari pesta, misalnya: -

Makan banyak, makan, makan, makan, Makan lagi, banyak makan,

yang mereka bernyanyi lagi dan lagi. Hal ini, katanya, jauh melebihi gema lelah cinta-malang ruang tamu balada. Dr Lang, di sisi lain, mengatakan bahwa lagu, meskipun sering kali terdiri dari tetapi kuplet tunggal, adalah hasil dari inspirasi, dan bahwa satu suku diajarkan lagu mereka yang lain yang, ketika mereka telah mempelajarinya lulus pada kepada lain, sehingga lagu-lagu yang dinyanyikan oleh penduduk asli kadang-kadang dalam bahasa suku jauh-jauh.

Memang benar bahwa mereka mengulangi kata-kata yang sama berulang-ulang, dan setelah kematian kepala akan menangis dan meratap, menangis, “Di mana dia, mana dia?” tapi Dr Lang memberikan apa yang dia katakan adalah terjemahan yang cukup bebas, atau parafrase, sebuah lagu dinyanyikan oleh sebuah suku di distrik Sydney dari Pastura Sapi untuk menunjukkan bahwa penduduk pribumi tidak sama sekali tanpa sentimen puitis: -

Seorang prajurit terletak di sana dell,
Kelopak matanya tertutup untuk selamanya,
Pahlawan! Aku membunuhnya dan ia jatuh
Dekat Sungai Warragumby.
Siapa dia, sebelum kita menggali kuburnya?
Ayo ceritakan dalam lagu,
Oh! dia seperti seorang pemberani pejuang
Bold Barrabooriong.

Penguburan asli Tanah dekat Wellington, NS Wales. (Dari ‘Explorasi Oxley s’)

Pada tahun 1830 beberapa orang kulit hitam dari distrik Hunter pergi ke Windsor, Parramatta dan Sydney untuk mengajar suku-suku lain lagu-yang baru-baru ini telah dibawa ke mereka dari jauh melampaui Liverpool Plains di mana lagu ada meskipun dialek itu tidak sama. Kapten Flinders mendorong beberapa pribumi untuk bernyanyi untuknya dan teman-temannya sambil menjelajahi Sungai Batu apung dekat Bay Rumah Kaca, dan mereka mulai di konser dan bernyanyi yang sangat menyenangkan, “tidak menurun oleh pertiga dalam skala diatonis seperti yang dilakukan penduduk asli di Sydney tetapi dalam melambaikan menenangkan ketegangan “. Membiarkan suara mereka turun ke lapangan terendah, mereka mulai lagi di oktaf dan disertai lagu mereka dengan lambat dan tidak lincah gerakan-itu tidak terbatas pada satu udara tetapi tiga. Mengamati bahwa mereka mendengarkan dengan penuh perhatian setelah lagu pertama telah dinyanyikan, mereka masing-masing memilih pria kulit putih dan menempatkan diri di sampingnya, dan dengan kesungguhan banyak, memperbaiki mata mereka di wajahnya sepanjang waktu, menyanyikan ke telinganya seakan mencoba mengajarkan lagu mereka kepadanya.

Sebagai contoh dari lagu yang suku-suku tua yang digunakan untuk menyanyikan sekitar kebakaran mereka, ketika lelah dengan pengembaraan mereka, berikut dapat diberikan. Hal itu diterjemahkan oleh Mrs Dunlop dan diterbitkan dalam sebuah makalah Australia. Sebuah hitam yang sangat tua bernama W’ullati mengulangi ayat kepadanya: suku telah lama punah: -

Rumah kami di merepet-gunyah [*]
Dimana bukit bukit bergabung tinggi
Dimana bumerang dan womerah
Seperti ular tidur berbohong: -
Dan bergegas sayap sebagai wangas [**] lulus
Menyapu mencetak walabi dari rumput berkilauan.

Ours adalah ikan besar meluncur
Jauh di dalam kolam teduh,
Untuk tombak itu yakin dan mangsanya aman
Belut dan gherool cerah ;[***]
Anak-anak kita tidur dengan air jernih,
Dimana lagu putih-rekan yang telah pernah dekat.

Kita adalah sarang o’erflowing
Dengan madu berharga disimpan,
Untuk armada mata kaki dan tajam yang
Yang berupaya menimbun lebah liar;
Dan pandangan yang cerah dan tawa bebas,
Ketika kita bertemu ‘bawah keteduhan pohon karrakun .[****][* Rock-rumah.]

[** Penerbangan dari merpati wanga atau wonga-wonga ini tidak berbeda dengan desiran partridge.]

[*** Sebuah spesies mullet.]

[**** Itu ek rawa.]

Penduduk asli memiliki ketakutan takhayul memasuki salah satu gua kapur. Selama cuaca dingin atau hujan mereka dilindungi diri dengan lembaran kulit ditempatkan sehingga dapat mendukung satu sama lain, dimensi yang cukup dalam untuk mengakui satu individu, dan ini dibiarkan sedang, diindikasikan untuk waktu yang cukup lama setelah itu situs perkemahan mereka. Mereka menggunakan sampan untuk menyeberangi sungai yang dalam, bangunan mereka berbeda di berbagai negara. Mereka di Wellington itu hanya satu lembar kulit kayu putih segar, hati-hati diambil dari pohon bengkok, dan dicegah dari menggulung oleh dua dahan ramping atau thwarts yang memisahkan mereka. Sampan itu umumnya sekitar enam kaki panjang, dengan dua setengah lebar, dengan kepala bulat seperti itu membuat perahu, dan lebih tinggi dari buritan, yang menyembunyikan tembok rendah dari tanah liat untuk mencegah air dari deras masuk penumpang dipaksa untuk duduk diam, sementara penduduk asli dengan cara dayung perahu ini dipandu sangat primitif seberang sungai dengan ketangkasan yang cukup. Ketika sungai itu tinggi persimpangan nya adalah, dan, tidak berarti mudah, dan kesulitan-kesulitan mungkin lebih besar pada beberapa kali dari pada yang lain. Sebagai kasus di titik kita dapat mengutip kisah berikut diceritakan oleh seorang perwira Inggris tentang bagaimana dia dan seorang komisaris untuk tanah Crown dilakukan atas sungai besar. “Kami datang ke sebuah sungai besar yang hanya bisa melintas di sampan Pemiliknya adalah seorang rekan hitam besar.. Komisaris bertekad untuk melewati. Menjadi tokoh lemak dan gemuk ukuran berat dan berat, ditambahkan ke hitam, membawa struktur cahaya untuk tepi air, dan mereka banyak kesulitan dalam menjaga dirinya mengapung. Pada panjang sinyal diberikan untuk mendorong off yang hitam sambil tertawa lakukan, dan kulit rapuh dengan angkutan yang lumayan yang diluncurkan ke arus sungai. Perahu dengan gerakan yg berputar berputar-putar cepat di sepanjang tengah sungai yang kebetulan luar biasa tinggi Sia-sia si hitam menghujani dayung nya.. Dengan sia-sia dia berusaha keras untuk membimbing biaya acak-acakan ke seberang sungai. Mereka tak berdaya di ditanggung seperti gelembung besar pada air pasang. Satu tatapan takut dilemparkan oleh komisaris pada banjir berbusa, lain penuh iri, penyesalan dan putus asa pada rekannya di bank Kemudian perahu ramping itu terdorong lebih keras., menyebabkan dia kehilangan keseimbangan-Nya,

When it became known in England that white men could live in New South Wales, and that the country was fertile, emigrants and capital began to flow thither, though slowly at first. Even in the very early days, following upon the visit of La Pérouse, the stranger came there, and Spanish, Russian and other ships of war dropped their anchors in Neutral Bay, the name given to the lovely spot set aside for ships of foreign nations at Port Jackson, But, after the Blue Mountains were crossed and the vast interior began to be explored, the real growth of Australia began. Not only prisoners and soldiers and sightseers filled the ships which passed the heads of Port Jackson, but sturdy farmers with their wives and families smiled from the deck and gazed wonderingly upon the straggling settlement as the vessels drew in to Sydney Cove. Few seemed to regret writing those letters to Lord Bathurst which may still be read, along with the accompanying recommendations from influential people in towns or villages, begging that the applicants might be allowed to settle in New South Wales. The fort crowning the hill, the high stone windmills, the tower of the little church of St. Philip with its square-faced clock; the barracks in long white rows, where at nine o’clock each night was heard the beating of drums, followed by the sounds of the bugles and the simultaneous cry of “All’s well” from the sentinel; and, lower down, the one-arched bridge spanning the stream, all told plainly that they were among people of their own nationality. While a short distance away, shrouded by the grove of trees and distinguishable by the national flag, stood the modest little villa called Government House where the ruler of the colony dwelt in state.

Before long the new settlement began to be content; a spirit of local patriotism towards their new country was awakened within them, and while they remained loyal to their motherland they learned to love their southern homes.

The first settler and his family, his servants, if he were fortunate enough to possess any, his horses, the cattle grazing in the paddocks (excepting the few first brought to the colony), the flowers, among them the sweet violet, the rose, the wallflower and the pansy, in the newly made garden were either British or of British parentage. Small things many of them, but they played their part in helping on civilisation and giving colour to the minds of the children in this far off land. The pioneer settlers who opened up the west, the south and the north, those who followed Wentworth, Evans, Oxley and Cunningham, Sturt and Mitchell, and later, Burke and Wills, were kept busily employed. Their work in smoothing the way for younger generations, and laying the foundations of future cities and communities, deserves, and perhaps will some day obtain, fuller recognition than has yet been accorded to it.

The names of some of the pioneers are now heard in the great wool marts; they distinguish many of the herds in the southern hemisphere, and are spoken of at Randwick or Flemington when the representative of one of the old colonial studs wrests a victory from the progeny of some English thoroughbred.

For these early settlers and squatters the pastoral occupation was beset with difficulties. In addition to the privations incident to their manner of life, they had to lay their account with drought, bad seasons, and fluctuations in the prices of cattle and wool. They had not seldom to contend with financial troubles, debts due to the bank or to the Government, and, all the while, it w-as to them that the population at Sydney looked for their food supply.

It is true that in the early days grants of land[*] were liberally given, and sometimes to people who could not or would not turn the property to profitable account, but sold their rights at ridiculously low prices. Thus at times wide tracts would be in the hands of a few, and this fact has been pointed to as hurtful to the interests of the community, though there is no reason for supposing that the original owners of either large or small grants could have turned them to better account. From the first, land has changed hands freely, though the change has not always been for the better, but the settlers who have clung to their farms and homesteads appear to have been the backbone of the colony, securing by their prudence and industry the welfare of those who were dependent on them, and thus advancing the general prosperity. In New South Wales there are families who, after a hundred years of good and evil fortune, still hold the lands granted to them in the days of Macquarie and Brisbane, and by their foresight and unremitting labour have increased the resources not merely of their own land but of other countries.

[* See State of Agriculture in New South Wales, by H. Dangar. 1828.]

The first homes of the settlers were of very simple design. If the settler were a rich man, a weatherboard house divided into four or five rooms on the ground floor with wooden walls and ceilings and floors, and a verandah running round, was considered worthy of his wealth or position, but most of the houses were built of wooden slabs with roofs of thatch or of bark, a smaller building to serve as a kitchen being sometimes added. A few yards off was a hut to house the handy man.

Then stockyards and fences made their appearance, and, as flocks increased, a modest wool-shed, which was as small compared with the sheds of to-day as were the quaint buildings which first encircled Sydney Cove compared with the great warehouses that now surround the Circular Quay. Yet these small sheds and scattered flocks and herds were the beginnings of the vast sheepfolds and the stockyards of the southern continent. The style of the houses quickly improved. When soil from which bricks could be made was discovered, and builders and workmen arrived from England, the architecture became picturesque and comfortable. Many bore a resemblance to the better class of farmhouses in England, or were built in approved Indian fashion after the manner of a large bungalow. All without exception possessed a wide shady verandah which ran almost round the house. And up the wooden posts roses and creepers were carefully trained, and as Australia is a flower-growing country of the first rank they lent additional beauty to the landscape.

In the country parts the favourite flowers were roses—the old monthly rose grew to perfection—and scarcely one of the old homes was without their red or white blossoms. They trailed over the long low roof and spread around the white house-front and along the short fences and twined among the thorn hedges[*] enclosing the garden. The yellow and white banksia, and the white or pink moss rose scented the air. Australian gardens of to-day are filled with the choicest flowers that can be obtained in Europe which flourish in a way that puts to shame their representatives in older countries, but there was no prettier sight than these old homes in the “time of roses”.

[* Both the whitethorn and blackthorn were first introduced by Mr. Nicholas Bayly at Bayly Park.]

Many of these old homesteads are now dilapidated. Well built as some of them were, a blazing sun and semi-tropical rains have destroyed the shingled roofs and white plastered walls. They are Australia’s first ruins. Different as they are from the castles and manor houses which are the glory and pride of England, the old squatters who dwelt in them loved them as dearly and defended them with as much spirit as the feudal lords in olden days defended their homes. Whoever has read of the attack at Goimbla near Forbes in New South Wales, when David Campbell defied a set of ruffians of the worst description, who, daunted by the squatter’s brave attitude, left off their assault on his house and set fire to the stables, will admit the truth of this statement. Shot for shot, bullet for bullet was returned by the squatter, while his wife at his side, loading and re-loading his weapons, and with her life openly exposed to danger, encouraged him in his resistance. The old verandah’s wooden battlements still bear the marks of the lead where it splintered the wood or lay imbedded in it. The owner of Goimbla felt dismayed as he watched the glare of his burning stables, but was almost overwhelmed when he saw his favourite horse pay forfeit with its life for his own daring. The space between the stables and barn formed a quadrangle. Round and round this enclosure the animal raced, trying vainly to break away from the scorching heat, while one of the bushrangers stood looking over a paling fence to gloat upon the result of his handiwork. But Mr. Campbell was an expert shot and in the firelight night was as clear as day. One angle at the end of the house close to where the bushranger watched the horse, lay in shadow. Leaving his barricade the squatter crept round the verandah. The flames leapt up brightly as he marked his man. A sharp report rang through the air. The squatter knew that he had not missed his aim, for the palings suddenly assumed a straight line again and the bushranger vanished. That smile at the dumb creature’s sufferings was the last and crowning act of his inhumanity. In the morning, when relief came, his body was traced to where it had been dragged by his mates, deep down in a field of growing oats, ripe and ready for harvest.

How even a small homestead can improve a new land has been described by Sir Thomas Mitchell in the story of his first expedition into the interior of Australia during the years 1832-35. Returning after a long weary journey in the far west, in the midst of the dense bush on an unsurveyed part of the Bogan River, the exploring party suddenly saw smoke rising from a chimney among the trees and, meeting a tribe of blacks, were informed that they were near a cattle station where two white men lived. They hastened towards the dwelling of these men, and the symmetrical appearance of the stockyard fence when it first caught the eye so long accustomed to the lines of simple nature, delighted them as did the sight of the chimney. The two stockmen, however, for such the white men proved to be, seemed to have enough to do in keeping the natives in good humour and securing their own safety. From these stockmen Mitchell first heard authentic news of the murder by blacks of Mr. Cunningham, one of his party.

Major Mitchell[*] goes on to relate that the cattle station was occupied by the stockmen and cattle of Mr. William Lee of Bathurst who had followed him on his outward journey. Sir John Jamieson had a station on the Nammoy; and Mr. Pyke had one also on the Bogan. These were the first pioneers to follow where Mitchell had led the way.

[* See Three Expeditions into the Interior of New South Wales, 1832-35, by Major Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, vol. i., p. 331; Favenc's Australian Exploration, p. 109.]

While the first settler worked cutting down trees, building his house and laying out his stockyard, small groups of natives came from their retreat to gaze on the transformation. The natives beyond the Blue Mountains differed in many respects from the Sydney blacks, although they resembled them in person. They wore square cloaks of kangaroo skin sewed together with the sinews of the emu and worn loosely over the shoulders, some turning the fur side inwards with curious devices on the outer side. In this attempt at ornament they seemed more advanced than the coast natives, these devices being first traced by cutting or raising lines on the skin with a sharp instrument and then top-sewing them with threads of emu sinews. Governor Macquarie described one to Lord Bathurst which he said bore “as regularly formed a St. George’s cross as could be made”.

The Bathurst blacks were cheerful and good-natured and were not warlike. Their spears were heavy and clumsy and could be thrown only a short distance, like those of the Maoris; they hunted the kangaroo with dogs which were as a rule either black or white with red spots. They spoke a different language from their brethren at Sydney, and the native whom Macquarie took up with him in 1815, hoping, that he would be of use as an interpreter, could not understand them at all. This man was very agitated when he saw the strange blacks who at first were nervous also, particularly at the sight of the horses, but soon became friendly and seemed proud of any little articles given them.

The inland natives, like those of the coast, had few ideas on the subject of religion. They had no word equivalent to the word God in the sense which we use it, but they bestowed the name Piame, Baiamai or Byamy on the good spirit of the black people on the Lachlan. He was regarded by them as the father of their race, and was believed to have sojourned amongst them. Mudjegong or Coppeer or Mannai (all three names are used) was an evil spirit; a Wellington tribe said that he, having derived his existence from Piame, declared war upon him, and now endeavoured with all his power to supplant him. The offspring of Piame were numerous they said; but the whole, except two, were destroyed by Mudjegong, who converted them into different wild animals. A number of the devices carved by these blacks on the trees were intended to represent these transmigrations; such as the snake, the opossum, the emu, the kangaroo, the cockchafer, etc., while others were said to indicate forked lightning, weapons and falling stars. The evil spirit seemed to be described under the form of the eagle-hawk, an imitation of his eyrie forming a conspicuous object in their burial-grounds. The natives about Bathurst and Wellington, when near a river, frequently made a circle with their womerahs and, seating themselves on the ground, each in turn cast a stone into water, saying, “That is to appease the wrath of the Evil One”. Sometimes they would make the circle on the open plain and as they said “try to reason with the Evil Spirit”.

They had no symbol for numbers above five; above that number the only word used meant many and might mean ten or twenty or a thousand. In all pertaining to abstract ideas they were deficient, but in perceptive powers they were more highly gifted, a fact proved not only in their tracking man or beast, but also in their acquaintance with natural objects. The native knew every flower, plant, or tree, every bird, insect or reptile; he appeared to look upon them as his own and to regard them with the greatest interest. When asked the name of a flower or butterfly he could answer immediately, and, in describing them, would call one good and another bad, would tell whether it was rare or common, and mention many facts concerning it, showing that he loved and knew the natural world around him.

Seen in their natural state in the bush the black fellows appeared to greatest advantage; those at Bathurst were a simple, superstitious race, eager to show their skill and not ungrateful for kindness. They were indeed in many respects the very reverse of some of the miserable buffoons to be met in the streets of Sydney. Yet, like all savage races, the bush people were vindictive and the spirit of revenge in them was not easily subdued.

Quarrels with the inland natives may be said to have begun in the days of the first governor. The first attacks upon the whites were those already mentioned which broke out on the Hawkesbury. On the Nepean River in 1816 a band of thirty plundered a settler’s home and the seven white men who followed the robbers were ambushed and killed. The blacks, elated with their success, attacked every house in the neighbourhood and robbed the teams passing along the Great Western Road on their way to Bathurst with provisions. Gradually increasing in numbers to ninety or a hundred they grew more daring, and closed round the outlying settlers near Sydney, until Governor Macquarie called a meeting of the friendly coast natives, offering them rewards for the ring-leaders of the revolting tribes; and in this way, with the aid of the soldiers, order was restored.

On the western side of the mountains the settlers were out of reach of such protection, and, prior to 1824, twenty Englishmen had died at the hands of the blacks in that region. In August, 1824, over 600 natives assembled to proclaim their hostility to the white men. No doubt they had received provocation, for the servants of the settlers, instead of endeavouring to conciliate them, acted as if they were the “lords of the soil”. The natives naturally resented this and argued that though the things which the white man had brought over the mountains were the property of the white man, the country itself and the wild animals, birds, native plants, and all that was there before the strangers came belonged to the black fellow. Unfortunately they did not consider that the produce of land tilled and sown by white men belonged to the settlers, and they made frequent raids upon the young crops. Once an overseer came suddenly on a tribe of blacks retreating with their nets filled with cobs of young green corn—a great delicacy which they were fond of roasting at their fires. Irritated at the sight of the destruction of the cornfield and at their open boldness, the man fired at them. The gun was loaded with small shot, which the blacks coolly received on their oblong shields and with jeers taunted him as a bad shot. On the following day the same man found them again pilfering the field and fired upon them, this time seriously wounding a black fellow. Long afterwards, when people had forgotten the quarrel, the man’s body was found speared, and there was little doubt as to the culprits.

In 1824 the natives hunted cattle into the bush and, when detected, urged as an excuse that the white men had driven away their kangaroos and opossums, and that the black man must now have beef. The manner in which they killed the cattle and sometimes strove to avoid detection was, says a Sydney paper, ingenious. They managed to perforate the animal’s skull with a spear, making a hole about the size of a musket ball. When the carcase of the animal was found, and they were arrested, they calmly answered that the beast had been killed by a white man, at the same time pointing to the spot where they said the ball had entered. They killed the sheep and cooked them in large holes which they dug out of the earth, making fires and laying the meat—which was quartered—upon the burning wood; then a few sheets of bark were placed over the meat and covered with earth, so as to form an oven.

The most famous chief at Bathurst was a black fellow named Saturday who was a very strong man, tall and muscular. Helped by another chief known as Sunday, who was also well-built but more thickly set, he was very troublesome to the settlers, and his robberies were so frequent that the police received orders to arrest him, 500 acres of land being offered by the Government for his apprehension. The Sydney Gazette relates that his strength was so amazing that it took six men to secure him. He was awarded a month’s imprisonment, and soon afterwards, on 28th December, 1824, he made his submission to Sir Thomas Brisbane at Parramatta, riding into the town at the head of his tribe, bearing a branch of a tree as a peace-offering.

There was another equally troublesome chief known as Blucher, who with his tribe made a raid upon the cattle station of a squatter at Clarendon, near Mudgee, Driving off all the stock that they could find the blacks had proceeded some distance before Chamberlane, the overseer, with two men came up with them. They met in a densely wooded part of the bush. Seeing that he was followed Blucher with thirty blacks turned back and attacked the horsemen. A shower of spears penetrated the bushes and boomerangs hurtled through the boughs; one of the latter wounded the overseer’s horse badly, which so enraged the man that drawing his pistol he turned in his saddle and fired among the blacks, at the same time urging his men to retreat. “Three times,” says the Sydney writer, “he retrograded and faced the fierce onslaught of the blacks, and eventually the white men escaped.” Blucher, however, was shot in the affray. Upon hearing of this encounter Major Morrisett with a large party of soldiers and settlers set out from Bathurst to restrain the attacks of the natives.

Apart from their thieving propensities, the blacks were helpful to the white people. They fished and hunted, and the women were taught domestic duties by the wives of the settlers. Their extraordinary powers of mimicry afforded amusement, and they could sing a song or repeat a phrase in English with astonishing quickness after hearing it only once or twice, but like a parrot without grasping its meaning.

Their corroboree, or principal war dance, was performed all over the country in much the same way, being usually danced at night, and as a rule in moonlight. For some little time before the spectators sat waiting in semicircular rows, three or four deep. A large fire was kindled and a space kept clear by men wrapped in opossum skins, while a monotonous chant or tune was played by beating sticks upon shields made either of gum-tree bark or of solid wood. The musicians were usually women, hidden amongst the brushwood. The bodies of the dancers were painted white in various devices, which generally extended from the shoulder to the hip, and their faces were usually red or white. The figures, slowly advanced from the obscurity of the trees into the firelight, coming at first by twos and performing curious motions, one by one others joined in and the dance would quicken gradually into a sort of short stamp backwards and forwards, increasing in vigour until at last the ground seemed to shake, and the corroboree jump or spring was attained. Grasping a weapon and raising their arms on high the natives would then incline the head from one shoulder to another, keeping each jump and inclination in perfect time with the beats and voices of the singers. Although at first the dancers kept to one long line and sprang only six inches aside, as the line doubled, trebled, or quadrupled, they varied their formation and the first line would jump to the left, the second to the right, and the third and fourth to the left and right alternately. After nearly exhausting themselves they would stop simultaneously and, sinking on their knees with a sort of dismal wail, bend themselves forward to the earth, and disperse.

Sir Thomas Mitchell observed that the natives on the Darling River expressed hostility by throwing up dust with their toes, and dislike by spitting, symbolic actions resembling those practised in the East. In this region many graves were marked with white casts of burnt gypsum, probably deposited by the widows of the men buried in them. The widows of certain tribes on the Darling and at Fort Bourke in New South Wales plastered their heads, renewing the plaster for six or seven months, and would not remarry for seven months after the casts had worn off. The men wore round the head a neatly wrought bandage or fillet whitened with pipeclay as a sign of mourning for the dead. Pipeclay was very highly valued by them and the natives of the Darling kept it in a hut specially set apart for its storage.

Natives of Australia on Trial

The natives buried their dead differently on different rivers. On the Bogan the graves were covered like our own and surrounded with curved walks and ornamented ground. On the Macquarie and Lachlan Rivers they were lofty mounds with seats around them. On the Murrumbidgee and Murray they were covered with thatched huts containing dried grass enclosed like the inside of a whale boat. On the Darling they were in mounds covered with branches and surrounded by a ditch and sometimes a fence. The natives of the Macquarie River made the graves always from east to west with the head to the east. Captain Bligh was struck with a similar custom at Tahiti when a grave was dug by the natives for one of his officers who had died there. The chief asked if it was made in accordance with the captain’s wishes, because, said he, pointing first to the east and then to the west, “There the sun rises and there it sets”. Captain Bligh thought then that the custom might have been learned from the Spaniards who buried the captain of their ship on the island in 1774, but it is clear that the Australian native knew nothing of any white men’s habits. The tumulus Oxley saw on the Macquarie was in the form of a semicircle of which three rows of seats occupied one half, the grave and more seats the other half The seats formed segments of circles of fifty, forty-five and forty feet each and had trenches between them. In the centre was the grave five feet high, and nine feet long, forming a curve.

The natives were certainly not musical, although their voices at times were soft and pleasing. Their songs, as translated, generally contained much repetition. According to Mrs. Meredith, an early writer, they were generally of feasting, for example:—

Eat a great deal, eat, eat, eat, Eat again, plenty to eat,

which they sang over and over again. This, she says, far exceeded the weary echo of love-lorn drawing-room ballads. Dr. Lang, on the other hand, says that the song, although it often consisted of but a single couplet, was the outcome of inspiration, and that one tribe taught their song to another who, when they had learned it passed it on to others, so that songs sung by the natives were sometimes in the language of a far-distant tribe.

It is true that they repeated the same words over and over again, and upon the death of a chief would weep and lament, crying, “Where is he, where is he?” but Dr. Lang gives what he says is a pretty free translation, or paraphrase, of a song sung by a tribe in the Sydney district of the Cow Pastures to show that the natives were not altogether devoid of poetical sentiment:—

A warrior lies in yonder dell,
His eyelids closed for ever,
Heroes! I slew him and he fell
Near Warragumby River.
Who is he, ere we dig his grave?
Come tell me in the song,
Oh! he is like a warrior brave
Bold Barrabooriong.

Native Burial Ground near Wellington, N. S. Wales. (From 'Oxley's Explorations')

Native Burial Ground near Wellington, N. S. Wales. (From ‘Oxley’s Explorations‘)

In 1830 several blacks from the Hunter districts travelled to Windsor, Parramatta and Sydney to teach other tribes a new song-which had lately been brought to them from far beyond Liverpool Plains where the song existed although the dialect was not the same. Captain Flinders encouraged some natives to sing to him and his companions while exploring Pumice Stone River near Glasshouse Bay, and they began in concert and sang very pleasingly, “not descending by thirds in the diatonic scale as did the natives at Sydney but in a waving soothing strain “. Letting their voices down to the lowest pitch, they began again at the octave and accompanied their song with slow and not ungraceful motions—it was not confined to one air but three. Observing that they were listened to attentively after the first song had been sung, they each selected a white man and placed themselves beside him, and with much earnestness, fixing their eyes on his face all the time, sang into his ear as if trying to teach their song to him.

As an example of the songs which the old tribes used to chant around their fires, when tired out with their wanderings, the following may be given. It was translated by Mrs. Dunlop and published in an Australian paper. A very old black named W’ullati repeated the verses to her: the tribe has been long extinct:—

Our home is in the gibber-gunyah[*]
Where hill joins hill on high
Where the boomerang and womerah
Like sleeping serpents lie:—
And the rushing of wings as the wangas[**] pass
Sweeps the wallaby's print from the glistening grass.

Ours are the great fish gliding
Deep in the shady pool,
For the spear is sure and the prey secure
The eel and the bright gherool;[***]
Our children sleep by the water clear,
Where the white-fellow's track hath never been near.

Ours is the hive o'erflowing
With precious honey stored,
For fleet the foot and keen the eye
That seeks the wild bee's hoard;
And the glances are bright and the laughter free,
When we meet 'neath the shade of the karrakun tree.[****]

[* Rock-house.]

[** The flight of the wanga or wonga-wonga pigeon is not unlike the whir of the partridge.]

[*** A species of mullet.]

[**** The swamp oak.]

The natives had a superstitious dread of entering any of the limestone caves. During cold or rainy weather they protected themselves by sheets of bark placed so as to support one another, of sufficient dimensions inside to admit a single individual, and these being left standing, indicated for a considerable time afterwards the sites of their encampments. They used canoes to cross the deep rivers, building them differently in different parts of the country. Those at Wellington were merely fresh single sheets of eucalyptus bark, carefully taken from a twisted tree, and prevented from rolling up by two slender boughs or thwarts which kept them apart. The canoe was generally about six feet long, by two and a half wide, with the head made round like that of a boat, and higher than the stern, which hid a low wall of clay to prevent the water from rushing in. The passenger was forced to sit perfectly still, while a native by means of a paddle guided this very primitive boat across the stream with considerable dexterity. When the stream was high its crossing was, and is, by no means easy, and the difficulties may be greater at some times than at others. As a case in point we may quote the following story told by an English officer of how he and a commissioner for Crown lands were carried over a big river. “We came to a large river which could only be crossed in a canoe. The proprietor was a big black fellow. The commissioner was determined to pass over. Being a fat and portly personage his unwieldy size and weight, added to the black’s, brought the light structure to the water’s edge, and they had much difficulty in keeping her afloat. At length the signal was given to push off which the black laughingly did, and the fragile bark with its goodly freight was launched into the current of the stream. The canoe with gyratory motion whirled rapidly along the centre of the river which happened to be unusually high. In vain the black fellow plied his paddles. In vain he strove to guide his unruly charge to the opposite bank. They were borne helplessly on like a huge bubble on the tide. One fearful look was cast by the commissioner at the foaming flood, another full of envy, regret and despair at his companion on the bank. Then the slender skiff was impelled more fiercely, causing him to lose his equilibrium, and before he could recover himself he pitched headlong into the stream, upsetting with the surge both blacky and his canoe; and shooting with great velocity into the depths below, he disappeared as if he had been an expert pearl diver. The black scarce wetted his head and seemed simply disporting in the water. After a while, many yards away from the scene of the capsize, up bobbed the commissioner, then bobbed down again almost immediately into the elements below. Again he appeared; when in an instant, with the speed of an arrow, the black dived and dragged him to the bank, looking far more like a sea king or a river god than a commissioner for Crown lands.”

Before the white man crossed the mountains the natives may be said to have lived an idyllic life, spending their days roaming through the woods whither their fancy led them. The bush was thronged with birds, many species of which have since become extinct, while others have been frightened away by the sound of the settler’s gun. Here in the long summer days, the voices of the black man mingled with the chattering of the parrots, until the deep banks of the river, the low sandy shallows, the fiat-topped hills, and the wild bush beyond rang with the echoes of their mirth. Eating at every opportunity, as long as there remained anything for them to eat, they would stretch themselves down to rest under the shade of the trees until hunger once again called them to action. Then, shaking off their inertness, they arose as famous hunters and appeared almost a different people. Along each bend of the river banks, each turn of the stream, they paced the narrow, well-trodden paths seeking for their food. As the swarthy savages swept swiftly through the foliage, or peered into the undergrowth, or with womerah and spear pursued the game across the white boulders or up the hill-sides, their efforts were seldom unrewarded. They would encircle or sweep the bush which the victim had skirted, running at topmost speed through the long grass, through scrub and stream, over sand and rock, to disappear finally into the thickest of the forest where death awaited the object of their pursuit.

Natives spearing the kangaroo

Natives spearing the kangaroo

At evening they would return with their spoil to the camp in the open air, for they seldom dwelt in the rude gunyahs, as the doubled-up pieces of bark which served them for dwellings were called. The greater part of the year they spent the night around their open fires, seeking no particular shelter, save a bush or tree to screen them from the piercing wind or the frosty air. The height of their attainments was to make a good canoe or shield or spear. It has been well said of them that “they had no home yet every place was home: if thirsty, the yellow sand in the bed of the river formed for them a golden drinking bowl; if hungry, the spoils of the chase sustained them; the leaves of the trees served as dishes for their food; the sun in the heavens told them the hour”. Their greatest excitement was in fighting a neighbouring tribe, but for the settlement of disputes they were sometimes willing to parley with their adversaries.

It is difficult now amid these same scenes to realise that such people ever existed. The fairy rings, “the ploughed furrows,” and the tall clusters of rushes remain, the river meanders as in the past, the swamp oak sways with all the dignity of former days above the rippling water, the wind chants the same flute-like melody through the moving boughs. But otherwise the great silence is unbroken. The black man has all but passed away. His voice is never heard. Out on the plain his lithe form will never again bend low in the reeds to await the coming of bird or beast; never again will his boomerang float through the air or his womerah speed the spear to stop the career of some wild animal. The sweet warm evenings will come and go; the opossums which have slept through the long hot days will spring unmolested from tree to tree, and hang head downwards from the boughs; but he whose joy it was to hunt them is passing away with many of the animals which once peopled his kingdom. The land acknowledges a new master; the change is inevitable.

But as we press forward let us turn to the few that remain and watch their vanishing figures. Let us ask, we who have scattered them and who now possess the country which they so dearly loved, “Is it well with the land?” The white townships growing where once all was dark with forest; the axes ringing through the backwood; the network of masts fringing the busy port; the golden corn colouring the grassy plains; the wealth of the mine drawn from the barren waste, all unite in the full, clear answer “It is well”.


IX. THE FIRST REGIMENTS, THE BUSHRANGERS AND THE POLICE.

IX. PERTAMA resimen, YANG BUSHRANGERS DAN POLISI.
Sementara perwira angkatan laut yang mengamati pantai Australia, perwira militer yang tidak hanya membantu tetapi sering seluruhnya mengarahkan ekspedisi ke pedalaman. Sayangnya penulis otoritatif Records Angkatan Darat memberikan sedikit informasi mengenai kegiatan yang membuka daerah-daerah luas untuk kolonisasi. Tugas dari kekuatan militer kecil yang beragam. Para prajurit tidak hanya menjaga tahanan dan dipinjamkan martabat karena upacara negara di Sydney, namun mereka ditempatkan di seluruh negara di detasemen, yang diberikan pelayanan yang baik sehingga kota-kota seperti Newcastle, Bathurst, Goulburn dan Maitland segera bermunculan. Petugas dan laki-laki bertindak sebagai insinyur, arsitek, dan di daerah terpencil tertib antara pribumi, atau meletakkan bushrangers. Para pria juga sering membantu para pemukim pada waktu panen. Pasukan yang telah menemani Gubernur Phillip adalah Marinir. Ketika perang Eropa membuat kehadiran setiap prajurit diperlukan di rumah, Marinir telah ditarik dan kekuatan yang tidak teratur dibesarkan di Inggris untuk layanan khusus di koloni. Ini resimen yang tidak teratur disebut New South Wales Korps, melainkan direkrut terutama di London. Chatham dan Portsmouth, dan datang ke dalam keberadaan di 1789; meningkat pada 1797, dan diwujudkan sebagai resimen 102 pada tahun 1809.

Berikut ini adalah janji pertama [*]:-

[* Lihat London Gazette.]

Mayor Francis Grose, dari setengah-bayar dari resimen ke-96 akhir, untuk menjadi komandan utama.

Pertama Letnan Nicholas Nepean, dari Marinir, untuk menjadi kapten perusahaan.

Letnan William Hill, dari resimen 6 Foot, untuk menjadi kapten perusahaan.

Letnan William Paterson, dari resimen ke-73, menjadi kapten perusahaan.

Ensign John Macarthur, dari resimen ke-68, untuk menjadi letnan.

Ensign Michael Stovin Fenwicke, dari resimen 22, untuk menjadi letnan.

Ensign Joseph Foveaux, dari resimen ke-60, untuk menjadi letnan.

Ensign George Richard Marton, dari resimen 22, untuk menjadi letnan.

Quartermaster William Duberly menjadi panji.

John Thomas Prentice, pria, untuk menjadi panji.

Francis Kirby, pria, untuk menjadi panji.

C. de Catterel, pria, untuk menjadi panji.

John Bain, petugas, untuk menjadi pendeta.

Thomas Rowley, pria, untuk menjadi ajudan.

William Duberly, pria, untuk menjadi intendan.

Bedah Mate James Macauley, dari 33 resimen, menjadi dokter bedah.

Tetapi pada 24 Oktober, delapan hari setelah itu, pertukaran berikut dikukuhkan.

Letnan Edward Abbott, dari setengah-bayar dari resimen ke-73, untuk menjadi letnan wakil Michael Stovin Fenwicke yang pertukaran.

Letnan John Townson, dari setengah-bayar dari resimen ke-50, untuk menjadi letnan wakil George Richard Karawang yang pertukaran.

Pembentukan korps ini telah begitu banyak dibahas dan begitu banyak penulis telah mengatakan bahwa petugas belum pernah bertugas di militer sebelumnya, bahwa daftar lama adalah perhatian layak sebagai menunjukkan bahwa mereka tidak perwira saja, tetapi milik resimen yang bereputasi. Hal ini jelas juga, oleh bursa bahwa petugas yang ditunjuk oleh pemerintah. Mungkin beberapa dari orang-orang sebelumnya melihat layanan, tetapi terutama calon yang mengajukan diri secara spontan untuk perjalanan ke New South Wales dalam rangka untuk membantu membentuk garnisun untuk koloni baru.

Detasemen pertama mencapai Sydney pada Juni, 1790, oleh Surprise kapal, Neptunus, dan Scarborough. Pada bulan Oktober, 1791, detasemen lain datang oleh HMS Gorgon, yang juga membawa New South Wales segel teritorial. Pada bulan Desember tahun yang sama Gorgon dimasukkan ke laut di perjalanan pulang nya, mengambil dengan dia kebanyakan para perwira dan prajurit dari Marinir. Mereka yang tidak kemudian memulai sengaja ditahan, karena ia berpikir bijaksana untuk menjaga garnisun yang kuat di Port Jackson sampai seluruh resimen baru harus memiliki menggantikan mereka. Mereka terdiri seorang kapten, tiga letnan, delapan bintara, lima puluh prajurit dan tiga puluh satu pensiunan tentara yang diinginkan untuk menetap di koloni.

Dua petugas dari New South Wales Korps diberikan urusan koloni setelah keberangkatan Phillip, tapi resimen yang terbaik dikenal untuk pertengkaran yang terjadi antara petugas dan Gubernur Bligh. Beberapa petugas dan banyak orang, bagaimanapun, berbalik penjajah, dan melakukan banyak untuk negara ini, khususnya Kapten John Macarthur. Ketika Gubernur Raja melakukan kunjungan ke Selandia Baru pada 1794 seorang penjaga dari New South Wales Korps menemaninya, dan mungkin ini adalah tentara Inggris pertama yang menginjakkan kaki di negara itu setelah Cook mendarat di sana.

Perintah dari baterai dan pertahanan pelabuhan diberikan kepada Fransiskus Louis Barrallier yang dikukuhkan dengan korps, seperti panji, pada 14 Agustus 1800, Dia membuat survei pertama dari Sungai Hunter pada bulan Juni, 1801, dan juga disurvei Pelabuhan Barat di Victoria. Pada 1802, sebagaimana telah disebutkan, ia mencoba menyeberangi Blue Mountains, kemudian dilakukan dengan Blaxland, Pergi layak dan petugas kakak Barrallier itu. Letnan Lawson. Di antara perwira lainnya Letnan Kolonel Foveaux, Letnan Kolonel Paterson dan Mayor Johnston yang menjadi terkenal dalam menetapkan otoritas Gubernur Bligh di pembangkangan; Dr Harris, yang didampingi Oxley, explorer, dan Ensign George Bellasis, yang berhasil Barrallier dan membangun baterai pada Titik Dawes, juga milik resimen ini, seperti yang dilakukan Letnan Cox dan Minchin, yang kemudian menetap di negara itu.

Pada bulan Desember, 1808, pesanan yang diterima oleh resimen ke-73 untuk melanjutkan ke New South Wales untuk menggantikan New South Wales Korps. Menghimpun, selain petugas, 1.000 peringkat dan file, itu memulai 8 Mei, 1809 di Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, pada Hindostan kapal dan dromedaris dengan Letnan Kolonel Lachlan Macquarie yang telah ditunjuk gubernur koloni itu dalam suksesi Kapten Bligh . Kapal-kapal mencapai Sydney pada 28 Desember 1809, dan pada Hari Tahun Baru, 1810, Macquarie mengambil alih kendali pemerintahan. Batalion pertama resimen itu jauh diperkuat pada saat kedatangan dengan laki-laki dari New South Wales Korps, yang telah menerima tawaran untuk tetap berada di koloni itu, sehingga dalam 181 bernomor 2, 73 tidak kurang dari 1.200 peringkat dan file. Pada keberangkatan orang-orang New South Wales Korps dipindahkan ke resimen ke-46 ketika tiba pada tahun 1814, dan mereka menjadi kemudian dikenal sebagai Veteran Korps Royal.

Ini korps dibubarkan pada tahun 1823 oleh Gubernur Macquarie saran, mengingat beberapa tahun sebelumnya, di tanah yang mengorbankan begitu banyak prajurit tua dan keluarga mereka beban yang terlalu berat untuk sumber daya Pemerintah. Pada 24 September 1823, korps di bawah Kapten Brabyn itu berbaris dari Square Barak mana itu diarak untuk terakhir kalinya di hadapan gubernur, Sir Thomas Brisbane, yang berbicara itu, dan ada banyak kepentingan di Sydney melihat pemandangan tersebut dari resimen tua di jalan untuk pembubaran.

Setelah 73 telah di New South Wales dan Tasmania sekitar empat tahun Macquarie meminta penghapusan, dan detasemen pertama berlayar di Earl Spencer pada Januari, 1814, ke Sri Lanka, dua detasemen berikut di bulan Maret di Hewett Umum dan Windham transportasi. Para Windham menyentuh di Derwent untuk memulai orang-orang yang melayani di Tasmania, sedangkan Hewett Umum dengan sikap di bawah komando Letnan Kolonel Maurice O’Connell berlayar dengan cara Nugini ke Kolombo, Sebuah detasemen keempat meninggalkan Sydney untuk Ceylon pada 1815 di Brown Umum dan Kangaroo penjara kolonial. [*]

[* Kapten Antill dari ke-73 itu A.D.C. kepada Gubernur; Letnan Skottowe dari batalion 1, adalah komandan di Newcastle; Kapten Haddon adalah pada 1813 komandan di Parramatta; Letnan James berhasil Primrose Oven Letnan, juga dari 73, sebagai Inspektur pekerjaan umum, dan petugas lainnya yang diadakan tulisan dari pentingnya bawah Pemerintah. Kapten, kemudian Mayor, Antill meninggal pada bulan Agustus 1852, beberapa hari sebelum Letnan Kolonel Morrisett dari 48.]

Resimen (Devonshire Selatan) 46 Kaki, diperintahkan oleh Kolonel Molle (setelah itu Letnan Gubernur) tiba di New South Wales pada Februari, 1814. Salah satu pejabat, Letnan Watts, adalah aide-de-camp kepada Gubernur Macquarie, dan lainnya. Letnan Thompson, yang telah mendahului kantor pusat, adalah komandan di Newcastle pada tahun 1814. Sersan R. Broadfoot dan enam prajurit resimen dikirim dari satu detasemen di Hobart Kota di Tasmania ke pedalaman untuk menekan bushranging, dan berhasil mengambil dua pemimpin kelompok, Maguire dan Burne, yang diadili dan dieksekusi, sersan dan anak buahnya menerima £ 100 dan berkat Gubernur Davy. Pada bulan April, 1816, perusahaan mengapit dari resimen di bawah komando Kapten Shaw dan Wallis dikirim ke bagian New South Wales untuk mengurangi pribumi untuk taat. Pada bulan Februari, 1817, Kopral McCarthy dan partainya di tempat yang disebut Sikat Hitam di Tasmania jatuh dengan sekelompok bushrangers yang di bawah Geary, seorang desertir dari resimen ke-73, dengan baik bersenjata, masing-masing memiliki senapan, sebuah pistol dan penjepit banyak amunisi. Pertarungan berlangsung selama satu jam setengah, prajurit tua jatuh terluka parah, dua pria ditangkap, sisanya melarikan diri. Beberapa hari kemudian geng itu kembali menyerang, dan lagi satu manusia jatuh terluka dan yang lain ditangkap.

Resimen di bawah Kolonel Molle memulai pada bulan September, 1817 di Sydney di Lloyd Matilda dan Dick, transportasi yang telah membawa resimen ke-48 di bawah Letnan Kolonel Erskine ke New South Wales, tetapi beberapa, petugas ke-46 dan laki-laki, tetap dalam koloni, melekat pada resimen 48, dan memberikan bantuan besar kepada ekspedisi menjelajahi yang terjadi pada tahun-tahun 1817-21. Baik kolonis disediakan 46 dan 48 serta tentara yang sangat baik, dan pekerjaan umum banyak yang dirancang dan dibangun oleh mereka.

Di bawah Kapten Wallis dermaga 46 di Newcastle, yang disebut Macquarie Pier, dimulai pada Agustus, 1818. Para insinyur itu bawahan dari kedua resimen, mekanika berada di bawah perintah seorang sersan tua dari 46. Pekerjaan itu tergantung di bagian awal tahun 1823. panjang dermaga 350 meter yang kemudian atau beberapa 400 meter dari Pulau Nobby itu. Sampai saat itu tidak ada kapal di atas lima puluh ton telah berkelana ke pelabuhan tanpa pasang banjir dan angin terkemuka. Dermaga itu, bagaimanapun, terus pada interval dan selesai pada tahun 1827.

Letnan Kolonel Morrisett dari ke-48 adalah komandan di Norfolk Island, di Newcastle, dan di Bathurst. Dia membuat perjalanan darat pertama dari Newcastle ke Sydney dan kemudian tinggal di Bathurst sama sekali dengan keluarganya. Tidak ada petugas lebih dikenal di distrik barat. Dia telah melihat layanan banyak dan menanggung pada wajahnya jejak luka yang diterima dalam tindakan. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1852 dan dimakamkan di Gereja Lama Bathurst sekarang dikenal sebagai Gereja Kelso. Tahun setelah kematiannya penulis hadir, maka seorang anak, ditunjukkan beberapa peninggalan militer perwira gagah berani dalam kepemilikan putra dan putrinya mertuanya di kota Timur Maitland.

Resimen 3 (yang Buffs) pergi ke New South Wales dari Liverpool pada September, 1821, dan ditempatkan di distrik-berbagai kapal Commodore Hayes arahan staf markas di Sydney pada 18 September. Letnan Kolonel Cameron dari korps mengambil komando garnisun di Tasmania, dan Letnan Kolonel Cimitiere menjadi kedua di Sydney setelah keberangkatan Letnan Kolonel Erskine dari 48. Tembok besar tinggal di dekat Bukit penuh dgn akar yang depot militer pada waktu itu. Detasemen juga bermarkas di Bathurst dan Wellington sampai 1827 tahun. Pada Bathurst Letnan Evernden dan beberapa pemukim kabupaten menangkap Carter bushrangers dan Johnstone pada 6 Juli 1826. Menangkap ini adalah salah satu yang pertama dibuat di kabupaten. Kapten Rolland, juga dari Buffs, berhasil Kapten Allman sebagai komandan di Port Macquarie pada bulan April, 1824. Resimen meningkat oleh kedatangan beberapa draft, dan pada tahun 1825 didirikan di New South Wales terdiri dari sepuluh perusahaan, dan pada tahun 1826 sebelas. Satu sayap memulai untuk Hindia Timur di Sydney pada awal 1827; kiri lainnya pada tanggal 28 November tahun yang sama dan tiba di Calcutta pada bulan Februari, 1828. Letnan Kolonel, kemudian Mayor Jenderal, Stewart resimen ini bertindak sebagai Letnan-Gubernur dari keberangkatan Sir Thomas Brisbane pada tahun 1825 sampai kedatangan Mayor Jenderal Ralph Sayang di tahun yang sama. Dia menetap di Bathurst, dan dimakamkan di Gunung Menyenangkan, yang disebut oleh Mr GW Evans pada ekspedisi pertama ke barat Pegunungan Biru. Peti mati sang jenderal ditarik ke atas gunung untuk terakhir tempat istirahat dengan lembu sebagai sisi bukit itu terlalu curam untuk kuda-kuda untuk mendapatkan pijakan di sana.

Resimen ke-3 Buffs pada tahun 1823.

40 resimen, batalyon korps tunggal, menerima pesanan Maret, 1823, untuk melanjutkan ke New South Wales dan dikirim dalam detasemen kecil. Letnan Kolonel Thornton dengan staf markas mendarat di Sydney pada 27 Oktober 1824, dan menemukan sebagian besar dari resimen didistribusikan ke koloni. Sebuah detasemen di bawah Letnan Kolonel Balfour melanjutkan 23 Maret 1825, ke Tasmania, dan pada bulan Juli diikuti oleh Kirkwood lain di bawah Mayor. Kapten Turton diangkat komandan Pulau Norfolk, ke mana, disertai oleh Letnan Richardson dari resimen ke-40, dia berlayar Mei, 1825. Kapten Uskup diperintahkan untuk Moreton Bay pada 27 Juli 1825, sebagai komandan untuk memperkuat Letnan Millar.

Resimen ke-57 tiba di Sydney pada 1825-1826, di bawah Kolonel Shadforth dan detasemen dikirim ke pemukiman kecil yang berbeda di Moreton Bay, Pulau Melville, dan tempat-tempat lainnya. Para tentara dipekerjakan dalam berbagai cara, tetapi terutama aktif dalam mengeksplorasi saluran ditemukan dari negara, dan sebagai insinyur, serta dalam tugas-tugas lain yang terhubung dengan pengembangan koloni, sedangkan beberapa dipekerjakan dalam memburu bushrangers.

Pada layanan ini Ensign Shadforth, yang kemudian jatuh di Redan pada tahun 1855, telah melarikan diri sangat sempit. Dalam mengikuti suatu bushranger pihaknya menemukan sebuah perahu berbaring di pantai, ke atas bawah; Shadforth meletakkan kepalanya di bawah pagar untuk melihat apakah orang yang mereka cari adalah bersembunyi di sana. Para bushranger adalah orang yang sangat kecil, dan bukannya berbaring di tanah di bawah perahu ia meringkuk dirinya di salah satu thwarts. Dia terkait setelah ia ditangkap bahwa ketika ia melihat kepala lambang itu muncul di bawah perahu ia segera menutupinya dengan pistolnya, bertekad untuk menembak jika ditemukan. Untungnya petugas tidak melihatnya dan menarik, sedikit mengetahui bagaimana sempit ia telah melarikan diri.

Kapten Logan, yang memimpin detasemen di Moreton Bay, adalah seorang penjelajah energik dan sukses. Selama 1826 tahun ia menemukan sebagian dari Sungai Sayang, lima puluh mil sebelah utara Moreton Bay, yang bernama setelah gubernur yang baru saja berhasil Sir T. Brisbane. Detasemen kuat resimen dikirim ke Pulau Norfolk dan Tasmania. Kepala perempat di Sydney ambil bagian dalam sejumlah bidang-hari dan ulasan.

Peringatan Pertempuran Albuera, selalu dirayakan oleh “Die serat yg tebal untuk pemakal,” itu disimpan dengan upacara besar, baik oleh mereka dan ke-39, yang tahun ini bermarkas di barak yang sama, petugas dari masing-masing makan malam memberikan kepada hakim sipil dan penduduk swasta utama Sydney. Perayaan juga diadakan di barak, yang cemerlang diterangi di malam hari, kata “Albuera,” yang diusung oleh sebuah mahkota di sejumlah lampu berwarna yang berbeda. Kolonel Shadforth dan Kapten Jackson, yang keduanya telah terluka parah dalam pertempuran, dipimpin oleh orang-orang resimen, di tengah sorak-sorai dan membawa ke tangga rumah berantakan-, yang penuh dekorasi meriah.

Oven utama yang memegang pengangkatan sekretaris pribadi gubernur koloni, pemadam utama, dan chief engineer, meninggal di Sydney pada 7 Desember 1825, dan dimakamkan di Pulau Taman sebagai makam tua di daratan telah dilakukan jauh dengan. Dia datang ke koloni sebagai perwira bawahan dari resimen ke-73 pada tahun 1810. Dua tahun kemudian ia kembali ke Inggris pada perusahaan dengan Kapten dan Mayor Cleaveland Piper, yang meninggal di Laut Cina. Oven Mayor diperoleh komisinya pada tahun 1822 dan kembali dengan Sir T. Brisbane.

Pada bulan Oktober, 1830, resimen harus menyesalkan hilangnya Kapten Logan, yang jatuh korban untuk semangat dalam menjelajahi negeri Moreton Bay dekat. Pada 18 bulan dia meninggalkan stasiun, dihadiri oleh awak kapal dan seorang pelayan pribadi, berniat untuk melakukan survei terakhirnya (resimen yang lama akan meninggalkan koloni untuk India), di mana partai berkemah. Dalam perjalanan tubuh penduduk asli ditemui, yang tidak salah lagi sikap bermusuhan, dan orang-orangnya berusaha untuk membujuk Kapten Logan dari tekadnya untuk melanjutkan dari kamp pada survei tanpa pengawasan nya. Permohonan mereka, bagaimanapun, tidak berhasil, dan, menertawakan ketakutan mereka, mengatakan ia sering takut pribumi off oleh hanya menunjukkan sebuah botol kosong pada mereka, ia berangkat sendirian di survei, dari mana ia tidak pernah kembali. Khawatir di non-penampilannya, anak buahnya pergi mencari dia, tapi karena tidak berhasil dikembalikan ke Moreton Bay dan melaporkan apa yang terjadi kepada petugas kiri di perintah sana, yang sekaligus mengirimkan regu pencari banyak untuk mencari komandan hilang. Akhirnya pada hari kelima pencarian tubuhnya ditemukan dengan tombak asli banyak di dalamnya dan sebagian ditutupi dengan daun dan bumi. Tampak jelas bahwa ia telah dibunuh oleh penduduk asli. Tetap dipindahkan ke Sydney, dan dikuburkan di samping mereka teman lamanya Mr Keadilan Bent.

Pada tanggal 21 Desember 1830, resimen dipindahkan ke Pendirian India dan meninggalkan Australia pada tanggal 31 Maret sebagai berikut. Letnan Kolonel Shadforth, yang telah di perintah, pensiun dan menetap di Australia. Dia telah digantikan oleh Letnan Kolonel Allan pada bulan November, 1828. Mayor Lockyer, yang pada tahun 1828 surveyor yang ditunjuk jalan dan jembatan, banyak melakukan eksplorasi darat dan laut di Queensland dan Western Australia serta di koloni ibu. [*]

[* Pada tahun 1825 dimulainya resimen ini ditempatkan sebagai berikut: -

Letnan Kolonel Shadforth; Kapten Donaldson dan Hartley, Letnan Donelan, Oven, Condamine, dan T. Shadforth; Ensigns W. Lockyer, Benson, Kidd, E. Lockyer dan Wood, dua puluh satu sersan, delapan drumer dan peringkat 277 dan file, (kepala perempat) Sydney. Mayor Campbell, Letnan Bate dengan detasemen, ditempatkan di Pulau Melville. Kapten Logan, Letnan Bainbrigge dan detasemen di Moreton Bay. Letnan Browne dengan detasemen di Bathurst. Letnan H. Shadforth, seorang sersan dan detasemen di River Cox. Letnan Taylor, dan detasemen di Port Barat. Seorang petugas dengan detasemen juga ditempatkan di tempat mg berikut: Plains Walh itu '(sekarang Morpeth), Longbottom, Parramatta, Globe pertanian, Emu Plains, Plains Molong, Sungai Ikan, Weatherboarded Hut, Springwood, Port Macquarie dan Wellington Lembah].

Untuk meringankan resimen ke-40, detasemen pertama dari Cork meninggalkan 39 untuk New South Wales pada Woodman pada 4 November 1825, detasemen lainnya berikut selama tahun depan. Kepala perempat bawah komando Kolonel Patrick Lindsay tiba di Sydney di Cambridge pada 7 September 1827. Detasemen ditempatkan di Tasmania, di Suara Raja George, dan di pantai utara. Kapten Charles Sturt, explorer, Kapten Joseph Wakefield, yang mendirikan pemukiman di Suara Raja George, Kapten Henry Smyth, yang membentuk sebuah pemukiman bernama Fort Wellington pada Raffles Bay di pantai utara Australia, adalah perwira resimen ini. Petugas medis, Dr Macleod, menjadi pemukim di sebuah distrik selatan, dan Kapten Thomas Wright berhasil sebagai komandan Kapten Turton di Norfolk Island.

Pada 16 Mei, 1831 ulang tahun pertempuran Albuera di mana batalion 2 telah membedakan dirinya dua puluh tahun sebelumnya, warna-warna baru diberikan kepadanya oleh Gubernur Sayang di Lapangan Barrack Sydney. Sebelum presentasi, upacara mengkonsekrasikan warna dilakukan oleh Diakon Agung di Broughton Mulia. Perayaan setelah itu sayangnya diselimuti oleh berita kematian Kapten Collett Barker dekat Teluk Spencer. Kapten Barker telah berhasil sebagai komandan Kapten Stirling di Fort Wellington, dan ketika pemukiman yang ditinggalkan di 1829 telah pergi ke Suara Raja George sebagai komandan. Dalam kembali ke Sydney Barker mendarat untuk tujuan membuat survei Danau Alexandrina, Spencer Teluk, di mana partainya sayangnya jatuh dengan penduduk asli di tangan siapa ia kehilangan nyawanya. Pada 30 Mei 1831, resimen itu melanjutkan ke India. Kolonel (setelah Sir Patrick) Lindsay, bagaimanapun, bertindak sebagai Letnan-Gubernur setelah keberangkatan Jenderal Darling dari New South Wales sampai kedatangan Sir Richard Bourke, dan selama periode ini perintah resimen jatuh pada Macpherson Mayor yang telah ditarik dari Bathurst .

Di awal dua puluhan para pemukim harus bersaing tidak hanya dengan serangan penduduk asli tetapi dengan pelanggaran hukum negara sendiri. Band dari narapidana, banyak di antaranya adalah pegawai sendiri pemukim ‘, melihat bagaimana orang kulit hitam berhasil dilakukan serangan mereka terhadap penduduk rajin mengucapkan selamat tinggal pada semua otoritas dan mengambil ke semak-semak. Kabupaten Bathurst dan Goulburn adalah untuk beberapa waktu dibanjiri dengan pengganggu perdamaian. Dekat kepala Campbell River, di mana ia condong ke arah Lachlan, sepotong kecil tanah sekitar dua mil dengan diameter disebut Wildhorse karena, ketika komisaris perjalanan dari Bathurst untuk Argyle pada bulan Oktober,, 1820 salah satu kuda bagasi terluka dan sedang diturunkan dibiarkan longgar, sementara partai melanjutkan perjalanan mereka. Berikut selama bertahun-tahun kemudian kuda ini adalah untuk dilihat, tumbuh lemak dan ramping, dengan ekor yang panjang dan menyapu, dan sempurna liar, karena ia akan sering berpacu pada pandangan pertama manusia. Dia tampak selalu berada di dekat tempat itu. Saat itu di tempat ini yang sama yang banyak mencuri ternak dan bushranging mulai dan berakhir, dan ke mari, karena sekitarnya kesepian dan tidak dapat diakses, yang didorong sama dengan lembu liar, kuda balap berharga, dan, pada kesempatan, kawanan domba, dicuri dari padang penggembalaan dan kandang dari pemukim, yang diambil kadang-kadang sementara pemilik tidur atau kadang-kadang bahkan, ketika bandit yakin akan aman pendaratan mereka merusak, selama siang hari bolong.

Kawanan ternak tipis tersebar di padang rumput yang luas dengan hanya beberapa orang yang bertanggung jawab segera menjadi mangsa dari pemburu sapi Australia, yang kecerdikan itu terutama dilakukan dalam mengubah tanda merek pada ternak dicuri. Sedikit besi lingkaran diterapkan pada merek lama segera berubah huruf C ke G, O untuk T, sementara surat-surat lainnya hanya sedikit lebih sulit untuk berubah. Dengan sedikit latihan para pencuri menjadi hampir sempurna dalam seni, dan, di terburuk, membuat surat dibedakan. Kegembiraan itu cukup sama dengan yang dari permainan perburuan di negara ibu, sementara pemburu liar itu tidak begitu berat setengah cacat sejak awal. Memang benar bahwa pemburu Australia sesekali jatuh dengan pemilik perunggu ternak atau petugas lentur dari polisi berkuda, dan kemudian “hal-hal yang” bahkan lebih, tetapi negara baru secara keseluruhan memberikan peluang jauh lebih baik dikejar melarikan diri dari yang lama. Setelah pencuri sapi jauh dari kali lipat, setelah melewati beberapa panel tergelincir, pagar log atau aliran atau dua ia akan berpacu cepat selama polos, dengan suara kaki kuda dering, yang retak cambuk, dan berteriak -laki-laki. Butuh sedikit waktu untuk mengubah merek, mencelupkan kuku putih atau cat bintang atau api, dan kemudian kemungkinan adalah bahwa jika ada binatang dicuri kebetulan terlihat hidup itu akan menjadi tugas yang sulit bagi pemilik untuk mengenali mereka, atau jika mati untuk membedakan menyembunyikan mereka.

Tracing ini bushrangers ke sarang mereka adalah tugas yang paling sulit. Kalau bukan karena bantuan dari pribumi polisi akan sering menemukan tidak mungkin untuk bisa mendekati mereka sama sekali, karena, ketika dicurigai, mereka terpisah dalam dua atau bertiga, dan mengarungi sungai untuk jarak beberapa sehingga meninggalkan kaki tak tanda. Hal ini terutama diperlukan untuk layar gerakan mereka dari mata tajam orang kulit hitam, yang menakjubkan dan pelacak dapat menemukan jejak manusia atau hewan di mana seorang pria kulit putih bisa melihat apa-apa. Sekali, sementara sibuk menindaklanjuti perampokan, seorang rekan hitam berhenti dan mengatakan kepada polisi bahwa mereka ingin bushranger penangkapan berkaki pengkar hanya dari kesan yang dibuat oleh kakinya, dan informasi yang kemudian terbukti benar.

Pribumi dipercaya diciptakan semak polisi oleh Pemerintah, dan diizinkan senjata dan amunisi. Pada awalnya mereka diberi pelat kuningan, berbentuk seperti bulan sabit, yang mereka kenakan digantung pada sebuah rantai di leher mereka, dan di atas yang ditulis nama pemakainya, sukunya, dan tujuan yang piring diberikan kepadanya. Di kemudian hari itu tidak dipakai oleh “tracker hitam,” saat polisi dipasang pribumi mulai disebut.

Pada rekening wabah ini pemukiman tentara veteran ditempatkan di seluruh koloni, satu ditempatkan di dekat Black Rock Bathurst dimana tanah yang diberikan kepada mereka mungkin telah membuat banyak independen. Sejumlah pemukim bebas juga diberikan hibah di Vale Ratu Charlotte yang penulis digambarkan sebagai “mendekati terdekat di negara aslinya ke pacar ideal pemandangan alam”. Tapi itu bukan hanya di Bathurst dan Goulburn yang dilakukan bushrangers perampokan mereka. Mereka bahkan lebih sering di sekitar Newcastle dan sepanjang Hunter mana geng bertemu dan membagi jarahan, dan dalam hal ini bagian dari koloni perbuatan kekerasan lebih besar daripada orang-orang dari distrik barat dan selatan sering terjadi, dan merupakan suatu kecemasan yang nyata kepada penduduk.

Korps polisi dipasang yang diangkat untuk menekan kejahatan ini umumnya segera meningkat. Para petugas, juga merupakan hakim dari koloni, dipilih dari resimen dari garnisun Sydney; para polisi yang diperoleh dari sumber yang sama. Tidak ada tentara dipilih atau diizinkan untuk melayani di polisi dipasang kecuali ia melahirkan karakter yang baik. Mengenakan seragam berguna cerdas, masing-masing membawa karabin, pedang, dan sepasang pistol, dan semuanya bagus sekali dipasang pada kuda tercepat yang bisa diperoleh. Sifat dari negara dan kecerobohan dari bushrangers segera mengajarkan mereka untuk menjadi terjaga dan waspada, dan kebanyakan dari mereka menjadi pengendara yang baik dan tembakan ahli.

Perbuatan berani-saat awal akan menaruh semua cerita bushranger kemudian di tempat teduh. Serangan itu direncanakan terampil, umumnya terjadi ketika polisi pada jarak dari pemukiman, dan keberanian dan tidak egois sedikit yang dibutuhkan untuk satu pemukim pergi ke bantuan lain. Tidak hanya banyak masyarakat menolak bantuan melalui takut dirampok, tapi itu percaya bahwa bushrangers sering diinformasikan bagaimana melaksanakan rencana mereka dengan sukses. Pada 1825 dan 1826 mereka telah menjadi teror di semua distrik negara. Para bushrangers ‘ucapan “Angkat” sangat segera terdengar lebih familiar daripada menyenangkan untuk para pemukim’ telinga, dan kembali setelah bekerja keras seharian di antara kawanan ternak-Nya itu bukan kejadian biasa bagi para penjajah untuk menemukan rumahnya dijarah dan keluarganya bersembunyi , jika tidak lebih serius telah terjadi.

Pada bulan Juli, 1825, Tuan Rankin dan Perrier di Bathurst Blanchfield ditangkap, salah satu pemimpin, tapi Mr Rankin telah melarikan diri yang sempit, untuk peluru ditembakkan ke arahnya oleh bushranger hanya meleset selebar rambut. Pada tahun 1826, Letnan Evernden dari Buffs, ketika bertindak-komandan di sana, paling energik dalam berusaha untuk menghancurkan para penjahat dengan detasemen besar resimen itu. Pada Maret ia jatuh dengan tujuh bushrangers, ditangkap Morris O’Connell, pemimpin geng yang lain, dan mengambil banyak pelarian. Pada bulan Juli perwira ini, didampingi oleh Mr William Lee dari Claremont, Bathurst, dan dibantu oleh pihak penduduk asli, setelah tiga hari pintar ‘mengejar ditangkap Carter dan Johnstone, yang telah melarikan diri dari pengawalan enam bulan sebelumnya. Dalam pengakuan ini penangkapan bushrangers [*] Pemerintah pemberitahuan worded dgn aneh muncul dalam Lembaran Sydney, mengakui aktivitas pemukim dan kegunaan polisi dipasang di bawah Mr Evernden.

[* Gubernur Macquarie tampaknya telah resmi pertama untuk menggunakan kata "bushranger". Rumah menulis Maret, 1815, ia menyatakan: "Ada band kecil perampok, sejak berdirinya pemukiman asli, infesting koloni yang umumnya pergi dengan nama 'bushrangers'"].

Cetak ulang berikut ini hanya sebagian dari pemberitahuan asli: -

PEMERINTAH PEMBERITAHUAN

Sekretaris Kantor Kolonial, 6 Juli 1826.

Gubernur telah kembali Kepuasan untuk melihat pengerahan tenaga sukses Kepolisian Mounted, di bawah Letnan Evernden, di Bathurst.

Sebuah Partai Bushrangers, dipersenjatai dengan Musquets, telah diambil, setelah Mengejar tiga hari ini. Mereka telah merebut beberapa Kuda, dan mengemudi dari Nomor Domba.

* * *

Mereka yang, dari Supineness, atau Motif tidak layak, jangan sekaligus maju ke depan, namun menyetujui dalam agresi dari Bushrangers, di Hope dari conciliating mereka, akan memenuhi Hadiah layak dari kehinaan mereka, dengan menjadi dijarah oleh orang yang mereka telah berusaha untuk layar, dan ditahan sampai dengan celaan adil Umum.

* * * * * * *

Dengan perintah Paduka yang Mulia,

ALEXANDER M’LEAY.

* * * * * * * * * *

Sebagian dari resimen ke-39 di bawah Mayor Donald Macpherson dan Kapten Horatio Walpole beberapa tiga tahun kemudian cukup sebagai giat, mengejar geng bushrangers, banyak dari mereka tertangkap dan dieksekusi. Pada tahun 1830 kedua Kapten dan Letnan Walpole Browne, dibantu oleh Mr, Suttor dari Brucedale dekat Bathurst, dan pemukim lainnya, berhasil melacak geng bandit melalui semak, yang, setelah berhasil merampok pemukim Bathurst, berhasil melarikan diri sebelum para prajurit tiba. Membuat jalan mereka ke barat, mereka melarikan diri untuk bermil-mil melalui daerah padat berhutan, menyediakan diri dengan kuda segar selama pengejaran. Letnan Macalister pindah dari depot militer di Goulburn dan bertemu dengan mereka di Sungai Lachlan mana pertarungan yang tajam terjadi di mana ia juga banyak pria di kedua belah pihak terluka. Pagi berikutnya, bushrangers menyerah kepada Kapten Walpole yang kini tertangkap mereka, setelah mengikuti dari sisi Bathurst.

Sebagai konsekuensi dari keberanian para penjahat Kapten Forbes adalah pada 16 Oktober 1830, dengan tatanan umum, ditunjuk untuk perintah tubuh besar pria ditarik dalam jumlah yang sama dari resimen dan garnisun. Mereka dipasang oleh Pemerintah dan tersebar di bagian diselesaikan berbagai koloni. Sebelum penunjukan ini dibuat, polisi tidak memiliki komandan diakui, tetapi nominal di bawah pengawasan dari brigade besar di Sydney.

While naval officers were surveying the coast of Australia, army officers were not only assisting but often entirely directing expeditions into the interior. Unfortunately authoritative writers of Army Records give little information concerning operations which opened up vast areas to colonisation. The duties of the small military force were various. The soldiers not only guarded the prisoners and lent due dignity to state ceremonies in Sydney, but they were stationed throughout the country in detachments, which rendered such good service that towns like Newcastle, Bathurst, Goulburn and Maitland soon sprang into existence. Officers and men acted as engineers, architects, and in remote regions kept order among the natives, or put down bushrangers. The men also often helped the settlers at harvest time. The troops which had accompanied Governor Phillip were Marines. When European wars made the presence of every soldier necessary at home, the Marines were recalled and an irregular force was raised in England for special service in the colony. This irregular regiment was called the New South Wales Corps; it was recruited principally in London. Chatham and Portsmouth, and came into existence in 1789; was increased in 1797, and was embodied as the 102nd regiment in 1809.

The following were the first appointments[*]:—

[* See London Gazette.]

Major Francis Grose, from half-pay of the late 96th regiment, to be major commanding.

First Lieutenant Nicholas Nepean, from the Marines, to be captain of a company.

Lieutenant William Hill, from the 6th regiment of Foot, to be captain of a company.

Lieutenant William Paterson, from the 73rd regiment, to be captain of a company.

Ensign John Macarthur, from the 68th regiment, to be lieutenant.

Ensign Michael Stovin Fenwicke, from the 22nd regiment, to be lieutenant.

Ensign Joseph Foveaux, from the 60th regiment, to be lieutenant.

Ensign George Richard Marton, from the 22nd regiment, to be lieutenant.

Quartermaster William Duberly to be ensign.

John Thomas Prentice, gentleman, to be ensign.

Francis Kirby, gentleman, to be ensign.

C. de Catterel, gentleman, to be ensign.

John Bain, clerk, to be chaplain.

Thomas Rowley, gentleman, to be adjutant.

William Duberly, gentleman, to be quartermaster.

Surgeon’s Mate James Macauley, from 33rd regiment, to be surgeon.

But on 24th October, eight days afterwards, the following exchanges were gazetted.

Lieutenant Edward Abbott, from half-pay of 73rd regiment, to be lieutenant vice Michael Stovin Fenwicke who exchanges.

Lieutenant John Townson, from half-pay of the 50th regiment, to be lieutenant vice George Richard Marton who exchanges.

The formation of this corps has been so much discussed and so many writers have said that the officers had never served in the army before, that the old list is worth attention as showing that they were not only officers but belonged to regiments of repute. It is evident, too, by the exchanges that these officers were appointed by the authorities. Possibly few of the men had previously seen service, but were chiefly recruits who volunteered spontaneously to voyage to New South Wales in order to help form a garrison for the new colony.

The first detachments reached Sydney in June, 1790, by the ships Surprise, Neptune, and Scarborough. In October, 1791, another detachment arrived by H.M.S. Gorgon, which brought also the New South Wales territorial seal. In December of the same year the Gorgon put to sea on her return voyage, taking with her most of the officers and men of the Marines. Those who did not then embark were purposely detained, because it was thought wise to keep a strong garrison at Port Jackson until the whole of the new regiment should have replaced them. They comprised a captain, three lieutenants, eight non-commissioned officers, fifty privates and thirty-one retired soldiers who desired to settle in the colony.

Two officers of the New South Wales Corps administered the affairs of the colony after Phillip’s departure, but the regiment is best known for the quarrels that took place between its officers and Governor Bligh. Some of its officers and many of its men, however, turned colonists, and did much for the country, notably Captain John Macarthur. When Governor King paid a visit to New Zealand in 1794 a guard of the New South Wales Corps accompanied him, and probably these were the first British soldiers to set foot in that country after Cook had landed there.

The command of the batteries and defences of the harbour was given to Francis Louis Barrallier who was gazetted to the corps, as ensign, on the 14th of August, 1800, He made the first survey of the Hunter River in June, 1801, and also surveyed Western Port in Victoria. In 1802, as already mentioned, he attempted the crossing of the Blue Mountains, afterwards accomplished by Blaxland, Went worth and Barrallier’s brother officer. Lieutenant Lawson. Among the other officers were Lieutenant-Colonel Foveaux, Lieutenant-Colonel Paterson and Major Johnston who became notorious in setting Governor Bligh’s authority at defiance; Dr. Harris, who accompanied Oxley, the explorer, and Ensign George Bellasis, who succeeded Barrallier and built the battery on Dawes Point, also belonged to this regiment, as did Lieutenants Cox and Minchin, who afterwards settled in the country.

In December, 1808, orders were received by the 73rd regiment to proceed to New South Wales to replace the New South Wales Corps. Mustering, besides officers, 1,000 rank and file, it embarked on 8th May, 1809, at Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, on the ships Hindostan and Dromedary with Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie who had been appointed governor of the colony in succession to Captain Bligh. The ships reached Sydney on 28th December, 1809, and on New Year’s Day, 1810, Macquarie took over the reins of government. The first battalion of the regiment was considerably reinforced upon its arrival by men of the New South Wales Corps, who had accepted an offer to remain in the colony, so that in 181 2 the 73rd numbered not less than 1,200 rank and file. On its departure the men of the New South Wales Corps were transferred to the 46th regiment when it arrived in 1814, and they became then known as the Royal Veteran Corps.

This corps was disbanded in 1823 by the advice of Governor Macquarie, given some years previously, on the ground that the expense of so many old soldiers and their families was too heavy a burden for the Government resources. On 24th September, 1823, the corps under Captain Brabyn was marched from the Barrack Square where it had paraded for the last time in the presence of the governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, who addressed it, and there was much interest in Sydney at the sight of the old regiment on its way to dissolution.

After the 73rd had been in New South Wales and Tasmania about four years Macquarie asked for its removal, and the first detachment sailed in the Earl Spencer in January, 1814, to Ceylon, two detachments following in March in the General Hewett and Windham transports. The Windham touched at the Derwent to embark the men who were serving in Tasmania; the General Hewett with the detachment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Maurice O’Connell sailed by way of New Guinea to Colombo, A fourth detachment left Sydney for Ceylon in 1815 in the General Brown and the colonial brig Kangaroo.[*]

[* Captain Antill of the 73rd was A.D.C. to the Governor; Lieutenant Skottowe of the 1st battalion, was commandant at Newcastle; Captain Haddon was in 1813 commandant at Parramatta; Lieutenant James Primrose succeeded Lieutenant Ovens, also of the 73rd, as inspector of public works, and many other officers held posts of importance under the Government. Captain, afterwards Major, Antill died in August, 1852, a few days before Lieutenant-Colonel Morrisett of the 48th.]

The 46th (South Devonshire) regiment of Foot, commanded by Colonel Molle (afterwards lieutenant-governor) arrived in New South Wales in February, 1814. One of its officers, Lieutenant Watts, was aide-de-camp to Governor Macquarie, and another. Lieutenant Thompson, who had preceded the headquarters, was commandant at Newcastle in 1814. Sergeant R. Broadfoot and six privates of the regiment were sent from a detachment at Hobart Town in Tasmania into the interior to suppress bushranging, and succeeded in taking two ringleaders, Maguire and Burne, who were tried and executed, the sergeant and his men receiving £100 and the thanks of Governor Davy. In April, 1816, the flank companies of the regiment under the command of Captains Shaw and Wallis were sent into the interior of New South Wales to reduce the aborigines to obedience. In February, 1817, Corporal McCarthy and his party at a place called Black Brush in Tasmania fell in with a gang of bushrangers who under Geary, a deserter of the 73rd regiment, were well armed, each having a musket, a brace of pistols and plenty of ammunition. The fight raged for an hour and a half, the old soldier fell mortally wounded, two men were captured, the rest escaping. A few days afterwards the gang were again attacked, and again one man fell wounded and another was captured.

The regiment under Colonel Molle embarked in September, 1817, at Sydney in the Matilda Lloyd and Dick, transports which had brought the 48th regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Erskine to New South Wales, but a few of the 46th, officers and men, remained in the colony, attached to the 48th regiment, and gave great help to the exploring expeditions which took place in the years 1817-21. Both the 46th and the 48th provided colonists as well as excellent soldiers, and many public works were designed and built by them.

Under Captain Wallis of the 46th the wharf at Newcastle, called Macquarie Pier, was begun in August, 1818. The engineers were subalterns of both regiments, the mechanics being under the orders of an old sergeant of the 46th. The work was suspended in the early part of the year 1823. the length of the pier being then 350 yards or some 400 yards from Nobby’s Island. Until then no vessels above fifty tons had ventured into the harbour without a flood tide and a leading wind. The wharf was, however, continued at intervals and finished in 1827.

Lieutenant-Colonel Morrisett of the 48th was commandant at Norfolk Island, at Newcastle, and at Bathurst. He made the first overland journey from Newcastle to Sydney and later lived altogether at Bathurst with his family. No officer was better known in the western district. He had seen much service and bore upon his face the traces of a wound received in action. He died in 1852 and was buried at the Old Bathurst Church now known as Kelso Church. Years after his death the present writer, then a child, was shown several military relics of this gallant officer in the possession of his son and daughter-in-law at the town of East Maitland.

The 3rd regiment (the Buffs) went to New South Wales from Liverpool in September, 1821, and were stationed in various districts—the ship Commodore Hayes landing the head-quarters staff at Sydney on 18th September. Lieutenant-Colonel Cameron of the corps took command of the garrison in Tasmania, and Lieutenant-Colonel Cimitiere became second in command at Sydney after the departure of Lieutenant-Colonel Erskine of the 48th. Major Wall lived near Rooty Hill which was a military depot at that time. Detachments were also quartered at Bathurst and Wellington until the year 1827. At Bathurst Lieutenant Evernden and some settlers of the district captured the bushrangers Carter and Johnstone on 6th July, 1826. This capture was one of the first made in the district. Captain Rolland, also of the Buffs, succeeded Captain Allman as commandant at Port Macquarie in April, 1824. The regiment was increased by the arrival of several drafts, and in 1825 its establishment in New South Wales consisted of ten companies, and in 1826 of eleven. One wing embarked for the East Indies at Sydney early in 1827; the other left on 28th November of the same year and arrived at Calcutta in February, 1828. Lieutenant-Colonel, afterwards Major-General, Stewart of this regiment acted as Lieutenant-Governor from the departure of Sir Thomas Brisbane in 1825 until the arrival of Major-General Ralph Darling in the same year. He settled at Bathurst, and was buried at Mount Pleasant, so called by Mr. G. W. Evans upon his first expedition to the west of the Blue Mountains. The general’s coffin was drawn up the mountain to its last resting-place by bullocks as the sides of the hill were too steep for horses to gain a footing there.

The 3rd Regiment of Buffs in 1823.

The 3rd Regiment of Buffs in 1823.

The 40th regiment, a single battalion corps, received orders in March, 1823, to proceed to New South Wales and was sent out in small detachments. Lieutenant-Colonel Thornton with the head-quarters staff landed at Sydney on 27th October, 1824, and found a large portion of the regiment distributed over the colony. A detachment under Lieutenant-Colonel Balfour went on 23rd March, 1825, to Tasmania, and in July was followed by another under Major Kirkwood. Captain Turton was appointed commandant of Norfolk Island, whither, accompanied by Lieutenant Richardson of the 40th regiment, he sailed in May, 1825. Captain Bishop was ordered to Moreton Bay on 27th July, 1825, as commandant to reinforce Lieutenant Millar.

The 57th regiment arrived at Sydney in 1825-26, under Colonel Shadforth and detachments were sent to the different small settlements at Moreton Bay, Melville Island, and other places. The soldiers were employed in a variety of ways, but were chiefly active in exploring undiscovered tracts of country, and as engineers, as well as in other duties connected with the development of the colony; while some were employed in hunting down bushrangers.

On this service Ensign Shadforth, who afterwards fell at the Redan in 1855, had a very narrow escape. In following a bushranger his party came across a boat lying on the shore, bottom upwards; Shadforth put his head under the gunwale to see if the man they were looking for was hiding there. The bushranger was a very small man, and instead of lying on the ground under the boat he had curled himself up on one of the thwarts. He related after he was captured that when he saw the ensign’s head appear under the boat he immediately covered it with his gun, determined to shoot if discovered. Fortunately the officer did not see him and withdrew, little knowing how narrowly he had escaped.

Captain Logan, who commanded the detachment at Moreton Bay, was an energetic and successful explorer. During the year 1826 he discovered a portion of Darling River, fifty miles north of Moreton Bay, which he named after the governor who had recently succeeded Sir T. Brisbane. Strong detachments of the regiment were sent to Norfolk Island and Tasmania. The head-quarters at Sydney took part in a number of field-days and reviews.

The anniversary of the Battle of Albuera, always celebrated by the “Die Hards,” was kept with great ceremony, both by them and the 39th, who this year were quartered in the same barracks, the officers of each giving dinners to the civil magistrates and principal private inhabitants of Sydney. Festivities were also held at the barracks, which were brilliantly illuminated at night, the word “Albuera,” being surmounted by a crown in a number of different coloured lamps. Colonel Shadforth and Captain Jackson, who had both been severely wounded in the battle, were chaired by the men of the regiment, and carried amidst cheers to the steps of the mess-house, which was gaily decorated.

Major Ovens who held the appointments of private secretary to the governor of the colony, brigade major, and chief engineer, died at Sydney on the 7th December, 1825, and was buried at Garden Island as the old cemetery on the mainland had been done away with. He came to the colony as a subordinate officer of the 73rd regiment in 1810. Two years afterwards he returned to England in company with Captain Piper and Major Cleaveland, who died in the China Seas. Major Ovens obtained his commission in 1822 and returned with Sir T. Brisbane.

In October, 1830, the regiment had to deplore the loss of Captain Logan, who fell a victim to his zeal in exploring the country near Moreton Bay. On the 18th of the month he left the station, attended by a boat’s crew and a private servant, intending to make his final survey (the regiment being shortly about to leave the colony for India), where the party encamped. On the way a body of natives was encountered, whose demeanour was unmistakably hostile, and his men endeavoured to dissuade Captain Logan from his determination to proceed from the camp on his survey unattended. Their entreaties were, however, of no avail, and, laughing at their fears, saying he had often frightened natives off by merely pointing an empty bottle at them, he set out alone on the survey, from which he never returned. Alarmed at his non-appearance, his men went in search of him, but being unsuccessful returned to Moreton Bay and reported what had occurred to the officer left in command there, who at once sent out numerous search parties to look for the missing commandant. At length on the fifth day of the search his body was discovered with many native spears in it and partly covered with leaves and earth. It was evident that he had been murdered by the natives. The remains were removed to Sydney, and buried beside those of his old friend Mr. Justice Bent.

On 21st December, 1830, the regiment was transferred to the Indian Establishment and left Australia on the 31st of the following March. Lieutenant-Colonel Shadforth, who had been in command, retired and settled in Australia. He had been succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Allan in November, 1828. Major Lockyer, who was in 1828 appointed surveyor of roads and bridges, carried out many explorations by land and sea in Queensland and Western Australia as well as in the mother colony.[*]

[* At the commencement of 1825 this regiment was stationed as follows:—

Lieutenant-Colonel Shadforth; Captains Donaldson and Hartley; Lieutenants Donelan, Ovens, Condamine, and T. Shadforth; Ensigns W. Lockyer, Benson, Kidd, E. Lockyer and Wood, twenty-one sergeants, eight drummers and 277 rank and file, (head-quarters) Sydney. Major Campbell, Lieutenant Bate with detachments, was stationed at Melville Island. Captain Logan, Lieutenant Bainbrigge and detachments at Moreton Bay. Lieutenant Browne with detachments at Bathurst. Lieutenant H. Shadforth, one sergeant and detachments at Cox's River. Lieutenant Taylor, and detachments at Western Port. An officer with a detachment was also stationed at the follow mg places: Walh's' Plains (now Morpeth), Longbottom, Parramatta, Globe farm, Emu Plains, Molong Plains, Fish River, Weatherboarded Hut, Springwood, Port Macquarie and Wellington Valley.]

To relieve the 40th regiment, the first detachment of the 39th left Cork for New South Wales in the Woodman on 4th November, 1825, other detachments following during the next year. The head-quarters under the command of Colonel Patrick Lindsay arrived at Sydney in the Cambridge on 7th September, 1827. Detachments were stationed in Tasmania, at King George’s Sound, and on the northern coast. Captain Charles Sturt, the explorer, Captain Joseph Wakefield, who established a settlement at King George’s Sound, Captain Henry Smyth, who formed a settlement named Fort Wellington on Raffles Bay on the northern coast of Australia, were officers of this regiment. The medical officer, Dr. Macleod, became a settler in a southern district, and Captain Thomas Wright succeeded Captain Turton as commandant at Norfolk Island.

On 16th May, 1831, the anniversary of the battle of Albuera in which the 2nd battalion had distinguished itself twenty years before, new colours were presented to it by Governor Darling in the Barrack Square of Sydney. Before the presentation, the ceremony of consecrating the colours was performed by the Venerable Archdeacon Broughton. The festivities afterwards were unfortunately clouded by the news of the death of Captain Collett Barker near Spencer’s Gulf. Captain Barker had succeeded Captain Stirling as commandant at Fort Wellington, and when that settlement was abandoned in 1829 had gone to King George’s Sound as commandant. In returning to Sydney Barker landed for the purpose of making a survey of Lake Alexandrina, Spencer’s Gulf, where his party unfortunately fell in with natives at whose hands he lost his life. On 30th May, 1831, the regiment proceeded to India. Colonel (afterwards Sir Patrick) Lindsay, however, acted as Lieutenant-Governor after General Darling’s departure from New South Wales until the arrival of Sir Richard Bourke, and during this period the command of the regiment fell upon Major Macpherson who had been withdrawn from Bathurst.

Early in the twenties the settlers had to contend not only with the attacks of the natives but with the lawlessness of their own countrymen. Bands of convicts, many of whom were the settlers’ own servants, seeing how successfully the blacks carried out their raids upon the industrious inhabitants bade farewell to all authority and took to the bush. The Bathurst and Goulburn districts were for some time overrun with these disturbers of the peace. Near the head of Campbell River, where it inclines towards the Lachlan, a small piece of land about two miles in diameter was called Wildhorse because, when the commissioner travelled from Bathurst to Argyle in October, 1820, one of the baggage horses was hurt and being unloaded was left loose while the party proceeded on their journey. Here for years afterwards this horse was to be seen, grown fat and sleek, with his tail long and sweeping, and perfectly wild, for he would gallop oft at first sight of man. He seemed always to be near the place. It was in this same spot that much cattle-stealing and bushranging began and ended, and hither, because of its lonely and inaccessible surroundings, were driven alike the stray bullocks, valuable racehorses, and, on occasions, flocks of sheep, stolen from the paddocks and stables of the settlers, taken sometimes while the owners slept or sometimes even, when the desperadoes were sure of safely landing their spoil, during broad daylight.

Herds of cattle thinly scattered over the wide pastures with only a few men in charge soon became the prey of the Australian cattle poacher, whose ingenuity was chiefly exercised in altering the brand marks upon the stolen cattle. A bit of hoop iron applied to the old brand soon turned the letter C to G, O to Q while other letters were only slightly more difficult to change. With a little practice the thieves became almost perfect in the art, and, at the worst, made the letters indistinguishable. The excitement was quite equal to that of poaching game in the mother-country, while the poacher was not half so heavily handicapped at the outset. It is true that the Australian poacher occasionally fell in with the bronzed owner of the cattle or the lithe officer of the mounted police, and then “things” were more even, but the new country on the whole gave the pursued far better chances of escape than the old. Once the cattle stealer was well away from the fold, after passing through a few slip panels, a log fence or a stream or two he would gallop fast over the plain, to the sound of ringing hoofs, the cracking of whips, and the shouting-of men. It took little time to alter the brands, dip a white hoof or paint out a star or a blaze, and then the chances were that if any of the stolen animals happened to be seen alive it would be a difficult task for the owners to recognise them, or if dead to distinguish their hides.

Tracing these bushrangers to their lair was a most difficult task. Had it not been for the help of the natives the police would have often found it impossible to get near them at all, as, when suspected, they separated in two and threes, and waded a river for some distance so as to leave no foot marks. This was particularly necessary in order to screen their movements from the keen eyes of the blacks, who were marvellous trackers and could discover the trace of man or animal where a white man could see nothing. Once, while busily following up a robbery, a black fellow stopped and told the police that the bushranger they wanted to arrest was knock-kneed simply from the impression made by his foot, and the information afterwards proved to be correct.

Trusted natives were created bush constables by the Government, and were allowed guns and ammunition. At first they were given a brass plate, shaped like a crescent, which they wore suspended on a chain round their necks, and upon which was written the name of the wearer, his tribe, and the purpose for which the plate was given him. In later days it was not worn by the “black tracker,” as the native mounted policeman began to be called.

On account of these outbreaks settlements of veteran soldiers were placed throughout the colony, one being placed at Black Rock near Bathurst where the land granted them might have made many independent. A number of free settlers also were given grants at Queen Charlotte’s Vale which a writer described as “approaching nearest in its original state to the beau ideal of natural scenery”. But it was not only at Bathurst and Goulburn the bushrangers carried out their robberies. They were even more frequent around Newcastle and along the Hunter where gangs met and divided the spoil, and in this part of the colony deeds of greater violence than those of the western and southern districts were frequent, and constituted a real anxiety to the inhabitants.

The corps of mounted police which was raised for the repression of these crimes was soon largely increased. The officers, constituted also magistrates of the colony, were chosen from the regiments of the Sydney garrison; the troopers being obtained from the same source. No soldier was chosen or allowed to serve in the mounted police unless he bore a good character. Dressed in a smart serviceable uniform, each carried a carbine, sabre, and a pair of pistols, and all were splendidly mounted on the fastest horses that could be obtained. The nature of the country and the recklessness of the bushrangers soon taught them to be wide-awake and cautious, and most of them became good riders and expert shots.

The daring deeds of those early times would put all later bushranger stories in the shade. The raids were skilfully planned, generally taking place when the police were at a distance from the settlement, and courage and not a little unselfishness were needed for one settler to go to another’s assistance. Not only did many of the community refuse aid through fear of being robbed, but it was believed that the bushrangers were often informed how to carry out their plans with success. In 1825 and 1826 they had become a terror in all the country districts. The bushrangers’ greeting “Bail up” very soon sounded more familiar than pleasant to the settlers’ ears, and on returning after a day’s toil among his herds it was not an uncommon occurrence for the colonist to find his home looted and his family in hiding, if nothing more serious had happened.

In July, 1825, Messrs. Rankin and Perrier at Bathurst captured Blanchfield, one of the leaders, but Mr. Rankin had a narrow escape, for the bullet fired at him by the bushranger only missed him by a hair’s breadth. In 1826 Lieutenant Evernden of the Buffs, when acting-commandant there, was most energetic in endeavouring to crush the outlaws with large detachments of that regiment. In March he fell in with seven bushrangers, captured Morris O’Connell, leader of another gang, and took many runaways. In July this officer, accompanied by Mr. William Lee of Claremont, Bathurst, and assisted by a party of natives, after a smart three days’ chase captured Carter and Johnstone, who had escaped from an escort six months previously. In recognition of this capture of the bushrangers[*] a quaintly worded Government notice appeared in the Sydney Gazette, acknowledging the activity of the settlers and the usefulness of the mounted police under Mr. Evernden.

[* Governor Macquarie seems to have been the first official to make use of the word "bushranger". Writing home in March, 1815, he remarks: "There have been small bands of robbers, since the original establishment of the settlement, infesting the colony who have generally gone by the name of 'bushrangers'".]

The following reprint is only a portion of the original notice:—

Government Notice re bushrangers

GOVERNMENT NOTICE

Colonial Secretary’s Office, 6th July, 1826.

The Governor has again the Satisfaction to notice the successful Exertions of the Mounted Police, under Lieutenant Evernden, at Bathurst.

A Party of Bushrangers, armed with Musquets, have been taken, after a Pursuit of three Days. They had seized some Horses, and were driving off a Number of Sheep.

* * *

Those who, from Supineness, or any unworthy Motive, do not at once come forward, but acquiesce in the Aggressions of the Bushrangers, in the Hope of conciliating them, will meet the merited Reward of their Baseness, by being plundered by those whom they have endeavoured to screen, and being held up to the just Reprobation of the Public.

* * * * * * *

By His Excellency’s Command,

ALEXANDER M’LEAY.

* * * * * * * * * *

A portion of the 39th regiment under Major Donald Macpherson and Captain Horatio Walpole were some three years later quite as enterprising, pursuing gangs of bushrangers, many of whom were caught and executed. In 1830 both Captain Walpole and Lieutenant Browne, aided by Mr, Suttor of Brucedale near Bathurst, and other settlers, succeeded in tracking a gang of desperadoes through the bush, who, after having successfully robbed the Bathurst settlers, managed to escape before the soldiers arrived. Making their way to the far west, they fled for many miles through densely wooded country, providing themselves with fresh horses during the chase. Lieutenant Macalister moved out from the military depot at Goulburn and met them on the Lachlan River where a sharp fight took place in which he as well as many men on both sides were wounded. The following morning the bushrangers surrendered to Captain Walpole who had now caught them up, having followed from the Bathurst side.

In consequence of the boldness of the outlaws Captain Forbes was on 16th October, 1830, by a general order, appointed to command a large body of men drawn in equal numbers from the regiments and garrison. They were mounted by the Government and dispersed over the various settled parts of the colony. Before this appointment was made, the police had no recognised commanding officer, but were nominally under the superintendence of the brigade major at Sydney. After Captain Forbes became their chief they improved wonderfully in discipline and efficiency, and the whole colony acknowledged their usefulness.

Many of the officers and men did not return to their native country. Some became colonists, others died before their regiments left Sydney. Many were laid to rest in those outlying military depots where duty had called them to serve. But England can not regard them as entirely lost to her. Over the country where they died her flag flies proudly and in the little old-fashioned churchyards where they sleep many a sunburnt Australian child has bent over their graves and with tiny fingers brushing away the bramble has traced the quaintly worded inscriptions and learnt yet another reason why Australians call England “home”.


CHAPTER X. THE FIRST CHURCHES.

Church service was first held in Sydney “under a shady tree”. There was only one clergyman, Richard Johnson, chaplain of the Sirius, and he for years undertook the religious duty at the settlement. Even the one clergyman would have been forgotten had not Wilberforce drawn the Prime Minister’s attention to the fact that no provision had been made for a chaplain. The requisite authority was given, and Mr. Johnson, a graduate of Cambridge University (Magdalene College, B.A., 1784, Senior Optime), was chosen.

It was not a post that would have attracted many men, however imbued with a sense of duty. Apart from its responsibilities, it entailed heavy sacrifices. It meant breaking with ties of home, friendship, or professional companionship, and the loss of all the comforts of life, of the chances of gaining distinction or promotion, and the ministering to over one thousand persons, the majority of whom were prisoners.

The choice turned out well. No one in that small colony proved more earnest, more painstaking, or held office so faithfully as the chaplain of the Sirius. Every Sunday after the first landing at Sydney Cove, at a very early hour and before their various occupations had scattered the people to different parts of the settlement, he would gather his flock together around him beneath some large tree, there to worship in the manner they had been accustomed to do in their native land. The sight was a strange one, and we are told that when the Spanish warships the Descuvierta and the Atrevida anchored in Neutral Bay in 1793, the priest belonging to the commodore’s ship lifted his eyes in astonishment on observing no church there, and seeing the English pastor each Sunday seek a shady spot, declared that “His nation would have erected a House for God before one for man”.

Johnson’s steadfastness developed the seeds of Christianity, notwithstanding the drawbacks with which he had to contend, and perhaps in some future age his work through those tedious years, in that rough bare land, will appeal to the hearts of the Australian people and save his memory from the oblivion into which it has partly fallen. If there was no chiming of the Sabbath bell; no dome overhead but the green boughs and the blue sky; no music but rustling leaves and the lapping waves in the cove, and nothing to attract the congregation except his quiet voice, the Church of England can claim that where he first began to preach there are now thickly populated parishes owning churches the services of which would satisfy the most devout worshipper. “Owing to his splendid energies,” says Colonel Collins who knew him intimately, “the early Sabbath days at Sydney were not allowed to pass over without the ordinary observances of a civilised land. They were never omitted. All that he could do he did. He visited the sick, went from settlement to settlement, from hut to hut; rode to distant stations and assembled at each place as many as could be got together to read the service to them and exhort them to live the lives of Christian people.”

As Phillip promoted the social welfare of the country so Johnson helped forward its spiritual life. But while the governor was aided by civil and military officers to carry out his designs, Johnson was dependent upon himself alone; even his small income was employed in uses which might be termed “Church expenses” if a church had existed. At last 400 acres of land were set apart by Governor Phillip for the maintenance of a clergy fund, but not for some time afterwards was it deemed necessary to begin to build a church. Six years, nearly seven, went by and divine service was still held in the open air, subject to all changes of climate. Then, in despair, Johnson, who had made repeated applications both to Governor Phillip and Major Grose to provide him with a place of worship, began at his own expense a temporary building, intended chiefly to shelter the congregation from the inclemency of the weather. The spot chosen was on the east side of Sydney Cove, not far from what is now the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets, near the Circular Quay. It was seventy-three feet long and fifteen wide, with one extension forty feet long by fifteen wide running at right angles from the centre. It was built of posts, wattles and plaster, with a thatched roof and is said to have resembled a barn more than a house of prayer. But it was the first Christian church in that part of the globe. The chaplain consecrated and opened it on 25th August, 1793, and for five years, although so roughly built, it proved fairly comfortable within, and a great boon in wet weather.

On 1st October, 1798, it was unfortunately burned down, history says by an incendiary. The governor then allowed a newly built brick store to be fitted up to take its place. In 1800, when the Orphan School was completed, the fittings were removed from the brick storehouse to the school, as it was the larger building. This stood on what now is the corner of George and Bridge Streets and served as a house of divine worship until Governor Bligh’s departure.

St. Philip's Church, Sydney.

St. Philip’s Church, Sydney.

In 1794 the Rev. Samuel Marsden (Mag. Coll., Camb.) arrived in Sydney in the William and the work was divided between the two clergymen. Mr. Bain, the chaplain of the New South Wales Corps, who received his appointment also through Wilberforce, had arrived in the Gorgon, but he appears to have fulfilled his duties simply as chaplain of his regiment in Sydney and Norfolk Island, and he returned to England with Lieutenant-Governor Grose. A temporary church similar to that built by Johnson in Sydney was opened at Parramatta in 1796, and meanwhile preparations to build St. Philip’s Church were taken in hand. The tower which was of brick was built first in 1797, three years before Governor Hunter laid the foundation of the main building on 27th June, 1800. A clock with a square face was placed in the steeple in 1798. Owing to bad workmanship and to its being built on a hill-side the south side of the tower fell in June, 1806, during a severe gale. The clock, however, escaped injury; and the steeple was soon rebuilt of stone. In 1800 Captain Hunter laid the foundation stone of another church at Parramatta where service was held for the first time in 1803. The Sydney church was called St. Philip’s in honour of Governor Phillip, and the church at Parramatta St. John’s after Captain John Hunter. A silver communion service which was presented by King George III. to St. Philip’s arrived in October, 1803, by H.M.S. Calcutta and is used in the church at the present time. The walls were finished in April, 1804, but the church was not consecrated until 1810. St. John’s, therefore, was finished first—it could hold nearly 400 people; two steeples were added to it later.

St. John's Church, Parramatta.

St. John’s Church, Parramatta.

In 1801 after thirteen years of hard work Mr. Johnson returned to England and the Rev. Samuel Marsden became the senior chaplain. For seven years he ministered almost entirely alone. In 1805 the Rev. Henry Fulton, who had in 1801 been appointed chaplain by Governor King at Norfolk Island, arrived in Sydney. Mr. Marsden obtained two years’ leave of absence in 1807 and proceeded to England to obtain assistance for the church in Australia, and also to advocate a Christian mission in New Zealand. Mr. Fulton officiated in his place until the arrest of Governor Bligh. During the troubled state of the colony under Bligh, when public worship was suspended (January, 1808, to December, 1809), Mr. Fulton was the governor’s staunchest friend, and he returned to England with him in 1810. He came back to the colony in 1812 and was made incumbent of the church at Castlereagh.

Mr. Marsden left for England in the Buffalo accompanied by Mrs. Marsden; Mrs. King, the wife of Governor King, being also a passenger by the same ship. After leaving Sydney a heavy gale threatened, and it was proposed that the passengers should quit the Buffalo, as she was an old ship and thought unseaworthy, and go on board a stauncher vessel which bore her company. The governor’s wife, however, was an invalid and could not be moved, and Mrs. Marsden would not leave her, so the chaplain refused the offer and remained behind. Throughout the night the gale blew strongly. Danger appeared to threaten them, and the creaking timbers of the Buffalo groaned as the huge waves lashed the sides of the vessel. When morning dawned all eyes sought for the companion ship. But in vain. She was nowhere to be seen nor was she ever heard of again.

While in England Marsden did not appeal unsuccessfully either for Australia or New Zealand. The Church Missionary Society decided to accept the call to New Zealand, and the Episcopal authorities agreed to send more clergymen to aid Marsden in his work at Sydney. The Rev. William Cowper, whose family were afterwards closely identified with “Church and State” in the colony, reached Port Jackson before Marsden’s return and took duty at St. Philip’s Church. Mr. Robert Cartwright followed in 1810, and Marsden, resuming his duties as incumbent of St. John’s at Parramatta, also preached regularly once a week in Sydney. In addition to his ecclesiastical duties Marsden was an enthusiastic farmer and was one of the first clerical magistrates appointed. Such appointments called forth much criticism in England and were discontinued in the colony by the order of Lord Bathurst during the governorship of General Darling. Dr. Lang united in the censure against Marsden’s accepting the post and also against his agricultural enterprise, but Mr. Robert Montgomery Martin, in his work on Australia written in 1851, says that Dr. Lang appears to have forgotten the peculiar circumstances in which both Marsden and the officers of the New South Wales Corps were placed, having nothing but their pay and “rations” to rely on for the support of themselves and their families, when the rations were salt pork or salt beef, and fresh mutton two shillings a pound, a cow brought £80 and so on. “This state of things,” says Martin, “compelled them to rear their own stock and it was fortunate that they did so.”

In 1814 Marsden fitted out the brig Active and, accompanied by two missionaries, founded a mission station in New Zealand. This really was the first attempt at British colonisation in that country, and although no Government was set up, the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of New South Wales was extended to residents in New Zealand who at that time were chiefly the crews of fishing vessels and missionaries. The success that attended Marsden’s dealings with the Maoris was remarkable, and he proved himself most energetic in good works both at home and abroad. He had visited Norfolk Island as far back as 1795, and the traders and missionaries in the south seas were wont to send him articles to sell or exchange for them in the market at Sydney. The Maoris trusted him implicitly and in return for his straightforwardness allowed the missionaries to come and go freely among their tribes. The European sailors, however, behaved very differently and, in spite of precautions, murders and outrages took place.

In 1810 on Christmas Day Mr. Marsden consecrated St. Philip’s Church which had been enlarged and improved. When the alterations were finished it was a substantial stone building with a round tower. The interior, however, probably still contained either the old fittings of the Orphan School or temporary ones, as some years later we find that Macquarie mentions in his report that “the old church at Sydney was repaired inside and out with new galleries and new pews”. In another report we read that “St. Philip’s resembles an English church and would accommodate a thousand people”.[*]

[* Mr. Bigge says about eight hundred in his report.]

Wooden churches, however, were built inland before the days of Macquarie, The earliest appears to have been at Parramatta. It was used in 1796 and another built at Windsor was used as early as 11th August, 1805. In the book entitled General Standing Orders of New South Wales, 1803—the first book ever printed in Australia—a notice appears with respect to the school-house and wooden church or chapel at the Hawkesbury to the effect that, “All who wish to become subscribers to support the institution and maintain the chaplain may do so by paying 2d, for each acre of land they possess”.

The foundation stone of St, Matthew’s, the first stone church at Windsor, which took the place of the above-mentioned wooden church was laid by Governor Macquarie on 11th October, 1817. It was opened for service on 8th December, 1822, when Mr. Cartwright, who was also appointed to act as magistrate, was installed as first incumbent. In 1817 Christ Church at Newcastle was completed, but it was not opened until 1821.

A wooden church was in existence at the Castlereagh in 1812 and on the return of the Rev. H, Fulton from his voyage to England with Governor Bligh he was appointed to officiate there.

Windsor Church.

Windsor Church.

St. Luke’s Church at the Hawkesbury, St. Peter’s at Campbelltown, St. Thomas’s at Port Macquarie, and the Church of the Holy Trinity at Bathurst were all built during the rule of Macquarie or that of Brisbane. The Bathurst church, a wooden one, where now stands the well-known Kelso church was the first to be built on the western side of the Blue Mountains. Its register is still in existence and dates back to 1826, when the first death occurred, fully twelve years after the discovery of the plains. There is, however, reason to believe that the church was used for many years previously, although it does not appear in the list of those actually completed during Macquarie’s rule, nor had it a permanent chaplain until some years afterwards. Captain John Fennell, civil commandant of the town and A.D.C. to Sir Thomas Brisbane, and Lieutenant Gore, who died there, were both buried in the old Bathurst Churchyard, Kelso, in 1826. The Rev. Thomas Hassall, formerly a missionary, was the first clergyman and permanent chaplain; the Rev. J. E. Keane, a graduate of Dublin University, being the second, and was appointed to the district in 1828. The brick church now standing at Kelso was built in 1835 and was consecrated by the Rev. Samuel Marsden. The Rev. Joseph Walpole of Cambridge University, probably a relative of Captain Walpole who served with his regiment in that district, succeeded in 1840, and the Rev. T. Sharpe then took duty at Bathurst itself, service being held in the house of the commandant.

Holy Trinity Church, Kelso (Old Bathurst)

Holy Trinity Church, Kelso (Old Bathurst)

Governor Macquarie on 7th October, 1819, also laid the foundation stone of St. James’s Church, which stood at the north end of Hyde Park, Sydney, but it was not opened until 11th February, 1824, when it was dedicated to St. James. The building was designed for a court house and the alteration marred its architectural features. It was finished after the arrival of Mr. Bigge the royal commissioner who visited Sydney in February, 181 9. He had been sent out to report to the Home Government upon the various public works then in progress, and stopped the building of St. Andrew’s Cathedral, planned by Governor Macquarie to be erected at the corner of Church and Bathurst Streets. Mr. Bigge thought that there was no need for such a large building in the colonies at that time, and the proposed expenditure far exceeded the sum that the British Government desired to spend upon a cathedral for so young a settlement. The work at St. James’s was not interfered with, but the tower and spire were not added until some years afterwards, when a contemporary report speaks of its being built in Grecian style with a lofty spire and belfry, constructed of bricks and strengthened by large freestone pillars. Between 1810 and 1818 the Revs. B. Vale, J. Youl, R. Hill and J. Cross came to the colony. Mr. Youl had been appointed to Liverpool, but he went at first to Port Dalrymple, Tasmania, for duty there, returning to Liverpool later. In 1820 the Rev. R. Reddall arrived.

Richmond Church

Richmond Church

While Messrs. Cowper and Hill divided the duty at St. Philip’s and St. James’s in Sydney, Mr. Marsden continued to officiate at St. John’s, Parramatta. The services for the troops in Sydney were held at seven o’clock in the morning; that for the prisoners at nine o’clock, and besides the ordinary morning service at eleven, there were services held in the afternoon and evening. “Sunday was scrupulously kept,” and in September, 1825, shops of all kinds were formally prohibited from being opened.

In 1823 an archdeaconry for New South Wales was created by Royal Charter and placed under the See of Calcutta. Bishop Heber did not forget or overlook his distant charge. On his way to India to take up his duties he wrote to a friend: “How strange to recollect the interest I used to take in southern seas…in India and its oceans, in Polynesia and Australasia! I used to fancy I should like to see them, now it seems not improbable that I shall see many of these colonies if life is spared me.” In a letter to the Right Hon. R. J. Wilmot Horton he wrote: “I hope that I may carry my Australasian visitation into effect “. And again: “Shall we forget while every sea is traversed by our keels and every wind brings home wealth to our harbours that we have a treasure at home of which those from whom we draw our wealth is in the utmost need?”

Unfortunately the bishop did not live to carry out his intentions, although we are told by one of his editors that he often studied with him the map of New South Wales in the hope of voyaging there. His sudden death in 1826, after only two years’ work in India, may have been a greater loss to Australia than might be now supposed. New South Wales had many Churchmen employed in religious work, but the bishop’s presence there, even for a short time, would doubtless have made its influence felt.

Bishop Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, under which See the Diocese of New South Wales was placed by Royal Charter in 1823.

Bishop Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta, under which See the Diocese of New South Wales was placed by Royal Charter in 1823.

The Rev. Thomas Hobbes Scott, who with Mr. Bigge had travelled from England to New South Wales, was upon his return ordained and appointed first Archdeacon of Australia. Like the first governor he was invested with extraordinary powers; he was directed to make an annual visitation of all the churches throughout the colony, and throughout Tasmania, where he was given orders to appoint a rural dean to officiate in his absence, the expense of the appointment to be paid by the governor. He was to recommend to the Government the several stations where it might be desirable to place chaplains, and all the appointments of inferior offices of the Church nominated by the officiating ministers were to be subject to his approval. All schools maintained by the Government were to be placed under him as a visitor. In point of rank, the archdeacon was to hold that next in order to the lieutenant-governor. Regarding questions of a legal nature the attorney-general and solicitor-general were to give him advice freely, and in special cases to act as his assessors. In the event of a clergymen being suspended by him, he was to signify the case to the governor, who was to act on the archdeacon’s responsibility. “The letter from Lord Bathurst to Sir Thomas Brisbane, which conveyed these instructions,” an old writer says, “forms a somewhat curious document in the history of the Church in the colonies, since it gave to the Archdeacon of Australia powers which exceeded those conferred on the Bishop of India.”

With the coming of Archdeacon Hobbes Scott, who arrived in Sydney on 9th May, 1825, in the ship Hercules, the Church took her rightful place in the colony. The archdeacon held his primary visitation at St. James’s Church, on 19th June, 1825; the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson preached the sermon. Services were held regularly and Church work was carried out with order and to the people’s benefit. At the second visitation held in September, 1827, the Rev. C. Pleydell Wilton preached, and at the third, on 3rd December, 1829, the Rev. Joseph Docker of Windsor, who had arrived in 1828. At the conclusion of his sermon in St. James’s the whole of the clergy then in the colony, except two who were excused by the archdeacon because of the long distance they lived from Sydney, advanced to the communion table and stood around the semi-circular railings to hear the address. While the archdeacon remained seated by the holy table, Mr. James Norton, the registrar of the Archdeacon’s Court, called over the names of the clergymen, to which each one answered by an obeisance to the archdeacon, who, in conclusion, delivered his charge to them. Mr. Docker afterwards left the Church to enter Parliament, and proved himself a most consistent statesman.

In 1828 the Established Church consisted of one archdeacon and fourteen chaplains; there were eight churches, six chapels and seven parsonages, two clergymen had temporary parsonages found for them, and four were allowed the equivalent for a house. The chaplain’s house in Sydney faced Bridge Street. It was a small white cottage, surrounded by a garden with orange bushes growing in front, which probably were planted in the first instance by the Rev. Richard Johnson who had introduced the orange into New South Wales, having obtained the seed from Rio de Janeiro when he voyaged out with Captain Phillip.

The Rev. W. Grant Broughton arrived in Sydney in 1829. He became Archdeacon of Sydney in succession to Archdeacon Hobbes Scott, and was afterwards first resident Bishop of Australia. Before his death he had charge over six bishoprics and 200 clergy. Sir Alfred Stephen, Chief Justice of Sydney, afterwards in his eulogy asserted that no man ever went down to his grave carrying more deservedly the respect of his fellow-colonists.

We have described the houses of the settlers in the interior as bearing a strong resemblance to an English farm-house of the eighteenth century. But perhaps the building that bore the strongest resemblance to the English original was the church where for one day in the week at least the whole of the settlers, rich and poor, master and servant, met together. The carved baptismal font, the high old-fashioned pews, the wide gallery and spacious organ loft, the communion table with its railings, the pulpit surmounting the reading-desk, fenced round again by the wide square pew reserved for the chaplain, and the two large calf-bound books with their long markers resting upon the red velvet cushions, needed but one glance to tell the nationality and creed of the people who worshipped there.

The Church of those early days owes so much to laymen that two at least of the most prominent must be mentioned: Captain Wallis who is said to have founded Christ Church, Newcastle, in which he held services when the incumbent was absent, a matter of frequent occurrence, since there were so few clergymen then in the colony; and Sir William Edward Parry, the arctic explorer, who accepted in 1828 the managership of the Australian Agricultural Company which had been established at Port Stephens five years previously for the purpose of promoting the growth of fine merino wool. Sir Edward and Lady Parry spent four years in the colony. A few days before leaving England Sir John Franklin, who was on terms of great friendship with them, wrote them a letter of farewell. Both of these great explorers, Franklin and Parry, held posts in Australia and endeavoured to do all in their power when there to forward religious education among the people.

St. Leonard's Church.

St. Leonard’s Church.

Sir John Franklin wrote from Gedling Hall, Nottinghamshire, on 9th July, 1829:—

“My dear Parry,

“I cannot allow you and Lady Parry to leave the shores of England, although it is to embark in a very interesting pursuit, without the hearty good wishes and best desires of Lady Franklin and myself, and that our prayers will often be offered up for every blessing to attend you. You will have a wide field for the exercise of Christian virtues, and I am sure you will have full experience of the delight arising from contributing to the moral improvement and happiness of those under your command. When I reflect on the change effected by my little party on the habits and manners of the people during a hasty progress through the wilds of America I feel that in the evening of your life you will look back upon the time you may spend in Australia with the warmest feelings of gratitude and joy.”

On the 13th December the William reached Sydney, where Sir Edward and Lady Parry were invited by Governor and Mrs. Darling to stay at Government House. Here Lady Parry spent some time after having given birth to a twin son and daughter. Owing to the care and attention of the governor’s wife, the little son who was a very delicate child, was nursed safely through a critical illness.[*]

[* In after years this son became Bishop of Dover.]

On the 28th of March they embarked in a small cutter belonging to the Agricultural Company and arrived at Port Stephens after a voyage of fifteen hours. The harbour, some ninety miles north of Sydney, is guarded at the entrance by two conical hills, called by the natives Yacaba and Tomare. The estuary is fifteen miles long and near the centre contracts to the width of a mile.

Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry

Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry

The Parrys lived here for four years, and their first step was the establishment of regular Sunday service. As there was no church nearer than Sydney, ninety miles distant, and no chaplain, Sir Edward fitted up a carpenter’s shop in the village and there conducted service himself. His friend and assistant, Mr. Ebsworth, says: “I scarcely ever heard the liturgy read with so much reverence, feeling and apparent delight “. A choir was formed and the members practised at Sir Edward’s house. A school was also opened by Lady Parry and a library formed. Later when writing to his father-in-law. Sir John Stanley of Alderley, Sir Edward says: “In our character of the parson of the parish and his wife we have visited, admonished and assisted everybody within our reach. My duties have been somewhat arduous. I have written one and preached two sermons every Sunday—christened a great many children—visited the sick—buried the dead.”

The success which attended their combined efforts rendered the years spent at Tahlee among the brightest of their married life. Parry’s letters home show how thoroughly he entered into the religious work. “Send out more Bibles,” he writes, “I never before so fully felt the truth of its being the sword of the spirit…In this country almost more than any other whatever fruit is brought forth God shows that the praise and glory are, as they ought to be, His alone.”

Sir Edward and Lady Parry shared the joys and sorrows of the people, and constant entertainments enlivened the everyday life. Lady Parry’s birthday was always a gala day. Sir Edward describes the first festival: “We had a large dinner and ball of all the company’s servants…being the first ever given here. Isabella and I danced away with them at first to set them going. Our great object is to make them all sociable and happy.” And in another letter writes: “Yesterday was the breaking up of our school…We had a kind of tent rigged up on the middle of the flat at Carribeen which is a place something like an English common, and the head carpenter entered into it with great spirit, decorating the place with boughs and bunches of wild flowers which to an English eye were greenhouse plants and some of the rarest kind. There were flags flying and an ensign upon a flagstaff not far away. Altogether it had a beautiful effect with the woody scenery around. Fifty-two children sat down to dinner and no Cheshire children could have done greater justice to the beef and plum pudding. After dinner we set them to play games at which blacks and whites joined, both old and young. Mr. Ebsworth (the assistant manager) was delighted with the fête. They all said it reminded them of England and was the first of the kind Port Stephens had ever witnessed.” Lady Parry also took evident interest in the natives…”There are a great number of natives about the place and they have an encampment between us and the village, their huts being formed of two pieces of bark placed upright against each other. They appear to be harmless, quite different from those near Sydney who are so bad and horrible looking. I think I may even learn to admire a little native black child. I often long for—to see the small black things running about like little imps.” Another letter describes Christmas in Australia, “Christmas Day is passed…we have commemorated it with pleasure and interest, though in this distant land, and have endeavoured to make it like an English Christmas. We did not wish for your frost and snow, but we did wish that the sun had not been quite so hot. The thermometer registered 87° in the shade of our verandah…Our singers had prepared hymns for the season and on Christmas Eve we had the carols, which they sang very well indeed, going round to all the houses, seventeen in number, where every one seemed quite happy to be reminded of England. We also had our church decorated with evergreens. We could not get holly or yew, but there is a shrub which is very common here, like the laurel, only I think handsomer…It was a beautiful evening”. and when we were all sitting out on our lawn we could not help thinking of the difference of your climate to ours just then.”

Sir Edward was often away. Long expeditions were made through the bush to unknown tracts of land.

After one of these expeditions through the company’s estate Lady Parry describes some of their experiences. “We heard tidings from our absent party three days after they had left us, and they were going on prosperously, having reached Myall River. They are obliged to make short journeys each day as eight pack bullocks which carry their goods travel slowly. They are travelling through an untracked country and have frequently to cut their way through the bush. Their party consists of twelve, including blacks—of whom they have three—as they are of great service when they fall in with other natives. They have two tents to pitch at night. It was like a large caravan moving when they set out—all the bullocks in a string, each laden, and a man to every beast, the attendants with guns slung over their shoulders and the others riding. The blacks were dressed for the occasion and looked so proud of themselves! They soon get tired of their clothes, but always want to have them at first and it is one inducement to make them go! We are now in the middle of winter but we have had no cold as yet. The thermometer having never been below 50°, but it feels colder here than it would do at that temperature in England from our being” accustomed to such hot weather…”

On one occasion on a trip to the colliery at Newcastle the party who were as usual all on horseback had to wade through a swamp. The horses were floundering in the soft black earth when the guide remarked that “there was after all a good bottom”. “No doubt,” replied Sir Edward as his horse up to the girths in mud gave a fresh plunge to try and get out of the slime, “no doubt, but I have not found it yet.”

Another night they encamped by the side of a creek. It was raining. The explorer was standing at the door of the tent watching the rising of the stream below them. All at once the water came down “like an immense wave” and in a few minutes the party were deluged and found themselves wading about up to their knees in water. The dray which carried their baggage had to be hastily fastened to a tree to prevent its being washed away while the bullocks were turned loose to find safety for themselves. Those of the party who could, swam over the creek; the rest were hauled across by means of a rope secured to a tree on either side.

Carribeen or Carrington was not the only part of the settlement which profited by their visits. In March, 1831, Lady Parry writes: “On Tuesday we set off in the boat for Booral, another of the company’s farms, where the river navigation ends. The scenery is beautiful the whole way, and I quite longed to get out of the boat to examine the beautiful vines and plants, all quite new to me, which were growing along the shores…Our boat, the six-oared gig, had an awning, a very necessary comfort with an Australian sun shining full upon us. At Booral I met an old Alderley acquaintance, who had been transported for poaching; and when I asked whose pheasants he had been taking, he said, ‘Sir John Stanley’s!’ I felt quite kindly disposed towards him, and glad to see one whose face reminded me so strongly of old Alderley! The distance from Booral to Stroud is about eight miles, along a most beautiful bush road. In many parts you might fancy yourself in an English park, the trees being not too close and interspersed with green slopes. I heard for the first time the bell bird and coachman’s whip (coachwhip). The former is found near fresh water so that his note is a cheerful sound for travellers. We also saw quantities of parrots and cockatoos. Stroud is charming, but I have no wish to live there instead of Tahlee, for the sea is everything to me.”

The want of a regular church and minister being more and more felt as the time drew near for Sir Edward’s connection with Port Stephens to cease, he determined to build a church to leave as a legacy for the people. A site was fixed at Stroud near Carrington, and on Monday, 29th April, 1833, the first stone was laid by Sir Edward Parry, and a service for the occasion read by the Rev. C. Pleydell Wilton, chaplain at Newcastle.

In the spring of next year Sir Edward’s engagement with the company closed, and Colonel Dumaresq was appointed as his successor, but the work of Sir Edward and Lady Parry was a lasting one. A visitor to Port Stephens after they had left wrote: “At Port Stephens Sir Edward Parry found a wilderness and left it a land of hope and promise…He erected a small but beautiful church on the calm Karuah…where never prayer was heard before…and his example in making improvements everywhere has animated others to do likewise.”

Among others who took an interest in Church affairs was Lady Darling. She and her family, with the governor, attended service twice every Sunday, and at Government House the day was held sacred. The help she gave to charitable institutions, as well as the widespread influence her example shed upon the women of the land, bore emphatic testimony to her goodness.

The foundation stone of the first Roman Catholic Church in Sydney was laid on 29th October, 1821, by Governor Macquarie. The first mass is said to have been performed in Harrington Street by a priest belonging to one of the French war-ships which came to Sydney in 1802; but it is more than likely that the devout priest in one or other of the Spanish ships the Discovery and the Intrepid which remained for some time in the harbour held service and that some of the colonists were present. The Rev. James Dixon, an Irish priest (a political prisoner), was permitted by the governor to hold Roman Catholic services in 1803. In 1817 the Rev. Jeremiah O’Flynn was appointed archpriest at Sydney, but having no formal permission from the home authorities was obliged to return to England. In 1820 the Rev. J. J. Therry was appointed and arrived with the Rev. Philip Connolly, the first Roman Catholic chaplain of Tasmania, In 1829 the Rev. J. V. Dowling and three other priests reached Sydney, and a second church was then built at Parramatta. At that time one-third of the population were members of the Church of Rome. The Cathedral of St. Mary was situated in a commanding position in Hyde Park—the land whereon it stood having been granted by Governor Macquarie.

The first Church of Scotland in Sydney itself was St. Andrew’s, better known as Dr. Lang’s Church. It was erected near St. Philip’s upon the hill which was afterwards called Church Hill, but before this a Presbyterian Church of wood had been built at Portland Head on the Hawkesbury by free emigrants from the South of Scotland in 1809, one of their number, Mr. Mein, acting as voluntary catechist. Mr. Andrew Hamilton Hume, the father of Alexander Hamilton Hume, the explorer, was also a Presbyterian who helped his Church. He lived at Parramatta.

The first minister of the Presbyterian Church at Sydney was Dr. John Dunmore Lang. He was born at Greenock in Scotland in 1799, educated at Glasgow University, and ordained and appointed as minister of the Scots Church in Sydney in 1822. He reached the colony in 1823 and at once gave evidence of strong personality. He attracted a large congregation and in a few days the subscriptions for the erection of a church amounted to £7OO. The list was headed by the Governor, Sir Thomas Brisbane, a Scotsman and a Presbyterian, but in consequence of a serious disagreement the subscription was withdrawn. Dr. Lang, however, proceeded to England, and, after laying the matter in dispute before Lord Bathurst, returned to Sydney in 1826, bearing instructions to the colonial authorities to pay one-third of the cost of the church, and also an annual stipend of £300 to Dr. Lang. Along with his church Dr. Lang introduced his school system, and through his efforts the Australian College in Sydney was established in 1832.

The Scotch Church, Parramatta.

The Scotch Church, Parramatta.

The controversies respecting the relation between Church and State which culminated in the disruption of the Church of Scotland were not excluded from New South Wales. Dr. Lang, finding himself at variance with his brethren, severed his connection with the State Church, but later on when the various Presbyterian bodies in the colony became one, Dr. Lang entered the union. He wrote many books and pamphlets, the best known being his History of New South Wales, first published in 1834. After a long and useful career he died in Sydney, 8th August, 1878, and was accorded the honour of a public funeral.

The population of the colony contained a considerable proportion of Scotsmen whose numbers had been from time to time increased through the influence of Dr. Lang during visits to his native country. To minister to the increasing flock came other Presbyterian clergy. An early and important addition to their number was the Rev. J. M’Garvie who settled at Portland Head; some years later the Rev. T. Thomson arrived, who became minister at Bathurst, and the Rev. W. Pinkerton, whose sphere of labour was at Maitland on the Hunter.

The first Wesleyan prayer-meeting was held in Sydney on 7th February, 1812, and the first minister of that denomination, other than missionaries who had come there from the South Seas, was the Rev. Samuel Leigh who arrived in the Hebe on 15th August, 1815. The Rev. B. Carvossa came in 1820, and touching at Hobart held his first service there in August of that year. Colonel Waddy and Mr. Nokes held prayer meetings at Hobart in October, 1820. The first Wesleyan resident minister in that colony was the Rev. William Horton.

On the removal of the Port Phillip settlement to the banks of the Derwent, Tasmania, the Rev. Robert Knopwood accompanied the expedition as chaplain. At first the services were held in a large tent. Later the good deeds of Colonel David Collins were perpetuated by the dedication of St. David’s Church at Hobart Town. The foundation was laid on 19th February, 1817, and the consecration was performed six years later by Mr. Marsden, and the Rev. William Bedford was appointed chaplain. St. John’s Church, Launceston, was opened in 1827 by Archdeacon Hobbes Scott, the Rev. John Youl being the first incumbent.

By 1824 the Wesleyans possessed no less than six chapels in New South Wales. One at Parramatta, twenty-one feet by thirty feet, was opened on 21 St April, 1821. It was built of stone and the fittings are said to have been “well finished “. The second, built three years afterwards, also of stone, stood in Macquarie Street, Sydney; it was very much larger than that at Parramatta. Another chapel, built of brick, at Windsor, measured thirty-two feet by sixteen feet. The cost of these was defrayed by public subscription. A chapel built of wood at Castlereagh, fifty miles from Sydney, in a very solitary neighbourhood, was erected by Mr. John Lees, a settler of the district, at his sole expense. Another, also of wood, was built at the Nepean.

Messrs. Hayward, Erskine, and Hutchinson, Wesleyan missionaries, were then in the colony, and were among those who welcomed Messrs. Tyerman and Bennet upon their visit to Sydney in 1824.

A chapel was opened at Hobart in February, 1826, and one at Launceston in 1827.

There were also in Sydney a Baptist Chapel, a Friends’ Meeting House and a Jewish Synagogue.


CHAPTER XI. AUSTRALIA’S PHYSICAL FEATURES: ITS ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE LIFE.

BAB XI. FITUR FISIK AUSTRALIA: HEWAN DAN HIDUP nabati.
Secara geografis terletak di antara Australia paralel kesepuluh dan keempat puluh lintang selatan. Dikelilingi dari semua sisi oleh lautan mengukur 1.900 mil dari utara ke selatan dan 2.400 dari timur ke barat. Dalam bentuk ini telah dibandingkan dengan piring atau pancake-sebuah dataran di sekitar tengah dan tepi berjumbai. Interior agak tinggi di atas tingkat laut dan ditaburi di sana-sini dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil bukit – tidak cukup tinggi untuk menghasilkan sungai yang begitu ingin menyuburkan limbah kering dataran pusat. Dimulai di ujung utara pantai timur, tabel ini tanah-tengah dibatasi oleh rentang, yang berjalan ke bawah melalui koloni Queensland, di mana mereka ditutupi dengan pohon-pohon dan dedaunan pertumbuhan tropis. Mempertahankan ketinggian rata-rata yang adil mereka terus saja mereka melalui New South Wales sampai, di koloni Victoria, Mt. Kosciusko, disebut setelah patriot Polandia, naik ke 7.308 meter, yang hanya 700 kaki singkat dari batas salju abadi. Di sini mereka berpaling ke arah barat menuju South Australia di mana terdapat banyak tanah tinggi, dan di koloni yang memenuhi kemiringan outlet dimana tiga sungai besar dari timur, yang airnya bersatu dan membentuk Murray, menemukan jalan mereka ke Lake Alexandrina. Lebih jauh barat istirahat ini, tabel-lahan lebih rusak, pegunungan yang jarang tinggi, dan di Australia Barat mereka tenggelam ke bukit belaka.

Kapten Sturt telah dituntun untuk percaya bahwa Australia adalah sebuah baskom, bahwa berbagai terputus bukit berbaris pantai, bahwa sungai-sungai mengalir hanya untuk pusat dan memberikan kontribusi terhadap pembentukan laut pedalaman, tetapi saat ia berjalan dengan eksplorasi ia menemukan bahwa ada, terutama di dekat persimpangan dengan Sungai Castlereagh Sayang, jatuh cepat dari negara ke negara selatan. Barometer mengatakan padanya bahwa katarak dari Macquarie adalah 680 meter di atas permukaan laut, dan bahwa depot Oxley itu pada Lachlan hanya 500-jatuh yang masih lebih besar di luar dua poin, maksimum bank fosil melalui mana Murray melewati yang hanya 300 meter. Banyak sungai yang terhubung dengan laguna, laguna memiliki garam atau air payau, tetapi memiliki komunikasi tidak dengan laut, memberi sejumlah besar garam sehingga bermanfaat bagi domba. Beberapa laguna yang naik kecil dan kering di bulan-bulan musim panas sama sekali, yang lainnya benar-benar danau. Bentangan daratan terbesar air Danau Torrens, dekat kepala Teluk Spencer, yang hampir sama besar sebagai Danau Jenewa. Lake George ketika penuh air dua puluh satu mil panjang dan di salah satu bagian lima mil lebar.

Ada tanda-tanda tindakan vulkanik di banyak bagian tidak hanya di bebatuan tapi di bukit-bukit terisolasi, “Pics kerucut” dari para penjelajah pertama. Bukit terbakar, Gunung Wingen (nama asli untuk api) di dekat lembah Sungai Hunter, seperti peningkatan serupa di tempat lain, mengandung belerang dalam pembakaran terus menerus, tanpa letusan namun membuang asap. Bukit itu ditemukan pada tahun 1828 oleh seorang pemukim yang pada suatu hari saat keluar menembak melihat asap yang timbul dari itu dan bertanya apakah penduduk asli semak terbakar, tetapi hitam menjawab “Tidak,” menambahkan bahwa gunung itu telah membakar sangat panjang waktu; itu kemudian dikunjungi oleh tiga pemukim, Tuan Mackie (ayah dan anak) dan Dixon yang mengambil dengan mereka sebuah partai buruh dan membuat pemeriksaan tempat itu. Pembukaan di bukit didekati oleh sebuah pendakian yang curam dan tanah sekitar itu hitam dan lengket. Sudah dua belas kaki lebar dan tiga puluh kaki panjang, yang terletak di antara puncak dua gunung yang disebut pribumi Wingen. Lima meter dari pembukaan partai melemparkan sebuah barikade untuk melindungi mereka dari panas yang seperti itu dari dapur, dan kemudian mereka mulai menjelajahi bawah permukaan. Delapan kaki di bawah mereka datang pada suatu zat berbatu yang mereka mengecam dan kemudian ditemukan batubara, sendawa, tawas dan belerang. Para pemukim, berpikir bahwa itu adalah gunung berapi, kecewa tidak menemukan lava, namun, dekat tempat tidur sungai, tunggul pohon dan hutan fosil membatu ditemukan. Membatu yang disajikan garis-garis dan pita berwarna seperti pita yang indah, ada juga batupasir, batu gamping, spesimen yang indah J asp-batu akik atau Mesir kerikil dan nodul amorf, interior dipenuhi dengan kristal terbaik. Batu pasir dan granit juga ditemukan di massa oval atau bulat bervariasi 2-12 meter di lingkar. Bola-bola dari granit persis seperti bola meriam yang digunakan oleh Cromwell, dan ketika pengungsi dari soket muncul seolah-olah mereka telah dilemparkan di sana oleh artileri.

Antara Glendon dan Sungai Hunter dan di lingkungan terdekat Gunung Wingen tanah itu dilemparkan di pegunungan teratur atau alur-alur serupa dengan yang di dataran Bathurst, dan pribumi ketika ditanya apakah mereka tahu penyebabnya, menjelaskan jagung yang ditanam ada waktu yang sangat lama lalu, dan mengangkat jari mereka berseru “Murrey, Murrey, bertahun-tahun berlalu!” Tapi ini sepertinya tidak benar sebagai undulations menjaga arah yang sama pada setiap sisi pegunungan dan ada sedikit keraguan bahwa mereka dibentuk oleh penurunan air setelah banjir yang mengerikan dari pegunungan. Seorang ahli geologi tua [*] menyatakan bahwa menurut pendapatnya “itu mungkin telah pada waktu yang sama dan mungkin dengan bencana yang sama dengan yang memisahkan Pulau Nobby di mulut Hunter dari daratan”.

[* Pendeta C. Pleydell Neale Wilton, M. A. Camb.]

Dalam Illawarra, New South Wales, dan di Gunung Barker ada jajaran bukit dengan tebing batuan beku tiba-tiba unstratified yang telah dipaksa naik melalui strata laut. Ketika Flinders menjelajahi Sungai Batu apung di sekitar Teluk Glasshouse, ia terkejut tidak menemukan gunung berapi. Batu apung di sungai dan situasi puncak luar biasa berdiri di tanah datar yang rendah membuatnya percaya bahwa harus ada orang di sana.

Pelabuhan penasaran dengan cabang-cabang mereka sama-sama penasaran dan cabang batin terhubung dengan laut dengan bukaan relatif sempit menyajikan kemiripan besar untuk lembah-lembah atau depresi ditemukan di Blue Mountains, yang, seperti mereka, kata Charles Darwin, juga karena aksi laut.

Salju ditemukan pada puncak pegunungan Alpen Australia, dan selama musim dingin pada banyak rentang yang lebih kecil. Hal ini juga tidak terlihat biasa pada puncak tertinggi dari Blue Mountains sementara ledakan musim dingin dari Canoblas dekat Jeruk terlalu dingin untuk tidak cepat diidentifikasi. Ketika pukulan pendatang baru dari Inggris ini diragukan lagi diingatkan utara-easter tanah asalnya, sementara wajah cokelat terbakar matahari dari Australia ternyata biru di bawah ketajaman, dan mata yang tajam mengukur snowcaps putih di bukit-bukit biru dengan banyak yang sama ekspresi saat mereka menonton cincin berkilauan kebakaran semak mengelilingi rentang di musim panas.

Kebakaran semak, seperti salju, mungkin memiliki konsekuensi serius bagi saham. Selama bulan panas api yang tidak biasa, karena sinar matahari yang begitu kuat sehingga mereka mengatur membakar rumput kering. Kemudian panas yang ekstrim, udara seperti itu dari dapur, ada ada angin, bahkan daun terkecil ini tak berubah. Matahari muncul sebagai cakram tembaga melalui kabut asap cokelat. Awan menggantung rendah di langit yang dari warna berasap, dan kabut berwarna sama naik dari tanah. Bahkan dari kejauhan tanda-tanda menunjukkan bahwa semak-semak yang terbakar. Saat kegelapan set di bersinar kemerahan aneh seperti halo di atas cakrawala. Pemandangan di malam hari adalah luar biasa jika api meningkat dan menjadi serius, untuk pohon mengandung resin begitu banyak dan terpentin bahwa ketika mereka membakar begitu dinyalakan keras dan cepat. Panjang lidah api melompat dan berkedip menyelimuti dedaunan biru. Dari batu ke batu, dari semak-semak semak untuk mereka menyebar sampai pohon-pohon hutan yang tinggi datang menerjang ke bumi. Di bawah banjir percikan dan kayu jatuh. Tapi kereta api terus seterusnya, dengan energi sengit, mengambil jalan baru, dan melakukan kerusakan besar.

Petani dan penghuni liar jarang mempersiapkan salju bahkan di kabupaten di mana sebagai suatu peraturan ada setidaknya satu jatuh selama tahun, tetapi sentuhan yang dingin meletakkan di atas tanah sebagai sebuah aturan yang relatif empuk dan lembut, mencair menjadi cepat dan cepat menghilang es.

Opossum itu.

Bulan-bulan terdingin di bulan Juni dan Juli, ketika mawar mekar dan burung-burung muda berkicau di pohon-pohon di Inggris, seperti di Januari sementara “di rumah” petani utara gemetar salju dari sepatu botnya dan anak-anak desa meluncur di kolam-matahari di Australia adalah melempar sinar yang menyilaukan atas bidang gandum keemasan, lebih dari kebun dan kebun anggur di mana ara, almond,, murbei, melon dan jeruk, serta apel, pir, plum, persik , dan buah-buahan lain yang telah diberikan Inggris koloni-koloninya, yang matang.

Untuk mengutip kata-kata seorang penulis lama: “Selain pohon dan buah segala macam biji-bijian berkembang antara hutan kumuh yang sampai sekarang telah menghasilkan hampir tidak cukup untuk mendukung beberapa mengembara liar”. Tetapi dengan benih yang baik bermunculan ilalang. Pada hari-hari awal gulma dikenal dengan julukan akrab “ayam gemuk” (album Chenopodium) throve baik sehingga puluhan hektar adalah untuk semua massa salah satu penampilan itu dan pegawainya tidak mau melakukan pekerjaan di ladang di mana ia tumbuh. Ini berakar lebih dalam dari gandum dan memilih tanah yang terbaik untuk dirinya sendiri. Scotch thistle meningkat terlalu berlimpah di tanah baru dan sangat tidak disukai oleh ternak bahwa mereka akan kelaparan ketimbang memakannya. Jadi dengan thistle dari Argentina, benih yang semula dibawa ke Bathurst kusut di ekor kuda kereta yang diimpor dari Amerika Selatan. Dari beberapa biji ada telah menyebar apa yang sekarang dikenal di Australia sebagai “duri Bathurst,” dianggap sebagai kejahatan besar, karena itu menciptakan kekacauan dalam bulu domba woolled denda; telah sering dikenal untuk merusak klip untuk musim bersama. Alih-alih poppy merah, dan hampir tidak begitu hias, buttercup kuning yang tinggi dilihat dalam bahasa Inggris kebun pondok menyerbu ladang gandum; disebut di banyak tempat “buttercup Mackenzie,” setelah pemukim yang pertama kali tumbuh di tanahnya, tangkai panjang dan hijau daun membuatnya terlihat, dan bahkan dalam panas yang besar dan cuaca kering memegang sendiri antara bunga-bunga liar dari negaranya diadopsi.

Memproduksi gandum pertama kali ditanam adalah yang paling mengecewakan. Tapi benih ditaburkan telah dirusak oleh perjalanan laut yang panjang. Kita belajar dari sebuah artikel yang dipimpin dengan kutipan Thomson, “Kamu memuliakan Inggris hardy bajak,” bahwa lima puluh berkas gandum dibuat tetapi dua gantang gandum. Dalam contoh lain dua puluh dua berkas gandum yang diproduksi tapi satu gantang. Cape gandum penampilan yang baik diperlukan delapan puluh baik-ukuran berkas gandum untuk dua gantang, putih hari raya panen gandum agak kurang. Rata-rata umum tampaknya 30-40 berkas gandum ke gantang dan di satu tempat dalam tahun sebelumnya (1828), dan bila terkena hawar, 160 berkas gandum yang meronta-ronta untuk bushel. Orang-orang juga tertipu oleh panjang sedotan. Sebagian besar dari gandum yang ditanam di sekitar Windsor pergi ke tangkai. Satu negara badut enam kaki tinggi membual bahwa gandum-Nya adalah yang terbaik di paroki: “Ini adalah,” katanya, “selama dalam tangkai seperti diri sendiri”. Sebagai imbalannya ia diberitahu jika hal itu “sebagai cahaya di kepala itu akan menjadi nilai kecil”. Jagung yang Kapten Hunter memuji begitu tinggi tumbuh dengan baik di mana-mana; tepi Nepean terutama dihasilkan bidang besar itu, dan tangkai tinggi dan daun hijau bersinar, diatasi dengan tongkol meledak dari yang mengintip jumbai sutra kecil, memberikan tanaman setampan penampilan sebagai kebun jeruk yang tumbuh dekat.

Tahun 1829 tampaknya telah menjadi berlimpah satu kentang adalah deskripsi yang lebih besar dan lebih baik dari negara yang pernah sebelumnya tumbuh, dan semua bidang dan tanaman kebun tampaknya telah thriven. Dari pertama gubernur telah mendorong berkebun. Sejauh kembali sebagai 1790 Phillip Gubernur berpendapat bahwa itu adalah sebuah kebutuhan mutlak bagi setiap orang untuk mengolah kebun sendiri. Untuk beberapa yang tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda industri, telah tidak menabur tanah ditanami apapun apapun atau sayuran, ia diberikan sebidang kecil tapi memadai dan mendorong pekerjaan mereka tidak hanya dengan arah tetapi dengan kehadirannya, dan pada tahun 1815 Gubernur Macquarie menunjukkan minat yang sama berkebun. Mrs Macquarie dalam usahanya untuk membudayakan dan meningkatkan kondisi kaum pribumi, telah pondok-pondok kayu yang dibangun untuk mereka di Kepala St George di dekat pelabuhan, dan jatah ditata, benih dan tanaman untuk ini yang dilengkapi dari toko pemerintah. Tapi kebaikan yang ditunjukkan baik oleh Gubernur dan istrinya ke orang kulit hitam tampaknya telah terbuang, seperti pada tahun 1824 taman dan kebun yang dikuasai dengan gulma, dan telah menjadi padang belantara sedikit, sementara tidak tanda tempat tinggal tetap. Ketika tanah itu pertama dibersihkan pohon buah-buahan ditanam Inggris dan masih tidak jarang menemukan lindung nilai dari quince ungrafted atau plum, kadang-kadang di sepanjang jalan umum di mana, warna hijau mereka adalah perubahan yang menyenangkan dari warna muram dari rumput asli.

Macquarie tidak hanya mencoba untuk memperbaiki kebun Sydney tetapi juga membuat berjalan dan drive di mana pun mereka akan perintah pemandangan pantai Port Jackson. Mrs Macquarie telah drive di Domain diletakkan setelah rencana sendiri; jalan harus dipotong melalui batu dan Underwood dan banyak pohon hancur; kursi ditempatkan pada interval dan pondok-pondok yang dibangun di pintu masuk. Pada titik ekstrem menghadap ke pelabuhan beberapa batu horisontal membentuk semacam kursi alami yang memiliki sejak dikenal sebagai “Ketua Mrs Macquarie,” sebagai prasasti diukir kesaksian.

Ada lebih dari sepuluh ribu spesies tanaman dalam flora Australia, dan deskripsi bunga New South Wales yang tertarik Sir Joseph Banks, Mr Cunningham, Mr Caley dan ahli botani lainnya, saja akan mengisi volume. Banyak koleksi dikirim pulang oleh Gubernur Macquarie, satu di Bathurst Tuhan permintaan sedang dibuat untuk Kaisar Austria dan satu lagi untuk M. Goyim, tukang kebun Raja Perancis di Paris. Dengan begitu banyak tanaman lokal yang baik itu tidak mengherankan bahwa Sydney kebun selalu indah. Mereka berlari ke tepi air di mana kapal-kapal dari semua deskripsi yang mereka lego jangkar. Men-of-perang, liners terkenal, yacht dan cuaca-dipukuli kapal dari pelabuhan yang jauh terletak cukup dekat dengan tanah. Wavelet mencuci tepi pasir putih dan mengalahkan terhadap batu cokelat dan perahu-rumah kuno dan langkah-langkah pedesaan, dan kebun mengelilingi berbagai teluk promontories, dan merambah seolah-olah pada perbatasan sangat darat dan laut.

Di sana-sini terurai massa istirahat dedaunan melalui pagar penghalang atau merayap di atas dinding batu dan menyapu permukaan gelombang. Pakis dan tanaman laut menutupi bebatuan dan ornamen perbatasan jalur merah yang silang dan kembali menyeberangi halaman rumput hijau di antara rumah dan pantai. Pohon pakis, sarang burung, maidenhair itu, klakson rusa dan lumut terang seperti bintang pada batu abu-abu, semua tampaknya akan tumbuh sebagai Alam ditempatkan mereka. Lebih tinggi, semak-semak dari geranium, oleander harum lembut; magnolia sarat dengan aroma bunga-bunga kuning udara; fuchsias dari merah terkaya dan terkulai ungu pada batang tipis, dan pir berduri menambahkan sentuhan ke kekayaan warna. Selain tanaman-tanaman asli, yang lain dari iklim utara berkembang di kontras bahagia, dan meminjamkan ke kebun pesona ganda,-di antaranya naik, violet dan honeysuckle bahasa Inggris, sedangkan trailer dan pendaki gunung dari bebatuan, seperti bugenvil, Clematis dan Virginia menjalar menyembunyikan serambi dan menutup dinding putih rumah banyak yang memiliki jendela hijau dan Gables kuno.

Pohon-pohon eukaliptus, yang ada banyak jenis, adalah pohon terbesar di negeri ini. Ini adalah pertama kali disebut-pohon karet oleh partai Kapten Cook, dari jumlah jus zat atau permen karet yang mengandung sebagian besar dari mereka, dan mereka dikenal dengan nama itu. Selain permen beberapa spesies juga menghasilkan manna yang umumnya ditemukan di potongan-potongan kecil, kering dan renyah, di bawah pohon di tengah daun kering dan potongan kulit kayu. Dan di samping gusi dan manna, beberapa hasil minyak terkenal.

Untuk satu jenis, E. piperita, nama pohon peppermint diberikan oleh Mr White, ahli bedah dari Sirius, dan kemudian Ahli Bedah Jenderal New South Wales di bawah Gubernur Phillip, pada rekening kemiripan antara minyak yang diambil dari daun-daunnya dan yang diperoleh dari tanaman peppermint biasa. Jenis-jenis yang paling dikenal adalah gusi merah (E. rostrata) dan permen karet biru (E. globulus); permen karet kuning sebelumnya digunakan oleh penduduk asli dalam membuat tombak mereka, permen karet putih (E. haemastoma) adalah sebuah pohon besar dengan melebar cabang, meliputi kulit batang dan tungkai putih dan halus, daun hijau tua. Dalam Dandenong rentang pohon peppermint sering mencapai 420 kaki dan dekat Healesville sebuah pohon tumbang, diukur 480 kaki atau 76 kaki lebih tinggi dari puncak menara Katedral Salisbury.

Ada berbagai spesies Australia akasia. Para pial yang paling berharga karena kulit kayunya digunakan dalam penyamakan, dan Myall memiliki kayu yang paling sulit dengan butiran sangat halus. Ketika partai Kapten Cook melihat senjata dipoles kayu Myall wangi di tangan pribumi mereka menyatakan bahwa mereka bersinar seperti barel senapan di bawah sinar matahari. Ornamen terbuat dari kayu ini banyak dicari. Penduduk asli artikel ini sebelumnya diukir rapi, dan sebelumnya ada beberapa pengurus domba yang tidak membawa cambuk menangani Myall. Cedar akasia yang berharga, ditemukan terutama di Queensland dan bagian utara New South Wales, merupakan genus lain. Para Pulau Norfolk pinus adalah pohon bersekutu dengan bunya yang bunya Pemerintah tidak akan memungkinkan untuk ditebang di lahan Crown sebagai benih yang dimakan oleh penduduk asli. Kedua adalah pohon yang indah, tetapi mantan tidak asli ke Australia. Kita diberitahu bahwa itu pertama kali ditanam di tepi Parramatta oleh Mr Wilson dari HMS Reliance yang membawa bibit pohon banyak dari Norfolk Island, dan telah dilakukan dengan baik di New South Wales.

Salah satu keanehan utama dari vegetasi Australia adalah bahwa pakis, jelatang, dan bahkan rumput memiliki bentuk dan kebiasaan pohon. Rumput, seperti sedges banyak, berkembang terbaik di tempat dikenakan genangan. Dalam waktu musim panas padang rumput hijau atau rumput yang tak terlihat. Itu terletak tersembunyi di bawah rumput lebih tinggi dari warna coklat kekuningan. Ini rumputan-asalkan saham juga tahu-rumput pendek melindungi dari sinar terik matahari. Apakah Anda untuk mencabut rumput coklat, untuk membajak tanah dan menabur benih dengan buatan untuk mendapatkan efek medan bahasa Inggris Anda akan menuai ada hadiah untuk Anda sakit, seperti rumput asli akan dihancurkan dan rumput asing, benih yang tumbuh di iklim dingin, akan binasa di bawah matahari musim panas.

Sungguh luar biasa bagaimana di Australia, di tengah-tengah pertumbuhan mewah, patch telanjang, karena mungkin untuk kuantitas garam mengimpregnasi tanah, harus dilihat di tempat-tempat di mana, kata seorang penulis tua, “bahkan belalang akan kelaparan”. Rumput kanguru adalah salah satu kepala rumput tumbuh, tapi barley denda kecil dan kuning atau coklat gandum-rumput yang tercantik. Mitchell berpikir yang terakhir saat masak menyerupai tanaman gandum, ketika itu masih muda dan setelah mandi hujan itu overspreads dataran dengan hijau brilian.

Tanah di sekitar Sydney dan pantai timur Port Phillip, seperti Australia Barat, terkenal karena bunga-bunga liar mereka, mereka dikenal sebagai Natal semak, bunga flanel biasa, dan banyak spesies kesehatan dan abadi tumbuh di tanah yang relatif steril. Pohon rumput (Xanthorrhaea arborea) juga patut diperhatikan, ketika muda tampaknya menjadi hanya pabrik besar tanpa batang, dengan panjang, sempit, daun yang tajam, tetapi karena menjadi lebih tua kurva bawahnya daun dan pertumbuhan muda naik dari pusat, dan segera batang bantalan tebal muncul sekelompok daun. Dari pusat ini meningkat sebuah batang seperti rumput gajah yang sangat besar, sering sepuluh kaki tingginya, spike menjadi kaki panjang. Dalam kesempurnaan itu tegak, dalam usia tua itu menjadi bengkok dan kadang-kadang cacat tapi selalu memberikan aspek yang benar-benar Australia untuk pemandangan.

Ada banyak herbal liar yang menguntungkan domba hampir di mana-mana. Thyme liar, hop asli, tanaman dari yang pertama rumah-istri mengangkat ragi mereka, dan mint juga berkembang dengan baik, dan buah yang biasa disebut “sudut lima” dimakan oleh anak-anak dari pemukim miskin, yang juga mengumpulkan manna dan permen karet dari pial yang memiliki rasa tidak seperti madu liar.

Tidak ada buku tentang Australia akan lengkap tanpa beberapa referensi kuda. Dari semua binatang, adat atau sebaliknya, tidak ada yang dari penggunaan tersebut dan pentingnya perintis. Baik kanguru yang, seolah-olah, dipandang sebagai bagian dari tanah, maupun domba yang telah membawa kekayaan untuk padang rumput itu telah masuk ke dalam sukacita dan pekerjaan orang-orang Australia dalam hal seperti ukuran yang sama seperti kuda Inggris.

Apakah itu dalam pemeliharaan domba, memelihara ternak, atau tumbuh gandum-atau hampir semua Endeavour ia melakukan-Australia harus memiliki bantuan dari kuda. Perkeretaapian sekarang menyebar antrean panjang mereka melalui interior negara, membawa wisatawan dari tempat ke tempat, tetapi di saat-saat awal ketika seorang pria ingin mengunjungi di negara ini ia dikemas tasnya, diikat ke pelana, kudanya dipasang dan berkuda pergi.

Populasi dalam “puluhan” tersebar jauh di pedalaman, banyak stasiun yang “hampir di luar batas peradaban,” dan naik dari seratus mil itu tidak berpikir sebuah perjalanan yang tidak biasa.

Tanah, iklim, dan sekitarnya umum dari sebagian besar negara itu hanya cocok untuk pekerjaan pastoral. Beberapa domba-berjalan dari pemukim sangat besar, dan kawanan domba merino besar murni menjelajahi atas tanah terbuka, pengurus domba tua dan penyiksa, usang petualang, anak yatim piatu manusia dan, menghabiskan hari-hari terakhir mereka menggembalakan dan banyak yang diletakkan untuk beristirahat di bawah naungan dan pohon mallee pial dengan “tidak pernah sebuah batu atau kereta api ke pagar tempat tidur mereka”. Pemeliharaan ternak segera menjadi industri penting. Inggris keturunan pertama kali diperkenalkan untuk pertanian Raja George, dan di sekitarnya menyenangkan dikalikan dengan cepat. Untuk pengelolaan ini stasiun ternak dan kandang-kandang domba, kuda yang diperlukan dalam jumlah besar, dan, selain tunggangan hanya berguna untuk pengurus domba di tempat kerja mereka, tanah segera bisa membanggakan kuda nya.

Keturunan dari kuda dibawa ke Australia awal sehingga segera mendapatkan reputasi jauh melampaui batas-batas lokal. Tunggangan yang baik dan cepat ditemukan dan diperlukan ketika bushrangers pencuri ternak harus diawasi dan dikejar. Para bushrangers khususnya sangat tertarik dengan kuda, bagi hidup mereka sering tergantung pada kepemilikan kuda armada, dan beberapa dari kandang balap terkenal lolos kunjungan dari mereka.

Pengamat ternak datang ke dipandang sebagai mengejar menarik, banyak lahan terbuka yang sedikit lebih dari satu padang rumput yang luas di mana ternak menjadi liar bagaikan rusa, dan, ketika itu diperlukan untuk mengumpulkan mereka untuk dijual, itu berarti kerja keras seharian bagi pemilik dan orang-orangnya, dan diperlukan pengendara memiliki dari saham ditoleransi saraf, dan penunggang kuda yang baik ke tawar-menawar. Sebuah gerombolan lembu jantan tidak mudah dibawa ke tempat penyimpanan suatu. Mereka mencoba setiap manuver yang mungkin untuk menghindari pengejar mereka, dan mulai off dengan fleetness cukup tak terduga pada hewan seperti ukuran dan berat. Tapi rubah berburu tidak dapat memberikan olahraga yang lebih menarik, dan Adam Lindsay Gordon, yang naik setelah ternak setiap bit sebaik yang dia bisa menulis tentang mereka, membawa adegan-adegan seperti jelas di hadapan kita dalam baris-Nya: -

‘Twas bersenang-senang di terpencil ketika kita memata-matai atap stasiun Untuk roda scrub ternak liar di halaman Dengan api menjalankan stockwhips dan menjalankan berapi-api hoofs Oh! hari paling sulit adalah tidak pernah kemudian terlalu keras!

Yang mengumpulkan ternak pertama terjadi di Pastura Sapi ketika di November, 1795 gubernur pelaut, Hunter, belajar bahwa ternak liar telah terlihat di sana, berangkat dengan sebuah partai kecil untuk memuaskan dirinya sebagai asal mereka. Ketidakpastian mengenai apakah ada ternak adalah keturunan yang dibawa dari Tanjung atau milik beberapa berkembang biak liar khas negara. Setelah dua hari pencarian mereka ditemukan, merumput lutut di rumput tebal. Sebagai cahaya gagal gubernur memutuskan untuk menunggu sampai hari berikutnya untuk mendapatkan tampilan yang lebih baik dari mereka. Ketika ternak dikumpulkan perintah diberikan untuk membunuh salah satu anak sapi, namun dalam berusaha hewan tumbuh penuh menyerang para pemburu dan harus dibunuh. Ditemukan menyerupai ternak Tanjung, memiliki tanduk melebar dan punuk di antara bahu. Hanya 23 £ daging sapi bisa dikirim ke Parramatta, empat puluh mil jauhnya, dan partai menyesal terpaksa meninggalkan sisanya akan dimakan oleh gagak. Hunter, seperti yang kita telah disebutkan, yang disebut gunung dekat tempat ini “Gunung Taurus,” dan dataran “Pastura Sapi”, rumput tebal menutupi tanah, dan pohon-pohon, meskipun tipis tersebar, yang teduh dan bebas dari semak-semak, ada adalah tingkat strip banyak dengan laguna yang jelas terbuka di mana bebek liar di mla’ikat dan angsa hitam berenang, dan sedges dan semak dari warna terang berumbai margin ini miniatur danau. Kapten Hunter sebagai suka berkuda sebagai berperahu. Banyak kuda diimpor selama masa jabatannya, dan selain ini kita membaca pujian dari Derwent Arab, seorang putra dari White William, milik Mr kasir Birch; dari mereka dibawa dari India dan Arab untuk Sir Thomas Brisbane, dari Inggris ras-kuda Kapten Piper, Macarthur dan Rous, RN, sedangkan Kolonel Morrisett memiliki banyak pengisi daya, dua di antaranya hilang dalam badai antara Sydney dan Pulau Norfolk.

Kendaraan yang paling umum digunakan pada awalnya adalah pertunjukan. Menurut Tinjauan Triwulanan “tanda lahiriah dari kehormatan di New South Wales berarti makan dengan gubernur atau mengemudi manggung”. Dalam tahun kemudian, di balik kandang dari beberapa rumah-rumah tua yang cukup array kendaraan ini di semua tahapan kebobrokan bisa dilihat, beberapa kerangka besi berkarat hanya yang mungkin telah didorong pada hari-hari dari Macquarie, Brisbane atau Bourke, dan orang lain yang kurang bobrok, dengan rambut kuda menganga dari kain lusuh apa yang pernah telah bantal. Di sini anak-anak suka duduk dan bermain di mengemudi ke kota, dan jika kadang-kadang ada satu suara ditemukan cukup untuk kuda poni untuk menyeret tentang meter sukacita muda tidak mengenal batas.

Berburu dinikmati dari tahun-tahun awal. Sejauh Oktober, 1811, olahraga yang baik hari diperoleh di tepi Nepean tersebut. Dingo lolos, tetapi anjing-anjing “ditemukan” kangguru sepanjang pasir sungai dan menewaskan Mr Throsby setelah menjalankan dua jam ‘. Sebelum rubah diperkenalkan ke Victoria, atau anjing dingo pribumi diburu, tapi sayangnya anjing-anjing itu sangat digigit pada waktu dan ini membuat olahraga populer, sehingga berburu kangguru mengambil tempatnya. Foxhounds diperkenalkan di Bathurst oleh resimen ke-73 sedikit sebelum tahun 1820. Para anggota perburuan Bathurst mengenakan jas hijau dengan kerah beludru dihiasi dengan bordir emas dingo. Setiap anggota bertanggung jawab untuk merawat sejumlah anjing. Mereka diburu pada hari-hari lain dan tidak hanya olahraga yang baik diperoleh, namun musuh kambing domba liar hancur. Pak dari 73 rusak ketika resimen yang tinggalkan koloni (menulis Wentworth) “sebagai penerus mereka tidak memiliki selera untuk olahraga,” tetapi berkembang biak foxhounds tidak diizinkan untuk mati.

Vampire.

Yang paling karakteristik dari hewan Australia, tentu saja, marsupial, karnivora dan sayuran-makan, yang hampir keseluruhan terdiri fauna mamalia. Australia tidak memiliki monyet asli atau ruminansia. Tidak ada harimau, macan tutul atau kucing besar lainnya; dingo hampir punah, mungkin mendarat dengan tahun lalu Melayu, adalah satu-satunya wakil dari ras anjing. Ada banyak kelelawar, buah makan dan sebaliknya, yang terbesar dari buah-pemakan menjadi codot yang tidak sebanyak kerusakan di sebuah taman sebagai rubah bahasa Inggris di sebuah peternakan. Tampaknya untuk menyenangkan dalam menyelesaikan pada pohon buah-buahan terpilih dan dalam satu malam pengupasan mereka dari setiap apel atau buah pir dalam semangat merusak tidak ada binatang lain yang bisa menyamai, dan karena itu mengamati dan segera ditembak. Tapi binatang yang paling luar biasa adalah platypus berparuh bebek digambarkan pertama sebagai “binatang berkaki empat dengan paruh burung” yang, kata penulis tua, adalah “bertentangan dengan fakta yang diketahui”. Jadi tidak tunggal kepala binatang berkaki empat itu mengakhiri dalam tagihan bebek tampaknya almarhum Dr Shaw dari Museum Inggris yang ketika ditunjukkan kepadanya, ia mencurigai hal itu merupakan upaya untuk memaksakan pada mudah percaya sebagai seorang naturalis. Sir Everard Home, juga, yang memberikan gambaran anatomi menit dari platipus mengatakan bahwa “itu tidak dapat digolongkan antara, mamalia Aves atau pisces, tetapi jika itu milik apa saja harus ke amfibi”.

Burung-hidup Australia terlihat yang terbaik di antara pohon-pohon besar di semak-semak yang jauh. Kawanan burung kakatua-sulfur-jambul, panjang crestless berparuh, dan spesies merah dikenal sebagai Leadbeater atau Mayor Mitchell, merah-bersayap lories dengan punggung seperti beludru, dan rosella-yang indah dan berbentuk sempurna yang paling anggun dari semua burung beo, terbang dari pohon ke pohon. Melalui dedaunan hijau monoton merpati bersayap perunggu (merpati dari penjelajah pertama) melewati dengan mengalahkan janggal sayap. Dekat dengan di dataran teriakan kesal dari peewit muncul, memprotes keras bahwa kesendirian adalah terganggu, sementara turun di antara dangkal berpasir sungai skim trinil dan sandlarks dan wagtail air, tanda mereka putih dan hitam membuat mereka terlihat jelas dari jarak. Dalam cincin dari lumpur, seolah-olah bermimpi melalui hari yang panjang, tapi benar-benar diam-diam menonton untuk makanan, crane putih tinggi berdiri tak bergerak dengan bulu lembut yang tenang, sikap tenang yang kontras dengan mengobrol dan aktivitas tanpa henti dari sahabat yang lebih kecil. Ketika matahari merah tenggelam di langit barat, itu naik anggun dan lalat perlahan pulang. Segera lulus kawanan ibis dan bebek liar di sudut bintik gelap melawan langit merah muda, dan matahari terbenam dengan menangis melengking morepork, diikuti oleh tawa kuno cokelat Kingfisher-pemukim itu jam-mengatakan burung yang hari lain telah ditutup.

Bebek-ditagih Platypus

Australia memiliki pagar tanaman sangat sedikit, tidak ada bank berlumut, tidak ada jalur atau Dells, tetapi garis-garis panjang pagar, mil dari posting dan rel dengan di sana-sini panel pintu atau slip membagi tanah menjadi padang penggembalaan atau ladang jagung. Namun ada bintik-bintik yang tak terhitung seperti di negara lain untuk burung ke sarang masuk Ada sedges tinggi dan gumpalan bergegas keluar di dataran, yang menghantui dari emu dan pelikan mana dekat di kolam tersembunyi gepeng katak dan berenang hari. Ada rawa untuk derek-”pendamping asli”-dan “flat” untuk Curlew dan Cerek.

Geographically Australia lies between the tenth and fortieth parallels of south latitude. Surrounded on all sides by the ocean it measures 1,900 miles from north to south and 2,400 across from east to west. In shape it has been compared to a dish or pancake—a plain in the middle and fringed around the edges. The interior is somewhat elevated above the level of the sea and studded here and there with small groups of hills—-not high enough to yield the rivers which are so much wanted to fertilise the arid wastes of the central plain. Commencing at the northern extremity of the east coast, this central table-land is bordered by ranges, which run downwards through the colony of Queensland, where they are covered with trees and foliage of tropical growth. Maintaining a fair average height they continue their course through New South Wales until, in the colony of Victoria, Mt. Kosciusko, called after the Polish patriot, rises to 7,308 feet, which is only 700 feet short of the limit of perpetual snow. Here they turn westward towards South Australia where there is much high ground, and in that colony meet the slope of outlet by which the three large rivers from the east, whose waters unite and form the Murray, find their way to Lake Alexandrina. Farther west of this break, the table-land is more broken, the mountains being rarely high; and in Western Australia they sink to mere hills.

Captain Sturt had been led to believe that Australia was a basin; that an unbroken range of hills lined its coasts, that the rivers flowed only to the centre and contributed to the formation of an inland sea; but as he proceeded with his explorations he found that there was, especially near the junction of the Castlereagh with the Darling River, a rapid fall of country to the south. His barometer told him that the cataract of the Macquarie was 680 feet above the level of the sea, and that Oxley’s depot on the Lachlan was only 500—the fall being still greater beyond these two points, the maximum of the fossil bank through which the Murray passes being only 300 feet. Many of the rivers are connected with lagoons, the lagoons possessing salt or brackish water, but having no communication with the sea, affording vast quantities of salt so beneficial for sheep. Some of these lagoons are small and dry up in the hot summer months altogether; others are really lakes. The largest inland stretch of water is Lake Torrens, near the head of Spencer Gulf, being nearly as large as the Lake of Geneva. Lake George when full of water is twenty-one miles long and in one part five miles wide.

There are signs of volcanic action in many parts not only in the rocks but in the isolated hills, the “conical pics” of the first explorers. The burning hill, Mount Wingen (native name for fire) near the valley of the Hunter River, like similar elevations elsewhere, contains sulphur in a continual combustion, without eruption but throwing out smoke. The hill was discovered in 1828 by a settler who one day while out shooting noticed the smoke arising from it and asked a native whether the bush was on fire, but the black replied “No,” adding that the mountain had been burning a very long time; it was subsequently visited by three settlers, Messrs. Mackie (father and son) and Dixon who took with them a party of labourers and made an examination of the place. The opening in the hill was approached by a steep ascent and the ground about it was black and tarry. It was twelve feet wide and thirty feet long, lying between the peaks of two mountains which the natives called Wingen. Five feet from the opening the party threw up a barricade to protect them from the heat which was like that of a furnace, and then they began to explore under the surface. Eight feet down they came on a rocky substance which they blasted and then found coal, saltpetre, alum and sulphur. The settlers, thinking that it was a volcano, were disappointed at not finding lava, but, near the bed of the river, stumps of petrified trees and fossil woods were discovered. The petrifaction presented stripes and coloured bands like beautiful ribbons; there were also sandstones, limestone, beautiful specimens of J asp-agate or Egyptian pebble and amorphous nodules, the interior being filled with the finest crystals. Sandstone and granite were also found in oval or round masses varying from two to twelve feet in circumference. These balls of granite were exactly like the cannon balls used by Cromwell, and when displaced from the sockets appeared as if they had been thrown there by artillery.

Between Glendon and the Hunter River and in the immediate neighbourhood of Mount Wingen the soil was thrown up in regular ridges or furrows similar to those on the Bathurst Plains, and the natives when asked if they knew the cause, explained that corn was grown there a very long time ago, and holding up their fingers exclaimed “Murrey, Murrey, many years gone by!” But this seems incorrect as the undulations preserve the same direction on each side of the mountains and there is little doubt that they were formed by the subsidence of the water after terrible floods from the mountains. An old geologist[*] declares that in his opinion “it may have been at the same time and perhaps by the same catastrophe as that which separated Nobby Island at the mouth of the Hunter from the mainland”.

[* The Rev. C. Pleydell Neale Wilton, M.A. Camb.]

In Illawarra, New South Wales, and at Mount Barker there are ranges of hills with abrupt precipices of unstratified igneous rock which has been forced up through marine strata. When Flinders explored Pumice Stone River in the neighbourhood of Glasshouse Bay, he was surprised not to find a volcano. The pumice stone in the river and the situation of the tremendous peaks standing on the low flat ground led him to believe that there must be one there.

The curious harbours with their equally curious branches and inner branches connected with the sea by comparatively narrow openings present a great likeness to the valleys or depressions found in the Blue Mountains, which, like them, says Charles Darwin, are also due to marine action.

Snow is found upon the peaks of the Australian Alps, and during the winter upon many of the smaller ranges. It is also no uncommon sight upon the highest peaks of the Blue Mountains while the wintry blast of the Canoblas nearer Orange is too icy not to be quickly identified. When it blows the newcomer from Great Britain is unmistakably reminded of the north-easter of his native land, while the suntanned face of the Australian turns blue under its sharpness, and his keen eyes measure the white snowcaps on his blue hills with much the same expression as they watch the glittering ring of bush fires encircling the ranges in summer.

Bush fires, like snow, may have serious consequences for the stock. During the hot months fires are not uncommon, for the sun’s rays are so powerful that they set the dry grass burning. Then the heat is extreme, the air like that of a furnace; there is no breeze, even the smallest leaf is unmoved. The sun appears as a copper disc through the brown haze of smoke. The clouds hang low in the sky which is of a smoky colour, and the same coloured mist rises from the ground. Even at a distance these signs show that the bush is on fire. As darkness sets in a peculiar redness glows like a halo above the horizon. The sight at night is magnificent if the fire increases and becomes serious, for the trees contain so much resin and turpentine that when once ignited they burn fiercely and rapidly. Long tongues of flame leaping and flashing envelop the blue foliage. From rock to rock, from bush to bush they spread until the tall forest trees come crashing to the earth .beneath a deluge of sparks and falling timber. But the train of fire continues onward, with fierce energy, taking new paths, and doing enormous damage.

Farmers and squatters seldom prepare for the snow even in the districts where as a rule there is at least one fall during the year; but the touch which winter lays upon the land as a rule is comparatively tender and gentle; the thaw being rapid and the ice quickly disappearing.

The Opossum.

The coldest months are June and July, when the roses are in bloom and the young birds are twittering in the trees in England; just as in January while “at home” the northern farmer is shaking the snow from his boots and the village children are sliding across the pond—the sun in Australia is throwing its dazzling rays over fields of golden wheat, over gardens and orchards in which the fig, almond, grape, mulberry, melon and orange, as well as the apple, pear, plum, peach, and many other fruits that Great Britain has given her colonies, are ripening.

To quote the words of an old writer: “Besides the trees and fruits all kinds of grain flourished among dingy forests which until now had yielded barely enough to support a few wandering savages”. But with the good seed sprang up the tares. In the early days the weed known by the familiar sobriquet of “fat hen” (Chenopodium album) throve so well that dozens of acres were to all appearance one mass of it and reapers were unwilling to undertake work in the fields where it grew. It took deeper root than the wheat and chose the best land for itself. The Scotch thistle increased far too abundantly in the new soil and was so disliked by the cattle that they would starve rather than eat it. So it was with the thistle of the Argentine, the seed of which was originally brought to Bathurst matted in the tails of cart horses imported from South America. From these few seeds there has spread what is now known in Australia as the “Bathurst burr,” regarded as a great evil, because of the havoc it creates in the fleece of the fine woolled sheep; it has often been known to ruin a clip for seasons together. Instead of the red poppy, and hardly so ornamental, the tall yellow buttercup seen in English cottage gardens invaded the wheat fields; called in many places “Mackenzie’s buttercup,” after the settler who first grew it on his land, its long stalk and green leaves make it noticeable, and even in the great heat and dry weather it holds its own among the wild flowers of its adopted country.

The produce of the first wheat grown was most disappointing. But the seed sown had been damaged by the long sea voyage. We learn from an article headed with Thomson’s quotation, “Ye hardy Britons venerate the plough,” that fifty sheaves made but two bushels of grain. In another instance twenty-two sheaves produced but one bushel. Cape wheat of a good appearance required eighty good-sized sheaves for two bushels; white Lammas wheat somewhat less. The general average seemed to be from thirty to forty sheaves to the bushel and in one place in a previous year (1828), and when exposed to blight, 160 sheaves were thrashed for a bushel. People were also deceived by the length of the straw. A great deal of the wheat grown around Windsor went to stalk. One country clown six feet high boasted that his wheat was the best in the parish: “It is,” said he, “as long in the stalk as myself”. In return he was told if it were “as light in the head it would be of little value”. The maize which Captain Hunter praised so highly grew well everywhere; the banks of the Nepean especially produced large fields of it, and its tall stalks and shining green leaves, surmounted with bursting cobs out of which peeped tiny silky tufts, gave the crop as handsome an appearance as the orchards of oranges growing near by.

The year 1829 seems to have been a bountiful one—the potatoes were of a larger and better description than the country had ever before grown, and all the field and garden crops seem to have thriven. From the first the governors had encouraged gardening. As far back as 1790 Governor Phillip held that it was an absolute necessity for every man to cultivate his own garden. To the few who had not shown signs of industry, had not sown any ground or planted any vegetables, he allotted a small but sufficient plot and encouraged their labours not only by directions but with his presence; and in 1815 Governor Macquarie showed the same interest in gardening. Mrs. Macquarie in her efforts to civilise and improve the condition of the aborigines, had wooden cottages built for them at St. George’s Head near the harbour, and allotments laid out, the seeds and plants for these being furnished from the Government store. But the kindness shown both by the governor and his wife to the blacks seems to have been wasted, as in 1824 the gardens and orchards were overrun with weeds, and had become little wildernesses, while not a sign of the dwellings remained. When the land was first cleared British fruit trees were planted and it is still not uncommon to find hedges of ungrafted quince or plum, sometimes along a public road where, their green hue is a pleasant change from the sombre tint of native grass.

Macquarie not only tried to improve the Sydney gardens but also made walks and drives wherever they would command views of the shores of Port Jackson. Mrs. Macquarie had the drive in the Domain laid out after her own plans; the road had to be cut through rocks and underwood and many trees were destroyed; seats were placed at intervals and lodges built at the entrances. On the extreme point overlooking the harbour some horizontal rocks formed a sort of natural seat which has ever since been known as “Mrs. Macquarie’s Chair,” as the carved inscription bears witness.

There are over ten thousand species of plants in the Australian flora, and a description of the flowers of New South Wales that attracted Sir Joseph Banks, Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Caley and other botanists, would alone fill a volume. Many collections were sent home by Governor Macquarie, one at Lord Bathurst’s request being made for the Emperor of Austria and another for M. Goiim, the French King’s gardener in Paris. With so many good local plants it is not surprising that Sydney gardens have always been beautiful. They run down to the edge of the water where ships of all descriptions have their anchorage. Men-of-war, famous liners, yachts and weather-beaten vessels from distant ports lie quite close to the land. Wavelets wash the edge of white sand and beat against the brown rocks and quaint boat-houses and rustic steps, and gardens encircle the various coves and promontories, and encroach as it were upon the very borders of land and sea.

Here and there straggling masses of foliage break through the barrier fences or creep over the stone walls and sweep the surface of the waves. Ferns and sea plants cover the rockeries and ornament the borders of the red paths which cross and re-cross the green lawns between the houses and the beach. The tree fern, the bird’s nest, the maidenhair, the stag’s horn and bright lichens like stars on the grey stone, all seem to be growing as Nature placed them. Higher up, bushes of geranium, soft fragrant oleanders; magnolias laden with yellow flowers scent the air; fuchsias of the richest reds and purples droop on thin stems, and the prickly pears add a touch to the wealth of colour. Besides the indigenous plants, others of northern climates flourish in happy contrast, and lend to the gardens a double charm,—among them the rose, the violet and the English honeysuckle, while trailers and climbers of mountain rockeries, such as bougainvillea, clematis and Virginia creeper hide the porches and cover the white walls of the houses many of which have green shutters and quaint gables.

The eucalyptus trees, of which there are numerous kinds, are the largest trees in the country. These were first called gum-trees by Captain Cook’s party, from the quantity of astringent juice or gum which most of them contain, and they are popularly known by that name. Besides gum several of the species also yield manna which is generally found in tiny pieces, dry and crisp, beneath the tree amid the dried leaves and pieces of bark. And in addition to the gum and manna, some yield the well known oil.

To one kind, E. piperita, the name of peppermint tree was given by Mr. White, surgeon of the Sirius, and afterwards Surgeon-General of New South Wales under Governor Phillip, on account of the resemblance between the oil drawn from its leaves and that obtained from the ordinary peppermint plant. The best known sorts are the red gum (E. rostrata) and the blue gum (E. globulus); the yellow gum was formerly used by the natives in making their spears; the white gum (E. haemastoma) is a big tree with wide-spreading branches, the bark covering the trunk and limbs is white and smooth, the leaves deep green. In the Dandenong ranges peppermint trees have often attained 420 feet and near Healesville a fallen tree measured 480 feet or 76 feet higher than the spire of Salisbury Cathedral.

There are numerous Australian species of acacia. The wattles are most valued because the bark is used in tanning, and the myall has the hardest wood with a very fine grain. When Captain Cook’s party saw the polished weapons of scented myall wood in the hands of the natives they declared that they shone like musket barrels in the sunlight. Ornaments made out of this wood are much sought after. The natives formerly carved these articles neatly; and formerly there were few stockmen who did not carry a myall whip handle. The valuable acacia cedar, found chiefly in Queensland and the northern portion of New South Wales, represents another genus. The Norfolk Island pine is a tree allied to the bunya bunya which the Government will not allow to be felled on Crown lands as the seed is eaten by the natives. Both are picturesque trees, but the former is not indigenous to Australia. We are told that it was first planted on the banks of the Parramatta by Mr. Wilson of H.M.S. Reliance who had brought many seedlings of the tree from Norfolk Island, and it has done well in New South Wales.

One of the chief peculiarities of Australian vegetation is that ferns, nettles, and even grasses have the form and habits of trees. The grasses, like the numerous sedges, thrive best in places liable to inundation. In summer time the green sward or turf is unseen. It lies hidden beneath a taller grass of a yellowish brown tint. This long herbage—as the stock well know—protects the short grass from the fierce sun rays. Were you to uproot the brown grass, to plough the land and sow it with artificial seed to obtain the effect of an English field you would reap no reward for your pains, as the native grass would be destroyed and the foreign grass, the seed of that grown in colder climates, would perish under the summer sun.

It is remarkable how in Australia, in the midst of luxuriant growth, bare patches, due perhaps to the quantity of salt impregnating the soil, are to be seen in places on which, says an old writer, “even the grasshopper would starve”. The kangaroo grass is one of the chief grasses grown, but a small fine barley and the yellow or brown oat-grass are the prettiest. Mitchell thought the latter when ripe resembled a crop of grain; when it is young and after a shower of rain it overspreads the plains with a brilliant green.

The land around Sydney and the eastern shores of Port Phillip, like Western Australia, are famous for their wild flowers, those known as Christmas bush, the uncommon flannel flower, and many species of heath and everlasting growing in comparatively sterile soil. The grass tree (Xanthorrhaea arborea) is also noteworthy; when young it seems to be merely a large plant without a stem, with long, narrow, sharp leaves; but as it becomes older the lower leaves curve down and the young growth rises from the centre, and soon a thick stem appears bearing a cluster of leaves. From the centre of this rises a scape like an enormous bulrush, frequently ten feet in height, the spike being a foot long. In perfection it is erect, in old age it becomes crooked and sometimes deformed but it always gives a truly Australian aspect to the scenery.

There are many wild herbs which are favourable to sheep almost everywhere. Wild thyme, native hops, the plant from which the first house-wives raised their yeast, and mint also thrive well, and a fruit commonly called “five corners” is eaten by the children of the poorer settlers, who also gather manna and the gum of the wattle which has a flavour not unlike wild honey.

No book about Australia would be complete without some reference to the horse. Of all animals, indigenous or otherwise, none was of such use and importance to the pioneers. Neither the kangaroo which is, as it were, looked upon as part of the soil, nor the sheep which has brought wealth to her pastures has entered into the joys and labours of Australia’s people in anything like the same measure as the English horse.

Whether it be in rearing sheep, raising cattle, or growing wheat—or almost any Endeavour he undertakes—the Australian must have the assistance of a horse. Railways now spread their long lines through the interior of the country, carrying travellers from place to place, but in those early times when a man wanted to visit in the country he packed his bag, strapped it to his saddle, mounted his steed and rode away.

The population in the “twenties” was scattered far inland, many stations being “nearly beyond the pale of civilisation,” and a ride of a hundred miles was not thought an unusual journey.

The soil, the climate, and the general surroundings of the greater part of the country was only fitted for pastoral occupations. Some of the sheep-runs of the settlers were enormous, and immense flocks of pure merino sheep roamed over open land; old stockmen and drovers, worn-out adventurers, human waifs and strays, spent their last days shepherding and many were laid to rest beneath the shade of the mallee and wattle trees with “never a stone or rail to fence their bed”. Cattle raising soon became an important industry. English breeds were first introduced for King George’s farms, and in congenial surroundings quickly multiplied. For the management of these cattle stations and sheep runs, horses were required in large numbers, and, in addition to mounts merely serviceable for stockmen at their work, the land could soon boast its thoroughbreds.

The descendants of the horses taken to Australia thus early soon gained a reputation far beyond local bounds. Good and fast mounts were found to be necessary when bushrangers and cattle stealers had to be watched and pursued. The bushrangers were especially attracted by the horses, for their lives often depended on the possession of a fleet steed, and few of the famous racing stables escaped a visit from them.

Mustering cattle came to be regarded as an exciting chase, many of the open lands being little more than a vast prairie where the herds became as wild as deer, and, when it was necessary to collect them for sale, it meant a hard day’s work for the owner and his men, and required a rider possessed of a tolerable share of nerve, and a good horseman into the bargain. A mob of bullocks is not easily brought to a stockyard. They try every conceivable manoeuvre to evade their pursuers, and start off with a fleetness quite unexpected in animals of such size and weight. But fox-hunting cannot provide more exciting sport, and Adam Lindsay Gordon, who rode after cattle every bit as well as he could write about them, brings such scenes vividly before us in his lines:—

‘Twas merry in the backwoods when we spied the station roofs To wheel the wild scrub cattle at the yard With a running fire of stockwhips and a fiery run of hoofs Oh! the hardest day was never then too hard!

The first cattle muster took place at the Cow Pastures when in November, 1795, the sailor governor, Hunter, learning that wild cattle had been seen there, set out with a small party to satisfy himself as to their origin. Uncertainty existed as to whether the cattle were descendants of those brought from the Cape or belonged to some wild breed peculiar to the country. After a search of two days they were discovered, grazing knee-deep in thick grass. As light was failing the governor decided to wait until next day to get a better view of them. When the cattle were rounded an order was given to kill one of the calves, but in the attempt a full grown animal attacked the hunters and had to be killed. It was found to resemble the Cape cattle, having wide-spreading horns and the hump between the shoulders. Only twenty-three pounds of beef could be sent into Parramatta, forty miles away, and the party were compelled regretfully to leave the rest to be devoured by crows. Hunter, as we have already mentioned, called the mountain near this spot “Mount Taurus,” and the plains the “Cow Pastures”, Thick grass covered the ground, and the trees, though thinly scattered, were shady and free from undergrowth; there were many level strips with open clear lagoons where wild ducks in myriads and black swans were swimming, and sedges and shrubs of the brightest hues fringed the margins of these miniature lakes. Captain Hunter was as fond of riding as of boating. Many horses were imported during his term of office; and besides these we read praises of the Arab Derwent, a son of White William, the property of Mr. Paymaster Birch; of those brought from India and Arabia for Sir Thomas Brisbane; of the English race-horses of Captains Piper, Macarthur and Rous, R.N., while Colonel Morrisett possessed numerous chargers, two of which were lost in a gale between Sydney and Norfolk Island.

The vehicle most generally used at first was the gig. According to the Quarterly Review “the outward sign of respectability in New South Wales meant dining with the governor or driving a gig”. In later years, behind the stables of some of the old homesteads quite an array of these vehicles in all stages of dilapidation could be seen, some mere skeletons of rusty iron which might have been driven in the days of Macquarie, Brisbane or Bourke, and others less dilapidated, with the horse-hair gaping from the tattered cloth of what once had been a cushion. Here the children loved to sit and play at driving to town, and if sometimes there was one found sound enough for a pony to drag about the yards the youthful joy knew no bounds.

Hunting was enjoyed from the very early years. As far back as October, 1811, a good day’s sport was obtained on the banks of the Nepean. The dingo escaped, but the hounds “found” a kangaroo along the sands of the river and killed at Mr. Throsby’s after two hours’ run. Before foxes were introduced into Victoria, the dingo or native dog was hunted, but unfortunately the hounds were severely bitten at times and this made the sport unpopular, so that kangaroo hunting took its place. Foxhounds were introduced at Bathurst by the 73rd regiment a little before 1820. The members of the Bathurst hunt wore green coats with velvet collars ornamented with a dingo embroidered in gold. Each member was responsible for the upkeep of a certain number of hounds. They were hunted on various days and not only was good sport obtained, but an enemy to the flocks of the squatter was destroyed. The pack of the 73rd was broken up when that regiment quitted the colony (writes Wentworth) “as their successors had no taste for the sport,” but the breed of foxhounds was not allowed to die out.

The Vampire

The Vampire.

The most characteristic of the Australian animals are, of course, the marsupials, carnivorous and vegetable-feeding, of which nearly the whole mammalian fauna consists. Australia has no native monkeys or ruminants. There are no tigers, leopards or other large cats; the almost extinct dingo, probably landed by the Malays years ago, is the only representative of the canine race. There are many bats, fruit eating and otherwise, the largest of the fruit-eaters being the flying-fox which does as much damage in a garden as the English fox in a farmyard. It seems to delight in settling upon the choicest fruit trees and in one night stripping them of every apple or pear in a spirit of destructiveness no other animal can equal, and so it is watched for and promptly shot. But the most extraordinary animal is the duck-billed platypus described first as “a quadruped with the beak of a bird” which, says the old writer, is “contrary to known facts”. So singular did the quadruped’s head terminating in a duck’s bill appear to the late Dr. Shaw of the British Museum that when it was shown to him he suspected it to be an attempt to impose upon his credulity as a naturalist. Sir Everard Home, too, who gave a minute description of the anatomy of a platypus said that “it could not be classed among the mammalia, aves or pisces, but if it belonged to anything it must be to the amphibia”.

The bird-life of Australia is seen at its best among the great trees in the distant bush. Flocks of cockatoos—the sulphur-crested, the crestless long beaked, and the rosy species known as Leadbeater’s or Major Mitchell’s, crimson-winged lories with backs like velvet, and the beautiful and perfectly shaped rosella—that most graceful of all parrots, fly from tree to tree. Through the monotonous green foliage the bronze-winged pigeon (the dove of the first explorers) passes with its peculiar beating of the wings. Close by on the flats the peevish cry of the peewit arises, protesting loudly that its solitude is disturbed, while down among the sandy shallows of the rivers skim the sandpipers and sandlarks and water wagtail, their white and black markings making them clearly discernible from a distance. In the rings of mud, as though dreaming through the long day, but really silently watching for food, the tall white crane stands immovable with its soft unruffled plumage, its calm demeanour contrasting with the chattering and ceaseless activity of its smaller companions. When the red sun sinks in the western sky, it rises majestically and flies slowly homewards. Soon there pass the flocks of ibis and wild duck in angles of dark specks against the pink heavens, and the sun sets to the shrill cry of the morepork, followed by the quaint laughter of the brown kingfisher—the settler’s clock—telling the birds that another day has closed.

The Duck-billed Platypus

The Duck-billed Platypus

Australia has very few hedgerows, no mossy banks, no lanes or dells, but long lines of fences, miles of posts and rails with here and there a gate or slip panel dividing the land into paddocks or cornfields. And yet there are spots as innumerable as in other lands for birds to nest in. There are tall sedges and clumps of rushes out on the plains, the haunt of the emu and the pelican where close by in hidden pools the frogs sprawl and swim all day. There are marshes for the crane—”the native companion”—and “flats” for curlew and plover.

The Wonga-Wonga Pigeon

The Wonga-Wonga Pigeon

In the wide creeks martins build their mud nests in myriads; and kingfishers gaily flash in and out of the holes in the banks; while beneath where the stream flows cheerily, the wildest birds can drink undisturbed. Crows and magpies often swarm round the homesteads. The Australian magpie is most docile; it seems to prefer domesticity to a life in the silent bush, and is the most petted bird. In the morning and evening the laughing jackasses (kookaburra) also come round the country homes and they too are most sociable; not only inland are they heard close by, but along the unsettled par of the coast rivers they will venture near to a tent or a yacht and laugh long and loud as if for the special edification of the visitors. Perhaps the warbling of the magpie is the sweetest sound one can hear in the bush; not even the pretty chime of the bell-bird or the song of the skylark can compare with the flute-like note of “maggie” on a bright summer morning. And the chief attraction about the magpie’s song is that the birds sing in chorus; numbers will start off at once and although often a great many sing either behind or before the main body of singers, there is no shrillness or discordancy so often heard with the song of English birds when many sing together. Vlamingh and the Dutch sailors were not quite wrong when they likened the song of the “piping crow,” to that of the nightingale. Altogether there are more than 650 species of birds, while Europe has but 500. The settlers have given European names to many of the smaller kinds, though the species in many instances are not identical. For example, the local robin, which has a breast as bright as that of its namesake on a Christmas card, is not the English redbreast, but a Petraeca, the wren is a Malurus, the blackcap a Melithreptus; finches, flycatchers, swallows, kingfishers, bee-eaters are none of them of European species; and the landrail, quail and snipe vary, although many have a more or less distant resemblance to their English namesakes.

The Giant Kingfisher

The commonest eagle is the brown wedge-tailed species which was seen at Sydney Cove and described by Captain Phillip. No more appropriate bird could have been chosen to balance the kangaroo on the national coat of arms than the emu. The bird has been identified with southern lands for centuries. Ever since the first coming of Europeans to the East Indies the emu, eme or emeu has been described by historians. Leonardo de Argensola in his work, The Conquest of the Moluccas, published in 1609, shows that the “emeu” of those islands, and which is depicted in many old histories, bears a very close resemblance to the Australian bird.

The Emu

The Emu

Nothing has been said here of the mineral wealth of the continent, as the discoveries of gold and silver belong to a period subsequent to that dealt with in these pages.

It was, however, no lifeless, unprofitable island to which Phillip took the first fleet, but a continent abounding in possibilities which must inevitably be developed. No region of the earth is of greater promise, none in all her empire more in need of Britain’s surplus people. Its future importance is unmistakable. As an indication of what is thought by its friends take President Roosevelt’s recent message: “Next to my own nation I am interested in the progress, success and safety of Australia…Tell them I wish them all good things. Open your doors to immigration. Beware of keeping your far north empty; encourage the influx there of Southern Europeans. They will cultivate that rich country and become good Australians. That is my message.”

In the old days there were those who advocated the recall of the colony from Port Jackson as man could not live on scenery. The scenery remains, but the struggling settlement has been replaced by a mighty city with nearly as many people as London had when Phillip set sail. And that city is the mother of many cities, most of them growing as fast and some of them as much grown up. And yet the history of Australia is only beginning.


APPENDIX. LIST OF TOWNS AND STATIONS AND THE DISTANCE IN MILES FROM SYDNEY.


INDEX

[Note: Use the "search" function in your software to search for names in the index.]

THE END

THE OLD PICTURES OF AUTRALIAN _ NEW ZEALAND Aborigines IN 18th AND 19th CENTURY

 Tasmanian aboriginal, Australia, 1801-1803.

Natai, Maori chief from Bream Bay, New Zealand, 1826-1829.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :” The Australia and Pacific Island  Historic Collections”

Showcase: “THe Australian and New Zealand Historic Collections”

Frame One :

The Australian Aborigin Pictures

 

TASMANIA ABORIGINES

Tasmanian aboriginal, Australia, 1801-1803.
Tasmanian aboriginal, Australia, 1801-1803.
Tasmanian aboriginal, Australia, 1801-1803.
Tasmanian aboriginal, Australia, 1801-1803.
Aboriginal tombs, Tasmania, Australia, 1801-1803.
Aboriginal tombs, Tasmania, Australia, 1801-1803
Aboriginal man and woman, Tasmania, Australia, 1826-1829.
Aboriginal man and woman, Tasmania, Australia, 1826-1829.
 
 

 
Digitised Image

Bock, Thomas 1790-1855 :Jemmy, native of the Hampshire Hills, Van Diemen’s Land / T Bock del. ; Hullmandel & Walton lithographers – [London ; s.n., 1845?]

Half-length frontal portrait of a young Tasmanian Aboriginal man. He is wearing a necklace of twisted kangaroo sinews and clothing of animal skins

 
Title: Native police | Date: 1865 | Technique: lithograph, printed in colour, from multiple stones |
 
Title
Native police
Reference
Ferguson (1941-69), 9924
Date made
1865
Technique
lithograph, printed in colour, from multiple stones
Described
Rural scene of Australian Aboriginal police following tracks in the bush.
Context
Australia
Creators
GILL, S.T. (1818 – 1880) English | Australian Male | print after
 
THE HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGIN
 

 

 

 

 

Australian Aborigines

 

 
Australian Aborigines
Australian Aboriginal Flag.svg
 
Trugannini Ernie Dingo.jpg David wirrpanda.jpg Adam goodes.jpg JadeNorth.jpg Bronwyn Bancroft Feb 2010 crop.JPG
Truganini, Douglas Nicholls, Oodgeroo Noonuccal, Ernie Dingo, David Wirrpanda, Adam Goodes, Jade North, Bronwyn Bancroft
Total population
517,000[1]
2.3% of Australia’s population
Regions with significant populations
 Northern Territory 32.5%  
 Western Australia 4.0%  
 Queensland 3.6%  
 New South Wales 2.5%  
 South Australia 2.3%  
 Victoria 1.0%  
Languages
Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages, many no longer spoken, Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Kriol
Religion
Mixture of Christian, small numbers of other religions, various locally indigenous religions grounded in Australian Aboriginal mythology
Related ethnic groups
see List of Indigenous Australian group names

Australian Aborigines (pronounced /æbəˈrɪdʒɨni/, aka Aboriginal Australians) are those people regarded as indigenous to the Australian continent.

In the High Court of Australia, Australian Aborigines have been specifically identified as a group of people who share, in common, biological ancestry back to the original occupants of the continent.[2]

Justice Deane of the High Court famously described and defined an Australian Aboriginal person as “a person of Aboriginal descent, albeit mixed, who identifies himself as such and who is recognised by the Aboriginal community as an Aboriginal”.[3]

Definitions from Australian Aborigines

Eve Fesl, a Gabi Gabi woman, wrote in the Aboriginal Law Bulletin describing how she and other Australian Aborigines preferred to be identified:

The word ‘aborigine’ refers to an indigenous person of any country. If it is to be used to refer to us as a specific group of people, it should be spelt with a capital ‘A’, i.e. ‘Aborigine’.[4]

While the term ‘indigenous’ is being more commonly used by Australian Government and non-Government organizations to describe Aboriginal Australians, Lowitja O’Donoghue AC, CBE, commenting on the prospect of possible amendments to Australia’s constitution, was reported as saying:

I really can’t tell you of a time when ‘indigenous’ became current, but I personally have an objection to it, and so do many other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. [...] This has just really crept up on us … like thieves in the night. [...] We are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum [...] because they’re our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia.[5]

O’Donoghue went on to say that the term indigenous robbed the traditional owners of Australia of an identity because some non-Aboriginal people now wanted to refer to themselves as indigenous because they were born there.[5]

 Definitions from academia

Dean of Indigenous Research and Education at Charles Darwin University, Professor MaryAnn Bin-Sallik, has publicly lectured on the ways Australian Aborigines have been categorised and labelled over time. Her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said:

“Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us. [...] Government’s insistence on categorising us with modern words like ‘urban’, ‘traditional’ and ‘of Aboriginal descent’ are really only replacing old terms ‘half-caste’ and ‘full-blood’ – based on our colouring.[6]

She called for a replacement of this terminology by the word: Aborigine or Torres Strait Islander, “irrespective of hue[6].”

Groups of Aborigines

Four hundred and more distinct Australian Aboriginal peoples have been identified across the Australian continent, each distinguished by unique names for groups of people’s ancestral languages, dialects, or distinctive speech mannerisms.[7]

See also

 

References

Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion.
  1. ^ 4705.0 – Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006, Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  2. ^ Plevitz, Loretta D & Croft, Larry (2003) “Aboriginality Under The Microscope: The Biological Descent Test In Australian Law” QUT Law & Justice Journal Number 7 Accessed 25 March 2008.
  3. ^ Dean, J (1984) Tasmania v Commonwealth. 158 CLR. p. 243.
  4. ^ Fesl, Eve (1986) “‘Aborigine’ and ‘Aboriginal’” Aboriginal Law Bulletin. Number 39. Accessed 25 March 2008.
  5. ^ a b “Don’t call me indigenous: Lowitja”. The Age. Australian Associated Press (Melbourne). 1 May 2008. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/dont-call-me-indigenous-lowitja/2008/05/01/1209235051400.html. Retrieved 12 April 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Charles Darwin University newsroom (12 May 2008) “First public lecture focuses on racist language” Accessed 13 May 2008.
  7. ^ Horton, David (1994) The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society, and Culture Aboriginal Studies Press. Canberra. ISBN 0-85575-234-3.
 
 

Tasmanian Aborigines

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

 

Jump to: navigation, search

 

This article is about the indigenous people of the island state of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania). For other indigenous people see Indigenous peoples (disambiguation)
Page semi-protected
Parlevar
(Eng:Palawa)
(Tasmanian Aborigines)
Regions with significant populations
 Australia
 Tasmania
   
Languages
Tasmanian languages and Palawa kani

A picture of the last four “full blooded” Tasmanian Aborigines c. 1860s. Truganini, the last to survive, is seated at far right.

The Tasmanian Aborigines (Listeni /æbɵˈrɪɪnz/; Aboriginal name: Parlevar) were the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. Before British colonisation in 1803, there were an estimated 3,000–15,000 Parlevar.[1][2] A number of historians point to introduced disease as the major cause of the destruction of the full-blooded Aboriginal population.[3][4][5][6] Geoffrey Blainey wrote that by 1830 in Tasmania: “Disease had killed most of them but warfare and private violence had also been devastating.”[7] Other historians regard the Black War as one of the earliest recorded modern genocides.[8] Benjamin Madley wrote: “Despite over 170 years of debate over who or what was responsible for this near-extinction, no consensus exists on its origins, process, or whether or not it was genocide” however, using the “U.N. definition, sufficient evidence exists to designate the Tasmanian catastrophe genocide.”[1]

By 1833, George Augustus Robinson, sponsored by Lt.Governor George Arthur, had persuaded the approximately 200 surviving Tasmanian Aborigines to surrender themselves with assurances that they would be protected, provided for and eventually have their lands returned to them. These ‘assurances’ were in fact lies – promises made to the survivors that played on their desperate hopes for reunification with lost family and community members. The assurances were given by Robinson solely to remove the Aborigines from mainland Van Diemen’s Land.[9] The survivors were moved to Wybalenna Aboriginal Establishment on Flinders Island, where diseases continued to reduce their numbers even further. In 1847, the last 47 living inhabitants of Wybalenna were transferred to Oyster Cove, south of Hobart, on the main island of Tasmania. There, a woman called Trugernanner (often rendered as Truganini), who is widely believed to be the very last of the full blooded Aborigine, died in 1876. However, in 1889 Parliament recognized Fanny Cochrane Smith (d:1905) as the last surviving full blooded Tasmanian Aborigine, giving her a land grant of 300 acres (120 ha) and an annuity of £50.[10][11]

All of the Indigenous Tasmanian languages have been lost. Currently there are some efforts to reconstruct a language from the available wordlists. Today, some thousands of people living in Tasmania and elsewhere can trace part of their ancestry to the Parlevar, since a number of Parlevar women were abducted, most commonly by the sealers living on smaller islands in Bass Strait; some women were traded or bartered for; and a number voluntarily associated themselves with European sealers and settlers and bore children. Those members of the modern-day descendant community who trace their ancestry to Tasmanian Aborigines have mostly European ancestry, and did not keep the traditional Parlevar culture.

Other Aboriginal groups within Tasmania use the language words from the area where they are living and/or have lived for many generations uninterrupted. Many aspects of the Aboriginal Tasmanian culture are continually practised in various parts of the state and the islands of the Bass Strait.[citation needed]

Contents

[hide]

History

Before European settlement

The Shoreline of Tasmania and Victoria about 14,000 years ago as Sea Levels were rising showing some of the human archaeological sites – see Prehistory of Australia

People are thought to have crossed into Tasmania approximately 40,000 years ago via a land bridge between the island and the rest of mainland Australia during the last glacial period. According to genetic studies, once the sea levels rose flooding the Bassian Plain, the people were left isolated for approximately 8,000 years until European exploration during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.[12]

In 1990 archaeologists excavated materials in the Warreen Cave in the Maxwell River valley of the south-west proving Aboriginal occupation from as early as 34,000 BP making indigenous Tasmanians the southern-most population in the world during the Pleistocene era. In 2010, following protests that the construction of the Jordan River valley bridge that was part of the new Brighton bybass would disturb a tradition Aboriginal meeting place that had been identified in 2008, the government agreed to an archaeological investigation although stating that while artifacts would be protected the construction would go ahead. Archaeologists excavating a 600 metre long section of river bank found a large number of stone tools and later estimated that the bank contains up to three million artifacts. Preliminary dating indicates that the site was continuously occupied from 40,000 BP to 28,000 BP making the site 6,000 years older than the Warreen cave if confirmed.[13]

After the sea rose to create Bass Strait, the Australian mainland and Tasmania became separate land masses, and the Aborigines who had migrated from mainland Australia became cut off from their cousins on the mainland. Because neither side had ocean sailing technology, the two groups were unable to maintain contact.

It has been a long held view that because of the ocean divide, and unlike other populations around the world, the small population of Tasmania was not able to share any of the new technological advances being made by mainland groups such as barbed spears, bone tools of any kind, boomerangs, hooks, sewing, and the ability to start a fire thus making Tasmanian Aborigines the simplest people on Earth.[14] However, they did possess fire with the men entrusted in carrying embers from camp to camp for cooking and which could also be used to clear land and herd animals to aid in hunting practices.[15][16] Another school of thought holds that because food was so abundant compared to mainland Australia the Aborigines had no need for a better technology, pointing out that they did in fact originally possess bone tools which dropped out of use as the effort to make them began to exceed the benefit they provided.[17]

It has been suggested that approximately 4,000 years ago, the Tasmanian Aborigines largely dropped scaled fish from their diet, and began eating more land mammals such as possums, kangaroos, and wallabies. They also switched from worked bone tools to sharpened stone tools.[16] The significance of the disappearance of bone tools (believed to have been primarily used for fishing related activities) and fish in the diet is heavily debated. Some argue that it is evidence of a maladaptive society while others argue that the change was economic as large areas of scrub at that time were changing to grassland providing substantially increased food resources. Fish were never a large part of the diet, ranking behind shellfish and seals, and with more resources available the cost/benefit ratio of fishing may have become too high.[17] Archaeological evidence indicates that around the time these changes took place the Tasmanian tribes began expanding their territories, a process that was still continuing when Europeans arrived.[18]

It is now believed that they also constructed basic wooden shelters and small domed ‘huts’ to protect themselves during chilly winter months, although it seems they preferred to live in cave dwellings.[15]

Very little is known about the nature of social, cultural or territorial history of the Tasmanian Aborigines, but archaeological research has provided ethnographic evidence debunking many long-held myths.

Tasmanian Aboriginal Tribes

Map of the Tasmanian Tribes

The social organisation of Tasmanian Aborigines had three distinct levels: the domestic unit or family group, the social unit or band which had a self-defining name with 40 to 50 people, and collections of bands comprising tribes which owned territories. Even though territories were owned there was substantial movement and migration by bands to utilise and share abundant food resources in particular seasons.[19]

Estimates made of the combined population of the Aboriginal people of Tasmania, before European arrival in Tasmania, are in the range of 3,000 to 15,000 people.[1] Genetic studies have suggested much higher figures which is supported by oral traditions that Aborigines were “more numerous than the white people were aware of” but that their population had been decimated by a sudden outbreak of disease prior to 1803. It is speculated that early contacts with sealers before colonisation had resulted in an epidemic.[3] Using archaeological evidence, Stockton (I983:68) estimated 3,000 to 6,000 for the northern half of the west coast alone, or up to six times the commonly accepted estimate, however he later revised this to 3,000 to 5,000 for the entire island based on historical sources. The low rate of genetic drift indicates that Stockton’s original maximum estimate is likely the lower boundary and, while not indicated by the archaeological record, a population as high as 100,000 can “not be rejected out of hand”. This is supported by carrying capacity data indicating greater resource productivity in Tasmania than the mainland.[12]

The Tasmanian Aborigines were a primarily nomadic people who lived in adjoining territory, moving from area to area not only based on seasonal changes in food supplies such as seafood, land mammals and native vegetables and berries but also to allow food resources to regenerate for future use. The different tribes shared similar languages and culture. They socialized, intermarried and fought ‘wars’ against other tribes.[15]

According to Ryan, the population of Tasmania was aligned into nine tribes composed of six to fifteen bands each, with each band comprising two to six extended family units (clans) who were distantly related to each other. Individual bands had a specific home range with elaborate rites of entry required of visitors. However, the band was a land using group not a land owner with the clans making up the band each owning the rights to their own “estate” in the range.[20] There were more than 60 bands before European colonisation, although only 48 have been located and associated with particular territories. The Eastern and northern Group consisted of the Oyster Bay Tribe, North East Tribe, and the North Tribe. the Midlands Group consisted of the Big River Tribe, North Midlands Tribe and Ben Lomond Tribe. The Maritime Group consisted of the North West Tribe, South West Tribe and South East Tribe.[19]

Oyster Bay (Paredarerme)

The Paredarerme tribe was estimated to be the largest Tasmanian tribe with ten bands totalling 700 to 800 people (Ryan:1996:17). The Paredarerme Tribe had good relations with the Big River tribe, with large congregations at favoured hunting sites inland and at the coast. Relations with the North Midlands tribe were mostly hostile, and evidence suggests that the Douglas-Apsley region may have been a dangerous borderland rarely visited (Ferguson 1986 pg22). Generally, Paredarerme tribe bands migrated inland to the High Country for Spring and Summer and returned to the coast for Autumn and Winter, but not all people left their territory each year with some deciding to stay by the coast. Migrations provided a varied diet with plentiful seafood, seals and birds on the coast, and good hunting for kangaroos, wallabies and possums inland (Ryan:1996:17). The High Country also provided opportunities to trade for ochre with the North-west and North people, and to harvest intoxicating gum from Eucalyptus gunnii, found only on the plateau.[19] The key determinant of camp sites was topography. The majority of camps were along river valleys, adjacent north facing hill slopes and on gentle slopes bordering a forest or marsh (Brown 1986).

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Leetermairremener St Patricks Head near St Marys Winter in the coastal areas of their own lands. Between August and October congregating around Moulting Lagoon and Schouten Island. In October they would move inland to St Pauls and Break o’ Day Rivers or up the Meredith River to the Elizabeth River area.
In January, the band would move back to the coast.
Linetemairrener North of Great Oyster Bay As above.
Loontitetermairrelehoinner North Oyster Bay As above.
Toorernomairremener Schouten Passage As above.
Poredareme Little Swanport Winter in the coastal areas of their own lands. In August moving west to the Eastern Marshes, and through St Peters pass to Big River Country before returning to the coast in January.
Laremairremener Grindstone Bay As above.
Tyreddeme Maria Island As above.
Portmairremener Prosser River As above.
Pydairrerme Tasman Peninsula As above.
Moomairremener Pittwater, Risdon As above.

North East

The North East tribe consisted of seven bands totalling around 500 people. They had good relations with the Ben Lamond tribe, who were allowed access to the resources of the north east coast.

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Peeberrangner uncertain  
Leenerrerter uncertain  
Pinterrairer uncertain  
Trawlwoolway uncertain  
Pyemmairrenerpairrener uncertain  
Leenethmairrener uncertain  
Panpekanner uncertain  

North

The North tribe consisted of four bands totalling 200–300 people (Ryan:1996:22). Their country contained the most important ochre mines in Tasmania, accessed by well defined roads kept open by firing. They traded the ochre with all adjacent tribes. They would spend part of the year in the country of the North West Tribe to hunt seals and collect shells from Robbins Island for necklaces. In return, the North West Tribe had free access to the ochre mines (Ryan:1996:23-26). Relatively isolated, the region was first explored by Europeans in 1824 with the Van Diemen’s Land Company being given a grant of 250,000 acres (100,000 ha), which included the greater part of the tribes hunting grounds. The settlement was a failure, with the inland areas described as “wet, cold and soggy”, while the coastal region was difficult to clear, as Superintendent Henry Hellyer noted the “forest [was] altogether unlike anything I have seen in the Island”. However, in 1827 a port was established at Emu Bay. In 1828 Tarerenorerer (Eng:Walyer), a woman who had escaped from sealers, became the leader of the Emu Bay people and attacked the settlers with stolen weapons, the first recorded use of muskets by Aborigines.[21]

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Punnilerpanner Port Sorell Winter spent on the coast. In summer they would move inland.
Pallittorre Quamby Bluff As above
Noeteeler Hampshire Hills As above
Plairhekehillerplue Emu Bay As above

Big River

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Leenowwenne New Norfolk  
Pangerninghe ClydeDerwent Rivers Junction  
Braylwunyer Ouse and Dee Rivers  
Larmairremener West of Dee  
Luggermairrernerpairrer Great Lake  

North Midlands

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Leterremairrener Port Dalrymple  
Panninher Norfolk Plains  
Tyerrernotepanner Campbell Town  

Ben Lomond

The Ben Lomond tribe consisted of three and possibly four bands totalling 150-200 people who occupied 260 km2 (100.4 sq mi) of country surrounding the 182 km2 (70.3 sq mi) Ben Lomond plateau. Until 12,000 years ago, the plateau was covered by an ice cap, leaving it largely devoid of soil and lacking in resources. Walter George Arthur, son of a Ben Lomond elder, was the Wybalenna “activist” who petitioned Queen Victoria in 1847.[22] Mannalargenna, who organized guerrilla attacks against British soldiers in Tasmania during the period known as the Black War, was a Plangermaireener elder, and in 1835 became the first Aborigine in Tasmania to be given a “christian” burial.

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Plangermaireener uncertain  
Plindermairhemener uncertain  
Tonenerweenerlarmenne uncertain  

North West

The North West tribe numbered between 400 and 600 people at time of contact with Europeans and had at least eight bands.[19] They had good relations with the North tribe, who were allowed access to the resources of the north west coast. First explored by Europeans in 1824, the region was considered inhospitable and only lightly settled, although it suffered a high rate of Aboriginal dispossession and killings.

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Tommeginer Table Cape  
Parperloihener Robbins Island  
Pennemukeer Cape Grim  
Pendowte Studland Bay  
Peerapper West Point  
Manegin Arthur River mouth  
Tarkinener Sandy Cape  
Peternidic Pieman River mouth  

South West Coast

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Mimegin Macquarie Harbour  
Lowreenne Low Rocky Point  
Ninene Port Davey  
Needwonnee Cox Bight  

South East

Risdon Cove, the first Tasmanian settlement, was located in South East country. There is eyewitness evidence that the South East tribe may have consisted of up to ten bands, totalling around 500 people. However, only four bands totalling 160-200 people were officially recorded as the main source by Robinson, whose journals begin in 1829. By this time, Europeans had settled in most of the South East tribe’s country, with the majority of bands dispossessed and food resources depleted. Their country contained the most important silcrete, chert and quartzite mines in Tasmania.[23] Truganini was a Nuenonne from Bruny Island, which they called Lunawanna-Alonnah. The first two European towns built on the Island were named Lunawanna and Alonnah, and most of the island’s landmarks are named after Nuenonne people. The island was the source of the sandstone used to build many of Melbourne‘s buildings, such as the Post Office and Parliament House.[24]

Band Territory Seasonal migration
Mouheneenner Hobart  
Nuenonne Bruny Island  
Mellukerdee Huon River  
Lyluequonny Recherche Bay  

Early European Contact

Abel Jansen Tasman, credited as the first European to discover Tasmania (in 1642) and who named it Van Diemen’s Land, did not encounter any of the Tasmanian Aborigines when he landed. In 1772, a French exploratory expedition under Marion Dufresne visited Tasmania. At first, contact with the Aborigines was friendly; however the Aborigines became alarmed when another boat was dispatched towards the shore. It was reported that spears and stones were thrown and the French responded with musket fire killing at least one Aborigine and wounding several others. Two later French expeditions led by Bruni d’Entrecasteaux in 1792-93 and Nicolas Baudin in 1802 made friendly contact with the Tasmanian Aborigines; the d’Entrecasteaux expedition doing so over an extended period of time.[25] The Resolution under Captain Tobias Furneaux (part of an expedition led by Captain James Cook) had visited in 1773 but made no contact with the Tasmanian Aborigines although he left gifts in unoccupied shelters found on Bruny Island. The first known British contact with the Tasmanian Aborigines was on Bruny Island by Captain Cook in 1777. The contact was peaceful. Captain William Bligh also visited Bruny Island in 1788 and made peaceful contact with the Tasmanian Aborigines.[26]

Contact with Sealers on the North and East Coasts.

More extensive contact between Tasmanian Aborigines and Europeans resulted when British and American seal hunters began visiting the islands in Bass Strait as well as the northern and eastern coasts of Tasmania from the late 1790s on. Shortly thereafter (by about 1800), sealers were regularly left on uninhabited islands in Bass Strait during the sealing season (November to May). The sealers established semi-permanent camps or settlements on the islands, which were close enough for the sealers to reach the main island of Tasmania in small boats and so make contact with the Tasmanian Aborigines.[27]

Trading relationships developed between sealers and Tasmanian Aboriginal tribes. Hunting dogs became highly prized by the Aborigines, as were other ‘exotic’ items such as flour, tea and tobacco. The Aborigines traded kangaroo skins for such goods. However, a trade in Aboriginal women soon developed. Many Tasmanian Aboriginal women were highly skilled in hunting seals, as well as in obtaining other foods such as sea-birds, and some Tasmanian tribes would trade their services, and more rarely those of Aboriginal men, to the sealers for the seal-hunting season. Others were sold on a permanent basis. This trade incorporated not only women of the tribe engaged in the trade but also women abducted from other tribes. Some may have been given as ‘gifts’ meant to incorporate the new arrivals into Aboriginal society through marriage.

Sealers engaged in raids along the coasts to abduct Aboriginal women and were reported to have killed Aboriginal men in the process. By 1810 seal numbers had been greatly reduced by hunting so most seal hunters abandoned the area, however a small number of sealers, approximately fifty mostly ‘renegade sailors, escaped convicts or ex-convicts’, remained as permanent residents of the Bass Strait islands and some established families with Tasmanian Aboriginal women.[27]

Some of the women were taken back to the islands by the sealers involuntarily and some went willingly, as in the case of a woman called Tarerenorerer (Eng:Walyer).[28] Walyer was later to gain some notoriety for her attempts to kill the sealers to escape their brutality. Walyer, a Punnilerpanner, joined the Plairhekehillerplue band after eventually escaping and went on to lead attacks on employees of the Van Diemen’s Land Company. Walyer’s attacks are the first recorded use of muskets by Aborigines. Captured, she refused to work and was banished to Penguin Island. Later imprisoned on Swan Island she attempted to organise a rebellion. Although Aboriginal women were by custom forbidden to take part in war, several Aboriginal women who escaped from sealers became leaders or took part in attacks. According to Lyndall Ryan, the women traded to, or kidnapped by sealers became “a significant dissident group” against white authority.[29]

Historian James Bonwick reported Aboriginal women who were clearly captives of sealers but he also reported women living with sealers who ‘proved faithful and affectionate to their new husbands’, women who appeared ‘content’ and others who were allowed to visit their ‘native tribe’, taking gifts, with the sealers being confident that they would return.[30] Bonwick also reports a number of claims of brutality by sealers towards Aboriginal women including some of those made by George Augustus Robinson.[31] An Aborigine by the name of Bulrer related her experience to Robinson, that sealers had rushed her camp and stolen six women including herself “the white men tie them and then they flog them very much, plenty much blood, plenty cry.” Sealing captain, James Kelly, wrote in 1816 that the custom of the sealers was to each have “two to five of these native women for their own use and benefit.” A shortage of women available “in trade” resulted in abduction becoming common and in 1830 it was reported that at least fifty Aboriginal women were “kept in slavery” on the Bass Strait islands.[29]

“Harrington, a sealer, procured ten or fifteen native women, and placed them on different islands in Bass’s Straits, where he left them to procure skins; if, however, when he returned, they had not obtained enough, he punished them by tying them up to trees for twenty-four to thirty-six hours together, flogging them at intervals, and he killed them not infrequently if they proved stubborn.” (H.W.Parker The Rise, Progress, and Present State of V. D. Land 1833)[32]

The raids for, and trade in, Aboriginal women contributed to the rapid depletion of the numbers of Aboriginal women in the northern areas of Tasmania, “by 1830 only three women survived in northeast Tasmania among 72 men” [27] and thus contributed in a significant manner to the demise of the full-blooded Aboriginal population of Tasmania. However many modern day Tasmanian Aborigines trace their descent from the 19th century sealer communities of Bass Strait.

There are numerous stories of the sealers’ brutality towards the Aboriginal women; with some of these reports originating from George Augustus Robinson. In 1830, Robinson seized fourteen Aboriginal women from the sealers, planning for them to marry Aboriginal men at the Flinders Island settlement. Josephine Flood, an archaeologist specialising in Australian mainland Aboriginal peoples, notes: “he encountered strong resistance from the women as well as sealers”. The sealers sent a representative, James Munro, to appeal to Governor Arthur and argue for the women’s return on the basis that they wanted to stay with their sealer husbands and children rather than marry Aboriginal men unknown to them. Arthur ordered the return of some of the women. Shortly thereafter, Robinson began to disseminate stories, told to him by James Munro, of atrocities allegedly committed by the sealers against Aborigines and against Aboriginal women, in particular. Brian Plomley, who edited Robinson’s papers, expressed scepticism about these atrocities and notes that they were not reported to Archdeacon Broughton‘s 1830 committee of inquiry into violence towards Tasmanians. Abduction and ill-treatment of Aborigines certainly occurred, but the extent is debated.[33]

After European Settlement

Robert Dowling, Group of Natives of Tasmania, 1859. Critic Bernard William Smith assessed the work as a “history painting in the full sense of the word”, with the natives “seated—emblematic of their situation—around the dying embers of a burnt-out log near a great blackened stump, and in the far left corner there is a leafless tree with shattered branches.”[34]

Between 1803 and 1823, there were two phases of conflict between the Aborigines and the British colonists. The first took place between 1803 and 1808 over the need for common food sources such as oysters and kangaroos, and the second between 1808 and 1823, when the small number of white females among the farmers, sealers and whalers, led to the trading, and the abduction, of Aboriginal women as sexual partners. These practices also increased conflict over women among Aboriginal tribes. This in turn led to a decline in the Aboriginal population. Historian Lyndall Ryan records seventy-four Aborigines (almost all women) living with sealers on the Bass Strait islands in the period up to 1835.[35]

By 1816, kidnapping of Aboriginal children for labour had become widespread. In 1814, Governor Thomas Davey issued a proclamation expressing “utter indignation and abhorrence” in regards to the kidnapping of the children and in 1819 Governor William Sorell not only re-issued the proclamation but ordered that those who had been taken without parental consent were to be sent to Hobart and supported at government expense.[36] A number of young Aboriginal children were known to be living with settlers. An Irish sealer named Brien spared the life of the baby son of a native woman he had abducted explaining, “as (he) had stolen the dam he would keep the cub.” When the child grew up he became an invaluable assistant to Brien but was considered “no good” by his own people as he was brought up to dislike Aborigines who he considered “dirty lazy brutes.”[29] Twenty-six were definitely known (through baptismal records) to have been taken into settlers’ homes as infants or very small children, too young to be of service as labourers. Some Aboriginal children were sent to the Orphan School in Hobart.[37] Lyndall Ryan reports fifty-eight Aborigines, of various ages, living with settlers in Tasmania in the period up to 1835.[38]

Some historians argue that European disease did not appear to be a serious factor until after 1829.[39] Other historians including Geoffrey Blainey and Keith Windschuttle, point to introduced disease as the main cause of the destruction of the full-blooded Tasmanian Aboriginal population. Keith Windschuttle argues that while smallpox never reached Tasmania, respiratory diseases such as influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis and the effects of venereal diseases devastated the Tasmanian Aboriginal population whose long isolation from contact with the mainland compromised their resistance to introduced disease. The work of historian James Bonwick and anthropologist H. Ling Roth, both writing in the 19th century, also point to the significant role of epidemics and infertility without clear attribution of the sources of the diseases as having been introduced through contact with Europeans. Bonwick, however, did note that Tasmanian Aboriginal women were infected with venereal diseases by Europeans. Introduced venereal disease not only directly caused deaths but, more insidiously, left a significant percentage of the population unable to reproduce. Josephine Flood, archaeologist, wrote: “Venereal disease sterilised and chest complaints – influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis – killed.” [40][41]

Bonwick, who lived in Tasmania, recorded a number of reports of the devastating effect of introduced disease including one report by a Doctor Story, a Quaker, who wrote: “After 1823 the women along with the tribe seemed to have had no children; but why I do not know.”[42] Later historians have reported that introduced venereal disease caused infertility amongst the Tasmanian Aborigines.[43][44]

Bonwick also recorded a strong Aboriginal oral tradition of an epidemic even before formal colonisation in 1803. “Mr Robert Clark, in a letter to me, said : “I have gleaned from some of the aborigines, now in their graves, that they were more numerous than the white people were aware of, but their numbers were very much thinned by a sudden attack of disease which was general among the entire population previous to the arrival of the English, entire tribes of natives having been swept off in the course of one or two days illness.” “ [3] Such an epidemic may be linked to contact with sailors or sealers.[45]

Henry Ling Roth, an anthropologist, wrote: “Calder, who has gone more fully into the particulars of their illnesses, writes as follows….: “Their rapid declension after the colony was founded is traceable, as far as our proofs allow us to judge, to the prevalence of epidemic disorders….””[46] Roth was referring to James Erskine Calder who took up a post as a surveyor in Tasmania in 1829 and who wrote a number of scholarly papers about the Aborigines. “According to Calder, a rapid and remarkable declension of the numbers of the aborigines had been going on long before the remnants were gathered together on Flinders Island. Whole tribes (some of which Robinson mentions by name as being in existence fifteen or twenty years before he went amongst them, and which probably never had a shot fired at them) had absolutely and entirely vanished. To the causes to which he attributes this strange wasting away … I think infecundity, produced by the infidelity of the women to their husbands in the early times of the colony, may be safely added. . . . Robinson always enumerates the sexes of the individuals he took; . . . and as a general thing, found scarcely any children amongst them; . . . adultness was found to outweigh infancy everywhere in a remarkable degree. . . .”[47]

George Augustus Robinson recorded in his journals a number of comments regarding the Tasmanian Aborigines’ susceptibility to diseases, particularly respiratory diseases. In 1832 he revisited the west coast of Tasmania, far from the settled regions, and wrote: “The numbers of aborigines along the western coast have been considerably reduced since the time of my last visit [1830]. A mortality has raged amongst them which together with the severity of the season and other causes had rendered the paucity of their number very considerable.” [48]

Between 1825 and 1831 a pattern of guerrilla warfare by the Aborigines was identified by the colonists, some of whom acknowledged the Aborigines as fighting for their country. Rapid pastoral expansion and an increase in the colony’s population triggered Aboriginal resistance from 1824 onwards when it has been estimated by Lyndall Ryan that 1000 Aborigines remained in the settled districts. Whereas settlers and stock keepers had previously provided rations to the Aborigines during their seasonal movements across the settled districts, and recognised this practice as some form of payment for trespass and loss of traditional hunting grounds, the new settlers and stock keepers were unwilling to maintain these arrangements and the Aborigines began to raid settlers’ huts for food. The official Government position was that Aborigines were blameless for any hostilities, but when Musquito was hanged in 1825, a significant debate was generated which split the colonists along class lines. The “higher grade” saw the hanging as a dangerous precedent and argued that Aborigines were only defending their land and should not be punished for doing so. The “lower grade” of colonists wanted more Aborigines hanged to encourage a “conciliatory line of conduct.” Governor Arthur sided with the “lower grade” and 1825 saw the first official acceptance that Aborigines were at least partly to blame for conflict. In 1826 the Government gazette, which had formerly reported “retaliatory actions” by Aborigines, now reported “acts of atrocity” and for the first time used the terminology “Aborigine” instead of “native.” A newspaper reported that there were only two solutions to the problem, either they should be “hunted down like wild beasts and destroyed” or they should be removed from the settled districts. The colonial Government assigned troops to drive them out. A Royal Proclamation in 1828 established military posts on the boundaries and a further Proclamation declared martial law against the Aborigines. As it was recognized that there were fixed routes for seasonal migration, Aborigines were required to have passes if they needed to cross the settled districts with bounties offered for the capture of those without passes, £5 (around 2010:$1,000) for an adult and £2 for children, a process that often led to organised hunts resulting in deaths. Every dispatch from Governor Arthur to the Secretary of State during this period stressed that in every case where Aborigines had been killed it was colonists that initiated hostilities.[49] While many aboriginal deaths went unrecorded the Cape Grim massacre in 1828 demonstrates the level of frontier violence towards Tasmanian aborigines.

The Black War of 1828-32 and the Black Line of 1830 were turning points in the relationship with European settlers. Even though many of the Aborigines managed to avoid capture during these events, they were shaken by the size of the campaigns against them, and this brought them to a position whereby they were willing to surrender to Robinson and move to Flinders Island.

Tasmanian aboriginals and settlers mentioned in literature 1800-1835.[50]

Tribe Captured Shot Settlers killed
Oyster Bay 27 67 50
North East 12 43 7
North 28 80 15
Big River 31 43 60
North Midlands 23 38 26
Ben Lomond 35 31 20
North West 96 59 3
South West Coast 47 0 0
South East 14 1 2
Total 313 362 183

In late 1831 George Augustus Robinson, a Christian missionary, brought the first 51 Aboriginals to a settlement on Flinders Island named The Lagoons, which turned out to be inadequate as it was exposed to gales, had little water and no land suitable for cultivation.[51] Supplies to the settlement were inadequate and if sealers had not supplied potatoes, the Aborigines would have starved. The Europeans were living on oatmeal and potatoes while the Aborigines, who detested oatmeal and refused to eat it, survived on potatoes and rice supplemented by mutton birds they caught.[52] Within months 31 Aborigines had died.

“They were lodged at night in shelters or “breakwinds.” These “breakwinds” were thatched roofs sloping to the ground, with an opening at the top to let out the smoke, and closed at the ends, with the exception of a doorway. They were twenty feet long by ten feet wide. In each of these from twenty to thirty blacks were lodged… To savages accustomed to sleep naked in the open air beneath the rudest shelter, the change to close and heated dwellings tended to make them susceptible, as they had never been in their wild state, to chills from atmospheric changes, and was only too well calculated to induce those severe pulmonary diseases which were destined to prove so fatal to them. The same may be said of the use of clothes… At the settlement they were compelled to wear clothes, which they threw off when heated or when they found them troublesome, and when wetted by rain allowed them to dry on their bodies. In the case of Tasmanians, as with other wild tribes accustomed to go naked, the use of clothes had a most mis-chievous effect on their health.[32]

Benjamin Duterrau, Mr Robinson’s first interview with Timmy, 1840

By January 1832 another 44 captured Aboriginals had arrived and conflicts arose between the tribal groups. To defuse the situation sergeant Wight took the Big River group to Green island where they were abandoned and he later decided to move the rest to Green Island as well. Two weeks later Robinson arrived with Lieutenant Darling, the new commander for the station, and moved the Aborigines back to The Lagoons. Lieutenant Darling ensured a supply of plentiful food and permitted “hunting excursions.” In October 1832, a decision was made to build a new camp with better buildings (Wattle and daub) at a more suitable location, Pea Jacket Point. Pea Jacket Point was renamed Civilisation Point but became more commonly known as Wybalenna, which in the Ben Lomond language meant “Blackman’s Houses”.[32]

Robinson befriended Truganini, learned some of the local language and in 1833 managed to persuade the remaining 154 “full-blooded” people to move to the new settlement on Flinders Island, where he promised a modern and comfortable environment, and that they would be relocated to the Tasmanian mainland as soon as possible. At the Wybalenna Aboriginal establishment on Flinders Island, described by historian Henry Reynolds as the ‘best equipped and most lavishly staffed Aboriginal institution in the Australian colonies in the nineteenth century’, they were provided with housing, clothing, rations of food, the services of a doctor and educational facilities. Convicts were assigned to build housing and do most of the work at the settlement including the growing of food in the vegetable gardens.[53] After arrival all Aboriginal children aged between six and 15 years were removed from their families to be brought up by the storekeeper and a lay preacher.[36] The Aborigines were free to roam the island and were often absent from the settlement for extended periods of time on hunting trips as the rations supplied turned out to be inadequate. By 1835 the living conditions had deteriorated to the extent that in October Robinson personally took charge of Wybalenna, organising better food and improving the housing. However, of the 220 who arrived with Robinson, most died in the following 14 years from introduced disease and inadequate shelter. As a result of their loss of freedom, the birth rate was extremely low with few children surviving infancy.

Oyster Cove Mob

In March 1847 six Aboriginals at Wybalenna presented a petition to Queen Victoria, the first petition to a reigning monarch from any Aboriginal group in Australia, requesting that the promises made to them be honoured.[54] In October 1847, the 47 survivors were transferred to their final settlement at Oyster Cove station.[55] Only 44 survived the trip (11 couples, 12 single men and 10 children) and the children were immediately sent to the orphan school in Hobart.[36] Although the housing and food was better than Wybalenna, the station was a former convict station that had been abandoned earlier that year due to health issues as it was located on inadequately drained mudflats. According to the guards, the Aborigines developed “too much independence” by trying to continue their culture which they considered “recklessness” and “rank ingratitude.” Their numbers continued to diminish, in 1859 their numbers were estimated at around a dozen and by 1869 there was only one, who died in 1876.

Commenting in 1899 on Robinsons claims of success, anthropologist Henry Ling Roth wrote:

While Robinson and others were doing their best to make them into a civilised people, the poor blacks had given up the struggle, and were solving the difficult problem by dying. The very efforts made for their welfare only served to hasten on their inevitable doom. The white man’s civilisation proved scarcely less fatal than the white man’s musket.[32]

Anthropological interest

The Oyster Cove people attracted contemporaneous international scientific interest from the 1860s onwards, with many museums claiming body parts for their collections. Scientists were interested in studying Tasmanian Aborigines from a physical anthropology perspective, hoping to gain insights into the field of paleoanthropology. For these reasons, they were interested in individual Aboriginal body parts and whole skeletons.

Tasmanian Aboriginal skulls were particularly sought internationally for studies into craniofacial anthropometry.

In one case, the Royal Society of Tasmania received government permission to exhume the body of Truganini in 1878, within 2 years of her death, on condition that it was “decently deposited in a secure resting place accessible by special permission to scientific men for scientific purposes.” Her skeleton was on display in the Tasmanian Museum until 1947.[56] Another case was the removal of the skull and scrotum — for a tobacco pouch — of William Lanne, known as King Billy, on his death in 1869.

Aborigines have considered the dispersal of body parts as being disrespectful, as a common aspect within Aboriginal belief systems is that a soul can only be at rest when laid in its homeland.

20th century to present day

Body parts and ornaments are still being returned from collections today, with the Royal College of Surgeons of England returning samples of Truganini’s skin and hair (in 2002); and the British Museum returning ashes to two descendants in 2007.[57]

During the 20th century, the absence of “full blood” Aboriginals and a general unawareness of the surviving populations, mean that many non-Aboriginals assumed they were extinct, after the death of Truganini in 1876. Since the mid 1970s Tasmanian Aboriginal activists such as Michael Mansell have sought to broaden awareness and identification of Aboriginal descent.

There is a dispute within the Tasmanian Aboriginal community over what constitutes Aboriginality. Since splitting from the Lia Pootah in 1996, the Palawa minority were given the power to decide who is of Tasmanian Aboriginal descent at the state level (entitlement to government Aboriginal services). Palawa recognise only descendants of the Bass Strait Island community as Aboriginal and do not consider as Aboriginal the Lia Pootah, who claim descent, based on oral traditions, from Tasmanian mainland Aboriginal communities. The Lia Pootah feel that the Palawa controlled Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre does not represent them politically.[58][59]

In April 2000, the Tasmanian Government Legislative Council Select Committee on Aboriginal Lands discussed the difficulty of determining Aboriginality based on oral traditions. An example given by Prof. Cassandra Pybus was the claim by the Huon and Channel Aborigines who had an oral history of descent from two Indigenous women. Research found that both were white convict women. A further problem was the number of non-European settlers. Up to 600 of the convict settlers were Afro-American and it is also known that a percentage of free settlers were not of European descent. An Aboriginal community that survived on Bruny Island is possibly descended from two Africans who took up land grants on the island. The 1818 Hobart census lists 20 Afro-Americans and Lascars and the passenger list of one vessel, the Lady Nelson included ten Indians and Africans who had been given land grants in the Tasmanian interior. The children of these settlers effectively disappeared into the community as they were never identified as “negro” or “coloured” as no distinction was made between them and the European settlers.[60]

More recently[when?] there have been initiatives to introduce DNA testing to establish family history in descendant subgroups. This has drawn an angry reaction from some quarters, as some have claimed “spiritual connection” with aboriginality distinct from, but not as important as the existence of a genetic link.[61] The Tasmanian Palawa Aboriginal community is also making an effort to reconstruct and reintroduce a Tasmanian language, called palawa kani out of the various records on Tasmanian languages. Other Tasmanian aboriginal communities use words from traditional Tasmanian languages, according to the language area they were born or live in.

Legislated definition

In June 2005, the Tasmanian Legislative Council introduced an innovated definition of aboriginality into the Aboriginal Lands Act.[62] The bill was passed to allow Aboriginal Lands Council elections to commence, after uncertainty over who was ‘aboriginal’, and thus eligible to vote.

Under the bill, a person can claim “Tasmanian Aboriginality” if they meet the following criteria:

  • Ancestry
  • Self-identification
  • Community recognition

Government compensation for “Stolen Generations”

On 13 August 1997 a Statement of Apology (specific to removal of children) was issued – which was unanimously supported by the Tasmanian Parliament – the wording of the sentence was

That this house, on behalf of all Tasmanian(s)… expresses its deep and sincere regret at the hurt and distress caused by past policies under which Aboriginal children were removed from their families and homes; apologises to the Aboriginal people for those past actions and reaffirms its support for reconciliation between all Australians.

There are many people currently working in the community, academia, various levels of government and NGOs to strengthen what has been termed as the Tasmanian Aboriginal culture and the conditions of those who identify as members of the descendant community.

In November 2006 Tasmania became the first Australian state or territory to offer financial compensation for the Stolen Generations, Aborigines forcibly removed from their families by Australian government agencies and church missions between about 1900 and 1972. Up to 40 Tasmanian Aborigine descendants are expected to be eligible for compensation from the $5 million package.[63]

Some notable Tasmanian Aborigines

Literature

References

  1. ^ a b c From Terror to Genocide: Britain’s Tasmanian Penal Colony and Australia’s History Wars
  2. ^ Rhys Jones:3,000-5,000, N. J. B. Plomley: 4,000–6,000, Henry Reynolds: 5,000–7,000, Colin Pardoe: 12,000+ and David Davies: 15,000.
  3. ^ a b c Bonwick, James: Daily Life and Origins of the Tasmanians, Sampson, Low, Son and Marston, London, 1870, p84-85
  4. ^ Bonwick, James: The Last of the Tasmanians, Sampson Low, Son & Marston, London, 1870, p388
  5. ^ Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians: Story of the Aboriginal People, Allen & Unwin, 2006, pp 66-67
  6. ^ Windschuttle, Keith, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume One: Van Diemen’s Land 1803-1847, Macleay Press, 2002, pp 372-375
  7. ^ Geoffrey Blainey, A Land Half Won, Macmillan, South Melbourne, Vic., 1980, p75
  8. ^ Colin Tatz, With Intent To Destroy
  9. ^ ‘Van Diemen’s Land’ James Boyce 2009 p.297
  10. ^ For discussion of the Truganini claim, and the other candidates, Suke and Fanny Cochrane Smith, see Rebe Taylor, Unearthed: the Aboriginal Tasmanians of Kangaroo Island,Wakefield Press, 2004 pp.140ff.
  11. ^ Lyndall Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Allen & Unwin, 1996 p.220, denies Truganini was the last ‘full-blood’, and makes a case for Suke (d.circa 1888)
  12. ^ a b Pardoe, Colin (1991). “Isolation and Evolution in Tasmania”. Current Anthropology 32 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1086/203909
  13. ^ Archaeology News March 2010
  14. ^ Jared Diamond. Guns, Germs, and Steel (1999 ed.). Norton. pp. 492. ISBN 0393061310
  15. ^ a b c “Aboriginal Occupation”. ABS. 26 March 2008. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/dc057c1016e548b4ca256c470025ff88/F6FA372655DCC15FCA256C3200241893?opendocument. Retrieved 26 March 2008. 
  16. ^ a b Lyndall Ryan, pp10-11, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Second Edition, Allen & Unwin, 1996, ISBN 1863739653
  17. ^ a b Manne, Robert (2003). Whitewash. 317-318: Schwartz Publishing. ISBN 0 9750769 0 6
  18. ^ Tasmania 2005: Aboriginal occupation Australian Bureau of Statistics 13 September 2002
  19. ^ a b c d Lyndall Ryan, pp13-44, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Second Edition, Allen & Unwin, 1996, ISBN 1863739653
  20. ^ Cornwall Coal: Cullenswood 2 Environmental Effects Report pdf
  21. ^ Burnie: A Thematic History pdf Burnie City Council
  22. ^ Ben Lomond National Park Parks and Wildlife Service
  23. ^ Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey Jan 2001 pdf
  24. ^ Tasmania Regional Guide Series. Lonely Planet 2008 pg 136-137 ISBN 1741046912
  25. ^ Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians: Story of the Aboriginal People, Allen & Unwin, 2006, pp 58-60
  26. ^ Bonwick, James: The Last of the Tasmanians, Sampson Low, Son & Marston, London, 1870, pp 3-8
  27. ^ a b c Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians, pp58-60, p 76
  28. ^ Differing opinions have been given on Walyer’s involvement with the sealers. McFarlane writes that she voluntarily joined the sealers with members of her family, and was responsible for attacking Aborigines and white settlers alike (McFarlane, 2008: 119). However, Ryan comes to a different conclusion, that Walyer had been abducted at Port Sorell by Aborigines and traded to the sealers for dogs and flour (Ryan, 1996: 141).
  29. ^ a b c Kay Merry The Cross-Cultural Relationships Between the Sealers and the Tasmanian Aboriginal Women at Bass Strait and Kangaroo Island in the Early Nineteenth Century pdf, Flinders University Department of History 2003
  30. ^ Bonwick, James: The Last of the Tasmanians, pp 295-297
  31. ^ Bonwick, James: The Last of the Tasmanians, pp 295-301
  32. ^ a b c d Henry Ling Roth The Aborigines of Tasmania 1899
  33. ^ Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians, p 76
  34. ^ Smith, Bernard (1971). Australian Painting, 1788-1970. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0195503724
  35. ^ Ryan, Lyndall, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Second Edition, Allen & Unwin, 1996, ISBN 1863739653, Appendix p 313
  36. ^ a b c Bringing them Home – The Report Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
  37. ^ Flood, Josephine. The Original Australians, p 77
  38. ^ Ryan, Lyndall, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Second Edition, Allen & Unwin, 1996, ISBN 1863739653, p 176
  39. ^ Boyce, James: Van Diemen’s Land, Black Inc, 2008, ISBN 9781863954136, p65
  40. ^ Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians, p 77, p 90, 128
  41. ^ Windschuttle, Keith, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume One: Van Diemen’s Land 1803-1847, Macleay Press, 2002, pp 372-376
  42. ^ Bonwick, Last of the Tasmanians, p388
  43. ^ Flood, Josephine, The Original Australians, p 90
  44. ^ Windschuttle, Keith, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, pp 375-376
  45. ^ Flood, Josephine: The Original Australians, pp 66-67
  46. ^ Roth, Henry Ling, The Aborigines of Tasmania, Second Edition, Halifax (England): F. King & Sons, Printers and Publishers, Broad Street, 1899, p 18
  47. ^ Roth, Henry Ling, The Aborigines of Tasmania, 1899, pp 172-173
  48. ^ Plomley, N. J. B. (ed), Friendly Mission, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart, 1966, at p 695, Robinson writing to Edward Curr, 22 Sept 1832
  49. ^ John J. Cove What the bones say: Tasmanian aborigines, science, and domination McGill-Queen’s University Press 1995 Pg 25-29 ISBN 0886292476
  50. ^ Ryan L. 1996, The Aboriginal Tasmanians pg 313-314 . Europeans killed and Aborigines captured can be considered correct. The figures for tribal people shot is likely to be a substantial undercount.
  51. ^ The Lagoons was located on a narrow sandbank, covered with ferns and scrub. It was bounded on one side by the sea, and on the other side by a saltwater lagoon bordered with thick tea-tree which cut off access to the main island.
  52. ^ Roth The Aborigines of Tasmania 1899 pg 3
  53. ^ Flood, Josephine, The Original Australians: Story of the Aboriginal People, Allen & Unwin, 2006, p88, citing Reynolds
  54. ^ Since the 1980s this petition has been the focus of a major argument in the legal battle regarding the promises that Robinson and Governor Arthur made to the Tasmanian Aborigines.
  55. ^ Bonwick, James: The Last of the Tasmanians, p 270-295
  56. ^ Trugernanner (Truganini) (1812? – 1876), Australian Dictionary of Biography
  57. ^ “Bodies of Knowledge”. The Museum. 17 May 2007. No. 2, season 1.
  58. ^ “WHO MAKES UP THE TASMANIAN ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY?”. Lia Pootah Community. 26 March 2008. http://www.tasmanianaboriginal.com.au. Retrieved 26 March 2008. 
  59. ^ Interview with Kaye McPherson (Lia Pootah elder) Four Corners Australian Broadcasting Corporation 26 August 2002
  60. ^ Legislative Council Select Committee on Aboriginal Lands 10 April 2002
  61. ^ Matthew Denholm, “A bone to pick with the Brits”, The Australian, 17 February 2007.
  62. ^ Tasmanian Legislation – Aboriginal Lands Act 1995
  63. ^ STOLEN GENERATIONS PUBLIC RELEASE, Premier Paul Lennon http://www.premier.tas.gov.au/speeches/stolen.html
NEW ZEALAND
Maoris launching canoes, Astrolabe Strait, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris launching canoes, Astrolabe Strait, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
The corvette 'Astrolabe', New Zealand, 1826-1829.
The corvette ‘Astrolabe’, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris dancing on a French ship, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris dancing on a French ship, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori canoe seen from Wangari Point, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori canoe seen from Wangari Point, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris and tattoos, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maoris and tattoos, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Warriors of Shouraki, and inhabitants of Houa Houa, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Warriors of Shouraki, and inhabitants of Houa Houa, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori artefacts, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori artefacts, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori canoes, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori canoes, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Natai, Maori chief from Bream Bay, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Natai, Maori chief from Bream Bay, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori houses, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
Maori houses, New Zealand, 1826-1829.
 
THE HISTORY OF  NEW ZEALAND

European perceptions of New Zealand
in the early nineteenth century

 

Port Lyttelton
Port Lyttelton, Canterbury. Artist unknown. Tinted lithograph from “New Zealand, the Britain of the South”, vol. 1, opp. p. 226 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

At the close of the eighteenth century, European knowledge of New Zealand was confined to the very few coastal contacts made by visitors like Abel Tasman, James Cook and Marion du Fresne. A handful of paintings of the country had been exhibited in London by William Hodges and John Webber, artists who accompanied Cook on his voyages of 1772-1775 and 1776-1780, although a number of prints and engravings were published after these, as well as after works by Sydney Parkinson, Herman Diedrich Spöring, John Cleveley and Moses Griffith.1A considerable quantity of other images were included in publications of the various European voyages to the Pacific, and these continued to stimulate popular interest in the region well into the nineteenth century. For the learned gentlemen who attended these voyages, the chief interest was cataloguing geological, botanical and biological difference, a process that located New Zealand largely within the confines of eighteenth-century scientific discourse. With the arrival of the first convict settlements in Australia during the 1780s, however, a base was established for trade that was to greatly change the nature of British contacts with the country and British appraisals of its native inhabitants. 

British and other European vessels soon began to visit the islands to obtain flax and timber, principally at coastal areas in the North Island, while offshore whalers began to stop over for water, food and hospitality. The first European settlements of any permanence were established with large-scale sealing in the 1810s, and then bay and shore whaling in the 1820s. The Church Missionary Society arrived in 1814 to erect a station at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands, followed in 1822 by the Wesleyan Missionary Society at Hokianga. From a metropolitan viewpoint, however, the country appeared too far away and of too little economic or strategic importance to hold the attention of a nation at war in Europe until 1815 and then, in the 1820s and 1830s, preoccupied with social unrest and political dissent at home. Besides, there were other destinations for the prospective British emigrant that were tried and tested, and far easier to reach like America and Canada, or where settlement would serve the national interest, as in the Cape Colony where, following the 1814 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, colonisation was securing a British foothold in the predominantly Dutch hinterland. Nonetheless, proposals did surface sporadically for British settlement in New Zealand. A Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Nicholls suggested the British Government found a military colony there in 1823. In 1825, two Members of Parliament approached the Colonial Secretary, Earl Bathurst, with a scheme. As a result, the first New Zealand Company was formed in London, promptly despatching two ships to establish a base in the country for trading timber and flax.

At the same time, a set of New Zealand presences was emerging in metropolitan Britain, deposited there by the backwash of an increasingly globalising economy. Māori who worked European vessels debarked in Britain, either by choice or because they were set ashore, while others arrived as guests of recent visitors to New Zealand. One at least became a Sunday School teacher in Marylebone, while others featured in the popular press, made appearances in provincial shows, were mobbed in the streets or entertained in the homes of the wealthy.2 European crewmen who had deserted their vessels or been kidnapped by Māori also returned with tales of survival. They brought preserved heads for London shop windows or to display at local fairs, and those who had been tattooed or adopted Māori ways, like John Rutherford, a crewman from the American brig Agnes, allegedly plundered by Māori at Hawke’s Bay in 1817, might exhibit themselves as ‘wonders’.3 Details of Rutherford’s captivity and the scenes of violence he purportedly witnessed, were recounted at length in George Craik’s New Zealanders, one of the relatively few books dealing with New Zealand published in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Almost all of these works agreed, however, that the country’s native inhabitants were war-like, easily angered and ruthless in vengeance; propensities then frequently adduced as major impediments to their becoming, in contemporary European terms at least, ‘civilised’. Even Māori appeared to concur in this view. In 1824, Richard Cruise recorded a Bay of Islands chief had informed him it was impossible to convert Māori to settled ways because of their love of war: ‘if you told a New Zealander to work, he fell asleep; but if you spoke of fighting, he opened his eyes as wide as a teacup;…the whole bent of his mind was war’.4

To a considerable extent, early nineteenth-century metropolitan imaginings also blurred New Zealand into a contemporary conceptualisation of the ‘South Seas’, a loosely bounded region incorporating what is now known as Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia, but which extended in the early nineteenth-century imagination as far as the Indian Ocean and the coasts of Australia and the Americas. This was the setting for the late eighteenth-century voyages of John Byron, Louis de Bougainville and James Cook, reports of which had done so much to stimulate popular interest in the area and its inhabitants.5 Byron had been quite matter of fact in his descriptions of the Pacific islanders, and his Voyage Round the World made no suggestion that they might be happier or superior in any way to their British visitors. Bougainville, by contrast, was captivated by a highly Rousseauan idea of the noble savage, and represented the Pacific as a pre-lapsarian alternative to the artificial constraints of European civilisation, an unspoiled paradise in which ‘the freedom of the golden age still prevails’.6 It was Cook, however, who provided the most disturbing account of the Pacific, and one that darkened Bougainville’s bright, Arcadian vision.

…(continued)

On his first voyage, Cook had speculated that Māori sometimes consumed their slain enemies and, on his second visit to New Zealand, his suspicions appeared horribly realised when Māori aboard the Resolution were seen to devour flesh cut from the head of a dead warrior.7 During the decades that followed, European charting of the South Seas was coupled with reports of mutiny and shipwreck, native attacks and cannibalism, the latter emerging as a new co-ordinate in European understandings of the South Seas: a barbarous negative of European civilisation and moral order, a shocking reversal of Bougainville’s noble savage evincing a swirling immixture of shocked revulsion and prurient fascination.8 In 1814, for example, Matthew Flinders prefaced Voyage to Terra Australis with a collation of European voyages featuring native murder and plunder, heaped human skulls and severed hands strung up in the gloom of native huts.9 By the 1820s, its grisly horrors were being offered as enticements to prospective readers of titles like John Anderson’s Mission to the east coast of Sumatra in MDCCCXXIII …including…a visit to the Batta cannibal states, or Peter Dillon’s Narrative…of a Voyage in the South Seas, the full title of which promised gruesome details of the ‘Cannibal Practices of the South Sea Islanders’.10 It was a promise realised in Dillon’s frontispiece illustration, Massacre at the Fejee Islands in Septr. 1823, (figure 1), a contrast between heroically posed European sang froid and a confused mêlée of dark bodies, in the background of which the pale, naked carcasses of Dillon’s fellow crewmen were being ‘dissected, baked, and devoured’.11

Dillon - Massacre at Fiji
Figure 1. Massacre at the Fejee Islands in Septr 1823. Dreadful situation of Capt Dillon and the two other survivors. C Ingrey, lithog, 310 Strand [1829]. Artist unknown. Lithograph from “Narrative and successful result of a voyage in the South Seas …” volume 1, frontispiece. Reference Number: PUBL-0177-1-front (Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand, must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

To varying degrees and with different emphases, reports of Māori cannibalism appeared in nearly every British title dealing with New Zealand during this period. One of the earliest, John Savage’s 1807 Account of New Zealand, had paid scant attention to the practice, describing it briefly as a form of ritual vengeance.12 Cruise, by contrast, saw it practised ‘not only as a superstition, but as sensual animal gratification’. He reported Māori found European flesh ‘tough and unpalatable’, a reassurance of little use to those who fell victim to Māori cannibalism, and an example of the off-hand manner in which the subject was sometimes handled in metropolitan accounts.13 Both the Quarterly Review and Edinburgh Review lingered over the detail of Augustus Earle’s reports of Māori cannibalism, the latter devoting almost one quarter of its review of Narrative of a Nine Months’ Residence in New Zealand to the topic.14 As Earle described it, cannibalism was a bloody gash that rent an otherwise ordered landscape without warning, exposing a gross, barbaric side to the Māori character. Idly musing on the rude landscape at Pakanae, for example, his ramblings were brought to a sudden and shocking halt when he stumbled over the butchered remains of a human body fought over by pigs and dogs, ‘ocular proof’ of their ‘abominable ceremonies’.15 Dillon quite relished Moehanga’s description of the Māori attack fourteen years earlier on the European vessel the Boyd,

Craik - Patoos clubs
Figure 2. Patoos, Clubs, &c. Artist unknown. Wood engraving from “The New Zealanders”, p. 264 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

in which seventy European passengers and crew were said to have been killed and eaten, an account that culminated in a scene ‘at which humanity must shudder–namely, the dissecting, baking, and devouring of our unfortunate countrymen’.16 Craik devoted nine pages to the ‘wild and indiscriminate slaughter’ of the Boyd incident and a further thirteen to Māori cannibalism which, like Cruise, he thought to satisfy a wholly unnatural appetite.17His small volume was peppered with illustrations of Māori weapons. Their placing, like surgical instruments on an otherwise blank ground

Craik - Maori head
Figure 3. After Te Pehi Kupe, Tattooing on the face of Tupai Cupa, from a drawing by himself. Artist unknown. Wood engraving from “The New Zealanders”, p. 332 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

essentialised their primitive function, fixed by the descriptions of human slaughter, skull-splitting and beheading (figure 2).18 Amidst this armoury were arrayed the tattooed features of Te Moranga, Hongi Hika and Te Pēhi Kupe; as well as other, nameless, grimacing faces, their tongues protruding fiercely; armed warriors looming against the horizon; and war canoes overspilling with violently gesticulating figures (figures 3, 4 and 5). This was not going to be the way to sell New Zealand as a prospective home for British settlers!

 

Craik - New Zealander
Figure 4. New Zealander, with Spear, Artist unknown. Wood engraving from “The New Zealanders”, p. 265 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

 

 

Craik - Maori canoe
Figure 5. After Sydney Parkinson, Anonymous untitled, wood engraving from “The New Zealanders”, p. 375 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

 

Cash, convicts and Christianity

By the late 1830s, growing commercial contacts were weaving New Zealand into a global economy, with whale oil landed in London and Boston, seal furs sold in Java and China, and timber carried to India and the Cape for shipbuilding. Māori and European traders exported pork, potatoes and flax, principally to Sydney, and in return came blankets, ironware, axes and muskets. Growing European interest in colonising the islands saw increasing numbers of volumes dedicated to describing the country and its native inhabitants and, with these, the image of Māori began to change. There was no one moment for this shift, which was imaginatively highly complex and which must be set, in any case, within a contemporary current of positive images of Māori, but its features can be registered in a comparison of two works by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a figure central to the drama of mid nineteenth-century British settlement in both New Zealand and Australia.

Wakefield had propounded his theory of ‘systematic colonisation’ in a series of anonymously published articles in the London Morning Chronicle in late 1829, subsequently republished as A Letter from Sydney.19 It represented an interest in the antipodes that was to remain with him until his death in 1862 but, in 1833, he had briefly turned his attention to America. England and America purported to be an impartial comparison of the political, social and economic conditions of the two nations but was, in fact, another exercise in the logic of his system of ‘British’ colonisation, shortly to achieve a form of official sanction in arrangements for the colonisation of South Australia.20 His interest in colonisation and emigration had made Wakefield an enthusiastic reader of political economy, and England and America was dotted with references to works by Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and John McCulloch.21 The volume was largely polemic, however, laced with highly wrought passages on the Poor House and factory children, working class distress and the gin house, along with lengthy diagnoses of the uneasy affairs of the British middle class. It also included a peculiar dream sequence in which the author attempted to convince a slightly bewildered Robinson Crusoe to set Friday making ornaments to trade with neighbouring islands. This rather laboured essay in the relationship between land, labour and capital on which Wakefield based his colonisation scheme, was politely refused by Crusoe on the grounds that, ‘Our neighbours would make food of us if they could’.

‘Oh!’, Wakefield retorted blithely, ‘I had forgotten that restriction on trade’.22

This is cannibalism in what we might consider its slapstick mode, a mildly amusing impediment to trade, a kind of cooking-pot alternative to the busy logic of European commerce. It reveals, however, how the idea of cannibalism could be woven through the discourses of European exploration and colonisation as a cause, a reason for European interest, as the most extreme point of a savagery ordained to surrender to forms of commercial exchange.

Most commentators saw European trade with Māori as an important stimulus to civilisation, and a corrective to their barbarous ways. The Reverend William Marsden believed commercial pursuits combined with the ‘civilised arts’ would naturally inculcate industriousness and good moral habits amongst primitive Māori, thereby opening the way to Christianity. John Nicholas, who accompanied Marsden on his trip to the Bay of Islands to establish the Church Missionary Society’s first station, shared his enthusiasm for the civilising and christianising power of commerce. He urged that ‘artificial wants’ shaped by European material goods must inevitably excite a spirit of commerce amongst Māori and cautioned against the practice of giving gifts,

…for depending on this sort of casual liberality, [Māori] neglect those useful employments to which they would otherwise apply themselves, and their exertions being once relaxed, a morbid idleness, with a settled disinclination to labour, are the sure consequences.

By making commercial relations the basis of exchange, he countered, ‘the hope of gain would act as an incitement to diligent application’.23 Craik evidenced the apparent power of European commodities to influence Māori-European relations in Pomare’s decision to set aside his ‘murderous propensities’ in favour of the rewards derived from trade with Europeans.24 Earle conveyed a similar message in Te Whareumu’s protection of the Brampton at Kororareka in September 1823, when he prevented gathering crowds of local Māori from pillaging the grounded vessel because of his desire to maintain good trading relations with Europeans.25

Accounts like this appeared to convey a sympathetic attitude to Māori, their recognition of the superiority of European civilisation demonstrating their innate improvability but, simultaneously, this iconography of exchange represented the surrender of Māori cultural autonomy as the inevitable effect of use-values that were simply inherent in European commodities. It suggested that even the simplest European artefact had an autonomous, preordained purpose that could be read more or less successfully according to the relative cultural development of the race and which, once mastered, secured its inevitable progress. In fact, as Nicholas Thomas has observed, material technologies are highly dependent on forms of cultural competence and learned behaviour.26 The ‘irresistible magnetism’ imagined of European commodities consequently carried far more complex connotations than were allowed by writers like Nicholas, Craik or Earle.27 European material goods assumed new meanings and entered into very different value networks when appropriated by Māori; while relations of power between the two races, represented as the ‘natural’ product of material culture, were far more contingent in their actual operation. Cruise’s Journal of a Ten Months’ Residence in New Zealand, for example, reveals how jealously Bay of Islands Māori guarded their trade with the British vessel the Dromedary, using warnings of attack and plunder at other harbours and deliberate control of the crew’s access to kauri to detain the ship for as long as possible. Immediately the Cumberland whaler arrived, however, they deserted the Dromedary in favour of the muskets and powder they could obtain from the newly arrived vessel.28

Nor did Māori make the same distinctions as metropolitan observers between ‘good’ missionaries and ‘bad’ convicts and traders. During the first few decades of the nineteenth century, they valued material goods, particularly muskets, far more than they did the alien beliefs of a handful of unhappy proselytisers, and the missionaries clearly struggled in those ‘Strong Holds of Satan’.29 In 1820, Cruise had found them very much troubled by Māori depredations and observed they had made not a single convert during their six years in the country.30 Eight years later, Earle declared missionary work well intentioned but could see no good coming of it. There was little benefit in missionaries preaching ‘abstruse points of the Gospel’ to Māori, he argued, remarking dismissively that he ‘never yet saw one proselyte of their converting’.31

The missionaries came to New Zealand with the intention of changing Māori, and it followed they must acknowledge Māori could be redeemed, converted or improved, despite what they considered their barbaric ways. The Reverend William Yate, for example, remarked cautiously that ‘[v]iewed as an uncivilized people’, Māori were actually comparatively industrious. He proudly recorded the introduction of the ‘British plough’ by the Church Missionary Society, and delighted at the sight of ‘the youth of New Zealand themselves, the drivers of that plough, and the conductors of the whole business, after they have received their instructions from their [European] teachers and friends’.32 The missionaries argued stridently against the colonisation of New Zealand and yet, ironically, their representations of the country were instrumental in securing even greater metropolitan interest in that very outcome.33 In Yate’s Account of New Zealand, for example, the lengthy description of the country’s mountains, valleys, forests and plains, its trees, animals and fishes, climate, soil and minerals, along with details of their potential value and use, spoke of commercial more than spiritual objectives; and his language produced a form of symbolic colonisation by establishing prospective transitions from wilderness to farmland, native products to manufactured, natural landscape to cultivated.34

From cannibal to commerce

It was this kind of potentiality that pervaded the second of Wakefield’s volumes, a stubby, nondescript volume jointly authored with John Ward, published in November 1837 and entitled The British Colonization of New Zealand. It was not the first nineteenth-century British title devoted to New Zealand, but it was the first concerned principally with the progressive colonisation of the islands by British settlers.35 Earlier writers may have suggested European contacts of one kind or another, but they were far less ardent in their designs, and just as likely to press for civilisation or conversion of the existing population as a prelude to an antipodean Māori nation. That the writers of British Colonization had a different prospect in mind was clear from William Whewell’s quotation featured on the reverse of the title page:

It is not to be doubted that this country has been invested with wealth and power, with arts and knowledge, with the sway of distant lands, and the mastery of the restless waters, for some great and important purpose in the Government of the world. Can we suppose otherwise, than that it is our office to carry civilization and humanity, peace and good Government, and, above all, the knowledge of the true God, to the uttermost ends of the earth?36

Here was an undertaking worthy of the Lords, Members of Parliament, men of the cloth and other gentlemen who comprised the Committee of the recently formed New Zealand Association, whose names were dutifully listed, and whose objectives the volume was published to promote.37 In the pages that followed, Whewell’s vision of moral necessity, national imperative and Church of England philanthropy was enthusiastically embraced in a project which, it was promised, would reclaim a ‘moral wilderness’ at the other end of the globe.38

The Association’s scheme was a curious combination of personal greed and national enterprise, commercial avarice and religious philanthropy, to which was added a good measure of foolhardy conjecture. Its authors admitted little was yet known about the geology of the islands, but this did not prevent them from conjecturing wildly on the existence of rich veins of coal and iron, sulphur deposits, granite, quartz, marble and slate, to which they added immense forests, verdant plains and pastures sloping gently to the sea, with soil ‘superior to anything that imagination can conceive’.39 Earlier writers had not seen the country in quite such emphatic terms. Savage, for example, devoted only one page to potential European settlement and, even then, made no assumption that Britain would be the colonising power. Whatever their accuracy, his observations fixed New Zealand and its Māori inhabitants against metropolitan reference points rather than imaginatively mapping an entirely new geography of European commerce in the distant New Zealand landscape. He related Māori lifeways to those of European nations, making out a complex hierarchy of Māori social class, an aristocratic, national government and a polity of principalities lying in the islands’ hinterland. Very little of his account attended to the New Zealand landscape and, where it did, his interest was provisional, conditional. Flax and timber might be found valuable ‘at some time in the future’, he remarked and, although he noted an abundance of fish, he made no suggestion that this might one day supply a European population settled in the country. New Zealand instead offered opportunities for botanical, mineralogical and ornithological investigation, or for obtaining ‘rare and beautiful shells for the cabinets of the curious’.40 The country effectively derived meaning only when transported back and placed within metropolitan orders, just as what he wrote about his protégé Moehanga, who had returned with him to England, illuminated metropolitan schema rather than Māori. ‘The immense metropolis has amazed the most enlightened’, Savage declared, ‘[and] it will not therefore appear extraordinary that an uncultivated native of the antipodes should be struck with the greatest possible degree of wonder’.41 In this account, his stock exclamations at the newness of everything revealed little about Moehanga. Instead, they confirmed the enormity of Britain’s cultural wealth, the marvellous extent of its commercial power and the sophistication of its social forms.

Nicholas, who spent much longer in New Zealand than Savage, published a more complex account of his experiences there. A ‘votary of unaffected Nature’, he rhapsodised over the country’s landscapes. The ‘romantic wilderness’ of the Three Kings Islands, for example, was ‘worthy of a Claude or Rosa’ and, encountering Whangaroa harbour, he exclaimed,

…a pen more capable than mine of doing justice to the sublime scenes which nature presents in this quarter, would not be ill-employed in pourtraying [sic] them. A Barry or a Radcliffe may inspire delight by the peculiar force of their respective delineations; but for me, I can only attempt those rude and desultory sketches, which, though ill-according with the original, may still give some faint idea of these nobler objects which every traveller is expected to notice.42

Nicholas represented himself as an observer struggling simply to describe what was there, but these passages solicited understandings of the landscape that relied on a set of culturally determined framings popularised amongst Nicholas’s intended audience, the metropolitan leisured classes. The references to Claude, Rosa, Barry and Radcliffe mobilised a set of aesthetic conventions that demonstrated Nicholas’s own cultural competence, as well as inviting the reaffirmation of his reader’s. His use of the romantic, the picturesque and sublime as formal devices should not, however, be seen as separate from his narrative intent. The ubiquity of the picturing gaze in early nineteenth-century Britain, as well as its global reach, ensured that however alien or curious, the distant could always be made comprehensible. Looking, seeing, registering the characteristic facets of landscape constituted the distant prospect and its features as a space already colonised by the observing eye/I, a form of visual mastery subtly confirmed by Nicholas’s handling of Māori presences in the New Zealand landscape.

Where Savage had made native cultivations part of a characteristically Māori landscape at the Bay of Islands, Nicholas rendered them as painterly touches in a set of picturesque views.43 Far more than Savage, he saw the New Zealand landscape in terms of economic potential. Its uncommonly fertile soil was ‘highly favourable to the growth of all kinds of European grain’, he enthused, and there were mighty forests and mountains, the latter almost certainly ‘pregnant’ with valuable ores.44 He also went much further than Savage in extolling the potential benefits of planting a European colony in the country, weaving a web of prospective commercial contacts with Australia, South America, India, China and England, the ‘immense surplus’ of its native products drawing it ineluctably into a global marketplace,45 but Nicholas’s landscapes, like Earle’s, were savage as well as sublime, beautiful and brutal. Whangaroa, for example, was also a scene stained with the blood of the Boyd incident and, bringing the ill-fated crew to mind, Nicholas shivered with horror at being surrounded by the very ‘cannibals who had butchered them’ and the very weapons employed in their slaughter.46

…(continued)

 

British colonization - New Zealand village
Figure 6. New Zealand Village. Artist unknown. Wood engraving from “British Colonization”, opp., p. 85 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

With their upbeat message about New Zealand, promulgated enthusiastically by magazines like Blackwood’s and the Spectator,47 Wakefield and Ward played down Māori warfare and violence. British Colonization ignored the Boyd incident entirely and included only four short sections on Māori cannibalism, suggesting this was either a primitive aberration destined to fall quickly to the march of European civilisation, or countering with examples of countries ‘nearer home’ that were once considered cannibal.48 It also largely ignored Māori material culture, portraying Māori society as materially impoverished and in need of the advantages of European civilisation. Evidence of this impoverishment was figured in New Zealand Village, (figure 6), one of five woodcut images included in the volume, but a scene stripped of the kind of detailed ornament featured in earlier illustrations such as

Earle - Dance of New Zealanders
Figure 7. Earle, Augustus, 1793-1838, A dance of New Zealanders. Drawn by A. Earle. Engraved by J. Stewart. Published by Longman & Co., London, May 1832. From “Narrative of a nine months residence in New Zealand”, opp. p. 70.  Reference Number: PUBL-0022-3 (Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand, must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

Dance of New Zealanders, (figure 7), from Earle’s Narrative of a Nine Months’ Residence in New Zealand. The engraving also countered Earle’s violently staring, tattooed gesticulation with a form of somnolent black-face and primitive labour, the pig snuffling amidst the family group suggesting a people living quite literally close to an animal existence. Difference inscribed by Earle through artefactuality, nakedness, tattoo and martial defiance was eliminated by British Colonization in favour of a set of signifiers derived from the popular British genre of rustic scenes by the likes of George Morland, David Wilkie or William Collins, in which the subject’s setting, pose, attitude and relationship to the viewer were important cues to contemporary class relations. By invoking this cottage-door genre, the image attuned Māori existence to familiar European prototypes, but possibly the most important aspect of New Zealand Village was its depiction of all the central figures engaged in work of some kind. Just as signs of deference and industriousness in contemporary metropolitan images codified the rural poor as deserving of middle class interest and benevolence, in this image, Māori absorption in domestic labour rendered the race deserving of British attention, and fit to receive the benefits of British civilisation. 

Cruise - Tetero
Figure 8. Read, Richard, 1765-ca 1843, Tetoro, chief of New Zealand. Drawn by R Read from life, 1820. Engraved by Edward Finden. London, Longman & Co., 1823. Reference Number: A-114-036 (Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand, must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

Earlier nineteenth-century illustrations of Māori in volumes by Savage and Cruise had much in common with eighteenth-century images like those from Cook’s voyages. Edward Finden’s engraving of Tetoro, a Chief of New Zealand, (figure 8), for example, standing statuesquely on a barren shore in Cruise’s Journal of a Ten Month Residence in New Zealand, belongs to a European typology characterised by Bernard Smith as ‘hard primitivism’, a strongly classicised alternative to the luxe et douceur of the tropical Pacific.49 While Smith’s typologisation works relatively well when applied to late eighteenth-century ‘cabinet-of-curiosities’ approaches to human diversity such as Hawkesworth’s, Cook’s or the Forsters’, the nineteenth century saw growing European acquaintance with Pacific peoples, both individuals and cultures, and a shifting complex of environmental, moral and gendered outlooks that precipitated a confusion of references and rhetorics. The anonymous engraving of Craik’s New Zealander, with Spear, (figure 4 – see end of page 2), for example, started from the familiar mode employed by eighteenth-century illustrators of New Zealand, but the figure was placed in a more characteristically tropical landscape, with palm trees punctuating the background. This easily executed, instantly recognisable feature triggered a set of lingering associations from the works of Hawkesworth, Cook and the Forsters that constituted a simple shorthand corroboration of the authenticity of these Pacific prospects, anchoring New Zealand firmly within contemporary understandings of the ‘look’ of the South Seas. 

British colonization - New Zealand chief
Figure 9. Anon., A New Zealand Chief, wood engraving [anon.], 15.3 x 10cm, Edward Gibbon Wakefield & John Ward, “British Colonization”, opp., p. 129 (Permission of the author must be obtained before any re-use of this item.)

The illustrator of British Colonization handled the Māori warrior figure in much the same way as Craik’s engraver. Its New Zealand Chief, (figure 9), transported Finden’s figure of Titore from a rocky, windswept shore to one dotted with verdure, in the background of which the contemporary ‘South Seas’ signifier, the tropical palm swayed gently. In Cruise’s Narrative of a Nine Month Residence in New Zealand, Titore had been represented as an individual with a history, personality, agency, and affective links with the European narrator. In Craik, he was described as a Māori warrior who had proven himself capable of moral improvement during his short stay in England but who, on returning to New Zealand, had reverted to his old habits of head-hunting, plunder and warfare.50 In British Colonization, however, he appeared as a nameless New Zealand chief staged on a tropical outcrop, the absence of identification meaning there was no need to enter into his troubling biographical details. In an analogous fashion, descriptions of Hongi Hika, Tui and Te Pehi Kupe culled from Craik’s volume were carefully edited to demonstrate the ‘generous complexion’, ‘natural refinement’, and ‘gentleness and affection’ of Māori.51 The objective of these excisions was the construction of a positive picture of Māori, one that suggested they were in a ‘state of transition from savage to civilized life’.52 The teleology of promotion mandated this refashioning of cultural, biographical and aesthetic detail; and judicious management of its sources of information and modes of production meant that British Colonization’s representations of Māori ceased to embody racial and cultural difference in favour of willing collaboration with European settlement. As a consequence, while it was able to admit that warfare and cannibalism had once discouraged British settlement, British Colonization was able to argue Māori were now no longer ‘savage, cruel, and hostile to foreigners’, 

…not opposing but inviting the permanent settlement of English people amongst them–not disregarding merely, but cherishing defenceless missionaries and other strangers…never, it is believed, attacking Europeans save in retaliation for injuries received.53

The emerging prospect

New Zealand on the eve of annexation

A long-standing British belief in Māori amenability to civilisation was strengthened during the 1830s by a growing humanitarian interest in native populations evident in public pressure to abolish slavery in Britain’s colonies, formation of the Aborigines Protection Society and the pro-native stance of a number of Parliamentary Committees.54 These deplored lawlessness amongst British visitors to New Zealand, lamented the undesirable effects of ‘irregular’ European settlement there and highlighted the country’s strategic importance to Pacific trade. They were also fond of pointing out that Britain had a duty to control the excesses of its subjects residing in the islands and, as Peter Adams has argued, these various interests and entanglements made the eventual British annexation of New Zealand in 1840 almost inevitable55. The warlike reputaion of Māori had not gone away, however. It had merely been occluded in many of the growing number of accounts that argued for British settlement of New Zealand, and it was easily resurrected to cast Māori as culpable in the British peopling of the islands. The argument, as Joel Polack put it on the eve of annexation in 1839, was that Māori left to their own devices seemed interested solely in exterminating their fellow countrymen. ‘The time has now arrived’, Polack announced, ‘for enlightened Europeans to teach them a contrary conduct’.56 Under the guiding British hand, he proclaimed, Māori would take to farming, an avocation that would quickly eradicate their warlike ways, while it brought new markets for British manufactures and ensured employment for thousands of the labouring classes at home.57

In these later writings on New Zealand, the rich, carefully laid out Māori plantations described by Nicholas, Cruise and Earle were redrawn as the basest of plots, their cultivators made to sit as mute acolytes at the feet of British masters, but Māori gardens had disappeared from these accounts not because the actual cultivations had gone,58 but because that erasure rendered the land available to British colonisation. In Polack’s account, as in virtually every breathless invocation of New Zealand’s fecundity, felicity and fitness for British colonisation at this time, the country was refigured as a prospect, redefined in terms of metropolitan objectives that were to be realised in a landscape effectively bleached of Māori activity. As Samuel Hinds, a member of the New Zealand Association, had informed the 1838 Lords Committee on New Zealand,

…civilized People have a Right, an inherent Right, over Countries that have not been subject to Civilization, whether those countries are uninhabited, or partially inhabited by Savages, who are never likely themselves to cultivate the Country.59

He could not have signalled more clearly the ideological dimensions of that contest over the landscape in New Zealand, a contest on which depended the very nature of both European and Māori presences right up to the present day.

Footnotes

  1. See Rüdiger Joppien and Bernard Smith, The Art of Captain Cook’s Voyages, Volume One: The Voyage of the Endeavour, 1768-1771 (London and New Haven, 1985), The Art of Captain Cook’s Voyages, Volume Two: The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure 1772-1775 (London and New Haven, 1985) and The Art of Captain Cook’s Voyages, Volume Three: The Voyage of the Resolution and Discovery 1776-1780(London and New Haven, 1988) 2 vols.[back to reference 1 in text]
  2. Some contemporary details of Māori in the British metropolis can be found in John Nicholas, Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, 2 vols (London, 1817) vol. 1, pp. 255-7; George Craik, The New Zealanders (London, 1830) pp. 233, 248-249, 293, 328-9 and 316; the Missionary Register vol. 4 (1816), p. 500; vol. 5 (1817), p. 71; and the Times (London) 1 January 1821, 20 August 1823 and 18 February 1825. [back to reference 2 in text]
  3. Rutherford’s stay is detailed in Craik, pp. 277-278, 248 and 336-340. Some twelve years later, Charles Terry accused Rutherford of lying about his abduction.  He reported it was well known amongst European residents in New Zealand that Rutherford had deserted his ship and gone into the bush of his own accord: Charles Terry, New Zealand: Its Advantages and Prospects as a British Colony (London, 1842) p. 198. For contemporary reports of the sale and display of preserved Māori heads in Britain, see William Howitt, Colonization and Christianity (London, 1838) p. 490; or Joel Polack, Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders, 2 vols (London, 1840) vol. 2, p. 41 [back to reference 3 in text]
  4. Richard Cruise, Journal of a Ten Months’ Residence in New Zealand (London, 1823) p.37. [back to reference 4 in text]
  5. See John Byron, Voyage Round the World (London, 1767); Louis de Bougainville, Voyage round the World…in the Years 1766, 1767, 1768 and 1769, trans., John Forster (London, 1772); John Hawkesworth, Account of the Voyages…for making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere (London, 1773); James Cook, Voyage towards the South Pole…in the years, 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775, 2 vols (London, 1777); James Cook and James King, Voyage to the Pacific Ocean…in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780, 4 vols (London, 1784); George Forster, Voyage round the World…during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5, 2 vols (London, 1777); Johann Forster, Observations made during a Voyage round the World (London, 1778). [back to reference 5 in text]
  6. Bougainville, p. 185. See also the account of ‘New Cythera’ (Tahiti) in Charles-Félix-Pierre Fesche’s Journal of Navigation (JMR, April 2003)[back to reference 6 in text]
  7. Cook and King, vol. 1, p. 244. This is not the place to rehearse arguments over cannibalism as actuality or myth. The important point here is that in early nineteenth-century Britain, these reports were overwhelmingly credited as fact. For the arguments, see Ray Tannehill, Flesh and Blood: A History of the Cannibal Complex (Boston, 1996). [back to reference 7 in text]
  8. For example, William Bligh, Voyage to the South Sea (London, 1792); Jean de la Pérouse, Voyage round the World…in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787, 2 vols., trans., Louis Milet-Mureau (London: John Stockdale, 1798); Matthew Flinders, Voyage to Terra Australis…in the Years 1801, 1802, and 1803, 3 vols (London, 1814); Peter Dillon, Narrative…of a Voyage in the South Seas, 2 vols (London, 1829); Frederick Beechey, Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific…in the Years 1825, 26, 27, 28, 2 vols (London, 1831). [back to reference 8 in text]
  9. Flinders, vol. 1, pp. xxi-xxv and xxxiii-xxxviii. [back to reference 9 in text]
  10. John Anderson, Mission to the east coast of Sumatra in MDCCCXXIII…including …a visit to the Batta cannibal states (Edinburgh, 1826).  The full title of Dillon’s work was Narrative and Successful Result of a Voyage in the South Seas, performed by order of the Government of British India, to ascertain the actual Fate of La Perouse’s Expedition, interspersed with Accounts of the Religion, Manners, Customs, and Cannibal Practices of the South Sea Islanders. [back to reference 10 in text]
  11. Dillon, vol. 1, p. lxxi. [back to reference 11 in text]
  12. John Savage, Some Account of New Zealand (London, 1807) p. 35. [back to reference 12 in text]
  13. Cruise, pp. 272 and 273. [back to reference 13 in text]
  14. ‘Earle’s Residence in New Zealand and Tristan D’Acunha’, Quarterly Review, vol. 98 (October 1832), pp. 133-165; ‘Earle’s Account of New Zealand’, Edinburgh Review, vol. 56, no. 112 (January 1833), pp. 333-349. Cannibalism featured in pp. 335-338. [back to reference 14 in text]
  15. Augustus Earle, Narrative of a Nine Months’ Residence in New Zealand (London, 1832) pp. 13 and 112-120. [back to reference 15 in text]
  16. Dillon, vol. 1, pp. 223 and 224. Reports closer to the time of the incident put the number killed at between thirty and forty. See the Times (London) 11 July 1810; and ‘Particulars of a late Visit to New Zealand, and of the Measures taken for rescuing some English Captives There’, Edinburgh Magazine, April 1819, pp. 304-409. [back to reference 16 in text]
  17. Craik, pp. 69-74, 100-113 and 308-312. [back to reference 17 in text]
  18. Ibid, pp. 264-266. Craik’s panoply was actually derived from a confusion of sources. Some artefacts were misattributed, while a number were from Pacific cultures other than New Zealand Māori. [back to reference 18 in text]
  19. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, A Letter from Sydney (London, 1829). [back to reference 19 in text]
  20. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, England and America, 2 vols (London, 1833). The title was published in the United States the following year. [back to reference 20 in text]
  21. For an analysis of Wakefield and contemporary economic thought, see Lee Tai-Sook, ‘Edward Gibbon Wakefield and movement for systematic colonization, 1829-1850’, Ph.D., diss., (Berkeley, 1986). For the influence of Adam Smith on Wakefield, see, Erik Olssen, ‘Mr. Wakefield and New Zealand as an experiment in post-enlightenment experimental practice’, New Zealand Journal of History, vol. 31, no. 2 (1997) pp. 197-218; and ‘Wakefield and the Scottish Enlightenment, with particular reference to Adam Smith and his Wealth of Nations’, in Edward Gibbon Wakefield and the Colonial Dream: A Reconsideration (Wellington, 1997) p. 47-66. [back to reference 21 in text]
  22. Wakefield, England and America, p.78. [back to reference 22 in text]
  23. Nicholas, vol. 1, pp. 17-18; vol. 2, pp. 160-1. [back to reference 23 in text]
  24. Craik, p. 217. [back to reference 24 in text]
  25. Earle, pp. 54-56. [back to reference 25 in text]
  26. Nicholas Thomas, Entangled Objects (London, 1991), pp. 85-87. [back to reference 26 in text]
  27. Thomas, p. 87. [back to reference 27 in text]
  28. Cruise, pp. 14, 66-68 and 103.  [back to reference 28 in text]
  29. Judith Binney, The Legacy of Guilt: A Life of Thomas Kendall (Auckland, 1968), pp. 13-14. [back to reference 29 in text]
  30. Cruise, p. 55. [back to reference 30 in text]
  31. Earle, p. 58. [back to reference 31 in text]
  32. William Yate, An Account of New Zealand (London, 1835) pp. 105 and 198. [back to reference 32 in text]
  33. In 1837, Dandeson Coates, lay Secretary of the Church Missionary Society published a vehement denunciation of the latest organised plans to colonise the country: The Principles, Objects, and Plan of the New Zealand Association Examined (London, 1837). John Beecham, Secretary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, also denounced the plans: Colonization: . . . with an Examination of the Proposals of the Association . . . formed for colonizing New Zealand 1st – 4th edns. (London, 1838). [back to reference 33 in text]
  34. Yate, pp. 3-79. [back to reference 34 in text]
  35. Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Ward, The British Colonization of New Zealand (London, 1837). [back to reference 35 in text]
  36. Ibid, p. iv. [back to reference 36 in text]
  37. Ibid, p. viii. [back to reference 37 in text]
  38. Ibid, p. 27. [back to reference 38 in text]
  39. Ibid, pp. 43-48, 81-83, 77 and 307. [back to reference 39 in text]
  40. Savage, pp. 7-11, 8, 18, 20-21, 26, 59 and 93. [back to reference 40 in text]
  41. Ibid, pp. 102-103. [back to reference 41 in text]
  42. Nicholas, vol. 1, pp. 77, 105 and 114. [back to reference 42 in text]
  43. Savage, p. 3; Nicholas, vol. 1, p. 252. [back to reference 43 in text]
  44. Nicholas, vol. 1, pp. 209 and 264-265; vol. 2, pp. 234, 243-244, 252-253 and 257. [back to reference 44 in text]
  45. Ibid, vol. 2, pp. 313-23 [back to reference 45 in text]
  46. Ibid, vol. 1, pp. 134-135 and 223; vol. 2, p. 78. [back to reference 46 in text]
  47. Spectator (London) no. 487, 28 October 1837, pp. 1025-1026; Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, December 1837, pp. 784-795. [back to reference 47 in text]
  48. Wakefield and Ward, British Colonization, pp. 29, 49, 175 and 272-273. One country ‘nearer home’ was Britain itself, an accusation that neatly reinforced the message that it was possible to civilise cannibals. [back to reference 48 in text]
  49. See Bernard Smith, European Vision and the South Pacific, 2nd ed., (London and New Haven, 1988), pp. 329-332. [back to reference 49 in text]
  50. Craik, p. 302. Craik confused Titore with Titere, another Māori warrior, in suggesting that he had visited England.  Ormond Wilson has tried to untangle the orthographic confusions in ‘Tooi Teeterree and Titore’, Journal of Pacific Society, vol. 122 (September 1963), pp. 267-70, although Binney has pointed out Wilson’s own confusions of Titore and Te Toru: Binney, p. 50, n. 7. Others who have confused Titere with Titore are Lawrence Rogers, Te Wiremu: A Biography of Henry Williams (Christchurch, 1973), p. 56, n. 8; and Harrison Wright, New Zealand, 1769-1840, 3rd edn., (Cambridge, Mass, 1980), pp. 131-132. [back to reference 50 in text]
  51. Craik, pp. 178, 179 and 189. [back to reference 51 in text]
  52. Wakefield and Ward, British Colonization, p. 170. [back to reference 52 in text]
  53. Ibid, p. 49. [back to reference 53 in text]
  54. As well as the 1836 Commons Committee on Aborigines, the 1837 Select Committee on Transportation condemned the influence of escaped convicts on both Australian Aboriginal and New Zealand Māori populations, while the damaging effect of European contacts on Māori was a major concern of the 1838 Lords Committee on New Zealand. [back to reference 54 in text]
  55. Peter Adams, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand, 1830-1847 (Auckland, 1977) in particular chapter 8, ‘The Obligations of Good Faith’, pp. 238-245. [back to reference 55 in text]
  56. Joel Polack, New Zealand . . . a Narrative of Travels and Adventures, 2 vols (London, 1838) vol. 2, p. 324 (original emphasis). [back to reference 56 in text]
  57. Ibid, vol. 2, pp. 337, 331 and 360. [back to reference 57 in text]
  58. As the settlement of Auckland grew, for example, it was supplied from large cultivated tracts of Māori land in the Waikato, a fact causing considerable concern during Hone Heke’s activities in 1845, and when Te Ati Awa returned to Waitara from Otaki in 1848, they established large market gardens to sell produce to the New Plymouth settlers.  As Governor Grey reported in a despatch reprinted in the Times that year, Māori were by then substantial traders and an important source of export earnings: Times, (London) 7 October 1848. [back to reference 58 in text]
  59. Parliamentary Papers, Report from the Select Committee…into the Present State of the Islands of New Zealand (London, 1838) p. 129. [back to reference 59 in text]
 
THE END @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011
 
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The French Polynesia Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

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Showcase :

The French Polynesia Collectiosn Exhibition

Frame One :

The French Polynesia Collections

1.Postal History

Show your French Polynesia stamps – many of the issues show the beautiful ladies of Polynesia.

2.Numismatic History

3.Travel around with Picture Collections

 4.Native art

 FRAME TWO : 

The French Polynesia Historic Collections

French Polynesia

Polynésie française
Overseas collectivity flag Coat of arms
Motto“Tahiti Nui Mare’are’a”
“Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité”
AnthemLa Marseillaise
Capital Papeete
17°34′S 149°36′W / 17.567°S 149.6°W / -17.567; -149.6
Largest city Faaa
Official language(s) French
Ethnic groups  (in 1988, last ethnic census)[1]
66.5% unmixed Polynesians;
7.1% Polynesians with light European and/or East Asian mixing;
11.9% Europeans (mostly French);
9.3% Demis (mixed European and Polynesian descent);
4.7% East Asians (mostly Chinese)
Demonym French Polynesian
Government Dependent territory
 -  President of France Nicolas Sarkozy
 -  President
of French Polynesia
Gaston Tong Sang
 -  High Commissioner Adolphe Colrat
Overseas collectivity of France
 -  Protectorate 1842 
 -  Overseas territory 1946 
 -  Overseas collectivity 2004 
Area
 -  Total 4,167 km2 (173rd)
1,609 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 12
Population
 -  Jan. 1, 2009 estimate 264,000[2] (177th)
 -  Aug. 2007 census 259,596[3] (177th)
 -  Density 63/km2 (130th)
163.2/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total US$5.65 billion[4] (not ranked)
 -  Per capita US$21,999[4] (not ranked)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency CFP franc (XPF)
Time zone (UTC-10, -9:30, -9)
ISO 3166 code PF
Internet TLD .pf
Calling code +689

French Polynesia /ˈfrɛntʃ pɒlɨˈniːʒə/  ( listen) (French: Polynésie française, pronounced: [pɔlinezi fʁɑ̃sɛz]; Tahitian: Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity or constituent country of the French Republic (pays d’outre-mer). It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory (Papeete). Although not an integral part of its territory, Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007.

Contents

//

 History

The French frigate Floréal, stationed in Bora Bora lagoon.

The island groups that make up French Polynesia were not officially united until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1889. The first of these islands to be settled by indigenous Polynesians were the Marquesas Islands in AD 300 and the Society Islands in AD 800. The Polynesians were organized in loose chieftainships.[5]

European communication began in 1521 when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sighted Pukapuka in the Tuamotu Archipelago. Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen came across Bora Bora in the Society Islands in 1722, and the British explorer Samuel Wallis visited Tahiti in 1767. The French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti in 1768, while the British explorer James Cook visited in 1769. Christian missions began with Spanish priests who stayed in Tahiti for a year from 1774; Protestants from the London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797.[5][6]

King Pomare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to Moorea in 1803; he and his subjects were converted to Protestantism in 1812. French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of Papeete was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti, changing the status from that of a protectorate to that of a colony.[7]

In the 1880s, France claimed the Tuamotu Archipelago, which formerly belonged to the Pomare dynasty, without formally annexing it. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuatu in 1842, the French regarded the entire Marquesas Islands as French. In 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony. The islands of Rimatara and Rurutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, so in 1889 they were annexed by France. Postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892. The first official name for the colony was Établissements de l’Océanie (Settlements in Oceania); in 1903 the general council was changed to an advisory council and the colony’s name was changed to Établissements Français de l’Océanie (French Settlements in Oceania).[8]

In 1940 the administration of French Polynesia recognised the Free French Forces and many Polynesians served in World War II. Unknown at the time to French and Polynesians, the Konoe Cabinet in Imperial Japan on September 16, 1940 included French Polynesia among the many territories which were to become Japanese possessions in the post-war world[9] – though in the course of the war in the Pacific the Japanese were not able to launch an actual invasion of the French islands.

In 1946, Polynesians were granted French citizenship and the islands’ status was changed to an overseas territory; the islands’ name was changed in 1957 to Polynésie Française (French Polynesia). In 1962, France’s early nuclear testing ground of Algeria became independent and the Mururoa Atoll in the Tuamotu Archipelago was selected as the new testing site; tests were conducted underground after 1974.[10] In 1977, French Polynesia was granted partial internal autonomy; in 1984, the autonomy was extended. French Polynesia became a full overseas collectivity of France in 2004.[6][11]

In September 1995, France stirred up widespread protests by resuming nuclear testing at Fangataufa atoll after a three-year moratorium. The last test was on January 27, 1996. On January 29, 1996, France announced it would accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and no longer tests nuclear weapons.[12]

Politics

Politics of French Polynesia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas collectivity, whereby the President of French Polynesia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of French Polynesia (the territorial assembly).

Political life in French Polynesia has been marked by great instability since the mid-2000s. On September 14, 2007, the pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru, 63, was elected president of French Polynesia for the 3rd time in 3 years (with 27 of 44 votes cast in the territorial assembly).[13] He replaced former President Gaston Tong Sang, opposed to independence, who lost a no-confidence vote in the Assembly of French Polynesia on 31 August after the longtime former president of French Polynesia, Gaston Flosse, hitherto opposed to independence, sided with his long enemy Oscar Temaru to topple the government of Gaston Tong Sang. Oscar Temaru, however, had no stable majority in the Assembly of French Polynesia, and new territorial elections were held in February 2008 to solve the political crisis.

The party of Gaston Tong Sang won the territorial elections, but that did not solve the political crisis: the two minority parties of Oscar Temaru and Gaston Flosse, who together have one more member in the territorial assembly than the political party of Gaston Tong Sang, allied to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia. Gaston Flosse was then elected president of French Polynesia by the territorial assembly on February 23, 2008 with the support of the pro-independence party led by Oscar Temaru, while Oscar Temaru was elected speaker of the territorial assembly with the support of the anti-independence party led by Gaston Flosse. Both formed a coalition cabinet. Many observers doubted that the alliance between the anti-independence Gaston Flosse and the pro-independence Oscar Temaru, designed to prevent Gaston Tong Sang from becoming president of French Polynesia, could last very long.[14]

At the French municipal elections held in March 2008, several prominent mayors who are member of the Flosse-Temaru coalition lost their offices in key municipalities of French Polynesia, which was interpreted as a disapproval of the way Gaston Tong Sang, whose party French Polynesian voters had placed first in the territorial elections the month before, had been prevented from becoming president of French Polynesia by the last minute alliance between Flosse and Temaru’s parties. Eventually, on April 15, 2008 the government of Gaston Flosse was toppled by a constructive vote of no confidence in the territorial assembly when two members of the Flosse-Temaru coalition left the coalition and sided with Tong Sang’s party. Gaston Tong Sang was elected president of French Polynesia as a result of this constructive vote of no confidence, but his majority in the territorial assembly is very narrow. He offered posts in his cabinet to Flosse and Temaru’s parties which they both refused. Gaston Tong Sang has called all parties to help end the instability in local politics, a prerequisite to attract foreign investors needed to develop the local economy.

High Commission of the French Republic.

Despite a local assembly and government, French Polynesia is not in a free association with France, like the Cook Islands with New Zealand or the Federated States of Micronesia with the United States. As a French overseas collectivity, the local government has no competence in justice, education, security and defense, directly provided and administered by the French State, the Gendarmerie and the French Military. The highest representative of the State in the territory is the High Commissioner of the Republic in French Polynesia (French: Haut commissaire de la République).

French Polynesia also sends two deputies to the French National Assembly, one representing the Leeward Islands administrative subdivision, the Austral Islands administrative subdivision, the commune (municipality) of Moorea-Maiao, and the westernmost part of Tahiti (including the capital Papeete), and the other representing the central and eastern part of Tahiti, the Tuamotu-Gambier administrative division, and the Marquesas Islands administrative division. French Polynesia also sends one senator to the French Senate.

French Polynesians vote in the French presidential elections and at the 2007 French presidential election, in which the pro-independence leader Oscar Temaru openly called to vote for the Socialist candidate Ségolène Royal while the parties opposed to independence generally supported the center-right candidate Nicolas Sarkozy, the turnout in French Polynesia was 69.12% in the first round of the election and 74.67% in the second round. French Polynesians voters placed Nicolas Sarkozy ahead of Ségolène Royal in both rounds of the election (2nd round: Nicolas Sarkozy 51.9%; Ségolène Royal 48.1%).[15]

Administration

Between 1946 and 2003, French Polynesia had the status of an overseas territory (French: territoire d’outre-mer, or TOM). In 2003 it became an overseas collectivity (French: collectivité d’outre-mer, or COM). Its statutory law of 27 February 2004 gives it the particular designation of overseas country inside the Republic (French: pays d’outre-mer au sein de la République, or POM), but without legal modification of its status.

Administrative divisions

French Polynesia has five administrative subdivisions (French: subdivisions administratives):

Geography

Map of French Polynesia

The islands of French Polynesia have a total land area of 4,167 square kilometres (1,622 sq. mi) scattered over 2,500,000 square kilometres (965,255 sq. mi) of ocean. There are around 130 islands in French Polynesia.[16]

It is made up of six groups of islands. The largest and most populated island is Tahiti, in the Society Islands.

The island groups are:

Aside from Tahiti, some other important atolls, islands, and island groups in French Polynesia are: Ahe, Bora Bora, Hiva `Oa, Huahine, Maiao, Maupiti, Mehetia, Moorea, Nuku Hiva, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tetiaroa, Tubuai, and Tupai.

Economy

The GDP of French Polynesia in 2006 was 5.65 billion US dollars at market exchange rates, the fifth-largest economy in Oceania after Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and New Caledonia.[4] The GDP per capita was 21,999 US dollars in 2006 (at market exchange rates, not at PPP), lower than in Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, but higher than in all the independent insular states of Oceania.[4]

French Polynesia has a moderately developed economy, which is dependent on imported goods, tourism, and the financial assistance of mainland France. Tourist facilities are well developed and are available on the major islands. Also, as the noni fruit from these islands is discovered for its medicinal uses, people have been able to find jobs related to this agricultural industry.

The legal tender of French Polynesia is the CFP Franc.

Agriculture: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits.

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt.

In 2008 French Polynesia’s imports amounted to 2.2 billion US dollars and exports amounted to 0.2 billion US dollars.[17] The major export of French Polynesia is their famous black Tahitian pearls which accounted for 55% of exports (in value) in 2008.[17]

 Demographics

Tahitian girls, 1860-1879.

Total population on January 1, 2009 was 264,000 inhabitants,[2] up from 259,596 at the August 2007 census.